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Informal recreation area in recreation planning Anderson, Darlene 1993

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INFORMAL RECREATION AREAS IN RECREATION PLAINING  by DARLENE ANDERSON  Ph.D.  The University of British Columbia B.Sc. Queens University 1980  1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept this thesis as conforming to the requ  stand d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1993 ©  Darlene Anderson, 1993  In presenting this thesis  in  partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Signature)  czhcc -Department of  and  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date I? Decenber  DE-6 (2/88)  -(  9 Planrr  ABSTRACT  Supply of recreation areas is an important aspect of recreation planning, and this thesis examines one specific aspect of it. In a recent demand and supply study done for the Lower Mainland region, supply was studied by dividing it into two parts, formal and informal. Formal supply of recreation areas are those that have formal designation, such as BC Parks, Regional Parks, municipal parks, BC Forest sites and trails, and BC Hydro Recreation areas. All other areas used for recreation are considered “informal”, and it is these that are discussed in this thesis.  The value of informal recreation areas within the recreation opportunity spectrum is examined from a variety of perspectives. Theoretical considerations of recreation planning are presented as background to the remainder of the thesis. The topics: “The Importance and Value of Recreation, Recreation Planning Themes, Relationships and Linkages of Recreation to Other Aspects of Life, and Recreation Place Systems”, are discussed. Following this, a methodology for inventorying them and the most predominant land types used as informal recreation areas are described. Pertinent aspects of inventories and the importance of choosing appropriate activity categories are also examined.  The thesis centres on discussions of the non-tangible, psychological and emotional aspects and benefits of outdoor recreation that should be incorporated into recreation planning. Suggestions on ways to achieve these non-tangible objectives using concrete and practical steps are offered.  11  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract List of Tables  v  List of Figures  vi  Chapter 1 1.1  1.2  1.3  Introduction  Purpose 1.1.1 Problem Statement of the Thesis 1.1.2 Assumptions Scope 1.2.1 The Thesis 1.2.2 The Informal Supply Study Organization of the Thesis  1 2 3 3 4 7  Chapter 2 Theory 2.1  2.2 2.3  2.4  The Importance and Value of Recreation: Why Plan for it? The Importance and Value of Informal Recreation 2.1.1 Other Considerations in Recreation Planning 2.1.2 Recreation Planning Themes Relationships and Linkages of Recreation with Other Facets of Life 2.3.1 Recreation and Leisure 2.3.2 Recreation and Tourism 2.3.3 Recreation and Conservation Recreation Place Systems 2.4.1 Objectives of the Agencies That Manage Recreation on the Major Parks Plan Study Team  Chapter 3 Methodology and Data Collection 3.1  3.2 3.3 3.4  8 13 14 15 18 18 19 21 23 32  35  Description of Data Collection Techniques 3.1.1 Guidebooks 3.1.2 Personal Interviews Presentation of the Data Accuracy of the Data Related Reports  111  35 36 38 39 41 42  Chapter 4 The Usefulness of Inventories  44  Review of Previous Inventories of Outdoor Recreation Resources 4.1.1 The DARD Inventory 4.1.2 The GVRD Inventory 4.1.3 The Fraser Valley Inventory 4.1.4 The Whistler Corridor Recreation Potential 4.1.5 Summary Inventory Categorization  4.1  4.2  Chapter 5 Results and Analysis 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4  55  Mylar Overlays Recreation Classification Systems Informal Recreation Areas Entire Study Area Informal Recreation Areas by Regional District 5.4.1 Central Fraser Valley Dewdney Alouette 5.4.2 Fraser Cheam 5.4.3 Greater Vancouver 5.4.4 Squamish Lillooet 5.4.5 General Site Requirements 5.5.1 Specific Requirements for Three Activities Beginner Versus Expert Needs 5.5.2 Putting It All Together -  -  -  -  5.5  5.6  Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3  55 55 63 66 67 68 69 69 71 72 73 73  Suggestions and Conclusions  Importance and Value of the Major Parks Plan Study Team Suggestions for the Future Conclusions  Bibliography  Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4  44 46 47 48 49 49 50  77 78 81  83  Contacts for the Informal Supply of Recreation Study Definitions of Each Field in the Database List of Site Names Identified in the Informal Supply Inventory Site Requirements for Each Outdoor Recreation Activity  iv  88 92 99 108  LIST OF TABLES  Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3  Recreation Places in the Study Area Managing Agencies of Informal and Formal Supply Who’s Who in Recreation Management in B.C.  26 29 30  Table 3.1  Symbols Used On the Maps  40  BC Ministry of Forests, Recreation Opportunity Spectrum BC Ministry of Parks, Park Zones Ontario Ministry of Parks, Park Types Ontario Ministry of Parks, Park Zones Coastal Zones: Zealand and Mon UK: Land Use England and Wales: Recreation Resource Potential Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC) Classification System Population and Land Area of the Five Regional Districts in the Study Area  57 58 60 60 61 61 62 62  Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table  5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8  Table 5.9  V  65  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1.1  Map of the Study Area  Figure 2.1  Land Status in British Columbia  5  vi  31  1  CHAPTER 1 W1’RODUCTION  1.1 Purpose This thesis is an examination of how recognition of ‘informal’ areas used for outdoor recreation is useful and important in park and recreation planning.  To date, the recognition has taken the form of an  inventory of the informal areas.  The inventory was part of a larger supply and demand study that was done for a Major Parks Plan Study team. This team is composed of a wide variety of people involved in park and recreation planning at the municipal, regional and provincial level. They come from the Regional Districts: Dewdney Central Fraser Valley, Fraser  -  Cheam, Greater Vancouver and Squamish  -  -  Alouette,  Lillooet, some municipalities  in these regional districts, BC Parks, BC Forests, BC Environment, BC Hydro, the Protected Area Strategy, Federation of BC Naturalists and the Outdoor Recreation Council.  The focus of this thesis is to study how including informal supply areas in park and recreation planning will lead to a better park and recreation plan. The supply study itself was divided into two parts, formal and informal. Formal areas are those officially designated for recreation, e.g. parks and recreation sites. Informal areas are all other areas that are used for recreation that are not considered part of the formal supply of recreation areas.  Successful completion of the inventory of informal supply was a significant first step in this planning process. Prior to the completion of the work described in this thesis, it had proven to be a major stumbling block. Consequently some of this thesis is devoted to describing how the inventory of ‘informal’ data was done.  2  1.1.1 Problem Statement of the Thesis The problem statement of this thesis can be expressed in the form of the following question: Having acknowledged that there is a valid need for informal places for recreation, in what ways should they be provided for in a planning and management context?  Part of answering this question should come once a good grasp of the following concepts is achieved. Having this kind of understanding will help planners more easily develop criteria necessary for identifying and allocating good outdoor recreation opportunities in the study area. 1.  Planners and managers of recreation need to have a more complete understanding of the importance and value of recreation to society.  Ideally this would include an experiential’  understanding. (An ‘experiential’ understanding is one in which the person understands the situation or problem because he or she engages in the ‘experience’.) Murphy captures the essence of this concept with the statement: “By perceiving recreation as an experience, planners will understand that a person’s responses are reflective of an attempt to realize need satisfaction or obtain a goal.” (Murphy 1975, p. 33). 2.  It is important to identify areas where people recreate that are not recognized as formal recreation sites, areas, resources, or opportunities, because these areas are part of the recreation opportunity spectrum even if they are not formally recognized as such. However because their whereabouts are unknown it is not possible to incorporate them, in any systematic way, into a recreation plan for the study area. As part of this identification, there is a need for planners and managers of recreation to understand the value and importance of “informal” recreation sites to society. What are the motivations for people to recreate in informal recreation places in the first place?  When the theoretical demand and supply literature for recreation planning of the 1970’s is examined, it is found that determining supply or making an inventory of supply meant determining present and potential supply. When supply was broken down further, it meant an inventory of public and private resources, where resources included land, facilities and services, by type, nature and quantity (Doyle 1974). When real inventories of supply were done in the 1970’s, this is what they did.  Recreation resources were not  classified as formal or informal, rather they were classified as public or private; or land, facility or  3  service. Therefore, if included, the informal areas were included with the formal. This was not done intentionally, but instead was a result of using a different system of classification (GVRD 1978, Cook et al 1977, Ben 1978).  1.1.2 Assumptions It has been assumed by this author that there are good reasons why people participate in outdoor recreation activities on lands that are not explicitly set aside for recreation. These reasons are external to a lack of supply problem, and instead these areas are used because they fulfill a part of the recreation opportunity spectrum that to date has not been adequately addressed in a planning and management context.  A second assumption has been that an inventory of where people recreate outside of formally designated recreation areas or sites will allow planners and managers of recreation to get a better grasp of why these areas are being used, and that this is an essential first step in creating a good recreation plan for the study area.  1.2 Scope 1.2.1 The Thesis This thesis analyses the data and information collected on outdoor recreation activities that are pursued outside of the formal recreation areas within the study area (as described in section 1.2.2.) As a result, the conclusions, ideas and recommendations that are drawn from the information are specific to the study area. Nevertheless, it is possible that some of the ideas and recommendations could be applied elsewhere.  It is important to point out that the work of this thesis is only on outdoor recreation activities and not recreation in general. However, for the purposes of theoretical discussion in chapter two, reference is made to recreation in general. This is necessary in order to put outdoor recreation and the use of informal sites for it, in proper context. Beyond any reference made in the theory section, facility based  4  sports and recreation are not considered in this study.  It is relevant to point out that the expertise of the author is in many of the land based outdoor recreation activities considered in this inventory, in particular climbing, mountaineering, hiking and backcountry skiing. It should be recognized that this has provided a strength to this planning process because there often appears to be more planners and managers who have an understanding and some experience in the other outdoor recreation activities, but not the ones that this author has extensive experience in.  1.2.2 The Informal Supply Study Inventory The boundaries of the area studied in this thesis are those of the five Regional Districts in the Lower Mainland. Going from the southwest corner of the study area, north, then east, south and west they are: Greater Vancouver, Squamish  -  Lillooet, Fraser Cheam, Central Fraser Valley, and Dewdney -  -  Alouette. See Figure 1.1 for a map of the study area.  The inventory of informal supply was undertaken because members of the Major Parks Plan Study team were hearing that 80% of recreation in the Fraser Valley was on Crown land that was not formally designated for recreation. The purpose of the inventory was to verify this. It was important to find those areas where either a lot of recreation activity was taking place or where a wide variety of recreation activities were occurring. This would allow recreation planners and managers to know where to spend money the most effectively. Another relevant aspect is that knowing where the recreation areas were would allow the team to know what jurisdictions should be managing the different areas. It turns out that in the Fraser Valley nearly all information (complaints, comments), from the public about informal recreation areas was going to the Forest Service, and in many cases this was not the correct governing authority who needed to hear about the issue (Watmough 1993). Lack of information by the public and inappropriate governance of the informal recreation areas is the main cause of this problem. If the appropriate governing agency knows that an area under its jurisdiction is being used for outdoor recreation problems can be properly rectified.  5  FIGURE 1.1 MAP OF THE STUDY AREA  LEGEND 8IkKLt4HtAIJ  BIRKENHEAD  LAKS PARK  SOUAMISH  -  -  DUFFEY LAKE  WHISTLER  LILLOOET RIVER VALLEY STEIN RIVER VALLEY GOLDEN EARS  -  ALOUE1TE  F MISSION STAVE LAKE G HARRISON CHEHAUS H SOUTHERN FRASER CANYON -  -  NORTh SHORE  “:‘9.  IISTLR  I  PIrr LAKE  J  COQUITLAh4  K  VANCOUVER- BURHA8Y  L  LANGLEY  M MATSOUI  -  -  -  BOUNDARY BAY ABOOTSFORD  N CHILLIWACK RIVER VALLEY O  SKAGIT VALLEY  P  BOSTON BAR EAST  GARq.DI PARK,  SQU*fl1614  I-  SOURCE: Greater Vancouver Regional District, Parks Department. 1993. (From the demand survey done by Rethink).  6  Consequently, the primary goal of the first step of the informal supply study was to determine where the areas are that people recreate. Additional studies could examine how many people use each area and where they live. The database was designed so that this information could be added to each record at a later date. In the meantime, a subjective estimate of how many people use each area has been recorded in a field labelled “Level of Use.’ Values of high, medium, or low were used. If the level of use was completely unknown, then the value UNKNOWN was entered. See Chapter 3 on the Methodology and Data Collection for more details on how the data was collected and stored.  The outdoor recreation activities covered in the informal supply study are the same as those inventoried in the formal supply study. The activities or categories used were developed by the people working on  this project in the parks department at GVRD. The categories are broad enough that they cover most recreational activities because if an activity is not explicitly considered, it will be covered under another one. For example, windsurfmg is included in boating, while snow activities covers the diverse range of activities, snowshoeing, snowmobiling, and backcountry skiing/ski touring. A brief discussion on the importance of good categorization in an inventory is covered in Chapter 4.  The outdoor recreation activities that were inventoried are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  Beach Activities Bicycling Boating Equestrian Freshwater Fishing Saltwater Fishing Hang Gliding Hunting Kayaking Motorcycling Mountaineering Nature Appreciation Off Road Driving Overnight Camping Picnicking Rock Climbing Scuba Diving Snow Activities Walking/Hiking  7  Three of these activities: boating, saltwater fishing, and scuba diving, were inventoried by the GVRD. The remainder were done by this author. Quantitative details about the site, such as length of trail or number of campsites, were also collected when known. The terrain features in the area that the recreation activity is taking place have been noted. This was done to determine if there is a correlation between outdoor recreation activity and landscape, as well as to determine if there is a predominant kind of landscape that is used informally for recreation.  1.3 Organization of the Thesis To achieve the goals and objectives of this thesis, the second chapter discusses the value of recreation and leisure to society, along with giving a working defmition of recreation for this thesis. Also included are ideas about recreation planning themes, critical links that recreation has to other activities in society, e.g., its link to tourism, and a discussion of the range of recreation places available and who manages them.  The third chapter is a description of the inventory work that was done, the methodology of data collection and data storage.  The fourth chapter is a discussion about the usefulness of inventories. It first reviews four that were done for the study in the late 1970’s, and early 1980’s, and compares them to the most recent one. It then discusses salient points regarding categorization.  Chapter five provides an analysis of the results. It presents some different recreation classification systems possible, describes the kinds of areas used and what activities take place there. Getting more detailed, it gives general site requirements for outdoor recreation pursuits and then, specific ones for three critical activities. Finally, ideas on how informal recreation areas could be incorporated into park and recreation planning are given.  Chapter six concludes with comments on the value of the Master Parks Plan Study team, and some suggestions for the team to consider while developing their recreation plans.  8  CHAPTER 2 THEORY  2.1 The linportance and Value of Recreation: Why Plan for it? Barring love and war, few enterprises are undertaken with such abandon, or by such diverse individuals, or with so paradoxical a mixture of appetite and altruism, as that group of avocations known as outdoor recreation. It is, by common consent, a good thing for people to get back to nature. But wherein lies the goodness, and what can be done to encourage its pursuit? On these questions there is confusion of counsel, and only the most uncritical minds are free from doubt. (Leopold 1966, p. 280).  Recreation is a pervasive element of life. It touches many aspects of it. Perhaps because of this pervasiveness, its importance in having a high quality life can easily be overlooked and often underrated. Fortunately, in the past twenty or thirty years the importance of recreation and leisure in creating a physically and emotionally healthier society has been recognized, and significant and thoughtful effort has been put into planning for it.  Nonetheless, all too often, many people put too much emphasis on the importance of work, with virtually none placed on recreation and its positive benefits. “In a highly materialistic society, individuals are deprived of certain intrinsic values and may be frustrated by a society which mistakenly focuses its goals on only extrinsic materialistic concerns.” (Murphy 1975, p. 144).  Work allows a person to reach many valuable goals, both tangible and intangible. Tangible benefits are a level of material wealth which allows for a high level of comfort and security. Intangible benefits are recognition, a sense of accomplishment and the satisfaction of having successfully completed a project. All of these lead to a heightened sense of self worth. However if too much emphasis is placed on these positive effects of work, they become outweighed by the negative ones of excess stress and an exclusive drive towards materialism. Excessive materialism is inappropriate because it, not only is bad for the environment, but causes people to compete against one another rather than work with one another. This creates an unhappy environment rather than a relaxed and happy one. The result is that, “Individuals become suppressed and perverted by the pressures, demands and inappropriate values which characterize a society oriented almost exclusively to work.’ (Murphy 1972, p. 34).  9  “Recreation serves as a way to maintain one’s equilibrium, to counteract the often alienating forces of work.” (Murphy 1975, p.146). It has been well recognized that recreation is important in many ways as the following quote describes.  Recreation improves the lives of British Columbians in many ways. It increases our physical, intellectual and psychological well being. It makes us more aware of the importance of a healthy lifestyle and tends to increase our self confidence. The advantages to the individual, in turn, aid society. People who are healthy in mind, spirit and body, contribute positively to the work place, function effectively and appreciate themselves and others. People who recreate outdoors appreciate nature and respect the need to conserve our natural resources. (The ACTION Challenge 1989, p. 3).  In Murphy’s mind “There is an urgent need for people to learn how to relax, to contemplate their existence.” (Murphy 1975, p. 34). Taking some time to relax or pursue a leisure activity or to recreate during the day is important. Whatever form of recreation pursued, whether it is active or passive, the act of pursuing it allows one to have a more enjoyable day and create a higher quality life. Whatever a person’s daily routine is, the attitude taken towards the day will influence how well it is enjoyed (Friedrich 1992). It is important for people to develop a strong appreciation for enjoying the journey through life.  Kraus outlines the many values of recreation for individuals. They touch most aspects of life, physical values, emotional values, social values and intellectual values (Kraus 1978, chapter 13).  The ways in  which recreation help contribute to a person having a well-rounded, balanced personality, with a sense of individualism and a creative outlook on life are described by Bucher in a section called “Nature of the Recreational Experience” (Bucher 1984, pp. 11-15). Four aspects inherent in recreation that lead to healthy human development, are:  1.  Choice: A recreation experience is something that the individual has almost complete choice over. There is a spontaneity and freedom in the choice of recreation activity that is often lacking in other everyday affairs.  This leads to an enhanced sense of personal worth, a  chance to learn and develop skills and the ability to realize one’s full potential. This develops a person with a positive level of self confidence.  10  2.  Performed during Leisure: This links in with the inherent aspect of choice which is so valuable to enhanced sense of self worth.  3.  Pleasurable: Recreation is fun. As such, a healthier, happier, more well adjusted individual emerges, who, ultimately, is capable of contributing more positively to society.  4.  A Positive Act: By definition, a recreation activity is one which is considered worthwhile and socially acceptable. Consequently no feelings of guilt or doing wrong are associated with pursuing a recreation activity.  Direct benefits to society of increased emphasis being placed on recreation planning would be a reduction in health care costs and in the penal system. Outdoor recreation has been known for many years, to be very useful as a way to stay fit and healthy, both mentally and physically. In the form of wilderness programs, outdoor recreation is used to help youths overcome behaviour problems, which ideally reduce costs to the penal system. Example of programs designed to help youth stay out of trouble with the law include the program at Porteau Cove, which is funded by the Ministry of Attorney General, Corrections Branch, the “Vista” program that is run by Outward Bound and the “Rediscovery” program run for Native youths.  Perhaps if society learned to value recreation more there would be less people with these kinds of problems and instead of wilderness programs bemg used as forms of treatment, they would be used as a valuable method of education, under the category of social learning (Friedmann 1987, Dunn 1971).  A recent publication produced by the Parks and Recreation Foundation of Ontario (PRFO) and the Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Recreation, called The Benefits of Parks and Recreation, A Catalogue, outlines the numerous benefits of recreation to society that can be used to justify or argue for continued emphasis on recreation programs and services in an era of financial constraint.  It catalogues the best  evidence about the benefits of parks and recreation, and provides a resource and catalyst to promote recreation services that are truly essential. The document reports three types of information: 1) support evidence from research, both empirical and applied; 2) consensus statements about the benefits of leisure;  11  and 3) project work that relates to specific communities. The format of the catalogue has been designed to be easily useable as a reference. It first outlines all the benefits, which have been divided into four groups, personal, social, economic and environmental. It then lists focus statements that relate to each benefit. Finally it provides support documentation for each benefit statement and its corresponding set of focus statements. It concludes with a complete list of references.  Some examples of benefit statements from this document that are relevant to this work are:  Under  personal benefits it states that “Physical recreation and fitness contributes to a full and meaningful life.”; “Meaningful leisure activity is an essential source of self-esteem and positive self-image.”; “Regular physical activity is one of the very best methods of health insurance for individuals.” and “Relaxation, rest and revitalization through the opportunity of leisure is essential to stress management in today’s busy  and demanding world.” (PRFO 1992, p. 9).  Social benefits include the following: “Leisure provides  leadership opportunities that build strong communities.”; “Community recreation reduces alienation, loneliness and anti-social behaviours.”; “Community recreation promotes ethnic and cultural harmony.”; “Recreating together builds strong families, the foundation of a stronger society.” (PRFO 1992, p. 11). Economic benefits listed are: “Pay now or pay more later! Investment in recreation as a preventative health service makes sense.”; “A fit work force is a productive work force.”; recreation yield big economic returns.” (PRFO 1992, p. 13).  “  Small investments in  And, two of the environmental benefits  given include: “Through the provision of parks, open spaces and protected natural environments, recreation can contribute to the environmental health of our communities. This is an essential, lifesustaining role.”; “The public is often prepared to pay for environmental protection and rehabilitation in their communities, and to support parks and recreation organizations that play a lead role in that protection.” (PRFO 1992, p. 15).  The above is a selection of a few of the benefits of parks and  recreation to society.  It is important now to present a definition of recreation for use in this thesis. In its broadest sense it is quite comprehensive, as described in the following statement: “We have come to recognize that Recreation is not just an activity but an experience and Leisure cannot be measured as a quantity of time but a quality of life.” (City of Sudbury Community Leisure Plan Steering Committee 1988, p. 7). This concept leads to a definition of recreation as follows: “All those things that a person or group chooses to  12  do to make their leisure time more interesting, more enjoyable, and more personally satisfying. It is not confmed solely to sports and physical recreation but includes artistic, creative, cultural, social and intellectual services.” (City of Sudbury Community Leisure Plan Steering Committee 1988, p. 7). From this quote, it can be inferred that planning for recreation means more than just providing facilities for sports. This is an extremely important concept to keep in mind for the purpose of this thesis. The focus here is not on the artistic, creative, cultural, social and intellectual recreational pursuits, as thought of in the usual sense, but rather as they pertain to the enjoyment of outdoor recreation activities in a natural environment. These elements are present as important components of an outdoor recreation activity, but generally are not well recognized in the face of other goals that are achieved during an outdoor recreation experience. Nonetheless they are important components of outdoor recreation that need more attention during the planning (and managing) of recreation.  Another important element about recreation that needs to be kept in mind is that it “is heavily dependent on state of mind or attitude; it is not so much what one does as the reason for doing it, and the way the individualfeels about the activity, that makes it recreation.’ (Kraus 1978, p. 33).  A very comprehensive definition of recreation, presented by Kraus after a lengthy discussion on many of the more current definitions for recreation, is given below and is given because of its comprehensive nature.  Recreation consists of activities or experiences carried on within leisure, usually chosen voluntarily by the participant either because of satisfaction, pleasure, or creative enrichment derived, or because he perceives certain personal or social values to be gained from them. It may also be perceived a 3 the process of participation, or as the emotional state derived from involvement. -  When carried on as part of organized community or voluntary-agency programs, recreation must be designed to meet constructive and socially acceptable goals of the individual participant, the group, and society at large. Finally, recreation must be recognized as a social institution with its own values and traditions, structures and organizations, and professional groups and skilled practitioners. (Kraus 1978, p. 37).  13  2.1.1 The Importance and Value of Informal Outdoor Recreation In the planning and management of recreation, an examination of the existence of informal recreation areas needs to be made. What is it that people are looking for in an informal recreation experience? Until that is fully understood it will be more difficult to plan and manage for the full spectrum of outdoor recreation activities and opportunities.  People recreate outdoors because it fulfills the urge to “get away” from the stresses and frustrations of a hectic life elsewhere (Friedrich 1992). The outdoor recreation experience allows for relaxation. Mental relaxation does not always take the form of being physically inactive. To the contrary, physical exertion can be very relaxing mentally, something some are looking for in their outdoor recreation experience. An important point to make about many outdoor recreation activities is that, not only does it fulfill the need to get away, mentally, it also usually takes one away physically. This physical act of actually leaving one’s home environment strongly enforces that goal of “getting away.”  However, once one has gotten away to enjoy an outdoor recreation experience, the last thing one wants to find at the recreation area, is the very thing they are getting away from  -  rules, regulations, and  restrictions. And, for some outdoor recreation activities the presence of too many other users will detract immensely from the experience.  Therefore informal recreation areas are important to have as places that appear to be unmanaged. One reason people recreate in informal areas, is the need to experience the freedom of adventure, and to experience the serendipity of the discovery of something new and on their own (Wilson 1993). There is a need for recreation areas that are either completely without facilities, or if there are some, (which would only be because of heavy use), they are few and subtle. Often the formal areas are small (e.g. many of the BC Hydro and BC Forest Service recreation areas and sites), and in a sense are the gateway to the area that is used informally. It is the formal area that has the facilities (usually parking and toilets), while the informal area has none.  14  2.1.2 Other Considerations in Recreation Planning Nonetheless, there is also a need for formal recreation areas which cannot be filled by informal recreation areas. Formal areas are important because their management is usually consistent with a set of values, beliefs and goals that are specific to only some outdoor recreation activities. As a result, those activities which can create a negative recreation experience for certain users will not be found in some formal recreation areas. An example is Class A Provincial Parks where snowmobiling is often prohibited. Therefore, people go to these places expecting a certain environment, that is, a snowmobile free environment. It is very important that these kinds of areas exist in the provision of outdoor recreation opportunities, because there are some activities which are so incompatible, such as snowmobiling with backcountry ski touring, that spatial separation appears to be the only solution. When activities occur in, or above these areas which are incompatible with ideals that some people hold for Class A Provincial Parks, such as heli-skiing or snowmobiling, it is very disillusioning for the people holding those ideals.  It is also important that planners and managers for recreation understand the distinction in the needs of the beginner recreationist and the experienced or dedicated. The two groups are looking for a vastly different experience, and hence are often using very different terrain (or sites) to achieve that experience. This is discussed in more detail in Chapter 5.  It is vitally important that planners and managers do not forget the needs of the expert. They are there and do “their thing” because they love it. The relevant point here, is that they are also there in smaller numbers than the beginner or casual recreationist. To cater to the needs of only the larger group, because they are larger is unfair to the expert. Therefore it becomes important not to destroy those areas which are oniy suitable to the expert, especially for the purpose of creating terrain or areas suitable for beginners, because the expert group is considered too small to plan and manage land resources for. This is highly unfair to them and shows a lack of social consideration for this group of people.  This brings up the point of volume of use being used to determine the value of an area. To discredit an area from not being significant because only one party per year visits the area also shows a lack of understanding of an important goal being pursued in many outdoor recreation activities, particularly by  15  the smaller, dedicated group. For the experienced outdoor recreationist, that area is highly valuable because that area provides the opportunity to experience precisely what the ‘expert’ is looking for  -  solitude, adventure, exploration of the unknown and untravelled, along with competition against ones own limitations and skills. In general, these areas with low numbers of people visiting them are aesthetic, but are usually difficult or time consuming to get to. To the experienced recreationist it is this lack of easy access which adds to the appeal of the area and enhances its value. A simple example of this is the Tantalus mountain range west of Squamish. The result is that the Tantalus range of mountains is highly valuable as a recreation area despite its low level of use by self-propelled recreatiomsts. It is valid to -  question to what extent land planners and managers can achieve this goal with an increasing population. Nonetheless, it is critically relevant that the importance of this kind of area is fully recognized.  2.2 Recreation Planning Themes In developing a plan it is necessary to consider what focus will be taken. What goals are to be achieved through the recreation plan? This question can be greatly aided by considering what theme or themes are desirable for incorporation into the plan.  Within the theory of planning, recreation can be dealt with according to a few themes or approaches. Recreation planning themes are outlined in a document published by the Red Deer Regional Planning Commission on Regional Recreation: Elements and Directions, 1978, while recreation planning approaches are described in Gold’s book Recreation Planning and Design (Gold 1980).  Five themes that can be used when planning for recreation are described below:  1.  A Behavioral, Humanistic Interpretation of Recreation The key point of this theme is that the objective is that the participants of the recreation activity achieve feelings of well-being and self-satisfaction. This aspect of recreation planning is often overlooked. (Red Deer Regional Planning Commission 1978, p. 8, Murphy 1975, p. 13).  16  2.  Equality of Opportunity This theme points out that recreation activities need to be provided for those who are considered in minority groups, such as the poor and the disabled, and that recreation should not cater only to the wealthier, more capable classes of society. (Burton 1976a, p. 57). This theme is applicable to the distinction that needs to be made between the beginner or casual outdoor recreationist and the experienced or dedicated users.  3.  Planning Recreation Place Systems  This means that recreation opportunities need to be planned and provided for, by placing them within a system of recreation opportunities, and not just think of a recreation opportunity or recreation area as an isolated component. For example a lake exists as one component in a region’s recreation system or environment. This is a difficult goal to achieve but is one that having an inventory of informal recreation areas should be helpful for (Burton 1976b, p. 19, Mercer 1970, p. 266).  4.  Environment Conservation and Recreation This theme incorporates the goal of conserving natural resources in the development of any plans for outdoor recreation. This concept is explored in more detail in section, 2.3.3 “Recreation and Conservation” (Zimmerman 1964, p. 21, Taylor 1961).  5.  Education for Recreation Recreation is a learned behaviour, therefore how much time and energy a person allocates to recreation is dependent on the amount and type of knowledge, and the value system they hold. To devote time to recreation a person needs to know the benefits of it. It is most probable that people recreate more than in the past because they know the benefits of recreation, rather than because they have more leisure time. Providing education for recreation will allow an individual to achieve their full capability more easily and experience the positive feelings of accomplishment and self-fulfillment that can be derived from recreation. Recreation education will allow an individual to more easily “become what he is capable of being” (Murphy 1975, p. 2).  17  Five approaches to recreation planning that can be taken are:  1.  Resource Approach This approach is most effective in non-urban resource planning, and emphasizes supply over demand. Supplier or management values are dominant in the planning process. Supply will limit the demand. It is useful when there is a well-defined resource to protect, as natural factors are ranked over social factors. (Gold 1980, p. 45).  2.  Activity Approach Unlike the resource approach, social factors are ranked over natural factors, and supply creates demand. Opportunities that should be provided are determined by past participation. As a result this approach seldom responds well to the emergence of new outdoor recreation activities, such as jet-boating.  3.  Economic Approach In this approach economic factors are more important than social or natural factors. The emphasis is on market demand and pricing opportunities.  4.  Behavioral Approach This approach emphasizes understanding why a person participates and learning what activities are preferred. It is similar to the planning theme “A Behavioral, Humanistic Interpretation of Recreation.”  5.  Combined Approach This is the desired approach as it combines the positive aspects of all the above, and is balanced to reflect the requirements of both the user and the resource. It uses a planning process which has the following steps, as given in the following quote:  18  1) inventories and evaluates existing and potential recreation resources, 2) identifies user groups and their characteristics, 3) estimates the recreation supply and demand in terms of potential resource types and user group requirements, and 4) translates these requirements with planning guides, design studies, landscape interpretation, and benefit-cost analysis into a recreation plan. (Gold 1980, p. 52).  Ideally, the planning approach taken, or recreation planning theme followed, will combine a number of these individual approaches in a way that is appropriate to the area and situation that the plan is being developed for.  2.3 Relationships and Linkages of Recreation With Other Facets of Life As mentioned in an earlier section of this chapter, recreation is linked to many other elements of life. It is this linkage, or relationship to so many other aspects of life that makes the management and planning of recreation so hard to grasp.  Recreation tends to be somewhat “all pervasive, touching upon many  elements of life. It is not just a single focused activity. As a result, recreation is planned and managed by many levels of government and by many departments within each level, as well as by numerous private, public and non-profit organizations. In this section three major linkages of recreation with other aspects of life are discussed.  2.3.1. Recreation and Leisure Leisure and recreation are linked because for many people the act of recreating takes place in their leisure time where a definition of leisure is: “Leisure is a period of time in which the individual, at will, may undertake activities for either relaxation, diversion, or broadening of individual and spontaneous social participation, the free exercise of individual creative capacity” (The Action Challenge 1989, p. 5).  The relevance to recreation of leisure is that recreation is one specific activity a person could pursue in their leisure time. It can become very difficult to have definitions for both recreation and leisure that are distinctly different. Since they both allow for personal growth there is overlap in their meanings.  19  What would be described as recreation by one person may be described as leisure by another. The problem is academic, and the key point to grasp is that one role of recreation is as a form of leisure. Another role is as a form of employment. The kind of employment it provides is wide ranging, from administrative to facility planning, building and maintenance, to teaching and tourism.  2.3.2. Recreation and Tourism Recreation is a form of employment. Many recreation opportunities, such as community centres, municipal parks, and swimming pools, are provided as a public service and are paid for partially through taxes. However, one that is not, is tourism. This is not surprising in light of the link between recreation and leisure. One form of tourism often engaged in, especially in “Supernatural BC”, is outdoor recreation. This link has provided incentive for studies on how to promote recreation and tourism in an area. The goal behind these studies is to determine how recreation and tourism can act as economic generators for a community, as discussed in the publication Outdoor Recreation and Tourism in the Peace River Region of Alberta, 1973. The result can be positive for the community because it means the community is looked after and is more likely to be an attractive place to live and visit. The drive to ensure tourism is successful often means that the natural resources in the area are protected.  The type of tourism that is of most interest to this thesis is that called “Adventure Tourism,” because it is closely linked to outdoor recreation. Many times it is competing for the same land base as used by the public. An important element of outdoor recreation is often the independence of it, and to some extent the lack of crowds. If an area starts to be heavily used by commercial tour operators, then the area is perceived as crowded and the appeal of the area is lost as a recreation area for some members of the general public.  Adventure tourism is a subset of a broader form of tourism, referred to as eco-tourism. Whether it is eco-tourism or adventure tourism is not relevant to this discussion. What is relevant is that it is tourism, in other words people are earning money from use of the land base which is still in a relatively natural state. The real significance of the link between recreation and tourism is that often two user groups, pursuing similar activities on the land, come in conflict with one another, rather than existing in  20  harmony. Add this to other users of the same land base, wildlife, the forest industry, the mining industry and agricultural production, and the result can be a complicated mess.  This kind of situation is referred  to as a ‘wicked” problem (Dorcey 1986).  Another aspect to this situation is that some forms of outdoor recreation are incompatible with others. The classic example of this is snowmobiling with ski touring. Use of an area by snowmobiles is totally unacceptable to ski tourers. This would be true regardless of whether the ski touring group was a commercial enterprise or a group of local users. Unfortunately the use of motorized vehicles by many commercial outdoor or adventure tourism companies is common. This creates conflict with other peoples’ use of the land, especially the public self-propelled outdoor recreationist.  A hypothesis for the use of motorized vehicles in adventure tourism is proposed by the author of this thesis. Motorized vehicles are used in adventure tourism because their use pulls in a market, or group of people that is not already out there recreating. It is vitally important to the success of the “adventure” experience, that it is enjoyable, perhaps thrilling, but not overly strenuous (Whistler Backcountry Adventures 1993). To access beautiful natural areas, especially in the Coast Mountains of the study area, requires a fair amount of physical effort (personal knowledge.) The average “adventure tourist” may want the rewards of spectacular scenery for the least amount of effort, and sometimes the least amount of time. Eliminating or reducing the length of the approach to a beautiful area allows for the maximum amount of time in the high alpine where the environment is more exhilarating. To some, it appears that there is little appreciation attached to the value of the journey to the destination and the sense of accomplishment gained in getting there using your own energy (Thompson 1993).  Unfortunately, for environmental and aesthetic reasons this kind of approach to outdoor recreation and wilderness travel is unacceptable to many. Nonetheless, outdoor recreation and tourism are closely linked and will become increasingly so as British Columbia tries to reduce its economic dependence on resource extractive industries and turn to less environmentally destructive economic activities.  Despite  its potential to be intrusive, adventure tourism is, when practiced conscientiously, less damaging to the land base than forestry (whether it is being practiced conscientiously or not.) This statement is said from the observation that chopping down all the trees in a 100 ha area of land appears to the layperson to be  21  more damaging to the environment than destroying a trail or small meadow in that same 100 ha area of land. That is, the damage from excess recreation appears to be less extensive (personal observation.)  2.3.3. Recreation and Conservation Recreation and conservation become linked because often areas of land are suggested for protection to achieve both recreation ni conservation goals. This is a good idea as long as the recreation activity does not compromise the conservation goal to be achieved. Unfortunately, many times because the volume of people recreating in the area is high, an area will be excessively damaged ecologically. Consequently, a great deal of care needs to be taken regarding what kinds of recreation are allowed to occur in an area, as well as how many people are allowed to visit the area at any one time. The concept of carrying capacity addresses this upper limit on number of users for a particular resource. Carrying capacity is not examined in detail in this thesis. For the interested reader, other works that cover the concept include: Carrying Capacity in Recreation Settings, by Bo Shelby and Thomas A. Heberlein (published in 1986 by Oregon State University Press), The Carrying Capacity of Selected Outdoor Recreation Facilities, by Kees Verbery for Parks Canada in 1974, and The Carrying Capacity Concept as a Planning Tool, Report No. 338, by Devon M. Schneider, David R. Goldschalk and Norman Axier, published by the American Planning Association in 1979.  Tourism becomes linked to the recreation versus conservation dilemma because often facilities, e.g. downhill ski areas, resorts, golf courses, and lodges are built to facilitate tourism. However, the construction of these facilities has a negative environmental impact. Indigenous vegetation is often removed, the scenery of the area is changed, thus altering one of its important outdoor recreation attributes, and, most importantly, the quality of the water may be adversely affected.  Even if facilities are not built, damage to the ecosystems of an area can occur when too many people use an area. Some outdoor recreation activities are more quickly damaging to the environment than others. Examples of this are horses and bicycles on sensitive, slow growing sub-alpine meadows, or using motorized vehicles as the main focus of the recreation activity using up fossil fuels and polluting the air.  22  Extensiveness and degree of impact that a recreation activity will have on a place is also dependent on the way the activity is pursued. Two examples of environmentally damaging activities for which the extensiveness of damage is dependent on how they are done are camping and waste disposal. With camping, choice of location is the key consideration. Heather, which is very easily killed and takes a very long time to grow back, is a poor choice for a campsite. However, it is often used because it is pleasantly soft. Disposal of waste too close to a water body can dramatically increase the probability of contaminating the drinking water and so should be done at least 30m from the water body (Meyer 1989). How much a group impacts the natural resources in an area is dependent on the knowledge level of the group. Sometimes it is lack of knowledge that leads a group to be more environmentally damaging than it needs to be. At other times, the values held by the group members determine behaviour. A group may know that something is not a good thing to do, but will do it anyway.  From a planning and management perspective, the managing agency needs to be clear on what their first priority is in managing an area. Is it primarily for recreation in a natural setting, or is it for preservation of the natural resources where limited recreation is allowed? It appears to an outside observer that when the possibility of making money becomes a reality, agencies that have the responsibility of managing for conservation have difficulty saying no, even when that money-making proposition will compromise the conservation mandate for the area. An example of this is the proposed expansion of the downhill ski area in Cypress Provincial Park, a Class A park. The Park Act (R.S B.C. Ch. 309) sets out a strong .  mandate to preserve the natural resources of a Class A provincial park and yet the proposal to cut 22 ha of valuable old growth forest to create downhill ski runs, has been presented as a viable option in the preparation of its new Master Park plan. Another example is the proposal by a local forestry company to put a road through Birkenhead Lake Provincial Park to allow access for timber removal. Both of these proposed commercial activities will negatively impact the conservation values of the parks.  A distinction in definitions of words that would be valuable to use in these discussions is that between conservationists and preservationists. The two are often used interchangeably, but their definitions have different values underlying them. Conservationists usually approach the preservation of natural resources from a purely anthropocentric point of view, and could be thought of as “stewards of the land.” Their goal in land preservation is for the continued use of it by humans. They have a fairly high belief in  23  science and technology to solve any problems which might accidently be created through the behaviour of humans. Preservationists, on the other hand believe in the preservation of natural resources for their own sake, and not just because their existence is of use to humans. They don’t believe science and technology will solve everything and hence are more risk adverse than conservationists and will advocate preserving more than may appear to be necessary to a conservationist, “just to be on the safe side” (Freeman 1993). Like all words that are similar in meaning, the line between them becomes fuzzy as it is approached. Nonetheless, it is useful to be aware of the distinction. It has also been described that conservation refers to resources that are renewable and preservation to those that are not (Jenson 1985, p. 324-5).  2.4 Recreation Place Systems Having made an inventory of the places where people recreate outdoors, in particular those that are considered “informal”, it becomes important to see where these areas fit into the supply spectrum of outdoor recreation resources. In developing a recreation plan it is necessary to have the total supply picture. Because the majority of supply of recreation in many areas of the study area (e.g. Fraser  -  Cheam Regional District) is informal this situation becomes critically relevant.  Important distinctions to make when considering recreation places are: is the place resource oriented or user oriented?, is it outdoor or indoor?, rural or urban?, and is the land being used extensively for the outdoor recreation activity, such as a trail, or intensively, such as a rock climbing bluff? These questions all need to be kept in mind in assessing the lists of recreation places given below.  Other considerations to be kept in mind about outdoor recreation places are: Should facilities be provided?, if yes, what kinds and how much? Perhaps the only facility necessary is parking. To answer this question it is necessary to consider what kind of person is using the area (or will use the area)? What kind of experience are they looking for?  -  a served one, or a self-created one? How many people will  likely use the area? Is there an upper limit on how many people should use the area to ensure the desired experience is possible for those using the area? This question is answered partially by considering the degree of naturalness and wilderness character the area should have, and by considering the area’s  proximity to an urban area or human settlement.  24  Within the scope of recreation place system planning, as presented in the Red Deer Regional Planning Commission Report, three of their six specific types are relevant to outdoor recreation planning. The six place types are: structural, historic and cultural sites, natural monument, resource facility, extensive environment area and primitive environment. Structural refers to such things as arenas, community halls, art galleries, etc. Natural monuments are sanctuaries, geologic sites, biological preservation area etc. These types of places are outside the scope of outdoor recreation as studied in this thesis. However, recreation place types that fall under resource facility (campgrounds, picnic areas, ski hills etc.), extensive environment area, (national parks, river valley, lake and shoreland, forest), and primitive environment (wilderness, wild river, wild lake and primitive protection zone) (Red Deer Regional Planning Commission 1978, p. 78) are very relevant recreation place types for any recreation planning of outdoor recreation in the study area.  It must be made clear that some places are used for recreation precisely because they have NO facilities and services. As mentioned in the section on the importance and value of informal recreation, this is exactly what most people are looking for in an informal recreation area. Nevertheless, this does not mean the area should not be managed for recreation, just that it should be “managed” to provide an informal recreation experience. To determine this it is helpful to look at the full spectrum of places where people recreate, both formal supply areas and informal areas. Table 2.1 and 2.2 provide the same information in two different forms. This is done to bring out two different understandings or categorizations of the recreation resource opportunities available in the study area. Table 2.3, taken from the Ministry of Forests 1991 Recreation Manual, provides yet another categorization and perspective on recreation place opportunities in British Columbia.  Table 2.1 lists the different kinds of outdoor recreation places, who the managing agency is, the setting and the purpose of the place. Keep in mind it is only outdoor recreation places that are considered. The list has been divided into FORMAL and INFORMAL recreation place areas.  The list is by no means exhaustive. It primarily focuses on the government agencies that provide land resources for recreation. Private commercial and private non-profit organizations that have lands that are used for outdoor recreation have not been considered, because it would be very time consuming and  25  difficult to track down every last private landowner and commercial operator who provided land for outdoor recreation.  It is acceptable to disregard private landowners of recreation areas, because the land base they manage for outdoor recreation is significantly smaller than is the land base provided by public agencies. This is a valid assumption to make in Canada, as shown by Figure 2.1. Only 6% of British Columbia’s land base is private. The rest is either Federal or Provincial Crown, committed or uncommitted, with the vast majority, 85%, being provincial forest. (In the United States private land ownership is much higher and this assumption would not be valid.)  Secondly, this thesis is interested in investigating land that is accessible for recreation as a “public good”, and not as recreation that is a paid for service. The focus of this thesis is not on the commercial provision of outdoor recreation, which may often be what is provided on land that is in private ownership.  Table 2.2 takes some of the same information and rearranges it into which agencies presently manage informal and formal recreation areas. Table 2.3 lists the agencies providing the recreation opportunity, the amount of money spent by each agency and the role the opportunity plays in recreation.  26  TABLE 2.1 RECREATION PLACES IN THE STUDY AREA Managing Agency  Setting  Purpose of the Place  Municipal Park  Municipality or Municipal District  Urban Often small  Primarily recreation, physical to cultural, in a natural setting, full range of facilities, but usually no accommodation because of urban setting.  Regional Park  Regional District + BC Parks  Urban or Non-urban small to moderate in size,  Primarily recreation, natural setting, good range of facilities providing a wide range of recreation opportunities physical to cultural. Usually no accommodation.  Recreation Place FORMAL  -  Provincial Park Class A  BC Parks  Non-urban Mix of large and small  Balance of recreation and conservation. Often with few facilities, but there is a wide range in this. Large parks usually have different zones & accommodation possible. Small roadside parks, usually no accommodation.  Provincial Recreation Area  BC Parks  Non-urban Often large  Recreation and other activities. No logging, but mineral extraction possible. Conservation of natural resources to some extent. Accommodation possible.  Ecological Reserves  BC Parks  Non-urban Variable size often small  Primarily for conservation of important ecosystems. Limited recreation opportunities.  -  -  Recreation Areas  BC Hydro  Non-urban  Recreation. Some facilities.  Recreation Sites  BC Hydro & BC Forests  Non-urban Small  Recreation. Basic facilities. Toilets, parking, possibly campsites.  Recreation Trails  BC Forests  Non-urban Linear  Recreation. No facilities, except possibly at the trailhead, and trail markers.  Wilderness Areas  BC Forests  Non-urban Large  Recreation, no logging, mineral extraction possible. Needs to be large. No facilities, except possibly at entry points (Western 1993). By default because of large size and no facilities will achieve a conservation objective.  27  TABLE 2.1 cont. Wilderness Management Areas a  Fish & Wildlife Branch BC Mm of Environment  Rural or Non-urban  Preservation of wildlife is the primary goal of these areas, but recreation, especially nature appreciation is possible.  Wildlife Management Areas a  Canadian Wildlife Service  Rural or Non-urban  Same as above, only Federal land.  Migratory Bird Sanctuary b  Canadian Wildlife Service  Rural or Non-urban  Protection of special habitat for migratory birds.  Marina and Tourism Wharf Development a  Small Craft Harbours Branch Federal  Urban and non-urban  Support of developments for recreational boaters.  Intertidal land a  Land Mgmt Branch Prov  Non-urban  Boating, nature study, beach activities.  Greenbelt lands  Land Mgmt Branch Prov  Urban  Visual open space.  University Research Forest a  Ministry of Education Provincial  Non-urban  Scientific study and recreation.  Undeveloped lands  Municipality  Urban  Recreation. No designation. No facilities.  Dykes  Municipality Municipal District  Urban Linear  To prevent flooding of developed lands; by-product is a good place to recreate when they are public Sometimes parking, otherwise no facilities.  Logging roads  BC Forests  Non-urban Linear  To allow the removal of trees from the Provincial forests for commercial purposes. By-product is they become means of access to undeveloped provincial forest (and alpine) or place to recreate in themselves. No facilities.  Trails  Municipality or BC Forests  Urban or Non-urban Linear  Recreation. No facilities. Often built by volunteers.  -  -  -  INFORMAL  28  TABLE 2.1 cont. Watersheds  Regional District or Municipality  Non-urban Often large  No recreation. Logging possible. Conservation of water quality. Sometimes used as informal areas for re creation, (although illegal).  Nature Trust  Charitable Corporation  Urban & Non-urban  Protect important areas of land for conservation.  GVRD 1978. Outdoor Recreation Review, Regional Recreation Opportunities, Greater Vancouver Regional Parks District: Vancouver, B.C., p. 58 Rethink Group. May 1993. Roles and Responsibilities for Major Parks and Outdoor Recreation in BC’s Lower Mainland, Preliminary Analysis. Vancouver, B.C. SOURCE: This work.  29  TABLE 2.2 MANAGING AGENCIES OF INFORMAL AN]) FORMAL SUPPLY Municioalitv or Municipal District  BC Forests  INFORMAL  •Loggmg roads other trails *  #*  undeveloped lands dykes 11*  Regional Districts  *  •watersheds #  •trails *  •watersheds #  FORMAL  •Recreation sites * Recreation trails * wildemess areas +  parks  *  parks  Land Management Branch  BC Parks  *  BC Environment Canadian Wildlife Service  INFORMAL  FORMAL  Class A *+ •Recreation areas  *  •Ecological Reserves lntertidal land + Greenbelt land +  +  BC Hydro  Ministry of Education  •Recreation areas * •Recreation sites *  •University Research # Forest  •Wilderness Mgmt areas + Wildlife Mgmt areas +  Small Craft Harbours Branch  INFORMAL  FORMAL  * areas that are used for recreation # areas where another use is the primary use + areas for which conservation is a designated use  Some areas are rated with two uses. SOURCE: This work  Marrna & Tourism * Wharf Development  30  TABLE 2.3 WHO’S WHO IN RECREATION MANAGEMENT IN B.C. Agency  Expenditure Millions$  Role in Outdoor Recreation  Provincial Environment  40  Conserve & manage wildlife & recreational fisheries resources.  Parks  35  Conserve and manage parklands.  Tourism  13  Promote outdoor recreation opportunities for resident and non-resident tourists.  Forests  10  Ensure that recreation is considered in the integrated resource management of Crown forest lands.  Advanced Education and Job Training  6  Provide opportunities for youth to work on recreation projects.  Crown Lands  4  Administer & tenure commercial recreation use on Crown lands.  Municipal Affairs, Recreation & Culture  1  Protect heritage values and archaeological sites on Crown lands. Provide support for provincial recreation organizations.  Transportation & Highways  1  Provide for recreation values along provincial highways.  Other Government Canadian Parks Service  15  Manage national parks in B.C.  Dept. of Fisheries & Oceans  13  Provide sports fishing opportunities.  Regional Districts  10  Manage regional parks.  Canadian Wildlife Service  2  Manage migratory wildlife in B.C.  Non-Government Organizations Commercial Recreation Operators  25  Provide commercial outdoor recreation opportunities.  Other Groups  15  Promote outdoor recreation.  Volunteer Works  10  Construct & maintain facilities.  SOURCE: Ministry of Forests Recreation Manual 1991, p. 1-7. It has the references for the expenditure values.  31  FIGURE 2.1 LAND STATUS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  Provincial Total  85%  Private (6%) Federa1 Crown (2%) Committed Provi ncia1 Crown (6%) Uncommitted Provrnual Crown (1%) Provinci a Forest  SOURCE: BC Ministry of Forests Recreation Manual 1991, p. 12  32  2.4.1 Objectives of the Agencies That Manage Recreation on the Major Parks Plan Study Team Studying Table 2.2 above, it can be seen that most of the agencies responsible for areas where informal recreation takes place in the study area are on the Major Parks Plan Study Team. Within the realm of making a recreation plan for the study area, it is useful to keep in mind the goals and objectives of the agencies that will ultimately be responsible for managing the area whatever designation it is given in the -  plan.  Therefore, a brief description is given below of the three agencies which presently have lands that are used for informal recreation, BC Forests, Regional Districts and Municipalities. Also included are the two other agencies which provide and manage a large percentage of the formal outdoor recreation areas in the study area, BC Parks and BC Hydro.  BC Ministry of Forests The Ministry of Forests has many goals to achieve, as laid out in the Forest Act, part 2, section 5(4). Among them is integrated resource management, and specifically with respect to recreation their mission is to: •  Provide the opportunity for recreation experiences and benefits by protecting the Provincial Forest recreation resource, and to manage the use of the Provincial Forest recreation resource. (BC Ministry of Forests 1991, pp. 1-12).  •  The MoP recreation program is designed to protect the natural wildiand recreation values of the province, including visual aesthetics and wilderness, and to enhance public enjoyment through the management of road and trail access, and recreation facilities. (BC Ministry of Forests 1991, pp. 1-3).  Essentially their goal is to protect the resource for recreation. In other words to ensure that it is possible for it to happen on the lands that they manage. However, beyond that, they have no mandate to provide services or facilities.  33  Regional Parks The role of Regional Parks in the provision of recreation areas varies, depending on whether the regional district even has a park department. Some, such as GVRD do, others such as Fraser Cheam do not. -  Even the GVRD park department is presently refming its goals and objectives with respect to recreation and parks. In the past, regional districts like Fraser  -  Cheam have tried to protect recreationally  important land through zoning (Benn 1978). Perhaps the work of the Major Parks Plan Study will allow for the development of better definitions for regional parks.  Municipalities and Municipal Districts Municipal governments have somewhat clearer goals and objectives for the provision of recreation. Municipal parks are there to provide recreation space for the public in a natural environment. One of their prime goals is to provide a “public good”, that is available to all citizens. They also provide many facilities and services to enhance the recreation experience (Bish 1990, p. 102). However, these facilities and services are not strict public goods, as there is often a user fee associated with their use. parks have no explicitly stated conservation goals.  Municipal  However by virtue of the fact that they generally  provide for outdoor recreation in a natural environment they are reaching a conservation goal (of sorts.)  BC Ministry of Parks Being aware of the goals of BC Parks is useful for putting the management of outdoor recreation opportunities in a spectrum. Two general goals of BC Parks, from Striking the Balance, are: •  conserving and managing for future generations a wide variety of outstanding park lands which represent the best natural recreation features and diverse wilderness environments of the province.  •  providing province-wide opportunities for a diversity of high quality and safe outdoor recreation, that is compatible with conserving the natural environment (BC Ministry of Parks 1990a, p. 2).  Other goals of BC Parks are to provide the following opportunities to society, communities and the individual: •  To society: Parks are to be a heritage; cultural and natural features  •  To communities: Parks will provide employment, act as near-by recreation spots, or as distant vacation destinations.  34  To the individual: Parks are places for solitude, physical challenge and spiritual renewal. (BC Ministry of Parks 1990a, p. 4). It often appears that the BC Parks conservation mandate is compromised to achieve their recreation goal, and vice versa. This problem is addressed somewhat by zoning within the parks. There is the possibility of five zones in a Class A Provincial Park. They are: Intensive Recreation, Natural Enviromnent, Special Features, Wilderness Recreation and Wilderness Conservation. All have specific management objectives, and compatible activities and facilities that are allowed in each zone. (BC Ministry of Parks 1990a, pp. 10-11).  BC Hydro The goal of BC Hydro in providing recreation areas where they have hydroelectric development is to provide good stewardship of the land resource they own. They are the largest corporate landowner in the province (Wilson 1993), and want to be a leader in the field of environmental citizenship. Although the areas are water reservoirs, it is possible to have a recreation area associated with it, and therefore instead of the reservoir being a single use of the land, the recreation area makes it a multiple use. BC Hydro is a public corporation and today’s public demands access to public lands. Today’s citizen is unwilling to accept being forbidden to use these lands so management of the area around a reservoir for public use ensures public safety. It also allows BC Hydro to provide some interpretation of the area. Management of BC Hydro recreation areas is by three methods: 1)  restrict access (when it is just too dangerous to allow the public there);  2)  turn it over to another more appropriate agency, given the nature of the site and recreation activity taking place there, (e.g. BC Forests);  3)  manage the area themselves (Wilson 1993).  This chapter has investigated some of the theory behind recreation planning and in particular the concept of recreation places. It looked at the need for informal recreation areas, within the outdoor recreation opportunity spectrum. This was then placed in the context of how recreation linked into other aspects of life, such as tourism and conservation. With this theoretical background presented, the thesis turns to the practical methods that were used to inventory for those places that are used informally for recreation.  35  CHAPTER 3 ME[HODOLOGY ANI) DATA COLLECTION  The most relevant aspect of the work being discussed in this thesis is that it captured information that is seldom collected in inventories of recreation resources or opportunities. The present state of park and recreation planning today necessitates that informal supply areas be inventoried and recognized. Too much recreation is taking place in these areas for it to be ignored in any planning exercise. This means that the information of this inventory will be extremely helpful in making good decisions regarding park and recreation planning.  It is relevant and useful, to describe how the data was collected, stored and presented for use by the Major Parks Plan Study team.  3.1 Description of Data Collection Techniques The basic methods used to collect the data were not startlingly different from ways this kind of information has been collected in the past. What was different was that the focus was always towards areas of “informal” use. It was informal to the point that sometimes it was actually illegal use of an area. For example bicycling in Burnaby municipal parks, is described as an informal area, because it is illegal. Hiking in the watersheds is another example of “illegal”, and therefore informal use of an area. Knowing that this is happening, it is relevant to ask why people are going to these places even if it is forbiddtn. Most likely it is because the areas satisfy the terrain and landscape features necessary for the activity, and people do not see any good reason for it being illegal.  Because the information being sought after was informal, it was, by definition, not readily available in government publications. Fortunately, a significant amount of it was in other publications, primarily guidebooks for specific outdoor recreation activities.  The initial method of collection was to read through newsletters and other written material published by member organizations of the Outdoor Recreation Council. The usefulness of this method was limited  36  because generally the newsletters only contained stories about trips taken and not much detail about where the trip occurred, or how to get there. It was also a very slow way to collect information about where people recreate, because at most only one or two places per newsletter were mentioned, and usually in very poor geographic detail. What was useful about this method was that it familiarized the researcher with each of the outdoor recreation activities being inventoried so that a better idea of what the goal a person was pursuing while engaging in each of the activities was obtained. A last problem with this method is that only some outdoor recreation activities have clubs that publish newsletters. This was a good introductory method to the inventory, but was grossly incomplete, barely scratching the surface of data collection.  Because the researcher is a member of a hiking and mountaineering club, and has been a member of a number of them, it was known that people involved in these two activities are very organized, and active every weekend of the year.  These clubs produce trip schedules that succinctly list the areas where they  hike, climb and mountaineer. Therefore trip schedules of the two local mountaineering clubs, the BC Mountaineering Club and the Alpine Club of Canada  -  Vancouver section, and the largest hiking club in  Vancouver, the North Shore Hikers, were inventoried for the past seven years. From this a fairly complete list of informal mountaineering and ski touring areas was made. A partial list of hiking areas was also compiled.  3.1.1 Guidebooks Further thought led to the realization that people usually used guidebooks to decide the destination of their trip. It was also realized that if the researcher went to the “right” people it would be possible to get a lot of information out of them just by sitting down with a map and asking them where they went. This second method would be reasonably time consuming and it was necessary to be as efficient as possible with time. Therefore it was decided that the most efficient use of time was to collect the information that was in the guidebooks first. After the information in the guidebooks was collected it would be useful to visit experienced people in each outdoor recreation activity to fill in information gaps that were a result of not being published in guidebook.  37  There are two important points to realize about guidebooks as sources of information. The first is that they are often activity specific. This is excellent for those activities that have guidebooks, but leaves a gap for those that do not. Hiking, mountaineering and rock climbing all have reasonably complete sets of guidebooks available for the study area. Other activities, such as snowmobiling, hang gliding and dirt biking appear to be less organized and there are no guidebooks for them. Other outdoor recreation activities such as mountain biking are quite new. As a result guidebooks are just starting to become available. They are also still very area specific, e.g. Whistler area, Vancouver area, but not the Chilliwack area. As time goes on mountain biking guidebooks that cover a more comprehensive area will most likely become available.  The second point is that guidebooks are usually written because there is a perceived need for them. This need is often generated when the population base is large enough, i.e. enough people are asking for one. Consequently most of the guidebooks found were written by people from Vancouver, and described recreation activities to dofrQuz Vancouver. This does not mean that all the areas people use for recreation are in the Greater Vancouver Regional District, but the perspective the books are written from is that of someone planning to recreate from the Greater Vancouver area. This means that the further one gets from Vancouver the sparser the information is on informal recreation areas. Once one gets to the furthest reaches of the study area the population there is considerably smaller than in Vancouver. No guidebooks for activities happening, specifically, out of these smaller centres (e.g. Pemberton, Lillooet, etc.) were found, either in the Outdoor Recreation Council library or in the bookstores that sell guidebooks for outdoor recreation activities.  A fmal comment about guidebooks is that some regions are more popular for certain activities than others. Consequently, it was easier to find information about some activities in one regional district than in another. Horseback riding is a good example of this. It is very popular in the Fraser Valley, especially Maple Ridge (so much so that it is recognized in their Official Community Plan.) The result is that a guidebook has been published of where to horseback ride between Vancouver and east of Hope, but no guidebook was found for horseback riding between Vancouver and Pemberton. This does not mean people do not horseback ride in the Squamish Lillooet area. According to one horseback rider from -  Pemberton, it is becoming increasingly popular (McGarry 1993).  38  3.1.2 Personal Interviews The last method of data collection was to personally interview someone who is very involved in a given outdoor recreation activity. The ideal person to find for this kind of interview would be someone that could be referred to as a “walking encyclopedia”  -  who knows just about everywhere there is to go to do  their outdoor recreation activity. This was not always possible. Because of time and money constraints the people interviewed lived in Vancouver. It would be important at this stage in the project to interview people from some of the smaller communities outside the Greater Vancouver Regional District to obtain missing information. Nonetheless through contacts that were possible because the Outdoor Recreation Council is an umbrella organization that represents the interests of the “general public” outdoor recreationist, very knowledgeable people were found to interview. Some of these people were very specific in what activity and what area they knew a lot about. This was often invaluable because no one else knew about it. For example, Jack Scrivener knew all about the trail system around Evans and Levette Lakes, just north of Squamish. Appendix 1 has a list of the people who were contacted for information about their outdoor recreation activity.  It was determined that the best method for collecting information from a personal interview is to visit the person with the maps of the study area and have them mark on the maps where they recreate. The researcher lists the grid reference of each area to ensure that no information marked on the maps is missed for entry into the database. For this particular project this method was possible only when the person lived within commuting distance of the researcher. When the person was outside of commuting distance the telephone was used instead. Information obtained over the phone was much poorer in quality and accuracy, because it was incredibly difficult to pinpoint information this way. The informant seldom had a map to refer to when the information was being collected. Some of the people were extremely helpful and sent maps of where they bicycled or hiked when it was not possible for the researcher to visit them in a personal interview. Personal interviews would also be useful at this point in the study to verify that the information that has been collected is correct, as well as to fill in any missing gaps. As a generalization most people were very helpful in providing information. The only group that was reluctant were the dirt bikers. They were afraid that if the areas where they dirt biked became known they would be taken away from them. Consequently only general areas and numbers of bikers that use each area were obtained from them. This information is given in the report in the Table titled “Areas  39  Ridden Plus Numbers’, in the section “Informal Information About Some of the Activities’ (Anderson 1993a, p. 24). Specific areas where people dirt bike were obtained from other sources, e.g. mountain bikers and recreation officers in the BC Forests district office. Very little information was obtained from the four wheel drive association because the contact was unavailable.  The last kind of information that was collected was general information about the activity itself. This was considered important because it was felt that unless a person, planner or manager, understood the activity and the motivation to do it, it would be more difficult to plan and manage areas for that activity adequately. It would be more difficult to know what kind of areas were suitable to pursue the activity in, what terrain features were necessary (e.g rock climbing and hang gliding need special rock features and special wind conditions), and what kind of facilities (or lack of) a person pursuing a given activity desired in the area. This information was presented in the report prepared for the Major Parks Plan Study team, as “Informal Information About Some of the Activities.” The highest volume of this kind of information that was collected was for those activities the researcher was the least familiar with.  3.2 Presentation of the Data The data that was collected was presented in two ways. The first was to mark on a map where the recreation activity was taking place. A specific symbol or code was used to distinguish between the different activities. Table 3.1 shows what codes were used for each activity.  Two types of maps were used for this study. In the corridor between Squamish and Vancouver, and Vancouver and Hope, 1:50,000 NTS (National Topographic Series) maps were used. For the rest of the area in the study region 1:250,000 NTS maps were used. The following is a complete list of the maps used.  92:  92:  Gil, G12, G13, G16, G17, G18, Gil0, Gill, G114 HI3, Hi4, Hi5, Hi6  (Scale  =  1:50,000)  G, H, I, J, 0  (Scale  =  1:250,000)  40  TABLE 3.1 SYMBOLS USED ON THE MAPS Beach activities  —  — —  —  Bicycling route Bicycling route  -  -  mountain biking road biking  —b Boating A  Campsite  • :: Fishing xH Hang Gliding  —  — ‘  Hiking or walking trail Horseback riding trail or route Hunting  4  ç  Hut/cabin  .  Kayaking, canoeing, and river rafting  -—+ Motorcycling -.  ——-.  Nature Appreciation Off road driving route or area Park or Recreation Area Boundary Rock Climbing  ) . ...  Route mountaineering, ski touring, hiking -  Scuba Diving —  ) Snowmobiling route or area Snowshoeing route Windsurfing  SOURCE: Anderson 1993a, p. 9  41  The second way the data was recorded was to make an entry for each area in a database. The database program used was dBase IV. Appendix 2 describes, in detail, the kind of information (when applicable or available) that went into each field in the record for each area. The first field, the site name (site_name), in the record is a name that describes, as accurately as possible, where the area is. The next field in the record is the grid reference (grid_ret), which locates either the traithead, the top of the peak or the centre of the area used. Then for each record of a site, the activities pursued there, what terrain features are present and any other relevant comments, were recorded.  A report was written which described the data collection techniques and the structure of the database. It also included an analysis of where people were recreating outdoors in the study area (Anderson 1993a).  3.3 Accuracy of the Data It is important to make some comments about the accuracy of the data. It some cases it may appear unclear on the map where a trail or route into the mountains starts. This is because the start of a trail or hiking route changes with time. Since most of these routes start from a logging road, access depends on the condition of the logging road. Washouts mean people have to park lower than in the past; snow on the road means the start of the ski trip will vary with the snow line. The state of the road will also determine if it is suitable for mountain biking, dirt bike riding or off road driving.  A road that was  suitable two years ago, may become impassable after a period of heavy rains. A mountaineering trip that is popular one season, may fall into disuse because the logging road is washed out and the hike into the area becomes too long to be feasible for a weekend trip.  A subjective assessment of the use levels of an area has been given. It is important to point out that what is high use in the northern part of the Squamish  -  Lillooet Regional District would appear to be medium  or low if the area were in the Greater Vancouver Regional District. This is because of the difference in population of these two districts, and peoples tolerance of other users. Similarly, users pursuing some activities can tolerate a higher number of other users, before they perceive use to be heavy, rather than medium or low. Mountaineering is an activity where part of the experience is solitude. Consequently, 15 people using an area for mountaineering can mean users will perceive use of the area to be heavy,  42  whereas mountain biking in the Seymour area with only 15 people may be assessed as a low level of use.  3.4 Related Reports The following are some reports that are related to and contain information that is relevant to this study. They are described to make a few points. One is that a lot of this inventory work is going on in this general geographic study area for planning purposes. However, the focus or goals of each inventory is different, as is the objective of each study. Nonetheless, the same basic information is being collected. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to obtain the information collected in the most recent inventory to use as a starting point for the next inventory.  The concern regarding this is that the ‘general public” recreationist is being asked to volunteer this information time and time again, because the researchers have yet to fmd a way to share and merge their information. The first two studies mentioned below were done within the last two to three years, so the information is current and relevant. Unfortunately, it was not possible to obtain the raw data. This means the same information was collected over again, or not collected. This situation was pointed out, but was unresolvable. Consequently, an attempt was made to obtain information that had not yet been collected in either of the two previous inventories, rather than repeat information collection that had just occurred.  1.  The related reports are:  Careless, Ric, & Bob Jamieson. April 1990. The WHISTLER-PEMBERTON Commercial Backcountzy Recreation Study, for the Ministry of Lands, Ethos Consulting & Bioquest International: Vancouver, B.C. Objective: This study was done for BC Ministry of Lands to determine the potential for commercial backcountry recreation opportunities. Data Availability: Raw data unavailable and not known where it is.  2.  Neufeldt-Reeve, June 1992. Soo TSA Squamish Forest District, Recreation Resource Inventory Report, for the Ministry of Forests, Neufeldt-Reeve Consultants Ltd.: Vancouver, B.C. -  Objective: This study was done to update the Recreation Inventory maps of the Squamish Forest District.  43  Data Availability: Data is in the process of being mapped on GIS, so is in the hands of two agencies. Data is somewhat time consuming to process, because it is mapped on 1:20,000 maps sheets and this study was done on 1:50,000.  3.  Berris, Catherine. April 1993. In progress., for the Ministry of Tourism, Vancouver, B.C. Objective: This study was done to determine the tourism potential in the Vancouver tourism region. Data Availability: Data is in the process of being collected and an agreement was made to share and exchange the information collected in the two studies that were progressing concurrently.  44  CHAPtER 4 THE USEFULNESS OF INVENTORIES  In chapter 3, details on how this inventory was done were given. The focus in that chapter was to provide a good understanding of the methodology and type of data collected. It is now relevant to discuss inventories specifically. The first part of this chapter looks at four previous inventories of outdoor recreation resources done for different portions of the study area. The study area of the present inventory is larger than any in the past. The four chosen to review were chosen because they ase examples of previous and similar work done for some portion of the study area, and they were readily available. Any other similar work was not reviewed primarily because it was less available. Each inventory is described briefly, and then a comparison to the one discussed in this thesis is made.  The second part of the chapter looks at the activity categories chosen in this inventory and assesses how useful they were in understanding outdoor recreation in the study area. After carefully assessing this, suggestions for improved activity categories in a future inventory are made. This is a relevant exercise because any inventory is only a snapshot of the present, and continual or future inventorying is always necessary. The status of areas is always changing and in transition. Areas that were informal when the data was collected are sometimes formal by the time the report is released. Therefore the information in the inventory or report can never be 100% accurate.  4.1  Review of Previous Inventories of Outdoor Recreation Resources  Four previous inventories of outdoor recreation resources were looked at from the literature. The inventories were chosen because they were work done in the study area and they were available from the UBC library. An exhaustive search at all the libraries in Vancouver, for any and all actual inventories done of outdoor recreation resources in the study area was not done. The goal of the search was to get a general idea of what inventory work had been done, and what information was readily available. Information that is carefully closeted away in some planner’s office is only useful to others who are aware of, and have access to the information.  45  A search of theoretical and academic work on the concept of determining supply of recreation resources was made. Most of the available literature on inventorying was set in the context of conducting inventories of stock for a retail business. One publication that had useful and practical suggestions for how to inventory for recreation resources was that of Seymour Gold in Recreation Planning and Design (Gold 1980). Most recreation planning literature is set in an urban context and therefore the information in these publications is only partially transferable to this work.  One inventory was a dual publication study done by the Dewdney-Alouette Regional District in 1977, Outdoor Recreation Resources Inventory and Outdoor Recreation Suitability. Another two were done in 1978, one by the Greater Vancouver Regional Parks District, Outdoor Recreation Review, Regional Recreation Opportunities and the other for the Ministry of Environment of the Fraser Valley, Fraser Valley, Outdoor Recreation Features. The last was a small study of the summer recreation potential of the Whistler Corridor done in 1983, Developing Summer Recreation Potential in the Whistler Corridor. It is not really a true inventory. The study was done for a course in the School of Resource and Environmental Management at Simon Fraser University. However it was the only work found for the Squamish  -  Lillooet Regional District. Together, these reports cover most of the study area discussed in  this thesis.  There are numerous reasons for looking at these older studies. The reasons include: determining what information was collected, (i.e. what areas), and what the objectives and conclusions were of these earlier studies, learning other methods to inventory recreation resources, and most importantly to see if, or how, informal areas for outdoor recreation were incorporated into the inventories. It is also important to determine from this review, areas where changes can be made in inventory methodology for recreation planning so that improvements can be made in subsequent planning processes. With respect to the work described in this thesis it is relevant to analyse how the work of this study was different from previous ones. The reason behind this is to determine in what ways this work provides information that is unique compared to what has been provided in the past, and consequently to know in what ways it will be new and hence, useful for today’s planning.  46  4.1.1. The DARD Inventory The DARD (Dewdney  -  Alouette Regional District) Inventory was done in two stages. The first was an  inventory of currently designated and formally organized outdoor recreation resources.  The division of  resources was done in an interesting and useful way. They were divided into being either land resources, facilities or services. Therefore, the report published in the book Outdoor Recreation Resources Inventory was an inventory of the formal recreation areas in the Dewdney  -  Alouette Regional District.  An interesting conclusion of this inventory was that government agencies tended to supply most of the land resources, private commercial enterprises were the primary suppliers of facilities (golf courses, marinas, etc.) and private non-profit organizations supplied most of the services. This same conclusion was reached in the Greater Vancouver Regional Parks District report (GVRPD 1978). This stage of the DARD inventory captured informal recreation information only in the sense that it reported what private non-profit organizations supplied recreation services. It did not mention where these private non-profit organizations were actually doing their outdoor recreation activity. Another interesting aspect to this report was that its authors, Norman Cook, Richard Taylor and Chris Shea, did an analysis to determine which f these agencies supplying some form of outdoor recreation resource had policies with respect to outdoor recreation, whether they provided for informal recreation, required organized participation, as well as other topics less pertinent to this study.  The second stage of the inventory was done to determine and identify areas of recreational significance in the region to ensure that these areas were properly recognized in the Official Community Plan. The ideology used to identify areas suitable for outdoor recreation activities was to assume that individuals who regularly participate in the activities informally apply their own sets of suitable criteria in identifying and assessing if an area is useful for outdoor recreation. A number of individuals intimately involved in outdoor recreation were interviewed to identify these areas. No attempt was made to rate the degree of suitability of each of these lands because of the complexity of the task. Although the task was to identify areas suitable for outdoor recreation, most areas identified were actually lands already used for at least one form of recreation. A division into formal and informal recreation areas was not made in this report, but both kinds of areas were identified. The managing agency was usually identified, and often times the land was privately owned. Together the two documents make up an excellent review and inventory of the recreation resources in the Dewdney  -  Alouette Regional District.  47  4.1.2. The GVRD Inventory The framework of the GVRD (Greater Vancouver Regional District) outdoor recreation review was closer to the recently completed one. It focused more heavily on what activities were being done in the region and where they were being done. One category in their report was “Extensive Use of Areas Not Officially Designated.” In this way an assessment of use of informal areas was made. The information was presented on a number of maps that were divided by activity. There was a map which showed all the walking and hiking trails, one that showed all the pleasure driving routes, all the boating areas, and all other activities that were inventoried. The activity categories used were very similar to the ones used in the recent study. An important point made in this report was that outdoor recreation activities change over time, and therefore it is important to monitor the outdoor recreation scene regularly. Good examples of this is the dramatic increase in mountain biking since this inventory was done. It is not even mentioned in this one done in 1978. Another, is the new sport of jet boating. It is in its infancy, but has already started to create conflict among outdoor recreationists and needs to be addressed by managing authorities now.  Another good point this review made was to distinguish between the three different levels of government that provided for recreation and park land. It also made distinctions between the types of parks (and what activities were pursued in them) that each different agency provided. This will be important in the present study when the people on the Major Parks Plan study have to decide what lands under each agency’s jurisdiction will be managed for recreation.  This author was slightly uncomfortable with the use of quantitative parks standards to determine if there was enough park land in each municipality in the region. In some respects this is a useful way to assess how much park land is present. However some municipalities, at this time, may have more land suitable for park purposes than others. So defining a number of acres per population may not be the best way to go when viewing the complete picture. For example Surrey and North Vancouver may have the most land suitable for outdoor recreation so regardless of the population in their municipality more recreation lands should be available in them. People can come from other municipalities to recreate there. This does imply that costs for managing these lands for outdoor recreation should be shared amongst the municipalities, just as perhaps revenue from development in other municipalities which have less land  48  suitable for outdoor recreation (but more for development), should be shared. Another aspect to this kind of quantitative assessment is the problem of incorporating informally used lands into the recreation opportunity spectrum. Although not formally designated as park and recreation land these areas are used for recreation. Should they be counted as recreation land even if they have other non-recreation uses? Because they have non-recreation uses they should not be considered equivalent in recreation value to park land. Nonetheless they are land used for recreation. Because of its maps, this too was an excellent review of the recreation resources, opportunities and areas in the Greater Vancouver Regional District.  4.1.3. The Fraser Valley Inventory The review of Outdoor Recreation Features in the Fraser Valley, from Kanaka Creek, west to Hope, described the qualitative aspects of outdoor recreation taking place in this area. As such, it incorporates the concept of informal recreation very well. However, once again the focus of the study was not to identify specifically what areas were used for informal recreation in the study area.  A valuable contribution this work makes to recreation planning is that it identifies a number of potentially good areas for recreation. This identification was based primarily on the area’s significant, varied and naturally occurring recreation features. It discusses the reasons in detail. However, the work also identifies the fact that other criteria need to be used to determine which lands will be planned and managed for recreation. Many of the suggestions in this work of 1978 have not been implemented today, and the areas suggested for inclusion in the formal recreation area system are still informal. Nonetheless, recreation is still taking place on these lands. Because ownership and use of these lands has not changed, it is still possible to pursue the recreation activity that has traditionally been pursued there. It seems that in the Fraser Valley “most land is dedicated to highly significant renewable resources such as forestry and agriculture” (Benn 1978, p. 49).  This review had less detailed maps and so although the points it made were very valid and useful, this inventory was less useful in identifying the exact areas used for outdoor recreation. It was more useful for identifying general areas, rather than specific spots.  49  4.1.4. The Whistler Corridor Recreation Potential The goal of this report was not specifically to identify all areas used for outdoor recreation. The objective was to assess supply and demand in the area and from there determine potential for further development of recreation, particularly summer activities. Therefore it was quite general in its description of the activities that take place in the corridor and reference to where activities are done was primarily as example and not meant to be complete. Nonetheless it was useful in providing an overall description of the area and its recreation potential.  4.1.5. Summary An interesting aspect about these inventories is that they were done about 15 years ago. The recommendations and observations made then about land use, and needs of the population, are still true today.  Some of the suggestions made in these reports have been implemented and as a result, good  changes have been made in the provision of recreation areas in the Lower Mainland area. An example is Lynn Headwaters Regional Park. However, progress generally has been slow and many of the suggestions have not been implemented. Other areas, instead of being managed for recreation, have become areas of controversy between development and park land, where no real land use decision has been made. Two examples of these kinds of areas are the Terra Nova lands in Richmond, and Burke Mountain in Coquitlam. On some maps the Burke Mountain area is actually shown as a Regional Park, but this designation was never made official and today it is an area of intense controversy. It appears that it is very difficult for society to set aside lands solely for conservation and those forms of recreation that are compatible with conservation. It appears that it is much easier to keep as much land as possible free for development, potential or real.  It is relevant to point out the differences in the recent inventory and the others reviewed above. The most important difference was in the Major Parks Plan Study team deciding to divide supply of recreation areas into formal and informal. This is quite important because it makes it much more explicit who the managing agency is.  Because each agency has its own different set of goals to meet with respect to  recreation, it becomes easier to make decisions on how an area will be managed. However, if it is identified that the area should be managed in a way that is not compatible with the goals of the present  50  authority then it becomes more clear who the most appropriate managing authority should be. This kind of distinction (formal versus informal) is also valuable because it allows people to broaden their perspective on the meaning of outdoor recreation to understand that it can be pursued in a wide variety of settings. See chapter 6, section 6.1, for more discussion on the value of the Major Parks Plan Study team to this process.  It is important to point out that this inventory has been rigorous in collecting only the supply of recreation areas that are CURRENTLY in use, and has not looked at potential areas.  4.2  Inventory Categorization  It is valuable to critique or analyse the usefulness of the categories chosen for the recreation activities in this study. To do this it is necessary to know what the goal of the inventory is, which in this case was to map where people recreate outdoors. In trying to analyse why people recreate where they do one arrives at the conclusion that the terrain must be a vital aspect of that decision. In any conversations the author had with users, when asked why they used the areas they did, one common reason was that it had the correct terrain and climate associated with it. For example, hang gliders require an area where the winds are reliable and not too strong. This eliminates the Squamish Valley as a good place to go because the winds get too strong there in the afternoon (because of the narrowing of the valley.) It is possible to hang glide there, however it requires the right day and a certain level of expertise. The result is that it is not a popular area for hang gliding. Another example is snowmobiling in the Fraser Valley. In recent years snow levels have generally been fairly high and the valley has not received much snow. The result is that most dedicated snowmobilers in the Fraser Valley will go to the Coquihalla area for snowmobiing because the snow conditions are more reliable. This is because of the higher elevation that can be driven to.  A second common thread that ties all use of recreation land together is accessibility. The majority of people will always go to areas thatare closer to home, rather than further if the closer area fulfills their need.  51  However with respect to categorization of outdoor recreation activities for the inventory it is the first reason that can be used to decide if the categorization is good.  Another question to be asked when the categorization of activities is made is: Is each category unique enough from the next that each category has a significant number of entries in it? On the other hand the number of categories should not be so large that each category has only one entry in it, and is only marginally different from another. For example there are many different types of boating, but for the purposes of the inventory should they all be lumped together? or should they be separated? and if separated how much should they be separated?  Because the goal of this inventory was to determine  location, the answer to these questions should be based on “where.” If two different types of boating take place in the same area, then there is no need to separate the two, e.g. sailing and powerboating. However, if two types of boating often take place in significantly different areas, then it would be more logical to separate them. A good example of this is kayaking. Sea kayaldng and white water kayaking generally occur on vastly different waters. Therefore it is logical to separate the two if the study area supports both kinds of kayaking. Existence of an outdoor recreation activity in the study area is another key consideration. For example, it is not that important to consider caving in an inventory of informal recreation areas in the study area discussed in this thesis, because the geological formations and landscapes in the area do not support caving sites. However, it is a very actively pursued activity on Vancouver Island. Therefore, the credibility of an inventory of outdoor recreation areas for Vancouver Island would be severely strained if caving were not included. Because of time and budget constraints, an activity such as orienteering, which is only lightly pursued in a study area, may not be included.  The above example of keeping the two types of boating, sailing and powerboating together brings up another criteria that could be used to separate activities and that is compatibility. It may be useful to have separate categories for activities that are known to come in conflict with one another, such as snowmobiling and ski touring. This is relevant because the inventory may show that there are some areas where only ski tourers go and vice versa, as well as highlighting those areas where they both groups go and conflict can be expected. This becomes useful when the management of the area is considered.  52  Continuing this analysis of categorization for the activity boating, brings up some other considerations. Sailing and sea kayaking often use the same waters. Therefore the argument exists that they should be kept together. However management of the two may be significantly different so perhaps they should be kept separate.  More difficult distinctions to make are between activities like rafting, white water  kayaking and canoeing, which will all use portions of the same waters, but depending on the difficulty of the terrain will be unsuitable for one but still good for the other two. Here, the decision to divide or group may be based on how detailed the inventory is to be, as well as how large a portion of the study areas’ population pursues each of the activities. Lastly, some boating activities like windsurfing may use waters that boaters use, but only a few areas are suitable for windsurfing. In this study, this situation was solved by categorizing it as boating, but giving it its own symbol on the maps, so that it stood out as an activity that required special consideration.  Below is a list of the activity categories used: Beach Activities Bicycling Boating Equestrian Freshwater Fishing Saltwater Fishing Hang Gliding Hunting Kayaking Motorcycling Mountaineering Nature Appreciation Off Road Driving Overnight Camping Picnicking Rock Climbing Scuba Diving Snow Activities Walking and Hiking  Some thought was put into the categorization of activities, but hindsight shows that it could have been slightly better for this study area. The original cast of activities came from the formal supply study, and the inclusion of picnicking was discussed. It was decided to keep it, just in case, but it really proved to be unnecessary in the informal supply study. The activity “beach activity” nicely covered all those types  53  of activities. Beach activities was not one that was heavily focused on during the collection of areas. Comparing it to many of the other activities most beach activities (except the swimming  -  it needs water)  can be done anywhere by anyone, while many of the other activities require special terrain and some skill to pursue.  The author did a similar study to this one, after completion of this one and categorized the activities differently. Because it was for a different area, consideration of what activities take place in the different study area was made. Nonetheless, problems encountered in the first inventory (subject of this thesis) were helpful in deciding on the categories for the second study (Anderson 1993b). Even with this knowledge knowing the terrain is vital. From this study it was decided that the activity “snow activities should be separated into the three that it covered; backcountry skiing, snowmobiling and snowshoeing. This is a relevant separation in this study area (Lower Mainland) where snow activities play an important role in the outdoor recreation scene. There is snow available for use for at least half of the year. In the second study area (Vancouver Island), snow plays a much smaller role in the outdoor recreation scene so that grouping the three activities together into snow activities would have been more appropriate. Nonetheless, especially between backcountry skiing and snowmobiing there are other important differences that exist between the two that it is valid to have them as separate categories. It is certainly a different set of people that pursue each of these two activities. And it is questionable whether snowshoeing needs to be included as a significant activity because so few people do it. For the purposes of this study, it is primarily done in formal recreation areas in formally recognized recreation programs.  Another important division that would be useful in a future inventory is in bicycling, by dividing it into road bicycling and mountain bicycling as the terrain used is vastly different. This division would then lead to the grey area of trying to define what road biking is outdoor recreation and what is commuting. This train of thought then begs the question, are roads informal recreation areas? The answers to these questions start to bring in the values, beliefs and world view that the person who is defining the categories holds.  It is useful to divide kayaking into white water and sea. However some areas would not support sea kayaldng. Walking and hiking are distinct enough activities to warrant separation. This is evident by the  54  category mountaineering, which was felt to be sufficiently different from hiking to have its own category. It must be remembered that this analysis of the categorization is being done by a mountaineer, hiker and climber. If someone with a different background looked at the activity categorization a different set of conclusions may be arrived at. For example, it may be relevant to separate nature appreciation into different categories, e.g. bird-watching, wildlife viewing and plant appreciation. Bird-watching on its own is the fastest growing outdoor recreation activity in North America (Campbell 1993), and may warrant its own category in some areas.  A last suggestion with respect to the inventorying of areas used for recreation is presented. Because there is continual change to the supply which requires new inventories to be done at certain intervals, it would be better if the inventories could be kept up to date in a kind of “continual inventorying system”, rather than at 15 year intervals as has occurred in the past. This should be more easily possible now that the information is on a GIS database system. This should mean that it is easier to make updates to the land use database. If there was someone in each Regional District office who was an avid outdoor recreationist this would make the task of updating much easier, as the person would, because of involvement, know what was happening and changing in the outdoor recreation field. The updating of the inventory would just be one small ongoing part of their work.  The above discussion has highlighted the importance of choosing carefully and appropriately the categories for an inventory. The value and usefulness of an inventory can hinge on the quality of the categories chosen. Probably a good rule to follow is, when in doubt, split an activity or category, as this will ensure greater accuracy and detail in the information gathered for the inventory. It is an easy matter to aggregate data at a later date if necessary. However it is not possible to disaggregate that which was initially lumped into one category. It is important to remember that an inventory is an essential step in planning. Therefore the quality of planning that results is dependent on the quality of the inventory done for it.  55  CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS  In this chapter examples of different kinds of recreation area classification systems are presented. This is done to provoke thought on how informal recreation areas could be incorporated into the planning for parks and recreation. Following this is a discussion on the general types of areas used for informal recreation. From here some ideas about how “informal” areas could fit into this “recreation opportunity spectrum” are presented. The most relevant point to always keep in mind is that informal areas fill a niche of their own.  In the last part of the chapter, specific details regarding site criteria are given, which are important at a more detailed level of planning.  5.1 Mylar Overlays The information on all the 1:50,000 scale map sheets was transferred to the appropriate 1:250,000 scale map sheet to give the planner a better overall view of the areas used for informal recreation in the five regional districts of the study area. The large formal recreation areas, such as Garibaldi Park, Golden Ears Park, Belcarra Regional Park were also marked on the maps. The result is a good visual summary of many of the areas used for outdoor recreation.  5.2  Recreation Classification Systems  BC Ministry of Forests One that is relevant to this study, because they are one of the members of the study team and manage many of the lands used for recreation, particularly informally, is that used by the Ministry of Forests. It is called the “Recreation Opportunity Spectrum” and was adopted from the US Forest Service. It essentially divides areas by remoteness and evidence of human use. The five categories are: 1) primitive; 2) semi-primitive non-motorized; 3) semi-primitive motorized; 4) roaded resource land; 5) rural. They differ in how far they can be from either 2 wheel or 4 wheel drive roads, size, degree of  56  evidence of human use and whether facilities are allowed in the area. A summary is shown in Table 5.1. It would be difficult to incorporate informal recreation areas into this classification system, because informal areas fall into all categories in this system.  BC Ministry of Parks Provincial parks has two different classes of parks, Class A and Recreation Areas. They differ in whether mineral extraction is allowed or not. Recreation areas tolerate a wider range of activities within them. Within a park or recreation area, there are five zones that the area could be divided into. The zoning in a park or recreation area will be defined in its Master Plan. Zoning is generally used for the larger parks. The five zones are: 1) Wilderness Conservation zone; 2) Wilderness Recreation zone; 3) Special Feature zone; 4) Natural Environment zone and 5) Intensive Recreation zone.  Each zone has  management objectives and corresponding compatible activities and facilities. See Table 5.2 for a summary of this information. This kind of classification system is more useful for incorporating the concept of informal recreation areas into because the classification is focused on types of recreation or types of activities that take place on the land. “Informal” recreation could be defined as a type of recreation experience that could be slotted into this kind of a classification system. A drawback is that it is set within the context of a formal recreation area.  57  TABLE 5.1 BC Ministry of Forests Recreation Opportunity Spectrum  Class  Primitive  Remoteness 8 km from a 4wheel-drive road  5 000 hectares  SemiPrimitive Non-Motorized  1 km from a 4wheel-drive road  Evidence of Human Criteria •  self-reliance and challenge  • Unmodified natural environment • Very low interaction with other people • Little on-the-ground evidence of other people • Restrictions and controls generally not evident • Non-motorized access and travel on trails, cross-country & waterways • Generally no facilities except where required for safety & sanitation • Generally no site modification High probability of experiencing solitude, closeness to nature, selfreliance and challenge Natural or natural-appearing environment Low interaction with other people Some on-the-ground evidence of other people, some on-site controls Non-motorized access and travel on trails, cross-country & waterways Facilities may be present for signing and for sanitary and safety needs using natural, rustic materials wherever possible Minimal to no site modification  • •  1 000 hectares  •  • • • • SemiPrimitive Motorized  1 km from a 2wheel-drive road 1 000 hectares  Moderate opportunity for solitude, closeness to nature; high degree of self-reliance and challenge in using motorized equipment • Natural or natural-appearing environment • Low interaction with other people . Some on-the-ground evidence of other people, some on-site controls • Motorized access on trails, primitive roads & cross-country may occur • Limited facilities for signing, sanitary and safety needs using natural, rustic materials wherever possible • Minimal site modification •  Roaded Resource Land  Often within 1 km of a 2-wheeldrive road with a gravel or dirt surface  .  Rural  No remoteness criteria  .  No size criteria  Very high probability of experiencing solitude, closeness to nature,  Opportunties for both privacy and social interaction; feelings of independence and freedom • Natural environment may be substantially modified • Moderate interaction with other people • On-the-ground evidence of other people, some on-site controls • Access and travel is by motorized vehicle • Facilities generally present; natural, rustic materials preferred, with more refinement in design Opportunities for social interaction and convenient facilities Natural environment is culturally modified, e.g., pastoral farmlands and utility corridors • Many interactions with other people • Obvious on-the-ground evidence of other people & on-site controls • Access and travel is by conventional motorized vehicle . Complex and numerous facilities . Moderate to heavy site modification  •  SOURCE: BC Ministry of Forests Recreation Manual 1991, p. 6-12  58  TABLE 5.2 BC Ministry of Parks Park Zones Zone  Management Objective  Compatible Activities and Facifities  Wilderness Conservation  To protect a remote, undisturbed natural landscape and provide backcountiy experiences based on a pristine environment where no motorized activities will be allowed.  Backpacking, river rafting, fishing, nature appreciation, etc. NO hunting & NO mechanized access allowed. NO facility development.  Wilderness Recreation  To provide for backcountry recreation in a more remote natural environment, with emphasis on a wilderness atmosphere.  Backpacking, river rafting fishing, hunting, nature appreciation, etc. Facility development limited to user convenience & protecting the environment, e.g. trails, primitive campsites, shelters, etc. Mechanized access may be allowed to specific points.  Special Feature  To protect and present significant natural or cultural resources, features or processes because of their special character, fragility and heritage value,  Sight-seeing, study of history & nature, interpretation. Facilities may be developed for feature interpretation purposes only. May be subject to temporary closures or permanently restricted access.  Natural Environment  To provide a variety of easily-accessible off-road outdoor recreation activities in a largely undisturbed natural environment, shelters, etc.  Walk-in camping, kayaking, cross-country skiing, horseback riding, etc. Facilities are moderately developed, e.g. trails, boat-in campsites,  Intensive Recreation  To provide for a variety of high-use, readily accessible facility oriented outdoor recreation activities,  Camping, picnicking, beach activities, powerboating, nature appreciation, skiing, fishing, etc. Facilities may be intensely developed, e.g. campgrounds, play areas, interpretive buildings, boat launches, etc.  SOURCE: BC Parks 1990a, p.10-il  59  Ontario Ministry of Parks It is useful to look at a few other classifications to see if they shed any useful information on better defming the situation. In Ontario there are five different kinds of parks: 1) Primitive; 2) Wild River; 3) Natural Environment; 4) Recreation; 5) Nature Reserve.  These are summarized in Table 5.3. This  system divides parks by accessibility and amount of recreation use that is permitted. Like the BC provincial park system, each kind of park can be zoned in its master plan into the following zones: 1) primitive; 2) natural; 3) historic; 4) multiple use; 5) recreation. These zones are very similar to those used by the BC Ministry of Parks. See Table 5.4 for a complete description.  Other Jurisdictions and Kinds of Classification Following Ontario’s park classification system are examples of those used by other countries and jurisdictions.  These are given in Tables 5.5 to 5.8. These classifications are for both the land or water  resource, and are presented as other ways of classifying the land or water resource which could be helpful in deciding how to fit informal recreation areas into the recreation opportunity spectrum of the study area.  60  TABLE 5.3 Ontario Ministry of Parks Park Types Primitive:  Wilderness areas for wildiand recreation, for geological research and interestingly, the  ‘psychological need, of many people, to know that unspoiled wilderness areas exist’. Development is confmed to trails, portages and designated campsites. Wild River:  Sections of rivers not less than one-day’s upstream travel by canoe in length, with a minimum shoreline depth of 400 feet (122m) on public lands. Some recreation development at access points and logging will be allowed subject to any restrictions needed to preserve the aesthetic quality of the environment. Motor-powered boats may be restricted or prohibited.  Natural Environment:  Areas for medium and low intensity rural recreation in a natural environment, together with some wilderness or semi-wilderness areas. The management will be on a multiple use principle, recognizing recreation as the primary use on all lands and the exclusive use on some. Complete interpretive services are among the facilities provided.  Recreation:  These are user-oriented with two sub-classes, Recreation areas, in which day use activities tend to dominate and indeed may be the only use; and Campgrounds, providing for intensive camping and associated uses. The Recreation areas will include many good beaches. These parks are also available for winter use, when heated washrooms are maintained, and activities such as ice-fishing, snowshoeing, skiing, skating, and tobogganing are followed. In all but a few of the parks, snowmobile trails are laid out.  Nature Reserve:  Areas for the preservation of unique natural areas where the presence of the public is not significantly detrimental to the natural value of the area.  SOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 136-8  TABLE 5.4 Ontario Ministry of Parks Park Zones Primitive:  for the preservation of natural Landscapes and their scientific study  Natural:  for public enjoyment and recreation at unique natural areas such as lookout points and biological phenomena. No development except where absolutely necessary, and in connection with the interpretive programme.  Historic:  self-explanatory  Multiple Use:  low intensity recreation use is managed in consort with the use of other resources. This other use is usually logging.  Recreation:  this zone is for intensive recreational use and will be confined to areas with high capability for this purpose. A twenty-year period is envisaged.  SOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 139  61  TABLE 5.5 Coastal Zones: Zealand and Mon Group 1 (suitable for intensive use) (a) good for bathing (b) less important for bathing (c) with urban area inland Group 2 (less suitable for intensive use) (a) good for bathing (b) less important for bathing (c) with urban area inland Group 3 (poor coasts) (a) unsuitable because of natural conditions (b) monopolized by urban area SOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 58  TABLE 5.6 UK: Land Use Settlements Horticulture Perennial Crops Cropland Improved Grassland Unimproved grazing:  private common land  Forest Unproductive (unaccounted for)  SOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 60  62  TABLE 5.7 England and Wales: Recreation Resource Potential National Parks Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty Green Belt Defence Land Derelict Land Long Distance Routes National Trust: gardens and open spaces owned Forest Commission (forest parks) National nature reserves Local nature reserves Common lands SOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 61  TABLE 5.8 Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC) Classification System  High Density Recreation  A wide variety of recreation uses involving substantial development. Such resources as are at hand are used.  General Outdoor Recreation  Again, there is a wide variety of uses for which substantial development is undertaken but choice of resource is likeLy to be exercised.  Natural Environment  These are suitable for recreation which is fitted to the particular area; opportunities for multiple use are frequent.  Unique Natural  Places of scenic splendour or natural wonder or scientific importance where observation is the primary form of enjoyment.  Primitive  Undisturbed roadless areas, including wilderness zones.  Historic and Cultural  SOURCE: Simmons 1975, p. 67  63  5.3 Informal Recreation Areas  -  Entire Study Area  Below is a description of the basic kinds of areas used as informal areas for recreation.  Following this  is a brief discussion of how population influences the areas that are used. Then, for each regional district, the following topic is addressed: “Types of Terrain and Recreation Opportunities.”  Types of Areas Used It is important to point out that the analysis of the information gathered will be slightly skewed because the collection was not totally complete and the focus of collection was more towards the east of Vancouver, rather than to the north. This is valid because the gathering of data reflects where the need for its collection is greatest and where there is the most recreational use, especially informal, of the land. This is primarily because of the higher population east of Vancouver.  It is simple to describe the basic kinds of areas used as informal recreation areas in the study area. There are two of them, dykes and logging roads.  Dykes These are heavily used for many kinds of outdoor recreation that include: • bicycling  -  road and mountain  • horseback riding • nature appreciation • walking  Logging Roads These form the basis for many outdoor recreation activities, either as the terrain on which it is done, or as the access route to reach the destination of the activity. The activities that rely on logging roads are: • hiking • horseback riding • hunting • motorcycling (dirt biking) • mountain biking  64  • mountaineering • off road driving • ski touring • snowmobiling  Other important informal recreation areas that have not been heavily highlighted in this inventory and that occur primarily in urban centres are “green spaces” or vacant municipal land. These could occur anywhere, but those that are surrounded by lightly used roadways and are therefore safe and quiet are the ones important and useful for recreation. Like dykes and logging roads, these green spaces are not there specifically for recreation, but they are used because they meet recreation needs.  Terrain Differences Differences in the kind of terrain or landscapes within each regional district are significant enough that a comment on their differences is worthwhile. An important aspect of these differences in terrain are that they dictate what outdoor recreation activities are suitable within that district.  In the more heavily populated regions (e.g. large parts of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, and small areas within Dewdney  -  Alouette and Fraser Cheam), modification of the landscape by humans -  has influenced what kind of outdoor recreation can now take place there. Within the analysis for each regional district a brief description of dominant terrain types is given, and then what activities are most suitable for that terrain.  Population Differences Most of the regional districts within the study area have vast differences in population per area of land. Therefore each regional district feels the pressure of demand for outdoor recreation areas quite differently. Because of the large areas of mountainous terrain in nearly all the regional districts (all but Central Fraser Valley) population centres tend to be concentrated in the lowland areas of the district. In the Greater Vancouver Regional District nearly all land that is not mountainous is used for human dwellings or food production. It has the greatest population (by far) of all the regional districts. This large difference in population is changing as more people are moving east. Some are moving north. The  65  Greater Vancouver Regional District is the second smallest in land area in the study area. In relation to it, the land areas of the Squamish  -  Lillooet and Fraser  -  Cheam Regional Districts are huge. See Table  5.9 which gives the population and land area for each Regional District.  TABLE 5.9 Population and Land Area of the Five Regional Districts in the Study Area  Regional District  Population  Area (sq kin)  87,360  385.36  89,968  3,155.84  68,681  10,797.70  Greater Vancouver  1,542,744  2,473.25  Lilooet  23,421  16,533.83  Central Fraser Valley Dewdney Fraser  -  -  Alouette  Cheam  Squamish  -  SOURCE: Statistics Canada. 1992. Profile of Census Divisions and Subdivisions in British Columbia, Part A  Because of the flat deltas along the Fraser River, most of which are south of the river, the next most heavily populated regional districts are Dewdney  -  Alouette, Central Fraser Valley and Fraser  -  Cheam.  This is because this flat lowland terrain is more amenable to human habitation than the mountainous terrain found elsewhere in the study area. Areas in the Squamish  -  Lillooet Regional District that are  suitable for human habitation are much smaller. There is some at the head of Howe Sound (Squainish), the Lillooet River (Pemberton), Carpenter and Downtown Lakes (Goldbridge), and further up the Fraser River (Lillooet).  66  Because of the huge population of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, relative to its area, people in this district regularly leave it to recreate. As far as this author knows, (no research has been done that the author is aware of), there is no reason, when personal preferences are averaged out, why people in the GVRD would go east before north, or vice versa, to recreate. However, because population pressures within the GVRD have caused people to move east to live, the total population in Dewdney  -  Alouette, Central Fraser Valley and Fraser Cheam Regional Districts is much higher than to the north -  of Vancouver. This fact in itself will increase the demand for outdoor recreation in these three districts over that experienced in the Squamish  -  Lillooet Regional District. As a generalization people will  recreate as close to home as possible to fulfill their “need” for outdoor recreation. The casual recreationist will on average probably go a shorter distance to satisfy their outdoor recreation needs than the dedicated recreationist. The dedicated recreationist is willing to spend more time and energy to get to an area which will provide a higher quality or different recreation experience, because they have already been to the ones close to home.  5.4 Informal Recreation Areas by Regional District  5.4.1 Central Fraser Valley Types of Terrain and Recreation Opportunities This regional district is very small, and is almost totally lowland forest or open lowland that is used for agriculture or housing. It has one small mountain, Sumas Mountain, that is quite heavily used for outdoor recreation. The activities pursued there include: hiking, mountain biking, dirt bike riding, horseback riding and hang gliding. There is some fishing on the eastern border of this district along the Vedder Canal.  67  5.4.2 Dewdney  -  Alouette  Types of Terrain and Recreation Opportunities The Dewdney  -  Alouette Regional District lies totally north of the Fraser River, so it has only small  pockets of lowland that are easily used for human habitation. There are two main lowland areas, one around Maple Ridge and Pitt Meadows, and one east of Mission along Nicomen Slough. Both these areas are home to a wide range of birds and important wetland plant life. This makes both these areas very important for nature appreciation.  It has no important rivers for fishing. However it has three large lakes, Pitt Lake (shared), Alouette Lake and Stave Lake, which are good for boating and kayaking. Pitt Lake has numerous spots that are good for fishing. Stave Lake is a much larger lake than the other two so is not as suitable for boating because of the high winds that can develop on it.  Fishing occurs on the more southern ends of it, where  it is accessible by road.  Dewdney  -  Alouette would have to be considered the horse capital of the study area because it is home to  Maple Ridge, which has one of the largest numbers of horseback riders per capita in British Columbia. Perhaps its appeal to horseback riders is the mix of lowland and more rugged mountainous terrain. Increasing population is making it more difficult for people to house their horses, plus find enough terrain to ride on. The result is that dedicated horseback riders are moving to the Interior of British Columbia (Ladimer 1993).  A large part of the steep, mountainous terrain in this district is in protected areas  -  Golden Ears  Provincial Park, Mount Judge Howay Recreation Area and UBC Research Forest. Areas outside these protected areas have experienced significant logging which makes them very suitable for motorcycling, off road driving and mountain biking.  Except for the upper parts of Golden Ears Provincial Park and Mount Judge Howay Recreation Area, there are very few alpine areas in this district, so mountaineering is not pursued very heavily in the informal areas. The more accessible areas of the district generally tend to be lower in elevation so receive little snow, making this district only marginally suitable for snow activities. The alpine areas of  68  the district are very inaccessible and require boat or plane to access them. As a result huge portions of this district are seldom visited by anyone.  5.4.3 Fraser  -  Cheam  Types of Terrain and Recreation Opportunities This regional district is very big, similar to the Squamish Lillooet Regional District, but has a slightly -  narrower range of terrain types. It does not have the vast ice fields. Nonetheless it still has many other important landscape features that provide good recreation opportunities. It has two excellent rivers for fishing, (Chilliwack and Skagit), many logging roads (especially west of Harrison Lake) that are good for off road driving and motorcycling. These also provide good access for hunting. Areas along the Fraser River and Harrison River provide excellent opportunities for nature appreciation; wildlife viewing, floodplain forests and other wetland plant life. There are also a few pockets of valuable old growth forest left in this district, for example in the Radium Creek valley.  The quality of the rock in this district is variable. There are three areas where it is very good and provides some good mountaineering; the Chehalis, the Anderson River Mountains and the Coquihalla area. There is also some good rock south of the Chilliwack river between Slesse Creek, Nesakwatch Creek and Centre Creek. However the rock north of the Chilliwack River, in the Cheam range, is very crumbly and not enjoyable for climbing.  Because the valleys, especially around the Chilliwack River, are very steep walled and on average the elevation is lower, this area is less suited to snow activities than other parts of the study area. In the winter people tend to head to the Coquihalla area for better, more reliable snow and gentler terrain. Nonetheless, because it is close to a fairly big population, snowmobiling, snowshoeing and ski touring do occur in the Chilliwack Valley.  The Chilliwack River is also popular for kayaking and camping. Easy access to the river is the most probable reason for its heavy use.  69  5.4.4 Greater Vancouver Types of Terrain and Recreation Opportunities This regional district is approximately 50% lowland river delta and 50% relatively inaccessible, forest covered mountainous terrain.  It has three rivers that are well used for fishing, the Seymour, Capilano and Fraser. It has four significant sized lakes or water bodies, Indian Arm, Coquitlam Lake, Buntzen Lake and Pitt Lake (shared).  The southwestern part of the district, the large delta areas of Richmond and Surrey, are very important for nature appreciation, walking, bicycling and horseback riding and are heavily used for these activities. They are close and easily accessible to many people. There is enough open space in this area that there is a significant population of horses and horseback riders. On the other hand there is much less horseback riding in the northern half of the district in the north shore mountains. They are used primarily for hiking, mountaineering, mountain biking and skiing. The northwestern half of the mountains has a number of parks, while the northeastern half, at the moment, is a kind of “free for all” zone. Other areas in the northern half of this district are zoned as watersheds, and as such prohibit recreation.  The dyke areas of the southern half of the district, although very popular do not seem to be experiencing overuse or conflict problems. Portions of the dykes which are on private land cause recreationists to trespass or detour to less desirable road routes.  5.4.5 Squamish  -  Lillooet  Types of Terrain and Outdoor Recreation Opportunities The Squamish Lillooet Regional District has a good variety of terrain types. Its most distinctive -  feature, in comparison to the other regional districts, is its large areas of glaciated terrain. These are found primarily in the southwestern part of the district. It also has a few large rivers (Squamish, Cheakamus and Lillooet) throughout the district and some large lakes (Gun, Anderson and Downton) in  70  the more northern parts. The terrain tends to be more rolling and gentler in the northeastern part. Compared to the other regional districts it has the most amount of alpine terrain.  The Squamish Lillooet Regional District is also home to some of the fmest granite for rock climbing in -  North America. This high quality granite is found close to an urban centre, Squamish, so it is an extremely popular area for rock climbing. Other sites have also been found in the district, north and south of Squamish to relieve the pressure on the rock close to Squamish.  The narrowing of the valley around Squamish and Whistler make it less than ideal for hang gliding and paragliding. However further north in the Pemberton valley some good sites are being established, which reportedly result in some of the fmest flights around, largely because of the spectacular alpine scenery.  As a result of the good variety of terrain, this regional district is suitable for most types of outdoor recreation activities, at least somewhere within it. The glaciated terrain is excellent for ski touring, snowmobiling and mountaineering. The fact that it exists at such a low latitude indicates that there is indeed a lot of snowfall in this area, and as a result has one of the longest ski seasons in southern Canada. From a quality of experience perspective it provides some of the finest because of the spectacular nature glaciated terrain brings to an outdoor recreation experience. Because of the warm, wet winters experienced in the southwestern part of the district, these glaciers are reasonably safe to travel on. The area of alpine terrain being so large in this region makes it very suitable for hiking and mountaineering opportunities. It has at least one large river which is very good for fishing, the Squamish and its tributaries. Hunting is poor in this drainage, but further north and east of Pemberton the hunting is still quite good, possibly because there has been less hunting pressure here in the past. It may also be because the terrain and climate make it habitat that is well suited for wildlife. This part of the district is also good for hiking, general mountaineering, and horseback riding. As logging continues and pressures for mountain biking and dirt bike riding areas increase there is also suitable terrain for these two activities.  71  5.5 General Site Requirements It is now useful for planning purposes to know what makes a “place” good for outdoor recreation. Below are three criteria that are applicable to all outdoor recreation activities. Following this are criteria that are specific to three activities that require very special sites in order to pursue them, rock climbing, hang gliding and windsurfmg. All other activities are more flexible in their site requirements.  •  Aesthetics. The area must be visually pleasing.  Good scenery is a must. Landscape  features which enhance the visual pleasure of an area are: streams, forests, waterfalls, ocean vistas, mountain vistas, glaciers and even green pasture lands (for lowland recreation activities.)  In an outdoor recreation experience, people are not looking for views of  concrete, buildings, roads or logging slashes, which are all signs of mans’ destructive industrial activities.  •  Access.  It has to be reasonably easy to get there. Of course, everyones’ definition of  “reasonably” varies. But, as a generalization, the easier and quicker it is to get to the site the better. These areas are the more popular ones, especially for the beginner or casual recreation user. This criterion becomes much less important for the more experienced and dedicated outdoor recreationists who will travel further and over rougher terrain to get where they are going. Of course with one activity, “Off road driving” bad driving terrain is what the dedicated four wheel driver is looking for.  •  Difficulty of Terrain. The difficulty of terrain sought after depends on the skill of the recreationist. The more popular areas are those in which the difficulty is suitable for the beginner or casual recreationist. The least popular, but most important areas are those that have difficult terrain and are used by the dedicated or expert user.  72  5.5.1  Specific Requirements for Three Activities  Some recreation activities require sites with extremely specific landscape features. They are: rock climbing, hang gliding and windsurfing. It is therefore important in any planning, change and development of the land that these areas are not destroyed, because sites for these activities are not easily replaced. In reality they are usually extremely difficult to replace, if not impossible. Some of the important landscape features for each of these activities include, listed in order of importance:  Rock Climbing: •  solid rock;  •  less than 40m high, which are good for top roping as that is what the majority of rock climbers will always want;  •  cracks, friction holds; angle between 75 to 100 degrees;  •  fairly close to an approved parking spot; ideally less than .5km from the site because there is a fair amount of equipment to carry.  Hang Gliding: •  suitable winds; (the Squamish/Whistler area is not good because of the Venturi effect. The narrowing of the valley causes the wind speed to increase as it goes through this area. This leads to dangerously high and/or unpredictable winds, especially in the afternoon)  •  reasonably close to an approved parking area, because there is a lot of heavy and awkward equipment to carry;  •  a suitable landing spot; enough clearance, safe, and has the approval of the landowner.  Windsurfmg •  suitable winds;  •  safe waters  •  close to an approved parking spot, once again because reasonably heavy and awkward equipment needs to be carried down to the water.  -  no underwater dangers in the area close to the surface;  73  For most of the other outdoor recreation activities looked at in this study, suitable sites are easier to find. Consequently there is some flexibility in how the land is used.  Appendix 3 lists site factor requirements  specific to each activity.  5.5.2  Beginner versus Expert Needs  A generic comment must be made about the difference in the requirements of a recreation area for a beginner or casual recreationist and of an expert or dedicated recreationist. Beginners are looking for an area where they can do the activity in a way that feels safe and unthreatening, and where the skill level required to do it is low. Consequently, the terrain needs to match those requirements for the particular activity. However, for the expert, the terrain needs to provide a challenge, where the skill levels required to do the activity are much higher. In many outdoor recreation experiences one thing the person is looking for is a stimulating experience, hence challenge, and adventure. In many cases exploration is a critically important part of the experience, and can often be the prime motivation for the person pursuing the activity in the first place. This can only be achieved if the terrain is right!  5.6  Putting It All Together  From the above work and examining the maps (available at the Parks Department of GVRD), it can be seen that areas that are informally used for recreation cover the full range of types of recreation areas and types of activities pursued. Informal recreation areas can be the small patch of green space at the end of the cul-de-sac that is used for picnicking or walking by local residents, to the end of a logging road which is used as a launch point for the dedicated mountain traveller for a three week journey through the wilderness of the Coast Range mountains. This full range also includes all types of users, from casual to dedicated.  For this reason when the existence of informal recreation areas are incorporated into a recreation plan for an area, the attributes of, and reasons people use each area will need to be carefully considered. Each informal recreation area will slot into the scheme in a different place. It is valuable to have a list of these  74  places because now it is known what areas are used for recreation. The inventory work and associated report also gives an indication of how heavily used each area is and how many different kinds of recreation activities are pursued in the area. This is important because it gives planners and managers an idea of how important that area is for recreation. From this information, as well as land tenure, and other proposed uses of the area, decisions can be made regarding what would be the best way to manage each area. As a start, three approaches could be used. 1.  The area could be recreationally important, but proposed future uses will eliminate the area’s present recreation use, so the area should be turned into a formal recreation area to protect it for recreation.  2.  The area supports recreation use, along with other uses and all uses exist in harmony with one another. Nothing needs to be done other than to acknowledge and map the recreation use.  3.  The area supports recreation use, along with other uses. The recreation experience would be enhanced if the managing agency made improvements or changes to the area. See chapter 6, section 6.2 for examples of some changes that could be made to enhance the recreation experience in an informal area.  With respect to areas that fall into management approaches 2 and 3, it is important that these areas remain informal because there is a need for these kinds of areas to exist within the recreation opportunity spectrum (as described in chapter 2.) Areas that appear umnanaged are important. If the informal areas are taken away, or all turned into formal areas informal use will be displaced elsewhere (Wilson 1993).  Because informal areas require few facilities, the main task is to ensure that those lands remain available for recreation use. Therefore money may need to be spent to change ownership, change the laws, buy the land, provide parking, upgrade the road, but no money needs to be spent to provide shelters, picnic sites, or other facilities.  To reduce deterioration of a resource from insensitive overuse, one good method is to keep obstacles to reaching the area, such as poor access (Buholzer 1974, p.3’7). This will prevent some people from using an area.  75  Another possible consequence of knowing what lands and waters people use for recreation that would have positive ramifications is that it might allow planners and managers to be more proactive in preventing conflict between users. Knowing that a number of different activities are being pursued on their lands means they could take action to ensure heated arguments do not occur between people pursuing activities that are incompatible. This is particularly true of NEW outdoor recreation activities. An example of this is jet boating. It is new, and it is starting to create conflict in certain places in the study area.  Another positive consequence of knowing where people recreate informally is that public agencies, such as BC Parks, BC Forests, the Regional District park departments and municipal park departments, will be able to inform the public about a broader range of outdoor recreation opportunities. It is important to distinguish these opportunities from those that tourism would focus on, and be aware of. The ones investigated in this study are specifically for public enjoyment and use, and not for commercial purposes. There defmitely is a large overlap in the opportunities available, but the perspective taken on how it will be pursued is significantly different. Public outdoor recreation is done from the perspective of the person going out and doing it themselves, armed with enough knowledge to fmd the area and to do it safely.  Many of these informal recreation areas are examples of “multi-use” systems that have come into existence naturally, and are existing quite well as they have evolved. Multiple use of an area is a concept that merits an in-depth exploration of its meaning. This will not be done in this work. However a few pertinent points will be made. To properly defme multiple use of an area, the fundamental question “What defines a use?” must be answered. Because people have different belief systems there can be differing opinions on the answer to this question. In some peoples’ minds “use” includes such things as existence value, biological/ecological value and wildlife habitat value, as well as the more anthropocentric uses, timber harvesting, mineral extraction, human food production, grazing, housing, and recreation. It is a long and varied list that not everyone agrees on the contents of. This is an important issue for society to resolve more fully because when “use” is described more accurately, “protecting” areas of land as parks no longer can be defmed as a “Single Use” of the land.  76  It is valuable for all planners and managers of outdoor recreation to keep in mind important reasons why people live in the study area. People live here because the outdoor recreation opportunities available are some of the best in Canada, if not the world. The natural features and climate are extremely well suited to outdoor recreation pursuits. Where else can you go skiing and kayaking, or rock climbing and mountain biking on the same weekend, so easily? To see these recreation opportunities be slowly eroded away is also seeing the erosion of the high quality of life here. Need it therefore be said that increased importance should be placed on the maintenance of these recreation opportunities.  Increased understanding of the importance and value of informal areas within the recreation opportunity spectrum should help planners and managers better understand the requests made by the avid, dedicated users. It may possibly help planners and “developers” understand the comment: “spared the vandalism of improvement” (Red Deer RPC, 1978), and act accordingly.  In the last chapter, the important role that the Major Parks Plan Study team plays in implementing these ideas is discussed. This is followed by specific suggestions on how and where energy could be put to improve recreation planning with respect to informal areas.  77  CHAPTER 6 SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS  6.1 Importance and Value of the Major Parks Plan Study Team The forming of the Major Parks Plan Study Team was a very important step to take towards the creation of better park and recreation planning in the study area. People in each of the different agencies that plan and manage for recreation have the opportunity to work together, rather than in isolation. Everyone will be better informed and have a greater awareness of what is being done, both within and outside their own jurisdictions. This is important because these external events impact what is taking place within their own. It also means they know the people to call for advice, or help, or to collaborate with on those planning and management projects that require the input of a few agencies.  Interagency communication is especially important for recreation features that are linear, such as trails, rivers, and roads. More than one managing agency could be responsible for the care of this kind of recreation resource. If there is a forum where conununication over its management can take place, there is a better chance of good management occurring. Problems often occur almost exclusively because of lack of communication between one party and another. With respect to informal lands used for recreation it is excellent that BC Forests is part of this study team, as much “informal” recreation takes place on their lands.  It was noticed that many of the suggestions made in the next section were also made in the 1978 GVRD report (GVRD 1978, pp. 63-4). This was a concern because it appears that there have been problems in implementing the suggestions made 15 years ago. One suggestion that was made in the earlier report that is of relevance here is: “Much potential exists to improve recreation services through a closer liaison with public agencies such as dyking authorities, highways department and universities  ...“  p.64). Further thought on this matter led to the idea that perhaps if these authorities  dyking, highways  and BC Lands  -  -  (GVRD 1978,  were also part of the Major Parks Plan Study team it would probably be easier to achieve  this closer liaison and ultimately the improved recreation services. Although these agencies have no direct mandate to provide for recreation their cooperation in facilitating improvements to recreation opportunities is necessary. If they better understood the goals and aims o. any proposed changes to the  78  land, either tenure or use, there might be a greater chance of implementing the proposed changes.  One last comment about this Study Team is that looking at the composition of the team it appears that it has been properly recognized that outdoor recreation planning and management is a land use issue and therefore needs to be the work of land managing agencies. In the past recreation has too often been lumped in with cultural services. In part it is a cultural service, but for outdoor recreation especially, if there is no land to do it on, there is NO recreation.  6.2 Suggestions for the Future Some suggestions for steps that could be taken in the future to improve recreation planning with respect to informal recreation, are given below.  Since much informal recreation takes place on logging roads and dykes the following are suggestions for improvements to the outdoor recreation experience in these two places.  •  The Ministry of Forests should allocate more money to recreation planning. This is particularly true in the Squamish Lillooet Regional District (where a lot of it is lands in the Squamish -  Forest District.) A lot of recreation takes place in the provincial forests in this forest district, and tourism is developing in the regional district (using outdoor recreation as one of its attractions) and yet the forest district in this area has devoted very few resources to managing for recreation.  •  One area that money should be spent in forest recreation management is in maintaining selected important access logging roads in driveable condition (not necessarily to two wheel drive standard.) Logging roads are used for many forms of outdoor recreation when they are not washed out. Keeping logging roads in drivable condition has other benefits besides providing for recreation. It means that the forest service or forest company who owns the timber rights can access the area to properly manage the forest. Less erosion of the landscape would occur and this would cause less damage to the streams which would be beneficial to fish.  79  With respect to dykes, those areas of dykes that are still in private ownership are problematic for recreationists. It can cause people to have to enter busy traffic to get around those areas that are private, and therefore closed to public recreational access. This can create an unsafe situation, and defmitely diminishes the quality of the recreation experience.  It would be good to see the  remaining privately owned dykes become accessible to the public. It is more than likely that economic benefits will need to be made for these owners to make their land available for recreation (Red Deer RPC, 1978).  Often times there is a need for the public to inform the authorities of something, and vice versa. The following are suggestions which could facilitate and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of this exchange of information. Most of these suggestions involve “someone” holding a workshop or bringing people together to discuss their differences. In the spirit of cooperation being presented in this work, it is suggested that there should be communication between the different major players (BC Parks, BC Forests, GVRD Park Department, other Regional District park departments and the Outdoor Recreation Council) who are responsible for outdoor recreation in the province to decide who should organize a given event. Agreement should be reached as to who the most appropriate agency is for holding the “event.” The most appropriate agency will depend on the event. In some cases, a single agency may be considered the most appropriate, in others a joint sponsorship may be better. And in all cases, it is critically important that the other (minor) players give full support to the event.  To help the public know how to communicate with public agencies it would be useful to inform the public of ways that they can. Often times people don’t inform the government or correct managing authority because they don’t know how. Eventually, over time, the “general public” is becoming more informed and knowledgeable, but perhaps pamphlets or workshops on communicating with the government (at all levels) could speed up the learning process (Western 1993). For example, in this case a joint sponsorship by BC Forests, BC Parks and the regional districts may be the most appropriate group to organize this event.  80  Some outdoor recreation activities come into conflict with one another constantly. Perhaps it would be useful to hold symposiums and/or workshops to bring these user groups together so that better understanding of each others needs and interests could take place. Within this kind of forum, possible solutions to the problems they perceive to exist could be generated. Solutions are seldom generated until people start talking. In this case, perhaps the most appropriate agency to sponsor this event is the Outdoor Recreation Council, with full support by the other outdoor recreation management agencies.  •  Address the trail conflict problems (perhaps by using the above suggestion) that exist in the North Shore mountains of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, with a real commitment to creating workable solutions.  •  The major trail conflict problems that exist in the study area are caused by a lack of mountain biking and horseback riding trails. Horseback riders are being pushed more and more onto the roadways which are not safe places to ride. Mountain bikers are constantly coming into conflict with hikers. Therefore the managing agencies should provide encouragement and information to these user groups so that they can set up their own programs to teach themselves how to build more trails for themselves. For example, the mountain biking community could hold a trail building conference. Since both mountain biking trails and horseback riding trails must be built to a higher standard than hiking trails, providing these users with pertinent information on trail building is very important.  •  Promote the use of trails as access into an area, rather than roads. (Yes, this means making people get out and walk!) There does appear to be a demand for more local, easily accessible trails. Behind this suggestion is the idea that if the opportunity is provided people use it. For example, if a hiking or mountain biking trail is built, especially near heavily populated areas, it will be used immediately, and probably quite heavily.  With respect to outdoor recreation, if the  opportunity exists people will do it. If it doesn’t, people will fmd something else to do (watch TV, go to the pub), or do nothing.  81  Planning and management of recreation areas could be improved by implementing the following suggestions.  •  Encourage planners and managers responsible for outdoor recreation to experience a good variety of it themselves. It will lead to a deeper understanding of what is needed, and allow them to develop better park and recreation opportunities.  •  At the moment land use in the northeastern section of the GVRD is very controversial. It would be a good idea to make firm decisions about how the land will be used there, without destroying all the supply of outdoor recreation activities that presently exist.  A suggestion that could make data collection more efficient:  •  From this work it appears that duplication of effort occurs a little more often that would ideally be envisioned. Some of the problem in not duplicating the work was not having access to the raw data. Perhaps it would be possible to require consultants to also include their raw data in any contracts they do for the government. Raw data of the sort collected for this work can be used for many different, but similar, purposes. The main difference in any project is what is done with the data, or what ideas are pulled from it. For example, commercial backcountry recreation, tourism development, and forest service recreation inventories can all use information on where people recreate, but the focus or perspective taken when analysing or using the information is different.  6.3 Conclusions This work has looked at the value of making a distinction between recreation areas that are “formal” and “informal,” in the recreation opportunity spectrum. Recognizing the importance of informal recreation should allow planners and managers to designate areas that will be “set aside” and managed for this kind of recreation. To fulfill the goals of informal recreation the main criterion to be filled is to provide a  82  land area that is compatible with the given outdoor recreation activity, or ensure that the land remains available for recreational use. Provision of actual facilities (beyond access routes and parking) is seldom necessary. The land use changes that take away these areas tend to be housing and industrial development near urban areas, and loss of access, that is road closures or washouts.  With respect to use of the land for outdoor recreation not all activities can be practiced in the same area without conflict developing.  Some of this conflict develops because the goals of the different types of  recreationists do not overlap enough. The other source of this conflict is increasing participation in the activity. New outdoor recreation activities that have grown rapidly in the past decade are conflicting with people using the same area of land for activities that are much older, for example mountain bikers and hikers, paragliders and naturalists. The loss of areas to development near urban areas has led to a concentration of users in the remaining areas. This has resulted in an unacceptable level of overlap in use of many areas in the study area.  A summary of suggestions for planners and managers to focus their attention on in providing informal outdoor recreation areas is: •  providing areas for those activities that are new and growing, (e.g. mountain biking and paragliding);  •  ensuring that areas for those activities which have extremely specific site requirements are not lost (e.g. rock climbing, hang gliding and windsurfing);  •  addressing the known conflicts that exist in some informal use areas, (e.g. Burke Mountain, North Shore Mountains, Brandywine Creek.)  83  BIBLIOGRAPHY  The list of people interviewed for this work is found at the end of this section.  Action Challenge Committee. 1989. The Action Challenge, Strategic Directions for Recreation, Summary, Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Recreation and Culture. Anderson, Darlene. 1993a. Informal Supply Study for the Major Parks Plan Study, report prepared for the Major Parks Plan Study and the GVRD, April 1993, Vancouver. Anderson, Darlene. 1993b. Report on Mapping of Outdoor Recreation Activities on Vancouver Island, prepared for the Vancouver Island CORE (Commission on Resources and Environment) land use strategy, July 1993, Vancouver. Barker, Mary L. ed. 1982. Developing Summer Recreational Potential in the Whistler Corridor, for the Natural Resources Management Program, Burnaby: Simon Fraser University. Benn, Don. 1978. Fraser Valley Outdoor Recreation Features, Victoria: B.C. Ministry of the Environment, Resource Analysis Branch. Bish, Robert L. 1990. Local Government in British Columbia, Richmond: Union of British Columbia Municipalities. Bodegom, Volker. 1992. Bicycling Vancouver, Edmonton: Lone Pine Publishing. B.C. Guide. 1992. Program and Services of the Provincial Government, Victoria: Queen’s Printer. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks. 1993. PAS Criteria, A Protected Areas Strategy for British Columbia, Victoria: Protected Area Strategy Team. B.C. Ministry of the Environment. 1992. BC 1992-1 993 Hunting and Trapping Regulations Synopsis. B.C. Ministry of Forests. 1991. Recreation Manual, Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Forests. B.C. Ministry of Parks. 1990a. Striking the Balance, B. C. Parks Policy, Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Parks. 1990b. Preserving Our Living Legacy, Parks Plan 90, a series of 3 booklets, entitled: “Special Features for BC Parks”, “Landscapes for BC Parks”, and “Recreation Goals for BC Parks”, Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Parks. 1990c. Draft Working Map, Parks Plan 90, Areas of Interest to BC Parks, Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Parks. Brown, Lester R. 1981. Building a Sustainable Society, Markham, Ontario: Penguin Books Canada Ltd.  84  Bucher, Charles A., Jay S. Shivers and Richard D. Bucher. 1984. Recreation for Today’s Society, 2nd ed., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Buholzer, Bill. 1974. Outdoor Recreation and Tourism in the Peace River Region ofAlberta, Alberta: Peace River Regional Planning Commission. Burton, Thomas L. 1976a. Making Man’s Environment, Leisure, Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Burton, Thomas L. 1976b. “The Challenge of Leisure”, Contact, Vol. 8 (1). Cook, Norman A., Richard T. Taylor, and Chris Shea. 1977. Outdoor Recreation Resources Inventory of the Dewdney-Alouette Regional District, Mission: Planning Department, Dewdney-Alouette Regional District. Cook, Norman A., Richard T. Taylor, and Chris Shea. 1977. Outdoor Recreation Suitability in the Dewdney-Alouette Regional District, Mission: Planning Department, Dewdney-Alouette Regional District. Dewdney-Alouette Regional District. 1990. Fraser River Recreation Study, Mission: Development Services. Dorcey, Anthony H.J. 1986. Bargaining in the Governance of Pacific Coastal Resources: Research and Reform, Vancouver: Westwater Research Centre, University of British Columbia Press. Doyle, Brian Owen. 1974. Existing Arrangements and Procedures for Generating and Analyzing Information: A Comparative Evaluation of Several Greater Vancouver Regional District Park and/or Recreation Agencies, Vancouver: University of British Columbia, Master’s thesis School of Community and Regional Planning. Dunn, Edgar. 1971. “The Social Learning Metaphor” in Economic and Social Development: A Process of Social Learning, Baltimore & London: The John Hopkins Press, pp. 237-45. Enquiry BC. 1992. BC Guide 1992/1993, Programs and Services of the Provincial Government, Victoria: Queen’s Printer. Fairley, Bruce. 1986. A Guide to Climbing and Hiking in Southwestern British Columbia, Vancouver: Gordon Soules Book Publishers Ltd. Forest Act. R.S.B.C. 1979. Chapter 140. (looseleaf ed.) Freeman, Roger and Ethel. 1985. Exploring Vancouver’s North Shore Mountains, Vancouver: Federation of Mountain Clubs of British Columbia. Friedmann, John. 1987. “Planning as Social Learning” Chapter 5 in Planning in the Public Domain, From Knowledge to Action, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 181-223. Friedrich, Marcy, Christina Hatton, Mindee Naismith, Janet Wensink and Simon Priest. 1992. “Functions of Privacy in Canadian Wilderness”, Journal ofApplied Recreation Research, Vol 17(3), pp. 234-254.  85  Gold, Seymour M. 1980. Recreation Planning and Design. San Francisco: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Greater Vancouver Regional Parks District (Bev Evers). 1978. Outdoor Recreation Review, Regional Recreation Opportunities, Vancouver: Greater Vancouver Regional Parks District. Horse Council of B.C. 1990. Horse Trail Guide, Southwestern British Columbia, Cloverdale: H.T. Publications. Hulchanski, David J. 1989. Policy Analysis: An Introduction to Issues, Concepts, and Disputes, Vancouver: School of Community and Regional Planning. Jensen, Clayne R. 1985. Outdoor Recreation in America, 4th ed. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Burgess Publishing Company. Kraus, Richard. 1978. Recreation and Leisure in Modern Society, 2nd ed., Santa Monica, California: Goodyear Publishing Co., Inc. Leopold, Aldo. 1966. A Sand County Almanac, With Essays on Conservation From Round River, New York: Ballantine. Macaree, David and Mary. 1983. 109 Walks in British Columbia’s Lower Mainland, 2nd ed., Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd. Macaree, David and Mary. 1987, 1983. 103 Hikes in Southwestern British Columbia, 3rd & 2nd eds., Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd. Master of Natural Resources Management Program. 1990. Wilderness and Forestry: Assessing the Cost of Comprehensive Wilderness Protection in British Columbia, for Advanced Natural Resources Management Seminar, Burnaby: Simon Fraser University. McDonald, Jim. 1978. Hotsprings of Western Canada, revised 1981, Vancouver: The Labrador Tea Company. McLane, Kevin. 1992. The Rockclimbers Guide To Squamish, Squamish: Merlin Productions Inc. Mercer, D.C. 1970. “The Geography of Leisure 55 (part 3).  -  A Contemporary Growth-Point”, Geography, Vol.  Meyer, Kathleen. 1989. How to Shit in the Woods, Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press. Murphy, James F. 1975. Recreation and Leisure Service, a humanistic perspective, Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers. Murphy, James F. 1972. “the counter culture of leisure”, Parks and Recreation, Vol 7 (2), 34, 41-42. Park Act. R.S.B.C. 1979. Chapter 309 (looseleaf ed.) Parks and Recreation Federation of Ontario. 1992. The Benefits of Parks and Recreation, A Catalogue, Gloucester, Ontario: The Parks and Recreation Federation of Ontario and the Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Recreation.  86  Red Deer Regional Planning Commission. 1978. Regional Recreation: Elements and Directions, Red Deer: Red Deer Regional Planning Commission. Rethink Group. May 1993. Roles and Responsibilities for Major Parks and Outdoor Recreation in BC’s Lower Mainland, Preliminary Analysis for the Major Parks Plan Study, Vancouver, B.C. Simmons, I.G. 1975. Rural Recreation in the Industrial World, London: Edward Arnold Ltd. Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission. 1973. Regional Park, Outdoor Recreation, and Related Open Space Planning Program Prospectus, Waukesha, Wisconsin: Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission. Squamish Trails Coalition. June 1991. Squamish Trails Enhancement Plan, Squamish:  —.  Statistics Canada. 1992. Profile of census divisions and subdivisions in British Columbia, Part A, Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada. 1991 Census of Canada. Catalogue number 95-384. Stoltmann, Randy. 1987. Hiking Guide to the Big Trees of Southwestern British Columbia, Vancouver: Western Canada Wilderness Committee. Sudbury Community Leisure Plan Steering Committee. 1988. City of Sudbuiy Community Leisure Plan, Sudbury: City of Sudbury. Taylor, 0. D. 1961. “Some Thoughts on the Geography of Wilderness”, Occasional Papers in Geography, Canadian Association of Geographers, B.C. Division, Vancouver, Vol. 2., pp. 23-8. Thompson, Berwick, Pratt & Partners. 1975. North Fraser Recreation Study, Vancouver: Thompson, Berwick, Pratt & Partners. UMA Engineering Ltd. 1988. Hay River Recreation Master Plan, Edmonton: UMA Engineering Ltd. Ward, Peggy. 1980. Explore The Fraser Estuary!, Vancouver: Lands Directorate, Environment Canada, Pacific & Yukon Region. Whistler Backcountry Adventures. 1993. Pamphlet and brochures advertising their adventure tourism business which is primarily focused on fishing. Zimmerman, E.W. 1964. Introduction to World Resources, H.L. Hunker (ed), New York: Harper and Row.  87  Interviews  It is important to realize that in a study of this type the people contacted were very important sources of information. Some of the information that was collected is not available in a written publication, and is only available through personal contact. Some of these people were contacted during the course of this study and their names can be found in Appendix 1. The individuals listed here were interviewed specifically for this thesis.  Campbell, Wayne. June 1993. Bird Inventory Specialist, Ministry of Environment in Victoria, B.C. Personal Communication. Freeman, Roger. May 1993. Member of most recent Forestry Resource Commission Panel (1990-92) and Chairperson of Recreation and Conservation Committee of the Federation of Mountain Clubs of British Columbia (FMCBC). Personal Communication. Gurnsey, Cohn. September 1993. Manager of Social Resources, BC Hydro. Personal Communication. Ladimer, Susan. March 1993. Avid horseback rider in the study area, primarily Maple Ridge area, and Habitat Protection Technician, Ministry of Environment, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Surrey, B.C. Personal communication. McGarry, Larry. March 1993. Active member of the Pemberton Riding Club. Personal communication. Thompson, Paul. August 1993. Communications Officer, Outdoor Recreation Council. Personal communication. Watmough, Don. September 1993. Senior park planner, Greater Vancouver Regional District, Parks Department, and member of Major Parks Plan Study team responsible for the supply (formal and informal areas) inventory. Personal communication. Western, Charles. May 1993. Recreation Officer, Vancouver Forest Region, Burnaby, B.C. and member of Major Parks Plan Study team. Personal Communication. Wilson, Clive. September 1993. Senior Recreation Planner, BC Hydro and member of Major Parks Plan Study team. Personal communication.  88  APPENDIX 1 CONTACTS FOR THE INFORMAL SUPPLY OF RECREATION STUDY  Activity  Name Phone  Organization Area  Type of Contact  All  Tom Bruusgaard 892-5217(w)  Squamish Regional District Alderman  Visit  All  Peter Cave 792-0061(w)  Fraser-Cheam Regional District  Visit  All  Reg Crane 660-7609(w)  BC Forests Recreation Specialist  Contact  All  Slade Dyer 462-8294(toll free)  Dewdney-Alouette Regional District  Visit  All  Barbara Synder 826-1291(w) 462-8294(toll free)  Dewdney-Alouette Regional District  Visit  All  John Tisdale 898-2128(w)  BC Forests Recreation Officer  Visit  All  Frank Ullman 685-5972(toll free) 794-2147(w) 794-211 1(fax)  BC Forests Integrated Resource Officer  Visit & maps  All  Charles Western 660-7608(w)  BC Forests Recreation Officer  General Information  Fishing  Art Lingren 263-3787(h) 432-6468(w)  Steelhead Society of BC Lower Mainland (east)  Visit & maps  Fishing  Bob Taylor 438-8483(h)  Steethead Society of BC Lower Mainland (east)  Visit & maps  Hang Gliding  Chris Tipper 936-1976(h) 291-8307(w)  Hang Gliding Assn  Visit & maps  89  Hiking  June Banwell 987-7610(h)  Federation of Mountain Clubs  Telephone call  Hiking  Chuck Dick 26 1-5092(h)  FMCBC Callaghan Lake area  Telephone call  Hiking & Walking  Sheila Gregson 980-2885(h)  FMCBC  Telephone call  Hiking  Mary Macaree 926-2516(h)  FMCBC  Telephone call  Hiking  Jack Scrivener 987-7058(h)  FMCBC  Telephone call & maps  Horseback Riding  Bill Archibald 463-9586(h)  Haney Horsemen Maple Ridge  Telephone call & visit  Horseback Riding  Janet Dmietrieff 462-8192(h)  Maple Ridge  Horseback Riding  Susan Ladimer 582-5239(w)  General Information  Horseback Riding  Erica Lynn 462-8707(h)  Maple Ridge  Horseback Riding  Maple Ridge Planning Department 467-7341(w)  Horseback Riding  Larry McGarry 894-6737(h)  Pemberton  Horseback Riding  Terry Templeton 467-3610(h)  Haney Horsemen General Information  Telephone call  Hunting  Bob Forbes 582-5224(w)  BC Environment Wildlife Biologist  Visit & maps  Motorcycling  Gordon Reddy 594-8040(h)  Fraser Valley Dirt Riders Association  Telephone call & information  Mountain Biking  Bob Brant 892-9161(w)  Squamish Trails Coalition  Telephone call & maps  Mountain Biking  Richard Boase 980-0778(h)  St. Mary s t Mosquito Creek  Contact  Telephone call  Telephone call  Telephone call  Telephone call & maps  Telephone call  90  Mountain Biking  David Eades 931-3985(h) 420-6616(w)  Coquitlam Maple Ridge  Mountain Biking  Laural Gagnon 795-2453(w)  PedaiSports Chilliwack  Telephone call & maps  Mountain Biking  Paul Kindre 892-3331(w)  Corsa Cycle Squamish  Contact  Mountain Biking  Ross Kirkwood 922-0150(h)  North Shore  Mountain Biking  Dean Mckay 327-2547(h) 873-7199(w)  Extreme Mountain People Seymour, Burnaby Vedder, Sumas  Visit  Mountain Biking  Bruce & Peg Wenting 850-2901(h) 826-1441(w)  Central Fraser Valley Cycling Mission  Telephone call  Mountain Biking  Tom Urba 464-4154(h)  Sumas, Crickmer Vedder, Burke Coquitlam, Blue Mtn  Telephone call & maps  Mountaineering & Rock Climbing  Jack Bryceland 858-6601(h)  FMCBC Chilliwack area  Telephone call  Nature Appreciation & hiking  Joe Foy 683 -8220(w)  Western Canada Wilderness Committee  Visit & maps  Nature Appreciation  Christine Hanrahan 936-4108(h)  Burke Mountain Naturalists  Telephone call & maps  Off-Road Driving  Henry Giuich 581-6396(h)  Four Wheel Drive Assn Past President  Telephone call  Off-Road Driving  Dennis Zentner 940-1952(h)  Four Wheel Drive Assn President  Messages  Snowmobiling  Mike Blomfield 922-7402(h)  Black Tusk Snowmobile Club  Telephone call  Visit  Telephone call Information  91  Snowmobiling  John LeJeune 796-3279(h)  Fraser Cheam Whiskey Jacks Chilliwack & Coquihalla area  Telephone call  Snowmobilmg  Peter Staehli 894-6806(h)  Local in Pemberton  Information & some areas  Snowmobiling  June Watson 936-4404(h) 525-4621(w)  BC Snowmobile Fed ORC Director (1992)  Information  Snowshoeing  Sylvia Mathers 921-9661(h)  North Shore Hikers All areas  Telephone call  92  APPENDIX 2 DEFINITIONS OF EACH FIELD IN TIlE 1NFORMAL SUPPLY OF OUTDOOR RECREATION DATABASE  The first seven fields are used to locate the recreation activity geographically, as well as describe some of its characteristics; kind of recreation pursued, facilities available and how frequently the area is used. All are character fields and the size of each is given next to the field name.  SITE_NAME: Site_name Character 100 This is a descriptive name given to where the outdoor recreation activity is taking place. It is usually the name of a prominent landscape feature in the area, such as a river or mountain. If the information was taken from a guidebook, it is the name given by the guidebook. If it describes a large area used for something like mountaineering, snowmobiling or fishing, it is usually the drainage used to access the area. GRID:  Grid reference for the area. Character 15 This descriptor pinpoints the area more precisely, in case the descriptive name is a local name for the area. If the recreation feature is linear, such as a hiking trail or logging road, the grid reference given is where people usually park their cars, or the start of the trail. If the recreation feature is an area, such as a mountaineering area, or fishing hole, the grid reference is the approximate centre of the area.  Outdoor Recreation Feature Character 250 FEATURE: This describes what kind of recreation is being pursued at the site name. It may also include information about what makes the area special, such as a waterfall, or details of the activity, such as elevation gain or trip rating. Managing Agency Character 50 MG_AGENCY: The agency that manages the area. This was often unknown so it was guessed. When this was the case a question mark after the guess. Character 50 Regional District REG_DIST: This identifies the regional district that the area is in, and is included to be able to selectively pull data out of the database. Character 250 Basic Public Facilities PUB_FAC: This lists the “facilities” available in the area. Often it is only “parking”, but will sometimes include toilets or phones. Character 100 Level of Use LVL OF USE: This is an estimate of how much use the area gets. The rating is purely subjective and is based on local knowledge. Therefore it has been divided into only three categories: High, Medium or Low. If the area is used for many different recreation activities it will most likely be given a rating of HIGH, and if it can be seen that the area would only be used by the ‘hardcore’ it will be given a rating of LOW. If the level of use is unknown it is given a rating of UNKNOWN.  93  Enough room has been left to add a brief comment if necessary. The next twelve fields describe the landscape types that are present in or near the recreation area, that may be the “drawing card” for why people recreate in that area. These are all Logical fields ALPINE: SUB-ALP: FOR STP: FOR_LOW: OPEN_LOW: OCBCH: RKYSHR: LAKE: RIVER: STREAM: WETLAND: GLACIER:  Alpine Sub-Alpine Forested Steepland Forested Lowland Open Lowland Ocean Beach Rocky Shoreline Lake River Stream Wetland Glacier  The next nineteen fields describe the outdoor recreation activities that can take place in an area, as described in this study. They are also Logical fields. BCH_ACT:  Beach Activities This category includes any activity that is done at a beach and is not one of the next eighteen activities. It includes swimming, sunbathing, kite-flying, etc.  BICYCLE:  Bicycling This category includes both kinds of bicycling; road biking and mountain biking. A distinction is made on the map between the two, road biking is a solid line, mountain biking is a dashed line.  BOATING:  Boating This category includes any kind of boating that is not kayaking, river rafting or fishing. Therefore windsurfing and waterskiing fit under this activity category.  EQUESTRIAN:  Equestrian Horseback riding; primarily recreational trail riding.  FSH_FISH:  Freshwater fishing  SLT_FISH:  Saltwater fishing  HANG_GLD:  Hang Gliding  NAT_APRN:  Nature Appreciation This category is one which most outdoor recreationists “pursue”, as a part of being there, or as a “secondary” activity. However naturalists pursue nature appreciation as their primary activity and have trips to areas where nature appreciation is the main purpose of the trip. Often it will be described as wildlife viewing or bird watching.  94 OFF_RD_DR:  Off road driving This includes two wheel and four wheel drive vehicles that travel on gravel roads for pleasure. It does not include motorcycles.  OV_CAMP:  Overnight camping This means that the types of trip done in this area generally include an overnight stay, and that there is suitable terrain for camping on.  PICNIC:  Picnicking This is included as an activity, just in case. People recreating informally usually eat lunch as part of the day’s activity, but would not necessarily think of it as “picnicking”.  ROCK_CLIMB:  Rock climbing This category is specifically for technical rock climbing where climbing ropes are used and the focus of the trip is to rock climb. This is different from mountaineering, where using the rope may be a part of the activity but the primary goal of the activity is to climb a mountain, as opposed to climbing a rock face or bluff.  SNOW_ACT:  Snow Activities This covers quite a few activities which perhaps should be separated, since they are all pursued in different, but overlapping types of landscapes, with different reasons and levels of motivation. It covers backcountry skiing, snowshoeing and snowmobihng. Which of these snow activities is being pursued is noted under the field FEATURE.  WALK_HIKE:  Walking or hiking Similar to snow activities, there are distinctive differences between walking and hiking, even though they have been lumped together under one recreation activity. Which activity is being pursued is noted under the field FEATURE, and the distance of the trail is given under the appropriate field, that is either as a hiking trail or as a walking trail. The difference between hiking and walking is essentially level of energy put out. Walking is defined as something done for less than 2 hours, and generally on not too steep terrain, while hiking is done for more than 2 hours on terrain that is often quite steep (although not always).  MOUNTAIN:  Mountaineering Included as a separate activity because it defines a recreation activity where trails are not used, and the participants fmd their own route. Sometimes the route fmding will start at the cars, and be bushwacking through the forest. Other times there will be a trail to the alpine and the route finding will be up the alpine to a peak. The difference between mountaineering and hiking is that hiking is almost totally on trails (marked rocks and cairns when in the alpine) and any peaks climbed are technically easy and have no glacier travel.  KAYAK:  Kayaking This includes river rafting and canoeing as well as kayaking. Any river that is used for kayaking can be used for river rafting, however any river used for kayaking is not always suitable for canoeing. Conunents on the record, under the fields FEATURE and COMMENTS, need to be read to know which activity is most  95 commonly pursued on that river. MTR_CYC:  Motor Cycling This is to describe motor cycling that is not done on paved roads, but on either logging roads or trails. It is often the kind referred to as dirt biking.  SCUBA_DIV:  Scuba Diving  HUNTING:  Hunting  The next thirty two fields are used to describe specific details, often quantitative, for some of the recreation activities. They are a combination of character and numeric fields. The size and type of each field is given next to the field name.  Beach Activities F_BCH_LGTH:  Freshwater beach length (m)  Numeric 8.1  S_BCH_LGTH:  Saltwater beach length (m)  Numeric 8.1  AREA_AVBL:  Area available (sq m)  Numeric 8.1  IBOATLCH:  Informal boat launch This field describes the potential parking capacity.  Character 100  Bicycling FLT_TRL:  Flat trail length (kin)  CTR_TRL:  Contoured trail length (1cm) Numeric 8.1 This describes an uneven or rough surfaced trail (that has contours) and not one that contours.  CHGTRL:  Challenge trail length (1cm) Numeric 8.1 Most mountain biking trails have been put under challenging trails, while most road biking routes have been put under flat. A few of each have been put under contoured. Therefore this information may not be totally accurate, that is some challenging or flat trails may be contoured trails, while some contoured trails may be flat trails or perhaps challenging trails.  Numeric 8.1  Equestrian RSTC_TRL:  length of rustic trails (km)  Numeric 8.1  MAIN_TRL:  maintained trail length (km)  Numeric 8.1  96  STG_CAP:  Horse trailer parking Staging area capacity  Numeric 8.1  TG_SITES:  total tenting sites  Numeric 4  Fishing  -  Freshwater and saltwater  LK_FISH:  Lake Fishing length of shoreline (m)  Numeric 8.1  RVR_FSH:  River Fishing length of riverbank (km)  Numeric 8.1  OC_FSH:  Ocean Fishing length of shoreline (m)  Numeric 8.1  Nature Appreciation SP_FEAT:  Special Features Character 250 The reasons people go somewhere for nature appreciation: old growth forest, wildlife viewing, bird watching, etc.  Overnight Camping VH_ACC:  Vehicle access tenting Character 5 # of tenting sites A character field has been chosen here because a decimal point is not required (or realistic), and allows other characters like “?“to be used.  WALK_IN:  Walk-in tenting Character 5 # of tenting sites For many of these walk in ones, no formal tenting sites are available. In these cases an extremely subjective estimate at how many people the area could handle to maintain the recreational experience the visitor has gone to the area to have has been made, (i.e. socially acceptable carrying capacity.)  BOAT-IN:  Boat-in tenting Character 5 # of tenting sites Again, this is often a subjective estimate as no formal tenting sites exist.  Snow Activities  -  Cross-country skiing  BCK_TR:  length of trails (1cm)  Numeric 7.1  BCK_AR:  area used (sq 1cm)  Numeric 9.1  97 BCK_CP:  capacity of area (users/day)  Numeric 5.1  -  Snowshoeing  SN_Sl-I_TR:  length of trails (1cm)  Numeric 7.1  SN_SH_AR:  area used (sq 1cm)  Numeric 9.1  SN_SH_CP:  capacity of area (users/day)  Numeric 5.1  -  Snowmobiling  SN_MB_TR:  length of trails (1cm)  Numeric 7.1  SN_MB_AR:  area used (sq 1cm)  Numeric 9.1  SN_MB_CP:  capacity of area (users/day)  Numeric 5.1  Determining capacity of the area is very difficult to do and has not been done for any of the areas recorded. However, an estimate from the map has been made for the area used.  Walking/Hiking WLK_TR_F:  Walking trails  WLK_TR_C:  Walking trails contoured (1cm) Numeric 5.1 Again this means trails that are uneven or rough surfaced, and not ones that contour.  HIKE_TR:  Hiking trails (km)  -  flat (1cm)  Numeric 5.1  -  Numeric 5.1  Mpimtaineering MTRG_AR:  Area used (sq km)  Numeric 9.1  Kayaking LTH_OF_RUN:  Length of run (1cm)  Numeric 9.1  The next six fields are available for future use when it might be possible to collect information about what group of people use the area, where they come from, when, how frequently, how many and why. Sometimes information about the time of year used is known and is put in, otherwise these fields are usually left blank. They are usually character fields and the size is variable.  98 GROUP:  Group Who are the people using this area?  Character 250  ORIGIN:  Origin Where (what region) are the users coming from  Character 250  TM_OF_YR:  Time of year Character 250 What time of the year are they coming? all year, or just certain seasons?  FREQ:  Frequency Do they come frequently, occasionally, or once a year?  Character 20  NUM_USRS:  Number of users How many come?  Numeric 7  REASON:  Reason Character 250 Why do they come? close to home?, easy access to area? spectacular scenery?  This next field is left for any information that might be relevant, but as yet, has gone unrecorded. COMMENTS:  Comments  Character 250  These last two fields are used to identify those trails or areas that are part of a network of recreation activities taking place in the same general location. The first field is a Logical field which tags the area. The other is a short name, in a Character field, used to describe the area, e.g. Burke Mountain. PT_OF_NET:  Part of a network; yes or no?  NM_OF_NET: Name of network Criteria for a site to qualify for being in a recreation “network’ are:  Logical  Character 100  I. More than 3 types of recreation taking place in the area. The reason for this number is that in many cases certain activities very often take place together, e.g. horseback riding, off-road-driving and motorcycling; or snowmobiling and ski touring. Sometimes all the activities will be listed on one record, then other times each activity will be on a separate record. The difference in recording depends on how much comment there is to each activity; or when the information for each of the activities was collected at different times it tended to be put in separate records. Often a different record means that the areas used are slightly different for each activity, but there is an overlap in the area used. For example, hunting takes up a lot of area, while fishing takes up only a small area, but both activities will be around the same river. 2. More than 3 trails in the area, where the area is less than about 50 sq km.  99  APPENDIX 3 LIST OF SITE NAMES 1DENTWIED IN THE INFORMAL S1JPPLY INVENTORY  Below is a list of the site names, given by Regional District. This is the most concise way to present the data collected. Regional District: Central  -  Fraser Valley  Sumas Mountain Vedder Canal/Sumas River  Regional District: Dewdney Alouette -  Alouette Lake Stave Lake Correctional Institute Alouette River (near Blue Mountain) Bell Avenue Rockwell Loop (92 G/l & 8) Blue Mountain Area Trails (92 GIl & 8) Cardinal Creek spit south end of Stave Lake Cascade Falls Chehalis River at bridge Davis Lake parts of this trail riding are in Davis Lake Provincial Park Dewdney Peak Fraser River “Chester Creek” (informal name; closest creek to the spot) Fraser River D’Herbomez Creek Harrison Bay Harrison River mouth of; near Harrison Knob Hatzic Lake Iron Mountain & north Lost Creek Morgan and Florence Lakes Mount Crickmer Mount Crickmer Davis Lake Sayres Lake area Mount St. Benedict Nicomen Slough Nicomen Slough northeast end towards Lake Erroch most popular Norrish Creek Norrish Creek (Suicide Creek) and Dickson Lake Norrish Creek west & east side of creek, north of the CPR railway line Pitt Lake Elaise Creek Pitt Lake Grant Channel Sandbar Pitt Lake McSwen Creek Pitt Lake Raven Creek Pitt Lake Stephenson Creek Pitt Lake all of it Pitt River Pitt River upper part, north of Pitt Lake Salisbury Lake “behind Sylvester Road. (The lake is the central point of the area used.) Saisbury Lake Norrish Creek Dewdney Peak Nicomen Mountain Saisbury Lake/Kenyon Lake Sayres Lake to Morgan Lake to Stave Lake Correctional Institute Sheridan Hill and Dyke Walk (Pitt River area) Silver Creek Park area Silvermere Lake Skumalasph Island Stave Lake south end by the bridge of Dewdney Trunk Road Stave River Strawberry Island -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  100 Tremblay Island West Norrish Creek power line to Margaret Creek to Statlu Creek mainline Whonnock Lake Wing Dam bar Fraser River -  -  Regional District: Fraser Cheam -  Alpaca Peak, Bighorn Peak, Llama Peak & Zupjok Peak Anderson River Mountains Chamois Peak, Steinbok Peak and others Atchelitz Creek Baby Munday Peak, Stewart Peak and The Still Baldwin Ridge and Lakes Bear Creek Bear Mountain Borden Creek Borden Creek via Nursery Creek Bridal Falls Cairn Needle to Mount Breakenridge Camp Slough Road Campbell Lake Canadian Border Peak Cantelon Creek Yola Creek Carey Island Carmell Creek mouth of; at Harrison Lake Centennial Trail Centre Creek Cheam Peak Cheam Peak east slopes Chehalis Lake Chehalis Lake Statlu Creek logging roads Chehalis Lake roads west and east of Statlu drainage Chehalis River Chehalis River mouth of; at Harrison River Chilliwack Bench Road Trail Chilliwack Lake Paleface Creek Chilliwack River (south of lake) Chilliwack River & its tributaries: Liumchen Ck, Tamihi Ck, Slesse Ck, Nesakwatch Ck, & Centre Ck Chilliwack River informal campsites Chilliwack River to Slesse Creek Chilliwack River to Slesse Park Chilliwack River west of Nesakwatch Creek (kayaking) Chilliwack River trail southern end, south of the lake Chipmunk Creek Chipmunk Creek and Foley Creek Clear Creek Clerf Lake Columbia Valley Coquihalla Mountain Coquihalla River east of Hope approximately 4km, starting at Othello until Lear Coquihalla River the old road Custer Ridge includes Mount Lockwood, Klesilkwa Mountain, & Thompson Peak Deer Lake Depot Creek trail access to Mount Redoubt and Mount Spickard Dewdney Creek Eagle Falls Harrison Lake Eaton Lake Crescent Lake Eaton Peak Elk Mountain Emory Creek American Creek logging roads (west side of Fraser River Valley) Emory Creek Tailings Pond Falls Lake up pipeline road to headwaters of Coldwater River Fire Creek First Brigade Trail -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  101 Flora Lake Mount Flora Four Brothers Mountain Fraser River at Popkum Fraser River east side, north of Hope, to Qualark Creek Gate Mountain Ghost Pass & Ghostpass Lake Grainger Peak Greendrop Lake and Lindeman Lake Greyell Slough Island Hanging Lake Harrison Lake Bear Creek Harrison Lake Cascade Bay and Cascade Peninsula, in particular Harrison Lake Trout Lake Creek Harrison Lake west side logging roads Harrison Lake east side logging roads, includes Big Silver Creek Harrison River Harrison Hotsprings Hotel to Harrison Mills Harrison River Harrison Mills to confluence of Harrison River with Chehalis River Harrison River back channels Hemlock Valley Herrling Island Hicks Lake Holy Cross Hope Mountain Hope Slough Hudson’s Bay Company Hope Brigade trail Hunter Creek mouth of; where it hits the Fraser River International Ridge area Island 22 Isolillock Mountain Silver Peak Kawkawa Lake Area Klesilkwa Lake Knight Peak Lady Peak Lillooet River Rogers Creek (E & W sides) Lillooet River mouth of Lillooet River and side roads off of it Lindeman Lake Mount Lindeman Ling Lake Liumchen Creek area Liumchen Ridge Linmchen Ridge access to Liumchen Mountain & Church Mountain Long Island (bay and island) Harrison Lake Lookout Lake Lookout Peak and Sloilicum Peak Lucky Four Mine Maselpanik Creek, Depot Creek and Paleface Creek drainages Maselpanik Trail Morris Lake and Morris Creek Mount Amadis (International Ridge) approach is on the border to this Provincial Park Mount Archibald west side Mount Breakenridge Mount Dewdney Mount Ford Mount Henning Mount Henning Coquihalla Lake area; and beyond up Britton Creek Mount Laughington Mount MacFarlane, Pierce Lake, Mount Pierce Mount McGuire Spencer Peak Mount Mercer Mount Mercer (large area completely around it that is filled with logging roads) Mount Northgraves Mount Outram Mount Rexford -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  102 Mount Thurston Mount Thurston Elk Mountain Lookout Ridge Mount Urquhart Mount Woodside Mount Agassiz Mount Woodside/Harrison Mills Campbell Lake (92 H/4 & 5) Nahatlatch Lake Hannah Lake Frances Lake Nahatlatch Lookout Needle Peak Ogilvie Peak using Goat Bluffs trail, via Railway Creek Old Kettle Valley Railway Olive Lake Paleface Creek Popkum Indian Reserve Radium Lake access to Mount Webb & MacDonald Peak Red Mountain Mine route Mount Larrabee, the Pleiades Ruby Creek Sandy Cove west of Harrison Hotsprings Hotel Serpentine Lakes Silver Creek Silverdaisy Mountain Silverhope Creek Silvertip Mountain and Mount Rideout Skagit River north from Ross Lake to the Trans Canada Highway Skookumchuck Slesse Creek Slesse Mountain Slollicum Sloquet Creek South Chilliwack Lake trail Sowaqua Creek Sowaqua Creek Dewdney Ck to Cedarfiat Ck (E of Coquihalla Hwy) Sowerby Ck Spuzzum Urquhart Creek (west side of Fraser River Valley) Statlu Lake Sumallo Creek Swanee Lake Ten Mile Bay side bays north of; Harrison Lake Thar, Nak and Yak Peaks The Old Settler Tulameen Mountain Two Tamahis Loop Upper Silverhope Creek Trail Uztlius Creek Vedder Canal bend and eastward along the dyke until it becomes the Chilliwack River Vedder Mountain 2 approaches: western & eastern (92 G/l & H/4) Viennese Peak and Mount Clarke Wahleach Lake Wahleach Lake (Jones Lake) roads Weaver Lake West Harrison Lake Williams Ridge access to Williams Peak (class 3) Williamson Lake access to Welch Peak & Foley Peak Wilson Lake Wray Creek -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  Regional District: Greater Vancouver 8th Ave Connector (Campbell Valley to Aldergrove Lake Regional Park) Alouette River northern part Alouette River southern part Annacis Island Arbutus Corridor -  -  103 Baden-Powell Trail Bamston Island Bear Creek or Mahood Creek Belcara Regional Park and environs Belcara Regional Park Hett Creek to Port Moody Inlet Big Tree Loop or West Side Big Cedar Trail Boundary Bay Dyke Brunette River Brunswick Beach Howe Sound Brunswick Point Bryne Creek Ravine Creek east of Buntzen Lake Hydro Powerline Meridian Substation Road Buntzen Lake Recreation Area Trailhead Academy/North Lakeview Trail Buntzen Lake Recreation Area Trailhead South Lakeview Trail Buntzen Lake trail goes in and out of Buntzen Lake Recreation Area (see map) Burke Mountain Rod & Gun Trail Burke Ridge Trail Burnaby Mountain SFU” Burns Bog Cape Roger Bowen Island Capilano Canyon Capilano River mouth of; up to the hatchery Cardinal Avenue Robson Road Carraholly Point to Sasamat Lake Centennial Park Dyke Central Park to Burnaby General Hospital Colony Farm Coquitlam Lake View Trail Coquitlam River Coquitlani River mouth of Coquitlam River trails Cottonwood Bar Crescent Beach / Blackie’s Spit Crescent Park Crown Mountain Cypress Bowl / Hollyburn Ridge Cypress Creek DeBouville Slough Decks Peak and route to Mount Windsor Deer Lake Delta Watershed Dewdney Trunk Road Ainsworth Street Dewdney Trunk Road Hoover Lake (92 G/8 490 564) Diez Vistas Trail (starts in Buntzen Lake Recreation Area) Dilly-Dally trail Dilly-Daily trail to Dilly-Dally peak and saddle Doyle Street Saunders Street Eagle Mountain and ridge beyond Eagle Peak via Buntzen Lake trail and Swan Falls trail Eagle Ridge Trail Eagle Ridge area southeast ridge Elsay Lake Mount Elsay & Mount Bishop Everett Crowley Park Exploring Burnaby Lake 2 parts False Creek Goat Mountain access to Dam Mountain Grant Hill Loop (and Bosonworth alternative) Grouse Mountain Hastings Creek Howe Sound Crest Trail includes St. Marks lookout, Unnecessary Mountain, the West Lion, Brunswick Mountain Indian Arm Indian River mouth of Kanaka Creek -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  104 Keith Creek Kilarney Lake Killarney Milk Run Kitslano Shores Langara Golf Course Lighthouse Park Lindsay Lake Little Campbell River through Semiahmoo Indian Reserve Lynn Canyon Ecology Centre to Twin Bridges Lynn Peak (may be in Lynn Headwaters Regional Park) Mansions of Shaughnessy Mesliloet Mountain Middle Ann Dyke Mosquito Creek Mount Fromme hiking near Grouse Mountain Mount Fromme mountain bilcing; accessed from near Mountain Highway; on the slopes of Mount Gardner trails Mount Harvey and Magnesia Meadows Mud Bay Munro-Dennett Loop Trail Museum trails on Eagle Ridge West Plateau Nelson Road End New Lions Trail Lions Bay to Lions Ridge Nicomeki River Noon’s Creek mouth of; North Burnaby Viewpoints Ocean Park Old Lions trail Lions Bay to Unnecessary Mountain (Howe Sound Crest trail) Pitt Meadow Dyke roads Pitt Meadows Dyke starts at grid reference and goes south onto map 92 G12 Pitt Polder Pitt Wildlife Management Area, marked on map Poplar Island Port Moody Green space River Road East, Delta River Road, East Richmond Sasamat Lake to Buntzen Lake connector Second Narrows north side Second Narrows south side; also called “Capital Hill trail” Second Narrows Bridge route Serpentine River Seymour area South Richmond Dyke includes Gilbert Beach & Gilmour Island & slough; known locally as Finn Slough South Slope Trail South Vancouver Southlands St. Mary’s Steveston (Shady) Island Stoke’s Pit Strathcona / Waterfront Sunnyside Acres Surrey Bend Surrey Fishing Bars The Camel (a continuation of Crown Mountain) The Royal City Three Chop Trail Tree Bar Twassassen Beach Tynehead Regional Park UBC and Marpole Vancouver Bakery Tour Vanier Park or Cottonwood Grove Village Lake Trail West Richmond Dyke / Lulu Island Foreshore -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  105 Westham Island White Rock Beach Widgeon Creek Widgeon Lake trail Widgeon Peak and Coquitlam Mountain Woodland Walk Trail Woodward-Duck-Barber Islands  Regional District: Squamish  -  Lilooet  Alice Lake Provincial Park Road powerline grid Alice Ridge Anniversary Lake Caicheak trail Ashlu Mountain and Porterhouse Peak Ashlu River Athelney Pass access to Icemaker Mountain & Ochre Mountain Backside of the Chief Birkenhead Peak Black Tusk Microwave Road Blackcomb Mountain buttress Blanca Lake area a few approaches Blowdown Creek Blowdown Pass area Gott Peak, Notgott Peak, etc. Brandywine Creek logging roads access to Mount Brew, Metal Dome, Brandywine Mountain & Mount Fee Brandywine Meadows trail Brew Lake trail Brohm Ridge Callaghan Lake and road Caspar Creek logging roads Mount Duke, Mount Caspar Cayoosh Mountain Cerise Creek area Mount Matier, Joffre Peak, Vantage Peak, Mount Howard Cheakamus Cheekye River Confluence Cheakamus River Cheakamus River mid; north of intersection with the Squamish River Chipmunk Mountain and Grouty Peak Cloudburst Mountain 3 approaches Cloudraker Mountain (and ridge beyond to Shields Pk) Comic Rocks Cougar Lake Culliton Creek Cypress Peak via Brandywine Creek logging roads Duffy Lake Road Elaho Mountain Elaho River Gott Creek Green River Bastion west side of Highway 99 Gun Creek to Warner Pass access to Spruce Lake and Mount Warner; includes Eldorado Basin area Hat Mountain Haylmore Creek area High Falls Creek trail hiking Hud Lake (or Hut Lake) Levette Lake Evans Lake Hurley River Road Railroad Pass Hurley River Road from Lillooet River road over to Bralorne or Goldbridge Hurley River, Upper Mount Thiassi, Sessel Mountain, Mount Samson (north face) Ipsoot Mountain and Rhododendron Mountain Lake Lovelywater access to Mount Tantalus, Mount Dione, Serratus Mountain, Alpha Mountain, Omega Mountain, Mt. Niobe Lillooet Edge south facing crag on road to Duffy Lake; 51km north of Whistler Lillooet Icecap traverse from the upper Lillooet River, across the ice fields to Tyax Lodge Lillooet River Lizzie Creek, Twin Two & Twin One Creeks, Ure Creek Lilooet River Meagre Creek confluence Lizzie Creek trail via Lizzie Lake, route to Tundra Lake -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  106 Lost Valley Plateau MacKenzie Basin and beyond (there is a clear cut allowing access to this part of the wintering area) Mamquam River dyke system Mamquam River logging roads Manatee area numerous peaks to climb Marion and Phyllis Lakes McGillvray Pass Whitecap Mountain, Mount McGilvray Meagre Creek Meagre Creek Hotsprings and environs Mount Alpen Mount Athelstan Mount Callaghan and Ring Mountain Mount Capilano trail Beth Lake is an intermediate destination Mount Capricorn and Pylon Peak Mount Cayley Mount Currie Mount Habrich via Shannon Creek logging road Mount Jimmy-Jimmy Mount Marriott and Mount Rohr Mount Meagre and Plinth Peak Mount Mulligan Mount Samson 2 or 3 approaches, most common via logging roads up Samson Creek or Deliah Creek Mount Sedgewick and Mount Roderick; Henrietta Lake Mount Shadowfax, Mount Aragorn, Mount Gandolf Mount Sloan Mount Sproatt 2 approaches Mount Wood group Mountain Lake area Red Mountain, Ben Lomond, Mount Sheer and numerous lakes Murrin Park lots of rock climbing sites around here Nordic Rock steep bluffs above Highway 99 near Nordic Estates North Creek Ossa and Pelion Mountain Overseer Mountain, Spidery Peak & Pilca Peak Owl Lakes Mount Ronayne Paul Ridge 1 Mashiter Creek Pemberton Icecap access to Longspur Peak Peniberton Meadows Armillaria Ponderosa or Richard’s Bump Petgill Lake and beyond to Goat Ridge Place Glacier area Gates Peak, Mount Gardiner, “Mount Oleg”, Mount Olds, Cirque Peak Place Glacier trail Powder Mountain 2 or 3 approaches Priory Peaks, Meadow Dome Pykett Peak, Mount Charlie-Charlie, Icecap Peak & Amicus Mountain Rainbow Lake and Mountain plus Gin & Tonic Lakes Rethel Creek access to Wedge Mountain Rutherford Creek access to Longspur Peak Saxifrage Peak and Cassiope Peak Semaphore Lakes Face Mountain, Locomotive Mountain and beyond Shannon Falls trail Sigurd Lake Sixteen-Mile Creek Skookum Creek Sky Pilot Mountain via Shannon Creek logging roads Skyline Ridge trail Fraser Burrard & Copper Bush trails Slope below Hemionus and Spindrift Mountains Slope below Mount McLeod Smoke Bluffs Soc Valley Soo Valley Edge 19.5 km north of Whistler Village Squamish Estuary Squamish River Stawamus Chief Stawamus Squaw -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  107 Tenquile Creek trail to an old cabin/mining site Tenquille Lake Tenquile Mountain, Goat Peak, Copper Mound, Mount McLeod, Mount Barbour, Sun God Mountain The Camels Back The Chief this includes the North Gully The Malamute The Papoose 200m south of Shannon Falls The Squaw Tricouni Meadows and Tricouni Peak Tundra Peak Tyaughton Creek access to Deer Pass, Lizard Creek, Mount Warner, Elbow Pass to Lorne Lake, etc. Van Horlick Creek Snowspider Mountain (92 J/8 449 692) White Rock at entrance to Shannon Creek, a white granite cliff -  -  -  -  -  -  108 APPENDIX 4 SITE REQUIREMENTS FOR EACH OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY Below is a list of site factors that are specific to each outdoor recreation activity, which need to be considered when setting aside areas for certain outdoor recreation activities. It will be noted that many factors overlap. This will make it easier to set aside areas that are suitable for a number of outdoor recreation activities. However, it must always be kept in mind that many outdoor recreation activities, for social and environmental impact reasons, require low numbers of people in any given area. Therefore, purposely planning for many, multiple uses in one area may not work. Great care must be taken to ensure that the multiple uses planned for in one area are activities that can tolerate heavy use. Beach Activities • • • •  depth of water quality of beach; material it is made of proximity to an urban or town centre heavy use acceptable  Bicycling Road Biking • traffic; too much & riders will avoid the area, because it is too dangerous. • terrain; not too hilly. This discourages too many people. • views; one incentive to go there. Mountain Biking • terrain; desired difficulty varies with skill level. As skill improves more difficult terrain is sought after for the challenge • aesthetics of surroundings important • length of trail; longer as dedication increases • heavy use environmentally harmful Boating • • • • •  safety of water body, e.g winds and snags views launch sites, safe anchorages unpolluted water heavy use possibly dangerous, plus probably socially unacceptable  Equestrian • • • • •  terrain; not too difficult for the horse quality and durability of the trail; it needs to be well enough built that the trail is not quickly destroyed by horse traffic traffic; as little road shoulder riding as possible views length of trail or area available  109  •  heavy use environmentally damaging and probably socially unacceptable  Fishing Freshwater • availability of fish i.e. probability of a catch • access • closeness to home; effort required to get there. Locals will use areas that have few fish in them, but use the area because it is just outside their back door • number of people in the area. Experienced fisher people will avoid crowded areas. Saltwater • availability of fish • contact the GVRD for other important site factors Hunting • • •  good source of animal being hunted road access to the area where the animals are heavy use is dangerous  Kavaking White Water • launch and takeout sites within driving distance of one another • adequate parking at the launch and takeout sites • volume of water which is seasonal • heavy use could be dangerous Sea & Coastal • launching sites & sufficient parking at them • protected or semi-protected water • views • abundance of wildlife • few high speed power boats (a safety & aesthetics issue) • heavy use socially unacceptable and ecologically a strain at the campsites Motorcycling • • •  terrain; some forms need special obstacles (trial riding), while other forms need j of terrain and trails as experience increases difficulty of terrain can increase too heavy use could be dangerous, but probably socially acceptable  110  Mountaineering • • • • • •  challenging alpine route to be covered not too long an approach (i.e. 2-10 1cm); nature of terrain to cover not a critical factor. Steep slopes and bush are okay & not necessarily a deterrent. good views important good rock; challenging route good campsites heavy use totally unacceptable, socially, and has a significant impact on the ecological system.  Nature Appreciation • • •  abundance of wildlife, both plants and animals accessible, meaning walk is not too long. People going primarily for a nature appreciation excursion are not looking for a long walk, as a hiker would be. heavy use probably acceptable as long as it didn’t scare away the wildlife  Off Road Driving • • • •  two kinds; dedicated and recreational the recreational off road driver is looking for good scenery & a sense of being off the beaten track the dedicated off road driver is looking for challenging road terrain; washouts, steep hills, obstacles, and narrowing of the road. heavy use probably socially unacceptable for the dedicated off road driver.  Overnight Camping • • • • •  aesthetic place; good views suitable ground: flat, not marshy, not bushy a source of water not too mosquito or black fly ridden heavy use environmentally damaging in informal areas  Scuba Diving •  contact the GVRD for site requirements important for this outdoor recreation activity  Snow Activities Ski touring beginner • shallow slopes • short approach (—2-4 1cm) • not too much elevation gain (— 240-460 m) • moderate to heavy use acceptable -  111  Ski touring advanced • steep snow slopes, or couloirs; i.e. challenging slopes • reasonable approach length (— 5-10 1cm), but longer than for beginners, because more dedicated to the sport and want to be there longer and be more energetic while doing it • therefore higher elevation gain acceptable and desired (needed to get the good run) (-.- 460-1200m) • moderate to heavy use much less acceptable -  Snowshoeing • usually close to home • usually not a very long hike • heavy use probably acceptable, but highly unlikely due to low participation rates. Snowmobiling • two kinds: recreational and dedicated. Same requirement differences as with off road driving. • shallow enough terrain to get the machine up it. This will depend on the snow conditions; depth and hardness of the snow are the critical factors. Given the right snow conditions it is impressive the steepness of terrain that these vehicles can travel up. • wide open spaces, good vistas • heavy use could be dangerous, but probably moderately acceptable socially Walking and Hiking Walking • not too steep (<150 m) • not too long (<3-4 1cm); defmed as being less than 2 hours • good views • quiet • heavy use fairly acceptable socially and okay environmentally because the terrain used is usually quite flat and less susceptible to erosion. Hiking • steeper, anywhere from 240-1500 m acceptable • longer trail length desired, anywhere from 4-20 1cm, acceptable; defined as being more than 2 hours • good views; i.e. not logging roads • streams, lakes desirable, for source of water and improved aesthetics • good campsites • only moderate use acceptable; if it becomes heavy socially and environmentally unacceptable.  


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