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Broadcast archives: a diplomatic examination Simpson, Janice Louise 1994

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BROADCAST ARCHIVES:  A DIPLOMATIC EXAMINATION By  JANICE LOUISE SIMPSON B.A.  (Honours),  Carleton University,  1985  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Library,  Archival and Information Studies  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1994 Janice Louise Simpson,  1994  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Signature)  Department of  t----  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2)88)  /3  —-<-  ABSTRACT This special diplomatics’ study examines the applicability and usefulness of diploniatics for the analysis of broadcast archives, and specifically,  of sound and moving image documents.  The  traditional model of diplomatic analysis, devised for dispositive and probative documents, was found not applicable to supporting and narrative documents, which constitute most of contemporary archival material. The documents that are characteristic of the broadcast industry in particular are supporting documents; therefore, a new model of diplomatic analysis based on the same principles and methods as the traditional one was developed in this thesis for supporting documents generated by the broadcast industry.  The new model was successfully used to analyze textual and nontextual,  early and contemporary documents produced by different  types and sizes of radio and television stations. showed that the formation,  form,  The analysis  and transmission of supporting  documents in the broadcast industry has not changed significantly over time; that,  although the organization of every broadcast  station is unique and constantly changing,  there is a basic  organizational structure for all broadcast stations regardless of size; and,  that the functions of all stations are basically the ii  same.  The analysis also revealed that the model, the scheme,  and the  procedure of criticism used in this thesis provide an understanding which would assist in appraisal, description of specific broadcast archives.  arrangement,  and  The bottom-up/top-  down integrated approach to the analysis supports the understanding of the documentary,  administrative and juridical  context of the documents in question,  and demonstrates that  diplomatics can be used to devise new tools for the examination and study of new types of documents.  The study concludes that broadcast archives in general, and moving image documents in particular,  can be profitably  analyzed according to diplomatic principles and methods.  iii  and sound  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE: Documents’ 1) 2) 3)  1 BROADCASTING:  THE TYPICAL ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS  Criticism  13  Radio Drama Script Analysis Radio Drama Programme Recording Analysis Television News Programme Recording Analysis  Procedural Analysis 1) 2) 3)  59  Radio Drama Programme Production Radio Drama Script Production Television News Programme Production  Summary  83  CHAPTER TWO:  BROADCASTING: CONTEXT Juridical System 1) 2) 3) 4)  THE JURIDICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL  84 85  Legislation Industry Regulation In—House Policy Socio—Political Framework a) b)  Ownership Finance  Technological Development 1) 2)  12  97  Radio Television  Summary CHAPTER THREE:  115 BROADCASTING:  THE ADMINISTRATIVE CONTEXT  Radio Television Documentation Summary  ..  119 123 148 159 169  iv  CONCLUSION Glossary:  .  Broadcast Terms  .  Bibliography Appendix 1: Appendix 2: Appendix 3:  175 182 199  Radio Drama Script Radio Drama Programme Recording Television News Programme Recording  V  206 225 227  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.  Organizational Chart  2.  Organizational Chart  3.  Organizational Chart  4.  organizational Chart  5.  Basic Theoretical Organization Model  -  -  -  -  Small Radio Station  126  Medium Radio Station  136  Large Radio Station  144  Large Television Station  151  vi  171  INTRODUCTION Archivists are constantly attempting to broaden their strategies to gain a better understanding of individual documents and of their creating organizations. urgency however,  This objective is acquiring a new  because everchanging administrative structures  are becoming increasingly complex,  and the development of  technology has resulted in a proliferation of documents in new and different forms that are being created, stored in a multitude of ways. addressed this phenomenon,  transmitted,  and  In a recent article, Peter Sigmond  and proposed that archivists  investigate how their colleagues in other countries and in related professions have reacted to this new reality. 1 Specifically,  he reported on work being done in the Netherlands,  and suggested that,  like the Dutch,  North American archivists  focus on the formal features of documents with the purpose of elucidating the administrative structures and bureaucratic procedures underlying their creation.  Sigmond stated that the  formal features of documents are governed by rules of procedure and rules of representation,  and that archivists can use this  information not only to distinguish between contemporary documentary forms,  but to fulfil their primary functions of  1  J. Peter Sigmond, “Form, Function and Archival Value,” Archivaria 33 (Winter 1991—92): 141—47. 1  appraisal,  arrangement and description.  A methodology mentioned by Sigmond which has only recently been considered an option by North American archivists, offered by the science of diplomatics.  is that  The recent development of  interest in diploinatics in North America is largely due to a series of articles published in Archivaria by Luciana Duranti entitled,  “Diploinatics: New Uses for an Old Science.” 2  Duranti  notes that, while diplomatics is an unquestioned and integral part of the European archival culture documentary heritage),  (due to the age of that  North American archivists should determine  how diplomatics can assist them in their work with contemporary 3 records.  This thesis is a response to that challenge.  While general diplomatics establishes theory and methodology, special diplornatics applies them to a specific body of records. This study is in the field of special diploxnatics in that it uses diplomatic principles and methods to analyze typical records produced and accumulated by the broadcast industry. to discover  is  broadcast  whether  records,  diplomatics can  and specifically,  Its purpose  be applied to  whether it can be  2  Luciana Duranti is a Professor in the Master of Archival Studies Programme in the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, University of British Columbia. Duranti’s series of six articles on diplomatics was published in Archivaria, one article per issue, beginning in the summer issue 1989, volume 28. Science  Luciana Duranti, “Diploinatics: New Uses for an Old (Part VI),” Archivaria 33 (Winter 1991—92): 7. 2  successfully used to analyze sound and moving image documents.  BROADCAST RECORDS In order to clarify what is meant by the term broadcast records, it is necessary to define the term “broadcast agency,” the creating body of broadcast records, which is any agency, public or private, profit or non—profit, educational or commercial, which produces, transmits and/or distributes audible and/or visual matter,by radio and/or television, by satellite and/or by cable, intended to be received primarily by the general public. 4 Therefore,  broadcast records are defined here as,  document created by any broadcast agency, format,  any written  in any medium or  in the course of its activity.  Broadcast agencies generate documents in a variety of media and formats.  When the science of diplomatics was first established,  sound and moving image documents as a particular kind of physical and intellectual documentary form did not exist. Because the principles of diplomatics were formulated upon observation of the characteristics of textual documents,  it is particularly  important to discover whether they can be applied to the sound and moving image documents produced by a broadcast agency. Contemporary documents are routinely produced in many different  ‘  The definition formulated by this author agency does not include peripheral agencies such professional associations, regulatory bodies, or Also excluded from it are production companies. 3  for a broadcast as related independent cable companies.  forms and many different kinds of media, yet to date, a diplomatic analysis of non—paper, been conducted.  non—textual documents has not  In this respect, the present study is a  pioneering effort.  DIPLOMATICS Originally conceived of as a method of ascertaining the authenticity of a document, diplomatics was born as a science in the seventeenth century with the completion of Jean Mabillon’s treatise,  De Re Diplomatica Libri VI.  The science of  diplomatics, which studies the written document,  establishes the  principles and methodology necessary to analyze its formation, 5. form and transmission  By using internal evidence and collating  documents similar in character,  diplomatics constructs a system  which assists in determining a document’s provenance, date, and/or relevance to the creating agency as a reflection of functional necessity.  “Certainly the most difficult documents to read are by no means necessarily those in the most outlandish hands: they are far more likely to be those which are cast in a form outside the reader’s  A diplomatic analysis can only be conducted on “written” documents, that is, “evidence which is produced on a medium (paper, magnetic tape, disc, plate, etc.) by means of a writing instrument (pen, pencil, typing machine, printer, etc.) or of an apparatus for fixing data, images and/or voices.” See Luciana Duranti, “Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old Science,” Archivaria 28 (Summer 1989): 15. 4  6 experience.”  In his discussion of form, L.C. Hector noted that,  if an individual can recognize the type of a document,  s/he will  ultimately have a better understanding of its meaning, that is, “if, having read the beginning of a phrase, he knows how it is likely to continue and end, his progress is bound to be easier; his mind will lead his eyes.” 7  A reader’s ability to read and  understand a document is partly based on prior knowledge and the ability to predict what the document should or might contain. Diploinatics, which aims to provide documents’ readers with that ability,  is defined as:  the discipline which studies the genesis, form and transmission of archival documents in relationship with the facts represented in them, and with their creators, in order to identify, evaluate and communicate their nature. 8 The benefit of using diplomatics to analyze contemporary records has been questioned, but usually not on scientific grounds. The concepts and methods underlying diplornatics are used by North American archivists regularly  (though often subconsciously);  diplornatics provides a framework for their use, which documents can be analyzed. appear  to  some  to  be  and a system by  While diplomatic analysis may  a sterile exercise, this study  6  L.C. Hector, The Handwriting of English Documents (London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., 1966), 14. ‘  Ibid.  S  Duranti, “Diplomatics,” 17. Note that while some diplomatic concepts can be used for documents that are not archival because of the circumstances of their creation, the science was designed for archival documents, because non—archival documents are not evidence of facts and acts. 5  aims to demonstrate that it provides a clear procedure of inquiry conducive to the identification of all the relevant information about a document.  Diplomatics’ most basic contribution to the study of documents is its ‘definitional component.’ elements,  functions, and forms,  Providing terms for document it allows for consistency and  standardization when describing documents and the context in which they are created. 9  Secondly, diplomatics provides a means  for making connections between documents and the actions which produced them.  This enables archivists to understand the purpose  for which documents were created,  as well as their relationship  with the persons and the other documents participating in the same transaction.  The third contribution of diplomatics is the links it makes between a document and the procedure in which the document was created.’°  The characteristics of the procedural phase of  document formation explain the activities in which the creator is engaged during that phase.  The understanding of the activities  undertaken within a procedural phase elucidates a creator’s functions.  Lastly,  See Duranti,  diplomatics provides the means for analyzing “Diplomatics,” 7.  10  This contribution also facilitates the means for a systematic examination of the relationship between documents and the juridical system within which documents are created, the relationship between documentary forms and types of acts, as well as the relationship between documents and persons. 6  the information system in which a document exists,  and to connect  it with the broader administrative and juridical context of the document.  METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY This thesis will use diplomatic methodology in a systematic way, that is,  it will separately examine all the elements that  diplomatists have identified as belonging to a documentary system according to diplomatic concepts and principles.’ 1 The study of those elements is meant to occur simultaneously,  so that the  knowledge derived from the analysis of one can support the understanding of the others,  however,  study itself can only be sequential.  the presentation of the Consequently, this author  has chosen to begin the presentation of the analysis from the study of the documents,  because this is the traditional way in  which diplomatists develop their examinations.  This very detailed  exposition will be contrasted with a view of the context of the records’ specific,  creators, proceeding gradually from the general to the until the two examinations of the records and of their  context will meet in the presentation of the persons and their activities.  Heather MacNeil emphasized the importance of developing this converging type of analysis when she stated,  “  that a thorough  Duranti, “Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old Science IV),” Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990—91): 10. 7  (Part  examination of archival documents must take a top—down approach as well as a bottom—up approach:  To understand the meaning of a particular documentary form. . . it is essential first to determine the nature of the bureaucratic action (for example, the function, activity or transaction) that generated it, as well as the social, legal and administrative structure that provided the context for that action. It is only when provenancial relationships have been delineated and elucidated that the documentary forms that embody them can be understood.. While a top—down approach reconstructs the organization of the creating body,  and analyzes its function and procedures (based on  law and regulations),  a bottom—up approach is a direct  examination of documents and analyzes the documents’ genesis, form and transmission to discover more about their relationships and context of creation.  This thesis takes therefore an  integrated approach in its analysis of the documentary residue of the broadcast industry,  for the purpose of collecting all the  relevant information about broadcast documents,  of being able to  distinguish between how the records creating bodies are supposed to function and how they actually function,  and of assessing the  contribution of the diplomatic methods to the acquisition of knowledge about the broadcast industry.  Peter Sigmond has written  that documentary forms often prove to be more consistent than the organization of the offices in which documents are produced.’ 3  12  Heather MacNeil, “Weaving Provenancial and Documentary Relations,” Archivaria 34 (Summer 1992): 192. sigmond,  “Form,  Function and Archival Value,” 144. 8  His point will be tested in the study of the context of creation of broadcast records in Chapters Two and Three,  the results of  which will be capable of being compared with the direct examination of the records in Chapter One.  SOURCES OF THE STUDY In the English speaking world,  there is limited literature  concerning general diplomatics, there is little in the archival literature about broadcast archives,  and there is virtually no  literature about the diplomatics of broadcast archives.  The  published sources used for this thesis are therefore scarce and focus on general diplomatics and diplomatic analyses of specific bodies of records.  The discussion of the application of  diplomatic methodology to the study of the documents generated by the broadcast industry,  the history of radio and television,  and  the presentation of the legislation relevant to the industry are primarily based on monographs and journals from the field of broadcasting.  The principal sources of information for this thesis were a series of discussions with records creators working in the broadcast industry,  and the first—hand examination of documents.  Several active broadcast agencies were studied: the British Broadcasting Corporation  (United Kingdom),  9  CHCH-Television  14 TVOntario Ontario),  (Hamilton, (Toronto,  Ontario).  (Toronto,  Ontario)  and CIUT-FM  These stations were chosen because they are  representative of small and large institutions that are either profit or non—profit, television,  educational or commercial,  radio and/or  and French and/or English.  ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS Chapter One,  which is a direct examination of three documents  typical of the broadcast industry,  takes a bottom-up approach  which typifies a diplomatic analysis of the genesis,  form,  and  transmission of these documents. Note that this analysis is only directed to operational records,  as administrative or  housekeeping records are formally the same for all business organizations.  Note also that the study is not limited to the  Canadian system,  even if for practical reasons,  5 taken from the Canadian context.’ take a top-down approach,  the examples were  The following two chapters  and through an analysis of the context  14  Radio and television stations are commonly referred to by their “call letters.” In Canada, call letters are assigned by the Canadian Radio and Television Commission (CRTC). Stations may apply to the CRTC for particular letters which have significance to them (for example, the initials of the owner). However, the first letter for all Canadian stations is “C” just as the first letter for all U.S. stations is “W.” 15  The operational records of an agency are generated by functions that pertain to the continued operations and services provided by that agency in accordance with its mandate. An agency’s administrative records (often referred to as housekeeping records), include all documents produced by supporting functions, such as personnel, financial, purchasing, and property control. While operational records relate to activities that are external in nature, administrative records relate to activities of an internal nature. 10  of creation, determine which broadcast records are produced, what purpose, by whom, procedures.  That is,  under which conditions,  for  and using which  Chapter Two outlines the broadcast  industry’s juridical system and technological development as it relates to the history of radio and television, and Chapter Three continues with an examination of the administrative context in which broadcast archives are created. functions, procedures,  In Chapter Three,  the  and activities of a typical radio and  television station are identified and discussed, as are the persons that concur in the formation of broadcast documents.  In  addition, this chapter includes a detailed description of the persons  (their roles and responsibilities)  documents created and accumulated by them.  and a list of This chapter is  illustrated with figures which provide a structural framework.  The Conclusion summarizes and assesses the value of the thesis’ findings.  Following the Conclusion is a Glossary of radio and  television terms.’ 6  The Glossary is not exhaustive,  terms included in this study, listed.  but all the  or directly relevant to it are  Finally, Appendices illustrate the documents chosen for  analysis.  16  This thesis does not include a glossary of diplomatic terms. It is important to understand that diplomatic definitions are different from archival definitions because diplomatics is a separate science. For definitions of diplomatic terms see Luciana Duranti’s series of articles. 11  CHAPTER ONE BROADCASTING:  THE TYPICAL ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS  The diplomatic analysis begins with a direct examination of three documents typical of the broadcast industry,  followed by an  examination of the transactions from which each of these  documents results.  This examination is a three—part analysis  which identifies all the elements concurring in the formation of these documents,  and demonstrates what can be learned directly  from the information provided by those elements about the documents’  creators and context of creation.  The procedural  study of the genesis of the documents will further clarify their administrative context.  In every broadcast station, broadcast,  everything revolves around the  thus, the most typical transactions are those which  relate to the production and airing of radio and/or television programmes and the most typical documentary forms are programme related. The three documents chosen for analysis in this study include a radio drama script,  a radio drama programme recording  and a television news programme recording.’  These documents are  Examples of documents from both early and contemporary stations have been chosen to determine whether the age factor affects the design of the model of analysis. 12  representative of documentary forms and transactions unique to the broadcast industry.  DOCUMENTS’ CRITICISM The diplomatic criticism of the documents is the first step the three-part bottom-up analysis.  of  It consists of the  identification of the extrinsic and intrinsic elements or characteristics of the documents,  and of the deductions made from  this examination about the persons, material.  actions and forms of archival  Extrinsic characteristics of a document are the  elements that constitute the physical make-up of the document and contribute to its external appearance.  Intrinsic characteristics  of a document are “the integral components of its intellectual articulation:  the mode of presentation of the document’s content,  2 or the parts determining the tenor of the whole.”  The purpose  of the process of identifying what corresponds to those characteristics in a given document 3 is to draw conclusions about 4 a document’s function through an analysis of its form. 2  Science  Luciana Duranti, “Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old (Part V),’ 1 Archivaria 32 (Summer 1991): 11.  Janet Turner uses the expression “labelling.” See Janet Turner, “Studies in Documents: Experimenting with New Tools: Special Diplomatics and the Study of Authority in the United Church of Canada,” Archivaria 30 (Summer 1990): 99. Note that an examination of extrinsic characteristics can This writer had only be performed on an original document. access to the three original documents, but it is a disadvantage for the reader not to have the original documents readily available for documentary criticism. A photocopy of the radio drama script has been provided in Appendix 1, a photocopy of the radio discs have been provided in Appendix 2, and a photocopy of 13  Form is defined as “...the complex of the rules of representation used to convey a message, that is,  as the characteristics of a  document which can be separated from the determination of the particular subjects, persons or places which it concerns.” 5 the middle ages,  In  early diplomatists recognized that it was  possible to conceive of typical documentary forms,  and  established a method for analyzing those ideal forms.  The  knowledge resulting from such analysis assisted their understanding of the administrative actions and function generating a document, authenticity.  the ultimate object being to verify its  Today, verifying the authenticity of a document  might be one of the objects of the analysis, but contemporary archivists are primarily concerned with the information revealed about a document’s function because it provides them with an understanding of the context of a document’s creation, assists them in performing their archival duties.  and this  The components  of the ideal documentary form that diplomatists developed for dispositive and probative documents are as follows:  the label on the television recording has been provided in Appendix 3. For the purpose of this thesis, copies of the radio and television recordings are also being preserved in Special Collections at the University of British Columbia. The original script and original radio recording are preserved at the Archives of Ontario in Toronto, Ontario (C 105 St. Lawrence Starch The original television newscast is Company Collection). preserved at CHCH-TV in Hamilton, Ontario, in its news library. Duranti,  “Diplomatics...(Part V),” 6. 14  Extrinsic Elements: medium script language special signs seals annotations Intrinsic Elements: entitling title date invocation superscription inscription salutation subj ect formula perpetuitatis appreciation  —  preamble notification exposition disposition final clauses  Protocol  Text  corroboration [date] [appreciation] [salutation] complimentary clause attestation qualification of signature secretarial notes  —  Eschatocol  Not all of the extrinsic and intrinsic elements are present in every document and some are mutually exclusive.  It is in fact  the specific combination of certain elements which defines a documentary form; thus, while the above model is satisfactory for administrative documents in the form of the classic epistle, other models must be devised for other types of documents.  Each  model should contain the combination of recurring elements typical of the form which makes a given type of document able to 15  reach its purpose. The scheme developed by early diplomatists  to  examine the documents created in the Middle Ages does not have a universal applicability to twentieth century documents,  just as  the functional categorization of all documents as dispositive or probative does not embrace all contemporary archival material.  The three documents which have been chosen for the present analysis  —  recording,  a radio drama script, a radio drama programme and a television news programme recording  —  are not of  the type taken into consideration by traditional diplomatics. Even if they were created in support of an action, by-product,  but a product of an activity,  being intended for  dissemination and being manifestations of ideas, administrative endeavours. administrative procedures,  they are not a  rather than of  Yet, they fully participate in and are interrelated with typical  transactional documents; thus, their individual nature is subsumed by the nature of the aggregation of which they are part, and they come to share the same function accomplished by the archival documents contained in the same group.  The three documents belong in the category termed “supporting” documents, which includes all those documents “constituting written evidence of a juridically relevant activity which does 6 not result in a juridical act.”  6  Science  In the context of the function,  Luciana Duranti, “Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old (Part II),” Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989—90): 9. 16  activity, and procedure in which they participate, they serve the same purpose that teaching notes and a recording of related lectures serve in the context of the teaching function of a professor.  Therefore, while their forms can be dissected by a  diplomatic analysis, a new model must be devised to guide such operations.  The traditional model described above was defined on  the basis of the documentary forms existent for dispositive and probative documents, the written form of which was required, and which were not intended to be communicated by voice.  In order to develop a new model for these documents, the recurring elements typical of each documentary form must be identified. This does not mean that some of the elements characteristic of administrative documents are not present also in the new model,  but that schemes of analysis must be specific  to each documentary form.  The new model, which is the first part  7 for the form of supporting of the scheme of diplomatic analysis documents in the broadcast industry is as follows: Extrinsic Elements: medium script language special signs seals annotation(s)  Note that the ‘scheme of diplomatic analysis’ is the schematization of the entities examined by diplomatists for each document subject to their analysis, in the order in which those entities are examined. 17  Intrinsic Elements: entitling title (series) title/number (episode) date introductory credits theme music sponsor endorsement or advertisement announcement summary introduction narration dialogue  —Protocol  I  i_Body  sign-off end—credits theme music copyright sponsor (endorsement or advertisement)  This model results from an observation of multiple examples of the documentary forms in question, and will be tested on the three documents mentioned earlier.  Some of the elements in this  model are also typical of the scheme used to analyze administrative documents, however others have been eliminated or revised.  While all of the extrinsic elements remain the same  (because extrinsic elements do not relate to articulation of content), most of the intrinsic elements have changed. model,  like the traditional model,  The new  contains a sub—structure for  intrinsic elements comprised of three sections: protocol, body, eschatocol. The new elements present in each of these sections are defined below.  18  The protocol of supporting documents in the broadcast industry serves the same purpose of the protocol of dispositive and probative documents, that is, to introduce a document and provide the context for the action and its documentation.  The three  elements common to both models are an entitling, title and date, while those specific to the new model are introductory credits, theme music,  sponsor endorsement or advertisement, and summary.  As in the traditional model, not all of these elements are present in every supporting document generated by the broadcast industry,  and some are mutually exclusive.  The element entitling,  as in administrative documents,  is the  mention of the physical or juridical person issuing the document. In the case of a radio script, television script or programme recording,  this is usually the production company.  Although the  new model includes ‘title’ as an element, the definition of this element is revised and expanded with respect to the traditional ‘title.’  Almost all radio and television drama programmes,  since  the very early period, have both a series title and an episode title or number.  A series title is defined as a formal title  proper, that is,  an inclusive title for a group of programmes  which contains two or more parts. 8  An episode title is defined  as the title used to indicate the name of an individual programme  8  This definition was taken from the Planning Committee on Descriptive Standards’ draft of “Sound Records,” chap. in Rules for Archival Description, Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian Archivists, December 1992. 19  which is part of a series.  Often, rather than being individually  titled, episodes are instead numbered.  Like the model for dispositive and probative documents, the model for supporting documents generated by the broadcast industry also includes a ‘date’ element in the protocol.  However, the  definition of this element is also revised and expanded. While traditionally the date referred to the place or time of the action or of its documentation,  the date element in radio and  television productions may refer to either the production date, the air—date,  or both.  The production date is the date a radio  or television programme is created and made ready for broadcast. The air—date,  is the date on which a programme is scheduled to be  broadcast .  A new element present in the protocol of this model is introductory credits.  Credits are mentions of the contributions  to a programme’s production. This element might be compared to the traditional superscription, but whereas the superscription mentions the author of the document and/or the act, introductory credits usually refer to the script’s author and the actors.’°  A radio or television programme may have credits at  If the action is “broadcasting,” in a very general way it could be said that a production date is the date of a document, while an air-date is the action’s date. 10  Credits provide radio listeners and television viewers information about the persons responsible for the creation with Introductory credits are a characteristic of the programme. 20  the end (end-credits)  as well as at its beginning (introductory  End—credits are present in the eschatocol.  credits).  Theme music is a short piece of music or a segment of a longer piece of music which is routinely played at the beginning and/or end of a production.  A programme is often recognized by its  theme music when it is broadcast. Theme music is commonly followed by a sponsor endorsement or advertisement. This is another new element which may appear in any of the three document’s sections: protocol,  body,  or eschatocol. A ‘sponsor’  is an organization or individual who finances a particular production or the broadcast of a radio or television programme, and usually receives recognition during the broadcasting of the programme. its name  This recognition is either in the form of mention of  (endorsement), or of an advertisement  one of its products.  (commercial)  for  Sponsor endorsements and advertisements  usually appear at the beginning and end of a programme,  but may  also appear throughout the body.  Sometimes  (more commonly in programme recordings), an  element in the protocol of radio and television scripts as well as broadcast recordings, which often also include end—credits in Actors’ names may be read on radio accompanied by an eschatocol. music, or appear on television with music, over images, on plain Often f or television background or framed by a graphic design. dramas, printed credits are displayed opposite an image of the actor, or set opposite to the name of the character that the actor plays. Credits are less common for news reports, but are gradually becoming more frequent as more and more in—depth stories are produced. 21  announcement is present.  This is typically a statement that  proclaims the start of a programme.  Lastly,  drama productions, a summary is included.  especially in serial This element is  typically a reiteration by the narrator of the previous episode(s).  The second section in the traditional model for an administrative document, the ‘text,’ refers to the substance of the document and contains the “manifestation of the will of the author, the evidence of the act,  or the memory of it.”  The body of a  supporting document is comparable in form to the text, however, it does not serve the same purpose,  and for this reason is named  differently. Rather than containing the action (will),  and the  information on its origin and motivation as in the text of a dispositive or probative document, the body of a supporting document in the broadcast industry only indirectly points to the action because it constitutes its product. The actual evidence of the act connected to the supporting document is in its protocol.  The elements of the body in this new model are introduction, narration and dialogue.  The introduction often consists of a  short presentation which may include the series or episode title. Like the traditional preamble, the introduction may express the motivation of the action, programme.  in this case,  of producing the  In the narration, a narrator sets the scene,  Duranti,  “Diplomatics...(Part V),’ 1 13. 22  and in  the dialogue the actual story begins.  The last of the three documentary sections is the eschatocol. Traditionally, the core of the eschatocol has been an attestation validating the document.  This element would include the  subscription of those who took part in issuing the document as well as of any witnesses.  There is no need for broadcast  supporting records to include such an element, because protocol elements and extrinsic special signs fulfil the validation function of the attestation.  A broadcast recording, however,  usually acknowledges the contribution of all or some of those who have taken part in the production transaction, and does it in the eschatocol. The eschatocol of the new model contains sign—off, end—credits,  theme music,  advertisement.  copyright and sponsor  (endorsement or  The term sign-off is taken directly from the  broadcast industry.  The function of this element is sometimes a  combination of the roles of the attestation,  corroboration,  salutation and complimentary clause in the traditional model, while other times it is simply conclusive. Thus,  in a radio or  television broadcast, the sign—off would usually consist of the narrator (in a drama)  or anchors  (in a newscast) wishing their  audience farewell, giving their name(s), and often naming the sponsor and/or the producer.  In a radio or television script  instead, the sign—off consists of a simple ‘END.’  End—credits serve the same purpose of introductory credits but 23  appear in the eschatocol.  Occasionally they duplicate  information provided by introductory credits, but they tend to be more detailed.  While end-credits usually do not appear in  scripts, they are common in programme recordings and especially in contemporary programming.  In fact, television stations are  now beginning to recognize the entire staff that works on their newscasts,  from the producer to the videotape librarian.  Copyright is the element which lists the intellectual owner of the production (the author of the act of producing the broadcast).  This identification of the extrinsic and intrinsic elements of a typical document generated by a specific kind of juridical person,  is only the first part of the bottom-up diplomatic  analysis. The second part, which follows the scheme of diplomatic criticism employed by traditional diplomatists for administrative documents,  consists of examining concrete existing documents  according to the structural documentary model, and using the information derived from that examination to deduce further information about the diplomatic concepts of persons, forms, procedures, those documents.  acts,  and status of transmission as they relate to Such an analysis provides information on the  persons concurring in the formation of the documents,  the names  and types of act in which those persons have participated,  the  relationship between the documents and the procedures generating the documents, the categories of the procedures generating the 24  documents,  and the types of the documents.  The resulting  information will determine the function of each document as a whole and will guide the third part of the bottom-up diplomatic analysis, that is,  the examination of the procedures by means of  which the documents chosen for analysis were generated.  This  three-part analytical structure will be used below to study the three existing documents selected for testing the effectiveness of diplomatic criticism.  1)  Radio Drama Script Analysis  The first document is an early radio drama script from a radio series entitled “What Price Loyalty”  (See Appendix 1).  The radio  series, which focused on the British Loyalists making their way in Canada,  was sponsored by the St.  in Hamilton, 1935 to 1936,  Ontario,  Lawrence Starch Company Ltd.  consisted of forty—nine episodes,  ran from  and aired weekly.  Extrinsic Elements The first extrinsic element is the medium,  that is,  the physical  material on which the message is fixed; the carrier of the information.  The medium of the radio script is white bond paper.  As is usual with radio and television scripts,  the pages are not  stapled together because it is noisy to turn stapled pages. White paper is traditionally most common for the final version of the script because it was always thought to be the easiest type to read from,  and scripts must use a paper that does not rattle 25  (onion skin is the worst). offices is recommended. side of the page,  Pulp copy paper as used in newspaper  The writing is also typed on only one  and this is usual because it reduces the noise  produced when actors and/or actresses read from the script.  The script element is traditionally characterized by information configuration,  layout, pagination,  format, typeface,  paragraphing, punctuation,  and corrections. 12  composed on a typewriter.  Radio and television scripts are never  This document was  handwritten so that the print is clear and easy to read. necessary corrections are always made carefully.  Any  There are  several corrections made to this document that are either typed over or written into the document,  and they include over ten  spelling corrections made with a typewriter, and three pencilled in additions of words.  It is unusual for a final radio or  television script to have corrections. document must be clean, neatly typed, punctuation, grammar and spelling.  Traditionally, the entire and free of errors in  However, with the time  restraints of a broadcast production, changes might be made up to the last minute, and in early radio, when typewriters were used (as opposed to word processors), typing up a final clean version was often too time consuming. Note that one page is missing.  12  The use of the term “script” has more than one meaning in this thesis and this author has attempted to make the distinction clear; the “radio script” is the document under analysis and the “script” is the extrinsic element. 26  This radio script is a mimeograph,  but diplomatically is not a  Because this specific document includes annotations, which  copy.  enable it to produce the necessary consequences,  it is the first  complete and effective version of the script, that is, 3 original.’  an  An analysis of the annotations will be made later in Format is a very important component of the  the discussion.  script to analyze in radio and television scripts. Radio and television scripts are regularly categorized according to their format,  and the industry has in fact assigned names to the  various types of formats.  Although there are many different  script formats for radio and television,  each designed for a  different type of production, there are generally five common formats: television film format, drama format,  live television format, radio  television news format,  and radio news format.’ 4  The format of this radio drama script is the standard for this kind of document  (‘radio drama format’),  variations on this. single spaced,  Traditionally, radio drama scripts are  but occasionally they may be double spaced. Double  spacing makes a script easier to read, minute,  and there are only a few  if necessary.  and to edit at the last  The single column format differs for radio  and television because each medium has different requirements. Television scripts  are closer to the format for stage plays,  with the dialogue and only essential character movements. ‘  See definition of a copy and of an original in Duranti, 18—20. “Diplomatics, “  Rivers,  For more information see Daniel E. Garvey and William L. Broadcast Writing (New York: Longrnan Inc., 1982). 27  In radio however,  the music,  sound effects and microphone  position are essential parts of the script.  In radio drama format,  the name of each speaker is usually typed  about one inch from the left edge of the page; capital letters are used and followed by a colon.  However,  because in this  script there are music and sound effects, the left hand column is reserved for sound effects, the central column is for the name of the speakers,  and the right column is for dialogue.  Typically,  the music and sound effects in the left hand column of this script are typed in capital letters one half inch from the edge of the page; however, 15 underlined.  contrary to common usage,  they are not  The dialogue is also typically typed with regular  upper and lower case letters, typed in capital letters,  all directions for the cast are  and individuals’ directions are put in  parentheses inside the dialogue.  Directions for the entire cast  are placed one inch from the left edge of the page running to one inch from the right edge and not in parentheses.’ 6  Another  very  annotations.  revealing  extrinsic  Annotations are  element  is  the  defined as additions to the  ‘  Script writers indicate in the script such things as microphone use, sound effects and music. These are the primary technical and production elements. See Robert L. Hilliard, Radio Broadcasting: An Introduction to the Sound Medium (New York: Hastings House Publishers Inc., 1967), 29. 16  Daniel E. Writing, 39.  Garvey and William L. 28  Rivers,  Broadcast  complete document,  and is almost always handwritten.  Rough  drafts of radio and television scripts are always annotated, but that kind of annotation is for purpose of correction so that the master script can be written.  Annotations on the master are  related to whom the script belongs to.  Script annotations give  directions specific to whomever the script is intended for about that person’s role in the production.  Annotations are an  essential instrument for directors, who need to coordinate many people and machines in a specified time frame: there are standard symbols, but many directors develop their own. adds annotations,  After a Director  s/he has the Assistant Director and the Floor  Manager make the same markings on their scripts.  The annotations to the script under analysis clearly indicate that this particular script is a master actor’s script that belonged to the radio character Roger Falconer. conclusion is based on the following reasons.  Such a Actor’s scripts  are traditionally typed and marked by initials or with the actor’s character name, underscored,  and individual actors’ parts are  or handwritten notes relative to cues, mood and  tempo are pencilled in.’ 7  On this script, the character’s name,  “Roger Falconer,” is written at the top in pencil as an annotation,  and his lines are also underlined with a heavy blue  pencil. 17  Patricia Biggins, “An Annotated Bibliography of Canadian Radio Drama Produced by CBC Vancouver Between 1939 and 1945,” (M.A. diss., Simon Fraser University, 1974), 22. 29  According to diplomatics, there are three categories of annotations. minimal,  Although the annotations on the chosen document are  they clearly fall into the second category.  of annotation is  “. . .  This type  included in a complete and effective  document in the course of carrying out the subsequent steps of 18 the transaction in which the document participates.” Information regarding the traditional diplomatic categorization of annotations is included in the document’s diplomatic description.  The extrinsic element language assists in identifying the country,  community,  or culture in which the document was  produced. While the language of the drama’s dialogue and narration is  Old English  (some of the words are spelled  phonetically to ensure the speakers deliver them with an accent), the language of the document is English. This is indicated by the language of the protocol and the annotations.  The language  element of a document may be further broken down into language styles:  journalistic, political, business,  colloquial etc.  The  style of the language of the document as well as the vocabulary and composition provide information on the purpose and function of the document.  Also, while the language provides information  on the place where the document was created, 18  the style indicates  Also, during See Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part V),” 9. clear that these are the procedural analysis, it will be made execution phase annotations with respect to the script procedure, and handling annotations with respect to the production procedure, made in the deliberation phase. 30  the type of document. Whereas a news broadcast would be normally in a journalistic style and a documentary might be in a scientific style,  this radio drama script is appropriately in a  colloquial style.  This document has no special signs or seals.  Intrinsic Elements In the protocol of the radio script, “What Price Loyalty”,  the series title is given as  and the episode number, which is indicated  in the upper right hand corner,  is “6  -  49,” meaning that this  script is for the sixth episode in a series of forty—nine episodes.  The chronological date cited,  “Oct.  9 and the only introductory credit, air—date,’ name,  13,  1935,” is the  the script—writer’s  is Evelyn Biddle.  The protocol of this radio script, dramas,  like in most early radio  includes directions for theme music  “British Grenadiers”),  (identified as  and mention of a sponsor endorsement and  advertisement. One element typical of most radio dramas which is not present in this script is a summary. sets the scene in the narration.  this drama  Note that the radio script in  this series does not include an entitling,  In the body of this document,  Instead,  or an announcement.  there is no introduction.  ‘  The  According to Patricia Biggins, it was common for the details about the title, producer, series, date of broadcast and names of performers for an early broadcast to be written on the script’s envelope. See Biggins, “Annotated Bibliography,” 21. 31  narration begins with the narrator describing the scene and the mood:  “Early Upper Canada in the grip of a blizzard...”,  accompanied by sound effects  and is  (on the left side of the page).  The  dialogue begins on the second page with Marigold’s song and her husband Arthur’s exchange.  As is evidenced by this script, radio  or television drama scripts do not always include an eschatocol.  Now that the labelling process has been completed, and the structural articulation of the document is clear, deductions may be made about the persons concurring in the formation of the document, the actions,  and form of the script.  First,  the persons  who participated in the action supported by this document can be identified.  From the information that was gained through an  examination of the elements of the radio script’s protocol,  it  can be deduced that the author of the document is Evelyn Biddle, the individual identified in the introductory credit. The addressee of the document is the actor playing the drama’s character Roger Falconer. His identification is based on the annotation handwritten on the top of the first page, that is, “Roger Falconer.”  In fact,  the  name of the character is  typically written by the director on the top or side of the first page of an actor’s script. expressed on the script,  The addressee of the act is not  nor is the writer of the document, but  this is typical of radio and television scripts which are typically directed to a broadcast station, and/or a sponsor.  a production company  The analysis of the programme recording 32  related to this radio script will reveal that the addressee of the act of generating the radio script is the St. Lawrence Starch Company, the sponsor of the production.  And typically, the  writer of the script is the same as its author  —  in this case,  Evelyn Biddle.  Following the identification of the persons involved in the creation of the script is the recognition of the name of the act from which the document results, the type of act the document represents,  the procedural phase in which the document  participated,  that is,  the relationship between the document and  the procedure which generated the document, of the document.  and finally the type  These pieces of information are gained through  an examination of the document in relation to the fundamental diplomatic concepts of  activities,  ‘fact’ and ‘act,’ the nature of the  and the will and purpose that generate them.  Records result from actions and transactions. While acts may  involve only one person, parties.  transactions involve two or more  Transactions are juridical acts directed to the  obtainment of effects recognized and guaranteed by the system,  which create, modify,  extinguish or maintain relationships among  20 Only one person concurring in the the persons involved. formation of this document is named, introductory credit. 20  Duranti,  Evelyn Biddle,  in an  According to this piece of information,  “Diplomatics...(Part II),” 12. 33  it  appears that the author of the act and the author of the document are the same and this would indicate that the type of act is a ‘simple act.’ ’ However, while a script may be written in its 2 entirety by a single writer or team of writers,  it is highly  uncommon for a script which is used for a broadcast production, not to receive input from other members of the production team such as the producer and sponsoring groups. Therefore, the act embodied in the issuing of this radio script, which contains annotations revealing that it was prepared for programme production and broadcast, was probably generated by a ‘collegial 22 So, while a direct analysis of the script indicates that act.’ the author of the document is Evelyn Biddle,  the author of the  embodied in this document is guessed to be a collegial person constituted of the production group, (Evelyn Biddle),  the script author and writer  and the sponsor.  The name of the act is ‘radio drama script production.’  This is  made clear by the previous examination of the document’s format. Naming the act and later the documentary form requires that diplomatists consider terms established by the broadcast industry to classify a programme, that is,  in this specific case, the  21  An act is defined as a ‘simple act’ when “the power of accomplishing the act is concentrated in one individual,” that is, “the will to produce the act is one will. . .one deliberation with one purpose.” See Ibid, 13. 22  An act is defined as ‘collegial’ when the power of accomplishing the act is concentrated in one organ, whose single members have a collective will that is ‘manifest in one deliberation with one purpose.’ See Ibid. 34  subject/description of the drama. 23  These classifications of  dramas will always vary slightly in terminology from station to station,  but are commonly referred to as follows:  Domestic drama Historical plays and panoramas Social satires and problems War dramas and documentaries Adaptations of classics Exper imenta 124 Based on the subject of the drama, therefore, the document under analysis refers to an historical drama, act becomes  and the full name of the  ‘radio drama script production, historical play.’  The next step is to identify the type of procedure in which this document participated, and the phase of that procedure which generated it,  that is,  to examine the relationship between the  document and the procedure. their purpose,  Procedures are categorized based on  and the activities engaged in to carry out  different categories of procedures vary.  According to diplomatic  classification, the category of procedure from which this document was generated is an executive procedure.  It is defined  as such because producing a script is a routine transaction,  23  Again, the terminology can be confusing. There is a clear distinction between the term ‘programme format’ in the broadcast industry and ‘format’ as a diplomatic element. Rather than use the terms interchangeably this thesis will use the broadcast industry term always prefaced with the term ‘programme.’ 24  These six categories of radio drama are identified and defined by Patricia Biggins in her “Annotated Bibliography.” 35  externally regulated, which occurs according to a standard 25 and, method;  the phase of the procedure which generated this  26 script is the execution phase.  The last step of this part of the analysis is to identify the type of document,  that is,  to name the documentary form,  whether its status is original or copy, private,  and its function probative,  narrative. script,’  its nature public or  dispositive,  The conclusion that this script is an  supporting, or ‘actor’s  is based on an analysis of the annotations,  determination of the version.  confirm  and the  In her “Annotated Bibliography of  Canadian Radio Drama,” Patricia Biggins lists five different versions of scripts including:  author’s manuscripts or  typescripts, producer’s scripts, scripts,  technical scripts,  actor’s  27 and clean scripts.  25  An executive procedure is defined as, “those [procedures] which allow for the regular transaction of affairs within limits, and according to norms already established by a different authority.” For descriptions of the categories of procedures see Luciana Duranti, “Diplornatics...(Part IV),” 19. 26  Every modern transaction embodies six procedural phases: initiative, inquiry, consultation, deliberation, deliberation control, and execution. The execution phase is “constituted by all the actions which give formal character to the transaction.” Documents created during this phase usually embody the transaction. See Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part IV),” 14—15. 27  See Biggins, “Annotated Bibliography,” 21. One physical characteristic which assists in determining the version of a script is the “colour” of the paper on which it is printed. Different versions are often printed on varying colour of paper, the purpose being, to ensure that they are easily distinguishable from one another. In television news, multiple carbon copies of scripts are printed on different coloured sheets of paper dependent upon the content. For example, straight on—camera news 36  As to its status of transmission, this document is an original. This determination is based on the fact that, while the document has some corrections and additions,  it is in fact the first  complete document generated that is enforceable,  that is,  it  produces the consequences for which it was intended. Also, all actor’s scripts are usually originals: script is assigned to an actor,  in fact, by the time a  it has been fleshed out and any  corrections or alterations are minimal.  Whether this script was  re—typed one more time is unknowable from a direct examination of this document,  but improbable,  considering the underlined lines  of dialogue. 28  The definition of a document as public or private reflects the relationship the document has with its author.  This script has  to be considered private because it was created by a private  copy (the anchor’s dialogue) might be printed on white paper while the descriptions of the tape inserts might be on yellow This allows the news director to anticipate what is paper. coming up, so that if the show is going overtime, then s/he is able to easily eliminate less important segments (‘to pull copy’). Writing a script requires that the idea be developed through a series of versions. Some scripts may include sketches, comments, a list of characters and performers, or may have a separate sheet attached with list of performers or date of broadcast in pencilled notes. Versions of script formats vary between stations, but generally are highly standardized. 28  For information on original, drafts, Duranti, “Diplomatics,” 19—21. 37  and copies,  see  29 person,  that is,  document is, Finally,  the collegial will which gave origin to the  in the Canadian juridical system,  private in nature.  as hypothesized at the beginning of this analysis by the  act of choosing a radio drama script as an example of a typical broadcast document, ‘supporting.’  the function of this document is  In fact,  a radio drama script does not put an act  into existence nor is its written form required as evidence of an act. The script is a product of a juridically relevant activity which is primarily oral,  and its purpose is to support the  broadcasting of a drama production.  A summary of the diplomatic  analysis conducted on the radio drama script is presented in the diplomatic description below.  Extrinsic Elements Medium:  bond white paper; 20 pages; 8.5” x 14”, not stapled; watermarks: “Progress Bond,” “Made in Canada”; single sided; slightly stained; a half page is between pages 15 and 16; tears in corners show that pages were stapled together at one point  Script:  standard black typescript; some corrections (typed over); pagination in upper right; no abbreviations  Format:  divided into three columns: sound effects, speakers’ names, and dialogue; the dialogue is double spaced  29  A ‘private person’ is a person performing functions considered to be private in the context of the juridical system in which that person acts. In contract, a ‘public person’ is a person performing functions considered to be public in the context of the juridical system, and is vested with sovereign power. For more information see Luciana Duranti, “Diplornatics: New Uses for an Old Science (Part III),” Archivaria 30 (Summer 1990): 16. 38  Language:  English  Annotation(s):  name of character “Roger Falconer”; [indecipherable word]; Roger’s dialogue underlined in blue pencil crayon; notes to actor playing Roger, reminding him of his cue; several corrections/additions made in pencil. All annotations have been inserted by the director in the deliberation phase with respect to the production procedure  Intrinsic Elements Protocol title (series): number (episode): date (chronological): introductory credits: theme music: sponsor (advertisement) Body  What Price Loyalty Episode 6 49 For Broadcast Oct. 13, 1935 Evelyn Biddle Fanfare; British Grenadiers; Minuet Commercial —  narration:  “Wind Narrator (above storm) Early Upper Canada in the grip of a blizzard. . . departed for a sojourn in Boston,———”  dialogue:  “[Marigold’s song]; My gratitude, loved one.. .Minuet.”  Persons Author of the act: Author of Addressee Addressee Writer of  the document: of the act: of document: document:  Evelyn Biddle, members of the production group, and the sponsor Evelyn Biddle St. Lawrence Starch Company the actor playing Roger Falconer Evelyn Biddle  Type of act:  collegial act  Name of act:  radio drama script production, historical play  Relationship between document and procedure:  document concluding the execution phase of an executive procedure  39  Type of document:  actor’s script, supporting, private, original  Diplomatic Description:  1935, October 13. A script written by Evelyn Biddle for the actor playing Roger Falconer in episode 6 of the historical radio drama entitled “What Price Loyalty.” 1 actor’s script, supporting, private, original  2) Radio Drama Programme Recording Analysis The second document chosen for analysis is the recording of the same radio drama to which the previously analyzed script ° 3 related.  Conducting an analysis of this document based on the  model formulated for the script should not present problems, because the recording also has a supporting function with respect to the drama production activity.  Extrinsic Elements The medium  of a document was particularly important for the  identification and evaluation of medieval documents because, depending upon the material it was made of,  its shape,  and how it  was prepared for receiving the message, diplomatists were able to  30  The fact that recordings were made of this radio drama Early radio and series immediately reveals a great deal. television stations rarely made recordings of their productions, because programmes were usually broadcast live from the studios and there was no need for recordings. Recordings were only made if the programmes were intended for delayed broadcast, or for distribution to another station(s) for broadcast at a later date. 40  date a document, authenticity.  determine its provenance,  Over time,  writing materials, relevant;  and verify its  as offices began to use standardized  the analysis of the medium became less  but today, with the introduction of new technologies,  and the resulting variety of ways to affix and access the information on contemporary media, the medium of a document is becoming more revealing.  In this regard, knowledge of the  history of technological development of television and radio production can be extremely valuable,  and the physical form of a  sound or moving image document can be the element that reveals most about the context of creation:  in fact,  the information  gained through an analysis of the medium of a sound and/or moving image document can readily assist in dating a document, discovering details about its provenance,  and even determining  why the document was made.  This radio drama programme recording consists of two 16” metal based instantaneous disc recordings coated in cellulose acetate. Because such discs were only made between 1935 and 1955,  it can  be ascertained from the medium that the document dates no later than 1955.  This document is an acoustic recording that was  recorded at 33 1/3 RPM,  is thirty minutes in duration,  ’ 3 recorded using the instantaneous recording process.  and was Because  This recording process is described in Chapter Two. For more information see Brock Silversides’ article entitled, “Guide to Identifying and Dating Sound Recordings,” Canadian Association of Music Libraries Newsletter 21, no. 2 (February 1993): 5-13. 41  this recording process was primarily used by early broadcast this information also indicates that the recording was  stations,  produced with the intention of broadcasting by a commercial, private station.  Like the medium,  the script is also an element which provides  important information about contemporary documents. As was mentioned earlier, the element ‘script’  in a textual document  refers to information configuration, the layout of the writing in relation to the document’s physical form, pagination, typeface, handwriting,  paragraphing, punctuation and correction,  as well as the presence of various hands. document,  format,  In a sound recorded  the element ‘script’ refers specifically to the  characteristics of sounds and silences; document,  in the case of this  it refers to the speech, music,  Radio regulates sound by using silence.  singing,  and silence.  In printed media, the  context of a document is immediately apparent because messages can be seen in their physical milieu, but the temporal characteristic of radio, which presents messages sequentially, demands that certain repetitious indicators be used. example,  For  radio may use a theme song at the start of a serial  programme,  or make regular announcements during the programme.  Goffman suggested that these conventions are used to combat the ‘constraints of radio blindness.’ 32 32  In Understanding Radio,  See E. Goffman, “The Radio Drama Frame,” chap. in Communication Studies, eds. J. Corner and J. Hawthorn (London: Edward Arnold, 1980), 162—65. 42  Andrew Crisell compares radio with the printed medium and concludes that radio matches the visual resources of print with its own acoustic resources. It can match the differences of size with differences of duration; words in different kinds of print with words in different tones or voices; dots, borders and asterisks with pips or musical jingles; and the photographs or icons of people and things with indexes the sound made by people 33 and things. -  Crisell went on to note that print is a technological development of speech,  an attempt to fix meaning which is inherent in words  and the inflection of the human voice. Thus,  it seems odd to have  to mould the characterization of the formal elements of sound and moving image documents on that of printed documents, but this is necessary due to the rate at which technology has evolved. An example of a formal element originating from the need of reproducing the structure of printed documents for sound and moving image documents,  are ‘signposts.’  designed to provide a sense of context, and/or station’s shape and structure, they want to keep listening.  Signposts, which are indicate a programme  so listeners can decide if  In the early days of radio when  there was less competition in the area of family entertainment, families tuned into their favourite shows weekly,  but today,  the  radio is just one of many sources of information and entertainment. Although listeners still tune-in to their favourite shows, more often, people turn on the radio when it is Andrew Crisell, Understanding Radio Methuen and Co., 1986), 87. 43  (London and New York:  convenient at all times of the day and night.  Because of this,  the risk of ambiguity with contemporary radio is high, signposting needs to be used,  and  such as “later this afternoon we  will talk to XXX about XXX.” There is no signposting present in this recording for several reasons: programme  it is an early radio  (signposting was less common),  and signposting is most  common between programmes or during commercial breaks within a programme.  There are no commercial breaks present in the body of  this programme.  The other extrinsic elements to examine are language, signs,  seals,  and annotations.  like the related script,  special  The language of the recording,  is English,  colloquial style.  The  special signs on this document are printed labels adhered to the centre of each disc  (see Appendix  station which recorded the drama  Each label indicates the (CFRB)  and directs users to  start the needle on the inside of the disc and to use the needles that originally accompanied the disc for “one playing only.” These labels also provide space for information on record speed (“33  1/3 RPM”),  programme title Moreover,  programme segment  (“Parts one and two”),  (“What Price Loyalty”),  the air-date  (“5:00-5:30 p.m.”)  (“Oct.  13/35”)  and the sponsor.  and the time of broadcast  were typed in by the writer in addition to the  The function of special signs is to identify the persons involved in the documentation activity and to contribute to the validation of a document. They are divided into two categories: signs of the writer and subscribers, and signs of the records office or chancery. 44  printed information which constitutes the special sign of the records office. “#245—25”)  The annotations on the disc labels  (“#245—24,”  are constituted by classification numbers that were  added to the documents by the archives responsible for the documents’ 35 phase.  identification and retrieval,  in the management  This type of annotation reveals information about the  documents’  custodial history.  Intrinsic Elements An intrinsic analysis of the radio drama recording is comparable to that of the corresponding radio drama script, but because they are distinct documents, there are variations.  While the  protocol of both the radio script and the recording includes a series title,  an episode number,  credit, theme music,  an air—date, an introductory  and an advertisement for the sponsor, the  protocol of the recording also includes an announcement, entitling and a topical date. theme music  an  The recording begins with the  (British Grenadiers),  followed by an announcement:  “Ladies and Gentlemen, we bring you another in the series of 36 historic dramatizations of Upper Canada.” sponsor’s advertisement,  a brief fanfare, then the name of the  sponsor with the topical date (“The St.  See Duranti,  Next is the  Lawrence Starch Company  “Diplomatics...(Part V),” 9.  36  This is the mention of the action specific to this document: the general action that the recording concludes is the production of a radio drama, but the specific act of which it is the outcome is broadcasting the radio drama. 45  of Port Credit Ontario”).  The body of the recording is comparable to the body of the corresponding script, except that it contains a sub—structure consisting of an introduction as well as a narration and dialogue. The introduction consists of another announcement of the series title, which precedes the narration and the dialogue. Unlike the radio script, the recording of the radio programme includes an eschatocol containing several elements.  The sign—off  mentions the following week’s episode, where the production was recorded,  and how the broadcast was distributed. The end—credits  list the author of the script, programme production, (endorsement)  the producer and author of the  and the narrator, while the sponsor  mentions the sponsor’s name and its products. The  copyright owner is the St. Lawrence Starch Company, which sponsored the production financially. This is known from the entitling. The eschatocol is concluded by the mention of where the drama was performed (CKOC).  In order to identify the persons that concurred to the formation of this document,  it is most effective to begin by identifying  the act in which the document participated; the production of a radio drama programme.  Whether or not the radio drama,  recording,  (live or delayed)  is broadcast  or its  is a separate issue. 37  The definition provided in the introductory chapter for ‘broadcast agency’ noted that a broadcast agency produces, transmits and/or distributes matter intended to be received by 46  The will at the origin of the production of the radio drama programme is similar to that generating the radio drama script in that it results from the wills of a number of persons. However, rather than being a ‘collegial act’  (one deliberation with one  purpose), this act results from many “different acts produced by •  .  .a number of individuals..., but all essential to the formation  of some final act of which they are partial elements.” 38 Therefore, the name of the act is ‘radio drama programme production,  historical play’ and the type of the act the document  represents is a ‘compound act on procedure.’ phase in which the recording participated,  The procedural  like the script,  is  the execution phase of an executive procedure.  An understanding of the wills which were responsible for the act generating the documents assists in identifying the persons who participated in the document’s creation.  Information on the  authors of the act of the ‘radio drama production’ appear in the eschatocol, and are the station CKOC in Hamilton,  the production  group and the sponsor (the St. Lawrence Starch Company). the will that resulted in the production was collective,  Because all  those who manifested it are authors. The series was sponsored the public. Therefore, the act is the production of the drama rather than the actual broadcast of the drama. Although a radio or television production is intended for broadcast, it may never be broadcast or it may be broadcast numerous times by many different stations. 38  See Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part II),” 14. This is explained further in the procedural analysis of the transaction in which this document participated. 47  (funded)  by the St.  Lawrence Starch Company,  and the production  was put together by the radio station’s command. the document  The author of  (i.e. the person competent for issuing the document)  is the producer named at the end of the recording, Gordon Anderson.  The writer of the document is the station (CFRB) which  actually fixed (recorded)  the production.  The addressees of the act are the radio listeners of all the stations to which a copy of this recording was distributed.  This  is evident by the type of the document, which is intended for broadcast.  The addressee of this particular document is CFRB,  the station which used the discs for broadcast,  as indicated by  the disc labels.  The type of document is a radio drama programme recording, private, script,  supporting, and original.  Private because,  like the  it was created by a private organization, original  because the recording is the first complete and enforceable document of this drama programme,  and supporting because the act  is the production of the radio drama programme and such an act is complete and effective independently of the recording of it; the recording of the production is only the product of the act. 39 Historically, documents progress through the three functional types supporting, probative, dispositive and this documentary form is no different. In some countries, national broadcast industry regulators require that stations make and retain audio copies of all broadcasts for a specific period of time for legal reasons, and when a written form of an act is required as evidence, its document type is defined as probative. -  -  48  The  information revealed through this analysis is summarized as follows :40  Extrinsic Elements Medium:  two x 16” transcription discs (grooves cut on one side), metal base coated with cellulose acetate compound; instantaneous recording process includes speech, singing, and music (acoustic); played at 33 1/3 rpm., 30 minutes duration for each disc  Script:  speech, music,  Language:  English  Special Sign:  disc labels affixed to the grooved side of each disc (Appendix 2)  Annotations:  #245—24 (on one disc label), second disc label)  singing,  and silence  (colloquial style)  #245—25  (on the  Intrinsic Elements Protocol  theme music :  British Grenadiers  announcement:  “Ladies and Gentlemen, we bring you another in the series of historical dramatizations of Upper Canada entitled ‘What Price Loyalty’.”  title  (series):  What Price Loyalty  So technically, a programme recording could be described as probative. However, only when its written form is uniformly required by the industry will this form be defined as a probative document, and because broadcasting is still so young and the recording of all programming is not required, these three documents are still defined as supporting in nature. 40  Note that the diplomatic description of a programme recording includes significantly more elements than the diplomatic description of a textual document.  49  entitling: sponsor date  Body  St.  Lawrence Starch Company  (advertisement): Bee Hive Golden Corn Syrup  (topical):  Port Credit Ontario  introduction:  title:  narration:  “Early Upper Canada in the grip of a blizzard. . . Looking backward from 1935 down the vista of the bygone years, we are amazed at the steady stride of the progress through the 19th century...”  dialogue:  “[Marigold’s song]; My gratitude, one.. .Minuet.”  Eschatocol sign—off:  “What Price Loyalty”  loved  “Next week, an historic event in the history of Kingston, ‘the First Stage Coach.’ Originated in the studios of CKOC at Hamilton. Broadcast over a Canadian network.”  sponsor: (advertisement)  Bee Hive Golden Corn Syrup, a product of the St. Lawrence Starch Company  end-credits:  Written by Evelyn Biddle, produced by Gordon Anderson, Narrator is Werner Bartmann  copyright:  St.  Lawrence Starch Company  Persons Authors of the act:  CKOC, members of production group, sponsor (St. Lawrence Starch Company)  Author of the document:  Gordon Anderson  Addressee of the act:  radio listeners of all stations to which a copy of the recording was distributed and broadcast 50  (producer)  Addressee of the document:  CFRB  Writer of the document:  CFRB  Type of act:  compound act on procedure  Name of act:  radio drama programme production, historical play  Relationship between document and procedure:  document concluding an execution phase of an executive procedure  Type of document:  radio drama programme recording, supporting, private, original  Diplomatic description:  1935, October 13. Hamilton, Ontario. The St.Lawrence Starch Company and CKOC present What Price Loyalty, for the people of Ontario, script by Evelyn Biddle, Gordon Anderson, producer. 1 radio drama programme recording for CFRB, supporting, private, original. 2 x 16” instantaneous disc recordings.  3)  Television News Programme Recording Analysis  The third document chosen to test the model of analysis for supporting documents generated by the broadcast industry, recording of a contemporary television news programme.  is a  Because  this document is so similar to the radio drama programme recording,  the focus of the discussion preceding the  schematization of the diplomatic analysis will be on the elements 51  which differ from the radio recording’s analysis.  And,  in order  to demonstrate how information on the creation of this document may be extracted from an analysis of its formal elements,  no  further information about the recording will be provided at this point.  Extrinsic Elements A physical examination of this television news programme recording reveals that it is affixed on a Sony T-120 VHS tape capable of recording two hours. 41 While the polyester based, magnetic particle tape is 1/2” wide, a standard size depth).  (18.5 cm.  long,  the plastic cassette case is  10.25 cm.  wide,  and 2.5 cm.  in  As with the instantaneous disc of the radio recording,  identifying the recording format of the television programme as VHS provides a means of confirming information about the date of the document.  VHS format came into use in the mid-1970s,  therefore we know that the recording under examination dates after that time.  As with a radio recording,  an examination of the script element  of a moving image document is very revealing.  Details on how the  information is formatted translate to articulation of speech and music.  The script of the television newscast includes the words  41  The “T-120” indicates that the tape is capable of recording 120 minutes (two hours) at regular recording speed. At slow speed (Extended play “EP”), the tape is capable of holding up to seven hours. -  52  spoken by the news anchors as well as the vocabulary and the phraseology, the layout or presentation of the stories, and the technical jargon, text and graphics which represent the Although the script of a news broadcast differs from  42 message.  the script of any other programme genre (drama, documentary, etc.)  in that it consists of a series of separate stories and  topics, the stories are linked together by the anchors’ continuous dialogue.  It is primarily the layout which makes this  genre of programme document easily identifiable as a news programme.  The information is communicated in  English (language)  in  journalistic style. The dialogue includes both French and English,  if the man-on-street-interviews are included, but this  is not clear until the document is ‘read’ not indicated on the tape’s label. sign)  (played),  The tape’s label  because it is (special  is 4 inches x 1 1/8 inches and adheres to the long edge of  the tape cassette station’s logo  (see Appendix 3).  (11 CHCH)  in purple ink,  handwritten on it in blue pen. annotations,  It is printed with the and has information  These handwritten details are  and include the series title,  the time-slot (the  time the broadcast was scheduled to be aired), the broadcast date, the number of the videotape recorder on which the recording  42  An in—depth study of the anchors’ vocabulary is outside the realm of special diplomatics. This is an area of study more likely to be included in a palaeographic examination of the document. 53  was made,  the tape generation (master),  and the initials of the  videotape machine operator.  Intrinsic Elements Because this document both moves and speaks, the intrinsic elements identified for analysis were taken from the video image, the visual graphics, the soundtrack or a combination thereof; and this is primarily what makes this documentary form different from the traditional ones. 43  These three information configurations  are often presented simultaneously and do not always correspond identically.  For example, data belonging to this document’s  entitling is both in image and soundtrack form. which is pictured reads, “Channel 11 News.”  “CHCH 11 News” and the voiceover sounds  This is an example of a discrepancy between  the sound and the image. theme music  —  The graphic logo  Simultaneous with the entitling is the  several bars of electronic music.  The entitling is followed by the title of the programme,  and as  for the radio drama programme, the definition of this element has been modified to accommodate the structure of this intellectual form  —  the television news programme.  beginning of broadcasting, having daily,  Since the  stations have employed the concept of  or weekly television/radio series.  “  When this is  In the scheme of the analysis, intrinsic elements are identified in either the picture, the soundtrack, or both. For this reason, the data revealed by each element is followed by an indication of whether the information was extracted from the visual image (pic) and/or the soundtrack (sd). 54  the case, the series will have a title and often the particular programme,  also termed an ‘episode,’ will have a title or number.  It is possible therefore for a programme to have both a series title and an episode title. drama programming,  However, while this is common for  it is rare for news programmes.  In the  previous document, the series title was “What Price Loyalty,” and the episode number was “Episode 6.”  The television newscast has  simply a series title; however, the date  (chronological) which  follows the title, besides its traditional function of placing the document in a temporal context, has also the function of an episode title.  Like the entitling,  screen (“19 October 1992”)  it appears printed across the  by means of computer graphics, and is  voiced in the soundtrack as “Monday October 19th.” introductory credits,  In the  the four anchors are named in a voiceover,  and simultaneously a still picture of each appears on the screen, concluding the protocol of this document.  At this point, the body,  the anchors move quickly into the introduction of  constituted of an overview of the top stories. This  immediately leads into the narration, which introduces each individual story,  and to the inserts of individual reports,  stories and commercials  (dialogue).  The eschatocol includes only two elements:  sign—off, during which  two anchors give their names, and copyright ownership, where the station name and  logo appear across the bottom of the screen. 55  Most of the persons that participated in the television news production are indicated clearly. station,  The author of the act is the  CHCH-TV, which is indicated in the entitling. While the  author of the document is the producer, and the writer of the document are the person(s) is mentioned.  who recorded the production, neither  The names of the anchors are given at the  beginning by a narrated voiceover  (Dan McLean, Donna Skelly, Paul  Henry and Matt Hayes).  in contemporary television news  broadcasts,  credits run at the end of the programme that name the  author of the document documents  Sometimes,  (the producer)  (the production staff)  like with the radio recording,  .  and the writer(s)  of the  The addressees of the act,  are the station’s viewers.  addressee of the document is the station itself,  The  because the  recording was made for the station to retain as a record of the broadcast.  Although news programmes are never re—broadcast, most  contemporary stations preserve a selection of them for future research or partial re—use.  This particular document is being  preserved by the station permanently because it is in fact the first episode of The Golden Horseshoe Report. 45  The name of the act is ‘television news programme production’ and One reason that this programme might not include all the end credits is because it is regularly followed by an evening news programme which does contain end—credits. And, the end— credits for the evening show are probably identical to the Horseshoe Report. The phrase ‘golden horseshoe’ is used to describe the heavily populated areas on the shore of Lake Ontario extending from Niagara Falls to Oshawa, in the Province of Ontario, Canada. ‘  56  this type of act is,  like the radio drama programme production,  ‘compound act on procedure.’  a  The act is the production of the  programme and such an act is complete and effective independently of the recording of it; the television recording is the product The type of document is a television news programme  of the act. recording,  private,  supporting and original,  and the document  concludes the execution phase of a executive procedure.  In the introduction to the analysis of this document,  no extra  information about the document or the context of the document was provided.  So far,  all the information about this document has  been gained from a direct analysis of the document and it does include really all the information necessary to identify it and understand its function.  The schematization of this analysis is  summarized as follows:  Extrinsic Elements Medium:  1 x Sony VHS T-120 videotape, 2 hours duration, plastic cassette case: 18.5 cm. long, 10.25 cm. wide, and 2.5 cm. in depth; polyester based magnetic particle tape 1/2” width.  Script:  speech,  Language:  English  Special Sign:  tape label with station logo  Annotations:  news programme title (“Golden Horseshoe Report”), time—slot (“5:30 7:00”), broadcast date (“Oct. 19/92”), number of videotape recorder (#3) the programme was taped on, “master” tape, initials of videotape operator (“BB”)  music,  computer graphics,  -  57  moving images.  (11 CHCH)  Intrinsic Elements Protocol theme music:  music  entitling: title date  CHCH 11 News (pic) Channel 11 News (Sd)  (series):  The Golden Horseshoe Report (pic; Sd)  (chronological):  introductory credits:  19 October 1992 (pic) Monday October 19th (Sd) with Dan McLean, Donna Skelly, Paul Henry,and Matt Hayes (sd) [their faces] (pic) —  -  Body  introduction: narration:  Good Afternoon everyone (Sd) Metro Toronto Police Officers....  dialogue:  [individual stories and reports presented by anchors]  sponsor (advertisements):  There are empty spaces on the tape for 5 commercial breaks. This recording of the newscast does not include the recording of the advertisements.  Eschatoco 1 sign-off: end—credits: copyright:  And that is it, the first edition of the Golden Horseshoe Report (Sd) “I’m Dan McLean” “And I’m Donna Skelly” (sd) A CHCH News Presentation c.1992 (pic)  Persons Author of the act:  CHCH-TV  Addressee of the act:  television viewers of CHCH-TV  Addressee of the document:  CHCH-TV  Type of act:  (Sd)  compound act on procedure 58  Name of act:  television news programme production  Relationship between document and procedure:  document concluding the execution phase of an executive procedure  Type of document:  television news programme recording, supporting, private, original  Diplomatic description:  1992, October 19. Hamilton, Ontario. CHCH Television presents the first edition of the “Golden Horseshoe Report. 1 television news programme recording, supporting, private, original  PROCEDURAL ANALYSIS Modern documents are the product of actions and transactions, just like medieval documents,  but differently from the Middle  Ages, when one action or transaction generated one document. modern times,  In  one action or transaction may generate an  indefinite number of documents, step or part of one step.  each of which would reflect one  Modern archivists are faced with  documents that reflect multilateral relationships in which each fact manifests itself in a fragmented documentary form. According to diplomatics’  ideal procedural model,  every modern transaction  embodies the following six procedural phases: inquiry,  consultation,  46 execution.  deliberation,  initiative,  deliberation control,  and  Although each phase produces documents that are  46  A procedure is defined as “the formal sequence of steps, stages or phases whereby a transaction is carried out.” See Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part IV),” 11. 59  interlocutory with respect to a final document that concludes and synthesizes the whole transaction, the final document’s creation,  and represent steps towards  some or all of those phases also  result in complete and effective documents that embody other more specific transactions complete in their own right, that is,  in  documents that are final with respect to procedures subordinate to that used to carry out the main transaction. 47  Identifying  the documents that result from each procedural phase of the transaction resulting in the document being analyzed and understanding how they relate to that document constitute the core of a diplomatic examination of the genesis of a document.  An analysis of every document resulting from each procedural phase can in fact be done until the genesis of every single document participating in a transaction has been examined, however,  the number of documents resulting from each transaction  conducted within one administrative body may be significant,  and  an analysis of every ramification of each transaction is not necessary to an understanding of the central transaction. The purpose of a study in special diplomatics is to identify the ‘typical’ transactions of a given administration, the documents created in each stage of each procedure used to carry out those transactions,  and the structure and interrelationships of those  documents.  Ibid.,  16. 60  Although the documentation of modern transactions is fragmentary and thus voluminous, the amount of textual documents created by broadcast stations has always been minimal, and the primary reason for this is the nature of the industry, which is characterized by immediacy. essence.  For broadcasters, time is of the  In an industry where last minute change is common,  scheduling must be precise and proceed without delay (most news staff work within a 24 or 12 hour time—frame).  Broadcasters must  be flexible enough to meet daily crises head-on. Within this environment, there is little time for creating textual documents, and no time to spend on unnecessary formal paperwork. Many of the decisions made during the production and airing of daily programming are routinely changed and go undocumented,  and  programming is often being defined or altered while it is being aired.  The primary concern is always the final product  —  the  broadcast.  Early stations were small, privately owned, hobbies rather than for profit,  and often set up as  and programmes were aired live,  which meant that broadcast signals were transmitted directly from stations to audiences’ home receivers without being recorded. There were no government or industry regulations requiring that textual records or copies of the broadcasts be kept, textual or programme documents were generated, generated were usually destroyed. Occasionally,  so limited  and those stations found it  necessary to record a broadcast for distribution, or to record a 61  show for later broadcast. This was particularly true for radio drama shows which were often distributed to several different stations for broadcast, but generally, re—broadcasting is more common in contemporary stations because recording technology is more accessible.  Of course as with other for—profit business,  as stations grew in  size, the amount of textual documents increased proportionally. Gradually,  as legislation and regulations were established,  stations were required by law to maintain certain records. Moreover,  stations began creating and preserving copies of  broadcasts in order to defend themselves against possible legal action, to protect their copyright, broadcast.  and in some cases to re  Today, medium to large size stations generate an  overwhelming amount of programme documents; however,  compared to  other industries, they create still a limited amount of records. This is because,  in a broadcast station,  around the broadcast; thus,  everything revolves  the most typical transactions are  those which relate to the production and airing of radio and/or television programmes.  The third part of the bottom-up analysis conducted in this chapter examines the transactions and related procedures from which each of the three chosen documents resulted: the production of a radio drama programme, the production of the script for that  62  48 and the production of a television newscast. programme, Throughout these analyses, the discussion will include how the documents generated by each transaction might differ in a small/medium/large station as well as between early and contemporary stations.  1)  Radio Drama Programme Production  A typical transaction for a radio station is the production radio drama play.  The final document is the recording of the  radio drama programme, 49 transaction.  of a  which represents and concludes the  The procedure described here is the genesis of an  original radio drama programme recording.  The phases of the  transaction are:  1)  initiative  2)  inquiry  3)  consultation  -  —  —  Planning for programming. Collection of information necessary to produce the drama. Discussion about how to organize the production once all the relevant information has been accumulated.  48  It is important here to clarify a definition of terms. The broadcast industry commonly uses the term “produce” to refer to the activity of creating a radio/television programme for broadcast. The phrase ‘producing a script,’ as it is used in this chapter, means writing and finalizing a script on which, it is intended, a broadcast programme will be based.  The purpose of this transaction is to broadcast the programme that is produced. Because diplomatics can only analyze the ‘written’ document, the programme can only be analyzed if it is recorded. ‘  63  4)  deliberation  5)  deliberation control  6)  execution  -  —  —  Approval of script and finalization of budget and programme schedule. Control exercised by talent unions on staff contracts and external regulatory bodies on content. Broadcast of the programme and/or recording of the programme.  The production of a radio or television programme in any size station always begins with planning,  but while a large station  consistently assigns specific tasks to specialized staff,  staff  responsibilities in a smaller station often change. An idea for a programme may originate internally or from an external source, and may consist of anything from an idea expressed verbally by a staff member,  to a formal written proposal presented to a station  by a writer.  In a small station,  any person may be responsible for originating  the idea for a programme or a commercial; however,  developing the  idea or examining the feasibility of a proposal usually starts with a brainstorming session among the programme director, radio talent staff,  someone from promotion or sales and sometimes a  continuity writer. to content,  The idea or proposal is discussed in regards  audience interest, production costs,  talent, promotion and sales.  available  This phase of the procedure is  called the initiative phase, because it “is constituted by those acts, written and/or oral, which start the mechanism of the  64  ° 5 procedure.”  Although the arising of the idea  and thinking about a production) process,  (conceptualizing  is the seminal stage of the  it is rarely documented.  If it is agreed to go ahead  with the idea, the documents resulting from this phase in an early radio station may include a draft proposal, draft production schedule  a rough budget,  (time—frame), and an outline of the  general allocation of responsibilities.  Each person present at  the brainstorming session usually takes the responsibility for researching further one or more aspects of the production.  In a  larger station, particularly if contemporary, the initiative phase may be somewhat more complex.  The discussion about the  feasibility of the production would more likely be revolve around a potential plan including time estimates, costing, manpower and union agreements  The second  •51  procedural  phase, the inquiry phase,  consists of  the gathering of the information required to assess the situation. applications  Examples of documents produced during this phase are (from talent and/or writers to work on the show),  and estimates for costing regarding talent and technical Note that See Duranti, “Diplomatics....(Part IV),” 14. Duranti’s ideal structure of the integrated procedure was used for these analyses of procedural phases. 51  Generally speaking, radio productions have always required less planning than television, and contemporary stations embark on more complex projects than the early stations ever did. This is because the visual aspect of television involves a larger crew, more equipment and a more detailed production, and early radio stations did not have the technology to attempt very complex productions. 65  requirements.  Due to rigid deadlines and the nature of  the industry, much of the information gathered during this phase remains unwritten.  For example,  script writers and/or researchers  are often selected through word—of—mouth recommendations, and contacts are made using the telephone.  The third phase is referred to as the consultation phase. phase,  opinions and advice are expressed,  In this  and revisions to the  idea are proposed and discussed after all the information gathered in the previous phase has been organized and assembled. In a small station the manager and the production manager would simply be presented with all the gathered information by staff, and would express their evaluation.  In a large station,  this  phase would most likely require the compilation of a formal proposal by the production manager,  composed of all the  information gathered in the inquiry phase for presentation to management.  The process of approving the final proposal  (written or verbal),  and notifying all those involved is the deliberation phase. phase encompasses the final decision—making.  This  In a small station  it would include the compilation and approval of the master script  (and musical score(s)  if applicable),  the formalization  and finalization of contractual agreements with talent and musicians and of the programme schedule,  and the making of the  necessary technical arrangements for recording. 66  In a larger and  contemporary station,  this phase  might result in additional  documents such as formal written approvals for the programme, the budget and the script, (free—lance writers,  legal contracts with external talent  talent, musicians,  recording studio etc.)  and memoranda.  The deliberation control phase is more evident in contemporary stations,  be they large or small.  Currently,  programmes must  comply with federal and state legislation relating to content and censorship,  and stations must comply with union regulations.  early small radio stations, did not require approval,  In  there were fewer rules and programmes  other than from station management. 52  In the final procedural phase,  the execution phase,  production is either broadcast,  the radio  recorded for delayed broadcast,  or recorded during broadcast for repeat broadcast.  The primary  document created in this phase is the recording of the programme. The first intended communication of the production is the broadcast,  but as noted earlier,  the broadcast cannot be analyzed  diplomatically without being fixed in an objective form.  The  medium of the final recording will vary according to when the  52  Len Peterson noted that writers of radio drama were able to be more daring in the days of live radio because management could not listen to the recording before the show was broadcast to check it for controversial lines. Peterson stated that writers “took the stance of the classic Greek playwrights, who assumed they could examine everything.” See Rosemary Bergeron, “Caplan-Sauvageau Report: A Major Concern at ASCRT’s 1986 Conference,” ASCRT Bulletin, no. 29 (January 1987): 6. 67  programme was recorded.  For example,  discs or wire recordings, tapes,  instead of transcription  today there are 1/4” open reel magnetic  compact discs and digital recordings.  Although the production of radio drama plays was more common for early radio stations than it is for contemporary radio stations, there is little difference between the type of documentary output of the procedural phases of the transaction in an early station and that in a contemporary station. 53 that,  The only difference is  in larger and more complex radio stations, the  documentation becomes more voluminous and fragmentary. A more significant difference is discovered when comparing the documentary output of the procedural phases of a radio drama programme production with those of a television drama programme production.  Because television has a visual component,  of additional activities are required,  a number  each of which results in  different kinds of documents.  The last three phases of the procedure  (deliberation,  deliberation control,  and execution)  to as a ‘continuum.’  This means that they are aimed towards a  common purpose,  constitute what is referred  the creation and refinement of the final document  (the radio programme recording) which concludes and represents the whole transaction.  Conversely, the first three procedural  With the introduction of television drama, radio moved away from drama programming and focused on providing more informational programmes such as news and documentary reporting. 68  phases of the procedure  (initiative,  inquiry,  and consultation)  generate documents which are referred to as interlocutory.  While  each of those documents is final with respect to a subordinate procedure within the main procedure, they are all interlocutory with respect to the document generated by the main procedure. This will be exemplified by the analysis of the second typical transaction.  2)  Radio Drama Script Production  The second transaction is the production of a radio drama script. The related procedure develops in parallel with the previous procedure, that is,  it takes place at the same time as the  production of the radio drama programme. 54  If the entire  transaction of producing the script started and ended within one procedural phase of the production of the radio drama programme, it would constitute a subordinate procedure. However,  the genesis  of the document that represents the purpose of this transaction, as well as its residue, potentially spans all the phases of the drama programme production; therefore,  it is said to constitute a  As mentioned earlier, the diplomatic definition of a transaction is “an act or several interconnected acts in which more than one person is involved and by which the relations of those persons are altered.” (Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part VI),” 11). Therefore, in order for the act of writing a script to be defined as a transaction, the script must be accepted by a producer for consideration or, the writer must be contracted/employed by a station to write the script. Scripts may be written without ever being submitted for production or ever broadcast; to write a script as an intellectual exercise is not a transaction but an action. Therefore, to better convey the sense of its transactional nature, the writing of the script analyzed here has been called “radio drama script production.” 69  parallel procedure. 55  Radio and television drama scripts are developed through a series of stages.  While the number of stages per programme varies with  the particular guidelines of each station and the type of production, the procedure of producing a script is quite 56 standardized.  Within the transaction,  each stage of  development corresponds to a procedural phase.  The stages are  listed and defined below.  The first stage of producing a script is preparing the scenario, also referred to as the treatment, outline, scenario is a detailed,  dialogue, story,  A  chronological overview of a prospective  script, written in narrative form. on the setting, plot,  or summary.  It either provides information  and characters,  and gives examples of the  or is a scene—by—scene narrative description of the  including sketches of the principal characters.  station hires a writer to prepare a script,  When a  the writer usually  prepares a working scenario for himself as an aid to construct  It is important to note that, although a script may be written without being produced as a programme, a radio drama programme cannot be produced without a script being written, completed and accepted in the radio drama production’s deliberation phase. 56  Sometimes the finished script consists of little more than a scenario containing only the continuity. Radio and television programmes may be fully scripted, semi—scripted, show formatted, or only be based on a ‘fact’ or ‘rundown sheet.’ See Herbert Zetti, Television Production Handbook (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1976), 539. 70  the play, but rarely does the station receive a copy of this. The final scenario is presented to the station for consideration. For a one hour drama,  a scenario may be two or three pages in  length, which is usually one—fifth the length of the projected script.  Once the scenario for a drama production is written and accepted by the station, the writer(s)  begins to flesh out the play, an  activity which may involve research and possibly interviews. This is accomplished after the creation of several rough drafts (also referred to as ‘author’s typescript with emendations’) 57 on which to base the master script. These rough drafts are either handwritten or typewritten and include alterations made by the writer.  When the writer is satisfied with his/her drafts,  s/he produces  the author’s clean typescript for submission to the producer. This is an unmarked typescript, usually recognizable by the author’s signature or name and address. 58 the writer works with the producer,  From this moment on,  and the following documents  result from their cooperation: producer’s script with emendations (typewritten with handwritten deletions and additions), producer’s script with comments  (typewritten with handwritten  notes added by the producer during rehearsal regarding acting or See Biggins “An Annotated Bibliography,” 22. 58  Ibid. 71  technical problems), producer’s script with technical notes (typewritten with timing notes taken  during rehearsal,  often  with sound effects or technical notes or music cues included), and technical scripts  (typewritten, marked with cues and  underscored sound effects)  Each of these scripts are working  documents for the ensuing master scripts.  There are three types of master scripts: master producer’s  scripts, master actors’ scripts, and master technical scripts. These are unmarked scripts, without indication of changes or of use  (although actors’ scripts are often marked by initials and  underscoring of parts and/or notes regarding cues, mood,  tempo).  The phases of the script writing procedure are summarized as follows:  1)  initiative  2)  inquiry  3)  consultation  4)  deliberation  5)  deliberation control Ibid.,  Idea for the story  -  (scenario).  Collection of information necessary to write and produce the story (rough drafts).  —  -  -  —  The author’s clean typescript is submitted to the story editors for opinions, suggestions and corrections. After the scripts are written (producers script, technical script, actors’ scripts), each scene is reviewed to identify casting, and location needs, this information is summarized in a cast and set sheet. The play is usually rehearsed with the actors to ensure that there are no problems. Control exercised by station management, and any external regulatory bodies on  23. 72  content. 6)  execution  —  Final versions of the production script, technical script and actors’ scripts.  The initiative phase of the development of a script originates with the preliminary idea for the broadcast.  Sometimes a producer  has an idea for a show and hires a writer to prepare a script, and other times a writer (or agent) for a script to a producer. ° 6  may send a script or an idea  The initial idea manifests itself  in the form of a scenario.  Following the initiative,  the inquiry phase begins.  This phase  results in a number of rough drafts all of which are retained by the writer. The author’s clean typescript is submitted to the producer in the consultation phase,  at which time,  opinions,  corrections and suggestions are presented to the writer by story editors and the producer.  If the producer is not satisfied,  s/he  will request a complete re—write. The consultative phase results  in the writing of a producer’s script with emendations, a producer’s script with comments, a producer’s script with technical notes, and a technical script.  The deliberation phase is constituted by the final decision  60  Most writers work alone, but in larger stations they are sometimes required to work in teams. Large stations often permanently employ writers who work at home. In small stations, writers might only be under contract part-time or hold additional positions at the station. 73  making.  At this stage the script might be re-written again after  a read-through by the cast with the producer, first rehearsal.  and again after the  How a writer produces any number of scripts  (producer’s script,  technical script,  actor’s scripts etc.)  depends upon the scope of the production. How a producer organizes his shows depends on local procedures, the nature of the production,  and personal experience,  and detail will vary.  so the level of planning  Each scene may be reviewed to identify  casting needs and this may also result in the compilation of a cast sheet. ’ 6  The deliberation control phase involves compliance with station policy and external regulations,  less for early small stations  and more for larger contemporary stations.  By this stage, the  master scripts should have been finalized.  The execution phase results in the master production script, the master technical script,  and the actors’ master scripts.  Verification of a script, however,  is never complete until the  production is ‘in the can,’ because last minute changes can and often do occur after a script is typed up until the production is performed.  This phase of the procedure corresponds with the  deliberation phase of the previous transaction 61  —  the production  In television, after the script is written, each scene is reviewed to identify casting, and location needs. This information is summarized in a Cast and Set Sheet that is placed in front of the script. These are especially useful when shows are shot with multi—camera set—ups. 74  of the radio drama programme.  As in the case of the first transaction,  there is little  variation in the procedural phases of this transaction between an early radio station and a contemporary station  —  large or small.  The primary difference would be the fragmentary nature of documentation in a large complex station,  caused by a more  complex organization and the needs for a larger bureaucracy. Again,  there is a more noticeable difference between radio and  television scripts because television scripts are presented in a more complex format numbered,  (each sequence might be consecutively  it might be double columned with picture on the left  and sound on the right,  etc.).  The main difference between  scripts for radio and scripts for television is that television scripts include visual instructions, camera angles, appearance,  location,  time of day  actions,  termed ‘visualization’,  on  characters’ actions and  (so type of lighting is specified),  etc.  Television scripts have ‘sluglines’ that identify each new scene/physical local. 62  The versions of scripts produced in each  phase of this transaction could be described as a continuum as the purpose is the creation of the original script  -  the final  document.  Although the first three procedural phases of the radio drama 62  For more information on television scripts see Richard A. Blume, Television Writing: From Concept to Contract, 2d ed. (Boston: Focal Press, 1984). 75  production and of the radio drama script do not neatly correspond, the master scripts must be completed by the deliberation phase of the radio drama production, production could not proceed,  and,  or the  the deliberation control  phases of each transaction overlap.  This is why these two  transactions are described as parallel procedures.  3)  Television News Programme Production  The third transaction analyzed is the production of a television news programme. Originally,  news was not presented as a distinct  programme on radio or on television, but was inserted as one or two minutes of a programme that would also include human interest stories. programme,  When news started to be broadcast as a separate early versions consisted of talking heads reading news  reports from external sources such as newspapers until, with the development of technology, different kinds of techniques began to be used to produce newscasts.  Gradually,  stations began to gather their own stories, visuals  were incorporated,  and field footage was interspersed with  reporter voiceovers. became shorter,  Programmes started to be edited,  interviews were included more frequently, more  than one camera began to be used, inserted.  shots  and more on—site clips were  Besides visuals, graphics were also incorporated.  Whereas the early stations’ graphics were very simple, 76  and might  have consisted of a printed heading glued to a cardboard sign placed behind the Anchor,  1950s’  stations blew up images on rear  screen projection systems,  and 1980s’  computers to compose maps,  photos of people,  depicting words,  numbers,  or signs.  the presentation of news changed,  stations began to employ and artwork  By the 1980s,  not only had  but so had its content,  and  news reporting began to include more ‘hard news topics.’ News became more analytical and interpretive as opposed to merely descriptive and,  today,  there are even television channels  devoted entirely to reporting news. 63  Although the formatM of news programmes has varied according to the time period and the purpose of the programme,  most stations  broadcast news which is a combination of in—depth stories assigned to reporters  (who may work on them for several weeks),  and daily news reports.  The in—depth news stories are often  accompanied by on-site footage and by interviews collected especially for the story, while daily news reports are read over the air by Announcers,  accompanied by file footage or illustrated  with only a still image or graphic behind them.  63  See Rosemary Bergeron, “The Presentation of News on CBC Television, 1953—1988” (M.A. diss., Carleton University, 1990). 64  uses it,  The term “format” is used here as the broadcast industry that is, to describe the programme layout and content. 77  The production of a routine television news programme is somewhat different from that of a radio news programme or a television drama programme.  While its visual component demands more  detailed planning, newscast,  facilities, and equipment than a radio  a television newscast presents significantly fewer  variables than a television drama. drama, which may change its set,  Compared to a television  its cast,  and its technical  requirements for each episode,  a news broadcast is rather stable.  However,  the deadlines remain strict,  like in any newscast,  this creates other kinds of demands.  and  The following is the  procedural sequence in the production of a typical television newscast.  1)  initiative  2)  inquiry  3)  consultation  4)  deliberation  5)  deliberation control  6)  execution  The News Director assigns responsibilities to Reporters to cover in—depth stories.  —  Reporters gather material for their particular assignment(s) as well as collect daily news reports from the news feeds and ‘broadcast news’ services.  —  —  —  —  -  The News Director assembles all the relevant information from Reporters and external sources on completed in—depth stories and offers advice and suggestions. Final decision by News Director of stories to be included in the broadcast, and the establishment of the order of presentation. Final approval by station management on form and content. The Announcer reads the news; visuals and graphics are projected over; inserts and commercials are cued in; and the show is broadcast live.  78  Like a radio station,  a television station develops ideas for  news programming in a variety of ways.  For ideas on in—depth  stories it might hold a brainstorming session among staff members,  an idea might come from management,  or storylines might  be submitted by external sources such as freelance reporters or writers.  Possible ideas for these in—depth stories are discussed  in regards to content,  audience interest, and production costs.  Once ideas are agreed upon,  the News Director assigns Reporters  to cover certain events/issues and specifies deadlines, final story,  and possibly an angle.  is the initiative phase.  length of  This phase of the procedure  The instructions to the Reporters from  the News Director may be oral or written.  If they are written,  documents resulting from this phase are a news assignment sheet and/or a rough budget.  The activities in which television news staff participate, and consequently the types of documents generated or accumulated, have undergone changes largely due to the development of technology.  In the incfuiry phase, Reporters gather information  about their assignments.  Depending upon the technology  available, this may include doing interviews, gathering file footage, etc.)  and/or searching for visual aids  for in—depth stories.  (photographs, graphics  News staff of early stations were  limited by technology and were not immediately able to go outside the studio to gather field footage by ‘remote coverage.’  They  often gathered information for newscasts from the newspapers and 79  simple background visuals in the form of artwork or slides. Because time has always been of the essence,  little paperwork has  ever been completed in this phase.  In addition to doing work on in-depth stories during the inquiry phase, Reporters also gather all the daily reports available from various external sources, ‘wire services.’  such as news feeds,  newspapers,  or  If chosen for inclusion in the broadcast,  these  stories are read by the Announcer accompanied by a still image or graphic behind.  In the consultation phase, collected is put together,  all the relevant information compared,  and selected.  submit their stories to the News Director, external sources are examined.  Reporters  and the stories from  The News Director then gives  advice to the Reporters for any changes.  In medium to large size  station this phase would result in a meeting between the News Director and the Assistant News Director to discuss the possible choices.  Once Reporters are given feedback,  each story and daily  report is worked into a timed segment ready for insertion into the nightly broadcast.  The deliberation phase is constituted by the final decision making regarding the stories for broadcast. time,  the  Provided there is  News Director makes his final selections on the basis  of the stories’ quality and relevance, 80  and decides on their order  of presentation.  This phase results in such documents as the  anchor’s script, directions for the switcher, a programme log (perhaps computerized)  for master control, directions for the  technical staff on putting together visuals, voiceover etc.  sound mixing  Also, the writers may add last minute information  to the anchor’s script.  The last stage before the broadcast  itself is the final approval by the station management of its content and form to ensure that it represents the views of the station.  This phase is the deliberation control.  The execution phase is when the individual stories are actually broadcast as a complete newscast.  With today’s technology,  unless the complete programme is recorded for preservation stories  purposes,  (termed inserts)  exist as physically separate  tapes and are aired one after another at the time of the Tapes are cued up by Master Control,  and the Switcher  (who is given instructions by the News Director)  controls exactly  broadcast.  which tapes will be aired at which time. Again, essence,  time is of the  so a limited amount of paper work is produced. Master  Control makes any necessary revisions to the programme log to reflect the actual broadcast and,  if necessary, the person  responsible for video tape recording (VTR) makes dubs from one format to another.  The amount of documents resulting from this procedure is minimal, because the entire transaction takes place in a space of less 81  than twenty—four or sometimes twelve consecutive hours.  The  number of moving image documents created depends upon the number of stories included in the newscast and the amount of time spent on each story.  For example,  some contemporary newscasts include  special stories which reporters may have been working on for a more lengthy period of time and result in a large number of field tapes.  These tapes are edited and the final story (which is  termed an ‘insert’)  is physically contained on one video tape,  but the residue of the entire activity will be contained in a significant number of field tapes as well as reels of outs and trims.  If the station has chosen to preserve the programme in  its entirety, Master Control has a routing switcher tape the show while it is being aired.  In so doing,  master programme recording. not generated,  the station creates a  If a master programme recording is  the only recordings that remain are the individual  inserts.  Early stations did not have the technology to air broadcasts with today’s  sophisticated visuals.  They would create newscasts  consisting of still pictures with voiceover narration occasional shot of the anchor reading the news)  (and an  and stories read  from newspapers; they would produce ‘headline’ or ‘ticker tape programmes,’ or present local or national newsreels. These methods were both practical and economical, but viewers preferred  82  newscasts that included footage gathered by remote. 65 Because of time restrictions,  little paperwork was completed. Of course,  in  both early and contemporary stations, the final programme log has always been retained. The log describes and constitutes evidence of which stories were aired and when.  Clearly, the activities  undertaken in each phase of each transaction have changed over time depending upon technological development and the station’s environment.  However, except for the amount of documentation,  there is little difference between the documents produced by early and contemporary stations, be they large or small. reason,  For this  it is easy to typify transactions.  SUMMARY  This chapter, which took a bottom-up approach to the analysis of the documentary output of broadcasting, has examined the form, function, genesis and transmission of three documents typical of the broadcast industry.  The information gained from this type of  analysis is limited; however it is essential to understanding the relationship between the documents and the actions in which they participated. industry -  -  The following chapter analyzes the broadcast  the context in which the three documents were created  taking a top-down approach,  that is,  outlining the history of  radio and television’s technological development and the industry’s juridical system.  65  See Bergeron, Television,” 16.  “The Presentation of News on CBC 83  they reflect the functioning of their creating agency. 23  While the character of a country’s juridical system establishes the nature and function of a broadcast station, technological developments tend to affect the particular procedures and activities used to carry out that function and the documents resulting from them.  For example, the introduction of mobile  filming units enabled television crews to venture outside of the studio to tape or do live broadcasts of news events.  This  technological breakthrough not only changed how information was gathered for programmes and how programmes were produced, but affected the kinds of programmes possible.  Mobile units enabled  reporters to go directly to the events and get close to the people involved in the story rather than having to arrange for either the reporter to go to the scene, take notes, to present those notes in the studio, and be interviewed in the studio. different kind of programme,  or,  and come back  for individuals to come  First—hand news created a  and eliminated much of the paperwork  occurring between the event and the actual report of it.  Considering the unprecedented impact that broadcasting has had on 23  While the dates that new technologies emerge are exact, the dates they begin to be used by records creators varies. Therefore, documents cannot be precisely dated solely on the basis of their format. For more information about when certain broadcast technologies were used, see Brock Silversides’ article entitled, “Guide to Identifying and Dating Sound Recordings,” 913.  98  modern society, the industry has a relatively brief history. Television and radio broadcasting as we know it today grew out of early experiments with Morse code communication on ship—to—shore transmission in the late nineteenth century. Radio enthusiasts that advocated voice transmission for entertainment purposes initiated experiments at the beginning of this century,  and in  1915 suggested using broadcasting technology to make radio a “household utility,” that is, to bring music and lectures, and events of national importance into the home by means of a 24 receiver called the “radio music box.”  The first radio stations were small operations set up by amateurs using experimental equipment.  They operated at approximately 10  15 watts and were usually all on the same frequency.  By 1923,  there were over six hundred radio stations in the United States alone, broadcasting weather reports, of music. sets,  sports,  and a limited amount  Most were owned by either individuals wanting to sell  or university science departments. 25  Gradually, with  radio’s popularity and the formation of networks, the size and complexity of stations increased.  frequencies became government controlled,  of radio,’ improved,  In the so called ‘golden age technology  and stations began to concentrate on programme  24  Gross, Telecommunications: An Introduction to Radio, Television, and the Developing Media, 39. 25  Ibid.,  41. 99  development.  Although experiments with television began in the 18005, not officially introduced until the 1940s. its growth was explosive,  it was  Dominant since 1952,  and television became a widespread  phenomenon in most developing countries.  With the introduction  of television came the natural decline of radio,  and not until  the 1970s did radio begin to increase its audience and regain momentum.  Radio and television production relies on equipment to create programmes.  Although equipment has changed frequently, most  changes have simply made it more compact,  and have been focused  on improving sound and/or image quality; however, there have been several innovations that have also significantly increased both the efficiency of the production and distribution processes.  The  rate of technological development has varied among countries depending upon economic situations and government interest, but the fundamental effects of major changes are common to all nations.  Many of the technical innovations for equipment  actually resulted from the development of new recording formats. Technological development will be examined in relation to both the process of radio and television production and the process of programme distribution.  100  1)  Radio  Early radio stations relied primarily on live programming. recording, stations,  though often necessary, was not routine. it was essentially  economics; however,  Pre  For small  a question of practicality and  recordings were generally made when  broadcasters could identify an immediate need for re—use. Recording programmes allowed for their distribution to other local stations,  and was frequently done by early stations to  record statements by persons from overseas and in different time zones,  and to record chain  broadcast.  (network)  programmes for later  Pre—recorded advertisements,  political speeches,  public broadcasts and airchecks were even more common, they were practical.  because  Pre-recording particularly fulfilled the  needs of advertisers whose distribution outlets were in distant areas and who could not afford advertising with chain programmes. Drama was recorded only occasionally when, not possible to bring actors together. 26  for example,  it was  Consequently, the total  broadcast record of early radio represents only a fragment of the entire output.  However,  in spite of this,  examples of most  genres of broadcast programming have survived. advertisements, music,  sportscasts, political speeches,  children’s shows,  To record programmes,  documentaries,  These include radio drama,  and game shows.  early radio stations used the soft—cut  26  Allen Specht, “Tune Into That Disc Early Radio Recordings,” ASCRT Bulletin, no. 29 (January 1987): 14. -  101  recording process.  The resulting recordings are referred to as  either transcriptions,  acetates,  or instantaneous discs.  The  term instantaneous refers to the fact that the recordings could be made by an individual radio station and played back immediately.  Commercial recordings, which instead were pressed  transcriptions  (usually 78 rpm), were mass produced by networks  and radio service companies and were made using a multi—step process,  therefore it took longer to produce them.  Physically,  instantaneous recordings resemble phonograph discs,  but the  recording technique and composition of the instantaneous disc are Instantaneous discs, which ranged in size from 7” to  different.  16” in diameter  (depending on the duration of the recording),  were actually made of metal, acetate.  glass or cardboard,  and coated with  Recordings were made by mounting a disc on a turntable  and cutting in grooves with a special stylus. rpm was used for speeches, production.  and 78 rpm  Generally,  33 1/3”  was used for a music  Although the worldwide standard for discs was  initially the 78 rpm shellac record,  the broadcast industry  primarily used 16” discs recorded at 33 1/3 rpm.  These were  similar to the 78 except the grooves were closer together and narrower.  The stylus necessary to play these discs used a tip  radius of 2.5 mils.  From 1935 to 1955,  when radio was at its height,  instantaneous  disc recordings were the dominant recording format. As music became an ever increasing component in radio output, 102  inexhaustible supplies of recorded music became all important for broadcast stations.  A large supply ensured enough available  material to keep a radio station running continuously.  Until the early 1950s, when magnetic tape arrived, the primary recording technique used by radio in America was the phonograph disc.  Tape, however, made a great impression on the broadcast  industry and rapidly replaced stations’ use of transcription discs.  In fact, tape could be edited and controlled in ways not  possible with disc recordings,  and, while every imperfection was  heard with discs, tape recordings were said to be indistinguishable from live performances.  Flawed tape recordings  could be easily re-recorded without delay and could easily be spliced or edited with scissors and scotch tape. The reproduction of master discs on the other hand was a costly and time consuming process.  Another advantage of tape was that dubbing was  simplified and improved.  Discs had to be copied directly and  this meant that all the inaccuracies on the original were also recorded in the duplicate. edited out,  recorded over,  Inaccuracies on tape could easily be erased and then re—used, while discs  had to be returned to a factory outlet for a fresh coat of shellac in order to be re-used. 27  By the mid-1950s, magnetic  28 tape was used by almost all radio stations.  27  Dick,  28  Specht,  “An Archival Acquisition Strategy,” 259. “Tune Into That Disc,” 16. 103  Over the years, magnetic audio tape has appeared in a variety of formats and speeds, same.  but the technology has remained virtually the  The original 1/4” open reel, which was at one time used  only for music and speeches,  is still used today for drama,  interviews and special edition programmes.  Eight—track and  cassette tapes, which were mainly designed for the home market, were used by broadcast stations for music,  advertisements,  station identifications during the 1970s.  In addition to using  open reel tape for full length programmes,  broadcast stations  often used cartridges,  commonly referred to as ‘carts.’  and  Carts,  which are self—contained cases of magnetic tape wound in a continuous ioop, were used for short spots less than eight minutes.  They were most common during the 1960s and 1970s,  but  29 are still used today by small radio stations.  Magnetic audio tape recording equipment was originally very bulky.  For early radio stations,  the ability to record  programmes and air them at a later date increased their flexibility,  but the introduction of low cost portable tape  recorders was yet another crucial technological innovation in the production process.  Portable recorders meant that stations could  easily go on location to conduct interviews.  With the development of technology in the 1980s, 29  many radio  Information provided to this author by Ann Lloyd, University of Victoria radio station, Victoria, British Columbia, 6 December 1990. 104  stations gradually moved from using analogue recording processes to making digital audio recordings. audiotape  (DAT)  The advantages of digital  (which has only been used regularly by a few  stations since the late 1980s)  are the superior sound quality,  the absence of generation loss in copying,  the ability to contain  twenty—four hours of digital recording on an open reel tape (which previously held only one hour of analogue recording), cost.  A DAT tape costs approximately one third of what an  analogue tape costs for the same quantity of recording, less storage space, 1988,  and  and means reduced equipment costs.  occupies Since  the Radio Archives at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation  30 has used DAT exclusively.  2)  Television  In addition to the equipment needed for radio,  television  requires equipment necessary to produce the visual portion of a programme. live,  Like radio,  that is,  early television broadcasting was done  television studios sent signals directly from  stations to home receivers. When recordings were made, was motion picture film. film technology,  the medium  Black and white was the first phase in  and for television,  black and white negative was  very often used because it was less expensive and was capable of being processed more quickly than reversal film. ’ 3 30  Dick,  “An Archival Acquisition Strategy,” 260.  31  Blake Kellogg, “Overview of Film News Gathering Processes and Technologies,” Transcript of a presentation given at the first session of the 1990 Association of Canadian Radio and 105  In the early 1950s, television devised the ‘kinescope’  (kines)  for recording broadcasts, though like radio recordings, the process was expensive so they were made sparingly.  Kinescopes  were 16mm film copies made by focusing a camera on the television monitor on which the image was being projected. Although their quality gradually improved, original broadcast.  it is not as good as that of an  Their prime function was to make programmes  available for circulation, and today, they often remain the only existing recordings of many television programmes that were broadcast live.  The first important technological developments in television began with the improvement of camera equipment.  Early television  was restrained by film production equipment that was both bulky and crude.  The development of lighter cameras meant that cameras  could be carried on a person’s shoulder,  and this changed the  whole procedure of gathering news and recording events.  Lighter  cameras allowed for material to be transmitted live ‘on-the—spot’ instead of from the studio.  They eliminated the practical  problems created by bulky equipment and the need for large trucks.  With mobile units,  crews were no longer restricted to  studios or control rooms but could film on location,  and further  improvements in camera equipment increased the flexibility of the mobile units even further.  Eventually,  television became even  more portable with the invention of videotape, when both the Television  (ASCRT),  Portland,  Oregon. 106  camera and the videotape recorder were combined into one unit. In addition to picture, development.  sound also underwent several phases of  Sound tracks were either on a separate magnetic  track or were put on a magnetic and later optical sound stripe which was placed directly on the edge of the film.  The appearance of videotape and videotape recording equipment was the most influential development in television. recorders  (VTR5)  Videotape  enabled programmes to be taped and played back  without having to wait for film to be developed. videotape equipment was initially unwieldy,  Although  this development  increased the flexibility of the programming function and made television production more like film production,  that is,  programme segments could be taped in any order and at different times before being quickly edited together. did not have to be recorded continuously,  Because programmes  the director had time  between scenes to discuss revisions and to initiate feedback. ‘Film style directing,’  as this activity is called, was  responsible for a significant change in the production procedure  32  There is not a specific date when broadcast stations converted from film to video.  Videotape appeared in the 1950s,  developed quickly through a variety of phases. 32  and then  The transition  Information provided by Phillip Keatly, television producer, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia, 29 March 1990. 107  period was gradual and extended over a period of ten years,  from  the l970s until the 1980s, when videotape virtually replaced the use of film.  Film is still used today for television programmes  that require exceptional picture quality,  such as nature  programmes or outdoor adventure programmes. Because film does result in better picture quality, it is in some cases the best.  although it is more expensive,  For instance, the picture quality  for news reports is not of primary importance.  For news shows,  which are primarily intended to provide information, sufficient to record on videotape.  it is  For example, all news  recorded by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation is currently recorded,  edited and preserved on Betacam video format. 33  broadcasters choose film over video, potential in mind.  When  they may also have re—use  For series that are re—used for stock shots,  film is the preferred medium because of its superior picture quality.  Thus,  the type of production (genre,  choice of format.  topic)  affects the  Another advantage of replacing film with video  was that multiple prints were no longer necessary and much of the paper work generated in the post—production process could be 34 avoided.  This is an example where a technical innovation  affects the creation of documents by the station.  The primary advantages of betacam are its stability, and its ability to produce high quality images. Information provided by Linda Copeland, film librarian, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia, February 1990. 108  5  The first video tape recording system appeared in 1951. Developed by Bing Crosby Enterprises in the United States, the tape was black and white,  1” wide,  and the equipment to play it  had twelve heads which read the tape at 100 IPS second) States,  In 1956, Ampex Corporation,  (inches per  also based in the United  introduced a 2” wide quadruplex videotape that quickly  became the standard for the broadcasting industry and was subsequently used for twenty years.  The reason it was called  quadruplex was that the playback equipment has four heads. The 2” format is still used occasionally and is only just in the process of being phased out.  In Japan,  in 1959,  Toshiba developed what was called the helical  scan video recording.  This tape was also 2”,  ran at 15 IPS,  but  what made it different was that it ran on a slant against moving heads.  The advantage of this technology was that the same amount  of information that could be held on a 2” tape could now be accommodated on a 1” tape.  Less tape meant less cost.  Today,  helical scan video tape comes in a variety of widths ranging from 1/4” to 2”, However,  and tape speeds range from 1.26 IPS to 15 IPS.  because the recording lies at a long diagonal that goes  to the edge of the tape,  this longer recording path is a cause of  mechanical instability, which becomes a significant problem.  Susan Swartzberg and Dierdre Boyle, “Videotape,” chap. in Conservation in the Library: A Handbook of Use and Care of Traditional and Non-traditional Materials (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1983), 155. 109  These problems are less apparent in high—end equipment,  but in  lesser quality machines the systems include excessive picture jitter and lower resolution.  In the late 1960s,  the first 1/2” video tape system (black and  white and then colour)  and the first portapak camera were  demonstrated by Sony in the United States.  This format was most  appealing to a wide variety of consumers outside the broadcast industry because of its convenience.  Sony and its competitors  aimed their products specifically at libraries, schools.  industry and  Susan Swartzburg called the realization of this  development the “video movement,” otherwise known as “guerrilla television” or “grass roots video.” 36 video became more portable, this production medium.  With Sony’s development,  and many new uses were realized for  This technological development was  primarily responsible for the growth of the cable industry and public access channels in the early 1970’s.  The effects are  still felt today and are seen in the broadcasting industry,  cable  and the information industries.  In 1972,  Sony developed the U-Matic video cassette format. U  matic tapes were 3/4” videotapes encased in plastic cassettes. The plastic cassette case made loading the tape into machines easier,  and meant less wear and tear on the tape itself.  format,  which offered better signal quality and picture stability  36  Ibid. 110  This  than the 1/2” tapes,  was quickly accepted by other manufacturers  as the standard for industry and the educational market.  By the  late 1970s the 3/4” U-Matic tape was the format adopted by the broadcast industry.  While 3/4” video cassettes were used widely from the 1960s to inid—1980s to collect television news, 1970s onwards,  and 1” persisted from the  both of these formats are currently being replaced  by 1/2” betacam and digital,  respectively.  formats improve upon technical quality and,  Each of these new as Ernest Dick noted,  requires “the rethinking of television production.” 37  Other innovations in television production equipment include the increased capabilities of equipment for the production of special effects,  such as the ability to employ slow motion and the  instant replay.  These technical development added depth and  breadth to the methods of producing programming material.  Yet another influential development for radio and television broadcasting which cannot be ignored is the computer. not exclusive to television and radio technology,  Although  computers have  played a significant role in the broadcasting industry and in Dick, “An Archival Acquisition Strategy,” 260. Note here also that in 1975 Sony also introduced the 1/2” videocassette system called “Betamax,” commonly referred to as Beta. Immediately after that, Matsushita (Sony’s competitor), developed the 1/2” VHS (Video Home System) video cassette system. VHS competed with Beta and eventually won out. Neither of these formats were ever adopted by the broadcast industry. 111  particularly the new television technologies.  In North America,  computers began being used by broadcast stations during the late 1970s for controlling equipment and labour costs. they were expensive to purchase and maintain,  At that time,  and they were  limited to tasks such as automatic playback of video tape recorders.  In the early 1980s, the possibilities computers offered increased, but they were still expensive. Computer systems assisted activities such as text processing, prompting,  electronic tele—  and access to archival programme databases.  It was not  until the mid-l9SOs that capabilities expanded to include the automated control of on—air broadcast equipment. Today, computers are less expensive, more powerful, more reliable,  and have  increased applications for the broadcast industry.  There are  standard software packages for automated on—air playback recording, editing,  recording incoming feeds, programme storage and  and maintaining programme logs, and controlling common  links for VTR5, machines.  switchers, character generators,  and cart  In addition to these operational activities,  stations  also use packages for administrative activities common to other industries.  Computers have increased the efficiency of the  production process for both radio and television, affected station activities and the generation of  112  and this has  38 documentation.  The utilization of computers by radio stations  has reduced the number of announcers necessary and increased the demand for all—round radio production people.  The means of distribution of programmes have also affected the organization of stations and their production procedures, stations’  activities,  activities.  and the documentation generated by those  Development has been continual,  are many distribution systems in use.  and currently there  Most systems use the  frequencies encompassed in the electro—magnetic spectrum. UHF,  short waves, AN,  multiplexing,  stereo,  FM,  carrier waves,  VHF,  clear channels,  bandwidth, modulate,  and line of sight,  are  all terms used to describe the characteristics and uses of frequencies. example,  Often,  distribution systems are combined.  For  a radio program may be sent by wire to a transmitter and  through the airwaves via the transmitter’s antenna, to a  then,  home or car radio.  Or,  the programme may be sent by satellite to  stations with satellite receivers,  or distributed to stations in  audio or video cassette copy format by what is termed “bicycle 39 distribution.” distribution  The primary function of a cable station is  (as opposed to production).  Cable,  exemplifies a combined distribution system,  which  is almost as old as  broadcasting but has had to fight for recognition.  The  38  See Steve Swift and David Ray Worthington, “Future Bright for Broadcast Automation,” Broadcast Technology 18, no. 5 (February 1993): 24. Information provided by Linda Copeland, 113  5 February 1990.  differences between cable and broadcasting are in terms of technology,  channels,  cost, ownership,  and regulation.  Cable  station signals are received at the cable headend, are converted into output and then sent through coaxial cable to the homes of local subscribers.  It is important to recognize that cable is  one primary means of distribution.  In regards to distribution, the greatest innovation for radio and television was the inception of the satellite. Testar I,  In 1962, the  a communication satellite, was launched by the American  Telegraph and Telephone Company and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,  and carried the first live television  transmissions between the United States and Europe.  Today, many  countries exchange programmes via satellite and, with the development of technology,  broadcasting around the world is  becoming more and more intertwined.  With the development of technology and production equipment,  it  is natural that the average size of stations has changed. ° 4 Increased sophistication of equipment has demanded increased specialization of staff,  and thus required more staff,  so  stations today are generally larger than the early ones. addition to size,  In  the function of stations has also changed  40  The size of a station is dependent upon other factors as well, that is, financial resources, ownership and type of station (radio and/or television, national or local, commercial or public, community access, university, educational, independent, or network-affiliated). 114  through the development of the broadcasting industry.  With their  increase in number, many stations have chosen to specialize (ex. country music radio,  continuous news radio,  television station, multicultural)  24—hour weather  in order to draw a particular  audience and to maintain a competitive edge.  The ‘format’ of a  station is determined by programming priorities, which in turn are determined by station owners, or by the government, legislation.  through  In many state run stations, governments determine  the programming, and the percentages of types of programming,  and  censor undesirable programming.  SUMMARY This chapter has examined the two factors that most influence broadcast systems: development.  juridical systems and technological  While legislation and regulations are affected by  and affect political,  technical and proprietary issues regarding  facilities and programming, technological developments seem to affect primarily station activities.  Both influences determine  the amount and type of documentation created, but for different reasons. Although they are linked,  each has been addressed  separately for purposes of explanation.  The examination of juridical systems determined that there is not one generic legal model in which broadcast systems work. However,  because the issues with which each system is concerned  are similar, the effects on stations have been similar. 115  Firstly,  it is clear that national legislation in every country requires that similar documentation regarding facilities be both created and maintained.  In particular, all contemporary stations are  chartered by their nation’s government and regulated in terms of frequencies, powers and time, and this requires that stations successfully apply for and maintain station licenses and promises of performance.  Documents types created to fulfil this  requirement always include license applications and license renewals, and sometimes include license revocations and license transfers.  In order to maintain a station license,  stations are  also required to maintain records that document their operations, such as programme logs,  logger tapes, maintenance logs,  and  operation logs.  In addition to national legislation, many countries also have industry regulations for the broadcast industry which require that certain documentation be created and maintained. example,  in some countries,  For  copies of aired programmes are  required to be kept for certain periods of time.  Also,  certain  documentation must be made available for public inspection on demand.  In addition to rules specific to the broadcast industry,  general records retention regulations devised by legislative bodies for all corporate enterprise also affect stations.  These  usually demand that records regarding taxation and finances be kept for certain period of times in adherence to financial laws. Juridical systems also influence the structure of broadcast 116  stations.  For example,  in countries which do not permit  commercial advertising, promotion department.  stations would not have a sales or Legislation and regulations may also  affect the organization of persons within the station,  in so far  as industry unions demand certain autonomy for their members, but generally they do not affect the station’s procedures or Socio-political frameworks may influence the  activities.  structure of a station according to the types of ownership and financing permitted in a country, but the functions of a station remain consistent despite any such difference.  Finally,  juridical systems have influence on programme content. Regularly,  both national legislation and industry regulation set  standards for programming,  advertising and/or content.  Technological development has influenced the broadcast industry in a very different way.  While it has not affected the  procedures of stations like legal systems,  it has significantly  changed the activities engaged in to carry out the procedures, and this in turn has affected the amount and types of documents created.  The rate of technological development has varied in  each country,  but as with legal systems, the effects on stations  of similar equipment and supply development, have been similar.  The following chapter examines the administrative context in which broadcast records are created.  It describes the persons  acting in typical radio and television stations, 117  the documents  they create, and the way in which they organize themselves and their activities.  118  CHAPTER THREE BROADCASTING: THE ADMINISTRATIVE CONTEXT In a small broadcast station,  an individual may assume a variety  of duties and play more than one role. A salesperson who is also responsible for announcing a hockey play—by—play is an example of one human being behaving as two persons, roles,  parts,  announcer.  capacities:  that is,  assuming two  one of salesperson and one of  In both a diplomatic and legal sense, persons are  defined as legal subjects to which certain rights and duties are ascribed by a juridical system. Within a given juridical system, one human being may be several persons.  Persons are central to diplomatic theory because they are an essential component of the archival document.  Human beings  represent different persons in the documents they make and receive depending on the different roles that they play with respect to each document.  There may be many persons that  participate in the creation of a document, always present:  author,  addressee,  but at least three are  and writer.  The author of a document is defined as “the person(s)  competent  for the creation of the document, which is issued by him or by  119  his command,  or in his name.” Identification of the author of a  document first requires an understanding of the distinction between “the moment of action” and “the moment of documentation.”  While the moment of action corresponds to the manifestation of the will(s)  of the person(s), the moment of documentation  corresponds to the recording of such manifestation. The author of an action, the person whose will prompts the act,  is usually also  the author of the document, the person whose will generates the related document; however, the two persons may differ.  For  example, a broadcast station is the author of both a programme’s broadcast and its recording if the broadcast station’s will gave origin to both the act of broadcasting and the related document, but the author of the broadcast would be different from the person issuing the related document, of the act)  broadcast a made—for—television drama produced by an  independent film company  The writer(s)  Ibid.,  (the author of the document)  of a document,  See Duranti, 2  if the station (the author  is “the person(s)  .  responsible for  “Diplomatics...(Part III),” 5.  7.  Just as the author of an act may also be the author of the related document, one individual may be both the author and the addressee of a document. This is however more common when an individual is working in a private capacity. For more information regarding the “moment of action” and the “moment of documentation,” see Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part II),” 4—5. 120  2  the tenor and articulation of the writing.” 4  The writer may be  either a representative, a member, a delegate, the author,  or an officer of  and his/her name usually appears in the form of a  subscription with qualification (title or function of the writer).  For example,  in a letter of appointment which gives an  individual a contract to work on a radio or television show, the General Manager’s name  (its subscription)  autograph is at the bottom. author,  in the form of an  In this case, the station is the  and the General Manager is the writer of the  aforementioned letter.  Instead,  in a radio broadcast, the  Producer is the writer and his/her name is read by the Announcer at the end of the programme, with a qualification.  If the name  is not read over the air or is not part of the recording,  it  might be written on the tape label or indicated in accompanying documentation. is,  More and more stations are reading credits, that  naming the individuals involved as persons in a production. 5  The third person necessary to the creation of a document, addressee.  The addressee is defined as “the person(s)  Duranti,  is the  to whom  “Diplomatics...(Part III),” 7.  Note that Technical Directors could not be designated as writers of broadcast documents because, according to diplomatics, they are not persons as they merely compose what has already been articulated by the producer. A countersigner may also subscribe a document to either evaluate its physical/intellectual form, or guarantee that the document was created and signed according to proper procedure. The countersigner takes responsibility for ensuring that all elements of the document such as title/date etc. are present; s/he is not responsible for content. This concept of validation will be described in more detail later. 121  6 the document is directed.”  Every document must have an  addressee because documents represent acts, and acts must be directed towards someone to exist, be it an individual or a The addressee of a document may be different from the  group.  addressee of the act the document relates to, but usually they are one and the same.  The addressee  several places on the document: top, example,  will be named in one of bottom, or verso.  For  in the previously mentioned letter of appointment, the  name of the addressee is at the top.  The radio broadcast, on the  contrary, which is directed to the communities the station broadcasts to, does not include the addressee’s name. This is because it is available for anyone in those communities who chooses to listen; the addressee is the audience in those communities. document,  Such addressees are not ‘written’ directly on the  but their identity is revealed by the specific area  where the programme document is aired.  In order to identify the author, the writer, and the addressee of a document,  it is essential to recognize responsibilities and  competencies.  The author of an act and that of the related  document is the person with the authority and capacity, 7 to issue the document.  the competence,  that is,  also responsible,  6  Duranti,  ‘  Ibid.,  that is,  Usually the author is  obligated to answer for that act,  “Diplomatics...(Part III),” 6.  12. 122  and  it is the document which holds him/her accountable for that responsibility.  In order to identify the persons that concur in the formation of broadcast documents, one must first know who are the persons working in the industry, their roles, responsibilities.  competencies, and  This chapter examines those persons, the  organizational structures within which they work in relation to the functions of the broadcasting body,  and the specific  competencies they have within those functions. the documents these persons produce,  It also examines  accumulate and maintain.  Illustrated by figures, the chapter includes structural models for typical small, medium and large radio and television stations,  a description of how each is generally organized,  and  how each differs from the other.  8 RADIO Individuals originally got involved in radio for one of two reasons:  either they were attracted by the technical concept, or  they saw it as a commercial opportunity to increase interest in the medium and subsequently sell radio receivers. Often referred to as a ‘rich man’s hobby,’  early radio stations were two or  three-person operations that required their staff to do everything: 8  Toronto, Manager,  announcing,  engineering, and script writing.  One  The information for this section on radio was gathered in Ontario, with the assistance of Cameron Finley, General CJRT—FM, March 1992. 123  early station whose primary objective was to promote the sale of radio receivers was CFJC in Kamloops,  British Columbia.  Laurie  Irvine described the working conditions at this station in 1937. We had wonderful working conditions, the three—man You could get by with a two-man staff on staff. Sunday by carrying CBC all day. That meant that one fellow could have a day off, so we used to get every third Sunday off. You worked for 20 days and had a day off, and we loved it, just loved it. All this for the magnificent sum of $80 a month. I was there for four years, by which time the staff had grown to an astonishing four people so we got every second Sunday of f. 9 —  As radio developed,  government legislation and industry  regulations were introduced, externally regulated,  so control on stations became  alternate possibilities for commercial  financing (such as advertising)  took hold,  and ownership shifted  from the amateur enthusiasts to entrepreneurs in capitalist societies,  and government in the others.  As technology advanced,  and the benefits of radio were recognized, number,  stations grew in  size and complexity.  There is little difference between the organization of an early radio station and that of a contemporary small station. usually has less than twelve employees.  Each  The early stations had  few employees because radio was new and stations started by operating at a basic level.  Small contemporary stations are the  Dennis J. Duffy, Imagine Please: Early Radio Broadcasting in British Columbia, Sound Heritage Series, no. 38 (Victoria: Provincial Archives of British Columbia, 1983), 26. 124  size they are because only a limited number of staff is necessary to maintain the station,  and also because many prefer to maintain  an intimate image and be what is referred to as grass—roots in nature,  and for this it is better not to grow too large.  One of  the few differences between operating a small early station and a contemporary small station is that technology has become more sophisticated and demands different skills from operators and engineers.  However,  this does not have a great effect on the  number of people necessary to run a station.  In small stations, one responsibility.  individuals have always been given more than Duties are divided up depending on the  number of staff and the job titles of management and staff seldom reveal exactly what each staff member is competent for. example,  in a small station,  For  a General Manager might also serve  as a Sales Manager or Programme Director or both,  and the day  time talk show host might also work in production in the evening. Each individual may have to do a variety of unrelated tasks due to station demands and the small number of people on staff. However,  a small station of six persons,  population less than 10,000  in a market with a  (See Figure 1,  page 126),  would  usually divide up the functional areas as follows:  General Manager Traffic Manager/Secretary Sales Manager  (or Fund—raising Coordinator) 125  FIGURE  ORGANIZATIONAL CHART:  jlO  SMALL RADIO STATION  General Manager  Traffic 4anager  Sales Manager  Programme Director  Chief Engineer  Announcer  10  See chart from Joseph S. Johnson and Kenneth K. Jones, (California: Wadsworth Modern Radio Station Practices, 2d ed., Publishers Co., Inc., 1978), 22. 126  Programme Director Announcer Chief Engineer  In a small station, management is competent for making things happen.  That is, management sets the goals,  establishes the  policies and procedures, makes the decisions and generally locates, trains and motivates staff to operate the station. There are usually three members on the management team: General Manager,  Programme Director, Sales Manager.  This team is  responsible for satisfying the demands of the audience, owner(s), the advertisers,  the  and the employees, while conforming to  government legislation and industry regulation.  That is, the  management team must keep the station alive by preserving and protecting the station’s license and, station,  ensuring a prof it. 11  in the case of a commercial  The specific responsibilities of  the six persons are as follows:  General Manager The General Manager of a small station  (who may also be the  Station Manager or Vice President depending on whether s/he owns an interest in the station) station planning, personnel,  is primarily responsible for basic  facility planning,  organizational procedures,  “  regulatory matters, programming and sales.  Richard A. Blume, Making it in Radio: Your Future in the Modern Medium (Connecticut: Continental Media Company, 1985), 32. 127  This is in addition to handling all administrative problems with unions,  accountants,  lawyers, bankers,  the community at large.  consultants, owners and  Documents produced and accumulated by  the General Manager comprise: correspondence, memoranda, policy records, budget agendas,  legal documents including staff  contracts, details of audience reactions, union relation documentation, monthly reports, staff applications, programme schedules for submission to regulatory bodies, and a copy of the station’s license as well as a copy of the Promise of Performance (POP). A General Manager relies heavily on the head of the programming department, usually called the Programme Director.  Programme Director The Programme Director is also part of the management team. The degree of a stations’s success is directly proportional to the success its programming achieves with listeners and advertisers. Because programmes are the station’s product, a programme department can be likened to a company’s manufacturing department and,  like manufacturing,  Programme Directors,  it is usually the largest department.  responsible for both in—house productions  and acquired programming, oversee the entire programming concept, including commercials,  spot announcements and station breaks. 12  12  ‘Acquired programming’ (also referred to as ‘purchased programming’) is programme material that has been produced by a The rights production company other than the broadcast station. for airing this type of programming are leased to a broadcast station by the production company for a specified period of time. 128  In addition to controlling the programming budget,  the Programme  Director takes the most active role in making programming decisions within the context of long range policies set by the owner, the General Manager,  and management as a whole.  In a small station, the functions of programming and production are combined,  so,  the individual in this area is not only  responsible for allocating the working budget,  the entire  business and artistic arrangements, but also the origination, interpretation,  casting,  staging,  and treatment as well as  directing the studio operation and any post-production.  In  addition to correspondence and memoranda, the documents produced and accumulated by this person may include: programme notes and schedules, programme budgets, production files  (material leading  up to the broadcast of a programme), information on concepts and future projects, promotional material, cuttings,  copies of contracts, press  topic files, biographic (vertical) files, scripts,  and  any existing recorded programmes and stock material.  Sales Manager  (or Fund—raising Coordinator)  In a commercial station, the management team.  a Sales Manager is the third member of  S/he keeps the General Manager informed on  how the station is being received by the marketplace, works with the General Manager to create policy and procedure relating to sales,  considers the station’s sales,  129  and monitors general  business clients. small community,  In a small or medium sized station serving a all the staff sell part-time and the Sales  Manager coordinates the effort.  Records produced in this area  primarily include client advertising account files and published rate cards.  In a non—commercial station such as an educational station or a university campus station,  fund—raising takes the place of sales.  A Fund—raising Coordinator would be hired and made responsible for obtaining grants and enlisting public support through community contributions.  In small stations, most of the staff is  recruited when the Fund—raising Coordinator organizes a fund— raising drive.  The Coordinator would produce files on fund—  raising initiatives and keep files on potential donors. a very small station,  And,  in  the Fund—raising Coordinator would most  likely be responsible for maintaining copies of the station’s financial records.  While management focuses on developing policy and procedure,  the  rest of the staff is responsible for implementing those policies and procedures.  Traffic Manager! Secretary The Traffic Manager (often referred to as Continuity) indispensable to the daily operations.  is  S/he is responsible for  the detailed scheduling and coordination of all programming, 130  station breaks,  commercials,  any last minute changes. record keeping,  Public Service Announcements,  and  The Traffic Manager supervises all  including the preparation of the programme log.  Programme logs, which serve as schedules for on—air personnel, record all advertising  (invoicing etc.)  that is sold,  and list  all programmes and commercials to be aired each day.’ 3 In a small station,  this person might also be responsible for writing on—air  promotion copy for station breaks and transitions between programmes,  and preparing the records,  tapes,  scripts and  commercials that are included in the programme  (the music  librarian would perform this last duty in a larger station).  The  Traffic Manager also keeps a record of all available commercial time and informs Sales when slots are open. might include: minutes,  Other documents  copies of various legal documents,  invoices,  meeting  original contracts and budget documents,  general programme information,  annual reports,  capital assets  information, and housekeeping records for personnel, and equipment.  In short,  facilities  the Traffic Manager plays a pivotal role  and most likely in a small to medium size station would have originals or copies of all organizational documents. Essentially,  Traffic is responsible for a central set of  administrative files.  13  Logs are divided into hourly segments and indicate exactly Not only are logs a means of when a programme begins and ends. keeping a record of the station’s programming, but they are usually required by law, thus, they are a means of accountability. See Robert Hilliard, Radio Broadcasting: An Introduction to the Sound Medium, 3d ed., (New York: Longman Inc., 1985), 121—24. 131  in a small station, the person responsible for  Occasionally,  traffic would also double as a secretary responsible for clerical work.  In a medium to large size station however, the  responsibility of traffic occupies a full time position.  Announcer The Announcer, who is accountable directly to the Programme Director,  is responsible for the live commentary portion of  programmes.  In early radio, Announcers had to be extremely  flexible because they would rely on just a sheet with a few facts on it and ad lib the rest,  or  (as in small contemporary stations)  they would read news directly out of a newspaper.  Today, the  amount of scripted material varies among stations depending upon the station’s format.  In medium to large stations, technical  operators are stationed in a separate location to broadcast (operate equipment) however,  and perhaps tape shows.  In small stations  Announcers are usually required to operate their own  audio boards and recording equipment.  Since the very early  stations, most Announcers have been required to record the times on and off which result in the final programme log. create little,  if any,  additional role,  documentation.  Announcers  Unless they are playing an  their files may only include correspondence and  internal memoranda.  Chief Engineer In a small station, the position of Chief Engineer may be 132  contracted outside the station. or not,  Whether the engineer on contract  s/he reports to the General Manager regarding the status  of the station’s signal and equipment,  and ensures general  compliance with legislation and regulations regarding technical standards.  In the United States,  every operating station must  employ at least one individual who has successfully passed the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)  exam.  The Chief Engineer is always responsible for updating the General Manager on any technological or equipment innovations,  and the  General Manager would consult the Chief Engineer on any major technical move such as filing for authority to increase power. The Chief Engineer focuses on planning for new equipment and maintaining and repairing old equipment.  person would include technical files, files,  Documents kept by this  equipment maintenance  a maintenance log and an operating log.  large size station,  In a medium to  the maintenance log is kept by the Chief  Engineer and the operational log may be kept by the Console Operator or the First Class Transmitter Engineer.  Both logs  maintain information showing that the station is operating within the technical specifications established by their license and that the station is not intruding upon the signal of other 4 stations.’  Other documents produced by this department might  include staff permits such as the ones the FCC requires.  Also,  the engineering department in a small station is responsible for “  Ibid.,  121. 133  15 maintaining the logger tapes.  Small radio stations divide up the duties according to how many staff they have and the interests and strengths of each individual. will vary,  Although titles and combinations of responsibilities the basic activities each of these persons undertakes  in order to follow procedure and fulfil his/her function are the same in every station.  For example, a small station of ten might  divide up these same duties as follows:  General Manager Sales Manager —  2 Salespeople  Programme Director News Director/Announcer —  2 Staff Announcers  Chief Engineer Traffic Manager/Secretary’ 6 15  Some national bodies require that tapes of complete days radio and television broadcasts (logger tapes) be kept for a short period of time in the event that there is a complaint. In Canada, the Canadian Radio and Television Commission requires that tapes be kept for at least thirty days before they may be legally erased and re—used. 16  In a station of this size, it is likely that the sales staff and the News Director will double as announcers. Not all individuals working for a small to medium sized station are on staff. Most stations have a lawyer, a bookkeeper, and an accountant who do some work for the station, but on a contractual basis. Conversely, a large station will have these positions on staff supervised by a Business Manager. 134  While early stations were necessarily small,  stations became  larger and more refined as broadcasting developed as an industry. Generally,  throughout the history of the development of the  broadcast industry, grown,  the size and complexity of stations have  but because the size of the station also depends on the  station type  (university campus,  educational,  commercial),  there  is still a place in contemporary society for the small station, and the model for it has not changed dramatically from the early radio station. 17  While small radio stations have 6 to 10 staff members,  a medium  station with a market population of approximately 50,000 to 100,000 employees  (See Figure 2,  page 136)  might have from 15 to 40  (not including any existing volunteer component).  A  station with 25 employees might break up the competencies as follows: General Manager Sales Manager -  —  2 Salespeople Sales promotion  Programme Director/Announcer —  —  —  Traffic Manager News Director/Announcer News Announcers/Reporters  17  (2)  Robert L. Hilliard, Radio Broadcasting: An Introduction to the Sound Medium, 3d ed., 60. 135  FIGURE  ORGANIZATIONAL CHART:  218  MEDIUM RADIO STATION  General Manager Secretary! Receptionist  Sales Manager  Office Manager  Sales Staff  r—Chief Engineer  I  —  —  Assistant —Engineers 1  Sales Promotion  —  —  —  News Director  Programme Director Promotion Director Announcers Music Librarian Staff Talent  Traffic Manager  News Reporters  L  Announcers  18  See “Radio Station Organizational Association of Broadcasters, 1969. 136  Charts,”  National  —  —  —  —  Promotion Director 2 Announcers Music Librarian 2 Staff talent  Chief Engineer —  Assistant Engineers  Office Manager Secretary/Receptionist  In a medium sized station, involvement,  the General Manager has less direct  and the Programme Director has several individuals  that report to him or her, a Traffic Manager,  such as Announcers,  and a Promotion Director.  a Music Librarian, Two separate  departments that are only occasionally found in small stations are News and Promotion. exist in a small station,  It is not that these functions do not but that the function of news  production is usually absorbed into programming and the function of promotion is usually absorbed into sales. with more employees, narrowly defined.  In a larger station  the competence of each position is more  The positions not already described,  altered by the size of the station,  or those  that would exist in a medium  sized station are as follows:  News Director The News Director usually reports directly to the Programme Director.  A News Director directs all activities in the news 137  department,  including supervision of all staff,  administering the  department’s budget, monitoring all research and coordinating with other programming departments.  Primarily though,  the News  Director is responsible for establishing the station’s policy regarding how the news is broadcast and ensuring that the policy 9 is implemented.’  In a small to medium sized station,  it is the  Announcers’ responsibility to determine which events will be covered, which stories will be broadcast and how the chosen stories will be presented,  and  all of the on—air reporting.  the News Director does some or Documents created by the News  Director include performance evaluations of announcers notes”),  edited copy, programme budgets, backgrounders,  assignment sheets, memoranda  (“on—air  schedules,  correspondence and internal  20  News Announcer(s)  /  (Reporter)  All News Announcers gather and organize news and write reports, but the daily activities primarily depend upon the size and market of the station.  In a small to medium sized station,  Announcers collect information for hard news stories and deliver them on the air. assigned to  In larger stations,  actual reporters are  specific geographic or topical areas  (ex.  politics,  19  For example, the policy may establish general rules such as prohibiting sensationalism. 20  Information gathered in Toronto, Ontario from Armando De Paralta, former news announcer for the British Broadcasting Corporation, 11 August 1993. 138  economics etc.)  and sent out to gather hard news first hand  and/or prepare in—depth reports for Announcers to read or to deliver themselves on air.  The information assembled for routine  hard news reports in a small to medium sized station is usually gathered from ‘wire services’ and read directly on the air. Information for in—depth documentary reporting by larger stations may be acquired by library research,  telephone inquiries,  interviews, observation or questioning.  At a non—commercial  station, there are generally fewer hard newscasts and more in— depth reporting.  Announcers determine the emphasis of a  particular story,  follow through on developments of a previously  reported story,  and may also develop ideas for future in—depth  stories. As in a small station, Announcers in medium or large stations produce or accumulate very little if any documentation. Reporters, however,  each maintain files on their own assignments,  which often contain assignment sheets and personal notes. ’ 2  Promotion Director In a medium sized station, freelance.  a Promotion Director is usually  This person is competent for arranging for newspaper  advertisements, or any other promotion initiative. stations,  In large  s/he is responsible for ensuring that the station does  not violate local ordinances, that it adheres to any industry regulations regarding deception, that it does not disrupt the regular workings of the community 21  Ibid. 139  (eg. the flow of traffic for a  commercial shoot),  and that promotion schemes do not resemble  lotteries which are usually illegal in any way.  This position is  fairly specialized and not all medium sized stations can afford one • 22  Sales Manager (or Fund—raising Coordinator) Like in a small station, the Sales Manager (or Fund-raising Coordinator) all sales  in a medium sized radio station is responsible for  (or fund—raising)  the management team.  activities and is the third member of  In a medium sized station,  s/he would  probably be in charge of full—time representatives, promoters,  and traffic/continuity staff.  one or more  Documents produced and  accumulated by this person would be identical to the documentation produced and accumulated by the Sales Manager in a small station.  Chief Engineer As in a small station,  the Chief Engineer of a medium to large  station reports directly to the General Manager. is,  The difference  that while a small station would only have one engineer,  a  medium sized station might have two and a large station might have four. Due to the sophistication of technology,  22  the equipment  In smaller stations, the responsibilities listed here are usually distributed between the Programme Director and the Sales Manager. Documents produced or accumulated by this person include letters of agreement, letters of understanding, event plans files, internal memoranda, correspondence, news bulletins and news releases, posters, photographs, press books, publicity sheets. 140  of a contemporary station requires less adjustment on a daily basis than earlier stations;  likewise, while early stations  needed regular equipment maintenance and frequent signal checks, contemporary stations are increasingly more automatic. Of course in any size station the Chief Engineer of a medium to large station is also responsible for ensuring general compliance with legislation and regulations regarding technical standards. Contemporary small stations are more like the earlier stations, but in medium to large contemporary stations the Chief Engineer is responsible for keeping up—to—date on advances in technology, carrying out regular assessment of the benefits new technology has to offer and of the station’s needs, requests for the General Manager.  and preparing capital  These duties also include  regular assessments of benefits of equipment and costs.  The types  of documents produced and accumulated by this person would be identical to the docunentation produced and accumulated by the Chief Engineer in a small station.  Office Manager An Office Manager is a senior clerical person who oversees secretaries,  clerks,  size of a station,  typists and receptionists.  a station’s Office Manager is also responsible  for all housekeeping functions, records on facilities, maintenance,  including the corresponding  equipment and furniture,  and personnel,  and assignments.  Whatever the  building  as well as all clerical work orders  Documents produced or accumulated would be 141  housekeeping records typical of any business such as administrative files, personnel files, purchase orders, invoices, and work orders.  Music Librarian The Music Librarian, a person present in medium size stations which broadcast music,  is responsible for cataloguing new  additions to the station’s library of sound recordings, maintaining the order of that library.  and  This responsibility may  be full time or only part of an individual’s duties,  depending on  the range of music broadcast by the station. Documents produced and accumulated may include information and invoices on purchases,  order lists and catalogues,  correspondence and  internal memoranda.  Although the basic organization of all stations is similar, different stations put emphasis on different departments, depending upon their type and size.  For example,  a large  commercial station in a highly competitive market will naturally emphasize its sales department, in that one department.  and may have up to fifteen people  The Sales Manager,  planning for the entire department, budgets,  responsible for  would set goals,  define  and communicate the needs and goals defined to  programming, whereas the sales representatives representatives)  (or teams of  would be directed to represent different markets  (local or national). 142  In a large radio station with a market population of 2.5 million or more, the size dictates a staff with increased specialization, but the four basic categories, corresponding to four functions (programming, evident.  engineering, sales, administration) are still  The only difference is that production is no longer an  activity assumed by the programme function, but is carried out by a separate group of persons.  (See Figure 3, page 144).  Compared  to small stations, which absorb producing into programming,  in a  large station, production is assigned to a separate group of persons each with their own competencies.  Production Staff The production staff of a large station includes Producers, Directors and Unit Managers. concerned with conceiving, producing programmes,  While the Programme Director is  designing and developing ideas for  scheduling programmes,  station’s ‘total look,’  and devising the  individual Producers are responsible for  managing single productions or series.  This means bringing  together every activity necessary to tape a programme such as selling ideas, assembling talent,  choosing directors and  performers, and analyzing the marketplace. all talent contracts, rehearsals.  orders equipment,  The Producer handles  facilitates and schedules  Directors have primary responsibility during taping,  and Unit Managers ensure all necessary equipment is in place. addition to these three positions,  143  large stations with separate  In  —  4-4 9-4 It  —  U)  U)  1-i C) C)  rC)  U) U)14  C)C) -Cb’ 4.)  Z  U)  -c-I  o H  C  E-I  14 C)  E-I  Q  < o  Z  o H El  N H  Z  I  I 14 C) C)  9-4C  it C it  C)c-4 -c-It’  -.CC O1a  b4  •.  cr  C) 0 C)  o H  r.ii 0  U)C it  -c-I  CS)  O  Hit  o o -4-49-444 U) 9-49-49-I •— ititit 4) 4)4)4.) 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U)  it 4.)  -c-I 9-i 9-1 it  C) 0 C  I  it  C)  U) C) -d 14  4-ib4  Z  4J  14C EiN  c-I 14  4) U)  it -P U)  I  U)C Cn-l itt’  t.1xI  I-I  9-4 9-i it  4-i 9-i  9-4 9-4  4J14  U)C  0 0  U)  -  -dC) C)  4)C)  C) 0 H  4-) r4 0 —4--—C)—l-I— H 14 -c--I C) 0 C 0 it 0 it C) C) -c-I U) U) b Z  14 C) 4-lU)  -c-I-c-I U)b’  4-’  H it -‘-I  C it  III  4-lu) C14 itC)  4-)  14 C) U)  14 C) b’ it  4-4 9-4 It  C 014 HO  4—) C)C it c-I-)  00 C) 014 14n-l C  14Z b’U) OC 140 CJ  I  144  itH  I  9-4  9-4 it 4) CU) 0  -c-It  4C it -P0 U)U)  I  C it -c-I I-I Cit -c-Il-I  U).P  ZH Zi—l  I  C 0  -c-I  4.) 0  t 0 I-I  I  production departments also employ Talent, Writers and While most of these persons work on contract,  Researchers.  there  is always some Talent that is on permanent staff to do regular programmes,  and there are usually several Writers on staff to  handle regular copy. programming,  Freelance Talent is hired to do special  freelance Writers are hired to script programmes,  and outside Researchers are contracted for specific projects. The Researchers on staff often coordinate their efforts with rating services and analyze rating data for the station in addition to their other work.  Documents produced and accumulated by  Producers as heads of the Production Unit include production files, budgets,  concepts,  newspaper clippings,  topical files,  biographical sketches and storylines.  As compared to small or medium size stations,  large stations  simply maintain more staff in each area with more narrowly defined responsibilities.  As an example,  one might consider the  sales and programming units.  Sales Staff In large stations, members of this department would include a Sales Manager,  and usually an Assistant Sales Manager,  Advertising Salesperson,  a Sales Coordinator,  Traffic/Continuity Supervisor. traffic,  an  and a  Public relations,  promotion,  and research staff are also usually grouped under the  sales unit because their activities are all sales—oriented. 145  The  documentation produced or accumulated is identical to that of the small and medium sized station except that the Sales Manager would also maintain files on each salesperson.  Programming Staff In a large station, the Programme Director has all the same responsibilities as in a small or medium station,  but s/he will  have a larger staff including assistants to help acquire programming,  assistants to coordinate the scheduling of studio  space, production personnel to determine set—up and rehearsals, staff to check scripts and programmes and commercials in order to ensure acceptance by the local community, copyright clearances.  and staff to do  The Programme Directors of larger stations  also spend much of their time negotiating for purchase of programming with independent producers and programme syndications.  Documents produced and accumulated would include  the same generated by small or medium stations except that the output would be greater and a set of personnel files would be maintained  23  While, as mentioned earlier, not all individuals working for a small to medium sized station are on staff,  and lawyers,  accountants and bookkeepers would be hired on contract when the  23  A description of the responsibilities of persons competent for the engineering activities in large stations is included in the section on the “Chief Engineer” in a medium station on pages 140— 41. 146  need arises,  a large station has these positions on staff, under  the supervision of a Business Manager responsible for Administration.  Administrative Staff Business Managers are only found in large stations and usually have a degree in business administration, accountants,  or have other formal education.  have a full time staff of five or more, Lawyer,  are chartered These persons may  including a Bookkeeper,  an Accountant and a Financial Manager.  a  In a very large  station there may be separate positions for competencies as specific as accounts payable,  accounts receivable,  and payroll.  Documents produced or accumulated by these persons pertain to general office management; examples are files on janitorial  service, notes regarding distribution of work to secretary, mail delivery, security and public tours.  In addition to this,  the  Business Manager keeps all legal documents, minutes of station meetings,  capital assets information, profit and loss statements,  all invoices and contracts regarding technical services, budgets,  books of original entry (ledgers),  annual reports, parent company  financial statements, original share certificates, records of payroll expenditure, equipment and supply purchase, supply inventories,  income tax returns, social security reports,  insurance claims.  In medium to small size stations,  of the most important legal documents, financial statements etc.,  and  the originals  such as contracts,  are kept by either the General Manager 147  or a part—time accountant.  In either case, duplicates of most of  these documents are maintained as well in the central filing system belonging to the Traffic Unit.  TELEVISION When television made its appearance, many of the individuals it attracted were from radio.  These people brought with them the  skills and experience they had gained from radio, but this was not necessarily an advantage.  Television broadcasting involves a  more complex process than radio, at a faster rate. investment,  and stations increased in size  Television also requires a substantial  so many early stations were established by  governments and large companies. individuals’ duties overlapped,  For the first few years, responsibilities were shared and  the chain of command was often unclear.  Today,  television stations come in all sizes,  community channels to the national networks. network stations are,  activity,  Large contemporary  like other modern enterprises, a  combination of many single units. a different location,  from small local  Each unit might be operated in  carry out different types of economic  and have a hierarchy of management responsible for the  various sub—units.  The first recognizable difference between the organizational structure of radio and that of television is the size, 148  as a  television station generally employs more staff than a radio station.  For example, whereas a basic radio interview would  only require an announcer and an interviewee,  a comparable  television interview programme would need approximately eleven individuals.  In the television studio would be the announcer and  the interviewee as well as two cameramen (one to run each camera), one floor director  (whose responsibility is to relay  signals from the control room to the talent, all on—air activity),  and to coordinate  and two studio assistants  (one to handle  the light and one responsible for properties who also sets up for commercials)  .  In the control room would be an operator for the  audio equipment,  two video operators  (one to handle control units  for cameras and monitor picture quality control and one to operator to communicate with the cameramen in the studio on camera placement and lens selection, director,  as instructed by the  and to do the switching between cameras),  a director,  a  script assistant and a switcher. Another technician might be in a third room to run any inserts.  Of course, the larger size and  increased complexity of staff and organization mean that the documentation produced is in greater quantity and more fragmented.  Like with radio stations,  the organizational structure of every  television station is unique and constantly changing. also like with radio,  However,  because the functions of every television  station are basically the same,  the organization is also 149  basically the same. areas,  In television,  all the four main functional  programming, management/administration,  engineering, functions,  are present,  sales,  as well as two additional autonomous  news and production.  Having already examined in  detail the specific duties of each position in small, medium, large radio stations,  and  it would be redundant to describe each  position in a small, medium and large television station, a large amount of repetition would occur,  because  so the following  discussion will examine the persons of each of the six functional areas in general.  For an example of a typical organization chart  of a large sized television station see Figure 4,  The management of a television station, stations,  page 151.24  like that of radio  is carried out by a general manager and a team of  directors.  Whereas in radio the basic station model includes  managers from sales, programming,  and engineering,  in television  it also includes managers from production and news.  General Management and Administrative Staff As in radio,  the General Manager of a television station is  responsible for the overall operation of the station. in radio,  Also,  like  the difference between the manager of a commercial  24  For a list of the specific activities each position is for, see responsible reference any general text about the industry, television for example: Lynne S. Gross, Telecommunications: An Introduction to Radio, Television and Other Electronic Media, 2d ed., (Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, and Gerald Millerson, 1986); The of Television Technique Production, 12th ed., (Boston: Focal Press, 1990). 150  FIGURE 4 ORGANIZATIONAL CHART:  LARGE TELEVISION STATION  General Manager I  •1  •  Programme Director —  —  I  Chief Engineer  Assistant Programme Director Station Talent  —  —  Sales Manager  Camera Operators  —  Audio Engineers —  —  —  —  —  Announcers  —  Writers  —  Music Librarian  —  Composers —  —  Broadcast Standards Staff News Coordinator Reporters  —  —  —  —  Public Service Coordinator  Videotape Recorder Operators  —  Lighting Director Transmitter Engineers  I  Unit Managers  Assis.  —  —  —  —  Producers —  Director  —  —  Stage Managers  Promotion Staff Researchers  Accountant(s) Bookkeeper(s) Banking Staff Finance Staff Billing Staff Office Manager  Secretaries  I  Film Services Staff  Security Staff  Makeup Artists  Mail Room Staff  Graphic Supervisors —  Artists Photographers Set Designer  Carpenter  Public Relations Staff  Janitorial Service Staff  Stage Hands  I  —  Traffic Mgr.  Business Manager  —  —  Local Sales Staff  Design Maintenance Engineers  —  Assis.  Directors  —  Video Shaders  Studio Production Coordinator Producers  —  —  —  —  Projectionists  —  —  —  Technical Director  National Sales Staff  —  Painters  —  151  Purchasing Staff I Stock Room Staff Personnel Director Lawyer  station and that of a public or educational station is in the role each plays in generating income.  While a manager for a  commercial station oversees advertising revenues and the sales department,  the manager of a public station prepares and defends  the station’s budget in order to solicit funds.  The administrative staff of a large television station would also include an Attorney (or representing law firm), Manager, an Accountant,  and a Bookkeeper.  a Business  As said earlier,  attorneys are only on staff at networks and major market stations; otherwise,  stations are simply represented by an  outside law firm.  Attorneys provide stations with advice about  legal obligations,  analyze problems,  actions.  and develop strategies for  They usually prepare and negotiate contracts,  protect  the station from copyright infringement, review broadcasts to ensure they are not libelous, and assure that stations are in compliance with all regulations.  Stations which employ an  attorney may also have on staff a junior associate,  a research  assistant and a law clerk.  In addition to a law representative,  the Administration of a  large station also employs a Business Manager. the General Manager,  As primary aid to  the Business Manager is responsible for all  of the station’s financial transactions, which include interpreting financial data and records of the station’s operations, developing long term plans, 152  and supervising the  preparation of all billing. Accountants,  Bookkeepers,  The Business Manager supervises all  Billing Clerks,  and Benefits Personnel  in the Business Department.  Programming Staff The programming department of a television station is identical to that of a comparably sized radio station.  And,  the Programme Director is part of management,  and reports  like in radio,  directly to the General Manager.  Production Staff Both a large radio station and a large television station separate their programming and production functions and attribute the competence for them to different persons.  Production is the  area in which television is more complex than radio. television has a visual component,  the function of production  comprises in its scope many more activities, art direction,  graphic art,  Because  such as lighting,  and the supervision of a number of  staff responsible for different aspects.  Generally,  the  production staff of a large station will include a production manager,  an executive producer,  producers,  directors and assistant directors,  floor managers,  production assistants,  lighting directors, cinematographers, announcer,  several producers and associate  art directors,  electricians,  writer(s)  ,  unit managers,  production secretaries,  graphic artists,  special effects designers,  researcher(s), 153  floor hands,  camera crew,  audio engineer, directors, artist, manager.  sound crew,  set crew,  studio supervisor,  costume designer,  stage crew,  switcher,  technical  set designer,  video operator,  make—up  and an operations  Each of these persons carries out separate activities,  but all work towards the creation of a programme or series of programmes.  The bigger the station is,  the more people this  functional area might employ.  Depending upon the organization of the station, type of production, write the script, performers,  and the size and  the director may initiate the programme idea,  design the sets,  cast and rehearse the  guide the production team and control the editing.  In large stations,  the Programme Director would rely completely  on his/her production team to provide settings,  sound,  light and  all technical work. 25  Engineering Staff In television,  engineering departments are usually the largest  functional area,  together with production.  There are so many  engineers in a large size television station that the Chief Engineer may never deal directly with the equipment,  but focus  solely on scheduling and supervising his/her staff. Television engineers must be familiar with complex electronic equipment and keep that equipment in working order.  25  Generally,  the staff is  For more information on the production team, see Gerald Millerson, The Technique of Television Production, 363-67. 154  required to have a highly technical working knowledge.  In addition to all the people carrying out engineering duties required by a radio station, television also needs camera operators in the studio,  camera switchers in the control room,  audio engineers, technical directors, projectionists, videotape recorder operators, video shaders, crew.  and a lighting director and  This is approximately three times the number of people  necessary to produce  a comparable radio programme.  positions are interchangeable,  Most  but in contemporary stations this  is one area where specialization is common. Large engineering departments are often divided further into studio and transmitter divisions.  Unlike small or medium sized stations, console operators  (technical directors)  large stations employ to assist with pre—  broadcast production and the basic operation of the equipment. The specific duties of this individual change with new technologies, however s/he has a standard set of responsibilities.  While larger stations establish specialized  positions, the console operator’s responsibilities actually tend to overlap with those of other persons. coordinator,  the console operator may be responsible for cuing up  tapes/records, preparing live mikes, volume.  Like the production  and maintaining consistent  S/he must also be familiar with industry regulation  regarding log keeping,  know when and how often to do station 155  breaks,  and when to log meter readings. Like the producer, the  console operator may be responsible for arranging furniture and equipment for live broadcasts, running the board during the broadcast and perhaps going live on location with live promotion. Like the people in public relations positions, to answer phones, greet station visitors,  s/he may be asked  set up the studio and  conduct interviews.  Sales Department Staff As in radio,  the primary function of a television sales  department is to raise revenue for the station.  In smaller  stations, the General Manager and/or Announcer(s) may double as sales representatives, but large television stations have a separate sales department.  In very large stations,  there may even  be a National Sales Manager to solicit national advertising.  The organization of sales departments in large commercial television stations is identical to that of sales departments in large commercial radio stations. The kind of station determines the primary occupation of its sales department.  While  commercial stations are concerned with selling commercial time, both cable television and subscription television spend their time obtaining subscribers.  The sales departments of cable  networks also may hire someone to sell their system to cable operators.  156  Again,  as in radio,  there is also a difference between commercial  and public or educational broadcast stations.  Generally, the  latter stations have a less complex organizational structure and fewer employees.  Instead of an advertising sales department,  have what is called a fund—raising department, to as  ‘development.’  they  commonly referred  The people employed in this department are  responsible for obtaining grants,  community and viewer  contributions, and other funding.  News Staff In a small television station,  the responsibility for producing  news is only occasionally allocated as a separate function to a distinct department rather than rolled into the general production department as one of its activities. happens,  However, when it  the news department consists of a News Director and  several Reporters.  The station’s Announcer would read the news  written by the Director.  However,  as in large radio stations and  in medium to large television stations, distinct autonomous function,  the news production is a  and the news department is always  separate from general production. A typical news department in a large television station might include: News Director, Assistant News Director, Reporters,  News Writer,  Desk Assistant, Anchorperson(s),  and Sportscasters.  departments,  In the early television news  news directors were required to train staff  coming from radio)  to be journalists and to shoot film.  average size of a small news department was five. 157  After  (often The  shooting,  the film had to be processed.  Often staff would be  ready to go on air while the film was still coming off the processor.  In very large stations or networks,  separate  department sub—units may exist and there may be individuals primarily responsible for particular areas of news.  In addition to the persons in the departments presented above, large television stations stations,  or networks)  (independent companies, major market  also employ a number of people in  specialty positions that are unnecessary in radio.  These  positions can be grouped under the heading technical/craft and include:  Performers  Directors and Stylists,  Musicians,  Scenic Designer,  Carpenters. staff,  (actors,  singers,  dancers), Writers, Music  Costume Designers, Makeup Artists, Property Master,  Stagehand/Grip,  Hair and  The individuals filling these positions may be on  but are more commonly hired on contract for a particular  programme or series.  Documents produced or accumulated by each of these six television departments include all those identified noted for comparable departments in radio, visual components.  plus all those related to television’s  This includes documents such as cue sheets,  screening and editing sheets, files,  set/costume design,  records,  computerized graphics, photo/slide  dope sheets, lab—film processing  as well as documentation pertaining to all film/video  equipment,  film/video stock shots, 158  and additional documents  produced by and about the camera crew, technical/craft staff.  In addition,  set crew,  and  each department head would  keep his/her own set of administrative files.  The documentation  of a television station can be incredibly complex and especially confusing for an archivist. As Jana Vosikovska rightly noted, While the production of a film or a TV program is a highly organized chain of activities, the overall situation in the field of cinema and TV appears to be rather chaotic. Companies come on and off the scene at an amazing pace. Productions are announced and never started, started and never finished, not announced at all and suddenly released. Some productions disappear almost overnight, some stay for years and years. In [a] situation like this, it is essential for the film archives to have a system of information that would keep track of the present developments and that would also provide a deep enough insight into the past. 26  DOCUMENTAT ION 27 Early radio and television stations were small.  They were  characterized by an informal setting and unsystematic administrative procedures, amount of documentation.  and,  as a result,  produced a limited  Most stations made recordings of  programmes for re—broadcast, them for any length of time.  but few had policies to preserve The instantaneous disc recordings  26  Jana Vosikovska, “Film Related Materials in Film Archives A Luxury or a Necessity?,” Ottawa: National Film Television and Sound Archives, unpublished, 1980. -  27  The information f or this section was summarized from a study conducted by this author of four broadcast stations: the British Broadcasting Corporation, London, England; CHCH-TV, Hamilton, Ontario; CJRT- Radio, Toronto, Ontario; TVOntario, Toronto, Ontario. 159  made by individual radio stations to serve local broadcast needs were usually sent to other stations and, over time, were either mislaid or destroyed. 28  Also the early kinescopes that were  produced for delayed television broadcast were circulated and then destroyed. The early black and white films that have survived often exist thanks to a few concerned individuals (usually producers) who took pride in their work and subsequently either took material home or stored it under their desks and passed its care onto their successors. 29 speaking,  once a recording was broadcast,  However,  generally  its usefulness was  considered exhausted 30 28 At station CJOR—Vancouver, one former radio technician estimated that the station cut over 20,000 discs between 1935 and 1960. It was thanks to a few retired broadcasters who took discs home as collectibles that any at all have survived. British Columbia’s provincial archives has only been able to locate a total of ninety-four of them. See Allen Specht, “Tune Into That Disc,” 14. 29  Station producers who take pride in their products often try to retain everything they have worked on. Usually it is the station manager who threatens the producers to reduce the amount of material stored due to lack of space. This might result in either a dedicated individual taking much of the material home and storing it in his/her basement, or in it being destroyed. Or, many times, news footage that was shot by stringers was preserved by them because stringers were often allowed to take it home after it went on the air. 30  Television stations did keep pieces of news footage that they thought they might re-use for future broadcasts, but frequently destroyed them in the editing process. Film would be shot the same day for the six o’clock news and the ten o’clock news. The six o’clock show might be further edited for the ten o’clock show, which caused a problem for sound because, with magnetic stripe film, the sound followed the picture by 26 frames, so the station would just kill the sound during editing a little magnet would be slid over the audio stripe. This succeeded in destroying much of what was produced. Also, it is common at the end of a year for a station to go through its out—takes and stories -  160  The only documents consistently preserved by stations for any period of time, were those prescribed to be preserved by the law. In the absence of policy, most persons only maintained the documents necessary to carry out their responsibilities, these varied.  but  For example, while one producer might have kept  all of his/her production files including budgets,  concepts,  newspaper clippings, topic files, biographical sketches, storylines,  and literally everything leading up to a production,  another producer might only have retained the files on which s/he was currently working.  Early stations did not keep the  documentation they produced because there was no immediate need. Even if they had recognized a potential value for future researchers, permanent preservation of material would have required a financial commitment they would have been unable to meet.  As broadcast stations grew in size,  like for other businesses,  there was a greater need for an organized reporting structure, they naturally began to produce more documentation,  so  and made  recordings of their broadcasts more regularly for distribution and their own re—broadcasting.  Gradually, more stations began to  recognize that their corporate records and programming documents were a corporate resource.  By the mid—1970s many stations had  begun to organize a selection of their programmes and programme to pick out clips for a ‘news in review.’ This meant that footage was cut down even further so that all that would be left was bits of fragments. 161  elements as archives.  They realized this material had re—use  potential.  Although contemporary stations are taking more of an interest in the permanent preservation of their records,  they have problems  with increasing volume and the physical characteristics of the documents,  problems caused by the developing technical  innovations,  and the cost of preserving material.  Bulk is not a  problem unique to broadcast records nor is the cost of preservation and control material,  but the challenges presented  by the character of the documentation and developing technology are worth commenting on briefly.  In business, many transactions and decisions are made verbally and these are activities of which no written residue exists. each business devises a record keeping system that is most  Also,  efficient for its needs,  but often such a system is “wholly  unintelligible to all but those most intimately aware of the inner workings of a company.” ’ 3  Moreover,  a company’s method of  creating and keeping records often changes.  Methods evolve over  time as functions change and the activities to carry out those functions develop.  More importantly,  business records are often  considered by their creators to be confidential and a security The protection of trade secrets against competition is  risk. ‘  See Arthur H. Manuscripts: A Pressing (May 1945): 43—64.  Cole and Problem,” 162  Thomas C. Cochran, “Business Journal of Economic History 5  vital to the company’s existence, so businesses are often hesitant to retain and make available the related documentation. They often opt to dispose of potentially incriminating records and accept the risk of receiving fines.  In some cases,  fines are  more economical than the cost of preserving material. North American businesses are suspicious of outside use of their records and worry that they may be used against them.  The broadcast industry is no different from any other business. Decisions are made within a tight time frame and often go unrecorded.  Each station has its own record keeping system,  and  while much of its textual documentation is considered confidential, asset, price.  all of its programming is considered a company  and it is only made available to other stations for a In 1991,  Ernest J. Dick noted that,  “the broadcasting and  archival worlds proceed from diametrically opposing assumptions and operational practices,” because the immediacy of the industry requires flexibility and this usually  “. .  .diverts attention or  resources from records management and archival activity.” 32  Technical innovations cause other problems. have changed many times over the years,  Broadcast formats  and retention of  programming requires not only the cost of maintaining obsolete equipment, but also maintaining the staff with the appropriate technical expertise. 32  Dick,  For example, when television made the  “An Archival Acquisition strategy,” 254. 163  switch from film to video,  and the film processing equipment, the  editing gear and the expertise disappeared, many stations could no longer even use the film for stock shot material. 33  Other victims of technical innovation were early audio and videotaped programmes.  In the early stages of magnetic tape, the  1950s for radio and the 1960s for television, expensive,  such a medium was  and because of the nature of the technology,  programmes were frequently wiped so that the tape could be re used.  This tendency to recycle tape to save money resulted in a  loss of thousands of hours of early radio and television programming material. decreased,  Since then,  the price of tape has  and so has the tendency of stations to re—use tape,  but the space problem still exists.  The fourth cause of problems, which relates specifically to programme material, image media,  is the very nature of all sound and moving  and the inherent problem of deterioration. To date,  no medium used to record programming has proven to be permanent. In order to preserve programming documents,  stations have not  only had to design environmentally controlled vaults for storage, but frequently have had to make copies with each transfer)  (of course losing quality  of obsolete formats or deteriorating items.  Furthermore, material that is stored properly in an Film very often occupied valuable space, and was discarded Black and white film was frequently sold to a soon after use. silver re-processor to recover any valuable minerals and silver. 164  CHAPTER TWO BROADCASTING:  THE JURIDICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CONTEXT  While broadcast systems operate in virtually every nation in the world, the organization and structure of these systems are dictated by their environment. international legislation, pressure groups,  industry regulations,  development.  and external  but they are also influenced by their own  country’s political framework, structures,  Not only are systems governed by  economic status,  geography,  social  cultural traditions and stage of technological It is not the purpose of this chapter to examine  each and every one of these influences; rather,  it will examine  the two aspects which most directly affect the records generated by a broadcast station:  the juridical context and the  technological context of broadcast stations.  The first section  on the juridical context of broadcasting includes a discussion about international legislation and regulations as well as an examination of the elements which define the socio-political framework in which a country’s broadcast system operates. The second section provides a brief history of the development of technology as it relates to the broadcast industry.  Thus,  examination of broadcast documents continues with an investigation into the context in which records produced by broadcast stations are created. 84  the  JURIDICAL SYSTEM Legislation  1)  Telecommunication depends on electromagnetic energy which utilizes the whole communications spectrum.  The spectrum is a  worldwide public resource that cannot be owned by one individual, corporation or nation,  so broadcasting takes place in an  environment that is inherently international.  W.J. Howell  likened the commodity of the spectrum to the seas,  in that its  use must be regulated by international authorities and national governments through laws and conventions for the benefit of each and every nation.’ agreements and, 2 agencies.  Groups of nations have entered into  in so doing,  formed official inter—governmental  These agencies, which act as vehicles for inter  governmental legislation,  address political,  technical and  proprietary issues regarding facilities and programming,  and  their actions and decisions often result in written contracts between nations which are recognized by international law. Examples of these organizations are the International Telecommunications Union  (ITU)  and the International  Telecommunications Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT), which deal with facilities. Radio Conferences,  ITU, which sponsors the World Administration allocates frequencies and ensures the most  W.J. Howell Jr., World Broadcasting in the Age of Satellite: Comparative Systems, Policies, and Issues in Mass Telecommunication (Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1986.), 5. 2  Ibid.,  25. 85  efficient use of the broadcasting spectrum.  INTELSAT provides  for cooperation between nations regarding the development and operation of satellites. 3  Organizations dedicated to the  promotion of programme exchange include the European Broadcasting Union  (EBU)  Educational,  serving Western Europe,  and the United Nations  Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)  Broadcasting, however,  is for the most part a nationally  regulated industry concerned with technical, professional matters.  .“  legal,  and  In order to operate legally,  all  broadcasters are chartered by their national governments,  which  regulate frequencies, times and powers regardless of ownership, but the level of control varies.  In many countries,  5 For example, based on statute and trust.  control is  few European countries  For more information, see Giraud Chester, Garnet R. Garrison, and Edgar E. Willis, Television and Radio, (New York: Meredith Corporation, 1971). Other examples of international organizations and the areas they serve are: International Radio and Television Organization (OIRT), serving Eastern Europe; Asian Pacific Broadcasting Union (ABU), serving Asia and the Pacific; Union of National Radio and Television Organizations of Africa (URTNA), serving Africa; Arab States Broadcasting Union (ASBU), serving the League of Arab States; North American National Broadcasters Association (NANBA), serving the United States and Canada and Mexico; Inter—American Association of Broadcasters (IAAB), serving North and Latin America; Caribbean Broadcasting Union (CBU), serving the Caribbean; and Commonwealth Broadcasting Association (CBA), serving the Ex-British Commonwealth. See Howell, World Broadcasting, 26. ‘  Richard C. Burke, Comparative Broadcasting Systems, Modules in Mass Communication Series (MASSCOM) Ronald L. Applbauin, Module editor, (Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc., 1984), 40. 86  have the equivalent of the United States’ Federal Communications Commission (FCC).  The original justification for government  control was technical: decided that,  frequencies were limited,  for ensuring efficiency,  allocated under a licensing procedure. have established legislation.  and governments  frequencies had to be Many national governments  regulatory bodies to enforce broadcast  These regulatory bodies are responsible for  enforcing the legislation which monitors license applications, license renewals,  and license revocations and transfers.  In addition to legislation specific to broadcasting, there are also numerous other types of national legislation by which the broadcast industry may be affected. countries,  Specific acts vary among  but the issues they cover are similar:  a)  freedom of the press,  freedom of speech;  b)  restraints on freedom to gather news regarding trespassing, obstruction and intimidation, disturbing religious services, trespassing at night, watching and besetting,  false  messages, harassing phone calls, privacy, protection of privacy,  c)  and interception of communications;  restraints on freedom to present information concerning defamation, libel),  criminal libel  contempt of court  (blasphemous libel, defamatory (criticizing courts, 87  judges etc.),  and specific statutory prohibitions  (nudity,  spreading false news, hate literature),  obscenity,  and information  regarding elections;  d)  national security;  e)  copyright;  f)  contractual obligations;  g)  access to information,  h)  and retention of records for specified period of time. 6  privacy,  confidentiality of sources;  In countries where the legal system adheres to the principle of ‘stare decisis,’  case law also affects the broadcasting industry.  Cases are the foundation of North America’s system of jurisprudence, that is,  judicial decisions are at the core of  interpretative law.  In most countries,  commercial broadcast stations are also  regulated by legislation covering general retention of records. Such legislation however varies between countries, regulations vary between industries.  6  and  For corporate enterprise,  See Michael G. Crawford, The Journalist’s Legal Guide, (Toronto: The Carswell Co., Ltd., 1986). 88  vaguely defined records retention periods usually exist that comply with national and state laws satisfying legal and financial specifications regarding taxation, accounting.  audit and  Canada’s regulations are outlined in a publication  entitled, Records Retention and Destruction in Canada: Guidebook, Canada,  Financial Executives in Canada. 7  A  For broadcasters in  the Canadian Radio and Television Commission (CRTC)  also  requires that an audio copy of all broadcasts be retained for 8 thirty days.  The thirty day requirement is set up as a  safeguard in the event of public complaints,  but because these  recordings are not intended for re—broadcast, they are of extremely poor quality. Communications Commission  In the United States the Federal (FCC)  “trustees of the public domain”)  requires that stations  (as  keep certain documentation and  information open for public inspection. 9  Although they may be  asked to show identification, members of the public are often permitted,  by law,  to examine stations’  files containing  information on major changes of station frequency, promises of  ‘  Records Retention and Destruction in Canada: A Guidebook, Financial Executives in Canada (Toronto, 1980). Regulations such as those have been responsible for establishing the widely accepted seven year rule which determines that records be kept a blanket seven years in order to satisfy legal requirements present in most Canadian provinces. 8  Ernest J. Dick, “An Archival Acquisition Strategy for the Broadcast Records of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation,” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 11, no. 3 (1991) : 266, footnote 5. John R. Bittner, Broadcast Law and Regulation, New Jersey: Prentice—Hall Inc., 1982), 259-60. 89  (Norwood,  performance  (POP),  ownership reports,  construction permits, license renewals,  changes in output power,  and logs submitted as part  of license renewals. ° 1  Mandatory deposit laws are another issue  —  a controversial one.  Some think that broadcast stations should take responsibility for their own archives, while others think that mandatory deposit is the only way any broadcast archives will be preserved.  There is  no legislation in Canada that requires corporate enterprise to either preserve or transfer its inactive records to an archival repository.  Because business is private,  all efforts to  deliberately preserve inactive records are voluntary, business is by nature a profit making venture,  and because  once legislative  requirements have been satisfied, the usual practice is immediate disposal,  so,  much is lost.  stipulates that, Archives,  The National Archives of Canada Act  on the written request from the National  a producer of a broadcast recording must provide a copy  to the Archives within six months. The problem with this is that the onus is on the Archives to identify material,  and pay the  costs for any copies selected, and there is nothing in the Act that covers textual material.  In countries where archives are  controlled by the state, depositing copies of films and broadcast material  (and the original negatives after  to  Legislation and regulations not only affect the retention of records, but also the creation of records such as licence applications, licence renewal, and licence revocation and transfer. 90  distribution)  is automatic, but none of the organizations  preserving such material are national archives.” no law in the United Kingdom,  While there is  the country’s National Sound  Archives claims a 95% voluntary deposit of commercial recordings, but this is an isolated case.  IndustrY Regulation  2)  In addition to international and national legislation, the broadcast industry is also controlled by industry regulation. These self—regulating codes,  by and/or for broadcasters,  set  minimal standards for daily operations which include guidelines on programming,  advertising,  At the national level,  and/or content.’ 2  the industry is controlled by  confederations of regional broadcasters and professional associations as well as related pressure groups.  The  confederations serve as forums to address telecommunication problems,  to exchange programming,  and to share information and  resources regarding technical facilities and programming.  All  have similar objectives and organizational structures in that they promote broadcasting development, agreements are respected,  ensure that international  encourage research,  and establish  “ See Sam Kula, “Playing God: What Survived in Television, 8 June 1972,” ASCRT Bulletin 31 (February 1988): 10—12. 12  See Charles Clift III and Archie Greer, eds., Broadcast The Current Perspective, 7th ed., (Washington, Programming: D.C.: University Press of America Inc., 1981), 159. 91  guidelines and professional tenets for performance in advertising and programming related to controversial public issues,  community  responsibility, political broadcasts, religious broadcasts, news, 3 and responsibility to children.’  Each confederation has a  general assembly, administrative council,  staff and secretariat,  committees, and executive board off icers.’ 4 National Association of Broadcasters  (NAB)  For example, the in the United States  services the needs of the industry by providing advice on employee regulations,  formulating engineering standards,  establishing procedures for complaints and suggestions, representing the industry to the public,  conducting research,  developing programmes and acceptable standards, developing codes of ethics,  and generally seeking to establish standards of  practice for the industry.  Other examples of professional associations particularly concerned with the working standards of their members are the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists  (AFTRA)  in  the United States, and the Alliance of Canadian Cinema, Television and Radio Artists  (ACTRA)  in Canada.  also been referred to as a talent union,  ACTRA, which has  is in effect an alliance  of performers and writers guilds whose membership consists  13  Other outside agencies are also becoming concerned with broadcasting issues that relate to them. For example, in the United States, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is becoming increasingly concerned with the quality of broadcast advertising. 14  Howell, World Broadcasting, 92  38-40.  primarily of freelance artists.  The members, who are represented  by elected officials and paid officers,  are contracted out to  organizations such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), which itself has installed an internal hiring system.  Finally,  there are the unwritten codes that reflect the attitudes  and interests of dominant political,  economic and social groups.  Avoiding controversy is the central rule of broadcasters.  This  reflects attitudes and interests originating from external pressure groups, which may be directed towards certain speakers, performers, States,  writers or topics.  citizens’  regulation.  For example,  in the United  action is an integral part of industry  Petitioners who challenge rule—making often use  tactics of pressure groups such as the Coalition for Better Television or the National Federation of Decency  5 (NFD).’  The  documents these organizations use to invoke legal remedies against stations include complaints, petitions to revoke, informal objections or petitions to deny.  The NFD periodically  publishes an index that lists the least and most offensive network programmes and network advertisers.’ 6  15  Charles Clift III and Archie Greer, Programming, 239. 16  eds.,  Broadcast  In the United States, even advertisers have organized to put pressure on networks regarding the content of prime—time programmes. If shows contain potentially offensive material, advertisers may boycott advertising during those time slots. This in turn, often forces networks to alter programme content. 93  In—house Policy  3)  In addition to legislation,  industry regulations,  influence exerted by external pressure groups,  and the  each broadcast  station has its own mandate which specifies the organization’s goals and priorities.  In government owned stations and crown  corporations this mandate may be specified in the legislation which establishes the station.  For example,  in Canada the  Broadcasting Act,  1968, specified that the Canadian Broadcasting  Corporation (CBC)  was to safeguard,  cultural,  political,  enrich and strengthen the  social and economic fabric of Canada,  contribute to the development of national unity and provide for a continuing expression of Canadian identity.’ 7 establishing the Corporation’s mandate,  As well as  this statement also  illustrated the Canadian government’s perception of its responsibility to the Canadian public.  Socio-Political Framework  4)  Broadcast systems are also influenced by their country’s socio political framework.  As W. J. Howell noted,  “All classifications  of the world’s broadcasting systems are ultimately the handmaids 8 of each nation’s political and economic ethos.”’  The socio  political framework of a country determines the types of broadcast stations possible, ‘  c.25. 18  and because not all types of  See “Broadcasting Act,” 7 March 1968, 16 & 17 Eliz. This clause was revised in the June 1990 amendment. Howell,  World Broadcasting, 94  11.  2,  ownership or financing are permitted everywhere, stations are present in every country.  not all types of  Albert Namurois  identified four types of stations based on ownership and method of finance:  i.  state operated by a government ministry or department;  ii.  public corporation operated,  iii.  public interest partnership operated by legally chartered  under state charter;  private corporations with state stock interests;  iv.  private enterprise operated by private individuals or companies under government license with generally weak regulations.  a)  19  Ownership  Broadcast stations are owned by either governments, corporations,  private enterprises,  public  or by hybrid bodies,  such  as public interest partnerships operated by private ° 2 corporations.  Each of these types of ownership may exist  either exclusively or side by side with another in the same  19  See Albert Namurois, Structure and Organization of Broadcasting in the Framework of Radio Communications, EBU Monograph no. 8, Legal and Administrative Series (Geneva, Switzerland: European Broadcasting Union, 1972). 20  Howell,  World Broadcasting, 95  10.  country.  In many countries, the government owns and  controls all broadcast stations, while in others private corporations maintain actual ownership, but are tied closely to the country’s government.  In these latter cases, the  government issues charters which outline rules by which the corporations must abide.  In the United States, many  telecommunication facilities are owned by private companies that are responsible to stockholders. of ownership, however,  This hands-off form  is rare throughout the rest of the  21 world.  b)  Finance  There are five possible sources of revenue for broadcasting, and they are for the most part decided by the type of a station’s ownership.  These sources are:  i.  state subsidization through taxes;  ii.  annual license fees levied on television receivers;  iii. the sale of airtime to advertisers;  iv.  direct payment from individuals and corporations in the form of memberships,  subscriptions, donations, gifts,  21  Lynne S. Gross, Telecommunications: An Introduction to Radio, Television, and the Developing Media (Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1983), 22. 96  grants,  v.  and underwriting;  some combination of the above. 22  In the United States, by advertising revenue  broadcasting is supported almost entirely (except for public television/radio  which  relies on viewer/listener support), while in many other countries advertising is not permitted, and stations are supported by general government taxes or taxes on radio/television sets. some countries,  In  the government totally controls both the finances  and the programming of telecommunication entities,  or  broadcasting is supported by a combination of taxes and low key advertising shown only at specific times.  In these situations,  government oversees and directs the overall broadcasting philosophy and even content.  TECHNOLOGI CAL DEVELOPMENT While knowledge of the juridical context of a creator is important to understand its records,  a knowledge of its  historical context is just as crucial.  Knowing when certain  technologies were introduced in certain countries can help to date and identify physical formats of programme documents, establish programmes’ country of origin and provenance, determine preservation and conservation requirements, the documents’ 22  Howell,  external characteristics,  World Broadcasting, 97  11.  to  to  to explain  and to understand how  environmentally controlled storage space is not immediately accessible because there must be an acclimatization period hours)  before playing the programme,  to use on short notice  —  does is on short notice.  (24  and this makes it impossible  and everything the broadcast industry Needless to say, costs for storage and  for making copies are formidable and often impossible to afford.  Last,  but not least,  among the various challenges presented to  broadcast stations by the preservation of their records are the costs for ‘archiving’ material.  It takes time to organize  material, to carry out appraisals, and to make the records accessible. When material is retained by a station, system is required,  a finding aid  and this in itself requires a commitment of  resources. For this reason,  though a station may have preserved a  body of programming documents,  if the material is not retrievable  then the benefits of preservation are not realized.  Broadcast  stations describe their programme holdings according to their needs.  Usually the descriptive system is quite detailed,  especially for television newsfilm,  so that the station may  access a specific shot or sequence. machine readable cataloguing systems,  Many stations today have or are considering  implementation of automated retrieval systems.  While all stations that permanently preserve a selection of their archives have similar problems, used to cope with the issues,  a variety of methods have been  and despite the obstacles, 165  contemporary broadcast stations are becoming more and more interested in long term preservation of their records. preserve records in varying degrees. requirements,  Stations  Aside from legal and fiscal  there is generally less interest in the  preservation of administrative records than in the preservation of programming records, and specifically of recordings of broadcast programmes, because it is easier for stations to see the re—use potential of these documents.  Most stations have one  or more libraries for sound and/or moving image material, their number and size being proportional to the size of the station and its needs.  While large television stations normally have a radio  library,  a film stock shot library,  library,  small radio stations may only have a music library.  Depending upon their purpose, shots,  copies  broadcast,  (or originals)  a news library and a resource  libraries may contain:  file stock  of complete programmes as they were  publicity material, press reviews,  producer’s and  distributer’s catalogues, published programme schedules, published texts and journals papers,  and pamphlets.  (technical, academic etc.), trade  Often there is a fine line between what a  station calls a library, and an archives. ‘libraries’ contain archival material, posters, photographs,  Many station  such as original scripts,  and programme material which are generated  as by—products of programming activities.  Whereas most stations  take it upon themselves to preserve their own programme material, both audio—visual and textual,  in these libraries,  donate it to government or private archives, 166  some stations  and others pool  their resources together to establish cooperative archives. 34  The programme material a station preserves depends upon its needs,  and different genres of programmes are stored for  different purposes.  For example, the television programme  material most commonly preserved for its re—use potential is news footage.  This material is stored and catalogued in an in—house  library.  It is retained for file footage and stock shots,  usually well catalogued,  Other genres,  and is  because it must be quickly accessible.  such as entertainment, are also systematically  preserved for sales,  rebroadcast, or more rarely,  the corporate memory. frequently required,  for preserving  Because this type of programme is less control systems are usually poor.  Entertainment programmes are expensive to produce,  and in  television there are often many out—takes. Out—takes may accumulate in the library and be impossible to access,  and their  value may be questionable unless they contain something regarding a famous personality or a special event,  and have stock shot  potential.  Other types of programmes such as sports, in their entirety.  Highlights  may  be  are rarely re—broadcast broadcast  once  on  In a cooperative archives, participating organizations (stations) share a facility and the services of professional archival staff for the preservation and storage of their archives. This type of arrangement is beneficial to organizations that cannot justify establishing their own archives. 167  news programmes and then stored in the news library but, with entertainment programmes,  like  there is usually much footage  which easily accumulates in the library and becomes inaccessible. Many early games were never recorded because broadcasters never expected to re—broadcast them.  Commercials are not regularly retained by stations,  because in  most cases the stations do not own the rights to them nor would they have any cause to re—broadcast them.  The copies that  stations receive are usually destroyed once they are taken off the air,  but if they are preserved,  this happens by initiative of  the producing or advertising agencies.  Because the technical  operator inserts commercials at time of broadcast,  they are  rarely found imbedded in programme recordings. 35  Broadcast stations are only beginning to recognize the value of their textual archives.  Some take a systematic approach to the  preservation of their corporate records, neglect this area entirely, ad hoc bases,  but most stations either  preserve some types of records on an  or try to save everything.  As noted earlier,  At station CFTO, in Toronto, Ontario, commercials produced by the station are retained for a period of time. They are recorded on cassettes, numbered, and designated as either master or protection. Usually, elements are erased within one year of first They are only kept for a short period, so clients can air date. make any necessary revisions to the final edited version. Master copies may be kept for five years then dubbed onto one cassette capable of holding 70—100 separate commercials. These composite reels are stored permanently off-site. CFTO has a listing of all commercials that date from 1972 onwards. 168  broadcast stations preserve those records that either are required by law, protect station’s rights, station’s financial security, operations,  contribute to the  are necessary for conducting daily  or preserve the corporate memory.  stations do preserve their production files. mirror every step of a production,  However, most These files, which  contain legal contracts, notes  on how the programme was put together and what decisions were made when and at which level,  and related correspondence and  memoranda. The contacts might prove ownership of copyright,  or  provide information necessary to negotiate for future broadcast. Related material,  including scripts, would provide information on  the actual production.  Other documentation usually retained to  preserve the corporate memory would include still photographs, posters, press books,  schedules, memorabilia and cue sheets.  SUMI4ARY The particular organization of every broadcast station is not only unique but constantly changing. not only upon the resources available,  The organization depends but also the skills of  staff and the size and type of the station (public or private, profit or non—profit,  affiliate or non—affiliate). Positions that  are quite varied in small stations can be highly specialized in medium and large stations.  As Blume stated,  ‘an organizational  structure is in effect the plan by which staff members are utilized. 36  ,36  Blume, Making it in Radio, 169  31.  Despite these variations, however,  the functions of every  broadcast station are basically the same,  as are the activities  and the procedures needed to carry those activities out.  Thus,  broadcast stations have a fundamentally standard organizational From the identification of persons working in  structure.  different sized radio and television stations, both contemporary and early,  it is clear that there are four basic functions  carried out by every small and medium sized station, that is, programming,  sales,  engineering,  and administration,  basic functions in every large station. news, which are activities and medium stations, stations.  In fact,  and six  production and  of the programming function in small  rise to the rank of function in large  While the number of staff determines the complexity of  the station,  each only performs those four or six functions or  variations of them.  In addition to size and complexity,  depends on whether the station is profit or non  a station profit, example, and, small  the specific organization of  and affiliated or not affiliated with a network. in a non—profit station,  in a network situation, (if any)  fund—raising replaces sales,  affiliated stations may have a very  production department.  In stations that broadcast  both radio and television programming, television and radio departments, may result.  there are separate  however a mixture of personnel  Some stations integrate some departments and  separate others.  Figure 5  For  (page 171) 170  provides a basic  H  H  CDH-5  tQ  rI. Ct  CD  S  CDZ  it  —  F-l  eta 50 CD1  a) H  ta.Q  Oti  SrtS t  CD  çtfla)  too a)QaQ  CD’l’l— 0  En  CD  Z  rI. tQ  CD  5  a) —tQ CD  a)  En  a)  II  I  çtQj  (DC  tH a)CD—  DEl)  0  I-” En rI. II a) rI. ISa.  I-a.  1  C P1 t.I  0  S  H 0  Ui  P1  zH  C  0  H C)  It]  C)  C)  S H  0  tTj  C)  H  w  organizational model for any broadcast station, television,  radio or  regardless of size.  As radio and television stations in contemporary society are faced with reduced financial support  (advertising revenue,  government funding etc.), many staff positions are again beginning to encompass more and diverse duties.  Individual staff  members are often required to perform tasks that were once divided amongst several individuals.  Essentially, the final job  description for each staff member is defined by the individual. In an industry governed by deadlines and split second scheduling, it is often an individual’s personal values that dictate the turn of a decision.  Therefore,  determination of the persons concurring in the  formation of broadcast records is essential for their identification and authentication, for reconstructing the specific organization of the creating body, its functions,  and for identifying  competencies, activities and procedures at any  given time.  This chapter identified the persons working in a broadcast station,  the administrative structure in which they operate,  their competencies,  their responsibilities, the types of  documents in the creation of which each participates, retention of those documents.  and the  The descriptions made of each 172  juridical person noted the documents produced or accumulated by that person,  but there was one obvious omission in these lists,  that is, the actual recordings of radio and television programmes.  A programme is the final product and ultimate  outcome of the broadcast activity as a whole, is the only remain in ‘written’  and its recording  form of such a product; an  outcome which is meant to be delivered and received by voice and/or image. Therefore, many juridical persons in any given station have a role in the creation of each of its programmes, while the station,  as one integrated juridical person,  is the  creator of the recordings of such programmes, that is, the entity that made or received them in the course of the conduct of its affairs. The fact that they are generated in the usual and ordinary course of business in order to satisfy the needs of their creator, provides programme recordings with the nature and characteristics of archival documents, which they maintain while the links they have with their administrative and documentary context remain intact. This implies that,  if those recordings are  sold or accumulated as single items, they lose their archival nature and acquire that of autonomous  ‘products,’  ‘means,’ of the broadcast activity. However,  rather than  insofar as they are  preserved as an integral part of the archival residue of a broadcast station, programme recordings, any collective,  like the components of  subject their individuality to the nature of the  whole in which they belong,  and are therefore archival material  that can be diplomatically analyzed in itself and in its 173  relationship with its creator,  its activities,  documentary output.  174  and its other  CONCLUS ION When discussing the possibility of applying diplomatic analysis to contemporary records in non—textual form, Duranti stated: What about aural and visual documents? This writer does not believe that any difficulties are to be encountered in extending [diplomatic] concepts to them. Their application may even be easier than with textual documents, because archivists who deal with special media are accustomed to distinguishing, particularly in visual documents, between the persons competent and responsible for their content, their articulation, their formation, and their forms. They even have a special vocabulary distinguishing those persons, and the only thing which remains to be done is to establish the correspondence between the terms of that vocabulary and diplomatic terms.’ This study in special diplomatics aimed to determine whether diplomatics could be profitably used to analyze broadcast archives,  and as part of those records,  documents. To conduct this examination,  sound and moving image it was necessary to carry  out a diplomatic analysis of archival documents that are unique to and typical of the broadcast industry,  as well as of the  context in which those documents were created. The documents identified as presenting such requisites were programme related, being that broadcast programming is the reason why the industry exists. The programmes themselves could not be considered, being the intended product of the broadcast activity, Duranti,  “Diplomatics. ..(Part III),” 14. 175  and being non  documentary in their original form of communication; therefore, the documents most intimately related to programme broadcasts were considered to be programme scripts and programme recordings.  Both of these types of documents are archival because of their creation as a means to a transactional purpose, but they are a certain type of archival document, that is, they are ‘supporting documents.’  Supporting documents are documents for which the  written form is not required by the system,  but which result from  a juridically relevant activity that is non-documentary in nature,  and have the function of supporting that activity. 2  In  order to carry out a diplomatic examination of specific documents,  it is necessary to subject those documents to a  comparison with the ideal documentary form devised by diplomatists in the seventeenth century. However,  such form, or  schematization of form, was based on the characteristics typical of dispositive and probative documents and could not be used for supporting documents. Therefore,  a new ‘ideal form,’ or model,  was devised to allow for the comparative analysis of the documents typical of the broadcast industry.  This author modified the existing diplomatic ideal documentary form not only to accommodate a different functional type of document,  but also a new medium and a non—textual information  configuration. 2  Duranti,  Although some of the traditional elements of form “Diplomatics...(Part II),” 9. 176  were eliminated and others,  new ones, were added,  it was  determined that a new model could be developed without a radical departure from the traditional one. The modification required an identification of the basic structural elements intrinsic)  (extrinsic and  characteristic of the form being studied,  and adaptation of selected diplomatic terms,  a revision  an understanding of  the variety of physical formats of broadcast documents,  and a  recognition of the issues and problems deriving from the very nature of sound and moving image documents.  Following its development, the model,  in conjunction with the  scheme and procedure of diplomatic criticism, was used to analyze three documents chosen as representative of programme related documents created by all radio and television stations. The results of the analysis indicated that the model and the scheme could be used to examine supporting documents generated by any type and size of broadcast station, radio or television, contemporary,  early or  and independently of country, given the  international nature of the juridical system in the context of which broadcast stations operate.  Essentially,  successful  application of the diplomatic criticism proved that the formation,  form and transmission of supporting documents in the  broadcast industry have not changed significantly over time, and that,  although the organization of every broadcast station is  unique and constantly changing, there is a basic organizational and functional model for any broadcast station, radio and/or 177  television,  regardless of size.  Nor did the model,  scheme,  or procedure pose any specific  problems for the analysis of non—paper, Clearly,  non—textual documents.  a knowledge of technological development as it relates  to the industry assisted in understanding how the nature of a document’s medium affects its form,  transmission,  and genesis,  but the model analysis was just as effective for the two recordings as for the script. Although knowledge of the effects a medium has on the way meaning is conveyed is important,  it was  clear that a system of analysis cannot be developed solely on the basis of a document’s medium and information configuration, which are after all only extrinsic elements of documents, while the facts and acts they represent and the functions they serve constitute the substance diploinatics aims to identify and understand.  Furthermore,  the application of the same model,  scheme and  procedure of analysis to both the drama programme and the news programme recordings indicated their relevance for the examination of various genres of programming.  Although programme  genres present different documentary forms that have changed over time,  and consist of different combinations of formal elements,  the new model should accommodate all of them. 3 For a list of genre terms see Martha M. Yee, (compiler), Moving Image Materials: Genre Terms, Washington, D.C.: Cataloging Distribution Service,Library of Congress, 1988. 178  The analysis conducted in Chapter One, in the following two chapters,  and the studies presented  do not flow naturally from one to  the other because they were conducted simultaneously,  not  sequentially. As in a report on a scientific experiment, where the written description is influenced by the findings, the results of this study can only be presented sequentially.  In a  diplomatic analysis, the bottom—up and top—down examinations constitute an integrated approach to the study of archival documents in context.  It is the only approach that allows for a  verification of whether the documents accurately reflect the functions,  activities, transactions,  their creation, endeavours  and rules of procedure of  and are therefore the residue of its practical  .  The importance of preserving broadcast archives as part of a society’s documentary heritage seems obvious, however their acquisition by archival repositories has been neglected,  and  limited use has been made of broadcast programme resources for study by historians educated in a culture oriented towards printed sources.  The nature of the broadcast industry and the  variety of special media documents produced could be partly held responsible for this situation,  as broadcast archives present  both physical and intellectual problems for their creators’,  See Duranti, “Diplomatics...(Part VI),” 14-15. See also Heather MacNeil’s article regarding top-down and bottom-up approaches, “Weaving Provenancial and Documentary Relations,” 192—97. 179  archivists,  and researchers.  In 1979,  Josephine Langham  attributed the neglect of broadcast archives to a “long—standing disinterest” by archivists who are “lax in both recognizing the value and significance of broadcast documentation and ensuring its preservation.” 5  However, this laxity might be attributed to  a general lack of knowledge on the part of archivists about the broadcast industry,  the documents a broadcast agency needs in  order to carry out its activities, these documents. television news,  In 1990, stated:  and the process of creation of  George Talbot,  speaking about  “It seems to me that it’s clear that if  we’re going to do something with these materials, we need some tools to do it with.” 6  It was the purpose of this thesis to  present one possible tool by showing the applicability of diplomatic methods to broadcast archives,  and to provide a point  of departure for further research into the broadcast records produced by specific countries and specific stations,  and into  the records forms generated by particular programme genres. 7 Josephine Langham, “Tuning In: Archivaria 9 (Winter 1979—80): 105.  Canadian Radio Resources,”  6  From a presentation by George Talbot, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, at the annual conference of the Film and Television Archives Advisory Committee (F/TAAC) in Portland, Oregon in 1990. Unpublished proceedings, Session 1, p.7. To date, there is not a comprehensive set of rules governing all documentary forms and procedures. There have however been developments in the Netherlands towards the identification of a comprehensive set of documentary forms for every record creator and/or for every documentary function. In 1962 a ‘form of material vocabulary list’ was completed in Holland by J.L. van der Gouw, H. Hardenberg, W.J. van Hoboken, and G.W.A. Panhuijsen entitled Nederlandse archiefterminologie (Zwolle 1962), and revised in 1983, Lexicon van Nederlandse 180  The knowledge of the broadcast industry acquired in the process can be used as a basis for selection,  arrangement and description  of the archives of radio and television stations.  Such knowledge  also constitutes a good representation of the level of understanding that an in-depth diplomatic study of one specific record creator and its archives can provide.  Archieftermen (Den Haag). For more information about this see: David Bearman and Peter Sigmond “Explorations of Form of Material Authority Files by Dutch Archivists,” American Archivist 50 (Spring 1987): 249—50. 181  GLOSSARY:  BROADCAST TERMS  This glossary is not exhaustive.  Only the terms used in the text  and important related terms have been included.  Some terms that  are clearly defined in the text have not been included. When a definition has been taken from another source, the reference is indicated by one of the following numerical codes:  (1)  Biggins, Patricia. “An Annotated Bibliography of Canadian Radio Drama Produced by CBC Vancouver Between 1939 and 1945.” M.A. diss., Simon Fraser University, 1974.  (2)  Bittner, John R. Broadcasting and Telecommunication: An Introduction. 2d ed. New Jersey: Prentice—Hall Inc., 1985.  (3)  Delson, Donn and Edwin Michalove. Delson’s Dictionary of Cable, Video and Satellite Terms. California: Bradson Press, Inc., 1983.  (4)  Gebhard, Krzysztof. “Instructions for Cataloguing Moving Image Materials at the Saskatchewan Archives,” 1989 TMs photocopy].  (5)  Gross, S. Lynne. Telecommunications: An Introduction to Radio, Television and the Developing Media. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1983.  (6)  Hilliard, Robert L. Writing for Television and Radio. 5th ed. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1991.  (7)  Hurst, Walter E. and Donn Delson. Delson’s Dictionary of Radio and Record Industry Terms. California: Bradson Press, 1980.  (8)  Institute of High Fidelity. Guide to High Fidelity. Indianapolis, Indiana: Howard W. Sams and Co., 1974. 182  Inc.,  (9)  Millerson, Gerald. The Technique of Television Production. 12th ed. Boston: Focal Press, 1990.  (10)  National Archives and Records Administration. Managing Audiovisual Records. Instructional Guide Series. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration Office of Records Administration, 1990.  (11)  Planning Committee on Descriptive Standards. “Sound Records Glossary. Chap. in Rules for Archival Description. Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian Archivists, 1990, 8—37, 838. -  White-Hensen, Wendy (compiled). Archival Moving Image Materials: A Cataloguing Manual. Washington, D.C.: Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress, 1984.  (12)  access channels  Also known as “local access channels.” Refers to special cable television channels reserved for use by the public, educational institutions and government. (3) —  acetate master Also known as lacquer master, is a high—quality acetate disc onto which audio material is transferred from a 2-track master tape. This disc is used to make the ‘mother’, which is then used to make the ‘stamper’, which is used to make the actual phonograph record for commercial distribution. (7) —  actor’s script Typescript marked by initials or underscoring of parts or handwritten notes relative to cues, mood, and tempo. Descriptive terms applied to actor’s scripts correspond exactly to those applied to producer’s scripts. (1) -  ACTRA  -  See Alliance of Canadian Cinema, Television and Radio  Artists.  advertising The conveying of thoughts and ideas relating to the selling of products. (7) -  affiliate An independent owned television broadcast station which contracts with a network to show that network’s programming in certain time periods. (7) A “cable affiliate” is a system that contracts with a cable programming network to show that network’s programming for a certain period of time. (3) -  AFTRA  -  See American Federation of Television and Radio  Artists.  183  air cut The final edited version of a news story (usually 3045 seconds) that actually goes on air; it is possible to have a whole string of air cuts because most stations do not record programmes as they are broadcast. -  air date The date on which a broadcast is scheduled to be run. (7) —  Alliance of Canadian Cinema, Television and Radio Artists (ACTR.A) A professional organization in Canada. Also referred to as a talent union, ACTRA is an alliance of performers and writers guilds whose membership consists primarily of freelance artists. The members, who are represented by elected officials and paid officers, are contracted out to organizations such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, which itself has installed an internal hiring system. AM  -  See Amplitude Modulation.  American Federation of Radio and Television Artists (AFTRA) A labour union in the United States chartered to represent all professional artists (actors, announcers, dancers, newspersons, sportscasters, singers, sound effect artists and specialty acts) who perform for television, radio, phonograph recordings and all non—broadcast recordings. (7) -  amplitude modulation (AM) Technically, the variation of the amplitude of a radio wave in accordance with the sound being broadcast. AN radio broadcasting is from 535 to 1605 KiloHertz. Signal reception occurs in two ways, either via ground waves which follow the curvature of the earth or via sky waves which are bounced off the ionosphere and reflected back to earth. AN signals are subject to atmospheric or local interference but are generally unimpeded by topographic or physical obstructions. (7) -  analogue recording In sound documents, a system of sound recording whereby the magnetic pattern of electrical energy on the tape is analogous to the pattern of sound waves going into a microphone. The process of making an analogue recording is as follows: sound waves are picked up by a microphone and are transformed into identical vibrations of electrical voltage. These vibrations are then transformed by an analog tape recorder into patterns of magnetic energy. It may be said that what is on the tape is a continuous magnetic photograph, or analog, of the original sound waves picked up by the microphone. (7) —  In video, a system of sound recording whereby the magnetic pattern of electrical energy on a tape is analogous to the visual image picked up and produced by a television camera. The process of making an analog video recording is as 184  follows: a visual image is picked up by a television camera and is transformed into a series of electrical impulses. These impulses are then recorded by a video tape recorder as patterns of magnetic energy. It may be said that what is on the tape is a continuous magnetic photograph, or analog, of the original visual image picked up by the television camera. (3) A newscaster who is in overall control of the anchor presentation of a news or current affairs programme. Also referred to as anchorman. —  audio disc A sound recording utilizing a disc-shaped storage medium employing an acoustic or electromechanical process for recording and playing back sound. (11) -  Differs from wire service in that news is audio service received via teletype. See also wire service. —  audio tape cassette  —  See cassette tape.  audio tape reel A magnetic tape for sound recordings stored on an open reel. —  author’s clean typescript Unmarked original typescript, usually recognizable as author’s through signature or name and address. (1) -  author’s script May be an author’s clean typescript or an author’s typescript with emendations. (1) —  author’s typescript with emendations Handwritten alterations which usually appear incorporated into other scripts. (1) —  bandwidth A term used to describe the characteristics and uses of frequencies. —  betacam This 1/2” video cassette tape format appeared in the mid-l980s and is currently one of the television broadcast industry’ s standards. -  betamax This 1/2” video cassette tape format appeared in the inid—1970s for the home consumer market. —  bicycle distribution The delivery of radio or television programmes between stations via bicycle. This method of distribution was commonly used by early broadcast stations. -  billboard A billboard is a document which describes a news piece. -  broadcast  -  1.  (n.) A radio or television signal that has been 185  transmitted (often using publicly regulated airwaves but sometimes using other means of transmission such as cables) and intended for public reception. A broadcast may be “live,” pre—recorded, or a combination. 2. (v.) The act of transmitting a radio or television programme. (11)  broadcast agency Any agency, public or private, profit or non profit, educational or commercial, which produces, transmits and/or distributes audible and/or visual matter for radio and/or television, by satellite and/or by cable, intended to be received primarily by the public. Also referred to as a ‘broadcast station’ or ‘station.’ —  broadcast archives 1. The whole of the documents created or received by a broadcast agency, public or private, in the course of its practical business activities, and preserved by that agency for its own purposes; 2. A repository where broadcast records are preserved. —  broadcast news  -  See wire services.  broadcast sound recording 1. A sound recording that has been prepared as the source for a broadcast. 2. A recording made by a radio station at the time of transmission. 3. A recording of a received radio transmission. (11) -  broadcast television recording Also referred to as Telecast. 1. A moving image recording that has been prepared as the source for a broadcast. 2. A recording made by a television station at the time of transmission. 3. A recording of a received television transmission. —  broadcasting The transmission of signals through space, utilizing pre—assigned radio frequencies which are capable of being received either aurally (radio) and/or visually (television). (7) —  cable television Also referred to as Community Antenna Television (CATV). A system of television that receives video signals through a wire as opposed to the open airwaves. Cable television provides paying viewers with numerous channels. —  call letters The four letters assigned to stations, regulatory bodies, that are used as a form of identification. —  by  Canadian Radio and Television Conunission (CRTC) A federal agency established in Canada for the purpose of regulating all broadcasting throughout the Canada. (7) -  carrier waves  -  The regular vibrations on which radio is carried 186  through the air. cart  See also frequency.  — Cartridge. A pre—packaged continuous loop of audio magnetic tape, sealed in a plastic protective case, designed for use on a special kind of tape machine. Used for multiple short announcements (primarily commercials, PSAs and station identifications) for play on the radio. Some stations even record news or weather reports on carts. The advantage is the split second timing. A series of seven 10second announcements can be recorded onto one 70—second cart. Carts stop automatically after each announcement and are reactivated with the press of a button. Many stations use colour coded labels to indicate whether a cart is a commercial, station identification, etc. Information is also written on cart labels to indicate the start and expiry date of a message.  cassette tape (audio and video) — A magnetic tape for audio or video stored on a spool (with take—up reel) in a sealed, plastic case. cast  chain  — Collective term for actors and their roles. Their names may be preceded by such terms as: starring, co—starring, also starring, introducing, featuring, guest star, guest appearances, cameo appearance, or with. A broad distinction is made between cast and credits, by defining cast as those in front of the camera and credits as those behind the camera. See also talent. (12)  —  See network.  channel A complete sound path. A single—channel, or monophonic, system has one channel. A stereophonic system has at least two full channels designated as “left” and “right.” When monophonic material is played through a stereo system, both channels will carry the same signal. When stereo material is played on a monophonic system it mixes and emerges as a monophonic sound. (8) —  character generator An electronic device that “cuts” letters into background pictures. For example, when captions, translations or the identification of speakers and made at the bottom of television images. —  clean script — Unmarked script on which there is no indication of change or of use. (1) closed circuit distribution system - When a production is being recorded or reviewed locally (within a station or office) as opposed to programmes being broadcast for public viewing; closed circuit television (CCTV) is the general term for non—broadcast television. 187  compact disc A sound recording utilizing a laminated discshaped storage medium (commonly 12 cm in diameter) and employing digital laser technology for recording and playing back. (11) -  commercial Also referred to as ‘advertisement,’ ‘spot,’ or ‘spot announcement.’ A short persuasive film of 15 to 60 seconds broadcast on radio or television, usually highly contrived, which attempts to get the audience to buy a product, take some specific action or adopt a favourable view towards some product, institution, business or issue. Broadcasters usually receive some form of compensation for airing commercials from the sponsor. (4) —  commercial broadcasting Broadcasting for profit. Station income is derived from the sale of advertising time. (7) -  communications satellite  See satellite.  -  continuity 1. A detailed shooting script used in the making of motion picture film that contains all the visual and audio specifications for the framing and composition of shots. (F) 2. The flow of edited sounds or images and the content details of edited images from shot to shot. Continuity observation entails the close scrutiny of talent, properties, and environment during recording and/or broadcasting to assure an accurate flow of edited sounds and images in post production and during a live broadcast. -  cooperative radio station  -  See non-commercial station.  credits The ascription or acknowledgment of something as due or properly attributable to a person, institution etc. i.e. recognition for work done. Credits may appear or be (7) read at the beginning and/or end of a programme. -  CRTC cue  -  —  See Canadian Radio and Television Commission.  1. To locate a song or selection on phonograph, tape or compact disc in order to have it ready to play on radio when desired; 2. To alert a performer when to begin his/her part. (7)  cue sheet A sheet that indicates the time to begin something such as a record or a tape. -  DAT  (digital audio tape)  -  See digital recording.  digital recording A term that describes a recording made by operations, signals, or transmissions that are broken up into binary code a series of on—off pulses (bits of information) and transmitted virtually noise-free, unlike -  —  -  188  analog or continuous transmission. recording. (2) distribution The sale, lease, television programmes. (12) —  See also analogue  and rental of radio or  distributor Also referred to as ‘releasing agency.’ The organization, company, agency or individual responsible for renting, selling or otherwise making the radio or television programme (or motion picture film) available for exhibition. (4) —  The re—recording or transfer from one physical support dubbing to another. A dubbed tape is often referred to as a ‘dub’ or ‘dupe’ (duplicate). —  duration  —  The time a radio or television programme lasts.  The selective correction of a document by physical editing means to eliminate or replace undesirable portions, add portions not present in the original, or otherwise rearrange the original. (7) -  episode One programme in a series of radio or television programmes. See also series. —  excerpt An incomplete portion of an edited radio or television programme, or re—edited shorter version. (4) —  FCC  See Federal Communications Commission.  —  Federal Communications Commission (FCC) A federal agency in the United States established as part of the Federal Communications Act of 1934 for the purpose of regulating all broadcasting throughout the US and territorial waters. (7) -  When film cameras or video tape recorders field footage/tapes are sent outside the station to gather material on—site by ‘remote coverage.’ This ‘raw footage’ is used to compile final news stories or programmes. -  file footage Film and video recordings of news events that are catalogued (subject/name indexed) by stations and retained for reference and/or re—use for future stories. —  film  —  See motion picture film.  film-style directing When moving images are filmed/taped in any order and at different times before being edited together to produce a final programme. -  final programme log  -  The last and final version of the log, 189  with amendments, which reflects what actually was broadcast at what time. FM  See Frequency Modulation.  -  format 1. The arrangement of programme elements in an established pattern resulting in the basic “sound” or programming with which a radio station is identified or hopes to be identified (ex. classical, country, weather channel etc.); 2. In recording, refers to the method of recording (2—track, 16 track etc.) and the respective software in which the recording can be purchased (compact disc, audio cassette tape, betacam videotape etc.). (7) —  frequency The number of times a complete wave cycle occurs in a fixed unit of time. (7) —  frequency modulation Technically, the variation of the frequency of a radio wave in accordance with the sound being broadcast. FM radio (audio) transmission is from 88 to 108 MegaHertz. Signal is unaffected by atmospheric interference but is a high-fidelity, line-of-sight beam impeded by topographic or physical obstructions. See also Hertz. (7) -  gauge  -  (12)  The width of film in millimetres,  or a tape in inches.  generation Original recordings (film, video, sound) are referred to as ‘first generation’ recordings. Each successive copy is second, third, fourth, etc. generation material. The more generations away from the original an item is, the greater will be the degradation in quality or image and/or sound. (12) —  genre  The kind of style or content matter of a radio or television programme. Different genres include: drama, documentary, comedy commercial, actualities, nature etc. —  headline programmes  —  See ticker tape programmes.  headline shows A series of brief news bulletins with text of headlines on screen and voiceover by person reading the news. Hertz (Hz) The name given to the number of vibrations or cycles per second in an alternating current electrical signal. It is abbreviated ‘Hz.’ The name derives from Heinrich Hertz, an early electrical scientist. (8) -  —  in the can  -  Refers to a completed master programme.  inches per second  (IPS)  —  (7)  The measurement of speed at which 190  tape travels through a tape player/recorder.  (7)  independent station A commercial broadcast station which has not affiliated with a network and relies primarily on syndicated programming and their own locally produced shows. —  insert IPS  See segment.  —  See inches per second.  —  kinescope Also referred to as ‘kines.’ Kines were copies of television programmes that were filmed off a high quality television monitor. The general picture quality of kines was poor. Kines were made in the 1950s and 1960s by network services so that programmes could be recorded for delayed broadcast. —  log  logo  -  A chronological record of all day broadcasting activity maintained by a broadcast facility. Three types include programme log, operations log, and maintenance log. Maintenance of logs is required in the United States by the FCC and in Canada by the CRTC. (7) A symbol associated with a radio or television station (or production company). Also referred to as trademark.  —  logger tape Tapes of a station’s complete days broadcast. The CRTC requires that tapes of complete days broadcasts be kept for thirty days in the event of a complaint. -  magnetic tape All audio and video tape which is composed of a base and a layer of magnetic particles suspended in a binder. The materials used for the base, binder and particles has changed since tape was first used by the industry in the 1930s. -  man-on—the—street interviews Spontaneous interviews with unsuspecting individuals that are stopped while walking down a street. -  master production script The copy of the script for a production that contains all the pre-production information necessary for broadcast or recording. -  master programme recording A master programme recording is made with extraordinary care by broadcast stations as it is from this that sub—masters, duplicating masters and copies are produced. The chosen format for master recordings has changed over the years with both television and radio stations. Early television stations usually used 2” or 1” tape while the contemporary commercial stations are moving to betacam SP and access channels to 3/4” or 3/4”SP. Early —  191  radio stations recorded on disc, but moved to 1/4” magnetic tape in the 1950s. In radio, it has been the development of equipment which has improved the quality of the recording more so than the recording format. monitor 1. v. To listen or to watch (to perceive); 2.n. Functions like a television set, except that it can receive video (pictures) directly from a camera or a videotape recorder, not just over the airwaves. —  motion picture film A length of film with or without recorded sound, bearing a sequence of images that create the illusion of movement when projected in rapid succession. (12) -  multiplexing A process by which a single source is caused to emanate from 2 or more outputs. For example, FM multiplex is a single FM radio signal which is divided into 2 stereo (left and right) signals by the receiver. See also FM. (7) —  NAB  —  See National Association of Broadcasters.  National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) A national group of broadcasters in the United States who have voluntarily formed a regulatory body for television and radio. It services the needs of the industry by providing advice on employee regulations, formulating engineering standards, establishing procedures for complaints and suggestions, representing the industry to the public, conducting research, developing programmes and acceptable standards, developing codes of ethics, and generally seeking to establish standards of practice for the industry. Membership consists of a significant portion of the American broadcast industry. -  network Broadcast stations which are linked together and a central source supplies programming to those affiliated stations. Programme distribution is by telephone lines, microwave relays, and communications satellites. Occasionally referred to as a chain. —  network radio 1. the organization point from which radio programming is transmitted (on a feed or by satellite) for broadcast (either simultaneous or delayed) through local market radio systems; 2. the affiliation of a number of radio stations which do not share a common feed but for business purposes are linked nationally by a rep firm which sells time to advertisers on the basis of delivering an ‘unwired’ national radio network. Network buys can often be more efficient for advertisers than buys made individually on each station. (7) -  non—commercial broadcasting  —  Broadcasting supported by private 192  funds, donations and grants rather than by commercial advertising. (7) news  Information about current events; interviews, stories, or reports.  —  in the form of  newscast — A news programme which is broadcast on radio or television. See news. newsfilm — Used to describe footage that appeared to have been intended for a theatrical newsreel or photographed by a newsreel company, but could not be positively identified as (12) such. newsreels — About ten minutes of newsfilm, edited with titles, music, and commentary, formerly seen regularly in theatres, but now no longer produced in the United States. (12) non—commercial station open reel tape  —  See non—commercial broadcasting.  See audio tape reel.  —  outtakes (outs) — often referred to as “outs” are scenes that are shot by the film or video camera crew that are not used or are left unprinted (film) in the final version. phonograph disc POP  —  -  See audio disc.  See Promise of Performance.  post-production Anything done (dubbing, editing, voiceover etc.) after the shooting of a film or video recording or taping a sound recording. pre—recorded — Any material that has been recorded previous to broadcasting or cablecasting. (3) prime time - The phrase used to describe the hours of the day when television viewing reaches it peak which is usually 7:00pm —11:00pm. producer’s script only. (1)  —  Bears signature or initials of producer  producer’s script with emendations - Typescript with handwritten deletions or additions or both. (1) producer’s script with comments — Notes added during rehearsal pertaining to acting or technical problems. (1)  production date completed.  —  The date a radio or television programme is 193  production element A sound recording that is used in producing a mixed sound programme, or a film reel or video recording that is used in producing a complete television programme. A production element is not complete in itself. (11) —  production file Contains all the documentation relevant to a radio or television production. —  programme 1. a particular radio or television show, i.e. an independent unit within any given broadcast day discounting commercials, station identifications and public service announcements; 2. a schedule of events. (7) —  programming 1. In radio, the selection of programmes to be played by the station in line with its image or format; may include music/talk/sports etc. 2. In television, the selection of programmes to be aired by a station. (7) Programming may be produced by the broadcast station. If it is not, it is purchased or leased from an outside agency. Purchased or leased programming is often called ‘acquired programming.’ —  Promise of Performance (POP) A contract entered into by a station with it’s country’s regulating agency which details how the station is expected to conduct itself in regards to programming and general operation. That is, the POP sets out the conditions the station agrees to. This document is usually attached to the station license and is available to the public on demand. Note that the station license specifies the frequency and power and time allotted to the station. -  PSA  —  See Public Service Announcement.  public service announcement (PSA) A short film, video recording or sound recording broadcast on radio or television, presented by a non—profit organization which attempts to persuade the audience to take some specific action or adopt a favourable view towards some service, institution, issue, or cause. (12) —  raw footage Film or video footage or sound tapes that are gathered and not yet used or incorporated into a final See also outs and trims. programme. —  rear—screen projection Also called rearscreen process, transparency process, and backscreen process. A technique whereby people are filmed in from of a transparent screen on which a film or video sequence or still picture is projected from the rear. —  release date  —  The first official date of distribution of a 194  sound recording. (7)  remote  Broadcasting from a location other than a radio or television station’s own studios. (7) —  reproduction  -  See dubbing.  revolutions per minute (RPM) The number of rotations a phonograph disc makes on a turntable in one minute. Common speeds are: 33 1/3 rpm, 45 rpm, 78 rpm. (7) -  RPM  See revolutions per minute.  —  remote coverage  —  See field footage.  satellite Also called “communications satellite.” An electronic vehicle stationed in space above the equator in geosynchronous orbit, used for the re—transmission of programming and data. Its function is to receive electronic signals sent from Earth, and re—transmit them back to receivers on Earth stations. Each satellite contains numerous transponders for handling different audio and/or video services. (3) —  screenwriter A writer of an original script or the adapter of a pre—existing work for the purposes of creating a film or video production. —  script A set of written specifications for the production of a radio or television production. There are several different kinds of scripts and they contain specifications for setting, action, camera coverage, dialogue, narration, music and sound effects. (10) -  segment A portion of an edited which is complete in itself, musical performance that was variety programme. See also -  radio or television programme ex. a video recording of a inserted into a television excerpt.  series A group of separate programmes related to one another by the fact that each item bears, in addition to its own title proper, a collective title applying to the group as a The individual programmes may or may not be whole. The group of programmes may have a theme or a numbered. storyline which is continued from episode to episode. See also episode. (12) —  shot  An action, the camera. —  person or object filmed in a single run of  sign—off When radio announcers or television anchors wish their listeners/viewers farewell. —  195  signal Electronic transmission of audio and/or audiovisual information. (7) —  A technique used primarily by radio announcers to signposting remind listeners what they are listening to and what is forthcoming. —  soundtrack The sound which is intended to correspond with a film or television image. —  splice Attaching two pieces of a motion picture film, video tape or audio tape together. Only pieces from the same format may be attached. -  sponsor A company which, for advertising purposes either underwrites the cost of a programme being broadcast on radio or television, for which it may receive opening or closing billboards, or, purchases all or the majority of the commercial time within and immediately adjacent to a programme’s broadcast. (7) —  station A broadcasting facility which is assigned a certain frequency and call letters, and issued a license. In the United States licenses are issued by the FCC, in Canada, licenses are issued by the CRTC. (7) -  station identification The identification of a station or network by on—air announcements of a radio station’s call letters, or a television station’s logo. In the United States, the FCC requires “id’s” as a standard part of the broadcasting schedule and must be run at specific periods of time ex. every 1/2 hour or on the hour. (7) -  stock footage Unedited motion picture form or videotape of scenery and action that is retained for future use. (10) —  sync generator The piece of equipment which assures that all television cameras will be scanning at the same place at the same time. (5) —  talent Term used in radio and television to identify those in front of the camera or the mike. See also cast. (12) -  talking heads The term used to describe moving image footage that pictures only the head and shoulders of one or more individuals while they are talking. -  technical script Recognizable as such through cue marks and underscoring for sound effects and the absence of any acting or production comments. (1) —  ticker tape programme  -  Is when text is scrolled across a 196  television screen from right to left or upwards from bottom to top. Early television stations often used this to provide news stories and the technique is still seen on channels that provide information on the weather, the time, the temperature, a programme schedule for all channels and/or community information. time code A system used by television stations when editing video images. Appears as a clock on the bottom half of the image. -  track  — 1. a particular song/selection on a phonograph; 2. the path on a magnetic tape along which a single channel of sound is recorded. Tracks are identified by number. (7)  transmitter (7) trims  UHF  -  Equipment which broadcasts an electronic signal.  —  Portions of footage that appear in a programme’s air cut, but are eventually cut off because the bits were too long or of low quality. —  See Ultra High Frequency.  Ultra High Frequency (UHF) As relates to television reception it is that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum occupying the frequencies 470 890 MHZ. (3) -  U-Matic videotape Sony Corporation’s 3/4” video tape format cassette machine. (3) -  Very High Frequency (VHF) Refers to that portion of electromagnetic spectrum between the frequencies of 50 and 250 MHZ. (3) -  VHF  VHS  -  —  See Very High Frequency. See video home service.  video home service (VHS) A small format (1/2”) cassette currently used by the home market. —  videotape  video shader A person who adjusts remote controls for cameras in order to keep colour and other electronic elements consistent. (5) —  videotape A magnetic tape format (cassette or open reel) Abbreviated as “video.” moving images. —  video cassette tape  —  for  See cassette tape.  videotape recording/recorder  (VTR) 197  -  l.the tape on which a video  is recorded; 2. the machine on which a video is recorded and/or played. video tape reel open reel.  A magnetic tape for moving images stored on an (11)  —  voiceover A sound recording or narration added to a visual image after the image is filmed or recorded, or during the filming of the image, but from a different source. —  VTR  watt  See video tape recorder/recording.  -  A measure of electrical or acoustical power. The electrical wattage of an amplifier describes the power it can develop to drive a loudspeaker. Acoustical wattage describes the actual sound a loudspeaker produces in a given environment. The two figures, in any given amplifier— speaker system, differ widely because the low efficiency of speakers necessitates their receiving relatively large amounts of amplifier power in order to produce satisfactory sound levels over a wide range of frequencies. (8) —  wire recording A sound recording on a spool of thin steel wire employing a magnetic process for recording and playing back sound. 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California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1976.  205  Belmont,  APPENDIX  Radio Drama Script: “What Price Loyalty” Note: This reproduction has been reduced by 65%.  1  / EVELYN BIDDI,E  For B.  Episode 5  1935  —  49  ::‘  OORCIAL BRITISE CRE1ADIRRS  7/  (K  /  WINB i{ABPA0R (above storm)  Rarly Upper Canada in the grip of  a blizzard, the like of it ich one reads about Old. ingstou is hugging its  bu seldom seeI  fire—places and. —stoves tonight. are dijainishing fast, February storm.  Woodpiles  in the face of the  Snow is alled high, sleigh  bells are silent.  lng Winter rules .th  pitiless hand., the only obstacle to his omnipotence being the scattered stone strlaatlires{ the.t are unique to Zingston, andagalnst whit the angry elements beat in vain, STORM STORM FAINTER (fr ina.e now) The candle—lighted living room of Norton Villa, on Brook Street,  the recently erected home of the.  little Niagara bride, Marigold Royce and Arthur Norton, Kingston’s youngest lawyer,  is  the coaler by contrast to the upheaval beyond its sturdy walls. STORM Arthur is ceated at ease beside the huge stove that stands in the stone partition  ——  half in the sitting rocm, half in the bedchamber beyond, EàRP MUSIC  Marigold entertains him with m,zsio upon the harp, left to her tender care by her mother,  ocr  Mary, when the latter with her husband of a year Philip Arnold, and her aged. father,  206  PageS and their tried and trusted attendant, Douga Manro, departed for a sojourn in Boston, MARIGOLD’S SONG MUSIC FADES OUT ARTHUR  My gratitude, loved, one,  -——  but pray do not  beoome weary in well doing, MARIGOLD  Arthur, such presumptioni  Exhorting me to  further. effort, while you are stretched at ease before the fire, your hands idle, ARTHUR LAUGHS ARTHUR  My ears are ocoupiedL  And alert, I assure you.  MARIGOLD  Then they will be entertained by the click of your wife’s knitting needles,  CL 10K And indeed, sir, if yoar feet were less lengthy, her knitting would be less strenuous, ARTHUR LAUGHS STORM  My sakes, what a storrn ARTHUR  A wicked night,  MARIGOLD  But comfortable within, thanks to our y—stove,  ARTHUR  Not many- newlyweds can boast a stove,  MARIGOLD  We are favoured, truly, though%the fire-places throw the heat if well supplied Wi tti logs,  ARTHUR  Oh yes,  one’s face is burning while the cold  chills chase up and down one’s back, CLICK  CLICK MARIGOLD  When I was a child of twelve or so, I could stand upright in the fireplaces at Royce Cot,  ARTHUR  I doubt it not,  MARIGOLD  And, we bad six of such, and not only Royoe Cot, but several of the later Niagara homes were thus equipped,  207  Page 3 ARTMUR  Ha,  yes,  but stoves are the mowe modern,  what you will,  -—  say  and as young people, we mast  keep abreast of the tines,  (laughs)  ——  ST OHM Egad, I am somewhat proud. of the fact that in heating arrangements Horton Villa has the latest. MARIGOLD  Quite the latest,  ARUR  Why twas only in 1812,  just before the war, if  my memory serves me, that the first stove in the district was brought from Montreal by ox-sled. )LRIGOLD  A short four years since,  ARTHUR  Yes, for the Fairfield home,  —  a progressive  Loyalist family of Ernest Town, STORM DISTAIiT RAP MARIGOLD (raise) FADE IE  Yes, Hora,  NORA  Jest a bit av refreshment t’ warm yer iternmls.  ARTHUR  Ha, coffee?  MARIGOLD  Yes., oar thanks, Nora,  ZIORA  Glory be,  ——  a happy thought,  STORM FIERCE -—  but the illimints are on the  rampage the night, STORM ARTHUR  A bad storm!  NORA  Aoh,  Warm out in the kitohen, Hera?  its werm enough, I suppose,  concarned mid tellin’ LAUGHS FROM MARIGOLD AND ARTHUR WIND STORM  Wad yes harrk, wanoei MA. IGOLD  AwfuJJ  208  the truth,  if ye’re  Page 4 240RA  The wind’s a-yowlin’ down the ohimly as it al]. the dead, in the oimitry was up and abotit,  STO!U( HOWlS  An soreetchin’ the war—whoops avthe ayvil—man. MAPaGOID  Oh, hardly,  ARTHUR (raise).  A gentle zephyr, Nora,  from the gates of  —  Paradise, NORA  Faith, master Arthar, yes can say as y’  bike,  but its on a noit 101kw this same, yid egspeo thi NORA SERIOUS LAUGHS  sperrits, ARTHUR (interrupt lug)  to hold high Carnival, eh?  WIND KARIGOLD  And, go cavorting about,  LAUGHS TERRIYIC GUST BLOWS OPEN DOOR WITH BANG FADE O1  NORA  Aoh, nw.rtber, urther,  for the love av ltiJce,  --  ARTHUR LAUGHS MARIGOLD (raise)  Come Back, Nora)  Seel  The sudden gust of  wind has blown open the street door, merely, FADE IN  NORA  Shur’n it gave aie a turn spakin’  -—  suddent-loike,  of sperrits abroad,  LAUGHS FADE OUT  NORA (suddenly)  Aoh,  -  murther,  ——  marther,  -—  murther,  DISTAN’ KITCHEN DOOR EA..NG AS NORA FADES OUT ARTHUR  Ah ha!  Who’ a this in the fi doorway?  7linter hinseif, MARIGOLD (relieved)  --  -—  Father  Well, Roger Falooaer  Oh, Roger,  ROGER LAUGHS ARTHUR  Come In Ud. chap!  Ha, you frightened the wits  oat of oar soollery—womari,  j4(  like a ghost in the night,  grZ 209  .  —_  standing there  —  Page 5 FADE IE  ROGER  A rather substantia_--  MARIGOLD  But a welcome one,  ROGER  I  fnmhi %ng hr,n+  wind hi  LAUGH$  ARTHUR  npn  Let me relieve you of your cloak,  --  Nora will  shake off its white mantel in the sotillery, ROG  Ajitthesnpw,  MARIGOLD  No matter, Roger,  --Norm sands the floor on  the morrow, DISTANT  ARTHUR  Nor&  FADE IN  NORA  Ach, yes, Master Lthur  ARTHUR  We are, thanks to Providence&  Yáz are ail there? Here, shake the  snow from the cloak of one of the benighted spirits, IUGHS NORA  Oi’m so all av a—twitter oi can  Oh glory be  scarce put forward me hand, Dry it by the kitchen fire, Nora,  MARIGOLD (raise) FADE OUT  NOBA  Share oi’d hey done that same, widdout a.uny telli&  DOOR FADE IN SLIGHTLY ARTHUR  Poor Nora  She was all of a twitter, as she  said, MARIGOLD  Be seated, pray,  ARTHUR  Coffee, Roger  ROGER  Most acceptable  ARHUR  You are mos weloxie, my friend, as you know,  Toa half frozen man,  STORJii  But your presence here in the storm, demands an explanation,  ‘t6r:4 210  egad,  -  Pee 6  ROGER  Being a writer, I am a contrary mortal, While others sleep, I em wakeful  -—  and. when  others bag the fire, I fare forth into the storm, LAUGHS  STORM  Tobruab. the oob—wehw fri rny brain, MARIGOLD  For further effort,  ARTHUR  And. what subjeot engages yo attention at the moment, Poger?  ROGER  Oh well, I have just oompleted. en acooo.ntof  ARTHUR  Ha yes,  ROGER  A am  in the d.istant west I ring_an article now for the 2  I.Lr .Q J and. the history  ofBi8hcLander  MacDoo\eli of St. Raphael’s thare -— 1 AD LIBS FROM H  A MARIGOLD  I should. like to really k±iow the Bishop’s. history,  ARTHUR  Egad,  so should. I, and the history of his  Glengarry Tigers, as we oald. the Ferioibies in the war, ROGER  Yes,  ARTHUR  But we must not tax Roger tonight, Marigold. when he is seeking relaxat ion,  MARIGOLD  Perhaps not,  ROGER.  One of these daLs,Iwiil inflict the atoron you,  HBIGOLD  -—  tis most unusual, really,  We shall have that to antioipate,  211  Page 7 STORM  ARTHUR  the storm abates before  ItLis to be hoped that tomorrow night,  MARIGOLD  Oh, I do hope it will,  ROGER  And why the anxiety, ay 1 ask?  STORM  Is the wood—pile low?  ARTHUR  Ho no,  -  but Marigold and I are to attend a  quilting—bee, R9EB  ———  A qtzilting-beé?  Since when Is sewing one of  your accomplishments, ARTHUR  ray fflend  My little wife, and other skillful feminines will ply *heir needles till the clock strikes ten, when idle masoulinity will put in its appearance for supper and a merry time,  LtUGHS STORM  )LRIGOLD  I wonder if they are having this storm down in Boston,  ARTHUR  Possibly’  ROGER  Hard to BaLI  MARIGOLD  I should like to peep in ipon them,  in old  oise, mother’s girlhood home, Montgomery 1 ROGER  You have ne var seen iof course  Mistress  Marigold, MARIGOLD  Oh no, neveri  Though I know every nook and  cranny of it by hearsay, ARTHUR  Marigold’s mother and grandfather had the shock of their lives xk recently when Philip Arnold, Marigold’s step—father,  a.shered them into  Montgomery House, their residence of by—gone days, and exactly as it was when they fled from it as exiles, wilderness, p———  212  ——  to this northern  Page 8  MARIC)LD  And, how car d.eer ob4 Dougal will enjoy playing butler again in the grand, old. family mansion,  ARTHUR  Roger, perohanoe, does not understand the situation, arigo1d.,  ROGER  Ha, not  ARTHUR  You see, old. ohappie,  fully, I oonfess, -—  Philip Arnold, after  the eviction of the Loyalists fran the States remained behind.,  ——  in Boston,  MARIGOLD  A rebel against King George,  ROGER  Yes,  ARTHUR  7ell, through sentiment for the home of his  understand.,  very d.ear friend, Marigold.’s mother, MARIGOLD  His Loyalist sweetheart,  ROGER  Ha, yea,--  ARTHUR  Philip purchased Montgomery House, which had of course been confiscated, and. installed a caretaker, with ord.ers that everything shanid. remain exactly as his friends had left it,  MARIGOLD  Philip is a love,  ROGER  He must have been in love,  ARTHUR  Oh well,  be wasL  (laughs)  However, now years  later, be marries his early sweetheart, and takes her back for a sight of her old. home,  --  as it was when she left it, an ard.ent little Loyalist maiden, ROGER  Romantic,  in the  -_______.  STORM  h24.;  213  extreme  Page 9 Almost incredible to this generation, , British subjects leaving homes such as  ROGER  Montgomery House, luxury,  comfort, wealth,  --  through loyalty, Oh, but they would have been most miserable,  MARIGOLD  -  remaining on reble soil, To take the oath of allegiance to a rebel  ARTHUR  president  was quite beyond the, natarally,  --  so it seem  ROGER  Ha,  MARIGOLD  For England  —  the glorious British Empire,  and the grand old fJ.ng,  -—  I  —-  well  I  should have done just as mother did, no matter what the sonsequenoes, spake the daughter of a Loyalist,  There  ARTHUR  Roger, ROGER  —  And thus will speak the sons and daughters of the United EmoireLyalist8, while Time endures, Arthr,  ur I’m no orophet, and no historians  STORM MINUET  NARRATOR (topping storm)  On the wings of the storm we leave  ingston and Norton Villa,  -  for a flying visit  to Boston and, stately old Montgomery House, our Mary’s dearly—loved home in the by—gone days,  -—  The blizzard holds high carnival here,  as in the distant north, ST O STORM FADES DOM & OUT In the luxarictis library, annhanged since our last visit thirty years ago—Mary’s white— haired father is dosing,  beside the oren fire,—  a Lyalist patriarch on familiar but n alien territory. MUSIC FADES IN  214  A faint smile parts his lips,  Page 10 Mary sits at the spirmet, the dear old spinnet which, three decades since, well knew and. loved the touch of her girlish finger Her husband, Philip Arnold,  in the shadow  oast by the flickering fire—light, feasts his eyes upon her still beautifu]. face, PHILIP  My thanks, dear one,  —-  Tie like a breath frost  by-.gohe years, MARY  The dear old spinnet,  how I missed it for the  longest while, PHILIP  Tin with difficulty one realizes that so much has taken place since we three sat thus within this room, two and thirty years ago.  ST OHM MARY  How very wonderful of you, Philip, to cherish our old hoete as you did,  after our  --—  depatture, —-purchasing It,  —  guarding it from  change, PHILIP  Ha,  twas like a shrine to me  Mary  After the Revolution,  You little know, you and your  father exiles in the remote north, woid enter here, round about me,  ——  ——  ——  I  ——  alone  feeling your dear presence  Oh, twas thus I lived,  until mad with longing, I resolved to forsake Bostn and the New tepublio which I bad rown to loathe,  Binoe it had torn you from me,  that oruel, cruel war,  MARY  Oh,  PHILIP  And I insane enough t o believe that Washington and his followers were in the right,  MARY.  You were so young, Philip, I understand it now,  ——  ——  80  impetuous,  Maturer years have  shown you the glory and the greatnesa Mother land,  215  our  ——  PHILIP  Ah,  bat the. wasted years between, Mary,  MARY  We mast forget them, that is all, ———The last m twelvemouth  a dream of happiness  —  has  ——  compensated, PHILIP  We shall always keep Montgomery House, unchanged  MARY  —  -—  a shrine, as I said,  Always, always,  -  Philip  -  the dear old home,  No strange feet must tread its halls,  PHILIP  You. would not like to forsake Niagara,  --  permanently, for Boston ami Montgomery House? It’s stately luxury makes Royce Cot suffer pitifully by contrast, MARY  Montgomery House, Dear?  On.Amerioan,  -  on alien  Were it twenty times the mansion that  soil?  it is, and twenty times as dear, to me, yet woul I prefer a shack under the British flag, PHILIP  And, from the bottom of my heart,  —  --  the heati  a much too late Loyalist, I say Ameni  MARY  I wonder what Marigold and Arthur are doing now, at Kingston,  in Upper Canada,  —-  If this  storm is visiting them, PHILIP  Possiblyl (lower) Ha, your fa her is rousing, love,  ——  alone,  FADE OUT  I will withdraw and leave you and him  as was your custom at the end of the day  long ago, MARY (raise).  Thank you, Philip,  -  for a short while, merely’  DOOR FADE IN A LITTLE AS MARY GOES TOWARD HIM FATHER  Ha,  bless me,  daughter,  —  I have slept,  Yes, you have, fa her, long and peacefully, (anxiously)  216  You are quite well?  ——  Page 12 FATHER  quite well, I th.i.nk,  Wfl(D FILLS IE The past,  the past,  ——  in a d.reem,  —  it came to me.  I cannot seem to shake it,  MJ.RY  The happy past7  FATHER  Ah yes, the happy past,  The mantle of the  --  years dropped from me,  --  vigorous once mose,  master of Montgomery  House,  --  I was young a1  slaves to o my bidding,  ——  MARY  Yes,  FATHER  A coach and four at my commend,  yes father?  ——  --  coachmen,  cooks, gardeners, MARY  As of old,  FATHER  Philip’s father,  ‘y old friend Henry Arnold,  flashed in front of the pio tore,  -—  -  Then—— on  until my little bride of one short year, your mother Mary, entered that door,  -—  A happy  anile was on her lips, MARY  My other, whoai I never knew,  FATHER  Yes,  I seemed to be Bitting Inthis chair, as  I am sitting now,  -—  before the  she, to float toward me, the tendersst caress, words,  —  fire,  dove—like in their softness,  Let us away together.  and --  and then the whispered  ——  come with me, dear one,  -—  bend over me,  --  ——  “Come,  I have waited longi  Renew thy youth in the  realms of light MARY  Beaotiful,father,  FATHER  A dream,  MARY  (softly)  --  only a dream,  Shall I. sing a good night hymn for you, fahher  dear?  217  Page IN FATHER  ‘Jesus, lover of my slrn.l, Let me to they bosom fly’  VERY FALTERING  MARY  Yes, father,  FATHER  You are bap with your Philip, Mary?  MARY  Very,  very happy,  ——  If has been like a dream  us, bore at old. Montgomery House, but we  for  are both becoming anxious to return to Niagara, Royce Cot, and. British soil, FADE A LITTLE  FATHER  Yes,  MA  Now, oar hymn,  MARY SINGS FADE IN  MARY  Father,  FADING  FATHER  Ill?  yes,  ——  ——  father,  Mo  British soil,  --  are  Niagara A  MARY  Father,  you ill?  I  semis ————a long---—way ——off way  long  ————  —-  no-- no---  --  Fathnr, father, rouses FATHER  are  ---  ——  father  -—i—  off, dearest  (heavy breath Lng) u are ill, 0 Y  you. are liii FATHER (breathes heavily) Yos?  Yea, father?  What,  —  what is it?  I can sooreely bear, FATHER  (as if speaking to someone else) I  MINUET  NARRATOR  ———  come  I  ————  oome  beloved.1  the Loyalist patriarch  And the spirit  winged its way to the realms of light, SLEIGH BELLS FADE IN  Meanwhile, at  distant Kingston,  the stars shining,  ——  the storm past,  sleigh bells jingling, the  elite of the district tarn out for the SLEIGH BWLLS SLEIGH BELLS FADE OUT  Quilting Bee, The Quilting Bees  218  FAINT MINUNT BLCROUND A MUS ICAL R1VIEW CHATTER TC VOIOES (topping chatter) How d,o yoa d.o, Maria d.ear, To see yoi gi’ree ne pleasure Via glad yoa fetched. Kezziah here At quilting sha s a treasurel 1 IADING VOICE  Yes, Keziah is a treasures  DICES IT UNISOM  iiite a treasurel  NAFflATOR  (topping chatter) The ladies neat, each other greet And, at the frame are seated,  OHATTR  In or&er placed,, the ik work tby haste  BACGROUI1D  To get the guilt mplete&  219  While fingers fly, their tczxguea they ply And, a.nj,mate their labours By conning beaus, discussing clothes Or talicing of their neighbours. CHATTER  1ST WOM&N  Her &read.ThJ. frock, gives me a shook TIa unbeoceing, very  INADING VOICE  Veryl  VOICES  Oh veryt  UNISON  1ST WOM.N  Her bodice low,  A perfect 8hOW  -—  I’m horrified, at Maryl VOICE  Shocking  VOICES IN UNISON 1S WOMA,E  -  quite ehoo1cing  Quite ou of style, the longest while It po.ts me in e.npassion  2ND WOWJ  A perfect freak  In vain you’d seek  A sillier contrapsbo.n  CHATTER  IHADING VOICE  Silly  VOICES IN UNISON  Most siflyl  -  Quite  VOICES (through chatter) 1. My lear,  a fetching brooch you’ve on  2. I’m very glad. you like it 3. I’m told, that Miss MoConicon 4. Don’t speak to Mr. My-gate LE&DIHG VOICE  Do tellI  VOICES IN UNISON  Do tel]J  1ST WLAN  I saw Miss Bell the other day Yoong Green’s new gig adniiig  IHAD]ING VOICE  Huh, buhL  VOICES IN UNISON  Huh, buh  220  Page 17  SlID W(IL&1I  Q.aite commonly izi&eei, they say Since An&y Blaok she’s sning  CHATTER  INkLING VOIGE  Oh myi  VOICES Ill UNISON  Oh my  VOIOES (in the obatter)  1. Tie time to roll. 2. My needle’s broke 3. So Martin’s farm is selling 4. Louisa’s we&d.ing is bespoke Tie news you’re telling  5. Ind.eed.L  2. That matoh will never oome about CHATTER  It pats me In a passion  BAOKOUND  1. Hair puffs they say, are going oat 3. Yes, curls are all the fashionl  SLIGHT DRIDGE  INkLING VOICE  Oh qoitel  VOICES IN UNISON  Yes, qaitel  MINUET 1IAERATOR  THE CI.TTER OF DISHES  The quilt is d.one, the tea begon The beaux are all collecting  .ATTER OF DISHES FlUE IN  MALE VOICES IN UNISON NARRATOR  MUSIC FADES IN  Good. evoning  The table cleared., the music cheered. Ah musial  VOICES IN UNISON NARRATOR  Good. eveningi  His partner each pelecting  CHATTER & VERY DIlL MUSIO 1ST HEAU  My &anoe, Lacillel  You make me feel  k-flatter with emotion  STAGE lIISER 1ST WOMAN  Hash Ed.war& &ear.  The folks will hear  Twill cause a sad. cimontion  STAGE WHISPER OHATTER 2ND MAN  An Oharityi  A rarity  An evening such as this is  221  Page 18 DIM MUSIC BACKGROUND 2ED WOMAN CHATTER & SUBDUED  ——  Come dance with me  2ND MAN  My heart aglow with bliss isi  LAUGER MUSI 0 & CHATTER  I qaite agree,  NARRAT(B (topping confasion) The merry band. In ord.er stand. The dana. begins with vigorl  LI’YELI DANCE MUSIC WI?LI OCCASIONAL I1U(  And, rapid. feet,  the measare beat  And. trip the maze with rigorl  LIVELY DANCE MUSIC STINUES VOICES (into d.ance) FADE IN & OUT  I lost it  1ST WOMAN  My kerchief sin  1ST MAN  I lost my heart, sweet one  1ST WOMAN  Yoa mast away have tossed. iti  MUSIC  -  1(0310 STOPS ADPLAUSE & LAUGHTER  DURING APPLAUSE  VOICE (into applase)  Delihtfa1l  VOICES IN UNISON  Most d.eligbtfu,ll  MUSIC ODE F SINGfl{G ARTHUR (in nataral tones)  Marigold., love, are yoa enjoying  the quilting Bee? CHATTER MARIGOLD  I  oharmed,, AtharI  Never have I enjoyed.  an evening morel CHANTER 1ST WOMAN (topping chatter)  Maria Long will sing a song We all enjoy her lilting,  APPLAUSE & VOICES IN UNISON  ]&ania  Manial  222  -—  Page 19 1ST  OMAN (topping music)  Twere sad, to miss a treat like this  When gathered. at a quilting.  MARIA S lEGS  Q.UAIET NUGP2  APPLAUSE A3CVE APPLAUSE  ,,“  Deligbtfu11 1 Ee1ifu1Z  VOICES IN UNISON  CHATTER  -  -  1S’2 WOMAN (topping ctter) Isiah Riece will speak a pieoe o make the hours speed. faster  Isiahi  .PPLAU5R  lsiahL  1ST WOMAN (topping applause) To miss this treat, Isiah’s feat Twoald spell indeed., disasterl APPLAUSE LEADING VOICE  Oh yes yesi  VOICES IN UNISON ISIAH’S PIECE  -  OLD FASHIONED S1ECTION FROM MOORE OR GOLDSMITH APPLAUSE  APPLAUDING  LEADING VOICE (topping applause)  Most olever Most Clevert  VOICES IN UNISON  DALE MUSIC CUE CHATTER  MARRA.TOR (topping batter) Again they d,g1oe -F  At every onoe  The boau, the belles embracing  DANCE 1WSIC OCCASIONAL LAUGH  A merry throng,  they glide along  the ills of life efaoing, DANCE MUSIC  VOICES (in defoe) 2ND MAN  (stage whispers)  My little sweet, your waist so neat I do embrace with pAeasure  223  /  Page 20 LED W(W.N  P’sa1 Vs  t efuseE  Sir  l miud or You f T DANCE. OONINUES VOICES  INV  FADE AED O! AS  So very nall  1. A painted. di11  This step is quite oonfiising  V  UP TO AND PASS TEE MIXE  the measure.  Btop  3. The waltz  -  is new to quite a few  4. Rer strid.e is  .ita amusing  DANCE CONTINUES L LID EARR&TOR (topping d.anoe) And, as they trip the moments slip Old. time himself. seens an.ng DANCE MUSIC 000ASIOMAL L.UGK FADES IN AND OUT  ThU night’s lark eye is oped. to spy  4 F  The steps of morn ad.venoing MUSIC GRADUALLt VALES OUT SLIG BRIDGE  MINUET VOICES (in confusion) 1. Good.bye, Mathld.e 2. Farewefl Jane Yoar ;arty Was saooasafl 1ST MAN  When bid. again, in su or rain Will emo, it was so zestfull  IDXMG VOICE The evening was most zestfu..]J  DOOR  VOES IN UHIE  Most Zestfsl3  LADINC VOICE  Farewe11  VOICES IN tIMISOM  XareweUl  Farewefli  DOOR  :  .WEEES FADE Ill WEINS  MAB.RA!OR (tofl  ing wheels)Then alosely etowe to eaoh abod The oaniages go tilti2zg -  -  -1) A2.t:  /  ,  224  ,  a_c; i •i,  Vi  H  tTJ  Appendix  HAMILTON  3  TORONTO  \ks€Le f ifi,J DATE  L4 I  ‘1 / S2  VT’,______ M’,STER. MONO C  DUB C STEREO C  OPERATOR  CHCH-TV videotape label for television news programme recording of “Golden Horseshoe Report,” 19 October 1992.  227  


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