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Examination of the British Columbia Community Tourism Action Program Mitchell, Esther Lenore 1994

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EXAMINATION OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMUNITY TOURISM ACTION PROGRAM by ESTHER LENORE MITCHELL B.A., Eastern Washington University, 1985  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER'S OF ARTS IN COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1994 © Esther Lenore Mitchell, 1994  In  presenting  degree freely  this  at the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  available for  copying  of  department publication  this or of  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and study. scholarly  or for  her  of  gain  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  requirements  I agree  I further  purposes  the  be  It not  is  that  the  permission  granted  allowed  permission.  Department of  SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  The University of British Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  <^Y^.^Y  Columbia  /£,, f?ftj  an  advanced  Library shall  by  understood be  for  for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ii ABSTRACT  This thesis examines and evaluates the British Columbia Community Tourism Action Program (CTAP), a provincial program that aims to help communities broaden their economic bases by developing tourism.  Specifically, it questions how isolated  single-industry towns implement the British Columbia CTAP, and how they evaluate it, using the examples of Golden and Ucluelet, both of which have been using the program since 1991. The thesis does not base its conclusions on financial data, but on the communities' responses to a questionnaire about the CTAP, on meetings with each community's tourism action committee, and on a comparison of theories of tourism planning with the actual workings of the British Columbia CTAP. After establishing why single-industry towns may have a special need to diversify their economies, the thesis traces the evolution of the British Columbia CTAP from two other programs: its predecessor—British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy— and the Alberta Community Tourism Action Program.  Following this  history is a brief description of why tourism planning is necessary, including some of the environmental, economic and social effects of tourism, and then a review of the literature concerning tourism planning.  A detailed study of the Golden and  Ucluelet plans, several evaluations of the program, and recommendations for future research complete the thesis.  iii Since the town representatives• responses to the British Columbia CTAP have been favourable and since the program matches several of the most important theoretical requirements of tourism planning, the thesis concludes with qualified approval of the program.  Reservations about the program's effectiveness include  concerns about how well all the residents of a town are represented, how the program is evaluated, and how the program deals with sustainability issues. The final recommendations section sketches in how these problems might be addressed and also suggests some supplements to the CTAP.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Purpose and Research Questions 1.2 Research Methods and Data Collection . . . 1.2.1 The Nine Questions Discussed with the Tourism Action Committees 1.3 Thesis Limitations  vii 1 1 1 2 3 6  CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW: The Role of the Tourism Industry in Economic Diversification 7 2.0 Introduction 7 2.1 Single-Industry Communities 7 2.2 Economic Development: A Definition . . . . 9 2.3 Government vs Community-Based Economic Planning 10 2.4 Tourism: One Option for Diversification . 11 2.5 Three Tourism Planning Programs: The Evolution of CTAP 12 2.5.1 British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy 12 2.5.2 Alberta Community Tourism Action Program 14 2.5.3 British Columbia Community Tourism Action Program: The Process 16 2.5.4 Comparing British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy, Alberta CTAP and British Columbia CTAP 20 2.6 Sustainable Tourism 23 2.6.1 Environmental Issues 23 2.6.2 Economic Issues 25 2.6.3 Social Issues 28 CHAPTER THREE  V  HOW TWO COMMUNITIES IMPLEMENTED THE CTAP 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Community Profiles 3.1.1 Ucluelet 3.1.2 Golden  33 33 33 33 35  3.2  Market Profiles  36  3.3 3.4 3.5  Assets of the Case-Study Communities . . . Concerns of the Case-Study Communities . . Projects of the Case-Study Communities . . 3.5.1 Golden's Top Three Projects . . . 3.5.2 Ucluelet's Top Three Projects . . Communities' Comments on the Nine Issues . Summary  39 41 44 45 47 48 62  3.6 3.7  CHAPTER FOUR EVALUATION OF THE CTAP 4.0 Introduction 4.1 British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Community Evaluations of the CTAP 4.2 An Independent Evaluation 4.2.1 The Program's Strengths 4.2.2 The Program's Weaknesses . . . . 4.3 Summary  64 67 67 69 73  CHAPTER FIVE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH FOR ENHANCING THE CTAP 5.0 Introduction 5.1 Incorporating Sustainability 5.2 Evaluation and Information Sharing . . . . 5.3 Guides and Manuals 5.3.1 Resource Guide 5.3.2 Super Host for Managers 5.3.3 Skills Program 5.4 Summary  74 74 74 75 78 78 79 80 80  CHAPTER SIX THESIS CONCLUSION 6.0 CONCLUSION  81 81  REFERENCES  83  PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS  87  APPENDIX ONE COMMUNITY TOURISM ACTION PROGRAM  89  64 64  vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE la TOURISM MARKET PROFILE FOR GOLDEN AND UCLUELET  .  37  TABLE lb TOURISM MARKET PROFILE FOR GOLDEN AND UCLUELET  .  38  TABLE 2 GOLDEN'S AND UCLUELET • S TOP THREE ASSETS  40  TABLE 3 GOLDEN'S AND UCLUELET'S TOP THREE CONCERNS . . . .  41  TABLE 4 SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO THE NINE QUESTIONS . . . .  61  vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I sincerely thanks Doug and Doreen Mitchell, her parents, for their continued support and love. The encouragement from Yvonne, Susan, and friends was always appreciated. a big thank you to my English editor Christie Cole.  And finally,  1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION  1.0  Introduction Many single-industry communities in British Columbia are  trying to incorporate tourism to help stabilize and diversify their local economies. where to start.  They face the challenges of determining  Individuals organizing tourism in communities as  a means of diversifying the local economies must consider how tourism will affect them. planning.  This must be achieved through  Community tourism planning brings a new process to  many British Columbia communities trying to diversify and stabilize their economies.  The British Columbia Community  Tourism Action Program (CTAP) aims to aid those communities conducting tourism planning by providing them with the tools to carry out participatory tourism planning, that is, planning that involves community residents in every stage of the process. This thesis examines and evaluates both theoretical and practical information about tourism planning.  The literature  review gives information about processes for and concepts of tourism planning.  The practical section deals with experiences  of two communities that have participated in the British Columbia Community Tourism Action Program.  1.1  Purpose and Research Questions This thesis focuses on the British Columbia Community  Tourism Action Program (CTAP):  how it evolved, how two case-  study communities have implemented it, their evaluations of it, and my own evaluation of the program.  Financial data on tourism  development and income are not available at the community level, so my evaluation of the CTAP relied on residents' views, analysis of the tourism action plans, interviews, and a comparison of the CTAP to theoretical models of tourism planning. to answer this question:  The thesis seeks  What can be learned from the CTAP as a  tourism planning tool for single industry communities?  How does  the CTAP compare to earlier provincial tourism planning programs? Do communities implementing the CTAP create tourism action plans? Do they follow through on them? process?  How do they evaluate the  And, finally, how does the CTAP measure up against  theories of tourism planning?  1.2  Research Methods and Data Collection The first stage of research was to review books, government  documents, community brochures, and newspaper articles.  General  information on the CTAP process was available at the Pacific Rim Institute of Tourism in Vancouver.  More specific details about  the communities were obtained from Liz Gilliland, a Tourism Planner with the Community Planning and Development Branch of the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism in Victoria.  She suggested  Golden and Ucluelet as case-studies for this thesis  and allowed  me to examine the files on these communities. To enhance the reliability of my findings, I chose these two case-study communities which were remarkably similar.  Both had  3 started the program in the same year—1991; both are singleindustry communities; and both have a common base industry— forestry.  If the communities had disagreed about the CTAP, this  narrow focus would have limited the number of variables affecting the disagreement.  However, they did not disagree.  Both Golden  and Ucluelet praised the program as providing organization, direction, and workable projects.  This consensus between the two  communities lends weight to their evaluations and to my resulting conclusions. My contacts with the two communities were Olive Phillips, coordinator of the Golden Team Action Committee, and Rose Davison, member of council and of the Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee.  I provided them with my list of nine questions so  they, or their committee, could prepare answers prior to our meetings.  I then set up the meeting with some members of the  Golden Team Action Committee, and arranged with Gilliland to attend her follow-up meeting with the Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee to review their tourism action plan and to discuss my nine questions.  1.2.1  The Nine Questions Discussed with the Tourism Action Committees  I developed the nine questions for the tourism committees with input from two tourism planners from the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism:  Liz Gilliland and Jim Majcher.  Henry  Hightower, University of British Columbia professor at the School of Community and Regional Planning, and Alison Gill, a Simon  4 Fraser University professor in the Geography Department also provided direction on the questions.  The nine questions were  intended to stimulate discussion from the committee members in Golden and Ucluelet to demonstrate the areas of success and areas of concern with the British Columbia CTAP as a tourism planning tool. The nine questions reviewed the communities' involvement with the CTAP and the projects derived from it, government coordination on CTAP projects, and overall attitudes towards both the CTAP specifically and tourism in general. 1.  What prompted your community to get involved with the  Community Tourism Action Program?  This question seeked to  identify how the community heard of and chose to use the CTAP. 2.  How has the Community Tourism Action Program enabled  your community to diversify?  This question allowed the  committees to discuss their definition of "diversity."  As well,  it should identify what benefits the committee saw as results of the program. 3.  What are the challenges of organizing, implementing, and  assessing tourism projects?  This question inquired if the  implementation of change provided difficulties or new situations for the committee and community. 4.  What evaluation processes and methods do the tourism  action committee apply to analyze progress?  This question was  prompted when Liz Gilliland (personal communications, 1993) and Jim Majcher (personal communications, 1993) mentioned that they  5 did not formally evaluate the communities progress with the CTAP. The intent was to identify how a community measured its successes and failures with the CTAP. 5.  What steps were taken to reduce negative social and  environmental impacts from tourism activities?  This question  looked at whether or not the committee had considered the social and environmental impacts their projects could have on the people and the space around them. 6.  How do the Community Tourism Action Program projects fit  in with the Official Community Plan?  The purpose of the question  was to ascertain whether the Official Community Plan needed revisions to accommodate the CTAP. 7.  What are the relationships regarding tourism among the  Economic Development Officer, Community Tourism Action Program committee/ municipal council, Chamber of Commerce, British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, various other ministries, provincial government, and the federal government?  This issue  evolved through talks with representatives from the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism.  Their comments suggested that the  CTAP encouraged interaction with other ministries.  Liz Gilliland  felt that she acted as a liaison and problem solver between the communities and various provincial ministries. the communities' perspective on this.  I wanted to know  Many of their projects  developed through the CTAP depend on cooperation with other ministries, such as the Department of Highways, for their completion.  Therefore, if the CTAP eased communication with  6 other government bodies, it would be providing a useful service. But did the communities view this interaction in this way? 8.  What other government programs helped the community in  diversifying?  When a community wanted to diversify its economy,  it might apply for provincial and federal government programs, for example, Community Futures, Super Host, and Arterial Highway Beautification.  During the meetings, after the communities had  identified other programs used in conjunction with the CTAP, I asked them to evaluate these other programs, looking for characteristics that made government programs useful or less useful to the community. 9.  What is the general view of tourism held by the  residents and the main industry in the town?  This characterized  how the community felt about tourism and who benefited or suffered from it.  1.3  Thesis Limitations The limitations of the thesis are that the two communities  examined, Golden and Ucluelet, are similar in many respects. Their responses to the CTAP may not be representative of other British Columbia communities that have implemented the program. The case-studies are snapshots of how the communities felt about the CTAP in their particular tourism development stage.  As well,  the evaluation relies, to some extent, on the subjective opinions of the tourism action committees, who may have biased views of their communities' progress.  7 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW: Diversification  2.0  The Role of the Tourism Industry in Economic  Introduction This literature review focuses on four main areas of  research.  First, its discussion of the challenges associated  with global restructuring and boom-and-bust cycles demonstrates why a single-industry community may need to diversify its economic base and adopt economic planning.  Secondly, it shows  how community-based planning approaches, which involve the residents' views, may lead to the development of tourism to enhance the economy.  Thirdly, it compares two tourism programs  that led to the creation of the British Columbia CTAP.  And  finally, it examines the issues of sustainable tourism: environmental, economic, and social.  2.1  Single-Industry Communities British Columbia has 12 percent (99) of Canada's single-  industry communities (Canada Employment and Immigration Advisory Council, 1987).  The Department of Regional Economic Expansion  and the Canada Employment and Immigration Advisory Council describe a single-industry community as one in which there exists a single dominant economic activity (a single employer or group of employers in a single activity or industry) which is not within commuting distance of another area or areas offering alternative employment opportunities (Decter, 1989: 2, 12).  8 This definition describes the two case-study communities, as both have forestry as their primary source of employment, and both are at least a hundred kilometres from any major urban centre. One reason for boom-and-bust cycles is that global society continues to evolve and change.  Western society has shifted from  an agricultural society, to an industrial society, to a postindustrial society, to an information-based society, and now to a global society.  Society has moved from primary economic  activities through manufacturing and on to service-oriented sectors of employment (Bryant, 1991).  This shift to a global  society means that single-industry communities compete on a worldwide level, for global restructuring intrinsically affects community-level economics.  The transforming of the global  economy increases the network patterns of the financial, industrial, commercial, legal, and media sectors.  This web of  relationships increasingly synchronizes the lives of people on a global scale (Smith, 1987) and therefore, small communities are inclined to feel the effects of global economic cycles. Dependency on a main industry creates vulnerability in a community, and thus extends the possibility of hardship to the town when the main employer faces changes.  Many factors can  place single-industry communities in vulnerable positions: exhaustion of resources such as ore, fish, and trees; declines in the market; competition from other producers; inadequate profit; change in technology; poor management; unreliable transportation; high labour and production costs; corporate restructuring;  9 failure to modernize; and economic fluctuations in the price cycle of international markets (Canada Employment and Immigration Advisory Council, 1987).  Also, when a community has one dominant  employer, it risks having insufficient employment opportunities for specific segments of the population such as youth, women, and senior citizens.  A shortage of varied employment opportunities  makes the residents that much more dependent on the major industry, and that much more likely to suffer economic depression if the major industry falters. Single-industry towns affected by a changing society can, through diversification, reduce impacts.  Economic development  planning may assist a single-industry community in expanding its economic base.  2.2  Economic Development:  A Definition  According to Ron Shaffer, "economic development is the sustained, progressive attempt to attain individual and group interests through expanded, intensified, and adjusted use of available resources" (1989: 7 ) . An economic development plan can help a struggling community meet tough economic times or allow a prosperous community to improve economic opportunity and quality of life through group decisions and actions.  Hence, economic  development is "a human and social phenomenon" (Shaffer, 1989). Ideally, the underpinnings of a community's economic development plan are the community's goals and the residents' skills.  10 Before starting the economic development process, communities must understand what it may provide.  Specifically, a  step-by-step planning process can help it better cope with the future.  As well, with the focus on process, the community  benefits by sharing concerns and knowledge instead of concentrating entirely on the end product.  If a community  focuses only on the end product, such as stimulating the economy with forestry, it may miss out on other possible viable options. An economic development plan can address the following issues: developing employment opportunities, expanding the local tax base, improving the quality of life, enhancing environmental quality, creating local autonomy, and establishing a more equitable distribution of wealth (Bryant & Preston, 1987). Communities can reduce vulnerability, increase diversity and resilience, and promote innovation with the aid of an economic development plan (Shaffer, 1989).  2.3  Government vs Community-Based Economic Planning Single-industry communities sometimes face dependency on  various levels of government to assist them in hard economic times.  Both the federal and provincial governments can provide  training, encouragement, and financial aid.  However, in the  past, senior levels of government solely promoted and carried out their own programs, and success was minimal (Bryant, 1991). Solutions proposed have often been urban-oriented or mega  11 projects, which have added to the boom-and-bust swings of the local economic situation (Bryant & Preston, 1987). Ideally government and community should work together and complement each other in the process of economic development. The responsibility for planning, however, should rest with the community.  A community can capitalize on its own resources and  explain to the government how it can reach its own goals. Communities taking the initiative and a bottom-up approach have had better success in diversifying their economies (Bryant, 1991).  When the community creates its own economic development  plan, the plan is less likely to be forgotten on a shelf.  As  well, community-initiated actions may bring a community together by involving many people in remedying the situation.  2.4  Tourism:  One Option for Diversification  The community's desire to diversify its economy and to reduce its dependency on a single-industry or sector may lead it to consider developing tourism.  An economic development plan may  have identified tourism as an option to expand the local economy, and community leaders may choose it because they may view tourism as non-polluting (Murphy, 1985: 39), requiring minimal capital expense (Murphy, 1985: 156), and utilizing readily available manmade and natural resources (Murphy, 1985: 95). They may already have many people passing through, providing a potential tourism market.  They may simply want the opportunity to get their  12 community "on the map," and a chance to use the local human resources.  2.5  Three Tourism Planning Programs:  The Evolution of CTAP  One provincial program in British Columbia that blends government help with community initiatives is the Community Tourism Action Program (CTAP).  This program, administered  through the Community Development Branch of the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, is a tool to "encourage communities to look at tourism as a business and pursue tourism as a supplement to the local economic base" (British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture, 1993:  3 ) . The British  Columbia CTAP grew out of two other tourism planning programs: the British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy and the Alberta CTAP.  2.5.1  British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy  In the summer of 1986, the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, Recreation and Culture provided a manual to some communities to aid them in tourism development (British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, Recreation and Culture, 1986).  This manual  offered communities a step-by-step plan to implement or enhance tourism.  The program contained the example of Comox Valley to  demonstrate the use of the manual.  The manual provided detailed  information, enabling a community to perform its own tourism planning and to match community resources with a target market.  13 The conceptual model for getting started included the following steps: 1. 2. 3.  identifying the attractions (the tourist supply) determining the tourists (the tourist demand) clarifying the tourism industry operation (performance) 4. establishing the community goals and aspirations (public wishes) 5. developing the tourism strategy (the plan) 6. understanding the opportunities and constraints (strengths & weaknesses) 7. making the concept work (use) (British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, Recreation and Culture, 1986, 3 ) . Part of the process of the seven-step plan was for communities to answer detailed questions.  For example, they needed to identify  what had occurred over the last two decades and what effects the 1980s recession had had on the community.  To complete the steps,  the residents implementing the program needed to collect data and do extensive research. On January 25, 1993, in Victoria at the Ministry of Tourism office, Jim Majcher, Director of the Community Planning and Development Branch in the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism offered me much information about the strengths and weaknesses of the British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy program.  A  positive attribute was that the manual contained forms which assisted communities in their tourism planning process.  Many of  the questions in the manual stimulated tourism organizers to think very specifically about the process of enhancing or implementing a tourism industry.  On the other hand, some  communities found the program confusing.  Performing many of the  14 steps required a great deal of research, large amounts of time, and consistent monitoring.  Often, the same individuals in a  community volunteer consistently for projects, a dedication which can lead to burnout.  According to Majcher (personal  communications, 1993), the process described in the manual was too complex and did not realistically consider the human resources.  2.5.2  Alberta Community Tourism Action Program  In addition to the British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy, a primary program instrumental in the development of the British Columbia CTAP was the Alberta Community Tourism Action Program.  The British Columbia CTAP manual acknowledges  its indebtedness to the Alberta program (British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture, 1993). The Alberta CTAP provides a four-part manual to aid communities in improving their tourism industry.  The program is written for  town councils, Chambers of Commerce, and Economic Development Committees. One goal of the Alberta CTAP is to create local committees responsible for the development of the tourism industry.  These  committees of nine to twelve people must have knowledge about their community, a commitment to tourism, the ability to work in a group, and the time to invest in the committee.  The members  must also understand the five tourism components:  tourism  15 attractions, tourism promotion, tourism infrastructure, tourism hospitality, and tourism services (Alberta Tourism, 1988). In developing a tourism action plan, each committee establish its goals and objectives, which includes listing the community's assets and concerns, creating a market profile, and then proceeding on to the 23-step action plan discussed in the manual: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.  determine the present tourism markets examine each tourism type list tourism assets identify problems and concerns with the assets reassess tourist types and describe a market profile rank the tourism assets rank the tourism concerns define goals define objectives determine time and who will perform the action steps send first draft of the tourism action plan to council council and public approval in principle for the plan council makes recommendations for the plan residents provide opinions on the plan council and residents' views are incorporated into plan set new deadlines to review the plan council's formal endorsement of the plan another opportunity for council to make changes implementation of the plan committee creates a status report every six months residents receive a report on the plan's progress committee annually reviews the whole action plan council annually reviews the whole action plan (Alberta Tourism, 1988).  The manual's design, describes in detail how to perform the 23step action plan. A major benefit of the Alberta CTAP is its self-guiding features in a manual format. pace. focus.  Communities can use it at their own  Each of the four books for the program has a specific The community-based approach allows the committee,  16 council, and residents to have input into the plan, to participate in its completion, and to know what benefits to expect from it.  The program provides an example of how to write  a policy statement, and some forms the tourism action committee can use when developing the action plan.  Throughout the 2 3  steps, the program emphasizes the need for council and community participation and approval.  Book Four of the program's manual  includes information on private and government grants available to communities needing funding.  This book also contains a list  of agencies and organizations available to support communities' tourism action plans.  The list saves a committee time when it is  trying to learn which agencies may assist them in their tourism planning.  2.5.3  British Columbia Community Tourism Action Program: The Process  The experiences from the British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy and the Alberta Community Tourism Action Program were used in creating the British Columbia Community Tourism Action Program in 1989 (Majcher, personal communication, 1993).  This program derived from the two programs discussed  (Gilliland, personal communication, 1993), which both aimed at diversifying local economies through tourism development. Similar to the British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy and the Alberta CTAP, the British Columbia CTAP is a community-based approach that lets the local tourism committee create projects to suit their needs.  However, the planning process in the British  17 Columbia CTAP involves the committee and a designated tourism planner from the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism.  In  contrast, the British Columbia Development Tourism Strategy did not involve provincial government planners on the local level, and the Alberta CTAP only sent in a facilitator when the community requested one.  The Alberta CTAP also included the  option of the town using a private consultant, paid for by CTAP funding (Nay, personal communication, 1994). Communities learn about the Community Tourism Action Program by word of mouth.  The British Columbia Ministry of Tourism does  not formally advertise the program, but budgets to assist ten communities a year (Gilliland, personal communication, 1993). When a community is interested in the CTAP, it can request an initial meeting with the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism to find out about the program.  Seven to nine interested  individuals, representatives of the tourism industry in the area, meet to form a tourism action committee (British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture, 1993). The tourism action committee collects information about specific segments of the community.  This could entail talking to  hotel and motel owners, gas station managers, and ratepayer associations (British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture, 1993).  The information deals with the  type of services and attractions available to tourists, and what they see as concerns or constraints in the community for  18 tourists.  The tourism action committee also fill in a table to  determine the tourism market. The table has four areas of questions.  The first area  identifies the visitor type, examples of this include campers, commercial travellers, cottagers, skiers, bus tour participants, and friends and relatives. visitors are from.  The second question asks where the  The table also requires information about the  time of year when the tourists arrive.  The final question looks  at the services the different types of visitors look for when in the area, such as sports equipment rentals, airplane charters, restaurants, and shopping (British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture, 1993). After receiving all this data from the community, a tourism planner at the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism organizes the list of assets and concerns into five categories:  tourism  attractions, tourism promotions, tourism infrastructure, tourism hospitality, and tourism services.  Also, the tourism planner  reviews the type of tourist market identified. After the collection of the above-mentioned data, a workshop in the community is planned.  The British Columbia Ministry of  Tourism recommends 10 to 3 0 people be present at the meeting. This range may allow for the attendance of a variety of people such as concerned residents; hotel, motel, and campground owners; tour operators; and event organizers. one-half days long.  The workshop is one and  A tourism planner from the British Columbia  Ministry of Tourism facilitates this workshop.  The facilitator  19 organizes the local tourism committee, provides expertise in developing projects, leads the group through the planning process, elicits and addresses potential problem areas, and presents an outsider's view.  The facilitator can also liaise  with other Ministries to open communications between the community and government agencies and programs.  Ideally the  facilitator keeps an open mind and works from the community's agenda, not the government's. The facilitator works with the workshop participants by taking account of their assets and concerns in order to build goals and objectives.  From these, the group at the workshop then  develops action steps to accomplish the goals.  Goals lead to the  creation of projects that the group sees as important in developing or enhancing their tourism industry.  Some project  ideas could include conducting a visitor survey, creating a marketing plan, or holding educational sessions on the benefits of tourism.  At the workshop, the tourist market, the assets and  concerns, and the projects are ranked in order of priority. After the ranking, a person or persons are assigned the responsibility of implementing the projects and a deadline for completion is set. At the end of the workshop, the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism planner compiles the data and sends the committee a final copy.  The whole focus of the workshop is to involve the  committee members in the process and ensure that the ideas identified are their own.  The feeling of ownership will help  20 them in carrying out the projects they propose (British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture, 1993). A summary of the British Columbia CTAP process: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  initial meeting with the Ministry of Tourism form a tourism action committee gather data related to tourism host a CTAP workshop in the community identify assets and concerns at the workshop develop projects at the workshop finalize the tourism action plan Ministry of Tourism follow-up  2.5.4  Comparing British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy/ Alberta CTAP and British Columbia CTAP  The commonality among these three programs is that each has manuals containing forms for the local tourism committees to use when planning tourism.  The forms assist the committees in  identifying the assets and concerns of the community.  Also the  committee ranks the projects in the tourism action plan to determine which ones need to occur before other projects can evolve and which need priority attention. The British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy and the British Columbia CTAP present tourism development to communities differently.  The British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy  took an in-depth look at tourism planning, whereas the British Columbia CTAP offers a more optimistic, simpler approach.  For  instance, the British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy program provided communities with probing questions throughout the manual.  Its manual also identified negative aspects and  difficult situations a tourism planning committee might encounter  21 when doing tourism planning.  At sixty-two pages of text and  thirteen pages of forms, this manual might have discouraged communities because of its length and complexity.  In comparison,  the current British Columbia CTAP manual has only nine pages of text and some sample documents and does not provide any negative aspects of tourism for the local tourism committee to consider. In addition, the British Columbia Tourism Development Strategy, in its step-by-step process, had the communities do a visitor survey.  The British Columbia CTAP does not require a community  to do this, although during the project development stage, it may elect to do one. The British Columbia CTAP adopted many components of the Alberta CTAP.  Both have the same five components of tourism:  tourism attractions, tourism promotions, tourism infrastructure, tourism hospitality, and tourism services (Alberta Tourism, 1988; British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture, 1993).  Both specify the number of people to be on the  committee, although the British Columbia CTAP suggests seven to nine people, two or three fewer than the Alberta CTAP.  Both have  identical membership requirements for committee members.  Both  identify the need to have the endorsement and the involvement of the municipal council. However, the British Columbia CTAP did change some components of the Alberta CTAP.  Most importantly, until  September 1993, the Alberta CTAP had grants available for communities or non-profit organizations to carry out feasibility  22 studies and for tourism capital development projects.  The  funding was administered by the Tourism Industry Association of Alberta (Tourism Industry Association of Alberta, 1989).  In  contrast, the British Columbia CTAP has never had funding available for community projects. The Alberta and British Columbia CTAPs have other, less important differences as well.  For instance, the British  Columbia CTAP does not lay out a self-guiding step-by-step plan in the manual, substituting the facilitator's work instead.  The  Alberta CTAP includes a booklet listing private and government grants and programs that make funding available, but the British Columbia CTAP does not deal with funding.  In the Alberta CTAP,  the local council continually reviews and approves the tourism projects, whereas the British Columbia CTAP involves council right from the start, but does not state that council must have continual approval of the projects. The British Columbia CTAP's historical background shows that it has grown out of diverse, and generally more detailed plans. Whether or not the program is too simplistic, however, has not yet been determined.  Certainly the field of tourism itself is a  complex area of study and tourism action committees will need to consider more issues than the CTAP deals with, issues of sustainability:  environmental, economic and social.  23 2.6  Sustainable Tourism A tourism committee embarking on tourism planning desires  economic development, but does not want the planned changes to have any negative impacts on the environment, economy or social structure of their town.  It must balance the need for tourism  dollars against, among other things, the fragility of the natural environment, the taxpayers' unwillingness or inability to pay for major improvements, and the limited goodwill a community may have for tourists.  In other words, it wants "sustainable  development," which Rees defines as follows: Sustainable development is positive socioeconomic change that does not undermine the ecological and social systems upon which communities and society are dependent. Its successful implementation requires integrated policy, planning, and social learning processes; its political viability depends on the full support of the people it affects through their governments, their social institutions, and their private activities (1989: 3 ) . 2.6.1  Environmental Issues  It would obviously benefit future generations to inherit land of today's quality, but assuring this is challenging because environmental "sustainability" may have different meanings to the mainstay industry and to the tourism industry.  For example, the  forestry industry may consider "sustainable yield" in a large area as "sustainability" (Economic Analysis of British Columbia, 1989), but the tourism industry may view "sustainability" as improving existing conditions.  In other words, the tourism  industry may try to protect natural resources such as fish, forests, scenic landscapes, wildlife, and heritage sites from  24 overuse, to provide sufficient natural resources for future users (Murphy, 1985).  The tourism industry may focus more on  stimulating the economy than on consciously considering the environment, but tourism action committees have shown they can work with mainstay industries and other industries on environmental issues.  For example, the Ucluelet Tourism Action  Committee works with the forestry industry to leave a tree corridor to keep picturesque views. The Golden Team Action Committee works with the farmers and para-sailers to create a safe environment and shared land use.  These examples demonstrate  tourism's ability to affect mainstay industries' approach to the environment.  As well, tourism can help educate people about the  environment:  once people experience the natural beauty of  British Columbia, they may be more inclined to preserve and protect it. Therefore, economic diversification through tourism can provide direction for sustaining the environment. Tourist industries themselves, many say should be "environmentally friendly" and "sustainable."  According to  Geiser, sustainable features an industry should address are the following: technologies appropriate to the desired ends; safe and environmentally compatible materials; low-waste and no-waste production processes; safe and skill-enhancing working conditions; energy efficiency; and resource conservation to meet the needs of future generations (1992: 220). The British Columbia Round Table (1990a) offers six principles to consider when developing the economy conflicts with  25 sustaining the quality of the environment:  limiting impact on  the living world; preserving and protecting the environment; making more efficient use of resources; promoting long-term economic development; distributing benefits and costs fairly; and promoting values that support sustainability.  The CTAP does not  place these principles in its mandate. The literature says communities need to design sustainable guidelines and measurement methods for tourism to help maintain environmental and social sustainability (e.g. Gunn, 1988). Communities need to realize that achieving sustainability is not an overnight process; it takes time to educate the public about the need to sustain the environment.  Tourism organizers must  realize that a sustainable plan can cause short-term economic hardship, but when comprehensive planning is carried out rationally, it could mean long-term environmental benefits for the public.  2.6.2  Economic Issues  Increased tourism has obvious and hidden economic results. The community may have three major economic concerns: money will tourism bring in? cost residents?  How much  How much will developing tourism  And are there other sources of funds?  The amount of revenue a tourism industry can bring to the local economy can be determined through analysing the multiplier effect.  According to Archer,  26 the multiplier measures the change in income due to an autonomous injection of expenditure into an economy, for example,...tourism spending. This expenditure stimulates economic activity so that provided there are enough resources, additional business activity, household incomes, and jobs, are generated (Lui & Turgut, 1981: 5,6).  One purpose of determining the multiplier value is to show the impact of the tourism industry on the community's economy (Blank, 1989).  It discloses why a dollar spent by a tourist in a  community does not usually only create a dollar of income.  The  multiplier range for tourists' dollars benefitting a community is 25 cents to 80 cents per dollar spent (Mak, 1987).  Analysing the  multiplier effect may help the local tourism committee point out to the municipal council the benefits of tourist dollars in their community.  In fact, in their detailed study "The Economic Impact  of Tourism in Metropolitan Victoria, B.C.," Liu and Var (1981) argue for the gathering of detailed financial information on tourism, noting that "more substantive knowledge of the relative contributions by different types of tourists will provide a better understanding of the structure and process of the tourist industry...and therefore, serve as a guide for decision making" (Liu & Var, 1981: 1, 2 ) . This could lead to the council's support of projects proposed by the tourism committee and to more effective tourism planning. Another way to determine the effect of tourism development on the municipal budget is to analyze the cost per day per visitor.  This calculation determines an estimated increase in  27 the level of service and maintenance required to serve a known volume of visitors.  Volume of tourists is a base unit used to  measure visitor party-trips. Multiplying the number of visitor parties by the average party-size generates an estimate of persons (Murphy, 1985).  The CTAP does not direct a community to  determine, or even consider, cost per visitor per day. Residents may well be concerned about the price tag for developing tourism.  For example, tourism can lead to overtaxing  municipal services (Peters, 1987).  Tourist season often  increases the demands on police, sanitation crews, medical staff, and park personnel to cope with the influx of people (Murphy, 1985).  Tourists may also bring other problems such as pollution,  litter, noise, vandalism, drugs, and prostitution (Gunn, 1988). These antisocial behaviours once more burden the taxpayers. An example is the Kelowna Regatta.  In 1986 and 1987, the regatta's  "late-night boozing and brawling escalated into full-blown rioting" (Cohen, 1988).  When a radio station surveyed residents  to see if they were willing to pay for extra policing, 68 percent said no. Although the business community fought for the regatta, the event was cancelled for 1988 (Phillip, 1988), and the regatta as it was known has not occurred since the riots.  The point is  that tourists do not fund these services—local taxpayers do. This strains the municipal budget, possibly causing resentment of tourists by the residents.  As well, without careful planning,  tourism development can create situations where the residents cannot afford to participate in the same activities as the  28 tourists.  It can lead to expensive accommodations, boutiques,  restaurants, or recreational activities, which eventually can force long-time residents to move to a community where services are affordable. There are answers to residents• concerns about who pays for tourist facilities and activities.  According to the Municipal  Act, Chapter 290, Section 983 (Province of British Columbia, 1979), a community may apply a development cost charge to projects to help cover capital costs of park land and infrastructure.  Alternatively, as the Administrator of Golden  points out, a community may have a higher tax rate for businesses servicing tourists than the tax rate residents pay (Taylor, personal communication, 1993).  Some communities or  neighbourhoods, such as those in Calgary, Alberta, issue residents with identification to allow them access to facilities at a different rate than non-residents.  The British Columbia  provincial government also has grant programs, such as Go BC grants, to help communities develop facilities.  With proper  planning, residents do not have to assume all tourist-related costs.  2.6.3  Social Issues  D'Amore warns that if tourism expansion exceeds the social carrying capacity "local residents perceive on balance an unacceptable level of social dis-benefits from tourism development" (1985: 134). In other words, every community has a  29 finite supply of goodwill and resources, and too many tourists in an area will exhaust the residents' willingness to welcome or even accept them.  Reducing the negative impact requires proper  timing for implementing a tourism plan, monitoring tourism activities, and involving key individuals.  Careful and  methodical planning can minimize problems such as food shortages or traffic congestion.  However, people living and working in  areas of tourism activity may resent having little opportunity for privacy.  They may also resent tourists because of perceived  economic discrepancies, and differences in behaviour patterns and race (Gearing, 1976).  They may fear change because they do not  know what it holds for them.  For example, long-term shop keepers  may have trouble adjusting to the new market demands and new customer service expectations.  Some family-run businesses lack  management skills, financial support, and the desire to expand; consequently, these business owners may not properly maintain the facility or provide quality service, and may feel uneasy about their new clientele.  Inadequately meeting the service needs of  tourists and residents means that both lose. Communities may wish to consider D'Amore's nine point plan to social carrying capacity to assist them in designing guidelines for sustainable tourism.  The major points of the plan  include educating the residents about the importance of a tourism industry; developing goals and priorities in tourism planning;  30 -  promoting local attractions;  -  maintaining quality and opportunity for recreation and relaxation for the residents; involving the native people of the area; using local talents and capital; allowing the residents to participate in tourist activities; sponsoring events reflecting the history, lifestyles and geography of the area; addressing local growth problems (1985: 134-138).  The local tourism action committees implementing the CTAP often address these issues to try to gain support for the tourism industry.  The committees want the residents to feel part of the  tourism planning process, for the more residents are involved, the more inclined they may be to accept tourism as an industry. Increasing the residents' knowledge may build an understanding about tourism and may counter negative perceptions and experiences with tourists.  Through a community-based planning  process, residents can try to influence what goes on in their community.  They can provide input on the type of tourism  development appropriate for them. The British Columbia Round Table (1990b) argues that sustainable tourism can provide future generations of a community and the tourism market with the same—or a better—quality of life than the residents have today.  31 Murphy (1985) outlines more specifically some positive goals for clearly defined tourism development.  The first goal is to  provide a framework for raising the quality of living for the local people.  Examples include upgrading and adding amenities,  and improving downtown street decor and store fronts.  The second  is to develop or improves the infrastructure and provide recreation facilities for both the visitors and the residents. The third is to make sure that the type of tourism development matches the area's preconception of their style of tourism.  The  final goal is to set up a development program consistent with the cultural, social, and economic philosophy of the government and the residents of the host area.  Part of the fourth goal is to  develop a rapport with the main industry in the community. Residents who value tourism are the key to creating a successful tourism industry in a community and in a region. Increased receptiveness to the tourists by the residents may occur when the two meet and share similar interests at facilities such as beaches, golf courses, or night clubs (Murphy, 1985). Residents employed in the tourism industry, suppliers to the tourism industry, and those who directly benefit from it, view tourists favourably because of the economic benefits.  A positive  attitude may emerge when the local tourism committee provides residents with information on the benefits of tourism. This committee must help citizens build community appreciation, maintain or increase the quality of life, understand the community's resources, and have pride in the  32 community (Shaffer, 1989).  The committee works in cooperation  with local government, developers, and investors.  The municipal  government does planning and zoning, enacts bylaws, and levies taxes that could influence tourism activities.  Informing and  involving private investors and developers about the community's spirit and goals can encourage compatibility of all parties involved (Shaffer, 1989). To conclude, residents, policy makers, and the local tourism committee have much to consider when planning a sustainable tourism industry.  A vision and an inventory of resources can  help a community find an opportunity for tourism development. Establishing broad goals and specific sector goals may make it possible to manage natural and man-made resources.  Then, as the  literature makes clear, (D'Amore, 1985; Geiser, 1992) the local tourism committee's involvement with each tourism venture should include some knowledge of the environmental, economic, and social costs and benefits of development.  33 CHAPTER THREE HOW TWO COMMUNITIES IMPLEMENTED THE CTAP  3.0  Introduction Chapter Three presents a description of Ucluelet and Golden  to provide the reader with some characteristics of the areas.  It  reviews the market profiles, assets, concerns, and the top three tourism action projects of Golden and Ucluelet, since the work each of these two communities has done to complete their action plan demonstrates the planning process of the CTAP.  Following  the description of the projects completed are the communities responses to the nine questions the tourism action committees addressed at our meetings.  This detailed look at the two  communities and the questionnaire responses sets out information that is used, in Chapter Four, to evaluate the effectiveness of the CTAP.  3.1  Community Profiles 3.1.1  Ucluelet  Ucluelet, a First Nations expression meaning "safe harbour," is the third largest landing port for fish in British Columbia (Ucluelet Chamber of Commerce, 1990).  Its brochure, "Life on the  Edge" (Ucluelet Chamber of Commerce, n.d.) also claims Ucluelet is "the whale-watching capital of the world."  A scenic drive of  137 kilometres northwest of Victoria brings visitors to this community of 1,510 people.  Ucluelet's promotional material  34 describes these qualities of the area:  "excitement,"  "reflection," "serenity," "exhilaration," and "adventure." The Ucluelet area offers many outdoor opportunities:  scuba  diving, salmon fishing, wildlife watching, trail hiking, tidal pool exploration, walking on Long Beach, experiencing a West Coast storm, or welcoming the Pacific Gray Whales as they pass through on their way to the summer feeding regions of the Bering and Arctic Seas. Ucluelet has been a tourist centre since the 1800s.  Today,  visitors there in July and August and on holidays, double the resident population base.  The Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee  states that over 700,000 people pass through the area on their way to Pacific Rim National Park.  This presents the challenge of  determining the right scale of development for the area while preserving its unique scenic character. Logging, fishing and service industries are the dominant industries in Ucluelet.  Logging provides year-round employment,  with occasional shutdowns due to fire hazards or excessive snow. Fishing is year-round with seasonal species.  Logging and fishing  provide about 225 jobs, and services provide 3 60 jobs (Economic Development Commission, 1986).  The focus of the 1990s is to  enhance the tourism industry and maintain diversity, without swapping the mainstay industry jobs for low-paying jobs.  35 3.1.2  Golden  Golden is working on setting itself up as a world-class tourist destination.  Surrounding Golden are several parks:  Banff, Kootenay, Yoho, Revelstoke, and Glacier National Parks, Bugaboo and Hamber Provincial Parks, and the Purcell Wilderness Conservancy.  There are also two proposed provincial parks, the  Northern Selkirks and the West Slope of the Rockies. Adjectives used to describe the area to tourists are "serene," "exhilarating," and "extreme."  Outdoor activities include heli-  skiing, white-water rafting, hunting and guiding, fishing, golfing, downhill skiing, hiking, wildlife and wetland viewing, snowmobiling, cross-country skiing, back-country skiing, canoeing, cycling, kayaking, camping, para-sailing, and hang gliding. Golden is a town of 3,848 residents.  Located at the  junction of the Columbia and Kicking Horse Rivers in the Rocky Mountain Trench, 262 kilometres west of Calgary and 682 kilometres east of Vancouver, Golden is the western gateway to British Columbia.  There are four sections to the town, two on  the Trans-Canada Highway and two below the highway. The current tourism situation is that in July and August visitors fill most accommodations.  However, in the slow winter  months, businesses such as the thirty restaurants struggle to keep open.  Another challenge for the community is getting more  travellers to realize that Golden is not merely a strip mall on  36 the Trans-Canada Highway/ tourists may not be aware of the sections of town off the highway. Forestry is the dominant industry in Golden.  Evans Forest  Products, a locally owned lumber and plywood operation, employs 400 people.  Logging employs 225 people.  Tourism and hospitality  represents the second largest industry in Golden.  Canadian  Pacific Rail and Western Silica Products are also major employers (Golden & District Economic Development Commission, 1986).  3.2  Market Profiles The market profile is the identification of the types of  tourists that come to or pass by the two case-study communities. Both communities have substantial number of tourists stopping or passing through.  For example, " between April 1, 1989 and March  31, 1990, 1.5 million people in 700,000 vehicles travelled the Trans-Canada Highway at Golden" (British Columbia Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Recreation and Culture, n.d., 6 ) . Ucluelet has over 700,000 visitors per year.  The market  profiles have been compiled by the tourism action committees as part of the CTAP process.  This committee asks businesses that  serve tourists the following questions:  The following questions  were asked of businesses that serve tourists: visitors? travel?  Where are they from?  Who are the  What time of year do they  What services do they need when in the area?  Tables la and lb present profiles of the four most important markets for Golden and Ucluelet.  37 TABLE la TOURISM MARKET PROFILE FOR GOLDEN AND UCLUELET (Rank 1 & 2) Tourist Type  Where are they from? Golden  RANK 1 (G)Touring and camping  U.S.A. & other provinces  (U)Family holiday  RANK 2 (G)Sports teams & activities, festivals & events, V.F.R.  Ucluelet  When do they come here? Golden  Ucluelet  May to October  B.C., Alberta, & Washington  Alberta, & surrounding B.C. communities  July, August & school holidays  Four seasons  What services do they need? Golden  Ucluelet  Lodging, restaurants, shopping, family entertainment, souvenirs, repairs, etc.  Laundry, camping, motels, restaurants  Campground, restaurants, lounges, pubs, lodging, shopping, gas, etc.  (U)Sports fishing  B.C., Oregon, Washington, & California  June to September  (U)Fly-ins  Lower Mainland, B.C., Washington, Oregon, & Europe  March & April, some in May & June, July to September  groceries, gifts, museums  Motel/hotel , charter, moorage, evening entertainment, restaurants , fish freezing/ smok i ng  Lodging, charters, restaurants , novelty shops, sport shops, groceries  (British Columbia Ministry of Development, Trade and Tourism April 1991/ British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, October 1991,) G = Golden U = Ucluelet  38 TABLE lb TOURISM MARKET PROFILE FOR GOLDEN AND UCLUELET (Rank 3 & 4) Tourist Type  Where are they from? Golden  RANK 3 (OBusiness travel  B.C., Alberta, & U.S.A.  (U)Drive-ins (cars without campers; often rental cars), touring  RANK 4 (G)Outdoor recreation and adventure tourism activities (hiking, biking, birdwatching, rafting, heli-hiking, etc.)  (U)Bus tours & scheduled tours  Ucluelet  When do they come here? Golden  Ucluelet  Year around  Europe, Eastern Canada, & U.S.A.  March & April, June to October, & some in the winter  B.C., Alberta, Washington, Europe, & Asia  March to June, September to October  U.S.A., Europe, Alberta, & B.C.  Four seasons  B.C., Washington, & Europe  What services do they need? Golden  Ucluelet  Lodging, restaurants, retai I, entertainment, gas, etc.  Motels, entertainment, restaurants , charters, novelty shops, museums, galleries, groceries  Campgrounds, restaurants, lodging, groceries, retail, gas, maps, guides, pubs, etc.  Motels, restaurants , charters, novelty shops, groceries, galleries, museums  March to September  (British Columbia Ministry of Development, Trade and Tourism, April 1991; British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, October 1991) G = Golden U = Ucluelet A comparison of the top four tourist types for Golden and Ucluelet appears to show that these communities cater to different market segments, since the only common tourist type is "touring."  However, a valid comparison is not possible since the  two committees may have envisioned their markets differently. For example, "a family holiday," as identified by Ucluelet, could  39 be the same as "touring and camping," as identified by Golden. In this example, Golden may not have specified whether the people touring and camping were on a family holiday. People visiting the two communities come from similar areas-other parts of British Columbia, Alberta, the United States, and Europe.  Europeans typically participate in touring activities  and outdoor recreation.  Golden offers a year-round destination;  Ucluelet caters to tourists from March to October.  Both  communities present a range of services to make visitors' stays comfortable. One benefit of the CTAP is it provides a tool that assists communities in identifying the who, what, when, and why questions about tourists coming to their communities.  The CTAP enabled the  tourism action committees to put this knowledge into a chart, which is useful when addressing the assets, concerns, and projects.  3.3  Assets of the Case-Study Communities Assets are the existing tourism strengths the tourism action  committees identified in their communities.  These assets were  derived with the assistance of businesses providing services to tourists.  When ranking the assets, the tourism action committee  in each community evaluated each asset to determine the strength of its appeal to tourists.  40 This table compares the assets of the two communities. TABLE 2 GOLDEN'S AND UCLUELET * S TOP THREE ASSETS Tourism Attractions  Tourism Promotions  Tourism Infrastructure  Tourism Hospitality  Highways #1 and  Friendly merchants, owner and staff  Several service stations, mechanics (RV), tow trucks  Tourism Services  RANK 1 Golden  Scenic Rocky Mountains  Word of mouth  Ucluelet  Pacific Rim National Park (Long Beach)  Word of mouth  Paved highway  Friendly & knowledgable residents & merchants  Accommodation motels. hotels, resort, B&B, Federal and Municipal campgrounds  RANK 2 Golden  Federal & Provincial parks. wilderness. wiIdlife  Government tourism guides & publicat ions  Full sewer and water  Small town ambience (helpful & friendly residents)  Several restaurants  Ucluelet  west Coast experience: wiIderness ares, forests, beaches, surfing. kayaking. lighthouse, Kennedy Lake  Whale watch promotions, charter fishing. destination resort (package tours)  Marina and moorage, boat launch, deep safe harbour  Knowledgeable parks naturalists. information staff  Food and beverage  RANK 3 Golden  Abundant snowfalI  Adventure operators brochures; private sector promotions  Emergency Services (police. medical, fire, hospital)  Friendly info centre staff  Retail: supermarkets, dept. store, liquor store. pubs, beauty salon, laundromats, bank machines, 24 hr. conv. store  Ucluelet  Excel lent sports fishing  Parks information  Telephones, sewer, water and power  Excel lent tourist booth staff  All shopping services & fac iIi t i es: laundromat, movie rental, co-op, hardware, building supply, novelty stores, retail outlets, banking.  #95  (British Columbia Ministry of Development, Trade and Tourism, April 1991; British Columbia Ministry of Tourism October 1991)  41 In recapping Table Two, the top three tourism attractions for Golden and Ucluelet are natural attractions.  Word of mouth  is the best way to promote tourism for both communities.  Each  rates operator brochures and government promotions as helpful to the community.  Highways, sewer and water are important  infrastructure components to Golden and Ucluelet.  Golden rates  its emergency services as important, while Ucluelet considers the marina as a major asset.  Both tourism action committees view  their towns as friendly and as having competent and amicable merchants, residents, and tourist information booth staff.  3.4  Concerns of the Case-Study Communities Concerns are the negative or low points the tourism action  committees identified in their communities.  These concerns were  noted by businesses providing services to tourists.  When ranking  the concerns, the tourism action committee in each community determined how the concern affected tourists. Table Three presents Golden's and Ucluelet*s concerns with the five tourism components. TABLE 3 GOLDEN'S AND UCLUELET'S TOP THREE CONCERNS Tour sm Attractions RANK 1 Golden  Highway corridor at entrance  Tourism Promotions Lack of coordinated marketing plan  Tourism Infrastructure  Tourism Hospitality  InabiIity of Hwy. #1 to provide safe travel through Kicking Horse Canyon, a major entrance to B.C.; a plan for highway closures  Awareness of local residents of services and tourist attractions  Tourism Services Need to improve hours of service at service stations (weekend mechanic)  42 TABLE 3 GOLDEN'S AND UCLUELET»S TOP THREE CONCERNS Tourism Attractions  Tourism Promotions  Tourism Infrastructure  Tourism Hospitality  Tourism Services  Ucluelet  Downtown unattractive. retaiI S homes rundown. general cleanliness needed  Lack of focal point  Highway into area needs upgrading  Lack of trained staff in peak seasons  Motels raising rates for peak season; lack of peak season accommodation; more campsites at the southern end of the Park  RANK 2 Golden  Preservation of scenic & rec. areas; lack of recreational land use plan  Poor highway signage  No community plan for highway closures  Need more Super Host training for merchants  Rentals: Need outdoor recreational equipment (boats, bikes, snowmobiles, etc.); no reasonable rental car drop-off, rentaI i s difficult; no airport shuttle to major airports; no bicycle rentals  RANK 2 Ucluelet  No major ocean front resort  Lack of participation in promotions by local business  Signs: need welcoming signs in the village; need more highway signs giving distances to Ucluelet; park signs are confusing; WiUowbrae trail access unclear  Ongoing service training  Lack of capital financing  RANK 3 Golden  No town theme  Info centre  Lack of green areas  Other concerns not ranked  Need more accommodations especially B&B  Ucluelet  Resource management: fisheries, forest, whales. overuti lization of Toquaht Bay  News media coverage of the forestry issue compares Ucluelet unfairly to Tofino. Ucluelet is never mentioned in daiIy newscast (weather)  Government wharf: need more docking space; Lady Rose often cannot dock because of large fishing vessels  Some residents seem to be resentful of tourists (minor)  Activity packaging  (British Columbia Ministry of Development, Trade and Tourism April 1991; British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, October 1991)  43 The tourism action committees of Golden and Ucluelet want to preserve their natural environments as tourist attractions. Their other desires are more specific to each community.  For  example, two concerns of the Golden Team Action Committee (GTAC) are the highway corridor and the need for a central theme.  The  Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee's (UTAC) concerns include the attractiveness of the downtown area and the need for an ocean front resort. At the meetings, both committees stated that before they began the CTAP, they were looking for direction in tourism promotions.  The GTAC wanted a marketing plan and the UTAC needed  a focus. The other promotional concerns relate to sending the tourists the desired message about the community. Upgrading local highways, making and communicating to tourist action plans for road closures, and improving highway signage are important infrastructure issues to both these communities.  The British Columbia Ministry of Highways can help  them address these issues. The component of "tourism hospitality" reflects the tourism committees' desire for a friendly environment for tourists.  In  each community, the committee realizes the residents may not appreciate the benefits of tourism.  Also, the committee wants to  inform citizens about what tourism operators do for tourists and for the town.  They want staff and managers working with the  public to have stronger customer service skills.  Super Host  44 programs, a provincial program for training those in the service industry, are available for this purpose. The concerns each committee raises under tourism services relate to services that are lacking or need improving.  Providing  services such as rentals, activity packaging, or bed and breakfast accommodations requires people to become entrepreneurs. The tourism action committee might encourage a store or service station to stay open longer or ask a motel to refrain from raising rates in peak season. The CTAP assisted the tourism action committees in recognizing areas they may need to address for their tourism industry.  These concerns may or may not have some bearing on the  communities' proposed projects.  3.5  Projects of the Case-Study Communities Projects are ideas the tourism action committees have  identified as tasks that need doing to enhance their tourism industry.  Market profiles, assets, and concerns are kept in the  forefront when projects are identified. order of importance.  Projects are ranked in  Each project has a written statement about  the goals, objectives, and concerns.  Golden identified six  projects; Ucluelet has ten projects in their tourism action plan. Following is a discussion of some of these projects, including comments on the status of the projects as of February 25, 1993 for Golden, and March 11, 1993 for Ucluelet.  45 3.5.1  Golden's Top Three Projects  Golden's projects are identified in "Community Tourism Action Plan:  Golden."  Addressing the highway corridor concern  is the Golden Team Action Committee's top-ranked project.  The  goal is to improve tourism by designing attractive entrances and landscapes on the frontage road beside the Trans-Canada Highway. This should encourage visitors to stop in Golden instead of passing through (British Columbia Ministry of Development, Trade and Tourism, April 1991).  The five action steps for the project  were to occur between May 1991 and November 1991.  The first  action step was the formation of the Golden Team Action Committee that reports to council. highway issues.  On this committee, one member addressed  The new committee, with council's support,  consulted with the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Highways about Highways #1, #95, and others in the area. The GTAC and the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Highways are working cooperatively to develop a highway corridor plan.  Once the two groups finalize the plan, the GTAC  will present it to the public.  The community has carried out  some parts of the plan, such as landscaping and installing promotional signs at highway entrances.  The final step, not yet  completed, is to finish the whole plan.  The committee and the  Department of Highways are working on the problem of an unsightly gravel pit that is seen upon entering Golden. GTAC's second-ranked project is to address the lack of coordination with the market plan.  The goal is to improve  46 tourism marketing by preparing and implementing a coordinated marketing plan. dates.  The five action steps have various completion  Golden has completed the first two action steps, an  inventory of tourism and a visitor survey, done in the summer of 1992.  Analysing and identifying trends and opportunities is the  third step, an ongoing process.  In the fall of 1991, the  committee planned to create a marketing strategy with industry support.  This process continues.  In the spring of 1992, the  committee and tourism operators were to create a plan for the fall and winter shoulder seasons. This too is ongoing. Another project addresses highway safety issues and access to the back country.  The goal is to improve infrastructure, such  as access to Golden.  The first step was to have the committee  write a letter to the Department of Highways requesting improvement of the Kicking Horse Canyon for visitors1 safety. Federal and provincial bodies are working on this issue. A second step is to provide access to the ski hill, the golf course, and the back country.  A new bridge and paving  improvements are in the works. Many of Golden's projects rely on government approval, so meeting completion dates is not always possible.  The committee  has successfully completed some steps in these projects, but has not finished any whole project.  47 3.5.2  Ucluelet's Top Three Projects  Ucluelet's projects are identified in "Community Tourism Action Plan:  Ucluelet."  One of UTAC's projects deals with the  lack of a consistent focus for tourism promotions.  The goal is  to improve tourism promotions in Ucluelet by developing a clear focal point.  The first action step involved assembling a team to  examine and assess existing market information for the town and immediate region.  This occurred at a Pacific Rim Regional  Tourism workshop in May 1993.  The second step is presenting  promotional information to the Ucluelet Tourism Association Commission, an ongoing process.  The final step in this project  is to present the focus of tourism promotions to the village council and the Chamber of Commerce.  As the plan advances, the  committee informs those two bodies of its progress. A second project is to clean up unattractive businesses, homes, and the community, especially the downtown core.  The goal  is to improve tourism attractions by upgrading the visual impression of the downtown core.  The Village Square Committee  includes some members from the tourism action committee. have a five-year plan to revitalize the downtown core.  They  To date,  with funding from the Village Square program, the group has erected a welcome sign, planted trees, and built a new information centre. A third project addresses fisheries, shared land, Toquaht Bay, pressure on whales, and the Broken Island Group.  The goal  is to protect tourism by making sure resources remain in place.  48 In November 1991 and on various other occasions, the committee sent letters to various government ministries.  It has received  routine, uninformative, noncommittal responses (Irving, personal communication, 1993).  The committee has also written to the  Parks Department, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, the Regional District, the British Columbia Ministry of Forests, and the government body responsible for Clayoquot Sound.  The Parks  Department has met with the committee, but talks continue.  No  other organization has committed to analysing ways to preserve the resources. All of Ucluelet's projects are long term and require more time for completion.  To complete the projects, the committee  needs more money, agreements with various ministries, and regional support. The projects of Golden and Ucluelet have provided the communities with direction for developing and improving their tourism industries.  From this point, the CTAP seems to have been  effective in aiding the tourism action committees in organizing themselves and in planning diversification of their local economy with tourism.  3.6  Communities' Comments on the Nine Issues This section compares Golden's and Ucluelet's responses to  the nine questions that I faxed them before our meetings.  The  responses for Golden come from my February 25th meeting with Olive Phillips and Phil Taylor, two key members of the Golden  49 Team Action Committee.  The responses from Ucluelet come from my  March 11th meeting with Gilliland and the five members of the Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee.  Table Five at the end of the  chapter, summarizes the communities' points.  1.  What prompted your community to get involved with the  CTAP? Golden's Administrator, Phil Taylor, met Jim Majcher, Director of the Community Planning and Development Branch, at a regional meeting concerning municipal matters. Mr. Majcher identified the need for organizational structure to create opportunities in Golden.  Ucluelet's Chamber of Commerce  contacted Liz Gilliland, Tourism Planner, for help in strengthening the town's tourism industry.  In looking for  opportunities, each community made contact with a representative from the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism in a different fashion. After starting the Community Tourism Action Program, the administrator and the town council of Golden saw a need to produce an economic development plan.  On the other hand,  Ucluelet's town council has completed many economic development plans.  2.  Both communities saw a need for a tourism plan.  How has the Community Tourism Action Program enabled  your community to diversify?  50 Each community approached this question differently because of the word "diversify."  The Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee  believes that the town is already diversified and sees the CTAP as one more way to stabilize the economy.  The UTAC wants to  strengthen the existing industries of forestry, fishing, and tourism.  The committee views the program as a long-term process  that does not need to involve giving up high paying industry jobs and replacing them with lower paying service jobs.  The program  also has provided the UTAC with a focus for creating a brochure that promotes the characteristics of the community. The CTAP has helped the Golden Team Action Committee identify where and how to provide better tourism services in the community.  The program has enabled the town to recognize the  various tourist groups and to focus promotions of the town.  For  example, tourists from Hong Kong often come to Golden looking for investment opportunities.  Japanese tourists may look for  adventure opportunities and seek to avoid rigid scheduled tours. The neighbouring tourist community of Banff has reached its carrying capacity, and because Golden is in the heart of six parks it sees the opportunity to offer tourists an alternative location to visit. The CTAP provides these communities with the forums to develop clear directions on ways to improve their towns.  Both  communities' tourism action committees welcome the positive changes the CTAP has brought.  Diversifying does not always  provide immediate economic benefits.  However, it does provide  51 opportunities to upgrade the town, making it more attractive to both residents and tourists.  Economic benefits occur when more  tourists arrive, when more tourists stay overnight, or when investments find their way into the community.  3.  What are the challenges of organizing, implementing/ and  assessing tourism projects? In 1991, Golden's town council created a paid two-year tourism coordinator position. position.  Olive Phillips holds this  Her role includes delegating ideas from the GTAC and  facilitating the implementation of tourism projects or tourismrelated projects.  She updates the plan as needed.  Also, she  works with tour operators to develop cooperation among them. This full-time position provides an avenue for research and for completing more projects in the town of Golden, which is needed since members of the GTAC often have full-time jobs and limited time. Sometimes the challenge is not in organizing tourism projects, but in solving problems between groups.  For example,  the Golden Team Action Committee works with the para-gliding operators and the farmers to try to build cooperation.  The  problem here was to determine where para-gliders could land. Solving this problem could be profitable:  in Japan there are  over 90,000 para-gliders who are potential tourists for Golden (Phillips, personal communication, 1993).  52 When Olive Phillips develops a tourism project, she goes to the appropriate organizations to convince them to take it on. Currently, she is working with the Chamber of Commerce and the college to start a hospitality diploma program.  With the  cooperation of local businesses, graduates of the program could then have priority over other people for service jobs in the community. Getting started and developing certain projects is challenging.  For example, the GTAC must deal with the visual  impression tourists get when descending into the community from Calgary.  Tourists see a gravel pit which the community does not  have the money to clean up. The committee is looking for ways of hiding the gravel pit or at least making it less apparent by planting vegetation. Ucluelet's challenge started with the members on the tourism action committee.  The enthusiastic committee members realized  they needed to constrain themselves to keep focused.  Once  focused, they could organize the implementation of projects.  4.  What evaluation processes and methods do the tourism  action committee apply to analyze progress? Neither Golden nor Ucluelet has any formal method of evaluating the progress or success of their tourism action plans, however, UTAC constantly refers to the plan to make sure they are on track. well.  UTAC believes in doing one task at a time and doing it  A concentrated effort on one project gets the job done.  53 After completing a task, they start another one, but perform no direct measurement of the effectiveness of the completed task. Evaluations of programs in Golden take different forms. For example, GTAC and town council view receiving fewer letters of complaint about tourism as a positive measurement of tourism development.  The Golden Team Action Committee also receives  positive comments about the upgraded strip on the Trans-Canada Highway and the rejuvenated downtown core.  The positive comments  from residents and tourists represent approval of changes from the people who count. event occurs.  The GTAC looks for success even before an  They believe that the more enthusiastic people  helping prepare for an event, the better.  The committee sees  educating the residents about tourism as a positive process. The town council receives monthly and annual reports updating them on the activities of the GTAC. It does not appear that either community tourism action committee wants to create a structured evaluation tool.  Each  views the changes for tourism as helpful to the community.  They  feel this view is supported by residents and tourists' comments and by the committee's intuition.  5.  What steps were taken to reduce negative social and  environmental impacts from tourism activities? The Golden Team Action Committee and the Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee did not identify any severe negative impacts from tourism.  Neither community has established environmental  54 carrying capacities for their areas.  Both communities believe  that with proper planning sustainable tourism development is possible. The UTAC did identify a social problem that occurs with some tourists who camp in the centre of town and dump their garbage on the street.  The town council does not want to create a bylaw  that presents an image of an unfriendly place with many rules. Also, there is only one enforcement officer, the administrator. Another impact of tourism is that merchants run out of supplies, but the committee does not concern itself with this matter, seeing it as the merchants' business. Golden's social problems existed before tourism.  The town  is creating an incentive program for youths to keep parks clean and to reduce vandalism.  Alcohol and drugs are a problem in the  town, but residents rarely sell drugs to visitors, as the visitors' "credentials" are unknown (Phillips, personal communication, 1993). Some tour operators in Golden experience a conflict of land use, such as snow machines ruining an area for heli-skiing.  This  is a problem the Golden Team Action Committee cannot solve by itself because it is a Crown Land issue.  The committee, when  promoting the community, does not hide the industries that maintain the town.  Therefore, tourists should not be surprised  by clear cuts or smoked-filled valleys.  55 6.  How do the Community Tourism Action Program projects fit  in with the Official Community Plan? Both communities are revising their Official Community Plan. Each plans to zone areas of land in the community for tourism development.  The town council, through correct procedures, can  amend the Official Community Plan.  Each community works within  the guidelines of the Official Community Plan and the municipal bylaws.  The Community Tourism Action Program enables these  communities to focus their plans.  The CTAP also provides the  committees with options when revising the Official Community Plan.  7.  What are the relationships regarding tourism among the  Economic Development Officer, Community Tourism Action Committee, municipal council, Chamber of Commerce, British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, various other ministries, provincial government, and the federal government? When the municipal office in Golden created the Golden Team Action Committee, the Chamber of Commerce felt threatened.  The  British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, the Golden Team Action Committee, and the Chamber of Commerce met to clarify the role of the GTAC.  They decided the purpose of the GTAC is not to take  over the role of the Chamber of Commerce, but to coordinate and improve the town's tourism industry.  The Golden Team Action  Committe, the Economic Development Commission, and the Chamber of Commerce, report to the town council with their progress.  56 On a larger scale, these various bodies find working and coordinating with the provincial and federal ministries challenging and difficult.  The town council of Golden would find  it helpful to have a provincial tourism office in the town because tourism is the second or third largest industry in the community.  Provincial government agencies already in the  community include forestry, highways, courts, environment, and social services. The town council in Ucluelet often deals with the British Columbia Ministry of Forestry, the Department of Highways, and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans.  The community was  waiting for an answer from the provincial government on the percentage of land in Clayoquot Sound available for logging. Various levels of government conducting studies that lead to more studies have frustrated the UTAC.  The process of working with  the provincial and federal governments does not provide Ucluelet with quick or clear direction on highways, forestry, and fishing issues.  8.  What other government programs helped the community in  diversifying? The two communities have different opinions on how helpful other government programs have been.  This difference may exist  because of the talents of those who sit on the two communities' tourism action committees.  In Ucluelet, one individual on the  committee has lots of experience filing grant applications.  She  57 knows how to get money for a variety of projects.  With her help,  UTAC finds most government programs flexible, usable, and worthwhile for the community.  Golden, on the other hand, finds  many government programs rigid, urban-oriented, and noneconomical.  They say that if they follow the government's rules,  some programs would cost the town more than if the town did the project without funding. The community of Golden does use the Super Host provincial program, with the Chamber of Commerce responsible for offering the program.  The committee feels it is unfortunate that few  people take the course on their own initiative, and even fewer business owners pay the fifteen dollars to have an employee attend.  Olive Phillips (personal communication, 1993) feels this  raises the need for a new Super Host program directed at managers. Ucluelet uses the following government programs:  Federal  and Provincial Manpower programs, Community Futures, Challenge grants, Employment Plus, Lotto BC, Legacy grants (GO B C ) , Heritage Trust grants, Super Host program, and Arterial Highway Beautification program.  The money from the various grants goes  towards hiring additional staff, revitalizing the main streets, designing and erecting signs, training staff, and developing a video and brochure for the town.  Many of the grants indirectly  benefit tourism because of the better quality of service available.  58 9.  What is the general view of tourism held by the  residents and the main industry in the town? A community consists of residents, businesses, and industries.  Although it appears the citizens in both communities  receive tourism warmly, the social and environmental stresses of tourism, such as overcrowded recreation facilities have prompted some resistance to the promotion of tourism.  In Golden, for  example, the committee calls itself the Golden Team Action Committee (GTAC), having purposely dropped the word "tourism" so as not to threaten any groups in the community.  And in Ucluelet,  the UTAC sees educating the residents about the benefits of tourism as an ongoing challenge.  To address this, the committee  members personally spend time talking to residents about tourism. Ideal opportunities to teach citizens about the benefits of tourism are special events such as the Whale Festival.  The UTAC  tries to emphasize that the community comes before the tourists. Using direct contact with residents, the Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee seeks to reduce conflicts and provide accurate information. tourism.  This approach lessens potential problems with  Some residents fear that tourism will replace their  $22.00-per-hour jobs with $6.00-per-hour jobs.  Through  education, these residents are realizing that tourism does not threaten their industrial jobs.  Also, residents do notice the  visual improvements brought about by the tourism action committees' work, which may also increase pride in the community.  59 The Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee uses the Pitch-In program for the tourism industry.  The community begins clean-up  close to tourist season so both residents and tourists enjoy a clean town. park.  One conflict remains over the usage of the boat  The UTAC and the town council are working on a boat park  usage policy for the residents and the tourists.  The municipal  council does not charge extra taxes to businesses that cater to tourists.  The town council believes that everyone benefits from  the spin-offs from tourism. GTAC believes that the Town of Golden does benefit from tourism.  Olive Phillips (personal communication, 1993) stated  that no one should suffer from the tourism industry if it is handled correctly.  However, some residents worry that Golden  will become "another Banff or Invermere"—communities which they feel value revenue over the lifestyle desires of residents (Phillips, personal communication, 1993). Some retail managers in Golden do find tourism difficult because of the perceived shift in attitude needed to cater to tourists.  Apparently, some long-term shopkeepers treat customers  unprofessionally, thinking that people will shop at their store because there is nowhere else to go (Phillips, personal communication, 1993).  New competitive store owners providing  good customer service prove that an unprofessional management style does not work as effectively.  This shift in consumer  expectations is changing even without the pressure of tourism.  60 To help provide businesses and consumers with information on the town, the committee designed the Golden Adventure Book. Tourism-related businesses pay for a one-page advertisement in the book.  The Golden Adventure Book sits on counters of  businesses for anyone to view. In 1992, the Golden Team Action Committee set up a program called "Visitor for a Day."  The committee aimed this  educational program at the residents.  Businesses catering to  tourists set up displays to inform residents about their businesses.  For example, Country Comfort Bed & Breakfast created  a bedroom scene with a bed covered in fancy bedding and a table set for breakfast.  This showed the residents the type of service  this tourism operator provides.  Another similar program the  committee may implement is "A Tourist In Your Own Community," which nearby Invermere is currently testing. Tourism and industry can work together successfully. is clear in Golden.  This  For example, the forestry industry is  helping Purcell Lodge develop an exclusive site in the back country.  For their part, the operators of Purcell Lodge can  inform tourists about the logging practices in the area.  The  guides can point out the new growth of plants, the open area for wildlife feeding, and the reforestation in the area.  This type  of tourist education is necessary so the visitors can understand how Golden supports itself.  61  TABLE 4 SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO THE NINE QUESTIONS Issue Number 1 what prompted CTAP involvement 2 how has CTAP helped diversity 3 challenges  4 evaluation of progress 5 social & environmental impacts 6 CTAP and Official Community Plan 7  Golden  Ucluelet  - the need for organizational structure - create opportunity  - strengthen the tourism industry  - where & how to provide better tourism services - focus promotions - involving various community groups - upgrade the town, more attractive  - stabilize economy - create brochure & video - promote the community - upgrade the town to make it more attractive  - Chamber of Commerce felt threatened - GTAC's role needed clarifying - problem solve between operators - involve agencies to offer courses - lack of money for some projects  - keeping the committee focused - educating the public about tourism benefits  - no formal method - listening to public comments - enthusiasm of people helping - monthly & annual update reports to city council from the GTAC  - no formal method - refer to the Action Plan to keep on track - one task at a time  -  - no severe negative impacts - no set carrying capacities - sustainable tourism is possible - problem of tourists dumping garbage on the streets  no severe negative impacts no set carrying capacities sustainable tourism is possible drugs existed before tourism tourists are not resented land use conflicts exist  - assisted in the creation of an Economic Development Plan - focus the Official Community Plan  - assisted in planning the Economic Development Plan - provided a focus for the Official Community Plan  - difficult - challenging  - challenging - slow solutions and directions  - government programs are sometimes: inflexible, urban oriented, and noneconomical - programs tried: Super Host, Pitch-In, & CTAP. Others may have been used, but were not mentioned.  - government programs are usually: flexible, useable, and worthwhile to the community -programs tried: Federal & Provincial Manpower, Community Futures, Challenge grants, Lotto BC, Employment Plus, Legacy grants, Heritage Trust grants, Super Host, Arterial Highway Beautification, & CTAP. Others may have been used, but not mentioned.  - fear of lower paying jobs - residents accept the visual improvements - pride in the residents - some store owners treat tourists unprofessionally  - fear of lower paying jobs - residents accept the visual improvements -pride in the residents -everyone benefits from the tourism spin-offs.  relationships with other government bodies 8 feelings about other government programs  9 residents reactions to tourism  62 3.7  Summary This section has focused on the responses of the two tourism  action committees to the Community Tourism Action Program-  Each  of the committees says that the CTAP has provided them with a direction to organize their tourism industries.  According to the  groups, the CTAP has assisted the communities in drawing on local talents, in bringing groups together, and in identifying projects for the community.  The projects initially may have been geared  for the tourists, but the residents have also benefited.  The  residents have seen visual improvements, have experienced some of the activities for tourists, and have felt the economic spin-offs from tourism. At the February 25, 1993 meeting in Golden and the March 11, 1993 meeting in Ucluelet, individuals from the GTAC and the UTAC said they were pleased with the outcome they achieved with the CTAP.  They appreciated the assistance from the British Columbia  Ministry of Tourism in providing a facilitator.  Both  communities' CTAP committee members mentioned that they would welcome a regional CTAP to further enhance the tourism in the area and in their community.  It appears from the comments of the  individuals from Golden and Ucluelet that the CTAP is a wellreceived planning tool for diversifying the local and regional economy with tourism. In the fourth chapter, the information in the literature review and in this chapter on the communities will be synthesized, the CTAP's strengths discussed, and some of its  63 flaws addressed.  The Chapter Five sets forward some future  directions for research on the CTAP.  64 CHAPTER FOUR EVALUATION OF THE CTAP  4.0  Introduction Integrating the theoretical information from the literature  review and the data about the practical application of the CTAP, this chapter summarizes responses to the CTAP and evaluates it. The literature review indicates that single-industry towns are diversifying to increase their stability, to reduce boom-andbust cycles, and to be less vulnerable to globalization.  Both  Golden and Ucluelet are single-industry towns that want to stabilize and enhance their local economies.  They are trying to  reduce their vulnerability and their dependency on the forestry industry since both communities have sustained forest industry lay-offs which have resulted in some instability to the communities, but no danger of town closure.  Both communities are  trying to promote tourism as another industry, and both have adopted the CTAP process as a means to this end.  4.1  British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Community Evaluations of the CTAP According to Liz Gilliland, with the British Columbia  Ministry of Tourism, Community Planning and Development Branch, the CTAP is an excellent first step for communities wanting to implement and improve tourism.  She states that the program  provides support, organizes groups, and creates goals and objectives for a comprehensive plan.  Communities can always call  65 on her to provide additional direction and facilitation.  She  points out that the success of each community is committeedriven.  The British Columbia Ministry of Tourism cannot solve  communities' problems, but their facilitated workshops can provide a foundation for a tourism committee to work together. Rose Davison, town councillor of Ucluelet, believes the CTAP improved tourism in her community.  She says that the tourism  industry's success would not have been possible without the help of the CTAP, that the program acted as a jump-start—it brought people together.  She also noted that the tourism action  committee and the community determine the success of the CTAP. The British Columbia Ministry of Tourism cannot make a community carry out tourism projects if there is no interest. Olive Phillips, the coordinator of GTAC for Golden, also believes the CTAP helped her community improve tourism.  The  program provided a smoother transition into making tourism successful.  According to her, without the program, the town  eventually would have improved their tourism industry, but perhaps with dissension in the community.  The outside influence  of a facilitator with the CTAP helped residents understand how tourism can be developed without hindering other organizations in the town.  In addition, the CTAP is affordable, rather than being  an unrealistically expensive option, such as hiring a consultant. Each of the committees were also asked what they would change in the CTAP. no need for changes.  The program worked for Ucluelet, so they saw Golden understood the need for the lengthy  66 lead-in to set up the workshop, but some individuals were eager to get to the heart of the process. suggestions for changes.  Otherwise, Golden had no  Both communities are ready to progress  to the next level of the CTAP—regional development. Both Golden and Ucluelet have started to work on regional CTAP plans.  Ucluelet, Bamfield, Tofino, and Port Alberni met on  May 18 and 19, 1993, in Port Alberni to develop a strategic tourism plan for the region.  By early spring 1994, Golden will  also develop a regional CTAP with Radium and Invermere.  These  regional developments demonstrate the support for the CTAP. Golden and Ucluelet have also shared their CTAP experiences with other communities.  Ucluelet has shown interested  communities the brochure and video the CTAP inspired them to create.  Golden advises others that the process is a good way to  bring people together.  The comments from the committee members  of Golden and Ucluelet, and from the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism representative, indicate that they have found the CTAP useful.  It provides the necessary foundation to help communities  organize their tourism development and improvements.  According  to the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and the communities, without the CTAP, Golden and Ucluelet would not have accomplished the projects they have to date.  67 4.2  An Independent Evaluation The CTAP does offer some obvious benefits; however, a  comparison of its format and goals to the literature on tourism planning reveals that it also has some deficiencies.  4.2.1  The Program's Strengths  The British Columbia CTAP has several strengths.  Its  information folder is short and straightforward, has large, easyto-read print, provides precise information, and supplies data sheets (Appendix One).  The planning process of the British  Columbia CTAP is a community-based approach.  Each community  works at its own pace with its available resources.  The  facilitated workshop helps direct communities to clarify their views of the tourism industry.  The program specifies that the  town council and the Chamber of Commerce must be directly involved.  This helps assure that councillors and community  leaders will be aware of and probably support the tourism developments.  The facilitator follows up with communities to  check on progress.  Finally the program makes the provision that  after setting up a tourism plan, a community can then work with other communities to develop a regional tourism plan. The CTAP, as a planning tool for tourism development, does have several of the qualities that the theoretical data lists as valuable.  For instance, Pappas (1991-92) recommends that the  planning process for tourism development needs to have a core body of people responsible for the organization and  68 implementation of the tourism industry.  He also suggests that an  inventory of the towns' skills, talents, and expertise be conducted.  The Community Tourism Action Program for the two  towns have created cohesive and effective tourism committees. And these core bodies do evaluate their towns * weaknesses and strengths and inform other residents about the tourism planning processes taking place.  The committee is made up of a variety of  tourism operators, town politicians, and interested individuals. The program also meets some of Murphy's (1985) criteria for tourism planning.  Murphy (1985) identified four goals for a  community to consider in planning their tourism industry.  The  first goal is to raise the quality of living for the local people.  Since financial data is not available, economic  evaluation of the success of the CTAP with regards to this goal is not possible.  However, on a superficial level, each of the  case-study communities has upgraded its downtown core, which residents, as well as tourists, may appreciate. Murphy's second goal is to develop or improve the infrastructure.  Golden is planning to pave the road to the ski  hill and the golf course.  The municipally-operated ski hill also  had added another ski course.  Ucluelet is addressing the problem  of the boat marina use, trying to allow both tourists and residents fair access.  Each of the communities is developing and  improving its infrastructure. Murphy's third goal is to have tourism developments match the goals and aspirations of the area.  Each case-study  69 community, through the CTAP, does involve a variety of tourism operators in the planning process.  This important step elicits a  variety of views to create a centrally-accepted notion of the appropriate tourism industry for the area. The final goal of tourism-related development is to be compatible with the cultural, social, and economic philosophies of the area.  The CTAP's community-based approach can accommodate  this fourth goal.  Residents' involvement should assist the  planning process in being compatible with the surroundings.  4.2.2  The Program's Weaknesses  Although, on the whole, the CTAP impresses me as valuable, I have four areas of concern.  In ascending order of importance,  these are (1) its unbalanced representation of residents, (2) its unfocused mandate, (3) its lack of evaluation processes, and (4) its neglect of sustainability issues.  Shaffer (1989) recommends  that the economic development process be a bottom-up approach, a "human phenomenon."  Christopher Bryant & Richard Preston (1987)  encourage the bringing of groups together to create a common focus.  As the review of the literature notes, a plan to  diversify the economy with the involvement of residents, is less likely to sit on the shelf. feel ownership.  The idea is for the residents to  The CTAP is community-based, but it may not be  true "bottom-up" planning. The British Columbia CTAP may not have access to the wishes of the entire community.  For instance, CTAP committee members  70 usually have a financial interest in the tourism industry.  They  usually advertise the initial meeting in a local newspaper, but such a notification is not required.  If instead of advertising  like this, news of the meeting is spread by word of mouth or by telephone calls, interested or opposing residents may be excluded.  The CTAP document suggests the inclusion of "the  Chamber of Commerce, Regional Tourism Association, industry operators, the local municipality, the local Economic Development officer, local Band or Tribal Council representatives, and any others who have expressed and demonstrated an interest in tourism" (British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture, 1993: 3 ) . However, the only support it labels as "imperative" is that of the municipal council.  The  initial meeting may be open to the public, but there may be a charge for the dinner involved, which may present a barrier to poorer residents, who may have valuable opinions about the impacts of tourism.  As well, the workshop requires a day and a  half, a lot of time to invest if a person does not expect to benefit from increased tourism. On a municipal level, all residents may not have equal input to the tourism action committee's dealing, and on a provincial level all communities may not have equal access to the CTAP program.  Specifically, Fort St. John looked to the British  Columbia Ministry of Tourism to apply the British Columbia CTAP to Rendezvous '92; however, the Ministry did not feel that the CTAP could benefit Fort St. John the way they had hoped.  71 Richmond saw completing the CTAP as a means to receive approval for another provincial government program.  By performing the  CTAP process, Richmond hoped they would receive approval to charge a two percent hotel tax to raise money for marketing tourism.  The British Columbia Ministry of Tourism did not accept  this application of the CTAP, stating that it was not designed as a hoop for communities to jump through to receive support for other programs or other Ministries (Gilliland, personal communication, 1993).  Obviously, the British Columbia Ministry  needs to clarify the prerequisites for enroling in the program. One possible and logical prerequisite for enroling in the CTAP would be the completion of a more generalized community economic plan.  The value of the CTAP and other economic plans  can be increased by proper ordering.  A community can implement  the CTAP at any point in its economic cycle, but first completing an economic development plan, then moving on to the CTAP, increases the possibility of the CTAP succeeding.  Golden, for  example, began work on the CTAP before completing an economic development plan, and Phil Taylor, the Administrator of Golden, now states the ordering should have been reversed.  After  completing an economic development process, a community may choose to carry out the Community Tourism Action Program or to perform its own identified alternatives.  If the two plans are  produced in this order, then the development of the tourism industry is a deliberate choice.  72 One of the weakest areas of the British Columbia CTAP, as with the Alberta CTAP, is evaluation procedures.  As Gunn points  out, tourism planning must be "proactive," "continuing," and "integrative" (1988: 24); "promotion alone is not enough" (1988: 21).  At the community level the evaluative process is loosely  structured:  as noted previously, Golden counts a decrease in  letters of complaint from tourists and residents as evidence of progress.  Then again, identifying whether or not increased  tourist income is due to the CTAP projects would be extremely difficult as external factors can influence tourism profoundly, regardless of the tourist attractions a community develops. However, this weakness in evaluation procedures extends to the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism.  At the provincial level  there is no standardized evaluation process to evaluate the whole British Columbia CTAP (Gilliland, personal communication, 1993). Without clear proof of the program's success, the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism may not be able to justify the costs of administering the CTAP. The main weakness with the CTAP is the lack of information on sustainable tourism, as that concept is set forward by the British Columbia Round Table (1990b) and Roseland (1992). According to the British Columbia Round Table, one goal of sustainable tourism is to improve or maintain the quality of life.  The CTAP does not specifically state this criterion, nor  does it specifically address social or environmental issues. Roseland (1992) presented many ways for creating sustainable  73 tourism, but the case-study communities have not adopted these kinds of concepts.  For example, neither community has stated  goals of creating energy efficient projects or having resource conservation.  Certainly both communities recognize the  importance of the natural environment to their tourist appeal; both place it at the top of their list of assets.  But the CTAP,  as it stands, leaves to the community the responsibility for recognizing sustainability issues and deciding whether to maintain or enhance the physical or social environment.  The CTAP  promotes tourism; it does not specifically work towards sustainable development.  4.3  Summary The CTAP is a planning tool that does have many of the  qualities the theoretical data puts forward as valuable.  It  involves the residents and gives them the opportunity to work together on developing tourism projects.  However, it does have  weaknesses, such as its lack of evaluation procedures and of information on sustainable tourism development. The following chapter recommends ways to enhance the CTAP, ideas which could be developed as future research topics.  74 CHAPTER FIVE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH FOR ENHANCING THE CTAP  5.0  Introduction Having completed my exploration and evaluation of the  British Columbia CTAP, I will now set forward some recommendations for future research to supplement or enhance it. The first two of these recommendations, which incorporate sustainability guidelines and evaluation procedures, address my strongest concerns about the CTAP. My further suggestions for additional guides and manuals would help to fine tune the workings of the program.  These recommendations have evolved from  personal discussion and from comments made by members of the community tourism action committees and by British Columbia Ministry of Tourism personnel.  5.1  Incorporating Sustainability The CTAP promotes tourism for economic growth; Roseland, on  the other hand, when he defines "sustainable development," explicitly states that this "does not mean growth" but rather "implies qualitative and quantitative improvement" (1992: 9). Roseland's book Towards Sustainable Communities:  A Resource Book  for Municipal and Local Governments is written for municipalities; therefore, his concepts should be capable of being incorporated into the CTAP process, in the form of checklists or additional material for the manual and workshop. However, because Roseland and the CTAP have such different  75 agendas, any attempt to combine them would certainly challenge the integrity of both outlooks and the ingenuity of the planners. This does not mean the attempt should not be made:  the CTAP, as  it stands takes too negligent and simplistic an approach to the environmental and social consequences of tourist development.  In  fact, the residents of Golden's uneasiness about becoming "another Banff" demonstrates that the communities involved are willing to sacrifice some profits for "liveability" factors. Bringing some of Roseland's or Geiser's (1992: 220) ideas into the CTAP would force the program to sacrifice some of its simplicity, but it could raise the communities' awareness of the hidden costs of tourism development and suggest alternative means of improving the community.  5.2  Evaluation and Information Sharing Currently, the CTAP and the two case-study communities lack  a standardized evaluation process. A working manual for the communities would provide the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism with consistency in monitoring the program.  A consultant  or research student could design an evaluation tool that has indicators and a bench mark.  Analyses of current evaluation  processes and discussions with CTAP users and area residents would be necessary.  The outcome of an in-depth analysis would be  a useful evaluation tool.  The British Columbia Ministry of  Tourism would then see where the program needs improvement. Consistent evaluations provide an opportunity to stay current  76 with trends—to be proactive.  Accompanying the evaluation  process should be a facilitated workshop or a self-explanatory manual.  By keeping the process simple, the British Columbia  Ministry of Tourism could ensure useful results would emerge for the users. To evaluate the program and to analyze the similarities and differences between different communities' Community Tourism Action Plans, the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism could develop a computer program.  This program could cross reference a  number of factors affecting tourism development: population size -  geographic location industry base tourist types activities available primary and secondary tourist season  -  turnover rate of committee members when communities started the CTAP challenges committees encountered  -  projects communities undertook results of the program:  financial, social, and  environmental. With this information available, the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism would have a clearer picture of whether or not the CTAP is succeeding, and it could also match new CTAP participants to  77 other communities that are already involved in the program to help the communities share information. Currently, until the communities undertake a regional CTAP, the ten communities a year that the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism aids are unable to study tourism developments in other towns.  Sharing information would not impinge upon the local  autonomy that the CTAP values, and tourism planning theorists, including Gunn, assert that "tourism must have a regional planning perspective" (1988: 24). Even if they are not close neighbours, some British Columbia communities undoubtedly experience similar challenges in developing a tourism industry. Communities could coordinate and share their challenges through tele-conferences, newsletters, or regional meetings.  This  information-sharing process would let the tourism action committees know that others face similar issues and show them others' solutions.  Information sharing could even bring  communities in the same region together sooner, rather than having them wait for a regional CTAP to evolve.  Communities  could work together to address large issues such as highway safety.  (This concept works with the different regions of  British Columbia Recreation and Park Association.  Up north in  the Peace River Liard Regional District, the recreation departments of various communities such as Chetwynd, Dawson Creek, Hudson's Hope, and Tumbler Ridge would meet quarterly to problem solve.  Once a year a retreat was organized to do some  regional planning.)  78 5.3  Guides and Manuals Some ideas to enhance the CTAP involve providing communities  with "where to find" resource listings and "how to" manuals on various aspects of tourism. option of a facilitator.  These manuals could come with the  As tourism planners in the British  Columbia Ministry of Tourism have heavy workloads, consultants from the private sector could research and design the manuals and the facilitation required to handle the subject or a research student could also provide this service.  Facilitators could  include representatives from the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, locally trained residents, or trained consulting groups.  5.3.1  Resource Guide  The British Columbia Ministry of Tourism could provide communities doing the CTAP with a reference guide.  This booklet  would contain federal, provincial and local contacts to help a community address particular issues, including names, addresses, and phone numbers of experts in various fields and an ideas list to prompt the tourism action committee with directions for additional help.  Information the committees may seek includes  guidelines on sustainability, advice on creating a code of ethics, how to determine the multiplier effect for their community, or ways to inspire entrepreneurs to set up a business in the community.  This guide would supplement the CTAP,  providing communities with useful resource information.  79 5.3.2  Super Host for Managers  The first suggestion for a manual relates to the Super Host program.  Currently, one of the Super Host programs teaches  employees how to provide quality customer service.  The other  program, Encore Super Host is designed for people working with Japanese tourists.  Now, managers and owners of businesses  servicing tourists need a Super Host program with a manual. The best way to get the information necessary to design this new Super Host program would be to contact end users: managers, employees, and customers. concern.  These people could identify areas of  Also, it would be prudent to analyze the current Super  Host programs to identify strengths and weaknesses. principles could apply to the new program.  These  The manual should  provide information on additional courses managers could take to improve their management style.  Course content could include  staff selection and training, expectations of employees, fairness to staff, and staff motivation.  The Super Host Manager program  should take six to eight hours to complete.  A longer course  might work, but many managers will not have that much time to invest.  A survey of end users would establish an acceptable  program cost. A certificate at the end of the program would provide recognition for the participants and promotion for the program. British Columbia does host large events such as Expo '86 in Vancouver, the 1993 Canada Summer Games in Kamloops, the 1994 Commonwealth Games in Victoria, and the annual Abbotsford Air  80 Show.  A manager program could be useful to communities because  keeping tourists happy in British Columbia starts at the local level.  5.3.3  Skills Program  The Federal Fitness Canada Skills program for management of volunteers is designed for sport and recreation organizations. This program has six modules:  time management, finance  management, marketing, working with volunteers, long and short term planning, and leadership.  Two new components of the program  are fund raising and an effective organization resource book. Trained facilitators offer these modules as separate units.  Some  facilitators could adapt the program and provide communities with information from the various modules. A technical writer could adapt the modules to suit the tourism industry's needs.  This  type of program could enhance the CTAP since the tourism action committees could use the modules that apply to their needs.  5.4  Summary These recommendations all provide for further development of  the British Columbia Community Tourism Action Program. of these suggestions would enhance the CTAP.  Any one  81 CHAPTER SIX THESIS CONCLUSION 6.0  CONCLUSION The CTAP evolved out of Alberta CTAP and British Columbia  Tourism Development Strategy in 1989.  Since then several  communities in British Columbia have developed tourism action plans with the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism CTAP.  This  thesis describes and evaluates the responses to the CTAP process as a tourism planning tool through the case-study of two single industry communities—Golden and Ucluelet. How effective is the CTAP as a planning tool?  Without the  gathering of financial data, it is difficult to answer that question in terms of economic improvements, and neither the provincial government nor the communities have elected to collect that financial data.  The CTAP's lack of any specific evaluative  stage also creates difficulty in judging its effectiveness. However, the tourism action committees praise the program, and credit it with helping them view their towns objectively and initiating and implementing projects. The trend in planning is for the public to be informed and involved, and the CTAP addresses this public desire, provided that the residents have an interest in tourism development.  Its  emphasis on community-based initiative places the onus for its survival and success on the residents of a community, which gives the residents the opportunity to take an active role in tourism planning.  82 The CTAP is a simple, local tool, simpler than either of the programs it grew out of.  Perhaps this simplicity is necessary to  make the program accessible and manageable to the people who will use it, but the program's neglect of environmental and social issues, its lack of an evaluative stage, and its lateness in introducing regional planning are short-sighted.  The CTAP, in it  current form, only provides the beginning stages of tourism planning.  To provide the program with accountability and  sustainability, the British Columbia Ministry of Tourism needs to develop the program along very specific lines, incorporating some of the suggestions outlined in Chapter Five of this work.  83  REFERENCES  Alberta Tourism. Community Tourism Action Plan. revised March 1988.  Alberta,  Archer, Brian. "Economic Impact of Tourism in Metropolitan Victoria, B.C." 1981 Conference Proceedings. Travel and Tourism Research Association of Canada. Vancouver, British Columbia, November 1-3, 1981. Blank, Uel. The Community Tourism Imperative: the Necessity, the Opportunities, its Potentials. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc., 1989. British Columbia Ministry of Development, Trade and Tourism. "Community Tourism Action Plan Golden." British Columbia: Golden, April 1991. British Columbia Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Recreation and Culture. " British Columbia Golden." Canada, n.d. British Columbia Ministry of Tourism. "Community Tourism Action Plan Ucluelet." British Columbia: Ucluelet, October 1991. British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture, Community Planning and Development Branch. Community Tourism Action Program. British Columbia: Province of British Columbia, 1993. British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, Recreation and Culture. Tourism Development: A Community Strategy Manual. Canada: Economic Planning Group of Canada, December 1986. British Columbia Round Table. "A Better Way: Creating a Sustainable Development Strategy for British Columbia." British Columbia Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, 1990a. British Columbia Round Table. "Sustainable Communities." Victoria: British Columbia Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, 1990b. Bryant, Christopher R. "Community Development and the Restructuring of Rural Employment in Canada." United Kingdom: Paper from Contemporary Social and Economic  84 Restructuring of Rural Areas, International Seminar, August 12-17, 1991. Bryant, Christopher R. and Richard E. Preston. "A Framework for Local Initiatives in Economic Development." Economic Development Bulletin, Ontario: Economic Development Program Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo, No. 1, July 1987. Canada Employment and Immigration Advisory Council. Canada's Single-Industry Communities: A Proud Determination to Survive. Canada: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, February 198 7. Cohen, Lori. "The Festival Cities Cry Uncle." November 28, 1988, p. 35.  Western Report,  D'Amore, Louis J. Tourism: A Community Approach, London, England: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1985. Decter, Michael B. Diversification and Single-Industry Communities: The Implications of a Community Economic Development Approach. A paper on local development prepared for the Economic Council of Canada. Local Development paper No. 10, and Canadian Association of Single-Industry Towns, The Vulnerability Checklist: A Tool for Community Self-Assessment. December 1989. Economic Analysis of British Columbia. Sustainability and Community Resource Planning. Vancouver, British Columbia: British Columbia Central Credit Union, Vol. 9, No. 6, Dec. 1989, pp. 5-6. Economic Development Commission. "Statistical Profile." Corporation of the Village of Ucluelet. Port Alberni, British Columbia, 1986. Gearing, Charles E., William W. Swart, and Turgut Var. Planning for Tourism Development Quantitative Approaches. New York: Praeger Publisher, Inc., 1976. Geiser, K. Toward Sustainable Communities: A Resource Book for Municipal and Local Governments. Canada: National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, the Alger Press, 1992. Gilliland, Liz.  Personal interview.  January-December 1993.  Golden & District Economic Development Commission. "Tourism and Golden Strategies for the Future." British Columbia: The British Columbia Task Force on Tourism, 1986.  85 Gunn, Clare A. Tourism Planning. Francis, 1988. Irving, Bill.  2nd ed.  New York:  Taylor &  Personal interview. March 1993.  Lui, Juanita and Turgut Var. "Economic Impact of Tourism in Metropolitan Victoria, B.C." 1981 Conference Proceedings. Travel and Tourism Research Association of Canada. Vancouver, British Columbia, November 1-3, 1981. Mak, James. "Tourism: is it for your community?" Tourism as a Generator for Regional Economic Development. Ed. Anne Popma and Ann Pollock. British Columbia: Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, May 1987. Majcher, Jim.  Personal interview.  January-May 1993.  Murphy, Peter E. Tourism: A Community Approach. London, England: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1985. Nay, Donna.  Personal interview.  March 1994.  Pappas, Philip P. II. "Rural tourism Development: Planning and Consensus are Critical." Arizona Hospitality Trends, Arizona Hospitality Research and Resource Centre, Vol. 6, No. 1, Winter 1991-92, pp. 2-3. Peters, Clarence H. "Investment and Implementation Strategies." Tourism as a Generator for Regional Economic Development. Ed. Anne Popma and Ann Pollock. British Columbia: Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, May 1987. Phillip, David. "You have Shown Great Deeds." March 21, 1988, p. 21-22. Phillips, Olive.  Personal interview.  Western Report.  February-May 1993.  Province of British Columbia. Municipal Act. RSBC 1979, Chapter 290, consolidated, November 15, 1990. Rees, William E. "Defining 'Sustainable Development.'" CHS Research Bulletin. British Columbia: University of British Columbia, May 1989. Roseland, Mark. Toward Sustainable Communities: A Resource Book for Municipal and Local Governments. Canada: National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, the Alger Press, 1992.  86 Shaffer, Ron. Community Economics: Economic Structure and Change in Smaller Communities. Iowa State University: Pres/Ames, 1989. Smith, Peter, and Richard Tardanico, eds. The Capital City. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1987. Taylor, Phil.  Personal interview.  February 1993.  Tourism Industry Association of Alberta. Community Tourism Action Program. Alberta: Tourism Industry Association of Alberta, 1989, pp. 1-9. Ucluelet Chamber of Commerce. "1992 Long Beach, Tofino & Ucluelet Map & Business Directory." Canada: E.C. Longson, 1990. Ucluelet Chamber of Commerce. "Ucluelet, British Columbia Life on the Edge." Canada: Havers Designs, n.d.  87 PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS British Columbia Ministry of Tourism Gilliland, Liz. Tourism Planner, Community Planning and Development Branch for the Community Tourism Action Program Telephone correspondence: January 18, 1993; February 23, 1993; March 3, 10, 18, 1993; May 4, 13,25, 1993; June 8, 28, 1993; and December 15, 1993. Personal visits: Victoria, British Columbia, January 25, 1993; Ucluelet, British Columbia, March 11 & 12, 1993; Port Alberni, British Columbia, May 18 & 19, 1993. Majcher, Jim. Director of Community Planning and Development Branch. Personal visit: Victoria, British Columbia, January 25, 1993; Port Alberni, British Columbia, May 18, 1993. Golden Deyon, Beth. Volunteer Director on the Golden and District Economic Development Commission and a member of the Golden Advertising Committee. Personal visit: Golden, British Columbia, February 25, 1993. Phillips, Olive. Coordinator of Golden Team Action Committee. Telephone correspondence: February 23, 1993; May 5, 1993. Personal visit: Golden, British Columbia, February 25, 1993. Taylor, Phil. Administrator of Golden. British Columbia, February 25, 1993.  Personal visit:  Golden,  Professors Gill, Alison. Professor, Geography Department, Simon Fraser University. Personal visit: Burnaby, British Columbia, February 11, 1993. Hightower, Henry. Professor, School of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia. Personal visit: Vancouver, British Columbia, February 1, 1993. Tourism Industry of Association of Alberta Nay, Donna. Assistant Manager of Alberta Community Tourism Action Program. Telephone conversation: Alberta, March 4, 1994.  88 Ucluelet Davison, Rose. Member of Council and the Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee. Telephone conversation: March 4, 1993; May 5, 1993. Personal visit: Ucluelet, British Columbia, March 11, 1993. Irving, Bill. Mayor of Ucluelet. British Columbia, March 11, 1993.  Personal visit:  Ucluelet,  Riley, Micheline. Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee Member. Personal visit: Ucluelet, British Columbia, March 11, 1993. Russcher, Erick. Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee Member. Personal visit: Ucluelet, British Columbia, March 11, 1993. St. Jacques, Dianne. Ucluelet Tourism Action Committee Member. Personal visit: Ucluelet, British Columbia, March 11, 1993.  89 APPENDIX ONE COMMUNITY TOURISM ACTION PROGRAM  Community Tourism Action Program  Province of British Columbia Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture Community Planning and Development Branch  90  TABLE OF CONTENTS  What Is The Community Tourism Action Program?  2  How Does A Community Get Involved?  3  Start-Up Meeting and Collection of Data  4  Terms and Definitions  5  Tourism Markets  6  Tourism Assets  9  Tourism Concerns  15  The Next Step: A Community Tourism Action Program Workshop Sample Data Collection Forms  Community Tourism Action Program  JtflMt  21  91  WHAT IS THE COMMUNITY TOURISM ACTION PROGRAM? The Community Tourism Action Program is an initiative of the Ministry of Tourism and Ministry Responsible for Culture. Recognizing the role of communities in generating economic growth, this program encourages communities to look at tourism as a business and pursue tourism as a supplement to the local economic base. It is specifically designed to help communities identify and implement tourist-related projects. The Community Tourism Action Program focuses on tourism at the local level and proposes that communities undertake the following activities:  ^  Form a Tounsm Action Program Committee.  t^ Collect basic tourism data.  2  ^  Host a Community Tourism Action Program Workshop in partnership with the Ministry.  ^  Undertake project identification and implementation.  Community Tourism Action Program  92  HOW DOES A COMMUNITY GET INVOLVED? The first step is to form a Tourism Committee in the community, if one does not already exist. Ideally, the Tourism Committee should consist of seven to nine individuals who are representative of the tourism industry in your area. Participants should include representatives from the Chamber of Commerce, Regional Tourism Association, industry operators, the local municipality, the local Economic Development officer, local Band or Tribal Council representatives, and any others who have expressed and demonstrated an interest in tourism. You may want to consider the following factors when selecting members.  • • • • •  knowledge of the community commitment to tourism ability to work in a group ability to invest sufficient time reliability  A diverse group, with individuals who exhibit the above qualities, will be well suited to developing and implementing a Community Tourism Action Program. Establishing a Tourism Committee can involve the expansion of an existing committee or the creation of an entirely new group. Regardless, it is imperative that you have the support of Municipal Council. The Municipal Council has been elected to represent the view of the community. With the endorsement of Council, any group involved in tourism planning will gain credibility. In addition, the group may receive various support services and possibly some funding to help develop and implement tourism projects. As stated above, we also recommend that Municipal Council have a representative on the Tourism Committee.  Community Tourism Action Program  3  93  START-UP MEETING AND COLLECTION OF TOURISM DATA At the community's request, a Ministry of Tourism representative will attend an initial start-up meeting to answer any questions regarding the Community Tourism Action Program. Any number of people with an interest in tourism may attend the start up meeting. A core working group of volunteers will be struck to form the Community Tourism Action Program Committee. This committee will b e responsible for the collection of tourism data, organizing and hosting the workshop. Each member of the Community Tourism Action Program Committee will b e responsible for collecting information from a particular segment of the community, for example, the hotel/motel industry, gas stations, ratepayers associations, and other relevant sectors. This information can be collected in ten minutes over the phone or in person. The Ministry provides forms for the data collection.  The information needed for the workshop is collected by asking basic questions regarding people's opinions of who their visitors are (Tourism Markets), what the community has to offer the visitor (Tourism Assets) and what constraints or stumbling blocks face the community when planning for tourism. (Tourism Concerns) The Chair of the working committee will compile the data onto the master copy of the data collection forms and mail or fax them (at least 10 working days before the workshop) to the Ministry of Tourism. The data will form the foundation of the Community Tourism Action Workshop.  4  Community Tourism Action Program  TERMS AND DEFINITIONS  94  The following definitions are based on both their current use in tourism literature and general tourism planning, and their particular application to this industry in British Columbia. TOURISM Tourism is one of B.C.'s most important industries. There is considerable discussion as to just what the composition of the tourism industry is and how best to measure it. The debate stems from the fact that, while most industries, are measured from the supply side, tourism is measured from the demand side by estimates of visitor expenditures. VISITOR Throughout the industry it is generally accepted that a visitor is someone who spends a night away from home on a trip that is taken for any reason. This definition applies equally to the business traveller who takes part in many non-business activities and may stay longer than is necessary for strictly business purposes and may very well travel with family. Excursionist (i.e. same day or not overnight) travel represents significant expenditures for B.C. residents. TOURISM ATTRACTIONS Tourism attractions are the natural and handmade features both within and adjacent to a community that are of interest to visitors. The features constitute the reason (s) why visitors come to an area. Unique shops, historic sites, industries, lakes, mountains, and wilderness - as well as fairs, festivals, competitions and tours - are all examples.  Community  TOURISM PROMOTION Tourism promotion includes tools whicl communities use to attract visitors. Advertising, travel shows, magazine articles, brochures, maps, videos, commercial and promotional signs, auto tour guides and Travel Infocentres are all examples. TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE The term infrastructure, in reference to the tourism industry, covers all facilities utilities and services that make it possible for people to travel. Tourism infrastructure includes the transportation systems, sewer, power, water, communications, health care, police protection and land resources. TOURISM HOSPITALITY The way in which visitors are greeted and treated. As the most human aspect of tourism, hospitality relates to the ability and enthusiasm of people who deal with visitors. Hospitality in most cases involves everyone in the community. By obvious extension, it determines whether visitors have a pleasant and enjoyable experience in an area and whether they will return or tell others about it. TOURISM SERVICES These services include the hotels, motels, campgrounds, restaurants, service stations, and other retail businesses in a community that take care of visitors' needs.  Tourism Action  iMfttt  Program  95  TOURISM MARKETS Successful tourism planning, development and promotion begins with reliable information. The first step is to get a clear picture of tourism as it exists today in your community. Who are your visitors? Where do they come from? What interests them? How and why do they travel? When do they travel? Writing down answers to these questions will help you identify clearly the types of visitors that pass through your community. These visitors are called your current TOURISM MARKETS. We have provided a chart that will enable your Tourism Action Program Committee to organize the information they gather about your community's TOURISM MARKETS. The completed Tourism Market charts will form the basis for discussion in the first portion of the CTAP workshop. The chart organizes information into four categories: VISITOR TYPES; WHERE ARE THEY FROM; WHEN DO THEY COME HERE; and WHAT SERVICES DO THEY LOOK FOR. The following section provides a detailed look at the kinds of information you can include in each category.  VISITOR TYPES Visitors can be categorized according i their reason for travel. Here are som examples: • campers • commercial travellers • cottagers • hunters • shoppers • sports teams & spectators • anglers •  • • • •  skiers  snowmobilers bus tour participants visitors of friends & relatives those attending an event  WHERE ARE THEY FROM? The categories above can be clarified even further by identifying where the visitors are from, for example: Are they from towns, cities or rural areas in British Columbia; Are they from other provinces, U.S. or other countries?  Community Tourism Action Program  IfltM  the  96  WHEN DO THEY COME HERE? Finding out when visitors travel to or through your community is important. Do they arrive in the:  To assist in filling out the TOURISM MARKETS sheet, the Chair of the Tourism Action Program Committee should ask assigned members of the committee to contact such businesses and organizations as the following:  • summer, winter, fall or spring? • during weekends  or holidays?  • during hunting or fishing  season?  WHAT SERVICES DO THEY LOOK FOR? What special services or needs do these visitors have? Here are some examples. • boat, canoe or sports  rentals;  • fishing, hunting licenses guides; • marina services, • plane  or  campgrounds;  hotel and motel operators restaurant operators; park & campground operators; service station operators; Travel Infocentres; hunting and fishing guides; tour operators; Ministries responsible for Tourism, Environment, Lands and Parks; Regional Tourism Association; Regional District; Municipal officials; retail businesses; sport & cultural organizations; attraction operators  charters;  • shopping, grocery restaurants.  stores,  This information should be collected and transferred onto the blank TOURISM MARKETS chart. Ranking will be completed during the Tourism Action Program Workshop.  Once the Tourism Action Program Committee members have filled in their charts, the Chair will review the categories and amalgamate the information onto mastersheets to avoid duplication.  Community Tourism Action Program  tWttt  TOURISM MARKET PROFILES  »  COMMUNITY: VISITOR TYPE  CAMPERS  VISITING FRIENDS AND RELATIVES  SPORTS TEAMS AND SPECTATORS  WHERE ARE THEY FROM?  WHEN DO WHAT SERVICES THEY COME HERE? DO THEY LOOK FOR:  -Vancouver/Lower Mainland -Alberta -Surrounding Communities  -June 1 to Sept. -More on Weekends  -Gas and Repair -Boat Launching -Marinas -Groceries -Campgrounds  -B.C. Residents mainly -Some out of Province  -Mostly on School Holidays -Family Occasions, etc.  -Shopping -Outdoor Activities -Restaurant meals  -Surrounding Towns and Communities  -Hockey and Ball Tournaments -Annual Curling Bonspiel  -Restaurant -Lounges -Accommodation  t3^Jv S ^  n 8  Community Tourism Action Program  98  TOURISM ASSETS This part of the process involves the Tourism Action Program Committee. Their responsibility is to list the Tourism Assets in and around the community which correspond to the five components of tourism:  A. B. C. D. E.  TOURISM ATTRACTIONS TOURISM PROMOTIONS TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE TOURISM HOSPITALITY TOURISM SERVICES  Tourism Assets should be confined to those community assets that can and do attract and serve visitors. Your community may have three elementary schools and a recently expanded library, both of which constitute community assets. However, neither of these relates directly to tourism unless the asset is somehow unique.  Samples of each sheet are provided for your perusal.  Community Tourism Action Program  9  A. TOURISM ATTRACTIONS ASSETS  RANK  -Provincial Park close by -Wilderness areas close by with good fishing lakes -Well-developed ball diamonds -Annual rodeo -Annual fastball and hockey tournaments -Annual curling bonspiel -18-hole destination golf course -Farmers' market -Beach with boat-launch -Aboriginal Heritage Attractions  K** «  Io  ^  Community Tourism Action Program  V  ^ #  \ V  #  100  B. TOURISM PROMOTIONS ASSETS  RANK  -Town Brochure -Pamphlets distributed to other curling clubs regarding our bonspiel -Town visitor information booth -Membership in Regional Tourist Association -Provincial tourism marketing  Li\# v r wV^  $N Community Tourism Action Program  t?  \ \  C. TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE RANK  ASSETS Good access to primary highway -Full sewer and water servicing with excellent quality water -Full emergency services -Community hall  $y rt\#  s^ r ^  12  Community Tourism Action Program  102  D. TOURISM HOSPITALITY ASSETS  RANK  -Some very friendly merchants -Friendly tourist-booth staff -Local merchants have had staff take SuperHost Program  ^  $N Community Tourism Action Program  flfttt  o\P rV ^ $y 13  E. TOURISM SERVICES ASSETS  RANK  -New motel, two other motels and an old motel -Sufficient service stations -Campground in Provincial Park -Two dining lounges and three other restaurants -Movie theatre -Supermarket -Liquor Store -Tow truck service -Hardware and department store -Bank machine  rt\#  rw^  £^ 14  Community Tourism Action Program  $y  TOURISM CONCERNS  104  The Committee should list the community's Tourism Concerns. Refer again to each of the five key components of tourism. Before starting your list, you must understand what is meant by Tourism Concerns and how they relate to your markets and assets.  WHAT ARE TOURISM CONCERNS? Tourism Concerns can include: •  Negative assets - Check your lists of assets as well as your market profiles. Do either your assets or your markets have any negative features?  •  Outright Liabilities Your community may be in close proximity to a noxious industrial plant or an unappealing natural setting. Committee members should try to list all concerns - even those that seem insurmountable - because someone else may be able to come up with at least a partial solution. And even if no solution is found, you will have discussed the matter and put it into a realistic perspective for the Community Tourism Action Program Workshop.  •  Undeveloped Ideas - They may include great ideas that have not been acted upon. Again, your asset lists and market profiles will likely generate good ideas about what could be done to increase tourism traffic in your community.  Samples of each sheet are provided for your perusal. Community Tourism Action Program  HKMi  15  105  A. TOURISM ATTRACTIONS RANK  CONCERNS -No major tourism attraction in town -No museum or cultural centre -No golf tournament -Beach is overcrowded in summer -Need for seasonal exhibit of Aboriginal art in local galleries.  [<*\&  rJH ^v  s^ 16  Community Tourism Action Program  106  B. TOURISM PROMOTIONS CONCERNS  RANK  -Run-down location map at visitor booth -No welcome signs at edge of town -Few businesses are Chamber members or members of the Regional Tourist Association -Lack of rodeo and ball tournament promotion outside of town -No town theme -Campers not aware of all the goods and services available in town -Visitor information booth not very attractive  o\&  ^  SHCommunity  Tourism Action Program  Hfttt  ^v \7  107  C. TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE RANK  CONCERNS -Several good fishing lakes in the area do not have adequate access -There is no RV sewage dumping station in or near town  L Av ^ r V^  $N 18  Community Tourism Action Program  (BWI  iV  108  D. TOURISM HOSPITALITY RANK  CONCERNS -Not all merchants and their staff are friendly -The visitor booth staff is not knowledgeable about all things to do and see in and around town -Many residents do not appreciate the need to be friendly and courteous to visitors  -*Vtvfr>  r w ^ iV  s^ Community Tourism Action Program  19  109  E. TOURISM SERVICES CONCERNS  RANK  -No full-service campground in or near the town -No repair facilities for RVs and outboard motors in town -No recreational equipment rentals in town (boats, snowmobiles, etc.)  LA# v ^  ^  $£? 20  Community Tourism Action Program  ^  i£  THE NEXT STEP:  .110  A COMMUNITY TOURISM ACTION PROGRAM WORKSHO Once the needed information has been collected, compiled and mailed, the next step is to host a workshop. The Tourism Action Program Committee should send out notification of the workshop to individuals from the community to attend a one and one-half day workshop to assist and provide input to the planning process. The Committee selects, invites and registers the participants (10 to 15 minimum and 30 maximum), chooses a suitable location and is responsible for the room set-up, equipment, coffee breaks and dinner. In some communities the workshop is by invitation only; in others word of the workshop is spread by various local organizations; still others advertise through the local media. Those most likely to be affected by any new tourism projects should be encouraged to attend, for example: • • • • • • • • • •  concerned residents; hotel/motel/campground operators restaurant operators; service station operators; retail merchants; local historic society, art groups; service clubs and associations; attraction operators (museums,etc.); tour operators sport and cultural event organizers.  The purpose of the workshop will be to take the information the Tourism Action Committee has collected and use it to accomplish the following: •  review the major tourism assets and concerns in the community;  •  use these along with the information on tourism markets to identify some tourism goals for the community;  •  identify some projects that will help attain these goals;  •  develop action steps or a plan on how to implement the projects in the community.  Staff from the Community Planning and Development Branch, of the Ministry will facilitate the workshop, assist in the preparation of participants materials, and produce and mail the final report to the workshop participants. Participation by key individuals in the community is vital. This is your workshop and what comes out of it will be your ideas and projects. The end product will only be as good as the effort that goes into it.  Community Tourism Action Program  AMMI  21  Ill  For further information, please contact: Community Planning and Development Branch 1117 Wharf Street, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 2Z2 Phone: 387-0125 Fax: 387-1590  Our thanks to the Planning Unit, Development Division of Alberta Tourism for allowing us to use many of the concepts and ideas from their Community Tourism Action Manual in the preparation of this material.  22  Community Tourism Action Program  Mtt  

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