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Broadcast archives: a diplomatic examination Simpson, Janice Louise 1994

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BROADCAST ARCHIVES: A DIPLOMATIC EXAMINATIONByJANICE LOUISE SIMPSONB.A. (Honours), Carleton University, 1985A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIESinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESSchool of Library, Archival and Information StudiesWe accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAApril 1994Janice Louise Simpson, 1994In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)__________________________________Department of t----The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate /3 —-<-DE-6 (2)88)ABSTRACTThis special diplomatics’ study examines the applicability andusefulness of diploniatics for the analysis of broadcast archives,and specifically, of sound and moving image documents. Thetraditional model of diplomatic analysis, devised for dispositiveand probative documents, was found not applicable to supportingand narrative documents, which constitute most of contemporaryarchival material. The documents that are characteristic of thebroadcast industry in particular are supporting documents;therefore, a new model of diplomatic analysis based on the sameprinciples and methods as the traditional one was developed inthis thesis for supporting documents generated by the broadcastindustry.The new model was successfully used to analyze textual and non-textual, early and contemporary documents produced by differenttypes and sizes of radio and television stations. The analysisshowed that the formation, form, and transmission of supportingdocuments in the broadcast industry has not changed significantlyover time; that, although the organization of every broadcaststation is unique and constantly changing, there is a basicorganizational structure for all broadcast stations regardless ofsize; and, that the functions of all stations are basically theiisame.The analysis also revealed that the model, the scheme, and theprocedure of criticism used in this thesis provide anunderstanding which would assist in appraisal, arrangement, anddescription of specific broadcast archives. The bottom-up/top-down integrated approach to the analysis supports theunderstanding of the documentary, administrative and juridicalcontext of the documents in question, and demonstrates thatdiplomatics can be used to devise new tools for the examinationand study of new types of documents.The study concludes that broadcast archives in general, and soundand moving image documents in particular, can be profitablyanalyzed according to diplomatic principles and methods.iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT iiTABLE OF CONTENTS ivLIST OF FIGURES viINTRODUCTION 1CHAPTER ONE: BROADCASTING: THE TYPICAL ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS 12Documents’ Criticism 131) Radio Drama Script Analysis2) Radio Drama Programme Recording Analysis3) Television News Programme Recording AnalysisProcedural Analysis 591) Radio Drama Programme Production2) Radio Drama Script Production3) Television News Programme ProductionSummary 83CHAPTER TWO: BROADCASTING: THE JURIDICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL 84CONTEXTJuridical System 851) Legislation2) Industry Regulation3) In—House Policy4) Socio—Political Frameworka) Ownershipb) FinanceTechnological Development 971) Radio2) TelevisionSummary 115CHAPTER THREE: BROADCASTING: THE ADMINISTRATIVE CONTEXT .. 119Radio 123Television 148Documentation 159Summary 169ivCONCLUSION.175Glossary: Broadcast Terms.182Bibliography 199Appendix 1: Radio Drama Script 206Appendix 2: Radio Drama Programme Recording 225Appendix 3: Television News Programme Recording 227VLIST OF FIGURESFigure Page1. Organizational Chart - Small Radio Station 1262. Organizational Chart - Medium Radio Station 1363. Organizational Chart - Large Radio Station 1444. organizational Chart - Large Television Station 1515. Basic Theoretical Organization Model 171viINTRODUCTIONArchivists are constantly attempting to broaden their strategiesto gain a better understanding of individual documents and oftheir creating organizations. This objective is acquiring a newurgency however, because everchanging administrative structuresare becoming increasingly complex, and the development oftechnology has resulted in a proliferation of documents in newand different forms that are being created, transmitted, andstored in a multitude of ways. In a recent article, Peter Sigmondaddressed this phenomenon, and proposed that archivistsinvestigate how their colleagues in other countries and inrelated professions have reacted to this new reality.1Specifically, he reported on work being done in the Netherlands,and suggested that, like the Dutch, North American archivistsfocus on the formal features of documents with the purpose ofelucidating the administrative structures and bureaucraticprocedures underlying their creation. Sigmond stated that theformal features of documents are governed by rules of procedureand rules of representation, and that archivists can use thisinformation not only to distinguish between contemporarydocumentary forms, but to fulfil their primary functions of1 J. Peter Sigmond, “Form, Function and Archival Value,”Archivaria 33 (Winter 1991—92): 141—47.1appraisal, arrangement and description.A methodology mentioned by Sigmond which has only recently beenconsidered an option by North American archivists, is thatoffered by the science of diplomatics. The recent development ofinterest in diploinatics in North America is largely due to aseries of articles published in Archivaria by Luciana Durantientitled, “Diploinatics: New Uses for an Old Science.”2 Durantinotes that, while diplomatics is an unquestioned and integralpart of the European archival culture (due to the age of thatdocumentary heritage), North American archivists should determinehow diplomatics can assist them in their work with contemporaryrecords.3 This thesis is a response to that challenge.While general diplomatics establishes theory and methodology,special diplornatics applies them to a specific body of records.This study is in the field of special diploxnatics in that it usesdiplomatic principles and methods to analyze typical recordsproduced and accumulated by the broadcast industry. Its purposeis to discover whether diplomatics can be applied tobroadcast records, and specifically, whether it can be2 Luciana Duranti is a Professor in the Master of ArchivalStudies Programme in the School of Library, Archival andInformation Studies, University of British Columbia. Duranti’sseries of six articles on diplomatics was published inArchivaria, one article per issue, beginning in the summer issue1989, volume 28.Luciana Duranti, “Diploinatics: New Uses for an OldScience (Part VI),” Archivaria 33 (Winter 1991—92): 7.2successfully used to analyze sound and moving image documents.BROADCAST RECORDSIn order to clarify what is meant by the term broadcast records,it is necessary to define the term “broadcast agency,” thecreating body of broadcast records, which isany agency, public or private, profit or non—profit,educational or commercial, which produces, transmits and/ordistributes audible and/or visual matter,by radio and/ortelevision, by satellite and/or by cable, intended to bereceived primarily by the general public.4Therefore, broadcast records are defined here as, any writtendocument created by any broadcast agency, in any medium orformat, in the course of its activity.Broadcast agencies generate documents in a variety of media andformats. When the science of diplomatics was first established,sound and moving image documents as a particular kind of physicaland intellectual documentary form did not exist. Because theprinciples of diplomatics were formulated upon observation of thecharacteristics of textual documents, it is particularlyimportant to discover whether they can be applied to the soundand moving image documents produced by a broadcast agency.Contemporary documents are routinely produced in many different‘ The definition formulated by this author for a broadcastagency does not include peripheral agencies such as relatedprofessional associations, regulatory bodies, or independentproduction companies. Also excluded from it are cable companies.3forms and many different kinds of media, yet to date, adiplomatic analysis of non—paper, non—textual documents has notbeen conducted. In this respect, the present study is apioneering effort.DIPLOMATICSOriginally conceived of as a method of ascertaining theauthenticity of a document, diplomatics was born as a science inthe seventeenth century with the completion of Jean Mabillon’streatise, De Re Diplomatica Libri VI. The science ofdiplomatics, which studies the written document, establishes theprinciples and methodology necessary to analyze its formation,form and transmission.5 By using internal evidence and collatingdocuments similar in character, diplomatics constructs a systemwhich assists in determining a document’s provenance, date,and/or relevance to the creating agency as a reflection offunctional necessity.“Certainly the most difficult documents to read are by no meansnecessarily those in the most outlandish hands: they are far morelikely to be those which are cast in a form outside the reader’sA diplomatic analysis can only be conducted on “written”documents, that is, “evidence which is produced on a medium(paper, magnetic tape, disc, plate, etc.) by means of a writinginstrument (pen, pencil, typing machine, printer, etc.) or of anapparatus for fixing data, images and/or voices.” See LucianaDuranti, “Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old Science,” Archivaria28 (Summer 1989): 15.4experience.”6 In his discussion of form, L.C. Hector noted that,if an individual can recognize the type of a document, s/he willultimately have a better understanding of its meaning, that is,“if, having read the beginning of a phrase, he knows how it islikely to continue and end, his progress is bound to be easier;his mind will lead his eyes.”7 A reader’s ability to read andunderstand a document is partly based on prior knowledge and theability to predict what the document should or might contain.Diploinatics, which aims to provide documents’ readers with thatability, is defined as:the discipline which studies the genesis, form andtransmission of archival documents in relationship with thefacts represented in them, and with their creators, in orderto identify, evaluate and communicate their nature.8The benefit of using diplomatics to analyze contemporary recordshas been questioned, but usually not on scientific grounds. Theconcepts and methods underlying diplornatics are used by NorthAmerican archivists regularly (though often subconsciously);diplornatics provides a framework for their use, and a system bywhich documents can be analyzed. While diplomatic analysis mayappear to some to be a sterile exercise, this study6 L.C. Hector, The Handwriting of English Documents(London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., 1966), 14.‘ Ibid.S Duranti, “Diplomatics,” 17. Note that while somediplomatic concepts can be used for documents that are notarchival because of the circumstances of their creation, thescience was designed for archival documents, because non—archivaldocuments are not evidence of facts and acts.5aims to demonstrate that it provides a clear procedure of inquiryconducive to the identification of all the relevant informationabout a document.Diplomatics’ most basic contribution to the study of documents isits ‘definitional component.’ Providing terms for documentelements, functions, and forms, it allows for consistency andstandardization when describing documents and the context inwhich they are created.9 Secondly, diplomatics provides a meansfor making connections between documents and the actions whichproduced them. This enables archivists to understand the purposefor which documents were created, as well as their relationshipwith the persons and the other documents participating in thesame transaction.The third contribution of diplomatics is the links it makesbetween a document and the procedure in which the document wascreated.’° The characteristics of the procedural phase ofdocument formation explain the activities in which the creator isengaged during that phase. The understanding of the activitiesundertaken within a procedural phase elucidates a creator’sfunctions. Lastly, diplomatics provides the means for analyzingSee Duranti, “Diplomatics,” 7.10 This contribution also facilitates the means for asystematic examination of the relationship between documents andthe juridical system within which documents are created, therelationship between documentary forms and types of acts, as wellas the relationship between documents and persons.6the information system in which a document exists, and to connectit with the broader administrative and juridical context of thedocument.METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDYThis thesis will use diplomatic methodology in a systematic way,that is, it will separately examine all the elements thatdiplomatists have identified as belonging to a documentary systemaccording to diplomatic concepts and principles.’1 The study ofthose elements is meant to occur simultaneously, so that theknowledge derived from the analysis of one can support theunderstanding of the others, however, the presentation of thestudy itself can only be sequential. Consequently, this authorhas chosen to begin the presentation of the analysis from thestudy of the documents, because this is the traditional way inwhich diplomatists develop their examinations. This very detailedexposition will be contrasted with a view of the context of therecords’ creators, proceeding gradually from the general to thespecific, until the two examinations of the records and of theircontext will meet in the presentation of the persons and theiractivities.Heather MacNeil emphasized the importance of developing thisconverging type of analysis when she stated, that a thorough“ Duranti, “Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old Science (PartIV),” Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990—91): 10.7examination of archival documents must take a top—down approachas well as a bottom—up approach:To understand the meaning of a particular documentaryform. . . it is essential first to determine the nature of thebureaucratic action (for example, the function, activity ortransaction) that generated it, as well as the social, legaland administrative structure that provided the context forthat action. It is only when provenancial relationshipshave been delineated and elucidated that the documentaryforms that embody them can be understood..While a top—down approach reconstructs the organization of thecreating body, and analyzes its function and procedures (based onlaw and regulations), a bottom—up approach is a directexamination of documents and analyzes the documents’ genesis,form and transmission to discover more about their relationshipsand context of creation. This thesis takes therefore anintegrated approach in its analysis of the documentary residue ofthe broadcast industry, for the purpose of collecting all therelevant information about broadcast documents, of being able todistinguish between how the records creating bodies are supposedto function and how they actually function, and of assessing thecontribution of the diplomatic methods to the acquisition ofknowledge about the broadcast industry. Peter Sigmond has writtenthat documentary forms often prove to be more consistent than theorganization of the offices in which documents are produced.’312 Heather MacNeil, “Weaving Provenancial and DocumentaryRelations,” Archivaria 34 (Summer 1992): 192.sigmond, “Form, Function and Archival Value,” 144.8His point will be tested in the study of the context of creationof broadcast records in Chapters Two and Three, the results ofwhich will be capable of being compared with the directexamination of the records in Chapter One.SOURCES OF THE STUDYIn the English speaking world, there is limited literatureconcerning general diplomatics, there is little in the archivalliterature about broadcast archives, and there is virtually noliterature about the diplomatics of broadcast archives. Thepublished sources used for this thesis are therefore scarce andfocus on general diplomatics and diplomatic analyses of specificbodies of records. The discussion of the application ofdiplomatic methodology to the study of the documents generated bythe broadcast industry, the history of radio and television, andthe presentation of the legislation relevant to the industry areprimarily based on monographs and journals from the field ofbroadcasting.The principal sources of information for this thesis were aseries of discussions with records creators working in thebroadcast industry, and the first—hand examination of documents.Several active broadcast agencies were studied: the BritishBroadcasting Corporation (United Kingdom), CHCH-Television9(Hamilton, Ontario),14 TVOntario (Toronto, Ontario) and CIUT-FM(Toronto, Ontario). These stations were chosen because they arerepresentative of small and large institutions that are eitherprofit or non—profit, educational or commercial, radio and/ortelevision, and French and/or English.ORGANIZATION OF THE THESISChapter One, which is a direct examination of three documentstypical of the broadcast industry, takes a bottom-up approachwhich typifies a diplomatic analysis of the genesis, form, andtransmission of these documents. Note that this analysis is onlydirected to operational records, as administrative orhousekeeping records are formally the same for all businessorganizations. Note also that the study is not limited to theCanadian system, even if for practical reasons, the examples weretaken from the Canadian context.’5 The following two chapterstake a top-down approach, and through an analysis of the context14 Radio and television stations are commonly referred to bytheir “call letters.” In Canada, call letters are assigned bythe Canadian Radio and Television Commission (CRTC). Stations mayapply to the CRTC for particular letters which have significanceto them (for example, the initials of the owner). However, thefirst letter for all Canadian stations is “C” just as the firstletter for all U.S. stations is “W.”15 The operational records of an agency are generated byfunctions that pertain to the continued operations and servicesprovided by that agency in accordance with its mandate. Anagency’s administrative records (often referred to ashousekeeping records), include all documents produced bysupporting functions, such as personnel, financial, purchasing,and property control. While operational records relate toactivities that are external in nature, administrative recordsrelate to activities of an internal nature.10of creation, determine which broadcast records are produced, forwhat purpose, by whom, under which conditions, and using whichprocedures. That is, Chapter Two outlines the broadcastindustry’s juridical system and technological development as itrelates to the history of radio and television, and Chapter Threecontinues with an examination of the administrative context inwhich broadcast archives are created. In Chapter Three, thefunctions, procedures, and activities of a typical radio andtelevision station are identified and discussed, as are thepersons that concur in the formation of broadcast documents. Inaddition, this chapter includes a detailed description of thepersons (their roles and responsibilities) and a list ofdocuments created and accumulated by them. This chapter isillustrated with figures which provide a structural framework.The Conclusion summarizes and assesses the value of the thesis’findings. Following the Conclusion is a Glossary of radio andtelevision terms.’6 The Glossary is not exhaustive, but all theterms included in this study, or directly relevant to it arelisted. Finally, Appendices illustrate the documents chosen foranalysis.16 This thesis does not include a glossary of diplomaticterms. It is important to understand that diplomatic definitionsare different from archival definitions because diplomatics is aseparate science. For definitions of diplomatic terms see LucianaDuranti’s series of articles.11CHAPTER ONEBROADCASTING: THE TYPICAL ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTSThe diplomatic analysis begins with a direct examination of threedocuments typical of the broadcast industry, followed by anexamination of the transactions from which each of thesedocuments results. This examination is a three—part analysiswhich identifies all the elements concurring in the formation ofthese documents, and demonstrates what can be learned directlyfrom the information provided by those elements about thedocuments’ creators and context of creation. The proceduralstudy of the genesis of the documents will further clarify theiradministrative context.In every broadcast station, everything revolves around thebroadcast, thus, the most typical transactions are those whichrelate to the production and airing of radio and/or televisionprogrammes and the most typical documentary forms are programmerelated. The three documents chosen for analysis in this studyinclude a radio drama script, a radio drama programme recordingand a television news programme recording.’ These documents areExamples of documents from both early and contemporarystations have been chosen to determine whether the age factoraffects the design of the model of analysis.12representative of documentary forms and transactions unique tothe broadcast industry.DOCUMENTS’ CRITICISMThe diplomatic criticism of the documents is the first step ofthe three-part bottom-up analysis. It consists of theidentification of the extrinsic and intrinsic elements orcharacteristics of the documents, and of the deductions made fromthis examination about the persons, actions and forms of archivalmaterial. Extrinsic characteristics of a document are theelements that constitute the physical make-up of the document andcontribute to its external appearance. Intrinsic characteristicsof a document are “the integral components of its intellectualarticulation: the mode of presentation of the document’s content,or the parts determining the tenor of the whole.”2 The purposeof the process of identifying what corresponds to thosecharacteristics in a given document3 is to draw conclusions abouta document’s function through an analysis of its form.42 Luciana Duranti, “Diplomatics: New Uses for an OldScience (Part V),’1 Archivaria 32 (Summer 1991): 11.Janet Turner uses the expression “labelling.” See JanetTurner, “Studies in Documents: Experimenting with New Tools:Special Diplomatics and the Study of Authority in the UnitedChurch of Canada,” Archivaria 30 (Summer 1990): 99.Note that an examination of extrinsic characteristics canonly be performed on an original document. This writer hadaccess to the three original documents, but it is a disadvantagefor the reader not to have the original documents readilyavailable for documentary criticism. A photocopy of the radiodrama script has been provided in Appendix 1, a photocopy of theradio discs have been provided in Appendix 2, and a photocopy of13Form is defined as “...the complex of the rules of representationused to convey a message, that is, as the characteristics of adocument which can be separated from the determination of theparticular subjects, persons or places which it concerns.”5 Inthe middle ages, early diplomatists recognized that it waspossible to conceive of typical documentary forms, andestablished a method for analyzing those ideal forms. Theknowledge resulting from such analysis assisted theirunderstanding of the administrative actions and functiongenerating a document, the ultimate object being to verify itsauthenticity. Today, verifying the authenticity of a documentmight be one of the objects of the analysis, but contemporaryarchivists are primarily concerned with the information revealedabout a document’s function because it provides them with anunderstanding of the context of a document’s creation, and thisassists them in performing their archival duties. The componentsof the ideal documentary form that diplomatists developed fordispositive and probative documents are as follows:the label on the television recording has been provided inAppendix 3. For the purpose of this thesis, copies of the radioand television recordings are also being preserved in SpecialCollections at the University of British Columbia. The originalscript and original radio recording are preserved at the Archivesof Ontario in Toronto, Ontario (C 105 St. Lawrence StarchCompany Collection). The original television newscast ispreserved at CHCH-TV in Hamilton, Ontario, in its news library.Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part V),” 6.14Extrinsic Elements:mediumscriptlanguagespecial signssealsannotationsIntrinsic Elements:entitlingtitledateinvocationsuperscription — Protocolinscriptionsalutationsubj ectformula perpetuitatisappreciationpreamblenotificationexposition Textdispositionfinal clausescorroboration[date][appreciation][salutation] — Eschatocolcomplimentary clauseattestationqualification of signaturesecretarial notesNot all of the extrinsic and intrinsic elements are present inevery document and some are mutually exclusive. It is in factthe specific combination of certain elements which defines adocumentary form; thus, while the above model is satisfactory foradministrative documents in the form of the classic epistle,other models must be devised for other types of documents. Eachmodel should contain the combination of recurring elementstypical of the form which makes a given type of document able to15reach its purpose. The scheme developed by early diplomatists toexamine the documents created in the Middle Ages does not have auniversal applicability to twentieth century documents, just asthe functional categorization of all documents as dispositive orprobative does not embrace all contemporary archival material.The three documents which have been chosen for the presentanalysis — a radio drama script, a radio drama programmerecording, and a television news programme recording — are not ofthe type taken into consideration by traditional diplomatics.Even if they were created in support of an action, they are not aby-product, but a product of an activity, being intended fordissemination and being manifestations of ideas, rather than ofadministrative endeavours. Yet, they fully participate inadministrative procedures, and are interrelated with typicaltransactional documents; thus, their individual nature issubsumed by the nature of the aggregation of which they are part,and they come to share the same function accomplished by thearchival documents contained in the same group.The three documents belong in the category termed “supporting”documents, which includes all those documents “constitutingwritten evidence of a juridically relevant activity which doesnot result in a juridical act.”6 In the context of the function,6 Luciana Duranti, “Diplomatics: New Uses for an OldScience (Part II),” Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989—90): 9.16activity, and procedure in which they participate, they serve thesame purpose that teaching notes and a recording of relatedlectures serve in the context of the teaching function of aprofessor. Therefore, while their forms can be dissected by adiplomatic analysis, a new model must be devised to guide suchoperations. The traditional model described above was defined onthe basis of the documentary forms existent for dispositive andprobative documents, the written form of which was required, andwhich were not intended to be communicated by voice.In order to develop a new model for these documents, therecurring elements typical of each documentary form must beidentified. This does not mean that some of the elementscharacteristic of administrative documents are not present alsoin the new model, but that schemes of analysis must be specificto each documentary form. The new model, which is the first partof the scheme of diplomatic analysis7 for the form of supportingdocuments in the broadcast industry is as follows:Extrinsic Elements:mediumscriptlanguagespecial signssealsannotation(s)Note that the ‘scheme of diplomatic analysis’ is theschematization of the entities examined by diplomatists for eachdocument subject to their analysis, in the order in which thoseentities are examined.17Intrinsic Elements:entitlingtitle (series)title/number (episode) —Protocoldateintroductory creditstheme musicsponsor endorsement or advertisementannouncementsummaryintroduction Inarration i_Bodydialoguesign-offend—creditstheme musiccopyrightsponsor (endorsementor advertisement)This model results from an observation of multiple examples ofthe documentary forms in question, and will be tested on thethree documents mentioned earlier. Some of the elements in thismodel are also typical of the scheme used to analyzeadministrative documents, however others have been eliminated orrevised. While all of the extrinsic elements remain the same(because extrinsic elements do not relate to articulation ofcontent), most of the intrinsic elements have changed. The newmodel, like the traditional model, contains a sub—structure forintrinsic elements comprised of three sections: protocol, body,eschatocol. The new elements present in each of these sectionsare defined below.18The protocol of supporting documents in the broadcast industryserves the same purpose of the protocol of dispositive andprobative documents, that is, to introduce a document and providethe context for the action and its documentation. The threeelements common to both models are an entitling, title and date,while those specific to the new model are introductory credits,theme music, sponsor endorsement or advertisement, and summary.As in the traditional model, not all of these elements arepresent in every supporting document generated by the broadcastindustry, and some are mutually exclusive.The element entitling, as in administrative documents, is themention of the physical or juridical person issuing the document.In the case of a radio script, television script or programmerecording, this is usually the production company. Although thenew model includes ‘title’ as an element, the definition of thiselement is revised and expanded with respect to the traditional‘title.’ Almost all radio and television drama programmes, sincethe very early period, have both a series title and an episodetitle or number. A series title is defined as a formal titleproper, that is, an inclusive title for a group of programmeswhich contains two or more parts.8 An episode title is definedas the title used to indicate the name of an individual programme8 This definition was taken from the Planning Committee onDescriptive Standards’ draft of “Sound Records,” chap. in Rulesfor Archival Description, Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian Archivists,December 1992.19which is part of a series. Often, rather than being individuallytitled, episodes are instead numbered.Like the model for dispositive and probative documents, the modelfor supporting documents generated by the broadcast industry alsoincludes a ‘date’ element in the protocol. However, thedefinition of this element is also revised and expanded. Whiletraditionally the date referred to the place or time of theaction or of its documentation, the date element in radio andtelevision productions may refer to either the production date,the air—date, or both. The production date is the date a radioor television programme is created and made ready for broadcast.The air—date, is the date on which a programme is scheduled to bebroadcast .A new element present in the protocol of this model isintroductory credits. Credits are mentions of the contributionsto a programme’s production. This element might be compared tothe traditional superscription, but whereas the superscriptionmentions the author of the document and/or the act,introductory credits usually refer to the script’s author and theactors.’° A radio or television programme may have credits atIf the action is “broadcasting,” in a very general way itcould be said that a production date is the date of a document,while an air-date is the action’s date.10 Credits provide radio listeners and television viewerswith information about the persons responsible for the creationof the programme. Introductory credits are a characteristic20the end (end-credits) as well as at its beginning (introductorycredits). End—credits are present in the eschatocol.Theme music is a short piece of music or a segment of a longerpiece of music which is routinely played at the beginning and/orend of a production. A programme is often recognized by itstheme music when it is broadcast. Theme music is commonlyfollowed by a sponsor endorsement or advertisement. This isanother new element which may appear in any of the threedocument’s sections: protocol, body, or eschatocol. A ‘sponsor’is an organization or individual who finances a particularproduction or the broadcast of a radio or television programme,and usually receives recognition during the broadcasting of theprogramme. This recognition is either in the form of mention ofits name (endorsement), or of an advertisement (commercial) forone of its products. Sponsor endorsements and advertisementsusually appear at the beginning and end of a programme, but mayalso appear throughout the body.Sometimes (more commonly in programme recordings), anelement in the protocol of radio and television scripts as wellas broadcast recordings, which often also include end—credits inan eschatocol. Actors’ names may be read on radio accompanied bymusic, or appear on television with music, over images, on plainbackground or framed by a graphic design. Often for televisiondramas, printed credits are displayed opposite an image of theactor, or set opposite to the name of the character that theactor plays. Credits are less common for news reports, but aregradually becoming more frequent as more and more in—depthstories are produced.21announcement is present. This is typically a statement thatproclaims the start of a programme. Lastly, especially in serialdrama productions, a summary is included. This element istypically a reiteration by the narrator of the previousepisode(s).The second section in the traditional model for an administrativedocument, the ‘text,’ refers to the substance of the document andcontains the “manifestation of the will of the author, theevidence of the act, or the memory of it.” The body of asupporting document is comparable in form to the text, however,it does not serve the same purpose, and for this reason is nameddifferently. Rather than containing the action (will), and theinformation on its origin and motivation as in the text of adispositive or probative document, the body of a supportingdocument in the broadcast industry only indirectly points to theaction because it constitutes its product. The actual evidence ofthe act connected to the supporting document is in its protocol.The elements of the body in this new model are introduction,narration and dialogue. The introduction often consists of ashort presentation which may include the series or episode title.Like the traditional preamble, the introduction may express themotivation of the action, in this case, of producing theprogramme. In the narration, a narrator sets the scene, and inDuranti, “Diplomatics...(Part V),’1 13.22the dialogue the actual story begins.The last of the three documentary sections is the eschatocol.Traditionally, the core of the eschatocol has been an attestationvalidating the document. This element would include thesubscription of those who took part in issuing the document aswell as of any witnesses. There is no need for broadcastsupporting records to include such an element, because protocolelements and extrinsic special signs fulfil the validationfunction of the attestation. A broadcast recording, however,usually acknowledges the contribution of all or some of those whohave taken part in the production transaction, and does it in theeschatocol. The eschatocol of the new model contains sign—off,end—credits, theme music, copyright and sponsor (endorsement oradvertisement. The term sign-off is taken directly from thebroadcast industry. The function of this element is sometimes acombination of the roles of the attestation, corroboration,salutation and complimentary clause in the traditional model,while other times it is simply conclusive. Thus, in a radio ortelevision broadcast, the sign—off would usually consist of thenarrator (in a drama) or anchors (in a newscast) wishing theiraudience farewell, giving their name(s), and often naming thesponsor and/or the producer. In a radio or television scriptinstead, the sign—off consists of a simple ‘END.’End—credits serve the same purpose of introductory credits but23appear in the eschatocol. Occasionally they duplicateinformation provided by introductory credits, but they tend to bemore detailed. While end-credits usually do not appear inscripts, they are common in programme recordings and especiallyin contemporary programming. In fact, television stations arenow beginning to recognize the entire staff that works on theirnewscasts, from the producer to the videotape librarian.Copyright is the element which lists the intellectual owner ofthe production (the author of the act of producing thebroadcast).This identification of the extrinsic and intrinsic elements of atypical document generated by a specific kind of juridicalperson, is only the first part of the bottom-up diplomaticanalysis. The second part, which follows the scheme of diplomaticcriticism employed by traditional diplomatists for administrativedocuments, consists of examining concrete existing documentsaccording to the structural documentary model, and using theinformation derived from that examination to deduce furtherinformation about the diplomatic concepts of persons, acts,forms, procedures, and status of transmission as they relate tothose documents. Such an analysis provides information on thepersons concurring in the formation of the documents, the namesand types of act in which those persons have participated, therelationship between the documents and the procedures generatingthe documents, the categories of the procedures generating the24documents, and the types of the documents. The resultinginformation will determine the function of each document as awhole and will guide the third part of the bottom-up diplomaticanalysis, that is, the examination of the procedures by means ofwhich the documents chosen for analysis were generated. Thisthree-part analytical structure will be used below to study thethree existing documents selected for testing the effectivenessof diplomatic criticism.1) Radio Drama Script AnalysisThe first document is an early radio drama script from a radioseries entitled “What Price Loyalty” (See Appendix 1). The radioseries, which focused on the British Loyalists making their wayin Canada, was sponsored by the St. Lawrence Starch Company Ltd.in Hamilton, Ontario, consisted of forty—nine episodes, ran from1935 to 1936, and aired weekly.Extrinsic ElementsThe first extrinsic element is the medium, that is, the physicalmaterial on which the message is fixed; the carrier of theinformation. The medium of the radio script is white bond paper.As is usual with radio and television scripts, the pages are notstapled together because it is noisy to turn stapled pages.White paper is traditionally most common for the final version ofthe script because it was always thought to be the easiest typeto read from, and scripts must use a paper that does not rattle25(onion skin is the worst). Pulp copy paper as used in newspaperoffices is recommended. The writing is also typed on only oneside of the page, and this is usual because it reduces the noiseproduced when actors and/or actresses read from the script.The script element is traditionally characterized by informationconfiguration, layout, pagination, format, typeface,paragraphing, punctuation, and corrections.12 This document wascomposed on a typewriter. Radio and television scripts are neverhandwritten so that the print is clear and easy to read. Anynecessary corrections are always made carefully. There areseveral corrections made to this document that are either typedover or written into the document, and they include over tenspelling corrections made with a typewriter, and three pencilledin additions of words. It is unusual for a final radio ortelevision script to have corrections. Traditionally, the entiredocument must be clean, neatly typed, and free of errors inpunctuation, grammar and spelling. However, with the timerestraints of a broadcast production, changes might be made up tothe last minute, and in early radio, when typewriters were used(as opposed to word processors), typing up a final clean versionwas often too time consuming. Note that one page is missing.12 The use of the term “script” has more than one meaning inthis thesis and this author has attempted to make the distinctionclear; the “radio script” is the document under analysis and the“script” is the extrinsic element.26This radio script is a mimeograph, but diplomatically is not acopy. Because this specific document includes annotations, whichenable it to produce the necessary consequences, it is the firstcomplete and effective version of the script, that is, anoriginal.’3 An analysis of the annotations will be made later inthe discussion. Format is a very important component of thescript to analyze in radio and television scripts. Radio andtelevision scripts are regularly categorized according to theirformat, and the industry has in fact assigned names to thevarious types of formats. Although there are many differentscript formats for radio and television, each designed for adifferent type of production, there are generally five commonformats: television film format, live television format, radiodrama format, television news format, and radio news format.’4The format of this radio drama script is the standard for thiskind of document (‘radio drama format’), and there are only a fewvariations on this. Traditionally, radio drama scripts aresingle spaced, but occasionally they may be double spaced. Doublespacing makes a script easier to read, and to edit at the lastminute, if necessary. The single column format differs for radioand television because each medium has different requirements.Television scripts are closer to the format for stage plays,with the dialogue and only essential character movements.‘ See definition of a copy and of an original in Duranti,“Diplomatics, 18—20.“ For more information see Daniel E. Garvey and William L.Rivers, Broadcast Writing (New York: Longrnan Inc., 1982).27In radio however, the music, sound effects and microphoneposition are essential parts of the script.In radio drama format, the name of each speaker is usually typedabout one inch from the left edge of the page; capital lettersare used and followed by a colon. However, because in thisscript there are music and sound effects, the left hand column isreserved for sound effects, the central column is for the name ofthe speakers, and the right column is for dialogue. Typically,the music and sound effects in the left hand column of thisscript are typed in capital letters one half inch from the edgeof the page; however, contrary to common usage, they are notunderlined.15 The dialogue is also typically typed with regularupper and lower case letters, all directions for the cast aretyped in capital letters, and individuals’ directions are put inparentheses inside the dialogue. Directions for the entire castare placed one inch from the left edge of the page running to oneinch from the right edge and not in parentheses.’6Another very revealing extrinsic element is theannotations. Annotations are defined as additions to the‘ Script writers indicate in the script such things asmicrophone use, sound effects and music. These are the primarytechnical and production elements. See Robert L. Hilliard, RadioBroadcasting: An Introduction to the Sound Medium (New York:Hastings House Publishers Inc., 1967), 29.16 Daniel E. Garvey and William L. Rivers, BroadcastWriting, 39.28complete document, and is almost always handwritten. Roughdrafts of radio and television scripts are always annotated, butthat kind of annotation is for purpose of correction so that themaster script can be written. Annotations on the master arerelated to whom the script belongs to. Script annotations givedirections specific to whomever the script is intended for aboutthat person’s role in the production. Annotations are anessential instrument for directors, who need to coordinate manypeople and machines in a specified time frame: there are standardsymbols, but many directors develop their own. After a Directoradds annotations, s/he has the Assistant Director and the FloorManager make the same markings on their scripts.The annotations to the script under analysis clearly indicatethat this particular script is a master actor’s script thatbelonged to the radio character Roger Falconer. Such aconclusion is based on the following reasons. Actor’s scriptsare traditionally typed and marked by initials or with theactor’s character name, and individual actors’ parts areunderscored, or handwritten notes relative to cues, mood andtempo are pencilled in.’7 On this script, the character’s name,“Roger Falconer,” is written at the top in pencil as anannotation, and his lines are also underlined with a heavy bluepencil.17 Patricia Biggins, “An Annotated Bibliography of CanadianRadio Drama Produced by CBC Vancouver Between 1939 and 1945,”(M.A. diss., Simon Fraser University, 1974), 22.29According to diplomatics, there are three categories ofannotations. Although the annotations on the chosen document areminimal, they clearly fall into the second category. This typeof annotation is “. . . included in a complete and effectivedocument in the course of carrying out the subsequent steps ofthe transaction in which the document participates.”18Information regarding the traditional diplomatic categorizationof annotations is included in the document’s diplomaticdescription.The extrinsic element language assists in identifying thecountry, community, or culture in which the document wasproduced. While the language of the drama’s dialogue andnarration is Old English (some of the words are spelledphonetically to ensure the speakers deliver them with an accent),the language of the document is English. This is indicated by thelanguage of the protocol and the annotations. The languageelement of a document may be further broken down into languagestyles: journalistic, political, business, colloquial etc. Thestyle of the language of the document as well as the vocabularyand composition provide information on the purpose and functionof the document. Also, while the language provides informationon the place where the document was created, the style indicates18 See Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part V),” 9. Also, duringthe procedural analysis, it will be made clear that these areexecution phase annotations with respect to the script procedure,and handling annotations with respect to the productionprocedure, made in the deliberation phase.30the type of document. Whereas a news broadcast would be normallyin a journalistic style and a documentary might be in ascientific style, this radio drama script is appropriately in acolloquial style. This document has no special signs or seals.Intrinsic ElementsIn the protocol of the radio script, the series title is given as“What Price Loyalty”, and the episode number, which is indicatedin the upper right hand corner, is “6 - 49,” meaning that thisscript is for the sixth episode in a series of forty—nineepisodes. The chronological date cited, “Oct. 13, 1935,” is theair—date,’9 and the only introductory credit, the script—writer’sname, is Evelyn Biddle.The protocol of this radio script, like in most early radiodramas, includes directions for theme music (identified as“British Grenadiers”), and mention of a sponsor endorsement andadvertisement. One element typical of most radio dramas which isnot present in this script is a summary. Instead, this dramasets the scene in the narration. Note that the radio script inthis series does not include an entitling, or an announcement.In the body of this document, there is no introduction. The‘ According to Patricia Biggins, it was common for thedetails about the title, producer, series, date of broadcast andnames of performers for an early broadcast to be written on thescript’s envelope. See Biggins, “Annotated Bibliography,” 21.31narration begins with the narrator describing the scene and themood: “Early Upper Canada in the grip of a blizzard...”, and isaccompanied by sound effects (on the left side of the page). Thedialogue begins on the second page with Marigold’s song and herhusband Arthur’s exchange. As is evidenced by this script, radioor television drama scripts do not always include an eschatocol.Now that the labelling process has been completed, and thestructural articulation of the document is clear, deductions maybe made about the persons concurring in the formation of thedocument, the actions, and form of the script. First, the personswho participated in the action supported by this document can beidentified. From the information that was gained through anexamination of the elements of the radio script’s protocol, itcan be deduced that the author of the document is Evelyn Biddle,the individual identified in the introductory credit. Theaddressee of the document is the actor playing the drama’scharacter Roger Falconer. His identification is based on theannotation handwritten on the top of the first page, that is,“Roger Falconer.” In fact, the name of the character istypically written by the director on the top or side of the firstpage of an actor’s script. The addressee of the act is notexpressed on the script, nor is the writer of the document, butthis is typical of radio and television scripts which aretypically directed to a broadcast station, a production companyand/or a sponsor. The analysis of the programme recording32related to this radio script will reveal that the addressee ofthe act of generating the radio script is the St. Lawrence StarchCompany, the sponsor of the production. And typically, thewriter of the script is the same as its author — in this case,Evelyn Biddle.Following the identification of the persons involved in thecreation of the script is the recognition of the name of the actfrom which the document results, the type of act the documentrepresents, the procedural phase in which the documentparticipated, that is, the relationship between the document andthe procedure which generated the document, and finally the typeof the document. These pieces of information are gained throughan examination of the document in relation to the fundamentaldiplomatic concepts of ‘fact’ and ‘act,’ the nature of theactivities, and the will and purpose that generate them.Records result from actions and transactions. While acts mayinvolve only one person, transactions involve two or moreparties. Transactions are juridical acts directed to theobtainment of effects recognized and guaranteed by the system,which create, modify, extinguish or maintain relationships amongthe persons involved.20 Only one person concurring in theformation of this document is named, Evelyn Biddle, in anintroductory credit. According to this piece of information, it20 Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part II),” 12.33appears that the author of the act and the author of the documentare the same and this would indicate that the type of act is a‘simple act.’2’ However, while a script may be written in itsentirety by a single writer or team of writers, it is highlyuncommon for a script which is used for a broadcast production,not to receive input from other members of the production teamsuch as the producer and sponsoring groups. Therefore, the actembodied in the issuing of this radio script, which containsannotations revealing that it was prepared for programmeproduction and broadcast, was probably generated by a ‘collegialact.’22 So, while a direct analysis of the script indicates thatthe author of the document is Evelyn Biddle, the author of theembodied in this document is guessed to be a collegial personconstituted of the production group, the script author and writer(Evelyn Biddle), and the sponsor.The name of the act is ‘radio drama script production.’ This ismade clear by the previous examination of the document’s format.Naming the act and later the documentary form requires thatdiplomatists consider terms established by the broadcast industryto classify a programme, that is, in this specific case, the21 An act is defined as a ‘simple act’ when “the power ofaccomplishing the act is concentrated in one individual,” thatis, “the will to produce the act is one will. . .one deliberationwith one purpose.” See Ibid, 13.22 An act is defined as ‘collegial’ when the power ofaccomplishing the act is concentrated in one organ, whose singlemembers have a collective will that is ‘manifest in onedeliberation with one purpose.’ See Ibid.34subject/description of the drama.23 These classifications ofdramas will always vary slightly in terminology from station tostation, but are commonly referred to as follows:Domestic dramaHistorical plays and panoramasSocial satires and problemsWar dramas and documentariesAdaptations of classicsExper imenta 124Based on the subject of the drama, therefore, the document underanalysis refers to an historical drama, and the full name of theact becomes ‘radio drama script production, historical play.’The next step is to identify the type of procedure in which thisdocument participated, and the phase of that procedure whichgenerated it, that is, to examine the relationship between thedocument and the procedure. Procedures are categorized based ontheir purpose, and the activities engaged in to carry outdifferent categories of procedures vary. According to diplomaticclassification, the category of procedure from which thisdocument was generated is an executive procedure. It is definedas such because producing a script is a routine transaction,23 Again, the terminology can be confusing. There is aclear distinction between the term ‘programme format’ in thebroadcast industry and ‘format’ as a diplomatic element. Ratherthan use the terms interchangeably this thesis will use thebroadcast industry term always prefaced with the term‘programme.’24 These six categories of radio drama are identified anddefined by Patricia Biggins in her “Annotated Bibliography.”35externally regulated, which occurs according to a standardmethod;25 and, the phase of the procedure which generated thisscript is the execution phase.26The last step of this part of the analysis is to identify thetype of document, that is, to name the documentary form, confirmwhether its status is original or copy, its nature public orprivate, and its function probative, dispositive, supporting, ornarrative. The conclusion that this script is an ‘actor’sscript,’ is based on an analysis of the annotations, and thedetermination of the version. In her “Annotated Bibliography ofCanadian Radio Drama,” Patricia Biggins lists five differentversions of scripts including: author’s manuscripts ortypescripts, producer’s scripts, technical scripts, actor’sscripts, and clean scripts.2725 An executive procedure is defined as, “those [procedures]which allow for the regular transaction of affairs within limits,and according to norms already established by a differentauthority.” For descriptions of the categories of procedures seeLuciana Duranti, “Diplornatics...(Part IV),” 19.26 Every modern transaction embodies six procedural phases:initiative, inquiry, consultation, deliberation, deliberationcontrol, and execution. The execution phase is “constituted byall the actions which give formal character to the transaction.”Documents created during this phase usually embody thetransaction. See Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part IV),” 14—15.27 See Biggins, “Annotated Bibliography,” 21. One physicalcharacteristic which assists in determining the version of ascript is the “colour” of the paper on which it is printed.Different versions are often printed on varying colour of paper,the purpose being, to ensure that they are easily distinguishablefrom one another. In television news, multiple carbon copies ofscripts are printed on different coloured sheets of paperdependent upon the content. For example, straight on—camera news36As to its status of transmission, this document is an original.This determination is based on the fact that, while the documenthas some corrections and additions, it is in fact the firstcomplete document generated that is enforceable, that is, itproduces the consequences for which it was intended. Also, allactor’s scripts are usually originals: in fact, by the time ascript is assigned to an actor, it has been fleshed out and anycorrections or alterations are minimal. Whether this script wasre—typed one more time is unknowable from a direct examination ofthis document, but improbable, considering the underlined linesof dialogue.28The definition of a document as public or private reflects therelationship the document has with its author. This script hasto be considered private because it was created by a privatecopy (the anchor’s dialogue) might be printed on white paperwhile the descriptions of the tape inserts might be on yellowpaper. This allows the news director to anticipate what iscoming up, so that if the show is going overtime, then s/he isable to easily eliminate less important segments (‘to pullcopy’).Writing a script requires that the idea be developed through aseries of versions. Some scripts may include sketches, comments,a list of characters and performers, or may have a separate sheetattached with list of performers or date of broadcast inpencilled notes. Versions of script formats vary betweenstations, but generally are highly standardized.28 For information on original, drafts, and copies, seeDuranti, “Diplomatics,” 19—21.37person,29 that is, the collegial will which gave origin to thedocument is, in the Canadian juridical system, private in nature.Finally, as hypothesized at the beginning of this analysis by theact of choosing a radio drama script as an example of a typicalbroadcast document, the function of this document is‘supporting.’ In fact, a radio drama script does not put an actinto existence nor is its written form required as evidence of anact. The script is a product of a juridically relevant activitywhich is primarily oral, and its purpose is to support thebroadcasting of a drama production. A summary of the diplomaticanalysis conducted on the radio drama script is presented in thediplomatic description below.Extrinsic ElementsMedium: bond white paper; 20 pages; 8.5” x 14”, notstapled; watermarks: “Progress Bond,” “Made inCanada”; single sided; slightly stained; a halfpage is between pages 15 and 16; tears in cornersshow that pages were stapled together at one pointScript: standard black typescript; some corrections(typed over); pagination in upper right; noabbreviationsFormat: divided into three columns: sound effects,speakers’ names, and dialogue; the dialogue isdouble spaced29 A ‘private person’ is a person performing functionsconsidered to be private in the context of the juridical systemin which that person acts. In contract, a ‘public person’ is aperson performing functions considered to be public in thecontext of the juridical system, and is vested with sovereignpower. For more information see Luciana Duranti, “Diplornatics:New Uses for an Old Science (Part III),” Archivaria 30 (Summer1990): 16.38Language: EnglishAnnotation(s): name of character “Roger Falconer”;[indecipherable word]; Roger’s dialogue underlinedin blue pencil crayon; notes to actor playingRoger, reminding him of his cue; severalcorrections/additions made in pencil. Allannotations have been inserted by the director inthe deliberation phase with respect to theproduction procedureIntrinsic ElementsProtocolBodytitle (series):number (episode):date (chronological):introductory credits:theme music:sponsor (advertisement)narration:dialogue:PersonsAuthor of the act:Author of the document:Addressee of the act:Addressee of document:Writer of document:Type of act:What Price LoyaltyEpisode 6 — 49For Broadcast Oct. 13, 1935Evelyn BiddleFanfare; British Grenadiers; MinuetCommercial“Wind Narrator (above storm) EarlyUpper Canada in the grip of ablizzard. . . departed for asojourn in Boston,———”“[Marigold’s song]; My gratitude,loved one.. .Minuet.”Evelyn Biddle, members of theproduction group, and the sponsorEvelyn BiddleSt. Lawrence Starch Companythe actor playing Roger FalconerEvelyn Biddlecollegial actName of act:Relationship betweendocument and procedure:radio drama script production,historical playdocument concluding the executionphase of an executive procedure39Type of document: actor’s script, supporting,private, originalDiplomatic Description: 1935, October 13.A script written by EvelynBiddle for the actor playing RogerFalconer in episode 6 of thehistorical radio drama entitled“What Price Loyalty.”1 actor’s script, supporting,private, original2) Radio Drama Programme Recording AnalysisThe second document chosen for analysis is the recording of thesame radio drama to which the previously analyzed scriptrelated.3° Conducting an analysis of this document based on themodel formulated for the script should not present problems,because the recording also has a supporting function with respectto the drama production activity.Extrinsic ElementsThe medium of a document was particularly important for theidentification and evaluation of medieval documents because,depending upon the material it was made of, its shape, and how itwas prepared for receiving the message, diplomatists were able to30 The fact that recordings were made of this radio dramaseries immediately reveals a great deal. Early radio andtelevision stations rarely made recordings of their productions,because programmes were usually broadcast live from the studiosand there was no need for recordings. Recordings were only madeif the programmes were intended for delayed broadcast, or fordistribution to another station(s) for broadcast at a later date.40date a document, determine its provenance, and verify itsauthenticity. Over time, as offices began to use standardizedwriting materials, the analysis of the medium became lessrelevant; but today, with the introduction of new technologies,and the resulting variety of ways to affix and access theinformation on contemporary media, the medium of a document isbecoming more revealing. In this regard, knowledge of thehistory of technological development of television and radioproduction can be extremely valuable, and the physical form of asound or moving image document can be the element that revealsmost about the context of creation: in fact, the informationgained through an analysis of the medium of a sound and/or movingimage document can readily assist in dating a document,discovering details about its provenance, and even determiningwhy the document was made.This radio drama programme recording consists of two 16” metalbased instantaneous disc recordings coated in cellulose acetate.Because such discs were only made between 1935 and 1955, it canbe ascertained from the medium that the document dates no laterthan 1955. This document is an acoustic recording that wasrecorded at 33 1/3 RPM, is thirty minutes in duration, and wasrecorded using the instantaneous recording process.3’ BecauseThis recording process is described in Chapter Two. Formore information see Brock Silversides’ article entitled, “Guideto Identifying and Dating Sound Recordings,” Canadian Associationof Music Libraries Newsletter 21, no. 2 (February 1993): 5-13.41this recording process was primarily used by early broadcaststations, this information also indicates that the recording wasproduced with the intention of broadcasting by a commercial,private station.Like the medium, the script is also an element which providesimportant information about contemporary documents. As wasmentioned earlier, the element ‘script’ in a textual documentrefers to information configuration, the layout of the writing inrelation to the document’s physical form, pagination, format,typeface, handwriting, paragraphing, punctuation and correction,as well as the presence of various hands. In a sound recordeddocument, the element ‘script’ refers specifically to thecharacteristics of sounds and silences; in the case of thisdocument, it refers to the speech, music, singing, and silence.Radio regulates sound by using silence. In printed media, thecontext of a document is immediately apparent because messagescan be seen in their physical milieu, but the temporalcharacteristic of radio, which presents messages sequentially,demands that certain repetitious indicators be used. Forexample, radio may use a theme song at the start of a serialprogramme, or make regular announcements during the programme.Goffman suggested that these conventions are used to combat the‘constraints of radio blindness.’32 In Understanding Radio,32 See E. Goffman, “The Radio Drama Frame,” chap. inCommunication Studies, eds. J. Corner and J. Hawthorn (London:Edward Arnold, 1980), 162—65.42Andrew Crisell compares radio with the printed medium andconcludes that radio matches the visual resources of print withits own acoustic resources.It can match the differences of size with differences ofduration; words in different kinds of print with words indifferent tones or voices; dots, borders and asterisks withpips or musical jingles; and the photographs or icons ofpeople and things with indexes - the sound made by peopleand things.33Crisell went on to note that print is a technological developmentof speech, an attempt to fix meaning which is inherent in wordsand the inflection of the human voice. Thus, it seems odd to haveto mould the characterization of the formal elements of sound andmoving image documents on that of printed documents, but this isnecessary due to the rate at which technology has evolved. Anexample of a formal element originating from the need ofreproducing the structure of printed documents for sound andmoving image documents, are ‘signposts.’ Signposts, which aredesigned to provide a sense of context, indicate a programmeand/or station’s shape and structure, so listeners can decide ifthey want to keep listening. In the early days of radio whenthere was less competition in the area of family entertainment,families tuned into their favourite shows weekly, but today, theradio is just one of many sources of information andentertainment. Although listeners still tune-in to theirfavourite shows, more often, people turn on the radio when it isAndrew Crisell, Understanding Radio (London and New York:Methuen and Co., 1986), 87.43convenient at all times of the day and night. Because of this,the risk of ambiguity with contemporary radio is high, andsignposting needs to be used, such as “later this afternoon wewill talk to XXX about XXX.” There is no signposting present inthis recording for several reasons: it is an early radioprogramme (signposting was less common), and signposting is mostcommon between programmes or during commercial breaks within aprogramme. There are no commercial breaks present in the body ofthis programme.The other extrinsic elements to examine are language, specialsigns, seals, and annotations. The language of the recording,like the related script, is English, colloquial style. Thespecial signs on this document are printed labels adhered to thecentre of each disc (see Appendix Each label indicates thestation which recorded the drama (CFRB) and directs users tostart the needle on the inside of the disc and to use the needlesthat originally accompanied the disc for “one playing only.”These labels also provide space for information on record speed(“33 1/3 RPM”), programme segment (“Parts one and two”),programme title (“What Price Loyalty”), and the sponsor.Moreover, the air-date (“Oct. 13/35”) and the time of broadcast(“5:00-5:30 p.m.”) were typed in by the writer in addition to theThe function of special signs is to identify the personsinvolved in the documentation activity and to contribute to thevalidation of a document. They are divided into two categories:signs of the writer and subscribers, and signs of the recordsoffice or chancery.44printed information which constitutes the special sign of therecords office. The annotations on the disc labels (“#245—24,”“#245—25”) are constituted by classification numbers that wereadded to the documents by the archives responsible for thedocuments’ identification and retrieval, in the managementphase.35 This type of annotation reveals information about thedocuments’ custodial history.Intrinsic ElementsAn intrinsic analysis of the radio drama recording is comparableto that of the corresponding radio drama script, but because theyare distinct documents, there are variations. While theprotocol of both the radio script and the recording includes aseries title, an episode number, an air—date, an introductorycredit, theme music, and an advertisement for the sponsor, theprotocol of the recording also includes an announcement, anentitling and a topical date. The recording begins with thetheme music (British Grenadiers), followed by an announcement:“Ladies and Gentlemen, we bring you another in the series ofhistoric dramatizations of Upper Canada.”36 Next is thesponsor’s advertisement, a brief fanfare, then the name of thesponsor with the topical date (“The St. Lawrence Starch CompanySee Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part V),” 9.36 This is the mention of the action specific to thisdocument: the general action that the recording concludes is theproduction of a radio drama, but the specific act of which it isthe outcome is broadcasting the radio drama.45of Port Credit Ontario”).The body of the recording is comparable to the body of thecorresponding script, except that it contains a sub—structureconsisting of an introduction as well as a narration anddialogue. The introduction consists of another announcement ofthe series title, which precedes the narration and the dialogue.Unlike the radio script, the recording of the radio programmeincludes an eschatocol containing several elements. The sign—offmentions the following week’s episode, where the production wasrecorded, and how the broadcast was distributed. The end—creditslist the author of the script, the producer and author of theprogramme production, and the narrator, while the sponsor(endorsement) mentions the sponsor’s name and its products. Thecopyright owner is the St. Lawrence Starch Company, whichsponsored the production financially. This is known from theentitling. The eschatocol is concluded by the mention of wherethe drama was performed (CKOC).In order to identify the persons that concurred to the formationof this document, it is most effective to begin by identifyingthe act in which the document participated; the production of aradio drama programme. Whether or not the radio drama, or itsrecording, is broadcast (live or delayed) is a separate issue.37The definition provided in the introductory chapter for‘broadcast agency’ noted that a broadcast agency produces,transmits and/or distributes matter intended to be received by46The will at the origin of the production of the radio dramaprogramme is similar to that generating the radio drama script inthat it results from the wills of a number of persons. However,rather than being a ‘collegial act’ (one deliberation with onepurpose), this act results from many “different acts produced by• . .a number of individuals..., but all essential to the formationof some final act of which they are partial elements.”38Therefore, the name of the act is ‘radio drama programmeproduction, historical play’ and the type of the act the documentrepresents is a ‘compound act on procedure.’ The proceduralphase in which the recording participated, like the script, isthe execution phase of an executive procedure.An understanding of the wills which were responsible for the actgenerating the documents assists in identifying the persons whoparticipated in the document’s creation. Information on theauthors of the act of the ‘radio drama production’ appear in theeschatocol, and are the station CKOC in Hamilton, the productiongroup and the sponsor (the St. Lawrence Starch Company). Becausethe will that resulted in the production was collective, allthose who manifested it are authors. The series was sponsoredthe public. Therefore, the act is the production of the dramarather than the actual broadcast of the drama. Although a radioor television production is intended for broadcast, it may neverbe broadcast or it may be broadcast numerous times by manydifferent stations.38 See Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part II),” 14. This isexplained further in the procedural analysis of the transactionin which this document participated.47(funded) by the St. Lawrence Starch Company, and the productionwas put together by the radio station’s command. The author ofthe document (i.e. the person competent for issuing the document)is the producer named at the end of the recording, GordonAnderson. The writer of the document is the station (CFRB) whichactually fixed (recorded) the production.The addressees of the act are the radio listeners of all thestations to which a copy of this recording was distributed. Thisis evident by the type of the document, which is intended forbroadcast. The addressee of this particular document is CFRB,the station which used the discs for broadcast, as indicated bythe disc labels.The type of document is a radio drama programme recording,private, supporting, and original. Private because, like thescript, it was created by a private organization, originalbecause the recording is the first complete and enforceabledocument of this drama programme, and supporting because the actis the production of the radio drama programme and such an act iscomplete and effective independently of the recording of it; therecording of the production is only the product of the act.39 TheHistorically, documents progress through the threefunctional types - supporting, probative, dispositive - and thisdocumentary form is no different. In some countries, nationalbroadcast industry regulators require that stations make andretain audio copies of all broadcasts for a specific period oftime for legal reasons, and when a written form of an act isrequired as evidence, its document type is defined as probative.48information revealed through this analysis is summarized asfollows :40Extrinsic ElementsMedium: two x 16” transcription discs (grooves cut on oneside), metal base coated with cellulose acetatecompound; instantaneous recording process includesspeech, singing, and music (acoustic); played at33 1/3 rpm., 30 minutes duration for each discScript: speech, music, singing, and silenceLanguage: English (colloquial style)Special Sign: disc labels affixed to the grooved side of eachdisc (Appendix 2)Annotations: #245—24 (on one disc label), #245—25 (on thesecond disc label)Intrinsic ElementsProtocoltheme music : British Grenadiersannouncement: “Ladies and Gentlemen, we bring youanother in the series of historicaldramatizations of Upper Canada entitled‘What Price Loyalty’.”title (series): What Price LoyaltySo technically, a programme recording could be described asprobative. However, only when its written form is uniformlyrequired by the industry will this form be defined as a probativedocument, and because broadcasting is still so young and therecording of all programming is not required, these threedocuments are still defined as supporting in nature.40 Note that the diplomatic description of a programmerecording includes significantly more elements than thediplomatic description of a textual document.49entitling: St. Lawrence Starch Companysponsor (advertisement): Bee Hive Golden Corn Syrupdate (topical): Port Credit OntarioBodyintroduction: title: “What Price Loyalty”narration: “Early Upper Canada in the grip of ablizzard. . . Looking backward from 1935down the vista of the bygone years, weare amazed at the steady stride of theprogress through the 19th century...”dialogue: “[Marigold’s song]; My gratitude, lovedone.. .Minuet.”Eschatocolsign—off: “Next week, an historic event in thehistory of Kingston, ‘the First StageCoach.’ Originated in the studios ofCKOC at Hamilton. Broadcast over aCanadian network.”sponsor: Bee Hive Golden Corn Syrup, a product of(advertisement) the St. Lawrence Starch Companyend-credits: Written by Evelyn Biddle, produced byGordon Anderson, Narrator is WernerBartmanncopyright: St. Lawrence Starch CompanyPersonsAuthors of the act: CKOC, members of production group,sponsor (St. Lawrence StarchCompany)Author of the document: Gordon Anderson (producer)Addressee of the radio listeners of all stations toact: which a copy of the recording wasdistributed and broadcast50Addressee ofthe document: CFRBWriter of the document: CFRBType of act: compound act on procedureName of act: radio drama programmeproduction, historical playRelationship betweendocument and procedure: document concluding an executionphase of an executive procedureType of document: radio drama programme recording,supporting, private, originalDiplomatic description: 1935, October 13. Hamilton,Ontario.The St.Lawrence Starch Company andCKOC present What Price Loyalty,for the people of Ontario, scriptby Evelyn Biddle, Gordon Anderson,producer.1 radio drama programme recordingfor CFRB, supporting, private,original.2 x 16” instantaneous discrecordings.3) Television News Programme Recording AnalysisThe third document chosen to test the model of analysis forsupporting documents generated by the broadcast industry, is arecording of a contemporary television news programme. Becausethis document is so similar to the radio drama programmerecording, the focus of the discussion preceding theschematization of the diplomatic analysis will be on the elements51which differ from the radio recording’s analysis. And, in orderto demonstrate how information on the creation of this documentmay be extracted from an analysis of its formal elements, nofurther information about the recording will be provided at thispoint.Extrinsic ElementsA physical examination of this television news programmerecording reveals that it is affixed on a Sony T-120 VHS tapecapable of recording two hours.41 While the polyester based,magnetic particle tape is 1/2” wide, the plastic cassette case isa standard size (18.5 cm. long, 10.25 cm. wide, and 2.5 cm. indepth). As with the instantaneous disc of the radio recording,identifying the recording format of the television programme asVHS provides a means of confirming information about the date ofthe document. VHS format came into use in the mid-1970s,therefore we know that the recording under examination datesafter that time.As with a radio recording, an examination of the script elementof a moving image document is very revealing. Details on how theinformation is formatted translate to articulation of speech andmusic. The script of the television newscast includes the words41 The “T-120” indicates that the tape is capable ofrecording 120 minutes (two hours) at regular recording speed. Atslow speed (Extended play - “EP”), the tape is capable of holdingup to seven hours.52spoken by the news anchors as well as the vocabulary and thephraseology, the layout or presentation of the stories, and thetechnical jargon, text and graphics which represent themessage.42 Although the script of a news broadcast differs fromthe script of any other programme genre (drama, documentary,etc.) in that it consists of a series of separate stories andtopics, the stories are linked together by the anchors’continuous dialogue. It is primarily the layout which makes thisgenre of programme document easily identifiable as a newsprogramme.The information is communicated in English (language) injournalistic style. The dialogue includes both French andEnglish, if the man-on-street-interviews are included, but thisis not clear until the document is ‘read’ (played), because it isnot indicated on the tape’s label. The tape’s label (specialsign) is 4 inches x 1 1/8 inches and adheres to the long edge ofthe tape cassette (see Appendix 3). It is printed with thestation’s logo (11 CHCH) in purple ink, and has informationhandwritten on it in blue pen. These handwritten details areannotations, and include the series title, the time-slot (thetime the broadcast was scheduled to be aired), the broadcastdate, the number of the videotape recorder on which the recording42 An in—depth study of the anchors’ vocabulary is outsidethe realm of special diplomatics. This is an area of study morelikely to be included in a palaeographic examination of thedocument.53was made, the tape generation (master), and the initials of thevideotape machine operator.Intrinsic ElementsBecause this document both moves and speaks, the intrinsicelements identified for analysis were taken from the video image,the visual graphics, the soundtrack or a combination thereof; andthis is primarily what makes this documentary form different fromthe traditional ones.43 These three information configurationsare often presented simultaneously and do not always correspondidentically. For example, data belonging to this document’sentitling is both in image and soundtrack form. The graphic logowhich is pictured reads, “CHCH 11 News” and the voiceover sounds“Channel 11 News.” This is an example of a discrepancy betweenthe sound and the image. Simultaneous with the entitling is thetheme music — several bars of electronic music.The entitling is followed by the title of the programme, and asfor the radio drama programme, the definition of this elementhas been modified to accommodate the structure of thisintellectual form — the television news programme. Since thebeginning of broadcasting, stations have employed the concept ofhaving daily, or weekly television/radio series. When this is“ In the scheme of the analysis, intrinsic elements areidentified in either the picture, the soundtrack, or both. Forthis reason, the data revealed by each element is followed by anindication of whether the information was extracted from thevisual image (pic) and/or the soundtrack (sd).54the case, the series will have a title and often the particularprogramme, also termed an ‘episode,’ will have a title or number.It is possible therefore for a programme to have both a seriestitle and an episode title. However, while this is common fordrama programming, it is rare for news programmes. In theprevious document, the series title was “What Price Loyalty,” andthe episode number was “Episode 6.” The television newscast hassimply a series title; however, the date (chronological) whichfollows the title, besides its traditional function of placingthe document in a temporal context, has also the function of anepisode title. Like the entitling, it appears printed across thescreen (“19 October 1992”) by means of computer graphics, and isvoiced in the soundtrack as “Monday October 19th.” In theintroductory credits, the four anchors are named in a voiceover,and simultaneously a still picture of each appears on the screen,concluding the protocol of this document.At this point, the anchors move quickly into the introduction ofthe body, constituted of an overview of the top stories. Thisimmediately leads into the narration, which introduces eachindividual story, and to the inserts of individual reports,stories and commercials (dialogue).The eschatocol includes only two elements: sign—off, during whichtwo anchors give their names, and copyright ownership, where thestation name and logo appear across the bottom of the screen.55Most of the persons that participated in the television newsproduction are indicated clearly. The author of the act is thestation, CHCH-TV, which is indicated in the entitling. While theauthor of the document is the producer, and the writer of thedocument are the person(s) who recorded the production, neitheris mentioned. The names of the anchors are given at thebeginning by a narrated voiceover (Dan McLean, Donna Skelly, PaulHenry and Matt Hayes). Sometimes, in contemporary television newsbroadcasts, credits run at the end of the programme that name theauthor of the document (the producer) and the writer(s) of thedocuments (the production staff) . The addressees of the act,like with the radio recording, are the station’s viewers. Theaddressee of the document is the station itself, because therecording was made for the station to retain as a record of thebroadcast. Although news programmes are never re—broadcast, mostcontemporary stations preserve a selection of them for futureresearch or partial re—use. This particular document is beingpreserved by the station permanently because it is in fact thefirst episode of The Golden Horseshoe Report.45The name of the act is ‘television news programme production’ andOne reason that this programme might not include all theend credits is because it is regularly followed by an eveningnews programme which does contain end—credits. And, the end—credits for the evening show are probably identical to theHorseshoe Report.‘ The phrase ‘golden horseshoe’ is used to describe theheavily populated areas on the shore of Lake Ontario extendingfrom Niagara Falls to Oshawa, in the Province of Ontario, Canada.56this type of act is, like the radio drama programme production, a‘compound act on procedure.’ The act is the production of theprogramme and such an act is complete and effective independentlyof the recording of it; the television recording is the productof the act. The type of document is a television news programmerecording, private, supporting and original, and the documentconcludes the execution phase of a executive procedure.In the introduction to the analysis of this document, no extrainformation about the document or the context of the document wasprovided. So far, all the information about this document hasbeen gained from a direct analysis of the document and it doesinclude really all the information necessary to identify it andunderstand its function. The schematization of this analysis issummarized as follows:Extrinsic ElementsMedium: 1 x Sony VHS T-120 videotape, 2 hours duration,plastic cassette case: 18.5 cm. long, 10.25 cm.wide, and 2.5 cm. in depth; polyester basedmagnetic particle tape 1/2” width.Script: speech, music, computer graphics, moving images.Language: EnglishSpecial Sign: tape label with station logo (11 CHCH)Annotations: news programme title (“Golden Horseshoe Report”),time—slot (“5:30 - 7:00”), broadcast date (“Oct.19/92”), number of videotape recorder (#3) theprogramme was taped on, “master” tape, initials ofvideotape operator (“BB”)57Intrinsic ElementsProtocoltheme music: musicentitling: CHCH 11 News (pic)Channel 11 News (Sd)title (series): The Golden Horseshoe Report (pic;Sd)date (chronological): 19 October 1992 (pic)Monday October 19th (Sd)introductory credits: — with Dan McLean, Donna Skelly,Paul Henry,and Matt Hayes (sd)- [their faces] (pic)Bodyintroduction: Good Afternoon everyone (Sd)narration: Metro Toronto Police Officers.... (Sd)dialogue: [individual stories and reportspresented by anchors]sponsor There are empty spaces on the tape for 5(advertisements): commercial breaks. This recording of thenewscast does not include the recordingofthe advertisements.Eschatoco 1sign-off: And that is it, the first edition of theGolden Horseshoe Report (Sd)end—credits: “I’m Dan McLean” “And I’m Donna Skelly”(sd)copyright: A CHCH News Presentation c.1992 (pic)PersonsAuthor of the act: CHCH-TVAddressee of the act: television viewers of CHCH-TVAddressee ofthe document: CHCH-TVType of act: compound act on procedure58Name of act: television news programmeproductionRelationship between document concluding the executiondocument and procedure: phase of an executive procedureType of document: television news programme recording,supporting, private, originalDiplomatic description: 1992, October 19. Hamilton, Ontario.CHCH Television presents the firstedition of the “Golden HorseshoeReport.1 television news programmerecording, supporting, private,originalPROCEDURAL ANALYSISModern documents are the product of actions and transactions,just like medieval documents, but differently from the MiddleAges, when one action or transaction generated one document. Inmodern times, one action or transaction may generate anindefinite number of documents, each of which would reflect onestep or part of one step. Modern archivists are faced withdocuments that reflect multilateral relationships in which eachfact manifests itself in a fragmented documentary form. Accordingto diplomatics’ ideal procedural model, every modern transactionembodies the following six procedural phases: initiative,inquiry, consultation, deliberation, deliberation control, andexecution.46 Although each phase produces documents that are46 A procedure is defined as “the formal sequence of steps,stages or phases whereby a transaction is carried out.” SeeDuranti, “Diplomatics...(Part IV),” 11.59interlocutory with respect to a final document that concludes andsynthesizes the whole transaction, and represent steps towardsthe final document’s creation, some or all of those phases alsoresult in complete and effective documents that embody other morespecific transactions complete in their own right, that is, indocuments that are final with respect to procedures subordinateto that used to carry out the main transaction.47 Identifyingthe documents that result from each procedural phase of thetransaction resulting in the document being analyzed andunderstanding how they relate to that document constitute thecore of a diplomatic examination of the genesis of a document.An analysis of every document resulting from each proceduralphase can in fact be done until the genesis of every singledocument participating in a transaction has been examined,however, the number of documents resulting from each transactionconducted within one administrative body may be significant, andan analysis of every ramification of each transaction is notnecessary to an understanding of the central transaction. Thepurpose of a study in special diplomatics is to identify the‘typical’ transactions of a given administration, the documentscreated in each stage of each procedure used to carry out thosetransactions, and the structure and interrelationships of thosedocuments.Ibid., 16.60Although the documentation of modern transactions is fragmentaryand thus voluminous, the amount of textual documents created bybroadcast stations has always been minimal, and the primaryreason for this is the nature of the industry, which ischaracterized by immediacy. For broadcasters, time is of theessence. In an industry where last minute change is common,scheduling must be precise and proceed without delay (most newsstaff work within a 24 or 12 hour time—frame). Broadcasters mustbe flexible enough to meet daily crises head-on. Within thisenvironment, there is little time for creating textual documents,and no time to spend on unnecessary formal paperwork. Many of thedecisions made during the production and airing of dailyprogramming are routinely changed and go undocumented, andprogramming is often being defined or altered while it is beingaired. The primary concern is always the final product — thebroadcast.Early stations were small, privately owned, and often set up ashobbies rather than for profit, and programmes were aired live,which meant that broadcast signals were transmitted directly fromstations to audiences’ home receivers without being recorded.There were no government or industry regulations requiring thattextual records or copies of the broadcasts be kept, so limitedtextual or programme documents were generated, and thosegenerated were usually destroyed. Occasionally, stations found itnecessary to record a broadcast for distribution, or to record a61show for later broadcast. This was particularly true for radiodrama shows which were often distributed to several differentstations for broadcast, but generally, re—broadcasting is morecommon in contemporary stations because recording technology ismore accessible.Of course as with other for—profit business, as stations grew insize, the amount of textual documents increased proportionally.Gradually, as legislation and regulations were established,stations were required by law to maintain certain records.Moreover, stations began creating and preserving copies ofbroadcasts in order to defend themselves against possible legalaction, to protect their copyright, and in some cases to rebroadcast. Today, medium to large size stations generate anoverwhelming amount of programme documents; however, compared toother industries, they create still a limited amount of records.This is because, in a broadcast station, everything revolvesaround the broadcast; thus, the most typical transactions arethose which relate to the production and airing of radio and/ortelevision programmes.The third part of the bottom-up analysis conducted in thischapter examines the transactions and related procedures fromwhich each of the three chosen documents resulted: the productionof a radio drama programme, the production of the script for that62programme,48 and the production of a television newscast.Throughout these analyses, the discussion will include how thedocuments generated by each transaction might differ in asmall/medium/large station as well as between early andcontemporary stations.1) Radio Drama Programme ProductionA typical transaction for a radio station is the production of aradio drama play. The final document is the recording of theradio drama programme, which represents and concludes thetransaction.49 The procedure described here is the genesis of anoriginal radio drama programme recording. The phases of thetransaction are:1) initiative - Planning for programming.2) inquiry — Collection of information necessary toproduce the drama.3) consultation — Discussion about how to organize theproduction once all the relevant informationhas been accumulated.48 It is important here to clarify a definition of terms.The broadcast industry commonly uses the term “produce” to referto the activity of creating a radio/television programme forbroadcast. The phrase ‘producing a script,’ as it is used in thischapter, means writing and finalizing a script on which, it isintended, a broadcast programme will be based.‘ The purpose of this transaction is to broadcast theprogramme that is produced. Because diplomatics can only analyzethe ‘written’ document, the programme can only be analyzed if itis recorded.634) deliberation - Approval of script and finalization of budgetand programme schedule.5) deliberation — Control exercised by talent unions oncontrol staff contracts and external regulatorybodies on content.6) execution — Broadcast of the programme and/or recordingof the programme.The production of a radio or television programme in any sizestation always begins with planning, but while a large stationconsistently assigns specific tasks to specialized staff, staffresponsibilities in a smaller station often change. An idea for aprogramme may originate internally or from an external source,and may consist of anything from an idea expressed verbally by astaff member, to a formal written proposal presented to a stationby a writer.In a small station, any person may be responsible for originatingthe idea for a programme or a commercial; however, developing theidea or examining the feasibility of a proposal usually startswith a brainstorming session among the programme director, radiotalent staff, someone from promotion or sales and sometimes acontinuity writer. The idea or proposal is discussed in regardsto content, audience interest, production costs, availabletalent, promotion and sales. This phase of the procedure iscalled the initiative phase, because it “is constituted by thoseacts, written and/or oral, which start the mechanism of the64procedure.”5° Although the arising of the idea (conceptualizingand thinking about a production) is the seminal stage of theprocess, it is rarely documented. If it is agreed to go aheadwith the idea, the documents resulting from this phase in anearly radio station may include a draft proposal, a rough budget,draft production schedule (time—frame), and an outline of thegeneral allocation of responsibilities. Each person present atthe brainstorming session usually takes the responsibility forresearching further one or more aspects of the production. In alarger station, particularly if contemporary, the initiativephase may be somewhat more complex. The discussion about thefeasibility of the production would more likely be revolve arounda potential plan including time estimates, costing, manpower andunion agreements •51The second procedural phase, the inquiry phase, consists ofthe gathering of the information required to assess thesituation. Examples of documents produced during this phase areapplications (from talent and/or writers to work on the show),and estimates for costing regarding talent and technicalSee Duranti, “Diplomatics....(Part IV),” 14. Note thatDuranti’s ideal structure of the integrated procedure was usedfor these analyses of procedural phases.51 Generally speaking, radio productions have alwaysrequired less planning than television, and contemporary stationsembark on more complex projects than the early stations ever did.This is because the visual aspect of television involves a largercrew, more equipment and a more detailed production, and earlyradio stations did not have the technology to attempt verycomplex productions.65requirements. Due to rigid deadlines and the nature ofthe industry, much of the information gathered during this phaseremains unwritten. For example, script writers and/or researchersare often selected through word—of—mouth recommendations, andcontacts are made using the telephone.The third phase is referred to as the consultation phase. In thisphase, opinions and advice are expressed, and revisions to theidea are proposed and discussed after all the informationgathered in the previous phase has been organized and assembled.In a small station the manager and the production manager wouldsimply be presented with all the gathered information by staff,and would express their evaluation. In a large station, thisphase would most likely require the compilation of a formalproposal by the production manager, composed of all theinformation gathered in the inquiry phase for presentation tomanagement.The process of approving the final proposal (written or verbal),and notifying all those involved is the deliberation phase. Thisphase encompasses the final decision—making. In a small stationit would include the compilation and approval of the masterscript (and musical score(s) if applicable), the formalizationand finalization of contractual agreements with talent andmusicians and of the programme schedule, and the making of thenecessary technical arrangements for recording. In a larger and66contemporary station, this phase might result in additionaldocuments such as formal written approvals for the programme,the budget and the script, legal contracts with external talent(free—lance writers, talent, musicians, recording studio etc.)and memoranda.The deliberation control phase is more evident in contemporarystations, be they large or small. Currently, programmes mustcomply with federal and state legislation relating to content andcensorship, and stations must comply with union regulations. Inearly small radio stations, there were fewer rules and programmesdid not require approval, other than from station management.52In the final procedural phase, the execution phase, the radioproduction is either broadcast, recorded for delayed broadcast,or recorded during broadcast for repeat broadcast. The primarydocument created in this phase is the recording of the programme.The first intended communication of the production is thebroadcast, but as noted earlier, the broadcast cannot be analyzeddiplomatically without being fixed in an objective form. Themedium of the final recording will vary according to when the52 Len Peterson noted that writers of radio drama were ableto be more daring in the days of live radio because managementcould not listen to the recording before the show was broadcastto check it for controversial lines. Peterson stated thatwriters “took the stance of the classic Greek playwrights, whoassumed they could examine everything.” See Rosemary Bergeron,“Caplan-Sauvageau Report: A Major Concern at ASCRT’s 1986Conference,” ASCRT Bulletin, no. 29 (January 1987): 6.67programme was recorded. For example, instead of transcriptiondiscs or wire recordings, today there are 1/4” open reel magnetictapes, compact discs and digital recordings.Although the production of radio drama plays was more common forearly radio stations than it is for contemporary radio stations,there is little difference between the type of documentary outputof the procedural phases of the transaction in an early stationand that in a contemporary station.53 The only difference isthat, in larger and more complex radio stations, thedocumentation becomes more voluminous and fragmentary. A moresignificant difference is discovered when comparing thedocumentary output of the procedural phases of a radio dramaprogramme production with those of a television drama programmeproduction. Because television has a visual component, a numberof additional activities are required, each of which results indifferent kinds of documents.The last three phases of the procedure (deliberation,deliberation control, and execution) constitute what is referredto as a ‘continuum.’ This means that they are aimed towards acommon purpose, the creation and refinement of the final document(the radio programme recording) which concludes and representsthe whole transaction. Conversely, the first three proceduralWith the introduction of television drama, radio movedaway from drama programming and focused on providing moreinformational programmes such as news and documentary reporting.68phases of the procedure (initiative, inquiry, and consultation)generate documents which are referred to as interlocutory. Whileeach of those documents is final with respect to a subordinateprocedure within the main procedure, they are all interlocutorywith respect to the document generated by the main procedure.This will be exemplified by the analysis of the second typicaltransaction.2) Radio Drama Script ProductionThe second transaction is the production of a radio drama script.The related procedure develops in parallel with the previousprocedure, that is, it takes place at the same time as theproduction of the radio drama programme.54 If the entiretransaction of producing the script started and ended within oneprocedural phase of the production of the radio drama programme,it would constitute a subordinate procedure. However, the genesisof the document that represents the purpose of this transaction,as well as its residue, potentially spans all the phases of thedrama programme production; therefore, it is said to constitute aAs mentioned earlier, the diplomatic definition of atransaction is “an act or several interconnected acts in whichmore than one person is involved and by which the relations ofthose persons are altered.” (Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part VI),”11). Therefore, in order for the act of writing a script to bedefined as a transaction, the script must be accepted by aproducer for consideration or, the writer must becontracted/employed by a station to write the script. Scripts maybe written without ever being submitted for production or everbroadcast; to write a script as an intellectual exercise is not atransaction but an action. Therefore, to better convey the senseof its transactional nature, the writing of the script analyzedhere has been called “radio drama script production.”69parallel procedure.55Radio and television drama scripts are developed through a seriesof stages. While the number of stages per programme varies withthe particular guidelines of each station and the type ofproduction, the procedure of producing a script is quitestandardized.56 Within the transaction, each stage ofdevelopment corresponds to a procedural phase. The stages arelisted and defined below.The first stage of producing a script is preparing the scenario,also referred to as the treatment, outline, or summary. Ascenario is a detailed, chronological overview of a prospectivescript, written in narrative form. It either provides informationon the setting, plot, and characters, and gives examples of thedialogue, or is a scene—by—scene narrative description of thestory, including sketches of the principal characters. When astation hires a writer to prepare a script, the writer usuallyprepares a working scenario for himself as an aid to constructIt is important to note that, although a script may bewritten without being produced as a programme, a radio dramaprogramme cannot be produced without a script being written,completed and accepted in the radio drama production’sdeliberation phase.56 Sometimes the finished script consists of little morethan a scenario containing only the continuity. Radio andtelevision programmes may be fully scripted, semi—scripted, showformatted, or only be based on a ‘fact’ or ‘rundown sheet.’ SeeHerbert Zetti, Television Production Handbook (Belmont,California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1976), 539.70the play, but rarely does the station receive a copy of this.The final scenario is presented to the station for consideration.For a one hour drama, a scenario may be two or three pages inlength, which is usually one—fifth the length of the projectedscript.Once the scenario for a drama production is written and acceptedby the station, the writer(s) begins to flesh out the play, anactivity which may involve research and possibly interviews.This is accomplished after the creation of several rough drafts(also referred to as ‘author’s typescript with emendations’)57on which to base the master script. These rough drafts are eitherhandwritten or typewritten and include alterations made by thewriter.When the writer is satisfied with his/her drafts, s/he producesthe author’s clean typescript for submission to the producer.This is an unmarked typescript, usually recognizable by theauthor’s signature or name and address.58 From this moment on,the writer works with the producer, and the following documentsresult from their cooperation: producer’s script with emendations(typewritten with handwritten deletions and additions),producer’s script with comments (typewritten with handwrittennotes added by the producer during rehearsal regarding acting orSee Biggins “An Annotated Bibliography,” 22.58 Ibid.71technical problems), producer’s script with technical notes(typewritten with timing notes taken during rehearsal, oftenwith sound effects or technical notes or music cues included),and technical scripts (typewritten, marked with cues andunderscored sound effects) Each of these scripts are workingdocuments for the ensuing master scripts.There are three types of master scripts: master producer’sscripts, master actors’ scripts, and master technical scripts.These are unmarked scripts, without indication of changes or ofuse (although actors’ scripts are often marked by initials andunderscoring of parts and/or notes regarding cues, mood, tempo).The phases of the script writing procedure are summarized asfollows:1) initiative - Idea for the story (scenario).2) inquiry — Collection of information necessary to writeand produce the story (rough drafts).3) consultation - The author’s clean typescript is submitted tothe story editors for opinions, suggestionsand corrections.4) deliberation - After the scripts are written (producersscript, technical script, actors’ scripts),each scene is reviewed to identify casting,and location needs, this information issummarized in a cast and set sheet. The playis usually rehearsed with the actors toensure that there are no problems.5) deliberation — Control exercised by station management,control and any external regulatory bodies onIbid., 23.72content.6) execution — Final versions of the production script,technical script and actors’ scripts.The initiative phase of the development of a script originateswith the preliminary idea for the broadcast. Sometimes a producerhas an idea for a show and hires a writer to prepare a script,and other times a writer (or agent) may send a script or an ideafor a script to a producer.6° The initial idea manifests itselfin the form of a scenario.Following the initiative, the inquiry phase begins. This phaseresults in a number of rough drafts all of which are retained bythe writer. The author’s clean typescript is submitted to theproducer in the consultation phase, at which time, opinions,corrections and suggestions are presented to the writer by storyeditors and the producer. If the producer is not satisfied, s/hewill request a complete re—write. The consultative phase resultsin the writing of a producer’s script with emendations, aproducer’s script with comments, a producer’s script withtechnical notes, and a technical script.The deliberation phase is constituted by the final decision60 Most writers work alone, but in larger stations they aresometimes required to work in teams. Large stations oftenpermanently employ writers who work at home. In small stations,writers might only be under contract part-time or hold additionalpositions at the station.73making. At this stage the script might be re-written again aftera read-through by the cast with the producer, and again after thefirst rehearsal. How a writer produces any number of scripts(producer’s script, technical script, actor’s scripts etc.)depends upon the scope of the production. How a producerorganizes his shows depends on local procedures, the nature ofthe production, and personal experience, so the level of planningand detail will vary. Each scene may be reviewed to identifycasting needs and this may also result in the compilation of acast sheet.6’The deliberation control phase involves compliance with stationpolicy and external regulations, less for early small stationsand more for larger contemporary stations. By this stage, themaster scripts should have been finalized.The execution phase results in the master production script, themaster technical script, and the actors’ master scripts.Verification of a script, however, is never complete until theproduction is ‘in the can,’ because last minute changes can andoften do occur after a script is typed up until the production isperformed. This phase of the procedure corresponds with thedeliberation phase of the previous transaction — the production61 In television, after the script is written, each scene isreviewed to identify casting, and location needs. Thisinformation is summarized in a Cast and Set Sheet that is placedin front of the script. These are especially useful when showsare shot with multi—camera set—ups.74of the radio drama programme.As in the case of the first transaction, there is littlevariation in the procedural phases of this transaction between anearly radio station and a contemporary station — large or small.The primary difference would be the fragmentary nature ofdocumentation in a large complex station, caused by a morecomplex organization and the needs for a larger bureaucracy.Again, there is a more noticeable difference between radio andtelevision scripts because television scripts are presented in amore complex format (each sequence might be consecutivelynumbered, it might be double columned with picture on the leftand sound on the right, etc.). The main difference betweenscripts for radio and scripts for television is that televisionscripts include visual instructions, termed ‘visualization’, oncamera angles, location, actions, characters’ actions andappearance, time of day (so type of lighting is specified), etc.Television scripts have ‘sluglines’ that identify each newscene/physical local.62 The versions of scripts produced in eachphase of this transaction could be described as a continuum asthe purpose is the creation of the original script - the finaldocument.Although the first three procedural phases of the radio drama62 For more information on television scripts see Richard A.Blume, Television Writing: From Concept to Contract, 2d ed.(Boston: Focal Press, 1984).75production and of the radio drama script do not neatlycorrespond, the master scripts must be completed by thedeliberation phase of the radio drama production, or theproduction could not proceed, and, the deliberation controlphases of each transaction overlap. This is why these twotransactions are described as parallel procedures.3) Television News Programme ProductionThe third transaction analyzed is the production of a televisionnews programme. Originally, news was not presented as a distinctprogramme on radio or on television, but was inserted as one ortwo minutes of a programme that would also include human intereststories. When news started to be broadcast as a separateprogramme, early versions consisted of talking heads reading newsreports from external sources such as newspapers until, with thedevelopment of technology, different kinds of techniques began tobe used to produce newscasts.Gradually, stations began to gather their own stories, visualswere incorporated, and field footage was interspersed withreporter voiceovers. Programmes started to be edited, shotsbecame shorter, interviews were included more frequently, morethan one camera began to be used, and more on—site clips wereinserted. Besides visuals, graphics were also incorporated.Whereas the early stations’ graphics were very simple, and might76have consisted of a printed heading glued to a cardboard signplaced behind the Anchor, 1950s’ stations blew up images on rearscreen projection systems, and 1980s’ stations began to employcomputers to compose maps, photos of people, and artworkdepicting words, numbers, or signs. By the 1980s, not only hadthe presentation of news changed, but so had its content, andnews reporting began to include more ‘hard news topics.’ Newsbecame more analytical and interpretive as opposed to merelydescriptive and, today, there are even television channelsdevoted entirely to reporting news.63Although the formatM of news programmes has varied according tothe time period and the purpose of the programme, most stationsbroadcast news which is a combination of in—depth storiesassigned to reporters (who may work on them for several weeks),and daily news reports. The in—depth news stories are oftenaccompanied by on-site footage and by interviews collectedespecially for the story, while daily news reports are read overthe air by Announcers, accompanied by file footage or illustratedwith only a still image or graphic behind them.63 See Rosemary Bergeron, “The Presentation of News on CBCTelevision, 1953—1988” (M.A. diss., Carleton University, 1990).64 The term “format” is used here as the broadcast industryuses it, that is, to describe the programme layout and content.77The production of a routine television news programme is somewhatdifferent from that of a radio news programme or a televisiondrama programme. While its visual component demands moredetailed planning, facilities, and equipment than a radionewscast, a television newscast presents significantly fewervariables than a television drama. Compared to a televisiondrama, which may change its set, its cast, and its technicalrequirements for each episode, a news broadcast is rather stable.However, like in any newscast, the deadlines remain strict, andthis creates other kinds of demands. The following is theprocedural sequence in the production of a typical televisionnewscast.1) initiative — The News Director assigns responsibilities toReporters to cover in—depth stories.2) inquiry — Reporters gather material for theirparticular assignment(s) as well as collectdaily news reports from the news feeds and‘broadcast news’ services.3) consultation — The News Director assembles all the relevantinformation from Reporters and externalsources on completed in—depth stories andoffers advice and suggestions.4) deliberation — Final decision by News Director of stories tobe included in the broadcast, and theestablishment of the order of presentation.5) deliberation - Final approval by stationcontrol management on form and content.6) execution — The Announcer reads the news; visuals andgraphics are projected over; inserts andcommercials are cued in; and the show isbroadcast live.78Like a radio station, a television station develops ideas fornews programming in a variety of ways. For ideas on in—depthstories it might hold a brainstorming session among staffmembers, an idea might come from management, or storylines mightbe submitted by external sources such as freelance reporters orwriters. Possible ideas for these in—depth stories are discussedin regards to content, audience interest, and production costs.Once ideas are agreed upon, the News Director assigns Reportersto cover certain events/issues and specifies deadlines, length offinal story, and possibly an angle. This phase of the procedureis the initiative phase. The instructions to the Reporters fromthe News Director may be oral or written. If they are written,documents resulting from this phase are a news assignment sheetand/or a rough budget.The activities in which television news staff participate, andconsequently the types of documents generated or accumulated,have undergone changes largely due to the development oftechnology. In the incfuiry phase, Reporters gather informationabout their assignments. Depending upon the technologyavailable, this may include doing interviews, gathering filefootage, and/or searching for visual aids (photographs, graphicsetc.) for in—depth stories. News staff of early stations werelimited by technology and were not immediately able to go outsidethe studio to gather field footage by ‘remote coverage.’ Theyoften gathered information for newscasts from the newspapers and79simple background visuals in the form of artwork or slides.Because time has always been of the essence, little paperwork hasever been completed in this phase.In addition to doing work on in-depth stories during the inquiryphase, Reporters also gather all the daily reports available fromvarious external sources, such as news feeds, newspapers, or‘wire services.’ If chosen for inclusion in the broadcast, thesestories are read by the Announcer accompanied by a still image orgraphic behind.In the consultation phase, all the relevant informationcollected is put together, compared, and selected. Reporterssubmit their stories to the News Director, and the stories fromexternal sources are examined. The News Director then givesadvice to the Reporters for any changes. In medium to large sizestation this phase would result in a meeting between the NewsDirector and the Assistant News Director to discuss the possiblechoices. Once Reporters are given feedback, each story and dailyreport is worked into a timed segment ready for insertion intothe nightly broadcast.The deliberation phase is constituted by the final decisionmaking regarding the stories for broadcast. Provided there istime, the News Director makes his final selections on the basisof the stories’ quality and relevance, and decides on their order80of presentation. This phase results in such documents as theanchor’s script, directions for the switcher, a programme log(perhaps computerized) for master control, directions for thetechnical staff on putting together visuals, sound mixingvoiceover etc. Also, the writers may add last minute informationto the anchor’s script. The last stage before the broadcastitself is the final approval by the station management of itscontent and form to ensure that it represents the views of thestation. This phase is the deliberation control.The execution phase is when the individual stories are actuallybroadcast as a complete newscast. With today’s technology,unless the complete programme is recorded for preservationpurposes, stories (termed inserts) exist as physically separatetapes and are aired one after another at the time of thebroadcast. Tapes are cued up by Master Control, and the Switcher(who is given instructions by the News Director) controls exactlywhich tapes will be aired at which time. Again, time is of theessence, so a limited amount of paper work is produced. MasterControl makes any necessary revisions to the programme log toreflect the actual broadcast and, if necessary, the personresponsible for video tape recording (VTR) makes dubs from oneformat to another.The amount of documents resulting from this procedure is minimal,because the entire transaction takes place in a space of less81than twenty—four or sometimes twelve consecutive hours. Thenumber of moving image documents created depends upon the numberof stories included in the newscast and the amount of time spenton each story. For example, some contemporary newscasts includespecial stories which reporters may have been working on for amore lengthy period of time and result in a large number of fieldtapes. These tapes are edited and the final story (which istermed an ‘insert’) is physically contained on one video tape,but the residue of the entire activity will be contained in asignificant number of field tapes as well as reels of outs andtrims. If the station has chosen to preserve the programme inits entirety, Master Control has a routing switcher tape the showwhile it is being aired. In so doing, the station creates amaster programme recording. If a master programme recording isnot generated, the only recordings that remain are the individualinserts.Early stations did not have the technology to air broadcasts withtoday’s sophisticated visuals. They would create newscastsconsisting of still pictures with voiceover narration (and anoccasional shot of the anchor reading the news) and stories readfrom newspapers; they would produce ‘headline’ or ‘ticker tapeprogrammes,’ or present local or national newsreels. Thesemethods were both practical and economical, but viewers preferred82newscasts that included footage gathered by remote.65 Because oftime restrictions, little paperwork was completed. Of course, inboth early and contemporary stations, the final programme log hasalways been retained. The log describes and constitutes evidenceof which stories were aired and when. Clearly, the activitiesundertaken in each phase of each transaction have changed overtime depending upon technological development and the station’senvironment. However, except for the amount of documentation,there is little difference between the documents produced byearly and contemporary stations, be they large or small. For thisreason, it is easy to typify transactions.SUMMARYThis chapter, which took a bottom-up approach to the analysis ofthe documentary output of broadcasting, has examined the form,function, genesis and transmission of three documents typical ofthe broadcast industry. The information gained from this type ofanalysis is limited; however it is essential to understandingthe relationship between the documents and the actions in whichthey participated. The following chapter analyzes the broadcastindustry - the context in which the three documents were created- taking a top-down approach, that is, outlining the history ofradio and television’s technological development and theindustry’s juridical system.65 See Bergeron, “The Presentation of News on CBCTelevision,” 16.83they reflect the functioning of their creating agency.23While the character of a country’s juridical system establishesthe nature and function of a broadcast station, technologicaldevelopments tend to affect the particular procedures andactivities used to carry out that function and the documentsresulting from them. For example, the introduction of mobilefilming units enabled television crews to venture outside of thestudio to tape or do live broadcasts of news events. Thistechnological breakthrough not only changed how information wasgathered for programmes and how programmes were produced, butaffected the kinds of programmes possible. Mobile units enabledreporters to go directly to the events and get close to thepeople involved in the story rather than having to arrange foreither the reporter to go to the scene, take notes, and come backto present those notes in the studio, or, for individuals to comeand be interviewed in the studio. First—hand news created adifferent kind of programme, and eliminated much of the paperworkoccurring between the event and the actual report of it.Considering the unprecedented impact that broadcasting has had on23 While the dates that new technologies emerge are exact,the dates they begin to be used by records creators varies.Therefore, documents cannot be precisely dated solely on thebasis of their format. For more information about when certainbroadcast technologies were used, see Brock Silversides’ articleentitled, “Guide to Identifying and Dating Sound Recordings,” 9-13.98modern society, the industry has a relatively brief history.Television and radio broadcasting as we know it today grew out ofearly experiments with Morse code communication on ship—to—shoretransmission in the late nineteenth century. Radio enthusiaststhat advocated voice transmission for entertainment purposesinitiated experiments at the beginning of this century, and in1915 suggested using broadcasting technology to make radio a“household utility,” that is, to bring music and lectures, andevents of national importance into the home by means of areceiver called the “radio music box.”24The first radio stations were small operations set up by amateursusing experimental equipment. They operated at approximately 1015 watts and were usually all on the same frequency. By 1923,there were over six hundred radio stations in the United Statesalone, broadcasting weather reports, sports, and a limited amountof music. Most were owned by either individuals wanting to sellsets, or university science departments.25 Gradually, withradio’s popularity and the formation of networks, the size andcomplexity of stations increased. In the so called ‘golden ageof radio,’ frequencies became government controlled, technologyimproved, and stations began to concentrate on programme24 Gross, Telecommunications: An Introduction to Radio,Television, and the Developing Media, 39.25 Ibid., 41.99development.Although experiments with television began in the 18005, it wasnot officially introduced until the 1940s. Dominant since 1952,its growth was explosive, and television became a widespreadphenomenon in most developing countries. With the introductionof television came the natural decline of radio, and not untilthe 1970s did radio begin to increase its audience and regainmomentum.Radio and television production relies on equipment to createprogrammes. Although equipment has changed frequently, mostchanges have simply made it more compact, and have been focusedon improving sound and/or image quality; however, there have beenseveral innovations that have also significantly increased boththe efficiency of the production and distribution processes. Therate of technological development has varied among countriesdepending upon economic situations and government interest, butthe fundamental effects of major changes are common to allnations. Many of the technical innovations for equipmentactually resulted from the development of new recording formats.Technological development will be examined in relation to boththe process of radio and television production and the process ofprogramme distribution.1001) RadioEarly radio stations relied primarily on live programming. Prerecording, though often necessary, was not routine. For smallstations, it was essentially a question of practicality andeconomics; however, recordings were generally made whenbroadcasters could identify an immediate need for re—use.Recording programmes allowed for their distribution to otherlocal stations, and was frequently done by early stations torecord statements by persons from overseas and in different timezones, and to record chain (network) programmes for laterbroadcast. Pre—recorded advertisements, political speeches,public broadcasts and airchecks were even more common, becausethey were practical. Pre-recording particularly fulfilled theneeds of advertisers whose distribution outlets were in distantareas and who could not afford advertising with chain programmes.Drama was recorded only occasionally when, for example, it wasnot possible to bring actors together.26 Consequently, the totalbroadcast record of early radio represents only a fragment of theentire output. However, in spite of this, examples of mostgenres of broadcast programming have survived. These includeadvertisements, sportscasts, political speeches, radio drama,music, children’s shows, documentaries, and game shows.To record programmes, early radio stations used the soft—cut26 Allen Specht, “Tune Into That Disc - Early RadioRecordings,” ASCRT Bulletin, no. 29 (January 1987): 14.101recording process. The resulting recordings are referred to aseither transcriptions, acetates, or instantaneous discs. Theterm instantaneous refers to the fact that the recordings couldbe made by an individual radio station and played backimmediately. Commercial recordings, which instead were pressedtranscriptions (usually 78 rpm), were mass produced by networksand radio service companies and were made using a multi—stepprocess, therefore it took longer to produce them. Physically,instantaneous recordings resemble phonograph discs, but therecording technique and composition of the instantaneous disc aredifferent. Instantaneous discs, which ranged in size from 7” to16” in diameter (depending on the duration of the recording),were actually made of metal, glass or cardboard, and coated withacetate. Recordings were made by mounting a disc on a turntableand cutting in grooves with a special stylus. Generally, 33 1/3”rpm was used for speeches, and 78 rpm was used for a musicproduction. Although the worldwide standard for discs wasinitially the 78 rpm shellac record, the broadcast industryprimarily used 16” discs recorded at 33 1/3 rpm. These weresimilar to the 78 except the grooves were closer together andnarrower. The stylus necessary to play these discs used a tipradius of 2.5 mils.From 1935 to 1955, when radio was at its height, instantaneousdisc recordings were the dominant recording format. As musicbecame an ever increasing component in radio output,102inexhaustible supplies of recorded music became all important forbroadcast stations. A large supply ensured enough availablematerial to keep a radio station running continuously.Until the early 1950s, when magnetic tape arrived, the primaryrecording technique used by radio in America was the phonographdisc. Tape, however, made a great impression on the broadcastindustry and rapidly replaced stations’ use of transcriptiondiscs. In fact, tape could be edited and controlled in ways notpossible with disc recordings, and, while every imperfection washeard with discs, tape recordings were said to beindistinguishable from live performances. Flawed tape recordingscould be easily re-recorded without delay and could easily bespliced or edited with scissors and scotch tape. The reproductionof master discs on the other hand was a costly and time consumingprocess. Another advantage of tape was that dubbing wassimplified and improved. Discs had to be copied directly andthis meant that all the inaccuracies on the original were alsorecorded in the duplicate. Inaccuracies on tape could easily beedited out, recorded over, erased and then re—used, while discshad to be returned to a factory outlet for a fresh coat ofshellac in order to be re-used.27 By the mid-1950s, magnetictape was used by almost all radio stations.2827 Dick, “An Archival Acquisition Strategy,” 259.28 Specht, “Tune Into That Disc,” 16.103Over the years, magnetic audio tape has appeared in a variety offormats and speeds, but the technology has remained virtually thesame. The original 1/4” open reel, which was at one time usedonly for music and speeches, is still used today for drama,interviews and special edition programmes. Eight—track andcassette tapes, which were mainly designed for the home market,were used by broadcast stations for music, advertisements, andstation identifications during the 1970s. In addition to usingopen reel tape for full length programmes, broadcast stationsoften used cartridges, commonly referred to as ‘carts.’ Carts,which are self—contained cases of magnetic tape wound in acontinuous ioop, were used for short spots less than eightminutes. They were most common during the 1960s and 1970s, butare still used today by small radio stations.29Magnetic audio tape recording equipment was originally verybulky. For early radio stations, the ability to recordprogrammes and air them at a later date increased theirflexibility, but the introduction of low cost portable taperecorders was yet another crucial technological innovation in theproduction process. Portable recorders meant that stations couldeasily go on location to conduct interviews.With the development of technology in the 1980s, many radio29 Information provided to this author by Ann Lloyd,University of Victoria radio station, Victoria, British Columbia,6 December 1990.104stations gradually moved from using analogue recording processesto making digital audio recordings. The advantages of digitalaudiotape (DAT) (which has only been used regularly by a fewstations since the late 1980s) are the superior sound quality,the absence of generation loss in copying, the ability to containtwenty—four hours of digital recording on an open reel tape(which previously held only one hour of analogue recording), andcost. A DAT tape costs approximately one third of what ananalogue tape costs for the same quantity of recording, occupiesless storage space, and means reduced equipment costs. Since1988, the Radio Archives at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporationhas used DAT exclusively.302) TelevisionIn addition to the equipment needed for radio, televisionrequires equipment necessary to produce the visual portion of aprogramme. Like radio, early television broadcasting was donelive, that is, television studios sent signals directly fromstations to home receivers. When recordings were made, the mediumwas motion picture film. Black and white was the first phase infilm technology, and for television, black and white negative wasvery often used because it was less expensive and was capable ofbeing processed more quickly than reversal film.3’30 Dick, “An Archival Acquisition Strategy,” 260.31 Blake Kellogg, “Overview of Film News Gathering Processesand Technologies,” Transcript of a presentation given at thefirst session of the 1990 Association of Canadian Radio and105In the early 1950s, television devised the ‘kinescope’ (kines)for recording broadcasts, though like radio recordings, theprocess was expensive so they were made sparingly. Kinescopeswere 16mm film copies made by focusing a camera on the televisionmonitor on which the image was being projected. Although theirquality gradually improved, it is not as good as that of anoriginal broadcast. Their prime function was to make programmesavailable for circulation, and today, they often remain the onlyexisting recordings of many television programmes that werebroadcast live.The first important technological developments in televisionbegan with the improvement of camera equipment. Early televisionwas restrained by film production equipment that was both bulkyand crude. The development of lighter cameras meant that camerascould be carried on a person’s shoulder, and this changed thewhole procedure of gathering news and recording events. Lightercameras allowed for material to be transmitted live ‘on-the—spot’instead of from the studio. They eliminated the practicalproblems created by bulky equipment and the need for largetrucks. With mobile units, crews were no longer restricted tostudios or control rooms but could film on location, and furtherimprovements in camera equipment increased the flexibility of themobile units even further. Eventually, television became evenmore portable with the invention of videotape, when both theTelevision (ASCRT), Portland, Oregon.106camera and the videotape recorder were combined into one unit.In addition to picture, sound also underwent several phases ofdevelopment. Sound tracks were either on a separate magnetictrack or were put on a magnetic and later optical sound stripewhich was placed directly on the edge of the film.The appearance of videotape and videotape recording equipment wasthe most influential development in television. Videotaperecorders (VTR5) enabled programmes to be taped and played backwithout having to wait for film to be developed. Althoughvideotape equipment was initially unwieldy, this developmentincreased the flexibility of the programming function and madetelevision production more like film production, that is,programme segments could be taped in any order and at differenttimes before being quickly edited together. Because programmesdid not have to be recorded continuously, the director had timebetween scenes to discuss revisions and to initiate feedback.‘Film style directing,’ as this activity is called, wasresponsible for a significant change in the productionprocedure 32There is not a specific date when broadcast stations convertedfrom film to video. Videotape appeared in the 1950s, and thendeveloped quickly through a variety of phases. The transition32 Information provided by Phillip Keatly, televisionproducer, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Vancouver, BritishColumbia, 29 March 1990.107period was gradual and extended over a period of ten years, fromthe l970s until the 1980s, when videotape virtually replaced theuse of film. Film is still used today for television programmesthat require exceptional picture quality, such as natureprogrammes or outdoor adventure programmes. Because film doesresult in better picture quality, although it is more expensive,it is in some cases the best. For instance, the picture qualityfor news reports is not of primary importance. For news shows,which are primarily intended to provide information, it issufficient to record on videotape. For example, all newsrecorded by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation is currentlyrecorded, edited and preserved on Betacam video format.33 Whenbroadcasters choose film over video, they may also have re—usepotential in mind. For series that are re—used for stock shots,film is the preferred medium because of its superior picturequality. Thus, the type of production (genre, topic) affects thechoice of format. Another advantage of replacing film with videowas that multiple prints were no longer necessary and much of thepaper work generated in the post—production process could beavoided.34 This is an example where a technical innovationaffects the creation of documents by the station.The primary advantages of betacam are its stability, andits ability to produce high quality images.Information provided by Linda Copeland, film librarian,Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia, 5February 1990.108The first video tape recording system appeared in 1951.Developed by Bing Crosby Enterprises in the United States, thetape was black and white, 1” wide, and the equipment to play ithad twelve heads which read the tape at 100 IPS (inches persecond) In 1956, Ampex Corporation, also based in the UnitedStates, introduced a 2” wide quadruplex videotape that quicklybecame the standard for the broadcasting industry and wassubsequently used for twenty years. The reason it was calledquadruplex was that the playback equipment has four heads. The 2”format is still used occasionally and is only just in the processof being phased out.In Japan, in 1959, Toshiba developed what was called the helicalscan video recording. This tape was also 2”, ran at 15 IPS, butwhat made it different was that it ran on a slant against movingheads. The advantage of this technology was that the same amountof information that could be held on a 2” tape could now beaccommodated on a 1” tape. Less tape meant less cost. Today,helical scan video tape comes in a variety of widths ranging from1/4” to 2”, and tape speeds range from 1.26 IPS to 15 IPS.However, because the recording lies at a long diagonal that goesto the edge of the tape, this longer recording path is a cause ofmechanical instability, which becomes a significant problem.Susan Swartzberg and Dierdre Boyle, “Videotape,” chap. inConservation in the Library: A Handbook of Use and Care ofTraditional and Non-traditional Materials (Westport, Connecticut:Greenwood Press, 1983), 155.109These problems are less apparent in high—end equipment, but inlesser quality machines the systems include excessive picturejitter and lower resolution.In the late 1960s, the first 1/2” video tape system (black andwhite and then colour) and the first portapak camera weredemonstrated by Sony in the United States. This format was mostappealing to a wide variety of consumers outside the broadcastindustry because of its convenience. Sony and its competitorsaimed their products specifically at libraries, industry andschools. Susan Swartzburg called the realization of thisdevelopment the “video movement,” otherwise known as “guerrillatelevision” or “grass roots video.”36 With Sony’s development,video became more portable, and many new uses were realized forthis production medium. This technological development wasprimarily responsible for the growth of the cable industry andpublic access channels in the early 1970’s. The effects arestill felt today and are seen in the broadcasting industry, cableand the information industries.In 1972, Sony developed the U-Matic video cassette format. Umatic tapes were 3/4” videotapes encased in plastic cassettes.The plastic cassette case made loading the tape into machineseasier, and meant less wear and tear on the tape itself. Thisformat, which offered better signal quality and picture stability36 Ibid.110than the 1/2” tapes, was quickly accepted by other manufacturersas the standard for industry and the educational market. By thelate 1970s the 3/4” U-Matic tape was the format adopted by thebroadcast industry.While 3/4” video cassettes were used widely from the 1960s toinid—1980s to collect television news, and 1” persisted from the1970s onwards, both of these formats are currently being replacedby 1/2” betacam and digital, respectively. Each of these newformats improve upon technical quality and, as Ernest Dick noted,requires “the rethinking of television production.”37Other innovations in television production equipment include theincreased capabilities of equipment for the production of specialeffects, such as the ability to employ slow motion and theinstant replay. These technical development added depth andbreadth to the methods of producing programming material.Yet another influential development for radio and televisionbroadcasting which cannot be ignored is the computer. Althoughnot exclusive to television and radio technology, computers haveplayed a significant role in the broadcasting industry and inDick, “An Archival Acquisition Strategy,” 260. Note herealso that in 1975 Sony also introduced the 1/2” videocassettesystem called “Betamax,” commonly referred to as Beta.Immediately after that, Matsushita (Sony’s competitor), developedthe 1/2” VHS (Video Home System) video cassette system. VHScompeted with Beta and eventually won out. Neither of theseformats were ever adopted by the broadcast industry.111particularly the new television technologies. In North America,computers began being used by broadcast stations during the late1970s for controlling equipment and labour costs. At that time,they were expensive to purchase and maintain, and they werelimited to tasks such as automatic playback of video taperecorders.In the early 1980s, the possibilities computers offeredincreased, but they were still expensive. Computer systemsassisted activities such as text processing, electronic tele—prompting, and access to archival programme databases. It was notuntil the mid-l9SOs that capabilities expanded to include theautomated control of on—air broadcast equipment. Today, computersare less expensive, more powerful, more reliable, and haveincreased applications for the broadcast industry. There arestandard software packages for automated on—air playbackrecording, recording incoming feeds, programme storage andediting, and maintaining programme logs, and controlling commonlinks for VTR5, switchers, character generators, and cartmachines. In addition to these operational activities, stationsalso use packages for administrative activities common to otherindustries. Computers have increased the efficiency of theproduction process for both radio and television, and this hasaffected station activities and the generation of112documentation.38 The utilization of computers by radio stationshas reduced the number of announcers necessary and increased thedemand for all—round radio production people.The means of distribution of programmes have also affected theorganization of stations and their production procedures,stations’ activities, and the documentation generated by thoseactivities. Development has been continual, and currently thereare many distribution systems in use. Most systems use thefrequencies encompassed in the electro—magnetic spectrum. VHF,UHF, short waves, AN, FM, carrier waves, clear channels,multiplexing, stereo, bandwidth, modulate, and line of sight, areall terms used to describe the characteristics and uses offrequencies. Often, distribution systems are combined. Forexample, a radio program may be sent by wire to a transmitter andthen, through the airwaves via the transmitter’s antenna, to ahome or car radio. Or, the programme may be sent by satellite tostations with satellite receivers, or distributed to stations inaudio or video cassette copy format by what is termed “bicycledistribution.”39 The primary function of a cable station isdistribution (as opposed to production). Cable, whichexemplifies a combined distribution system, is almost as old asbroadcasting but has had to fight for recognition. The38 See Steve Swift and David Ray Worthington, “Future Brightfor Broadcast Automation,” Broadcast Technology 18, no. 5(February 1993): 24.Information provided by Linda Copeland, 5 February 1990.113differences between cable and broadcasting are in terms oftechnology, channels, cost, ownership, and regulation. Cablestation signals are received at the cable headend, are convertedinto output and then sent through coaxial cable to the homes oflocal subscribers. It is important to recognize that cable isone primary means of distribution.In regards to distribution, the greatest innovation for radio andtelevision was the inception of the satellite. In 1962, theTestar I, a communication satellite, was launched by the AmericanTelegraph and Telephone Company and the National Aeronautics andSpace Administration, and carried the first live televisiontransmissions between the United States and Europe. Today, manycountries exchange programmes via satellite and, with thedevelopment of technology, broadcasting around the world isbecoming more and more intertwined.With the development of technology and production equipment, itis natural that the average size of stations has changed.4°Increased sophistication of equipment has demanded increasedspecialization of staff, and thus required more staff, sostations today are generally larger than the early ones. Inaddition to size, the function of stations has also changed40 The size of a station is dependent upon other factors aswell, that is, financial resources, ownership and type of station(radio and/or television, national or local, commercial orpublic, community access, university, educational, independent,or network-affiliated).114through the development of the broadcasting industry. With theirincrease in number, many stations have chosen to specialize (ex.country music radio, continuous news radio, 24—hour weathertelevision station, multicultural) in order to draw a particularaudience and to maintain a competitive edge. The ‘format’ of astation is determined by programming priorities, which in turnare determined by station owners, or by the government, throughlegislation. In many state run stations, governments determinethe programming, and the percentages of types of programming, andcensor undesirable programming.SUMMARYThis chapter has examined the two factors that most influencebroadcast systems: juridical systems and technologicaldevelopment. While legislation and regulations are affected byand affect political, technical and proprietary issues regardingfacilities and programming, technological developments seem toaffect primarily station activities. Both influences determinethe amount and type of documentation created, but for differentreasons. Although they are linked, each has been addressedseparately for purposes of explanation.The examination of juridical systems determined that there is notone generic legal model in which broadcast systems work.However, because the issues with which each system is concernedare similar, the effects on stations have been similar. Firstly,115it is clear that national legislation in every country requiresthat similar documentation regarding facilities be both createdand maintained. In particular, all contemporary stations arechartered by their nation’s government and regulated in terms offrequencies, powers and time, and this requires that stationssuccessfully apply for and maintain station licenses and promisesof performance. Documents types created to fulfil thisrequirement always include license applications and licenserenewals, and sometimes include license revocations and licensetransfers. In order to maintain a station license, stations arealso required to maintain records that document their operations,such as programme logs, logger tapes, maintenance logs, andoperation logs.In addition to national legislation, many countries also haveindustry regulations for the broadcast industry which requirethat certain documentation be created and maintained. Forexample, in some countries, copies of aired programmes arerequired to be kept for certain periods of time. Also, certaindocumentation must be made available for public inspection ondemand. In addition to rules specific to the broadcast industry,general records retention regulations devised by legislativebodies for all corporate enterprise also affect stations. Theseusually demand that records regarding taxation and finances bekept for certain period of times in adherence to financial laws.Juridical systems also influence the structure of broadcast116stations. For example, in countries which do not permitcommercial advertising, stations would not have a sales orpromotion department. Legislation and regulations may alsoaffect the organization of persons within the station, in so faras industry unions demand certain autonomy for their members, butgenerally they do not affect the station’s procedures oractivities. Socio-political frameworks may influence thestructure of a station according to the types of ownership andfinancing permitted in a country, but the functions of a stationremain consistent despite any such difference. Finally,juridical systems have influence on programme content.Regularly, both national legislation and industry regulation setstandards for programming, advertising and/or content.Technological development has influenced the broadcast industryin a very different way. While it has not affected theprocedures of stations like legal systems, it has significantlychanged the activities engaged in to carry out the procedures,and this in turn has affected the amount and types of documentscreated. The rate of technological development has varied ineach country, but as with legal systems, the effects on stationsof similar equipment and supply development, have been similar.The following chapter examines the administrative context inwhich broadcast records are created. It describes the personsacting in typical radio and television stations, the documents117they create, and the way in which they organize themselves andtheir activities.118CHAPTER THREEBROADCASTING: THE ADMINISTRATIVE CONTEXTIn a small broadcast station, an individual may assume a varietyof duties and play more than one role. A salesperson who is alsoresponsible for announcing a hockey play—by—play is an example ofone human being behaving as two persons, that is, assuming tworoles, parts, capacities: one of salesperson and one ofannouncer. In both a diplomatic and legal sense, persons aredefined as legal subjects to which certain rights and duties areascribed by a juridical system. Within a given juridical system,one human being may be several persons.Persons are central to diplomatic theory because they are anessential component of the archival document. Human beingsrepresent different persons in the documents they make andreceive depending on the different roles that they play withrespect to each document. There may be many persons thatparticipate in the creation of a document, but at least three arealways present: author, addressee, and writer.The author of a document is defined as “the person(s) competentfor the creation of the document, which is issued by him or by119his command, or in his name.” Identification of the author of adocument first requires an understanding of the distinctionbetween “the moment of action” and “the moment of documentation.” 2While the moment of action corresponds to the manifestation ofthe will(s) of the person(s), the moment of documentationcorresponds to the recording of such manifestation. The author ofan action, the person whose will prompts the act, is usually alsothe author of the document, the person whose will generates therelated document; however, the two persons may differ. Forexample, a broadcast station is the author of both a programme’sbroadcast and its recording if the broadcast station’s will gaveorigin to both the act of broadcasting and the related document,but the author of the broadcast would be different from theperson issuing the related document, if the station (the authorof the act) broadcast a made—for—television drama produced by anindependent film company (the author of the document) .The writer(s) of a document, is “the person(s) responsible forSee Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part III),” 5.2 Ibid., 7.Just as the author of an act may also be the author of therelated document, one individual may be both the author and theaddressee of a document. This is however more common when anindividual is working in a private capacity. For more informationregarding the “moment of action” and the “moment of documentation,”see Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part II),” 4—5.120the tenor and articulation of the writing.”4 The writer may beeither a representative, a member, a delegate, or an officer ofthe author, and his/her name usually appears in the form of asubscription with qualification (title or function of thewriter). For example, in a letter of appointment which gives anindividual a contract to work on a radio or television show, theGeneral Manager’s name (its subscription) in the form of anautograph is at the bottom. In this case, the station is theauthor, and the General Manager is the writer of theaforementioned letter. Instead, in a radio broadcast, theProducer is the writer and his/her name is read by the Announcerat the end of the programme, with a qualification. If the nameis not read over the air or is not part of the recording, itmight be written on the tape label or indicated in accompanyingdocumentation. More and more stations are reading credits, thatis, naming the individuals involved as persons in a production.5The third person necessary to the creation of a document, is theaddressee. The addressee is defined as “the person(s) to whomDuranti, “Diplomatics...(Part III),” 7.Note that Technical Directors could not be designated aswriters of broadcast documents because, according to diplomatics,they are not persons as they merely compose what has already beenarticulated by the producer. A countersigner may also subscribe adocument to either evaluate its physical/intellectual form, orguarantee that the document was created and signed according toproper procedure. The countersigner takes responsibility forensuring that all elements of the document such as title/date etc.are present; s/he is not responsible for content. This concept ofvalidation will be described in more detail later.121the document is directed.”6 Every document must have anaddressee because documents represent acts, and acts must bedirected towards someone to exist, be it an individual or agroup. The addressee of a document may be different from theaddressee of the act the document relates to, but usually theyare one and the same. The addressee will be named in one ofseveral places on the document: top, bottom, or verso. Forexample, in the previously mentioned letter of appointment, thename of the addressee is at the top. The radio broadcast, on thecontrary, which is directed to the communities the stationbroadcasts to, does not include the addressee’s name. This isbecause it is available for anyone in those communities whochooses to listen; the addressee is the audience in thosecommunities. Such addressees are not ‘written’ directly on thedocument, but their identity is revealed by the specific areawhere the programme document is aired.In order to identify the author, the writer, and the addressee ofa document, it is essential to recognize responsibilities andcompetencies. The author of an act and that of the relateddocument is the person with the authority and capacity, that is,the competence, to issue the document.7 Usually the author isalso responsible, that is, obligated to answer for that act, and6 Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part III),” 6.‘ Ibid., 12.122it is the document which holds him/her accountable for thatresponsibility.In order to identify the persons that concur in the formation ofbroadcast documents, one must first know who are the personsworking in the industry, their roles, competencies, andresponsibilities. This chapter examines those persons, theorganizational structures within which they work in relation tothe functions of the broadcasting body, and the specificcompetencies they have within those functions. It also examinesthe documents these persons produce, accumulate and maintain.Illustrated by figures, the chapter includes structural modelsfor typical small, medium and large radio and televisionstations, a description of how each is generally organized, andhow each differs from the other.RADIO8Individuals originally got involved in radio for one of tworeasons: either they were attracted by the technical concept, orthey saw it as a commercial opportunity to increase interest inthe medium and subsequently sell radio receivers. Often referredto as a ‘rich man’s hobby,’ early radio stations were two orthree-person operations that required their staff to doeverything: announcing, engineering, and script writing. One8 The information for this section on radio was gathered inToronto, Ontario, with the assistance of Cameron Finley, GeneralManager, CJRT—FM, March 1992.123early station whose primary objective was to promote the sale ofradio receivers was CFJC in Kamloops, British Columbia. LaurieIrvine described the working conditions at this station in 1937.We had wonderful working conditions, the three—manstaff. You could get by with a two-man staff onSunday by carrying CBC all day. That meant thatone fellow could have a day off, so we used to getevery third Sunday off. You worked for 20 days andhad a day off, and we loved it, just loved it. Allthis for the magnificent sum of $80 a month. I wasthere for four years, by which time the staff hadgrown to an astonishing four people — so we gotevery second Sunday off.9As radio developed, government legislation and industryregulations were introduced, so control on stations becameexternally regulated, alternate possibilities for commercialfinancing (such as advertising) took hold, and ownership shiftedfrom the amateur enthusiasts to entrepreneurs in capitalistsocieties, and government in the others. As technology advanced,and the benefits of radio were recognized, stations grew innumber, size and complexity.There is little difference between the organization of an earlyradio station and that of a contemporary small station. Eachusually has less than twelve employees. The early stations hadfew employees because radio was new and stations started byoperating at a basic level. Small contemporary stations are theDennis J. Duffy, Imagine Please: Early Radio Broadcastingin British Columbia, Sound Heritage Series, no. 38 (Victoria:Provincial Archives of British Columbia, 1983), 26.124size they are because only a limited number of staff is necessaryto maintain the station, and also because many prefer to maintainan intimate image and be what is referred to as grass—roots innature, and for this it is better not to grow too large. One ofthe few differences between operating a small early station and acontemporary small station is that technology has become moresophisticated and demands different skills from operators andengineers. However, this does not have a great effect on thenumber of people necessary to run a station.In small stations, individuals have always been given more thanone responsibility. Duties are divided up depending on thenumber of staff and the job titles of management and staff seldomreveal exactly what each staff member is competent for. Forexample, in a small station, a General Manager might also serveas a Sales Manager or Programme Director or both, and the daytime talk show host might also work in production in the evening.Each individual may have to do a variety of unrelated tasks dueto station demands and the small number of people on staff.However, a small station of six persons, in a market with apopulation less than 10,000 (See Figure 1, page 126), wouldusually divide up the functional areas as follows:General ManagerTraffic Manager/SecretarySales Manager (or Fund—raising Coordinator)125FIGURE jlOORGANIZATIONAL CHART: SMALL RADIO STATIONGeneral ManagerTraffic Sales Programme Chief4anager Manager Director EngineerAnnouncer10 See chart from Joseph S. Johnson and Kenneth K. Jones,Modern Radio Station Practices, 2d ed., (California: WadsworthPublishers Co., Inc., 1978), 22.126Programme DirectorAnnouncerChief EngineerIn a small station, management is competent for making thingshappen. That is, management sets the goals, establishes thepolicies and procedures, makes the decisions and generallylocates, trains and motivates staff to operate the station. Thereare usually three members on the management team: GeneralManager, Programme Director, Sales Manager. This team isresponsible for satisfying the demands of the audience, theowner(s), the advertisers, and the employees, while conforming togovernment legislation and industry regulation. That is, themanagement team must keep the station alive by preserving andprotecting the station’s license and, in the case of a commercialstation, ensuring a profit.11 The specific responsibilities ofthe six persons are as follows:General ManagerThe General Manager of a small station (who may also be theStation Manager or Vice President depending on whether s/he ownsan interest in the station) is primarily responsible for basicstation planning, facility planning, regulatory matters,personnel, organizational procedures, programming and sales.“ Richard A. Blume, Making it in Radio: Your Future in theModern Medium (Connecticut: Continental Media Company, 1985), 32.127This is in addition to handling all administrative problems withunions, accountants, lawyers, bankers, consultants, owners andthe community at large. Documents produced and accumulated bythe General Manager comprise: correspondence, memoranda, policyrecords, budget agendas, legal documents including staffcontracts, details of audience reactions, union relationdocumentation, monthly reports, staff applications, programmeschedules for submission to regulatory bodies, and a copy of thestation’s license as well as a copy of the Promise of Performance(POP). A General Manager relies heavily on the head of theprogramming department, usually called the Programme Director.Programme DirectorThe Programme Director is also part of the management team. Thedegree of a stations’s success is directly proportional to thesuccess its programming achieves with listeners and advertisers.Because programmes are the station’s product, a programmedepartment can be likened to a company’s manufacturing departmentand, like manufacturing, it is usually the largest department.Programme Directors, responsible for both in—house productionsand acquired programming, oversee the entire programming concept,including commercials, spot announcements and station breaks.1212 ‘Acquired programming’ (also referred to as ‘purchasedprogramming’) is programme material that has been produced by aproduction company other than the broadcast station. The rightsfor airing this type of programming are leased to a broadcaststation by the production company for a specified period of time.128In addition to controlling the programming budget, the ProgrammeDirector takes the most active role in making programmingdecisions within the context of long range policies set by theowner, the General Manager, and management as a whole.In a small station, the functions of programming and productionare combined, so, the individual in this area is not onlyresponsible for allocating the working budget, the entirebusiness and artistic arrangements, but also the origination,interpretation, casting, staging, and treatment as well asdirecting the studio operation and any post-production. Inaddition to correspondence and memoranda, the documents producedand accumulated by this person may include: programme notes andschedules, programme budgets, production files (material leadingup to the broadcast of a programme), information on concepts andfuture projects, promotional material, copies of contracts, presscuttings, topic files, biographic (vertical) files, scripts, andany existing recorded programmes and stock material.Sales Manager (or Fund—raising Coordinator)In a commercial station, a Sales Manager is the third member ofthe management team. S/he keeps the General Manager informed onhow the station is being received by the marketplace, works withthe General Manager to create policy and procedure relating tosales, considers the station’s sales, and monitors general129business clients. In a small or medium sized station serving asmall community, all the staff sell part-time and the SalesManager coordinates the effort. Records produced in this areaprimarily include client advertising account files and publishedrate cards.In a non—commercial station such as an educational station or auniversity campus station, fund—raising takes the place of sales.A Fund—raising Coordinator would be hired and made responsiblefor obtaining grants and enlisting public support throughcommunity contributions. In small stations, most of the staff isrecruited when the Fund—raising Coordinator organizes a fund—raising drive. The Coordinator would produce files on fund—raising initiatives and keep files on potential donors. And, ina very small station, the Fund—raising Coordinator would mostlikely be responsible for maintaining copies of the station’sfinancial records.While management focuses on developing policy and procedure, therest of the staff is responsible for implementing those policiesand procedures.Traffic Manager! SecretaryThe Traffic Manager (often referred to as Continuity) isindispensable to the daily operations. S/he is responsible forthe detailed scheduling and coordination of all programming,130station breaks, commercials, Public Service Announcements, andany last minute changes. The Traffic Manager supervises allrecord keeping, including the preparation of the programme log.Programme logs, which serve as schedules for on—air personnel,record all advertising (invoicing etc.) that is sold, and listall programmes and commercials to be aired each day.’3 In a smallstation, this person might also be responsible for writing on—airpromotion copy for station breaks and transitions betweenprogrammes, and preparing the records, tapes, scripts andcommercials that are included in the programme (the musiclibrarian would perform this last duty in a larger station). TheTraffic Manager also keeps a record of all available commercialtime and informs Sales when slots are open. Other documentsmight include: copies of various legal documents, meetingminutes, invoices, original contracts and budget documents,general programme information, annual reports, capital assetsinformation, and housekeeping records for personnel, facilitiesand equipment. In short, the Traffic Manager plays a pivotal roleand most likely in a small to medium size station would haveoriginals or copies of all organizational documents.Essentially, Traffic is responsible for a central set ofadministrative files.13 Logs are divided into hourly segments and indicate exactlywhen a programme begins and ends. Not only are logs a means ofkeeping a record of the station’s programming, but they are usuallyrequired by law, thus, they are a means of accountability. SeeRobert Hilliard, Radio Broadcasting: An Introduction to the SoundMedium, 3d ed., (New York: Longman Inc., 1985), 121—24.131Occasionally, in a small station, the person responsible fortraffic would also double as a secretary responsible for clericalwork. In a medium to large size station however, theresponsibility of traffic occupies a full time position.AnnouncerThe Announcer, who is accountable directly to the ProgrammeDirector, is responsible for the live commentary portion ofprogrammes. In early radio, Announcers had to be extremelyflexible because they would rely on just a sheet with a few factson it and ad lib the rest, or (as in small contemporary stations)they would read news directly out of a newspaper. Today, theamount of scripted material varies among stations depending uponthe station’s format. In medium to large stations, technicaloperators are stationed in a separate location to broadcast(operate equipment) and perhaps tape shows. In small stationshowever, Announcers are usually required to operate their ownaudio boards and recording equipment. Since the very earlystations, most Announcers have been required to record the timeson and off which result in the final programme log. Announcerscreate little, if any, documentation. Unless they are playing anadditional role, their files may only include correspondence andinternal memoranda.Chief EngineerIn a small station, the position of Chief Engineer may be132contracted outside the station. Whether the engineer on contractor not, s/he reports to the General Manager regarding the statusof the station’s signal and equipment, and ensures generalcompliance with legislation and regulations regarding technicalstandards. In the United States, every operating station mustemploy at least one individual who has successfully passed theFederal Communications Commission (FCC) exam.The Chief Engineer is always responsible for updating the GeneralManager on any technological or equipment innovations, and theGeneral Manager would consult the Chief Engineer on any majortechnical move such as filing for authority to increase power.The Chief Engineer focuses on planning for new equipment andmaintaining and repairing old equipment. Documents kept by thisperson would include technical files, equipment maintenancefiles, a maintenance log and an operating log. In a medium tolarge size station, the maintenance log is kept by the ChiefEngineer and the operational log may be kept by the ConsoleOperator or the First Class Transmitter Engineer. Both logsmaintain information showing that the station is operating withinthe technical specifications established by their license andthat the station is not intruding upon the signal of otherstations.’4 Other documents produced by this department mightinclude staff permits such as the ones the FCC requires. Also,the engineering department in a small station is responsible for“ Ibid., 121.133maintaining the logger tapes.15Small radio stations divide up the duties according to how manystaff they have and the interests and strengths of eachindividual. Although titles and combinations of responsibilitieswill vary, the basic activities each of these persons undertakesin order to follow procedure and fulfil his/her function are thesame in every station. For example, a small station of ten mightdivide up these same duties as follows:General ManagerSales Manager— 2 SalespeopleProgramme DirectorNews Director/Announcer— 2 Staff AnnouncersChief EngineerTraffic Manager/Secretary’615 Some national bodies require that tapes of complete daysradio and television broadcasts (logger tapes) be kept for a shortperiod of time in the event that there is a complaint. In Canada,the Canadian Radio and Television Commission requires that tapes bekept for at least thirty days before they may be legally erased andre—used.16 In a station of this size, it is likely that the salesstaff and the News Director will double as announcers. Not allindividuals working for a small to medium sized station are onstaff. Most stations have a lawyer, a bookkeeper, and an accountantwho do some work for the station, but on a contractual basis.Conversely, a large station will have these positions on staffsupervised by a Business Manager.134While early stations were necessarily small, stations becamelarger and more refined as broadcasting developed as an industry.Generally, throughout the history of the development of thebroadcast industry, the size and complexity of stations havegrown, but because the size of the station also depends on thestation type (university campus, educational, commercial), thereis still a place in contemporary society for the small station,and the model for it has not changed dramatically from the earlyradio station.17While small radio stations have 6 to 10 staff members, a mediumstation with a market population of approximately 50,000 to100,000 (See Figure 2, page 136) might have from 15 to 40employees (not including any existing volunteer component). Astation with 25 employees might break up the competencies asfollows:General ManagerSales Manager- 2 Salespeople— Sales promotionProgramme Director/Announcer— Traffic Manager— News Director/Announcer— News Announcers/Reporters (2)17 Robert L. Hilliard, Radio Broadcasting: An Introduction tothe Sound Medium, 3d ed., 60.135FIGURE 218ORGANIZATIONAL CHART: MEDIUM RADIO STATIONGeneral ManagerSecretary!ReceptionistSales Office Manager r—Chief — ProgrammeManager Engineer DirectorSales — PromotionStaff I Assistant Director1—EngineersSales — AnnouncersPromotion— MusicLibrarian— StaffTalentNews Director Traffic ManagerNews ReportersL Announcers18 See “Radio Station Organizational Charts,” NationalAssociation of Broadcasters, 1969.136— Promotion Director— 2 Announcers— Music Librarian— 2 Staff talentChief Engineer— Assistant EngineersOffice ManagerSecretary/ReceptionistIn a medium sized station, the General Manager has less directinvolvement, and the Programme Director has several individualsthat report to him or her, such as Announcers, a Music Librarian,a Traffic Manager, and a Promotion Director. Two separatedepartments that are only occasionally found in small stationsare News and Promotion. It is not that these functions do notexist in a small station, but that the function of newsproduction is usually absorbed into programming and the functionof promotion is usually absorbed into sales. In a larger stationwith more employees, the competence of each position is morenarrowly defined. The positions not already described, or thosealtered by the size of the station, that would exist in a mediumsized station are as follows:News DirectorThe News Director usually reports directly to the ProgrammeDirector. A News Director directs all activities in the news137department, including supervision of all staff, administering thedepartment’s budget, monitoring all research and coordinatingwith other programming departments. Primarily though, the NewsDirector is responsible for establishing the station’s policyregarding how the news is broadcast and ensuring that the policyis implemented.’9 In a small to medium sized station, it is theAnnouncers’ responsibility to determine which events will becovered, which stories will be broadcast and how the chosenstories will be presented, and the News Director does some orall of the on—air reporting. Documents created by the NewsDirector include performance evaluations of announcers (“on—airnotes”), edited copy, programme budgets, backgrounders,assignment sheets, schedules, correspondence and internalmemoranda 20News Announcer(s) / (Reporter)All News Announcers gather and organize news and write reports,but the daily activities primarily depend upon the size andmarket of the station. In a small to medium sized station,Announcers collect information for hard news stories and deliverthem on the air. In larger stations, actual reporters areassigned to specific geographic or topical areas (ex. politics,19 For example, the policy may establish general rules such asprohibiting sensationalism.20 Information gathered in Toronto, Ontario from Armando DeParalta, former news announcer for the British BroadcastingCorporation, 11 August 1993.138economics etc.) and sent out to gather hard news first handand/or prepare in—depth reports for Announcers to read or todeliver themselves on air. The information assembled for routinehard news reports in a small to medium sized station is usuallygathered from ‘wire services’ and read directly on the air.Information for in—depth documentary reporting by larger stationsmay be acquired by library research, telephone inquiries,interviews, observation or questioning. At a non—commercialstation, there are generally fewer hard newscasts and more in—depth reporting. Announcers determine the emphasis of aparticular story, follow through on developments of a previouslyreported story, and may also develop ideas for future in—depthstories. As in a small station, Announcers in medium or largestations produce or accumulate very little if any documentation.Reporters, however, each maintain files on their own assignments,which often contain assignment sheets and personal notes.2’Promotion DirectorIn a medium sized station, a Promotion Director is usuallyfreelance. This person is competent for arranging for newspaperadvertisements, or any other promotion initiative. In largestations, s/he is responsible for ensuring that the station doesnot violate local ordinances, that it adheres to any industryregulations regarding deception, that it does not disrupt theregular workings of the community (eg. the flow of traffic for a21 Ibid.139commercial shoot), and that promotion schemes do not resemblelotteries which are usually illegal in any way. This position isfairly specialized and not all medium sized stations can affordone • 22Sales Manager (or Fund—raising Coordinator)Like in a small station, the Sales Manager (or Fund-raisingCoordinator) in a medium sized radio station is responsible forall sales (or fund—raising) activities and is the third member ofthe management team. In a medium sized station, s/he wouldprobably be in charge of full—time representatives, one or morepromoters, and traffic/continuity staff. Documents produced andaccumulated by this person would be identical to thedocumentation produced and accumulated by the Sales Manager in asmall station.Chief EngineerAs in a small station, the Chief Engineer of a medium to largestation reports directly to the General Manager. The differenceis, that while a small station would only have one engineer, amedium sized station might have two and a large station mighthave four. Due to the sophistication of technology, the equipment22 In smaller stations, the responsibilities listed here areusually distributed between the Programme Director and the SalesManager. Documents produced or accumulated by this person includeletters of agreement, letters of understanding, event plans files,correspondence, internal memoranda, news bulletins and newsreleases, posters, photographs, press books, publicity sheets.140of a contemporary station requires less adjustment on a dailybasis than earlier stations; likewise, while early stationsneeded regular equipment maintenance and frequent signal checks,contemporary stations are increasingly more automatic. Of coursein any size station the Chief Engineer of a medium to largestation is also responsible for ensuring general compliance withlegislation and regulations regarding technical standards.Contemporary small stations are more like the earlier stations,but in medium to large contemporary stations the Chief Engineeris responsible for keeping up—to—date on advances in technology,carrying out regular assessment of the benefits new technologyhas to offer and of the station’s needs, and preparing capitalrequests for the General Manager. These duties also includeregular assessments of benefits of equipment and costs. The typesof documents produced and accumulated by this person would beidentical to the docunentation produced and accumulated by theChief Engineer in a small station.Office ManagerAn Office Manager is a senior clerical person who overseessecretaries, clerks, typists and receptionists. Whatever thesize of a station, a station’s Office Manager is also responsiblefor all housekeeping functions, including the correspondingrecords on facilities, equipment and furniture, buildingmaintenance, and personnel, as well as all clerical work ordersand assignments. Documents produced or accumulated would be141housekeeping records typical of any business such asadministrative files, personnel files, purchase orders, invoices,and work orders.Music LibrarianThe Music Librarian, a person present in medium size stationswhich broadcast music, is responsible for cataloguing newadditions to the station’s library of sound recordings, andmaintaining the order of that library. This responsibility maybe full time or only part of an individual’s duties, depending onthe range of music broadcast by the station. Documents producedand accumulated may include information and invoices onpurchases, order lists and catalogues, correspondence andinternal memoranda.Although the basic organization of all stations is similar,different stations put emphasis on different departments,depending upon their type and size. For example, a largecommercial station in a highly competitive market will naturallyemphasize its sales department, and may have up to fifteen peoplein that one department. The Sales Manager, responsible forplanning for the entire department, would set goals, definebudgets, and communicate the needs and goals defined toprogramming, whereas the sales representatives (or teams ofrepresentatives) would be directed to represent different markets(local or national).142In a large radio station with a market population of 2.5 millionor more, the size dictates a staff with increased specialization,but the four basic categories, corresponding to four functions(programming, engineering, sales, administration) are stillevident. The only difference is that production is no longer anactivity assumed by the programme function, but is carried out bya separate group of persons. (See Figure 3, page 144). Comparedto small stations, which absorb producing into programming, in alarge station, production is assigned to a separate group ofpersons each with their own competencies.Production StaffThe production staff of a large station includes Producers,Directors and Unit Managers. While the Programme Director isconcerned with conceiving, designing and developing ideas forproducing programmes, scheduling programmes, and devising thestation’s ‘total look,’ individual Producers are responsible formanaging single productions or series. This means bringingtogether every activity necessary to tape a programme such asselling ideas, assembling talent, choosing directors andperformers, and analyzing the marketplace. The Producer handlesall talent contracts, orders equipment, facilitates and schedulesrehearsals. Directors have primary responsibility during taping,and Unit Managers ensure all necessary equipment is in place. Inaddition to these three positions, large stations with separate1434-4 4-49-4 9-4— It ItU) 4-) 4-’— U) U)1-iC) C)0 0C) H 0rC) 9-414 4-i 9-iC) 9-i it 4-ib4o U) it 4) 4-4014o 14 U) -P U) itOC)-4-49-444 C) H C) U) 4-4b’U) 9-49-49-I b’ it -d E U)U)it•— ititit it -‘-I 14 >i 0 C4) 4)4)4.) C I-I It 4-i 0 b’ itC U)U)U) it 0 4-) r4 C ZU) it —4--—C)—l-I— -c-IU)14 -I-) b’C)e’ - 14 H U) C)C)C) C COC C) C 0 0 -c--I it -c-I-Cb’ -dC-c-I 0 it C) C) it C 9-i C)Hit 0 itc-I -c-I b U) U) Z 0 9-1 >-4.) 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While most of these persons work on contract, thereis always some Talent that is on permanent staff to do regularprogrammes, and there are usually several Writers on staff tohandle regular copy. Freelance Talent is hired to do specialprogramming, freelance Writers are hired to script programmes,and outside Researchers are contracted for specific projects. TheResearchers on staff often coordinate their efforts with ratingservices and analyze rating data for the station in addition totheir other work. Documents produced and accumulated byProducers as heads of the Production Unit include productionfiles, budgets, concepts, newspaper clippings, topical files,biographical sketches and storylines.As compared to small or medium size stations, large stationssimply maintain more staff in each area with more narrowlydefined responsibilities. As an example, one might consider thesales and programming units.Sales StaffIn large stations, members of this department would include aSales Manager, and usually an Assistant Sales Manager, anAdvertising Salesperson, a Sales Coordinator, and aTraffic/Continuity Supervisor. Public relations, promotion,traffic, and research staff are also usually grouped under thesales unit because their activities are all sales—oriented. The145documentation produced or accumulated is identical to that of thesmall and medium sized station except that the Sales Managerwould also maintain files on each salesperson.Programming StaffIn a large station, the Programme Director has all the sameresponsibilities as in a small or medium station, but s/he willhave a larger staff including assistants to help acquireprogramming, assistants to coordinate the scheduling of studiospace, production personnel to determine set—up and rehearsals,staff to check scripts and programmes and commercials in order toensure acceptance by the local community, and staff to docopyright clearances. The Programme Directors of larger stationsalso spend much of their time negotiating for purchase ofprogramming with independent producers and programmesyndications. Documents produced and accumulated would includethe same generated by small or medium stations except that theoutput would be greater and a set of personnel files would bemaintained 23While, as mentioned earlier, not all individuals working for asmall to medium sized station are on staff, and lawyers,accountants and bookkeepers would be hired on contract when the23 A description of the responsibilities of persons competentfor the engineering activities in large stations is included in thesection on the “Chief Engineer” in a medium station on pages 140—41.146need arises, a large station has these positions on staff, underthe supervision of a Business Manager responsible forAdministration.Administrative StaffBusiness Managers are only found in large stations and usuallyhave a degree in business administration, are charteredaccountants, or have other formal education. These persons mayhave a full time staff of five or more, including a Bookkeeper, aLawyer, an Accountant and a Financial Manager. In a very largestation there may be separate positions for competencies asspecific as accounts payable, accounts receivable, and payroll.Documents produced or accumulated by these persons pertain togeneral office management; examples are files on janitorialservice, notes regarding distribution of work to secretary, maildelivery, security and public tours. In addition to this, theBusiness Manager keeps all legal documents, minutes of stationmeetings, capital assets information, profit and loss statements,all invoices and contracts regarding technical services, budgets,books of original entry (ledgers), annual reports, parent companyfinancial statements, original share certificates, records ofpayroll expenditure, equipment and supply purchase, supplyinventories, income tax returns, social security reports, andinsurance claims. In medium to small size stations, the originalsof the most important legal documents, such as contracts,financial statements etc., are kept by either the General Manager147or a part—time accountant. In either case, duplicates of most ofthese documents are maintained as well in the central filingsystem belonging to the Traffic Unit.TELEVISIONWhen television made its appearance, many of the individuals itattracted were from radio. These people brought with them theskills and experience they had gained from radio, but this wasnot necessarily an advantage. Television broadcasting involves amore complex process than radio, and stations increased in sizeat a faster rate. Television also requires a substantialinvestment, so many early stations were established bygovernments and large companies. For the first few years,individuals’ duties overlapped, responsibilities were shared andthe chain of command was often unclear.Today, television stations come in all sizes, from small localcommunity channels to the national networks. Large contemporarynetwork stations are, like other modern enterprises, acombination of many single units. Each unit might be operated ina different location, carry out different types of economicactivity, and have a hierarchy of management responsible for thevarious sub—units.The first recognizable difference between the organizationalstructure of radio and that of television is the size, as a148television station generally employs more staff than a radiostation. For example, whereas a basic radio interview wouldonly require an announcer and an interviewee, a comparabletelevision interview programme would need approximately elevenindividuals. In the television studio would be the announcer andthe interviewee as well as two cameramen (one to run eachcamera), one floor director (whose responsibility is to relaysignals from the control room to the talent, and to coordinateall on—air activity), and two studio assistants (one to handlethe light and one responsible for properties who also sets up forcommercials) . In the control room would be an operator for theaudio equipment, two video operators (one to handle control unitsfor cameras and monitor picture quality control and one tooperator to communicate with the cameramen in the studio oncamera placement and lens selection, as instructed by thedirector, and to do the switching between cameras), a director, ascript assistant and a switcher. Another technician might be in athird room to run any inserts. Of course, the larger size andincreased complexity of staff and organization mean that thedocumentation produced is in greater quantity and morefragmented.Like with radio stations, the organizational structure of everytelevision station is unique and constantly changing. However,also like with radio, because the functions of every televisionstation are basically the same, the organization is also149basically the same. In television, all the four main functionalareas, programming, management/administration, sales,engineering, are present, as well as two additional autonomousfunctions, news and production. Having already examined indetail the specific duties of each position in small, medium, andlarge radio stations, it would be redundant to describe eachposition in a small, medium and large television station, becausea large amount of repetition would occur, so the followingdiscussion will examine the persons of each of the six functionalareas in general. For an example of a typical organization chartof a large sized television station see Figure 4, page 151.24The management of a television station, like that of radiostations, is carried out by a general manager and a team ofdirectors. Whereas in radio the basic station model includesmanagers from sales, programming, and engineering, in televisionit also includes managers from production and news.General Management and Administrative StaffAs in radio, the General Manager of a television station isresponsible for the overall operation of the station. Also, likein radio, the difference between the manager of a commercial24 For a list of the specific activities each position isresponsible for, see any general reference text about thetelevision industry, for example: Lynne S. Gross,Telecommunications: An Introduction to Radio, Television and OtherElectronic Media, 2d ed., (Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers,1986); and Gerald Millerson, The Technique of TelevisionProduction, 12th ed., (Boston: Focal Press, 1990).150FIGURE 4ORGANIZATIONAL CHART: LARGE TELEVISION STATIONGeneral ManagerI • •1 IProgramme Director Chief Engineer Sales Manager— Assistant Programme — Camera Operators — NationalDirector Sales Staff— Station Talent — Audio Engineers— Local Sales— Announcers — Technical Director Staff— Writers — Projectionists — Traffic Mgr.— Music Librarian — Videotape Recorder — PublicOperators Relations— Composers Staff— Video Shaders— Broadcast Standards — PromotionStaff Staff— Lighting Director— News Coordinator — Researchers— TransmitterReporters Engineers— Public Service — Design MaintenanceCoordinator Engineers— Studio Production Coordinator Business Manager— Producers — Accountant(s)Assis. Producers Bookkeeper(s)— Directors I — Banking StaffAssis. Director — Finance Staff— Unit Managers — Billing Staff— Office Manager— Stage ManagersJanitorial Service Staff— Stage HandsSecretaries— Film Services Staff ISecurity Staff— Makeup ArtistsMail Room Staff— Graphic SupervisorsI— Purchasing Staff IArtists Photographers Stock Room Staff— Set Designer — Personnel DirectorCarpenter Painters — Lawyer151station and that of a public or educational station is in therole each plays in generating income. While a manager for acommercial station oversees advertising revenues and the salesdepartment, the manager of a public station prepares and defendsthe station’s budget in order to solicit funds.The administrative staff of a large television station would alsoinclude an Attorney (or representing law firm), a BusinessManager, an Accountant, and a Bookkeeper. As said earlier,attorneys are only on staff at networks and major marketstations; otherwise, stations are simply represented by anoutside law firm. Attorneys provide stations with advice aboutlegal obligations, analyze problems, and develop strategies foractions. They usually prepare and negotiate contracts, protectthe station from copyright infringement, review broadcasts toensure they are not libelous, and assure that stations are incompliance with all regulations. Stations which employ anattorney may also have on staff a junior associate, a researchassistant and a law clerk.In addition to a law representative, the Administration of alarge station also employs a Business Manager. As primary aid tothe General Manager, the Business Manager is responsible for allof the station’s financial transactions, which includeinterpreting financial data and records of the station’soperations, developing long term plans, and supervising the152preparation of all billing. The Business Manager supervises allAccountants, Bookkeepers, Billing Clerks, and Benefits Personnelin the Business Department.Programming StaffThe programming department of a television station is identicalto that of a comparably sized radio station. And, like in radio,the Programme Director is part of management, and reportsdirectly to the General Manager.Production StaffBoth a large radio station and a large television stationseparate their programming and production functions and attributethe competence for them to different persons. Production is thearea in which television is more complex than radio. Becausetelevision has a visual component, the function of productioncomprises in its scope many more activities, such as lighting,art direction, graphic art, and the supervision of a number ofstaff responsible for different aspects. Generally, theproduction staff of a large station will include a productionmanager, an executive producer, several producers and associateproducers, directors and assistant directors, unit managers,floor managers, production assistants, production secretaries,lighting directors, art directors, graphic artists,cinematographers, electricians, special effects designers,announcer, writer(s) , researcher(s), floor hands, camera crew,153audio engineer, sound crew, set crew, stage crew, technicaldirectors, studio supervisor, switcher, set designer, make—upartist, costume designer, video operator, and an operationsmanager. Each of these persons carries out separate activities,but all work towards the creation of a programme or series ofprogrammes. The bigger the station is, the more people thisfunctional area might employ.Depending upon the organization of the station, and the size andtype of production, the director may initiate the programme idea,write the script, design the sets, cast and rehearse theperformers, guide the production team and control the editing.In large stations, the Programme Director would rely completelyon his/her production team to provide settings, sound, light andall technical work.25Engineering StaffIn television, engineering departments are usually the largestfunctional area, together with production. There are so manyengineers in a large size television station that the ChiefEngineer may never deal directly with the equipment, but focussolely on scheduling and supervising his/her staff. Televisionengineers must be familiar with complex electronic equipment andkeep that equipment in working order. Generally, the staff is25 For more information on the production team, see GeraldMillerson, The Technique of Television Production, 363-67.154required to have a highly technical working knowledge.In addition to all the people carrying out engineering dutiesrequired by a radio station, television also needs cameraoperators in the studio, camera switchers in the control room,audio engineers, technical directors, projectionists, videotaperecorder operators, video shaders, and a lighting director andcrew. This is approximately three times the number of peoplenecessary to produce a comparable radio programme. Mostpositions are interchangeable, but in contemporary stations thisis one area where specialization is common. Large engineeringdepartments are often divided further into studio and transmitterdivisions.Unlike small or medium sized stations, large stations employconsole operators (technical directors) to assist with pre—broadcast production and the basic operation of the equipment.The specific duties of this individual change with newtechnologies, however s/he has a standard set ofresponsibilities. While larger stations establish specializedpositions, the console operator’s responsibilities actually tendto overlap with those of other persons. Like the productioncoordinator, the console operator may be responsible for cuing uptapes/records, preparing live mikes, and maintaining consistentvolume. S/he must also be familiar with industry regulationregarding log keeping, know when and how often to do station155breaks, and when to log meter readings. Like the producer, theconsole operator may be responsible for arranging furniture andequipment for live broadcasts, running the board during thebroadcast and perhaps going live on location with live promotion.Like the people in public relations positions, s/he may be askedto answer phones, greet station visitors, set up the studio andconduct interviews.Sales Department StaffAs in radio, the primary function of a television salesdepartment is to raise revenue for the station. In smallerstations, the General Manager and/or Announcer(s) may double assales representatives, but large television stations have aseparate sales department. In very large stations, there may evenbe a National Sales Manager to solicit national advertising.The organization of sales departments in large commercialtelevision stations is identical to that of sales departments inlarge commercial radio stations. The kind of station determinesthe primary occupation of its sales department. Whilecommercial stations are concerned with selling commercial time,both cable television and subscription television spend theirtime obtaining subscribers. The sales departments of cablenetworks also may hire someone to sell their system to cableoperators.156Again, as in radio, there is also a difference between commercialand public or educational broadcast stations. Generally, thelatter stations have a less complex organizational structure andfewer employees. Instead of an advertising sales department, theyhave what is called a fund—raising department, commonly referredto as ‘development.’ The people employed in this department areresponsible for obtaining grants, community and viewercontributions, and other funding.News StaffIn a small television station, the responsibility for producingnews is only occasionally allocated as a separate function to adistinct department rather than rolled into the generalproduction department as one of its activities. However, when ithappens, the news department consists of a News Director andseveral Reporters. The station’s Announcer would read the newswritten by the Director. However, as in large radio stations andin medium to large television stations, the news production is adistinct autonomous function, and the news department is alwaysseparate from general production. A typical news department in alarge television station might include: News Director, AssistantNews Director, News Writer, Desk Assistant, Anchorperson(s),Reporters, and Sportscasters. In the early television newsdepartments, news directors were required to train staff (oftencoming from radio) to be journalists and to shoot film. Theaverage size of a small news department was five. After157shooting, the film had to be processed. Often staff would beready to go on air while the film was still coming off theprocessor. In very large stations or networks, separatedepartment sub—units may exist and there may be individualsprimarily responsible for particular areas of news.In addition to the persons in the departments presented above,large television stations (independent companies, major marketstations, or networks) also employ a number of people inspecialty positions that are unnecessary in radio. Thesepositions can be grouped under the heading technical/craft andinclude: Performers (actors, singers, dancers), Writers, MusicDirectors and Musicians, Costume Designers, Makeup Artists, HairStylists, Scenic Designer, Property Master, Stagehand/Grip, andCarpenters. The individuals filling these positions may be onstaff, but are more commonly hired on contract for a particularprogramme or series.Documents produced or accumulated by each of these six televisiondepartments include all those identified noted for comparabledepartments in radio, plus all those related to television’svisual components. This includes documents such as cue sheets,screening and editing sheets, computerized graphics, photo/slidefiles, set/costume design, dope sheets, lab—film processingrecords, as well as documentation pertaining to all film/videoequipment, film/video stock shots, and additional documents158produced by and about the camera crew, set crew, andtechnical/craft staff. In addition, each department head wouldkeep his/her own set of administrative files. The documentationof a television station can be incredibly complex and especiallyconfusing for an archivist. As Jana Vosikovska rightly noted,While the production of a film or a TV program is a highlyorganized chain of activities, the overall situation in thefield of cinema and TV appears to be rather chaotic.Companies come on and off the scene at an amazing pace.Productions are announced and never started, started andnever finished, not announced at all and suddenly released.Some productions disappear almost overnight, some stay foryears and years. In [a] situation like this, it isessential for the film archives to have a system ofinformation that would keep track of the presentdevelopments and that would also provide a deep enoughinsight into the past.26DOCUMENTATION27Early radio and television stations were small. They werecharacterized by an informal setting and unsystematicadministrative procedures, and, as a result, produced a limitedamount of documentation. Most stations made recordings ofprogrammes for re—broadcast, but few had policies to preservethem for any length of time. The instantaneous disc recordings26 Jana Vosikovska, “Film Related Materials in Film Archives -A Luxury or a Necessity?,” Ottawa: National Film Television andSound Archives, unpublished, 1980.27 The information for this section was summarized from astudy conducted by this author of four broadcast stations: theBritish Broadcasting Corporation, London, England; CHCH-TV,Hamilton, Ontario; CJRT- Radio, Toronto, Ontario; TVOntario,Toronto, Ontario.159made by individual radio stations to serve local broadcast needswere usually sent to other stations and, over time, were eithermislaid or destroyed.28 Also the early kinescopes that wereproduced for delayed television broadcast were circulated andthen destroyed. The early black and white films that havesurvived often exist thanks to a few concerned individuals(usually producers) who took pride in their work and subsequentlyeither took material home or stored it under their desks andpassed its care onto their successors.29 However, generallyspeaking, once a recording was broadcast, its usefulness wasconsidered exhausted 3028 At station CJOR—Vancouver, one former radio technicianestimated that the station cut over 20,000 discs between 1935 and1960. It was thanks to a few retired broadcasters who took discshome as collectibles that any at all have survived. BritishColumbia’s provincial archives has only been able to locate a totalof ninety-four of them. See Allen Specht, “Tune Into That Disc,”14.29 Station producers who take pride in their products oftentry to retain everything they have worked on. Usually it is thestation manager who threatens the producers to reduce the amount ofmaterial stored due to lack of space. This might result in eithera dedicated individual taking much of the material home and storingit in his/her basement, or in it being destroyed. Or, many times,news footage that was shot by stringers was preserved by thembecause stringers were often allowed to take it home after it wenton the air.30 Television stations did keep pieces of news footage thatthey thought they might re-use for future broadcasts, butfrequently destroyed them in the editing process. Film would beshot the same day for the six o’clock news and the ten o’clocknews. The six o’clock show might be further edited for the teno’clock show, which caused a problem for sound because, withmagnetic stripe film, the sound followed the picture by 26 frames,so the station would just kill the sound during editing - a littlemagnet would be slid over the audio stripe. This succeeded indestroying much of what was produced. Also, it is common at theend of a year for a station to go through its out—takes and stories160The only documents consistently preserved by stations for anyperiod of time, were those prescribed to be preserved by the law.In the absence of policy, most persons only maintained thedocuments necessary to carry out their responsibilities, butthese varied. For example, while one producer might have keptall of his/her production files including budgets, concepts,newspaper clippings, topic files, biographical sketches,storylines, and literally everything leading up to a production,another producer might only have retained the files on which s/hewas currently working. Early stations did not keep thedocumentation they produced because there was no immediate need.Even if they had recognized a potential value for futureresearchers, permanent preservation of material would haverequired a financial commitment they would have been unable tomeet.As broadcast stations grew in size, like for other businesses,there was a greater need for an organized reporting structure, sothey naturally began to produce more documentation, and maderecordings of their broadcasts more regularly for distributionand their own re—broadcasting. Gradually, more stations began torecognize that their corporate records and programming documentswere a corporate resource. By the mid—1970s many stations hadbegun to organize a selection of their programmes and programmeto pick out clips for a ‘news in review.’ This meant that footagewas cut down even further so that all that would be left was bitsof fragments.161elements as archives. They realized this material had re—usepotential.Although contemporary stations are taking more of an interest inthe permanent preservation of their records, they have problemswith increasing volume and the physical characteristics of thedocuments, problems caused by the developing technicalinnovations, and the cost of preserving material. Bulk is not aproblem unique to broadcast records nor is the cost ofpreservation and control material, but the challenges presentedby the character of the documentation and developing technologyare worth commenting on briefly.In business, many transactions and decisions are made verballyand these are activities of which no written residue exists.Also, each business devises a record keeping system that is mostefficient for its needs, but often such a system is “whollyunintelligible to all but those most intimately aware of theinner workings of a company.”3’ Moreover, a company’s method ofcreating and keeping records often changes. Methods evolve overtime as functions change and the activities to carry out thosefunctions develop. More importantly, business records are oftenconsidered by their creators to be confidential and a securityrisk. The protection of trade secrets against competition is‘ See Arthur H. Cole and Thomas C. Cochran, “BusinessManuscripts: A Pressing Problem,” Journal of Economic History 5(May 1945): 43—64.162vital to the company’s existence, so businesses are oftenhesitant to retain and make available the related documentation.They often opt to dispose of potentially incriminating recordsand accept the risk of receiving fines. In some cases, fines aremore economical than the cost of preserving material. NorthAmerican businesses are suspicious of outside use of theirrecords and worry that they may be used against them.The broadcast industry is no different from any other business.Decisions are made within a tight time frame and often gounrecorded. Each station has its own record keeping system, andwhile much of its textual documentation is consideredconfidential, all of its programming is considered a companyasset, and it is only made available to other stations for aprice. In 1991, Ernest J. Dick noted that, “the broadcasting andarchival worlds proceed from diametrically opposing assumptionsand operational practices,” because the immediacy of the industryrequires flexibility and this usually “. . .diverts attention orresources from records management and archival activity.”32Technical innovations cause other problems. Broadcast formatshave changed many times over the years, and retention ofprogramming requires not only the cost of maintaining obsoleteequipment, but also maintaining the staff with the appropriatetechnical expertise. For example, when television made the32 Dick, “An Archival Acquisition strategy,” 254.163switch from film to video, and the film processing equipment, theediting gear and the expertise disappeared, many stations couldno longer even use the film for stock shot material.33Other victims of technical innovation were early audio andvideotaped programmes. In the early stages of magnetic tape, the1950s for radio and the 1960s for television, such a medium wasexpensive, and because of the nature of the technology,programmes were frequently wiped so that the tape could be reused. This tendency to recycle tape to save money resulted in aloss of thousands of hours of early radio and televisionprogramming material. Since then, the price of tape hasdecreased, and so has the tendency of stations to re—use tape,but the space problem still exists.The fourth cause of problems, which relates specifically toprogramme material, is the very nature of all sound and movingimage media, and the inherent problem of deterioration. To date,no medium used to record programming has proven to be permanent.In order to preserve programming documents, stations have notonly had to design environmentally controlled vaults for storage,but frequently have had to make copies (of course losing qualitywith each transfer) of obsolete formats or deteriorating items.Furthermore, material that is stored properly in anFilm very often occupied valuable space, and was discardedsoon after use. Black and white film was frequently sold to asilver re-processor to recover any valuable minerals and silver.164CHAPTER TWOBROADCASTING: THE JURIDICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CONTEXTWhile broadcast systems operate in virtually every nation in theworld, the organization and structure of these systems aredictated by their environment. Not only are systems governed byinternational legislation, industry regulations, and externalpressure groups, but they are also influenced by their owncountry’s political framework, economic status, geography, socialstructures, cultural traditions and stage of technologicaldevelopment. It is not the purpose of this chapter to examineeach and every one of these influences; rather, it will examinethe two aspects which most directly affect the records generatedby a broadcast station: the juridical context and thetechnological context of broadcast stations. The first sectionon the juridical context of broadcasting includes a discussionabout international legislation and regulations as well as anexamination of the elements which define the socio-politicalframework in which a country’s broadcast system operates. Thesecond section provides a brief history of the development oftechnology as it relates to the broadcast industry. Thus, theexamination of broadcast documents continues with aninvestigation into the context in which records produced bybroadcast stations are created.84JURIDICAL SYSTEM1) LegislationTelecommunication depends on electromagnetic energy whichutilizes the whole communications spectrum. The spectrum is aworldwide public resource that cannot be owned by one individual,corporation or nation, so broadcasting takes place in anenvironment that is inherently international. W.J. Howelllikened the commodity of the spectrum to the seas, in that itsuse must be regulated by international authorities and nationalgovernments through laws and conventions for the benefit of eachand every nation.’ Groups of nations have entered intoagreements and, in so doing, formed official inter—governmentalagencies.2 These agencies, which act as vehicles for intergovernmental legislation, address political, technical andproprietary issues regarding facilities and programming, andtheir actions and decisions often result in written contractsbetween nations which are recognized by international law.Examples of these organizations are the InternationalTelecommunications Union (ITU) and the InternationalTelecommunications Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT), which dealwith facilities. ITU, which sponsors the World AdministrationRadio Conferences, allocates frequencies and ensures the mostW.J. Howell Jr., World Broadcasting in the Age ofSatellite: Comparative Systems, Policies, and Issues in MassTelecommunication (Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex PublishingCorporation, 1986.), 5.2 Ibid., 25.85efficient use of the broadcasting spectrum. INTELSAT providesfor cooperation between nations regarding the development andoperation of satellites.3 Organizations dedicated to thepromotion of programme exchange include the European BroadcastingUnion (EBU) serving Western Europe, and the United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) .“Broadcasting, however, is for the most part a nationallyregulated industry concerned with technical, legal, andprofessional matters. In order to operate legally, allbroadcasters are chartered by their national governments, whichregulate frequencies, times and powers regardless of ownership,but the level of control varies. In many countries, control isbased on statute and trust.5 For example, few European countriesFor more information, see Giraud Chester, Garnet R.Garrison, and Edgar E. Willis, Television and Radio, (New York:Meredith Corporation, 1971).‘ Other examples of international organizations and theareas they serve are: International Radio and TelevisionOrganization (OIRT), serving Eastern Europe; Asian PacificBroadcasting Union (ABU), serving Asia and the Pacific; Union ofNational Radio and Television Organizations of Africa (URTNA),serving Africa; Arab States Broadcasting Union (ASBU), servingthe League of Arab States; North American National BroadcastersAssociation (NANBA), serving the United States and Canada andMexico; Inter—American Association of Broadcasters (IAAB),serving North and Latin America; Caribbean Broadcasting Union(CBU), serving the Caribbean; and Commonwealth BroadcastingAssociation (CBA), serving the Ex-British Commonwealth. SeeHowell, World Broadcasting, 26.Richard C. Burke, Comparative Broadcasting Systems,Modules in Mass Communication Series (MASSCOM) Ronald L.Applbauin, Module editor, (Chicago: Science Research Associates,Inc., 1984), 40.86have the equivalent of the United States’ Federal CommunicationsCommission (FCC). The original justification for governmentcontrol was technical: frequencies were limited, and governmentsdecided that, for ensuring efficiency, frequencies had to beallocated under a licensing procedure. Many national governmentshave established regulatory bodies to enforce broadcastlegislation. These regulatory bodies are responsible forenforcing the legislation which monitors license applications,license renewals, and license revocations and transfers.In addition to legislation specific to broadcasting, there arealso numerous other types of national legislation by which thebroadcast industry may be affected. Specific acts vary amongcountries, but the issues they cover are similar:a) freedom of the press, freedom of speech;b) restraints on freedom to gather news regarding trespassing,obstruction and intimidation, disturbing religious services,trespassing at night, watching and besetting, falsemessages, harassing phone calls, privacy, protection ofprivacy, and interception of communications;c) restraints on freedom to present information concerningdefamation, criminal libel (blasphemous libel, defamatorylibel), contempt of court (criticizing courts, judges etc.),87and specific statutory prohibitions (nudity, obscenity,spreading false news, hate literature), and informationregarding elections;d) national security;e) copyright;f) contractual obligations;g) access to information, privacy, confidentiality of sources;h) and retention of records for specified period of time.6In countries where the legal system adheres to the principle of‘stare decisis,’ case law also affects the broadcasting industry.Cases are the foundation of North America’s system ofjurisprudence, that is, judicial decisions are at the core ofinterpretative law.In most countries, commercial broadcast stations are alsoregulated by legislation covering general retention of records.Such legislation however varies between countries, andregulations vary between industries. For corporate enterprise,6 See Michael G. Crawford, The Journalist’s Legal Guide,(Toronto: The Carswell Co., Ltd., 1986).88vaguely defined records retention periods usually exist thatcomply with national and state laws satisfying legal andfinancial specifications regarding taxation, audit andaccounting. Canada’s regulations are outlined in a publicationentitled, Records Retention and Destruction in Canada: AGuidebook, Financial Executives in Canada.7 For broadcasters inCanada, the Canadian Radio and Television Commission (CRTC) alsorequires that an audio copy of all broadcasts be retained forthirty days.8 The thirty day requirement is set up as asafeguard in the event of public complaints, but because theserecordings are not intended for re—broadcast, they are ofextremely poor quality. In the United States the FederalCommunications Commission (FCC) requires that stations (as“trustees of the public domain”) keep certain documentation andinformation open for public inspection.9 Although they may beasked to show identification, members of the public are oftenpermitted, by law, to examine stations’ files containinginformation on major changes of station frequency, promises of‘ Records Retention and Destruction in Canada: A Guidebook,Financial Executives in Canada (Toronto, 1980). Regulations suchas those have been responsible for establishing the widelyaccepted seven year rule which determines that records be kept ablanket seven years in order to satisfy legal requirementspresent in most Canadian provinces.8 Ernest J. Dick, “An Archival Acquisition Strategy for theBroadcast Records of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation,”Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 11, no. 3(1991) : 266, footnote 5.John R. Bittner, Broadcast Law and Regulation, (Norwood,New Jersey: Prentice—Hall Inc., 1982), 259-60.89performance (POP), construction permits, changes in output power,ownership reports, license renewals, and logs submitted as partof license renewals.1°Mandatory deposit laws are another issue — a controversial one.Some think that broadcast stations should take responsibility fortheir own archives, while others think that mandatory deposit isthe only way any broadcast archives will be preserved. There isno legislation in Canada that requires corporate enterprise toeither preserve or transfer its inactive records to an archivalrepository. Because business is private, all efforts todeliberately preserve inactive records are voluntary, and becausebusiness is by nature a profit making venture, once legislativerequirements have been satisfied, the usual practice is immediatedisposal, so, much is lost. The National Archives of Canada Actstipulates that, on the written request from the NationalArchives, a producer of a broadcast recording must provide a copyto the Archives within six months. The problem with this is thatthe onus is on the Archives to identify material, and pay thecosts for any copies selected, and there is nothing in the Actthat covers textual material. In countries where archives arecontrolled by the state, depositing copies of films and broadcastmaterial (and the original negatives afterto Legislation and regulations not only affect theretention of records, but also the creation of records such aslicence applications, licence renewal, and licence revocation andtransfer.90distribution) is automatic, but none of the organizationspreserving such material are national archives.” While there isno law in the United Kingdom, the country’s National SoundArchives claims a 95% voluntary deposit of commercial recordings,but this is an isolated case.2) IndustrY RegulationIn addition to international and national legislation, thebroadcast industry is also controlled by industry regulation.These self—regulating codes, by and/or for broadcasters, setminimal standards for daily operations which include guidelineson programming, advertising, and/or content.’2At the national level, the industry is controlled byconfederations of regional broadcasters and professionalassociations as well as related pressure groups. Theconfederations serve as forums to address telecommunicationproblems, to exchange programming, and to share information andresources regarding technical facilities and programming. Allhave similar objectives and organizational structures in thatthey promote broadcasting development, ensure that internationalagreements are respected, encourage research, and establish“ See Sam Kula, “Playing God: What Survived in Television,8 June 1972,” ASCRT Bulletin 31 (February 1988): 10—12.12 See Charles Clift III and Archie Greer, eds., BroadcastProgramming: The Current Perspective, 7th ed., (Washington,D.C.: University Press of America Inc., 1981), 159.91guidelines and professional tenets for performance in advertisingand programming related to controversial public issues, communityresponsibility, political broadcasts, religious broadcasts, news,and responsibility to children.’3 Each confederation has ageneral assembly, administrative council, staff and secretariat,committees, and executive board off icers.’4 For example, theNational Association of Broadcasters (NAB) in the United Statesservices the needs of the industry by providing advice onemployee regulations, formulating engineering standards,establishing procedures for complaints and suggestions,representing the industry to the public, conducting research,developing programmes and acceptable standards, developing codesof ethics, and generally seeking to establish standards ofpractice for the industry.Other examples of professional associations particularlyconcerned with the working standards of their members are theAmerican Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) inthe United States, and the Alliance of Canadian Cinema,Television and Radio Artists (ACTRA) in Canada. ACTRA, which hasalso been referred to as a talent union, is in effect an allianceof performers and writers guilds whose membership consists13 Other outside agencies are also becoming concerned withbroadcasting issues that relate to them. For example, in theUnited States, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is becomingincreasingly concerned with the quality of broadcast advertising.14 Howell, World Broadcasting, 38-40.92primarily of freelance artists. The members, who are representedby elected officials and paid officers, are contracted out toorganizations such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation(CBC), which itself has installed an internal hiring system.Finally, there are the unwritten codes that reflect the attitudesand interests of dominant political, economic and social groups.Avoiding controversy is the central rule of broadcasters. Thisreflects attitudes and interests originating from externalpressure groups, which may be directed towards certain speakers,performers, writers or topics. For example, in the UnitedStates, citizens’ action is an integral part of industryregulation. Petitioners who challenge rule—making often usetactics of pressure groups such as the Coalition for BetterTelevision or the National Federation of Decency (NFD).’5 Thedocuments these organizations use to invoke legal remediesagainst stations include complaints, petitions to revoke,informal objections or petitions to deny. The NFD periodicallypublishes an index that lists the least and most offensivenetwork programmes and network advertisers.’615 Charles Clift III and Archie Greer, eds., BroadcastProgramming, 239.16 In the United States, even advertisers have organized toput pressure on networks regarding the content of prime—timeprogrammes. If shows contain potentially offensive material,advertisers may boycott advertising during those time slots.This in turn, often forces networks to alter programme content.933) In—house PolicyIn addition to legislation, industry regulations, and theinfluence exerted by external pressure groups, each broadcaststation has its own mandate which specifies the organization’sgoals and priorities. In government owned stations and crowncorporations this mandate may be specified in the legislationwhich establishes the station. For example, in Canada theBroadcasting Act, 1968, specified that the Canadian BroadcastingCorporation (CBC) was to safeguard, enrich and strengthen thecultural, political, social and economic fabric of Canada,contribute to the development of national unity and provide for acontinuing expression of Canadian identity.’7 As well asestablishing the Corporation’s mandate, this statement alsoillustrated the Canadian government’s perception of itsresponsibility to the Canadian public.4) Socio-Political FrameworkBroadcast systems are also influenced by their country’s sociopolitical framework. As W. J. Howell noted, “All classificationsof the world’s broadcasting systems are ultimately the handmaidsof each nation’s political and economic ethos.”’8 The sociopolitical framework of a country determines the types ofbroadcast stations possible, and because not all types of‘ See “Broadcasting Act,” 7 March 1968, 16 & 17 Eliz. 2,c.25. This clause was revised in the June 1990 amendment.18 Howell, World Broadcasting, 11.94ownership or financing are permitted everywhere, not all types ofstations are present in every country. Albert Namuroisidentified four types of stations based on ownership and methodof finance:i. state operated by a government ministry or department;ii. public corporation operated, under state charter;iii. public interest partnership operated by legally charteredprivate corporations with state stock interests;iv. private enterprise operated by private individuals orcompanies under government license with generally weakregulations. 19a) OwnershipBroadcast stations are owned by either governments, publiccorporations, private enterprises, or by hybrid bodies, suchas public interest partnerships operated by privatecorporations.2° Each of these types of ownership may existeither exclusively or side by side with another in the same19 See Albert Namurois, Structure and Organization ofBroadcasting in the Framework of Radio Communications, EBUMonograph no. 8, Legal and Administrative Series (Geneva,Switzerland: European Broadcasting Union, 1972).20 Howell, World Broadcasting, 10.95country. In many countries, the government owns andcontrols all broadcast stations, while in others privatecorporations maintain actual ownership, but are tied closelyto the country’s government. In these latter cases, thegovernment issues charters which outline rules by which thecorporations must abide. In the United States, manytelecommunication facilities are owned by private companiesthat are responsible to stockholders. This hands-off formof ownership, however, is rare throughout the rest of theworld.21b) FinanceThere are five possible sources of revenue for broadcasting,and they are for the most part decided by the type of astation’s ownership. These sources are:i. state subsidization through taxes;ii. annual license fees levied on television receivers;iii. the sale of airtime to advertisers;iv. direct payment from individuals and corporations in theform of memberships, subscriptions, donations, gifts,21 Lynne S. Gross, Telecommunications: An Introduction toRadio, Television, and the Developing Media (Dubuque, Iowa: Wm.C. Brown Company Publishers, 1983), 22.96grants, and underwriting;v. some combination of the above.22In the United States, broadcasting is supported almost entirelyby advertising revenue (except for public television/radio whichrelies on viewer/listener support), while in many other countriesadvertising is not permitted, and stations are supported bygeneral government taxes or taxes on radio/television sets. Insome countries, the government totally controls both the financesand the programming of telecommunication entities, orbroadcasting is supported by a combination of taxes and low keyadvertising shown only at specific times. In these situations,government oversees and directs the overall broadcastingphilosophy and even content.TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTWhile knowledge of the juridical context of a creator isimportant to understand its records, a knowledge of itshistorical context is just as crucial. Knowing when certaintechnologies were introduced in certain countries can help todate and identify physical formats of programme documents, toestablish programmes’ country of origin and provenance, todetermine preservation and conservation requirements, to explainthe documents’ external characteristics, and to understand how22 Howell, World Broadcasting, 11.97environmentally controlled storage space is not immediatelyaccessible because there must be an acclimatization period (24hours) before playing the programme, and this makes it impossibleto use on short notice — and everything the broadcast industrydoes is on short notice. Needless to say, costs for storage andfor making copies are formidable and often impossible to afford.Last, but not least, among the various challenges presented tobroadcast stations by the preservation of their records are thecosts for ‘archiving’ material. It takes time to organizematerial, to carry out appraisals, and to make the recordsaccessible. When material is retained by a station, a finding aidsystem is required, and this in itself requires a commitment ofresources. For this reason, though a station may have preserved abody of programming documents, if the material is not retrievablethen the benefits of preservation are not realized. Broadcaststations describe their programme holdings according to theirneeds. Usually the descriptive system is quite detailed,especially for television newsfilm, so that the station mayaccess a specific shot or sequence. Many stations today havemachine readable cataloguing systems, or are consideringimplementation of automated retrieval systems.While all stations that permanently preserve a selection of theirarchives have similar problems, a variety of methods have beenused to cope with the issues, and despite the obstacles,165contemporary broadcast stations are becoming more and moreinterested in long term preservation of their records. Stationspreserve records in varying degrees. Aside from legal and fiscalrequirements, there is generally less interest in thepreservation of administrative records than in the preservationof programming records, and specifically of recordings ofbroadcast programmes, because it is easier for stations to seethe re—use potential of these documents. Most stations have oneor more libraries for sound and/or moving image material, theirnumber and size being proportional to the size of the station andits needs. While large television stations normally have a radiolibrary, a film stock shot library, a news library and a resourcelibrary, small radio stations may only have a music library.Depending upon their purpose, libraries may contain: file stockshots, copies (or originals) of complete programmes as they werebroadcast, publicity material, press reviews, producer’s anddistributer’s catalogues, published programme schedules,published texts and journals (technical, academic etc.), tradepapers, and pamphlets. Often there is a fine line between what astation calls a library, and an archives. Many station‘libraries’ contain archival material, such as original scripts,posters, photographs, and programme material which are generatedas by—products of programming activities. Whereas most stationstake it upon themselves to preserve their own programme material,both audio—visual and textual, in these libraries, some stationsdonate it to government or private archives, and others pool166their resources together to establish cooperative archives.34The programme material a station preserves depends upon itsneeds, and different genres of programmes are stored fordifferent purposes. For example, the television programmematerial most commonly preserved for its re—use potential is newsfootage. This material is stored and catalogued in an in—houselibrary. It is retained for file footage and stock shots, and isusually well catalogued, because it must be quickly accessible.Other genres, such as entertainment, are also systematicallypreserved for sales, rebroadcast, or more rarely, for preservingthe corporate memory. Because this type of programme is lessfrequently required, control systems are usually poor.Entertainment programmes are expensive to produce, and intelevision there are often many out—takes. Out—takes mayaccumulate in the library and be impossible to access, and theirvalue may be questionable unless they contain something regardinga famous personality or a special event, and have stock shotpotential.Other types of programmes such as sports, are rarely re—broadcastin their entirety. Highlights may be broadcast once onIn a cooperative archives, participating organizations(stations) share a facility and the services of professionalarchival staff for the preservation and storage of their archives.This type of arrangement is beneficial to organizations that cannotjustify establishing their own archives.167news programmes and then stored in the news library but, likewith entertainment programmes, there is usually much footagewhich easily accumulates in the library and becomes inaccessible.Many early games were never recorded because broadcasters neverexpected to re—broadcast them.Commercials are not regularly retained by stations, because inmost cases the stations do not own the rights to them nor wouldthey have any cause to re—broadcast them. The copies thatstations receive are usually destroyed once they are taken offthe air, but if they are preserved, this happens by initiative ofthe producing or advertising agencies. Because the technicaloperator inserts commercials at time of broadcast, they arerarely found imbedded in programme recordings.35Broadcast stations are only beginning to recognize the value oftheir textual archives. Some take a systematic approach to thepreservation of their corporate records, but most stations eitherneglect this area entirely, preserve some types of records on anad hoc bases, or try to save everything. As noted earlier,At station CFTO, in Toronto, Ontario, commercials producedby the station are retained for a period of time. They arerecorded on cassettes, numbered, and designated as either master orprotection. Usually, elements are erased within one year of firstair date. They are only kept for a short period, so clients canmake any necessary revisions to the final edited version. Mastercopies may be kept for five years then dubbed onto one cassettecapable of holding 70—100 separate commercials. These compositereels are stored permanently off-site. CFTO has a listing of allcommercials that date from 1972 onwards.168broadcast stations preserve those records that either arerequired by law, protect station’s rights, contribute to thestation’s financial security, are necessary for conducting dailyoperations, or preserve the corporate memory. However, moststations do preserve their production files. These files, whichmirror every step of a production, contain legal contracts, noteson how the programme was put together and what decisions weremade when and at which level, and related correspondence andmemoranda. The contacts might prove ownership of copyright, orprovide information necessary to negotiate for future broadcast.Related material, including scripts, would provide information onthe actual production. Other documentation usually retained topreserve the corporate memory would include still photographs,posters, press books, schedules, memorabilia and cue sheets.SUMI4ARYThe particular organization of every broadcast station is notonly unique but constantly changing. The organization dependsnot only upon the resources available, but also the skills ofstaff and the size and type of the station (public or private,profit or non—profit, affiliate or non—affiliate). Positions thatare quite varied in small stations can be highly specialized inmedium and large stations. As Blume stated, ‘an organizationalstructure is in effect the plan by which staff members areutilized. ,3636 Blume, Making it in Radio, 31.169Despite these variations, however, the functions of everybroadcast station are basically the same, as are the activitiesand the procedures needed to carry those activities out. Thus,broadcast stations have a fundamentally standard organizationalstructure. From the identification of persons working indifferent sized radio and television stations, both contemporaryand early, it is clear that there are four basic functionscarried out by every small and medium sized station, that is,programming, sales, engineering, and administration, and sixbasic functions in every large station. In fact, production andnews, which are activities of the programming function in smalland medium stations, rise to the rank of function in largestations. While the number of staff determines the complexity ofthe station, each only performs those four or six functions orvariations of them.In addition to size and complexity, the specific organization ofa station depends on whether the station is profit or nonprofit, and affiliated or not affiliated with a network. Forexample, in a non—profit station, fund—raising replaces sales,and, in a network situation, affiliated stations may have a verysmall (if any) production department. In stations that broadcastboth radio and television programming, there are separatetelevision and radio departments, however a mixture of personnelmay result. Some stations integrate some departments andseparate others. Figure 5 (page 171) provides a basic1701 I-a.I-”En rI.II a) rI.ISa. 0w HDEl)C)tH a)CD—tTj0(DCSçtQja)HIC)IIa)It]a)—tQHHCDC)En50CHCDC)P1tQrI.z HUiZ CDCD’l’l—tooSEna)QaQH 00çtfla)CDSrtStCDH-50 CrI.tQP1St.ICD CtOtiCDZta.Qa)Heta50CD1 F-lit—organizational model for any broadcast station, radio ortelevision, regardless of size.As radio and television stations in contemporary society arefaced with reduced financial support (advertising revenue,government funding etc.), many staff positions are againbeginning to encompass more and diverse duties. Individual staffmembers are often required to perform tasks that were oncedivided amongst several individuals. Essentially, the final jobdescription for each staff member is defined by the individual.In an industry governed by deadlines and split second scheduling,it is often an individual’s personal values that dictate the turnof a decision.Therefore, determination of the persons concurring in theformation of broadcast records is essential for theiridentification and authentication, for reconstructing thespecific organization of the creating body, and for identifyingits functions, competencies, activities and procedures at anygiven time.This chapter identified the persons working in a broadcaststation, the administrative structure in which they operate,their competencies, their responsibilities, the types ofdocuments in the creation of which each participates, and theretention of those documents. The descriptions made of each172juridical person noted the documents produced or accumulated bythat person, but there was one obvious omission in these lists,that is, the actual recordings of radio and televisionprogrammes. A programme is the final product and ultimateoutcome of the broadcast activity as a whole, and its recordingis the only remain in ‘written’ form of such a product; anoutcome which is meant to be delivered and received by voiceand/or image. Therefore, many juridical persons in any givenstation have a role in the creation of each of its programmes,while the station, as one integrated juridical person, is thecreator of the recordings of such programmes, that is, the entitythat made or received them in the course of the conduct of itsaffairs. The fact that they are generated in the usual andordinary course of business in order to satisfy the needs oftheir creator, provides programme recordings with the nature andcharacteristics of archival documents, which they maintain whilethe links they have with their administrative and documentarycontext remain intact. This implies that, if those recordings aresold or accumulated as single items, they lose their archivalnature and acquire that of autonomous ‘products,’ rather than‘means,’ of the broadcast activity. However, insofar as they arepreserved as an integral part of the archival residue of abroadcast station, programme recordings, like the components ofany collective, subject their individuality to the nature of thewhole in which they belong, and are therefore archival materialthat can be diplomatically analyzed in itself and in its173relationship with its creator, its activities, and its otherdocumentary output.174CONCLUS IONWhen discussing the possibility of applying diplomatic analysisto contemporary records in non—textual form, Duranti stated:What about aural and visual documents? This writer does notbelieve that any difficulties are to be encountered inextending [diplomatic] concepts to them. Their applicationmay even be easier than with textual documents, becausearchivists who deal with special media are accustomed todistinguishing, particularly in visual documents, betweenthe persons competent and responsible for their content,their articulation, their formation, and their forms. Theyeven have a special vocabulary distinguishing those persons,and the only thing which remains to be done is to establishthe correspondence between the terms of that vocabulary anddiplomatic terms.’This study in special diplomatics aimed to determine whetherdiplomatics could be profitably used to analyze broadcastarchives, and as part of those records, sound and moving imagedocuments. To conduct this examination, it was necessary to carryout a diplomatic analysis of archival documents that are uniqueto and typical of the broadcast industry, as well as of thecontext in which those documents were created. The documentsidentified as presenting such requisites were programme related,being that broadcast programming is the reason why the industryexists. The programmes themselves could not be considered, beingthe intended product of the broadcast activity, and being nonDuranti, “Diplomatics. ..(Part III),” 14.175documentary in their original form of communication; therefore,the documents most intimately related to programme broadcastswere considered to be programme scripts and programme recordings.Both of these types of documents are archival because of theircreation as a means to a transactional purpose, but they are acertain type of archival document, that is, they are ‘supportingdocuments.’ Supporting documents are documents for which thewritten form is not required by the system, but which result froma juridically relevant activity that is non-documentary innature, and have the function of supporting that activity.2 Inorder to carry out a diplomatic examination of specificdocuments, it is necessary to subject those documents to acomparison with the ideal documentary form devised bydiplomatists in the seventeenth century. However, such form, orschematization of form, was based on the characteristics typicalof dispositive and probative documents and could not be used forsupporting documents. Therefore, a new ‘ideal form,’ or model,was devised to allow for the comparative analysis of thedocuments typical of the broadcast industry.This author modified the existing diplomatic ideal documentaryform not only to accommodate a different functional type ofdocument, but also a new medium and a non—textual informationconfiguration. Although some of the traditional elements of form2 Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part II),” 9.176were eliminated and others, new ones, were added, it wasdetermined that a new model could be developed without a radicaldeparture from the traditional one. The modification required anidentification of the basic structural elements (extrinsic andintrinsic) characteristic of the form being studied, a revisionand adaptation of selected diplomatic terms, an understanding ofthe variety of physical formats of broadcast documents, and arecognition of the issues and problems deriving from the verynature of sound and moving image documents.Following its development, the model, in conjunction with thescheme and procedure of diplomatic criticism, was used to analyzethree documents chosen as representative of programme relateddocuments created by all radio and television stations. Theresults of the analysis indicated that the model and the schemecould be used to examine supporting documents generated by anytype and size of broadcast station, radio or television, early orcontemporary, and independently of country, given theinternational nature of the juridical system in the context ofwhich broadcast stations operate. Essentially, successfulapplication of the diplomatic criticism proved that theformation, form and transmission of supporting documents in thebroadcast industry have not changed significantly over time, andthat, although the organization of every broadcast station isunique and constantly changing, there is a basic organizationaland functional model for any broadcast station, radio and/or177television, regardless of size.Nor did the model, scheme, or procedure pose any specificproblems for the analysis of non—paper, non—textual documents.Clearly, a knowledge of technological development as it relatesto the industry assisted in understanding how the nature of adocument’s medium affects its form, transmission, and genesis,but the model analysis was just as effective for the tworecordings as for the script. Although knowledge of the effects amedium has on the way meaning is conveyed is important, it wasclear that a system of analysis cannot be developed solely on thebasis of a document’s medium and information configuration, whichare after all only extrinsic elements of documents, while thefacts and acts they represent and the functions they serveconstitute the substance diploinatics aims to identify andunderstand.Furthermore, the application of the same model, scheme andprocedure of analysis to both the drama programme and the newsprogramme recordings indicated their relevance for theexamination of various genres of programming. Although programmegenres present different documentary forms that have changed overtime, and consist of different combinations of formal elements,the new model should accommodate all of them.3For a list of genre terms see Martha M. Yee, (compiler),Moving Image Materials: Genre Terms, Washington, D.C.: CatalogingDistribution Service,Library of Congress, 1988.178The analysis conducted in Chapter One, and the studies presentedin the following two chapters, do not flow naturally from one tothe other because they were conducted simultaneously, notsequentially. As in a report on a scientific experiment, wherethe written description is influenced by the findings, theresults of this study can only be presented sequentially. In adiplomatic analysis, the bottom—up and top—down examinationsconstitute an integrated approach to the study of archivaldocuments in context. It is the only approach that allows for averification of whether the documents accurately reflect thefunctions, activities, transactions, and rules of procedure oftheir creation, and are therefore the residue of its practicalendeavours .The importance of preserving broadcast archives as part of asociety’s documentary heritage seems obvious, however theiracquisition by archival repositories has been neglected, andlimited use has been made of broadcast programme resources forstudy by historians educated in a culture oriented towardsprinted sources. The nature of the broadcast industry and thevariety of special media documents produced could be partly heldresponsible for this situation, as broadcast archives presentboth physical and intellectual problems for their creators’,See Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part VI),” 14-15. See alsoHeather MacNeil’s article regarding top-down and bottom-upapproaches, “Weaving Provenancial and Documentary Relations,”192—97.179archivists, and researchers. In 1979, Josephine Langhamattributed the neglect of broadcast archives to a “long—standingdisinterest” by archivists who are “lax in both recognizing thevalue and significance of broadcast documentation and ensuringits preservation.”5 However, this laxity might be attributed toa general lack of knowledge on the part of archivists about thebroadcast industry, the documents a broadcast agency needs inorder to carry out its activities, and the process of creation ofthese documents. In 1990, George Talbot, speaking abouttelevision news, stated: “It seems to me that it’s clear that ifwe’re going to do something with these materials, we need sometools to do it with.”6 It was the purpose of this thesis topresent one possible tool by showing the applicability ofdiplomatic methods to broadcast archives, and to provide a pointof departure for further research into the broadcast recordsproduced by specific countries and specific stations, and intothe records forms generated by particular programme genres.7Josephine Langham, “Tuning In: Canadian Radio Resources,”Archivaria 9 (Winter 1979—80): 105.6 From a presentation by George Talbot, State HistoricalSociety of Wisconsin, at the annual conference of the Film andTelevision Archives Advisory Committee (F/TAAC) in Portland,Oregon in 1990. Unpublished proceedings, Session 1, p.7.To date, there is not a comprehensive set of rulesgoverning all documentary forms and procedures. There havehowever been developments in the Netherlands towards theidentification of a comprehensive set of documentary forms forevery record creator and/or for every documentary function. In1962 a ‘form of material vocabulary list’ was completed inHolland by J.L. van der Gouw, H. Hardenberg, W.J. van Hoboken,and G.W.A. Panhuijsen entitled Nederlandse archiefterminologie(Zwolle 1962), and revised in 1983, Lexicon van Nederlandse180The knowledge of the broadcast industry acquired in the processcan be used as a basis for selection, arrangement and descriptionof the archives of radio and television stations. Such knowledgealso constitutes a good representation of the level ofunderstanding that an in-depth diplomatic study of one specificrecord creator and its archives can provide.Archieftermen (Den Haag). For more information about this see:David Bearman and Peter Sigmond “Explorations of Form of MaterialAuthority Files by Dutch Archivists,” American Archivist 50(Spring 1987): 249—50.181GLOSSARY: BROADCAST TERMSThis glossary is not exhaustive. Only the terms used in the textand important related terms have been included. Some terms thatare clearly defined in the text have not been included. When adefinition has been taken from another source, the reference isindicated by one of the following numerical codes:(1) Biggins, Patricia. “An Annotated Bibliography of CanadianRadio Drama Produced by CBC Vancouver Between 1939 and1945.” M.A. diss., Simon Fraser University, 1974.(2) Bittner, John R. Broadcasting and Telecommunication: AnIntroduction. 2d ed. New Jersey: Prentice—Hall Inc.,1985.(3) Delson, Donn and Edwin Michalove. Delson’s Dictionary ofCable, Video and Satellite Terms. California: BradsonPress, Inc., 1983.(4) Gebhard, Krzysztof. “Instructions for Cataloguing MovingImage Materials at the Saskatchewan Archives,” 1989 TMsphotocopy].(5) Gross, S. Lynne. Telecommunications: An Introduction toRadio, Television and the Developing Media. Dubuque,Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1983.(6) Hilliard, Robert L. Writing for Television and Radio. 5th ed.Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,1991.(7) Hurst, Walter E. and Donn Delson. Delson’s Dictionary ofRadio and Record Industry Terms. California: BradsonPress, 1980.(8) Institute of High Fidelity. Guide to High Fidelity.Indianapolis, Indiana: Howard W. Sams and Co., Inc.,1974.182(9) Millerson, Gerald. The Technique of Television Production.12th ed. Boston: Focal Press, 1990.(10) National Archives and Records Administration. ManagingAudiovisual Records. Instructional Guide Series.Washington, D.C.: National Archives and RecordsAdministration Office of Records Administration, 1990.(11) Planning Committee on Descriptive Standards. “Sound Records- Glossary. Chap. in Rules for Archival Description.Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian Archivists, 1990, 8—37, 8-38.(12) White-Hensen, Wendy (compiled). Archival Moving ImageMaterials: A Cataloguing Manual. Washington, D.C.:Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded SoundDivision, Library of Congress, 1984.access channels — Also known as “local access channels.” Refersto special cable television channels reserved for use by thepublic, educational institutions and government. (3)acetate master — Also known as lacquer master, is a high—qualityacetate disc onto which audio material is transferred from a2-track master tape. This disc is used to make the‘mother’, which is then used to make the ‘stamper’, which isused to make the actual phonograph record for commercialdistribution. (7)actor’s script - Typescript marked by initials or underscoringof parts or handwritten notes relative to cues, mood, andtempo. Descriptive terms applied to actor’s scriptscorrespond exactly to those applied to producer’s scripts.(1)ACTRA - See Alliance of Canadian Cinema, Television and RadioArtists.advertising - The conveying of thoughts and ideas relating tothe selling of products. (7)affiliate - An independent owned television broadcast stationwhich contracts with a network to show that network’sprogramming in certain time periods. (7) A “cableaffiliate” is a system that contracts with a cableprogramming network to show that network’s programming for acertain period of time. (3)AFTRA - See American Federation of Television and RadioArtists.183air cut - The final edited version of a news story (usually 30-45 seconds) that actually goes on air; it is possible tohave a whole string of air cuts because most stations do notrecord programmes as they are broadcast.air date — The date on which a broadcast is scheduled to berun. (7)Alliance of Canadian Cinema, Television and Radio Artists (ACTR.A)A professional organization in Canada. Also referred to asa talent union, ACTRA is an alliance of performers andwriters guilds whose membership consists primarily offreelance artists. The members, who are represented byelected officials and paid officers, are contracted out toorganizations such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation,which itself has installed an internal hiring system.AM - See Amplitude Modulation.American Federation of Radio and Television Artists (AFTRA) - Alabour union in the United States chartered to represent allprofessional artists (actors, announcers, dancers,newspersons, sportscasters, singers, sound effect artistsand specialty acts) who perform for television, radio,phonograph recordings and all non—broadcast recordings. (7)amplitude modulation (AM) - Technically, the variation of theamplitude of a radio wave in accordance with the sound beingbroadcast. AN radio broadcasting is from 535 to 1605KiloHertz. Signal reception occurs in two ways, either viaground waves which follow the curvature of the earth or viasky waves which are bounced off the ionosphere and reflectedback to earth. AN signals are subject to atmospheric orlocal interference but are generally unimpeded bytopographic or physical obstructions. (7)analogue recording — In sound documents, a system of soundrecording whereby the magnetic pattern of electrical energyon the tape is analogous to the pattern of sound waves goinginto a microphone. The process of making an analoguerecording is as follows: sound waves are picked up by amicrophone and are transformed into identical vibrations ofelectrical voltage. These vibrations are then transformedby an analog tape recorder into patterns of magnetic energy.It may be said that what is on the tape is a continuousmagnetic photograph, or analog, of the original sound wavespicked up by the microphone. (7)In video, a system of sound recording whereby the magneticpattern of electrical energy on a tape is analogous to thevisual image picked up and produced by a television camera.The process of making an analog video recording is as184follows: a visual image is picked up by a television cameraand is transformed into a series of electrical impulses.These impulses are then recorded by a video tape recorder aspatterns of magnetic energy. It may be said that what is onthe tape is a continuous magnetic photograph, or analog, ofthe original visual image picked up by the televisioncamera. (3)anchor — A newscaster who is in overall control of thepresentation of a news or current affairs programme. Alsoreferred to as anchorman.audio disc - A sound recording utilizing a disc-shaped storagemedium employing an acoustic or electromechanical processfor recording and playing back sound. (11)audio service — Differs from wire service in that news isreceived via teletype. See also wire service.audio tape cassette — See cassette tape.audio tape reel — A magnetic tape for sound recordings stored onan open reel.author’s clean typescript - Unmarked original typescript,usually recognizable as author’s through signature or nameand address. (1)author’s script — May be an author’s clean typescript or anauthor’s typescript with emendations. (1)author’s typescript with emendations — Handwritten alterationswhich usually appear incorporated into other scripts. (1)bandwidth — A term used to describe the characteristics and usesof frequencies.betacam - This 1/2” video cassette tape format appeared in themid-l980s and is currently one of the television broadcastindustry’ s standards.betamax — This 1/2” video cassette tape format appeared in theinid—1970s for the home consumer market.bicycle distribution - The delivery of radio or televisionprogrammes between stations via bicycle. This method ofdistribution was commonly used by early broadcast stations.billboard - A billboard is a document which describes a newspiece.broadcast - 1. (n.) A radio or television signal that has been185transmitted (often using publicly regulated airwaves butsometimes using other means of transmission such as cables)and intended for public reception. A broadcast may be“live,” pre—recorded, or a combination. 2. (v.) The act oftransmitting a radio or television programme. (11)broadcast agency — Any agency, public or private, profit or nonprofit, educational or commercial, which produces, transmitsand/or distributes audible and/or visual matter for radioand/or television, by satellite and/or by cable, intended tobe received primarily by the public. Also referred to as a‘broadcast station’ or ‘station.’broadcast archives — 1. The whole of the documents created orreceived by a broadcast agency, public or private, in thecourse of its practical business activities, and preservedby that agency for its own purposes; 2. A repository wherebroadcast records are preserved.broadcast news - See wire services.broadcast sound recording - 1. A sound recording that has beenprepared as the source for a broadcast. 2. A recording madeby a radio station at the time of transmission. 3. Arecording of a received radio transmission. (11)broadcast television recording — Also referred to as Telecast.1. A moving image recording that has been prepared as thesource for a broadcast. 2. A recording made by a televisionstation at the time of transmission. 3. A recording of areceived television transmission.broadcasting — The transmission of signals through space,utilizing pre—assigned radio frequencies which are capableof being received either aurally (radio) and/or visually(television). (7)cable television — Also referred to as Community AntennaTelevision (CATV). A system of television that receivesvideo signals through a wire as opposed to the openairwaves. Cable television provides paying viewers withnumerous channels.call letters — The four letters assigned to stations, byregulatory bodies, that are used as a form ofidentification.Canadian Radio and Television Conunission (CRTC) - A federalagency established in Canada for the purpose of regulatingall broadcasting throughout the Canada. (7)carrier waves - The regular vibrations on which radio is carried186through the air. See also frequency.cart — Cartridge. A pre—packaged continuous loop of audiomagnetic tape, sealed in a plastic protective case, designedfor use on a special kind of tape machine. Used formultiple short announcements (primarily commercials, PSAsand station identifications) for play on the radio. Somestations even record news or weather reports on carts. Theadvantage is the split second timing. A series of seven 10-second announcements can be recorded onto one 70—secondcart. Carts stop automatically after each announcement andare reactivated with the press of a button. Many stationsuse colour coded labels to indicate whether a cart is acommercial, station identification, etc. Information isalso written on cart labels to indicate the start and expirydate of a message.cassette tape (audio and video) — A magnetic tape for audio orvideo stored on a spool (with take—up reel) in a sealed,plastic case.cast — Collective term for actors and their roles. Their namesmay be preceded by such terms as: starring, co—starring,also starring, introducing, featuring, guest star, guestappearances, cameo appearance, or with. A broad distinctionis made between cast and credits, by defining cast as thosein front of the camera and credits as those behind thecamera. See also talent. (12)chain — See network.channel — A complete sound path. A single—channel, ormonophonic, system has one channel. A stereophonic systemhas at least two full channels designated as “left” and“right.” When monophonic material is played through astereo system, both channels will carry the same signal.When stereo material is played on a monophonic system itmixes and emerges as a monophonic sound. (8)character generator — An electronic device that “cuts” lettersinto background pictures. For example, when captions,translations or the identification of speakers and made atthe bottom of television images.clean script — Unmarked script on which there is no indication ofchange or of use. (1)closed circuit distribution system - When a production is beingrecorded or reviewed locally (within a station or office) asopposed to programmes being broadcast for public viewing;closed circuit television (CCTV) is the general term fornon—broadcast television.187compact disc - A sound recording utilizing a laminated disc-shaped storage medium (commonly 12 cm in diameter) andemploying digital laser technology for recording and playingback. (11)commercial — Also referred to as ‘advertisement,’ ‘spot,’ or‘spot announcement.’ A short persuasive film of 15 to 60seconds broadcast on radio or television, usually highlycontrived, which attempts to get the audience to buy aproduct, take some specific action or adopt a favourableview towards some product, institution, business or issue.Broadcasters usually receive some form of compensation forairing commercials from the sponsor. (4)commercial broadcasting - Broadcasting for profit. Stationincome is derived from the sale of advertising time. (7)communications satellite - See satellite.continuity - 1. A detailed shooting script used in the makingof motion picture film that contains all the visual andaudio specifications for the framing and composition ofshots. (F) 2. The flow of edited sounds or images and thecontent details of edited images from shot to shot.Continuity observation entails the close scrutiny of talent,properties, and environment during recording and/orbroadcasting to assure an accurate flow of edited sounds andimages in post production and during a live broadcast.cooperative radio station - See non-commercial station.credits - The ascription or acknowledgment of something as dueor properly attributable to a person, institution etc. i.e.recognition for work done. (7) Credits may appear or beread at the beginning and/or end of a programme.CRTC - See Canadian Radio and Television Commission.cue — 1. To locate a song or selection on phonograph, tape orcompact disc in order to have it ready to play on radio whendesired; 2. To alert a performer when to begin his/herpart. (7)cue sheet - A sheet that indicates the time to begin somethingsuch as a record or a tape.DAT (digital audio tape) - See digital recording.digital recording - A term that describes a recording made byoperations, signals, or transmissions that are broken upinto binary code — a series of on—off pulses (bits ofinformation) - and transmitted virtually noise-free, unlike188analog or continuous transmission. See also analoguerecording. (2)distribution — The sale, lease, and rental of radio ortelevision programmes. (12)distributor — Also referred to as ‘releasing agency.’ Theorganization, company, agency or individual responsible forrenting, selling or otherwise making the radio or televisionprogramme (or motion picture film) available for exhibition.(4)dubbing — The re—recording or transfer from one physical supportto another. A dubbed tape is often referred to as a ‘dub’ or‘dupe’ (duplicate).duration — The time a radio or television programme lasts.editing - The selective correction of a document by physicalmeans to eliminate or replace undesirable portions, addportions not present in the original, or otherwise rearrangethe original. (7)episode — One programme in a series of radio or televisionprogrammes. See also series.excerpt — An incomplete portion of an edited radio or televisionprogramme, or re—edited shorter version. (4)FCC — See Federal Communications Commission.Federal Communications Commission (FCC) - A federal agency inthe United States established as part of the FederalCommunications Act of 1934 for the purpose of regulating allbroadcasting throughout the US and territorial waters. (7)field footage/tapes - When film cameras or video tape recordersare sent outside the station to gather material on—site by‘remote coverage.’ This ‘raw footage’ is used to compilefinal news stories or programmes.file footage — Film and video recordings of news events that arecatalogued (subject/name indexed) by stations and retainedfor reference and/or re—use for future stories.film — See motion picture film.film-style directing - When moving images are filmed/taped inany order and at different times before being editedtogether to produce a final programme.final programme log - The last and final version of the log,189with amendments, which reflects what actually was broadcastat what time.FM - See Frequency Modulation.format — 1. The arrangement of programme elements in anestablished pattern resulting in the basic “sound” orprogramming with which a radio station is identified orhopes to be identified (ex. classical, country, weatherchannel etc.); 2. In recording, refers to the method ofrecording (2—track, 16 track etc.) and the respectivesoftware in which the recording can be purchased (compactdisc, audio cassette tape, betacam videotape etc.). (7)frequency — The number of times a complete wave cycle occurs ina fixed unit of time. (7)frequency modulation - Technically, the variation of thefrequency of a radio wave in accordance with the sound beingbroadcast. FM radio (audio) transmission is from 88 to 108MegaHertz. Signal is unaffected by atmospheric interferencebut is a high-fidelity, line-of-sight beam impeded bytopographic or physical obstructions. See also Hertz. (7)gauge - The width of film in millimetres, or a tape in inches.(12)generation — Original recordings (film, video, sound) arereferred to as ‘first generation’ recordings. Eachsuccessive copy is second, third, fourth, etc. generationmaterial. The more generations away from the original anitem is, the greater will be the degradation in quality orimage and/or sound. (12)genre — The kind of style or content matter of a radio ortelevision programme. Different genres include: drama,documentary, comedy commercial, actualities, nature etc.headline programmes — See ticker tape programmes.headline shows - A series of brief news bulletins with text ofheadlines on screen and voiceover by person reading thenews.Hertz (Hz) — The name given to the number of vibrations orcycles per second in an alternating current electricalsignal. It is abbreviated ‘Hz.’ The name derives fromHeinrich Hertz, an early electrical scientist. (8)in the can - Refers to a completed master programme. (7)inches per second (IPS) — The measurement of speed at which190tape travels through a tape player/recorder. (7)independent station — A commercial broadcast station which hasnot affiliated with a network and relies primarily onsyndicated programming and their own locally produced shows.insert — See segment.IPS — See inches per second.kinescope — Also referred to as ‘kines.’ Kines were copies oftelevision programmes that were filmed off a high qualitytelevision monitor. The general picture quality of kineswas poor. Kines were made in the 1950s and 1960s by networkservices so that programmes could be recorded for delayedbroadcast.log - A chronological record of all day broadcasting activitymaintained by a broadcast facility. Three types includeprogramme log, operations log, and maintenance log.Maintenance of logs is required in the United States by theFCC and in Canada by the CRTC. (7)logo — A symbol associated with a radio or television station(or production company). Also referred to as trademark.logger tape - Tapes of a station’s complete days broadcast. TheCRTC requires that tapes of complete days broadcasts be keptfor thirty days in the event of a complaint.magnetic tape - All audio and video tape which is composed of abase and a layer of magnetic particles suspended in abinder. The materials used for the base, binder andparticles has changed since tape was first used by theindustry in the 1930s.man-on—the—street interviews - Spontaneous interviews withunsuspecting individuals that are stopped while walking downa street.master production script - The copy of the script for aproduction that contains all the pre-production informationnecessary for broadcast or recording.master programme recording — A master programme recording ismade with extraordinary care by broadcast stations as it isfrom this that sub—masters, duplicating masters and copiesare produced. The chosen format for master recordings haschanged over the years with both television and radiostations. Early television stations usually used 2” or 1”tape while the contemporary commercial stations are movingto betacam SP and access channels to 3/4” or 3/4”SP. Early191radio stations recorded on disc, but moved to 1/4” magnetictape in the 1950s. In radio, it has been the development ofequipment which has improved the quality of the recordingmore so than the recording format.monitor — 1. v. To listen or to watch (to perceive); 2.n.Functions like a television set, except that it can receivevideo (pictures) directly from a camera or a videotaperecorder, not just over the airwaves.motion picture film - A length of film with or without recordedsound, bearing a sequence of images that create the illusionof movement when projected in rapid succession. (12)multiplexing — A process by which a single source is caused toemanate from 2 or more outputs. For example, FM multiplexis a single FM radio signal which is divided into 2 stereo(left and right) signals by the receiver. See also FM. (7)NAB — See National Association of Broadcasters.National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) - A national groupof broadcasters in the United States who have voluntarilyformed a regulatory body for television and radio. Itservices the needs of the industry by providing advice onemployee regulations, formulating engineering standards,establishing procedures for complaints and suggestions,representing the industry to the public, conductingresearch, developing programmes and acceptable standards,developing codes of ethics, and generally seeking toestablish standards of practice for the industry.Membership consists of a significant portion of the Americanbroadcast industry.network — Broadcast stations which are linked together and acentral source supplies programming to those affiliatedstations. Programme distribution is by telephone lines,microwave relays, and communications satellites.Occasionally referred to as a chain.network radio - 1. the organization point from which radioprogramming is transmitted (on a feed or by satellite) forbroadcast (either simultaneous or delayed) through localmarket radio systems; 2. the affiliation of a number ofradio stations which do not share a common feed but forbusiness purposes are linked nationally by a rep firm whichsells time to advertisers on the basis of delivering an‘unwired’ national radio network. Network buys can often bemore efficient for advertisers than buys made individuallyon each station. (7)non—commercial broadcasting — Broadcasting supported by private192funds, donations and grants rather than by commercialadvertising. (7)news — Information about current events; in the form ofinterviews, stories, or reports.newscast — A news programme which is broadcast on radio ortelevision. See news.newsfilm — Used to describe footage that appeared to have beenintended for a theatrical newsreel or photographed by anewsreel company, but could not be positively identified assuch. (12)newsreels — About ten minutes of newsfilm, edited with titles,music, and commentary, formerly seen regularly in theatres,but now no longer produced in the United States. (12)non—commercial station — See non—commercial broadcasting.open reel tape — See audio tape reel.outtakes (outs) — often referred to as “outs” are scenes that areshot by the film or video camera crew that are not used orare left unprinted (film) in the final version.phonograph disc - See audio disc.POP — See Promise of Performance.post-production - Anything done (dubbing, editing, voiceoveretc.) after the shooting of a film or video recording ortaping a sound recording.pre—recorded — Any material that has been recorded previous tobroadcasting or cablecasting. (3)prime time - The phrase used to describe the hours of the daywhen television viewing reaches it peak which is usually7:00pm —11:00pm.producer’s script — Bears signature or initials of produceronly. (1)producer’s script with emendations - Typescript with handwrittendeletions or additions or both. (1)producer’s script with comments — Notes added during rehearsalpertaining to acting or technical problems. (1)production date — The date a radio or television programme iscompleted.193production element — A sound recording that is used in producinga mixed sound programme, or a film reel or video recordingthat is used in producing a complete television programme.A production element is not complete in itself. (11)production file — Contains all the documentation relevant to aradio or television production.programme — 1. a particular radio or television show, i.e. anindependent unit within any given broadcast day discountingcommercials, station identifications and public serviceannouncements; 2. a schedule of events. (7)programming — 1. In radio, the selection of programmes to beplayed by the station in line with its image or format; mayinclude music/talk/sports etc. 2. In television, theselection of programmes to be aired by a station. (7)Programming may be produced by the broadcast station. If itis not, it is purchased or leased from an outside agency.Purchased or leased programming is often called ‘acquiredprogramming.’Promise of Performance (POP) - A contract entered into by astation with it’s country’s regulating agency which detailshow the station is expected to conduct itself in regards toprogramming and general operation. That is, the POP setsout the conditions the station agrees to. This document isusually attached to the station license and is available tothe public on demand. Note that the station licensespecifies the frequency and power and time allotted to thestation.PSA — See Public Service Announcement.public service announcement (PSA) — A short film, videorecording or sound recording broadcast on radio ortelevision, presented by a non—profit organization whichattempts to persuade the audience to take some specificaction or adopt a favourable view towards some service,institution, issue, or cause. (12)raw footage — Film or video footage or sound tapes that aregathered and not yet used or incorporated into a finalprogramme. See also outs and trims.rear—screen projection — Also called rearscreen process,transparency process, and backscreen process. A techniquewhereby people are filmed in from of a transparent screen onwhich a film or video sequence or still picture is projectedfrom the rear.release date — The first official date of distribution of a194sound recording. (7)remote — Broadcasting from a location other than a radio ortelevision station’s own studios. (7)reproduction - See dubbing.revolutions per minute (RPM) - The number of rotations aphonograph disc makes on a turntable in one minute. Commonspeeds are: 33 1/3 rpm, 45 rpm, 78 rpm. (7)RPM — See revolutions per minute.remote coverage — See field footage.satellite — Also called “communications satellite.” Anelectronic vehicle stationed in space above the equator ingeosynchronous orbit, used for the re—transmission ofprogramming and data. Its function is to receive electronicsignals sent from Earth, and re—transmit them back toreceivers on Earth stations. Each satellite containsnumerous transponders for handling different audio and/orvideo services. (3)screenwriter — A writer of an original script or the adapter ofa pre—existing work for the purposes of creating a film orvideo production.script - A set of written specifications for the production of aradio or television production. There are several differentkinds of scripts and they contain specifications forsetting, action, camera coverage, dialogue, narration, musicand sound effects. (10)segment - A portion of an edited radio or television programmewhich is complete in itself, ex. a video recording of amusical performance that was inserted into a televisionvariety programme. See also excerpt.series — A group of separate programmes related to one anotherby the fact that each item bears, in addition to its owntitle proper, a collective title applying to the group as awhole. The individual programmes may or may not benumbered. The group of programmes may have a theme or astoryline which is continued from episode to episode. Seealso episode. (12)shot — An action, person or object filmed in a single run ofthe camera.sign—off — When radio announcers or television anchors wishtheir listeners/viewers farewell.195signal — Electronic transmission of audio and/or audiovisualinformation. (7)signposting — A technique used primarily by radio announcers toremind listeners what they are listening to and what isforthcoming.soundtrack — The sound which is intended to correspond with afilm or television image.splice - Attaching two pieces of a motion picture film, videotape or audio tape together. Only pieces from the sameformat may be attached.sponsor — A company which, for advertising purposes eitherunderwrites the cost of a programme being broadcast on radioor television, for which it may receive opening or closingbillboards, or, purchases all or the majority of thecommercial time within and immediately adjacent to aprogramme’s broadcast. (7)station - A broadcasting facility which is assigned a certainfrequency and call letters, and issued a license. In theUnited States licenses are issued by the FCC, in Canada,licenses are issued by the CRTC. (7)station identification - The identification of a station ornetwork by on—air announcements of a radio station’s callletters, or a television station’s logo. In the UnitedStates, the FCC requires “id’s” as a standard part of thebroadcasting schedule and must be run at specific periods oftime ex. every 1/2 hour or on the hour. (7)stock footage — Unedited motion picture form or videotape ofscenery and action that is retained for future use. (10)sync generator — The piece of equipment which assures that alltelevision cameras will be scanning at the same place at thesame time. (5)talent - Term used in radio and television to identify those infront of the camera or the mike. See also cast. (12)talking heads - The term used to describe moving image footagethat pictures only the head and shoulders of one or moreindividuals while they are talking.technical script — Recognizable as such through cue marks andunderscoring for sound effects and the absence of any actingor production comments. (1)ticker tape programme - Is when text is scrolled across a196television screen from right to left or upwards from bottomto top. Early television stations often used this to providenews stories and the technique is still seen on channelsthat provide information on the weather, the time, thetemperature, a programme schedule for all channels and/orcommunity information.time code - A system used by television stations when editingvideo images. Appears as a clock on the bottom half of theimage.track — 1. a particular song/selection on a phonograph; 2. thepath on a magnetic tape along which a single channel ofsound is recorded. Tracks are identified by number. (7)transmitter — Equipment which broadcasts an electronic signal.(7)trims — Portions of footage that appear in a programme’s air cut,but are eventually cut off because the bits were too long orof low quality.UHF - See Ultra High Frequency.Ultra High Frequency (UHF) - As relates to television receptionit is that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum occupyingthe frequencies 470 890 MHZ. (3)U-Matic videotape - Sony Corporation’s 3/4” video tape formatcassette machine. (3)Very High Frequency (VHF) - Refers to that portion ofelectromagnetic spectrum between the frequencies of 50 and250 MHZ. (3)VHF - See Very High Frequency.VHS — See video home service.video home service (VHS) — A small format (1/2”) videotapecassette currently used by the home market.video shader — A person who adjusts remote controls for camerasin order to keep colour and other electronic elementsconsistent. (5)videotape — A magnetic tape format (cassette or open reel) formoving images. Abbreviated as “video.”video cassette tape — See cassette tape.videotape recording/recorder (VTR) - l.the tape on which a video197is recorded; 2. the machine on which a video is recordedand/or played.video tape reel — A magnetic tape for moving images stored on anopen reel. (11)voiceover — A sound recording or narration added to a visualimage after the image is filmed or recorded, or during thefilming of the image, but from a different source.VTR - See video tape recorder/recording.watt — A measure of electrical or acoustical power. Theelectrical wattage of an amplifier describes the power itcan develop to drive a loudspeaker. Acoustical wattagedescribes the actual sound a loudspeaker produces in a givenenvironment. The two figures, in any given amplifier—speaker system, differ widely because the low efficiency ofspeakers necessitates their receiving relatively largeamounts of amplifier power in order to produce satisfactorysound levels over a wide range of frequencies. (8)wire recording — A sound recording on a spool of thin steel wireemploying a magnetic process for recording and playing backsound. (11)wire services — Is a news gathering service (usuallyinternational, but also national and regional) that suppliesnews copy and audio reports to subscribers (for a fee) whouse the material to supplement their own news gatheringresources. Early wire services were sent over telegraph andtelephone wires (otherwise known as feeds) and some weresyndicated through the mail. Contemporary services usemodern technology such as computers and satellite. For anadditional charge, voice clips may also be sent. Sometimesreferred to as broadcast news. 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London: Elliot Stock, 1903.Turner, Janet. “Experimenting with New Tools: SpecialDiplomatics and the Study of Authority in the United Churchof Canada.” Archivaria 30 (Summer 1990): 91—103.204Twomey, John E. Canadian Broadcasting History Resources inEnglish, Toronto: Ryersori Polytechnical Institute, 1978.Vosikovska, Jaria. “Film Related Materials in Film Archives - ALuxury or a Necessity?” Ottawa: National Film Television andSound Archives, unpublished, 1980.White-Hensen, Wendy (compiler). Archival Moving Image Materials:A Cataloguing Manual. Washington, D.C.: Motion Picture,Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division, Library ofCongress, 1984.Yee, Martha M. (compiler). Moving Image Materials: Genre Terms.Washington, D.C.: Cataloguing Distribution Service, Libraryof Congress, 1988.Zettl, Herbert. Television Production Handbook. Belmont,California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1976.205APPENDIX 1 Radio Drama Script: “What Price Loyalty”Note: This reproduction has been reduced by 65%./ForB. EVELYN BIDDI,E::‘1935 Episode 5 — 49OORCIAL7/ /BRITISE CRE1ADIRRS (KWINBi{ABPA0R (above storm) Rarly Upper Canada in the grip ofa blizzard, the like of it ich one reads aboutbu seldom seeI Old. ingstou is hugging itsfire—places and. —stoves tonight. Woodpilesare dijainishing fast, in the face of theFebruary storm. Snow is alled high, sleighbells are silent. lng Winter rules .thpitiless hand., the only obstacle to hisomnipotence being the scattered stone strlaatlires{the.t are unique to Zingston, andagalnst whitthe angry elements beat in vain,STORMSTORM FAINTER(fr ina.e now)The candle—lighted living room of Norton Villa,on Brook Street, the recently erected home of the.little Niagara bride, Marigold Royce andArthur Norton, Kingston’s youngest lawyer, isthe coaler by contrast to the upheaval beyondits sturdy walls.STORMArthur is ceated at ease beside the hugestove that stands in the stone partition ——half in the sitting rocm, half in the bed-chamber beyond,EàRP MUSICMarigold entertains him with m,zsio upon theharp, left to her tender care by her mother, ocrMary, when the latter with her husband of a yearPhilip Arnold, and her aged. father,206PageSand their tried and trusted attendant, DougaManro, departed for a sojourn in Boston,MARIGOLD’S SONGMUSIC FADES OUTARTHUR My gratitude, loved, one, -—— but pray do notbeoome weary in well doing,MARIGOLD Arthur, such presumptioni Exhorting me tofurther. effort, while you are stretched atease before the fire, your hands idle,ARTHUR LAUGHSARTHUR My ears are ocoupiedL And alert, I assure you.MARIGOLD Then they will be entertained by the click ofyour wife’s knitting needles,CL 10KAnd indeed, sir, if yoar feet were less lengthy,her knitting would be less strenuous,ARTHUR LAUGHSSTORMMy sakes, what a storrnARTHUR A wicked night,MARIGOLD But comfortable within, thanks to our y—stove,ARTHUR Not many- newlyweds can boast a stove,MARIGOLD We are favoured, truly, though%the fire-placesthrow the heat if well supplied Wi tti logs,ARTHUR Oh yes, one’s face is burning while the coldchills chase up and down one’s back,CLICK CLICKMARIGOLD When I was a child of twelve or so, I couldstand upright in the fireplaces at Royce Cot,ARTHUR I doubt it not,MARIGOLD And, we bad six of such, and not only Royoe Cot,but several of the later Niagara homes werethus equipped,207Page 3ARTMUR Ha, yes, but stoves are the mowe modern, saywhat you will, -— and as young people, we mastkeep abreast of the tines, —— (laughs)ST OHMEgad, I am somewhat proud. of the fact that inheating arrangements Horton Villa has the latest.MARIGOLD Quite the latest,ARUR Why twas only in 1812, just before the war, ifmy memory serves me, that the first stove in thedistrict was brought from Montreal by ox-sled.)LRIGOLD A short four years since,ARTHUR Yes, for the Fairfield home, — a progressiveLoyalist family of Ernest Town,STORMDISTAIiT RAPMARIGOLD (raise) Yes, Hora,FADE IE NORA Jest a bit av refreshment t’ warm yer iternmls.ARTHUR Ha, coffee? —— a happy thought,MARIGOLD Yes., oar thanks, Nora,STORM FIERCEZIORA Glory be, -— but the illimints are on therampage the night,STORMARTHUR A bad storm! Warm out in the kitohen, Hera?NORA Aoh, its werm enough, I suppose, if ye’reconcarned mid tellin’ the truth,LAUGHS FROM MARIGOLDAND ARTHURWINDSTORM Wad yes harrk, wanoeiMA. IGOLD AwfuJJ208Page 4240RA The wind’s a-yowlin’ down the ohimly as it al].the dead, in the oimitry was up and abotit,STO!U( HOWlSAn soreetchin’ the war—whoops avthe ayvil—man.MAPaGOID Oh, hardly,ARTHUR (raise). A gentle zephyr, Nora, — from the gates ofParadise,NORA Faith, master Arthar, yes can say as y’ bike,but its on a noit 101kw this same, yid egspeo thiNORA SERIOUS sperrits,LAUGHS ARTHUR (interrupt lug) to hold high Carnival, eh?WINDKARIGOLD And, go cavorting about,LAUGHSTERRIYIC GUST BLOWSOPEN DOOR WITH BANGFADE O1 NORA Aoh, nw.rtber, urther, -- for the love av ltiJce, —ARTHUR LAUGHSMARIGOLD (raise) Come Back, Nora) Seel The sudden gust ofwind has blown open the street door, merely,FADE IN NORA Shur’n it gave aie a turn -— suddent-loike,spakin’ of sperrits abroad,LAUGHSFADE OUT NORA (suddenly) Aoh, - murther, —— marther, -— murther,DISTAN’ KITCHEN DOOREA..NG AS NORA FADES OUTARTHUR Ah ha! Who’ a this in the fi doorway? -— Father7linter hinseif, -- Well, Roger FalooaerMARIGOLD (relieved) Oh, Roger,ROGER LAUGHSARTHUR Come In Ud. chap! Ha, you frightened the witsoat of oar soollery—womari, . —_ standing therelike a ghost in the night,j4( grZ209Page 5FADE IE ROGER A rather substantia_--MARIGOLD But a welcome one,ROGER I fnmhi %ng hr,n+wind hi npnLAUGH$ARTHUR Let me relieve you of your cloak, -- Nora willshake off its white mantel in the sotillery,ROG Ajitthesnpw,MARIGOLD No matter, Roger, --Norm sands the floor onthe morrow,DISTANT ARTHUR Nor&FADE IN NORA Ach, yes, Master Lthur Yáz are ail there?ARTHUR We are, thanks to Providence& Here, shake thesnow from the cloak of one of the benightedspirits,IUGHSNORA Oh glory be Oi’m so all av a—twitter oi canscarce put forward me hand,MARIGOLD (raise) Dry it by the kitchen fire, Nora,FADE OUT NOBA Share oi’d hey done that same, widdout a.unytelli&DOORFADE IN SLIGHTLY ARTHUR Poor Nora She was all of a twitter, as shesaid,MARIGOLD Be seated, pray,ARTHUR Coffee, RogerROGER Most acceptable Toa half frozen man,STORJiiARHUR You are mos weloxie, my friend, as you know, -But your presence here in the storm, egad,demands an explanation,‘t6r:4210Pee 6ROGER Being a writer, I am a contrary mortal,While others sleep, I em wakeful -— and. whenothers bag the fire, I fare forth into thestorm,LAUGHSSTORMTobruab. the oob—wehw fri rny brain,MARIGOLD For further effort,ARTHUR And. what subjeot engages yo attention at themoment, Poger?ROGER Oh well, I have just oompleted. en acooo.ntofARTHUR Ha yes, in the d.istant west IROGER A am 2ring_an article now for theI.Lr .QJand. the history ofBi8hcLanderMacDoo\eli of St. Raphael’s thare1-—AD LIBS FROM H AMARIGOLD I should. like to really k±iow the Bishop’s.history,ARTHUR Egad, so should. I, and the history of hisGlengarry Tigers, as we oald. the Ferioibiesin the war,ROGER Yes,ARTHUR But we must not tax Roger tonight, Marigold.when he is seeking relaxat ion,MARIGOLD Perhaps not,ROGER. One of these daLs,Iwiil inflict the atoronyou, -— tis most unusual, really,HBIGOLD We shall have that to antioipate,211Page 7STORMARTHUR ItLis to be hoped that the storm abates beforetomorrow night,MARIGOLD Oh, I do hope it will,ROGER And why the anxiety, ay 1 ask?STORMIs the wood—pile low?ARTHUR Ho no, - but Marigold and I are to attend aquilting—bee, ———R9EB A qtzilting-beé? Since when Is sewing one ofyour accomplishments, ray fflendARTHUR My little wife, and other skillful feminineswill ply *heir needles till the clock strikesten, when idle masoulinity will put in itsappearance for supper and a merry time,LtUGHSSTORM)LRIGOLD I wonder if they are having this storm down inBoston,ARTHUR Possibly’ROGER Hard to BaLIMARIGOLD I should like to peep in ipon them, in oldMontgomery 1oise, mother’s girlhood home,ROGER You have ne var seen iof course MistressMarigold,MARIGOLD Oh no, neveri Though I know every nook andcranny of it by hearsay,ARTHUR Marigold’s mother and grandfather had the shockof their lives xk recently when Philip Arnold,Marigold’s step—father, a.shered them intoMontgomery House, their residence of by—gonedays, and exactly as it was when they fledfrom it as exiles, —— to this northernwilderness, p———212Page 8MARIC)LD And, how car d.eer ob4 Dougal will enjoyplaying butler again in the grand, old. familymansion,ARTHUR Roger, perohanoe, does not understand thesituation, arigo1d.,ROGER Ha, not fully, I oonfess,ARTHUR You see, old. ohappie, -— Philip Arnold, afterthe eviction of the Loyalists fran the Statesremained behind., —— in Boston,MARIGOLD A rebel against King George,ROGER Yes, understand.,ARTHUR 7ell, through sentiment for the home of hisvery d.ear friend, Marigold.’s mother,MARIGOLD His Loyalist sweetheart,ROGER Ha, yea,--ARTHUR Philip purchased Montgomery House, which hadof course been confiscated, and. installed acaretaker, with ord.ers that everything shanid.remain exactly as his friends had left it,MARIGOLD Philip is a love,ROGER He must have been in love,ARTHUR Oh well, be wasL (laughs) However, now yearslater, be marries his early sweetheart, andtakes her back for a sight of her old. home, --as it was when she left it, an ard.ent littleLoyalist maiden,ROGER Romantic, -- in the extreme_______.STORMh24.;213Page 9ROGER Almost incredible to this generation,,British subjects leaving homes such asMontgomery House, luxury, comfort, wealth, --through loyalty,MARIGOLD Oh, but they would have been most miserable, -remaining on reble soil,ARTHUR To take the oath of allegiance to a rebelpresident -- was quite beyond the, natarally,ROGER Ha, so it seemMARIGOLD For England — the glorious British Empire,and the grand old fJ.ng, -— I —- well Ishould have done just as mother did,no matter what the sonsequenoes,ARTHUR There spake the daughter of a Loyalist,Roger,ROGER — And thus will speak the sons and daughters ofthe United EmoireLyalist8, while Time endures,Arthr, ur I’m no orophet, and no historiansSTORMMINUETNARRATOR (topping storm) On the wings of the storm we leaveingston and Norton Villa, - for a flying visitto Boston and, stately old Montgomery House,our Mary’s dearly—loved home in the by—gonedays, -— The blizzard holds high carnival here,as in the distant north,STOSTORM FADES DOM & OUTIn the luxarictis library, annhanged since ourlast visit thirty years ago—Mary’s white—haired father is dosing, beside the oren fire,—a Lyalist patriarch on familiar but n alienterritory. A faint smile parts his lips,MUSIC FADES IN214Page 10Mary sits at the spirmet, the dear oldspinnet which, three decades since, well knewand. loved the touch of her girlish fingerHer husband, Philip Arnold, in the shadowoast by the flickering fire—light, feasts hiseyes upon her still beautifu]. face,PHILIP My thanks, dear one, —- Tie like a breath frostby-.gohe years,MARY The dear old spinnet, how I missed it for thelongest while,PHILIP Tin with difficulty one realizes that so muchhas taken place since we three sat thuswithin this room, two and thirty years ago.ST OHMMARY How very wonderful of you, Philip, to cherishour old hoete as you did, --— after ourdepatture, —-purchasing It, — guarding it fromchange,PHILIP Ha, twas like a shrine to me You little know,Mary After the Revolution, you and yourfather exiles in the remote north, —— I —— alonewoid enter here, —— feeling your dear presenceround about me, —— Oh, twas thus I lived,until mad with longing, I resolved to forsakeBostn and the New tepublio which I bad rownto loathe, Binoe it had torn you from me,MARY Oh, that oruel, cruel war,PHILIP And I insane enough t o believe that Washingtonand his followers were in the right,MARY. You were so young, Philip, —— 80 impetuous, ——I understand it now, —— Maturer years haveshown you the glory and the greatnesa ourMother land,215PHILIP Ah, bat the. wasted years between, Mary,MARY We mast forget them, that is all, ———The lastm twelvemouth — a dream of happiness —— hascompensated,PHILIP We shall always keep Montgomery House, -—unchanged — a shrine, as I said,MARY Always, always, - Philip - the dear old home,No strange feet must tread its halls,PHILIP You. would not like to forsake Niagara, --permanently, for Boston ami Montgomery House?It’s stately luxury makes Royce Cot sufferpitifully by contrast,MARY Montgomery House, Dear? On.Amerioan, - on aliensoil? Were it twenty times the mansion thatit is, and twenty times as dear, to me, yet woulI prefer a shack under the British flag, --PHILIP And, from the bottom of my heart, — the heatia much too late Loyalist, I say AmeniMARY I wonder what Marigold and Arthur are doingnow, at Kingston, in Upper Canada, —- If thisstorm is visiting them,PHILIP Possiblyl (lower) Ha, your fa her is rousing,love, —— I will withdraw and leave you and himalone, as was your custom at the end of the dayFADE OUTlong ago,MARY (raise). Thank you, Philip, - for a short while, merely’DOORFADE IN A LITTLE ASMARY GOES TOWARD HIMFATHER Ha, bless me, daughter, — I have slept,Yes, you have, fa her, long and peacefully, ——(anxiously) You are quite well?216Page 12FATHER quite well, I th.i.nk,Wfl(D FILLS IEThe past, —— the past, it came to me.in a d.reem, — I cannot seem to shake it,MJ.RY The happy past7FATHER Ah yes, the happy past, -- The mantle of theyears dropped from me, -- I was young a1vigorous once mose, -- master of MontgomeryHouse, —— slaves to o my bidding,MARY Yes, —— yes father?FATHER A coach and four at my commend, -- coachmen,cooks, gardeners,MARY As of old,FATHER Philip’s father, ‘y old friend Henry Arnold, -flashed in front of the pio tore, -— Then—— onuntil my little bride of one short year, yourmother Mary, entered that door, -— A happyanile was on her lips,MARY My other, whoai I never knew,FATHER Yes, I seemed to be Bitting Inthis chair, asI am sitting now, -— before the fire, -— andshe, to float toward me, — bend over me, --the tendersst caress, —— and then the whisperedwords, dove—like in their softness, —— “Come,come with me, dear one, -- I have waited longiLet us away together. Renew thy youth in therealms of lightMARY Beaotiful,father,FATHER A dream, -- only a dream,MARY (softly) Shall I. sing a good night hymn for you, fahherdear?217Page INFATHER ‘Jesus, lover of my slrn.l,Let me to they bosom fly’MARY Yes, father,VERY FALTERING FATHER You are bap with your Philip, Mary?MARY Very, very happy, —— If has been like a dreamfor us, bore at old. Montgomery House, but weare both becoming anxious to return toNiagara, Royce Cot, and. British soil,FADE A LITTLE FATHER Yes, —— yes, —— British soil,MA Now, oar hymn,MARY SINGSFADE IN MARY Father, father, -- are --- are —- you ill?FADING FATHER Ill? Mo -- no-- no---Fathnr, father, rouses IFATHER Niagara semis ————a long---—way ——offA ———— long way off, (heavy breathLng)MARY Father, —— father -—i— dearest Y0u are ill,you. are liiiFATHER (breathes heavily)Yos? Yea, father? What, — what is it?I can sooreely bear,FATHER (as if speaking to someone else)I ——— come I ———— oome beloved.1MINUETNARRATOR And the spirit the Loyalist patriarchwinged its way to the realms of light,SLEIGH BELLS FADE INMeanwhile, at distant Kingston, the storm past,the stars shining, —— sleigh bells jingling, theelite of the district tarn out for theQuilting Bee,SLEIGH BWLLSThe Quilting BeesSLEIGH BELLS FADE OUT218FAINT MINUNT BLCROUNDA MUS ICAL R1VIEWCHATTER TCVOIOES (topping chatter)How d,o yoa d.o, Maria d.ear,To see yoi gi’ree ne pleasureVia glad yoa fetched. Kezziah hereAt quilting sha1 a treasurelIADING VOICE Yes, Keziah is a treasuresDICES IT UNISOM iiite a treasurelNAFflATOR (topping chatter)The ladies neat, each other greetAnd, at the frame are seated,OHATTR In or&er placed,, the ik work tby hasteBACGROUI1D To get the guilt mplete&219While fingers fly, their tczxguea they plyAnd, a.nj,mate their laboursBy conning beaus, discussing clothesOr talicing of their neighbours.CHATTER1ST WOM&N Her &read.ThJ. frock, gives me a shookTIa unbeoceing, veryINADING VOICE VerylVOICES UNISON Oh veryt1ST WOM.N Her bodice low, -— A perfect 8hOWI’m horrified, at Maryl -VOICE ShockingVOICES IN UNISON quite ehoo1cing1S WOMA,E Quite ou of style, the longest whileIt po.ts me in e.npassion2ND WOWJ A perfect freak In vain you’d seekA sillier contrapsbo.n -IHADING VOICE Silly QuiteVOICES IN UNISON Most siflylCHATTERVOICES (through chatter)1. My lear, a fetching brooch you’ve on2. I’m very glad. you like it3. I’m told, that Miss MoConicon4. Don’t speak to Mr. My-gateLE&DIHG VOICE Do tellIVOICES IN UNISON Do tel]J1ST WLAN I saw Miss Bell the other dayYoong Green’s new gig adniiigIHAD]ING VOICE Huh, buhLVOICES IN UNISON Huh, buh220Page 17SlID W(IL&1I Q.aite commonly izi&eei, they saySince An&y Blaok she’s sningINkLING VOIGE Oh myiVOICES Ill UNISON Oh myCHATTERVOIOES (in the obatter)1. Tie time to roll. 2. My needle’s broke3. So Martin’s farm is selling4. Louisa’s we&d.ing is bespoke5. Ind.eed.L Tie news you’re telling2. That matoh will never oome aboutCHATTER It pats me In a passionBAOKOUND 1. Hair puffs they say, are going oat3. Yes, curls are all the fashionlINkLING VOICE Oh qoitelVOICES IN UNISON Yes, qaitelSLIGHT DRIDGE MINUET1IAERATOR The quilt is d.one, the tea begonTHE CI.TTER OF DISHESThe beaux are all collecting.ATTER OF DISHESFlUE IN MALE VOICES IN UNISON Good. eveningi Good. evoningNARRATOR The table cleared., the music cheered.MUSIC FADES INVOICES IN UNISON Ah musialNARRATOR His partner each pelectingCHATTER & VERY DIlL MUSIO1ST HEAU My &anoe, Lacillel You make me feelSTAGE lIISER k-flatter with emotion1ST WOMAN Hash Ed.war& &ear. The folks will hearSTAGE WHISPER Twill cause a sad. cimontionOHATTER2ND MAN An Oharityi A rarityAn evening such as this is221Page 18DIM MUSIC BACKGROUND2ED WOMAN I qaite agree, ——CHATTER &2ND MAN Come dance with meSUBDUEDMy heart aglow with bliss isiLAUGERMUSI 0 & CHATTERNARRAT(B (topping confasion)The merry band. In ord.er stand.The dana. begins with vigorlLI’YELI DANCE MUSICWI?LI OCCASIONAL I1U(And, rapid. feet, the measare beatAnd. trip the maze with rigorlLIVELY DANCE MUSICSTINUESVOICES (into d.ance)FADE IN & OUT 1ST WOMAN My kerchief sin I lost it1ST MAN I lost my heart, sweet one1ST WOMAN Yoa mast away have tossed. itiMUSIC -1(0310 STOPSADPLAUSE & LAUGHTERVOICE (into applase) Delihtfa1lDURING APPLAUSE VOICES IN UNISON Most d.eligbtfu,llMUSIC ODEF SINGfl{GARTHUR (in nataral tones) Marigold., love, are yoa enjoyingthe quilting Bee?CHATTERMARIGOLD I oharmed,, AtharI Never have I enjoyed.an evening morelCHANTER1ST WOMAN (topping chatter) Maria Long will sing a songWe all enjoy her lilting, -—APPLAUSE & VOICES IN UNISON ]&ania Manial222Page 191ST OMAN (topping music) Twere sad, to miss a treat likethisWhen gathered. at a quilting.MARIA S lEGS Q.UAIET NUGP2APPLAUSE ,,“A3CVE APPLAUSE VOICES IN UNISON Ee1ifu1ZD ligbtfu11CHATTER - -1S’2 WOMAN (topping ctter) Isiah Riece will speak a pieoeo make the hours speed. faster.PPLAU5R Isiahi lsiahL1ST WOMAN (topping applause) To miss this treat, Isiah’s featTwoald spell indeed., disasterlAPPLAUSELEADING VOICE Oh yesVOICES IN UNISON yesiISIAH’S PIECE -OLD FASHIONED S1ECTIONFROM MOORE OR GOLDSMITHAPPLAUSELEADING VOICE (topping applause) Most oleverAPPLAUDING VOICES IN UNISON Most ClevertDALE MUSIC CUECHATTERMARRA.TOR (topping batter)Again they d,g1oe At every onoe-FThe boau, the belles embracingDANCE 1WSICOCCASIONAL LAUGHA merry throng, they glide alongthe ills of life efaoing,DANCE MUSICVOICES (in defoe) (stage whispers)2ND MAN My little sweet, your waist so neatI do embrace with pAeasure2232. Farewefl JaneYoar ;arty Was saooasafl1ST MAN When bid. again, in su or rainWill emo, it was so zestfullIDXMG VOICE The evening was most zestfu..]JVOES IN UHIE Most Zestfsl3LADINC VOICE Farewe11VOICES IN tIMISOM XareweUl FarewefliMAB.RA!OR (tofl ing wheels)Then alosely etowe to eaoh abodThe oaniages go tilti2zg---1)A2.t: , , a_c; i/ •i,224/Page 20F4DANCE. OONINUESFADE INVAED O! ASUP TO ANDPASS TEEMIXEDANCE CONTINUESDANCE MUSIC000ASIOMAL L.UGKFADES IN AND OUTLED W(W.N Sir t efuseE P’sa1 VsYouTfl miud or Btop the measure.VOICES 1. A painted. di11 So verynallVThis step is quite oonfiising -3. The waltz is new to quite a few4. Rer strid.e is .ita amusingL LIDEARR&TOR (topping d.anoe)And, as they trip the moments slipOld. time himself. seens an.ngThU night’s lark eye is oped. to spyThe steps of morn ad.venoingVOICES (in confusion)1. Good.bye, Mathld.eMUSIC GRADUALLtVALES OUTSLIG BRIDGE MINUETDOORDOOR:.WEEES FADE IllWEINS VitTJHAppendix 3\ks€Lefifi,JDATE L4 I ‘1 / S2VT’,______M’,STER. DUB CMONO C STEREO COPERATORCHCH-TV videotape labelfor television news programmerecording of “Golden Horseshoe Report,” 19 October 1992.HAMILTON TORONTO227


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