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Informal recreation area in recreation planning Anderson, Darlene 1993

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INFORMAL RECREATION AREASIN RECREATION PLAININGbyDARLENE ANDERSONPh.D. The University of British Columbia 1986B.Sc. Queens University 1980A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF SCIENCEinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESSCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNINGWe accept this thesis as conformingto the requ stand dDecember 1993THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA© Darlene Anderson, 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)czhcc-Department of and Planrr9The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate I? Decenber-(DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTSupply of recreation areas is an important aspect of recreation planning, and this thesis examines onespecific aspect of it. In a recent demand and supply study done for the Lower Mainland region, supplywas studied by dividing it into two parts, formal and informal. Formal supply of recreation areas arethose that have formal designation, such as BC Parks, Regional Parks, municipal parks, BC Forest sitesand trails, and BC Hydro Recreation areas. All other areas used for recreation are considered“informal”, and it is these that are discussed in this thesis.The value of informal recreation areas within the recreation opportunity spectrum is examined from avariety of perspectives. Theoretical considerations of recreation planning are presented as background tothe remainder of the thesis. The topics: “The Importance and Value of Recreation, Recreation PlanningThemes, Relationships and Linkages of Recreation to Other Aspects of Life, and Recreation PlaceSystems”, are discussed. Following this, a methodology for inventorying them and the most predominantland types used as informal recreation areas are described. Pertinent aspects of inventories and theimportance of choosing appropriate activity categories are also examined.The thesis centres on discussions of the non-tangible, psychological and emotional aspects and benefits ofoutdoor recreation that should be incorporated into recreation planning. Suggestions on ways to achievethese non-tangible objectives using concrete and practical steps are offered.11TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstractList of Tables vList of Figures viChapter 1 Introduction1.1 Purpose 11.1.1 Problem Statement of the Thesis 21.1.2 Assumptions 31.2 Scope1.2.1 The Thesis 31.2.2 The Informal Supply Study 41.3 Organization of the Thesis 7Chapter 2 Theory2.1 The Importance and Value of Recreation: Why Plan for it? 82.1.1 The Importance and Value of Informal Recreation 132.1.2 Other Considerations in Recreation Planning 142.2 Recreation Planning Themes 152.3 Relationships and Linkages of Recreation with Other Facets of Life 182.3.1 Recreation and Leisure 182.3.2 Recreation and Tourism 192.3.3 Recreation and Conservation 212.4 Recreation Place Systems 232.4.1 Objectives of the Agencies That Manage Recreation 32on the Major Parks Plan Study TeamChapter 3 Methodology and Data Collection 353.1 Description of Data Collection Techniques 353.1.1 Guidebooks 363.1.2 Personal Interviews 383.2 Presentation of the Data 393.3 Accuracy of the Data 413.4 Related Reports 42111Chapter 4 The Usefulness of Inventories 444.1 Review of Previous Inventories of Outdoor Recreation Resources 444.1.1 The DARD Inventory 464.1.2 The GVRD Inventory 474.1.3 The Fraser Valley Inventory 484.1.4 The Whistler Corridor Recreation Potential 494.1.5 Summary 494.2 Inventory Categorization 50Chapter 5 Results and Analysis 555.1 Mylar Overlays 555.2 Recreation Classification Systems 555.3 Informal Recreation Areas - Entire Study Area 635.4 Informal Recreation Areas by Regional District5.4.1 Central Fraser Valley 665.4.2 Dewdney - Alouette 675.4.3 Fraser - Cheam 685.4.4 Greater Vancouver 695.4.5 Squamish - Lillooet 695.5 General Site Requirements 715.5.1 Specific Requirements for Three Activities 725.5.2 Beginner Versus Expert Needs 735.6 Putting It All Together 73Chapter 6 Suggestions and Conclusions6.1 Importance and Value of the Major Parks Plan Study Team 776.2 Suggestions for the Future 786.3 Conclusions 81Bibliography 83Appendix 1 Contacts for the Informal Supply of Recreation Study 88Appendix 2 Definitions of Each Field in the Database 92Appendix 3 List of Site Names Identified in the Informal Supply Inventory 99Appendix 4 Site Requirements for Each Outdoor Recreation Activity 108ivLIST OF TABLESTable 2.1 Recreation Places in the Study Area 26Table 2.2 Managing Agencies of Informal and Formal Supply 29Table 2.3 Who’s Who in Recreation Management in B.C. 30Table 3.1 Symbols Used On the Maps 40Table 5.1 BC Ministry of Forests, Recreation Opportunity Spectrum 57Table 5.2 BC Ministry of Parks, Park Zones 58Table 5.3 Ontario Ministry of Parks, Park Types 60Table 5.4 Ontario Ministry of Parks, Park Zones 60Table 5.5 Coastal Zones: Zealand and Mon 61Table 5.6 UK: Land Use 61Table 5.7 England and Wales: Recreation Resource Potential 62Table 5.8 Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission 62(ORRRC) Classification SystemTable 5.9 Population and Land Area of the Five Regional Districts 65in the Study AreaVLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1.1 Map of the Study Area 5Figure 2.1 Land Status in British Columbia 31vi1CHAPTER 1W1’RODUCTION1.1 PurposeThis thesis is an examination of how recognition of ‘informal’ areas used for outdoor recreation is usefuland important in park and recreation planning. To date, the recognition has taken the form of aninventory of the informal areas.The inventory was part of a larger supply and demand study that was done for a Major Parks Plan Studyteam. This team is composed of a wide variety of people involved in park and recreation planning at themunicipal, regional and provincial level. They come from the Regional Districts: Dewdney - Alouette,Central Fraser Valley, Fraser - Cheam, Greater Vancouver and Squamish - Lillooet, some municipalitiesin these regional districts, BC Parks, BC Forests, BC Environment, BC Hydro, the Protected AreaStrategy, Federation of BC Naturalists and the Outdoor Recreation Council.The focus of this thesis is to study how including informal supply areas in park and recreation planningwill lead to a better park and recreation plan. The supply study itself was divided into two parts, formaland informal. Formal areas are those officially designated for recreation, e.g. parks and recreation sites.Informal areas are all other areas that are used for recreation that are not considered part of the formalsupply of recreation areas.Successful completion of the inventory of informal supply was a significant first step in this planningprocess. Prior to the completion of the work described in this thesis, it had proven to be a majorstumbling block. Consequently some of this thesis is devoted to describing how the inventory of‘informal’ data was done.21.1.1 Problem Statement of the ThesisThe problem statement of this thesis can be expressed in the form of the following question:Having acknowledged that there is a valid need for informal places for recreation, in what waysshould they be provided for in a planning and management context?Part of answering this question should come once a good grasp of the following concepts is achieved.Having this kind of understanding will help planners more easily develop criteria necessary foridentifying and allocating good outdoor recreation opportunities in the study area.1. Planners and managers of recreation need to have a more complete understanding of theimportance and value of recreation to society. Ideally this would include an experiential’understanding. (An ‘experiential’ understanding is one in which the person understandsthe situation or problem because he or she engages in the ‘experience’.) Murphy capturesthe essence of this concept with the statement: “By perceiving recreation as an experience,planners will understand that a person’s responses are reflective of an attempt to realizeneed satisfaction or obtain a goal.” (Murphy 1975, p. 33).2. It is important to identify areas where people recreate that are not recognized as formalrecreation sites, areas, resources, or opportunities, because these areas are part of therecreation opportunity spectrum even if they are not formally recognized as such.However because their whereabouts are unknown it is not possible to incorporate them, inany systematic way, into a recreation plan for the study area. As part of thisidentification, there is a need for planners and managers of recreation to understand thevalue and importance of “informal” recreation sites to society. What are the motivationsfor people to recreate in informal recreation places in the first place?When the theoretical demand and supply literature for recreation planning of the 1970’s is examined, it isfound that determining supply or making an inventory of supply meant determining present and potentialsupply. When supply was broken down further, it meant an inventory of public and private resources,where resources included land, facilities and services, by type, nature and quantity (Doyle 1974). Whenreal inventories of supply were done in the 1970’s, this is what they did. Recreation resources were notclassified as formal or informal, rather they were classified as public or private; or land, facility or3service. Therefore, if included, the informal areas were included with the formal. This was not doneintentionally, but instead was a result of using a different system of classification (GVRD 1978, Cook etal 1977, Ben 1978).1.1.2 AssumptionsIt has been assumed by this author that there are good reasons why people participate in outdoorrecreation activities on lands that are not explicitly set aside for recreation. These reasons are external toa lack of supply problem, and instead these areas are used because they fulfill a part of the recreationopportunity spectrum that to date has not been adequately addressed in a planning and managementcontext.A second assumption has been that an inventory of where people recreate outside of formally designatedrecreation areas or sites will allow planners and managers of recreation to get a better grasp of why theseareas are being used, and that this is an essential first step in creating a good recreation plan for the studyarea.1.2 Scope1.2.1 The ThesisThis thesis analyses the data and information collected on outdoor recreation activities that are pursuedoutside of the formal recreation areas within the study area (as described in section 1.2.2.) As a result,the conclusions, ideas and recommendations that are drawn from the information are specific to the studyarea. Nevertheless, it is possible that some of the ideas and recommendations could be appliedelsewhere.It is important to point out that the work of this thesis is only on outdoor recreation activities and notrecreation in general. However, for the purposes of theoretical discussion in chapter two, reference ismade to recreation in general. This is necessary in order to put outdoor recreation and the use ofinformal sites for it, in proper context. Beyond any reference made in the theory section, facility based4sports and recreation are not considered in this study.It is relevant to point out that the expertise of the author is in many of the land based outdoor recreationactivities considered in this inventory, in particular climbing, mountaineering, hiking and backcountryskiing. It should be recognized that this has provided a strength to this planning process because thereoften appears to be more planners and managers who have an understanding and some experience in theother outdoor recreation activities, but not the ones that this author has extensive experience in.1.2.2 The Informal Supply Study InventoryThe boundaries of the area studied in this thesis are those of the five Regional Districts in the LowerMainland. Going from the southwest corner of the study area, north, then east, south and west they are:Greater Vancouver, Squamish - Lillooet, Fraser - Cheam, Central Fraser Valley, and Dewdney -Alouette. See Figure 1.1 for a map of the study area.The inventory of informal supply was undertaken because members of the Major Parks Plan Study teamwere hearing that 80% of recreation in the Fraser Valley was on Crown land that was not formallydesignated for recreation. The purpose of the inventory was to verify this. It was important to find thoseareas where either a lot of recreation activity was taking place or where a wide variety of recreationactivities were occurring. This would allow recreation planners and managers to know where to spendmoney the most effectively. Another relevant aspect is that knowing where the recreation areas werewould allow the team to know what jurisdictions should be managing the different areas. It turns out thatin the Fraser Valley nearly all information (complaints, comments), from the public about informalrecreation areas was going to the Forest Service, and in many cases this was not the correct governingauthority who needed to hear about the issue (Watmough 1993). Lack of information by the public andinappropriate governance of the informal recreation areas is the main cause of this problem. If theappropriate governing agency knows that an area under its jurisdiction is being used for outdoorrecreation problems can be properly rectified.5FIGURE 1.1MAP OF THE STUDY AREA“:‘9.IISTLRGARq.DII PARK,SQU*fl16148IkKLt4HtAIJLAKS PARKLEGENDBIRKENHEAD - DUFFEY LAKESOUAMISH - WHISTLERLILLOOET RIVER VALLEYSTEIN RIVER VALLEYGOLDEN EARS - ALOUE1TEF MISSION - STAVE LAKEG HARRISON - CHEHAUSH SOUTHERN FRASER CANYONNORTh SHOREJ COQUITLAh4 - PIrr LAKEK VANCOUVER- BURHA8YL LANGLEY - BOUNDARY BAYM MATSOUI - ABOOTSFORDN CHILLIWACK RIVER VALLEYO SKAGIT VALLEYP BOSTON BAR EASTI-SOURCE: Greater Vancouver Regional District, Parks Department. 1993. (From the demand survey done by Rethink).6Consequently, the primary goal of the first step of the informal supply study was to determine where theareas are that people recreate. Additional studies could examine how many people use each area andwhere they live. The database was designed so that this information could be added to each record at alater date. In the meantime, a subjective estimate of how many people use each area has been recordedin a field labelled “Level of Use.’ Values of high, medium, or low were used. If the level of use wascompletely unknown, then the value UNKNOWN was entered. See Chapter 3 on the Methodology andData Collection for more details on how the data was collected and stored.The outdoor recreation activities covered in the informal supply study are the same as those inventoriedin the formal supply study. The activities or categories used were developed by the people working onthis project in the parks department at GVRD. The categories are broad enough that they cover mostrecreational activities because if an activity is not explicitly considered, it will be covered under anotherone. For example, windsurfmg is included in boating, while snow activities covers the diverse range ofactivities, snowshoeing, snowmobiling, and backcountry skiing/ski touring. A brief discussion on theimportance of good categorization in an inventory is covered in Chapter 4.The outdoor recreation activities that were inventoried are:• Beach Activities• Bicycling• Boating• Equestrian• Freshwater Fishing• Saltwater Fishing• Hang Gliding• Hunting• Kayaking• Motorcycling• Mountaineering• Nature Appreciation• Off Road Driving• Overnight Camping• Picnicking• Rock Climbing• Scuba Diving• Snow Activities• Walking/Hiking7Three of these activities: boating, saltwater fishing, and scuba diving, were inventoried by the GVRD.The remainder were done by this author. Quantitative details about the site, such as length of trail ornumber of campsites, were also collected when known. The terrain features in the area that therecreation activity is taking place have been noted. This was done to determine if there is a correlationbetween outdoor recreation activity and landscape, as well as to determine if there is a predominant kindof landscape that is used informally for recreation.1.3 Organization of the ThesisTo achieve the goals and objectives of this thesis, the second chapter discusses the value of recreation andleisure to society, along with giving a working defmition of recreation for this thesis. Also included areideas about recreation planning themes, critical links that recreation has to other activities in society,e.g., its link to tourism, and a discussion of the range of recreation places available and who managesthem.The third chapter is a description of the inventory work that was done, the methodology of data collectionand data storage.The fourth chapter is a discussion about the usefulness of inventories. It first reviews four that weredone for the study in the late 1970’s, and early 1980’s, and compares them to the most recent one. Itthen discusses salient points regarding categorization.Chapter five provides an analysis of the results. It presents some different recreation classificationsystems possible, describes the kinds of areas used and what activities take place there. Getting moredetailed, it gives general site requirements for outdoor recreation pursuits and then, specific ones forthree critical activities. Finally, ideas on how informal recreation areas could be incorporated into parkand recreation planning are given.Chapter six concludes with comments on the value of the Master Parks Plan Study team, and somesuggestions for the team to consider while developing their recreation plans.8CHAPTER 2THEORY2.1 The linportance and Value of Recreation: Why Plan for it?Barring love and war, few enterprises are undertaken with such abandon, or by suchdiverse individuals, or with so paradoxical a mixture of appetite and altruism, as thatgroup of avocations known as outdoor recreation. It is, by common consent, a goodthing for people to get back to nature. But wherein lies the goodness, and what can bedone to encourage its pursuit? On these questions there is confusion of counsel, andonly the most uncritical minds are free from doubt. (Leopold 1966, p. 280).Recreation is a pervasive element of life. It touches many aspects of it. Perhaps because of thispervasiveness, its importance in having a high quality life can easily be overlooked and often underrated.Fortunately, in the past twenty or thirty years the importance of recreation and leisure in creating aphysically and emotionally healthier society has been recognized, and significant and thoughtful effort hasbeen put into planning for it.Nonetheless, all too often, many people put too much emphasis on the importance of work, with virtuallynone placed on recreation and its positive benefits. “In a highly materialistic society, individuals aredeprived of certain intrinsic values and may be frustrated by a society which mistakenly focuses its goalson only extrinsic materialistic concerns.” (Murphy 1975, p. 144).Work allows a person to reach many valuable goals, both tangible and intangible. Tangible benefits are alevel of material wealth which allows for a high level of comfort and security. Intangible benefits arerecognition, a sense of accomplishment and the satisfaction of having successfully completed a project.All of these lead to a heightened sense of self worth. However if too much emphasis is placed on thesepositive effects of work, they become outweighed by the negative ones of excess stress and an exclusivedrive towards materialism. Excessive materialism is inappropriate because it, not only is bad for theenvironment, but causes people to compete against one another rather than work with one another. Thiscreates an unhappy environment rather than a relaxed and happy one. The result is that, “Individualsbecome suppressed and perverted by the pressures, demands and inappropriate values which characterizea society oriented almost exclusively to work.’ (Murphy 1972, p. 34).9“Recreation serves as a way to maintain one’s equilibrium, to counteract the often alienating forces ofwork.” (Murphy 1975, p.146). It has been well recognized that recreation is important in many ways asthe following quote describes.Recreation improves the lives of British Columbians in many ways. It increases ourphysical, intellectual and psychological well being. It makes us more aware of theimportance of a healthy lifestyle and tends to increase our self confidence. Theadvantages to the individual, in turn, aid society. People who are healthy in mind,spirit and body, contribute positively to the work place, function effectively andappreciate themselves and others. People who recreate outdoors appreciate nature andrespect the need to conserve our natural resources. (The ACTION Challenge 1989, p.3).In Murphy’s mind “There is an urgent need for people to learn how to relax, to contemplate theirexistence.” (Murphy 1975, p. 34). Taking some time to relax or pursue a leisure activity or to recreateduring the day is important. Whatever form of recreation pursued, whether it is active or passive, the actof pursuing it allows one to have a more enjoyable day and create a higher quality life. Whatever aperson’s daily routine is, the attitude taken towards the day will influence how well it is enjoyed(Friedrich 1992). It is important for people to develop a strong appreciation for enjoying the journeythrough life.Kraus outlines the many values of recreation for individuals. They touch most aspects of life, physicalvalues, emotional values, social values and intellectual values (Kraus 1978, chapter 13). The ways inwhich recreation help contribute to a person having a well-rounded, balanced personality, with a sense ofindividualism and a creative outlook on life are described by Bucher in a section called “Nature of theRecreational Experience” (Bucher 1984, pp. 11-15). Four aspects inherent in recreation that lead tohealthy human development, are:1. Choice: A recreation experience is something that the individual has almost complete choiceover. There is a spontaneity and freedom in the choice of recreation activity that is oftenlacking in other everyday affairs. This leads to an enhanced sense of personal worth, achance to learn and develop skills and the ability to realize one’s full potential. This developsa person with a positive level of self confidence.102. Performed during Leisure: This links in with the inherent aspect of choice which is sovaluable to enhanced sense of self worth.3. Pleasurable: Recreation is fun. As such, a healthier, happier, more well adjusted individualemerges, who, ultimately, is capable of contributing more positively to society.4. A Positive Act: By definition, a recreation activity is one which is considered worthwhileand socially acceptable. Consequently no feelings of guilt or doing wrong are associated withpursuing a recreation activity.Direct benefits to society of increased emphasis being placed on recreation planning would be a reductionin health care costs and in the penal system. Outdoor recreation has been known for many years, to bevery useful as a way to stay fit and healthy, both mentally and physically. In the form of wildernessprograms, outdoor recreation is used to help youths overcome behaviour problems, which ideally reducecosts to the penal system. Example of programs designed to help youth stay out of trouble with the lawinclude the program at Porteau Cove, which is funded by the Ministry of Attorney General, CorrectionsBranch, the “Vista” program that is run by Outward Bound and the “Rediscovery” program run forNative youths.Perhaps if society learned to value recreation more there would be less people with these kinds ofproblems and instead of wilderness programs bemg used as forms of treatment, they would be used as avaluable method of education, under the category of social learning (Friedmann 1987, Dunn 1971).A recent publication produced by the Parks and Recreation Foundation of Ontario (PRFO) and theOntario Ministry of Tourism and Recreation, called The Benefits of Parks and Recreation, A Catalogue,outlines the numerous benefits of recreation to society that can be used to justify or argue for continuedemphasis on recreation programs and services in an era of financial constraint. It catalogues the bestevidence about the benefits of parks and recreation, and provides a resource and catalyst to promoterecreation services that are truly essential. The document reports three types of information: 1) supportevidence from research, both empirical and applied; 2) consensus statements about the benefits of leisure;11and 3) project work that relates to specific communities. The format of the catalogue has been designedto be easily useable as a reference. It first outlines all the benefits, which have been divided into fourgroups, personal, social, economic and environmental. It then lists focus statements that relate to eachbenefit. Finally it provides support documentation for each benefit statement and its corresponding set offocus statements. It concludes with a complete list of references.Some examples of benefit statements from this document that are relevant to this work are: Underpersonal benefits it states that “Physical recreation and fitness contributes to a full and meaningful life.”;“Meaningful leisure activity is an essential source of self-esteem and positive self-image.”; “Regularphysical activity is one of the very best methods of health insurance for individuals.” and “Relaxation,rest and revitalization through the opportunity of leisure is essential to stress management in today’s busyand demanding world.” (PRFO 1992, p. 9). Social benefits include the following: “Leisure providesleadership opportunities that build strong communities.”; “Community recreation reduces alienation,loneliness and anti-social behaviours.”; “Community recreation promotes ethnic and cultural harmony.”;“Recreating together builds strong families, the foundation of a stronger society.” (PRFO 1992, p. 11).Economic benefits listed are: “Pay now or pay more later! Investment in recreation as a preventativehealth service makes sense.”; “A fit work force is a productive work force.”; “ Small investments inrecreation yield big economic returns.” (PRFO 1992, p. 13). And, two of the environmental benefitsgiven include: “Through the provision of parks, open spaces and protected natural environments,recreation can contribute to the environmental health of our communities. This is an essential, life-sustaining role.”; “The public is often prepared to pay for environmental protection and rehabilitation intheir communities, and to support parks and recreation organizations that play a lead role in thatprotection.” (PRFO 1992, p. 15). The above is a selection of a few of the benefits of parks andrecreation to society.It is important now to present a definition of recreation for use in this thesis. In its broadest sense it isquite comprehensive, as described in the following statement: “We have come to recognize thatRecreation is not just an activity but an experience and Leisure cannot be measured as a quantity of timebut a quality of life.” (City of Sudbury Community Leisure Plan Steering Committee 1988, p. 7). Thisconcept leads to a definition of recreation as follows: “All those things that a person or group chooses to12do to make their leisure time more interesting, more enjoyable, and more personally satisfying. It is notconfmed solely to sports and physical recreation but includes artistic, creative, cultural, social andintellectual services.” (City of Sudbury Community Leisure Plan Steering Committee 1988, p. 7). Fromthis quote, it can be inferred that planning for recreation means more than just providing facilities forsports. This is an extremely important concept to keep in mind for the purpose of this thesis. The focushere is not on the artistic, creative, cultural, social and intellectual recreational pursuits, as thought of inthe usual sense, but rather as they pertain to the enjoyment of outdoor recreation activities in a naturalenvironment. These elements are present as important components of an outdoor recreation activity, butgenerally are not well recognized in the face of other goals that are achieved during an outdoor recreationexperience. Nonetheless they are important components of outdoor recreation that need more attentionduring the planning (and managing) of recreation.Another important element about recreation that needs to be kept in mind is that it “is heavily dependenton state of mind or attitude; it is not so much what one does as the reason for doing it, and the way theindividualfeels about the activity, that makes it recreation.’ (Kraus 1978, p. 33).A very comprehensive definition of recreation, presented by Kraus after a lengthy discussion on many ofthe more current definitions for recreation, is given below and is given because of its comprehensivenature.Recreation consists of activities or experiences carried on within leisure, usually chosen voluntarilyby the participant - either because of satisfaction, pleasure, or creative enrichment derived, orbecause he perceives certain personal or social values to be gained from them. It may also beperceived a3 the process of participation, or as the emotional state derived from involvement.When carried on as part of organized community or voluntary-agency programs, recreation must bedesigned to meet constructive and socially acceptable goals of the individual participant, the group,and society at large. Finally, recreation must be recognized as a social institution with its ownvalues and traditions, structures and organizations, and professional groups and skilledpractitioners. (Kraus 1978, p. 37).132.1.1 The Importance and Value of Informal Outdoor RecreationIn the planning and management of recreation, an examination of the existence of informal recreationareas needs to be made. What is it that people are looking for in an informal recreation experience?Until that is fully understood it will be more difficult to plan and manage for the full spectrum of outdoorrecreation activities and opportunities.People recreate outdoors because it fulfills the urge to “get away” from the stresses and frustrations of ahectic life elsewhere (Friedrich 1992). The outdoor recreation experience allows for relaxation. Mentalrelaxation does not always take the form of being physically inactive. To the contrary, physical exertioncan be very relaxing mentally, something some are looking for in their outdoor recreation experience.An important point to make about many outdoor recreation activities is that, not only does it fulfill theneed to get away, mentally, it also usually takes one away physically. This physical act of actuallyleaving one’s home environment strongly enforces that goal of “getting away.”However, once one has gotten away to enjoy an outdoor recreation experience, the last thing one wants tofind at the recreation area, is the very thing they are getting away from - rules, regulations, andrestrictions. And, for some outdoor recreation activities the presence of too many other users will detractimmensely from the experience.Therefore informal recreation areas are important to have as places that appear to be unmanaged. Onereason people recreate in informal areas, is the need to experience the freedom of adventure, and toexperience the serendipity of the discovery of something new and on their own (Wilson 1993). There isa need for recreation areas that are either completely without facilities, or if there are some, (whichwould only be because of heavy use), they are few and subtle. Often the formal areas are small (e.g.many of the BC Hydro and BC Forest Service recreation areas and sites), and in a sense are the gatewayto the area that is used informally. It is the formal area that has the facilities (usually parking andtoilets), while the informal area has none.142.1.2 Other Considerations in Recreation PlanningNonetheless, there is also a need for formal recreation areas which cannot be filled by informalrecreation areas. Formal areas are important because their management is usually consistent with a set ofvalues, beliefs and goals that are specific to only some outdoor recreation activities. As a result, thoseactivities which can create a negative recreation experience for certain users will not be found in someformal recreation areas. An example is Class A Provincial Parks where snowmobiling is oftenprohibited. Therefore, people go to these places expecting a certain environment, that is, a snowmobilefree environment. It is very important that these kinds of areas exist in the provision of outdoorrecreation opportunities, because there are some activities which are so incompatible, such assnowmobiling with backcountry ski touring, that spatial separation appears to be the only solution. Whenactivities occur in, or above these areas which are incompatible with ideals that some people hold forClass A Provincial Parks, such as heli-skiing or snowmobiling, it is very disillusioning for the peopleholding those ideals.It is also important that planners and managers for recreation understand the distinction in the needs ofthe beginner recreationist and the experienced or dedicated. The two groups are looking for a vastlydifferent experience, and hence are often using very different terrain (or sites) to achieve that experience.This is discussed in more detail in Chapter 5.It is vitally important that planners and managers do not forget the needs of the expert. They are thereand do “their thing” because they love it. The relevant point here, is that they are also there in smallernumbers than the beginner or casual recreationist. To cater to the needs of only the larger group,because they are larger is unfair to the expert. Therefore it becomes important not to destroy those areaswhich are oniy suitable to the expert, especially for the purpose of creating terrain or areas suitable forbeginners, because the expert group is considered too small to plan and manage land resources for. Thisis highly unfair to them and shows a lack of social consideration for this group of people.This brings up the point of volume of use being used to determine the value of an area. To discredit anarea from not being significant because only one party per year visits the area also shows a lack ofunderstanding of an important goal being pursued in many outdoor recreation activities, particularly by15the smaller, dedicated group. For the experienced outdoor recreationist, that area is highly valuablebecause that area provides the opportunity to experience precisely what the ‘expert’ is looking for -solitude, adventure, exploration of the unknown and untravelled, along with competition against ones ownlimitations and skills. In general, these areas with low numbers of people visiting them are aesthetic, butare usually difficult or time consuming to get to. To the experienced recreationist it is this lack of easyaccess which adds to the appeal of the area and enhances its value. A simple example of this is theTantalus mountain range west of Squamish. The result is that the Tantalus range of mountains is highlyvaluable as a recreation area - despite its low level of use by self-propelled recreatiomsts. It is valid toquestion to what extent land planners and managers can achieve this goal with an increasing population.Nonetheless, it is critically relevant that the importance of this kind of area is fully recognized.2.2 Recreation Planning ThemesIn developing a plan it is necessary to consider what focus will be taken. What goals are to be achievedthrough the recreation plan? This question can be greatly aided by considering what theme or themes aredesirable for incorporation into the plan.Within the theory of planning, recreation can be dealt with according to a few themes or approaches.Recreation planning themes are outlined in a document published by the Red Deer Regional PlanningCommission on Regional Recreation: Elements and Directions, 1978, while recreation planningapproaches are described in Gold’s book Recreation Planning and Design (Gold 1980).Five themes that can be used when planning for recreation are described below:1. A Behavioral, Humanistic Interpretation of RecreationThe key point of this theme is that the objective is that the participants of the recreation activityachieve feelings of well-being and self-satisfaction. This aspect of recreation planning is oftenoverlooked. (Red Deer Regional Planning Commission 1978, p. 8, Murphy 1975, p. 13).162. Equality of OpportunityThis theme points out that recreation activities need to be provided for those who areconsidered in minority groups, such as the poor and the disabled, and that recreation should notcater only to the wealthier, more capable classes of society. (Burton 1976a, p. 57). Thistheme is applicable to the distinction that needs to be made between the beginner or casualoutdoor recreationist and the experienced or dedicated users.3. Planning Recreation Place SystemsThis means that recreation opportunities need to be planned and provided for, by placing themwithin a system of recreation opportunities, and not just think of a recreation opportunity orrecreation area as an isolated component. For example a lake exists as one component in aregion’s recreation system or environment. This is a difficult goal to achieve but is one thathaving an inventory of informal recreation areas should be helpful for (Burton 1976b, p. 19,Mercer 1970, p. 266).4. Environment Conservation and RecreationThis theme incorporates the goal of conserving natural resources in the development of anyplans for outdoor recreation. This concept is explored in more detail in section, 2.3.3“Recreation and Conservation” (Zimmerman 1964, p. 21, Taylor 1961).5. Education for RecreationRecreation is a learned behaviour, therefore how much time and energy a person allocates torecreation is dependent on the amount and type of knowledge, and the value system they hold.To devote time to recreation a person needs to know the benefits of it. It is most probable thatpeople recreate more than in the past because they know the benefits of recreation, rather thanbecause they have more leisure time. Providing education for recreation will allow anindividual to achieve their full capability more easily and experience the positive feelings ofaccomplishment and self-fulfillment that can be derived from recreation. Recreation educationwill allow an individual to more easily “become what he is capable of being” (Murphy 1975, p.2).17Five approaches to recreation planning that can be taken are:1. Resource ApproachThis approach is most effective in non-urban resource planning, and emphasizes supply overdemand. Supplier or management values are dominant in the planning process. Supply willlimit the demand. It is useful when there is a well-defined resource to protect, as naturalfactors are ranked over social factors. (Gold 1980, p. 45).2. Activity ApproachUnlike the resource approach, social factors are ranked over natural factors, and supply createsdemand. Opportunities that should be provided are determined by past participation. As aresult this approach seldom responds well to the emergence of new outdoor recreationactivities, such as jet-boating.3. Economic ApproachIn this approach economic factors are more important than social or natural factors. Theemphasis is on market demand and pricing opportunities.4. Behavioral ApproachThis approach emphasizes understanding why a person participates and learning what activitiesare preferred. It is similar to the planning theme “A Behavioral, Humanistic Interpretation ofRecreation.”5. Combined ApproachThis is the desired approach as it combines the positive aspects of all the above, and isbalanced to reflect the requirements of both the user and the resource. It uses a planningprocess which has the following steps, as given in the following quote:181) inventories and evaluates existing and potential recreation resources,2) identifies user groups and their characteristics,3) estimates the recreation supply and demand in terms of potential resource types and usergroup requirements, and4) translates these requirements with planning guides, design studies, landscapeinterpretation, and benefit-cost analysis into a recreation plan. (Gold 1980, p. 52).Ideally, the planning approach taken, or recreation planning theme followed, will combine a number ofthese individual approaches in a way that is appropriate to the area and situation that the plan is beingdeveloped for.2.3 Relationships and Linkages of Recreation With Other Facets of LifeAs mentioned in an earlier section of this chapter, recreation is linked to many other elements of life. Itis this linkage, or relationship to so many other aspects of life that makes the management and planningof recreation so hard to grasp. Recreation tends to be somewhat “all pervasive, touching upon manyelements of life. It is not just a single focused activity. As a result, recreation is planned and managedby many levels of government and by many departments within each level, as well as by numerousprivate, public and non-profit organizations. In this section three major linkages of recreation with otheraspects of life are discussed.2.3.1. Recreation and LeisureLeisure and recreation are linked because for many people the act of recreating takes place in theirleisure time where a definition of leisure is: “Leisure is a period of time in which the individual, at will,may undertake activities for either relaxation, diversion, or broadening of individual and spontaneoussocial participation, the free exercise of individual creative capacity” (The Action Challenge 1989, p. 5).The relevance to recreation of leisure is that recreation is one specific activity a person could pursue intheir leisure time. It can become very difficult to have definitions for both recreation and leisure that aredistinctly different. Since they both allow for personal growth there is overlap in their meanings.19What would be described as recreation by one person may be described as leisure by another. Theproblem is academic, and the key point to grasp is that one role of recreation is as a form of leisure.Another role is as a form of employment. The kind of employment it provides is wide ranging, fromadministrative to facility planning, building and maintenance, to teaching and tourism.2.3.2. Recreation and TourismRecreation is a form of employment. Many recreation opportunities, such as community centres,municipal parks, and swimming pools, are provided as a public service and are paid for partially throughtaxes. However, one that is not, is tourism. This is not surprising in light of the link between recreationand leisure. One form of tourism often engaged in, especially in “Supernatural BC”, is outdoorrecreation. This link has provided incentive for studies on how to promote recreation and tourism in anarea. The goal behind these studies is to determine how recreation and tourism can act as economicgenerators for a community, as discussed in the publication Outdoor Recreation and Tourism in the PeaceRiver Region ofAlberta, 1973. The result can be positive for the community because it means thecommunity is looked after and is more likely to be an attractive place to live and visit. The drive toensure tourism is successful often means that the natural resources in the area are protected.The type of tourism that is of most interest to this thesis is that called “Adventure Tourism,” because it isclosely linked to outdoor recreation. Many times it is competing for the same land base as used by thepublic. An important element of outdoor recreation is often the independence of it, and to some extentthe lack of crowds. If an area starts to be heavily used by commercial tour operators, then the area isperceived as crowded and the appeal of the area is lost as a recreation area for some members of thegeneral public.Adventure tourism is a subset of a broader form of tourism, referred to as eco-tourism. Whether it iseco-tourism or adventure tourism is not relevant to this discussion. What is relevant is that it is tourism,in other words people are earning money from use of the land base which is still in a relatively naturalstate. The real significance of the link between recreation and tourism is that often two user groups,pursuing similar activities on the land, come in conflict with one another, rather than existing in20harmony. Add this to other users of the same land base, wildlife, the forest industry, the mining industryand agricultural production, and the result can be a complicated mess. This kind of situation is referredto as a ‘wicked” problem (Dorcey 1986).Another aspect to this situation is that some forms of outdoor recreation are incompatible with others.The classic example of this is snowmobiling with ski touring. Use of an area by snowmobiles is totallyunacceptable to ski tourers. This would be true regardless of whether the ski touring group was acommercial enterprise or a group of local users. Unfortunately the use of motorized vehicles by manycommercial outdoor or adventure tourism companies is common. This creates conflict with otherpeoples’ use of the land, especially the public self-propelled outdoor recreationist.A hypothesis for the use of motorized vehicles in adventure tourism is proposed by the author of thisthesis. Motorized vehicles are used in adventure tourism because their use pulls in a market, or group ofpeople that is not already out there recreating. It is vitally important to the success of the “adventure”experience, that it is enjoyable, perhaps thrilling, but not overly strenuous (Whistler BackcountryAdventures 1993). To access beautiful natural areas, especially in the Coast Mountains of the study area,requires a fair amount of physical effort (personal knowledge.) The average “adventure tourist” maywant the rewards of spectacular scenery for the least amount of effort, and sometimes the least amount oftime. Eliminating or reducing the length of the approach to a beautiful area allows for the maximumamount of time in the high alpine where the environment is more exhilarating. To some, it appears thatthere is little appreciation attached to the value of the journey to the destination and the sense ofaccomplishment gained in getting there using your own energy (Thompson 1993).Unfortunately, for environmental and aesthetic reasons this kind of approach to outdoor recreation andwilderness travel is unacceptable to many. Nonetheless, outdoor recreation and tourism are closelylinked and will become increasingly so as British Columbia tries to reduce its economic dependence onresource extractive industries and turn to less environmentally destructive economic activities. Despiteits potential to be intrusive, adventure tourism is, when practiced conscientiously, less damaging to theland base than forestry (whether it is being practiced conscientiously or not.) This statement is said fromthe observation that chopping down all the trees in a 100 ha area of land appears to the layperson to be21more damaging to the environment than destroying a trail or small meadow in that same 100 ha area ofland. That is, the damage from excess recreation appears to be less extensive (personal observation.)2.3.3. Recreation and ConservationRecreation and conservation become linked because often areas of land are suggested for protection toachieve both recreation ni conservation goals. This is a good idea as long as the recreation activity doesnot compromise the conservation goal to be achieved. Unfortunately, many times because the volume ofpeople recreating in the area is high, an area will be excessively damaged ecologically. Consequently, agreat deal of care needs to be taken regarding what kinds of recreation are allowed to occur in an area, aswell as how many people are allowed to visit the area at any one time. The concept of carrying capacityaddresses this upper limit on number of users for a particular resource. Carrying capacity is notexamined in detail in this thesis. For the interested reader, other works that cover the concept include:Carrying Capacity in Recreation Settings, by Bo Shelby and Thomas A. Heberlein (published in 1986 byOregon State University Press), The Carrying Capacity of Selected Outdoor Recreation Facilities, byKees Verbery for Parks Canada in 1974, and The Carrying Capacity Concept as a Planning Tool, ReportNo. 338, by Devon M. Schneider, David R. Goldschalk and Norman Axier, published by the AmericanPlanning Association in 1979.Tourism becomes linked to the recreation versus conservation dilemma because often facilities, e.g.downhill ski areas, resorts, golf courses, and lodges are built to facilitate tourism. However, theconstruction of these facilities has a negative environmental impact. Indigenous vegetation is oftenremoved, the scenery of the area is changed, thus altering one of its important outdoor recreationattributes, and, most importantly, the quality of the water may be adversely affected.Even if facilities are not built, damage to the ecosystems of an area can occur when too many people usean area. Some outdoor recreation activities are more quickly damaging to the environment than others.Examples of this are horses and bicycles on sensitive, slow growing sub-alpine meadows, or usingmotorized vehicles as the main focus of the recreation activity using up fossil fuels and polluting the air.22Extensiveness and degree of impact that a recreation activity will have on a place is also dependent on theway the activity is pursued. Two examples of environmentally damaging activities for which theextensiveness of damage is dependent on how they are done are camping and waste disposal. Withcamping, choice of location is the key consideration. Heather, which is very easily killed and takes avery long time to grow back, is a poor choice for a campsite. However, it is often used because it ispleasantly soft. Disposal of waste too close to a water body can dramatically increase the probability ofcontaminating the drinking water and so should be done at least 30m from the water body (Meyer 1989).How much a group impacts the natural resources in an area is dependent on the knowledge level of thegroup. Sometimes it is lack of knowledge that leads a group to be more environmentally damaging thanit needs to be. At other times, the values held by the group members determine behaviour. A groupmay know that something is not a good thing to do, but will do it anyway.From a planning and management perspective, the managing agency needs to be clear on what their firstpriority is in managing an area. Is it primarily for recreation in a natural setting, or is it for preservationof the natural resources where limited recreation is allowed? It appears to an outside observer that whenthe possibility of making money becomes a reality, agencies that have the responsibility of managing forconservation have difficulty saying no, even when that money-making proposition will compromise theconservation mandate for the area. An example of this is the proposed expansion of the downhill ski areain Cypress Provincial Park, a Class A park. The Park Act (R.S . B.C. Ch. 309) sets out a strongmandate to preserve the natural resources of a Class A provincial park and yet the proposal to cut 22 haof valuable old growth forest to create downhill ski runs, has been presented as a viable option in thepreparation of its new Master Park plan. Another example is the proposal by a local forestry company toput a road through Birkenhead Lake Provincial Park to allow access for timber removal. Both of theseproposed commercial activities will negatively impact the conservation values of the parks.A distinction in definitions of words that would be valuable to use in these discussions is that betweenconservationists and preservationists. The two are often used interchangeably, but their definitions havedifferent values underlying them. Conservationists usually approach the preservation of natural resourcesfrom a purely anthropocentric point of view, and could be thought of as “stewards of the land.” Theirgoal in land preservation is for the continued use of it by humans. They have a fairly high belief in23science and technology to solve any problems which might accidently be created through the behaviour ofhumans. Preservationists, on the other hand believe in the preservation of natural resources for their ownsake, and not just because their existence is of use to humans. They don’t believe science and technologywill solve everything and hence are more risk adverse than conservationists and will advocate preservingmore than may appear to be necessary to a conservationist, “just to be on the safe side” (Freeman 1993).Like all words that are similar in meaning, the line between them becomes fuzzy as it is approached.Nonetheless, it is useful to be aware of the distinction. It has also been described that conservation refersto resources that are renewable and preservation to those that are not (Jenson 1985, p. 324-5).2.4 Recreation Place SystemsHaving made an inventory of the places where people recreate outdoors, in particular those that areconsidered “informal”, it becomes important to see where these areas fit into the supply spectrum ofoutdoor recreation resources. In developing a recreation plan it is necessary to have the total supplypicture. Because the majority of supply of recreation in many areas of the study area (e.g. Fraser -Cheam Regional District) is informal this situation becomes critically relevant.Important distinctions to make when considering recreation places are: is the place resource oriented oruser oriented?, is it outdoor or indoor?, rural or urban?, and is the land being used extensively for theoutdoor recreation activity, such as a trail, or intensively, such as a rock climbing bluff? These questionsall need to be kept in mind in assessing the lists of recreation places given below.Other considerations to be kept in mind about outdoor recreation places are: Should facilities beprovided?, if yes, what kinds and how much? Perhaps the only facility necessary is parking. To answerthis question it is necessary to consider what kind of person is using the area (or will use the area)? Whatkind of experience are they looking for? - a served one, or a self-created one? How many people willlikely use the area? Is there an upper limit on how many people should use the area to ensure the desiredexperience is possible for those using the area? This question is answered partially by considering thedegree of naturalness and wilderness character the area should have, and by considering the area’sproximity to an urban area or human settlement.24Within the scope of recreation place system planning, as presented in the Red Deer Regional PlanningCommission Report, three of their six specific types are relevant to outdoor recreation planning. The sixplace types are: structural, historic and cultural sites, natural monument, resource facility, extensiveenvironment area and primitive environment. Structural refers to such things as arenas, communityhalls, art galleries, etc. Natural monuments are sanctuaries, geologic sites, biological preservation areaetc. These types of places are outside the scope of outdoor recreation as studied in this thesis. However,recreation place types that fall under resource facility (campgrounds, picnic areas, ski hills etc.),extensive environment area, (national parks, river valley, lake and shoreland, forest), and primitiveenvironment (wilderness, wild river, wild lake and primitive protection zone) (Red Deer RegionalPlanning Commission 1978, p. 78) are very relevant recreation place types for any recreation planning ofoutdoor recreation in the study area.It must be made clear that some places are used for recreation precisely because they have NO facilitiesand services. As mentioned in the section on the importance and value of informal recreation, this isexactly what most people are looking for in an informal recreation area. Nevertheless, this does notmean the area should not be managed for recreation, just that it should be “managed” to provide aninformal recreation experience. To determine this it is helpful to look at the full spectrum of placeswhere people recreate, both formal supply areas and informal areas. Table 2.1 and 2.2 provide the sameinformation in two different forms. This is done to bring out two different understandings orcategorizations of the recreation resource opportunities available in the study area. Table 2.3, taken fromthe Ministry of Forests 1991 Recreation Manual, provides yet another categorization and perspective onrecreation place opportunities in British Columbia.Table 2.1 lists the different kinds of outdoor recreation places, who the managing agency is, the settingand the purpose of the place. Keep in mind it is only outdoor recreation places that are considered. Thelist has been divided into FORMAL and INFORMAL recreation place areas.The list is by no means exhaustive. It primarily focuses on the government agencies that provide landresources for recreation. Private commercial and private non-profit organizations that have lands that areused for outdoor recreation have not been considered, because it would be very time consuming and25difficult to track down every last private landowner and commercial operator who provided land foroutdoor recreation.It is acceptable to disregard private landowners of recreation areas, because the land base they managefor outdoor recreation is significantly smaller than is the land base provided by public agencies. This is avalid assumption to make in Canada, as shown by Figure 2.1. Only 6% of British Columbia’s land baseis private. The rest is either Federal or Provincial Crown, committed or uncommitted, with the vastmajority, 85%, being provincial forest. (In the United States private land ownership is much higher andthis assumption would not be valid.)Secondly, this thesis is interested in investigating land that is accessible for recreation as a “public good”,and not as recreation that is a paid for service. The focus of this thesis is not on the commercialprovision of outdoor recreation, which may often be what is provided on land that is in privateownership.Table 2.2 takes some of the same information and rearranges it into which agencies presently manageinformal and formal recreation areas. Table 2.3 lists the agencies providing the recreation opportunity,the amount of money spent by each agency and the role the opportunity plays in recreation.26TABLE 2.1 RECREATION PLACES IN THE STUDY AREARecreation Managing Setting Purpose of the PlacePlace AgencyFORMALMunicipal Municipality Urban Primarily recreation, physical toPark or Municipal Often cultural, in a natural setting, fullDistrict small range of facilities, but usuallyno accommodation because ofurban setting.Regional Regional Urban or Primarily recreation, naturalPark District Non-urban setting, good range of facilities+ BC Parks small to providing a wide range ofmoderate recreation opportunities -in size, physical to cultural. Usuallyno accommodation.Provincial BC Parks Non-urban Balance of recreation andPark - Mix of conservation. Often with fewClass A large and facilities, but there is a widesmall range in this. Large parksusually have different zones &accommodation possible. Smallroadside parks, usually noaccommodation.Provincial BC Parks Non-urban Recreation and other activities.Recreation Often No logging, but mineral extractionArea large possible. Conservation of naturalresources to some extent.Accommodation possible.Ecological BC Parks Non-urban Primarily for conservation ofReserves Variable important ecosystems. Limitedsize - recreation opportunities.often smallRecreation BC Hydro Non-urban Recreation. Some facilities.AreasRecreation BC Hydro & Non-urban Recreation. Basic facilities.Sites BC Forests Small Toilets, parking, possibly campsites.Recreation BC Forests Non-urban Recreation. No facilities, exceptTrails Linear possibly at the trailhead, and trailmarkers.Wilderness BC Forests Non-urban Recreation, no logging, mineralAreas Large extraction possible. Needs to belarge. No facilities, exceptpossibly at entry points (Western1993). By default because of largesize and no facilities will achievea conservation objective.27TABLE 2.1 cont.Wilderness Fish & Rural or Preservation of wildlife is theManagement Wildlife Non-urban primary goal of these areas, butAreas a Branch recreation, especially natureBC Mm of appreciation is possible.EnvironmentWildlife Canadian Rural or Same as above, only Federal land.Management Wildlife Non-urbanAreas a ServiceMigratory Canadian Rural or Protection of special habitat forBird Wildlife Non-urban migratory birds.Sanctuary b ServiceMarina and Small Craft Urban and Support of developments forTourism Wharf Harbours non-urban recreational boaters.Development a Branch - FederalIntertidal Land Mgmt Non-urban Boating, nature study, beachland a Branch - Prov activities.Greenbelt Land Mgmt Urban Visual open space.lands Branch - ProvUniversity Ministry Non-urban Scientific study and recreation.Research of EducationForest a ProvincialINFORMALUndeveloped Municipality Urban Recreation. No designation. Nolands facilities.Dykes Municipality Urban To prevent flooding ofMunicipal Linear developed lands; by-productDistrict is a good place to recreatewhen they are publicSometimes parking, otherwiseno facilities.Logging BC Forests Non-urban To allow the removal of treesroads Linear from the Provincial forests for commercialpurposes. By-product is they become meansof access to undeveloped provincial forest(and alpine) or place to recreate inthemselves. No facilities.Trails Municipality Urban or Recreation. No facilities. Oftenor BC Forests Non-urban built by volunteers.LinearTABLE 2.1 cont.Watersheds Regional Non-urban No recreation. LoggingDistrict Often possible. Conservation ofor large water quality. Sometimes usedMunicipality as informal areas for recreation, (although illegal).Nature Charitable Urban & Protect important areas ofTrust Corporation Non-urban land for conservation.GVRD 1978. Outdoor Recreation Review, Regional Recreation Opportunities, Greater Vancouver Regional Parks District:Vancouver, B.C., p. 58Rethink Group. May 1993. Roles and Responsibilities for Major Parks and Outdoor Recreation in BC’s Lower Mainland,Preliminary Analysis. Vancouver, B.C.SOURCE: This work.2829TABLE 2.2 MANAGING AGENCIES OF INFORMAL AN]) FORMAL SUPPLY_________Municioalitv or_______Municipal District__INFORMAL •Loggmg roads #*other trails *undeveloped lands *dykes 11*•trails *•watersheds #•watersheds #FORMAL •Recreation sites *Recreation trails *wildemess areas +BC Parks Land Management BC EnvironmentBranch Canadian Wildlife ServiceINFORMALFORMAL Class A *+ •Ecological Reserves + •Wilderness Mgmt areas +•Recreation areas * lntertidal land + Wildlife Mgmt areas +Greenbelt land +BC Hydro Ministry of Education Small CraftHarbours BranchINFORMALFORMAL •Recreation areas * •University Research # Marrna & Tourism *•Recreation sites * Forest Wharf Development* areas that are used for recreation# areas where another use is the primary use+ areas for which conservation is a designated useSome areas are rated with two uses.SOURCE: This workBC Forests RegionalDistrictsparks * parks *30TABLE 2.3 WHO’S WHO IN RECREATION MANAGEMENT IN B.C.Agency Expenditure Role in Outdoor RecreationMillions$ProvincialEnvironment 40 Conserve & manage wildlife & recreational fisheries resources.Parks 35 Conserve and manage parklands.Tourism 13 Promote outdoor recreation opportunities for resident andnon-resident tourists.Forests 10 Ensure that recreation is considered in the integratedresource management of Crown forest lands.Advanced Education 6 Provide opportunities for youth to work on recreation projects.and Job TrainingCrown Lands 4 Administer & tenure commercial recreation use on Crownlands.Municipal Affairs, 1 Protect heritage values and archaeological sites on Crown lands.Recreation & Culture Provide support for provincial recreation organizations.Transportation & Highways 1 Provide for recreation values along provincial highways.Other GovernmentCanadian Parks Service 15 Manage national parks in B.C.Dept. of Fisheries & Oceans 13 Provide sports fishing opportunities.Regional Districts 10 Manage regional parks.Canadian Wildlife Service 2 Manage migratory wildlife in B.C.Non-GovernmentOrganizationsCommercial Recreation 25 Provide commercial outdoor recreation opportunities.OperatorsOther Groups 15 Promote outdoor recreation.Volunteer Works 10 Construct & maintain facilities.SOURCE: Ministry of Forests Recreation Manual 1991, p. 1-7. It has the references for the expenditure values.31FIGURE 2.1LAND STATUS IN BRITISH COLUMBIAPrivate (6%)Provincial Federa1Total Crown (2%)CommittedProvincia1Crown (6%)85% UncommittedProvrnualCrown (1%)ProvinciaForestSOURCE: BC Ministry of Forests Recreation Manual 1991, p. 12322.4.1 Objectives of the Agencies That Manage Recreation on the Major Parks Plan Study TeamStudying Table 2.2 above, it can be seen that most of the agencies responsible for areas where informalrecreation takes place in the study area are on the Major Parks Plan Study Team. Within the realm ofmaking a recreation plan for the study area, it is useful to keep in mind the goals and objectives of theagencies that will ultimately be responsible for managing the area - whatever designation it is given in theplan.Therefore, a brief description is given below of the three agencies which presently have lands that areused for informal recreation, BC Forests, Regional Districts and Municipalities. Also included are thetwo other agencies which provide and manage a large percentage of the formal outdoor recreation areasin the study area, BC Parks and BC Hydro.BC Ministry of ForestsThe Ministry of Forests has many goals to achieve, as laid out in the Forest Act, part 2, section 5(4).Among them is integrated resource management, and specifically with respect to recreation their missionis to:• Provide the opportunity for recreation experiences and benefits by protecting the ProvincialForest recreation resource, and to manage the use of the Provincial Forest recreationresource. (BC Ministry of Forests 1991, pp. 1-12).• The MoP recreation program is designed to protect the natural wildiand recreation values of theprovince, including visual aesthetics and wilderness, and to enhance public enjoyment throughthe management of road and trail access, and recreation facilities. (BC Ministry of Forests1991, pp. 1-3).Essentially their goal is to protect the resource for recreation. In other words to ensure that it is possiblefor it to happen on the lands that they manage. However, beyond that, they have no mandate to provideservices or facilities.33Regional ParksThe role of Regional Parks in the provision of recreation areas varies, depending on whether the regionaldistrict even has a park department. Some, such as GVRD do, others such as Fraser- Cheam do not.Even the GVRD park department is presently refming its goals and objectives with respect to recreationand parks. In the past, regional districts like Fraser - Cheam have tried to protect recreationallyimportant land through zoning (Benn 1978). Perhaps the work of the Major Parks Plan Study will allowfor the development of better definitions for regional parks.Municipalities and Municipal DistrictsMunicipal governments have somewhat clearer goals and objectives for the provision of recreation.Municipal parks are there to provide recreation space for the public in a natural environment. One oftheir prime goals is to provide a “public good”, that is available to all citizens. They also provide manyfacilities and services to enhance the recreation experience (Bish 1990, p. 102). However, these facilitiesand services are not strict public goods, as there is often a user fee associated with their use. Municipalparks have no explicitly stated conservation goals. However by virtue of the fact that they generallyprovide for outdoor recreation in a natural environment they are reaching a conservation goal (of sorts.)BC Ministry of ParksBeing aware of the goals of BC Parks is useful for putting the management of outdoor recreationopportunities in a spectrum. Two general goals of BC Parks, from Striking the Balance, are:• conserving and managing for future generations a wide variety of outstanding park landswhich represent the best natural recreation features and diverse wilderness environments ofthe province.• providing province-wide opportunities for a diversity of high quality and safe outdoorrecreation, that is compatible with conserving the natural environment(BC Ministry of Parks 1990a, p. 2).Other goals of BC Parks are to provide the following opportunities to society, communities and theindividual:• To society: Parks are to be a heritage; cultural and natural features• To communities: Parks will provide employment, act as near-by recreation spots, or asdistant vacation destinations.34To the individual: Parks are places for solitude, physical challenge and spiritual renewal.(BC Ministry of Parks 1990a, p. 4).It often appears that the BC Parks conservation mandate is compromised to achieve their recreation goal,and vice versa. This problem is addressed somewhat by zoning within the parks. There is the possibilityof five zones in a Class A Provincial Park. They are: Intensive Recreation, Natural Enviromnent,Special Features, Wilderness Recreation and Wilderness Conservation. All have specific managementobjectives, and compatible activities and facilities that are allowed in each zone. (BC Ministry of Parks1990a, pp. 10-11).BC HydroThe goal of BC Hydro in providing recreation areas where they have hydroelectric development is toprovide good stewardship of the land resource they own. They are the largest corporate landowner in theprovince (Wilson 1993), and want to be a leader in the field of environmental citizenship. Although theareas are water reservoirs, it is possible to have a recreation area associated with it, and therefore insteadof the reservoir being a single use of the land, the recreation area makes it a multiple use. BC Hydro is apublic corporation and today’s public demands access to public lands. Today’s citizen is unwilling toaccept being forbidden to use these lands so management of the area around a reservoir for public useensures public safety. It also allows BC Hydro to provide some interpretation of the area. Managementof BC Hydro recreation areas is by three methods:1) restrict access (when it is just too dangerous to allow the public there);2) turn it over to another more appropriate agency, given the nature of the site and recreationactivity taking place there, (e.g. BC Forests);3) manage the area themselves (Wilson 1993).This chapter has investigated some of the theory behind recreation planning and in particular the conceptof recreation places. It looked at the need for informal recreation areas, within the outdoor recreationopportunity spectrum. This was then placed in the context of how recreation linked into other aspects oflife, such as tourism and conservation. With this theoretical background presented, the thesis turns to thepractical methods that were used to inventory for those places that are used informally for recreation.35CHAPTER 3ME[HODOLOGY ANI) DATA COLLECTIONThe most relevant aspect of the work being discussed in this thesis is that it captured information that isseldom collected in inventories of recreation resources or opportunities. The present state of park andrecreation planning today necessitates that informal supply areas be inventoried and recognized. Toomuch recreation is taking place in these areas for it to be ignored in any planning exercise. This meansthat the information of this inventory will be extremely helpful in making good decisions regarding parkand recreation planning.It is relevant and useful, to describe how the data was collected, stored and presented for use by theMajor Parks Plan Study team.3.1 Description of Data Collection TechniquesThe basic methods used to collect the data were not startlingly different from ways this kind ofinformation has been collected in the past. What was different was that the focus was always towardsareas of “informal” use. It was informal to the point that sometimes it was actually illegal use of an area.For example bicycling in Burnaby municipal parks, is described as an informal area, because it is illegal.Hiking in the watersheds is another example of “illegal”, and therefore informal use of an area.Knowing that this is happening, it is relevant to ask why people are going to these places even if it isforbiddtn. Most likely it is because the areas satisfy the terrain and landscape features necessary for theactivity, and people do not see any good reason for it being illegal.Because the information being sought after was informal, it was, by definition, not readily available ingovernment publications. Fortunately, a significant amount of it was in other publications, primarilyguidebooks for specific outdoor recreation activities.The initial method of collection was to read through newsletters and other written material published bymember organizations of the Outdoor Recreation Council. The usefulness of this method was limited36because generally the newsletters only contained stories about trips taken and not much detail aboutwhere the trip occurred, or how to get there. It was also a very slow way to collect information aboutwhere people recreate, because at most only one or two places per newsletter were mentioned, andusually in very poor geographic detail. What was useful about this method was that it familiarized theresearcher with each of the outdoor recreation activities being inventoried so that a better idea of what thegoal a person was pursuing while engaging in each of the activities was obtained. A last problem withthis method is that only some outdoor recreation activities have clubs that publish newsletters. This wasa good introductory method to the inventory, but was grossly incomplete, barely scratching the surface ofdata collection.Because the researcher is a member of a hiking and mountaineering club, and has been a member of anumber of them, it was known that people involved in these two activities are very organized, and activeevery weekend of the year. These clubs produce trip schedules that succinctly list the areas where theyhike, climb and mountaineer. Therefore trip schedules of the two local mountaineering clubs, the BCMountaineering Club and the Alpine Club of Canada - Vancouver section, and the largest hiking club inVancouver, the North Shore Hikers, were inventoried for the past seven years. From this a fairlycomplete list of informal mountaineering and ski touring areas was made. A partial list of hiking areaswas also compiled.3.1.1 GuidebooksFurther thought led to the realization that people usually used guidebooks to decide the destination oftheir trip. It was also realized that if the researcher went to the “right” people it would be possible to geta lot of information out of them just by sitting down with a map and asking them where they went. Thissecond method would be reasonably time consuming and it was necessary to be as efficient as possiblewith time. Therefore it was decided that the most efficient use of time was to collect the information thatwas in the guidebooks first. After the information in the guidebooks was collected it would be useful tovisit experienced people in each outdoor recreation activity to fill in information gaps that were a resultof not being published in guidebook.37There are two important points to realize about guidebooks as sources of information. The first is thatthey are often activity specific. This is excellent for those activities that have guidebooks, but leaves agap for those that do not. Hiking, mountaineering and rock climbing all have reasonably complete sets ofguidebooks available for the study area. Other activities, such as snowmobiling, hang gliding and dirtbiking appear to be less organized and there are no guidebooks for them. Other outdoor recreationactivities such as mountain biking are quite new. As a result guidebooks are just starting to becomeavailable. They are also still very area specific, e.g. Whistler area, Vancouver area, but not theChilliwack area. As time goes on mountain biking guidebooks that cover a more comprehensive areawill most likely become available.The second point is that guidebooks are usually written because there is a perceived need for them. Thisneed is often generated when the population base is large enough, i.e. enough people are asking for one.Consequently most of the guidebooks found were written by people from Vancouver, and describedrecreation activities to dofrQuz Vancouver. This does not mean that all the areas people use forrecreation are in the Greater Vancouver Regional District, but the perspective the books are written fromis that of someone planning to recreate from the Greater Vancouver area. This means that the furtherone gets from Vancouver the sparser the information is on informal recreation areas. Once one gets tothe furthest reaches of the study area the population there is considerably smaller than in Vancouver. Noguidebooks for activities happening, specifically, out of these smaller centres (e.g. Pemberton, Lillooet,etc.) were found, either in the Outdoor Recreation Council library or in the bookstores that sellguidebooks for outdoor recreation activities.A fmal comment about guidebooks is that some regions are more popular for certain activities thanothers. Consequently, it was easier to find information about some activities in one regional district thanin another. Horseback riding is a good example of this. It is very popular in the Fraser Valley,especially Maple Ridge (so much so that it is recognized in their Official Community Plan.) The result isthat a guidebook has been published of where to horseback ride between Vancouver and east of Hope, butno guidebook was found for horseback riding between Vancouver and Pemberton. This does not meanpeople do not horseback ride in the Squamish - Lillooet area. According to one horseback rider fromPemberton, it is becoming increasingly popular (McGarry 1993).383.1.2 Personal InterviewsThe last method of data collection was to personally interview someone who is very involved in a givenoutdoor recreation activity. The ideal person to find for this kind of interview would be someone thatcould be referred to as a “walking encyclopedia” - who knows just about everywhere there is to go to dotheir outdoor recreation activity. This was not always possible. Because of time and money constraintsthe people interviewed lived in Vancouver. It would be important at this stage in the project to interviewpeople from some of the smaller communities outside the Greater Vancouver Regional District to obtainmissing information. Nonetheless through contacts that were possible because the Outdoor RecreationCouncil is an umbrella organization that represents the interests of the “general public” outdoorrecreationist, very knowledgeable people were found to interview. Some of these people were veryspecific in what activity and what area they knew a lot about. This was often invaluable because no oneelse knew about it. For example, Jack Scrivener knew all about the trail system around Evans andLevette Lakes, just north of Squamish. Appendix 1 has a list of the people who were contacted forinformation about their outdoor recreation activity.It was determined that the best method for collecting information from a personal interview is to visit theperson with the maps of the study area and have them mark on the maps where they recreate. Theresearcher lists the grid reference of each area to ensure that no information marked on the maps ismissed for entry into the database. For this particular project this method was possible only when theperson lived within commuting distance of the researcher. When the person was outside of commutingdistance the telephone was used instead. Information obtained over the phone was much poorer in qualityand accuracy, because it was incredibly difficult to pinpoint information this way. The informant seldomhad a map to refer to when the information was being collected. Some of the people were extremelyhelpful and sent maps of where they bicycled or hiked when it was not possible for the researcher to visitthem in a personal interview. Personal interviews would also be useful at this point in the study to verifythat the information that has been collected is correct, as well as to fill in any missing gaps. As ageneralization most people were very helpful in providing information. The only group that wasreluctant were the dirt bikers. They were afraid that if the areas where they dirt biked became knownthey would be taken away from them. Consequently only general areas and numbers of bikers that useeach area were obtained from them. This information is given in the report in the Table titled “Areas39Ridden Plus Numbers’, in the section “Informal Information About Some of the Activities’ (Anderson1993a, p. 24). Specific areas where people dirt bike were obtained from other sources, e.g. mountainbikers and recreation officers in the BC Forests district office. Very little information was obtained fromthe four wheel drive association because the contact was unavailable.The last kind of information that was collected was general information about the activity itself. Thiswas considered important because it was felt that unless a person, planner or manager, understood theactivity and the motivation to do it, it would be more difficult to plan and manage areas for that activityadequately. It would be more difficult to know what kind of areas were suitable to pursue the activity in,what terrain features were necessary (e.g rock climbing and hang gliding need special rock features andspecial wind conditions), and what kind of facilities (or lack of) a person pursuing a given activity desiredin the area. This information was presented in the report prepared for the Major Parks Plan Study team,as “Informal Information About Some of the Activities.” The highest volume of this kind of informationthat was collected was for those activities the researcher was the least familiar with.3.2 Presentation of the DataThe data that was collected was presented in two ways. The first was to mark on a map where therecreation activity was taking place. A specific symbol or code was used to distinguish between thedifferent activities. Table 3.1 shows what codes were used for each activity.Two types of maps were used for this study. In the corridor between Squamish and Vancouver, andVancouver and Hope, 1:50,000 NTS (National Topographic Series) maps were used. For the rest of thearea in the study region 1:250,000 NTS maps were used. The following is a complete list of the mapsused.92: Gil, G12, G13, G16, G17, G18, Gil0, Gill, G114HI3, Hi4, Hi5, Hi6 (Scale = 1:50,000)92: G, H, I, J, 0 (Scale = 1:250,000)40TABLE 3.1SYMBOLS USED ON THE MAPSBeach activities— —— Bicycling route - mountain biking— Bicycling route - road biking—b BoatingA Campsite• :: FishingxH Hang Gliding—— Hiking or walking trail‘ Horseback riding trail or routeHunting4 Hut/cabinç . Kayaking, canoeing, and river rafting-—+ Motorcycling-.Nature Appreciation——-. Off road driving route or areaPark or Recreation Area Boundary) Rock Climbing.... Route - mountaineering, ski touring, hikingScuba Diving— ) Snowmobiling route or areaSnowshoeing routeWindsurfingSOURCE: Anderson 1993a, p. 941The second way the data was recorded was to make an entry for each area in a database. The databaseprogram used was dBase IV. Appendix 2 describes, in detail, the kind of information (when applicableor available) that went into each field in the record for each area. The first field, the site name(site_name), in the record is a name that describes, as accurately as possible, where the area is. The nextfield in the record is the grid reference (grid_ret), which locates either the traithead, the top of the peakor the centre of the area used. Then for each record of a site, the activities pursued there, what terrainfeatures are present and any other relevant comments, were recorded.A report was written which described the data collection techniques and the structure of the database. Italso included an analysis of where people were recreating outdoors in the study area (Anderson 1993a).3.3 Accuracy of the DataIt is important to make some comments about the accuracy of the data. It some cases it may appearunclear on the map where a trail or route into the mountains starts. This is because the start of a trail orhiking route changes with time. Since most of these routes start from a logging road, access depends onthe condition of the logging road. Washouts mean people have to park lower than in the past; snow onthe road means the start of the ski trip will vary with the snow line. The state of the road will alsodetermine if it is suitable for mountain biking, dirt bike riding or off road driving. A road that wassuitable two years ago, may become impassable after a period of heavy rains. A mountaineering trip thatis popular one season, may fall into disuse because the logging road is washed out and the hike into thearea becomes too long to be feasible for a weekend trip.A subjective assessment of the use levels of an area has been given. It is important to point out that whatis high use in the northern part of the Squamish - Lillooet Regional District would appear to be mediumor low if the area were in the Greater Vancouver Regional District. This is because of the difference inpopulation of these two districts, and peoples tolerance of other users. Similarly, users pursuing someactivities can tolerate a higher number of other users, before they perceive use to be heavy, rather thanmedium or low. Mountaineering is an activity where part of the experience is solitude. Consequently,15 people using an area for mountaineering can mean users will perceive use of the area to be heavy,42whereas mountain biking in the Seymour area with only 15 people may be assessed as a low level of use.3.4 Related ReportsThe following are some reports that are related to and contain information that is relevant to this study.They are described to make a few points. One is that a lot of this inventory work is going on in thisgeneral geographic study area for planning purposes. However, the focus or goals of each inventory isdifferent, as is the objective of each study. Nonetheless, the same basic information is being collected.Unfortunately, it is often difficult to obtain the information collected in the most recent inventory to useas a starting point for the next inventory.The concern regarding this is that the ‘general public” recreationist is being asked to volunteer thisinformation time and time again, because the researchers have yet to fmd a way to share and merge theirinformation. The first two studies mentioned below were done within the last two to three years, so theinformation is current and relevant. Unfortunately, it was not possible to obtain the raw data. Thismeans the same information was collected over again, or not collected. This situation was pointed out,but was unresolvable. Consequently, an attempt was made to obtain information that had not yet beencollected in either of the two previous inventories, rather than repeat information collection that had justoccurred. The related reports are:1. Careless, Ric, & Bob Jamieson. April 1990. The WHISTLER-PEMBERTON CommercialBackcountzy Recreation Study, for the Ministry of Lands, Ethos Consulting & BioquestInternational: Vancouver, B.C.Objective: This study was done for BC Ministry of Lands to determine the potential forcommercial backcountry recreation opportunities.Data Availability: Raw data unavailable and not known where it is.2. Neufeldt-Reeve, June 1992. Soo - TSA Squamish Forest District, Recreation ResourceInventory Report, for the Ministry of Forests, Neufeldt-Reeve Consultants Ltd.: Vancouver,B.C.Objective: This study was done to update the Recreation Inventory maps of the SquamishForest District.43Data Availability: Data is in the process of being mapped on GIS, so is in the hands of twoagencies. Data is somewhat time consuming to process, because it is mapped on 1:20,000maps sheets and this study was done on 1:50,000.3. Berris, Catherine. April 1993. In progress., for the Ministry of Tourism, Vancouver, B.C.Objective: This study was done to determine the tourism potential in the Vancouver tourismregion.Data Availability: Data is in the process of being collected and an agreement was made toshare and exchange the information collected in the two studies that were progressingconcurrently.44CHAPtER 4THE USEFULNESS OF INVENTORIESIn chapter 3, details on how this inventory was done were given. The focus in that chapter was toprovide a good understanding of the methodology and type of data collected. It is now relevant to discussinventories specifically. The first part of this chapter looks at four previous inventories of outdoorrecreation resources done for different portions of the study area. The study area of the presentinventory is larger than any in the past. The four chosen to review were chosen because they aseexamples of previous and similar work done for some portion of the study area, and they were readilyavailable. Any other similar work was not reviewed primarily because it was less available. Eachinventory is described briefly, and then a comparison to the one discussed in this thesis is made.The second part of the chapter looks at the activity categories chosen in this inventory and assesses howuseful they were in understanding outdoor recreation in the study area. After carefully assessing this,suggestions for improved activity categories in a future inventory are made. This is a relevant exercisebecause any inventory is only a snapshot of the present, and continual or future inventorying is alwaysnecessary. The status of areas is always changing and in transition. Areas that were informal when thedata was collected are sometimes formal by the time the report is released. Therefore the information inthe inventory or report can never be 100% accurate.4.1 Review of Previous Inventories of Outdoor Recreation ResourcesFour previous inventories of outdoor recreation resources were looked at from the literature. Theinventories were chosen because they were work done in the study area and they were available from theUBC library. An exhaustive search at all the libraries in Vancouver, for any and all actual inventoriesdone of outdoor recreation resources in the study area was not done. The goal of the search was to get ageneral idea of what inventory work had been done, and what information was readily available.Information that is carefully closeted away in some planner’s office is only useful to others who areaware of, and have access to the information.45A search of theoretical and academic work on the concept of determining supply of recreation resourceswas made. Most of the available literature on inventorying was set in the context of conductinginventories of stock for a retail business. One publication that had useful and practical suggestions forhow to inventory for recreation resources was that of Seymour Gold in Recreation Planning and Design(Gold 1980). Most recreation planning literature is set in an urban context and therefore the informationin these publications is only partially transferable to this work.One inventory was a dual publication study done by the Dewdney-Alouette Regional District in 1977,Outdoor Recreation Resources Inventory and Outdoor Recreation Suitability. Another two were done in1978, one by the Greater Vancouver Regional Parks District, Outdoor Recreation Review, RegionalRecreation Opportunities and the other for the Ministry of Environment of the Fraser Valley, FraserValley, Outdoor Recreation Features. The last was a small study of the summer recreation potential ofthe Whistler Corridor done in 1983, Developing Summer Recreation Potential in the Whistler Corridor.It is not really a true inventory. The study was done for a course in the School of Resource andEnvironmental Management at Simon Fraser University. However it was the only work found for theSquamish - Lillooet Regional District. Together, these reports cover most of the study area discussed inthis thesis.There are numerous reasons for looking at these older studies. The reasons include: determining whatinformation was collected, (i.e. what areas), and what the objectives and conclusions were of theseearlier studies, learning other methods to inventory recreation resources, and most importantly to see if,or how, informal areas for outdoor recreation were incorporated into the inventories. It is also importantto determine from this review, areas where changes can be made in inventory methodology for recreationplanning so that improvements can be made in subsequent planning processes. With respect to the workdescribed in this thesis it is relevant to analyse how the work of this study was different from previousones. The reason behind this is to determine in what ways this work provides information that is uniquecompared to what has been provided in the past, and consequently to know in what ways it will be newand hence, useful for today’s planning.464.1.1. The DARD InventoryThe DARD (Dewdney - Alouette Regional District) Inventory was done in two stages. The first was aninventory of currently designated and formally organized outdoor recreation resources. The division ofresources was done in an interesting and useful way. They were divided into being either land resources,facilities or services. Therefore, the report published in the book Outdoor Recreation ResourcesInventory was an inventory of the formal recreation areas in the Dewdney - Alouette Regional District.An interesting conclusion of this inventory was that government agencies tended to supply most of theland resources, private commercial enterprises were the primary suppliers of facilities (golf courses,marinas, etc.) and private non-profit organizations supplied most of the services. This same conclusionwas reached in the Greater Vancouver Regional Parks District report (GVRPD 1978). This stage of theDARD inventory captured informal recreation information only in the sense that it reported what privatenon-profit organizations supplied recreation services. It did not mention where these private non-profitorganizations were actually doing their outdoor recreation activity. Another interesting aspect to thisreport was that its authors, Norman Cook, Richard Taylor and Chris Shea, did an analysis to determinewhich f these agencies supplying some form of outdoor recreation resource had policies with respect tooutdoor recreation, whether they provided for informal recreation, required organized participation, aswell as other topics less pertinent to this study.The second stage of the inventory was done to determine and identify areas of recreational significance inthe region to ensure that these areas were properly recognized in the Official Community Plan. Theideology used to identify areas suitable for outdoor recreation activities was to assume that individualswho regularly participate in the activities informally apply their own sets of suitable criteria in identifyingand assessing if an area is useful for outdoor recreation. A number of individuals intimately involved inoutdoor recreation were interviewed to identify these areas. No attempt was made to rate the degree ofsuitability of each of these lands because of the complexity of the task. Although the task was to identifyareas suitable for outdoor recreation, most areas identified were actually lands already used for at leastone form of recreation. A division into formal and informal recreation areas was not made in this report,but both kinds of areas were identified. The managing agency was usually identified, and often times theland was privately owned. Together the two documents make up an excellent review and inventory ofthe recreation resources in the Dewdney - Alouette Regional District.474.1.2. The GVRD InventoryThe framework of the GVRD (Greater Vancouver Regional District) outdoor recreation review wascloser to the recently completed one. It focused more heavily on what activities were being done in theregion and where they were being done. One category in their report was “Extensive Use of Areas NotOfficially Designated.” In this way an assessment of use of informal areas was made. The informationwas presented on a number of maps that were divided by activity. There was a map which showed allthe walking and hiking trails, one that showed all the pleasure driving routes, all the boating areas, andall other activities that were inventoried. The activity categories used were very similar to the ones usedin the recent study.An important point made in this report was that outdoor recreation activities change over time, andtherefore it is important to monitor the outdoor recreation scene regularly. Good examples of this is thedramatic increase in mountain biking since this inventory was done. It is not even mentioned in this onedone in 1978. Another, is the new sport of jet boating. It is in its infancy, but has already started tocreate conflict among outdoor recreationists and needs to be addressed by managing authorities now.Another good point this review made was to distinguish between the three different levels of governmentthat provided for recreation and park land. It also made distinctions between the types of parks (andwhat activities were pursued in them) that each different agency provided. This will be important in thepresent study when the people on the Major Parks Plan study have to decide what lands under eachagency’s jurisdiction will be managed for recreation.This author was slightly uncomfortable with the use of quantitative parks standards to determine if therewas enough park land in each municipality in the region. In some respects this is a useful way to assesshow much park land is present. However some municipalities, at this time, may have more land suitablefor park purposes than others. So defining a number of acres per population may not be the best way togo when viewing the complete picture. For example Surrey and North Vancouver may have the mostland suitable for outdoor recreation so regardless of the population in their municipality more recreationlands should be available in them. People can come from other municipalities to recreate there. Thisdoes imply that costs for managing these lands for outdoor recreation should be shared amongst themunicipalities, just as perhaps revenue from development in other municipalities which have less land48suitable for outdoor recreation (but more for development), should be shared. Another aspect to this kindof quantitative assessment is the problem of incorporating informally used lands into the recreationopportunity spectrum. Although not formally designated as park and recreation land these areas are usedfor recreation. Should they be counted as recreation land even if they have other non-recreation uses?Because they have non-recreation uses they should not be considered equivalent in recreation value topark land. Nonetheless they are land used for recreation. Because of its maps, this too was an excellentreview of the recreation resources, opportunities and areas in the Greater Vancouver Regional District.4.1.3. The Fraser Valley InventoryThe review of Outdoor Recreation Features in the Fraser Valley, from Kanaka Creek, west to Hope,described the qualitative aspects of outdoor recreation taking place in this area. As such, it incorporatesthe concept of informal recreation very well. However, once again the focus of the study was not toidentify specifically what areas were used for informal recreation in the study area.A valuable contribution this work makes to recreation planning is that it identifies a number of potentiallygood areas for recreation. This identification was based primarily on the area’s significant, varied andnaturally occurring recreation features. It discusses the reasons in detail. However, the work alsoidentifies the fact that other criteria need to be used to determine which lands will be planned andmanaged for recreation. Many of the suggestions in this work of 1978 have not been implemented today,and the areas suggested for inclusion in the formal recreation area system are still informal.Nonetheless, recreation is still taking place on these lands. Because ownership and use of these lands hasnot changed, it is still possible to pursue the recreation activity that has traditionally been pursued there.It seems that in the Fraser Valley “most land is dedicated to highly significant renewable resources suchas forestry and agriculture” (Benn 1978, p. 49).This review had less detailed maps and so although the points it made were very valid and useful, thisinventory was less useful in identifying the exact areas used for outdoor recreation. It was more usefulfor identifying general areas, rather than specific spots.494.1.4. The Whistler Corridor Recreation PotentialThe goal of this report was not specifically to identify all areas used for outdoor recreation. Theobjective was to assess supply and demand in the area and from there determine potential for furtherdevelopment of recreation, particularly summer activities. Therefore it was quite general in itsdescription of the activities that take place in the corridor and reference to where activities are done wasprimarily as example and not meant to be complete. Nonetheless it was useful in providing an overalldescription of the area and its recreation potential.4.1.5. SummaryAn interesting aspect about these inventories is that they were done about 15 years ago. Therecommendations and observations made then about land use, and needs of the population, are still truetoday. Some of the suggestions made in these reports have been implemented and as a result, goodchanges have been made in the provision of recreation areas in the Lower Mainland area. An example isLynn Headwaters Regional Park. However, progress generally has been slow and many of thesuggestions have not been implemented. Other areas, instead of being managed for recreation, havebecome areas of controversy between development and park land, where no real land use decision hasbeen made. Two examples of these kinds of areas are the Terra Nova lands in Richmond, and BurkeMountain in Coquitlam. On some maps the Burke Mountain area is actually shown as a Regional Park,but this designation was never made official and today it is an area of intense controversy. It appears thatit is very difficult for society to set aside lands solely for conservation and those forms of recreation thatare compatible with conservation. It appears that it is much easier to keep as much land as possible freefor development, potential or real.It is relevant to point out the differences in the recent inventory and the others reviewed above. The mostimportant difference was in the Major Parks Plan Study team deciding to divide supply of recreationareas into formal and informal. This is quite important because it makes it much more explicit who themanaging agency is. Because each agency has its own different set of goals to meet with respect torecreation, it becomes easier to make decisions on how an area will be managed. However, if it isidentified that the area should be managed in a way that is not compatible with the goals of the present50authority then it becomes more clear who the most appropriate managing authority should be. This kindof distinction (formal versus informal) is also valuable because it allows people to broaden theirperspective on the meaning of outdoor recreation to understand that it can be pursued in a wide variety ofsettings. See chapter 6, section 6.1, for more discussion on the value of the Major Parks Plan Studyteam to this process.It is important to point out that this inventory has been rigorous in collecting only the supply of recreationareas that are CURRENTLY in use, and has not looked at potential areas.4.2 Inventory CategorizationIt is valuable to critique or analyse the usefulness of the categories chosen for the recreation activities inthis study. To do this it is necessary to know what the goal of the inventory is, which in this case was tomap where people recreate outdoors. In trying to analyse why people recreate where they do one arrivesat the conclusion that the terrain must be a vital aspect of that decision. In any conversations the authorhad with users, when asked why they used the areas they did, one common reason was that it had thecorrect terrain and climate associated with it. For example, hang gliders require an area where the windsare reliable and not too strong. This eliminates the Squamish Valley as a good place to go because thewinds get too strong there in the afternoon (because of the narrowing of the valley.) It is possible to hangglide there, however it requires the right day and a certain level of expertise. The result is that it is not apopular area for hang gliding. Another example is snowmobiling in the Fraser Valley. In recent yearssnow levels have generally been fairly high and the valley has not received much snow. The result is thatmost dedicated snowmobilers in the Fraser Valley will go to the Coquihalla area for snowmobiingbecause the snow conditions are more reliable. This is because of the higher elevation that can be drivento.A second common thread that ties all use of recreation land together is accessibility. The majority ofpeople will always go to areas thatare closer to home, rather than further if the closer area fulfills theirneed.51However with respect to categorization of outdoor recreation activities for the inventory it is the firstreason that can be used to decide if the categorization is good.Another question to be asked when the categorization of activities is made is: Is each category uniqueenough from the next that each category has a significant number of entries in it? On the other hand thenumber of categories should not be so large that each category has only one entry in it, and is onlymarginally different from another. For example there are many different types of boating, but for thepurposes of the inventory should they all be lumped together? or should they be separated? and ifseparated how much should they be separated? Because the goal of this inventory was to determinelocation, the answer to these questions should be based on “where.” If two different types of boatingtake place in the same area, then there is no need to separate the two, e.g. sailing and powerboating.However, if two types of boating often take place in significantly different areas, then it would be morelogical to separate them. A good example of this is kayaking. Sea kayaldng and white water kayakinggenerally occur on vastly different waters. Therefore it is logical to separate the two if the study areasupports both kinds of kayaking. Existence of an outdoor recreation activity in the study area is anotherkey consideration. For example, it is not that important to consider caving in an inventory of informalrecreation areas in the study area discussed in this thesis, because the geological formations andlandscapes in the area do not support caving sites. However, it is a very actively pursued activity onVancouver Island. Therefore, the credibility of an inventory of outdoor recreation areas for VancouverIsland would be severely strained if caving were not included. Because of time and budget constraints,an activity such as orienteering, which is only lightly pursued in a study area, may not be included.The above example of keeping the two types of boating, sailing and powerboating together brings upanother criteria that could be used to separate activities and that is compatibility. It may be useful tohave separate categories for activities that are known to come in conflict with one another, such assnowmobiling and ski touring. This is relevant because the inventory may show that there are some areaswhere only ski tourers go and vice versa, as well as highlighting those areas where they both groups goand conflict can be expected. This becomes useful when the management of the area is considered.52Continuing this analysis of categorization for the activity boating, brings up some other considerations.Sailing and sea kayaking often use the same waters. Therefore the argument exists that they should bekept together. However management of the two may be significantly different so perhaps they should bekept separate. More difficult distinctions to make are between activities like rafting, white waterkayaking and canoeing, which will all use portions of the same waters, but depending on the difficulty ofthe terrain will be unsuitable for one but still good for the other two. Here, the decision to divide orgroup may be based on how detailed the inventory is to be, as well as how large a portion of the studyareas’ population pursues each of the activities. Lastly, some boating activities like windsurfing may usewaters that boaters use, but only a few areas are suitable for windsurfing. In this study, this situationwas solved by categorizing it as boating, but giving it its own symbol on the maps, so that it stood out asan activity that required special consideration.Below is a list of the activity categories used:Beach ActivitiesBicyclingBoatingEquestrianFreshwater FishingSaltwater FishingHang GlidingHuntingKayakingMotorcyclingMountaineeringNature AppreciationOff Road DrivingOvernight CampingPicnickingRock ClimbingScuba DivingSnow ActivitiesWalking and HikingSome thought was put into the categorization of activities, but hindsight shows that it could have beenslightly better for this study area. The original cast of activities came from the formal supply study, andthe inclusion of picnicking was discussed. It was decided to keep it, just in case, but it really proved tobe unnecessary in the informal supply study. The activity “beach activity” nicely covered all those types53of activities. Beach activities was not one that was heavily focused on during the collection of areas.Comparing it to many of the other activities most beach activities (except the swimming- it needs water)can be done anywhere by anyone, while many of the other activities require special terrain and some skillto pursue.The author did a similar study to this one, after completion of this one and categorized the activitiesdifferently. Because it was for a different area, consideration of what activities take place in the differentstudy area was made. Nonetheless, problems encountered in the first inventory (subject of this thesis)were helpful in deciding on the categories for the second study (Anderson 1993b). Even with thisknowledge knowing the terrain is vital. From this study it was decided that the activity “snow activitiesshould be separated into the three that it covered; backcountry skiing, snowmobiling and snowshoeing.This is a relevant separation in this study area (Lower Mainland) where snow activities play an importantrole in the outdoor recreation scene. There is snow available for use for at least half of the year. In thesecond study area (Vancouver Island), snow plays a much smaller role in the outdoor recreation scene sothat grouping the three activities together into snow activities would have been more appropriate.Nonetheless, especially between backcountry skiing and snowmobiing there are other importantdifferences that exist between the two that it is valid to have them as separate categories. It is certainly adifferent set of people that pursue each of these two activities. And it is questionable whethersnowshoeing needs to be included as a significant activity because so few people do it. For the purposesof this study, it is primarily done in formal recreation areas in formally recognized recreation programs.Another important division that would be useful in a future inventory is in bicycling, by dividing it intoroad bicycling and mountain bicycling as the terrain used is vastly different. This division would thenlead to the grey area of trying to define what road biking is outdoor recreation and what is commuting.This train of thought then begs the question, are roads informal recreation areas? The answers to thesequestions start to bring in the values, beliefs and world view that the person who is defining thecategories holds.It is useful to divide kayaking into white water and sea. However some areas would not support seakayaldng. Walking and hiking are distinct enough activities to warrant separation. This is evident by the54category mountaineering, which was felt to be sufficiently different from hiking to have its own category.It must be remembered that this analysis of the categorization is being done by a mountaineer, hiker andclimber. If someone with a different background looked at the activity categorization a different set ofconclusions may be arrived at. For example, it may be relevant to separate nature appreciation intodifferent categories, e.g. bird-watching, wildlife viewing and plant appreciation. Bird-watching on itsown is the fastest growing outdoor recreation activity in North America (Campbell 1993), and maywarrant its own category in some areas.A last suggestion with respect to the inventorying of areas used for recreation is presented. Becausethere is continual change to the supply which requires new inventories to be done at certain intervals, itwould be better if the inventories could be kept up to date in a kind of “continual inventorying system”,rather than at 15 year intervals as has occurred in the past. This should be more easily possible now thatthe information is on a GIS database system. This should mean that it is easier to make updates to theland use database. If there was someone in each Regional District office who was an avid outdoorrecreationist this would make the task of updating much easier, as the person would, because ofinvolvement, know what was happening and changing in the outdoor recreation field. The updating ofthe inventory would just be one small ongoing part of their work.The above discussion has highlighted the importance of choosing carefully and appropriately thecategories for an inventory. The value and usefulness of an inventory can hinge on the quality of thecategories chosen. Probably a good rule to follow is, when in doubt, split an activity or category, as thiswill ensure greater accuracy and detail in the information gathered for the inventory. It is an easy matterto aggregate data at a later date if necessary. However it is not possible to disaggregate that which wasinitially lumped into one category. It is important to remember that an inventory is an essential step inplanning. Therefore the quality of planning that results is dependent on the quality of the inventory donefor it.55CHAPTER 5RESULTS AND ANALYSISIn this chapter examples of different kinds of recreation area classification systems are presented. This isdone to provoke thought on how informal recreation areas could be incorporated into the planning forparks and recreation. Following this is a discussion on the general types of areas used for informalrecreation. From here some ideas about how “informal” areas could fit into this “recreation opportunityspectrum” are presented. The most relevant point to always keep in mind is that informal areas fill aniche of their own.In the last part of the chapter, specific details regarding site criteria are given, which are important at amore detailed level of planning.5.1 Mylar OverlaysThe information on all the 1:50,000 scale map sheets was transferred to the appropriate 1:250,000 scalemap sheet to give the planner a better overall view of the areas used for informal recreation in the fiveregional districts of the study area. The large formal recreation areas, such as Garibaldi Park, GoldenEars Park, Belcarra Regional Park were also marked on the maps. The result is a good visual summaryof many of the areas used for outdoor recreation.5.2 Recreation Classification SystemsBC Ministry of ForestsOne that is relevant to this study, because they are one of the members of the study team and managemany of the lands used for recreation, particularly informally, is that used by the Ministry of Forests. Itis called the “Recreation Opportunity Spectrum” and was adopted from the US Forest Service. Itessentially divides areas by remoteness and evidence of human use. The five categories are: 1)primitive; 2) semi-primitive non-motorized; 3) semi-primitive motorized; 4) roaded resource land; 5)rural. They differ in how far they can be from either 2 wheel or 4 wheel drive roads, size, degree of56evidence of human use and whether facilities are allowed in the area. A summary is shown in Table 5.1.It would be difficult to incorporate informal recreation areas into this classification system, becauseinformal areas fall into all categories in this system.BC Ministry of ParksProvincial parks has two different classes of parks, Class A and Recreation Areas. They differ inwhether mineral extraction is allowed or not. Recreation areas tolerate a wider range of activities withinthem. Within a park or recreation area, there are five zones that the area could be divided into. Thezoning in a park or recreation area will be defined in its Master Plan. Zoning is generally used for thelarger parks. The five zones are: 1) Wilderness Conservation zone; 2) Wilderness Recreation zone; 3)Special Feature zone; 4) Natural Environment zone and 5) Intensive Recreation zone. Each zone hasmanagement objectives and corresponding compatible activities and facilities. See Table 5.2 for asummary of this information. This kind of classification system is more useful for incorporating theconcept of informal recreation areas into because the classification is focused on types of recreation ortypes of activities that take place on the land. “Informal” recreation could be defined as a type ofrecreation experience that could be slotted into this kind of a classification system. A drawback is that itis set within the context of a formal recreation area.57TABLE 5.1BC Ministry of ForestsRecreation Opportunity SpectrumClass Remoteness Evidence ofHuman CriteriaPrimitive 8 km from a 4- • Very high probability of experiencing solitude, closeness to nature,wheel-drive road self-reliance and challenge• Unmodified natural environment5 000 hectares • Very low interaction with other people• Little on-the-ground evidence of other people• Restrictions and controls generally not evident• Non-motorized access and travel on trails, cross-country & waterways• Generally no facilities except where required for safety & sanitation• Generally no site modificationSemi- 1 km from a 4- • High probability of experiencing solitude, closeness to nature, self-Primitive wheel-drive road reliance and challengeNon-Motorized • Natural or natural-appearing environment1 000 hectares • Low interaction with other people• Some on-the-ground evidence of other people, some on-site controls• Non-motorized access and travel on trails, cross-country & waterways• Facilities may be present for signing and for sanitary and safetyneeds using natural, rustic materials wherever possible• Minimal to no site modificationSemi- 1 km from a 2- • Moderate opportunity for solitude, closeness to nature; high degree ofPrimitive wheel-drive road self-reliance and challenge in using motorized equipmentMotorized • Natural or natural-appearing environment1 000 hectares • Low interaction with other people. Some on-the-ground evidence of other people, some on-site controls• Motorized access on trails, primitive roads & cross-country may occur• Limited facilities for signing, sanitary and safety needs using natural,rustic materials wherever possible• Minimal site modificationRoaded Often within 1 . Opportunties for both privacy and social interaction; feelings ofResource km of a 2-wheel- independence and freedomLand drive road with a • Natural environment may be substantially modifiedgravel or dirt • Moderate interaction with other peoplesurface • On-the-ground evidence of other people, some on-site controls• Access and travel is by motorized vehicle• Facilities generally present; natural, rustic materials preferred, withmore refinement in designRural No remoteness . Opportunities for social interaction and convenient facilitiescriteria • Natural environment is culturally modified, e.g., pastoral farmlandsand utility corridorsNo size criteria • Many interactions with other people• Obvious on-the-ground evidence of other people & on-site controls• Access and travel is by conventional motorized vehicle. Complex and numerous facilities. Moderate to heavy site modificationSOURCE: BC Ministry of Forests Recreation Manual 1991, p. 6-1258TABLE 5.2BC Ministry of ParksPark ZonesZone Management Objective Compatible Activitiesand FacifitiesWilderness To protect a remote, Backpacking, river rafting,Conservation undisturbed natural fishing, naturelandscape and provide appreciation, etc.backcountiy experiences NO hunting & NO mechanizedbased on a pristine access allowed.environment where no NO facility development.motorized activitieswill be allowed.Wilderness To provide for back- Backpacking, river raftingRecreation country recreation in fishing, hunting, naturea more remote natural appreciation, etc.environment, with Facility developmentemphasis on a wilderness limited to user convenienceatmosphere. & protecting theenvironment, e.g. trails,primitive campsites,shelters, etc.Mechanized access may beallowed to specific points.Special To protect and present Sight-seeing, study ofFeature significant natural or history & nature,cultural resources, interpretation.features or processes Facilities may be developedbecause of their for feature interpretationspecial character, purposes only.fragility and heritage May be subject tovalue, temporary closures orpermanently restrictedaccess.Natural To provide a variety of Walk-in camping, kayaking,Environment easily-accessible off-road cross-country skiing,outdoor recreation horseback riding, etc.activities in a largely Facilities are moderatelyundisturbed natural developed, e.g. trails,environment, boat-in campsites,shelters, etc.Intensive To provide for a variety of Camping, picnicking, beachRecreation high-use, readily accessible activities, powerboating,facility oriented outdoor nature appreciation,recreation activities, skiing, fishing, etc.Facilities may be intenselydeveloped, e.g.campgrounds, play areas,interpretive buildings,boat launches, etc.SOURCE: BC Parks 1990a, p.10-il59Ontario Ministry of ParksIt is useful to look at a few other classifications to see if they shed any useful information on betterdefming the situation. In Ontario there are five different kinds of parks: 1) Primitive; 2) Wild River; 3)Natural Environment; 4) Recreation; 5) Nature Reserve. These are summarized in Table 5.3. Thissystem divides parks by accessibility and amount of recreation use that is permitted. Like the BCprovincial park system, each kind of park can be zoned in its master plan into the following zones: 1)primitive; 2) natural; 3) historic; 4) multiple use; 5) recreation. These zones are very similar to thoseused by the BC Ministry of Parks. See Table 5.4 for a complete description.Other Jurisdictions and Kinds of ClassificationFollowing Ontario’s park classification system are examples of those used by other countries andjurisdictions. These are given in Tables 5.5 to 5.8. These classifications are for both the land or waterresource, and are presented as other ways of classifying the land or water resource which could behelpful in deciding how to fit informal recreation areas into the recreation opportunity spectrum of thestudy area.60TABLE 5.3Ontario Ministry of ParksPark TypesPrimitive: Wilderness areas for wildiand recreation, for geological research and interestingly, the‘psychological need, of many people, to know that unspoiled wilderness areas exist’.Development is confmed to trails, portages and designated campsites.Wild River: Sections of rivers not less than one-day’s upstream travel by canoe in length, with a minimumshoreline depth of 400 feet (122m) on public lands. Some recreation development at accesspoints and logging will be allowed subject to any restrictions needed to preserve the aestheticquality of the environment. Motor-powered boats may be restricted or prohibited.Natural Environment: Areas for medium and low intensity rural recreation in a natural environment, together withsome wilderness or semi-wilderness areas. The management will be on a multiple useprinciple, recognizing recreation as the primary use on all lands and the exclusive use onsome. Complete interpretive services are among the facilities provided.Recreation: These are user-oriented with two sub-classes, Recreation areas, in which day use activitiestend to dominate and indeed may be the only use; and Campgrounds, providing for intensivecamping and associated uses. The Recreation areas will include many good beaches. Theseparks are also available for winter use, when heated washrooms are maintained, and activitiessuch as ice-fishing, snowshoeing, skiing, skating, and tobogganing are followed. In all but afew of the parks, snowmobile trails are laid out.Nature Reserve: Areas for the preservation of unique natural areas where the presence of the public is notsignificantly detrimental to the natural value of the area.SOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 136-8TABLE 5.4Ontario Ministry of ParksPark ZonesPrimitive: for the preservation of natural Landscapes and their scientific studyNatural: for public enjoyment and recreation at unique natural areas such as lookout points andbiological phenomena. No development except where absolutely necessary, and in connectionwith the interpretive programme.Historic: self-explanatoryMultiple Use: low intensity recreation use is managed in consort with the use of other resources. This otheruse is usually logging.Recreation: this zone is for intensive recreational use and will be confined to areas with high capability forthis purpose. A twenty-year period is envisaged.SOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 13961TABLE 5.5Coastal Zones: Zealand and MonGroup 1 (suitable for intensive use)(a) good for bathing(b) less important for bathing(c) with urban area inlandGroup 2 (less suitable for intensive use)(a) good for bathing(b) less important for bathing(c) with urban area inlandGroup 3 (poor coasts)(a) unsuitable because of natural conditions(b) monopolized by urban areaSOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 58TABLE 5.6UK: Land UseSettlementsHorticulturePerennial CropsCroplandImproved GrasslandUnimproved grazing: privatecommon landForestUnproductive (unaccounted for)SOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 6062TABLE 5.7England and Wales: Recreation Resource PotentialNational ParksAreas of Outstanding Natural BeautyGreen BeltDefence LandDerelict LandLong Distance RoutesNational Trust: gardens and open spaces ownedForest Commission (forest parks)National nature reservesLocal nature reservesCommon landsSOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 61TABLE 5.8Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission(ORRRC) Classification SystemHigh Density Recreation A wide variety of recreation uses involving substantial development. Suchresources as are at hand are used.General Outdoor Recreation Again, there is a wide variety of uses for which substantial development isundertaken but choice of resource is likeLy to be exercised.Natural Environment These are suitable for recreation which is fitted to the particular area;opportunities for multiple use are frequent.Unique Natural Places of scenic splendour or natural wonder or scientific importance whereobservation is the primary form of enjoyment.Primitive Undisturbed roadless areas, including wilderness zones.Historic and CulturalSOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 67635.3 Informal Recreation Areas - Entire Study AreaBelow is a description of the basic kinds of areas used as informal areas for recreation. Following thisis a brief discussion of how population influences the areas that are used. Then, for each regionaldistrict, the following topic is addressed: “Types of Terrain and Recreation Opportunities.”Types of Areas UsedIt is important to point out that the analysis of the information gathered will be slightly skewed becausethe collection was not totally complete and the focus of collection was more towards the east ofVancouver, rather than to the north. This is valid because the gathering of data reflects where the needfor its collection is greatest and where there is the most recreational use, especially informal, of the land.This is primarily because of the higher population east of Vancouver.It is simple to describe the basic kinds of areas used as informal recreation areas in the study area. Thereare two of them, dykes and logging roads.DykesThese are heavily used for many kinds of outdoor recreation that include:• bicycling - road and mountain• horseback riding• nature appreciation• walkingLogging RoadsThese form the basis for many outdoor recreation activities, either as the terrain on which it is done, oras the access route to reach the destination of the activity. The activities that rely on logging roads are:• hiking• horseback riding• hunting• motorcycling (dirt biking)• mountain biking64• mountaineering• off road driving• ski touring• snowmobilingOther important informal recreation areas that have not been heavily highlighted in this inventory and thatoccur primarily in urban centres are “green spaces” or vacant municipal land. These could occuranywhere, but those that are surrounded by lightly used roadways and are therefore safe and quiet are theones important and useful for recreation. Like dykes and logging roads, these green spaces are not therespecifically for recreation, but they are used because they meet recreation needs.Terrain DifferencesDifferences in the kind of terrain or landscapes within each regional district are significant enough that acomment on their differences is worthwhile. An important aspect of these differences in terrain are thatthey dictate what outdoor recreation activities are suitable within that district.In the more heavily populated regions (e.g. large parts of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, andsmall areas within Dewdney - Alouette and Fraser - Cheam), modification of the landscape by humanshas influenced what kind of outdoor recreation can now take place there. Within the analysis for eachregional district a brief description of dominant terrain types is given, and then what activities are mostsuitable for that terrain.Population DifferencesMost of the regional districts within the study area have vast differences in population per area of land.Therefore each regional district feels the pressure of demand for outdoor recreation areas quitedifferently. Because of the large areas of mountainous terrain in nearly all the regional districts (all butCentral Fraser Valley) population centres tend to be concentrated in the lowland areas of the district. Inthe Greater Vancouver Regional District nearly all land that is not mountainous is used for humandwellings or food production. It has the greatest population (by far) of all the regional districts. Thislarge difference in population is changing as more people are moving east. Some are moving north. The65Greater Vancouver Regional District is the second smallest in land area in the study area. In relation toit, the land areas of the Squamish - Lillooet and Fraser - Cheam Regional Districts are huge. See Table5.9 which gives the population and land area for each Regional District.TABLE 5.9Population and Land Area of the FiveRegional Districts in the Study AreaRegional District Population Area (sq kin)Central Fraser Valley 87,360 385.36Dewdney - Alouette 89,968 3,155.84Fraser - Cheam 68,681 10,797.70Greater Vancouver 1,542,744 2,473.25Squamish - Lilooet 23,421 16,533.83SOURCE: Statistics Canada. 1992. Profile of Census Divisions and Subdivisions in British Columbia,Part ABecause of the flat deltas along the Fraser River, most of which are south of the river, the next mostheavily populated regional districts are Dewdney - Alouette, Central Fraser Valley and Fraser - Cheam.This is because this flat lowland terrain is more amenable to human habitation than the mountainousterrain found elsewhere in the study area. Areas in the Squamish - Lillooet Regional District that aresuitable for human habitation are much smaller. There is some at the head of Howe Sound (Squainish),the Lillooet River (Pemberton), Carpenter and Downtown Lakes (Goldbridge), and further up the FraserRiver (Lillooet).66Because of the huge population of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, relative to its area, people inthis district regularly leave it to recreate. As far as this author knows, (no research has been done thatthe author is aware of), there is no reason, when personal preferences are averaged out, why people inthe GVRD would go east before north, or vice versa, to recreate. However, because populationpressures within the GVRD have caused people to move east to live, the total population in Dewdney -Alouette, Central Fraser Valley and Fraser - Cheam Regional Districts is much higher than to the northof Vancouver. This fact in itself will increase the demand for outdoor recreation in these three districtsover that experienced in the Squamish - Lillooet Regional District. As a generalization people willrecreate as close to home as possible to fulfill their “need” for outdoor recreation. The casualrecreationist will on average probably go a shorter distance to satisfy their outdoor recreation needs thanthe dedicated recreationist. The dedicated recreationist is willing to spend more time and energy to get toan area which will provide a higher quality or different recreation experience, because they have alreadybeen to the ones close to home.5.4 Informal Recreation Areas by Regional District5.4.1 Central Fraser ValleyTypes of Terrain and Recreation OpportunitiesThis regional district is very small, and is almost totally lowland forest or open lowland that is used foragriculture or housing. It has one small mountain, Sumas Mountain, that is quite heavily used foroutdoor recreation. The activities pursued there include: hiking, mountain biking, dirt bike riding,horseback riding and hang gliding. There is some fishing on the eastern border of this district along theVedder Canal.675.4.2 Dewdney - AlouetteTypes of Terrain and Recreation OpportunitiesThe Dewdney - Alouette Regional District lies totally north of the Fraser River, so it has only smallpockets of lowland that are easily used for human habitation. There are two main lowland areas, onearound Maple Ridge and Pitt Meadows, and one east of Mission along Nicomen Slough. Both theseareas are home to a wide range of birds and important wetland plant life. This makes both these areasvery important for nature appreciation.It has no important rivers for fishing. However it has three large lakes, Pitt Lake (shared), AlouetteLake and Stave Lake, which are good for boating and kayaking. Pitt Lake has numerous spots that aregood for fishing. Stave Lake is a much larger lake than the other two so is not as suitable for boatingbecause of the high winds that can develop on it. Fishing occurs on the more southern ends of it, whereit is accessible by road.Dewdney - Alouette would have to be considered the horse capital of the study area because it is home toMaple Ridge, which has one of the largest numbers of horseback riders per capita in British Columbia.Perhaps its appeal to horseback riders is the mix of lowland and more rugged mountainous terrain.Increasing population is making it more difficult for people to house their horses, plus find enough terrainto ride on. The result is that dedicated horseback riders are moving to the Interior of British Columbia(Ladimer 1993).A large part of the steep, mountainous terrain in this district is in protected areas - Golden EarsProvincial Park, Mount Judge Howay Recreation Area and UBC Research Forest. Areas outside theseprotected areas have experienced significant logging which makes them very suitable for motorcycling,off road driving and mountain biking.Except for the upper parts of Golden Ears Provincial Park and Mount Judge Howay Recreation Area,there are very few alpine areas in this district, so mountaineering is not pursued very heavily in theinformal areas. The more accessible areas of the district generally tend to be lower in elevation soreceive little snow, making this district only marginally suitable for snow activities. The alpine areas of68the district are very inaccessible and require boat or plane to access them. As a result huge portions ofthis district are seldom visited by anyone.5.4.3 Fraser - CheamTypes of Terrain and Recreation OpportunitiesThis regional district is very big, similar to the Squamish - Lillooet Regional District, but has a slightlynarrower range of terrain types. It does not have the vast ice fields. Nonetheless it still has many otherimportant landscape features that provide good recreation opportunities. It has two excellent rivers forfishing, (Chilliwack and Skagit), many logging roads (especially west of Harrison Lake) that are good foroff road driving and motorcycling. These also provide good access for hunting. Areas along the FraserRiver and Harrison River provide excellent opportunities for nature appreciation; wildlife viewing,floodplain forests and other wetland plant life. There are also a few pockets of valuable old growthforest left in this district, for example in the Radium Creek valley.The quality of the rock in this district is variable. There are three areas where it is very good andprovides some good mountaineering; the Chehalis, the Anderson River Mountains and the Coquihallaarea. There is also some good rock south of the Chilliwack river between Slesse Creek, NesakwatchCreek and Centre Creek. However the rock north of the Chilliwack River, in the Cheam range, is verycrumbly and not enjoyable for climbing.Because the valleys, especially around the Chilliwack River, are very steep walled and on average theelevation is lower, this area is less suited to snow activities than other parts of the study area. In thewinter people tend to head to the Coquihalla area for better, more reliable snow and gentler terrain.Nonetheless, because it is close to a fairly big population, snowmobiling, snowshoeing and ski touring dooccur in the Chilliwack Valley.The Chilliwack River is also popular for kayaking and camping. Easy access to the river is the mostprobable reason for its heavy use.695.4.4 Greater VancouverTypes of Terrain and Recreation OpportunitiesThis regional district is approximately 50% lowland river delta and 50% relatively inaccessible, forestcovered mountainous terrain.It has three rivers that are well used for fishing, the Seymour, Capilano and Fraser. It has foursignificant sized lakes or water bodies, Indian Arm, Coquitlam Lake, Buntzen Lake and Pitt Lake(shared).The southwestern part of the district, the large delta areas of Richmond and Surrey, are very importantfor nature appreciation, walking, bicycling and horseback riding and are heavily used for these activities.They are close and easily accessible to many people. There is enough open space in this area that thereis a significant population of horses and horseback riders. On the other hand there is much lesshorseback riding in the northern half of the district in the north shore mountains. They are usedprimarily for hiking, mountaineering, mountain biking and skiing. The northwestern half of themountains has a number of parks, while the northeastern half, at the moment, is a kind of “free for all”zone. Other areas in the northern half of this district are zoned as watersheds, and as such prohibitrecreation.The dyke areas of the southern half of the district, although very popular do not seem to be experiencingoveruse or conflict problems. Portions of the dykes which are on private land cause recreationists totrespass or detour to less desirable road routes.5.4.5 Squamish - LillooetTypes of Terrain and Outdoor Recreation OpportunitiesThe Squamish - Lillooet Regional District has a good variety of terrain types. Its most distinctivefeature, in comparison to the other regional districts, is its large areas of glaciated terrain. These arefound primarily in the southwestern part of the district. It also has a few large rivers (Squamish,Cheakamus and Lillooet) throughout the district and some large lakes (Gun, Anderson and Downton) in70the more northern parts. The terrain tends to be more rolling and gentler in the northeastern part.Compared to the other regional districts it has the most amount of alpine terrain.The Squamish - Lillooet Regional District is also home to some of the fmest granite for rock climbing inNorth America. This high quality granite is found close to an urban centre, Squamish, so it is anextremely popular area for rock climbing. Other sites have also been found in the district, north andsouth of Squamish to relieve the pressure on the rock close to Squamish.The narrowing of the valley around Squamish and Whistler make it less than ideal for hang gliding andparagliding. However further north in the Pemberton valley some good sites are being established,which reportedly result in some of the fmest flights around, largely because of the spectacular alpinescenery.As a result of the good variety of terrain, this regional district is suitable for most types of outdoorrecreation activities, at least somewhere within it. The glaciated terrain is excellent for ski touring,snowmobiling and mountaineering. The fact that it exists at such a low latitude indicates that there isindeed a lot of snowfall in this area, and as a result has one of the longest ski seasons in southernCanada. From a quality of experience perspective it provides some of the finest because of thespectacular nature glaciated terrain brings to an outdoor recreation experience. Because of the warm,wet winters experienced in the southwestern part of the district, these glaciers are reasonably safe totravel on. The area of alpine terrain being so large in this region makes it very suitable for hiking andmountaineering opportunities. It has at least one large river which is very good for fishing, the Squamishand its tributaries. Hunting is poor in this drainage, but further north and east of Pemberton the huntingis still quite good, possibly because there has been less hunting pressure here in the past. It may also bebecause the terrain and climate make it habitat that is well suited for wildlife. This part of the district isalso good for hiking, general mountaineering, and horseback riding. As logging continues and pressuresfor mountain biking and dirt bike riding areas increase there is also suitable terrain for these twoactivities.715.5 General Site RequirementsIt is now useful for planning purposes to know what makes a “place” good for outdoor recreation. Beloware three criteria that are applicable to all outdoor recreation activities. Following this are criteria thatare specific to three activities that require very special sites in order to pursue them, rock climbing, hanggliding and windsurfmg. All other activities are more flexible in their site requirements.• Aesthetics. The area must be visually pleasing. Good scenery is a must. Landscapefeatures which enhance the visual pleasure of an area are: streams, forests, waterfalls, oceanvistas, mountain vistas, glaciers and even green pasture lands (for lowland recreationactivities.) In an outdoor recreation experience, people are not looking for views ofconcrete, buildings, roads or logging slashes, which are all signs of mans’ destructiveindustrial activities.• Access. It has to be reasonably easy to get there. Of course, everyones’ definition of“reasonably” varies. But, as a generalization, the easier and quicker it is to get to the sitethe better. These areas are the more popular ones, especially for the beginner or casualrecreation user. This criterion becomes much less important for the more experienced anddedicated outdoor recreationists who will travel further and over rougher terrain to get wherethey are going. Of course with one activity, “Off road driving” bad driving terrain is whatthe dedicated four wheel driver is looking for.• Difficulty of Terrain. The difficulty of terrain sought after depends on the skill of therecreationist. The more popular areas are those in which the difficulty is suitable for thebeginner or casual recreationist. The least popular, but most important areas are those thathave difficult terrain and are used by the dedicated or expert user.725.5.1 Specific Requirements for Three ActivitiesSome recreation activities require sites with extremely specific landscape features. They are: rockclimbing, hang gliding and windsurfing. It is therefore important in any planning, change anddevelopment of the land that these areas are not destroyed, because sites for these activities are not easilyreplaced. In reality they are usually extremely difficult to replace, if not impossible. Some of theimportant landscape features for each of these activities include, listed in order of importance:Rock Climbing:• solid rock;• less than 40m high, which are good for top roping as that is what the majority of rockclimbers will always want;• cracks, friction holds; angle between 75 to 100 degrees;• fairly close to an approved parking spot; ideally less than .5km from the site because there isa fair amount of equipment to carry.Hang Gliding:• suitable winds;(the Squamish/Whistler area is not good because of the Venturi effect. The narrowing of thevalley causes the wind speed to increase as it goes through this area. This leads todangerously high and/or unpredictable winds, especially in the afternoon)• reasonably close to an approved parking area, because there is a lot of heavy and awkwardequipment to carry;• a suitable landing spot; enough clearance, safe, and has the approval of the landowner.Windsurfmg• suitable winds;• safe waters - no underwater dangers in the area close to the surface;• close to an approved parking spot, once again because reasonably heavy and awkwardequipment needs to be carried down to the water.73For most of the other outdoor recreation activities looked at in this study, suitable sites are easier to find.Consequently there is some flexibility in how the land is used. Appendix 3 lists site factor requirementsspecific to each activity.5.5.2 Beginner versus Expert NeedsA generic comment must be made about the difference in the requirements of a recreation area for abeginner or casual recreationist and of an expert or dedicated recreationist. Beginners are looking for anarea where they can do the activity in a way that feels safe and unthreatening, and where the skill levelrequired to do it is low. Consequently, the terrain needs to match those requirements for the particularactivity. However, for the expert, the terrain needs to provide a challenge, where the skill levelsrequired to do the activity are much higher. In many outdoor recreation experiences one thing the personis looking for is a stimulating experience, hence challenge, and adventure. In many cases exploration is acritically important part of the experience, and can often be the prime motivation for the person pursuingthe activity in the first place. This can only be achieved if the terrain is right!5.6 Putting It All TogetherFrom the above work and examining the maps (available at the Parks Department of GVRD), it can beseen that areas that are informally used for recreation cover the full range of types of recreation areas andtypes of activities pursued. Informal recreation areas can be the small patch of green space at the end ofthe cul-de-sac that is used for picnicking or walking by local residents, to the end of a logging road whichis used as a launch point for the dedicated mountain traveller for a three week journey through thewilderness of the Coast Range mountains. This full range also includes all types of users, from casual todedicated.For this reason when the existence of informal recreation areas are incorporated into a recreation plan foran area, the attributes of, and reasons people use each area will need to be carefully considered. Eachinformal recreation area will slot into the scheme in a different place. It is valuable to have a list of these74places because now it is known what areas are used for recreation. The inventory work and associatedreport also gives an indication of how heavily used each area is and how many different kinds ofrecreation activities are pursued in the area. This is important because it gives planners and managers anidea of how important that area is for recreation. From this information, as well as land tenure, andother proposed uses of the area, decisions can be made regarding what would be the best way to manageeach area. As a start, three approaches could be used.1. The area could be recreationally important, but proposed future uses will eliminate thearea’s present recreation use, so the area should be turned into a formal recreation area toprotect it for recreation.2. The area supports recreation use, along with other uses and all uses exist in harmony withone another. Nothing needs to be done other than to acknowledge and map the recreationuse.3. The area supports recreation use, along with other uses. The recreation experience wouldbe enhanced if the managing agency made improvements or changes to the area. Seechapter 6, section 6.2 for examples of some changes that could be made to enhance therecreation experience in an informal area.With respect to areas that fall into management approaches 2 and 3, it is important that these areasremain informal because there is a need for these kinds of areas to exist within the recreation opportunityspectrum (as described in chapter 2.) Areas that appear umnanaged are important. If the informalareas are taken away, or all turned into formal areas informal use will be displaced elsewhere (Wilson1993).Because informal areas require few facilities, the main task is to ensure that those lands remain availablefor recreation use. Therefore money may need to be spent to change ownership, change the laws, buythe land, provide parking, upgrade the road, but no money needs to be spent to provide shelters, picnicsites, or other facilities.To reduce deterioration of a resource from insensitive overuse, one good method is to keep obstacles toreaching the area, such as poor access (Buholzer 1974, p.3’7). This will prevent some people from usingan area.75Another possible consequence of knowing what lands and waters people use for recreation that wouldhave positive ramifications is that it might allow planners and managers to be more proactive inpreventing conflict between users. Knowing that a number of different activities are being pursued ontheir lands means they could take action to ensure heated arguments do not occur between peoplepursuing activities that are incompatible. This is particularly true of NEW outdoor recreation activities.An example of this is jet boating. It is new, and it is starting to create conflict in certain places in thestudy area.Another positive consequence of knowing where people recreate informally is that public agencies, suchas BC Parks, BC Forests, the Regional District park departments and municipal park departments, willbe able to inform the public about a broader range of outdoor recreation opportunities. It is important todistinguish these opportunities from those that tourism would focus on, and be aware of. The onesinvestigated in this study are specifically for public enjoyment and use, and not for commercial purposes.There defmitely is a large overlap in the opportunities available, but the perspective taken on how it willbe pursued is significantly different. Public outdoor recreation is done from the perspective of the persongoing out and doing it themselves, armed with enough knowledge to fmd the area and to do it safely.Many of these informal recreation areas are examples of “multi-use” systems that have come intoexistence naturally, and are existing quite well as they have evolved. Multiple use of an area is a conceptthat merits an in-depth exploration of its meaning. This will not be done in this work. However a fewpertinent points will be made. To properly defme multiple use of an area, the fundamental question“What defines a use?” must be answered. Because people have different belief systems there can bediffering opinions on the answer to this question. In some peoples’ minds “use” includes such things asexistence value, biological/ecological value and wildlife habitat value, as well as the moreanthropocentric uses, timber harvesting, mineral extraction, human food production, grazing, housing,and recreation. It is a long and varied list that not everyone agrees on the contents of. This is animportant issue for society to resolve more fully because when “use” is described more accurately,“protecting” areas of land as parks no longer can be defmed as a “Single Use” of the land.76It is valuable for all planners and managers of outdoor recreation to keep in mind important reasons whypeople live in the study area. People live here because the outdoor recreation opportunities available aresome of the best in Canada, if not the world. The natural features and climate are extremely well suitedto outdoor recreation pursuits. Where else can you go skiing and kayaking, or rock climbing andmountain biking on the same weekend, so easily? To see these recreation opportunities be slowly erodedaway is also seeing the erosion of the high quality of life here. Need it therefore be said that increasedimportance should be placed on the maintenance of these recreation opportunities.Increased understanding of the importance and value of informal areas within the recreation opportunityspectrum should help planners and managers better understand the requests made by the avid, dedicatedusers. It may possibly help planners and “developers” understand the comment: “spared the vandalismof improvement” (Red Deer RPC, 1978), and act accordingly.In the last chapter, the important role that the Major Parks Plan Study team plays in implementing theseideas is discussed. This is followed by specific suggestions on how and where energy could be put toimprove recreation planning with respect to informal areas.77CHAPTER 6SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS6.1 Importance and Value of the Major Parks Plan Study TeamThe forming of the Major Parks Plan Study Team was a very important step to take towards the creationof better park and recreation planning in the study area. People in each of the different agencies that planand manage for recreation have the opportunity to work together, rather than in isolation. Everyone willbe better informed and have a greater awareness of what is being done, both within and outside their ownjurisdictions. This is important because these external events impact what is taking place within theirown. It also means they know the people to call for advice, or help, or to collaborate with on thoseplanning and management projects that require the input of a few agencies.Interagency communication is especially important for recreation features that are linear, such as trails,rivers, and roads. More than one managing agency could be responsible for the care of this kind ofrecreation resource. If there is a forum where conununication over its management can take place, thereis a better chance of good management occurring. Problems often occur almost exclusively because oflack of communication between one party and another. With respect to informal lands used forrecreation it is excellent that BC Forests is part of this study team, as much “informal” recreation takesplace on their lands.It was noticed that many of the suggestions made in the next section were also made in the 1978 GVRDreport (GVRD 1978, pp. 63-4). This was a concern because it appears that there have been problems inimplementing the suggestions made 15 years ago. One suggestion that was made in the earlier report thatis of relevance here is: “Much potential exists to improve recreation services through a closer liaisonwith public agencies such as dyking authorities, highways department and universities ...“ (GVRD 1978,p.64). Further thought on this matter led to the idea that perhaps if these authorities - dyking, highwaysand BC Lands - were also part of the Major Parks Plan Study team it would probably be easier to achievethis closer liaison and ultimately the improved recreation services. Although these agencies have nodirect mandate to provide for recreation their cooperation in facilitating improvements to recreationopportunities is necessary. If they better understood the goals and aims o. any proposed changes to the78land, either tenure or use, there might be a greater chance of implementing the proposed changes.One last comment about this Study Team is that looking at the composition of the team it appears that ithas been properly recognized that outdoor recreation planning and management is a land use issue andtherefore needs to be the work of land managing agencies. In the past recreation has too often beenlumped in with cultural services. In part it is a cultural service, but for outdoor recreation especially, ifthere is no land to do it on, there is NO recreation.6.2 Suggestions for the FutureSome suggestions for steps that could be taken in the future to improve recreation planning with respectto informal recreation, are given below.Since much informal recreation takes place on logging roads and dykes the following are suggestions forimprovements to the outdoor recreation experience in these two places.• The Ministry of Forests should allocate more money to recreation planning. This is particularlytrue in the Squamish - Lillooet Regional District (where a lot of it is lands in the SquamishForest District.) A lot of recreation takes place in the provincial forests in this forest district,and tourism is developing in the regional district (using outdoor recreation as one of itsattractions) and yet the forest district in this area has devoted very few resources to managingfor recreation.• One area that money should be spent in forest recreation management is in maintaining selectedimportant access logging roads in driveable condition (not necessarily to two wheel drivestandard.) Logging roads are used for many forms of outdoor recreation when they are notwashed out. Keeping logging roads in drivable condition has other benefits besides providingfor recreation. It means that the forest service or forest company who owns the timber rightscan access the area to properly manage the forest. Less erosion of the landscape would occurand this would cause less damage to the streams which would be beneficial to fish.79With respect to dykes, those areas of dykes that are still in private ownership are problematic forrecreationists. It can cause people to have to enter busy traffic to get around those areas that areprivate, and therefore closed to public recreational access. This can create an unsafe situation,and defmitely diminishes the quality of the recreation experience. It would be good to see theremaining privately owned dykes become accessible to the public. It is more than likely thateconomic benefits will need to be made for these owners to make their land available forrecreation (Red Deer RPC, 1978).Often times there is a need for the public to inform the authorities of something, and vice versa. Thefollowing are suggestions which could facilitate and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of thisexchange of information. Most of these suggestions involve “someone” holding a workshop or bringingpeople together to discuss their differences. In the spirit of cooperation being presented in this work, it issuggested that there should be communication between the different major players (BC Parks, BCForests, GVRD Park Department, other Regional District park departments and the Outdoor RecreationCouncil) who are responsible for outdoor recreation in the province to decide who should organize agiven event. Agreement should be reached as to who the most appropriate agency is for holding the“event.” The most appropriate agency will depend on the event. In some cases, a single agency may beconsidered the most appropriate, in others a joint sponsorship may be better. And in all cases, it iscritically important that the other (minor) players give full support to the event.To help the public know how to communicate with public agencies it would be useful to informthe public of ways that they can. Often times people don’t inform the government or correctmanaging authority because they don’t know how. Eventually, over time, the “general public”is becoming more informed and knowledgeable, but perhaps pamphlets or workshops oncommunicating with the government (at all levels) could speed up the learning process (Western1993). For example, in this case a joint sponsorship by BC Forests, BC Parks and the regionaldistricts may be the most appropriate group to organize this event.80Some outdoor recreation activities come into conflict with one another constantly. Perhaps itwould be useful to hold symposiums and/or workshops to bring these user groups together sothat better understanding of each others needs and interests could take place. Within this kind offorum, possible solutions to the problems they perceive to exist could be generated. Solutionsare seldom generated until people start talking. In this case, perhaps the most appropriateagency to sponsor this event is the Outdoor Recreation Council, with full support by the otheroutdoor recreation management agencies.• Address the trail conflict problems (perhaps by using the above suggestion) that exist in theNorth Shore mountains of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, with a real commitment tocreating workable solutions.• The major trail conflict problems that exist in the study area are caused by a lack of mountainbiking and horseback riding trails. Horseback riders are being pushed more and more onto theroadways which are not safe places to ride. Mountain bikers are constantly coming into conflictwith hikers. Therefore the managing agencies should provide encouragement and information tothese user groups so that they can set up their own programs to teach themselves how to buildmore trails for themselves. For example, the mountain biking community could hold a trailbuilding conference. Since both mountain biking trails and horseback riding trails must be builtto a higher standard than hiking trails, providing these users with pertinent information on trailbuilding is very important.• Promote the use of trails as access into an area, rather than roads. (Yes, this means makingpeople get out and walk!) There does appear to be a demand for more local, easily accessibletrails. Behind this suggestion is the idea that if the opportunity is provided people use it. Forexample, if a hiking or mountain biking trail is built, especially near heavily populated areas, itwill be used immediately, and probably quite heavily. With respect to outdoor recreation, if theopportunity exists people will do it. If it doesn’t, people will fmd something else to do (watchTV, go to the pub), or do nothing.81Planning and management of recreation areas could be improved by implementing the followingsuggestions.• Encourage planners and managers responsible for outdoor recreation to experience a goodvariety of it themselves. It will lead to a deeper understanding of what is needed, and allowthem to develop better park and recreation opportunities.• At the moment land use in the northeastern section of the GVRD is very controversial. It wouldbe a good idea to make firm decisions about how the land will be used there, without destroyingall the supply of outdoor recreation activities that presently exist.A suggestion that could make data collection more efficient:• From this work it appears that duplication of effort occurs a little more often that would ideallybe envisioned. Some of the problem in not duplicating the work was not having access to theraw data. Perhaps it would be possible to require consultants to also include their raw data inany contracts they do for the government. Raw data of the sort collected for this work can beused for many different, but similar, purposes. The main difference in any project is what isdone with the data, or what ideas are pulled from it. For example, commercial backcountryrecreation, tourism development, and forest service recreation inventories can all useinformation on where people recreate, but the focus or perspective taken when analysing orusing the information is different.6.3 ConclusionsThis work has looked at the value of making a distinction between recreation areas that are “formal” and“informal,” in the recreation opportunity spectrum. Recognizing the importance of informal recreationshould allow planners and managers to designate areas that will be “set aside” and managed for this kindof recreation. To fulfill the goals of informal recreation the main criterion to be filled is to provide a82land area that is compatible with the given outdoor recreation activity, or ensure that the land remainsavailable for recreational use. Provision of actual facilities (beyond access routes and parking) is seldomnecessary. The land use changes that take away these areas tend to be housing and industrialdevelopment near urban areas, and loss of access, that is road closures or washouts.With respect to use of the land for outdoor recreation not all activities can be practiced in the same areawithout conflict developing. Some of this conflict develops because the goals of the different types ofrecreationists do not overlap enough. The other source of this conflict is increasing participation in theactivity. New outdoor recreation activities that have grown rapidly in the past decade are conflicting withpeople using the same area of land for activities that are much older, for example mountain bikers andhikers, paragliders and naturalists. The loss of areas to development near urban areas has led to aconcentration of users in the remaining areas. This has resulted in an unacceptable level of overlap inuse of many areas in the study area.A summary of suggestions for planners and managers to focus their attention on in providing informaloutdoor recreation areas is:• providing areas for those activities that are new and growing, (e.g. mountain biking andparagliding);• ensuring that areas for those activities which have extremely specific site requirements are notlost (e.g. rock climbing, hang gliding and windsurfing);• addressing the known conflicts that exist in some informal use areas, (e.g. Burke Mountain,North Shore Mountains, Brandywine Creek.)83BIBLIOGRAPHYThe list of people interviewed for this work is found at the end of this section.Action Challenge Committee. 1989. The Action Challenge, Strategic Directions for Recreation,Summary, Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Recreation and Culture.Anderson, Darlene. 1993a. Informal Supply Study for the Major Parks Plan Study, report prepared forthe Major Parks Plan Study and the GVRD, April 1993, Vancouver.Anderson, Darlene. 1993b. Report on Mapping of Outdoor Recreation Activities on Vancouver Island,prepared for the Vancouver Island CORE (Commission on Resources and Environment) land usestrategy, July 1993, Vancouver.Barker, Mary L. ed. 1982. Developing Summer Recreational Potential in the Whistler Corridor, for theNatural Resources Management Program, Burnaby: Simon Fraser University.Benn, Don. 1978. Fraser Valley Outdoor Recreation Features, Victoria: B.C. Ministry of theEnvironment, Resource Analysis Branch.Bish, Robert L. 1990. Local Government in British Columbia, Richmond: Union of British ColumbiaMunicipalities.Bodegom, Volker. 1992. Bicycling Vancouver, Edmonton: Lone Pine Publishing.B.C. Guide. 1992. Program and Services of the Provincial Government, Victoria: Queen’s Printer.B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks. 1993. PAS Criteria, A Protected Areas Strategy forBritish Columbia, Victoria: Protected Area Strategy Team.B.C. Ministry of the Environment. 1992. BC 1992-1993 Hunting and Trapping Regulations Synopsis.B.C. Ministry of Forests. 1991. Recreation Manual, Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Forests.B.C. Ministry of Parks. 1990a. Striking the Balance, B. C. Parks Policy, Victoria: B.C. Ministry ofParks._____1990b. Preserving Our Living Legacy, Parks Plan 90, a series of 3 booklets, entitled: “SpecialFeatures for BC Parks”, “Landscapes for BC Parks”, and “Recreation Goals for BC Parks”, Victoria:B.C. Ministry of Parks.1990c. Draft Working Map, Parks Plan 90, Areas of Interest to BC Parks, Victoria: B.C.Ministry of Parks.Brown, Lester R. 1981. Building a Sustainable Society, Markham, Ontario: Penguin Books CanadaLtd.84Bucher, Charles A., Jay S. Shivers and Richard D. Bucher. 1984. Recreation for Today’s Society, 2nded., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Buholzer, Bill. 1974. Outdoor Recreation and Tourism in the Peace River Region ofAlberta, Alberta:Peace River Regional Planning Commission.Burton, Thomas L. 1976a. Making Man’s Environment, Leisure, Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Burton, Thomas L. 1976b. “The Challenge of Leisure”, Contact, Vol. 8 (1).Cook, Norman A., Richard T. Taylor, and Chris Shea. 1977. Outdoor Recreation Resources Inventoryof the Dewdney-Alouette Regional District, Mission: Planning Department, Dewdney-Alouette RegionalDistrict.Cook, Norman A., Richard T. Taylor, and Chris Shea. 1977. Outdoor Recreation Suitability in theDewdney-Alouette Regional District, Mission: Planning Department, Dewdney-Alouette RegionalDistrict.Dewdney-Alouette Regional District. 1990. Fraser River Recreation Study, Mission: DevelopmentServices.Dorcey, Anthony H.J. 1986. Bargaining in the Governance of Pacific Coastal Resources: Research andReform, Vancouver: Westwater Research Centre, University of British Columbia Press.Doyle, Brian Owen. 1974. Existing Arrangements and Procedures for Generating and AnalyzingInformation: A Comparative Evaluation of Several Greater Vancouver Regional District Park and/orRecreation Agencies, Vancouver: University of British Columbia, Master’s thesis School of Communityand Regional Planning.Dunn, Edgar. 1971. “The Social Learning Metaphor” in Economic and Social Development: A Processof Social Learning, Baltimore & London: The John Hopkins Press, pp. 237-45.Enquiry BC. 1992. BC Guide 1992/1993, Programs and Services of the Provincial Government,Victoria: Queen’s Printer.Fairley, Bruce. 1986. A Guide to Climbing and Hiking in Southwestern British Columbia, Vancouver:Gordon Soules Book Publishers Ltd.Forest Act. R.S.B.C. 1979. Chapter 140. (looseleaf ed.)Freeman, Roger and Ethel. 1985. Exploring Vancouver’s North Shore Mountains, Vancouver:Federation of Mountain Clubs of British Columbia.Friedmann, John. 1987. “Planning as Social Learning” Chapter 5 in Planning in the Public Domain,From Knowledge to Action, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 181-223.Friedrich, Marcy, Christina Hatton, Mindee Naismith, Janet Wensink and Simon Priest. 1992.“Functions of Privacy in Canadian Wilderness”, Journal ofApplied Recreation Research, Vol 17(3), pp.234-254.85Gold, Seymour M. 1980. Recreation Planning and Design. San Francisco: McGraw-Hill BookCompany.Greater Vancouver Regional Parks District (Bev Evers). 1978. Outdoor Recreation Review, RegionalRecreation Opportunities, Vancouver: Greater Vancouver Regional Parks District.Horse Council of B.C. 1990. Horse Trail Guide, Southwestern British Columbia, Cloverdale: H.T.Publications.Hulchanski, David J. 1989. Policy Analysis: An Introduction to Issues, Concepts, and Disputes,Vancouver: School of Community and Regional Planning.Jensen, Clayne R. 1985. Outdoor Recreation in America, 4th ed. Minneapolis, Minnesota: BurgessPublishing Company.Kraus, Richard. 1978. Recreation and Leisure in Modern Society, 2nd ed., Santa Monica, California:Goodyear Publishing Co., Inc.Leopold, Aldo. 1966. A Sand County Almanac, With Essays on Conservation From Round River, NewYork: Ballantine.Macaree, David and Mary. 1983. 109 Walks in British Columbia’s Lower Mainland, 2nd ed.,Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd.Macaree, David and Mary. 1987, 1983. 103 Hikes in Southwestern British Columbia, 3rd & 2nd eds.,Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd.Master of Natural Resources Management Program. 1990. Wilderness and Forestry: Assessing theCost of Comprehensive Wilderness Protection in British Columbia, for Advanced Natural ResourcesManagement Seminar, Burnaby: Simon Fraser University.McDonald, Jim. 1978. Hotsprings of Western Canada, revised 1981, Vancouver: The Labrador TeaCompany.McLane, Kevin. 1992. The Rockclimbers Guide To Squamish, Squamish: Merlin Productions Inc.Mercer, D.C. 1970. “The Geography of Leisure - A Contemporary Growth-Point”, Geography, Vol.55 (part 3).Meyer, Kathleen. 1989. How to Shit in the Woods, Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press.Murphy, James F. 1975. Recreation and Leisure Service, a humanistic perspective, Dubuque, Iowa:Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers.Murphy, James F. 1972. “the counter culture of leisure”, Parks and Recreation, Vol 7 (2), 34, 41-42.Park Act. R.S.B.C. 1979. Chapter 309 (looseleaf ed.)Parks and Recreation Federation of Ontario. 1992. The Benefits of Parks and Recreation, A Catalogue,Gloucester, Ontario: The Parks and Recreation Federation of Ontario and the Ontario Ministry ofTourism and Recreation.86Red Deer Regional Planning Commission. 1978. Regional Recreation: Elements and Directions, RedDeer: Red Deer Regional Planning Commission.Rethink Group. May 1993. Roles and Responsibilities for Major Parks and Outdoor Recreation in BC’sLower Mainland, Preliminary Analysis for the Major Parks Plan Study, Vancouver, B.C.Simmons, I.G. 1975. Rural Recreation in the Industrial World, London: Edward Arnold Ltd.Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission. 1973. Regional Park, Outdoor Recreation, andRelated Open Space Planning Program Prospectus, Waukesha, Wisconsin: Southeastern WisconsinRegional Planning Commission.Squamish Trails Coalition. June 1991. Squamish Trails Enhancement Plan, Squamish:—.Statistics Canada. 1992. Profile of census divisions and subdivisions in British Columbia, Part A,Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada. 1991 Census of Canada. Catalogue number 95-384.Stoltmann, Randy. 1987. Hiking Guide to the Big Trees of Southwestern British Columbia, Vancouver:Western Canada Wilderness Committee.Sudbury Community Leisure Plan Steering Committee. 1988. City of Sudbuiy Community Leisure Plan,Sudbury: City of Sudbury.Taylor, 0. D. 1961. “Some Thoughts on the Geography of Wilderness”, Occasional Papers inGeography, Canadian Association of Geographers, B.C. Division, Vancouver, Vol. 2., pp. 23-8.Thompson, Berwick, Pratt & Partners. 1975. North Fraser Recreation Study, Vancouver: Thompson,Berwick, Pratt & Partners.UMA Engineering Ltd. 1988. Hay River Recreation Master Plan, Edmonton: UMA Engineering Ltd.Ward, Peggy. 1980. Explore The Fraser Estuary!, Vancouver: Lands Directorate, EnvironmentCanada, Pacific & Yukon Region.Whistler Backcountry Adventures. 1993. Pamphlet and brochures advertising their adventure tourismbusiness which is primarily focused on fishing.Zimmerman, E.W. 1964. Introduction to World Resources, H.L. Hunker (ed), New York: Harper andRow.87InterviewsIt is important to realize that in a study of this type the people contacted were very important sources ofinformation. Some of the information that was collected is not available in a written publication, and isonly available through personal contact. Some of these people were contacted during the course of thisstudy and their names can be found in Appendix 1. The individuals listed here were interviewedspecifically for this thesis.Campbell, Wayne. June 1993. Bird Inventory Specialist, Ministry of Environment in Victoria, B.C.Personal Communication.Freeman, Roger. May 1993. Member of most recent Forestry Resource Commission Panel (1990-92)and Chairperson of Recreation and Conservation Committee of the Federation of Mountain Clubs ofBritish Columbia (FMCBC). Personal Communication.Gurnsey, Cohn. September 1993. Manager of Social Resources, BC Hydro. Personal Communication.Ladimer, Susan. March 1993. Avid horseback rider in the study area, primarily Maple Ridge area, andHabitat Protection Technician, Ministry of Environment, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Surrey, B.C.Personal communication.McGarry, Larry. March 1993. Active member of the Pemberton Riding Club. Personalcommunication.Thompson, Paul. August 1993. Communications Officer, Outdoor Recreation Council. Personalcommunication.Watmough, Don. September 1993. Senior park planner, Greater Vancouver Regional District, ParksDepartment, and member of Major Parks Plan Study team responsible for the supply (formal andinformal areas) inventory. Personal communication.Western, Charles. May 1993. Recreation Officer, Vancouver Forest Region, Burnaby, B.C. andmember of Major Parks Plan Study team. Personal Communication.Wilson, Clive. September 1993. Senior Recreation Planner, BC Hydro and member of Major ParksPlan Study team. Personal communication.88APPENDIX 1CONTACTS FOR THE INFORMAL SUPPLY OF RECREATION STUDYActivity Name Organization Type ofPhone Area ContactAll Tom Bruusgaard Squamish Regional Visit892-5217(w) DistrictAldermanAll Peter Cave Fraser-Cheam Visit792-0061(w) Regional DistrictAll Reg Crane BC Forests Contact660-7609(w) RecreationSpecialistAll Slade Dyer Dewdney-Alouette Visit462-8294(toll free) Regional DistrictAll Barbara Synder Dewdney-Alouette Visit826-1291(w) Regional District462-8294(toll free)All John Tisdale BC Forests Visit898-2128(w) Recreation OfficerAll Frank Ullman BC Forests Visit & maps685-5972(toll free) Integrated794-2147(w) Resource Officer794-211 1(fax)All Charles Western BC Forests General660-7608(w) Recreation Officer InformationFishing Art Lingren Steelhead Society of BC Visit & maps263-3787(h) Lower Mainland (east)432-6468(w)Fishing Bob Taylor Steethead Society of BC Visit & maps438-8483(h) Lower Mainland (east)Hang Chris Tipper Hang Gliding Assn Visit & mapsGliding 936-1976(h)291-8307(w)89Hiking June Banwell Federation of Telephone call987-7610(h) Mountain ClubsHiking Chuck Dick FMCBC Telephone call26 1-5092(h) Callaghan Lake areaHiking Sheila Gregson FMCBC Telephone call& Walking 980-2885(h)Hiking Mary Macaree FMCBC Telephone call926-2516(h)Hiking Jack Scrivener FMCBC Telephone call987-7058(h) & mapsHorseback Bill Archibald Haney Horsemen Telephone callRiding 463-9586(h) Maple Ridge & visitHorseback Janet Dmietrieff Telephone callRiding 462-8192(h) Maple RidgeHorseback Susan Ladimer General Telephone callRiding 582-5239(w) InformationHorseback Erica Lynn Telephone callRiding 462-8707(h) Maple RidgeHorseback Maple Ridge Telephone callRiding Planning Department & maps467-7341(w)Horseback Larry McGarry Telephone callRiding 894-6737(h) PembertonHorseback Terry Templeton Haney Horsemen Telephone callRiding 467-3610(h) General InformationHunting Bob Forbes BC Environment Visit & maps582-5224(w) Wildlife BiologistMotorcycling Gordon Reddy Fraser Valley Dirt Telephone call594-8040(h) Riders Association & informationMountain Bob Brant Squamish Trails Telephone callBiking 892-9161(w) Coalition & mapsMountain Richard Boase St. Marys ContactBiking 980-0778(h) Mosquito Creek90Mountain David Eades VisitBiking 931-3985(h) Coquitlam420-6616(w) Maple RidgeMountain Laural Gagnon PedaiSports Telephone callBiking 795-2453(w) Chilliwack & mapsMountain Paul Kindre Corsa Cycle ContactBiking 892-3331(w) SquamishMountain Ross Kirkwood Telephone callBiking 922-0150(h) North Shore InformationMountain Dean Mckay Extreme Mountain People VisitBiking 327-2547(h) Seymour, Burnaby873-7199(w) Vedder, SumasMountain Bruce & Peg Wenting Central Fraser Valley Telephone callBiking 850-2901(h) Cycling826-1441(w) MissionMountain Tom Urba Sumas, Crickmer Telephone callBiking 464-4154(h) Vedder, Burke & mapsCoquitlam, Blue MtnMountaineering Jack Bryceland FMCBC Telephone call& Rock 858-6601(h) Chilliwack areaClimbingNature Joe Foy Western Canada Visit & mapsAppreciation 683-8220(w) Wilderness Committee& hikingNature Christine Hanrahan Burke Mountain Telephone callAppreciation 936-4108(h) Naturalists & mapsOff-Road Henry Giuich Four Wheel Drive Assn Telephone callDriving 581-6396(h) Past PresidentOff-Road Dennis Zentner Four Wheel Drive Assn MessagesDriving 940-1952(h) PresidentSnowmobiling Mike Blomfield Black Tusk Telephone call922-7402(h) Snowmobile ClubSnowmobiling John LeJeune Fraser Cheam Telephone call796-3279(h) Whiskey JacksChilliwack &Coquihalla areaSnowmobilmg Peter Staehli Local in Pemberton Information894-6806(h) & some areasSnowmobiling June Watson BC Snowmobile Fed Information936-4404(h) ORC Director (1992)525-4621(w)Snowshoeing Sylvia Mathers North Shore Hikers Telephone call921-9661(h) All areas9192APPENDIX 2DEFINITIONS OF EACH FIELD IN TIlE1NFORMAL SUPPLY OF OUTDOOR RECREATIONDATABASEThe first seven fields are used to locate the recreation activity geographically, as well as describe some ofits characteristics; kind of recreation pursued, facilities available and how frequently the area is used.All are character fields and the size of each is given next to the field name.SITE_NAME: Site_name Character 100This is a descriptive name given to where the outdoor recreation activity is taking place. It isusually the name of a prominent landscape feature in the area, such as a river or mountain. Ifthe information was taken from a guidebook, it is the name given by the guidebook. If itdescribes a large area used for something like mountaineering, snowmobiling or fishing, it isusually the drainage used to access the area.GRID: Grid reference for the area. Character 15This descriptor pinpoints the area more precisely, in case the descriptive name is a local namefor the area. If the recreation feature is linear, such as a hiking trail or logging road, the gridreference given is where people usually park their cars, or the start of the trail. If the recreationfeature is an area, such as a mountaineering area, or fishing hole, the grid reference is theapproximate centre of the area.FEATURE: Outdoor Recreation Feature Character 250This describes what kind of recreation is being pursued at the site name. It may also includeinformation about what makes the area special, such as a waterfall, or details of the activity,such as elevation gain or trip rating.MG_AGENCY: Managing Agency Character 50The agency that manages the area. This was often unknown so it was guessed. When this wasthe case a question mark after the guess.REG_DIST: Regional District Character 50This identifies the regional district that the area is in, and is included to be able to selectivelypull data out of the database.PUB_FAC: Basic Public Facilities Character 250This lists the “facilities” available in the area. Often it is only “parking”, but will sometimesinclude toilets or phones.LVL OF USE: Level of Use Character 100This is an estimate of how much use the area gets. The rating is purely subjective and is basedon local knowledge. Therefore it has been divided into only three categories: High, Medium orLow. If the area is used for many different recreation activities it will most likely be given arating of HIGH, and if it can be seen that the area would only be used by the ‘hardcore’ it willbe given a rating of LOW. If the level of use is unknown it is given a rating of UNKNOWN.93Enough room has been left to add a brief comment if necessary.The next twelve fields describe the landscape types that are present in or near the recreation area, thatmay be the “drawing card” for why people recreate in that area. These are all Logical fieldsALPINE: AlpineSUB-ALP: Sub-AlpineFOR STP: Forested SteeplandFOR_LOW: Forested LowlandOPEN_LOW: Open LowlandOCBCH: Ocean BeachRKYSHR: Rocky ShorelineLAKE: LakeRIVER: RiverSTREAM: StreamWETLAND: WetlandGLACIER: GlacierThe next nineteen fields describe the outdoor recreation activities that can take place in an area, asdescribed in this study. They are also Logical fields.BCH_ACT: Beach ActivitiesThis category includes any activity that is done at a beach and is not one of the nexteighteen activities. It includes swimming, sunbathing, kite-flying, etc.BICYCLE: BicyclingThis category includes both kinds of bicycling; road biking and mountain biking. Adistinction is made on the map between the two, road biking is a solid line,mountain biking is a dashed line.BOATING: BoatingThis category includes any kind of boating that is not kayaking, river rafting orfishing. Therefore windsurfing and waterskiing fit under this activity category.EQUESTRIAN: EquestrianHorseback riding; primarily recreational trail riding.FSH_FISH: Freshwater fishingSLT_FISH: Saltwater fishingHANG_GLD: Hang GlidingNAT_APRN: Nature AppreciationThis category is one which most outdoor recreationists “pursue”, as a part of beingthere, or as a “secondary” activity. However naturalists pursue nature appreciationas their primary activity and have trips to areas where nature appreciation is themain purpose of the trip. Often it will be described as wildlife viewing or birdwatching.94OFF_RD_DR: Off road drivingThis includes two wheel and four wheel drive vehicles that travel on gravel roadsfor pleasure. It does not include motorcycles.OV_CAMP: Overnight campingThis means that the types of trip done in this area generally include an overnightstay, and that there is suitable terrain for camping on.PICNIC: PicnickingThis is included as an activity, just in case. People recreating informally usually eatlunch as part of the day’s activity, but would not necessarily think of it as“picnicking”.ROCK_CLIMB: Rock climbingThis category is specifically for technical rock climbing where climbing ropes areused and the focus of the trip is to rock climb. This is different frommountaineering, where using the rope may be a part of the activity but the primarygoal of the activity is to climb a mountain, as opposed to climbing a rock face orbluff.SNOW_ACT: Snow ActivitiesThis covers quite a few activities which perhaps should be separated, since they areall pursued in different, but overlapping types of landscapes, with different reasonsand levels of motivation. It covers backcountry skiing, snowshoeing andsnowmobihng. Which of these snow activities is being pursued is noted under thefield FEATURE.WALK_HIKE: Walking or hikingSimilar to snow activities, there are distinctive differences between walking andhiking, even though they have been lumped together under one recreation activity.Which activity is being pursued is noted under the field FEATURE, and the distanceof the trail is given under the appropriate field, that is either as a hiking trail or as awalking trail. The difference between hiking and walking is essentially level ofenergy put out. Walking is defined as something done for less than 2 hours, andgenerally on not too steep terrain, while hiking is done for more than 2 hours onterrain that is often quite steep (although not always).MOUNTAIN: MountaineeringIncluded as a separate activity because it defines a recreation activity where trailsare not used, and the participants fmd their own route. Sometimes the route fmdingwill start at the cars, and be bushwacking through the forest. Other times there willbe a trail to the alpine and the route finding will be up the alpine to a peak. Thedifference between mountaineering and hiking is that hiking is almost totally ontrails (marked rocks and cairns when in the alpine) and any peaks climbed aretechnically easy and have no glacier travel.KAYAK: KayakingThis includes river rafting and canoeing as well as kayaking. Any river that is usedfor kayaking can be used for river rafting, however any river used for kayaking isnot always suitable for canoeing. Conunents on the record, under the fieldsFEATURE and COMMENTS, need to be read to know which activity is most95commonly pursued on that river.MTR_CYC: Motor CyclingThis is to describe motor cycling that is not done on paved roads, but on eitherlogging roads or trails. It is often the kind referred to as dirt biking.SCUBA_DIV: Scuba DivingHUNTING: HuntingThe next thirty two fields are used to describe specific details, often quantitative, for some of therecreation activities. They are a combination of character and numeric fields. The size and type of eachfield is given next to the field name.Beach ActivitiesF_BCH_LGTH: Freshwater beach length (m) Numeric 8.1S_BCH_LGTH: Saltwater beach length (m) Numeric 8.1AREA_AVBL: Area available (sq m) Numeric 8.1IBOATLCH: Informal boat launch Character 100This field describes the potential parking capacity.BicyclingFLT_TRL: Flat trail length (kin) Numeric 8.1CTR_TRL: Contoured trail length (1cm) Numeric 8.1This describes an uneven or rough surfaced trail (that has contours) and not one thatcontours.CHGTRL: Challenge trail length (1cm) Numeric 8.1Most mountain biking trails have been put under challenging trails, while most roadbiking routes have been put under flat. A few of each have been put undercontoured. Therefore this information may not be totally accurate, that is somechallenging or flat trails may be contoured trails, while some contoured trails maybe flat trails or perhaps challenging trails.EquestrianRSTC_TRL: length of rustic trails (km) Numeric 8.1MAIN_TRL: maintained trail length (km) Numeric 8.196STG_CAP: Horse trailer parking Numeric 8.1Staging area capacityTG_SITES: total tenting sites Numeric 4Fishing - Freshwater and saltwaterLK_FISH: Lake Fishing Numeric 8.1length of shoreline (m)RVR_FSH: River Fishing Numeric 8.1length of riverbank (km)OC_FSH: Ocean Fishing Numeric 8.1length of shoreline (m)Nature AppreciationSP_FEAT: Special Features Character 250The reasons people go somewhere for nature appreciation: old growth forest,wildlife viewing, bird watching, etc.Overnight CampingVH_ACC: Vehicle access tenting Character 5# of tenting sitesA character field has been chosen here because a decimal point is not required (orrealistic), and allows other characters like “?“to be used.WALK_IN: Walk-in tenting Character 5# of tenting sitesFor many of these walk in ones, no formal tenting sites are available. In these casesan extremely subjective estimate at how many people the area could handle tomaintain the recreational experience the visitor has gone to the area to have has beenmade, (i.e. socially acceptable carrying capacity.)BOAT-IN: Boat-in tenting Character 5# of tenting sitesAgain, this is often a subjective estimate as no formal tenting sites exist.Snow Activities - Cross-country skiingBCK_TR: length of trails (1cm) Numeric 7.1BCK_AR: area used (sq 1cm) Numeric 9.197BCK_CP: capacity of area (users/day) Numeric 5.1- SnowshoeingSN_Sl-I_TR: length of trails (1cm) Numeric 7.1SN_SH_AR: area used (sq 1cm) Numeric 9.1SN_SH_CP: capacity of area (users/day) Numeric 5.1- SnowmobilingSN_MB_TR: length of trails (1cm) Numeric 7.1SN_MB_AR: area used (sq 1cm) Numeric 9.1SN_MB_CP: capacity of area (users/day) Numeric 5.1Determining capacity of the area is very difficult to do and has not been done forany of the areas recorded. However, an estimate from the map has been made forthe area used.Walking/HikingWLK_TR_F: Walking trails - flat (1cm) Numeric 5.1WLK_TR_C: Walking trails - contoured (1cm) Numeric 5.1Again this means trails that are uneven or rough surfaced, and not ones that contour.HIKE_TR: Hiking trails (km) Numeric 5.1MpimtaineeringMTRG_AR: Area used (sq km) Numeric 9.1KayakingLTH_OF_RUN: Length of run (1cm) Numeric 9.1The next six fields are available for future use when it might be possible to collect information aboutwhat group of people use the area, where they come from, when, how frequently, how many and why.Sometimes information about the time of year used is known and is put in, otherwise these fields areusually left blank. They are usually character fields and the size is variable.98GROUP: Group Character 250Who are the people using this area?ORIGIN: Origin Character 250Where (what region) are the users coming fromTM_OF_YR: Time of year Character 250What time of the year are they coming? all year, or just certain seasons?FREQ: Frequency Character 20Do they come frequently, occasionally, or once a year?NUM_USRS: Number of users Numeric 7How many come?REASON: Reason Character 250Why do they come? close to home?, easy access to area? spectacular scenery?This next field is left for any information that might be relevant, but as yet, has gone unrecorded.COMMENTS: Comments Character 250These last two fields are used to identify those trails or areas that are part of a network of recreationactivities taking place in the same general location. The first field is a Logical field which tags the area.The other is a short name, in a Character field, used to describe the area, e.g. Burke Mountain.PT_OF_NET: Part of a network; yes or no? LogicalNM_OF_NET: Name of network Character 100Criteria for a site to qualify for being in a recreation “network’ are:I. More than 3 types of recreation taking place in the area. The reason for thisnumber is that in many cases certain activities very often take place together, e.g.horseback riding, off-road-driving and motorcycling; or snowmobiling and skitouring. Sometimes all the activities will be listed on one record, then other timeseach activity will be on a separate record. The difference in recording depends onhow much comment there is to each activity; or when the information for each ofthe activities was collected at different times it tended to be put in separate records.Often a different record means that the areas used are slightly different for eachactivity, but there is an overlap in the area used. For example, hunting takes up alot of area, while fishing takes up only a small area, but both activities will bearound the same river.2. More than 3 trails in the area, where the area is less than about 50 sq km.99APPENDIX 3LIST OF SITE NAMES 1DENTWIED IN THE INFORMAL S1JPPLY INVENTORYBelow is a list of the site names, given by Regional District. This is the most concise way to present thedata collected.Regional District: Central - Fraser ValleySumas MountainVedder Canal/Sumas RiverRegional District: Dewdney - AlouetteAlouette Lake- Stave Lake Correctional InstituteAlouette River (near Blue Mountain)Bell Avenue - Rockwell Loop (92 G/l & 8)Blue Mountain Area Trails (92 GIl & 8)Cardinal Creek spit - south end of Stave LakeCascade FallsChehalis River- at bridgeDavis Lake- parts of this trail riding are in Davis Lake Provincial ParkDewdney PeakFraser River- “Chester Creek” (informal name; closest creek to the spot)Fraser River - D’Herbomez CreekHarrison BayHarrison River - mouth of; near Harrison KnobHatzic LakeIron Mountain & northLost CreekMorgan and Florence LakesMount CrickmerMount Crickmer - Davis Lake - Sayres Lake areaMount St. BenedictNicomen SloughNicomen Slough - northeast end towards Lake Erroch most popularNorrish CreekNorrish Creek (Suicide Creek) and Dickson LakeNorrish Creek - west & east side of creek, north of the CPR railway linePitt Lake - Elaise CreekPitt Lake - Grant Channel SandbarPitt Lake - McSwen CreekPitt Lake - Raven CreekPitt Lake - Stephenson CreekPitt Lake - all of itPitt RiverPitt River - upper part, north of Pitt LakeSalisbury Lake - “behind Sylvester Road. (The lake is the central point of the area used.)Saisbury Lake - Norrish Creek - Dewdney Peak - Nicomen MountainSaisbury Lake/Kenyon LakeSayres Lake to Morgan Lake to Stave Lake Correctional InstituteSheridan Hill and Dyke Walk (Pitt River area)Silver Creek Park areaSilvermere LakeSkumalasph IslandStave Lake - south end by the bridge of Dewdney Trunk RoadStave RiverStrawberry Island100Tremblay IslandWest Norrish Creek - power line to Margaret Creek to Statlu Creek mainlineWhonnock LakeWing Dam bar- Fraser RiverRegional District: Fraser- CheamAlpaca Peak, Bighorn Peak, Llama Peak & Zupjok PeakAnderson River Mountains - Chamois Peak, Steinbok Peak and othersAtchelitz CreekBaby Munday Peak, Stewart Peak and The StillBaldwin Ridge and LakesBear CreekBear MountainBorden CreekBorden Creek via Nursery CreekBridal FallsCairn Needle to Mount BreakenridgeCamp Slough RoadCampbell LakeCanadian Border PeakCantelon Creek - Yola CreekCarey IslandCarmell Creek - mouth of; at Harrison LakeCentennial TrailCentre CreekCheam PeakCheam Peak- east slopesChehalis LakeChehalis Lake - Statlu Creek logging roadsChehalis Lake roads - west and east of Statlu drainageChehalis RiverChehalis River - mouth of; at Harrison RiverChilliwack Bench Road TrailChilliwack Lake- Paleface Creek - Chilliwack River (south of lake)Chilliwack River- & its tributaries: Liumchen Ck, Tamihi Ck, Slesse Ck, Nesakwatch Ck, & Centre CkChilliwack River - informal campsitesChilliwack River- to Slesse CreekChilliwack River- to Slesse ParkChilliwack River- west of Nesakwatch Creek (kayaking)Chilliwack River trail- southern end, south of the lakeChipmunk CreekChipmunk Creek and Foley CreekClear CreekClerf LakeColumbia ValleyCoquihalla MountainCoquihalla River- east of Hope approximately 4km, starting at Othello until LearCoquihalla River- the old roadCuster Ridge - includes Mount Lockwood, Klesilkwa Mountain, & Thompson PeakDeer LakeDepot Creek trail- access to Mount Redoubt and Mount SpickardDewdney CreekEagle Falls - Harrison LakeEaton Lake- Crescent Lake - Eaton PeakElk MountainEmory Creek - American Creek logging roads (west side of Fraser River Valley)Emory Creek Tailings PondFalls Lake - up pipeline road to headwaters of Coldwater RiverFire CreekFirst Brigade Trail101Flora Lake - Mount FloraFour Brothers MountainFraser River- at PopkumFraser River- east side, north of Hope, to Qualark CreekGate MountainGhost Pass & Ghostpass LakeGrainger PeakGreendrop Lake and Lindeman LakeGreyell Slough IslandHanging LakeHarrison Lake - Bear CreekHarrison Lake - Cascade Bay and Cascade Peninsula, in particularHarrison Lake - Trout Lake CreekHarrison Lake - west side logging roadsHarrison Lake - east side logging roads, includes Big Silver CreekHarrison River- Harrison Hotsprings Hotel to Harrison MillsHarrison River- Harrison Mills to confluence of Harrison River with Chehalis RiverHarrison River - back channelsHemlock ValleyHerrling IslandHicks LakeHoly CrossHope MountainHope SloughHudson’s Bay Company Hope - Brigade trailHunter Creek- mouth of; where it hits the Fraser RiverInternational Ridge areaIsland 22Isolillock Mountain- Silver PeakKawkawa Lake AreaKlesilkwa LakeKnight PeakLady PeakLillooet River- Rogers Creek (E & W sides)Lillooet River - mouth ofLillooet River and side roads off of itLindeman Lake- Mount LindemanLing LakeLiumchen Creek areaLiumchen RidgeLinmchen Ridge- access to Liumchen Mountain & Church MountainLong Island (bay and island) - Harrison LakeLookout LakeLookout Peak and Sloilicum PeakLucky Four MineMaselpanik Creek, Depot Creek and Paleface Creek drainagesMaselpanik TrailMorris Lake and Morris CreekMount Amadis (International Ridge)- approach is on the border to this Provincial ParkMount Archibald - west sideMount BreakenridgeMount DewdneyMount FordMount HenningMount Henning- Coquihalla Lake area; and beyond up Britton CreekMount LaughingtonMount MacFarlane, Pierce Lake, Mount PierceMount McGuire- Spencer PeakMount MercerMount Mercer (large area completely around it that is filled with logging roads)Mount NorthgravesMount OutramMount Rexford102Mount ThurstonMount Thurston- Elk Mountain - Lookout RidgeMount UrquhartMount Woodside- Mount AgassizMount Woodside/Harrison Mills- Campbell Lake (92 H/4 & 5)Nahatlatch Lake - Hannah Lake - Frances LakeNahatlatch LookoutNeedle PeakOgilvie Peak - using Goat Bluffs trail, via Railway CreekOld Kettle Valley RailwayOlive LakePaleface CreekPopkum Indian ReserveRadium Lake - access to Mount Webb & MacDonald PeakRed Mountain Mine route - Mount Larrabee, the PleiadesRuby CreekSandy Cove - west of Harrison Hotsprings HotelSerpentine LakesSilver CreekSilverdaisy MountainSilverhope CreekSilvertip Mountain and Mount RideoutSkagit River- north from Ross Lake to the Trans Canada HighwaySkookumchuckSlesse CreekSlesse MountainSlollicumSloquet CreekSouth Chilliwack Lake trailSowaqua CreekSowaqua Creek - Dewdney Ck to Cedarfiat Ck (E of Coquihalla Hwy) Sowerby CkSpuzzum- Urquhart Creek (west side of Fraser River Valley)Statlu LakeSumallo CreekSwanee LakeTen Mile Bay- side bays north of; Harrison LakeThar, Nak and Yak PeaksThe Old SettlerTulameen MountainTwo Tamahis LoopUpper Silverhope Creek TrailUztlius CreekVedder Canal bend and eastward along the dyke until it becomes the Chilliwack RiverVedder Mountain- 2 approaches: western & eastern (92 G/l & H/4)Viennese Peak and Mount ClarkeWahleach LakeWahleach Lake (Jones Lake) roadsWeaver LakeWest Harrison LakeWilliams Ridge- access to Williams Peak (class 3)Williamson Lake- access to Welch Peak & Foley PeakWilson LakeWray CreekRegional District: Greater Vancouver8th Ave Connector (Campbell Valley to Aldergrove Lake Regional Park)Alouette River- northern partAlouette River- southern partAnnacis IslandArbutus Corridor103Baden-Powell TrailBamston IslandBear Creek or Mahood CreekBelcara Regional Park and environsBelcara Regional Park- Hett Creek to Port Moody InletBig Tree Loop - or West Side Big Cedar TrailBoundary Bay DykeBrunette RiverBrunswick Beach - Howe SoundBrunswick PointBryne Creek Ravine Creek - east ofBuntzen Lake Hydro Powerline - Meridian Substation RoadBuntzen Lake Recreation Area Trailhead- Academy/North Lakeview TrailBuntzen Lake Recreation Area Trailhead- South Lakeview TrailBuntzen Lake trail - goes in and out of Buntzen Lake Recreation Area (see map)Burke Mountain - Rod & Gun TrailBurke Ridge TrailBurnaby Mountain - SFU”Burns BogCape Roger - Bowen IslandCapilano CanyonCapilano River - mouth of; up to the hatcheryCardinal Avenue - Robson RoadCarraholly Point to Sasamat LakeCentennial Park DykeCentral Park to Burnaby General HospitalColony FarmCoquitlam Lake View TrailCoquitlam RiverCoquitlani River - mouth ofCoquitlam River trailsCottonwood BarCrescent Beach / Blackie’s SpitCrescent ParkCrown MountainCypress Bowl / Hollyburn RidgeCypress CreekDeBouville SloughDecks Peak - and route to Mount WindsorDeer LakeDelta WatershedDewdney Trunk Road - Ainsworth StreetDewdney Trunk Road - Hoover Lake (92 G/8 490 564)Diez Vistas Trail (starts in Buntzen Lake Recreation Area)Dilly-Dally trailDilly-Daily trail - to Dilly-Dally peak and saddleDoyle Street - Saunders StreetEagle Mountain and ridge beyondEagle Peak via Buntzen Lake trail and Swan Falls trailEagle Ridge TrailEagle Ridge area - southeast ridgeElsay Lake - Mount Elsay & Mount BishopEverett Crowley ParkExploring Burnaby Lake - 2 partsFalse CreekGoat Mountain - access to Dam MountainGrant Hill Loop (and Bosonworth alternative)Grouse MountainHastings CreekHowe Sound Crest Trail - includes St. Marks lookout, Unnecessary Mountain, the West Lion, Brunswick MountainIndian ArmIndian River- mouth ofKanaka Creek104Keith CreekKilarney LakeKillarney Milk RunKitslano ShoresLangara Golf CourseLighthouse ParkLindsay LakeLittle Campbell River - through Semiahmoo Indian ReserveLynn Canyon Ecology Centre to Twin BridgesLynn Peak (may be in Lynn Headwaters Regional Park)Mansions of ShaughnessyMesliloet MountainMiddle Ann DykeMosquito CreekMount Fromme - hiking near Grouse MountainMount Fromme - mountain bilcing; accessed from near Mountain Highway; on the slopes ofMount Gardner trailsMount Harvey- and Magnesia MeadowsMud BayMunro-Dennett Loop TrailMuseum trails - on Eagle Ridge West PlateauNelson Road EndNew Lions Trail - Lions Bay to Lions RidgeNicomeki RiverNoon’s Creek - mouth of;North Burnaby ViewpointsOcean ParkOld Lions trail - Lions Bay to Unnecessary Mountain (Howe Sound Crest trail)Pitt Meadow Dyke roadsPitt Meadows Dyke - starts at grid reference and goes south onto map 92 G12Pitt Polder - Pitt Wildlife Management Area, marked on mapPoplar IslandPort Moody Green spaceRiver Road East, DeltaRiver Road, East RichmondSasamat Lake to Buntzen Lake connectorSecond Narrows - north sideSecond Narrows - south side; also called “Capital Hill trail”Second Narrows Bridge routeSerpentine RiverSeymour areaSouth Richmond Dyke - includes Gilbert Beach & Gilmour Island & slough; known locally as Finn SloughSouth Slope TrailSouth VancouverSouthlandsSt. Mary’sSteveston (Shady) IslandStoke’s PitStrathcona / WaterfrontSunnyside AcresSurrey BendSurrey Fishing BarsThe Camel (a continuation of Crown Mountain)The Royal CityThree Chop TrailTree BarTwassassen BeachTynehead Regional ParkUBC and MarpoleVancouver Bakery TourVanier Park or Cottonwood GroveVillage Lake TrailWest Richmond Dyke / Lulu Island Foreshore105Westham IslandWhite Rock BeachWidgeon CreekWidgeon Lake trailWidgeon Peak and Coquitlam MountainWoodland Walk TrailWoodward-Duck-Barber IslandsRegional District: Squamish - LilooetAlice Lake Provincial Park Road - powerline gridAlice RidgeAnniversary Lake - Caicheak trailAshlu Mountain and Porterhouse PeakAshlu RiverAthelney Pass - access to Icemaker Mountain & Ochre MountainBackside of the ChiefBirkenhead PeakBlack Tusk Microwave RoadBlackcomb Mountain - buttressBlanca Lake area - a few approachesBlowdown CreekBlowdown Pass area - Gott Peak, Notgott Peak, etc.Brandywine Creek logging roads - access to Mount Brew, Metal Dome, Brandywine Mountain & Mount FeeBrandywine Meadows trailBrew Lake trailBrohm RidgeCallaghan Lake and roadCaspar Creek logging roads - Mount Duke, Mount CasparCayoosh MountainCerise Creek area - Mount Matier, Joffre Peak, Vantage Peak, Mount HowardCheakamus - Cheekye River ConfluenceCheakamus RiverCheakamus River - mid; north of intersection with the Squamish RiverChipmunk Mountain and Grouty PeakCloudburst Mountain - 3 approachesCloudraker Mountain (and ridge beyond to Shields Pk)Comic RocksCougar LakeCulliton CreekCypress Peak via Brandywine Creek logging roadsDuffy Lake RoadElaho MountainElaho RiverGott CreekGreen River Bastion - west side of Highway 99Gun Creek to Warner Pass - access to Spruce Lake and Mount Warner; includes Eldorado Basin areaHat MountainHaylmore Creek areaHigh Falls Creek trail - hikingHud Lake (or Hut Lake) - Levette Lake - Evans LakeHurley River Road - Railroad PassHurley River Road - from Lillooet River road over to Bralorne or GoldbridgeHurley River, Upper - Mount Thiassi, Sessel Mountain, Mount Samson (north face)Ipsoot Mountain and Rhododendron MountainLake Lovelywater - access to Mount Tantalus, Mount Dione, Serratus Mountain, Alpha Mountain, Omega Mountain, Mt. NiobeLillooet Edge - south facing crag on road to Duffy Lake; 51km north of WhistlerLillooet Icecap traverse - from the upper Lillooet River, across the ice fields to Tyax LodgeLillooet River - Lizzie Creek, Twin Two & Twin One Creeks, Ure CreekLilooet River - Meagre Creek confluenceLizzie Creek trail - via Lizzie Lake, route to Tundra Lake106Lost Valley PlateauMacKenzie Basin - and beyond (there is a clear cut allowing access to this part of the wintering area)Mamquam River - dyke systemMamquam River logging roadsManatee area - numerous peaks to climbMarion and Phyllis LakesMcGillvray Pass - Whitecap Mountain, Mount McGilvrayMeagre CreekMeagre Creek Hotsprings and environsMount AlpenMount AthelstanMount Callaghan and Ring MountainMount Capilano trail - Beth Lake is an intermediate destinationMount Capricorn and Pylon PeakMount CayleyMount CurrieMount Habrich via Shannon Creek logging roadMount Jimmy-JimmyMount Marriott and Mount RohrMount Meagre and Plinth PeakMount MulliganMount Samson - 2 or 3 approaches, most common via logging roads up Samson Creek or Deliah CreekMount Sedgewick and Mount Roderick; Henrietta LakeMount Shadowfax, Mount Aragorn, Mount GandolfMount SloanMount Sproatt - 2 approachesMount Wood groupMountain Lake area - Red Mountain, Ben Lomond, Mount Sheer and numerous lakesMurrin Park - lots of rock climbing sites around hereNordic Rock - steep bluffs above Highway 99 near Nordic EstatesNorth CreekOssa and Pelion MountainOverseer Mountain, Spidery Peak & Pilca PeakOwl Lakes- Mount RonaynePaul Ridge 1 Mashiter CreekPemberton Icecap - access to Longspur PeakPeniberton Meadows - Armillaria Ponderosa or Richard’s BumpPetgill Lake and beyond to Goat RidgePlace Glacier area - Gates Peak, Mount Gardiner, “Mount Oleg”, Mount Olds, Cirque PeakPlace Glacier trailPowder Mountain - 2 or 3 approachesPriory Peaks, Meadow DomePykett Peak, Mount Charlie-Charlie, Icecap Peak & Amicus MountainRainbow Lake and Mountain - plus Gin & Tonic LakesRethel Creek- access to Wedge MountainRutherford Creek- access to Longspur PeakSaxifrage Peak and Cassiope PeakSemaphore Lakes - Face Mountain, Locomotive Mountain and beyondShannon Falls trailSigurd LakeSixteen-Mile CreekSkookum CreekSky Pilot Mountain via Shannon Creek logging roadsSkyline Ridge trail - Fraser Burrard & Copper Bush trailsSlope below Hemionus and Spindrift MountainsSlope below Mount McLeodSmoke BluffsSoc ValleySoo Valley Edge - 19.5 km north of Whistler VillageSquamish EstuarySquamish RiverStawamus ChiefStawamus SquawTenquile Creek trail - to an old cabin/mining siteTenquille LakeTenquile Mountain, Goat Peak, Copper Mound, Mount McLeod, Mount Barbour, Sun God MountainThe Camels BackThe Chief - this includes the North GullyThe MalamuteThe Papoose - 200m south of Shannon FallsThe SquawTricouni Meadows and Tricouni PeakTundra PeakTyaughton Creek - access to Deer Pass, Lizard Creek, Mount Warner, Elbow Pass to Lorne Lake, etc.Van Horlick Creek - Snowspider Mountain (92 J/8 449 692)White Rock - at entrance to Shannon Creek, a white granite cliff107108APPENDIX 4SITE REQUIREMENTS FOR EACH OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITYBelow is a list of site factors that are specific to each outdoor recreation activity, which need to beconsidered when setting aside areas for certain outdoor recreation activities. It will be noted that manyfactors overlap. This will make it easier to set aside areas that are suitable for a number of outdoorrecreation activities. However, it must always be kept in mind that many outdoor recreation activities,for social and environmental impact reasons, require low numbers of people in any given area.Therefore, purposely planning for many, multiple uses in one area may not work. Great care must betaken to ensure that the multiple uses planned for in one area are activities that can tolerate heavy use.Beach Activities• depth of water• quality of beach; material it is made of• proximity to an urban or town centre• heavy use acceptableBicyclingRoad Biking• traffic; too much & riders will avoid the area, because it is too dangerous.• terrain; not too hilly. This discourages too many people.• views; one incentive to go there.Mountain Biking• terrain; desired difficulty varies with skill level. As skill improves more difficult terrain issought after for the challenge• aesthetics of surroundings important• length of trail; longer as dedication increases• heavy use environmentally harmfulBoating• safety of water body, e.g winds and snags• views• launch sites, safe anchorages• unpolluted water• heavy use possibly dangerous, plus probably socially unacceptableEquestrian• terrain; not too difficult for the horse• quality and durability of the trail; it needs to be well enough built that the trail is not quicklydestroyed by horse traffic• traffic; as little road shoulder riding as possible• views• length of trail or area available109• heavy use environmentally damaging and probably socially unacceptableFishingFreshwater• availability of fish i.e. probability of a catch• access• closeness to home; effort required to get there. Locals will use areas that have few fish inthem, but use the area because it is just outside their back door• number of people in the area. Experienced fisher people will avoid crowded areas.Saltwater• availability of fish• contact the GVRD for other important site factorsHunting• good source of animal being hunted• road access to the area where the animals are• heavy use is dangerousKavakingWhite Water• launch and takeout sites within driving distance of one another• adequate parking at the launch and takeout sites• volume of water which is seasonal• heavy use could be dangerousSea & Coastal• launching sites & sufficient parking at them• protected or semi-protected water• views• abundance of wildlife• few high speed power boats (a safety & aesthetics issue)• heavy use socially unacceptable and ecologically a strain at the campsitesMotorcycling• terrain; some forms need special obstacles (trial riding), while other forms need j ofterrain and trails• as experience increases difficulty of terrain can increase too• heavy use could be dangerous, but probably socially acceptable110Mountaineering• challenging alpine route to be covered• not too long an approach (i.e. 2-10 1cm); nature of terrain to cover not a critical factor.Steep slopes and bush are okay & not necessarily a deterrent.• good views important• good rock; challenging route• good campsites• heavy use totally unacceptable, socially, and has a significant impact on the ecologicalsystem.Nature Appreciation• abundance of wildlife, both plants and animals• accessible, meaning walk is not too long. People going primarily for a nature appreciationexcursion are not looking for a long walk, as a hiker would be.• heavy use probably acceptable as long as it didn’t scare away the wildlifeOff Road Driving• two kinds; dedicated and recreational• the recreational off road driver is looking for good scenery & a sense of being off the beatentrack• the dedicated off road driver is looking for challenging road terrain; washouts, steep hills,obstacles, and narrowing of the road.• heavy use probably socially unacceptable for the dedicated off road driver.Overnight Camping• aesthetic place; good views• suitable ground: flat, not marshy, not bushy• a source of water• not too mosquito or black fly ridden• heavy use environmentally damaging in informal areasScuba Diving• contact the GVRD for site requirements important for this outdoor recreation activitySnow ActivitiesSki touring - beginner• shallow slopes• short approach (—2-4 1cm)• not too much elevation gain (— 240-460 m)• moderate to heavy use acceptable111Ski touring - advanced• steep snow slopes, or couloirs; i.e. challenging slopes• reasonable approach length (— 5-10 1cm), but longer than for beginners, because morededicated to the sport and want to be there longer and be more energetic while doing it• therefore higher elevation gain acceptable and desired (needed to get the good run)(-.- 460-1200m)• moderate to heavy use much less acceptableSnowshoeing• usually close to home• usually not a very long hike• heavy use probably acceptable, but highly unlikely due to low participation rates.Snowmobiling• two kinds: recreational and dedicated. Same requirement differences as with off roaddriving.• shallow enough terrain to get the machine up it. This will depend on the snow conditions;depth and hardness of the snow are the critical factors. Given the right snow conditions it isimpressive the steepness of terrain that these vehicles can travel up.• wide open spaces, good vistas• heavy use could be dangerous, but probably moderately acceptable sociallyWalking and HikingWalking• not too steep (<150 m)• not too long (<3-4 1cm); defmed as being less than 2 hours• good views• quiet• heavy use fairly acceptable socially and okay environmentally because the terrain used isusually quite flat and less susceptible to erosion.Hiking• steeper, anywhere from 240-1500 m acceptable• longer trail length desired, anywhere from 4-20 1cm, acceptable; defined as being more than2 hours• good views; i.e. not logging roads• streams, lakes desirable, for source of water and improved aesthetics• good campsites• only moderate use acceptable; if it becomes heavy socially and environmentallyunacceptable.

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