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A methodology for the analysis of melodic accent in Renaissance sacred polyphony 1996

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A METHODOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF MELODIC ACCENT I N RENAISSANCE SACRED POLYPHONY by GLEN EDWARD ETHIER B.Mus., Acadia University 1986 M.Mus., The University of Alberta, 1989 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Music We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1996 © Glen Edward Ethier, 1996 \ In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada ABSTRACT Modern sc h o l a r s have suggested v a r i o u s approaches to the a n a l y s i s of the p r e t o n a l r e p e r t o r y . However, i f we consider the question of how the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s i n t e r a c t i n a Renaissance polyphonic composition to create coherence f o r the movement as a whole, we f i n d that there are no t o o l s a v a i l a b l e to undertake such a task. We may be able to speak g e n e r a l l y of the a r r i v a l of c e r t a i n moments as r e l a t i v e l y accented or unaccented; we may even be able to d i s s e c t a complete melodic l i n e w i t h some segmentation process to h i g h l i g h t m o t i v i c s t r u c t u r e , phrase development or c o n t o u r - a r t i c u l a t e d p i t c h events. But there are no a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g i e s a v a i l a b l e yet which are capable of d i s c l o s i n g the s t r u c t u r e s of independent v o i c e p a r t s and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n as timepoint-accenting elements capable of c r e a t i n g formal, rhythmic and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s . This study o u t l i n e s a methodology that has been developed to deal w i t h these s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . The a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g y i s based on the p e r c e p t i o n of accents i n i n d i v i d u a l voices of polyphonic works. The types of accents germane to Renaissance polyphony i n c l u d e d u r a t i o n a l , leap, contour, c a d e n t i a l and beginning-accents. The study proposes a simple, b i p a r t i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of accentual s t r e n g t h — s t r o n g or weak. Each v o i c e p a r t i n a work i s then analyzed, w i t h every p i t c h a t t a c k represented as s t r o n g l y or weakly accented through s p e c i a l n o t a t i o n developed f o r the a n a l y s i s . I l l The methodology a f f o r d s a p i c t u r e of the most strongly- accented timepoints i n the i n d i v i d u a l melodies of three- and f o u r - v o i c e cantus firmus masses of the mid- to l a t e f i f t e e n t h century. The r e l a t i v e strengths of these accents, along w i t h t h e i r s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n i n the m u l t i - v o i c e aggregate, are d i s c l o s e d through the n o t a t i o n . A f t e r r e n o t a t i n g scores w i t h t h i s s p e c i a l n o t a t i o n a l symbology, we e x t r a c t p o i n t s of c o i n c i d e n t strong accents i n three or more voi c e s to c r e a t e accent profiles f o r each s e c t i o n of a movement. We then compare p r o f i l e s of same-texted works by d i f f e r e n t composers i n order to d i s c l o s e normative formal and p i t c h - c l a s s procedures i n some Renaissance compositions. . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Figures v i L i s t of Examples v i i Acknowledgement x i v Notational Symbols Used i n the Analyses xv Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Chapter 2 Present State of Research 7 The Labelling of Functional Harmonic Progressions 8 The Application of Reductive Techniques 11 Approaches Using Contemporaneous Modal Theory 16 Melodic-Analytic Strategies 21 Chapter 3 Parameters for Analysis 28 Accent 31 Durational Accent 33 Leap Accent 34 Contour Accent 3 6 Text Accent 3 8 Accents i n Sequences 3 9 Beginning-accents 40 . Multiple Streams of Accents 42 Cadential Accent 43 Canon 50 Metric Accent 54 Chapter 4 Notation and Analytic Strategy . 64 Relative Strengths of Accent 67 Timespan Boundary 69 Notational Syrribology 75 Rules for Defining Accents 76 Durational Accent 77 Leap Accent 81 Contour Accent 85 Accents i n Repetitions and Sequences 88 Cadential Accent 93 Beginning-accents 100 Combined Accents 104 Combined Durational and Leap Accent 104 Combined Durational and Contour Accent 105 Combined Durational and Cadential Accent 106 Repeated-note Cadences 107 V Combined Cadential and Leap Accent 109 Combined Cadential and Contour Accent 110 Combined Cadential, Durational and Leap or Contour Accent , 113 Embellishing Events and Additional Notational Symbols 114 Ties 120 Analysis of the Cantus Prius Factus 122 Conclusion 122 Chapter 5 Analysis 124 Analysis of L'homme arme 126 Ockeghem, Kyrie I from Missa L'homme arme 131 Ockeghem, Christe from Missa L'homme arme 140 Ockeghem, Kyrie I I from Missa L'homme arme 147 Obrecht, Kyrie I from Missa L'homme arme 154 Obrecht, Christe from Missa L'homme arme 161 Obrecht, Kyrie I I from Missa L'homme arme 166 La Rue, Kyrie I from Missa L'homme arme I I 173 La Rue, Christe from Missa L'homme arme I I 178 La Rue, Kyrie I I from Missa L'homme arme I I 184 Josquin, Kyrie I from Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales 189 Josquin, Christe from Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales 199 Josquin, Kyrie I I from Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales 2 08 Josquin, Kyrie I from Missa L'homme arme sexti toni 218 Josquin, Christe from Missa L'homme arme sexti toni 226 Josquin, Kyrie I I from Missa L'homme arme sexti toni 239 Chapter 6 Extractions and Accent P r o f i l e s 249 General Observations 249 Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme 257 Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme 2 62 La Rue, Missa L'homme arme 11 266 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales 269 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni 272 Kyrie Accent P r o f i l e s 276 Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme 278 Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme 281 La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I 2 84 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales 286 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni 290 Chapter 7 Conclusions 295 Bibliography 303 v i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4 - l a . Notation f o r weak- and unaccented p i t c h a t t a c k s . 76 Figure 4-lb. Notation f o r strong accents. 76 Figure 5^1. Timespan p a t t e r n i n g created by- strong accents i n L'homme arme. 129 Figure 6-1. Weighting values f o r v a r i o u s accent strengths. 277 Figure 6-2. Accent p r o f i l e s f o r Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e . 279 Figure 6-3. Accent p r o f i l e s f o r Obrecht, Missa L'homme' arme, K y r i e . 282 Figure 6-4. Accent p r o f i l e s f o r La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e . 2 85 Figure 6-5. Accent p r o f i l e s f o r Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e . 287 Figure 6-6. Accent p r o f i l e s f o r Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e . 2 91 v i i LIST OF EXAMPLES Example 1-1. Example 3-1. Example 3-2. Example 3-3 . Example 3-4. Example 3-5 . Example 3-6. Example 3-7. Example 3-8 . Example 3-9. Example 3-10. Example 4-1. Example 4-2a. Example 4-2b. Josquin des Prez, f i r s t Agnus Dei from Missa L'homme arme sexti toni. 1 Two-voice cadence paradigms commonly found i n Renaissance sacred polyphony. 45 P i e r r e de l a Rue, Missa cum jucunditate, Sanctus mm. 9-11. • 47 Johannes Lupi, Missa Mijn vriendinne, Agnus Dei, mm. 6-10. 48 Evaded cadences i n Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Osanna, superius-tenor, mm. 97-101. 49 Voice i n t e r a c t i o n i n canon (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e , mm. 1-4). 51 Comes c a d e n t i a l accent on a p r e v i o u s l y unaccented dux event (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , C h r i s t e , mm. 32-3.9) . 53 Created meter (from Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, G l o r i a , superius mm. 13-15). 57 Non-alignment of meters i n i n d i v i d u a l v oices (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, Agnus Dei mm. 12-17) . 5 8 Non-alignment of meters i n i n d i v i d u a l v oices (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, G l o r i a , mm. 17-20) . 59 Meter i n the polyphonic whole (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e , mm. 70-73). 61 Excerpt from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, Benedictus, bassus I I , mm. 1-10. 67 Breve timespan f o r rhythmic values extending beyond a breve. 72 Breve timespan f o r rhythmic values equal to one breve. 72 Example 4-2c. Breve timespan f o r rhythmic values equal to one breve, but followed by r e s t . 73 V l l l Example 4-3a. Example 4-3b. Example 4-4a. Example 4-4b. Example 4-5. Example 4-6. Example 4-7. Example 4-8. Example 4-9. Example 4-10. Example 4-11. Example 4-12. Example 4-13. Example 4-14. Breve timespan where rhythmic values are l e s s than one breve. 73 Breve timespan where rhythmic values are l e s s than one breve, and the breve boundary i s marked by r e s t . 73 Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme K y r i e , bassus mm. 25-29. 74 P o s s i b l e metric i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the excerpt from Example 4-4a. 74 Du r a t i o n a l accent i n p e r f e c t mensuration (from La Rue, Missa Ave Maria, Sanctus, tenor, mm. 101-102). 77 Du r a t i o n a l accent i n imperfect mensuration (from Josquin, Missa Pange Lingua, Credo, a l t u s , mm. 179-180). 78 Repeated-pitch accent i n p e r f e c t mensuration (from Josquin, Missa ad fugam, G l o r i a , superius, mm. 38-40). 80 Repeated-pitch accent i n imperfect mensuration (from P a l e s t r i n a , motet Alleluja: Tulerunt Dominum meum, a l t u s , m. 42). 80 Repeated-pitch event w i t h breath r e s t (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I G l o r i a , superius, m. 22). Notation f o r l a r g e leaps (from Wil.laert, Missa Quaeramus cum pastoribus, G l o r i a , bassus, mm. 39-41). Third-leaps (from Josquin, motet Ave Maria . . . Virgo serena, bassus mm. 51-52) . 82 83 Ascending t h i r d - l e a p s (Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Agnus I I , a l t u s , mm. 42-43). 83 Descending t h i r d - l e a p s w i t h breath r e s t (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I, superius m. 13). 84 Upper contour accent (from Dufay, motet Moribus et genera Christe conjuncte Johannes/Virgo virga virens, vires virtutibus affer, superius, mm. 10-12). 85 i x Example 4-15. Example 4-16. Example 4-17. Example 4-18. Example 4-19. Example 4-20. Example 4-21. Example 4-22. Example 4-23. Example 4-24. Example 4-25. Example 4-2 6. Example 4-27. Lower contour accent (from P a l e s t r i n a , motet Paries quidem filium, s u p e r i u s mm. 69-71). 86 D e n i a l of contour-accented t i m e p o i n t (from Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Sanctus, a l t u s , mm. 137-141). 87 No t a t i o n f o r d i r e c t r e p e t i t i o n of a m o t i v i c segment (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I I , s u p e r i u s , mm. 74-76). 89 No t a t i o n f o r v a r i e d r e p e t i t i o n of a melodic fragment (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I I , a l t u s , mm. 74-76). ' 90 Sequence i n Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, C h r i s t e , s u p e r i u s , mm. 39-46. 91 Sequence i n which the accent s t r u c t u r e of the o r i g i n a l i s a l t e r e d (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni Agnus Dei, bassus, mm. 12-17). 92 Cadence i n which p i t c h p l u s r e s t are g r e a t e r than or equal to a breve (from Josquin, motet O virgo Virginum, a l t u s I I , mm. 16-18). 94 Cadence n o t a t i o n f o r cz/tz p a i r (from Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Credo, s u p e r i u s / t e n o r mm. 116-118). 97 Double-leading tone accents (from- Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e , mm. 49-50). 98 Evaded c a n t i z a n s cadence (from Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, Credo, s u p e r i u s , mm. 9-12). 99 D u r a t i o n a l l y accented evaded cadence (from Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Agnus Dei, s u p e r i u s / a l t u s , mm. 13-14). 100 No t a t i o n f o r a beginning-accent (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e , s u p e r i u s , mm. 18-22). 101 No t a t i o n f o r a n a c r u s i s (from Johannes P r i o r i s , Missa de Angelis, K y r i e , s u p e r i u s , mm. 4-7). 102 X Example 4-28. Example 4-29. Example 4-30. Example 4-31. Example 4-32. Example 4-33. Example 4-3 4. Example 4-3 5. Example 4-3.6. Example 4-37. Strong cadence accent where cadence p i t c h p l u s r e s t are l e s s than a breve (from Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Sanctus, a l t u s / b a s s u s mm. 38-40). D u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d t h i r d - l e a p (from V i c t o r i a , Missa Surge propera, G l o r i a , bassus, mm. 22-23). 103 104 Combined contour and d u r a t i o n a l accent (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , superius, mm. 12-13). 105 N o t a t i o n f o r d u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d cadence (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , G l o r i a , s u p erius, mm.. 57-63). 106 Cantizans cadence w i t h d u r a t i o n a l accent (from Roland de Lassus, Missa super Le Berger et la Bergere, C h r i s t e , s u perius, mm. 21-23). 107 Repeated-note cadence i n La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e , a l t u s and tenor, mm. 57-59. 108 Cadence accent combined wi t h leap (from Josquin, antiphon Salve regina, bassus, mm. 56-60). 109 N o t a t i o n .for a c a n t i z a n s cadence where the p e n u l t would normally r e c e i v e contour accent (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I, s u p e r i u s , mm. 15-16). I l l Tenorizans lower contour accent a t cadence (from La Rue Missa L'homme arme I I , G l o r i a , bassus, mm. 18-22). 112 Upper contour accent at cadence (from P a l e s t r i n a , motet Paries quidem filium, s u p e r i u s , mm. 72-76). 112 Example 4-38. Combined cadence, leap and d u r a t i o n accent (from Obrecht, motet, Salve crux arbor vitae (Secunda p a r s ) , bassus, mm. 98-102). 113 Example 4-39. Combined c a d e n t i a l , d u r a t i o n a l and contour accent (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , G l o r i a , tenor, 92-95). 114 Example 4-40. N o t a t i o n f o r lower neighbour note (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e , a l t u s and tenor mm. 45-46). 115 X I Example 4-41. Example 4-42. Example 4-43. Example 4-44. Example 4-45. Example 5-1. Example 5-2 . Example 5-3. Example 5-4. Example 5-5. Example 5-6. Example 5-7. Example 5-8. Example 5-9. Example 5-10. Example 5-11. N o t a t i o n f o r the u n d e r - t h i r d p i t c h of the "L a n d i n i " cadence (from Obrecht, Missa Adieu mes amours, Credo, superius and a l t u s , mm. 10-11). - 117 N o t a t i o n f o r a n t i c i p a t i o n (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, Credo, s u p e r i u s and a l t u s , mm. 32-33). 118 N o t a t i o n f o r echapee (from Johannes L u p i , motet Gaude tu baptista Christe, a l t u s and tenor, mm. 14-15). 119 Cambiata echapee, (from Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, superius and a l t u s , m. 133). 120 P i t c h e s separated by a b r e a t h r e s t (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , tenor, m. 12). 121 A n a l y s i s of L'homme arme. 127 A n a l y s i s of m o d i f i e d motive from L'homme arme (from La Rue, Missa l'homme arme I I , Credo, a l t u s , mm. 104-107). 128 E x t r a c t e d a n a l y s i s of L'homme arme. 129 A n a l y s i s of Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme K y r i e I. 132 A n a l y s i s of Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme C h r i s t e . 141 A n a l y s i s of Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme K y r i e I I . 148 A n a l y s i s of Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme K y r i e I. 155 A n a l y s i s of Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme C h r i s t e . 162 Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme K y r i e , bassus, mm. 25-29. 165 A n a l y s i s of Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme K y r i e I I . 167 A n a l y s i s of La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I K y r i e I. 17 5 x i i Example 5-12. Example 5-13. Example 5-14. Example 5-15. Example 5-16. Example 5-17. Example 5-18. Example 5-19. Example 5-20. Example 5-21. Example 5-22. Example 5-23. Example 5-24. Example 5-25. Example 5-26. Example 5-27. Example 5-28. A n a l y s i s of La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I C h r i s t e . 179 A n a l y s i s of La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I K y r i e I I . 185 A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I. 191 A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, C h r i s t e . 200 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, Kyrie,' a l t u s mm. 30-37. 204 A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I I . 209 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e , bassus, mm. 74-80. 214 A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e I. 219 Comparison of L'homme arme phrase w i t h Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , tenor mm. 8-10. 221 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , tenor and bassus CF melodies i n the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n . 227 A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, C h r i s t e . 228 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , superius mm. 29-32. 231 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , superius, mm. 42-48. 232 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , CF i n the bassus mm. 21-27. 233 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e superius and tenor, mm. 42-46. 235 A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e I I . 240 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni K y r i e , superius, mm. 58-60. 242 x m Example 5-29 Example 6 -1 . Example 6-2. Example 6-3 . Example 6-4. Example 6-5. Example 6-6. Example 6-7. Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , superius mm. 65-69. 243 Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme,' K y r i e I e x t r a c t i o n . 251 A n a l y s i s of La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , C h r i s t e mm. 3 3-42 w i t h accompanying e x t r a c t i o n . 255 E x t r a c t e d FTAs from Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e . 2 59 E x t r a c t e d FTAs from Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e . 2 63 E x t r a c t e d FTAs from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e . 2 67 E x t r a c t e d FTAs from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e . 27 0 E x t r a c t e d FTAs from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e . 273 X I V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A work of t h i s scope cannot be completed without the dedication and s a c r i f i c e of others. I wish to acknowledge, with deepest gratitude for t h e i r help and suggestions, William Benjamin, J. Evan Kreider and Richard Kurth of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia School of Music; my colleagues from the McGil l University Faculty of Music, e s p e c i a l l y Peter Schubert, J u l i e Cumming and Les Black for t h e i r input and patience; and esp e c i a l l y John Roeder of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, whose time and ef f o r t s on my behalf sometimes extended beyond the bounds of normal academic duty. My thanks also to several publishers and soc i e t i e s for granting permission to hand copy a l l the examples i n t h i s study. These include the Vereneging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis (Josquin and Obrecht); the American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, Hanssler-Verlag (La Rue, W i l l a e r t , Dufay, Lupi and the chanson L'homme arme); Breitkopf und Hartel ( V i c t o r i a and Palestrina), Barenreiter-Verlag (Lassus); and the American Musicological Society (Ockeghem). Special thanks to Nigel St. John Davison for making available to me La Rue's Missa L'homme arme I I before i t went to p r i n t . F i n a l l y , I must express my i n f i n i t e gratitude to my family for t h e i r support: to my wife Carolyn for l i v i n g with me and giving her unflagging support, and to my children Jessica, Michael and Shamus who so often missed t h e i r Dad these l a s t few years. This work i s dedicated to them. X V N o t a t i o n a l Symbols Used i n the Analyses The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the symbols used f o r the an a l y s e s i n Chapters 5 and 6. The complete e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the use of the symbols i s p r o v i d e d i n Chapter 4 . N o t a t i o n for, weak- and unaccented p i t c h a t t a c k s . Unaccented a t t a c k : • T h i r d - l e a p : • Evaded cadence: • A n a c r u s i s : A N o t a t i o n f o r s t r o n g a c c e n t s . Weakest Parameter Symbol o D u r a t i o n Beginning A Leap/Contour 0 / o c Cadence • D u r a t i o n + Leap/Contour r D u r a t i o n + Cadence J Cadence + Leap/Contour Cadence + Leap/Contour + Duration J / J S t r o n g e s t CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Example 1-1. J o s q u i n des Prez, f i r s t Agnus Dei from Missa L'homme arme sexti toni.1 1 Reproduced wi t h p e r m i s s i o n from J o s q u i n des Prez, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, e d i t e d by A. Smijers (Amsterdam: V e r e n i g i n g voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, 1952-63), 125. 2 A l i s t e n e r i n t e r e s t e d i n the s a c r e d polyphony of the Renaissance may d e s c r i b e the musi c a l events of Example 1-1 wi t h s t y l i s t i c g e n e r a l i t i e s . The s e c t i o n begins w i t h head- i m i t a t i o n t y p i c a l of the Renaissance s a c r e d v o c a l s t y l e around the time of J o s q u i n des Prez. There are cadences of v a r y i n g s t r e n g t h s i n mm. 7, 11, 17 and 25, w i t h the s t r o n g e s t o c c u r r i n g l a s t . I m i t a t i v e sequence permeates the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n of the movement, wit h the events of m. 17 p r o v i d i n g a r e s p i t e b e f o r e the sequence i s taken up again by the a l t u s i n m. 18. These o b s e r v a t i o n s - - a s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as they may appear--do not c l a r i f y why the cadences are p e r c e i v e d as having v a r y i n g s t r e n g t h s , or how cadences i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s are o r are not c o o r d i n a t e d . S i m i l a r l y , one may note t h a t the excerpt has s e v e r a l p r o g r e s s i o n s of v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t i e s that resemble those of l a t e r , t o n a l music. For example, t h i s Agnus Dei appears to d e f i n e an F-major t o n a l center, confirmed by the f o r m u l a i c p o l y p h o n i c ending i n mm. 2 4-25 that sounds l i k e a p e r f e c t a u t h e n t i c cadence.in t o n a l music. Measures 10-11 might be heard as a d e c e p t i v e r e s o l u t i o n i n C, while the a r r i v a l of the d u r a t i o n a l l y - e x t e n d e d bassus C3 i n m. 17 c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d as support f o r a h a l f cadence. I t i s tempting to use Roman numeral a n a l y s i s or r e d u c t i v e techniques to show a p o s s i b l e t o n a l l o g i c u n d e r l y i n g those events. Whether or not i t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y or otherwise j u s t i f i a b l e as a means of uncoveri n g p e r c e i v e d harmonic r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t o n a l a n a l y s i s imposes a 3 homophonic model onto polyphonic music. However, such an approach neither explains how the in d i v i d u a l melodies i n a polyphonic texture interact to create strong a r r i v a l s at s p e c i f i c timepoints, nor provides a methodology that can i l l u s t r a t e that in t e r a c t i o n . Thinking about the rhythmic i n t e r a c t i o n of the voices leads to some int e r e s t i n g observations and questions. For example, the superius melody i n m. 11 lacks any sense of repose, while the altus and bassus melodies c l e a r l y cadence. At the same time, the tenor has a strong entry a f t e r a f u l l breve rest. In mm. 21-22, the superius comes to the end of a li n e a r segment, then rests longer than i t ever does elsewhere, giving a sense of strong cadence. The bassus at the beginning of m. 23 has a strong a r r i v a l on F2 which seems to anchor harmonically the f u l l texture, but the remaining voices have no coinciding strong timepoints. These and other s i m i l a r timepoints have f u l l t r i a d i c structures ( 3 S ) , but the sonori t i e s present i n mm. 17 and 27 are open structures ( 5 ) . What signi f i c a n c e might these timepoints have i n terms of the formal structure of t h i s Agnus Dei? The tenor voice presents a simple elaboration of the opening phrases of the "L'homme arme" cantus prius factus. The strongest f u l l - t e x t u r e events seem to coincide with important p i t c h events i n the cantus firmus (CF), but how does one i l l u s t r a t e that r e l a t i o n s h i p a n a l y t i c a l l y ? Furthermore, C5--the highest p i t c h i n the superius--is attacked three times, each time preceded by a 4 le a p and f o l l o w e d by a stepwise descent, each time on a weak p a r t of the mensuration a f t e r a begi n n i n g or c a d e n t i a l t i m e p o i n t i n one or more of the lower v o i c e s . How does the presence of t h a t c l e a r l y a u d i b l e c o n t o u r / r e g i s t e r event i n t e r a c t w i t h or r e f l e c t events i n the a l t u s , tenor and bassus? In f a c t , i f one c o n s i d e r s the q u e s t i o n of how the p o l y p h o n i c p a r t s i n t e r a c t to c r e a t e an impression o f the movement as a whole, one f i n d s that there are no t o o l s a v a i l a b l e to undertake such a task. One may be a b l e to speak g e n e r a l l y of the a r r i v a l of c e r t a i n moments as r e l a t i v e l y a ccented or unaccented; one may even be a b l e to d i s s e c t a complete melodic l i n e w i t h some segmentation process to h i g h l i g h t m o t i v i c s t r u c t u r e , phrase.development or contour- a r t i c u l a t e d p i t c h events; but there are no a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g i e s y e t a v a i l a b l e which are capable of d i s c l o s i n g , t h e s t r u c t u r e of independent v o i c e p a r t s and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n as t i m e p o i n t - a c c e n t i n g elements capable of c r e a t i n g formal, rhythmic and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s . The go a l of t h i s study i s to develop such a methodology based on t h e o r i e s of accent p e r c e p t i o n . The methodology p r o v i d e s a p i c t u r e of accented t i m e p o i n t s i n the i n d i v i d u a l melodies of 3-or-more-voice t e x t u r e s . The r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of these accents, along w i t h t h e i r s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n i n the m u l t i - v o i c e aggregate, are d i s c l o s e d through s p e c i a l and s p e c i f i c n o t a t i o n . One w i l l be a b l e to see, f o r example, how formal s t r u c t u r e i n a movement-is 5 determined by the c o i n c i d e n c e of accents i n d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s . The g r e a t e r the number and st r e n g t h s of accent a t a time p o i n t , the more a l i s t e n e r w i l l p e r c e i v e that p o i n t as a s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l event. The a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g y w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the accent s t r u c t u r e of the CF and t h a t of the added v o i c e s , and thus between important p i t c h events i n the CF and the emphasis of p i t c h s i m u l t a n e i t i e s at p a r t i c u l a r timepoints i n the f u l l t e x t u r e . By accent structure i s meant the s e r i e s of melodic accents i n a melody or melodic segment. A c o m p i l a t i o n of the s o n o r i t i e s a t t a c k e d a t these p o i n t s may h e l p to i l l u m i n a t e the development of t r i a d i c awareness on the p a r t of some composers i n the l a t e f i f t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . L a s t l y , the a n a l y s i s w i l l permit an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of how s t r o n g l y - accented t i m e p o i n t s do or do not synchronize w i t h the beginnings of notated breves. The study c o n s i d e r s , as i t s s u b j e c t s f o r a n a l y s i s , f i v e L'homme arme Masses--one each by Obrecht, Ockeghem, and La Rue, and two by.Josquin. A n a l y s i s of a body of works w i t h the same cantus firmus by composers from d i f f e r e n t b u t , o v e r l a p p i n g g e n e r a t i o n s admits a c e r t a i n u n i t y w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a s u f f i c i e n t l y v a r i e d c r o s s s e c t i o n of s t y l e s to v a l i d a t e the methodology. The CF shared by these works a l s o p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r comparison that w i l l l e a d to hypotheses about d i f f e r e n t composers' s t y l e s as r e f l e c t i o n s of p r o g r e s s i v e and c o n s e r v a t i v e elements. These hypotheses w i l l be made e a s i e r 6 by the f a c t t h a t the a n a l y t i c r e s u l t s are drawn from o n l y the K y r i e s e c t i o n s of the Masses. T h i s grouping b r i n g s out s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among same-texted movements, and d i s c l o s e s aspects of s t y l i s t i c s i m i l i t u d e or divergence between composers. Before d e v e l o p i n g the a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g y , however, the p r e s e n t study c o n s i d e r s other methodologies developed i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The study then addresses whether t h e r e are s u f f i c i e n t grounds f o r a methodology premised on melodic accent p e r c e p t i o n . F i n a l l y , some d e f i n i t i o n s s p e c i f i c to the method are presented. Only a f t e r these tasks have been addressed can one p r e s e n t the development of the s t r a t e g y i t s e l f . Once t h i s i s completed, the study o f f e r s a n a l y s e s from the f i v e L'homme arme Masses mentioned above b e f o r e assembling data suggested by those analyses- and drawing c o n c l u s i o n s from that data. 7 CHAPTER 2 PRESENT STATE OF RESEARCH Modern s c h o l a r s have approached the a n a l y s i s of the p r e t o n a l r e p e r t o r y from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . Most of these s t r a t e g i e s have been p i t c h o r i e n t e d , w i t h emphasis on e i t h e r t o n a l or modal aspects of the music. Some have c o n s i d e r e d the i n t e r a c t i o n of polyphonic p a r t s i n terms of f u n c t i o n a l harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n . Others have, embraced extensions of the Schenkerian r e d u c t i v e system. S t i l l others have c o n c e n t r a t e d on the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of mode i n music b e f o r e 1600 by c i t i n g contemporary t h e o r i s t s ' exegeses of modal i s s u e s . These approaches d e a l w i t h music from p l a i n c h a n t to m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y polyphony. For the sacred polyphonic genres of the Renaissance p e r i o d , the r e s u l t has been a v e r t i g i n o u s a r r a y of non-standardized and o f t e n non-complementary a n a l y t i c methodologies. T h i s opening chapter begins w i t h an overview of some l i t e r a t u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the approaches c i t e d above. T h i s synopsis i s f o l l o w e d by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of ge n e r a l t h e o r i e s of melodic a n a l y s i s proposed by David L i d o v and Eugene Narmour. The chapter concludes w i t h a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the methodology p o s i t e d i n the pr e s e n t study. The L a b e l l i n g of F u n c t i o n a l Harmonic P r o g r e s s i o n s Bonnie J . Blackburn sees "no problem i n u s i n g Roman numerals f o r r o o t p o s i t i o n chords as p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e l a b e l s " i n the a n a l y s i s of p r e - t o n a l music. 1 A q u a r t e r of a ce n t u r y ago, Don Randel sought a h i s t o r i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a p p l y i n g the l a b e l V-I to any p i t c h s u c c e s s i o n sounding l i k e dominant-tonic cadences. 2 He r e j e c t s the argument t h a t , because there i s no evidence that Renaissance composers p e r c e i v e d them as f u n c t i o n a l harmonic e n t i t i e s , such s u c c e s s i o n s should not be so l a b e l l e d . T h i s view l i m i t s the h i s t o r i a n ' s a c t i v i t i e s to a se a r c h f o r the composer's own a n a l y s i s of h i s music--the composer's i n t e n t i o n s , i n one- sense of the word--and t h i i s c l e a r l y too l i m i t i n g . Furthermore, i t p r e s e n t s a . p r a c t i c a l problem i n our present study: how can we say th a t one cadence i s a V-I and another i s not when they are i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e i n the s c o r e ? 3 In other words, Randel suggests that modern t h e o r i s t s can apply the V-I l a b e l to these 15th-century p i t c h s u c c e s s i o n s because the same l a b e l s u f f i c e s f o r the same-sounding p r o g r e s s i o n s i n music of l a t e r e r a s . T h i s approach, he a s s e r t s , allows the h i s t o r i a n or a n a l y s t to "observe • s i m i l a r i t i e s i n compositions of d i f f e r e n t composers even i f 1 Bonnie J . Blackburn, "On Compositional Process i n the F i f t e e n t h Century," Journal of the American Musicological Society XL (1987): 224. 2 Don M. Randel, "Emerging T r i a d i c T o n a l i t y i n the F i f t e e n t h Century," The Musical Quarterly LVII/1 (1971): 73- 86 . 3 I b i d . , 76. 9 the composers did not think of t h e i r own music i n s i m i l a r ways."4 Like Randel, Peter Bergquist seeks tonal idioms i n the pre-tonal repertory. [ I ] t would seem that Renaissance music displays c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of tonal coherence and directed motion s i m i l a r to those i n the music of l a t e r periods. Such coherence and d i r e c t i o n i n the most meaningful sense constitutes [sic] the t o n a l i t y of t h i s music. 5 Bergquist's study ascertains that "theorists i n the sixteenth century c l e a r l y made no close approach to defining tonal structure. Their theories of counterpoint . . . barely begin to deal with analysis i n the sense i n which we now know i t . " 6 Being thus s a t i s f i e d that contemporary th e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e s can be of l i t t l e a i d to the modern theorist, Bergquist follows Salzer's analytic method,7 u t i l i z i n g Roman numerals and tonal scale degrees. He i s p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n the rol e of a dominant sonority. When the dominant i s a major t r i a d the progression I-V-I i s unequivocally harmonic. The combination of root movement by a descending f i f t h with the leading tone assures t h i s with no possible doubt. But i f V i s a minor t r i a d or an 5 , the harmonic q u a l i t y i s less e x p l i c i t due to the lack of the leading tone. 8 4 Ibid. 5 Peter Bergquist, "Mode and Polyphony Around 1500. Theory and Practice," The Music Forum I (1967) : 159. 6 I b i d . 7 F e l i x Salzer, Structural Hearing. Tonal Coherence in Music (New York: Dover, 1962). 8 Bergquist, "Mode and Polyphony," 131-132. 10 L i k e Randel, then, B e r g q u i s t suggests a f u n c t i o n a l harmonic s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the s u c c e s s i o n of two t r i a d s of which the f i r s t i s major and whose r o o t s are a p e r f e c t f i f t h a p a r t . For both authors, the r o l e of that s u c c e s s i o n as a f u n c t i o n a l harmonic model reaches back i n t o the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . Other s c h o l a r s have v o i c e d r e s e r v a t i o n s about these wholesale adoptions of t o n a l a n a l y t i c methods. C r i s t l e C o l l i n s Judd warns a g a i n s t the "assumption of f u n c t i o n a l p r o g r e s s i o n s " based on present-day p e r c e p t i o n s of bass motion. 9 S i m i l a r l y , w i t h r e g a r d to the d e s i r e to l a b e l Renaissance f o u r t h - l e a p cadences as the e q u i v a l e n t of t o n a l V- I cadences, C a r l Dahlhaus suggests that " i n the 15th and s t i l l i n the 16th c e n t u r i e s , the leap of a f o u r t h i n the bass was c o n s i d e r e d a s u b s i d i a r y c a d e n t i a l motive when compared to the descending second i n the tenor. 1 , 1 0 Judd and Dahlhaus a d v i s e t h a t common p r a c t i c e r u l e s governing v e r t i c a l s u c c e s s i o n may not be a p p l i c a b l e to Renaissance s t y l e s . Because the q u e s t i o n of chord l a b e l l i n g i n Renaissance music remains under debate, and because the r e l a t i o n s h i p between chord s u c c e s s i o n i n 9 C r i s t l e C o l l i n s Judd, "Josquin des Prez: Salve Regina (a 5 )," i n Models of Musical Analysis. Music Before 1600, e d i t e d by Mark E v e r i s t (Oxford: B l a c k w e l l , 1992), 140. 1 0 C a r l Dahlhaus, Studies on the Origin of Harmonic Tonality, e d i t e d by Robert O. Gjerdingen ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1990), 90. Dahlhaus c i t e s s e v e r a l reasons s u p p o r t i n g the view t h a t these cadences s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as f u n c t i o n a l harmonic e n t i t i e s e q u i v a l e n t to l a t e r a u t h e n t i c cadence c o n s t r u c t i o n s . 11 Renaissance s t y l e s and l a t e r t o n a l music i s not e x p l o r e d here, t h i s study does not employ a priori f u n c t i o n a l harmonic paradigms i n order to f i n d s i m i l a r i t i e s or connections between modal and t o n a l music. The A p p l i c a t i o n of Reductive Techniques A second aspect of B e r g q u i s t ' s work i s h i s d e r i v a t i o n o f Schenkerian Ursatze f o r most of h i s an a l y s e s . Soprano and bass are, i n h i s view, the s t r u c t u r a l v o i c e s i n the music, and h i s graphs comprise standard foreground, middleground and background r e d u c t i o n s . B e r g q u i s t was not the o n l y s c h o l a r to attempt the a p p l i c a t i o n of Schenkerian s t r a t e g i e s to the p r e - t o n a l r e p e r t o r y . F r e d e r i c k Bashour twelve years l a t e r attempted to e s t a b l i s h a more r i g o r o u s and s y s t e m a t i c approach to the problems of pre-Baroque a n a l y s i s by c o n s i d e r i n g concepts of modal theory and d i s c a n t . 1 1 To achieve h i s g o a l , he proposes a combination of the melodic p r i n c i p l e s of Gre g o r i a n chant theory and the c o n t r a p u n t a l p r i n c i p l e s of d i s c a n t theory--both d i s c i p l i n e s undoubtedly understood by medieval .and Renaissance composers--with the concepts of p r o l o n g a t i o n , s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s , and e s s e n t i a l v o i c e l e a d i n g , as f i r s t expressed i n the t h e o r i e s of H e i n r i c h Schenker. 1 2 1 1 F r e d e r i c k J . Bashour, "Towards a More Rigorous Methodology For the A n a l y s i s of the Pre-Tonal Repertory," College Music Symposium XIX/2 (1979). Bashour an a l y z e s one piece--Dufay's chanson Trop lone temps. 1 2 I b i d . , 141. 12 Thus, Bashour adopts an approach that merges concepts of contemporary modal theory w i t h a t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y t o n a l - a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g y . Furthermore, exposing h i s b e l i e f i n the n e c e s s i t y of a two-voice framework i n Renaissance music, Bashour suggests that " i t might be p o s s i b l e to view t o n a l o r d e r i n the d y a d i c a l l y - c o n c e i v e d medieval and Renaissance r e p e r t o r y i n terms of a h i e r a r c h y of p r o l o n g a t i o n s of dyads." 1 3 D i s c a n t theory suggests that the music may be seen as "a p r o g r e s s i o n of i n t e r v a l s through time." 1 4 The combination of modal theory w i t h modern a n a l y t i c methodologies p o s i t e d by Bashour c l o s e l y resembles A l d r i c h ' s 1969 s t u d y , 1 5 w h i l e h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of dyadic p r o g r e s s i o n p a r a l l e l s work c a r r i e d out seventeen years e a r l i e r by R i c h a r d C r o c k e r . 1 6 Crocker b e l i e v e s that the two-voice framework i s a v e r t i c a l c onception, w i t h the t h i r d v o i c e an "enrichment" of the s t r u c t u r a l dyad. 1 7 He a l s o suggests that p r e - t o n a l and 1 3 I b i d . , 162. 1 4 I b i d . , 1 4 9 . 1 5 Putnam A l d r i c h , "An Approach to the A n a l y s i s of Renaissance Music," The Music Review XXX/I (1969): 1-21. A l d r i c h uses a s i m p l i f i e d r e d u c t i v e technique i n h i s a r t i c l e . He d e r i v e s a background f o r each a n a l y s i s without a r e a d i n g of foreground events. Furthermore, he s i m p l i f i e s the Schenkerian n o t a t i o n to open and shaded o v a l noteheads only. Bashour emulates A l d r i c h ' s n o t a t i o n a l symbology, but more r i g o r o u s l y attends to foreground r e d u c t i o n s . 1 5 R i c h a r d L. Crocker, "Discant, Counterpoint and Harmony," Journal of the American Musicological Society XV/1 (1962): 1-21. I b i d . , 12. 13 t o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s are s i m i l a r , w i t h the only- important d i f f e r e n c e being that the Medieval system r e l i e s on a b a s i c two-pitch u n i t , w h ile t o n a l music uses the t r i a d . 1 8 Judd a l s o attempts to u n i t e a h i s t o r i c a l - d e s c r i p t i v e approach w i t h r e d u c t i v e techniques. Her go a l i s to " o b t a i n a 'pe r i o d ' understanding of the work and from t h i s formulate a n a l y t i c a l t o o l s based on contemporaneous t h e o r e t i c a l concepts, to examine the musi c a l o b j e c t and to p l a c e the work i n i t s broader h i s t o r i c a l context." 1 9' S p e c i f i c a l l y , she wants to use a modern a n a l y t i c methodology i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c a d e n t i a l elements of modal theory. L i k e B e r g q u i s t , 'Judd models her methodology a f t e r S a l z e r , 2 0 p r o v i d i n g v o i c e - l e a d i n g graphs [which] are abl e to demonstrate longer-term motion, connection and s t r u c t u r e w h i l e r e f l e c t i n g m o t i v i c modal c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; c a d e n t i a l graphs i l l u s t r a t e more immediate components of that s t r u c t u r e , formal a r t i c u l a t i o n and contemporaneous t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s . 2 1 The c a d e n t i a l graphs show a p r o l o n g a t i o n of s c a l e degree 1 m the s u p e r i u s w h i l e the v o i c e - l e a d i n g graphs p r e s e n t the 1 8 I b i d . , 13. 1 9 C r i s t l e C o l l i n s Judd, "Some Problems of Pre-Baroque A n a l y s i s : An Examination.of Josquin's Ave Maria . . . virgo serena," Music Analysis TV/3 (1985): 201. 2 0 F e l i x S a l z e r , op. cit. In Structural Hearing, S a l z e r a p p l i e s r e d u c t i v e techniques to a host of pre-Baroque composers, i n c l u d i n g Josquin, Lassus, Dufay, Dunstable, F r e s c o b a l d i , Isaac, Machaut, Leonin and P e r o t i n (see e s p e c i a l l y Part I I I Chapter Two i n Volume I, 264-281). However, the task of conducting a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of h i s a n a l y t i c methodology i s o u t s i d e the scope of the pr e s e n t study. Judd, "Some Problems," 224. 14 S\ A A archetypal Schenkerian 3-2-1 descent. Judd thus tenders two d i f f e r e n t f i n a l s t r u c t u r a l cadences—one defined by the tenor i n the cadential graph, the other by the bass l i n e of the voice-leading graph. The advantage of her approach, she suggests, i s that "[a]pparent 'contradictions' i n t h i s juxtaposition provide an understanding of common elements of modality and t o n a l i t y , those elements which v i t i a t e any attempt to c l a s s i f y works from t h i s period as excl u s i v e l y modal or t o n a l . " 2 2 In other words, one i s able to d i s t i n g u i s h tonal idioms of the work from modal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes. A l a t e r study by the same author continues with the same approach of coordinating contemporaneous and modern strategies, more f u l l y exploring aspects of the former. 2 3 In addition to the "text, mode, a r t i c u l a t i o n of structure, p i t c h organization and tonal structure" 2 4 under consideration i n the e a r l i e r work, Judd also embraces hexachord theory and such s t y l i s t i c elements as texture, form, r e g i s t r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n and cadence. Her reductions are less s t r i c t l y Schenkerian here than i n her 1985 study, but she s t i l l maintains that a cadence i n t h i s music must have "a basic two-part cadential framework of superius and tenor which a r t i c u l a t e s motion to a perfect consonance, normally the octave." 2 5 Judd's research 2 2 Ibid., 223. 2 3 Judd, Salve regina, op. ext. 2 4 Judd, "Some Problems," 201. 2 5 Judd, Salve regina, 121. 15 i s admirable i n i t s attempt to confront several aspects of the Renaissance s t y l e at the same time--problems of mode determination, hexachord theory, text underlay, cadential paradigms and so forth--while exploring the v a l i d i t y of employing a modern analytic system, s p e c i f i c a l l y Schenkerian techniques. Other authors u t i l i z i n g a reductive method include Saul Novack, who analyzes Dufay's Alma redemptoris mater I I . 2 6 The goal of his analysis i s to uncover the s t r u c t u r a l unity of Dufay's piece by investigating phrasing i n the upper voice, cadences, employment of dissonance, and i d i o s y n c r a t i c tonal elements such as use of the dominant, and tonic s u b s t i t u t i o n by VI. 2 7 His work i s permeated with Schenkerian 8-lines, Roman numerals, secondary dominants and prolongations of dominants, but he also maintains that "[m]ode and key are two d i s t i n c t properties of musical composition which e x i s t simultaneously . . . "28 Novack i s concerned only with properties of key that seem to e x i s t i n Dufay's piece. 2 6 Saul Novack, "Guillaume Dufay: Alma redemptoris mater (II) , " i n Models of Musical Analysis. Music Before 1600, edited by Mark Everist (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), 93-113. See also David Stern, "Schenkerian Theory and the Analysis of Renaissance Music," i n Schenker Studies, edited by Hedi Siegel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 45-99. 2 7 Ibid., 109. 2 8 Ibid., 108. 16 The t h e o r i s t s who apply a r e d u c t i v e a n a l y t i c technique to Renaissance music f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . There are those l i k e Judd and Bashour who use a n a c h r o n i s t i c t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y l i s t e n i n g s t r a t e g i e s combined w i t h modal c o m p o s i t i o n a l t h e o r y of the Renaissance, showing how they work to g e t h e r (Bashour) or i n d e p e n d e n t l y (Judd) i n a p i e c e of music. In c o n t r a s t , s c h o l a r s such as B e r g q u i s t and S a l z e r c o n c e n t r a t e on h e a r i n g apparent t o n a l p r o l o n g a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s i n s p e c i f i c works. A l l the a b o v e - c i t e d authors seem to have as t h e i r g o a l the d e s i r e to understand Renaissance music i n l i g h t of i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s to l a t e r t o n a l music. The p r e s e n t study does not a s p i r e to t h a t purpose. Because a n a l y s i s of harmonic f u n c t i o n imposes a s t r a t e g y on one corpus of works w i t h t o o l s developed f o r another, t h a t approach w i l l always remain suspect f o r some s c h o l a r s . The Renaissance r e p e r t o r y and i t s corresponding body of t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s suggest o t h e r methods f o r e v a l u a t i n g the music from an a n a l y t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . Approaches Using Contemporaneous Modal Theory Of the s c h o l a r s who approach the a n a l y s i s of Renaissance music by way of concepts expressed i n contemporaneous t r e a t i s e s , the s t u d i e s by R i v e r a and Schubert are c o n s i d e r e d 17 here. 2 9 Aldrich's work has already been mentioned as an example of t h i s approach combined with modern analytic procedures. 3 0 Leeman Perkins' imposing study of cadence tones i n Josquin's Masses renders an impressive tabulation of that p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the music. 3 1 Although his work c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the acceptance of multiple cadence tones i n each mode during the Renaissance, Perkins does not address any other musical parameters i n the Masses. Benito Rivera, concerned that "we i n s t i n c t i v e l y sense the danger of anachronism when we hear the word 'harmony' applied to e a r l i e r periods," 3 2 broaches the subject of analysis from a compositional perspective. [W]e now r e a d i l y acknowledge the presence of a conscious plan governing the behaviour of i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s and governing even the progression of v e r t i c a l two-voice sono r i t i e s . We conclude that the l o g i c of these elements must indeed have been at play i n the composer's mind while putting together the music. But what about the complex interaction of three or four combined voices and t h e i r movement from one simultaneous sonority to the next? 3 3 2 9 Benito V. Rivera, "The Two-Voice Framework and I t s Harmonization i n Arcadelt's F i r s t Book of Madrigals," Music Analysis VI/1-2 (1987): 59-88; Peter Schubert, "Mode and Counterpoint," i n Music Theory and the Exploration of the Past, edited by Christopher Hatch and David W. Bernstein (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1993), 103-136. 3 0 A l d r i c h , op. cit. 3 1 Leeman L. Perkins, "Mode and Structure i n the Masses of Josquin," Journal of the American Musicological Society XXVI/2 (1973): 189-239. 3 2 Rivera, "The Two-Voice Framework," 59. Ibid. 18 R i v e r a ' s work assumes the emergence of a soprano-bass framework i n A r c a d e l t ' s madrigals. He i n v e s t i g a t e s the two- v o i c e framework of s e v e r a l madrigals by A r c a d e l t to determine "whether t h i s c o u n t e r p o i n t i s i n any way s u b j e c t to harmonic i n f l u e n c e . " 3 4 C i t i n g G a f f u r i u s and Aaron, the author observes t h a t s i x t h s are d i s c o u r a g e d between bass and t e n o r . 3 5 He then assumes t h a t , when p o s s i b l e , s i x t h s are p r e f e r r e d below the soprano i n e i t h e r tenor, a l t o or b a s s . 3 6 The r e s u l t i s an incomplete two-voice s t r u c t u r e rounded out by what R i v e r a terms concomitant sixths.31 "At t h i s p o i n t we s t e p beyond the t h r e s h o l d of i n t e r v a l l i c c o u n t e r p o i n t and e n t e r the complex realm o f the three-note c h o r d . " 3 8 Thus R i v e r a suggests the beginnings of h a r m o n i c - i m p l i c a t i v e w r i t i n g based on a two- v o i c e framework, but without imposing the s p e c i f i c s of f u n c t i o n a l t o n a l i t y on the composers. Although R i v e r a ' s p o s t u l a t i o n s may i n f o r m our understanding of how madrigal composers chose t h e i r harmonies and put t h e i r p i e c e s together, and how, i n p a r t , f u n c t i o n a l t o n a l i t y may have developed i n the s i x t e e n t h century, he does not seem concerned w i t h p r o v i d i n g a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g i e s 3 4 I b i d . 3 5 I b i d . , 74. 3 6 I b i d . , 71. R i v e r a never p r o v i d e s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . 3 7 I b i d . 3 8 I b i d . , 82. 19 i l l u s t r a t i n g those facets of the music. Nor, understandably, does he venture to suggest rules for chord successions, or whether a composer "sometimes consciously organized h i s chord progressions i n terms of tonics, dominants and subdominants. 1,39 More recently, Peter Schubert has developed an approach to analysis based on the modal p r i n c i p l e s of Illuminato Aiguino (c. 1520-c. 15 8 2). 4 0 Aiguino's t r e a t i s e "contains, among other refinements of the eight-mode system, the addition of s i x i r r e g u l a r modes, creating a system containing fourteen modes."41 Schubert's goal i s to present a method of analysis that relates counterpoint to mode i n Renaissance polyphony. Counterpoint i n t h i s context must be understood as embracing the bui l d i n g of a l l types of i n t e r v a l successions; these i n turn can be related to the modes through some kind of i n t e r v a l typology. 4 2 His methodology provides a small-scale melodic contour analysis i n which changes of d i r e c t i o n i n each voice of a polyphonic texture s i g n i f y new i n t e r v a l l i c outlines. Where these outlines span a fourth or a f i f t h , he i d e n t i f i e s the 3 9 Ibid. 4 0 Schubert, "Mode and Counterpoint." For more information on Aiguino, see idem, "The Modal System of Illuminato Aiguino" (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1987). The source i s Illuminato Aiguino, Il tesoro illuminato di tutti i tuoni di canto figurato (Venice: 1581). 4 1 Peter Schubert, "The Fourteen-Mode System of Illuminato Aiguino," Journal of Music Theory XXXV/1-2 (1991): 175 . Schubert, "Mode and Counterpoint," 103. 20 modal species of those i n t e r v a l s as belonging to any of the f i r s t through eighth modes. Since " i n Aiguino's system [any] fourth or f i f t h unequivocally s i g n i f i e s a mode,"43 Schubert i s able to provide a comprehensive fourth- and f i f t h - s p e c i e s overview of a complete composition. 4 4 The r e s u l t i n g tabulation of modal species then shows the predominance of one mode or another. Further ramifications of Schubert's "Aiguinonian a n a l y s i s " 4 5 include the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of commixture, "the relationship of foreign cadences to foreign species," 4 6 the relationship of formal structure to modal c l a r i t y , 4 7 and emphasis on s p e c i f i c p i t c h classes by a r t i c u l a t i o n of perfect v e r t i c a l i n t e r v a l s i n the polyphonic aggregate. 4 8 The analytic methodology advanced by Schubert i s the closest to that proposed i n the present study because of i t s focus on i n d i v i d u a l melodies i n a multi-voice texture. The fact that he i s able to i d e n t i f y modal species i n Renaissance 4 3 Ibid., 105. 4 4 The piece analyzed i n Schubert's study i s Palestrina's four-voice motet Dies sanctificatus. 4 5 Schubert, "Mode and Counterpoint," 106. 4 6 Ibid. By the term "foreign species" here, Schubert means modal species of fourth or f i f t h other than the species p a r t i c u l a r to the mode of a given piece. A "foreign cadence" occurs when there i s a cadence on the f i n a l or c o f i n a l of such a species. 4 7 Ibid., 122. 4 8 Ibid., 123. 21 works through the a p p l i c a t i o n of a m e l o d i c - a n a l y t i c methodology suggests t h a t modern t h e o r i s t s may c o n c e n t r a t e w i t h some co n f i d e n c e on l i n e a r f e a t u r e s of the music. However, Schubert's approach r e v e a l s l i t t l e about p i t c h i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s . Indeed, a n a l y t i c approaches f o c u s s i n g on modal i s s u e s i n Renaissance music g e n e r a l l y do not address the q u e s t i o n of how the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s i n t e r a c t m e l o d i c a l l y . The same o b s e r v a t i o n may be made con c e r n i n g the r e d u c t i v e and f u n c t i o n a l - t o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . Whereas modal analyses c o n s i d e r the v o i c e s as i s o l a t e d melodies i n Renaissance music, f u n c t i o n a l - h a r m o n i c and t o n a l - r e d u c t i v e approaches s i m p l i f y the t e x t u r e to a homophony of t r i a d s , p r i n c i p a l l y to i l l u s t r a t e t o nal-sounding idioms i n Renaissance music as p r e d e c e s s o r s of a more f u l l y developed system of harmony. These g o a l s stem from a c o n t r a s t between c o m p o s i t i o n a l t h e o r y (modal t r e a t i s e s ) and a n a l y t i c a l theory ( f u n c t i o n a l harmonic approaches). Most s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r e i t h e r one i s s u e or the other, and those t h a t undertake both--such as the Judd s t u d i e s - - t e n d to separate them i n t o concurrent but i n d i v i d u a l streams. M e l o d i c - A n a l y t i c S t r a t e g i e s The s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out by some of the above-mentioned s c h o l a r s suggest a t r e n d toward the examination of melodic 22 i s s u e s i n Renaissance music, and away from c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o n l y v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s d i s p o s i t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the more rec e n t s t u d i e s by Schubert, Novack, Judd and R i v e r a . Since d i s c u s s i o n s of composition g e n e r a l l y emphasize melody i n Renaissance t r e a t i s e s , an a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g y f o c u s s i n g on melody would be w e l l d i s p o s e d t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o the s t r u c t u r e of p r e t o n a l music. David L i d o v i d e n t i f i e s three d i f f e r e n t but complementary methods of a n a l y z i n g melodies. F i r s t , melody may be anal y s e d i n terms of c u l t u r a l l y i n h e r i t e d a b s t r a c t i o n s such as modes, metres and genres. T h i s approach r e f e r s to t r a d i t i o n s . Second, melody may be a n a l y s e d i n terms of i t s shape, f o r example, by l o c a t i n g climaxes, t e n s i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s , s t r u c t u r a l v o i c e s or p e r c e p t u a l G e s t a l t e n . T h i s approach addresses p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . T h i r d , melody may be a n a l y s e d i n terms of a l o g i c of r e l a t i o n s which m i r r o r s i t s c o n c r e t e i n t e r n a l p a r t s . T h i s approach attempts t o r e v e a l i n t r i n s i c s t r u c t u r e i n the melody i t s e l f . 4 9 The f i r s t approach i d e n t i f i e d by L i d o v i s . r e p r e s e n t e d i n the work of P e r k i n s 5 0 and Schubert. 5 1 The second can be found i n Judd 5 2 to a c e r t a i n extent, Sarah F u l l e r 5 3 and Schubert ag a i n . The t h i r d approach i n c l u d e s d i s t r i b u t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , 4 9 David Lidov, "The Lamento de Tristano," i n Models of Musical Analysis. Music Before 1600, e d i t e d by Mark E v e r i s t (Oxford: B l a c k w e l l , 1992): 67. 5 0 P e r k i n s , "Mode and S t r u c t u r e . " 5 1 Schubert, "Mode and Polyphony." 5 2 Judd, "Salve regina." 5 3 Sarah F u l l e r , "Guillaume de Machaut: De toutes flours, " i n Models of Musical Analysis. Music Before 1600, e d i t e d by Mark E v e r i s t (Oxford: B l a c k w e l l , 1992). 23 the method employed by L i d o v i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the Lamento di Trista.no, a f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y monophonic dance p a i r . 5 4 T h i s a n a l y t i c methodology d e s c r i b e s a p i e c e of music as a hierarchy i n which d i s t i n c t segments of d i s t i n c t types are arranged i n d i s t i n c t s t r a t a . Such an a n a l y s i s combines the purviews of what, i n r e s p e c t of a much l a t e r r e p e r t o i r e , are c a l l e d formal and m o t i v i c a n a l y s i s . However, d i s t r i b u t i o n a l a n a l y s i s approaches the concerns of those techniques from a more u n i f i e d and g e n e r a l i z e d p e r s p e c t i v e . The source of i t s g e n e r a l i t y and u n i t a r y p e r s p e c t i v e i s l i n g u i s t i c methodology. 5 5 He does not e l u c i d a t e the r e l e v a n c e of d i s t r i b u t i o n a l a n a l y s i s to p o l y p h o n i c composition, although he suggests t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n n e c t i o n . 5 6 L i d o v c r i t i c i z e s the t r a d i t i o n a l m o t i v i c - a n a l y t i c approach as incomplete, one which " u s u a l l y t r a c e s the development of one or two m u s i c a l ideas without attempting to account s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f o r s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t of all 5 4 Lidov, "Lamento di Tristano," 66. Lidov includes a tr a n s c r i p t i o n of the dance at the end of h i s a r t i c l e . Other versions can be found i n Archibald T. Davison and W i l l i Apel, Historical Anthology of Music Volume I (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1949), 63 ( t i t l e d Lamento di Tristan); Frederick Crane, "On Performing the Lo Estampies," Early Music VII (1979): 24; and Timothy J. McGee, Medieval Instrumental Dances (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989), 115-116. Curiously, Lidov i n c o r r e c t l y c i t e s the Crane a r t i c l e as Frederick Craig, "On Performing the Lo Estampies," Early Music VII (1979) : 24-31 (the a r t i c l e includes pages 24-33 i n c l u s i v e ) . 5 5 Lidov, "The Lamento," 68. 5 6 Ibid., 88. Lidov does not explain exactly how h i s approach may be brought to bear on polyphonic compositions. One can only i n f e r that i t could be applied to i n d i v i d u a l melodies within a multi-voice texture. 24 m a t e r i a l a t all h i e r a r c h i c l e v e l s . " 5 7 His d i s t r i b u t i o n a l approach i s a l s o concerned w i t h m o t i v i c a n a l y s i s , but p u r p o r t s to f i n d more complete r e l a t i o n s h i p s of m o t i v i c s i m i l i t u d e or d e v i a t i o n throughout v a r y i n g l e v e l s of s t r u c t u r e i n a s i n g l e melody. 5 8 Thus d i s t r i b u t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s e x c l u s i v e l y u n i l i n e a r , and does not p r o v i d e f o r the p o l y - l i n e a r concern of m u l t i - p a r t accent i n t e r a c t i o n expressed i n t h i s study. The p o s s i b i l i t y s t i l l remains f o r u s i n g a r e d u c t i v e approach to melodic a n a l y s i s , though not n e c e s s a r i l y premised on Schenker's p h i l o s o p h i e s and techniques. Eugene Narmour has c r i t i c i z e d Schenker's system on the grounds t h a t "the f u n c t i o n a l f a c t o r s of harmonic v o i c e l e a d i n g always a s s i m i l a t e the f u n c t i o n s of melody and rhythm; [they] can never i r r e v o c a b l y modify t h e i r harmonic-contrapuntal ' o r i g i n s . ' " 5 9 Furthermore, Narmour b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e o r i s t s should not presume, "as the Schenkerians do, t h a t melody always serves 5 7 I b i d . L i d o v ' s concept of hierarchy i s not to be confused w i t h d e f i n i t i o n s of t o n a l h i e r a r c h y . H i s i s premised on a l i n g u i s t i c model, i n which "segments of language form a s t r a t i f i e d componential h i e r a r c h y . . . where we have not j u s t p a r t s of a sentence but a l s o p a r t s of p a r t s and p a r t s of p a r t s of p a r t s " ( I b i d . , 68). A second aspect of L i d o v ' s h i e r a r c h y i s the o r g a n i z a t i o n of these p a r t s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s or types. In music, the a n a l y s t i d e n t i f i e s s i m i l a r and d i s s i m i l a r m o t i v i c u n i t s w i t h i n a s t r i n g of sound to c r e a t e one stratum. These u n i t s may then be grouped t o g e t h e r to c r e a t e h i g h e r l e v e l s , or f u r t h e r d i v i d e d to c r e a t e lower l e v e l s i n the h i e r a r c h y ( I b i d . , 69). 5 8 I b i d . , 68. 5 9 Eugene Narmour, Beyond Schenkerism. The Need for Alternatives in Music Analysis (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1977), 58. • 25 s t r u c t u r a l l y at the pleasure of the bass l i n e . " 6 0 Therefore, Narmour proposes his own i m p l i c a t i o n - r e a l i z a t i o n model of analysis for melodies of a l l eras. 5 1 His model i s based on perceptions of melodic process, not accent, e s p e c i a l l y i n regard to a n t i c i p a t i o n or expectation. That i s , implication of melodic continuation i s based on the " r e g i s t r a l d i r e c t i o n and i n t e r v a l l i c motion of process [which] s i t under the control of bottom-up Gestalt laws—laws governing common di r e c t i o n . . . s i m i l a r i t y , proximity or some combination of these." 6 2 His i s a hierarchic system of analysis that applies to i n d i v i d u a l elements (pitch, duration), "isolated parametric shapes" (melodic i n t e r v a l s , durational patterns) and form. 6 3 At the heart of Narmour's model i s the hypothesis that small melodic i n t e r v a l s imply c o n t i n u a t i o n — i . e . , continuing with s i m i l a r i n t e r v a l l i c motion i n the same r e g i s t r a l d i r e c t i o n — w h i l e larger i n t e r v a l s imply reversal of motion and d i r e c t i o n . 6 4 In discussing the general a p p l i c a b i l i t y of h i s 6 0 Ibid. ,65. 6 1 See Eugene Narmour, The Analysis and Cognition of Basic Melodic Structures (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990) and Ibid., The Analysis and Cognition of Melodic Complexity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992). 'It i s i n t h i s l a t t e r book that Narmour explores the applica t i o n of h i s methodology to pre-tonal music. 6 2 Narmour, Melodic Complexity, 2. 6 3 I b i d . , 1 . 6 4 Ibid., 16. For Narmour, small i n t e r v a l s range from the unison to the perfect fourth; large i n t e r v a l s are perfect f i f t h to major seventh. The octave i s a special case and the tr i t o n e i s on the threshold between large and small. 26 model to musical s t y l e s , he says that "the theory w i l l analyze (and thus p a r t l y explain) a l l melodies ever written or to be written, regardless of s t y l i s t i c o r i g i n . " Despite the u n i v e r s a l i t y of his claim, Narmour analyzes only a few short one- and two-voice excerpts from the pretonal repertory. 6 5 His longest example has only s i x t y f i v e discrete attacks. 6 6 One gets neither an adequate h i s t o r i c a l overview nor a s u f f i c i e n t analytic representation of a l l musical s t y l e s from plainchant to Palestrina on the basis of ten incomplete examples. 6 7 More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , Narmour, l i k e Lidov, does not tackle the problem of inter-part relationships i n the polyphonic texture. The above survey of analytic approaches to the Renaissance repertory discloses two d i s t i n c t patterns. F i r s t , functional-tonal strategies concentrate on the development of harmonic l o g i c i n sonority-to-sonority successions. However, because they focus on v e r t i c a l structures, they tend to reduce melody to voice-leading, ignoring factors of accent. Second, 6 5 These analyses may be found i n Narmour's Appendix 3, 379-385. 6 6 I t i s the analysis, on page 382, of the opening measures of Giovanni da Firenze's madrigal "Appress' un f iume. " 6 7 Carol Krumhansl, l i k e Narmour, has proffered a hybrid strategy--a melodic-tonal methodology that i s perhaps best suited to analysis of common practice genres. See Carol L. Krumhansl, Cognitive Foundations of Musical Pitch, Oxford Psychology Series No. 17 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990). Krumhansl suggests that her work also applies to s e r i a l , North Indian and Balinese music (see pp. 240-270) . by c o n t r a s t , both modal and m o t i v i c - m e l o d i c s t r a t e g i e s e l u c i d a t e a s p e c t s of melodic s t r u c t u r e . However, these a r e g e n e r a l l y u n i l i n e a r and exclude c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of harmonic s t r u c t u r e . Furthermore, none of the approaches takes i n t o account the i n t e r a c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l melodies i n p o l y p h o n i c music. The approach p o s i t e d i n the p r e s e n t study f o l l o w s none of the above methodologies, but develops its.own i n order to address aspects of the music n e g l e c t e d by other t h e o r i e s . The methodology emphasizes the n o t i o n t h a t c o i n c i d e n t m u l t i - v o i c e melodic accents can mark c e r t a i n t imepoints more s t r o n g l y than o t h e r s i n a l i s t e n e r ' s consciousness. The a n a l y t i c p r o c e s s a l s o a l l o w s us to e x p l o r e the i n t e r a c t i o n of accented t i m e p o i n t s among a l l p a r t s of a m u l t i - v o i c e t e x t u r e . The l i m i t a t i o n to cantus firmus Masses from around 1500 p r o v i d e s c o n s i s t e n c y and focus, but the methodology remains v a l i d f o r o t h e r genres of the time. The p r e s e n t study thus takes a p o s i t i v e s t e p i n the d i r e c t i o n of d e v e l o p i n g an a n a l y t i c methodology t h a t emphasizes the melodic a s p e c t s of Renaissance s a c r e d polyphony. 28 CHAPTER 3 PARAMETERS - FOR ANALYSIS Since t h i s study does not assume p r i o r i t y of p i t c h s t r u c t u r e s such as t r i a d s , s c a l e degrees or modal f i n a l s i n Renaissance s a c r e d polyphony, i t must f i n d some other way of i d e n t i f y i n g important events i n the music. Yeston reminds us t h a t " p i t c h c o n f i g u r a t i o n s may generate rhythmic s t r u c t u r e s . " 1 That i s , a s t r i n g of p i t c h e s may be segmented i n t o groups and sub-groups, "rhythmic u n i t s w i t h i n which r e l a t i v e s t r u c t u r a l importance of p i t c h - e v e n t s can be determined." 2 The term grouping r e f e r s to the ways i n which a l i s t e n e r segments mu s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . For F r a i s s e , grouping i s c r e a t e d by changes i n d u r a t i o n , dynamic, p i t c h , timbre or "lengthening of an i n t e r v a l between two [ d i s c r e t e p i t c h a t t a c k s ] . " 3 T h i s 1 Maury Yeston, The Stratification of Musical Rhythm (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1976), 55. 2 F r e d L e r d a h l and Ray Jackendoff, A Generative Theory of Tonal Music (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1983), 146. 3 Paul F r a i s s e , "Rhythm and Tempo," i n The Psychology of Music, e d i t e d by Diana Deutsch (New York: Academic Press, 1982) : 157 . 29 t o p i c i s t r e a t e d more f u l l y under the "Metric Accent" s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. A q u e s t i o n a r i s e s here concerning the segmentation r o l e of r e s t s i n a melody. For i n s t a n c e , although a long s i l e n c e may c r e a t e a cadence and t h e r e f o r e f u n c t i o n as a group boundary, s h o r t s i l e n c e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y serve the same f u n c t i o n . The term breath rest i s invoked here to denote a s h o r t r e s t i n t e r r u p t i n g a sequence of p i t c h events f o r the apparent reason of p r o v i d i n g a b r i e f b r e a t h i n g p o i n t i n a melody. A c c e n t u a l p r o p e r t i e s of events are u n a f f e c t e d by these i n t e r r u p t i o n s . Breath r e s t s , t h e r e f o r e , are not boundary i n d u c i n g . The d e s i g n a t i o n BR i s w r i t t e n i n the a n a l y s i s above the r e l e v a n t p o i n t of r e s t . 4 Although a b r e a t h r e s t does not d e f i n e s t r o n g boundaries, a l o n g e r r e s t does so by c r e a t i n g a s t r o n g ending accent on the a t t a c k of the p i t c h p r e c e d i n g the r e s t . ' Moreover, some 4 G i o s e f f o Zarlino., Liber de arte contrapuncti, t r a n s l a t e d by Guy A. Marco and Claude V. P a l i s e a (New Haven: Yal e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), 125. Z a r l i n o d i s c u s s e s the r o l e of b r e a t h r e s t s here, p o i n t i n g out t h a t " [ c ] h u r c h musicians w r i t e r e s t s i n t h e i r chants not f o r ornament but out of need, because i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to s i n g t h e i r chants s t r a i g h t through without r e s t i n g . So they d e v i s e d s i g n s to p l a c e at p o i n t s where the performers were to breathe. For t h i s reason the s i g n was c a l l e d 7UV8i5|ia, meaning b r e a t h . " Thus, Z a r l i n o makes i t c l e a r t h a t the b r e a t h r e s t serves a p r a c t i c a l v a l u e f o r the performer, and t h a t i t does not f u n c t i o n i n the same manner as l o n g e r r e s t s , whose " f u n c t i o n was to i n d i c a t e an a r t f u l i n a c t i v i t y of the v o i c e " (124). See a l s o David Huron and Deborah A. F a n t i n i , "The Avoidance of Inner-Voice E n t r i e s : P e r c e p t u a l Evidence and M u s i c a l P r a c t i c e , " Music Perception VII/1 (1989): 44. These authors remind us that " [ b ] r i e f r e s t s f r e q u e n t l y occur i n midphrase without i n t e r r u p t i n g the sense of c o n t i n u i t y ; thus m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l immediately subsequent to a b r i e f r e s t ought not to be regarded as an e n t r y . " 30 p i t c h a t t a c k f o l l o w i n g the r e s t may be s t r o n g l y accented. However, b e g i n n i n g and ending a t t a c k s a re not the o n l y ones t h a t can be s t r o n g l y accented i n a s t r i n g of p i t c h e s . A s t r i n g may be segmented i n t o s m a l l e r groups of p i t c h e s , because some p i t c h a t t a c k s may be p e r c e i v e d as more s t r o n g l y accented than o t h e r s . The accents t h a t c r e a t e the sub-groups may be caused by i n t e r v a l - r h y t h m p a t t e r n s , harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n s , o r t e x t u r a l elements, among o t h e r s . The g o a l of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y s t r o n g l y - a c c e n t e d t i m e p o i n t s i n the i n d i v i d u a l melodies of cantus firmus Masses from the l a t e f i f t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , and to i n v e s t i g a t e how those accents combine. Reaching t h i s g o a l f i r s t r e q u i r e s i d e n t i f y i n g which accents are a p p r o p r i a t e to hear i n t h i s r e p e r t o i r e . As p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the development of an a n a l y t i c methodology based on the p e r c e p t i o n of melodic accent, t h i s chapter begins w i t h a d e f i n i t i o n of accent, then reviews some p e r c e p t u a l and t h e o r e t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the as p e c t s of melody t h a t c r e a t e accent. These a s p e c t s — c a l l e d accentuating parameters--include d u r a t i o n , leap, contour and cadence. P e r c e p t i o n o f accent a t phrase beginnings and i n sequences i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s chapter. So, too, are the r o l e s of t e x t accent and meter. 31 Accent B e r r y d e f i n e s accent as " r e l a t i v e impulse s u p e r i o r i t y , i n r e l a t i o n to which surrounding impulses at v a r i o u s l e v e l s can be seen as ' r e a c t i v e , ' ' a n t i c i p a t i v e ' ( a n a c r u s t i c ) , and 'conclusive.'"5 He i d e n t i f i e s o n l y s t r o n g and weak accents w i t h i n d i s c r e t e u n i t s a t foreground l e v e l s . 6 The p r e s e n t study accepts t h i s two-part c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of accent s t r e n g t h s , and a s s e r t s t h a t accent accrues to the a t t a c k of a p i t c h . A c c e p t i n g Cooper and Meyer's d e f i n i t i o n of accent as a s t i m u l u s "marked f o r consciousness i n some way,"7 B e r r y s t a t e s t h a t [ a j c c e n t i n r e a l music [compared to l a b o r a t o r y t e s t p a t t e r n s ] u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s many element-actions o p e r a t i n g together; and w h i l e such a c t i o n s cannot be o b j e c t i v e l y measured and comeasured, there i s no way out of the need to evaluate their cofunctioning i f m e t r i c a n a l y s i s i s to be c a r r i e d o u t . 8 . L e t us determine which elements cause us to p e r c e i v e s t r o n g accents i n Renaissance music. 5 Wallace Berry, Structural Functions in Music (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1976), 320.. 6 B e r r y a l s o admits a middleground grouping of the l o n g e r u n i t s i n t o weaker and s t r o n g e r . In t h i s way, l o n g m u s i c a l segments can be heard as i n i t i a t i v e , c o n c l u s i v e , r e a c t i v e and a n t i c i p a t i v e . Berry's dichotomous approach i s c l e a r l y underscored by h i s F i g u r e 3-3, a " b r i e f s y nopsis of some q u a l i t i e s of accent" (see Berry, Structural Functions, 345) . 7 Grosvenor W. Cooper and Leonard B. Meyer, The Rhythmic Structure of Music (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1960), 8. 8 Berry, Structural Functions, 337-338. 32 B e r r y i n c l u d e s chromaticism as one of those elements. 9 One can argue t h a t musica ficta i n Renaissance s t y l e s imparts a c c e n t u a l impulse by i n t r o d u c i n g p i t c h c l a s s e s o u t s i d e a predetermined modal c o l l e c t i o n . For the purposes of our study, t h i s would apply o n l y to p i t c h e s c h r o m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d by the composer i n the score, because the use of chromaticism where none was n o t a t e d by the composer remains a s u b j e c t i v e performance i s s u e . Since the g e n e r a l r o l e of musica ficta i n the performance of Renaissance music i s s t i l l under debate, c o n s i d e r a t i o n of chromatic accent i s omitted from t h i s s t u d y . 1 0 B e r r y i d e n t i f i e s repeated-note f i g u r e s as another a c c e n t u a l element. One might suppose that, other f a c t o r s b e i n g 'equal,' primacy of a c c e n t u a l value accrues to the first in a series of contiguous events . . . thus the f i r s t i n a s e r i e s of i d e n t i c a l u n i t s . . . i s i n t h i s sense ' s u p e r i o r , ' and subsequent equal s t i m u l i may thus be p e r c e i v e d as i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c e s s i v e (redundant). 1 1 Our study concurs w i t h t h i s view of accent a c c r u a l to the f i r s t of s e v e r a l repeated notes. B e r r y l i s t s other a c c e n t u a l f a c t o r s i n t o n a l music,- b r e a k i n g them down i n t o three b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s : element- changes i s o l a t i n g a c c e n t u a l l y - s u p e r i o r impulses, " a s s o c i a t i o n s 9 I b i d . , 341. 1 0 For more i n f o r m a t i o n on r u l e s f o r use of chromaticism i n the Renaissance see, f o r example, Edward E. Lowinsky, forward to Musica Nova. Monuments of Renaissance Music 1, e d i t e d by H. C o l i n S l i m (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1964); and Margaret Bent, "Musica Recta and Musica F i c t a , " Musica disciplina XXVI (1972): 73-100. 1 1 Berry, Structural Functions, 342. 33 of impulse f u n c t i o n s , " and c o n j e c t u r a l f a c t o r s . 1 2 S e v e r a l of the elements he i d e n t i f i e s i n these c a t e g o r i e s are a p p l i c a b l e to non-tonal music. One such element i s d u r a t i o n , a f a c t o r i n the a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g y proposed here. B e r r y i d e n t i f i e s pronounced change of p i t c h as a t i m e p o i n t - a c c e n t u a t i n g element. Here he i n c l u d e s contour, i . e . , the exposure of a p i t c h as the h i g h e s t or lowest i n a s t r i n g of p i t c h e s . T h i s aspect of accent i s a p p l i c a b l e to any melodic s t y l e based on d i a t o n i c s c a l e - s t e p p a t t e r n s ; such p a t t e r n s are m a n i f e s t i n the church modes of Renaissance polyphony. Accent by l e a p - - another f a c e t of pronounced p i t c h change i d e n t i f i e d by B e r r y - - i s a l s o taken as an a c c e n t - d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i o n i n t h i s study. P e r c e p t u a l s t u d i e s support the n o t i o n t h a t these three elements--duration, leap and contour--are a c c e n t u a l components of melody. D u r a t i o n a l Accent Durational accent, a l s o c a l l e d agogic accent, i s the term used to i d e n t i f y "the prominence caused by [the] s l i g h t l e n g t h e n i n g " of a p i t c h ' s d u r a t i o n . 1 3 Kramer notes t h a t d u r a t i o n a l accents "are f e l t at a t t a c k p o i n t s . . . we seem to 1 2 I b i d . , 339-344. 13 The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, e d i t e d by S t a n l e y Sadie, s.v. "Accent" by Robert Donington. 34 p e r c e i v e an agogic accent as soon as we hear the note b e g i n . " 1 4 B e r r y a s s e r t s t h a t " r e l a t i v e l y long impulses o f t e n have i n i t i a t i n g [accenting] e f f e c t . 1 5 L e s t e r p o i n t s out t h a t " d u r a t i o n a l accents are powerful i n any c o n t e x t . " 1 6 Cooper and Meyer a l s o acknowledge that d u r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to the p e r c e p t i o n of a c c e n t . 1 7 Recent p e r c e p t u a l s t u d i e s t h a t support t h i s i d e a i n c l u d e those by Jones and F r a i s s e . 1 8 Leap Accent B e r r y a s s e r t s t h a t a leap "accents the event f o l l o w i n g the l e a p . " T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s v a l i d f o r the r e p e r t o i r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study, because Renaissance s a c r e d polyphony maintained a melodic s t y l e modelled p r i m a r i l y on stepwise Jonathan D. Kramer, The Time of Music (New York: MacMillan, 1988), 89. 1 5 Berry, Structural Functions, 339. Cf. B e r r y ' s d i s c u s s i o n of " i n i t i a t i v e f u n c t i o n " on p. 327 f f . 1 6 J o e l L e s t e r , The Rhythms of Tonal Music (Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1986), 18. 1 7 Cooper and Meyer, The Rhythmic Structure of Music, 13. 1 8 See, f o r example, Mari R i e s s Jones, Daryle J . Maser, and Gary R. Kidd. "Rate and S t r u c t u r e i n Memory f o r A u d i t o r y P a t t e r n s . " Memory and Cognition VI/3 (1978): 246-258; Mari R i e s s Jones, M a r i l y n B o l t z and Gary Kidd, " C o n t r o l l e d A t t e n d i n g as a F u n c t i o n of Melodic and Temporal Context," Perception and Psychophysics XXXII (1982): 211-218; Paul F r a i s s e , "Time and Rhythm P e r c e p t i o n , " p a r t s I I I and IV i n Handbook of Perception VII. Perceptual Coding, e d i t e d by Edward C. C a r t e r e t t e and Morton P. Friedman (New York: Academic Press, 1978), 215-246; F r a i s s e , "Rhythm and Tempo," e s p e c i a l l y pp. 159-160; L e s t e r , Rhythms of Tonal Music, 18-37; Kramer, Time of Music, 89. 35 motion. Thus, accent accrues to the a t t a c k of the second of two p i t c h e s separated by a l a r g e l e a p . Monahan and C a r t e r e t t e support the view t h a t l i s t e n e r s p e r c e i v e s m a l l e r leaps as l e s s accented than l a r g e r , s u g g e s t i n g that "the l a r g e r the p i t c h d i f f e r e n c e between succeeding tones, the more l i k e l y the second tone w i l l be heard as accented . . ." 1 9 Thomassen's experiments conclude t h a t " i n p r i n c i p l e every change of frequency l e v e l between two s u c c e s s i v e tones can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a c c e n t u a t i o n of the tone t h a t ends the change." 2 0 Thomassen a l s o suggests t h a t both upward and downward leaps are a c c e n t u a l , and t h a t p e r c e p t i o n of r e l a t i v e accent s t r e n g t h depends on i n t e r v a l 21 s i z e . The p e r c e p t u a l s t u d i e s by the above-mentioned s c h o l a r s , and the work by Thomassen i n p a r t i c u l a r , suggest t h a t i n t e r v a l s s m a l l e r than a p e r f e c t f o u r t h produce l i t t l e accent, w h i l e those a p e r f e c t f o u r t h or l a r g e r produce s t r o n g 1 9 C a r o l i n e B. Monahan and Edward C. C a r t e r e t t e , " P i t c h and D u r a t i o n as Determinants of M u s i c a l Space," Music Perception I I I / l (1985): 4. 2 0 Joseph M. Thomassen, "Melodic Accent: Experiments and a T e n t a t i v e Model," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America LXXI/6 (1982): 1604. 2 1 I b i d . Dowling's r e s u l t s imply that " i n t e r v a l s of the same s i z e can be processed as e q u i v a l e n t , r e g a r d l e s s of d i r e c t i o n . " See W. Jay Dowling, "Recognition of I n v e r s i o n s of Melodies and Melodic Contours," Perception and Psychophysics IX/3B (1971): 349. 36 a c c e n t s . 2 2 Since Renaissance melodies are dominated by h a l f - and whole-steps, the a t t a c k s of p i t c h e s t e r m i n a t i n g l e a p s l a r g e r than a t h i r d are accented, and the a t t a c k s of p i t c h e s t e r m i n a t i n g t h i r d - l e a p s are r e l a t i v e l y unaccented. Contour Accent A melody can change d i r e c t i o n without l e a p i n g , and o f t e n does so i n Renaissance music. Contour i s the p a t t e r n of d i r e c t i o n a l changes i n a melody. As L e s t e r a s s e r t s , "notes t h a t stand a t the top or bottom of a melody or melodic segment are a c c e n t e d . " 2 3 Every change of d i r e c t i o n i s a contour change, and c r e a t e s a c c e n t . 2 4 Contour accent, l i k e l e a p accent, i s t h e r e f o r e a consequence of p i t c h , not rhythm. P e r c e p t u a l s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g those by Dowling, 2 5 Dowling and 2 2 See a l s o Eugene Narmour, The Analysis and Cognition of Melodic Complexity. The Implication-Realization Model (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Presss, 1992). In Narmour's model, s m a l l i n t e r v a l s imply c o n t i n u a t i o n of melodic d i r e c t i o n , w h i l e l a r g e i n t e r v a l s imply r e v e r s a l . 2 3 L e s t e r , Rhythms of Tonal Music, 33. 2 4 Approaches to the a n a l y s i s of contour have been put f o r t h by Robert D. M o r r i s , "New D i r e c t i o n s i n the Theory and A n a l y s i s of Melodic Contour," Music Theory Spectrum XV/2 (1993): 205-228, and Michael Friedmann, "A Methodology f o r the D i s c u s s i o n of Contour: I t s A p p l i c a t i o n to Schoenberg's Music," Journal of Music Theory XXIX (1985): 223-248. However, these s t u d i e s do not c o n s i d e r the a c c e n t u a l a s p e c t s of contour. 2 5 See W. Jay Dowling, "Recognition of I n v e r s i o n s , " 348- 3 49; Dowling, "Scale and Contour: Two Components of a Theory of Memory f o r Melodies," Psychological Review LXXXV/4 (1978): 342-354; and Dowling, "Melodic Information P r o c e s s i n g and i t s 37 F u j i t a n i , 2 6 Edworthy, 2 7 and Rosner and Meyer support t h i s n o t i o n . 2 8 In p a r t i c u l a r , Rosner and Meyer show that contour p r o p e r t i e s are as important as melodic processes i n a l i s t e n e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of a melody as i t undergoes change i n a work of music. 2 9 Contour changes and d i r e c t i o n a l changes a f t e r l e a p s are r e l a t e d but separate aspects of music. Dowling a s s e r t s t h a t "the melodic contour and the s e t of i n t e r v a l s i z e s i n a melody are separable f e a t u r e s or dimensions of the melodic p a t t e r n . Contour and i n t e r v a l s i z e are handled i n Development," i n The Psychology of Music, e d i t e d by Diana Deutsch (New York: Academic Press, 1982): 413-429. 2 6 W. Jay Dowling and Diane S. F u j i t a n i , "Contour, I n t e r v a l , and P i t c h R e c o g n i t i o n i n Memory f o r Melodies," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America XLIX/2 (1971) : 524-531. 2 7 Judy Edworthy, " I n t e r v a l and Contour i n Melody P r o c e s s i n g , " Music Perception II/3 (1985): 375-388; and Edworthy, "Melodic Contour and M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e " i n Musical Structure and Cognition, e d i t e d by Peter Howell, Ian Cross and Robert West (London: Academic Press, 1985): 169-188. 2 8 Burton S. Rosner and Leonard B. Meyer, "The P e r c e p t u a l Roles of Melodic Process, Contour, and Form," Music Perception IV/1 (1986): 1-40. 2 9 Rosner and Meyer, "Perceptual Roles," 1. Melodic processes i n c l u d e i n v e r s i o n , t r a n s p o s i t i o n , r e t r o g r a d e , r e t r o g r a d e i n v e r s i o n and so f o r t h . Rosner and Meyer suggest t h a t there are about h a l f a dozen such processes, but do not expound on them. More d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s of melodic p r o c e s s may be found i n Burton S. Rosner and Leonard B. Meyer, "Melodic Processes and the P e r c e p t i o n of Music," i n The Psychology of Music, e d i t e d by Diana Deutsch (New York: Academic Press, 1982), 317-341, and i n Leonard B. Meyer, Explaining Music: Essays and Exploration (Berkeley-: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1973). 38 d i f f e r e n t and l a r g e l y independent ways i n c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g . " 3 0 Text Accent Any d i s c u s s i o n of accent i n a v o c a l genre must i n c l u d e the r o l e of t e x t accent. However, because the placement of t e x t u n d e r l a y i s a s u b j e c t i v e i s s u e i n the r e p e r t o r y c o n s i d e r e d here, we w i l l be l i m i t e d i n our use of t h i s parameter. Accent a t any g i v e n timepoint may be supported or c l a r i f i e d by a s t r o n g s y l l a b l e i n the t e x t . Text accents w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d o n l y where they h e l p e l u c i d a t e r e a d i n g s of melodic a c c e n t s . Furthermore, t e x t u n d e r l a y w i l l be invoked o n l y when i t i s c l e a r l y the composer's. E d i t o r i a l t e x t u n d e r l a y i s s u b j e c t i v e , and t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r i l y open to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s openness makes a weak case f o r i n v o k i n g e d i t o r i a l t e x t as a r a t i o n a l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g accented t i m e p o i n t s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t y p e f a c e c l a r i f y between the composer's o r i g i n a l underlay and t h a t of e d i t o r s i n f o u r of the Masses analyzed i n t h i s study. 3 1 In the remaining Mass by La Rue, s t i l l i n hand copy, e d i t o r i a l u n d erlay i s u n d e r l i n e d . 3 0 Dowling, "Recognition of I n v e r s i o n s , " 349. 31 T n e e d i t i o n s of masses by Obrecht, Ockeghem and J o s q u i n a l l use i t a l i c s to show e d i t o r i a l underlay. 39 Accents i n Sequences Melodic sequence i s the r e p e t i t i o n , i n a s i n g l e v o i c e , of a p a t t e r n of rhythms and i n t e r v a l s transposed up or down by some s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l . The r e p e t i t i o n may be exact, i n which case the i n t e r v a l s i n the p a t t e r n are p r e s e r v e d e x a c t l y ; or i t may be d i a t o n i c , meaning i n t e r v a l q u a n t i t i e s are p r e s e r v e d , but i n t e r v a l qualities change to m a i n t a i n the i n t e g r i t y of the d i a t o n i c c o l l e c t i o n w i t h i n which the sequence occurs. S t u d i e s on p e r c e p t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t the accents i n a p a t t e r n remain i n v a r i a n t when the p a t t e r n i s repeated i n sequence. 3 2 Jones, Maser and Kidd show t h a t l a r g e i n t e r v a l s , r a p i d contour changes and f a s t tempo i n a melodic segment n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t a l i s t e n e r ' s a b i l i t y to c o r r e c t l y and a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y a t r a n s p o s i t i o n of that tune. 3 3 I t i s l i k e l y t h a t these elements cause problems i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n because they c r e a t e an o v e r l o a d of a c c e n t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s would suggest that l i s t e n e r s r e l y on contour, i n t e r v a l , rhythm and other a c c e n t - d e f i n i n g events to p e r c e i v e sequences. Royer and Garner support t h i s n o t i o n , p o i n t i n g out t h a t , w i t h repeated hearings, a melodic segment becomes a d i s c r e t e 3 2 I t must be c l a r i f i e d t h a t by sequence here I mean the c r i t e r i a s p e c i f i e d i n the p r e c e d i n g d e f i n i t i o n . Most of the p e r c e p t u a l s t u d i e s employ the term melodic sequence i n r e f e r e n c e to any set of contiguous, same-voice p i t c h e s . Thus the p o s s i b i l i t y a r i s e s f o r c o n f u s i o n of the two d e f i n i t i o n s . The p r e s e n t study does not s u b s t i t u t e the g e n e r a l term f o r the s p e c i f i c . 3 3 Jones, Maser and Kidd, "Rate and S t r u c t u r e , " 248-249. 40 p a t t e r n - - a n "organized e n t i t y " - - w i t h a b e g i n n i n g and an end. 3 4 They a l s o p o i n t out t h a t the more f r e q u e n t l y the r e p e t i t i o n occurs, the more l i k e l y i s the l i s t e n e r to group the events t o g e t h e r as a r e c o g n i z a b l e , d i s t i n c t e n t i t y . 3 5 One may p o s t u l a t e t h a t the accent s t r u c t u r e of the segment becomes e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l i s t e n e r ' s consciousness to the extent t h a t the r e p e t i t i o n s are heard not as a s e r i e s of d i s c r e t e event a t t a c k s , but as groups i n and of themselves. Beginning-accents Much of the i m i t a t i v e s a c r e d polyphony around 1500 i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v o i c e e n t r i e s i n the middle of a work or s e c t i o n of a work. P e r c e p t i o n of accent on the a t t a c k of a p i t c h b e g i n n i n g a d i s c r e t e melodic segment i s a r e c o g n i z e d phenomenon. Berry, f o r example, p o i n t s out t h a t " i n i t i a t i v e impulses" (beginnings) are accented. 3 6 L e s t e r , c i t i n g fugue s t r e t t o as an example, argues that "accent occurs a t the p o i n t at which a v o i c e e n t e r s . " 3 7 Thomassen a s s e r t s t h a t the f i r s t and l a s t a t t a c k s i n a melodic segment " d e r i v e accent from 3 4 F r e d L. Royer and W. R. Garner, "Response U n c e r t a i n t y and P e r c e p t u a l D i f f i c u l t y of A u d i t o r y Temporal P a t t e r n s , " Perception and Psychophysics 1/2 (1966): 45. 3 5 I b i d . , 45-46. 3 6 Berry, Structural Functions, 327. 3 7 L e s t e r , Rhythms of Tonal Music, 30. 41 t h e i r very p o s i t i o n s . " 3 8 Huron modifies Thomassen's assertions by showing that l i s t e n e r s hear single-voice entries p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r l y i n a multi-voice texture. 3 9 According to Huron's study, beginning-accents i n polyphonic music are e s s e n t i a l l y textural events. Berry also points out that textural changes create accent. 4 0 Changes i n texture are important for Renaissance music, since every i n i t i a l voice entry, and every i n t e r n a l entry a f t e r a s i g n i f i c a n t period of rest w i l l create a text u r a l accent. Generally, beginning-accents are i d e n t i f i e d at timepoints s a t i s f y i n g the following conditions. The f i r s t p i t c h attack i n any voice part i n a movement i s strongly accented. A timepoint following an extended period of rest may be beginning-accented, provided the p i t c h attacked at that timepoint i s not anacrustic. S i m i l a r l y , an entry a f t e r a paradigmatic cadence formula may be beginning-accented i f there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t length of silence between i t s onset and the termination of the cadence pitc h , or i f the cadence p i t c h i s extended for a s i g n i f i c a n t duration, and i f the beginning p i t c h i s not anacrustic. Specific conditions for beginning- accents are defined i n the following chapter. 3 8 Thomassen, "Melodic Accent," 1597. See also Otto Ortmann, "On the Melodic R e l a t i v i t y of Tones," Psychological Monograph XXXV (1924): 4. 3 9 David Huron, "Increment/Decrement Asymmetries i n Polyphonic Sonorities," Music Perception VII/4 (1990): 385- 394 . 4 0 Berry, Structural Functions, 341. M u l t i p l e Streams of Accent The p r e c e d i n g survey of t h e o r e t i c a l and p e r c e p t u a l s t u d i e s makes i t c l e a r t h at our p e r c e p t i o n of melodic accent i s informed by v a r i o u s parameters. Large leaps, contour, d u r a t i o n and grouping a l l c o n t r i b u t e to a l i s t e n e r ' s h e a r i n g of accented t i m e p o i n t s . However, the q u e s t i o n remains whether a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l melodies i n a polyphonic t e x t u r e i s p r a c t i c a l . I t can be so o n l y i f l i s t e n e r s are capable of h e a r i n g i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s i n a c o n t r a p u n t a l t e x t u r e , and consequently of h e a r i n g the m u l t i p l e accents that n e c e s s a r i l y a r i s e i n a m u l t i - v o i c e work. Andrew Gregory's study c o n c r e t e l y supports t h i s i d e a . 4 1 The g o a l of Gregory's i n q u i r y i s to d i s c e r n whether " l i s t e n e r s to p o l y p h o n i c music do si m u l t a n e o u s l y p e r c e i v e the two or more melodic l i n e s . " 4 2 He uses excerpts from f i v e s ources-- P a l e s t r i n a ' s Missa Aeterna Christi Mundi and Missa Brevis, a two-voice madrigal, New Orleans j a z z polyphony, and the f i n a l scene of A c t I from Mozart's Don Giovanni. A l l e x c e r p t s c o n s i s t of two or three melodic l i n e s . The r e s u l t s demonstrate t h a t l i s t e n e r s are capable of h e a r i n g the sep a r a t e l i n e s i n a m u l t i - v o i c e t e x t u r e , although f a c t o r s such as c o n t r a s t i n g timbre, t o n a l context and p i t c h range i n c r e a s e the 4 1 Andrew H. Gregory, " L i s t e n i n g to Polyphonic Music," Psychology of Music XVIII/2 (1990): 163-170. 4 2 I b i d . , 163. 43 p r o b a b i l i t y of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the i n d i v i d u a l melodies. Huron concurs t h a t musicians l i s t e n i n g to homogeneous po l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e s are "able to form independent mental images of m u l t i p l e concurrent v o i c e s . " 4 3 Our a b i l i t y to hear accent i n m u l t i p l e concurrent v o i c e s i s e s s e n t i a l i n Renaissance polyphony, which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f o r m u l a i c p a t t e r n s i n c o n c u r r e n t v o i c e s , and by many s o p h i s t i c a t e d techniques of i m i t a t i o n and v o i c e p a i r i n g . C a d e n t i a l Accent One type of accent t h a t i s c r e a t e d e i t h e r by s i n g l e - v o i c e endings or by the polyphonic i n t e r a c t i o n of v o i c e s , i s c a d e n t i a l (ending) accent. Modern s c h o l a r s d i s a g r e e about whether c a d e n t i a l a t t a c k s are, i n f a c t , accented. B e r r y a s s e r t s t h a t a cadence, which he c a l l s a " c o n c l u s i v e impulse, the l a s t i n a r e a c t i v e s e r i e s at a g i v e n l e v e l , i s weak at the l e v e l of the u n i t which i t c o n c l u d e s . " 4 4 Kramer, on the o t h e r hand, b e l i e v e s that "a cadence i s t y p i c a l l y (on some h i e r a r c h i c l e v e l ) a p o i n t of rhythmic a c c e n t . " 4 5 Thomassen 4 3 David Huron, "Voice Denumerability i n Polyphonic Music of Homogeneous Timbres," Music Perception VI/4 (1989): 379. Huron a l s o p o i n t s out, however, that as more v o i c e s are added to a t e x t u r e , the l i s t e n e r ' s a b i l i t y to c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y the number of v o i c e s decreases. Confusion becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more common beyond t h r e e - v o i c e t e x t u r e s . 4 4 Berry, Structural Functions, 327. See a l s o B e r r y ' s more d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n on pp. 329-334. 4 5 Kramer, Time of Music, 80. 44 notes t h a t the longer the melodic segment, the g r e a t e r the end a c c e n t . 4 6 The p r e s e n t study takes the view t h a t cadence a t t a c k s are accented, that "the s t a b i l i t y of the cadence . . . i s a source of s t r o n g a c c e n t . " 4 7 Renaissance t h e o r i s t s , although they do not d e f i n e cadence i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms, do agree t h a t cadences s h o u l d a r t i c u l a t e o n l y c e r t a i n members of s p e c i f i c modes. P i e t r o Aaron, f o r example, l i s t s the proper cadence tones f o r each mode i n h i s 1521 Toscanello in Musica,48 as does G l a r e a n i n the Dodecachordon of 1547. 4 9 These are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e a r l i e r t h e o r e t i c a l treatments of cadence tones i n monophonic p l a i n c h a n t . In the s a c r e d v o c a l s t y l e of around 1500, melodic cadences are simple, s i n g l e - l i n e endings d e f i n e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of r e s t a f t e r a p i t c h ceases to sound. O c c a s i o n a l l y , the t e x t makes i t c l e a r t h at an a t t a c k serves a 4 Thomassen, "Melodic Accent," 1597. See a l s o Ortmann, "Melodic R e l a t i v i t y , " 4. 4 7 Kramer, Time of Music, 84. 4 8 P i e t r o Aaron, Toscanello in Musica, t r a n s l a t e d by Peter B e r g q u i s t (Colorado Springs: Colorado C o l l e g e Music Press, 1970) . The s p e c i f i c passage i s i n Book I, p. 30 of the t r a n s l a t i o n . See a l s o Leeman L. Perkins, "Mode and S t r u c t u r e i n the Masses of J o s q u i n , " Journal of the American Musicological Society XXVI/2 (1973): 200 f o r a c o n c i s e summary of cadence tones i n the e i g h t modes. 4 9 H e i n r i c h Glarean, Dodecachordon V o l . I, t r a n s l a t e d by Clement A. M i l l e r (American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1965), 70-71. 45 c a d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n ; however, t h i s i s only r e l i a b l e when the t e x t underlay i s the composer's, not an e d i t o r ' s . In a d d i t i o n to these r h y t h m i c a l l y - d e f i n e d cadences i n s i n g l e v o i c e s , cadences are created by formulaic p a t t e r n s i n concurrent v o i c e s . Example 3-1 i l l u s t r a t e s some common paradigmatic two-voice cadence patterns i n Renaissance sacred genres. In Example 3- l a , a ( u s u a l l y major) s i x t h - - d e c o r a t e d w i t h a 7-6 suspension—expands to an octave. Example 3-lb, the i n v e r s i o n of 3 - l a , uses a (minor) t h i r d - u n i s o n p r o g r e s s i o n w i t h a 2-3 suspension. The u n d e r - t h i r d (formerly known as Landini) cadence w i t h e m b e l l i s h i n g t h i r d - l e a p i s shown i n Examples 3-lc and 3-Id. E i t h e r v o i c e p a r t i n these p a t t e r n s may be approached i n d i f f e r e n t ways. The a t t a c k on the p e r f e c t octave or unison s i g n a l s the end of the formulaic group, so i t i s there that the c a d e n t i a l accent occurs. Since l i s t e n e r s are capable of hearing i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s i n a polyphonic t e x t u r e , the accent that accrues to the a t t a c k s of the p i t c h e s completing the two-voice cadence p a t t e r n can be heard as concurrent accents i n two independent p i t c h streams. Example 3-1. Two-voice cadence paradigms commonly found i n Renaissance sacred polyphony. a b e d 46 Other modern s c h o l a r s have d i s c u s s e d how other non- parad i g m a t i c p a t t e r n s can a c t as cadences i n Renaissance music. C h a r l e s D i l l suggests that the Renaissance clausula i s governed by two necessary c o n d i t i o n s : "a p o i n t i n the music at which there i s repose and the i n t e r v a l l i c s t r u c t u r e by which t h i s repose i s a c h i e v e d . " 5 0 D i l l p o i n t s out t h a t around 1500, cadences "were t y p i c a l l y ornamented . . . w i t h a syncopated suspension f i g u r e p r e c e d i n g the l e a d i n g tone. However, the s i x t h - o c t a v e or t h i r d - u n i s o n cadence may a l s o occur as a "simple cadence" l a c k i n g the s u s p e n s i o n . 5 1 Although D i l l makes a s t r o n g case f o r non-paradigmatic two-voice cadences as a c c e n t u a l elements i n Renaissance polyphony, he overlooks the p o s s i b i l i t y of s i n g l e - v o i c e endings. A melodic cadence i s p o s s i b l e i n an i n d i v i d u a l l i n e w i t h i n a po l y p h o n i c conglomerate, without the requirement of a s i x t h - o c t a v e or t h i r d - u n i s o n c o u n t e r p o i n t . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s - - s u p p o r t i v e of mus i c a l i n t u i t i o n - - i s confirmed by m u s i c a l examples. An excerpt from the Sanctus of La Rue's Missa cum 5 0 C h a r l e s W. D i l l , "Non-Cadential A r t i c u l a t i o n of S t r u c t u r e i n Some Motets of J o s q u i n and Mouton," Current Musicology XXXIII (1982): 38. See a l s o D i l l ' s f o o t n o t e number 8 on page 54, where he p r o v i d e s t r a n s l a t i o n s of r e l e v a n t passages from h i s sources: Franchinus G a f f u r i u s , Practica musicae, t r a n s l a t e d by Clement A. M i l l e r , Musicological Studies and Documents 20, (American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1968), and Johannes Cochlaeus, Tetrachordum musices, t r a n s l a t e d by Clement A. M i l l e r , Musicological Studies and Documents 23 (American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1970) . 5 1 D i l l , "Non-Cadential A r t i c u l a t i o n of S t r u c t u r e , " 39. 47 jucunditate (see Example 3-2) c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . The bassus a r r i v e s a t a st r o n g stepwise- Example 3-2 P i e r r e de l a Rue, Missa cum jucunditate, Sanctus mm. 9-11. 5 2 r 6 i i J - H J -I W ri\/3\> > P L f J - ! LL)-i: J , - — ' f f p • — _J_ci gl 4— tariff If 1 III f 0 ii descending cadence, with n e i t h e r the s i x t h - o c t a v e nor the t h i r d - u n i s o n c o u n t e r p o i n t r e q u i r e d by D i l l . S i m i l a r l y , the passage i n Example 3-3 e x h i b i t s two i n s t a n c e s of ascending melodic cadences devoid of t h e i r descending c o n t r a p u n t a l a s s o c i a t e s . The a l t u s l i n e i n m. 7 f e a t u r e s a D4 suspended beneath E4 and r e s o l v i n g t o C4. The cadence on D4 i s weakened by the immediate c o n t i n u a t i o n of the a l t u s . However, the p r i n c i p a l i s s u e here i s the f a c t t h a t the f o r m u l a i c cadence i n the a l t u s i s d i s p o s s e s s e d of i t s c o u n t e r p o i n t . The same s i t u a t i o n - - w i t h r e v e r s e d r o l e s and a 7-6 G4-F4 s u s p e n s i o n - occurs between the superius and a l t u s i n mm. 8-9. 5 2 P i e r r e de l a Rue, Missa cum jucunditate, e d i t e d by N i g e l St. John Davison i n Pierre de la Rue Opera Omnia, V o l . I I , i n Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 97 (American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology: H a n s s l e r - V e r l a g , 1992), 73. 48 Example 3-3. Johannes Lupi, Missa Mijn vriendinne, Agnus Dei, mm. 6-10. 5 3 5 A < 6 ^ v i = = = = = = — r JL i—i 10 Ttff T Ilk TO r The three examples c i t e d above make i t c l e a r t h at cadences i n Renaissance sacr e d genres occur e i t h e r as paradigmatic two-voice p a t t e r n s or as non-paradigmatic s i n g l e - v o i c e cadences. In a l l cases, cadences a r i s e from elements of p i t c h and rhythm, or rhythm alone ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , a p e r i o d of r e s t subsequent to the a t t a c k of a p i t c h ) . Nonetheless, i t i s important to d i s t i n g u i s h c a d e n t i a l accents as d i s t i n c t from concomitant d u r a t i o n a l , contour or leap accents. A l l f o u r elements are unique f a c t o r s i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of accented t i m e p o i n t s , because they a l l f u n c t i o n as g r o u p - d e f i n i n g elements. However, while d u r a t i o n i s a product of rhythm, and leap and contour are i n the e x c l u s i v e domain of p i t c h , c a d e n t i a l t i m e p o i n t s r e q u i r e elements of both. F i n a l l y , 5 3 Johannes Lupi, Missa Mijn vriendinne, e d i t e d by Bonnie J . Blackburn i n Johannis Lupi Opera Omnia V o l . I l l , i n Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 84 (American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology: H a n s s l e r - V e r l a g , 1989), 34. cadences have a unique segmentation f u n c t i o n - - t h a t of ending a l a r g e group.' T h i s p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n , which may be augmented by the oth e r a c c e n t u a l f a c t o r s , f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s the element of cadence from those other dimensions. Under normal circumstances, then, a melodic cadence w i l l be heard as a s t r o n g l y a c c e n t u a t i n g f a c t o r . However, a common technique of Renaissance polyphony i s the evaded cadence. C a d e n t i a l e v a s i o n i n t h i s ' r e p e r t o i r e g e n e r a l l y has two forms. Most commonly, a v o i c e p a r t w i l l have a c a d e n t i a l formula and r e s o l v e to the go a l p i t c h , but w i l l not stop on th a t p i t c h . The paradigm causes the l i s t e n e r to p e r c e i v e an imminent cadence, but the l a c k of d u r a t i o n a l emphasis or r e s t f o l l o w i n g the a t t a c k of the cadence p i t c h denies the l i s t e n e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . Example 3-4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s type of evaded cadence. The tenor and superius s et up a cadence p a t t e r n to Example 3-4. Evaded cadences i n Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Osanna, s u p e r i u s - t e n o r , mm. 97-101. ' 7 T 1 h - —1 / 1 n & 0° A . J n *** J , 1 o ^ o H > A O O H > / ( (h 1 W \ / 50 the octave G3-G4 i n m. 98. The tenor, however, c o n t i n u e s through the G4 w i t h no r e s t or s t r o n g d u r a t i o n a l accent to support a sense of a r r i v a l or repose. Thus, the a t t a c k of G4 i n the tenor does not have a s t r o n g ending f u n c t i o n , and the cadence i s s a i d to be evaded. Example 3-4 a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the second type of evaded cadence. In t h i s case, a paradigm i s present, but the p e n u l t i m a t e p i t c h r e s o l v e s to a note other than the expected cadence p i t c h . T h i s most o f t e n occurs w i t h the syncopated r i s i n g - s t e p cadence. In mm. 99-100 of Example 3-4, the s u p e r i u s c l e a r l y s e t s up a cadence to a unison D4 w i t h the syncopated tenor. However, the lower v o i c e steps down to B3 i n s t e a d of r e s o l v i n g to D4. Because the paradigms s e t up the e x p e c t a t i o n f o r c a d e n t i a l a r r i v a l , but the g o a l p i t c h i s e i t h e r r h y t h m i c a l l y weakened or denied, evaded cadences have weak ac c e n t s . Canon A s i d e from the accents a r i s i n g i n c o n c u r r e n t - v o i c e cadences, there are some other ways that our p e r c e p t i o n of accent i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s i s i n f l u e n c e d by the p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e . In i m i t a t i v e t e x t u r e s so t y p i c a l of t h i s r e p e r t o i r e , the accents we p e r c e i v e i n an i m i t a t i n g v o i c e are p r e c o n d i t i o n e d to a c e r t a i n extent by the accents j u s t heard i n the v o i c e being i m i t a t e d . 51 Canon i s the delayed r e p e t i t i o n of the s e r i e s of d u r a t i o n s and d i a t o n i c i n t e r v a l s i n one v o i c e (the dux) by another v o i c e (the comes), e i t h e r at the same p i t c h l e v e l or transposed. Example 3-5 shows a t y p i c a l canon a t the f i f t h between su p e r i u s dux and bassus comes. T h i s study presumes t h a t the comes i s p e r c e i v e d i n the same way as the dux r e g a r d l e s s of context. For i n s t a n c e , i n Example 3-5, the superius steps down from E4 to a cadence on D4. 5 4 In m. 3 the bassus C3 makes a Example 3-5. V o i c e i n t e r a c t i o n i n canon (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e , mm. 1-4) . t e n t h a g a i n s t the superius E4, and c l o s e s to an octave D3 on the downbeat of m. 4. However, although the bassus p r o v i d e s a 5 4 T h i s cadence i s weakened somewhat by the l a c k of d u r a t i o n a l accent f o l l o w i n g the a t t a c k of D4 and by the s h o r t r e s t f o l l o w i n g i t . The n o t a t i o n f o r such cadences i s d i s c u s s e d more f o r m a l l y i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. 52 c o n t r a p u n t a l r e f e r e n c e a l l o w i n g us to p e r c e i v e a cadence i n the s u p e r i u s , the bassus D3 can not be c o n s i d e r e d a c a d e n t i a l note w i t h i n i t s own melodic context. To begin with, no c a d e n t i a l formula leads to the D3, and there are no subsequent r e s t s to i n d i c a t e the completion of a melodic segment. Furthermore, the f i r s t a r t i c u l a t i o n of D3 ends a melisma on the s y l l a b l e Ky-, while the second begins a s h o r t e r melisma on ri-. Thus there i s no t e x t u a l ' m o t i v a t i o n to support the n o t i o n of a cadence at t h i s p o i n t . 5 5 By c o n t r a s t , t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s c l e a r i n the s u p e r i u s , where D4 ends the word Kyrie. F i n a l l y , there i s no reason to c o n s i d e r as c a d e n t i a l the c o r r e s p o n d i n g event i n the dux (beginning of m. 3). T h e r e f o r e , any p e r c e p t i o n of the bassus D3 i n m. 4 as c a d e n t i a l must n e c e s s a r i l y come from a h e a r i n g of the superius-bassus v o i c e p a i r , and, i n terms of the melodic l i n e i n the bassus, i s t h e r e f o r e m i s l e a d i n g . I t i s p a r t l y the lack of cadential perception in the bassus melody t h a t weakens the s u p e r i u s , not the r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g c a d e n t i a l n o t e , i n the s u p e r i u s t h a t draws the l i s t e n e r to hear a cadence i n the bassus. When a canon breaks o f f and the comes continues w i t h f r e e c o u n t e r p o i n t , the primary r u l e no longer a p p l i e s . Commonly, the comes simply ends i n the middle of a phrase on a p i t c h 5 5 The t e x t underlay here i s La Rue's. I f anything, the change of s y l l a b l e on the second D3 i n m. 4 g i v e s a s t r o n g e r accent to t h a t a t t a c k than to the f i r s t . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n f u r t h e r supports the n o t i o n that the a t t a c k of the f i r s t D3 i n m. 4 i s not s t r o n g l y accented. 53 that was o r i g i n a l l y p a r t of the dux. The accent on the a t t a c k of that p i t c h i s augmented by the c a d e n t i a l accent. Example 3-6 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e . The canon breaks at the Example 3-6 Comes c a d e n t i a l accent on a p r e v i o u s l y unaccented dux event (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , C h r i s t e , mm. 34-41). 31 j J . p y 4r s -d—J—» s T E -3 r- 51 & -p- r o 4 o * ^—4 T—Q- bassus (comes) D3 i n m. 39. Since the comes i n t h i s s e c t i o n f o l l o w s the dux a f t e r a timespan of four breves, the corresponding canonic p i t c h i n the superius (dux) i s the A4 i n m. 35. That p i t c h ' s a t t a c k i s not s t r o n g l y accented; however, c a d e n t i a l and d u r a t i o n a l accents c l e a r l y accrue to the a t t a c k of D3 as the f i n a l p i t c h event i n the bassus, m. 39. 54 M e t r i c Accent Kramer defines meter as a "patterned succession of t i m e p o i n t s . " 5 6 For Berry, meter i s i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d to the concept of grouping. "Meter i s that aspect of s t r u c t u r e a r t i c u l a t e d as accent-delineated groupings w i t h i n the a t t a c k (event) sequence, and the p r o p o r t i o n a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of such groups at a l l l e v e l s . " 5 7 Lester p o i n t s out that meter " r e f e r s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of beats or pulses i n t o p a t t e r n s c o n t a i n i n g an accented (or strong) beat- followed by one or more unaccented (or weak) beats." 5 8 The Renaissance concept of mensuration--the d i v i s i o n of longs, breves and semibreves i n t o two or three equal timespans--is analogous to meter. M e t r i c accent may be preconditioned by the use of a meter signature, but grouping created by pitch-rhythm parameters can create i t s own meter. These two types of meter may or may not c o i n c i d e . Thus, meter i n i t s p r e c o n d i t i o n i n g form i s a parameter which can produce accent, while meter created by pe r c e p t i o n of accent i s the product of melodic events. A Renaissance melody may have r e g u l a r a t t a c k p o i n t s (e.g., every semibreve). These attac k s create beats, which may be grouped i n t o l a r g e r u n i t s created by r e g u l a r accents at some longer 56 57 58 Kramer, Time of Music, 83. Berry, Structural Functions, 318. Le s t e r , Rhythms of Tonal Music, 45. 55 timespan (e.g., the breve or l o n g ) . T h i s grouping of s h o r t beats w i t h i n a longer p u l s e d e f i n e s meter. 5 9 For Berry, meter as both producer and product are d i s t i n c t f a c e t s of rhythm, which has v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s : "rhythm of p i t c h - l i n e . . . a harmonic rhythm, a t o n a l rhythm, and a rhythm of each of the other elements and parameters of music e v e n t s . " 6 0 Of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e v e n t - s u c c e s s i o n s and meter, B e r r y emphasizes "the r o l e of shaping element- rhythms to project grouping in a broad sense analogous to those of meter and phraseology."61. B e r r y i d e n t i f i e s s i x f a c t o r s a l l o w i n g events to be grouped i n t o u n i t s of s t r u c t u r e . 6 2 Relevant to t h i s study are cadences and the e x t r a m u s i c a l f a c t o r of t e x t . 6 3 A c c o r d i n g to Berry, grouping of 5 9 See L e s t e r , Rhythms of Tonal Music, 42-68 f o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of c r e a t e d meter. 6 0 Berry, Structural Functions, 313. These o t h e r rhythm- i n d u c i n g elements i n c l u d e p a t t e r n ("as ma n i f e s t i n v a r y i n g d u r a t i o n a l combinations"), p r o p o r t i o n s ("comparative d u r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s among u n i t s , or groups of events") and " r e l a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of events and event-successions--degrees (di s t a n c e s ) of change, of accent." For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of meter and grouping, see Wallace Berry, "Metric and Rhythmic A r t i c u l a t i o n i n Music," Music Theory Spectrum VII,(1985): 7- 6 1 I b i d . , 316 . 6 2 Berry, Structural Functions, 320-322. 6 3 I b i d . , 321-322. The fo u r remaining f a c t o r s a re: grouping of c l a s s - a f f i l i a t e d events, e.g. t o n a l i t y ; grouping of t e n d e n c y - a f f i l i a t e d events--grouping by " p r o f i l e of change i n degrees of a c t i v i t y , i n the l i n e of element-rhythms"--i.e. r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c degrees of change versus more a c t i v e ; grouping of p i t c h s t r u c t u r e by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l i n e a r f u n c t i o n ( a u x i l i a r y versus e s s e n t i a l p i t c h e v e n t s ) ; "grouping expressed i n a c c e n t - d e l i n e a t e d meter"--i.e. p e r c e p t i o n of some 56 events i n t o d i s c r e t e segments depends on, i n f a c t i s d e f i n e d by, r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of accent. I t i s t h i s p a r t i t i o n i n g t h a t c r e a t e s meter. For Benjamin, grouping and meter d e t e r m i n a t i o n are separate, but interdependent mental a c t s : accent and grouping are the b a s i c , i f not n e a t l y separable, modes of p a r t i t i o n i n g m u s i c a l time, and . . . meter i s a secondary c o n s t r u c t , imposed on the i n t e r a c t i o n of group s t r u c t u r e and accent, i n response to c e r t a i n p r a c t i c a l and a e s t h e t i c needs." 6 4 Moreover, he suggests that time-span formations determined by accents of a c e r t a i n l e v e l . . . are not n e c e s s a r i l y , and indeed not normally, m e t r i c l e v e l s ; t h a t there i s t y p i c a l l y l i t t l e correspondence between the l e v e l s of an a c c e n t u a l h i e r a r c h y and those of a m e t r i c a l h i e r a r c h y ; and t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n of the two h i e r a r c h i e s i s o f t e n r i c h and complex. " 6 5 By the term accents here, Benjamin, l i k e Berry, means accents other than p u l s e s determined by p r e c o n d i t i o n e d meter s i g n a t u r e s . By meter, he means a gen e r a l h i e r a r c h y of s t r o n g and weak beats. Furthermore, he suggests that p a r t i t i o n i n g by accent "may take p r i o r i t y ' o v e r grouping when the two are i n c o n f l i c t and that the former may c o n t r o l the l a t t e r i n such events as s t r o n g e r than ( i . e . more accented i n the l i s t e n e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n than) surrounding "impulse p r o j e c t i o n s , " which t h e r e f o r e become a b s o r p t i v e . See pp. 32 0-322 f o r f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of these elements. 6 4 W i l l i a m E. Benjamin, "A Theory of M u s i c a l Meter," Music Perception 1/4 (1984): 359. See a l s o A r t h u r J . Komar, Theory of Suspensions: A Study of Metrical and Pitch Relations in Tonal Music ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971), 52 ff., and Yeston, Stratification, 65 ff. I b i d . , 3 68. 57 cases," thus m a i n t a i n i n g that "accentual p a r t i t i o n i n g i s c o n c e p t u a l l y p r i o r to grouping." 6 6 Meter i n Renaissance music may a r i s e from the accents i n a s i n g l e v o i c e . Example 3-7 i l l u s t r a t e s a case i n which accents c r e a t e a m e t r i c p u l s e c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the n o t a t e d Example 3-7. Created meter (from Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, G l o r i a , s u p erius mm. 13-15) . < 1 i 1 • i i i 7 ? = f : 1 • > . . . 1 J 4' * U ; • l—i i _j i mensuration, which i s tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta. The pitch-rhythm p a t t e r n s of the D4-G3 descent suggest beats a t the semibreve l e v e l , as the s l u r s show i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . S u c c e s s i v e l y lower p i t c h a t t a c k s from D4-C4-B3 set up s t r o n g e r p u l s e s grouping the semibreves by twos (square b r a c k e t s ) . T h i s grouping c r e a t e s a temporary tempus imperfectus cum prolatione imperfecta f o r these measures. 6 6 I b i d . , 370-371. 58 One can understand how s e v e r a l concurrent melodies i n t h i s r e p e r t o i r e c o u l d c r e a t e a p e r c e p t i o n of seamlessness w i t h no m e t r i c p a t t e r n i n g . Example 3-8 shows a sequence i n a l l f o u r v o i c e s at once. Each p a r t ' s sequence c r e a t e s i t s own m e t r i c p a t t e r n , which does not c o i n c i d e w i t h the other v o i c e s ' p a t t e r n s . In a l l four v o i c e s the p u l s e spans one breve; however, the p u l s e i n each v o i c e begins on a d i f f e r e n t p a r t of the n o t a t e d breve, as the square b r a c k e t s underneath each v o i c e show. Here, the non-alignment of p u l s e s c r e a t e s a seamless t e x t u r e broken on l y by the end of the sequence and s t r o n g s u p e r i u s , tenor and bassus events i n m. 17. Example 3-8. Non-alignment of meters i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, Agnus Dei mm. 12-17) . \X \l If IS- it, 17 -r-j/A = 1 — i i - f i — « i i ^0 — • 7T~ O 3 ft /• i — • « v ° c1 ° 1 1 i 0 1 *-^—t-6 • i B i _ i P— m , 1 o o P m 0 o 1 1 — ^ u-e jsJ-^ a- 59 Example 3-9 i l l u s t r a t e s a case t h a t looks s i m i l a r , but has an important d i f f e r e n c e . The p u l s e i n each of the t h r e e added v o i c e s spans one breve; s u r f a c e rhythms suggest a duple beat (dotted semibreve) i n a l l three p a r t s . 6 7 However, the Example 3-9. Non-alignment of meters i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, G l o r i a , mm. 17-20). 7 The mensuration here i s tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta. The s u r f a c e rhythms i n each v o i c e , however, suggest the opposite--tempus imperfectus cum prolatione perfecta. 60 s u p e r i u s p u l s e begins on the second h a l f of the second semibreve i n the mensuration, the a l t u s on the second h a l f of the f i r s t semibreve, the bassus on the b e g i n n i n g of the b r e v e . 6 8 Although the p u l s e s generated by each v o i c e do not a l i g n , l e a p accents i n the a l t u s and bassus c o i n c i d e w i t h the s u p e r i u s p u l s e . Thus, c o i n c i d e n t accents i n the p a r t s s t r o n g l y support the p u l s e presented by the s u p e r i u s . These t i m e p o i n t s are shown by the arrows i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Another unique aspect of Renaissance polyphony i s the i d e a t h a t whether or not meter i s evident i n any one p a r t i c u l a r v o i c e , accents i n a l l the v o i c e s may combine to support a p u l s e i n the polyphonic whole. Example 3-10 i l l u s t r a t e s such a case. The superius, a l t u s and bassus i n t h i s passage a l l c l e a r l y express the n o t a t e d mensuration by d i f f e r e n t means. Four s u c c e s s i v e mensural downbeats are s t r e s s e d by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three or f o u r v o i c e s . The a t t a c k of the superius p i t c h i n m. 71 i s d u r a t i o n a l l y accented, w h i l e the a l t u s has a l e a p and the bassus a cadence. The downbeat of m. 72 has a contour accent i n the s u p e r i u s , a cadence-duration accent i n the a l t u s , and a d u r a t i o n a l accent i n the bassus. In m. 73, the a l t u s has a c o n t o u r - d u r a t i o n accent which c o i n c i d e s w i t h the tenor c a d e n t i a l accent and the 6 8 We show the grouping i n the bassus here from the b e g i n n i n g of the breve f o r two reasons. F i r s t , the a t t a c k of F2 i n m. 17 i s accented by a f o u r t h - l e a p from Bb2 i n the p r e c e d i n g measure. Second, that same F2 begins a s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n - - a n ascending fourth-leap--whose t r a n s p o s i t i o n by t h i r d s p a r a l l e l s the sequences i n the s u p e r i u s and a l t u s i n these measures. 61 bassus d u r a t i o n a l accent. These c o i n c i d e n t t i m e p o i n t s c l e a r l y support a breve p u l s e that c o i n c i d e s w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of the n o t a t e d breve i n these measures. Example 3-10. Meter i n the polyphonic whole (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e , mm. 70-73). C r e a t i o n of meter i s c l e a r l y a complex i s s u e i n t h i s r e p e r t o i r e . T h i s study c o n s i d e r s Renaissance mensural concepts as analogous to modern d e f i n i t i o n s of meter. Both systems d i v i d e time a b s t r a c t l y and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i n t o r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r e n t u n i t s which p r o v i d e a r e f e r e n t i a l frame f o r p i t c h events. However, i t w i l l be a n a l y t i c a l l y b e n e f i c i a l to omit the accent i m p l i e d by the mensuration when c o n s i d e r i n g 62 melodic accents, because although any n o t a t e d meter h e l p s performers synchronize, i t does not always correspond to the c r e a t e d ( i . e . , a c t u a l ) meter or i n d i c a t e m e t r i c accent as d e f i n e d above. T h i s w i l l e l u c i d a t e the e x p o s i t i o n of melodic accents, which otherwise might be obscured by the i m p o s i t i o n of the s i g n a t u r e ' s beats. However, one aspect of the a n a l y s i s w i l l be to see how t i m e p o i n t s w i t h c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents and accents i n i n d i v i d u a l melodies r e l a t e to the n o t a t e d breve of a Mass movement. E x p l o r a t i o n of t h i s f e a t u r e w i l l p r o v i d e an e x t r a dimension to the a n a l y s i s by r e v e a l i n g timespan p a t t e r n i n g as i t r e l a t e s to the n o t a t e d mensuration. A l s o , a g r e e i n g w i t h B e r r y and Benjamin that meter i s , i n p a r t , the r e s u l t of a c c e n t u a l process i n the music suggests t h a t the melodic a n a l y s i s may come f i r s t , w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n of m e t r i c aspects second. The n o t a t i o n a l system developed f o r t h i s study p r o v i d e s a c l e a r g r aphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t a c c e n t u a l parameters, and t h e r e f o r e a l s o of timespan p a t t e r n s c r e a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l melodies, and p a t t e r n s r e s u l t i n g from the i n t e r a c t i o n of accents i n the f u l l t e x t u r e . Subsequent d i s c u s s i o n s concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p of accent to the n o t a t e d mensuration employ the terms mensural pulse and mensural division. The former term r e f e r s to the t i m e p o i n t at which a notated breve i n any mensuration begins, t h a t i s , the onset of the tempus l e v e l of the mensuration. Thus, the b e g i n n i n g of each measure of a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of 63 Renaissance music marks the mensural p u l s e . Mensural division r e f e r s to the p a r t i t i o n i n g of the mensural p u l s e i n t o two or t h r e e equal u n i t s ( i . e . , p e r f e c t or imperfect tempus). In summary, t h i s study does not analyze m e t r i c p a t t e r n i n g per se i n the polyphonic t e x t u r e . Instead, the focus i s on melodic accents and the i n t e r a c t i o n of those accents i n the f u l l t e x t u r e . The study does not c o n s i d e r the r o l e of meter as a generator of accent; n e i t h e r i s meter reduced to a by- product of c e r t a i n types of accent. However, i t w i l l sometimes be b e n e f i c i a l to c o n s i d e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p of accent p a t t e r n s to p u l s e s i m p l i e d by the notated mensuration. 64 CHAPTER 4 NOTATION AND ANALYTIC STRATEGY The d e f i n i t i o n s of accent p r o v i d e d i n the p r e c e d i n g chapter form the b a s i s of a methodology f o r a n a l y z i n g accents i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s of Renaissance polyphonic works. The a n a l y s i s proposes to h i g h l i g h t the accented t i m e p o i n t s of each v o i c e , and capture the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of accent i n t e r a c t i o n among the v o i c e s . For i n s t a n c e , r e f e r r i n g back to Example 1-1, the l i s t e n e r may be aware of s e v e r a l prominent components of Josquin's "Agnus D e i . " The opening f e a t u r e s a leap of a p e r f e c t f o u r t h , which permeates the i m i t a t i v e t e x t u r e . Arch contours occur i n a l l the l i n e s over s h o r t time spans (e.g., s u p e r i u s mm. 2-7), as w e l l as over longer time spans (such as the e n t i r e bass l i n e ) . The m o t i v i c - i m i t a t i v e s e c t i o n b e g i n n i n g a f t e r m. 11, the occurrence of d u r a t i o n a l l y - and c a d e n t i a l l y - a c c e n t e d t i m e p o i n t s , and the d i s t i n c t f i n a l cadence are other s t r o n g f e a t u r e s of the movement. The p a r t i c u l a r placement of l e a p s , contour climaxes, long d u r a t i o n s and cadences makes some ti m e p o i n t s more emphasized than o t h e r s . 65 In order to analyze the f e a t u r e s of works l i k e Example 1- 1, t h i s chapter a p p l i e s the g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s of accent to melodies from the Renaissance sacre d p o l y h p o n i c r e p e r t o r y , and determines which f a c t o r s produce s t r o n g accents i n those melodies. D i s t i n g u i s h i n g s t r o n g accents allows the a n a l y s t to i d e n t i f y the most accented ti m e p o i n t s i n a p i e c e . Furthermore, t h i s chapter p o s i t s a n o t a t i o n a l symbology to show c l e a r l y the v a r y i n g types and s t r e n g t h s of d i f f e r e n t a c c e n t s . I t a l s o d i s c u s s e s c a d e n t i a l accent i n p o l y p h o n i c works, a t o p i c not c l o s e l y s t u d i e d i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e but r e l e v a n t to t h i s study. The a n a l y s i s shows how the d i f f e r e n t accents i n t e r a c t and combine to c r e a t e most- accented t i m e p o i n t s , which punctuate the p i e c e s and c o n t r i b u t e to our p e r c e p t i o n of form and p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y . Since t h i s study develops an a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g y based on accents generated p r i m a r i l y by d u r a t i o n , leap, contour and cadence, d i s t i n c t i o n s among members of a mode--essential to h i e r a r c h i c a l t h e o r i e s of p i t c h s t r u c t u r e - - a r e not necessary. U n l i k e some t h e o r i e s that regard s c a l e degrees 1 and 5 as i n t r i n s i c a l l y s u p e r i o r , the a n a l y t i c method developed here does not take i n t o account accent a r i s i n g p u r e l y from p i t c h - c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . A n a l y s i s w i l l show that such p i t c h c l a s s e s are o f t e n emphasized by accents. However, they are not regarded as accent-producing. S i m i l a r l y , membership i n any p a r t i c u l a r s o n o r i t y i s not accent-producing. Thus, an accented timepoint i n a v o i c e 66 depends o n l y on f e a t u r e s of that v o i c e , not on how the p i t c h a t the time p o i n t r e l a t e s to concurrent s u s t a i n e d or a t t a c k e d p i t c h e s . In t h i s sense, the a n a l y s i s of each v o i c e does not r e l y on i t s i n t e r v a l l i c or harmonic context w i t h i n the po l y p h o n i c whole. 1 The study proposes t h i s approach not because of a b e l i e f t h a t context i s i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l , but because d i f f e r e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r i l y a r i s e from a c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y t i c p r o c e s s . That process i s g e n e r a l l y o r i e n t e d toward a v e r t i c a l (harmonic) approach, a s t r a t e g y t h a t c o u l d d e t r a c t from the l i n e a r (melodic) o r i e n t a t i o n proposed here. However, c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents may p o i n t to some normative f e a t u r e ( s ) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of harmonic usage i n the s a c r e d cantus firmus s t y l e . The chapter begins w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of f a c t o r s t h a t determine s t r o n g and weak accents i n a melody. I t co n t i n u e s w i t h an e x p o s i t i o n of the n o t a t i o n a l symbology used to re p r e s e n t the d i f f e r e n t types and s t r e n g t h s of accent. Next come the r u l e s f o r a p p l y i n g the n o t a t i o n to each parameter l i s t e d i n the pr e v i o u s chapter. T h i s s e c t i o n f o l l o w s the same o r d e r i n g as that chapter, and i n c l u d e s d i s c u s s i o n of combined accents and of c a d e n t i a l accent i n polyphonic t e x t u r e s . A f t e r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r o l e s and n o t a t i o n of e m b e l l i s h i n g 1 The o n l y exceptions to t h i s approach occur w i t h p a r a d i g m a t i c two-voice cadence formulae. There are times when one h e l p s d e f i n e the other, i n c l u d i n g o c c a s i o n s where a c l e a r l y - a r t i c u l a t e d s u p e r i u s - t e n o r p a i r p u l l s the bassus i n t o the l i s t e n e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n . The r u l e s governing the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of such events are found i n the d i s c u s s i o n of a n a l y t i c n o t a t i o n . 67 events, the chapter ends w i t h g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on a n a l y s i s of a long-note cantus prius factus. R e l a t i v e Strengths of Accent D e f i n i n g which f a c t o r s produce the most accent i s n e c e s s a r y f o r determining r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of accent, and consequently f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the most accented t i m e p o i n t s i n a melody. Consider, f o r i n s t a n c e , d u r a t i o n a l and contour accents i n Example 4-1. The two l o n g e s t d u r a t i o n s b e g i n w i t h Example 4-1. Excerpt from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, Benedictus, bassus I I , mm. 1-10. 3E 3: I E 6e JO r X f | * i p * ft, r—1 J— 1- the a t t a c k s of the f i r s t and l a s t p i t c h e s i n the e x c e r p t . T h i s suggests t h a t the i n i t i a l and f i n a l p i t c h a t t a c k s mark the m o s t - d u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d timepoints f o r t h i s phrase. The f i n a l a t t a c k , s i n c e i t i n i t i a t e s the longer d u r a t i o n , i s more accented than the f i r s t . By c o n t r a s t , c o n s i d e r the d u r a t i o n s of A2 i n m. 5, D3 i n mm. 5-6, and C4 i n m. 7. A2 and D3 occur immediately a f t e r the long-note passage i n mm. 1- 4; i n t h a t context, t h e i r d u r a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a rhythmic 68 a c c e l e r a t i o n , and are t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i v e l y unaccented d u r a t i o n a l l y . The same J - d u r a t i o n b e g i n n i n g a t the onset of C4, on the other hand, occurs a f t e r a passage of q u a r t e r s and h a l v e s ; i n t h i s context, the same d u r a t i o n c r e a t e s an agogic accent. Thus, a s i n g l e d u r a t i o n , depending on i t s immediate context i n a s i n g l e v o i c e , produces d i f f e r e n t s t r e n g t h s of accent. Every change of melodic d i r e c t i o n a l s o c r e a t e s accent. The a t t a c k s of A2 (m. 5) and C4 (m.7) are contour-accented as the lowest and h i g h e s t timepoints r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the passage. Both have the same d u r a t i o n , but the l a t t e r seems more s t r o n g l y accented because i t i s a l s o accented by l e a p . S i m i l a r l y , A3 i s a t t a c k e d three times w i t h contour accents i n mm. 3, 8 and 9. The occurrence i n m. 3 . i s l i k e l y to be heard as a more s t r o n g l y accented contour event because i t ends an ascent from D3, whereas the l a t t e r two a t t a c k s occur as d i r e c t i o n a l changes spanning o n l y the i n t e r v a l of a second (G3-A3). However, str o n g d u r a t i o n a l accent a l s o accrues to the f i n a l A3. The combined accents on the a t t a c k of t h a t p i t c h make i t more s t r o n g l y accented o v e r a l l than i n m. 3. C l e a r l y , t h e r e are many d i f f e r e n t s t r e n g t h s of accent i n t h i s passage, and timepoints w i t h i d e n t i c a l p i t c h and rhythm are p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y depending on l o c a l c o ntext. A n a l y z i n g l o c a l s t r o n g and weak accents would p r o v i d e a s m a l l - s c a l e p i c t u r e out of which would emerge a l a r g e r - s c a l e overview of s t r o n g accents i n a p i e c e . However, t h i s study i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h a p i e c e ' s most-accented t i m e p o i n t s . T h e r e f o r e , i t forms r u l e s to s i m p l i f y the process f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s t r o n g accents i n a work. The study bases these r u l e s on the acknowledgment of two b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s of a c c e n t - - s t r o n g and weak. T h i s assumption i s advocated, f o r example, by B e r r y . 2 Rather than i d e n t i f y i n g s t r o n g and weak accents based on immediate (note-to-note) contexts w i t h i n a s i n g l e v o i c e p a r t , t h i s study d e f i n e s a broader context to generate a p i c t u r e of the most-accented t i m e p o i n t s i n a p i e c e of music. For i n s t a n c e , the contour accents marking the onsets of A3 (m. 3) and C4 (m. 7) i n Example 4-1 are w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d i n time; both may be p e r c e i v e d as r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g . By c o n t r a s t , the d i r e c t i o n a l changes around G3-A3 i n mm."8-9 occur soon a f t e r contour accents on the a t t a c k s of G3 and C4 i n m. 7, and are t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i v e l y weak. T h i s study s p e c i f i e s a timespan boundary f o r contour, cadence and d u r a t i o n a l accent i n o r d er to h e l p determine the most-accented t i m e p o i n t s i n a p i e c e . T h i s boundary i s based on Renaissance mensural theory. Timespan Boundary Before p r e s e n t i n g the n o t a t i o n and r u l e s f o r a n a l y s i s , the study must i d e n t i f y the timespan boundary w i t h i n which the 2 Wallace Berry, Structural Functions in Music (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1976), 345. R e c a l l the d i s c u s s i o n on pp. 31 ff. of t h i s study. 70 r u l e s w i l l f u n c t i o n . The boundary determines a common r e f e r e n t i a l timespan w i t h i n which s t r o n g contour accents may occur. In t h i s way, o n l y the str o n g e r contour accents w i l l emerge i n the a n a l y s i s . D u r a t i o n a l accent i s o b v i o u s l y a f u n c t i o n of el a p s e d time. Since t h i s study i d e n t i f i e s t i m e p o i n t s w i t h s t r o n g e r accents, i t r e q u i r e s a r e f e r e n t i a l timespan to determine r e l a t i v e degrees of d u r a t i o n a l accent. S i m i l a r l y , p e r c e p t i o n of cadences depends a t l e a s t i n p a r t on the d u r a t i o n of the c a d e n t i a l p i t c h , or on the amount of r e s t f o l l o w i n g t h a t p i t c h . Again a r e f e r e n t i a l timespan i s needed to d e c i d e whether c o n d i t i o n s are met f o r s t r o n g cadence a c c e n t s . A timespan boundary p r o v i d e s c o n s i s t e n c y by r e q u i r i n g a l l a c c e n t s — e x c l u d i n g l e a p s - - t o be d e f i n e d by a common frame of r e f e r e n c e . 3 That frame of r e f e r e n c e i s the breve. Contemporaneous t h e o r i s t s c o n s i d e r e d the breve the b a s i c u n i t of measured time i n music around 1500, t h a t i s , as a r e f e r e n t i a l d u r a t i o n to which other note v a l u e s were r e l a t e d . Ramis, f o r example, a s s e r t s i n 1482 that "we may put tempus [ r e p r e s e n t e d by the breve] a t the top of the middle f i n g e r as a c e n t r a l f o c a l p o i n t . . ."4 He d e r i v e s a l l other note v a l u e s from the breve, i n c l u d i n g the minim, semiminim, cursea, Leaps are excluded here because accent c r e a t e d by leap i s a f u n c t i o n of p i t c h only, not rhythm. 4 Bartolomeo Ramis [ s i c ] de P a r e i a , Musica Practica, t r a n s l a t e d by Clement A. M i l l e r (American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology: H a n s s l e r - V e r l a g , 1993), 138. 71 minarea and fusea.5 In 1496, G a f f u r i u s t r e a t s the breve as the b a s i c u n i t of time measurement. 6 "The breve note, moreover, s i n c e i t o r i g i n a l l y c o n s i s t e d of one. u n i t of time, and the long . . . are c a l l e d the most b a s i c elements i n the time s c a l e of mensurable sound." 7 Z a r l i n o i n 1558 concurs w i t h h i s predecessors, p o i n t i n g out t h a t a n c i e n t musicians and poets . . . c l a s s e d some notes as tempus brevis and others as tempus longum, w i t h the long equal to two breves. On the breves they p l a c e d the s h o r t s y l l a b l e s or sounds, that i s , those of minor q u a n t i t y ; and on the longs those of major q u a n t i t y . T h i s i s o n l y r i g h t , s i n c e i n numbers u n i t y precedes d u a l i t y , which c o n t a i n s two u n i t s . So the breve takes precedence over the l o n g . 8 Because the breve i s c l e a r l y the fundamental u n i t of time measurement i n Renaissance music, t h i s study makes t h a t d u r a t i o n the source f o r determining the timespan boundaries t h a t d e f i n e s t r o n g contour, d u r a t i o n a l and c a d e n t i a l a c c e n t s . Two p e c u l i a r i t i e s of modern t r a n s c r i p t i o n s must be p o i n t e d out here. F i r s t , breves i n Renaissance scores are sometimes t r a n s c r i b e d as W or M - ; other e d i t o r s reduce these v a l u e s to o and o- r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s c o n f u s i n g a f f a i r i s c l a r i f i e d by the use, i n modern e d i t i o n s , of bar l i n e s . For 5 I b i d . Ramis p r o v i d e s the a l t e r n a t i v e t e r m i n o l o g i e s of cursuta and crocea as names f o r the cursea. 6 Franchinus G a f f u r i u s , Practica musicae, t r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by Irwin Young (Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1969), 74. 7 I b i d . , 75. 8 G i o s e f f o Z a r l i n o , Liber de arte contrapuncti, t r a n s l a t e d by Guy A. Marco and Claude V. P a l i s c a (New Haven: Yal e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), 118. 72 the purposes of t h i s study, bar l i n e s d e l i n e a t e breve timespans. Second, t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of works i n i m p e r f e c t mensuration r e s u l t i n or o to r e p r e s e n t the breve, whereas f o r p i e c e s i n p e r f e c t mensuration the breve i s r e p r e s e n t e d by or O ' - The study c o n f r o n t s t h i s l a t t e r problem i n the d i s c u s s i o n of r u l e s f o r s p e c i f i c accent types. Let us now d e f i n e g e n e r a l l y how the breve d u r a t i o n a c t s as a timespan boundary i n this' 1 study A breve d u r a t i o n l a s t s from the onset of a p i t c h or r e s t . u n t i l the p o i n t where the succeeding breve would commence (see Example 4-2a). I f the p i t c h ' s d u r a t i o n corresponds to one breve e x a c t l y , then the breve l a s t s from the a t t a c k of t h a t p i t c h u n t i l the a t t a c k of the next p i t c h (see Example 4-2b). . I f a r e s t succeeds such a p i t c h , a breve timespan l a s t s u n t i l the onset of the s i l e n c e (see Example 4-2c). Where a p i t c h i s h e l d f o r l e s s than the Example 4-2a. Breye timespan f o r rhythmic v a l u e s extending beyond a breve. 1 Example 4-2b. Breve timespan f o r rhythmic v a l u e s equal to one breve. n 1 j 1 t f i i c o 1 1 73 Example 4-2c. Breve timespan f o r rhythmic v a l u e s equal to one breve, but f o l l o w e d by r e s t . Q f l J - ^ - J — J H Z J J £ ' !a=?i=j I "" v * - 1 .... d u r a t i o n of one breve, and other p i t c h e s or r e s t s precede or f o l l o w i t , a breve d u r a t i o n spans p i t c h a t t a c k s s e p a r a t e d by n o t a t i o n equal to one breve (see Examples 4-3a and 4-3b). Example 4-3a. Breve timespan where rhythmic v a l u e s are l e s s than one breve. fl<t J J l ' M ' * 11 Example 4-3b. , Breve timespan where rhythmic v a l u e s are l e s s .than one.breve, and the breve .boundary i s marked by r e s t . The a n a l y s i s i n Example 4-4 p r o v i d e s us w i t h a means f o r r e f i n i n g our d e f i n i t i o n of timespan boundary. I f a v o i c e p a r t c r e a t e s a p u l s e with a mensural d i v i s i o n other than t h a t 74 i n d i c a t e d by the composer, then the new p u l s e becomes the source of the timespan boundary. T h i s i s because c r e a t i o n of a new meter t e m p o r a r i l y a l s o c r e a t e s a new breve. The n o t a t e d mensuration i n Example 4-4a i s tempus imperfectus cum prolatione imperfecta; each bar r e p r e s e n t s a breve d i v i d e d i n t o two semibreves. Normally, the timespan boundary i n t h i s mensuration would be the breve. However, as Example 4-4b shows, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the pick-up to m. 26, the h a l f - n o t e Example 4-4a. Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme K y r i e , bassus, mm. 25-29. if, 3: Example 4-4b. P o s s i b l e m e t r i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the excerpt from Example 4-4a.- J J | J ' J U 1 J d u r a t i o n s , changes of d i r e c t i o n and leaps suggest t h a t the passage c o u l d be notated as a "cross rhythm" w i t h the p e n u l t i m a t e measure r e t u r n i n g to the o r i g i n a l mensuration. In t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the A2 h a l f - n o t e p l u s the f o l l o w i n g r e s t equal the m e t r i c u n i t e s t a b l i s h e d by the p r e v i o u s three- measures. Consequently, the timespan boundary f o r t h i s phrase 75 becomes a d o t t e d h a l f - n o t e i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . In mensural terms, the u n i t f o r p r o l a t i o n switches from the semibreve to the d o t t e d semibreve. N o t a t i o n a l Symbology Before d e f i n i n g the r u l e s f o r a n a l y z i n g s t r o n g and weak accents i n Renaissance polyphony, the study must submit a n o t a t i o n a l symbology that r e f l e c t s the b i l e v e l accent h i e r a r c h y . The d i s t i n c t i o n between s t r o n g l y and weakly accented t i m e p o i n t s i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s by open and shaded noteheads r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i g u r e s 4 - l a and 4-lb i l l u s t r a t e the n o t a t i o n employed f o r each type of accent. The f o u r b a s i c accent t y p e s - - d u r a t i o n , beginning, l e a p / c o n t o u r and c a d e n c e — a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by f o u r d i f f e r e n t ' n o t e h e a d s . Stems are added to noteheads at timepoints with•combined ac c e n t s . Rules f o r a p p l y i n g the symbols are g i v e n i n the remainder of t h i s chapter, so that every p i t c h a t t a c k i s r e p r e s e n t e d by e i t h e r a primary (strong) or a secondary (weak) accent. H o r i z o n t a l and, v e r t i c a l placement of noteheads i n the a n a l y s i s corresponds to p i t c h - l e v e l and t i m e p o i n t occurrence r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the p i e c e . 76 F i g u r e 4-la. N o t a t i o n f o r weak- and unaccented p i t c h a t t a c k s . Unaccented a t t a c k : T h i r d - l e a p : Evaded cadence: A n a c r u s i s : Weakest F i g u r e 4-lb. N o t a t i o n f o r s t r o n g accents Parameter Symbol o D u r a t i o n Beginning A Leap/Contour 0 / • c Cadence 0 D u r a t i o n + Leap/Contour D u r a t i o n + Cadence Cadence + Leap/Contour' y / y Cadence + Leap/Contour + D u r a t i o n c S t r o n g e s t Rules f o r D e f i n i n g Accents • Having pr e s e n t e d the n o t a t i o n a l symbols and d e f i n e d the timespan boundaries w i t h i n which c e r t a i n accents must f u n c t i o n , t h i s study w i l l now present the r u l e s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g and n o t a t i n g accents s p e c i f i c to Renaissance p o l y p h o n i c works. The p r e c e p t s proposed below r e f l e c t the b i l e v e l accent h i e r a r c h y p o s i t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . 77 Each type of accent i s d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y and i l l u s t r a t e d by examples from the r e p e r t o i r e . D u r a t i o n a l Accent D u r a t i o n a l accent accrues to the a t t a c k of any p i t c h h e l d f o r more than one mensural d i v i s i o n . In p e r f e c t mensuration ( d i v i s i o n i n t o 3) , the d u r a t i o n must be equal to a t l e a s t h a l f the breve ( i . e . , a d o t t e d h a l f note v a l u e i n I t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , a d o t t e d whole note v a l u e i n D . Example 4-5 i l l u s t r a t e s d u r a t i o n a l accent i n p e r f e c t mensuration. The d u r a t i o n s of C4 Example 4-5. D u r a t i o n a l accent i n p e r f e c t mensuration (from La Rue, Missa Ave Maria, Sanctus, tenor, mm. 101-102). i n m. 101 and E4 i n m. 102 are both g r e a t e r than one-half the mensural p u l s e ( d . ) • The a t t a c k s of those p i t c h e s are t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t e d by round, open noteheads on the lower s t a f f . These tim e p o i n t s are more accented than those r e p r e s e n t e d by the unstemmed, s o l i d noteheads c o r r e s p o n d i n g to p i t c h e s of s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n . (The semibreve r e p r e s e n t i n g the a t t a c k of G3 i s p a r e n t h e s i z e d i n t h i s example because t h a t symbol has not y e t been defined.) 78 For p i e c e s i n imperfect mensuration, d u r a t i o n a l accent accrues to the a t t a c k s of p i t c h e s whose d u r a t i o n i s g r e a t e r than h a l f the breve. That i s , the d u r a t i o n must be a t l e a s t a d o t t e d h a l f i n \ t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , a d o t t e d whole i n \ t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . In Example 4-6, the D4 i n mm. 164-165 spans a d u r a t i o n equal to O . Since t h i s i n s t a n c e s a t i s f i e s the c o n d i t i o n f o r d u r a t i o n a l accent i n imperfect mensuration, the a t t a c k of D4 i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the open, round notehead. Example 4-6 D u r a t i o n a l accent i n imperfect mensuration (from Josquin, Missa Pange Lingua, Credo, a l t u s , mm. 179-180). Again, the p i t c h e s w i t h s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s are shown as shaded round noteheads on the lower s t a f f . R e l a t e d to d u r a t i o n i s the i d e a of p i t c h e s repeated over a timespan. A repeated note may be heard as an accented event, the accent a c c r u i n g to the a t t a c k of the f i r s t i n s t a n c e 79 of that p i t c h . 9 Strong repeated-pitch accents must s a t i s f y the same timespan requirements as those f o r d u r a t i o n a l accent. That i s , the a t t a c k of the f i r s t i n a s e r i e s of repeated p i t c h e s i s s t r o n g l y accented i f , from the i n i t i a l a t t a c k of the p i t c h u n t i l the a t t a c k of a new p i t c h or the onset of a r e s t longer than a breath r e s t , the repeated p i t c h ' s rhythmic values cover a timespan equal to three or more sma l l e r d i v i s i o n s of the breve i n e i t h e r p e r f e c t or imperfect mensuration. For example, i n p e r f e c t mode, minor p r o l a t i o n , the breve d i v i d e s i n t o three semibreves, each of which d i v i d e s i n t o two minima. In p e r f e c t mode, major p r o l a t i o n the three semibreves each d i v i d e i n t o three minima. Imperfect mode, minor p r o l a t i o n has two semibreves, each d i v i d i n g i n t o two minima, w h i l e the same mode w i t h major p r o l a t i o n sees the two semibreves p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o 3 minima each. For each of the minor p r o l a t i o n s (perfect or imperfect mode), the r u l e s r e q u i r e three minima; f o r the major p r o l a t i o n s , they r e q u i r e four minima plus one semiminima. Thus, although one may have d i f f e r e n t modus, the accumulative note values r e q u i r e d by d u r a t i o n a l accent remain the same at the l e v e l of p r o l a t i o n . Repeated-pitch passages s a t i s f y i n g the above c r i t e r i a are represented by the same symbol as d u r a t i o n a l accents ( o ) • 9 R e c a l l the d i s c u s s i o n of Berry's views on r e i t e r a t e d p i t c h e s on p. 32 of the preceding chapter. A l s o , t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of repeated p i t c h e s does not in c l u d e the anticipation. Treatment of t h i s and other e m b e l l i s h i n g elements i s t r e a t e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. 80 The r e i t e r a t e d D5 i n Example 4-7 c l e a r l y spans more than one- h a l f the mensural p u l s e ( i n tempus perfectus) The © symbol Example 4-7. Repeated-pitch accent i n p e r f e c t mensuration (from Josquin, Missa ad fugam, G l o r i a , s u p erius, mm. 38-40). 1% hi) - f i f r [ ^ on the lower s t a f f a l i g n s w i t h the a t t a c k of the f i r s t occurence of D5. S i m i l a r l y , f o r the tempus imperfectus passage i n Example 4-8, the combined d u r a t i o n s of the repeated Example 4-8 Repeated-pitch accent i n imperfect mensuration (from P a l e s t r i n a , motet Alleluja: Tulerunt Dominum meum, a l t u s , m. 42). 12 1mm G5 sum to g r e a t e r than h a l f the mensural p u l s e . The round, open notehead again a l i g n s w i t h the onset of the f i r s t i n the s e r i e s of repeated p i t c h e s . 81 Breath r e s t s do not a f f e c t repeated-pitch accents; accent s t i l l accrues to the atta c k of the f i r s t occurrence of the p i t c h . The d u r a t i o n of a breath r e s t i s not in c l u d e d i n the counting of t o t a l d u r a t i o n a l values f o r the repeated p i t c h . In Example 4-9, D5 i s repeated i n m. 22, but w i t h a short r e s t between the f i r s t and second atta c k s of the p i t c h . The symbol BR i n d i c a t e s the f u n c t i o n of that s i l e n c e as a br e a t h r e s t . Since the combined d u r a t i o n a l values of the repeated p i t c h e s preceding and f o l l o w i n g the r e s t t o t a l g r eater than one-half the imperfect mensural pulse, the passage s a t i s f i e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r repeated-pitch accent. The round, open notehead on the lower s t a f f marks the timepoint at which the accent i n i t i a l l y occurs. Example 4-9. Repeated-pitch event w i t h breath r e s t (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I G l o r i a , superius, m. 22). • Leap Accent Primary accent accrues to a timepoint preceded by an upward or downward leap of a p e r f e c t f o u r t h or greater. 82 Timepoints accented by l a r g e leaps are shown w i t h the symbol 0. Example 4-10 i l l u s t r a t e s a passage w i t h s e v e r a l l a r g e l e a p s - - a p e r f e c t f o u r t h from C4-G3 (m. 39), a p e r f e c t f i f t h from G3-C3 (m.40), and a p e r f e c t f o u r t h from C3-F4 (mm. 40- 41). The p i t c h e s a t t a c k e d by leap are r e p r e s e n t e d on the Example 4-10. N o t a t i o n f o r l a r g e leaps (from W i l l a e r t , Missa Quaeramus cum pastoribus, G l o r i a , bassus, mm. 39-41). 31 T i i i 3E lower s t a f f . b y the 0 symbol. The remaining, unaccented p i t c h e s are shown wit h round, shaded noteheads. In the case of ascending or descending major or minor t h i r d s , the a t t a c k of the second of two p i t c h e s i n the t h i r d - l e a p i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the symbol • i n the a n a l y s i s . Example 4-11 i l l u s t r a t e s two i n s t a n c e s of third-leaps--Bb3-G3 i n m. 51, A3-F3 i n m. 52. The two • symbols on the lower s t a f f r e p r e s e n t the r e l a t i v e l y l e s s accented a t t a c k s of G3 and F3. In a s e r i e s of leaps i n the same d i r e c t i o n , the a t t a c k of the l a s t note i n the s e r i e s always has a s t r o n g leap accent, though i t i s o f t e n o n l y a t h i r d from the middle note. T h i s i s because two leaps w i l l always sum to an i n t e r v a l g r e a t e r than 83 Example 4-11. T h i r d - l e a p s (from Josquin, motet Ave Maria . . . Virgo serena, bassus mm. 51-52) . 9 ' ( i )Y r r r i f f - a p e r f e c t f o u r t h . Therefore, a timepoint has a primary leap accent (represented by 0) i f i t i s preceded by two or more s u c c e s s i v e , u n i d i r e c t i o n a l leaps, and the t o t a l d i s t a n c e covered by those leaps i s g r e a t e r than or equal to a d i m i n i s h e d f i f t h . I f the f i r s t of the two leaps i s a t h i r d - leap, the a t t a c k of. that p i t c h i s d e p i c t e d by •; i f i t i s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h or g r e a t e r , the 0 symbol i s used. Example 4-12 p r o v i d e s an i n s t a n c e of ascending double'leap i n Ockeghem's Missa L'homme arme. The A3 at the end of m. 42 i s unaccented, Example 4-12. Ascending t h i r d - l e a p s (Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Agnus I I , a l t u s , mm. 42-43). 84 and i s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e f o r e by a shaded, round notehead on the lower s t a f f . The C4 at the be g i n n i n g of na. 43 i s a t h i r d above A3, so i t s a t t a c k i s shown wit h a shaded, unstemmed semibreve. E4 ends the double leap, s i t t i n g a p e r f e c t f i f t h above A3; consequently, that onset of that f i n a l p i t c h i n the s e r i e s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the 0 symbol. Example 4-13 c o n t a i n s a descending double leap i n t e r r u p t e d by a b r e a t h r e s t . As was the case w i t h repeated p i t c h e s , b r e a t h r e s t s do not a f f e c t the p e r c e p t i o n of l e a p s . Example 4-13. Descending t h i r d - l e a p s w i t h b r e a t h r e s t (from Josquin,. Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I, s u p e r i u s m. 13). The B4 t h a t begins t h i s double leap i s unaccented (• on the lower s t a f f ) . The subsequent a t t a c k on G4 a major t h i r d below B4 i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the symbol •. C o n t i n u i n g through the b r e a t h r e s t (BR), the E4 ends the double l e a p . The a t t a c k of E4 i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the open, unstemmed semibreve because t h a t f i n a l p i t c h i s a p e r f e c t f i f t h below the i n i t i a l B4. 85 Contour Accent Contour accent accrues to the a t t a c k of a p i t c h t h a t i s the h i g h e s t or lowest w i t h i n i t s timespan boundary. That i s , an upper contour accent (symbolized C) occurs a t the a t t a c k of a p i t c h p i f p i s the h i g h e s t i n a s e r i e s of p i t c h e s , i f t h e r e i s no equal or h i g h e r p i t c h w i t h i n one immediately-preceding breve timespan, no h i g h e r p i t c h w i t h i n one immediately- f o l l o w i n g breve timespan, and i f the a t t a c k of p i s not s t r e s s e d by a l e a p a c c e n t . 1 0 In Example 4-14, a change of d i r e c t i o n occurs a f t e r the a t t a c k of E4 i n m. 11. The square Example 4-14. Upper contour accent (from Dufay, motet Moribus et genera Christe conjuncte Johannes/Virgo virga virens, vires virtutibus affer, superius, mm. 10-12). to J l r n i ; i f , J M f r m i 1 0 The study of contour can be a u s e f u l a n a l y t i c approach to t h i s music. Studies c a r r i e d out on t h i s t o p i c , i n c l u d e Peter Schubert, "Mode and Counterpoint," i n Music Theory and the Exploration of the Past, e d i t e d by C h r i s t o p h e r Hatch and David W. B e r n s t e i n (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1993), 103-113 and Robert D. M o r r i s , "New D i r e c t i o n s i n the Theory and A n a l y s i s of Melodic Contour," Music Theory Spectrum XV/2 (1993): 205-228. However, these approaches are not concerned w i t h the a c c e n t u a l nature of contour, and so are not d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to t h i s study. 86 b r a c k e t s measure a one-breve timespan b e f o r e and a f t e r the onset of E4. Since no equal or h i g h e r p i t c h precedes E4, and no h i g h e r p i t c h f o l l o w s i t w i t h i n the timespan boundary, the a t t a c k of E4 c r e a t e s a s t r o n g contour accent. S i m i l a r l y , a lower contour accent (symbolized C) occurs at the a t t a c k of a p i t c h p i f p i s the lowest i n a s e r i e s of p i t c h e s , i f there i s no equal or lower p i t c h w i t h i n one immediately-preceding breve timespan, no lower p i t c h w i t h i n one i m m e d i a t e l y - f o l l o w i n g breve timespan, and i f the a t t a c k of p i s not s t r e s s e d by a leap a c c e n t . 1 1 Example 4-15 shows the timespan boundaries (' •) surrounding the a t t a c k of E4. Example 4-15. Lower contour accent (from P a l e s t r i n a , motet Paries quidem filium, s u p e r i u s mm. 69-71). Since t h a t p i t c h a t t a c k s a t i s f i e s the requirements f o r lower contour accent, i t i s symbolized by C. The square b r a c k e t s i n 1 1 I t i s p o s s i b l e to have both upper and lower contour accents e m b e l l i s h e d by lower neighbour notes. Rules f o r determining these a u x i l i a r y p i t c h e s and t h e i r n o t a t i o n are d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. 87 t h i s example a l s o show why the a t t a c k of F4 a t the b e g i n n i n g of the second h a l f note i n m. 69 does not r e c e i v e a contour a c c e n t - - t h e E4 i n m. 70 enters w i t h i n one f o l l o w i n g breve. Furthermore, the example shows that the a t t a c k of Bb4 a t the end of m. 69 i s contour-accented d e s p i t e i t s s h o r t d u r a t i o n . The d e f i n i t i o n p r o v i d e d above s t a t e s t h a t a t i m e p o i n t i s not contour-accented i f the p i t c h i n i t i a t e d a t t h a t t i m e p o i n t has appeared w i t h i n the p r e c e d i n g timespan boundary. I f t h i s s i t u a t i o n occurs, then p i s not the lowest or h i g h e s t i n a s e r i e s of p i t c h e s . For i n s t a n c e , i n Example 4-16 the a t t a c k of G3 i n m. 138 r e c e i v e s a lower contour accent. In m. 139, Example 4-16. D e n i a l of contour-accented t i m e p o i n t (from Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Sanctus, a l t u s , mm. 137-141). I I 1 1 l | 1 1 1 1 1 1 M l 1 1 1 H 1 1 1 3 = ^ A3 i s lowest, but i t s a t t a c k does not r e c e i v e a lower contour accent because the G3 a breve e a r l i e r i s lower. The second a t t a c k of A3 (m. 140) i s a r t i c u l a t e d o n l y one breve a f t e r the A3 i n m. 139. However, because the A3 i n m. 140 i s not lower 88 than a l l the p i t c h e s w i t h i n one pr e c e d i n g breve, i t s a t t a c k does not r e c e i v e a contour accent. Accents i n R e p e t i t i o n s and Sequences Renaissance s a c r e d polyphony i s not merely a random s u c c e s s i o n of accents produced by v a r i o u s d u r a t i o n s , contour changes and l e a p s . I m i t a t i o n , r e p e t i t i o n , sequence and canon p r o v i d e d 15th- and 16th-century composers w i t h techniques f o r r e i t e r a t n g or t r a n s p o s i n g s e r i e s of p i t c h e s , i n t e r v a l s and d u r a t i o n s . As noted i n Chapter I I I , the r e p e t i t i o n — e x a c t , s e q u e n t i a l , or c a n o n i c — o f a s e r i e s of these elements d u p l i c a t e s the accent p a t t e r n of t h a t s e r i e s . Repeated p a t t e r n s are i n d i c a t e d by square b r a c k e t s above the melody i n the a n a l y s i s . I f the p a t t e r n of p i t c h e s and d u r a t i o n s i s repeated e x a c t l y , each c o r r e s p o n d i n g t i m e p o i n t i n each r e p e t i t i o n of the p a t t e r n has the same accent. The o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n i s l a b e l l e d ORIG and the r e p e t i t i o n s REP. Example 4-17 c o n t a i n s an i n s t a n c e of d i r e c t r e p e t i t i o n . In t h i s example, the p i t c h p a t t e r n G4-F4-E4-D4-E4-D4 i n mm. 74-75 i s r epeated w i t h the same p i t c h e s and d u r a t i o n s i n mm. 75-76. Consequently, the a n a l y s i s of the r e p e t i t i o n uses the same symbols to r e p r e s e n t the p i t c h a t t a c k s . Some Renaissance t h e o r i s t s advocated the use of repeated melodic fragments under c e r t a i n circumstances. One such t h e o r i s t was Giovanni Maria A r t u s i , who a l s o p r o v i d e d a 89 Example 4-17. N o t a t i o n f o r d i r e c t r e p e t i t i o n of a m o t i v i c segment (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I I , s u p erius, mm. 74-76) . f l o w c h a r t of which elements to vary i n a repeated fragment. 1 2 A c c o r d i n g to A r t u s i , one element s u b j e c t to change when p i t c h e s are repeated i s rhythm. T h i s o p t i o n c r e a t e s an e f f e c t of v a r i e d r e p e t i t i o n ; t h a t i s , the p i t c h e s are r e p e a t e d but the rhythm i s v a r i e d . In cases of v a r i e d r e p e t i t i o n , the a n a l y s i s employs the l a b e l ORIG f o r the o r i g i n a l i n t e r v a l - r h y t h m model, and V-REP f o r the repeated p i t c h e s with a l t e r e d rhythm. Example 4-18 i l l u s t r a t e s an i n s t a n c e of v a r i e d r e p e t i t i o n . The l e a p from D4 to G3 i n m. 74 imparts a s t r o n g accent to the a t t a c k of G3. That t i m e p o i n t i n i t i a t e s a G3-D4 stepwise f i f t h - a s c e n t which i s p r e s e n t e d three times w i t h d i f f e r e n t rhythmic p a t t e r n s . The two r e p e t i t i o n s p r eserve the s t r o n g and weak accent s t r u c t u r e of the o r i g i n a l , r e g a r d l e s s of changes i n d u r a t i o n . 1 2 Giovanni Maria A r t u s i , L ' a r t e del contraponto (Hildesheim: Georg 01ms, 1969), 58. 90 Example 4-18. N o t a t i o n f o r v a r i e d r e p e t i t i o n of a melodic fragment (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I I , a l t u s , mm. 74-76). IH —J-p-f— -15—9—1 a-e p - —<*- f [ f - , GAlis t — o — • — 4 = ± = l -9— Although D4 i s the h i g h e s t note i n the passage and occurs f o u r times, i t s onsets do not mark contour accents because i t always occurs one breve or l e s s a f t e r i t s p r e c e d i n g a t t a c k . L i k e repeated motives, sequences are h i g h l i g h t e d by square b r a c k e t s above each statement of the s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n . Again, the o r i g i n a l i n t e r v a l - r h y t h m p a t t e r n i s shown wi t h the l a b e l ORIG; the d e s i g n a t i o n SEQ i s then p l a c e d above the s e q u e n t i a l r e p e t i t i o n s of the p a t t e r n . The g r a p h i c symbols + and - are added to SEQ to denote r i s i n g and f a l l i n g sequences r e s p e c t i v e l y . Numeric val u e s denote the d i a t o n i c i n t e r v a l of the r e p e t i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the immediately- p r e c e d i n g statement ( i . e . , SEQ+n or SEQ-n). Example 4-19 shows the n o t a t i o n f o r a s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n . As w i t h d i r e c t r e p e t i t i o n , each s e q u e n t i a l t r a n s p o s i t i o n comprises the same accent s t r u c t u r e as the o r i g i n a l statement. The p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g sequence i s the same as t h a t f o r r e p e t i t i o n — t h e composer repeats an i n t e r v a l l i c and rhythmic 91 Example 4-19. Sequence i n Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, C h r i s t e , s u p e r i u s , mm. 39-46. 3<\ Ml Mj" se a -i M Ml m o * • p a t t e r n , though transposed i n s t e a d of at the o r i g i n a l p i t c h l e v e l . Each r e p e t i t i o n or t r a n s p o s i t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d a d i s c r e t e m u s i c a l segment. Since the i n d i v i d u a l segments are p e r c e i v e d s e p a r a t e l y , they may l e g i t i m a t e l y be a n a l y z e d as d i s t i n c t u n i t s . Sequences i n Renaissance music commonly end i n one of two ways. They may stop on the l a s t note of the l a s t statement of the sequence. Normally, t h i s k i n d of ending w i l l f u l f i l the requirements f o r a cadence. In other cases, the s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n ends or breaks o f f , but the melody continues u n t i l a cadence i s reached. To i n d i c a t e s i t u a t i o n s where a sequence or r e p e t i t i o n begins but breaks o f f b e f o r e i t i s complete, the square b r a c k e t becomes b r o k e n - l i n e d and the other r u l e s c o ntinue to apply. I f a sequence or r e p e t i t i o n simply ends and the v o i c e p a r t cadences at a timepoint o c c u r r i n g as p a r t of the p a t t e r n , the s t a t u s of t h a t f i n a l note w i t h i n the o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n i s supplemented by c a d e n t i a l accent. The 92 a t t a c k of the f i n a l p i t c h i n a r e p e t i t i o n or sequence assumes a c a d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n o n l y i f i t f u l f i l s the requirements f o r cadences d e f i n e d below. Besides adding c a d e n t i a l accent to a p i t c h a t t a c k i n a sequence, the study allows f o r a l t e r a t i o n s of accent i f , i n the course of t r a n s p o s i t i o n , a sequence c r e a t e s a s i t u a t i o n i n which the normal r u l e s apply. Example 4-20 shows an extended descending sequence. The transposed melodic p a t t e r n i s a Example 4-20. Sequence i n which the accent s t r u c t u r e of the o r i g i n a l i s a l t e r e d (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni Agnus Dei, bassus, mm. 12-17). descending t h i r d - l e a p f o l l o w e d by two r i s i n g s t e p s . S u c c e s s i v e statements of the p a t t e r n are transposed down a second. In the f i n a l i n s t a n c e (m. 16), the t h i r d - l e a p occurs from D3-Bb2. Des p i t e the sequence, t h i s Bb2 s a t i s f i e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r a s t r o n g lower contour accent, and i s 93 r e p r e s e n t e d by the symbol C. Thus, although an accent o r i g i n a l l y imparted to a p a r t i c u l a r t imepoint i n a sequence can not be repealed, i t may be supplemented by another type of accent i f the c o n d i t i o n s f o r that accent are f u l f i l l e d . C a d e n t i a l Accent The a t t a c k s of c a d e n t i a l p i t c h e s i n each v o i c e are s i g n i f i c a n t because they r e p r e s e n t the completions of broad m u s i c a l gestures, o f t e n c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the ends of t e x t phrases. For the purposes of a n a l y s i s , t h i s study d i s t i n g u i s h e s two types of melodic cadences i n Renaissance p o l y p h o n i c works. The f i r s t type i s c r e a t e d by s i l e n c e f i l l i n g the timespan boundary a f t e r a p i t c h . That i s , any p i t c h f o l l o w e d by a r e s t g r e a t e r than or equal to one breve i n l e n g t h i s deemed a cadence note, even i f the p i t c h i s preceded by a leap or an ascending whole step. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , a l though s i m p l i s t i c , i s u s e f u l f o r i d e n t i f y i n g a l l v o i c e e x i t s i n a p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e . Accent accrues to the a t t a c k of the c a d e n t i a l p i t c h . I f the onset of that p i t c h i s not a l s o d u r a t i o n a l l y or otherwise accented, the cadence i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the symbol o. Example 4-21 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s type of cadence. G3 i n m. 17 i s f o l l o w e d by more than one breve r e s t . C a d e n t i a l accent thus accrues to the a t t a c k of t h a t p i t c h . S i nce there i s no concurrent d u r a t i o n a l , contour or l e a p 94 accent a t t h a t timepoint, the symbol o r e p r e s e n t s the a t t a c k of G3. Example 4-21. Cadence i n which p i t c h p l u s r e s t are g r e a t e r than or equal to a breve (from Josquin, motet 0 virgo Virginum, a l t u s I I , mm. 16-18). s The second type of melodic cadence i n the Renaissance s t y l e i s c r e a t e d by paradigmatic melodic c a d e n t i a l formulas. The most t y p i c a l c l o s i n g formula i n music of the 15th and 16th c e n t u r i e s i n v o l v e s the i n t e r a c t i o n of two v o i c e p a r t s . One of the v o i c e s has a d i s s o n a n t suspension which r e s o l v e s down by step to a consonance, then steps back up to the.cadence t i m e p o i n t . The other v o i c e ' s p r o t o t y p i c a l melodic c a d e n t i a l f i g u r e i s a descending second. In the l a t t e r case, i t i s not the downward step i t s e l f t h a t c r e a t e s the cadence so much as the c o n t e x t u a l p a i r i n g of that step w i t h the suspension f i g u r e d e s c r i b e d above. 1 3 F o l l o w i n g Meier's terminology, t h i s study 1 3 R e c a l l Example 3-1, "Paradigmatic two-voice cadence p a t t e r n s i n Renaissance music" on p. 45 of the p r e c e d i n g chapter. 95 adopts the terms cantizans and tenorizans to i d e n t i f y the upward-resolving (often found i n the cantus, hence cantizans) and downward-resolving (commonly used i n the tenor, hence tenorizans) paradigms r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 4 Although a hallmark of the s t y l e , the suspension i s not a requirement of a cantizans cadence and t h e r e f o r e does not always appear. 1 5 However, the presence of syncopation s i g n a l s the beginning of a p o s s i b l e c a n t i z a n s cadence, which may occur without a t e n o r i z a n s . In the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s , cp = cadence p i t c h ; cz = cantizans c a d e n t i a l formula; tz = tenorizans c a d e n t i a l formula. The penultimate note of the cantizans forms a ( u s u a l l y major) s i x t h or (minor) t h i r d or tenth w i t h the t e n o r i z a n s . The s i x t h expands to an octave, or the t h i r d c o n t r a c t s to a unison, and the cadence p i t c h e s t y p i c a l l y c o i n c i d e w i t h a strong beat. 1 6 The normal r u l e s f o r c a d e n t i a l accent a l s o apply to paradigmatic cadences. That i s , i f the c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e s t f o l l o w a cadence at t a c k i n a cz or tz, and the.attack of cp i s not a l s o accented by contour or d u r a t i o n , then rj 1 4 Bernhard Meier, The Modes of Classical Vocal Polyphony, t r a n s l a t e d by E l l e n E. Beebe (New York: Broude Brothers, 1988), 91. This i s the p r i n c i p a l exception to the non-contextual approach p r o f f e r e d by t h i s study. In a cantus firmus framework composition, one must assume that the composer normally planned cadences i n two v o i c e s . Thus, any c l e a r l y - a r t i c u l a t e d cantizans i n one v o i c e a u t o m a t i c a l l y makes p o s s i b l e the c o n d i t i o n s f o r a tenorizans i n another v o i c e . 1 5 See, f o r example, Charles W. D i l l , "Non-Cadential A r t i c u l a t i o n of S t r u c t u r e i n Some Motets of Josquin and Mouton," Current Musicology XXXIII (1982), 39. 1 6 The tenth w i l l , of course, c o n t r a c t to an octave. 96 symbolizes the c a d e n t i a l accent ( r e c a l l Example 4-21, which i s a l s o a t z c a d e n t i a l paradigm). For non-paradigmatic cadences, the amount of r e s t a f t e r a p i t c h ceases to sound d e f i n e s the c a d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n , and consequently the c a d e n t i a l timepoint, f o r th a t p i t c h . F or cadences w i t h combined cz/tz paradigms, on the other hand, the l i s t e n e r i s prepared f o r the a r r i v a l of cp. In these cadences, i t i s not so much the amount of r e s t f o l l o w i n g cp t h a t d e f i n e s the cadence a t t a c k as the p r e - c a d e n t i a l rhythmic- i n t e r v a l l i c p a t t e r n s . T h i s f a c t allows us to r e f i n e the d e f i n i t i o n of a s t r o n g cadence a t t a c k i n a cz/tz p a i r u s i n g the timespan boundary, so that the r u l e s do not r e l y s o l e l y on the amount of r e s t f o l l o w i n g the t e r m i n a t i o n of cp. Rather, s i n c e the a t t a c k of the p i t c h i s heard as c a d e n t i a l , the r u l e now a p p l i e s to the onset of the p i t c h . Thus, i f the a t t a c k of cp i n a cz/tz paradigm i s f o l l o w e d by a combination of cp and r e s t equal t o or g r e a t e r than a breve, and i f the a t t a c k of cp i s not otherwise accented, then the symbol • r e p r e s e n t s the cadence a t t a c k . Example 4-22 shows a cz/tz p a i r i n the su p e r i u s and tenor. G4 i n the superius (m. 116) i s suspended above A3 i n the tenor, and r e s o l v e s to F4. T h i s c r e a t e s the i n t e r v a l of a s i x t h between the two v o i c e s . The s i x t h expands to an octave (G3-G4) i n m. 117. G4 t e r m i n a t i n g the cz l a s t s f o r o n e - t h i r d of a breve i n the t r i p l e mensuration, but i s f o l l o w e d by a r e s t equal to two-thirds of a breve. The t o t a l d u r a t i o n of cadence p i t c h p l u s subsequent r e s t i s equal to a 97 breve, so the a t t a c k of G4 i n the superius i s shown w i t h the symbol, • . Example 4-22. Cadence n o t a t i o n f o r cz/tz p a i r (from Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Credo, s u p e r i u s / t e n o r mm. 116-118). lit dt "7 n r foil . a " © * •—•— -0 -e—e—e a o 6 -> r r r r 1 = \ 1 y-l—f ! ; : . » & 9 ' ^ -a —d Renaissance composers a c t i v e between 1470 and 1500 o c c a s i o n a l l y used the double-leading-tone cadence. T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a double-suspension f i g u r e above the t e n o r i z a n s . One v o i c e has the t y p i c a l 7-6 c a n t i z a n s f i g u r e and steps up to c r e a t e an octave w i t h the t e n o r i z a n s v o i c e . A t h i r d v o i c e , a l s o above the t e n o r i z a n s , moves i n p a r a l l e l f o u r t h s below the c a n t i z a n s v o i c e . T h i s c r e a t e s a 4-3 suspension i n th a t v o i c e ; the s t e p up to the cadence tone d i v i d e s the o u t e r - v o i c e octave at the f i f t h . Example 4-23 i l l u s t r a t e s an i n s t a n c e of t h i s 98 type of cadence. Here, superius and bassus have the c a n t i z a n s and tenorizans r e s p e c t i v e l y . Accompanying the 7-6 suspension Example 4-23. Double-leading tone accents (from Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e , mm. 49-50) . 11 t (}\ , 1 1 1 i To •foUJj i J nfil J , - i7hf t i M — O -e © 1 4* c UJ * w m D - G 4 = > i n the superius i s a 4-3 suspension i n the a l t u s . A l t u s and superius r e s o l v e up i n m. 50, where c a d e n t i a l (and d u r a t i o n a l ) accent accrue to the a t t a c k of those p i t c h e s . Since symbols f o r combined accents have yet to be discussed, only the c a d e n t i a l symbol, • , i s shown here. Example 4-24 i l l u s t r a t e s the a n a l y s i s of an evaded cadence. A cadence i s evaded i f the a t t a c k of cp i n a cz or tz i s not accented by contour or d u r a t i o n , i f the c o n d i t i o n f o r the minimum r e q u i r e d amount of r e s t f o l l o w i n g cp i s not f i l l e d , and i f cp plus subsequent r e s t t o t a l l e s s than a breve. Timepoints s a t i s f y i n g these c r i t e r i a are represented by the symbol | . The superius i n Example 4-24 has the c a n t i z a n s paradigm (m. 10), but the a t t a c k of cp i s not accented by d u r a t i o n or contour. The cp i s not followed by 99 Example 4-24. Evaded c a n t i z a n s cadence (from Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, Credo, s u p e r i u s , mm. 9-12) . any r e s t , and the d u r a t i o n of cp does not equal more than h a l f a breve. Therefore, the cadence i s evaded, and the a t t a c k of cp i s r e p r e s e n t e d by I on the lower s t a f f . I t i s p o s s i b l e i n the Renaissance s t y l e f o r a v o i c e to set up a c a d e n t i a l paradigm, then deny the a r r i v a l of cp. In t h i s case, the cadence i s evaded. However, i f the d u r a t i o n of t h i s or any other evaded cadence p i t c h subsequently s a t i s f i e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r s t r o n g accent, then the a t t a c k of the p i t c h marks the timepoint of a d u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d evaded cadence. T h i s would seem to suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a n o t a t i o n a l paradox, s i n c e an evaded cadence a t t a c k i s r e l a t i v e l y weak, whi l e a long d u r a t i o n c r e a t e s a s t r o n g accent. Consequently, i f a p i t c h a t an evaded cadence a l s o s a t i s f i e s c o n d i t i o n s f o r d u r a t i o n a l accent, the a n a l y s i s r e p r e s e n t s the a t t a c k of the 100 p i t c h w i t h the symbol O . Example 4-25 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s case. The s u p e r i u s and a l t u s set up a c a d e n t i a l paradigm i n Example 4-25. D u r a t i o n a l l y accented evaded cadence (from Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Agnus Dei, s u p e r i u s / a l t u s , mm. 13-14). s i3 «-f*h £ 3 S m. 13. The s u p e r i u s c l e a r l y cadences on A4 i n m. 14, but the a l t u s c o n t i n u e s through i t s cadence p i t c h (A3) to F3. The long d u r a t i o n on the a l t u s A3 s a t i s f i e s the requirement f o r s t r o n g d u r a t i o n a l accent, so the a n a l y s i s r e p r e s e n t s the a t t a c k of A3 i n m. 14 w i t h the 0 symbol. Beginning-accents A beginning-accent i n polyphonic music i s a t e x t u r a l event, as d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter. R e c a l l i n g t h a t e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n , primary accent accrues to the f i r s t p i t c h a t t a c k i n any v o i c e p a r t i n a movement. I f t h a t a t t a c k i s not otherwise accented, the symbol A i s used to r e p r e s e n t i t . 101 Beginning-accents are a l s o i d e n t i f i e d on the next a t t a c k a f t e r a p a r a d i g m a t i c or non-paradigmatic cadence as d e f i n e d above. Example 4-26 p r o v i d e s an i n s t a n c e of beginning-accent a f t e r a Example 4-26. N o t a t i o n f o r a beginning-accent (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e , superius, mm. 18-22). If M 30 f( 12. 4 h ^ — - — —r-\—r-t m f f~ 1* J- j = sy...v^ i. . 1 Ul c 4j j - ^ » % = * long p e r i o d of r e s t . The superius i s s i l e n t f o r three-and- one-half breves, then enters on G4. T h i s i s c l e a r l y a s t r o n g v o i c e entry, and i s rep r e s e n t e d by the A symbol. (This e n t r y i s a l s o supported by the e n t r y of a CF p i t c h and by a bassus cadence a t t a c k at the same timepoint.) A beginning-accent i s o f t e n supported by some oth e r parameter, such as d u r a t i o n , contour or leap. I f a phrase's b e g i n n i n g i s accented by one of these parameters, i t i s l a r g e l y t h a t accent that marks the att a c k , and not the f a c t of beg i n n i n g . Consequently, any timepoint t h a t s a t i s f i e s the requirements f o r beginning-accent, but i s accented by some other parameter, w i l l be rep r e s e n t e d o n l y by t h a t o t h e r parameter's n o t a t i o n a l symbol. D i s c u s s i o n of beginnings of phrases must take i n t o account the i d e a of a n a c r u s i s , which may d e f i n e d as a 102 m e t r i c a l l y weak p i t c h or group of p i t c h e s p r e c e d i n g a m e t r i c a l l y s t r o n g a t t a c k . By d e f i n i t i o n , then, a n a c r u s i s i s a weak " a n t i c i p a t i v e " event. 1 7 I f the a c t of b e g i n n i n g always c r e a t e d a s t r o n g accent, then a n a c r u s i s c o u l d not e x i s t , because any p i t c h a t t a c k a f t e r a prolonged span of s i l e n c e or c a d e n t i a l d u r a t i o n would be s t r o n g l y accented by the f a c t of i t s e n t r y . Therefore, i f the f i r s t a t t a c k a f t e r a s t r o n g cadence i s an a n a c r u s i s , then there i s no beginning-accent, and the a t t a c k of the f i r s t p i t c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the a n a c r u s i s symbol, A • In Example 4-27, the s u p e r i u s cadences on C5 i n m. 5. T h i s p i t c h i s f o l l o w e d by the e q u i v a l e n t of one breve r e s t , and t h e r e f o r e i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the a n a l y s i s Example 4-27. N o t a t i o n f o r a n a c r u s i s (from Johannes P r i o r i s , Missa de Angelis, K y r i e , superius, mm. 4-7). H \ « <- 1 7 | , , , by the cadence symbol, rj . The subsequent phrase begins w i t h Bb4 on the weakest p a r t of the mensuration. That p i t c h i s R e c a l l Berry, Structural Functions, 327 and 342. 103 c l e a r l y a pickup to the m e t r i c a l l y accented A4. The a n a c r u s t i c r o l e of Bb4 i s shown w i t h the s y m b o l ^ , and no beginning-accent emerges. I f the a t t a c k of the a n a c r u s i s i s accented by some other parameter, then the symbol r e p r e s e n t i n g t h a t s t r o n g accent i s p l a c e d at the c o r r e s p o n d i n g t i m e p o i n t i n the a n a l y s i s . An a n a c r u s i s i s not c o n s i d e r e d a s t r o n g a t t a c k a f t e r a cadence p i t c h . Therefore, the timespan boundaries d e f i n e d above f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s t r o n g cz and t z cadences may i n c l u d e anacruses as the e q u i v a l e n t of r e s t s . In Example 4- 28, a l t u s and bassus a r t i c u l a t e a s t r o n g cz/tz cadence on G3 i n mm. 38-39. While the bassus cadence p i t c h i s f o l l o w e d by a Example 4-2 8 Strong cadence accent where cadence p i t c h p l u s r e s t are l e s s than a breve (from Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, Sanctus, a l t u s / b a s s u s mm. 38-40). A it 21 Ho J2Z 0 5 -p- P P o -p- i long r e s t , t h a t i n the a l t u s i s f o l l o w e d by a s h o r t r e s t and a n a c r u s i s . Although cadence p i t c h p l u s r e s t do not add up to 104 a breve i n the a l t u s p a r t , the a n a c r u s i s B3 i n m. 39 i s not a s t r o n g e n t r y . Consequently, one hears the a t t a c k of G3 i n the a l t u s as a s t r o n g c a d e n t i a l event. The a n a l y s i s uses the symbol a on t h a t a t t a c k to r e f l e c t t h i s h e a r i n g . Combined Accents Any t i m e p o i n t i n a melody may be s t r e s s e d by more than one type of accent. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s s i o n o u t l i n e s the c o n d i t i o n s and n o t a t i o n f o r combined accents. Combined D u r a t i o n a l and Leap Accent D u r a t i o n a l accent may accrue to any p i t c h a t t a c k a l s o accented by a l a r g e l e a p . These accents are n o t a t e d as v. T h i r d - l e a p s emphasized by d u r a t i o n a l accent take the v symbol l i k e any other d u r a t i o n - l e a p accent combination. T h i s symbol i s employed because the long d u r a t i o n g i v e s the accent p r i m a r y s t a t u s , even though t h i r d - l e a p s are o n l y s l i g h t l y accented. In Example 4-29, F3 i n m. 22 i s approached by leap from below; Example 4-29. D u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d t h i r d - l e a p (from V i c t o r i a , Missa Surge propera, G l o r i a , bassus, mm. 22-23). 105 i t a l s o s a t i s f i e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r d u r a t i o n a l accent. The combined leap and d u r a t i o n a l accent accrues to the a t t a c k of F3 and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by v, as shown on the lower s t a f f . Combined D u r a t i o n a l and Contour Accent A contour-accented timepoint may a l s o be marked by a d u r a t i o n a l accent. Any p i t c h a t t a c k s a t i s f y i n g the requirements f o r both contour and d u r a t i o n a l accent i s symbolized v. Example 4-3 0 has two s t r o n g accents--an upper C contour accent i n m. 12, and a lower contour accent i n m. 13. Example 4-3 0. Combined contour and d u r a t i o n a l accent (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , s u perius, mm. 12-13). c The contour accent on the a t t a c k of A4 i n m. 12, however, i s supplemented by a d u r a t i o n a l accent. The symbol v shows t h i s c combined accent. The a t t a c k of C4 i n m. 13 i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the r e g u l a r lower contour accent symbol, C. Combined D u r a t i o n a l and C a d e n t i a l Accent 106 Where a timepoint accented by a cadence i s a l s o d u r a t i o n a l l y accented, d r e p r e s e n t s the combined d u r a t i o n a l and c a d e n t i a l accent. For i n s t a n c e , Example 4-31 d e p i c t s an a n a l y s i s of a phrase ending w i t h a cadence on C5. The c a d e n t i a l p i t c h spans two breves, s a t i s f y i n g the c o n d i t i o n s Example 4-31. N o t a t i o n f o r d u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d cadence (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , G l o r i a , s u perius, mm. 57-63). 5"7 eg f1 to p)\ MH[- til-1 F | j [ ^ n | [ j f o r d u r a t i o n a l accent. The a t t a c k of C5 i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the combined c a d e n t i a l and d u r a t i o n a l symbol rj on the lower s t a f f . S i m i l a r l y , a timepoint accented by a cz or t z t h a t a l s o s a t i s f i e s the requirements f o r d u r a t i o n a l accent i s r e p r e s e n t e d by rj • Example 4-32 i l l u s t r a t e s a c a n t i z a n s cadence on D5. Since that p i t c h ' s d u r a t i o n spans a complete breve, the rj symbol corresponds to the a t t a c k of D5. 107 Example 4-32. Cantizans cadence w i t h d u r a t i o n a l accent (from Roland de Lassus, Missa super Le Berger et la Bergere, C h r i s t e , s u p e r i u s , mm. 21-23). 4 ii * -© 4 \ * As Repeated-note Cadences At cadences where the f i n a l p i t c h i n a l i n e i s r e p e a t e d the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s whether the f i r s t or the second a t t a c k of the note i s the cadence timepoint. On one hand, the r e p e t i t i o n of a f i n a l p i t c h may be heard as an e x t e n s i o n of t h a t p i t c h ' s d u r a t i o n , s u p p o r t i n g the view t h a t the i n i t i a l a t t a c k should r e t a i n the accent. In t h i s study, accents a t repeated-note cadences g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w the r u l e s f o r d u r a t i o n a l accents i n v o l v i n g repeated notes. T h e r e f o r e , both d u r a t i o n a l and c a d e n t i a l accent i n a repeated-note cadence n o r m a l l y accrue to the a t t a c k of the f i r s t i n s t a n c e of cp. On the other hand, t e x t accent may h e l p c l a r i f y which p i t c h a t t a c k imparts c a d e n t i a l accent i n a repeated-note 108 cadence. 1 8 The penultimate s y l l a b l e of the f i n a l word i n a Mass movement or s e c t i o n i s of t e n stronger than the f i n a l (e.g., e-lei-son, A-men, ex-cel-sis, no-bis, pa-cem) . I f the l a s t two s y l l a b l e s c o i n c i d e w i t h repeated notes, the stronger t e x t accent suggests c a d e n t i a l accent at the a t t a c k of the i n i t i a l occurrence of the p i t c h . In the a l t u s of Example 4- 33, B4 i s repeated at the cadence. The f i r s t a t t a c k of that p i t c h sets the s y l l a b l e -lei, from the word eleison. That timepoint a r t i c u l a t e s the f i n a l p i t c h i n the melody and c o i n c i d e s w i t h the stronger t e x t accent. Moreover, the square brackets i n the example show how one may d i s c e r n the e f f e c t of hemiola i n t h i s passage. The hemiola creates a pulse that c o i n c i d e s w i t h the atta c k of the second B3, r e i n f o r c i n g the strong t e x t accent at that timepoint. These f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to the perception of the f i r s t a t t a c k of B3 as Example 4-33. Repeated-note cadence i n La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e , a l t u s and tenor, mm. 57-59. T lei - - - S°» ""• i O 2 c. » E - 1-8 R e c a l l the d i s c u s s i o n on the r o l e of t e x t accents i n Chapter I I I , p. 38. 109 c a d e n t i a l ; thus, t h a t timepoint i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the combined c a d e n t i a l and d u r a t i o n a l accent symbol, t j . In cases where a repeated-note cadence has a s t r o n g e r t e x t accent on a p i t c h other than the f i r s t i n the s e r i e s , c o n f l i c t a r i s e s between t e x t u a l and d u r a t i o n a l accent. For example, there are i n s t a n c e s where the f i r s t of two repeated notes a t a cadence i s an a n t i c i p a t i o n . In these cases, c a d e n t i a l accent accrues to the second of the two p i t c h a t t a c k s . The c o n d i t i o n s f o r a n t i c i p a t i o n are p r o v i d e d below i n the s e c t i o n on embellishments. Combined C a d e n t i a l and Leap Accent I f the a t t a c k of cp s a t i s f i e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r non- p a r a d i g m a t i c c a d e n t i a l accent without added d u r a t i o n a l emphasis, but i s a l s o accented by a leap, i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the symbol (J . In Example 4-3 4, the t e r m i n a t i o n of G3 i s f o l l o w e d by a f u l l breve r e s t ; c a d e n t i a l accent thus accrues Example 4-34 v m ) > r f i r r ' i f i r i f r 1 r—\ - | | Cadence accent combined w i t h leap (from Josquin, antiphon Salve regina, bassus, mm. 56-60). I 110 t o the a t t a c k of G3. That a t t a c k i s a l s o accented by an ascending p e r f e c t f o u r t h leap, so the symbol [j i n the lower s t a f f shows the combined accent s t a t u s of t h a t t i m e p o i n t . Combined C a d e n t i a l and Contour Accent The accent on the a t t a c k of the penultimate note i n a c a n t i z a n s paradigm can n e i t h e r exceed nor be equal to t h a t of the cadence tone. T h i s i s because the cadence tone i s a melodic g o a l , and i s normally d u r a t i o n a l l y more emphasized than the former. However, i f the p e n u l t i s the lowest p i t c h i n the immediate passage and s a t i s f i e s the requirements f o r a contour accent, the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r such a c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r i s e s . To make the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of these accents c l e a r i n the a n a l y s i s , the a n a l y t i c n o t a t i o n i s a l t e r e d . I f the pen u l t i m a t e note at a cadence i s lower than the cadence tone and s a t i s f i e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r a contour accent, then t h a t note i s shown as a shaded semibreve. Example 4-35 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s s i t u a t i o n . In a " L a n d i n i " cadence, the antepenultimate note i s shown as a shaded semibreve, and the penultimate note (a t h i r d under the f i n a l ) i s shown as a shaded round notehead i n parentheses (see d i s c u s s i o n under the heading " E m b e l l i s h i n g Events and A d d i t i o n a l N o t a t i o n a l Symbols" below). The shaded breve thus s i g n i f i e s t h a t the a t t a c k of the lower note i n I l l these cadence formulae s a t i s f i e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r contour accent, but t h a t the c a d e n t i a l accent i s s t r o n g e r . Example 4-35. N o t a t i o n f o r a c a n t i z a n s cadence where the p e n u l t would normally r e c e i v e contour accent (from Josquin, Missa. L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I, s u p e r i u s , mm. 15-16). Contour accent does not accrue to the a t t a c k of the c a d e n t i a l note i t s e l f i n these s i t u a t i o n s because the p e n u l t i s a c t u a l l y lower. In a t e n o r i z a n s cadence, however, the ti m e p o i n t i n i t i a t i n g the cp may have combined c a d e n t i a l and contour accents i f i t f u l f i l s the r e q u i r e d c o n d i t i o n s f o r both. In Example 4-3 6, the onset of C3 i n m. 21 i s accented by a paradigmatic tz cadence and by contour. Thus, the |j c symbol on the lower s t a f f r e p r e s e n t s the a t t a c k of t h a t p i t c h S i m i l a r l y , Example 4-37 i l l u s t r a t e s a case of upper contour accent at a non-paradigmatic cadence. In t h i s example, D5 i s the g o a l of an ascent from G5. The placement of D5 s a t i s f i e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r contour accent, but D5 i s a l s o a 112 Example 4-36. Tenorizans lower contour accent at cadence (from La Rue Missa L'homme arme I I , G l o r i a , bassus, mm. 18-22) . I? c •2: c a d e n t i a l p i t c h . The combined c a d e n t i a l and contour accent on c the a t t a c k of the p i t c h i s re p r e s e n t e d by the symbol, rj Example 4-37. Upper contour accent at cadence (from P a l e s t r i n a , motet Paries quidem filium, superius, mm. 72-76) . 113 Combined C a d e n t i a l , D u r a t i o n a l and Leap or Contour Accent Timepoints a t which a l l three types of accent c o i n c i d e occur most f r e q u e n t l y i n the lowest v o i c e of the p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e i n Renaissance music. The most common i n s t a n c e of t h i s type of combined accent i s a non-paradigmatic cp f u r t h e r accented by both leap and d u r a t i o n . When t h i s occurs, the symbol c z j appears i n the a n a l y s i s . Example 4-38 shows one such i n s t a n c e . The bassus F2 i s approached by a descending p e r f e c t - f i f t h leap; i t s d u r a t i o n spans two f u l l breves, and i t s t e r m i n a t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by a f u l l breve r e s t . S ince t h i s p i t c h s a t i s f i e s the c r i t e r i a f o r leap, d u r a t i o n a l and c a d e n t i a l accent, the s y m b o l J r e p r e s e n t s the t r i p l e accent t h a t accrues to the a t t a c k of F2. Example 4-3 8 Combined cadence, leap and d u r a t i o n accent (from Obrecht, motet, Salve crux arbor vitae (Secunda p a r s ) , bassus, mm. 98-102) . I f i=r 114 S i m i l a r l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a t i m e p o i n t to be accented by cadence, d u r a t i o n and contour. T h i s most commonly occurs w i t h p a r a d i g m a t i c t z cadences i n any v o i c e . In Example 4-39, the tenor descends from D4 to A3. The l a t t e r p i t c h i s f o l l o w e d by two-and-one-half breves r e s t , so t h a t c a d e n t i a l accent accrues to i t s a t t a c k . That timepoint i s a l s o accented by d u r a t i o n and contour, so i t i s shown as C Example 4-39. Combined c a d e n t i a l , d u r a t i o n a l and contour accent (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , G l o r i a , tenor, 92-95). ^—*—•= 1 = I m •f o E m b e l l i s h i n g Events and A d d i t i o n a l N o t a t i o n a l Symbols Composers i n the Renaissance had recourse to s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t e m b e l l i s h i n g g e s t u r e s . These i n c l u d e d neighbour notes, the " u n d e r - t h i r d " note of the L a n d i n i cadence, a n t i c i p a t i o n s , and echapees. The p i t c h e s e m b e l l i s h e d by these a u x i l i a r y events may be marked by e i t h e r primary or secondary a c c e n t s . Before d i s c u s s i n g how these embellishments w i l l be t r e a t e d i n the a n a l y s i s , they need to be d e f i n e d . 115 A l l embellishments are c o n t e x t u a l . That i s , they r e l y on the surrounding v o i c e s f o r t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s . In t h i s study, a neighbour note i s a p i t c h t h a t steps away from, then back to the p i t c h which i t embellishes, and whose d u r a t i o n i s l e s s than one mensural d i v i s i o n . 1 9 Furthermore, i t must be d i s s o n a n t w i t h some other note or notes i n the f u l l t e x t u r e . 2 0 In the a n a l y s i s , as Example 4-40 i l l u s t r a t e s , neighbour notes Example 4-40. K3 N o t a t i o n f o r lower neighbour note (from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e , a l t u s and tenor mm. 45-46) . r • * r — = 1 - L m — ! N=4= 1 9 The h i s t o r i c a l r o l e of upper neighbour notes i n s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y polyphony i s as y e t u n c l e a r (see f o r example Knud Jeppesen, Counterpoint. The Polyphonic Vocal Style of the Sixteenth Century, t r a n s l a t e d by Glen Haydon (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1939), 91; A r t h u r T i l l m a n M e r r i t t , S i x t e e n t h - C e n t u r y Polyphony. A Basis for the Study of Counterpoint (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967), 72; and Peter Schubert, Modal Counterpoint, Renaissance Style ( M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1994), 40). N e v e r t h e l e s s , upper neighbour notes s a t i s f y i n g the b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s g i v e n here are found i n the works of the composers c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study. Th e r e f o r e , both upper and lower neighbours are t r e a t e d as a u x i l i a r y events here. 2 0 Here we invoke a c o n t e x t u a l premise f o r the purpose of making c l e a r the e m b e l l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n of a neighbour note. In any m u s i c a l s t y l e , a neighbour note i s c l a r i f i e d by the f a c t of i t s dissonance. T h i s requirement d i s t i n g u i s h e s these motions from consonant 5-6 i n t e r v a l l i c motions. 116 are p l a c e d i n parentheses to h i g h l i g h t t h e i r e m b e l l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n . The E4 i n the a l t u s i s consonant w i t h A3 i n the tenor, which i s a r t i c u l a t i n g a t e n o r i z a n s cadence. The D3 below E3 spans l e s s than one mensural d i v i s i o n , and c r e a t e s a dissonance (fourth) w i t h the tenor A3. The u n d e r - t h i r d note of the " L a n d i n i " cadence may be c o n s i d e r e d a d i s s o n a n t embellishment f o r three reasons. F i r s t , s i n c e t h i s f i g u r e i s commonly found a t c a n t i z a n s cadences, the penultimate (under-third) note must be c o n s i d e r e d secondary to the antepenultimate. T h i s i s because the antepenultimate note forms the s i x t h or t h i r d w i t h the t e n o r i z a n s , and t h e r e f o r e e f f e c t s the motion to an octave or u n i s o n . Second, although the u n d e r - t h i r d note forms a consonant f i f t h above the t e n o r i z a n s , i t c r e a t e s a d i s s o n a n t f o u r t h below. F i n a l l y , the u n d e r - t h i r d note i s n o r m a l l y s h o r t e r than the p i t c h i t f o l l o w s . These three f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to the p e r c e p t i o n of the u n d e r - t h i r d p i t c h as e m b e l l i s h i n g . Consequently, that p i t c h i s shown i n parentheses when i t occurs. Example 4-41 shows the a n a l y s i s of a L a n d i n i cadence. Since the B3 at the end of m. 10 i n the a l t u s i s an embellishment, the a n a l y s i s of the cadence shows the e s s e n t i a l motion from C(#)4-D4. In t h i s way, the a n a l y s i s does not f a l s e l y show a combined leap and cadence accent on the a t t a c k of the cadence tone. The melodic c h a r a c t e r of the a n t i c i p a t i o n had v a r i o u s forms around the t u r n of the s i x t e e n t h century, but was 117 Example 4-41. N o t a t i o n f o r the u n d e r - t h i r d p i t c h of the " L a n d i n i " cadence (from Obrecht, Missa Adieu mes amours, Credo, s u p e r i u s and a l t u s , mm. 10-11) . lo p ) 1 •'• IT] 1 1 n h \ > >' t *; t t ] ~ t — — l [ [ 1 -B e r h y t h m i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . " A n t i c i p a t i o n s may, under a l l circumstances, come o n l y on unaccented q u a r t e r s [or e i g h t h s ] of the measure." 2 1 Jeppesen p o i n t s out t h a t the a n t i c i p a t i o n i s o n l y approached by step from above i n the works of P a l e s t r i n a . 2 2 However, [t]he a n t i c i p a t i o n approached from below i s o f t e n to be found i n e a r l y I t a l i a n composers from the b e g i n n i n g of the s i x t e e n t h century, and a l s o i n the contemporary Netherlanders . . . Here, too, the a n t i c i p a t i o n 2 1 Jeppesen, Counterpoint, 94. 2 2 I b i d . 118 approached by a descending s k i p of a t h i r d i s u n u s u a l l y common, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h J o s q u i n des Prez . . . 2 3 Example 4-42 reproduces a s i t u a t i o n l i k e t h a t i d e n t i f i e d by Jeppesen. Here the s u p e r i u s and a l t u s approach a cadence on A3-A4 i n m. 33. The b a s i c c o u n t e r p o i n t l e a d i n g to the cadence tim e p o i n t i s a set of p a r a l l e l s i x t h s . The A4 q u a r t e r note i n m. 32 a n t i c i p a t e s the a r r i v a l of the A4 a s i x t h above C4. As Jeppesen p o i n t s out, i t does not matter whether the a n t i c i p a t i o n i s consonant or d i s s o n a n t . 2 4 " P a r t i c u l a r l y smooth and o r g a n i c i s the e f f e c t of the a n t i c i p a t i o n i f i t stands d i r e c t l y b e f o r e the suspension dissonance . . . " 2 5 Such i s the case w i t h A4 a n t i c i p a t i o n , e n c l o s e d i n parentheses, i n Example 4-42 . Example 4-42. N o t a t i o n f o r a n t i c i p a t i o n (from J o s q u i n , Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, Credo, superius and a l t u s , mm. 32-33). 3 A SB § 23 24 25 I b i d . I b i d . , 149. I b i d . 119 One more e m b e l l i s h i n g f i g u r e - - t h e echapee--requires d e f i n i t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n . The echapee i s a p i t c h t h a t i s stepped to and l e a p t from, that occurs on the weak p a r t of the mensural d i v i s i o n , and that c r e a t e s a di s s o n a n t i n t e r v a l w i t h a t l e a s t one v o i c e i n the t e x t u r e . Example 4-43 i l l u s t r a t e s a common use of the echapee. Here, F4 i n the a l t u s makes an octave w i t h F3 i n the tenor on the t h i r d q u a r t e r of m. 14. The step up to the G4 c r e a t e s a disso n a n t n i n t h w i t h the tenor, and i s f o l l o w e d by a t h i r d - l e a p down to a consonant E4. L i k e the other e m b e l l i s h i n g gestures, the echapee i s p l a c e d i n parentheses, and the music i s analyzed as though the d e c o r a t i o n were not there. Example 4-43. N o t a t i o n f o r echapee (from Johannes L u p i , motet Gaude tu baptista Christe, a l t u s and tenor, mm. 14-15). t(t\t f —| > -2 1 4#W 0 ( L \ -4- —f" i r ' v 1 -A • . •—(*) „ 120 Example 4-44 shows a second k i n d of echapee commonly used by composers around 1500. That i s the cambiata f i g u r e - - a s t e p down to a dissonance, then leap down a t h i r d to consonance. Example 4-44. Cambiata echapee, (from Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, superius and a l t u s , m. 133) . In t h i s excerpt, the e s s e n t i a l motion between the v o i c e s i s t h a t of p a r a l l e l t h i r d s : C4-E4 to G3-B3 from the f i r s t .to the t h i r d q u a r t e r s . The C4-G3 f o u r t h i s f i l l e d i n w i t h two p a s s i n g tones. The E4-B3 f o u r t h c o n t a i n s a D4 which c r e a t e s a d i s s o n a n t f o u r t h w i t h A3 i n the s u p e r i u s . Again, the echapee i s p l a c e d i n parentheses, and the a l t u s passage i s a n a l y z e d as though i t were not there. T i e s The a n a l y t i c symbology and methodology p r e s e n t e d above w i l l r e p r e s e n t most p i t c h a t t a c k s i n a p i e c e of s a c r e d 121 polyphony from around 1500. However, p i t c h e s are o f t e n repeated i n t h i s r e p e r t o i r e w i t h b r e a t h r e s t s between the end of one occurrence and the onset of another. O c c a s i o n a l l y , the f i r s t i n the s e r i e s of p i t c h e s i s accented by leap or contour. Since the b r e a t h r e s t does not i n t e r r u p t the melodic c o n t i n u i t y , the s t r o n g accent i s shown o n l y on the i n i t i a l a t t a c k of the p i t c h . The b r e a t h r e s t i s n o t a t e d (with the symbol BR above i t ) , and the t i e j o i n s the notes on e i t h e r s i d e of the b r e a t h r e s t . T h i s w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y r e s u l t i n two d i f f e r e n t a n a l y t i c symbols j o i n e d by a t i e . In Example 4- 45, f o r i n s t a n c e , C4 i s a t t a c k e d by an octave leap, f o l l o w e d by a b r e a t h r e s t , and r e p e a t e d . 2 6 The a n a l y s i s shows the s t r o n g l e a p accent on the a t t a c k of the i n i t i a l C4 t i e d to the weaker accent on the a t t a c k of the repeated p i t c h . Example 4-45. P i t c h e s separated by a b r e a t h r e s t (from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , tenor, m. 12). I f the cumulative v a l u e s of C4 here were to s a t i s f y the c o n d i t i o n s f o r repeated-note accents, the symbol I would correspond to the a t t a c k of the i n i t i a l C4 (cf. the d i s c u s s i o n under d u r a t i o n e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r ) . 122 A n a l y s i s of the Cantus Prius Factus Compositions s e t to a cantus firmus (CF) g e n e r a l l y p r e s e n t the o r i g i n a l tune i n long-note v a l u e s . In e f f e c t , t h i s procedure c r e a t e s d u r a t i o n a l accent on the a t t a c k of every CF p i t c h . I n stead of showing a l l these accents, however, the a n a l y s i s shows o n l y the o r i g i n a l accent s t r u c t u r e of the CF tune. T h i s approach w i l l h e l p us understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p i t c h e s a t accented t i m e p o i n t s i n the o r i g i n a l melody and the timepoints accented by the added v o i c e s i n the p i e c e . Where o n l y a p a r t i a l cantus prius factus i s used i n a movement, i t s f i n a l p i t c h i s c o n s i d e r e d c a d e n t i a l , r e g a r d l e s s of t h a t note's o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n i n the melody. The c a d e n t i a l accent augments the o r i g i n a l accent f o r the onset of t h a t note. An e l a b o r a t e d cantus firmus i s s u b j e c t to the same a n a l y t i c procedure as the other v o i c e s . C o n c l u s i o n The a n a l y s i s w i l l proceed w i t h the s t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n of the r u l e s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n o t a t i o n a l symbols g i v e n above to Missae L'homme arme by Josquin, La Rue, Obrecht and Ockeghem. A p p l i c a t i o n of the r u l e s i n combination w i t h our unique form of n o t a t i o n s h a l l produce c l e a r l y - n o t a t e d overviews of each movement. These overviews w i l l show the 123 r e l a t i v e strong-weak i n t e r - and i n t r a p a r a m e t r i c accent s t r e n g t h s f o r i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s , as w e l l as accent c o i n c i d e n c e between v o i c e p a r t s . The methodology and n o t a t i o n proposed above are designed to show how the s t r o n g accents c r e a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l melodies combine i n polyphonic works. Although such events as d u r a t i o n a l l y - e x t e n d e d note val u e s and l a r g e leaps are v i s u a l l y apparent i n a musi c a l score, the f u l l - t e x t u r e d i n t e r a c t i o n of those events i s l e s s e v i d e n t . Our n o t a t i o n makes simultaneous accents i n two or more v o i c e s more immediately v i s i b l e . I t c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of accent i n the f u l l texture--whether there i s an accent at any giv e n t i m e p o i n t i n one, two, three, f o u r or more v o i c e s . Consequently, the a n a l y s i s w i l l a l l o w us to rank the accented t i m e p o i n t s i n a p i e c e on the b a s i s of both number of v o i c e s and s t r e n g t h s of accent. The n o t a t i o n of accent s t r u c t u r e w i l l a l s o r e v e a l r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r timespan o r g a n i z a t i o n c r e a t e d by these s t r o n g l y accented timepoints i n the m u l t i - v o i c e aggregate, and thus p r o v i d e us wit h i n s i g h t i n t o form. 124 CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS We o u t l i n e d the a n a l y t i c . a p p r o a c h and symbology i n the p r e v i o u s chapter; l e t us now apply i t to examples from the r e p e r t o r y . T h i s chapter presents the analyses of K y r i e s from f i v e d i f f e r e n t L'homme arme Masses. The Masses from which the K y r i e s come are c o n s i d e r e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order--Ockeghem, Obrecht, La Rue and J o s q u i n . C o n f i n i n g the analyses to same- t e x t e d movements allows us b e t t e r to compare and c o n t r a s t rhythmic, formal, and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s generated by i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s , and by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n the p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e . Since the K y r i e movements of Masses are commonly d i v i d e d i n t o three d i s t i n c t s e c t i o n s on the b a s i s of t e x t - - K y r i e eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie elei son--they p r o v i d e us w i t h a c o n s i s t e n t model f o r comparing the works of the d i f f e r e n t composers. The a n a l y s i s proceeds i n three stages. D i s c u s s i o n begins w i t h g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s of each movement. Such f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e v o i c i n g , CF treatment, t e x t u r e , mensuration, canonic techniques and t e x t underlay, 125 which s e t the context f o r the a n a l y s i s . The second stage c o n s i d e r s d e t a i l s of the d i f f e r e n t v o i c e p a r t s , c a l l e d superius, altus, tenor and bassus i n t h i s study. Here we w i l l comment on timespan p e r i o d i c i t y c r e a t e d by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of st r o n g accents i n a s e c t i o n . Moreover, we w i l l address phrase s t r u c t u r e a r i s i n g from c a d e n t i a l accent, and p o i n t out p a t t e r n s of p i t c h - c l a s s coherence a f f o r d e d by the d i f f e r e n t primary acc e n t s . The t h i r d stage i s a more s y n o p t i c a n a l y s i s t h a t focuses on the i n t e r a c t i o n of str o n g accents. Accent d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e , r e g u l a r i t y of timespans c r e a t e d by s t r o n g l y accented timepoints, c o n f i r m a t i o n or d e n i a l of the beginnings of breves, c o n s i s t e n c y of p i t c h - c l a s s a t accented t i m e p o i n t s , and form are the p r i n c i p a l i s s u e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n here. These s y n o p t i c analyses uncover f e a t u r e s of p o l y p h o n i c s t r u c t u r e s p e c i f i c to each movement, as w e l l as s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s that can be compared to other movements. Moreover, they show that timespan p a t t e r n i n g and emphasized p i t c h c l a s s e s i n i n d i v i d u a l melodies are o f t e n m a n i f e s t i n s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s c r e a t e d by c o i n c i d e n t t h r e e - and f o u r - v o i c e a c c e n t s . We w i l l r e q u i r e c l e a r g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of each movement's accent s t r u c t u r e to f a c i l i t a t e our comparison. These are obt a i n e d by removing weak and unaccented events from the f u l l a nalyses of the K y r i e s e t t i n g s . The r e s u l t a n t e x t r a c t i o n of s t r o n g accents c o n s t i t u t e s an accent profile of 126 each movement. These p r o f i l e s i n t u r n a l l o w us to compare and c o n t r a s t d i f f e r e n t p i e c e s ' formal s t r u c t u r e s . A n a l y s i s of L'homme arme The f i v e K y r i e s e t t i n g s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study a l l use L'homme arme as a CF; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s analyzed f i r s t . As was noted i n Chapter I I I , the accent s t r u c t u r e of a long-note CF does not depend on the exact d u r a t i o n s employed i n the framework. Example 5-1 analyzes melodic accent i n one v e r s i o n of L'homme arme.1 The mensuration i s tempus imperfectus cum prolatione perfecta, t r a n s c r i b e d i n the Cohen study as 4. The l o n g e s t d u r a t i o n s are the two d o t t e d whole notes--which r e p r e s e n t breves i n t h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n - - i n mm. 9 and 31. D u r a t i o n a l accent accrues to t h e i r a t t a c k s only, because the remainder of the d u r a t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g repeated-note combinations) are u n i f o r m l y h a l f - , whole- or dotted-whole-note v a l u e s . 2 1 The source f o r L'homme arme i n Example 5-1 i s J u d i t h Cohen, The Six Anonymous L'homme arme Masses in Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale, MS VI E 40 (American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1968), 10. T h i s v e r s i o n of the tune i s used i n s e v e r a l of the movements analyzed i n t h i s study. 2 Thus, although the d o t t e d - h a l f v a l u e s would n o r m a l l y c r e a t e d u r a t i o n a l accent a c c o r d i n g to the d e f i n i t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n Chapter IV, here they do not. I f a l l v a l u e s equal to or g r e a t e r than a d o t t e d h a l f were analyzed as d u r a t i o n a l accents i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r monophonic song, then there would be twenty one such accents i n a span of seventeen breves. Such an a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y would not bear out the l i s t e n e r ' s experience. 127 Example 5-1. A n a l y s i s of L'homme arme. 2 l JO p =p l o o 1 I I | if ' ° p_-e- n r ftEP c * -fr . A' 6 A 30 9-9- The tune e x h i b i t s a simple t e r n a r y (ABA') s t r u c t u r e w i t h each s e c t i o n made up of s h o r t but d i s t i n c t phrases. The ends of the phrases are marked e i t h e r by leaps or by descending stepwise motion. These step-descents at the ends of phrases are a n a l y z e d as t e n o r i z a n s cadences. C a d e n t i a l accents thus occur i n mm. 4, 9, 23, 27 and 32. The f i r s t p i t c h a t t a c k i n A i s symbolized as A ( b e g i n n i n g - a c c e n t ) . The i n i t i a l G4 at the r e t u r n of A' i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the same symbol. In t h i s way, the symbology r e p r e s e n t s and c l a r i f i e s the form of the tune. Furthermore, a n a l y s i s of the ORIG REP p a t t e r n at the b e g i n n i n g of s e c t i o n B e x e m p l i f i e s how the symbology r e p r e s e n t s melodic 128 de s i g n by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the members of the phrases i n the melody. Some of the composers r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s study use a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of L'homme arme. Example 5-2 shows t h i s common m o d i f i c a t i o n , which s u b s t i t u t e s an E3 f o r the l a s t G3 i n the ORIG REP motives. The a n a l y s i s shows the a t t a c k of the E3 as t a k i n g a t h i r d - l e a p accent. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the a t t a c k of D3 a t the end of the phrase takes a contour accent, so the e x t r a l e a p does not a f f e c t the s t r o n g accents i n the o r i g i n a l tune. Example 5-2. A n a l y s i s of m o d i f i e d motive from L'homme arme (from La Rue, Missa l'homme arme I I , Credo, a l t u s , mm. 104-107) . Having d i s c u s s e d g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c elements of the a n a l y s i s , and p o i n t e d out l a r g e - s c a l e formal d i v i s i o n s , l e t us move on to the extraction of non-accented elements. To do t h i s , we simply remove a l l shaded noteheads to get a p i c t u r e of the primary accents i n the tune. The e x t r a c t i o n shown i n Example 5-3 shows that strong accents mark o f f a l t e r n a t i n g longer and sho r t e r timespans. Representing the e x t r a c t e d a n a l y s i s g r a p h i c a l l y produces the p a t t e r n i n Figure 5-1. Example 5-3. E x t r a c t e d a n a l y s i s of L'homme arme. Figure 5-1. Timespan p a t t e r n i n g created by strong accents i n L'homme arme. 5 $ o I • 10 I J . I . l o 15 o U 20 c o 25 30 IJ II 130 Each measure i n the upper p a r t of the f i g u r e corresponds to one measure of music ( i . e . , breve) i n the o r i g i n a l song. V e r t i c a l l i n e s j o i n e d by h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s i n the lower p a r t of the f i g u r e i n d i c a t e beginnings and endings of phrases marked o f f by the v a r i o u s s t r o n g accents. Example 5-3 and F i g u r e 5-1 p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on how melodic accent c r e a t e s broad rhythmic p a t t e r n s i n L'homme arme. Strong accents h i g h l i g h t the beginnings and endings of phrases, and t h e r e f o r e of longer and s h o r t e r timespans i n L'homme arme. The timespans between primary accents shown i n F i g u r e 5-1 can be i n t e r p r e t e d as m o t i v i c . For example,.the r e g u l a r a l t e r n a t i o n of longer and s h o r t e r spans i n the A and A' s e c t i o n s may be heard as a r e p e t i t i o n of a f r e e augmentation of the prominent rhythmic motive, o J • The A s e c t i o n i s s t r u c t u r e d as mm. 1-4 = o; m. 5 = J ; mm. 6-9 = O ; m. 10 = J . In c o n t r a s t to the l o n g - s h o r t a l t e r n a t i o n of A and A', the B s e c t i o n has two long timespans i n a row f o l l o w e d by a s h o r t e r one. The s h o r t e r span here corresponds to the r e s t and a n a c r u s i s i n m . l l . The f i n a l phrase i n B i s l o n g e r a g a i n . However, the l o n g e s t timespan between accents i n B i s o n l y t h r e e measures; every other long timespan i n the tune t r a v e r s e s f o u r measures. Thus, the ABA' form of the tune, e v i d e n t i n c o n t r a s t s of r e g i s t e r and phrases, i s a l s o m a n i f e s t i n the c o n t r a s t i n g timespan p a t t e r n i n g c r e a t e d by melodic accent. 131 The a n a l y s i s of the cantus prius factus has shown how the a n a l y t i c methodology and e x t r a c t i o n process may be a p p l i e d i n a monophonic t e x t u r e . The i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned from the a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s us wi t h d e t a i l s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e n t - d e l i m i t e d timespans and formal s t r u c t u r e . Now we are prepared to move on to the L'homme arme K y r i e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s study. Ockeghem, K y r i e I from Missa L'homme arme Example 5-4 prese n t s the a n a l y s i s of the f i r s t s e c t i o n of Ockeghem's K y r i e . 3 The s c r i b e ' s t e x t underlay i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s shown i n the example; i t i s l i m i t e d to the opening " K y r i e " and c l o s i n g " e l e i s o n " (so a l l the remaining underlay i n the score i s e d i t o r i a l ) . The mensuration s i g n a t u r e (O ) denotes tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta. The breve i n t h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s rep r e s e n t e d by a d o t t e d breve (double-whole n o t e ) . The movement l a c k s i m i t a t i o n , and f e a t u r e s a g e n e r a l u n i f o r m i t y of rhythmic v a l u e s i n each v o i c e p a r t . The cantus prius factus i s i n the tenor, i n long-note v a l u e s . I t s a n a l y s i s corresponds to that g i v e n i n Example 5- 1, w i t h one exc e p t i o n . The A s e c t i o n l a c k s i t s f i n a l D4-G3 3 The source f o r Ockeghem's K y r i e i s Johannes Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, e d i t e d by Dragan Plamenac i n Johannes Ockeghem Collected Works, Second, C o r r e c t e d E d i t i o n , Volume I, Masses I-VIII (American M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y : Galaxy Music C o r p o r a t i o n , 1959), 99-100. 132 133 f i f t h - l e a p . T h i s omission proves to be important to the a c c e n t u a l d e s i g n of the movement. The s u p e r i u s e x h i b i t s s e v e r a l primary accents of d i f f e r e n t types i n the f i r s t f our measures alone. I t begins w i t h a d u r a t i o n a l accent [O ), then climbs to C5, whose a t t a c k C i s marked by a contour accent ( ^ ) . The subsequent t h i r d - l e a p to A4 i s marked by the symbol ^ to show the combined l e a p - p l u s - d u r a t i o n accent at the beginning of m. 2. The a t t a c k of the D4 cadence p i t c h i n m. 3 (tenorizans paradigm) has a combined c a d e n t i a l - p l u s - c o n t o u r accent ( U ) . T h i s and the ° J c a d e n t i a l - d u r a t i o n a l accent symbol mm. 13 (•) make c l e a r the s h o r t - l o n g phrase s t r u c t u r e of t h i s p a r t . Other symbols i n the superius i n c l u d e the a n a c r u s i s a t the end of m. 3. Here, C5 s a t i s f i e s the c r i t e r i a f o r a n a c r u s i s , and c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n s as a pickup to the d u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d D5 beginning i n m. 4. In m. 5 the onset of C5 i s marked by a leap accent; t h i s immediately f o l l o w s a lower contour accent on the a t t a c k of G4. D u r a t i o n a l accent only, r e p r e s e n t e d by o , accrues to the a t t a c k of A4 a t the b e g i n n i n g of m. 8 d e s p i t e the approach to t h a t p i t c h by a c a d e n t i a l formula. (The superius cantizans i n m. 7 i s p a i r e d w i t h a l t u s tenorizans. A4 i n the upper v o i c e i s suspended and r e s o l v e s to G4, which then steps back up to A4 i n m. 8. Ockeghem evades the cadence by c o n t i n u i n g w i t h a t h i r d - l e a p to F4 i n the same measure. The c a d e n t i a l accent i s weakened by the c o n t i n u e d melody, but s t r o n g d u r a t i o n a l accent s t i l l 134 accrues to the a t t a c k of A4.) T h i s type of c a d e n t i a l e v a s i o n i s common to Renaissance polyphony. Weak accents i n the superius i n c l u d e the evaded cadence ( • ) on the downbeat of m. 10. In the pr e c e d i n g measure, the sup e r i u s A4 i s set a g a i n s t a suspended a l t u s G4, which r e s o l v e s (embellished by a t h i r d - l e a p ) to F4. T h i s d e c o r a t e d 2-3 suspension suggests a c a n t i z a n s - t e n o r i z a n s cadence paradigm. However, the superius does not r e s o l v e to G4 w i t h the a l t u s ; i n s t e a d , i t evades the cadence by s t e p p i n g up to B4 . Measure 11 c o n t a i n s an i n s t a n c e of the cambiata echapee. C5 i n t h a t measure s a t i s f i e s the c r i t e r i a f o r t h a t f i g u r e ; i t i s r h y t h m i c a l l y short, and i t i s dis s o n a n t w i t h both the tenor and bassus. Consequently, the echapee i s re p r e s e n t e d by the symbol (m ) . Now l e t us c o n s i d e r what these accents suggest about the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of the superius melody. S t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t g e n e r a l l y do not c o i n c i d e w i t h the beginnings of mensural u n i t s . Only s i x of the t h i r t e e n mensural p u l s e s have such c o i n c i d e n c e . Both s t r o n g cadences, however, c o i n c i d e w i t h the beginning of a not a t e d breve, i n mm. 3 and 13. The f i r s t phrase i s s h o r t e s t w i t h a d i s t i n c t up-down a r c h contour, and i s s t r o n g l y marked by fou r primary a c c e n t s . The second phrase i s longer, w i t h a more u n d u l a t i n g contour and more s t r o n g accents. 135 Two p a t t e r n s emerge from the a n a l y s i s of the s u p e r i u s . Strong accents ( e x c l u d i n g cadences) g e n e r a l l y appear i n immediate s u c c e s s i o n , w i t h no i n t e r v e n i n g weak accents, i n s e r i e s of two. T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n mm. 1-2, 4, 5, 9 and 12. A l s o , c a d e n t i a l and d u r a t i o n a l accents tend to c o i n c i d e w i t h downbeats, while leap and contour accents g e n e r a l l y do not. Although there i s no broad rhythmic p a t t e r n i n g i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t , the a n a l y s i s might p o i n t to hypotheses about Ockeghem's placement of c a d e n t i a l accents w i t h r e s p e c t to the n o t a t e d mensuration. However, i t would be premature to draw c o n c l u s i o n s b e f o r e we have c o n s i d e r e d the a l t u s and bassus v o i c e p a r t s . Before we move on to d i s c u s s i o n of s i m i l a r t o p i c s i n those other v o i c e s , l e t us see whether the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s coherence of p i t c h c l a s s . There are e i g h t e e n s t r o n g accents i n the s u p e r i u s . Of these, s i x c o i n c i d e w i t h a t t a c k s of D, f i v e w i t h G, three w i t h A, two w i t h C and one each w i t h E and F. These f i n d i n g s expose emphasis on G and D ( p i t c h c l a s s e s which are r e p e a t e d l y emphasized i n the CF). Let us examine, i n l i g h t of o b s e r v a t i o n s on the s u p e r i u s melody, s i m i l a r aspects of the a l t u s ( c a l l e d contratenor i n the o r i g i n a l ) . The a l t u s has three d i s t i n c t phrases. The f i r s t opens wi t h a d u r a t i o n a l accent on the a t t a c k of D4, then climbs to an upper contour accent at the onset of A4 i n m. 2. T h i s p i t c h i s f o l l o w e d by two l a r g e leaps a c c e n t i n g the a t t a c k s of D4 and G4 r e s p e c t i v e l y . A " L a n d i n i " cadence--with 136 u n d e r - t h i r d note i n p a r e n t h e s e s - - c l o s e s t h i s opening phrase. The c a d e n t i a l a t t a c k of G4 i n m. 4 i s f o l l o w e d by a second a t t a c k of the same p i t c h . That second a t t a c k may be c o n s i d e r e d a repeated-note e x t e n s i o n of the c a d e n t i a l event, and thus imparts combined c a d e n t i a l - d u r a t i o n a l accent to the a t t a c k of G4. The c a d e n t i a l p i t c h i s a l s o the s t a r t i n g p i t c h of the next, o v e r l a p p i n g phrase. The second phrase c o n t a i n s a b r e a t h r e s t (BR) i n m. 6, s e p a r a t i n g the contour-accented timepoint on G3 from the next p i t c h , D4. T h i s type of r e s t does not • i n t e r r u p t the f i f t h - l e a p between the two p i t c h e s , so the a t t a c k of D4 i s shown wi t h the leap accent symbol 0. In t h i s v o i c e p a r t , as i n the superius, s t r o n g accents o f t e n occur s u c c e s s i v e l y i n twos. There i s one i n s t a n c e of three s u c c e s s i v e accents, i n mm. 2-3. There are, however, some i s o l a t e d accented t i m e p o i n t s . C a d e n t i a l and d u r a t i o n a l accents i n the a l t u s tend to c o i n c i d e w i t h the beginnings of no t a t e d breves; the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d the same p a t t e r n i n the s u p e r i u s . O v e r a l l , the accent s t r u c t u r e of the a l t u s i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of the s u p e r i u s . Of the t h i r t e e n n o t a t e d breves, s i x have s t r o n g l y accented a t t a c k s a t t h e i r b eginnings. Timespan groupings suggested by the str o n g accents do not y i e l d r e g u l a r rhythmic p a t t e r n s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n of p i t c h - c l a s s emphasis a l s o r e v e a l s correspondence between the two v o i c e p a r t s . Of the s i x t e e n s t r o n g accents i n the a l t u s , seven mark a t t a c k s of G 137 and s i x of D. The remaining four are spread among p i t c h c l a s s e s A (two), C (one) and F (one). The same p a t t e r n of emphasized G and D emerged i n the superius a n a l y s i s . D e s p i t e the s i m i l a r i t i e s , there are some p o i n t s of d i s t i n c t i o n between a l t u s and s u p e r i u s . For i n s t a n c e , the s h o r t - l o n g phrase s t r u c t u r e of the sup e r i u s i s c o n t r a s t e d by the s h o r t - l o n g - s h o r t o r g a n i z a t i o n of the a l t u s . (These le n g t h s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the c a d e n t i a l accent symbols, Q and r j i n the a l t u s ) . A l s o , the contour i s more meandering i n the a l t u s ; the second phrase i n p a r t i c u l a r (mm. 5-10) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by many changes of d i r e c t i o n . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s r e f l e c t e d i n the a n a l y s i s by the abundance of both the leap and t h i r d - l e a p symbols ( 0 and • r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Let us t u r n now to the bassus and compare i t to the upper v o i c e s . Two aspects of t h i s v o i c e p a r t immediately emerge from the a n a l y s i s . F i r s t , there are no s t r o n g cadences. Such an event occurs o n l y i n m. 13, on i t s f i n a l a t t a c k . The c a d e n t i a l accent here i s supplemented by leap and d u r a t i o n a l accent, so the a t t a c k of G3 i n that measure i s r e p r e s e n t e d by r e v e a l s the emphasis on leaps i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t . Of the twenty s t r o n g l y accented timepoints i n the bassus, s i x t e e n are approached by leap. In m. 9, f o r in s t a n c e , there i s a t h i r d - l e a p from G3-B3. A primary leap accent (0) i s shown on the a t t a c k of B3 because Second, the p r o f u s i o n of the O symbol 138 i t ends a double leap from D3-G3-B3; s i n c e the f i r s t of the two leaps i s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h , a s t r o n g leap accent a l s o accrues to the a t t a c k of G3. Measure 11 p r o v i d e s an i n s t a n c e of another double leap--D3-F3-A3--with a b r e a t h r e s t between the f i r s t two p i t c h e s . Again, the b r e a t h r e s t does not i n t e r r u p t the accent s t r u c t u r e . The a n a l y t i c n o t a t i o n r e v e a l s at a glance the d i f f e r e n t nature of the bassus melody compared to s u p e r i u s and a l t u s . There i s no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n to the accents. U n l i k e the a l t u s and s u p e r i u s , i n which s t r o n g accents tend to appear s u c c e s s i v e l y i n groups of two w i t h s e v e r a l i n t e r v e n i n g weaker a t t a c k s , the bassus accents appear s i n g l y , or i n groups of two or t h r e e (e.g., mm. 2-3). In o n l y two p l a c e s (mm. 6-7 and mm. 9-10) are there more than two weakly accented a t t a c k s between two s t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s . Only the f i n a l p i t c h a t t a c k conforms to the p a t t e r n s of the other two v o i c e s ; i t i s a cadence a t t a c k , supported by d u r a t i o n and leap, and c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of the notated breve. The o n l y f e a t u r e analogous to the upper v o i c e s i s the c o i n c i d e n c e of o n l y f i v e s t r o n g accents w i t h downbeats--in mm. 1, 3, 4, 11 and 13. F i n a l l y , l e t us c o n s i d e r emphasis of p i t c h c l a s s i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t . A n a l y s i s of the superius and a l t u s r e v e a l e d t h a t a t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s e s G and D were most o f t e n marked by s t r o n g a c c e n t s . In the bassus as w e l l , G and D are most prominent. Of the seventeen st r o n g accents here, twelve occur on a t t a c k s of G or D; of these twelve, e i g h t are on G alone. 139 Thus, a l l three v o i c e p a r t s i n K y r i e I are c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r emphasis of c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s . We are now prepared to move on to the focus of our study: d i s c u s s i o n of how the accent s t r u c t u r e s of the po l y p h o n i c p a r t s i n t e r a c t to c r e a t e s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s on the b a s i s of which t h i s passage can be compared to other s e c t i o n s and movements of t h i s work, and to works by other composers. To b e g i n with, the a n a l y t i c a l n o t a t i o n c l e a r l y shows t h a t the accents a re staggered i n time. There are r e l a t i v e l y few occurrences of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three or fo u r v o i c e s , a f a c t which underscores the independence of the p a r t s . Indeed, there are s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s where no s t r o n g accent i n any v o i c e c o i n c i d e s w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of a breve (e.g., mm. 5, 6, 7, and 12). However, when two v o i c e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y have s t r o n g accents, the other v o i c e or v o i c e s u s u a l l y have a s t r o n g accent w i t h i n one p r e c e d i n g or succeeding breve. For example, the bassus and a l t u s b o t h have s t r o n g l y accented a t t a c k s on the downbeat of m. 11. The su p e r i u s and tenor have s t r o n g a t t a c k s w i t h i n one p r e c e d i n g breve, and the superius f o l l o w s with a combined d u r a t i o n - l e a p accent i n l e s s than one breve. We may a l s o observe p a t t e r n s suggested by the most s t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s - - t h o s e at which three or f o u r v o i c e s a r t i c u l a t e c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents. They occur on the downbeats of mm. 1, 3, 4, and 13, w i t h the c o i n c i d e n c e s i n mm. 4 and 13 s t r o n g e s t . T h i s i s c l e a r from the n o t a t i o n , 140 which shows s t r o n g accents i n a l l four v o i c e s , i n c l u d i n g a t l e a s t one combined accent. These two most s t r o n g l y - a c c e n t e d moments i n the s e c t i o n c o i n c i d e w i t h the o n l y two c a d e n t i a l accents i n the CF. There i s a l s o a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g t i m e p o i n t a t the downbeat of m. 8, s t r e s s e d by c a d e n t i a l accent i n the superius and a l t u s , and the beginning-accent imparted by the s t r o n g e n t r y of D4 i n the CF. C o n s i d e r a t i o n of p i t c h - c l a s s at the f o u r p o i n t s of t h r e e - and f o u r - v o i c e c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents shows the same emphasis t h a t was r e v e a l e d i n the a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s - - G and D are the prominent p i t c h c l a s s e s . Both are a t t a c k e d a t a l l f o u r p o i n t s , w i t h G appearing nine times and D f i v e . Ockeghem: C h r i s t e from Missa L'homme arme As we proceed to the remaining two s e c t i o n s of the movement, we w i l l p o i n t out g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c i s s u e s as b e f o r e , but we w i l l emphasize the t h i r d p o r t i o n of our i n v e s t i g a t i o n — t h e c o i n c i d e n c e of accent i n m u l t i p l e v o i c e s . The C h r i s t e s e c t i o n , analyzed i n Example 5-5, e x h i b i t s the same e d i t o r i a l t e x t underlay as the K y r i e - - o n l y the opening " C h r i s t e " and c l o s i n g " e l e i s o n " are s e t by the composer. The mensuration s i g n a t u r e (C ) suggests tempus imperfectus cum prolatione perfecta. The e d i t o r i a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n d i m i n u t i o n y i e l d s the prolatione perfecta 141 Example 5-5. A n a l y s i s of Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, ^ - C h r i s t e , mm. 14-27. e Ch, D O C Cl.ri s-h 1 2E J1 5+« < - e — — lei - -4—«- J o n -e- c - lei "3" (0 3 7-B- e - - I«i Sen Jo i 142 w i t h i n each measure, while two measures combine to form the tempus imperfectus. To a v o i d confusion, we w i l l c o ntinue to use the bar l i n e s as determinants of the breve, r e p r e s e n t e d here by a d o t t e d double-whole note. The CF v o i c e , a g a i n the tenor, p r e s e n t s the complete B s e c t i o n of L'homme arme. (Ockegehm uses the v e r s i o n w i t h i n s e r t e d t h i r d - l e a p i n the second segment of B.) Longer d u r a t i o n s p r e v a i l i n t h i s s e c t i o n , although an a c c e l e r a t i o n appears at the end. A n a l y s i s of the superius melody immediately r e v e a l s some i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s of melodic s t r u c t u r e . The three p r i n c i p a l types of s t r o n g accent (duration, leap/contour and cadence) are r e p r e s e n t e d f a i r l y e q u a l l y throughout, but the cadence a t t a c k s are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . The s u p e r i u s tune i s d i v i d e d i n t o three phrases ending w i t h s t r o n g cadence a t t a c k s on the downbeats of mm. 20, 24, and 27 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t h r e e phrases are thus i n the order l o n g - s h o r t - s h o r t , which c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e i r order i n the opening K y r i e . Moreover, a l l three phrases have an o v e r a l l up-down a r c h contour w i t h dual-accented a t t a c k s on a s i n g l e h i g h p i t c h - - F 5 i n the f i r s t phrase, Bb4 i n the second, and D5 i n the t h i r d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r o n g accents w i t h r e g a r d to the n o t a t e d breve c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h a t noted i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n . There, l e s s than h a l f the downbeats had c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g a c c e n t s . In t h i s s e c t i o n , such c o i n c i d e n c e occurs on ten of the f i f t e e n n o t ated downbeats. Since the downbeats are commonly supported by some s t r o n g melodic accent i n t h i s p a r t , 143 we may f e e l a regular pulse corresponding to the beginning of the notated breve. Highlighted p i t c h classes i n the superius of the Christe also contrast with patterns noted i n Kyrie I. In that f i r s t movement, strong accents most commonly coincided with" attacks of G and D. Here, there are sixteen strong accents i n the superius, but they are more evenly spread among the p i t c h classes. Four coincide with attacks of C, and four mark the onsets of F. G i s s i m i l a r l y highlighted three times, D twice, and A, Bb and E once. The more even d i s t r i b u t i o n of accented pi t c h - c l a s s attacks i n the superius of the Christe contrasts with the greater emphasis given to s p e c i f i c p i t c h classes i n Kyrie I. This p a r a l l e l s the contrasts of phrasing and accent patterning i n the same voice for the two sections. Elements of s i m i l a r i t y and contrast e x i s t between the altus parts of the two sections. The altus phrasing i n the Christe i s i d e n t i c a l to that i n Kyrie I--three phrases defined by strongly-accented a r r i v a l s on the downbeats of mm. 20, 24 and 27. Arch contours are evident i n the f i r s t and t h i r d phrases, while the second phrase has a contrasting inverted arch. In contrast to the f i r s t movement, strong accents coincide with more notated breve beginnings; here, coincidence occurs on nine of f i f t e e n . This emphasis on the downbeat contributes to a f e e l i n g of a regular pulse underlying t h i s voice part i n the Christe, as i t did i n the superius. 144 The d u r a t i o n a l accent symbol on E4 i n m. 2 0 r e q u i r e s e x p l a n a t i o n . The a l t u s - s u p e r i u s p a i r appear to s e t up a cz/tz cadence paradigm i n m. 19. The superius C5 f i r s t makes a s i x t h w i t h the a l t u s E4, then i s suspended as the lower v o i c e steps down to D4. The C5 suspension then r e s o l v e s to B4 to c r e a t e a s i x t h w i t h the a l t u s D4. When the sup e r i u s cadences to C5, the a l t u s evades i t s cadence to C4 by s t e p p i n g up to E4. T h i s i s a d u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d evaded cadence, so o n l y the d u r a t i o n a l accent symbol, o , i s used. The s t r o n g d u r a t i o n a l accent supports the evaded cadence, and c o n t r i b u t e s to the p e r c e p t i o n of three d i s t i n c t phrases i n the a l t u s . The c o n t r a s t between timespan p a t t e r n i n g i n the a l t u s i n t h i s s e c t i o n and K y r i e I extends to p a t t e r n s of p i t c h c l a s s . Strong accents i n the C h r i s t e do not emphasize p a r t i c u l a r p i t c h c l a s s e s as they d i d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n . Of the s i x t e e n s t r o n g accents here, f o u r occur on a t t a c k s of D, t h r e e each on C and E, two each on G and Bb, and one each on A and F. Turning now to the bassus, we see that i t s phrase s t r u c t u r e corresponds to that of the superius and a l t u s . Strong cadence a t t a c k s i n mm. 20, 24 and 28 mark o f f th r e e phrases whose lengths are seven, f o u r and fou r breves r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, the bassus l a c k s the w e l l - d e f i n e d a r c h contours of the other v o i c e s . As i n the K y r i e , i t i s permeated w i t h more leaps than are the upper v o i c e s . A l s o , s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h nine of the f i f t e e n n o t a t e d 145 downbeats, s u p p o r t i n g the p u l s e suggested by s t r o n g a c c e n t s i n the two upper v o i c e s . O v e r a l l , i n t h i s s e c t i o n , a l l t h r e e v o i c e p a r t s e x h i b i t a mixture of s u c c e s s i v e and i s o l a t e d a c c e n t s . However, although t h i s mixture i t s e l f does not produce rhythmic p a t t e r n i n g i n any v o i c e , the c o n s i s t e n t l y emphasized downbeats suggest a p u l s e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the n o t a t e d downbeat. The downbeat emphasis i n t h i s passage c o n t r a s t s w i t h the l a c k of such emphasis i n K y r i e I. T u r n i n g now to the t o p i c of p i t c h c l a s s f o r the bassus, the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s the same p a t t e r n of c o n t r a s t noted i n the s u p e r i u s and a l t u s . G and D were s t r o n g l y emphasized i n the bassus of K y r i e I; i n the C h r i s t e , however, s t r o n g accents are d i s t r i b u t e d more evenly among the p i t c h c l a s s e s . F i v e strong' accents mark the a t t a c k s of G, four of C, three of A, two of Bb, two of F and one of D. Having completed our d i s c u s s i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s f o r the C h r i s t e , we may now compare the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o i n c i d e n t accents i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i t h those of K y r i e I. As w i t h t h a t opening s e c t i o n , c a d e n t i a l accents occur s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n the v a r i o u s v o i c e s , and c o i n c i d e w i t h the mensural p u l s e . However, we f i n d i n the C h r i s t e a g r e a t e r frequency and a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n of t i m e p o i n t s w i t h c o i n c i d e n t accents i n three or f o u r v o i c e s . Such c o i n c i d e n c e s occur i n mm. 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 24, 26 and 28. A l l c o i n c i d e w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of the n o t a t e d breve except f o r the one i n m. 18. There are o n l y two i n s t a n c e s where no 146 accent at a l l occurs on the downbeat--mm. 16 and 27--and two i n s t a n c e s where o n l y one v o i c e has a s t r o n g a t t a c k on the downbeat--mm. 18 and 22. There are fewer i s o l a t e d accents, and there are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more accented a t t a c k s i n each v o i c e than i n the opening K y r i e . H a l f or more of the p i t c h a t t a c k s i n the s u p e r i u s , a l t u s and bassus i n t h i s C h r i s t e are accented i n some way, w h i l e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than h a l f are accented i n the f i r s t K y r i e . 4 The a n a l y s i s thus r e v e a l s c o n t r a s t between a t e x t u r e permeated wi t h many r e g u l a r c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n the C h r i s t e and few of the same i n the opening K y r i e . T h i s c o n t r a s t helps c o n t r i b u t e to a sense of form i n the movement. The p i t c h c l a s s e s emphasized at p o i n t s of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents, on the other hand, p r o v i d e u n i t y r a t h e r than c o n t r a s t between the C h r i s t e and K y r i e I. D e s p i t e the more even d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h l i g h t e d p i t c h c l a s s e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s of t h i s s e c t i o n , timepoints a t which three or f o u r v o i c e s c o i n c i d e w i t h s t r o n g accents emphasize c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s . Notably, D i s a t t a c k e d w i t h a primary accent at s i x of the nine such timepoints, w h i l e G i s s i m i l a r l y i n i t i a t e d at f o u r ( i n c l u d i n g the f i r s t one and the l a s t two). In terms of numbers, there are a t o t a l of twenty e i g h t s t r o n g 4 S p e c i f i c a l l y , the r a t i o of accented a t t a c k s to unaccented i n the C h r i s t e are as f o l l o w s : s u p e r i u s , 18:37; a l t u s , 16:28; bassus 17:29. In the opening K y r i e the r a t i o s are: s u p e r i u s , 16:49; a l t u s 17:47; bassus 20:44. 147 accents a t the nine c o i n c i d e n t t i m e p o i n t s . Of the twenty e i g h t , f i f t e e n mark the onset of G (eight) or D (seven). Thus, the a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y p o i n t s to emphasis of p a r t i c u l a r p i t c h c l a s s e s at p o i n t s of str o n g accent c o i n c i d e n c e . Ockeghem: K y r i e I I from Missa L'homme arme The a n a l y s i s i n Example 5-6 w i l l h e l p us d i s c o v e r the important f e a t u r e s of the t h i r d p a r t of Ockeghem's K y r i e , and compare them to those of the p r e c e d i n g two s e c t i o n s . The same t e x t u n d e r l a y i s evident here as i n the opening K y r i e . The mensuration i s once again tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta { O ), w i t h the breve t r a n s c r i b e d as a d o t t e d double-whole note. The tenor i s the CF v o i c e , p r e s e n t i n g the A' phrase of L'homme arme. The CF i s completed on the downbeat of m. 38, and the tenor then engages i n f r e e c o u n t e r p o i n t u n t i l the end of the movement. Rhythmic v a l u e s i n each v o i c e p a r t are f a i r l y uniform, w i t h the ten o r and a l t u s a c c e l e r a t i n g s l i g h t l y i n a run to the f i n a l cadence. The n o t a t i o n a l symbology i n the a l t u s r e q u i r e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n two p l a c e s . F i r s t , t h i s v o i c e seems to a r t i c u l a t e a tenorizans (abbreviated tz) on the a t t a c k of A3 i n m. 39. However, wit h no accompanying cantizans (cz), no d u r a t i o n a l accent, and no s i g n i f i c a n t amount of r e s t f o l l o w i n g 148 Example 5-6 A n a l y s i s of Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e I I , mm. 29-41. rit _BjL f-j - - - r j ; 1, _ r\ - — — K"> C p - D e - 4ft £ ~ c M P - ' 1 -f-} e 1 1 + c c 7* ' " *1 _J2 $ * " BR I • ' ' 0' e. - l<- - 6ft & — * 3<! 4 , ' 0 • » • «R e - - c Set, 149 the p i t c h , there can be no c a d e n t i a l accent a t t h a t t i m e p o i n t . 5 Second, i n m. 30, the a l t u s has an a n t i c i p a t i o n on D4. A n t i c i p a t i o n s approached w i t h a descending t h i r d - l e a p are common i n the works of these composers. 6 Here, the D4 a t the b e g i n n i n g of m. 31 i s a n t i c i p a t e d by i t s appearance as a r h y t h m i c a l l y weak dissonance at the end of m. 30. The t h i r d - l e a p i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the • symbol, but i t s e m b e l l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n i s shown by the use of parentheses. Examination of i n d i v i d u a l melodic s t r u c t u r e s r e v e a l s some i n t e r e s t i n g formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s u p e r i u s has a s h o r t - s h o r t - l o n g phrase s t r u c t u r e r e m i n i s c e n t of that of the opening K y r i e , and r e t r o g r a d e to that of the C h r i s t e . Cadences occur i n mm. 32 and 35, and.the phrases they end have simple a r c h contours. These opening phrases are the same leng t h - - b o t h span three breves from the f i r s t s t r o n g l y accented a t t a c k to the cadence. Once again cadence timepoints c o i n c i d e w i t h the mensural downbeat. The t h i r d phrase i s a meandering m e l i s m a t i c l i n e t h a t ends wi t h the f i n a l cadence on G4. Accent d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the superius w i t h r e g a r d to downbeats r e t u r n s to the p a t t e r n noted i n the opening K y r i e . In t h i s s e c t i o n , accents c o i n c i d e w i t h o n l y f i v e of t h i r t e e n downbeats. Of those f i v e , four occur i n the f i r s t two 5 R e c a l l the d i s c u s s i o n and use of the a b b r e v i a t i o n s fcz and cz from Chapter IV, pp. 95 ff. 6 R e c a l l the d i s c u s s i o n of a n t i c i p a t i o n s on pp. 117-118 of the p r e c e d i n g chapter. 150 phrases; three of the c o i n c i d e n c e s are the cadence a t t a c k s , and one i s the opening a t t a c k . P a t t e r n s of p i t c h c l a s s i n the s u p e r i u s of K y r i e I I c o n t r a s t w i t h those of the C h r i s t e . There are f o u r t e e n s t r o n g accents i n the superius of t h i s s e c t i o n ; of these, f i v e mark a t t a c k s of D and f o u r of G. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a r e t u r n to the p a t t e r n of K y r i e I, i n which D and G were a l s o the most emphasized p i t c h c l a s s e s . Let us continue our i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h the a l t u s of K y r i e I I to see i f s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s of accent d i s t r i b u t i o n and p i t c h c l a s s emerge i n t h a t v o i c e p a r t . In g e n e r a l , the a l t u s , which had w e l l - d e f i n e d a r c h i n g contours i n the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n , r e t u r n s to a more meandering nature w i t h a preponderance of leap and contour accents; t h i s r e c a l l s the a l t u s phrases of the opening K y r i e . A l s o s i m i l a r to the a l t u s of that s e c t i o n i s the de-emphasis of the n o t a t e d downbeat. Here, as i n K y r i e I, s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h fewer than h a l f the downbeats--six of t h i r t e e n . Of the s i x , f i v e are found i n the opening two phrases. Moreover, accents occur f r e q u e n t l y i n i s o l a t i o n i n K y r i e I I , as they d i d i n the opening s e c t i o n . In the C h r i s t e , they more o f t e n appeared i n s u c c e s s i o n . On the other hand, p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s i n the a l t u s correspond more c l o s e l y to those found i n the C h r i s t e than i n K y r i e I. Of the f o u r t e e n s t r o n g l y accented p i t c h a t t a c k s here, three occur on each of D, F and G, two on A, and one 151 each on C, E and B. T h i s even d i s t r i b u t i o n resembles the p a t t e r n i n the middle s e c t i o n . The g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r of the bassus melody i n t h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n remains c o n s i s t e n t w i t h that of the C h r i s t e and K y r i e I. I t e x h i b i t s a predominance of leap or l e a p - p l u s - d u r a t i o n a c c e n t s . In mm. 31-33, f o r i n s t a n c e , three s u c c e s s i v e s t r o n g leap accents culminate i n a d u r a t i o n - l e a p - c a d e n t i a l accent. S i m i l a r l y , mm. 34-36 have f i v e s u c c e s s i v e s t r o n g accents, w h i l e mm. 3 8-3 9 c o n t a i n four leap accents i n a row, i n t e r r u p t e d by a b r e a t h r e s t . Of the t h i r t y seven d i s c r e t e a t t a c k s i n t h i s p a r t , twenty one are s t r o n g l y accented; of those twenty one, s i x t e e n are approached by l e a p . 7 The bassus has two s t r o n g cadences i n t h i s s e c t i o n - - o n e i n m. 33, the other i n m. 41. Both cadence a t t a c k s are emphasized by a combined cadence-leap-duration accent, n o t a t e d downbeat. Indeed, s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h e i g h t of the t h i r t e e n mensural p u l s e s i n t h i s p a r t . The g r e a t e r c o i n c i d e n c e of accents on downbeats i n the bassus p a r t of t h i s s e c t i o n c l o s e l y f o l l o w s the p a t t e r n of the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n (where s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h nine of f i f t e e n the downbeats), and c o n t r a s t s w i t h the opening K y r i e ( f i v e c o i n c i d e n c e s out of t h i r t e e n ) . 7 The p r o f u s i o n of leap accents i n the bassus suggests t h a t t h i s v o i c e i s b e g i n n i n g to f u n c t i o n more as a "bass" than as an independent, conjunct melody. I t a l s o suggests t h a t leap a c c e n t s i n t h i s p a r t might not have as s t r o n g an e f f e c t as i n the upper v o i c e s , where conjunct motion predominates. symbolized These cadences again c o i n c i d e w i t h the 152 In terms of pitch-class consistency, the bassus melodies of Kyrie I and Kyrie II are closely connected. In the former section, G and D were emphasized. Here, strong accents on the attacks of those p i t c h classes account for thirteen (seven on G, s i x on D) of the twenty one such attacks. No other p i t c h class i s emphasized by a strongly accented attack more than twice i n Kyrie I I . In summary, most of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s manifested by the accent structures of the i n d i v i d u a l melodies i n t h i s second Kyrie contrast to those i n the Christe, and are s i m i l a r to those i n the opening section. The i n t e r a c t i o n of accents echoes t h i s pattern. As i n the opening Kyrie, there are few points of coincident strong accents; however, where those points coincide with downbeats, there i s always a strong cadential accent i n "at.least one voice.' This i s the case i n mm. 32, 33 and 41. By contrast, the Christe section had several instances of strong coincident accents that did not include cadences on downbeats. We noted i n the f i r s t two sections that coincident strong accents consistently emphasized certain p i t c h classes, notably G and D. The same observations may be made i n Kyrie I I . Coincident strong accents i n three or four voices occur i n mm. 29, 30, 32, 33, 36, 40 and 41. Strongly accented attacks occur on G at four of these seven points (mm. 29, 32, 40 and 41) and on D at four (mm. 29, 32, 33 and 41). Moreover, there are a t o t a l of twenty four strong accents at these timepoints. 153 Of the twenty four, ten mark a t t a c k s on G, f i v e on D. The remaining nine are spread among the remaining m o d a l - d i a t o n i c p i t c h c l a s s e s . The a n a l y t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s made above suggest t h a t t h i s second K y r i e i s c l o s e r i n c h a r a c t e r to the f i r s t , and t h a t the movement as a whole has an o v e r a l l ABA' formal s t r u c t u r e . For i n s t a n c e , r e g u l a r i t y of accent c o i n c i d e n c e w i t h the downbeat i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s was g e n e r a l l y not e v i d e n t i n the two K y r i e s e c t i o n s . In the C h r i s t e , however, the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t s t r o n g accents g e n e r a l l y c o i n c i d e d w i t h the downbeat, su g g e s t i n g a p u l s e corresponding t o the b e g i n n i n g of the n o t a t e d breve. The same p a t t e r n s among the three s e c t i o n s were r e v e a l e d when we c o n s i d e r e d accent i n t e r a c t i o n and c o i n c i d e n c e . Moreover, p a t t e r n s of emphasized p i t c h c l a s s e s i n the su p e r i u s and bassus suggest the same t e r n a r y d e s i g n . Strong accents i n K y r i e I and I I emphasized s p e c i f i c p i t c h c l a s s e s ; i n the C h r i s t e , no such emphasis was found. Ternary form, both of the' t e x t and of the CF, i s e v i d e n t i n the ABA' s t r u c t u r e manifest i n the p a t t e r n s of accent d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s , as w e l l as i n p a t t e r n s of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents. Despite the formal c o n t r a s t s , however, there are elements of u n i t y i n t h i s K y r i e . For i n s t a n c e , p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y at p o i n t s of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents h e l p s t o u n i f y the complete movement. In p a r t i c u l a r , the s e c t i o n s of the t e r n a r y form generated by 154 p a t t e r n s of accent d i s t r i b u t i o n are u n i f i e d by the c o n s i s t e n t emphasis on p i t c h c l a s s e s G and D throughout the movement. Obrecht, K y r i e I from Missa L'homme arme Having completed the a n a l y s i s of Ockeghem's K y r i e , p o i n t i n g out a c c e n t u a l p a t t e r n s i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s , and elements of form, rhythm and p i t c h c l a s s suggested by c o i n c i d e n t accents, l e t us t u r n to the works of the other composers, beginning w i t h Obrecht. 8 The t e x t u n d e r l a y i n a l l three s e c t i o n s of Obrecht's K y r i e p a r a l l e l s the s t r u c t u r e of the u n d e r l a y i n Ockeghem--the s c r i b e i n s e r t e d o n l y the opening words " K y r i e " or " C h r i s t e " and the f i n a l " e l e i s o n . " The a n a l y s i s f o r the opening K y r i e i s g i v e n i n Example 5-7. The mensuration f o r t h i s s e c t i o n is' tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta (O), t r a n s c r i b e d as I i n t h i s e d i t i o n . Thus, the breve i s rep r e s e n t e d by a d o t t e d whole note. Timespan boundaries are t h e r e f o r e conceived w i t h r e f e r e n c e to th a t value, or p o r t i o n s of i t . The tenor i s the CF v o i c e , and prese n t s the complete A s e c t i o n of L'homme arme p l u s the f i r s t phrase of the B s e c t i o n . For our a n a l y s i s , t h i s means the tenor ends K y r i e I w i t h a leap, E4-B3 i n mm. 17-18. R e c a l l i n g our r u l e f o r The source f o r the movement i s Jacob Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, e d i t e d by Thomas N o b l i t t i n Jacob Obrecht, New Edition of Collected Works Volume 6 (Utrecht: V e r e n i g i n g voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, 1986), 1-4. 155 Example 5-7. A n a l y s i s of Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e I, mm. 1-19. Example 5-7. (Continued.) 156 a n a l y s i s of a cantus prius factus, we note t h a t c a d e n t i a l accent supplements the o r i g i n a l accent a c c r u i n g to the a t t a c k of a CF p i t c h i f that p i t c h ends a movement or a s e c t i o n w i t h i n a movement. Thus, the a t t a c k of the tenor B3 i n m. 18 i s r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a combined cadence-leap accent, \\. The f i n a l f o u r - v o i c e cadence i n t h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s a c u r i o u s omission: the tenor i s s i l e n t . T h i s d e l e t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d by modal theory. A qu i c k glance at the f i n a l cadences f o r a l l three s e c t i o n s of Obrecht's K y r i e r e v e a l s a mode on A (Aeolian) . This- mode may have been suggested to the composer by the opening f o u r t h (E-A) of the cantus prius factus. However, because Obrecht uses the f i r s t phrase of s e c t i o n B from L'homme arme i n t h i s s e c t i o n , h i s tenor ends on B3. T h i s makes i t imp o s s i b l e to emphasize the A e o l i a n f i n a l , A. Obrecht f i n e s s e s the problem by making cadences i n the superius, a l t u s and bassus a f t e r the tenor ends. The s u p e r i u s i n t h i s s e c t i o n has a preponderance of d u r a t i o n a l and leap accents. In c o n t r a s t to the c a r e f u l l y shaped a r c h contours found i n Ockeghem's K y r i e , the a n a l y s i s here shows a melodic s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by many d i r e c t i o n a l changes and frequent b r e a t h r e s t s . In m. 16, f o r example, Obrecht uses a b r e a t h r e s t to s o f t e n the d i s s o n a n t seventh- leap from A3-G4. Accented p i t c h a t t a c k s i n t h i s s e c t i o n f r e q u e n t l y c o i n c i d e w i t h the beginnings of breves. Strong cadences occur on the downbeats of mm. 7 and 19. The cz 158 evaded cadence a t t a c k i n m. 15 i s d u r a t i o n a l l y accented, and a l s o i n i t i a t e s the subsequent o v e r l a p p i n g phrase. The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s twenty f o u r primary accents i n the s u p e r i u s of K y r i e I. Of the twenty four, o n l y nine c o i n c i d e w i t h a t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s A. Secondary emphasis i s g i v e n to p i t c h c l a s s e s C ( f i v e s t r o n g l y accented a t t a c k s ) , G ( f i v e a l s o ) and E ( f o u r ) . T h i s accounts f o r twenty t h r e e s t r o n g accents i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t . The remaining accent marks the a t t a c k of D4 i n m. 6. The a l t u s , l i k e the superius, has many leap and d u r a t i o n a l accents i n t h i s s e c t i o n , and l a c k s the w e l l - d e f i n e d a r c h contours seen i n Ockeghem's K y r i e . T h i s melody d i v i d e s i n t o t h r e e phrases, w i t h s t r o n g cadences on the downbeats of mm. 8, 12 and 19. In m. 8, a combined d u r a t i o n - p l u s - c a d e n c e accent i s shown on E4. A check of the score r e v e a l s t h a t the d u r a t i o n of the E4. ending the c a n t i z a n s does not s a t i s f y the requirements f o r primary accent s t a t u s . However, the subsequent phrase i s i n i t i a t e d by an a t t a c k on the same p i t c h . The r e p e t i t i o n of the p i t c h a f t e r such a s h o r t break may be heard as the r e p e t i t i o n of the cadence p i t c h a f t e r a b r e a t h r e s t . T herefore, the a n a l y s i s r e p r e s e n t s the a t t a c k of the i n i t i a l E4 w i t h the symbol, r j . The a t t a c k of the r e i t e r a t e d E4 i s the b e g i n n i n g timepoint of the next phrase; consequently, t h a t a t t a c k i s r e p r e s e n t e d by £ , and the two accent symbols are j o i n e d w i t h a t i e . 159 Accented timepoints i n the a l t u s c o i n c i d e r e g u l a r l y w i t h the beginnings of n o t a t e d breves; t h i s i s the case e l e v e n of the n i n e t e e n measures. Moreover, s t r o n g accents f r e q u e n t l y mark the onsets of p i t c h c l a s s e s A, C, and E. Of the twenty s i x accented a t t a c k s i n that v o i c e , twenty three occur on one of those p i t c h c l a s s e s ( i n c l u d i n g f o u r t e e n on E ) . A n a l y s i s of the bassus r e v e a l s a more conjunct and smoothly shaped l i n e than the a l t u s . Moreover, i t c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the predominantly d i s j u n c t bassus of the Ockeghem K y r i e . For i n s t a n c e , i t s f i r s t phrase (mm. 5-8) begins on A2, then climbs by step or minor t h i r d to A3 b e f o r e f a l l i n g to a cadence on E3. The second phrase (mm. 9-19) has s e v e r a l such r i s i n g and f a l l i n g contours c u l m i n a t i n g i n a s t r o n g l y d i r e c t e d stepwise ascent to a contour-accented G3 i n m. 18. C a d e n t i a l a t t a c k s occur on the downbeats of mm. 8 and 19 only. Strong accents f r e q u e n t l y occur i n i s o l a t i o n . They c o i n c i d e w i t h e i g h t of the s i x t e e n notated downbeats i n the bassus, but o n l y i n the l a s t f i v e measures do they occur on s u c c e s s i v e downbeats. Thus, f o r the most p a r t the accent d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t does not support the mensural p u l s e . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s that the bassus does, however, have a h i g h degree of p i t c h c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the s u p e r i u s and a l t u s i n t h i s s e c t i o n . There are n i n e t e e n s t r o n g accents i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t . Of those nineteen, e i g h t occur on a t t a c k s of A. A t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s e s E and D are s e c o n d a r i l y emphasized by four s t r o n g accents each. The 160 remaining three s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h the onsets of G (two) and C (one). The i n t e r a c t i o n of accents i n a l l f o u r v o i c e s r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the timespan and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s of the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s . Strong accents occur c o n c u r r e n t l y i n t h r e e or more v o i c e s i n mm. 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 19. Of these, a l l but three c o i n c i d e w i t h the n o t a t e d downbeat. A d d i t i o n a l l y , s t r o n g accents seldom occur as i s o l a t e d events, but are o f t e n a t t a c k e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n two v o i c e s . Such p a i r e d s t r o n g accents are evident, f o r example, i n m. 4 (S/A), m. 5 (S/B), m. 7 (S/T then A/B), m. 8 (A/T), m. 11 (S/B) and so f o r t h . A f t e r m. 5, no more than a breve passes without c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n at l e a s t two v o i c e s . T h i s frequent p a i r i n g of accents, Combined w i t h the many occurrences of three or more c o i n c i d e n t accents, c o n t r i b u t e s to the p e r c e p t i o n of an evenly accented t e x t u r e . Accented t i m e p o i n t s a l s o h e l p s t r u c t u r e the p i t c h - c l a s s content of t h i s s e c t i o n . Of the ten s t r o n g t h r e e - and f o u r - v o i c e concurrent accents i n t h i s s e c t i o n , e i g h t emphasize p i t c h c l a s s e s A, C and E. The c o n s i s t e n c y of accented p i t c h - c l a s s a t t a c k s i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s i s thus r e f l e c t e d by the c o i n c i d e n c e of s t r o n g accents i n the f u l l t e x t u r e . 161 Obrecht, C h r i s t e from Missa L'homme arme T h i s s e c t i o n i s i n tempus imperfectus cum prolatione imperfecta; the whole note r e p r e s e n t s the breve. I t i s a t h r e e - v o i c e s e t t i n g w i t h no tenor CF. The a n a l y s i s i s p r o v i d e d i n Example 5-8. The a n a l y s i s of the superius r e v e a l s t h a t the melody i s more conjunct than i n the opening s e c t i o n , but w i t h s t r o n g accents o c c u r r i n g l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . O c c a s i o n a l l y there are s u c c e s s i v e primary accents, as i n mm. 21 and 24. For the most p a r t , however, the s t r o n g accents i n t h i s v o i c e occur i n i s o l a t i o n , separated by timespans longer than the breve. Many accented t i m e p o i n t s c o i n c i d e w i t h the weak d i v i s i o n s of the breve; however, three of the fo u r s t r o n g cadences and both evaded cadences are a t t a c k e d on the notated downbeat. Long r e s t s a f t e r s t r o n g cadences i n the superius r e s u l t i n two 2- and 3-measure a l t u s - b a s s u s duos. In the opening K y r i e the v o i c e s emphasized p i t c h c l a s s e s A, C and E. The same t r a i t i s e v i d e n t i n the C h r i s t e . Of the f i f t e e n s t r o n g l y accented timepoints i n the s u p e r i u s , t h i r t e e n mark the a t t a c k s of A, C or E. Of the three evaded cadences, two are on p i t c h c l a s s A, the other on C. The accent s t r u c t u r e of the a l t u s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s t h a t of the s u p e r i u s . Strong accents o c c a s i o n a l l y appear s u c c e s s i v e l y , but f o r the most p a r t they occur i n i s o l a t i o n , w i t h s e v e r a l weakly accented a t t a c k s s e p a r a t i n g them. 1 162 Example 5-8. A n a l y s i s of Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, C h r i s t e , mm. 20-44. O Chr, _ S+t -9- C K r ft) o - . * 0 « c 6* VP ' * — • ' f 0 C | — « ^ t ' i •fY: ^ a • » • c * • • • — • 1 ^ S i, „ A . ' * • Example 5-8. (Continued.) 164 Cadences occur f r e q u e n t l y ; s t r o n g cadence a t t a c k s c o i n c i d e w i t h the downbeats of mm. 24, 31 and 44. Evaded cadences are found i n mm. 27, 29, 35 and 39. However, weak accents or no a t t a c k at a l l c o i n c i d e s w i t h eighteen of the twenty f o u r n o t a t e d downbeats i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The primary accents i n t h i s v o i c e again emphasize p i t c h c l a s s e s A, C and E, although not as e x c l u s i v e l y as i n the opening K y r i e . F i f t e e n of the twenty one s t r o n g accents accrue to the a t t a c k s of those p i t c h c l a s s e s . Of the evaded cadences, two of the three h i g h l i g h t A; the remaining one (m. 35) i s on G. T h i s emphasis, noted i n both s e c t i o n s thus f a r , underscores the s t r o n g modal s i g n i f i c a n c e of those p i t c h c l a s s e s . The bassus melody has the same g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as su p e r i u s and a l t u s i n t h i s s e c t i o n , w i t h accented p i t c h a t t a c k s most o f t e n o c c u r r i n g i n i s o l a t i o n and a t i r r e g u l a r l y spaced i n t e r v a l s . Of the seventeen such a t t a c k s , twelve occur on p i t c h c l a s s A alone. At one p o i n t , Obrecht c r e a t e s a m e t r i c p a t t e r n t h a t produces a s t r o n g c a d e n t i a l accent. In m. 29 there i s a contour-accented a t t a c k on A2 i n the bassus. That p i t c h concludes an apparent t z p a t t e r n , but i s not h e l d f o r a f u l l breve; n e i t h e r do p i t c h and r e s t combined sum to a breve. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the a r r i v a l of A2 sounds l i k e a s t r o n g cadence. To understand t h i s e f f e c t , one must be g i n w i t h the a n a c r u s i s to m. 26 and f o l l o w the bassus to the cadence. As 165 Example 5-9 i l l u s t r a t e s , the passage c o u l d be n o t a t e d as a hemiola. In the f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the p enultimate measure i s shortened by one beat; i n the second, the cadence a t t a c k c o i n c i d e s w i t h the p u l s e at the end of phrase dominated by an iambic (>* — ) rhythm. In e i t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the A2 h a l f - Example 5-9. Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme K y r i e , bassus, mm. 25-29. -<Y. m mm 11 . i , l -4 - i —T -J J - 9 : m 1'' f 'I J -4— J — L - c note p l u s the f o l l o w i n g r e s t equal the p u l s e u n i t e s t a b l i s h e d by the p r e v i o u s three measures. Since t h i s s a t i s f i e s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r a s t r o n g cadence, the a t t a c k of A2 takes both a contour accent and a c a d e n t i a l accent, and i s n o t a t e d i n the a n a l y s i s w i t h the symbol, c D e s p i t e the numerous str o n g accents i n t e r s p e r s e d among the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s i n t h i s passage, they o n l y c o i n c i d e i n a l l t h r e e v o i c e s at the f i n a l cadence. There are a number of two-voice c o i n c i d e n c e s , which f a l l on v a r i o u s p a r t s of the 166 mensural d i v i s i o n . However, many of the s t r o n g accents a l s o occur i n i s o l a t i o n , and many of the downbeats are o n l y weakly accented. F i n a l l y , we once again c o n s i d e r the s u b j e c t of p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y . F i v e of the nine two-voice accent c o i n c i d e n c e s emphasize p i t c h c l a s s A, C or E - - i n mm. 23, 24, 31, 33 and 34. The f i n a l cadence i s a f u l l - t e x t u r e d t h r e e - v o i c e accent on the a t t a c k s of A2, A3 and A4. Obrecht i s c o n s i s t e n t i n emphasizing these p i t c h c l a s s e s both i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s and i n the i n t e r a c t i o n of s t r o n g accents i n the s e c t i o n s thus f a r analyzed. Obrecht, K y r i e I I from Missa L'homme arme In the f i n a l s e c t i o n of Obrecht's work, as w i t h Ockeghem's K y r i e , p a t t e r n s of accent c o i n c i d e n c e suggest a t e r n a r y formal d e s i g n . The tenor p i c k s up the CF where i t l e f t o f f i n the f i r s t K y r i e ; i t completes the o r i g i n a l tune w i t h the second phrase of B f o l l o w e d by A'. The mensuration r e t u r n s to tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta (W = 0») . The v o i c e p a r t s e x h i b i t the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s here as i n the p r e c e d i n g two s e c t i o n s , as Example 5-10 i l l u s t r a t e s . The s u p e r i u s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by many d u r a t i o n a l and l e a p / c o n t o u r accents. The phrases are long, meandering and i r r e g u l a r . They are marked o f f by s t r o n g cadences c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the downbeats of mm. 50, 53, 59 and 65. Accented p i t c h 167 Example 5-10. A n a l y s i s of Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e I I , mm. 45-65. 168 Example 5-10. (Continued.) 169 a t t a c k s o c c a s i o n a l l y appear i n s u c c e s s i o n (e.g., mm. 45-46, 49, 58 and 60); g e n e r a l l y , though, they occur i n i s o l a t i o n , s e p a r a t e d by s e v e r a l unaccented p i t c h a t t a c k s . Strong accents o f t e n c o i n c i d e w i t h n o t a t e d downbeats i n the s u p e r i u s . As i n K y r i e I, these support the p u l s e suggested by the notated mensuration. For i n s t a n c e , accents i n the f i r s t phrase occur f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t l y on downbeats from mm. 48-53. In the second phrase (mm. 55-59), s t r o n g accents r e i n f o r c e the downbeats i n a l l but m. 57. The f i n a l phrase (mm. 60-65) i s somewhat l e s s c o n s i s t e n t i n t h i s r e g a r d ; however, of the seven s t r o n g accents i n t h i s phrase, f o u r occur on n o t a t e d downbeats. Thus, accents i n the complete s u p e r i u s l i n e r e i n f o r c e the beginnings of n o t a t e d breves. Strong accents i n the superius continue to emphasize the same few p i t c h c l a s s e s . Of the twenty f i v e s t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s , f i f t e e n occur on a t t a c k s of A, C or E. P i t c h c l a s s e s G and D are g i v e n more prominence i n t h i s s e c t i o n as w e l l . The a l t u s l i n e i n K y r i e I I i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a preponderance of leap and d u r a t i o n a l a c c e n t s . Strong cadences occur on the downbeats of mm. 50, 53 and 65, c r e a t i n g t h r e e phrases of d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s . Evaded cadences are found i n mm. 55, 59 and 60. Strong accents f r e q u e n t l y occur i n s u c c e s s i v e p a i r s , as i n mm. 47-48, 51, 52-53, 54 and so f o r t h . They c o i n c i d e w i t h notated downbeats i n o n l y nine of twenty 170 one measures; i n none of the three phrases do s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h s u c c e s s i v e downbeats. I f , however, one d o v e t a i l s the second phrase w i t h the end of the f i r s t phrase and the beginning of the t h i r d (mm. 50- 54), a p a t t e r n does emerge. Here, s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h f o u r of f i v e n o t a t e d downbeats, and appear to support a breve p u l s e . The framing of t h i s c o n s i s t e n t middle s e c t i o n by- l e s s c o n s i s t e n t outer s e c t i o n s suggests an ABA formal d e s i g n f o r t h i s v o i c e p a r t . The p i t c h - c l a s s coherence of the p r e c e d i n g two s e c t i o n s c o n t i n u e s i n the a l t u s . Twenty two of the twenty f i v e s t r o n g accents occur on the a t t a c k s of A, C or E. Likewise, the bassus h i g h l i g h t s those p i t c h c l a s s e s i n twenty two of t h i r t y one s t r o n g a t t a c k s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r o n g accents w i t h r e g a r d to downbeats i n the bassus resembles that found i n both the s u p e r i u s and a l t u s . L i k e the two upper p a r t s , t h i s v o i c e has c l e a r l y - d e f i n e d phrases--mm. 45-55, 56-63 and 64-65. The cadence i n m. 63 corresponds to the cadence i n the CF v o i c e . For the g r e a t e r p a r t of the f i r s t two phrases, s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h notated downbeats (ten of t h i r t e e n ) . Indeed, i n mm. 45-57, never are two s u c c e s s i v e downbeats unaccented. As i n the s u p e r i u s , t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s to a sense of timespan o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which s t r o n g accents synchronize w i t h the beginnings of breves i n the notated mensuration. 171 In mm. 58-62, the s i t u a t i o n i s r e v e r s e d . None of the s t r o n g accents i n t h i s passage c o i n c i d e s w i t h a downbeat. They are spread at i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , sometimes o c c u r r i n g s u c c e s s i v e l y i n twos (m. 61) or threes (mm. 58 and 62-63) . In t h i s way, s t r o n g accent d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the second h a l f of the bassus melody c o n f l i c t s w i t h that of the f i r s t h a l f . In c o n t r a s t to the ABA d e s i g n i n h e r e n t i n the accent s t r u c t u r e of the a l t u s , here i t i s AB. These c o n t r a s t i n g designs h e l p determine how the accents of the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s i n t e r a c t i n the whole. Let us c o n s i d e r , then, the i n t e r a c t i o n of accents i n the C h r i s t e . In mm. 49-50 there i s a d o u b l e - l e a d i n g - t o n e cadence. 9 The s u p e r i u s and tenor have the c a n t i z a n s and t e n o r i z a n s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Accompanying the 7-6 suspension i n the s u p e r i u s i s a 4-3 suspension i n the a l t u s . Both v o i c e s r e s o l v e up i n m. 50, where combined c a d e n t i a l - d u r a t i o n a l accent accrues to the a t t a c k s of those p i t c h e s . P a t t e r n s of accent c o i n c i d e n c e i n t h i s s e c t i o n resemble those i n K y r i e I. That i s , s t r o n g accents seldom occur i n i s o l a t i o n , but are o f t e n a t t a c k e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n two or more v o i c e s . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the C h r i s t e , i n which accents f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r e d i n i s o l a t i o n . C o i n c i d e n t accents i n t hree or f o u r v o i c e s occur both on and o f f the n o t a t e d downbeat. Although they are more evenly spaced than those i n R e c a l l d i s c u s s i o n on pp. 97-98 of the p r e c e d i n g chapter. 172 the C h r i s t e , they do not support the mensural p u l s e as s t r o n g l y as they d i d i n K y r i e I. Obrecht continues the emphasis on p i t c h c l a s s e s A, C and E i n t h i s movement. Of the eleven i n s t a n c e s of t h r e e - and f o u r - v o i c e c o i n c i d e n c e , ten h i g h l i g h t those p i t c h c l a s s e s . The p i t c h - c l a s s coherence imparted by accents i n i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s and by c o i n c i d e n t accents i n the f u l l t e x t u r e i s s u r e l y not a c c i d e n t a l . By a c c e n t i n g the a t t a c k s of these p i t c h c l a s s e s , Obrecht c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e s the A e o l i a n mode. Let us conclude our d i s c u s s i o n of Obrecht's K y r i e by summarizing the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of accent i n t e r a c t i o n i n each s e c t i o n . The f i r s t K y r i e e x h i b i t e d a prominence of p a i r e d accents, but a l s o had s e v e r a l t h r e e - and f o u r - v o i c e c o i n c i d e n c e s at evenly-spaced i n t e r v a l s . The f i n a l cadence omitted the tenor. By c o n t r a s t , the C h r i s t e was more seamless, w i t h c o i n c i d e n t accents o c c u r r i n g more weakly and i r r e g u l a r l y . The o n l y f u l l - v o i c e d c o i n c i d e n t accent i n t h a t s e c t i o n o c c u r r e d at the f i n a l cadence. The second K y r i e saw a r e t u r n to p a i r e d accents and more evenly spaced c o i n c i d e n t a c c e n t s . L i k e the f i r s t K y r i e , the f i n a l p i t c h of the CF was not a t t a c k e d a t the f i n a l cadence. These elements c r e a t e d c o n t r a s t between the outer s e c t i o n s and the inne r , and suggested an ABA' form. De s p i t e these c o n t r a s t s , the coherence of the movement i s ensured by elements of c o n s i s t e n c y among the three s e c t i o n s . A l l have s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s of unaccented downbeats, as w e l l as 173 c o i n c i d e n t accents on weak p a r t s of the breve. The r e s u l t of t h i s common t r a i t i s a f l u i d t e x t u r e i n which i r r e g u l a r i t y of accent occurrence c o n t r a s t s w i t h r e g u l a r i t y . The c o n f l i c t between a c c e n t u a l p e r i o d i c i t y and i r r e g u l a r i t y i n one or more i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s of a s e c t i o n i s echoed i n the p a t t e r n s c r e a t e d by c o i n c i d e n t accents i n the f u l l t e x t u r e . The K y r i e s e c t i o n s r e f l e c t the elements of r e g u l a r i t y , the C F - f r e e C h r i s t e s e c t i o n the elements of i r r e g u l a r i t y . In t h i s manner the s e c t i o n s r e i n f o r c e the K y r i e ' s t e r n a r y form. F i n a l l y , u n i t y i n Obrecht's K y r i e i s a l s o p r o v i d e d by the emphasis on p a r t i c u l a r p i t c h c l a s s e s . The c o n s i s t e n t s t r e s s of A, C and E by s t r o n g l y accented a t t a c k s i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s , and at p o i n t s of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents s o l i d l y grounds the work i n the A e o l i a n mode. As the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d i n Ockeghem's K y r i e , the ABA formal c o n t r a s t i s u n i f i e d by p a t t e r n s of p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y . La Rue, K y r i e I from Missa L'homme arme I I La Rue's Missa L'homme arme I I i s a canon Mass w i t h a long-note CF that migrates between a l t u s and t e n o r . 1 0 The canon at the f i f t h (diapente) i n v o l v e s the s u p e r i u s dux and 1 0 At the time of t h i s study, o n l y the manuscript v e r s i o n of the e d i t i o n f o r t h i s mass was a v a i l a b l e . I am g r a t e f u l to N i g e l St. John Davison of B r i s t o l U n i v e r s i t y f o r making a v a i l a b l e a copy of h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n b e f o r e i t s p u b l i c a t i o n (which i s forthcoming) i n Pierre de la Rue, Opera Omnia, Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 97 (American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology: H a n s s l e r - V e r l a g ) . 174 bassus comes i n the K y r i e . 1 1 The tenor has the CF i n the opening s e c t i o n of the movement; i t pr e s e n t s the A s e c t i o n of L'homme arme, o m i t t i n g the f i n a l f i f t h - l e a p . The mensuration f o r t h i s s e c t i o n i s tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta. The breve i s rep r e s e n t e d by a d o t t e d whole note i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . The s c r i b e ' s t e x t u n d e r l a y i s more complete i n t h i s K y r i e than i n the p r e c e d i n g two. Example 5-11 p r o v i d e s the a n a l y s i s of the f i r s t s e c t i o n of La Rue's K y r i e , and r e v e a l s three phrases i n the s u p e r i u s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d by s t r o n g cadence a t t a c k s i n mm. 5, 10 and 12. The melody i s dominated by conjunct motion w i t h c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d h i g h and low points,- emphasized by contour or l e a p a c c e n t s . Strong accents occur s u c c e s s i v e l y i n mm. 2, 4 and 5, but are otherwise separated throughout by unaccented p i t c h a t t a c k s . With the exc e p t i o n of mm. 3, 6 and 7, accented p i t c h a t t a c k s c o i n c i d e w i t h the downbeat. T h i s g i v e s the s u p e r i u s a s t r o n g l y d e f i n e d p u l s e c o i n c i d i n g w i t h that of the n o t a t e d mensuration. Strong accents h i g h l i g h t the a t t a c k s of c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s i n t h i s Kyrie--G, A, C and D; the a t t a c k of B4 i s accented once as w e l l . The a l t u s v o i c e i s , i n some ways, s i m i l a r l y s t r u c t u r e d i n t h i s movement. I t i s predominantly conjunct, and accents g e n e r a l l y occur i n i s o l a t i o n r a t h e r than i n s u c c e s s i o n . The o n l y exceptions are i n m. 12, and on the f i n a l t hree p i t c h 1 1 R e c a l l the r u l e s f o r a n a l y s i s of canonic p a r t s i n Chapter I I I , pp. 51-54. 175 Example 5-11 A n a l y s i s of La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e I, mm. 1-12. 8«. c f a v . P o L i * 0 >  1 • » - a 1 K — -r c 8R - r! - - _ . _ . » » T 7 T * - - e * • y v <«>o * ~ ,1 -few ^ ( U " < * r P — „ * <>. o c - - - - 5 e * £3 -0 i »<>» ' ; c t » • e O • O n = f- | « 3 - - r," - - c ft.' • - . # • c o M . -SO* "3- '•• • f o n B4: It * 176 a t t a c k s , where a contour accent on the antepenultimate a t t a c k i s f o l l o w e d by d u r a t i o n a l accent on the penult, then by combined l e a p - d u r a t i o n a l - c a d e n t i a l accent on the a t t a c k of the f i n a l D4. Cadence timepoints are c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d , and d i v i d e the a l t u s melody i n t o two phrases. In c o n t r a s t to the superius, o n l y s i x of the twelve n o t a t e d downbeats c o i n c i d e w i t h s t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s i n the melody. Only i n mm. 10-12 do they occur on s u c c e s s i v e downbeats. However, i n t e r v e n i n g s t r o n g accents i n those measures d i m i n i s h the e f f e c t of a supported mensural p u l s e . Concerning p i t c h c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y , the a l t u s a g a i n e x h i b i t s elements of s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t w i t h the s u p e r i u s . For the f i r s t 9 measures, on l y the a t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s e s D, F and G are supported by s t r o n g a c c e n t s . In the l a s t t hree measures, however, the a t t a c k s of C5, A4 and B4 are a l s o s t r o n g l y emphasized. These accents weaken s l i g h t l y the p i t c h c l a s s e s emphasized i n the f i r s t e i g h t measures of the movement. Since the bassus i s the comes i n the superius-bassus canon, the same ob s e r v a t i o n s made f o r the upper v o i c e a p p l y here. However, some d i f f e r e n c e s a r i s e d e s p i t e the canonic procedure. For i n s t a n c e , where there were th r e e phrases i n the s u p e r i u s , there are o n l y two i n t h i s lower v o i c e . T h i s occurs because the bassus D3 i n m. l l - - t h e p i t c h c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the s u p e r i u s c a d e n t i a l A4 i n m. 10--breaks the canon. D3 177 i s d u r a t i o n a l l y accented only, and the cadence i n the bassus i s postponed u n t i l the a t t a c k of G2 i n the f i n a l measure. The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s how the canon at the f i f t h r e s u l t s i n a second d i f f e r e n c e between the dux and comes. Although the bassus, l i k e the superius, c o n s i s t e n t l y emphasizes c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s , these pes are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from those i n the upper v o i c e (a n a t u r a l consequence of the canon). In the s u p e r i u s , the onsets of p i t c h c l a s s e s G, A, C and D were f r e q u e n t l y supported by s t r o n g accents; i n the bassus, the c o r r e s p o n d i n g a t t a c k s of C, D, F and G are most f r e q u e n t l y accented. Combined with o b s e r v a t i o n s made on the a l t u s , the a n a l y s i s exposes f o r us an o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y ; emphasis i s spread evenly among the a t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s e s G, A, C, D and F. The a n a l y s i s again r e v e a l s c l e a r l y how the accents i n t e r a c t and c o i n c i d e i n t h i s movement. Accents sometimes occur i n i s o l a t i o n (e.g., a l t u s F4 and s u p e r i u s G4 i n m. 2, s u p e r i u s D4 and D5 i n m. 3, and so f o r t h ) ; more f r e q u e n t l y , though, they c o i n c i d e . In p a r t i c u l a r , c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three or f o u r v o i c e s occur i n mm. 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 11 and 12. With the exceptions of the tenor G4 i n m. 3 and a g a i n i n m. 6, s i x of these seven c o i n c i d e n t accents support CF p i t c h e s whose a t t a c k s were o r i g i n a l l y emphasized. That i s , c o i n c i d e n t accents seem to be governed by the accent s t r u c t u r e of the cantus prius factus. 178 Moreover, a l l downbeats are emphasized by s t r o n g accents i n at l e a s t one v o i c e . T h i s g i v e s the movement a strong, r e g u l a r p u l s e c o i n c i d i n g w i t h that of the n o t a t e d mensuration. The breve p u l s e supported by c o i n c i d e n t accents i n three and f o u r v o i c e s thus m i r r o r s that found i n the canonic v o i c e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a l l concurrent t h r e e - and f o u r - v o i c e accents i n t h i s s e c t i o n c o i n c i d e w i t h downbeats, and occur a t r e g u l a r l y spaced i n t e r v a l s (every two to three b r e v e s ) . S i m i l a r l y , p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s e s t a b l i s h e d by c o n c u r r e n t accents support those noted i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s . Of the seven t i m e p o i n t s w i t h s t r o n g c o i n c i d e n t accents, f o u r emphasize G, one C, one D and one F. Accents i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s emphasized these same p i t c h c l a s s e s . Moreover, the A s e c t i o n of the CF used i n t h i s opening K y r i e has i t s most s t r o n g l y accented timepoints on the a t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s e s G, C and D. In t h i s r espect, the a n a l y s i s shows how p a t t e r n s of accent c o i n c i d e n c e and the accent s t r u c t u r e s of the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s h i g h l i g h t a l l the p i t c h c l a s s e s emphasized by the accent s t r u c t u r e of the CF. La Rue, C h r i s t e from Missa L'homme arme I I Example 5-12 presents the a n a l y s i s of the f o u r - v o i c e C h r i s t e s e c t i o n of La Rue's K y r i e . Here, the complete B s e c t i o n of the CF migrates to the a l t u s v o i c e . Text u n d e r l a y i s a g a i n p r i n c i p a l l y t h a t of the s c r i b e . The p r i n c i p a l 179 Example 5-12. A n a l y s i s of La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , C h r i s t e , mm. 13-42. 180 181 e x c e p t i o n i s i n the tenor, mm. 28-35, where the t e x t i s p r o v i d e d e d i t o r i a l l y . The mensuration i s tempus imperfectus cum prolatione imperfecta (|=J = O) . The a n a l y s i s shows that, although s t i l l p r i n c i p a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by conjunct motion, the canonic v o i c e s have more c o n s e c u t i v e accents than i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n . Examples occur i n the s u p e r i u s i n mm. 15, 22, 28-29 and 33. Phrases i n the s u p e r i u s are c l e a r l y d e f i n e d by s t r o n g cadence a t t a c k s (mm. 17, 25, 31 and 39); i n the bassus cadences occur i n mm. 21, 29, 3 5 and 39. In c o n t r a s t to the support of the notated downbeat noted i n K y r i e I, the v o i c e s here suggest a p u l s e c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the weak mensural d i v i s i o n . A l l phrases begin on the weak h a l f of the breve. S i m i l a r l y , except f o r the f i n a l cadence, a l l c a d e n t i a l a t t a c k s c o i n c i d e w i t h the upbeat, as do many of the accents w i t h i n the phrases. Strong accents i n these v o i c e s g e n e r a l l y do not c o i n c i d e w i t h the downbeat i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In the superius, t h i s happens o n l y i n mm. 29, 33 and 3 9; i n the bassus, i t occurs i n mm. 33, 3 7 and 39. P i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s i n the canonic v o i c e s of the C h r i s t e p a r a l l e l those observed i n the opening s e c t i o n . Although the s u p e r i u s cadences on F4, s t r o n g accents i n that v o i c e c o i n c i d e p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h p i t c h c l a s s e s G, D and A. In the bassus, t h e r e f o r e , the onsets of C, G and D are emphasized. Since the canon simply stops i n m. 39, D3 becomes the c a d e n t i a l p i t c h f o r the bassus. 182 Some aspects of the tenor's accent s t r u c t u r e are s i m i l a r to those of the superius and bassus. Strong accents f r e q u e n t l y occur i n su c c e s s i o n , as i n mm. 13-17, 24-25, 34, 36 and 40. L i k e the other two v o i c e s , the tenor i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t h i s movement.by p r i n c i p a l l y conjunct motion. Phrases are c l e a r l y d e f i n e d by s t r o n g cadences i n mm. 21, 37 and 41. Strong accents most f r e q u e n t l y correspond to the a t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s e s G, C and D. The accent s t r u c t u r e of the a l t u s i n K y r i e I c o n t r a s t e d somewhat w i t h that of the canonic voices,- so i t i s w i t h the tenor i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Whereas s t r o n g accents i n the s u p e r i u s and bassus i n the C h r i s t e synchronize w i t h the n o t a t e d upbeats, accented timepoints i n the tenor more f r e q u e n t l y c o i n c i d e w i t h the downbeat. T h i s i s so i n mm. 13, 15, 17, 21, 23, 25, 29, 33, 34, 36, 40 and 41. Thus, the tenor suggests a c o n f l i c t i n g p u l s e . The a n a l y s i s shows that the accent p a t t e r n s i n the non-CF v o i c e s of the C h r i s t e p a r a l l e l those found i n the opening s e c t i o n . That i s , the p a t t e r n r e v e a l e d i n the canonic v o i c e s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the p a t t e r n s found i n the other added v o i c e . C o i n c i d e n t accents i n three or more v o i c e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n resemble some of the tendencies noted i n K y r i e I, and c o n t r a s t w i t h o t h e r s . For i n s t a n c e , here accents i n one v o i c e f r e q u e n t l y occur i n i s o l a t i o n , l e s s o f t e n c o i n c i d e n t a l l y {e.g., s u p e r i u s m. 22, bassus m. 26, tenor m. 36). The o p p o s i t e t r e n d was r e v e a l e d i n the opening s e c t i o n . 183 Concurrent accents i n that s e c t i o n o c c u r r e d f r e q u e n t l y ; i n the C h r i s t e , there are fewer accents f a r t h e r a p a r t . C o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three or f o u r v o i c e s occur i n nun. 17, 21, 25, 27, 31 and 33. A l l but the l a s t one c o i n c i d e w i t h the upbeat, an emphasis that c o n t r a s t s w i t h the downbeat emphasis found i n K y r i e I. However, here as i n t h a t opening s e c t i o n , t hree- and f o u r - v o i c e accent c o i n c i d e n c e c l e a r l y supports the p u l s e suggested by the canonic v o i c e s . Moreover, the tenor's f o u r accented a t t a c k s on upbeats a l l c o n t r i b u t e to timepoints w i t h c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents, and h e l p to a f f i r m the upbeat p u l s e . Although l e s s frequent, c o i n c i d e n t accents i n the C h r i s t e are s i m i l a r to K y r i e I i n an important way--they occur a t r e g u l a r l y - s p a c e d i n t e r v a l s . With the e x c e p t i o n of the two- breve span from the upbeat of m. 25 to the upbeat of m. 27, the i n t e r v a l s between such accented timepoints i n t h i s movement span f o u r breves of the mensuration. Since a l l these t i m e p o i n t s - - e x c e p t i n m. 27--have a s t r o n g c a d e n t i a l accent i n at l e a s t one v o i c e , there i s a s t r o n g sense of f o u r - b r e v e p h r a s i n g up to m. 31. (The canonic v o i c e s have s t r o n g c o i n c i d e n t accents four breves l a t e r i n m. 35, but the f i n a l cadence i n those v o i c e s occurs on the downbeat of m. 39, three-and-one-half breves l a t e r . ) C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p i t c h c l a s s e s at t i m e p o i n t s w i t h three or f o u r c o i n c i d e n t accents shows us more s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h K y r i e I. Prominent p i t c h c l a s s e s are C, G and D. In the 184 f i r s t s e c t i o n , c o i n c i d e n t accents emphasized the a t t a c k s of C, G, D and F. Whereas the onset of p i t c h c l a s s G was most f r e q u e n t l y emphasized i n K y r i e I, the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n more o f t e n h i g h l i g h t s the a t t a c k of p i t c h c l a s s C a t t i m e p o i n t s w i t h c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents. Furthermore, the a n a l y s i s shows once agai n that p i t c h - c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s i n the added v o i c e s c l o s e l y f o l l o w the CF. G, D and A f e a t u r e c o n s p i c u o u s l y i n the cantus prius factus, as w e l l as i n the t h r e e added v o i c e s . La Rue, K y r i e I I from Missa L'homme arme I I The second K y r i e i n t h i s movement r e t u r n s to tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta; the d o t t e d whole note r e p r e s e n t s the breve i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . The CF r e t u r n s to the tenor, which p r e s e n t s the A' phrase of L'homme arme. Text u n d e r l a y i s p r i n c i p a l l y La Rue's. The a n a l y s i s i n Example 5-13 shows elements of s i m i l a r i t y w i t h the f i r s t s e c t i o n . The canonic v o i c e s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by conjunct motion. Strong accents g e n e r a l l y occur i n i s o l a t i o n r a t h e r than c o n c u r r e n t l y . Superius and bassus both have three phrases, each ending w i t h s t r o n g cadences. Moreover, s t r o n g accents i n these v o i c e s once agai n c o i n c i d e o f t e n w i t h the notated downbeat (e.g., s u p e r i u s , mm. 42-46, bassus mm. 43-47). Strong accents i n the canonic v o i c e s a g a i n support a p u l s e c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the notated breve. 185 Example 5-13. A n a l y s i s of La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e I I , mm. 42-59. H - 5 T= =7 » 1 (H A — '—" •— lei - -ft »—*—' *~ $ i 1 / C j C e v - rt {an s Ml M - e. le. - 1 , & J ^ L J _ c ^ • Son S o n * 3 I*., - - ,̂ — g Iff, I A i—c— 1 31 186 Example 5-13. (Continued.) 187 Treatment of the a l t u s i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the opening K y r i e . Although i t i s again governed by conjunct motion, i t i s d i f f e r e n t i n two important ways. F i r s t , the st r o n g accents occur p r i n c i p a l l y i n i s o l a t i o n , and seldom c o n s e c u t i v e l y (e.g., i n mm. 54, 56 and 57). In K y r i e I, there were o f t e n two or three s u c c e s s i v e s t r o n g accents i n t h i s v o i c e . Second, the s t r o n g accents here o f t e n c o i n c i d e w i t h the notated downbeat, whereas they more o f t e n c o i n c i d e d w i t h the upbeat i n K y r i e I. Thus, the a l t u s here has the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the non-canonic tenor of the C h r i s t e . Consequently, i t conforms to, r a t h e r than d i f f e r s from the p a t t e r n s of the canonic v o i c e s i n K y r i e I I . With r e g a r d to p i t c h c l a s s e s , the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y . The p i t c h c l a s s e s most commonly i n i t i a t e d a t accented ti m e p o i n t s i n the dux i n c l u d e G, A, C and D. Accents i n the comes commonly occur at the onsets of C, D, F and G. These p a t t e r n s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s of the movement. In the a l t u s however, there i s no such c o n s i s t e n c y . The seven d i a t o n i c p i t c h c l a s s e s are a l l h i g h l i g h t e d by accented a t t a c k s . The v o i c e cadences on B3. T h i s g i v e s a t h i r d above the tenor, a c u r i o u s ending s i n c e contemporary c o u n t e r p o i n t t r e a t i s e s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e t h a t ending on a p e r f e c t consonance i s an i n v i o l a b l e r u l e . 1 2 The 1 2 See, f o r example Johannes T i n c t o r i s , Liber de arte contrapuncti, t r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by A l b e r t Seay (American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1961), 132; a l s o see Franchinus G a f u r i u s , Practica Musicae, t r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by Irwin Young (Madison: The U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1969), 137. 188 l a c k of p i t c h - c l a s s coherence i n t h i s v o i c e c o n t r a s t s w i t h the h i g h degree of c o n s i s t e n c y found i n a l l v o i c e s elsewhere i n the K y r i e . P a t t e r n s of accent c o i n c i d e n c e i n t h i s s e c t i o n e x h i b i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s . As i n K y r i e I, a s t r o n g accent i n one v o i c e g e n e r a l l y occurs c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h a s t r o n g accent i n at l e a s t one other v o i c e ; they are found i n i s o l a t i o n l e s s o f t e n . Furthermore, c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents g e n e r a l l y c o i n c i d e w i t h the notated downbeat i n K y r i e I I , and thus support the p u l s e suggested by superius and bassus. As i n the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n , however, these accented t i m e p o i n t s occur l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , g e n e r a l l y w i t h longer timespans between them. The exceptions are mm. 42-43 and 55-56. F i n a l l y , the p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s e s t a b l i s h e d by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s of La Rue's K y r i e continue here. Of the seven occurrences of t h r e e - and f o u r - v o i c e c o i n c i d e n t accents, three emphasize the onset of G (mm. 42, 46, 51 and 58), three i n i t i a t e a t t a c k s h i g h l i g h t i n g C (mm. 43, and 47), and one c o i n c i d e s w i t h an a t t a c k on D (m. 56). O v e r a l l , then, a n a l y s i s of the La Rue K y r i e does not r e v e a l the c l e a r c o n t r a s t i n g formal d e s i g n of the same movements by Ockeghem and Obrecht. Working a g a i n s t elements of c o n t r a s t are elements of homogeneity. These i n c l u d e the s i m i l a r i t y of i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s , which are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 189 conjunct motion, c l e a r l y d e f i n e d cadences, and c o n s i s t e n t p i t c h - c l a s s emphasis i n a l l three s e c t i o n s . Some elements of c o n t r a s t , however, suggest a t e r n a r y form f o r t h i s K y r i e . The p u l s e supported by the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s , and r e i n f o r c e d by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e s w i t h the n o t a t e d p e r f e c t - m e n s u r a t i o n downbeat i n the K y r i e s e c t i o n s . By c o n t r a s t , the same elements i n the C h r i s t e c r e a t e a p u l s e c o i n c i d i n g w i t h i t s imperfect-mensuration upbeat. S i m i l a r l y , d e s p i t e the homogeneity of p i t c h c l a s s e s i n t h i s movement, the a n a l y s i s suggests an ABA form by r e v e a l i n g most emphasis on G i n K y r i e I and K y r i e I I , and on C i n the C h r i s t e . The f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d above combine to c r e a t e a K y r i e e x e m p l i f y i n g both homogeneity and s u b t l e c o n t r a s t . These elements are c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d by the a n a l y s i s , and a l l o w us to see how La Rue c r e a t e s a movement c h a r a c t e r i z e d by u n i f o r m i t y , but w i t h enough d i v e r s i t y to r e f l e c t the form i n h e r e n t i n the t e x t . J o squin, K y r i e I from Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales The analyses of the K y r i e s set by Ockeghem, Obrecht and La Rue have r e v e a l e d d i f f e r e n t methods of formal o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to both i n d i v i d u a l melodic l i n e s and the c o i n c i d e n c e of s t r o n g accents. A l l three p i e c e s r e f l e c t , w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of s u b t l e t y and c l a r i t y , the t e r n a r y form i n h e r e n t both i n the K y r i e t e x t and i n the cantus prius 190 factus. The same de s i g n i s apparent i n the same movements of b o t h J o s q u i n ' s L'homme arme Masses. The K y r i e of Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales has a tenor CF i n long notes, w i t h the o r i g i n a l tune e m b e l l i s h e d s l i g h t l y . 1 3 For convenience and c o n s i s t e n c y , t h i s study shows the CF tune u n f o l d i n g with the f i r s t occurrence of each p i t c h i n c o r r e c t s u c c e s s i v e order. P i t c h e s f o l l o w i n g an o r i g i n a l CF member are c o n s i d e r e d embellishments.of the cantus prius factus u n t i l the next quoted CF p i t c h appears. These embellishments are analyzed a c c o r d i n g to the r u l e s p r o v i d e d i n Chapter I I I , and are p l a c e d i n square b r a c k e t s to d i s t i n g u i s h them from the o r i g i n a l CF notes. T h i s p r o v i s i o n avoids having to s p e c u l a t e about composers' concepts of s t r u c t u r a l v ersus e m b e l l i s h i n g r o l e s i n CF e l a b o r a t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , i n Example 5-14--the a n a l y s i s of K y r i e I - - the CF i s i n the tenor, beginning on C3 i n m. 6.14 The opening A phrase of L'homme arme i s presented without the f i n a l f i f t h - l e a p . Embellishment of the tune occurs i n mm. 11-12, 16' and 17-18. In mm. 8-12, the descent from F3-C3 i n the f i r s t phrase i s extended by a r e p e t i t i o n of the l a s t two 1 3 The source f o r the K y r i e i s J o s q u i n des Prez, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, i n Josquin des Prez, Collected Works Mis sen I, e d i t e d by A. Smijers (Amsterdam: Vereneging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, 1926), 1-3. 1 4 In t h i s mass by Josquin, the phrase "super voces musicales" means that the CF begins on s u c c e s s i v e l y h i g h e r p i t c h e s . Over the course of the whole mass, the CF moves from C i n the K y r i e to D i n the G l o r i a , E i n the Credo, F i n the Sanctus, G i n the f i r s t Agnus Dei, and A i n the second Agnus D e i . 191 Example 5-14. A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I, mm. 1-19. 192 Example 5-14. (Continued.) Sx\ I 1 * C 1 6ft -¥ —u : 1 ; - o • •# • e - It - - i - -e 5 7- » — c j ^ e c 7 • ' • . fa 1 - 9— * _. V A e r. e - - - le - -— —* - - - - 1 - fC f\ f-} o : • i ^ -e £ • c1 1 «ep . v c' -rr^ ; ^ » * c, >• ' • . T * • ' ' . — f - • " • 1 e. - — - - j - , . 1 • ' ' ' ' ' • | le <-<•) c _ " V 1 p r . - 1 M » J • | • 4 [» . - * —zr. : •—' -?m — . • 'f  1 -J- - 1 r- 193 p i t c h e s , D3 and C3. Both p i t c h e s span a f u l l breve, and so d u r a t i o n a l accent accrues to the a t t a c k s of those p i t c h e s . In mm. 14-15, the f i n a l f i f t h - d e s c e n t begins w i t h the step G3-F3; t h i s step i s repeated i n m. 16, wit h a d u r a t i o n a l accent on the a t t a c k of the second F3. S i m i l a r l y , the f i n a l s t e p of the tune (D3-C3) i s repeated twice i n mm. 17-18. The f i r s t i n s t a n c e of C3 here i s shown wit h the symbol J to r e f l e c t i t s r o l e as the f i n a l p i t c h i n the o r i g i n a l CF tune. Combined d u r a t i o n a l - c a d e n t i a l accent accrues to the a t t a c k of C3 i n m. 18, s i n c e i t i s the f i n a l p i t c h i n that v o i c e . There are two remaining g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s to make b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s i n the a n a l y s i s . F i r s t , the mensuration i n t h i s movement i s tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta. The d o t t e d double-whole note ( CJ» ) r e p r e s e n t s the breve i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Second, t e x t u n d e r l a y i n t h i s K y r i e i s complicated by the f a c t t h a t the e d i t o r uses P e t r u c c i ' s f i r s t e d i t i o n . 1 5 The V e n e t i a n p r i n t e r , over whom Jo s q u i n had- no c o n t r o l , c a s u a l l y and i m p r e c i s e l y added the t e x t . Nevertheless, we show the p r i n t e r ' s u n d e r l a y i n order to remain c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s examples. The CF tune i s i m i t a t e d p e r v a s i v e l y by the other v o i c e s . Some time p o i n t s i n these v o i c e s sound l i k e cadences, by analogy to the cadence at the corresponding p a r t s i n the CF. J o s q u i n t y p i c a l l y evades these cadences by v a r i o u s means. For example, i n m. 5, D4 concludes the f i r s t phrase of L'homme 1 5 Smijers i n Werken, p. X I I I . 194 arme i n the s u p e r i u s . However, i t i s b r i e f , and i t i s connected to A4 f o l l o w i n g a b r e a t h r e s t , so i t i s an evaded cadence. The same argument supports the r e a d i n g of an evaded cadence on the bassus D3 i n m. 4 - - i t i s r h y t h m i c a l l y b r i e f , and i s f o l l o w e d immediately by a leap to A3. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the accent s t r u c t u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s r e v e a l s p a t t e r n s found i n the pre c e d i n g three K y r i e s . For i n s t a n c e , the superius i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by predominantly stepwise motion. Strong accents f r e q u e n t l y occur s u c c e s s i v e l y i n groups of two or three, w i t h s e v e r a l unaccented p i t c h a t t a c k s s e p a r a t i n g the groups. The two s t r o n g accents i n m. 3 are f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l unaccented a t t a c k s b e f o r e three s u c c e s i v e l e a p accents occur i n mm. 5-6. More weak acce n t s ensue u n t i l the co n s e c u t i v e contour-accented a t t a c k of A4 and d u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d a t t a c k of G4 i n m. 9.' Accented t i m e p o i n t s do occur o c c a s i o n a l l y i n i s o l a t i o n , as f o r example i n mm. 12 (C5), 13 (E4), and 15 (D4). Strong accents ;in t h i s v o i c e p a r t g e n e r a l l y do not c o i n c i d e w i t h the notated downbeat. Exceptions are mm. 3, 8, 9, 11 and 18. Nor are the str o n g a c c e n t s • r e g u l a r l y spaced. S i m i l a r l y , the superius has onl y one s t r o n g cadence a t t a c k b e f o r e the onset of the f i n a l p i t c h i n m. 18. A l l o t h e r cadences are evaded. Although most cadence a t t a c k s occur on downbeats (the onl y e x c e p t i o n i s i n m. 16), they are i r r e g u l a r l y spread throughout the s e c t i o n , and so do not support a p u l s e synchronous w i t h the downbeat. 195 As was the case w i t h accent s t r u c t u r e , p a t t e r n s of p i t c h c l a s s i n the su p e r i u s resemble those observed i n some of the K y r i e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . Here, twelve of ei g h t e e n s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h the a t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s e s D and A. The accent s t r u c t u r e of the a l t u s has elements of b o t h s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t w i t h the s u p e r i u s . L i k e the upper v o i c e , the a l t u s i s p r i m a r i l y conjunct, and has many evaded cadences. However, i n c o n t r a s t with the su p e r i u s , s t r o n g accents o f t e n c o i n c i d e . w i t h the n o t a t e d downbeat. T h i s i s the case i n mm. 1, 3, 8, 9, 11, 13 and 15-18. The frequency of such c o i n c i d e n c e s suggests that t h i s v o i c e s t r o n g l y supports a p u l s e c o i n c i d i n g with the beginning of the no t a t e d breve. For example, c o n s i d e r the f i r s t n i ne measures, where s t r o n g l y accented downbeats are r a r e . The a l t u s begins on the downbeat of m. 1. w i t h a d u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d a t t a c k on D4. Two breves l a t e r , the onset of A3 i s contour-accented. C o i n c i d i n g w i t h the downbeats of the next two measures are evaded paradigmatic cadences. Although weakly accented, they have, a t t h e i r a t t a c k s , the p o t e n t i a l to be s t r o n g l y accented c a d e n t i a l t i m e p o i n t s . Because of t h i s , they m a i n t a i n - - o r a t l e a s t suggest--a p u l s e synchronous with the mensural downbeats. T h i s p u l s e i s then r e i n f o r c e d by the frequent accented downbeats from mm. 8-18. Another p o i n t of departure from the su p e r i u s i s found i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of str o n g accents. In the upper v o i c e we noted t h a t s t r o n g accents seldom oc c u r r e d i n i s o l a t i o n . The 196 o p p o s i t e p a t t e r n emerges i n the a n a l y s i s of the a l t u s - - s t r o n g accents f r e q u e n t l y occur i n i s o l a t i o n . Indeed, there are twelve such occurrences i n t h i s v o i c e , compared to t h r e e i n the s u p e r i u s . Our f i n a l p o i n t of comparison between these v o i c e s b r i n g s us to p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Strong accents i n the s u p e r i u s c o i n c i d e d p r i n c i p a l l y with the a t t a c k s of c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s - - D , G and A - - i n K y r i e I. Here the same p a t t e r n may be observed. Of the twenty fo u r primary accents i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t , e i g h t i n i t i a t e , a t t a c k s on D; of the remaining s i x t e e n , f i v e c o i n c i d e w i t h a t t a c k s on A, f o u r on C, t h r e e on G, three on F and one on' E. Thus, s t r o n g accents i n the a l t u s e m p h a t i c a l l y emphasize p i t c h c l a s s D and, to a l e s s e r extent, A. The accent p a t t e r n i n the predominantly conjunct bassus of t h i s K y r i e has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both upper v o i c e s . As i n the s u p e r i u s , s t r o n g cadences are rare;.evaded cadences occur i n mm. 4 and 11. Furthermore, st r o n g accents a r e • f r e q u e n t l y found s u c c e s s i v e l y (e.g., mm. 1-2, 5, 7-8, 11-13, 14, 15 and 17-18), l e s s commonly i n i s o l a t i o n (e.g., mm. 3, 4, 7, 9 and 10). L i k e the a l t u s , however, those accents o f t e n c o i n c i d e w i t h n o t a t e d downbeats; such i s the case i n mm. 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 17 and 18. Although l e s s evenly spaced than those i n the a l t u s , these c o i n c i d e n t p o i n t s a l s o support a n o t a t e d downbeat p u l s e . 197 C o n s i s t e n c y of p i t c h c l a s s a t accented t i m e p o i n t s i s e v i d e n t i n the bassus. Of the twenty s t r o n g accents i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t , most occur on the a t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s e s G (seven) and A ( s i x ) . T h i s c o n f l i c t s somewhat wit h the s u p e r i u s and a l t u s , where a t t a c k s on D and A were most frequent. We noted i n the movements by Obrecht and La Rue t h a t rhythmic and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s generated by i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s were s i m i l a r to p a t t e r n s c r e a t e d by s t r o n g accent c o i n c i d e n c e i n three or four v o i c e s . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s the same s i t u a t i o n i n Josquin's K y r i e . Accents f r e q u e n t l y occur i n i s o l a t i o n i n the f o u r - v o i c e t e x t u r e . G e n e r a l l y , a s t r o n g accent i n one v o i c e i s immediately f o l l o w e d by a str o n g accent i n another v o i c e . For i n s t a n c e , i n m. 3, a l e a p - d u r a t i o n a l accent i n the s u p e r i u s i s immediately f o l l o w e d by a contour accent i n the a l t u s . S i m i l a r l y , the leap accent on the a t t a c k of A3 i n the a l t u s , m. 6, comes immediately a f t e r a l e a p - d u r a t i o n accent i n the s u p e r i u s . Many other s i m i l a r i n s t a n c e s may be found throughout the s e c t i o n . A l l t i m e p o i n t s where three and fo u r v o i c e s have concurrent s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h n o t a t e d downbeats. Indeed, a t l e a s t one str o n g accent c o i n c i d e s w i t h almost every n o t a t e d downbeat i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The exceptions are mm. 4, 6, 10 and 14. P o i n t s of th r e e - or f o u r - v o i c e c o i n c i d e n c e occur on the downbeats of mm. 8, 9, 11, 13 and 18. The e n t r y 198 of the CF i n m. 7 i n i t i a t e s the complete f o u r - v o i c e t e x t u r e i n t h i s movement. Beginning i n m. 8, then, we see t h a t c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents imply the presence of a downbeat- sy n c h r o n i z e d p u l s e i n the superius and bassus. ( C o i n c i d e n t evaded cadences i n the a l t u s and bassus i n m. 4, and i n the a l t u s and s u p e r i u s i n mm. 5 and 7 a l s o occur on the downbeat, and presage the s t r o n g e r occurrences from m. 8 onwards. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so i n mm. 5 and 7, where the evaded cadence a t t a c k s c o i n c i d e w i t h s t r o n g accents i n the bassus, and tenor and bassus r e s p e c t i v e l y . ) Although the d i s t r i b u t i o n of accents w i t h r e g a r d to the n o t a t e d mensuration i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s i s m i r r o r e d by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n the p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e , i t seems, at f i r s t glance, that p i t c h - c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s are not. However, c l o s e r s c r u t i n y does not bear out t h i s impression. P i t c h c l a s s e s D, A and to a c e r t a i n extent G, were emphasized by accented a t t a c k s i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s . Of the f i v e i n s t a n c e s of concurrent s t r o n g accents i n three or four v o i c e s , the f i r s t emphasizes p i t c h c l a s s e s Bb, D and F; the second h i g h l i g h t s F, A and C, the t h i r d D, F and A, the f o u r t h G, B a n d D, and the l a s t one A, C and E. Thus, our a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s that p i t c h c l a s s e s D, F and A occur most f r e q u e n t l y at these t i m e p o i n t s , and t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n does e x h i b i t p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s as w e l l as at p o i n t s of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g a c c e n t s . 199 Josquin, Christe from Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales This portion of the movement i s set i n the mensuration tempus imperfectus cum prolatione imperfecta; i n the Smijers t r a n s c r i p t i o n , a double-whole note represents the breve. Text underlay has the same authenticity problem as i n Kyrie I. The B section of the CF tune i s presented i n the opening measures (20-28) by the altus, so that voice i s analyzed according to the CF structure for those measures. In m. 29 the tenor resumes the role of CF voice for the remainder of the Christe. In t h i s manner, Josquin presents the B section twice, f i r s t i n the altus i n one mode and diminution, then i n the tenor i n another mode and augmentation. The analysis of the superius melody i n Example 5-15 reveals a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t treatment from that found i n the f i r s t section. For instance, there are no evaded cadences here. A l l cadences attacks are strongly accented, as i n mm. 21, 29, 40, 43, 47 and 59. Of these s i x cadence attacks, three coincide with the notated downbeat, and three do not. The general pattern of accent d i s t r i b u t i o n also contrasts with the superius of Kyrie I. In that opening section, strong accents frequently occurred successively, seldom i n i s o l a t i o n . Here, successive strong accents occur i n only f i v e places-- 200 Example 5-15. A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, C h r i s t e , mm. 20-63. 201 202 Example 5-15. (Continued.) 203 mm. 31-32, 37, 46-47, 50 and 56-59. Of these f i v e instances, a l l but the one i n m. 37 mark the beginnings or endings of phrases. More commonly, strong accents i n t h i s voice part occur i n i s o l a t i o n . One pattern i n the superius of th i s section p a r a l l e l s Kyrie I. In general, strong accents do not coincide with downbeats. There are t h i r t y seven measures i n which pitches are attacked i n the Christe; i n twenty s i x of those measures, either weakly accented attacks or no attack at a l l coincides with the downbeat. Strong accents more commonly coincide with weaker parts of the mensuration; however, because of t h e i r placement on d i f f e r e n t mensural d i v i s i o n s , the accent structure of th i s voice does not support a pulse. The f i n a l topic for consideration i n the superius of t h i s Christe section i s p i t c h class consistency. Unlike Kyrie I, where the attacks of p i t c h classes D, G and A were most commonly strongly accented, no consistency i s evident here. A l l seven diatonic p i t c h classes are highlighted at least twice, but no more than s i x times, by strong accents. Recalling that the altus presents L'homme arme for the f i r s t nine measures of the Christe, we may move ahead to m. 29 to begin our investigation of accent structure i n that voice. The analysis reveals marked contrasts between the altus melody i n t h i s section and i n Kyrie I. Cadences occur infrequently, but cadential attacks are strongly accented. A d d i t i o n a l l y , strong accents do not coincide with the notated downbeat for 204 most of the melody. (This t r e n d i s r e v e r s e d i n the f i n a l phrase only; s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h every downbeat i n mm. 54-61, and support a st r o n g p u l s e i n those measures.) F i n a l l y , the a n a l y s i s shows that p i t c h - c l a s s coherence i s not as s t r o n g here as i n the opening s e c t i o n . Strong accents accrue to the a t t a c k s of a l l seven d i a t o n i c p i t c h c l a s s e s a t l e a s t twice i n the s e c t i o n . In t h i s r e s p e c t , the a l t u s c l o s e l y resembles the superius i n the C h r i s t e . The d i f f e r e n c e s notwithstanding, there are some s i m i l a r i t i e s between the a l t u s p a r t s i n the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , s t r o n g accents tend to occur i n i s o l a t i o n r a t h e r than i n immediate s u c c e s s i o n . In f a c t , a f t e r the opening CF s e c t i o n of the a l t u s , there are no s u c c e s s i v e s t r o n g accents u n t i l the f i n a l phrase i n mm. 54-62. Moreover, i n some passages, uniform timespans o f t e n occur between s t r o n g accents, but on the weak h a l f of the breve r a t h e r than on the downbeat. Example 5-16 i l l u s t r a t e s . The contour-accented Example 5-16. Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e , a l t u s mm. 30-37. i s : 205 a t t a c k on F4 i n m. 31 i s f o l l o w e d one breve l a t e r by a d u r a t i o n a l accent; one breve a f t e r t h i s we hear a combined l e a p - d u r a t i o n a l accent. The c o n s i s t e n t timespans between these accented timepoints c r e a t e s a p a t t e r n analogous to a p u l s e - p a t t e r n that c o i n c i d e s w i t h the weak d i v i s i o n of the tempus. The symbol above the notes shows the i n i t i a t i n g t i m e p o i n t s f o r t h i s p u l s e analog, which p e r s i s t s through m. 37. L i k e the superius and a l t u s i n t h i s s e c t i o n , the bassus has elements of both s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t w i t h r e s p e c t to K y r i e I. However, c o n t r a s t i n g elements dominated the upper v o i c e s , w h i l e s i m i l a r i t i e s abound i n the bassus. Melodic motion i s p r i m a r i l y conjunct. Successive s t r o n g accents occur more commonly than i s o l a t e d ones, as i n mm. 20, 24, 25-26, 32- 33, 35, 36-39 and so f o r t h . P i t c h - c l a s s c o n t i n u i t y i s e v i d e n t i n t h i s v o i c e a s ' s t r o n g accents, c o i n c i d e p r i m a r i l y w i t h a t t a c k s on A, C, E and G. Des p i t e these s i m i l a r i t i e s , p h r a s i n g and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r o n g accents i n the bassus p r o v i d e powerful t o o l s f o r c r e a t i n g c o n t r a s t as the C h r i s t e u n f o l d s . The bassus has s i x phrases, a l l bound by c l e a r beginnings and cadences. In the f i r s t two phrases (mm. 20-23 and 24-29), s t r o n g accents f r e q u e n t l y c o i n c i d e w i t h downbeats. In the t h i r d phrase, however (mm. 30-38), many of the s t r o n g accents occur c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the weak h a l f of the no t a t e d breve. T h i s 206 c o u l d support a p u l s e c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the d i v i s i o n at the tempus l e v e l of mensuration. The f o u r t h phrase (mm. 41-43) has three s t r o n g a c c e n t s - - A2 i n m. 41, F3 i n m. 42, C3 i n m. 43. The f i r s t two c o i n c i d e w i t h the weak h a l f of the d i v i s i o n a t the l e v e l of prolatione. The f i f t h phrase (mm. 44-46) i s a s e q u e n t i a l r e p e t i t i o n of the f o u r t h b e g i n n i n g on the same prolatione d i v i s i o n . T h i s phrase i s extended so t h a t the c a d e n t i a l a t t a c k occurs on the downbeat of m. 47. T h i s leads to the f i n a l phrase (mm. 50- 62), i n which the p u l s e again synchronizes w i t h the n o t a t e d downbeats. T h i s phrase c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of s t r o n g l y accented p i t c h a t t a c k s ; of the ten a t t a c k s , nine are so accented, and a l l n i n e c o i n c i d e w i t h the downbeat. The a n a l y s i s shows us that, although s t r o n g accents occur a t r e g u l a r breve timespans throughout most of the s e c t i o n , the bassus s h i f t s the beginnings of those timespans to d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the mensuration. T h i s c o n f l i c t s w i t h K y r i e I, where s t r o n g accents i n that v o i c e p a r t synchronized p r i m a r i l y w i t h the downbeat. Once agai n we t u r n our a t t e n t i o n to the i n t e r a c t i o n of s t r o n g accents i n the f u l l t e x t u r e . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s elements of c o n t r a s t w i t h K y r i e I. In that opening s e c t i o n , most downbeats were emphasized by at l e a s t one s t r o n g l y accented p i t c h a t t a c k . In t h i s s e c t i o n , many downbeats have no s t r o n g accents, as i n mm. 21, 25, 28, 31, 33, 34 and so f o r t h . Strong accents do occur i n i s o l a t i o n here, but they 207 are a l s o f r e q u e n t l y p a i r e d w i t h an accent i n another v o i c e . (See, f o r example, superius and bassus i n m. 20, s u p e r i u s and a l t u s i n m. 21 and again i n m. 23, superius and bassus i n m. 25, a l t u s and bassus i n m.26, superius and a l t u s i n m. 27 and so on.) There are e i g h t i n s t a n c e s of t h r e e - or f o u r - v o i c e c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents--mm. 29, 33, 35, 43, 47, 50, 56 and 59. Two (mm. 33 and 43) occur on weak mensural d i v i s i o n s ; the r e s t c o i n c i d e w i t h the downbeat. These c o i n c i d e n t t i m e p o i n t s are spread throughout the s e c t i o n . For the most p a r t , they do not occur f r e q u e n t l y or r e g u l a r l y enough to e s t a b l i s h a p u l s e . However, the f a c t t h a t most of them synchronize w i t h the n o t a t e d downbeat suggests t h a t they might support a r e g u l a r p u l s e o c c u r r i n g at those t i m e p o i n t s . Now we s h a l l c o n s i d e r the element of p i t c h c l a s s to see whether i t s p a t t e r n s a l s o c o n t r a s t w i t h the opening s e c t i o n . Of the s i x c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents, the f i r s t h i g h l i g h t s A and E. S i m i l a r l y , the second emphasizes G, B and D, the t h i r d C and E, the f o u r t h A, C, and E, the f i f t h E, G and B, and the f i n a l one D, F and A. C l e a r l y , although A and E are emphasized three times, no p i t c h c l a s s dominates. Thus, the p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y e v i d e n t i n K y r i e I g i v e s way to more even d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the C h r i s t e . Measures 28-29 p r o v i d e us a good example of how the l i s t e n e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of accent i s manipulated. The a l t u s cadences on B3 i n m. 28. That B3 i s heard i n the f u l l t e x t u r e 208 as the f i r s t h a l f of a t e n o r i z a n s paradigm beneath the 7-6 c a n t i z a n s suspension i n the s u p e r i u s . When the tenor e n t e r s on C4 i n m. 29, i t does so on an accented member of the CF. T h i s v o i c e e n t r y i n the tenor--not the a l t u s - - s u p p o r t s the s u p e r i u s ' cadence, and the a l t u s must wait f o r the b e g i n n i n g of i t s next phrase f o r the r e s o l u t i o n of i t s i m p l i e d t e n o r i z a n s . Thus Jo s q u i n preserves the accent s t r u c t u r e of the cantus prius factus, not tra n s c e n d i n g t h a t s t r u c t u r e by adding a t e x t u r a l l y - d e t e r m i n e d cadence event. Josquin, K y r i e I I from Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales The a n a l y s i s of the C h r i s t e r e v e a l e d some p o i n t s of s i m i l a r i t y w i t h the opening K y r i e ; however, i t uncovers more elements of c o n t r a s t , e s p e c i a l l y with r e g a r d to accent d i s t r i b u t i o n , frequency of str o n g cadences, and c o n s i s t e n c y of p i t c h c l a s s at s t r o n g l y accented timepoints i n i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s . Example 5-17 prese n t s the a n a l y s i s of the f i n a l s e c t i o n of the K y r i e from Josquin's Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales. In t h i s segment of the p i e c e , the bassus p r e s e n t s the A' phrase of the CF from mm. 65-71; consequently, i t i s analyzed a c c o r d i n g to the r u l e s f o r CF a n a l y s i s . The tenor a l s o e n t e r s w i t h the A' phrase of the cantus i n m. 67, so t h a t f o r a b r i e f span of time there i s a double CF. The phrase i s 209 Example 5-17 N= a- m A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa. L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e I I , mm. 64- 8 9 ' . r—ME. : 1 c »rt' • t " c • C K-j - r ' - e e - - —i — — - - -1 - few It f o x 7M e. - i t - f Oh - r> - BR i 8R r Rep * • * 0 » a * ' * £ 33=21 5 BR 0 ftlS) i r r| :3Z S c - -e It - i - i t n Example 5-17. (Continued.) 210 211 extended i n mm. 79-85 of the tenor by the r e p e t i t i o n of the f i n a l f i f t h - d e s c e n t . The mensuration i s tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta; as i n K y r i e I, the breve i s represented i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n by the dotted double-whole note (f=| = |=f*) . Text underlay here f o l l o w s the e d i t o r i a l p a t t e rn noted i n the previous s e c t i o n s . The accent s t r u c t u r e of the superius melody resembles that of the superius i n K y r i e I. I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r i m a r i l y conjunct motion. No strong c a d e n t i a l accent appears before m. 82 (a combined cadential-contour accent on A3), but there are evaded cadences i n m. 7 0 (on D4) and m. 73 (on A4). Primary accents occur i n i s o l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the opening measures, but they a l s o f r e q u e n t l y occur s u c c e s s i v e l y as i n mm. 70-71, 72 and 77-79 and 81-82. Strong accents i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t c o i n c i d e w i t h the notated downbeat i n fourteen of twenty f i v e measures. In the f i r s t h a l f of the s e c t i o n , they tend to be i r r e g u l a r l y spaced. Thus, they do not s t r o n g l y support a pulse i n t h i s f i r s t h a l f . However, a f t e r m. 76, accents on downbeats occur more f r e q u e n t l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y . For the l a t t e r half-, of K y r i e I I , then, strong accents i n the superius are a r t i c u l a t e d at more r e g u l a r timespans, whose beginnings c o i n c i d e w i t h the notated downbeat. This i s e s p e c i a l l y true i n mm. 83-88, where strong accents occur on every downbeat except one (m. 87) . 1 6 1 6 Even here, however, one might hear an accent on D4, because there i s a descending sequence i n m. 86. The sequence begins on A4, and i s transposed down a t h i r d to begin on F4. I f 212 Strong accents i n the superius here emphasize the a t t a c k s of some p i t c h c l a s s e s more than o t h e r s . In p a r t i c u l a r , D, A and C are h i g h l i g h t e d ; of t h i r t y f o u r s t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s , twenty one occur on a t t a c k s of D, A or C (seven each). P i t c h - c l a s s c o h e r e n c e — e s p e c i a l l y the emphasis on D and A - - i s the o n l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t remains c o n s i s t e n t i n the s u p e r i u s throughout a l l three s e c t i o n s of t h i s K y r i e . The a l t u s of K y r i e I I proceeds p r i m a r i l y i n conjunct motion. Accents sometimes occur i n i s o l a t i o n , but a l s o o f t e n s u c c e s s i v e l y (e.g., mm. 67-68, 70-71, 75, 79, 80 and 85-87). T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h both p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s , where most s t r o n g accents o c c u r r e d i n i s o l a t i o n . There are more s t r o n g cadences i n t h i s p a r t than i n the f i r s t , t w o s e c t i o n s . However, they occur p r i n c i p a l l y i n the f i r s t h a l f - - i n mm. 66, 69 and 72; a f t e r t h i s p o i n t there are no s t r o n g cadence a t t a c k s i n the a l t u s u n t i l the f i n a l p i t c h i n m. 88. Strong accents i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t synchronize w i t h the downbeat i n mm. 66, 67, 69-73, and 75. S i x of those t i m e p o i n t s end or begin phrases. The a l t u s thus has a s t r o n g downbeat emphasis i n K y r i e TI, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t c o n t r a s t s w i t h the upbeat emphasis of that v o i c e i n the C h r i s t e and r e c a l l s the downbeat emphasis i n K y r i e I. In mm. 7 6-88, however, s t r o n g accents i n the a l t u s c o i n c i d e w i t h the n o t a t e d downbeat i n o n l y four measures. T h i s i s a d i r e c t r e v e r s a l of the a t t a c k on D4 i s heard as the beginning of another statement of the sequence, then i t w i l l be s t r o n g l y accented. 213 the s u p e r i u s ' p a t t e r n of accent d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the s e c t i o n . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t n e i t h e r of the two upper v o i c e s maintains a s t r u c t u r e i n which st r o n g accents c o n s i s t e n t l y s y n c h r o n i z e w i t h the notated downbeat, the two v o i c e s t o g e t h e r do so. T u r n i n g to the t o p i c of p i t c h c l a s s , the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s an emphasis on D, G, A and C. Of the t h i r t y s i x s t r o n g accents, s i x t e e n mark the onsets of p i t c h c l a s s e s D and G (eight each), f o u r t e e n of A and C (seven each). T h i s aspect of K y r i e I I c o n t r a s t s w i t h the C h r i s t e , but r e c a l l s K y r i e I. A c c e n t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the bassus must be d i s c u s s e d b e f o r e t u r n i n g to questions of accent i n t e r a c t i o n . Since the bassus p r e s e n t s the CF to m. 71, our a n a l y s i s begins i n m. 72. As i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s , s u c c e s s i v e accents f r e q u e n t l y occur i n the bassus. A glance at the a n a l y s i s q u i c k l y r e v e a l s much sequence and r e p e t i t i o n i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t . These passages are of v a r y i n g lengths, and so c r e a t e timespans. For i n s t a n c e , i n mm. 74-75, the o r i g i n a l statement and the r e p e t i t i o n both span a breve p l u s one semibreve. As Example 5-18 i l l u s t r a t e s , the r h y t h m i c - i n t e r v a l l i e p a t t e r n i n g i n the sequence c r e a t e s a timespan which can be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r semibreves. T h i s r e s u l t s i n a temporary tempus imperfectus cum prolatione imperfecta. The subsequent ORIG REP p a t t e r n s i n mm. 77-78 and 79-80 imply the same mensuration, but as alia breve. T h i s i s because, as Example 5-18 suggests, those p a t t e r n s are e f f e c t i v e l y a d i m i n u t i o n by h a l f of the p a t t e r n i n the p r e c e d i n g ORIG REP statement (mm. 74-75). In the remainder of t h i s s e c t i o n , s t r o n g accents i n the bassus p r i m a r i l y c o i n c i d e w i t h the n o t a t e d downbeat, and thus c o n f i r m the notated mensuration. Example 5-18. Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e , bassus, mm. 74-80. C o o o < > | o © o o 3 Coo O ^ t f — r f '• f p . , 1 c — * ^ 1—1—1 r s c — : 1— c - = [ [ f * l c j < [o o I J —0 1 o- | 0 1 if [ - ' J •gj o | o o 3 i i i ( P ° P m P ? 1 1 Il II 6 I I 111— J — r r r r-11 0 ' o , P i t c h - c l a s s coherence i s the f i n a l i s s u e to c o n s i d e r f o r t h i s v o i c e p a r t . Again, we begin i n m. 72, a f t e r the CF tune. There are twenty one s t r o n g accents i n the bassus from m. 72 on; most c o i n c i d e w i t h a t t a c k s on p i t c h c l a s s e s G (7) and A (5). P i t c h c l a s s e s D and C, which were prominent i n the p r e c e d i n g two s e c t i o n s , are emphasized by s t r o n g l y accented a t t a c k s three times each. Thus, although s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from the C h r i s t e and K y r i e I, K y r i e I I i s n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s emphasis of c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s . 215 Having made s e v e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on the rhythmic and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s of t h i s K y r i e s e c t i o n , we are now ready to c o n s i d e r the i n t e r a c t i o n of acc e n t s . Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t r o n g accent i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n p a r a l l e l those evident i n the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h most downbeats i n K y r i e I I ; o n l y i n mm. 68, 76 and "80 do we f i n d weak accents on the downbeat i n a l l v o i c e s : The d i s t r i b u t i o n of st r o n g accents i n t h i s s e c t i o n r e c a l l s p a t t e r n s i n both the C h r i s t e and K y r i e I. A s t r o n g accent i n one v o i c e f r e q u e n t l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h one s t r o n g accent i n another; t h i s p a i r i n g of accents was noted i n the C h r i s t e . (See, f o r example, s u p e r i u s - a l t u s , m. 65; a l t u s - bassus, mm. 67 and 68; s u p e r i u s - a l t u s m. 70.and so f o r t h ) . As i n K y r i e I, however,.• emphasized p i t c h a t t a c k s o f t e n occur as i s o l a t e d events i n the f u l l t e x t u r e . Moreover, they f r e q u e n t l y f o l l o w c o i n c i d e n t a t t a c k s i n two or more v o i c e s . Such i s the case i n mm. 67, where a s t r o n g accent marks the onset of the superius C'4. immediately a f t e r c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n a l t u s , tenor and bassus. S i m i l a r i n s t a n c e s may be noted i n mm. 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, and so f o r t h . U n l i k e e i t h e r of the pr e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s , c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three or fo u r v o i c e s occur f r e q u e n t l y and r e g u l a r l y i n K y r i e I I ; we f i n d them i n mm. 66, 67, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 79, 85, and 88. A l l but two occur on the n o t a t e d downbeat. Let us r e c a l l b r i e f l y that s t r o n g accents i n the 216 s u p e r i u s c o i n c i d e d w i t h the downbeat i n the second h a l f of t h i s s e c t i o n , w h i l e those i n the a l t u s d i d the same i n the f i r s t h a l f . P a t t e r n s of accent i n t e r a c t i o n r e v e a l e d by the a n a l y s i s show that, although s t r o n g accents do not c o n s i s t e n t l y synchronize w i t h the downbeat i n any i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t , timepoints with c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents do so r e s o l u t e l y . T h i s s e c t i o n ' s emphasis on the notated downbeat c o n t r a s t s w i t h the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n (many unaccented downbeats i n the po l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e ) , but i s analogous to the p a t t e r n noted i n K y r i e I (strong accents c o i n c i d e w i t h most downbeats). The same p a t t e r n of s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t i s ev i d e n t i n the treatment of p i t c h c l a s s e s . In t h i s s e c t i o n , c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents most commonly occur on the a t t a c k s of D, C and A. P i t c h c l a s s e s D, F and A were most emphasized i n K y r i e I, but no such p a t t e r n was manifest i n the C h r i s t e . O v e r a l l , then, p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y and p a t t e r n s o f accented downbeats or upbeats c r e a t e d by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n t h i s K y r i e c o n t r i b u t e to the p e r c e p t i o n of an ABA des i g n . The form i s obscured somewhat i n the v o i c e s because many of the elements are s i m i l a r from s e c t i o n to s e c t i o n . T h i s means that an ABA s t r u c t u r e , though i m p l i c i t , i s not made e x p l i c i t i n the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s . However, the i n t e r a c t i o n of s t r o n g accents c l a r i f i e s the t e r n a r y d e s i g n of the movement. Our f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n on t h i s K y r i e concerns the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the CF accent s t r u c t u r e to accent c o i n c i d e n c e 217 i n the f u l l t e x t u r e . One p a t t e r n remains c o n s i s t e n t among a l l three s e c t i o n s - - a c c e n t e d p i t c h a t t a c k s i n the cantus prius factus o f t e n mark p o i n t s of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three or f o u r v o i c e s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y c l e a r i n the C h r i s t e and K y r i e I I s e c t i o n s . Our a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d the same r e l a t i o n s h i p between the CF and accented ti m e p o i n t s i n the o t h e r three K y r i e s . For Josquin, as f o r the other composers, the accent s t r u c t u r e of the CF appears to p l a y an important r o l e i n determining the accent s t r u c t u r e s of the added p a r t s , and i n the i n t e r a c t i o n of accents among those p a r t s . T h i s r o l e i s manifest i n two ways. F i r s t , i t o f t e n determines which timepoints w i l l be s t r o n g l y marked by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three or f o u r v o i c e s . By marking these p o i n t s i n t h i s manner, the composer draws a t t e n t i o n to the " s t r u c t u r a l " CF p i t c h e s . These s t r o n g members of the cantus prius factus thus become both producer and product of s t r o n g l y accented timepoints i n polyphonic whole. Second, these same accented CF p i t c h e s are o f t e n r e i n f o r c e d by accents on the a t t a c k s of" corresponding p i t c h c l a s s e s i n both i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s and at p o i n t s of accent c o i n c i d e n c e . These two f a c e t s of CF composition h e l p to u n i f y the works by o r g a n i c a l l y l i n k i n g the p r e - c o m p o s i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l w i t h the completed product. 218 Josquin, K y r i e I from Missa L'homme arme sexti toni Having confirmed that the K y r i e of Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales f o l l o w s the p a t t e r n s of formal d e s i g n and accent i n t e r a c t i o n found i n the f i r s t three K y r i e s , we now come to the f i n a l p i e c e i n t h i s chapter. As we s h a l l see, those same p a t t e r n s are a l s o apparent i n the K y r i e . o f Missa L 'homme arme sexti toni .17 J o s q u i n s e t s the a l t u s below the tenor i n t h i s movement, and t h i s s e t t i n g i s r e f l e c t e d by the STAB v o i c i n g i n Example 5-19. The p e r v a s i v e i m i t a t i o n on L'homme arme i n tenor, a l t u s and bassus r e s u l t s i n a s i m i l a r accent s t r u c t u r e f o r each v o i c e . C l e a r e s t i s the bassus which has no embellishment of the o r i g i n a l . The a l t u s has an e m b e l l i s h i n g lower neighbour (F3 neighbour to G3) i n m. 3, shown i n square b r a c k e t s i n the a n a l y s i s . The m i g r a t i n g CF tune i s shown with arrows i n the a n a l y s i s , as i t was i n Example 5-15. The mensuration f o r t h i s s e c t i o n i s tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta, r e p r e s e n t e d i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n by a I meter s i g n a t u r e ; the breve i s re p r e s e n t e d by a do t t e d double-whole note. Text u n d e r l a y i n t h i s K y r i e i s again complicated by the f a c t t h a t 1 7 The source f o r t h i s K y r i e i s Jos q u i n des Prez, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, i n Josquin des Prez, Collected Works Missen V, e d i t e d by A. Smijers (Amsterdam: Vereneging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, 1931), 109-111. 219 Example 5-19. A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e I, mm. 1-18. 220 Example 5-19. (Continued.) 221 the e d i t o r uses P e t r u c c i ' s f i r s t e d i t i o n as h i s s o u r c e . 1 8 Again, we s t i l l show the p r i n t e r ' s u n derlay i n order to remain c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s examples. Before a d d r e s s i n g d e t a i l s of the added v o i c e s i n t h i s movement, two passages i n the tenor l i n e m e r i t d i s c u s s i o n . The tenor i s the p r i n c i p a l CF v o i c e i n t h i s movement. I t p r e s e n t s the CF tune i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner to m. 8. However, i n s t e a d of the a n t i c i p a t e d descending f i f t h - l e a p f o l l o w i n g the leap up to C4 from F3, J o s q u i n e m b e l l i s h e s the o r i g i n a l w i t h an i n t e r p o l a t e d f a l l i n g - t h i r d , r i s i n g - s e c o n d , r i s i n g - s e c o n d . The passage i s reproduced i n Example 5-20; the a n a l y s i s shows the embellishment i n square b r a c k e t s . J o s q u i n r e t u r n s to the unadorned CF i n mm. 11-14. From the a t t a c k of Example 5-20. Comparison of L'homme arme phrase w i t h Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , tenor mm. 8-10. 2 ^ C4 i n m. 14 to i t s cadence i n m. 17, the tenor appears to abandon the CF, j o i n i n g the other v o i c e s i n a f r e e f o u r - v o i c e R e c a l l the d i s c u s s i o n on p. 193 above. 222 t e x t u r e . The source f o r the tenor's sequence i n these m e a s u r e s — f a i l i n g - t h i r d , r i s i n g - s e c o n d , r i s i n g - s e c o n d - - i s the embellishment i t i n t r o d u c e d i n mm. 9-10. Measures 14-17 are no t h i n g more than a s e q u e n t i a l embellishment of the f a l l i n g C- Bb-A-G-F phrase of L'homme arme. We p o i n t out t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e m b e l l i s h i n g motive, because i t becomes an important source of m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l f o r Jo s q u i n i n l a t e r movements. Now l e t us t u r n our a t t e n t i o n to the a n a l y s i s of the s u p e r i u s . Conjunct motion governs t h i s v o i c e , which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by three phrases w i t h c l e a r l y demarcated beginnings and endings. The phrases are f a i r l y u n i form i n len g t h , spanning f i v e , f i v e and s i x breves r e s p e c t i v e l y . In the f i r s t two phrases, s t r o n g accents always occur s u c c e s i v e l y i n groups of two or three. Many of these c o i n c i d e w i t h the downbeat, as i n m. 2 (F4), m. 5 (C4), m. 6 (C4) , m. 8 (A4), m. 9 (G4) and m. 11 (E4). In the f i n a l phrase, however (mm. 12-17), s t r o n g accents occur o n l y i n i s o l a t i o n , and w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the f i r s t and l a s t p i t c h a t t a c k s , they do not syn c h r o n i z e w i t h the downbeat. The s u p e r i u s l a c k s c o n s i s t e n c y i n r e g a r d to the p i t c h c l a s s e s emphasized by s t r o n g l y accented a t t a c k s . Of the seventeen such a t t a c k s , four mark the onset of p i t c h c l a s s C. P i t c h c l a s s e s F, A and Bb are each s i m i l a r l y emphasized t h r e e times; s t r o n g accents on the a t t a c k of E occur twice, and on D and G once. The three s t r o n g cadences do not a i d our 223 i n v e s t i g a t i o n , because they occur on three d i f f e r e n t p i t c h c l a s s e s - - C , E and F. The a l t u s d i f f e r s from the superius i n s u b s t a n t i a l ways. To b e g i n with, a f t e r m. 4 i t has no s t r o n g cadences u n t i l the end of the s e c t i o n . Although p r i m a r i l y conjunct, the a l t u s melody l a c k s the c l e a r p h r a s i n g of the s u p e r i u s . Moreover, the accents throughout t h i s p a r t tend to occur i n i s o l a t i o n , w i t h i r r e g u l a r timespans and as few as one or as many as seven weakly accented a t t a c k s i n between. Moreover, s t r o n g accents s y n c h r o n i z e w i t h o n l y three downbeats i n the e n t i r e s e c t i o n — i n mm. 1 and 3 (the beginnning, on the CF tune) and m. 17 (the f i n a l c a d e n t i a l a t t a c k ) . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the opening phrases of the superius, and c o n t r i b u t e s to the h i g h degree of rhythmic e l a s t i c i t y f o r t h i s v o i c e p a r t . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s that the a l t u s a l s o d i f f e r s from the upper v o i c e i n the matter of p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y . Whereas s t r o n g accents i n the superius do not emphasize any s p e c i f i c p i t c h or p i t c h e s , i n t h i s v o i c e they do. E x c l u d i n g the CF opening i n mm. 1-4, the a l t u s has seventeen s t r o n g l y accented t i m p o i n t s . Of the seventeen, e i g h t - - i n c l u d i n g the f i n a l c a d e n c e — c o i n c i d e w i t h a t t a c k s on C. The remainder are d i s t r i b u t e d more evenly among the remaining d i a t o n i c p i t c h c l a s s e s . The f i r s t K y r i e s e c t i o n presents an ambiguous repeated- note cadence i n the a l t u s , mm. 16-17. Normally, c a d e n t i a l accent accrues to a t t a c k of the f i r s t of two repeated p i t c h e s . The s p u r i o u s underlay shows the s y l l a b l e - i - underneath the f i r s t i n s t a n c e of C4, the s y l l a b l e -son a r t i c u l a t i n g the repeat of t h a t p i t c h . S y l l a b i f i c a t i o n of eleison i n t o f o u r p a r t s r e s u l t s i n an accent s t r u c t u r e of e - le - i - son. Whether or not the s y l l a b l e - i - i s c o r r e c t l y p l a c e d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the repeated p i t c h r e q u i r e s a change of s y l l a b l e to - son. Thus, the second a t t a c k of C4 c o i n c i d e s w i t h a change to a s t r o n g t e x t s y l l a b l e , so the c a d e n t i a l accent accrues to th a t t i m e p o i n t . Having d i s c u s s e d our a n a l y t i c a l concerns as they p e r t a i n to the su p e r i u s and a l t u s , l e t us c o n s i d e r the same i s s u e s i n the bassus. T h i s v o i c e p a r t , too, i s dominated by conjunct motion. Beginning i n m. 8 ( a f t e r the CF's opening i n mm. 4- 7), we note that accents g e n e r a l l y occur i n i s o l a t i o n and a t i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s s i m i l a r to t h a t noted i n the a l t u s . A l s o s i m i l a r to the a l t u s i s the l a c k of cadences; a f t e r m. 7, there are no cadence a t t a c k s u n t i l m. 17. With r e g a r d to d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r o n g accents i n r e g a r d to the no t a t e d breve, the bassus again most c l o s e l y resembles the a l t u s i n t h i s s e c t i o n - - t h e m a j o r i t y of i t s s t r o n g accents do not c o i n c i d e w i t h notated downbeats. Only the accents on the a t t a c k s of F2 i n m. 8 and C3 i n m. 9 do so. T h i s means t h a t no s t r o n g accents i n any v o i c e synchronize w i t h the no t a t e d downbeat from mm. 12 on. We s h a l l see t h a t t h i s has 225 important r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r our understanding of accent i n t e r a c t i o n . F i n a l l y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p i t c h - c l a s s i s s u e s i n the bassus once again r e v e a l s a s i m i l a r i t y to the a l t u s . Of the twelve s t r o n g accents i n mm. 8-17, a l l but th r e e occur on the a t t a c k s of F ( f i v e ) and C ( t h r e e ) . C o n s i s t e n t p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s i n the two lower v o i c e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n thus c o n t r a s t w i t h the more a r b i t r a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the s u p e r i u s . Now t h a t we have a c l e a r understanding of the i s s u e s of accent d i s t r i b u t i o n , p hrasing, and p i t c h c l a s s i n a l l v o i c e s of K y r i e I, we may examine the i n t e r a c t i o n of accents i n the po l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e . Strong accents i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s are o c c a s i o n a l l y p a i r e d , but o f t e n occur i n i s o l a t i o n . These i s o l a t e d accents are g e n e r a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n . For in s t a n c e , i n m. 12, d u r a t i o n a l accent accrues to the a t t a c k of E4 i n the superius, and i s immediately f o l l o w e d by a leap accent i n the a l t u s . In m. 14, s u c c e s s i v e accents i n the tenor are f o l l o w e d a t once by a l e a p accent on the a t t a c k of F2 i n the bassus, then a contour accent i n the a l t u s , then c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n the a l t u s and bassus. C o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three v o i c e s occur a t o n l y f i v e t i m e p o i n t s i n t h i s s e c t i o n , and they r e f l e c t the i r r e g u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s . Those i n mm. 5, 12 and 13 c o i n c i d e w i t h weak d i v i s i o n s of the no t a t e d breve; the ones i n mm. 8 and 17 synchronize w i t h downbeats. There i s no r e g u l a r timespan p a t t e r n i n g between 226 c o i n c i d e n t - a c c e n t e d t i m e p o i n t s . Moreover, no s t r o n g accent i n any v o i c e c o i n c i d e s w i t h the downbeats of mm. 3, 10, 13, 14, 15 or 16. Thus, i n mm. 13-16 p a r t i c u l a r l y , p a t t e r n s of accent c o i n c i d e n c e m i r r o r the de-emphasized downbeat noted i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s . The a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l melodies r e v e a l e d c o n s i s t e n t p i t c h - c l a s s emphasis i n a l t u s and bassus. These p a t t e r n s are a l s o e v i d e n t i n the c o i n c i d e n c e of s t r o n g a c c e n t s . Three of the t i m e p o i n t s at which st r o n g accents converge h i g h l i g h t F. Of the s i x t e e n s t r o n g accents at these t i m e p o i n t s , seven mark the a t t a c k of t h a t p i t c h c l a s s . Thus, our a n a l y s i s a g a i n r e v e a l s t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n of accents i n the p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e r e f l e c t s downbeat-coincidence and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s of the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s . Josquin, C h r i s t e from Missa L'homme arme sexti toni The C h r i s t e p r o t i o n of t h i s movement e x h i b i t s the same p r o p e r t i e s . T h i s s e c t i o n i s composed on a double CF, u s i n g o n l y the B s e c t i o n of L'homme arme i n tenor and bassus. As Example 5-21 i l l u s t r a t e s , the tenor twice p r e s e n t s the f i n a l phrase of the B s e c t i o n , the f i r s t time w i t h an e m b e l l i s h i n g C4 i n m. 29, the second time w i t h three e m b e l l i s h i n g notes i n mm. 39-40. The a n a l y s i s i n Example 5-22 shows these embellishments i n b r a c k e t s . A f t e r m. 42, the tenor breaks i n t o f r e e c o u n t e r p o i n t . The bassus more simply p r e s e n t s the 227 e n t i r e B s e c t i o n of the cantus prius factus. The mensuration i s tempus imperfectus cum prolatione imperfecta, t r a n s c r i b e d as (£ i n the e d i t i o n ; the double-whole note r e p r e s e n t s the breve. Example 5-21. Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , tenor and bassus CF melodies i n the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n . Tenor: 2 X Bassus: 2 X o1 0 r»m. 0'\ ° a -e—e> 1 x 3 The a n a l y s i s shows a preponderance of d u r a t i o n a l accents at the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s s e c t i o n . In the s u p e r i u s , a l l s t r o n g d u r a t i o n a l accents c o i n c i d e with the notated downbeat. From m. 2 4 u n t i l the end of the s e c t i o n the superius i s r h y t h m i c a l l y more animated, so there are fewer d u r a t i o n a l a c c e n t s . Furthermore, accents i n the su p e r i u s occur p r i n c i p a l l y as i s o l a t e d events i n mm. 24-28; the o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s i n mm. 41-42, where a contour accent i s immediately f o l l o w e d by a d u r a t i o n a l accent. In g e n e r a l , s t r o n g accents i n t h i s v o i c e tend to c o i n c i d e w i t h the weak d i v i s i o n s of the breve, so t h a t e i t h e r weakly accented p i t c h a t t a c k s or no a t t a c k at a l l f a l l s on the 228 Example 5-22. A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, C h r i s t e , mm. 19-52. 4 ^ Cko - - - - - - C F PU - y+<- c P© 1 r — * — i Pi 1 —o & * - n « ck.- - - - - - ^ = • -9 CF 1 1 : W r ? — |-B : - W s o m > 1 1 ' 4 *— • ' ' o * • -© J - 229 Example 5-22. (Continued.) 231 m a j o r i t y of downbeats. The accents are i r r e g u l a r l y spaced except i n the two sequences, from mm. 29-32 and mm. 42-48. In the f i r s t s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n , reproduced i n Example 5-23, the contour accents and i n t e r n a l rhythmic s t r u c t u r e of the sequence c r e a t e a p u l s e that spans s i x minimae. These may be heard i n two groups of three, e f f e c t i v e l y c r e a t i n g tempus imperfectus cum prolatione perfecta; the mensuration s i g n a t u r e f o r t h i s s e c t i o n p r e s c r i b e s imperfect p r o l a t i o n . Example 5-23. Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, C h r i s t e , s uperius mm. 29-32. 1 P i t t , —5= J L I J i 1 S i m i l a r l y , Example 5-24 i l l u s t r a t e s - one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of meter c r e a t e d i n the second sequence. The p a t t e r n begins i n m. 42 on the d u r a t i o n a l l y - a c c e n t e d a t t a c k of Bb4. The p u l s e a g a i n spans s i x minimae. However, u n l i k e the p r e v i o u s sequence, i n t e r n a l r h y t h m - i n t e r v a l p a t t e r n s e s t a b l i s h a d i v i s i o n of two-plus-two-plus-two minims, c r e a t i n g a l o c a l tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta mensuration. 232 Example 5-24. Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, C h r i s t e , s uperius, mm. 42-48. H i J j IQ ft \S j J o l n —t J L rrrr f f fff f ff fffr f f f f f f ff i i i i i i i — i i — i <—i i — 1 1 — i i — i 1 — ' > — • 1 — • 1 O v e r a l l , then, the superius i n the C h r i s t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k of strong-aCcent emphasis on the b e g i n n i n g of the notated breve. T h i s v o i c e p a r t thus c o n t r a s t s w i t h the s u p e r i u s of K y r i e I, i n which s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e d w i t h the downbeat i n the f i r s t h a l f of the s e c t i o n , although not i n the second h a l f . S i m i l a r l y , the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s c o n t r a s t i n the emphasis of, c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e most commonly w i t h a t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s F; there are s i x such events. P i t c h c l a s s e s C, E and G are a l s o prominent, each b e i n g emphasized w i t h accented onsets four times over the course of the s e c t i o n . The a t t a c k s on these f o u r p i t c h c l a s s e s make up e i g h t e e n of the twenty three s t r o n g accents i n the s u p e r i u s . The a l t u s melody i n the C h r i s t e has p o i n t s of s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t w i t h that of K y r i e I. For i n s t a n c e , i t i s 233 c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a predominance of conjunct motion. A l s o , i n both s e c t i o n s no s t r o n g cadence appears u n t i l the end (mm. 48 and 51 i n the C h r i s t e ) . As i n that f i r s t s e c t i o n , then, the a l t u s here l a c k s c l e a r phrase beginnings and endings. However, i t does not l a c k a p u l s e . Strong accents throughout t h i s p a r t f r e q u e n t l y occur both s u c c e s s i v e l y and i n i s o l a t i o n . These accents c o i n c i d e r e g u l a r l y w i t h every second downbeat. Such i s the case, f o r example, i n mm. 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31 and 33. No accent, e i t h e r s t r o n g or weak, c o i n c i d e s w i t h the i n t e r v e n i n g downbeats i n mm. 20, 22, 24, 26, 28 and 32. T h i s p a t t e r n supports a l a r g e - s c a l e grouping of the a l t u s p a r t i n t o two- breve u n i t s , and suggests modus imperfectus f o r t h i s s e c t i o n . T h i s mensuration i s confirmed by the CF i n bassus, mm. 21-27. As Example 5-25 i l l u s t r a t e s , the p e r f e c t mensuration commonly Example 5-25. Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, C h r i s t e , CF i n the bassus, mm. 21-27. 234 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h L'homme arme g i v e s way t e m p o r a r i l y to im p e r f e c t . That c h a n g e - - c l e a r l y shown i n the a n a l y s i s by the s t r o n g accent symbols appearing a t the begin n i n g of every second measure--is manifest i n a l t u s as w e l l . In the matter of p i t c h - c l a s s , the a l t u s v o i c e i n K y r i e I emphasized C. The same type of c o n s i s t e n c y i s e v i d e n t i n t h a t v o i c e i n the C h r i s t e . Here, nine s t r o n g accents on the a t t a c k of p i t c h c l a s s C and seven on G c o n s t i t u t e s i x t e e n of the t o t a l twenty s i x such a t t a c k s . Thus, c o n t r a s t between the a l t u s l i n e s of the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s i s found o n l y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r o n g accents i n r e l a t i o n to the mensuration, and not i n p a t t e r n s of p i t c h c l a s s e s . Normally, our a n a l y s i s does not i n c l u d e d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of a CF v o i c e . However, two i s s u e s a r i s e i n the tenor of t h i s s e c t i o n . F i r s t , i t s i n i t i a l p i t c h i n m. 19 (C4) i s the a n a c r u s i s of the t h i r d phrase of s e c t i o n B i n L'homme arme; t h a t p i t c h a t t a c k i s weakly accented i n the cantus prius factus. However; our r u l e s on beginning-accents i n Chapter I I I s t a t e t h a t primary accent accrues t o the f i r s t p i t c h a t t a c k i n a v o i c e p a r t f o r each movement or s e c t i o n . Consequently, the opening p i t c h a t t a c k of the tenor i n t h i s C h r i s t e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the symbol A- A l s o , the tenor abandons i t s CF r o l e i n favour of f r e e c o u n t e r p o i n t i n m. 42. As a r e s u l t , we must analyze i t as an added v o i c e from t h a t p o i n t on. The tenor's sequence i n mm. 42-45 c r e a t e s a timespan u n i t c r o s s i n g s i x minimae. As 235 Example 5-26 i l l u s t r a t e s , t h i s p u l s e suggested by t h i s s e q u e n t i a l passage c o n t r a d i c t s the one c r e a t e d by the concurrent sequence i n the s u p e r i u s . These c o n f l i c t i n g p u l s e s c o n t r i b u t e to the sense of a seamless polyphonic t e x t u r e i n these measures. Moreover, i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n s i n the tenor sequence c o u l d suggest e i t h e r a duple or t r i p l e mensuration, Example 5-26. Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , superius and tenor, mm. 42-46. HX 1 I- -€- -J I I L_ or * i _i t i i > i > i 1 as the example shows. A f t e r m. 45, no s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s are ev i d e n t i n the tenor. D e s p i t e the b r e v i t y of t h i s passage, c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s are h i g h l i g h t e d more than o t h e r s . Of the nine s t r o n g accents i n mm. 42 beat 2-m. 50, four i n i t i a t e a t t a c k s on C, two on G and two on F. Although we can not compare t h i s p a t t e r n w i t h the tenor of K y r i e I (because i t i s the CF i n tha t s e c t i o n ) , we see that the tenor i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the sup e r i u s and a l t u s i n the C h r i s t e . 236 P a t t e r n s of accent i n t e r a c t i o n i n the C h r i s t e a re s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t from K y r i e I. Strong accents i n t h i s s e c t i o n are f r e q u e n t l y p a i r e d {e.g., s u p e r i u s - t e n o r , m. 19; a l t u s - t e n o r , m. 23; s u p e r i u s - t e n o r m. 25; bassus-tenor m. 27; a l t u s - t e n o r m. 29; s u p e r i u s - t e n o r m. 34 and so f o r t h ) . Those o c c u r r i n g i n i s o l a t i o n are seldom s u c c e s s i v e . That i s , whereas an i s o l a t e d s t r o n g accent i n one v o i c e was f r e q u e n t l y f o l l o w e d by a s t r o n g accent i n a d i f f e r e n t v o i c e i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n , the same cannot be s a i d f o r the C h r i s t e . With r e g a r d to c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three and fo u r v o i c e s , t h i s s e c t i o n c o n t r a s t s w i t h K y r i e I. C o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents occur r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t l y here, but they a l l c o i n c i d e w i t h the no t a t e d downbeat ( i n mm. 19, 21, 23, 31, 36, 42 and 48). The f i r s t three support the s t r o n g two-breve p u l s e suggested by the a l t u s at the beginning of the s e c t i o n . On the downbeats of mm. 25, 27 and 29, moreover, two of the three sounding v o i c e s have simultaneous s t r o n g l y accented p i t c h a t t a c k s . T h i s continues the p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d i n mm. 19-23, and b r i n g s us'to the t h r e e - v o i c e c o i n c i d e n c e i n m. 31. Thus, the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s how c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n mm. 19-31 a r t i c u l a t e the beginning of every second n o t a t e d breve, and underscore the imperfect modus of the CF i n the passage. The two-breve timespan between simultaneous accent a t t a c k s i s l o s t a f t e r m. 31; however, the remaining f o u r c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents occur at spans of f i v e , s i x and s i x 237 breves r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s suggests a c o n t i n u a t i o n of a r e g u l a r timespan p a t t e r n i n g that emphasizes the n o t a t e d downbeat. T h i s p a t t e r n i s l e s s d i s c e r n i b l e than the opening, owing to the longer timespans between accented a r r i v a l s . The c o n t r a s t of the two p a t t e r n s i n t h i s s e c t i o n - - c l o s e , r e g u l a r occurrences versus more separated, l e s s r e g u l a r — s u g g e s t s a two-part i n t e r n a l formal d i v i s i o n . The a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s s e c t i o n r e v e a l s the c l o s e dependence of c o i n c i d e n t accent d i s t r i b u t i o n on the CF. A l l f o u r i n s t a n c e s of concurrent s t r o n g accents i n mm. 31-48 c o i n c i d e w i t h accented a t t a c k s on CF p i t c h e s i n the bassus, as w e l l as i n the tenor (mm. 31, 35 and 42). The f a c t t h a t these are the o n l y accented a t t a c k s i n the CF, and that s t r o n g accents i n the added v o i c e s c o i n c i d e at o n l y these t i m e p o i n t s suggests a d e l i b e r a t e emphasis of those p o i n t s by the composer. No s i m i l a r emphasis was seen i n the opening s e c t i o n of the K y r i e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the two-breve span e s t a b l i s h e d by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n mm. 19-31 corresponds to the change i n mensuration of the CF from p e r f e c t to i m p e r f e c t . 1 9 Some aspects of the C h r i s t e resemble K y r i e I. For i n s t a n c e , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r o n g accents i n the p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e f r e q u e n t l y de-emphasizes the n o t a t e d downbeat. Strong accents i n at l e a s t one v o i c e c o i n c i d e w i t h o n l y twenty one of t h i r t y t hree n o t a t e d downbeats, t h a t i s , l e s s than t w o - t h i r d s . T h i s r e f l e c t s the same tendency of the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s i n 1 9 R e c a l l the d i s c u s s i o n and Example 5-25 on p. 233. 238 the C h r i s t e . D e s p i t e t h i s f a c t , however, we noted above t h a t the r e g u l a r timespans e s t a b l i s h e d at the opening suggest a two-breve p u l s e , and that c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the s e c t i o n occur at f a i r l y r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . In between those s t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s , there i s a h i g h degree of rhythmic e l a s t i c i t y . Thus, the d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n of accents between K y r i e I and the C h r i s t e are s i m i l a r l y disposed, but the e f f e c t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The same s i m i l a r - b u t - d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s can be found i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to accent i n t e r a c t i o n and c o n s i s t e n c y of p i t c h - c l a s s . In the C h r i s t e , as i n K y r i e I, c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s are g i v e n more prominence at p o i n t s of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g a c c e n t s . T h i s r e f l e c t s the same p a t t e r n i n the accent s t r u c t u r e s of the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s , and would no r m a l l y suggest u n i f o r m i t y between the s e c t i o n s . However, the s p e c i f i c p i t c h c l a s s e s emphasized at accented t i m e p o i n t s d i f f e r s between the C h r i s t e and K y r i e I. In the f i r s t s e c t i o n , F was p r i m a r i l y accented at p o i n t s of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents. Here, F appears o n l y once at such a timepoint--in'm. 23. Greater emphasis i s g i v e n to p i t c h c l a s s e s G, C, Bb and E i n the C h r i s t e . Accented a t t a c k s on G occur at f o u r p o i n t s of c o i n c i d e n c e , and on C, E and Bb a t t h r e e . Thus, the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s a p a t t e r n t h a t was not seen i n the f i r s t f o u r Mass movements: c o n t r a s t i s generated by emphasis on s p e c i f i c p i t c h c l a s s e s , and not by g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s of c o n s i s t e n c y or i n c o n s i s t e n c y of p i t c h c l a s s a t 239 accented timepoints. This gives each s e c t i o n i t s own homogeneous p i t c h - c l a s s coherence, and provides formal c o n t r a s t between s e c t i o n s . Josquin, K y r i e I I from Missa L'homme arme sexti toni In the f i n a l Kyrie eleison of t h i s movement, the CF ret u r n s to the tenor, which presents the A' s e c t i o n of L'homme arme w i t h r e p e t i t i o n of the f i n a l f i f t h - d e s c e n t . No embellishment occurs on the CF i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Again, only the f i r s t and l a s t Kyrie and eleison are provided by the P e t r u c c i e d i t i o n . The remaining- underlay i s e d i t o r i a l . The menusration i s ' tempus perfectus cum prolatione imperfecta, so the dotted double-whole note represents the breve i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Example 5-27 i s the a n a l y s i s of t h i s s e c t i o n . The superius begins slowly, with.strong d u r a t i o n a l accents c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the downbeats of mm. 53 and 55-58. This r e i n f o r c e s the pulse suggested by the mensuration at the beginning. However, f o r the remainder of the s e c t i o n , strong accents i n t h i s v o i c e seldom c o i n c i d e w i t h the downbeat. Exceptions occur i n m. 64, and at the end i n mm. 70, 72 and 73. Accents i n general occur i n i s o l a t i o n r a t h e r than i n succession, w i t h the exceptions o c c u r r i n g i n the same measures as the accented downbeats--at the beginning, end and i n 240 Example 5-27. A n a l y s i s of Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e I I , mm. 53-74. Example 5-27. (Continued.) 241 m i 1 BR' 1 Pfc i 1 * , » 8ft r I » "1 r n r 3=5 A eft' 1 B R 1 1 -9 r c . e - |e CO left BR •le 1 o—I • bo <> e - - (e- i — — So* 242 mm. 63-64; no s t r o n g cadences occur i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t u n t i l the end, i n m. 73. R e p e t i t i o n and sequence again p l a y a r o l e i n the p e r c e p t i o n of the mensuration f o r the s u p e r i u s . For i n s t a n c e , the r e p e t i t i o n i n mm. 58-60 i s reproduced i n Example 5-28. A l l p i t c h a t t a c k s i n t h i s passage are weakly accented. S t i l l , the r e p e a t e d motive c r e a t e s a passage spanning two semibreves. T h i s suggests a temporary tempus imperfectus cum prolatione imperfecta here, a s u p p o s i t i o n r e i n f o r c e d by the rhythm of the motive. T h i s passage appears immediately a f t e r the long-note opening that so s t r o n g l y r e i n f o r c e s the n o t a t e d downbeat, and thus c r e a t e s immediate rhythmic c o n t r a s t i n the s u p e r i u s . Example 5-28. Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , s u perius, mm. 58-60. -A*A H — ^ o - o , -e 0 0 4^ 6 U — O o I 1 o o I — I A second sequence i n mm. 65-69 c r e a t e s a segment spanning one breve, but whose beginning does not synchronize w i t h the n o t a t e d downbeat. I t begins on the second minim of the mensuration, and spans s i x minimae. The octave leap to A4 243 imparts a s t r o n g accent to the a t t a c k of that p i t c h , and the sequence begins. There are no other s t r o n g l y accented p i t c h a t t a c k s i n the o r i g i n a l . Successive statements of the sequence suggest the presence of a p u l s e t h a t does not correspond to the beginning of the notated breve, as shown i n Example 5-29. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the mensural o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Example 5-2 9 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e , superius mm. 65-69. 6r )J i ' M ' c l j J i i o j j j J ' " « l j . j . J J u _1 L. _1 l_ o- o- o s e q u e n t i a l rhythms i n t o two groups of three semiminims (tempus imperfectus cum prolatione perfecta) c o n t r a s t s w i t h the n o t a t e d mensuration's d i v i s i o n i n t o three groups of two. The a l t u s and bassus a l s o execute sequences i n these measures. The i n t e r a c t i o n of the superius w i t h these v o i c e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s h o r t l y . Before moving on to o b s e r v a t i o n s on the a l t u s , l e t us c o n s i d e r the p i t c h c l a s s e s emphasized by s t r o n g accents i n the s u p e r i u s . Of the twenty s t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s i n t h i s v o i c e , f i v e c o i n c i d e w i t h a t t a c k s on F, f o u r on G and C, t h r e e on A, and two each on D and E. T h i s even d i s t r i b u t i o n c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s t h a t of K y r i e I, and c o n t r a s t s w i t h the g r e a t e r 244 c o n s i s t e n c y noted i n the C h r i s t e , where the m a j o r i t y of s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e d w i t h a t t a c k s of p i t c h c l a s s e s F, C, E and G. The a l t u s i s the o n l y v o i c e to begin i n a r h y t h m i c a l l y animated f a s h i o n i n K y r i e I I . Strong accents are g e n e r a l l y w i d e l y separated, and there i s an even mixture of s u c c e s s i v e and i s o l a t e d occurrences of s t r o n g accents. Strong accents c o i n c i d e w i t h the notated downbeat i n fewer than h a l f the measures i n which the a l t u s a r t i c u l a t e s notes (eight of twenty). T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the superius i n t h i s s e c t i o n , but c o n t r a s t s w i t h the a l t u s of the C h r i s t e , where s t r o n g accents r e g u l a r l y c o i n c i d e d w i t h n o t a t e d downbeats. Strong accents i n the a l t u s g e n e r a l l y do not mark r e g u l a r timespans. Although accents a t the beginning b r i e f l y s y n c h r o n i z e w i t h the downbeat, no other p a t t e r n s emerge u n t i l the sequence i n mm. 65-70. The sequence here spans s i x n o t a t e d minimae; i t may be gathered i n t o two groups of three, s u g g e s t i n g the mensuration tempus imperfectus cum prolatione perfecta. The same mensuration i s suggested by the c o n c u r r e n t s u p e r i u s sequence, but beginning on a d i f f e r e n t minim i n the mensuration. The c o n f l i c t i n g timespan a r t i c u l a t i o n s c r e a t e d by the two v o i c e p a r t s h e l p keep the sequence from sounding mundane. The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s that the a l t u s a l s o d i f f e r s from the upper v o i c e i n the matter of p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y . The a l t u s has e i g h t e e n s t r o n g l y accented t i m p o i n t s ; of the eighteen, e i g h t - - i n c l u d i n g the f i n a l c a d e n c e - - c o i n c i d e w i t h 245 a t t a c k s on C. The remainder are d i s t r i b u t e d more ev e n l y among the remaining mod a l - d i a t o n i c p i t c h c l a s s e s . T h i s p a t t e r n c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the a l t u s p a r t i n K y r i e I, where e i g h t of seventeen s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e d w i t h C. I t a l s o corresponds to the C h r i s t e , where C and G were the emphasized p i t c h c l a s s e s i n the a l t u s . The bassus of K y r i e I I r e l i n q u i s h e s i t s f u n c t i o n as a CF v o i c e , and assumes the r o l e of added v o i c e . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s that the accent s t r u c t u r e has many of the same p a t t e r n s e v i d e n t i n K y r i e I. Conjunct motion predominates, and there are few s t r o n g cadences; there i s one i n m. 63 and another a t the end (m. 73). L i k e the s u p e r i u s i n t h i s s e c t i o n , the bassus opens w i t h s u c c e s s i v e d u r a t i o n a l a c c e n t s s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h downbeats. A f t e r m. 58, however, accents occur i n i s o l a t i o n u n t i l the s e q u e n t i a l s e c t i o n . In t h i s r e s p e c t , the bassus melody again resembles t h a t found i n K y r i e I, where accents p r i n c i p a l l y o c c u r r e d i n i s o l a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s a l s o d i s c l o s e s an important d i f f e r e n c e between the bassus i n the f i r s t a n d . l a s t s e c t i o n s . In K y r i e I, few s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e d w i t h the beginnings of n o t a t e d breves. Here, the opposite p a t t e r n i s e v i d e n t ; of the twenty s t r o n g accents, f o u r t e e n c o i n c i d e w i t h downbeats. ( A l l s t r o n g l y accented a t t a c k s i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t a l s o c o i n c i d e d w i t h downbeats i n the C h r i s t e . ) Most of these occur i n mm. 53-57 and i n the sequence of mm. 65-70. In t h i s l a t t e r passage, the bassus f o l l o w s the superius i n p a r a l l e l t e n t h s ; 246 however, the bassus a l s o has a f o u r t h - l e a p as the l a s t g e s t u r e i n the s e q u e n t i a l motive, beneath a r e s t i n the s u p e r i u s . T h i s f o u r t h - l e a p imparts a s t r o n g accent to the l a s t minim of the sequence, which happens to c o i n c i d e w i t h the n o t a t e d downbeat. Thus, sequences i n the bassus, s u p e r i u s and a l t u s emphasize the f i r s t , second and f o u r t h minimae of the mensuration r e s p e c t i v e l y i n mm. 65-69. We w i l l need to r e c a l l t h i s f a c t i n our d i s c u s s i o n of accent i n t e r a c t i o n i n the sequence. Before d i s c u s s i n g accent i n t e r a c t i o n , however, l e t us examine p i t c h - c l a s s coherence i n the bassus of K y r i e I I . Here, again, the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s a c l e a r p a t t e r n . Of the twenty f o u r s t r o n g accents i n t h i s v o i c e p a r t , seven c o i n c i d e w i t h a t t a c k s on F, s i x on C. No more than three are concurrent w i t h a t t a c k s on D, Eb, G, A and Bb. Our a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d a l l u r i n g f a c e t s of accent s t r u c t u r e w i t h r e g a r d to mensuration and p i t c h c l a s s i n the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s of Josquin's K y r i e ; i t a l s o u n c o v e r s • i n t e r e s t i n g aspects of accent i n t e r a c t i o n . In the opening f i v e measures, s t r o n g accent's o f t e n c o i n c i d e , u s u a l l y on the downbeat, i n two or more v o i c e s . Indeed, a l l f i v e of these n o t a t e d downbeats are r e i n f o r c e d by at l e a s t two c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g a c c e n t s . Moreover, at l e a s t one s t r o n g accent c o i n c i d e s w i t h every downbeat i n t h i s s e c t i o n , with the e x c e p t i o n of m. 62. A f t e r m. 57, s t r o n g accents o f t e n occur i n i s o l a t i o n , but i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n . For i n s t a n c e , the tenor leap from F3-C4 247 i n m. 59 i s f o l l o w e d immediately by a leap accent i n the bassus, then a contour accent i n the a l t u s . S i m i l a r l y , the l e a p accent on the a t t a c k of C4 i n the su p e r i u s , m. 6 0 precedes a leap accent on the a t t a c k of D3, and a contour accent on the begi n n i n g of F2 i n m. 61. The t e x t u r e c r e a t e d by the c o n s e c u t i v e , i s o l a t e d accents i n these measures c o n t r a s t s w i t h that of the c o i n c i d e n t accents i n the opening measures of the s e c t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i n g to the p e r c e p t i o n of a two-part form i n K y r i e I I . C o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents occur o n l y i n the f i r s t and l a s t f i v e measures of the movement. They a l l c o i n c i d e w i t h n o t a t e d downbeats, suggesting a p u l s e that corresponds to the b e g i n n i n g of the notated breve. From m. 58-69, no more than two c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents occur at any timepoint; most of these are i n the sequence, from mm. 65-70. We mentioned above that the bassus, a l t u s and s u p e r i u s a l l have s t r o n g accents that emphasize d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the p r o l a t i o n i n K y r i e I I . A glance at the tenor l i n e i n mm. 65- 7 0 r e v e a l s that s u c c e s s i v e new notes i n the CF occur on y e t another d i f f e r e n t minim--the t h i r d . Thus, the f i r s t , second, t h i r d and f o u r t h minimae of the notated mensuration a l l have some s o r t of d i s t i n c t i o n i n the polyphonic t e x t u r e . T h i s imparts a rhythmic f l u i d i t y to the f u l l - t e x t u r e d passage, d e s p i t e the r e g u l a r i t y c r e a t e d by the s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n s i n each i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t . 248 We now come to the l a s t t o p i c f o r the l a s t K y r i e - - p a t t e r n s of p i t c h c l a s s at s t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s that, of the seven such time p o i n t s , F i s h i g h l i g h t e d at f i v e , and C at fo u r . Moreover, s t r o n g accents c o i n c i d e w i t h the a t t a c k of e i t h e r F or C a t every one of these p o i n t s . T h i s g i v e s the s e c t i o n a s t r o n g coherence i n terms of p i t c h c l a s s . Furthermore, we noted emphasis on F i n K y r i e I, wh i l e i n the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n C, E, G and Bb were most s t r o n g l y represented. The p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s r e v e a l e d above i n the three s e c t i o n s of the sexti toni K y r i e p o i n t d e c i d e d l y to an ABA form, w i t h the f i r s t and t h i r d s e c t i o n s h i g h l i g h t i n g F, the middle s e c t i o n other p i t c h c l a s s e s . Formal d i v i s i o n s c r e a t e d by p a t t e r n s of accent d i s t r i b u t i o n are l e s s c l e a r . The a n a l y s i s showed d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t between s e c t i o n s . For in s t a n c e , the C h r i s t e and K y r i e I I co n t a i n e d i n t e r n a l segments wi t h and without r e g u l a r timespan p a r t i t i o n i n g generated by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g a c c e n t s . The t e r n a r y form of the complete K y r i e i s not as e v i d e n t i n these p a t t e r n s of accent i n t e r a c t i o n as i t was i n the p r e c e d i n g f o u r K y r i e s . However, the use of c o i n c i d e n t timepoints to c r e a t e s e c t i o n s w i t h i n s e c t i o n s suggests s m a l l e r formal d i v i s i o n s not seen i n those other K y r i e s . A l s o unique i s the c l e a r use of p i t c h - c l a s s emphasis as the p r i n c i p a l d i s t i n g u i s h i n g element between s e c t i o n s . O v e r a l l , these f a c t o r s c r e a t e an ABA form, w i t h b i n a r y d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s . 249 CHAPTER 6 EXTRACTIONS.AND ACCENT PROFILES General Observations The analyses of the f i v e K y r i e s above r e v e a l e d p a t t e r n s of accent d i s t r i b u t i o n and p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y c r e a t e d by s t r o n g accents i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s , and by the i n t e r a c t i o n of s t r o n g accents between those p a r t s . Although the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s such p a t t e r n s , i t does not adequately d e p i c t them. Since our primary g o a l i s to i n v e s t i g a t e t i m e p o i n t s w i t h c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents, we need to s i m p l i f y the analyses i n order to expose more f u l l y the p a t t e r n s e s t a b l i s h e d by those p o i n t s . The next step i n the study, t h e r e f o r e , i s to s i m p l i f y the a n a l y s i s by e x t r a c t i n g the s t r o n g accents from the r e n o t a t e d s c o r e . To do t h i s r e q u i r e s r e w r i t i n g the a n a l y s i s without the weak accent s . T h i s does not mean that we devalue weak- or non-accented events. The removal of such events p r o v i d e s us wi t h a more compact, s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n of the a n a l y s i s i n 250 which we can see more c l e a r l y the i n t e r a c t i o n of a l l s t r o n g l y accented, d i s c r e t e p i t c h a t t a c k s . Example 6-1 e x t r a c t s the s t r o n g accents from Ockeghem's K y r i e I, and t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t s a h e a r i n g of the primary accented t i m e p o i n t s i n a l l v o i c e s of the s e c t i o n . A more l u c i d p i c t u r e of s t r o n g accent d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents emerges i n t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , we can see c l e a r l y which measures c o n t a i n many s t r o n g accents (e.g., mm. 3, 6, 8 9, 11 and 12), and which c o n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y few (e.g., mm. 5, 7 and 10). Since the p r i n c i p a l goal of t h i s study i s to i n v e s t i g a t e p a t t e r n s c r e a t e d by timepoints w i t h c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents, we may s i m p l i f y the e x t r a c t i o n f u r t h e r . In order to show o n l y these t i m e p o i n t s , we may remove not onl y a l l weak-accented symbols from the a n a l y s i s , but a l l s t r o n g accents where fewer than three a t t a c k s c o i n c i d e . T h i s step i n the p r o c e s s e x t r a c t s o n l y events i n which three or fo u r v o i c e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n i t i a t e s t r o n g accent-events. A s t r o n g accent-event (SAE) i s any timepoint symbolized by any unshaded notehead, stemmed or unstemmed. The c o i n c i d e n c e of th r e e SAEs c r e a t e s a f u l l - t e x t u r e d accent, a b b r e v i a t e d FTA. Another goal i n t h i s study i s to examine the c o n s i s t e n c y of types of s o n o r i t i e s found a t FTAs. T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n whether the f o u r t h v o i c e should be c o n s i d e r e d when there are c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three v o i c e s . For example, i n a f o u r - v o i c e d t e x t u r e there may be s t r o n g accents 251 Example 6-1. Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e I e x t r a c t i o n . r 3 1 B- 4 * « 1 & = H 9 < | - ^ T S 0 J ¥ 1 1 $ a 252 i n the bassus, tenor and a l t u s beneath a weak accent (or no accent) i n the s u p e r i u s . I f the bassus-tenor i n t e r v a l were an octave, and the t e n o r - a l t u s a t h i r d , the soprano c o u l d have e i t h e r a f i f t h or s i x t h above the a l t u s . T h i s would c r e a t e , i n the f i r s t p l a c e , a , or i n the second i n s t a n c e , a \ r e l a t i o n s h i p among the p i t c h e s a t t a c k e d a t the t i m e p o i n t . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the superius might simply double one of the lower v o i c e s , or even have a dissonant suspension. In a l l cases, the f o u r t h , unaccented or weakly accented p i t c h a t t a c k p l a y s an important r o l e i n our p e r c e p t i o n of the type of s o n o r i t y at the FTA. Since any p i t c h sounding at a g i v e n t i m e p o i n t c o n t r i b u t e s to the p e r c e p t i o n of s o n o r i t y i n a t h r e e - v o i c e FTA, l e t us d e f i n e g u i d e l i n e s f o r the n o t a t i o n of those a t t a c k s i n the e x t r a c t i o n . There are three s c e n a r i o s . F i r s t , a weak accent c o i n c i d i n g w i t h SA.Es i n three (or more) other v o i c e s i s shown i n the a n a l y s i s by the corresponding secondary accent symbol-- 9, A ' H or •. Second, a consonant p i t c h may be t i e d through the FTA, and t h e r e f o r e have no c o i n c i d e n t a t t a c k . Since the presence of the p i t c h n e v e r t h e l e s s a f f e c t s the p e r c e p t i o n of the s o n o r i t y , i t i s shown as a weak accent i n parentheses, thus (•) . We use the shaded, unstemmed o v a l notehead r e g a r d l e s s of the accent that accrues to the b e g i n n i n g of the p i t c h . F i n a l l y , a d i s s o n a n t suspension i n a FTA i s a l s o shown i n parentheses as (#). Since we are i n v e s t i g a t i n g p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s as consonant s t r u c t u r e s , we c o n s i d e r the note of 253 r e s o l u t i o n - - n o t the s u s p e n s i o n - - i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the s o n o r i t y at such FTAs. Before making the e x t r a c t e d analyses, one f u r t h e r c o n d i t i o n must be s t i p u l a t e d : beginnings and endings of s e c t i o n s w i l l be shown r e g a r d l e s s of the number of c o n c i d e n t s t r o n g a c c e n t s . We make t h i s c o n d i t i o n because we are s e a r c h i n g f o r p a t t e r n s generated by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents over a whole s e c t i o n or movement. In a s e c t i o n w i t h an i m i t a t i v e beginning, f o r i n s t a n c e , s t r o n g accents may not c o i n c i d e i n three or four v o i c e s f o r s e v e r a l measures. S i m i l a r l y , many Renaissance' Mass movements end w i t h s u c c e s s i v e v o i c e e x i t s . By l i m i t i n g o u r s e l v e s to t i m e p o i n t s w i t h c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three or f o u r v o i c e s , we r i s k m i s s i n g some important i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by s i n g l e - v o i c e beginnings and endings. Showing these p o i n t s i n the a n a l y s i s g i v e s us a context f o r comparison between movements, as w e l l as a timespan context w i t h i n which the FTAs f u n c t i o n . Consequently, the f o l l o w i n g two c o n d i t i o n s apply to our e x t r a c t i o n s . F i r s t , a s e c t i o n may be i n i t i a t e d by as few as one i s o l a t e d or as many as four simultaneous p i t c h a t t a c k s . The i n i t i a l a t t a c k timepoint i s shown i n the a n a l y s i s f o r a l l d i s c r e t e s e c t i o n s of a movement. Thus, we i d e n t i f y i n the e x t r a c t i o n the i n i t i a l accent f o r each s e c t i o n , whether i t be a r t i c u l a t e d by the a t t a c k of one, two, three or f o u r p i t c h e s . Second, the a n a l y s i s shows f i n a l cadence a t t a c k s f o r a l l 254 voices i n discrete sections of a movement. S p e c i f i c a l l y , we show cadential accent on the attack of the f i n a l p i t c h i n each voice a f t e r the l a s t FTA. When a l l voices cadence simultaneously on a FTA, no anal y t i c problems aris e . However, with successive e x i t s , primary accents do not necessarily accrue to a l l attacks concurrent with each voice's cadential p i t c h . Such cadential extensions are common i n the Renaissance s t y l e . Example 6-2 i l l u s t r a t e s how we s h a l l deal with t h i s s p e c i f i c problem. The f i n a l FTA occurs i n t h i s movement on the downbeat of m. 33; afterwards, coincident strong accents occur i n no more than two voices. Looking at the tenor, we see that i t s cadential p i t c h (D4, a repeat of the f i n a l p i t c h of the CF) i s attacked i n m. 34. Superius and bassus achieve t h e i r f i n a l pitches i n m. 39, and the f i n a l p i t c h attack i n the altus coincides with the downbeat of m. 41. In the extraction, we show the attacks of each of these cadential pitches, along with concurrent attacks i n accompanying voices. Absence of a notated p i t c h means either a rest i n the other voice part or parts, or the sustaining of a previously attacked cadential p i t c h . Thus, the cadence i n the tenor i s accompanied by only one strong and one weak accent i n altus and bassus respectively; the superius has a rest. The coincident cadence attacks i n superius and bassus i n m. 39 appear without accompanying pitches i n the extraction because the altus has a res t , and 255 Example 6-2. A n a l y s i s of La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , C h r i s t e , mm. 3 3-42 w i t h accompanying e x t r a c t i o n s . E x t r a c t i o n Example 6-2 (Continued.) 256 11 le« - S3E E x t r a c t i o n 1 257 the tenor i s s u s t a i n i n g i t s c a d e n t i a l p i t c h through t h a t t i m e p o i n t . S i m i l a r l y , superius, tenor and bassus p i t c h e s a re a l l h e l d through the a l t u s p a r t u n t i l i t s f i n a l c a d e n t i a l a t t a c k . In t h i s way, the a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y shows the s u c c e s s i v e e x i t s , as w e l l as the s o n o r i t i e s p r e s e n t a t those e x i t s . We s h a l l see that the r u l e s f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g b e g i n n i n g and ending a t t a c k s of s e c t i o n s has important r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r the development of our accent profiles l a t e r on. Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme Now t h a t we have l a i d down our r u l e s f o r e x t r a c t i o n , l e t us a p p l y the technique to the p i e c e s analyzed e a r l i e r . Each s e c t i o n i s shown p r o p o r t i o n a l l y — o n e bar l i n e i n the a n a l y s i s r e p r e s e n t s two breves of ela p s e d time. (The same s c a l e i s used f o r a l l f i v e K y r i e s . ) The e x t r a c t i o n s a l l o w us to i n v e s t i g a t e more c l o s e l y three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , each of which can c o n t r i b u t e to the g e n e r a t i o n of formal d e s i g n i n the movement. We employ the terms singly-weighted accent, doubly- weighted accent and triply-weighted accent to r e f e r to open noteheads, stemmed open noteheads, and stemmed open long r e s p e c t i v e l y ; weak-accent means any shaded notehead. F i r s t , the p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e v e a l s how c o i n c i d e n c e s of accents i n s e v e r a l v o i c e s a r t i c u l a t e spans of time, and allows us to see more c l e a r l y the r e l a t i v e r e g u l a r i t y of FTAs i n each s e c t i o n - - t h e more r e g u l a r the 258 r e c u r r e n c e of FTAs, the more r e g u l a r are the timespan d i v i s i o n s of the movement. A l s o , we can determine r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of c o i n c i d e n t accent as r e v e a l e d by the n o t a t i o n a l symbology. In p a r t i c u l a r , the more stemmed open noteheads there are at a giv e n p o i n t i n the a n a l y s i s , the s t r o n g e r the accent at t h a t timepoint i n the p i e c e . F i n a l l y , the e x t r a c t i o n s p r o v i d e a c l e a r view of the p i t c h c l a s s e s a t t a c k e d a t s t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s parameter r e v e a l s not onl y the d i s t r i b u t i o n of emphasized p i t c h c l a s s e s i n a movement or s e c t i o n , but the i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p of those p i t c h c l a s s e s . Rather than d i s c u s s each movement s e c t i o n - b y - s e c t i o n as we d i d i n the l a r g e r analyses, l e t us c o n s i d e r each of the thr e e t o p i c s mentioned above f o r a complete movement. T h i s approach w i l l a l l o w us to observe immediately elements of s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t between s e c t i o n s . Example 6-3 i s the completed e x t r a c t i o n of Ockeghem's K y r i e . In the f i r s t s e c t i o n , three FTAs occur c l o s e t o g e t h e r and at f a i r l y even timespans i n the opening measures. Afterwards, no FTAs appear u n t i l the f i n a l cadence i n m. 13. In the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n , c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents occur more f r e q u e n t l y . They are evenly spaced, o c c u r r i n g every measure or every second measure. In p a r t i c u l a r , the f i n a l t h r e e occur at two-breve timespans. K y r i e I I has elements of both p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s . FTAs occur f r e q u e n t l y , as i n the C h r i s t e , but they are l e s s r e g u l a r than i n that s e c t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , 259 Example 6-3. E x t r a c t e d FTAs from Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e . y  , ki \<o >r JLO^ JJ- AH -• e- ft OO j i r . *1 51 J> J*" 3T 51 • I : -f —B— 1 - B — <—• 1—*1 —e-s -7 O . 260 t h e r e i s o n l y one between mm. 3 4 and 39; the remainder occur as p a i r s i n c l o s e s u c c e s s i o n . Thus, FTA d i s t r i b u t i o n does not r e v e a l c l e a r formal p a t t e r n i n g i n Ockeghem's K y r i e . The e x t r a c t i o n r e v e a l s a s i m i l a r l a c k of p a t t e r n i n g i n terms of r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of accent. In K y r i e I, the accents are evenly weighted among the f i r s t t h ree FTAs; however, at the f i n a l cadence i n m. 13 we see a much s t r o n g e r t i m e p o i n t . T h i s i s evident i n the n o t a t i o n , as a l l v o i c e s have simultaneous doubly-weighted or t r i p l y - w e i g h t e d a c c e n t s . The C h r i s t e a l s o has a g e n e r a l l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n of accent weights among most of the FTAs. Measure 20 i s conspicuous because of i t s two doubly-weighted accents ( c a d e n t i a l - d u r a t i o n a l ) on the a t t a c k s of C5 and C4. These suggest a c l i m a c t i c a r r i v a l i n the middle of the s e c t i o n . That a r r i v a l i s f o l l o w e d by l e s s s t r o n g l y accented FTAs u n t i l the f i n a l , s t r o n g e s t a r r i v a l at the cadences i n m. 28. F i n a l l y , i n K y r i e I I we see a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n . A l l timepoints w i t h c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents are r e l a t i v e l y evenly weighted, except those i n m. 32 (two doubly-weighted a c c e n t s ) , m. 33 ( t r i p l y - w e i g h t e d accent i n the lowest voice) and m. 41 ( f i n a l s t r o n g c a d e n t i a l a t t a c k s ) . As i n the C h r i s t e , the e x t r a c t i o n suggests a c l i m a c t i c p o i n t p a r t way through the s e c t i o n , w i t h s t r o n g e s t emphasis on the c l o s i n g FTA. D e s p i t e the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each s e c t i o n , some aspe c t s of r e l a t i v e accent s t r e n g t h are common throughout the movement. For in s t a n c e , a l l three s e c t i o n s b e g i n w i t h a 261 s t r o n g FTA--four s i n g l y - w e i g h t e d accents i n each. Furthermore, a l l three end wit h the s t r o n g e s t FTA i n the s e c t i o n . Four simultaneous a t t a c k s are heard i n a l l but two p l a c e s ( C h r i s t e , m. 18 and K y r i e I I , m. 30). Moreover, i n a l l but one i n s t a n c e ( C h r i s t e , m. 26), s t r o n g accents support the lowest p i t c h i n the t e x t u r e . We end our o b s e r v a t i o n s on Ockeghem's K y r i e w i t h a loo k at the g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of accented p i t c h c l a s s e s . Of the fou r FTAs i n K y r i e I, a l l have p i t c h c l a s s e s G and D as members; B i s a l s o present i n mm. 3 and 4. In the C h r i s t e , there i s l e s s e x c l u s i v e emphasis on G and D. The p a t t e r n noted i n K y r i e I r e t u r n s i n K y r i e I I , as G and D a g a i n occur more o f t e n than any other p i t c h c l a s s at FTAs. With the e x t r a c t i o n s , important p i t c h - c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s emerge c l e a r l y . Our s i m p l i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a l l o w us to see c l e a r l y the d i s p o s i t i o n of the consonances i n the m u s i c a l space at the s t r o n g e s t timepoints of the movement.• In K y r i e I, f o r i n s t a n c e , a l l FTAs have p i t c h c l a s s G as t h e i r lowest member. S i m i l a r l y , the lowest p i t c h c l a s s e s a t p o i n t s of s t r o n g accent c o i n c i d e n c e i n K y r i e I I commonly emphasize G; C, D and F each appear once i n t h i s r o l e . By c o n t r a s t , the lowest p i t c h c l a s s e s at FTAs i n the C h r i s t e v a r y more w i d e l y . G appears three times, Bb twice, A once, B\\ once and C once. 262 Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme We w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e the same p r o p e r t i e s i n Obrecht's K y r i e as i n Ockeghem's--segmentation of each s e c t i o n i n t o timespans a r t i c u l a t e d by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents, the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of the FTAs and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n , and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s . Example 6-4 i s the e x t r a c t i o n of the Obrecht work. K y r i e I begins i m i t a t i v e l y , and no c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three or f o u r v o i c e s occur, u n t i l m. 5, a t the e n t r y of the bassus on A2. A f t e r t h i s p o i n t , FTAs occur more, f r e q u e n t l y , though i r r e g u l a r l y . Moreover, they o f t e n occur i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n as i n mm. 5-6, 8-10, 12-13 and 15-17. The e x t r a c t i o n r e v e a l s c o n t r a s t between K y r i e I and the t h r e e - v o i c e C h r i s t e . In t h i s second s e c t i o n , c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents occur i n quick s u c c e s s i o n i n two places--mm. 23-25 (four) and mm."29-35 ( f i v e ) . Otherwise, they are spread a t i r r e g u l a r timespans throughout the s e c t i o n . In K y r i e I I , FTAs occur more f r e q u e n t l y , but no more r e g u l a r l y than i n the C h r i s t e . Rather, l i k e K y r i e I, c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents permeate the s e c t i o n , but tend to be grouped i n q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n w i t h s l i g h t l y longer spans between the groups. The Obrecht e x t r a c t i o n r e v e a l s a p a t t e r n of s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t not evident i n Ockeghem's work. Here, a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n of FTAs over the complete lengths of K y r i e I and K y r i e I I c o n t r a s t s w i t h the more uneven s t r u c t u r e of the 263 Example 6-4. E x t r a c t e d FTAs from Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e . (fCyiel) SEE a o| (ft 91 o . l q ft o 3^ | = 3 E 46 3° •il 2= o • o Eg -I i 6 / 1 ^' ,1 264 Christe. For instance, there are eleven timepoints with coincident strong accents i n both Kyrie I and Kyrie I I . These are c l e a r l y spread evenly ( i f i r r e g u l a r l y ) over each section, with the only large gap occurring i n Kyrie I I , mm. 60-62. In the Christe, on the other hand, the FTAs occur i n two d i s t i n c t groups, with gaps before and a f t e r . The second gap covers a p a r t i c u l a r l y long timespan (a l i t t l e more than nine breves), a f t e r which comes the f i n a l cadence i n the section. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the movement suggests an ABA' formal design. We can now turn to the topic of r e l a t i v e FTA strength to determine whether s i m i l a r formal patterns are evident. In Kyrie I, we see several timepoints with coincident strong accents i n a l l four voices—mm. 5, 8, 9, 13 and 19. A d d i t i o n a l l y , there are points with two or three doubly- weighted accents. The penultimate FTA, i n m. 17, i s weakest with three singly-weighted p i t c h attacks and one weak one. This data suggests a section saturated with FTAs of r e l a t i v e l y equal strength. The a r r i v a l i n m. 12 of three coincident doubly-weighted p i t c h a t t a c k s — i n c l u d i n g two cadential- durational--appears to be the most strongly accented timepoint other than the f i n a l cadence. The Christe section, i n contrast to Kyrie I, i s structured more consistently. A l l FTAs i n t h i s section, excluding those i n mm. 29 and 44, are made up of only two singly-weighted accents, with either a concurrent weak accent or no other accent at a l l . In m. 29 we see a doubly-weighted 265 accent on the a t t a c k of A3; the f i n a l c a d e n t i a l - d u r a t i o n a l accents c o i n c i d e i n m. 44 i n a l l v o i c e s . In K y r i e I I , t h e r e i s a r e t u r n to the l e s s p a t t e r n e d d i s t r i b u t i o n • o f FTAs. Here, doubly-weighted accents i n two or more v o i c e s occur i n mm. 50, 53, 63. and 65. As was the case w i t h the timespan p a r t i t i o n i n g c r e a t e d by FTAs, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r o n g e r and weaker p o i n t s of accent c o i n c i d e n c e i n Obrecht's K y r i e p o i n t s to an ABA formal d e s i g n . The e x t r a c t i o n r e v e a l s another p a t t e r n that i s s u g g e s t i v e of a t e r n a r y s t r u c t u r e f o r t h i s movement. In K y r i e I and I I , doubly-weighted accents f r e q u e n t l y occur i n the bassus p a r t - - the stems make t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c l e a r . In the C h r i s t e , however, th e r e are o n l y two doubly-weighted accents i n the bassus, and they occur at the two s t r o n g e s t points--mm. 2 9 and 44. G e n e r a l l y , a t t a c k s of the lowest p i t c h e s take s t r o n g accents throughout t h i s movement, as they d i d i n Ockeghem's K y r i e . A l s o s i m i l a r to Ockeghem's work i s the f a c t t h a t the l a s t FTAs f o r each s e c t i o n a r e the s t r o n g e s t t i m e p o i n t s i n the work. F i n a l l y , l e t us c o n s i d e r p i t c h c l a s s p r o p e r t i e s i n t h i s movement. As was the case w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s f o r Obrecht's K y r i e , FTAs tend to emphasize p i t c h c l a s s e s A, C and E. In p a r t i c u l a r , most FTAs have as t h e i r lowest p i t c h e i t h e r A or E; such i s the case i n twenty s i x of the t h i r t y two c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents. Moreover, the p i t c h e s a t most of these p o i n t s are arranged i n a I or 3 i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . Only at the f i n a l cadence f o r each s e c t i o n , and i n mm. 12, 15 31, 53 and 56 do we f i n d s o n o r i t i e s b u i l t o n l y w i t h open octaves and f i f t h s . C o n s i s t e n c y of p i t c h - c l a s s , and e s p e c i a l l y the emphasis on I s o n o r i t i e s w i t h A as the lowest note (there are e l e v e n ) , c r e a t e f o r t h i s movement a s t r o n g sense of harmonic s t a s i s . Such s t a s i s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as type of p i t c h - c l a s s c e n t r i c i t y . However, l e t us move on to the remaining three K y r i e s b e f o r e a l l o w i n g o u r s e l v e s any g e n e r a l hypotheses on p i t c h - c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I The e x t r a c t i o n f o r La Rue's K y r i e i s p r o v i d e d as Example 6-5. Again, we s h a l l c o n s i d e r f i r s t the r e g u l a r i t y of FTA occurrences over the span of each s e c t i o n . In K y r i e I, t i m e p o i n t s w i t h c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents are spread randomly Two occur i n q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n a t the beginning, t h r e e a t the end. In the middle (m. 5) i s one i s o l a t e d FTA. The C h r i s t e c o n t r a s t s s t r o n g l y with t h i s opening s e c t i o n . Here, FTAs occur f r e q u e n t l y and r e g u l a r l y , u s u a l l y w i t h at l e a s t a two- breve timespan between them. K y r i e I I sees a r e t u r n to a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r to that noted i n K y r i e I. FTAs take p l a c e a t i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , w i t h two i n q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n a t the b e g i n n i n g and three a t the end. In the middle of K y r i e I I (mm. 46 and 51) there are two i s o l a t e d t i m e p o i n t s w i t h c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n a l l f o u r v o i c e s . The p a t t e r n i n g 267 Example 6-5. E x t r a c t e d FTAs from La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e . 1 0 — " 42 0 m ^ Q - ^ Eh 268 of FTAs i n t h i s K y r i e thus c l e a r l y supports an ABA formal d e s i g n . Less c l e a r i n La Rue's work i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of FTAs. A c l o s e p e r u s a l of Example 6-5 r e v e a l s that timepoints w i t h t h r e e - and f o u r - v o i c e c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents are mostly evenly weighted i n a l l three s e c t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , most such p o i n t s have one or two doubly-weighted p i t c h a t t a c k s c o i n c i d i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t combinations of s i n g l y - w e i g h t e d or weak-accented a t t a c k s . (The most n o t i c e a b l e e x c e p t i o n occurs i n m. 34, where two s i n g l e accents c o i n c i d e w i t h a weak accent.. T h i s passage was d i s c u s s e d i n Example 6-2.). Other elements of s t r o n g accent c o i n c i d e n c e i n t h i s movement h i n d e r our p e r c e p t i o n of form. For i n s t a n c e , i n a l l three s e c t i o n s , one or more v o i c e s end a f t e r the f i n a l s t r o n g cadence. Moreover, s t r o n g accents occur i n the lowest v o i c e i n a l l but one instance--m. 34. The o n l y h i n t of form a r i s i n g from the e x t r a c t i o n comes from the placement of the f i n a l FTA f o r each s e c t i o n . In K y r i e s I and I I , the f i n a l FTA i s s t r o n g e s t . In the C h r i s t e , however, the f i n a l p o i n t of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n three v o i c e s (m. 33) i s not the s t r o n g e s t FTA i n the s e c t i o n . The s i m i l a r i t y between the f i r s t and t h i r d s e c t i o n s and c o n t r a s t w i t h the middle i m p l i e s an ABA d e s i g n . In f a c t , the d i s t r i b u t i o n and weights of FTAs i n t h i s K y r i e are s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of formal d e s i g n . However, 269 t h i s aspect of the work w i l l only become c l e a r when we take the f i n a l step i n our a n a l y t i c procedure. For the moment, then, l e t us move on to co n s i d e r a t i o n s of p i t c h c l a s s i n La Rue's K y r i e . Formal design a r i s e s c l e a r l y from p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s i n the movement. In K y r i e I and I I , c o i n c i d e n t strong accents emphasize G, which appears i n three of the s i x FTAs i n the former s e c t i o n , and i n s i x of the seven i n the l a t t e r . In a l l three instances i n K y r i e I, and i n four of the s i x i n K y r i e I I (mm. 42, 46, 51 and 58), G i s the lowest p i t c h c l a s s i n an open or I s o n o r i t y . In the C h r i s t e , by c o n t r a s t , emphasis i s spread more evenly among the d i a t o n i c c o l l e c t i o n . More importantly, p i t c h c l a s s G never occurs as the lowest i n a FTA. P i t c h - c l a s s patterns thus c l e a r l y p o i n t to an ABA p l a n f o r the C h r i s t e . Josquin, Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales The e x t r a c t i o n of the K y r i e from Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales i s provided i n Example 6-6. In K y r i e I, FTAs are c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d and evenly d i s t r i b u t e d . This i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e i n mm. 9, 11, and 13, where c o i n c i d e n t strong accents i n three voices c o i n c i d e w i t h the notated downbeat. By c o n t r a s t , FTAs i n the C h r i s t e are wid e l y and i r r e g u l a r l y spaced (except i n mm. 56, 59 and 61) . (The superius appears to missing from the f i n a l cadence. However, 270 Example 6-6. E x t r a c t e d FTAs from Josquin, Missa. L'homme arme super voces musicales, K y r i e . H I F k. +0 —c *1 Wo Ol Is- r- ~ 3" <>«s 14 99 f 271 t h a t v o i c e cadences on E4 i n m. 59. E4 i s then s u s t a i n e d through the remaining measures of the s e c t i o n . ) In K y r i e I I , as i n K y r i e I, FTAs are c o n c e n t r a t e d p r i m a r i l y i n the middle measures. They are r e g u l a r l y spaced here, as they occur on the downbeats of mm. 71, 72, 73, 75, 77 and 79. The p a t t e r n s e s t a b l i s h e d by the outer s e c t i o n s c o n t r a s t w i t h the C h r i s t e , and c o n t r i b u t e to the p e r c e p t i o n of a t e r n a r y form f o r the movement. The r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of the combined accents at FTAs suggests the same formal design. In K y r i e I and I I , most of these primary accents are singly-weighted; that i s , they are e i t h e r beginning, d u r a t i o n a l , c a d e n t i a l or leap/contour accents o n l y . O c c a s i o n a l l y , a doubly-weighted accent occurs i n one of the v o i c e s , as i n m. 9 of K y r i e I, and mm. 71-73 of K y r i e I I . T h i s suggests a s l i g h t l y s t r o n g e r accented t i m e p o i n t or p o i n t s at one p l a c e i n each s e c t i o n . The f i n a l FTAs i n these two s e c t i o n s c r e a t e the s t r o n g e s t t i m e p o i n t s , w i t h combined accents on a l l p i t c h a t t a c k s . In the C h r i s t e we see evident c o n t r a s t . Most FTAs have at l e a s t one doubly-weighted accent i n one v o i c e p a r t . Some have two c o i n c i d e n t doubly-weighted accents; the bassus of m. 28 has a combined d u r a t i o n - l e a p - c a d e n t i a l accent under a c a d e n t i a l - d u r a t i o n a l accent i n the s u p e r i u s . T h i s suggests a g r e a t e r d i s t i n c t i o n between st r o n g e r and weaker FTAs i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Moreover, the f i n a l measures of t h i s middle s e c t i o n have s u c c e s s i v e v o i c e e x i t s - - s u p e r i u s i n m. 59, bassus and 272 tenor on the downbeat of m. 62, a l t u s on the t h i r d mensural d i v i s i o n of m. 62. The s t r o n g f i n a l FTAs i n K y r i e I and l l r c o n t r a s t w i t h the d i m i n i s h i n g a c c e n t u a l p a t t e r n a t the end of the C h r i s t e . D e s p i t e these c o n t r a s t i n g elements, there are threads of u n i t y between the s e c t i o n s of t h i s K y r i e . For i n s t a n c e , a l l b e g i n w i t h c o i n c i d e n t s i n g l e s t r o n g accents. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the lowest p i t c h of each FTA i s normally s t r o n g l y accented. The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s the B2 i n m. 75. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t not o n l y w i t h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e , but w i t h the three p r e c e d i n g K y r i e s . F i n a l l y , the e x t r a c t i o n r e v e a l s an i n h e r e n t ABA formal d e s i g n i n the p a t t e r n s of p i t c h c l a s s e s emphasized by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents. In K y r i e I and I I , the d i a t o n i c p i t c h c l a s s e s are spread f a i r l y evenly among the FTAs. In the C h r i s t e , however, c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g a t t a c k s most o f t e n occur on p i t c h c l a s s e s A, C and E. Of the nine FTAs i n t h i s s e c t i o n , s i x have s t r o n g accents on a t t a c k s of E, f o u r on A, and f o u r on C. Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni The l a s t e x t r a c t i o n i s presented as Example 6-7. Elements of formal design and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n i n g are a l s o e v i d e n t i n t h i s p i e c e . The i m i t a t i v e opening of K y r i e I i s f o l l o w e d by i r r e g u l a r l y - s p a c e d FTAs. A f t e r the i n i t i a l 273 Example 6-7. E x t r a c t e d FTAs from Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e . 274 a t t a c k , these c o i n c i d e n t accents a r t i c u l a t e s u c c e s s i v e spans of f o u r - a n d - o n e - t h i r d breves, two-and-two-thirds breves, f o u r - and-one-half breves, one-and-one-sixth breves (seven semibreves), and thr e e - a n d - o n e - t h i r d breves. The C h r i s t e s e c t i o n begins w i t h three evenly-spaced FTAs; however, i n the remainder of t h i s s e c t i o n c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents are w i d e l y and i r r e g u l a r l y spaced. S i m i l a r l y , K y r i e I I begins w i t h f o u r evenly-spaced FTAs. No others/.occur u n t i l the f i n a l measures of the s e c t i o n , on the downbeats of mm. 60, 72 and 73. Thus, th e r e are d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s to each of the th r e e i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s ; however, no o v e r a l l formal' design governs t h i s element of the K y r i e . ' By c o n t r a s t to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of FTAs over t h i s movement, a t e r n a r y formal design i s ev i d e n t i n the p a t t e r n s c r e a t e d by r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of. t i m e p o i n t s . In K y r i e I and I I , most FTAs appear evenly accented. In K y r i e I, t h e r e i s o n l y one doubly-weighted accent i n any v o i c e ( e x c l u d i n g the f i n a l cadence)--the superius i n m. 12. The pe n u l t i m a t e FTA i n m. 13 i s weaker than the p r e c e d i n g one i n m. 12. The e x t r a c t i o n thus suggests a s t r o n g l y . a c c e n t e d t i m e p o i n t l a t e i n the s e c t i o n ; t h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a weaker accent p r i o r to the f i n a l , s t r o n g e s t c o i n c i d e n c e . In K y r i e I I , the f i r s t f o u r c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents are evenly weighted. The f i n a l t h r ee e x h i b i t the same pa t t e r n . s e e n i n K y r i e I. The antepenultimate FTA i s s t r o n g l y accented; the pe n u l t i m a t e i s weaker, and precedes the f i n a l , s t r o n g e s t FTA i n the s e c t i o n . 275 The e x t r a c t i o n shows that r e l a t i v e combined accent s t r e n g t h s i n the C h r i s t e are s i m i l a r to those of K y r i e I and I I . Elements of c o n t i n u i t y between the s e c t i o n s i n c l u d e p r o g r e s s i v e l y s t r o n g e r FTAs at the openings. K y r i e I has one s t r o n g accent at i t s i n i t i a l a t t a c k p o i n t ; the C h r i s t e has three and K y r i e I I , f o u r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n a l l but the bassus of m. 23, the lowest p i t c h of each FTA i s a t t a c k e d w i t h a s t r o n g accent. However, u n l i k e those outer s e c t i o n s , we see an element of c o n t r a s t here. Whereas the "Kyrie eleison" s e c t i o n s had one s t r o n g FTA near the end, the "Christe eleison" g e n e r a l l y a l t e r n a t e s s t r o n g e r and weaker p o i n t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , two weaker FTAs (mm. 19 and 21) are f o l l o w e d by a s t r o n g e r one (m. 23). The next f o u r are weaker (m. 31), then s t r o n g e r (m. 36), then weaker (m. 42) and s t r o n g e r (m. 47). The s e c t i o n ends weakly, wi t h s u c c e s s i v e e x i t s i n the tenor and a l t u s v o i c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The c o n t r a s t p r o v i d e d by r e l a t i v e combined accent s t r e n g t h s p o i n t s to an ABA design f o r the movement. Let us now c o n s i d e r p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s to see i f they a l s o support that design. K y r i e I i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emphasis on a t t a c k s of F; of the f i v e FTAs i n t h i s s e c t i o n , three emphasize t h a t p i t c h c l a s s . The C h r i s t e i s n o t a b l e f o r i t s l a c k of emphasis on F. Here there are seven t i m e p o i n t s marked by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents. Of these seven, p i t c h c l a s s F occurs at o n l y two; C and G are h i g h l i g h t e d a t f o u r . K y r i e I I a l s o has seven FTAs. P i t c h c l a s s F i s a g a i n dominant 276 i n t h i s s e c t i o n ; i t has s t r o n g l y accented a t t a c k s a t f i v e of the seven t i m e p o i n t s . Thus, the emphasis on p i t c h c l a s s F i n the o u t e r s e c t i o n s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the emphasis on G and C i n the C h r i s t e . Once again, we have a model f o r t e r n a r y form i n t h i s parameter. K y r i e Accent P r o f i l e s The e x t r a c t i o n s and accompanying d i s c u s s i o n s p r o v i d e d above r e v e a l e d d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s of formal and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n i n g c r e a t e d by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents i n these K y r i e s . I t i s now p o s s i b l e to s i m p l i f y the e x t r a c t i o n s f u r t h e r by r e p r e s e n t i n g the frequency and s t r e n g t h of FTAs w i t h a g r a p h i c symbology c a l l e d an accent profile. The p r o f i l e p r o v i d e s us w i t h a simple v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the most s t r o n g l y accented t i m e p o i n t s i n each s e c t i o n of each K y r i e . T h i s , i n turn, allows us to see more c l e a r l y p a t t e r n s and formal designs c r e a t e d by p o i n t s of c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g a c c e n t s . Accent p r o f i l e s are d e r i v e d from the e x t r a c t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. F i r s t , they are v e r t i c a l l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y p r o p o r t i o n a l . The h o r i z o n t a l a x i s p r o v i d e s a c o n s i s t e n t s c a l e f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the complete timespan of a s e c t i o n from the i n i t i a l to the f i n a l p i t c h a t t a c k . In the accent p r o f i l e s f o r the K y r i e s , one centimetre on the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s i s equal to two breves of n o t a t e d time, r e g a r d l e s s of the mensuration. 277 The v e r t i c a l a x i s shows the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of the FTAs at s p e c i f i c t imepoints a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g numerical formula. Let us take, as our b a s i c u n i t of measurement, a s i n g l e s t r o n g accent; we s h a l l g i v e a l l s i n g l y - weighted accent symbols a value of 1. F i g u r e 6-1 shows the r e l a t i v e weights of a l l s t r o n g and weak accents. Thus, a FTA w i t h f o u r s i n g l y - w e i g h t e d accent symbols has a combined a c c e n t u a l v a l u e of 4. Doubly-weighted accents have a v a l u e of F i g u r e 6-1. Weighting v a l u e s f o r v a r i o u s accent s t r e n g t h s . A or 0 or 0 or 0•• = 1 \ or J or uJ' = 2 A or • or # or | = .5 2, w h i l e the t r i p l y - w e i g h t e d accent symbol has the maximum of 3. A l l p i t c h a t t a c k s symbolized by shaded noteheads have a v a l u e of 0.5, which i s the minimum. At any FTA, the v a l u e s f o r each n o t a t i o n a l symbol are added, and the sum i s shown as a p o i n t determined by the v e r t i c a l a x i s on a constant s c a l e of 0.5 cm = 1. The p o i n t s are then p l a c e d over the c o r r e s p o n d i n g t i m e p o i n t on the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s . L i n e s are drawn from the p o i n t s to the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s to p r o v i d e a c l e a r v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of timespan segmentation, and the p o i n t s are j o i n e d to each other to complete the accent p r o f i l e . 278 Four p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n are added to each p r o f i l e . F i g u r e d bass symbols i n d i c a t e the type of s o n o r i t y a r t i c u l a t e d a t the s t r o n g t i m e p o i n t s . I f there i s no f i g u r e d bass, then the s o n o r i t y i s open ( i . e . , octave, f i f t h or 5 ) . P i t c h - c l a s s names beneath the p r o f i l e i d e n t i f y the sounding bass note a t each accented timepoint. A s o l i d h o r i z o n t a l l i n e f o l l o w i n g one of these note names s i g n i f i e s t h a t the bass p i t c h i s s u s t a i n e d a f t e r i t s f i n a l c a d e n t i a l a t t a c k . The symbol v-/ above a FTA i n d i c a t e s that the timepoint i s mensurally weak; otherwise, FTAs shown c o i n c i d e w i t h at the b e g i n n i n g of a mensural p u l s e . F i n a l l y , the p l u s s i g n (+) above a p o i n t r e v e a l s t h a t a t l e a s t one v o i c e a t t a c k s a cadence p i t c h a t the i n i t i a t i o n of the event. The top s l o p i n g l i n e s i n the p r o f i l e s suggest g r a d u a l l i n e a r i n c r e a s e s and decreases of a c c e n t u a l weight from p o i n t to p o i n t . However, t h i s i s not the case. The top l i n e i s put i n simply to p r o v i d e a more c l o s e d p i c t u r e i n order to f a c i l i t a t e comparisons between the d i f f e r e n t K y r i e s . They are not to be interpreted as representations of patterns of accentual increase and decrease across a movement. Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme F i g u r e 6-2 p r e s e n t s the accent p r o f i l e f o r Ockeghem's K y r i e . S e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of the movement are e v i d e n t i n t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Most n o t i c e a b l e i s the s t r o n g 279 F i g u r e 6-2. Accent p r o f i l e s f o r Ockeghem, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e . + 3 3 3 3 3 ^ f= 6, P C . 6 $ 280 a c c e n t u a l v a l u e of the f i n a l cadences; these are the most accented ti m e p o i n t s i n each s e c t i o n . In K y r i e I I , the weakest FTA immediately precedes the s t r o n g f i n a l cadence. Furthermore, the FTAs i n each s e c t i o n are g e n e r a l l y e v e n l y weighted ( e x c l u d i n g the f i n a l cadences). The C h r i s t e and K y r i e I I , d e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n t shapes, have some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In both, there i s one s t r o n g p o i n t i n the middle of the p i e c e . The p l u s s i g n (+) above these p o i n t s i n d i c a t e s that there i s a cadence i n a t l e a s t one v o i c e . In both s e c t i o n s , t h i s i s the f i r s t s t r o n g l y supported cadence ( i . e . , the f i r s t cadence a t t a c k i n one v o i c e t h a t c o i n c i d e s w i t h s t r o n g a t t a c k s i n a t l e a s t two o t h e r v o i c e s ) . Other, c o n t r a s t i n g , aspects of the s e c t i o n s are a l s o r e v e a l e d by the accent p r o f i l e s . We can see c l e a r l y the i r r e g u l a r timespan d i v i s i o n s i n the K y r i e s , compared to the more even p a t t e r n i n g of the C h r i s t e . The emphasis on the downbeat i n the K y r i e becomes c l e a r , compared to the g r e a t e r frequency of upbeat FTAs i n K y r i e I I . A l s o c l e a r i s the emphasis on p i t c h c l a s s e s G and D i n the outer s e c t i o n s , compared to the more v a r i e d C h r i s t e . Moreover, we can see a t a glance t h a t a l l three s e c t i o n s begin and end on p e r f e c t consonances, but the i n t e r n a l s t r o n g timepoints a l l a r t i c u l a t e f and 3 s o n o r i t i e s . T h i s l a s t p a t t e r n might suggest a s t r o n g i n c l i n a t i o n toward accented t r i a d i c s t r u c t u r e s i n t h i s music. 281 However, l e t us look at the accent p r o f i l e s f o r the other p i e c e s b e f o r e making any g l o b a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme The p r o f i l e s f o r Obrecht's K y r i e are p r o v i d e d i n F i g u r e 6-3. W i t h i n t h i s movement, we can see immediately the c o n t r a s t i n timespan p a r t i t i o n i n g between the C h r i s t e and the two K y r i e s e c t i o n s . In the outer s e c t i o n s , FTAs occur f r e q u e n t l y but i r r e g u l a r l y ; the a l t e r n a t i n g longer and s h o r t e r timespans of K y r i e I (pointed out i n the e x t r a c t i o n ) are e v i d e n t here. A l s o manifest here are the most s t r o n g l y a c c e n t e d t i m e p o i n t s i n K y r i e I and I I ; these p o i n t s support s t r o n g cadences i n at l e a s t one v o i c e , and c o i n c i d e w i t h the n o t a t e d downbeat. In the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n , on the other hand, the FTAs are grouped together,'but a r t i c u l a t e f a i r l y r e g u l a r timespans w i t h i n those groups. The s t r o n g e s t i n t e r n a l t i m e p o i n t i n that s e c t i o n does not support a s t r o n g cadence i n any v o i c e , and occurs on the weak mensural d i v i s i o n . The accent p r o f i l e s f o r Obrecht's K y r i e a l s o p r o v i d e us w i t h a means f o r comparison of s i m i l a r elements. N o t i c e a b l e a g a i n are the s t r o n g f i n a l cadence a r r i v a l s . These t i m e p o i n t s s t r o n g l y punctuate the ends of the s e c t i o n s . More s t r i k i n g , perhaps, i s the emphasis on p i t c h c l a s s A i n t h i s K y r i e . Of the t h i r t y f o u r t o t a l FTAs over the K y r i e , twenty two are supported by p i t c h c l a s s A i n the bass. T h i s c o n s i s t e n c y of 282 F i g u r e 6-3. Accent p r o f i l e s f o r Obrecht, Missa L'homme arme, K y r i e . + * 3 3 283 p i t c h - c l a s s and s o n o r i t y at accented timepoints h e l p s u n i f y t h i s movement. Such p i t c h - c l a s s u n i t y i s a k i n to the i d e a of t o n a l c e n t r i c i t y , i n which a p i e c e of music i s heard as r o o t e d i n a d i a t o n i c c o l l e c t i o n w i t h a h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s u p e r i o r t o n i c . That i s not to say we should c o n s i d e r t h i s work as tonal; r a t h e r , the accent p r o f i l e p o i n t s out that the FTAs c r e a t e a s t r o n g f e e l i n g of p i t c h c l a s s A as a u n i f y i n g element i n Obrecht's K y r i e . Thus, to a v o i d the Pandora's box of terminology that would be opened by c a l l i n g t h i s work t o n a l , we s h a l l use the term modal centricity to d e s c r i b e i t s emphasis on p i t c h c l a s s A. T h i s term has the added advantage of r e l a t i n g the w o r k - - c l e a r l y i n the A e o l i a n mode--to modal theory. Moreover, we can compare the c o n s i s t e n c y of p i t c h c l a s s i n t h i s K y r i e to that of Ockeghem. Whereas wit h Obrecht, modal c e n t r i c i t y i s a u n i f y i n g device throughout the movement, we saw i n Ockeghem's work t h a t elements of p i t c h c l a s s are used both as a u n i f y i n g device and to c r e a t e formal c o n t r a s t . In essence, then, Ockeghem d i v i d e s the p i t c h - c l a s s space of h i s K y r i e i n t o two components: modally c e n t r i c and non- c e n t r i c . The element of c e n t r i c i t y i n the two outer K y r i e s frames the n o n - c e n t r i c middle s e c t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the p e r c e p t i o n of an ABA design. For Obrecht, formal c o n t r a s t i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n the reduced t e x t u r e and the d i f f e r e n t FTA timespan p a r t i t i o n i n g of the C h r i s t e . T h i s allows him to use a h i g h degree o f • p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y i n the movement. 284 These elements are c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d by both the e x t r a c t i o n s and the accent p r o f i l e s . La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I We now move on to the work of La Rue, to see how he t r e a t s FTA p a r t i t i o n i n g and p i t c h - c l a s s m a t e r i a l s . F i g u r e 6-4 i s s t r i k i n g because of the c l e a r s i m i l a r i t y of K y r i e I and I I , which c o n t r a s t d r a m a t i c a l l y w i t h the shape of the C h r i s t e . Two c l o s e FTAs mark the beginnings of the o u t e r s e c t i o n s . These are f o l l o w e d by longer timespans (two i n K y r i e I, t h r e e i n K y r i e II) b e f o r e three c l o s e r ones at the end. The p e n u l t i m a t e v e r t i c a l l i n e s i n the p r o f i l e s mark the f i n a l FTA f o r each; these are the s t r o n g e s t p o i n t s i n the s e c t i o n s , and are preceded by r e l a t i v e l y weak accents. The l a s t v e r t i c a l l i n e i n these s e c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t s the s i n g l e - v o i c e c a d e n t i a l e x t e n s i o n s a f t e r the f i n a l FTAs. • In the C h r i s t e , s t r o n g e r and weaker FTAs a l t e r n a t e at r e g u l a r l y spaced i n t e r v a l s . T h i s c o n t r a s t i s underscored by the emphasis on weak-beat a r t i c u l a t i o n s , compared to the downbeat emphasis i n the K y r i e s e c t i o n s . The ABA d e s i g n of La Rue's K y r i e i s thus c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d by the FTA timespan p a r t i t i o n i n g of the accent p r o f i l e s . Elements of formal d e s i g n i n La Rue's work are a l s o e v i d e n t i n h i s treatment of p i t c h c l a s s e s a t FTAs; h i s treatment c l o s e l y resembles that of Ockeghem. K y r i e I and I I 285 F i g u r e 6-4. Accent p r o f i l e s f o r La Rue, Missa L'homme arme I I , K y r i e . J + + 3 3 3 3 3 § C ^ F D ^ - 286 are modally c e n t r i c , emphasizing G, the M i x o l y d i a n f i n a l . In the C h r i s t e , l e s s emphasis i s found on t h a t p i t c h c l a s s , more on C. The p r o f i l e r e v e a l s three FTAs supported by C i n the bass a f t e r the opening. These are evenly spaced, e v e n l y accented and c a d e n t i a l l y supported. Moreover, they a r t i c u l a t e open s o n o r i t i e s r a t h e r than f u l l . Since, a c c o r d i n g to modal theory, open s o n o r i t i e s at cadences are p r e f e r a b l e to 3 or \ s t r u c t u r e s , these three timepoints may g i v e C a temporary modal c e n t r i c i t y of i t s own. At any r a t e , the more even d i v i s i o n of the p i t c h - c l a s s space i n the C h r i s t e c o n t r a s t s w i t h the r e g u l a r emphasis of G i n K y r i e I and I I . J o s q u i n , Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales To t h i s p o i n t , we have been a b l e to i d e n t i f y ways i n which FTA timespan p a r t i t i o n i n g and p i t c h c l a s s c e n t r i c i t y c o n t r i b u t e to a sense of form i n the K y r i e s of Ockeghem, Obrecht and La Rue. Let us continue our a n a l y s i s by c o n s i d e r i n g the accent p r o f i l e s of Josquin's Missa L'homme arme super voces musicales i n F i g u r e 6-5.1 Here, as i n La Rue's K y r i e , the p r o f i l e s c l e a r l y r e v e a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between K y r i e I and I I which c o n t r a s t w i t h the shape of the C h r i s t e . FTAs are p r i m a r i l y c l u s t e r e d i n the 1 The accent p r o f i l e f o r t h i s work i s p r e s e n t e d here on a s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r s c a l e than the o t h e r s . T h i s was n e c e s s a r y because the p r o f i l e had to be photocopied i n r e d u c t i o n to f i t the margins f o r t h i s document. However, the l e n g t h - h e i g h t r a t i o s w i t h i n the p r o f i l e remain c o n s i s t e n t . 287 288 middles of the outer s e c t i o n s , but are otherwise spaced a t f a i r l y even timespans, u s u a l l y one or two breves i n l e n g t h . The f i n a l c o i n c i d e n t a r r i v a l s are the s t r o n g e s t i n K y r i e I and I I . In the C h r i s t e , on the other hand, the FTAs are spread more i r r e g u l a r l y over the movement's l e n g t h . The f i n a l FTA i s not the most s t r o n g l y accented i n the s e c t i o n , and the p r o f i l e ' s descending shape at the end makes c l e a r the s u c c e s s i v e v o i c e e x i t s . Other p o i n t s of c o n t r a s t are ev i d e n t i n t h i s movement. K y r i e I and I I each have one i n t e r i o r h i g h p o i n t (repeated immediately). Subsequent FTAs are weaker u n t i l the f i n a l cadence. There are three s t r o n g p o i n t s w i t h i n the course of the C h r i s t e , each f a i r l y e q u a l l y accented i n the t e x t u r e . A l l occur on the downbeat, and a l l support cadences. F i n a l l y , p i t c h - c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s support a t e r n a r y d e s i g n f o r t h i s movement. In K y r i e I, p i t c h c l a s s D emerges as the most f r e q u e n t l y emphasized by accented a t t a c k s . In the C h r i s t e , A and E c l e a r l y predominate. K y r i e I I i s p r i m a r i l y a s y n t h e s i s of the pr e c e d i n g two s e c t i o n s , w i t h D and A s h a r i n g approximately equal emphasis i n the t e x t u r e . However, s t r o n g e r emphasis on D i s supported by the f i n a l cadence of the movement. Moreover, we see once again i n t h i s movement an emphasis of f u l l s o n o r i t i e s at FTAs. A c l o s e r look at the beginnings and endings of each s e c t i o n w i l l h e l p determine i f any other p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s a r i s e . A l l three movements begin w i t h a primary accent i n two 289 v o i c e s , w i t h e i t h e r an open octave or f i f t h - p l u s - o c t a v e ( 5 ) ; t h a t i s , they a l l begin w i t h equal weight. K y r i e I begins w i t h a D s o n o r i t y , and ends wi t h A. The C h r i s t e begins on A and c l o s e s , a l b e i t weakly, on E. F i n a l l y , K y r i e I I begins on A and c l o s e s on D. These p a t t e r n s form an i n t e r e s t i n g and, compared to the other Mass movements s t u d i e d thus f a r , unique approach to p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y and form i n t h i s music. In the works of the p r e c e d i n g composers, we noted t h a t w i t h i n s e c t i o n s , emphasized p i t c h - c l a s s e s were c o n s i s t e n t . These p r o v i d e d e i t h e r c o n t r a s t or u n i t y throughout the K y r i e . Here, however, p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the three s e c t i o n s are l e s s c o n s i s t e n t , as the beginnings and endings show: these p a t t e r n s c r e a t e a f e e l i n g of s o n o r i t y c o n t r a s t not o n l y w i t h i n s e c t i o n s , but over the complete movement. (By " s o n o r i t y c o n t r a s t " here, we do not mean tonal c o n t r a s t ; r a t h e r , we r e f e r more simply to s p e c i f i c p i t c h c l a s s e s h i g h l i g h t e d by FTAs i n one or another p a r t of a work.) That c o n t r a s t i s e v i d e n t i n the D-A-(E)-A-D p a t t e r n p r o v i d e d by the b e g i n n i n g s and endings. Thus, the t e r n a r y d e s i g n i m p l i e d by s t r o n g emphasis on D, then A, then D again i s not simply r e s t r i c t e d to i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s . I t spans the complete movement, o v e r l a p p i n g s e c t i o n beginnings and endings. T h i s o v e r l a p p i n g c r e a t e s a type of p i t c h - c l a s s u n i t y not seen i n the works of Ockeghem, Obrecht and La Rue. 290 Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni The accent p r o f i l e s of Josquin's sexti toni K y r i e are provided i n Figure 6-6. We may be s t r u c k immediately by the s i m i l a r i t y of K y r i e I and the C h r i s t e to the p r o f i l e s of the same s e c t i o n s i n super voces. In the f i r s t s e c t i o n , FTAs occur at f a i r l y r e g u l a r spans and increase i n weight to a p o i n t approximately two-thirds of the way through. The penultimate i s weaker again, and precedes the f i n a l , strongest p o i n t of c o i n c i d e n t accents i n the s e c t i o n . The C h r i s t e has a l t e r n a t i n g stronger and weaker FTAs at wider, more i r r e g u l a r l y spaced p o i n t s . As i n super voces, there are three stronger FTAs, a l l of v i r t u a l l y the same weight i n the te x t u r e . The p r o f i l e once again shows the successive v o i c e e x i t s i n t h i s s e c t i o n . K y r i e I I appears d i f f e r e n t from the preceding two s e c t i o n s , but i n f a c t has s e v e r a l t r a i t s i n common w i t h K y r i e I. F i r s t , FTAs, although found only at the beginning and end, are r e g u l a r l y spaced. A f t e r the strong opening, we see three evenly-weighted FTAs. These are followed by a long span i n which there are no c o i n c i d e n t strong accents i n more than two v o i c e s . The antepenultimate FTA i s the strongest i n the s e c t i o n , and i s followed by a weaker coincidence before the f i n a l cadence. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h l i g h t e d p i t c h c l a s s e s i n t h i s K y r i e c l o s e l y resembles that found i n the same movement of 291 F i g u r e 6-6. Accent p r o f i l e s f o r Josquin, Missa L'homme arme sexti toni, K y r i e . 292 super voces. K y r i e I emphasizes F. The C h r i s t e begins on an open s o n o r i t y w i t h F i n the bass, but ends w i t h more s t r e s s on C. P i t c h c l a s s G i s a l s o prominent i n the middle s e c t i o n . K y r i e I I commences wit h a str o n g Bb, r e t u r n s to two FTAs supported by C i n the bass, and ends w i t h s t r o n g emphasis on F again . Thus we see the same p a t t e r n noted i n the p r e v i o u s K y r i e . P i t c h c l a s s e s h i g h l i g h t e d by c o i n c i d e n t s t r o n g accents v a r y over the complete movement: F-C-F. The ABA s t r u c t u r e i n h e r e n t i n t h i s p l a n o v e r l a p s the boundaries of the s e c t i o n s , and c r e a t e s both u n i t y and formal .contrast f o r the K y r i e . Now t h a t we have completed the e x t r a c t i o n s and accent p r o f i l e s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l movement, we can i d e n t i f y the common threads t h a t run through the d i f f e r e n t works. For in s t a n c e , a l l the composers s t u d i e d here use timespan p a r t i t i o n i n g by FTAs to c r e a t e formal c o n t r a s t w i t h i n or between movements. T h i s p a r t i t i o n i n g may be d e s c r i b e d g e n e r a l l y as more or l e s s r e g u l a r , and more or l e s s f r e q u e n t . S i m i l a r l y , p a t t e r n s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n t weights of FTAs, combined wi t h t h e i r frequency and r e g u l a r i t y of occurrence over the time-space of the p i e c e p o i n t to some normative f e a t u r e s of form. For i n s t a n c e , we can see i n these few examples the emergence of d i s t i n c t shapes, of which there are two b a s i c types. F i r s t , t here i s an arch-plus-peak p a t t e r n found p r i n c i p a l l y i n the outer s e c t i o n s . In t h i s p a t t e r n , FTAs become s u c c e s s i v e l y s t r o n g e r to a s t r o n g e s t p o i n t , then become 293 weaker u n t i l the f i n a l cadence, which i s o f t e n the s t r o n g e s t FTA i n the s e c t i o n . T h i s paradigm i s found i n Ockeghem's K y r i e I I , Obrecht's C h r i s t e and K y r i e I I , La Rue's K y r i e I and I I , and both of Josquin's K y r i e s I and I I (although l e s s d i s t i n c t i n the l a s t s e c t i o n of sexti toni.) These p a t t e r n s suggest a formal p r o f i l e of i n t r o d u c t i o n , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c c e n t u a l r e g u l a r i t y (akin, perhaps, to the concept of harmonic rhythm), and d i s r u p t i o n o f that r e g u l a r i t y i n a d r i v e to the f i n a l cadence. . The second p a t t e r n e v i d e n t i n the accent p r o f i l e s i s a m u l t i p l e - a r c h paradigm. These o c c u r - i n a l l the C h r i s t e s e c t i o n s but Obrecht's, as w e l l as i n K y r i e I of the Obrecht movement. M u l t i p l e - a r c h paradigms are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r use of two or more h i g h p o i n t s w i t h lower p o i n t s i n between. In the e a r l i e r composers, FTAs i n these s e c t i o n s are o f t e n d i s t r i b u t e d i r r e g u l a r l y or s u c c e s s i v e l y i n groups, ( r e c a l l , e.g., the p r o f i l e f o r Obrecht's C h r i s t e ) . In the works of La Rue and Josquin, however, we saw a g e n e r a l a l t e r n a t i o n of s t r o n g e r and weaker FTAs i n t h i s p a t t e r n . Moreover, spans p r e c e d i n g s t r o n g e r p o i n t s are u s u a l l y longer than spans p r e c e d i n g weaker ones. M u s i c a l l y , t h i s suggests a r e p e a t i n g p a t t e r n of climax and repose throughout a s e c t i o n , and c o n t r a s t s w i t h the arch-plus-peak p a t t e r n . Stronger and weaker FTAs i n both the m u l t i p l e - and s i n g l e - a r c h p a t t e r n s c r e a t e s t r u c t u r e s analogous t o m e t r i c p a t t e r n i n g . For i n s t a n c e , l e t us c o n s i d e r Ockeghem's K y r i e I I 294 ( r e c a l l F igure 6-2). Here we see a r i s e to a high p o i n t i n the p r o f i l e , f o llowed by a descent to a low p o i n t before the f i n a l strong c a d e n t i a l a t t a c k s at the end of the s e c t i o n . This i s our paradigmatic s i n g l e - a r c h p r o f i l e . I f we consider the highest p o i n t ( i . e . , strongest FTA) on the p r o f i l e as analogous to a metric downbeat, then the s u c c e s s i v e l y weaker FTAs are weak, i r r e g u l a r beats. The weakest then precedes the strong beat represented by the f i n a l c o i n c i d e n t strong accents. In c o n t r a s t to t h i s p a t t e r n , consider now the m u l t i p l e - arch p a t t e r n . We have already pointed out the f a c t that longer timespans tend to precede stronger accents, s h o r t e r timespans weaker accents. Again, t h i s p a t t e r n i s analogous to the concept of downbeat and upbeat c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a metric p a t t e r n . In t h i s sense, the m u l t i p l e - a r c h paradigm has s e v e r a l r e g u l a r pulses w i t h i n t e r v e n i n g weaker beats. This c o n t r a s t s w i t h the s i n g l e - a r c h p a t t e r n w i t h i t s l e s s r e g u l a r s t r u c t u r e . . . ' 295 CHAPTER 7 ' CONCLUSIONS We w i l l end our study f i r s t by summarizing our a n a l y t i c methodology, then by re v i e w i n g important o b s e r v a t i o n s a r i s i n g from the an a l y s e s , e x t r a c t i o n s and accent p r o f i l e s . F i n a l l y , we w i l l p r e s e n t some g l o b a l hypotheses engendered by these o b s e r v a t i o n s . These hypotheses are r e s t r i c t e d to the parameters c o n s i d e r e d i n the a n a l y s i s , namely timespan p a r t i t i o n i n g , rhythm, and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s . We began our a n a l y s i s by r e n o t a t i n g the score of each K y r i e , u s i n g d i f f e r e n t n o t a t i o n a l symbols to r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t types and st r e n g t h s of accents. T h i s f i r s t s t e p a l l o w e d us to note both g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t i n each s e c t i o n of a movement. S p e c i f i c a l l y , we saw t h a t s t r o n g accents i n a s i n g l e v o i c e can a r t i c u l a t e r e g u l a r timespans by s y n c h r o n i z i n g w i t h downbeats or upbeats, or be asynchronous i n terms of a r t i c u l a t i n g c o n s i s t e n t timespans. Moreover, we were ab l e to determine 296 p a t t e r n s of p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y i n each v o i c e . We noted t h a t some s e c t i o n s of some K y r i e s had a h i g h e r degree of c o n s i s t e n c y than o t h e r s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , timespan and p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s suggested ABA formal designs w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s over a complete K y r i e . Our a n a l y s i s a l s o r e v e a l e d p a t t e r n s suggested by the i n t e r a c t i o n of s t r o n g accents i n the polyphonic t e x t u r e . Here we noted i n s t a n c e s of c o i n c i d e n c e and i s o l a t i o n , p o i n t i n g out g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each s e c t i o n . One p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r p a t t e r n to emerge i n these d i s c u s s i o n s was the a r t i c u l a t i o n of r e g u l a r or i r r e g u l a r timespans by the i n t e r a c t i o n of these accents. In p a r t i c u l a r , we saw how composers are ab l e to emphasize the notated downbeat of a p i e c e by c o n s i s t e n t , r e g u l a r c o i n c i d e n c e of FTAs a t those t i m e p o i n t s . On the other hand, the a n a l y s i s a l s o r e v e a l e d how the same composers o f t e n deemphasize the mensural p u l s e by p l a c i n g o n l y weak acc e n t s - - o r no accented p i t c h a t t a c k s a t a l l - - o n s u c c e s s i v e downbeats. Moreover, the r e n o t a t e d scores made c l e a r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r o n g l y accented p i t c h - c l a s s a t t a c k s a t FTAs i n a movement. Again, we were able to see how composers sometimes h i g h l i g h t c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s i n some s e c t i o n s , w h i l e downplaying them or emphasizing others i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s . P a t t e r n s of p i t c h - c l a s s c o n s i s t e n c y and meter c r e a t e d by the i n t e r a c t i o n of s t r o n g accents i n the f u l l . 297 t e x t u r e were thus revealed as generators of form w i t h i n each K y r i e . Once these b a s i c analyses were completed, we were able to e x t r a c t the most s t r o n g l y accented timepoints. This was done by removing a l l weak accents from the t e x t u r e , as w e l l as timepoints w i t h fewer than three c o i n c i d e n t strong accents. The r e s u l t was a s i m p l i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n which r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n s of FTAs over each s e c t i o n became c l e a r e r , as d i d p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s . The e x t r a c t i o n s allowed us to observe p a t t e r n s that were l e s s evident i n the' renotated f u l l score. This i n t u r n allowed us to see more c l e a r l y formal designs suggested by the r e g u l a r i t y or i r r e g u l a r i t y of FTA recurrences, by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of stronger and weaker FTAs, and by patterns of p i t c h - c l a s s consistency or i n c o n s i s t e n c y created by FTAs. F i n a l l y , we used a.graphic symbology--the accent p r o f i l e s - - t o represent the e x t r a c t i o n s . These allowed us to see c l e a r l y the shape of each s e c t i o n i n both time- and p i t c h - c l a s s spaces. The h o r i z o n t a l a x i s represented the former, the v e r t i c a l a x i s the l a t t e r . The p r o f i l e s f a c i l i t a t e d our comparison of s e c t i o n s f o r each composer and between d i f f e r e n t composers. The r e s u l t s of our analyses--renotations, e x t r a c t i o n s and accent p r o f i l e s - - p o i n t to some normative features of formal and p i t c h - c l a s s designs f o r the d i f f e r e n t composers. For instance, a r t i c u l a t i o n of r e g u l a r timespans i s commonly used 298 as a formal d e v i c e by these composers, both i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s and i n the p a t t e r n i n g c r e a t e d by FTAs. These timespan s t r u c t u r e s are sometimes c l e a r , sometimes s u b t l e ; sometimes square, sometimes e l a s t i c . They are almost c o n s t a n t l y changing. S i m i l a r l y , p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s , which e x i s t i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e p a r t s and i n the f u l l t e x t u r e , have two t y p i c a l f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t , where formal d e s i g n i s c l e a r i n the p a t t e r n i n g of accents i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s and FTAs, c o n s i s t e n t emphasis on c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s may p r o v i d e u n i t y and coherence f o r the movement. T h i s was the case i n Obrecht's K y r i e . Second, changing p i t c h - c l a s s emphasis i n a movement can i t s e l f c o n t r i b u t e to form. Moreover, as we saw i n the works of Josquin,. the h i g h l i g h t i n g of d i f f e r e n t p i t c h c l a s s e s can c r o s s the p h y s i c a l boundaries of the s e c t i o n s w i t h i n a movement, c r e a t i n g formal c o n t r a s t w h i l e a t the same time p r o v i d i n g u n i t y between the s e c t i o n s . C o n s i s t e n t p i t c h - c l a s s emphasis i n these works may have important r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r our understanding of modal the o r y i n the Renaissance. For in s t a n c e , the a n a l y s i s , e x t r a c t i o n s and accent p r o f i l e s suggest that mode may be determined to a l a r g e extent by these emphasized p i t c h c l a s s e s . I f , as i n Obrecht's K y r i e f o r example, c e r t a i n p i t c h c l a s s e s are emphasized by c o i n c i d e n t accents as w e l l as by accents i n i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s , then perhaps we may r i g h t l y c o n s i d e r f u l l t e x t u r e s i n the de t e r m i n a t i o n of mode. In the case of 299 Josquin's K y r i e from Missa. L'homme arme super voces musicales, t h i s aspect of the p i e c e i s at l e a s t p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s s e r t i n g the Dorian mode d e s p i t e the CF's emphasis on the C-G f i f t h and G-C f o u r t h . Such a p o s s i b i l i t y would b r i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n the a l r e a d y dubious view t h a t o n l y the tenor determines the mode i n a Renaissance CF work. The p a t t e r n s noted above cannot be r e v e a l e d by t r a d i t i o n a l methods of a n a l y s i s . The methodology proposed here i s unique i n i t s a b i l i t y to r e p r e s e n t both rhythmic and p i t c h - c l a s s elements i n a work without recourse to t r a d i t i o n a l harmonic and m e t r i c systems. Here, we are a b l e to see c l e a r l y t h a t the seamless t e x t u r e s of the Renaissance p o l y p h o n i c s t y l e are c r e a t e d by the non-coincidence of s t r o n g accents between the v o i c e p a r t s . We can a l s o see that p i t c h - c l a s s p a t t e r n s , although sometimes c o n s i s t e n t i n terms of s o n o r i t i e s emphasized at c e r t a i n timepoints, are not n e c e s s a r i l y t o n a l l y motivated. That, i s , formal c o n t r a s t i s o c c a s i o n a l l y c r e a t e d by emphasis on one or another p i t c h c l a s s e s , and not by a change i n p i t c h - h i e r a r c h i c d i a t o n i c c o l l e c t i o n s . The former may be a p r e c u r s o r of the l a t t e r , but the two are not the same. In these r e s p e c t s , the work of t h i s study i s more comprehensive than t h a t done by Cogan and E s c o t . 1 In t h e i r a n a l y s i s of the Amen from Machaut's Messe de Notre Dame, they 1 Robert Cogan and P o z z i Escot, Sonic Design. The Nature and Sound of Music. (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1976), 228-238. 300 are concerned o n l y w i t h rhythmic and m e t r i c accents based on q u a n t i t y of a t t a c k s a t t i m e p o i n t s . I n t e r e s t e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n the c o n f i r m a t i o n of meter by concurrent a t t a c k s i n three or four v o i c e s , they show that " [ t ] h e meters 3/2 and 3/0 are statements of these r e g u l a r i t i e s of a c c e n t u a t i o n [ i n the Amen]; they c o n f i r m the accents at the p o i n t s of simultaneous a t t a c k . The beginning of each measure, then, is a relatively- accented point in the time flow. " 2 Although not without m e r i t , the c o n f i r m a t i o n of notated meter based s o l e l y on q u a n t i t y - a r t i c u l a t i o n was not the aim of our study. Moreover, the a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s a n a l y t i c methodology need not be l i m i t e d to CF Masses, or even s a c r e d polyphony i n g e n e r a l . I t might be e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to s e c u l a r genres, such as the Burgundian chanson or the e a r l y frottola. The methodology might a l s o be a p p l i e d s u c c e s s f u l l y t o l a t e s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y works, such as Masses or mad r i g a l s . Furthermore, the analyses, and the accent p r o f i l e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , c o u l d l i k e l y be generated by a simple computer program. However, these a p p l i c a t i o n s are beyond the scope of our p r e s e n t study. The h y p o t h e s i s suggested above--that s e c t i o n s w i t h emphasis on d i f f e r e n t p i t c h c l a s s e s i n the p r e - t o n a l r e p e r t o r y may be a for e r u n n e r of c o n t r a s t i n g key s e c t i o n s i n t o n a l m u s i c - - i s o n l y one to a r i s e from t h i s study. Our r e s u l t s a l s o suggest t h a t the use of timespan p a r t i t i o n i n g and p i t c h c l a s s 2 I b i d . , 232. 301 as formal d e v i c e s may be common to other s a c r e d p o l y p h o n i c genres, such as motets and m a g n i f i c a t s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the timespans d e l i n e a t e d by accents of v a r i o u s types might be i n v e s t i g a t e d more thoroughly i n terms of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r m e t e r - d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i a . The i n t e r a c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t or same meters i n d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s would be a c h a l l e n g i n g complement to the methodology developed here. 3 The accent p r o f i l e s f o r the four composers r e p r e s e n t e d i n our study suggest an astounding development i n form over a sh o r t p e r i o d of time. The p r o f i l e s f o r the e a r l i e r composers- -Ockeghem and Obrecht--are r e l a t i v e l y unpatterned and have few c o n s i s t e n c i e s . Although we noted g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s between s e c t i o n s , the p r o f i l e s themselves are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from s e c t i o n to s e c t i o n . In the K y r i e s of La Rue and Jos q u i n , however, t h i s i s not the case. The accent p r o f i l e s of these two l a t e r composers suggest a g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y to matters of form and p i t c h - c l a s s . The almost i d e n t i c a l p r o f i l e s of the K y r i e s e c t i o n s w i t h i n each Mass, and the h i g h degree of s i m i l a r i t y between those same s e c t i o n s from d i f f e r e n t ' Masses c o n t r a s t w i t h the p r o f i l e s of the C h r i s t e s . These middle s e c t i o n s are themselves almost i d e n t i c a l i n the three d i f f e r e n t works by J o s q u i n and La Rue. Furthermore, the more s u b t l e use of c o n t r a s t i n g ( c e n t r i c ) 3 Some work has a l r e a d y been done on the i n t e r a c t i o n of p u l s e s among d i f f e r e n t l i n e s i n a polyphonic t e x t u r e . See, f o r example, John Roeder, " I n t e r a c t i n g Pulse Streams i n Schoenberg's A t o n a l Polyphony," Music Theory Spectrum XI/2 (1994): 231-249. 302 p i t c h - c l a s s elements by Jo s q u i n i n p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s to a g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y i n the use of those m a t e r i a l s t o c r e a t e formal c o n t r a s t w h i l e at the same time p r o v i d i n g coherence i n a movement. A n a l y s i s of sacred polyphonic works by l a t e r composers may w e l l r e v e a l a c o n t i n u i n g t r e n d toward the est a b l i s h m e n t of normative formal and p i t c h - c l a s s procedures i n a work. I f t h i s i s the case, then we s h a l l one day have a b e t t e r understanding of how Renaissance composers took g i a n t steps toward the development of a t o n a l - h i e r a r c h i c system of composition. 303 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aaron, P i e t r o . Toscanello in Musica. T r a n s l a t e d by Peter B e r g q u i s t . 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