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Temporal and episodic structure of 5-year olds’ narratives Handford, Karen Michaela 1996

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TEMPORAL AND EPISODIC STRUCTURE OF 5-YEAR-OLDS' NARRATIVES by K A R E N M I C H A E L A HANDFORD B.A. (Hon.), The University of British Columbia, 1993 M.Litt., The University of St. Andrews, 1994 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF SCIENCE in T H E F A C U L T Y OF MEDICINE (School of Audiology and Speech Sciences) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1996 © Karen Michaela Handford, 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of JfijdCckct^ * Spt^C&h ^CJtZfiCCJ. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date Qsi <g-DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The general purpose of this study was to investigate temporal aspects of 5-year-old children's narrative development. A plot-based analysis was carried out modeled on previous research by Bamberg (1987) and Berman and Slobin (1994) and was used to address the research hypotheses of this study. The first hypothesis was that by the age of 5 most children in this study would ground their narratives in an anchor tense. The second was that the 5-year-olds would use nonanchor tense verbs and temporal connectors to signal specific narrative boundaries such as episode boundaries. The third hypothesis was that the narrative data obtained from 5-year-olds involved in this study would replicate results of previous research with English-speaking and German-speaking 5-year-olds (as far as language differences permit). Twelve 5-year-olds (ages 5;00.16 to;5;11.16) participated in this study. The procedures for narrative elicitation followed those laid out by Berman et al. (1986). Each child was asked to look through the picture book .Frog; where are you? (Mayer, 1969) until he or she knew the book well enough to tell the best story possible. After telling the story, each child had the option of retelling it if so desired. The narratives were then coded for the verb forms used, temporal connectors, plot components, and episodes. The verb forms were analyzed for the presence or absence of an anchor tense and any patterns found in ii the use of the rarer verb forms. The time expressions and other connectors were examined for their roles in creating narrative coherence, as well as for the signalling functions that these expressions had. The narratives as a whole were analysed for the presence or absence of essential plot components, and particular attention was paid to the clauses occurring at episode boundaries. Results indicated that most children did ground their narratives in an anchor tense, and most assigned signalling functions to rarer verb forms or temporal connectors. The results of this study generally replicated results of previous research. iii T A B L E OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Table of Contents iv List of Tables vi Acknowledgments viii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1 The Narrative Task 1 Narrative Acquisition 3 Narrative Structure 4 Form and Function 6 Tense and Aspect 7 Temporal Connectors 11 Summary 14 Research Hypotheses 15 CHAPTER TWO M E T H O D 17 Overview 17 Participants 18 Data Collection Procedures 20 Transcription Procedure 21 Coding 22 Analysis 26 CHAPTER THREE ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 31 Overview 31 Part One: The Form Results 31 iv Part Two: The Form:Function Analysis 39 Section One—Analysis of Individual Narratives 39 The Past Tense Narratives 39 The Present Tense Narratives 66 The Mixed Tense Narratives 74 Section Two—Quantitative Form:Function Results 90 Boundary Marking 90 Lexical Motivation 97 CHAPTER FOUR DISCUSSION 100 Overview 100 Results of Research Hypotheses 101 Comparisons with Other Studies 101 Summary and Concluding Remarks 105 Directions for Future Research 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY 107 APPENDIX 1 Synopsis of Frog, where are you? (Mayer, 1969) 110 v LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1.1: Major Categories of Connectors. 13 2.1: Age and Gender of Participants. 19 2.2: The Episodic Structure of the 24 Pictures in Frog, where are you? 24 (Mayer, 1969). 3.1: Number (and %) of Each Verb Form in Each Child's Narrative. 32 3.2: Distribution of Tense Forms in German and English Speaking 33 Children's Narratives. 3.3: The Percentage of Verbs for Each Child That Fall Into the Past 33 and the Present Verb Tense Groups. 3.4: The Anchor Tense of Each Child's Narrative. 34 3.5: Number of Each Time Expression Type Found in Each Narrative. 3 5 3.6: Number of Children (N= 12) Using Each Type of Time Expression. 36 3.7: Plot Components Included by Each Child. 37 3.8: Number (and %) of 5-year-old Narrators Referring to Plot 3 8 Components. 3.9: Onset Transition Clause by Each Child, According to Anchor 92 Tense. vi 3.10: Episode Boundaries Marked by Each Child, and Signalling Form 94 Used (VERB, CONNECTOR). 3.11: Global Level Clauses Signalled with Rarer Verb Forms According 96 to Episode. 4.1: Average Number of Verbs and Connectors Within Each Anchor 103 Tense Group. vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A great many thanks are due to the children who shared their frog stories, and their families who shared their time with me. This thesis would not have been possible without them. Thank you to Dr. Carolyn Johnson, for her ongoing support, and for answering so many questions. Finally, many thanks to my husband Paul Collis for all of his encouragement and fortitude. viii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The Narrative Task The road to narrative competence is a complex and winding path. When a 5-year-old is asked to tell the story of a familiar wordless picture-book, the child must take a sequence of static pictures and verbalize that medium into a temporally dynamic narrative, a process that involves describing a network of temporally sequenced events (the plot) while also attending to each scene in turn. These are cognitive demands of a particular type. Also, at least in the case of my research, the story-teller must be wary of angry bees, a cantankerous owl, and a deceptive, intolerant deer before his or her quest for a particular wandering frog—and narrative cohesion—is at an end. The previous animals were joined by a boy and his dog in the story I used for my research, Mercer Mayer's Frog, where are you? (1969), and the 12 children I studied are not the only research subjects to have pursued the elusive amphibian. Frog, where are you? was first used by Michael Bamberg in his seminal work Form andfunction in the construction of narratives: Developmental perspectives (1985), a study involving German subjects from ages three and a half years old to adult. Analysis of the telling of Mayer's same picture-book is also the basis of a t book edited by Ruth A. Berman and Dan Isaac Slpbin, who have coordinated a massive study examining the development of narrative structure across four age groups in five 1 languages. Fifty other languages and 150 other researchers around the world had also joined the hunt by the time the book was published. My role in this field was to add to this body of research by replicating the studies by Bamberg in German (The acquisition of narratives, 1987) and by Berman and Slobin in English, Hebrew, Spanish, German and Turkish (Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study, 1994) that examines how 5-year-old English-speaking children use verb tense forms and temporal adverbials to mark boundaries of episodes and sequences of events in narrative. Although some of my subjects participated for the sake of my investigation only, research with some of these 5-year-olds is also part of a longitudinal study for The University of British Colombia that began with studies of 3-year-olds by Norma Jean Gomme and 4-year-olds by Kim Gibney. Chapter one provides a review of the literature concerning narrative acquisition, narrative structure, form and function, tense and aspect, and temporal connectors, and outlines the specific research hypotheses that form the basis of this study. Chapter two deals with the method of the study, including participant information, data collection and transcription procedures, and the coding and analysis protocols. The results of the study are provided in chapter three, and in chapter four these results are discussed with regard to the research hypotheses, the literature, and previous research reviewed in the area temporality in 5-year-olds1 narratives. 2 Narrative Acquisition Like the acquisition patterns of morphological, syntactic, and lexical knowledge, the progression of a child's narrative abilities follows a familiar developmental path in terms of cognitive ability. Berman and Slobin's (1994) description of the developmental ability to construct narrative discourse (in the context of the frog story task) charts four stages of narrative sophistication: first, the treatment of each scene as an isolated event; second, the sequential chaining of events; third, a causally structured narrative in terms of a hierarchically organized goal plan of action; and fourth, motivations of overall action-structure in which factors such as importance, thematic coherence, and evaluative commentary are coordinated within the causal structure of an initial goal, attempts to reach this goal, and final outcome of these attempts (p. 44). According to Berman and Slobin, most 5-year-olds demonstrate narrative abilities which position them at the second level of the developmental continuum: temporal organization at a local level (as opposed to a global level or plot-organized action structure) of interclausal sequential chaining of events. What is particularly interesting about 5-year-olds' narratives is their heterogeneity. In terms of narrative structure, some 5-year-olds do construct globally structured and thematically motivated narratives, whereas others relate to only one or at the most two of the major plot elements, and fail to organize their accounts around the continued search for the frog. In terms of linguistic expression, some 5-year-olds use elaborate syntax and rich lexicon, whereas others produce texts that sound more like the 3-year-olds with unsophisticated linguistic devices and little structure (Berman & Slobin, 1994, pp. 64-5). Berman and Slobin maintain that the developmental progression from picture description to thematic organization can be manifested linguistically in such ways as temporal 3 anchoring (the use of inflectional markings of verb tense) and connectivity (the use of lexical and other overt markers that show the relationship between events). An investigation of this pattern was my particular focus. Narrative Structure Different theoretical models have been constructed to explain the structure of narrative. Three main types of narrative structure theories can be differentiated: goal plan analysis, story grammars, and plot-based analysis. Goal plan analysis is largely based on the work of Trabasso and his colleagues (Trabasso, van den Broek & Suh, 1989; Trabasso & Nickels, 1992; Trabasso, Stein, Rodkin, Park-Munger & Baughn, 1992). This type of analysis focuses on the link between narrated events and episodes, referred to as the causal network, and how these links represent and generate hierarchical goal plans. Under this schema, narratives are analyzed for the plot elements that are explicitly stated, as well as for those elements that are believed to be inferable from the core narrative. Story grammars examine narratives in light of their underlying mental schemas held by the storyteller. Story grammar analysis involves rewrite rules that generate hierarchical story constituents. This type of analysis has been used extensively with the analysis of folk tales. Plot-based analysis, the third model and the one upon which much of the analysis in this research was based, examines the semantic content and structural foundations of stories from a developmental perspective (Berman & Slobin, 1994; Bamberg, 1987). Plot-based analyses examine the explicit content of narratives and attempt to illuminate the patterns behind local and global levels of organization of narrative discourse, and how 4 notions such as temporality are encoded in stories. This type of analysis is particularly good for examining early narratives and developmental patterns. Plot Components Mercer Mayer's Frog, where are you? (1969) is used by numerous linguists for good reasons. It offers the storyteller both local and global narrative possibilities, and the plot has a definite beginning, middle, and end. It features complex instances of deception and simultaneity of action that create possibilities for foregrounding and backgrounding information, and it can be told in either the present or the past tense with foreshadowing and/or retrospection. Nevertheless, not all narrators and certainly not all 5-year-olds produce a narrative version of the story that is thematically coherent. Therefore, in order to evaluate the narrative in quantitative terms, Berman and Slobin took Labov and Waletzky's (1967) model of three components of plot structure and used these core components as criterial of the ability to relate to the contents of the picture book as an integrated whole. The components are I. The onset of the plot (the problem)~the boy's realization that his frog has disappeared; II. Unfolding of the plot (the elaboration)~the boy's search for his missing frog; III: Resolution of the plot (the outcome)--the boy finds the frog he has lost (or one to take its place). As an example of the first criterion, the use of cognitive predicates like see and find are judged to explicitly make the connection between the events of the jar being empty and the boy's cognizance of this and the fact that the frog is missing (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 5 53). For further examples that elaborate the scoring criteria, please see Berman and Slobin (1994, p. 47). While such analysis of plot components was a part of my thesis, my primary focus was on the forms or tenses of the narrator's chosen verbs and the verbs' signalling functions. Form and Function Language consists of units that have both linguistic forms and functions. The term form refers to the wide range of linguistic devices including "grammatical morphology, syntax, pragmatic word-order patterns, and lexicon" (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 109) that in essence compose the building blocks of language. In terms of narrative, linguistic forms constitute the "systemic parts of linguistic expressions that make it possible to situate narrative events in time and space, and in relation to one another" (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 18). Function refers broadly to the purposes served by linguistic forms in communication. In narrative discourse, function has to do with the "roles played by forms to convey structured characteristics of events in narrative" (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 19). Form and function develop together as language develops, and relate interdependently. An example of a form-function pairing could have to do with the verb eat, where the form of the simple past would be ate, and a function of that past tense form could be to indicate that the action of eating is completed. The forms that are most relevant to the current study are the morphemes that mark tense and aspect on verbs, as well as temporal adverbs and phrases. The function that was the focus of this study was the notion of temporality encoded by linguistic forms. 6 Tense and Aspect Speakers locate situations or events in time. There are three ways of doing this in English: lexically composite expressions such as ten minutes ago or just after he awoke are potentially infinite in number, and allow for a high degree of accuracy in pinpointing a specific moment in time; lexical items such as now or tomorrow are deictic terms since their meaning depends on the moment of speaking, and are limited to approximately thirty single lexical items in the English language; and grammatical categories oftense are imprecise categories, and in English are limited to the present (e.g., the dog licks the boy), the past (e.g., the frog jumped out of the jar), the future (e.g., the boy will look for his frog), the pluperfect (e.g., the frog had escaped before the boy woke up) and the future perfect (e.g., the boy will have found his frog before the end of the story) (Comrie, 1985, p. 8). Comrie defines tense as "the grammaticalisation of location in time" (1985, p. 1), whereby any situation or event can be referred to on a single continuum with a point of reference. In English, the expression of tense is obligatory since any clause that has a main and/or auxiliary verb inherently expresses a notion of temporality (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 111). Whereas tense is defined as "the grammaticalisation of location in time" (Comrie, 1985, p. 1), aspect is defined as "the grammaticalisation of expression of internal temporal constituency" (Comrie, 1985, p. 6). The notions of tense and aspect are conceptually discrete, even though they are often marked simultaneously by verb morphology or auxiliary verbs. Aspect conveys information about the "internal temporal contour of a situation" (Comrie, 1985, p. 6). To distinguish between tense and aspect, consider the 7 following examples: the sentences the boy was looking and the boy is looking differ in terms tense, or the location on the timeline with reference to the present moment; whereas the sentences the boy was looking and the boy lookeddiffer in terms of aspect because the first sentence represents a stretch of time, and the second sentence a point in time. Aspect can be marked in four main ways: (1) morphological marking on the verb (e.g., eat up); (2) aspectual verbs (e.g., stop, continue); (3) adverbial words and phrases (e.g., already, all the time); and (4) repetition (e.g., leaping and leaping). The English language has a complex system for marking tense and verb-bound aspect grammatically. The grammatical forms include: (1) bound suffixes such as the -ing ending of present participles (leaping); (2) internal stem-changes (run to ran); (3) auxiliary verbs (be, have, do); (4) modal verbs such as can or may followed by an uninflected main verb; and (5) semimodals which are used with some form of be followed by an infinitive (be able to + verb) (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 129). Narrative Tenses By 5 years of age, many children are familiar enough with the art of narrative to select an anchor tense (also called dominant tense) (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 66; Bamberg, 1994, p. 194). The criterion for anchor tense is that a minimum of 75% of the narrative verbs are in one tense (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 62), and in English the typical choice is a past-tense narrative: the archetypal "once upon a time." Narrative tenses, according to distinctions originally made by H . Weinrich (1964), function in three major ways. First is the discourse mode, where narratives are categorized as being either in a narrative mode, 8 anchored in the past tense, or in a reporting mode, anchored in the present tense. The second distinction is in terms of the three basic options of discourse perspective. These options, beginning with the most common, are the zero perspective (where the speaker does not mark the relationship between the time of speaking and the time of situation), the retrospective, and the prospective. The third distinction is discourse grounding, which is used to mark background and foreground information. Background information sets the scene and adds accessory details to the narrative nucleus, whereas foreground information details events that advance the plot (see Bamberg, 1987 pp. 109-10). Tense and aspect are intertwined grammatical categories that together "construct a so-called time-line" (Bamberg, 1994, p. 190) upon which narrative events are constructed. Control of tense and aspect allows storytellers not only to relate the events of the story, but also to situate the events in relation to each other and to the moment of the story telling event. Storytellers can move about within the timeline of their own stories, foreshadowing upcoming events, or relating present events to previous ones. Comrie describes the options available to the storyteller in terms of the moment of speech (S), the moment of the narrative event (E) and the reference point (R) (1985, pp. 122-124). Given these three points, one can describe any tense in terms of the relations between the points. For example, the past tense can be represented as E before S, as in the sentence / broke my arm indicates that the arm-breaking narrative event (E) occurred before the moment of speech (S); or the relative future represented as E after R, as in the sentence I will phone her after I finish breakfast where the narrative event of telephoning ( £ ) takes place after the specified reference point of eating breakfast (R). 9 Temporal Organization in 5-year-olds' Narratives Berman and Slobin found that the stories they collected followed a developmental profile that clearly separated the 3-year-olds from the 5-year-olds, and the 5-year-olds from the 9-year-olds. Berman and Slobin analyzed the narratives along a single crosslinguistic developmental continuum along which they characterize four phases of development: (1) spatially-motivated linking of utterances as picture-by-picture description (3-year-olds); (2) temporal organization at a local level of interclausal sequential chaining of events ( m i s t 5-year-olds); (3) sequential and/or causal chaining of partially elaborated events (most 9-year-olds); (4) global organization of entire texts around a unified action-structure (some 9-year-olds, and the adults) (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 58). By the age of 5, children have syntactic command of the present and past tenses, and the aspects of simple and progressive are wellestablished (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 145). They found that most of the children's narratives in this age group "show[ed] clear signs of temporal organization" (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 66), where the underlying organizational principle of their narratives was temporal or a combination of temporal and spatial, rather than the generally spatial organization seen in the 3-year-old group. Further evidence of temporal organization was that most of the 5-year-olds consistently anchored their narratives in the past or the present, and when they did show evidence of tense shifting, they tended to do so more purposefully, and across larger chunks of text than the 10 3-year-olds (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 66; Bamberg, 1987, pp. 148-9). Overall, Berman and Slobin described the 5-year-olds as using a "more narratively motivated temporal schema of one event following another rather than the predominantly spatial framing of one picture following after another favored by 3-year-olds" (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 67). Bamberg examined how 5-year-olds mark their temporal schemas and information packages in the German language. He attached particular significance to those verb forms that were used less frequently than the anchor tense in the narratives, saying that "those forms that are relatively rarely used . . . contribute to the narrative structuring so that their signalling function becomes highly prominent" (1987, p. 121). Bamberg specifically looked at the German-speaking children's contrast between the most common present perfect anchor, and the rarer simple past occurrence, and concluded that the German children used the contrast to mark the completion of particular information units (1987, p. 193). He surmised that the 5-year-olds were developmentally on the path towards the adult level of global organization, where tense changes are part of the decision-making process that organizes "episodes into scenes, scenes into frames, and frames into clauses" (Bamberg, 1987, p. 146). Temporal Connectors After verb tense anchoring, one other important method of creating narrative cohesiveness is through the use of temporal connectors (also called temporal markers). Comrie describes temporal markers as "conceptually identical" to relative tenses since these 11 markers, like relative tenses, locate situations or events at a point in time given by the context (1985, p. 56). Some temporal markers take the present moment as the point in time (e.g., yesterday), while others relate to a contextual point in time (e.g., the same day as + reference situation). Though conceptually similar, temporal connectors act in a different way than relative tenses and can even be incompatible with related relative tenses. For example, while both yesterday and the perfect tense situate events in the past, the sentence John has broken his leg yesterday is unacceptable in the English language (Comrie, 1985, pp. 32-3). The use of temporal connectors develops alongside the rest of narrative language, and as the lexical options available to children increase, children become more able to "attend to and conceptualize different types of temporal relations" (Aksu-Koc & von Stutterheim, 1994, p. 455). My particular focus was on the four major categories of connectors, how they were used to link elements of narrative at clausal and global levels, and how 5-year-olds used connectors differently from their 3-year-old counterparts. There are four major categories of connectors as shown in Table 1.1. While many of the terms in categories other than deictic are in fact deictic terms, since they are interpreted in relation to a reference point (such as those temporal connectors in the sequential category), the more specific category has taken precedence in assigning type. 12 Table 1.1 Major Categories of Connectors. Category Examples Deictic time adverbs now, today, yesterday, last-week, soon, tomorrow-night, a-long-time-ago; Temporal time adverbs (making reference on-Saturdays, in-the-summer, at-night-time, to some external time) after-lunch; Sequentiality markers (temporal expressions first, then and-then, later, afterwards, that mark sequentiality or meanwhile, beforehand, finally; simultaneity) Subordinating temporal connectives before, after, until, while, all-the-time-that. Source: based on Berman et al. (1986, p. 21). Unlike the simple deictic markers used by 3-year-olds in their narratives, 5-year-olds are able to use connectivity to express the idea that events occur in sequence or simultaneously, even if their own narratives remain confined to a local level of organization. Five-year-olds demonstrate temporal organization in the way they connect utterances sequentially or simultaneously through the use of temporal connectors, the most common being and, then, and and then, but many in this age group also demonstrate the ability to chain clauses in extended discourse through the use of such connectors as while, after, and when (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 67). Bamberg found that 5-year-olds who anchored their narratives in the perfect and those who anchored in the past tended to use temporal connectors in similar ways (1987, p. 179). Because temporal connectors 13 appear to play a significant role in establishing temporal relations in 5-year-olds' narratives, connectors were examined alongside verb tense and aspect to see how they contributed to the children's narratives. Summary Narrative skills develop from early, local picture description to complex, thematically motivated narratives by the time of adulthood. Five-year-olds' narratives are a step in that developmental process, as children begin to demonstrate a much greater degree of temporal organization in their stories than younger children. A plot-based analysis model forms the basis of this research since it best suits investigation into narratives' episodic and temporal organization. By focusing on how plot components relate to the linguistic expression of tense and connectivity, plot-based analysis allows for a comprehensive description of narrative expression at global and local levels, and allows for examination of signalling functions of different linguistic categories. Linguistic units have both forms and functions. The forms that were the focus of this study were tense, aspect, and temporal markers, and the main function examined was the notion of temporality encoded by these forms. The three main form:function pairings investigated were that of tense (situating events in time), aspect (the internal contour of a situation) and temporal connectors (linking clauses sequentially or simultaneously at both local and global levels). Based on what other researchers have found in their examination of 5-year-olds' narratives, children in this age group appear to choose an anchor tense 14 when narrating, to mark information units with rarer tense choices, and to use temporal connectors to link clauses. Research Hypotheses } The primary research goal is to examine 5-year-olds' narratives in terms of notions of temporality encoded by tense/aspect and temporal markers. Based on the assumption that by the age of 5 children are able to use linguistic forms to mark levels of discourse higher than the sentence level, I aim to examine the signalling functions of their chosen linguistic forms. The second purpose of this research was to contribute to the growing body of data generated about children's narratives, and compare my results with other similar studies such as with English speaking 5-year-olds studied by Berman and Slobin (1994) and German speaking children by Bamberg (1987). Previous narrative research carried out by Gomme (1994) and Gibney (1995) suggests that there is a need for larger data samples, since their studies did not replicate the ages at which other researchers have described specific developments (e.g., Bamberg, 1987; Berman & Slobin, 1994). Specifically, I expect to find that at the age of 5 most of the children in this study will: 1) ground their narratives in an anchor tense; 2) use the nonanchor tense verbs and temporal connectors to signal specific narrative boundaries such as: - episode boundaries - local/global boundaries; 15 3) replicate the results of previous research with English-speaking and German-speaking 5-year-olds (as far as language differences permit). 16 CHAPTER TWO M E T H O D Overview There were three main purposes of this study. The first goal was to determine in which anchor tense, if any, the children grounded their narratives. The second was to determine what signalling functions 5-year-old children give to their rarer tense forms or other temporal markers; in particular, to determine whether 5-year-olds signal episode boundaries by rarer tense form usage. The third purpose was to determine whether the data from 5-year-olds in this study replicated findings by Bamberg (1987) and Berman and Slobin (1994). Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were done. Researchers have recently begun to question the validity of purely quantitative group studies in partially subjective fields such as narrative analysis. The experimental variables are extremely difficult to control (a few examples of important variables in children's narratives are the child's previous exposure to books and storytelling, the child's reaction to being audio and/or video recorded, and the child's parents' level of education), and so some investigators have turned towards the examination of case studies as the basis of study. Researchers such as Vai Ramanathan (1995), in her narrative work with 17 Alzheimer's Disease patients, have found that an intensive examination of individual narratives can be as enlightening as group studies that provide more data but less in-depth information. Each unique narrative has been given in-depth treatment on the belief that as much can be learned about 5-year-olds' narratives from an interpretive examination of 12 stories as can be learned from counting distributional frequencies. In addition, quantitative analyses were done to allow comparison with other group studies., Mercer Mayer's wordless picture book Frog, where are you? (1969) was used to elicit narratives from 13 5-year-old children. The children were individually visited and audio recorded at their own homes, usually requiring only one visit to do so. The children met me and spent some time talking and looking at toys to put them at ease. The task was then explained to the children, who looked through the picture book on their own before telling their narratives. The narratives told by 12 of the children were transcribed, coded, and analyzed as discussed below. Participants Narratives were collected from 13 children, eight of whom took part in a longitudinal study and participated as 4-year-olds in a similar project carried out by a previous graduate student researcher (see Gibney, 1995). These children were originally selected from the preschool program at the University of British Columbia Child Study Centre in consultation with the Centre's Program Coordinator. All children had to meet four criteria to be considered for the study: be (1) aged between 5;0 and 5;11, inclusive; (2) 18 monolingual speakers of English; (3) free of known physical, mental or emotional handicaps; and (4) developing language normally. Table 2.1 describes the children who participated, eight girls and five boys between the ages of 5;0.16 and 5;11.16. The mean age was 5;5.1. Subject numbers were assigned based on the order in which the children were recorded. Table 2.1: Age and Gender of Participants. -Participant Gender Age* (y;mm.dd) C05 f 5;00.16 C l l f 5;00.28 C12 m 5:01.00 C13 m 5:02.09 C08 m 5:02.28 CIO m 5:04.01 C07 f 5:07.15 C04 m 5:07.17 C01 f 5:07.20 C03 f 5:09.00 C02 f 5:09.02 C06 f 5:10.08 C09 f 5:11.16 * Ages given are the participants' ages at the time the narrative was elicited. 19 Data Collection Procedures The narratives were collected using the guidelines outlined in Berman and Slobin (1994, p. 22) to provide for maximum comparability between the studies. The same wordless picture book used by Berman and Slobin (1994) and by Bamberg (1987), Frog, where are you? by Mercer Mayer (1969), was selected for this study to provide a basis for comparison, and because this book offers opportunities for global and local episodes and a complex narrative. A synopsis of the story is provided in Appendix A. Each child received a similar explanation of the task, being asked to look through the picture book until she or he knew the book well enough to tell the best story possible. The child then told his or her narrative. After telling the story, each child had the option of retelling it if so desired. Five of the children chose to tell the story a second time. When initially contacted, the parent or guardian was asked to prepare the child for the elicitation by telling the child that someone would be visiting with a tape recorder, and that the child would be asked to tell a story. On the appointed days, each child was given a chance to get to know me, and then asked if he or she was ready to tell me a story. In most cases, each child was visited only once, although in one case a second visit was carried out with hopes of obtaining a better story. In many cases, the parents were present during the narrative elicitation. The parents were instructed not to ask questions or add details to the child's narrative. Minimal verbal feedback was given to the children as they told their stories, with responses generally limited to encouraging nods, or comments such as "uh huh." On occasion, the child was prompted to stay on task with comments such as 20 "go on," or "look" to redirect the child's attention, or to stop the child from turning the pages too quickly. Each child was recorded with an audio recorder (Marantz, model PMD420), lapel microphone (Samson remote), audio transmitter (Samson VHF F M ST-2), and an audio receiver (Samson VFJF F M SR-2). Fuji FR-II Super CrC*2 audio tapes were used. For transcription, the audiotapes were played on a T A S C A M 112 audio cassette recorder over Sennheiser (HD 52011) headphones. Transcription Procedure The transcription was carried out according to the conventions of the CFfTLDES database format. The narratives were transcribed in standard orthography, with each clause entered on a separate line. The definition of the clause was based on Berman et al.'s notion of the unified predicate, or "a predicate that expresses a single situation (activity, event, or state), including finite and nonfinite verbs as well as predicate adjectives" (1986, p. 37). Single clause utterances generally contain one subject (e.g., he looked everywhere). Two clause utterances can have the same subject (e.g., he thought/he wouldfind the frog) or different subjects (e.g., he thought / that it was an owl). A minimum of three passes were made of each audio tape at the initial transcription, and one further pass of each transcript was made one year later to recheck the accuracy of the transcripts. 21 Coding The main unit of analysis for coding purposes was the clause. Clauses were coded for verb tense, time expressions, and temporal connectives. In addition, the episodes were coded using the entire narrative as the unit of analysis. Coding for Verbs All verbs were coded in both main and subordinate clauses. Most clauses contained only one verb (e.g., when he was sleeping). In the case of those clauses that contained more than one verb, where the second verb functioned as a complement of the first (e.g., so he decided to look for it), only the first verb was coded. Each transcript was coded twice, with one year in between the two verb coding events. The intracoder reliability was 90.4%, with some changes made based on a more complete understanding of the coding task, and more consistent decision-making on what to exclude at the second coding session. A second coder coded all transcripts for verb tenses in July of 1996, with an intercoder reliability of 92.2%. Certain clauses, and their verbs, were excluded from coding. These included verbs that consisted of asides to me that did not contribute to the frog narrative (e.g., look at it!), the repaired portion of false starts (e.g., in the utterance {and they and they were sleeping) they were sleeping, the portion enclosed in curly brackets was excluded from coding), and clauses which were quotations attributed to the boy (either what he said or what he 22 thought~e.g., in the utterance and he said 'go away pesky owl', the only verb coded was said). Coding for Episodes Episodes form the plot structure of a story, and an episode consists of five different categories: the initiating event, an internal response, an attempt, a consequence of the attempt, and a reaction (Bamberg, 1987, p. 7). When analyzing the stories, the guidelines by Bamberg and Marchman (in Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 559) as outlined in Table 2.2 were used to code for episodes and episode boundaries in the transcripts: 23 Table 2.2: The Episodic Structure of the 24 Pictures in Frog, where are you? (Mayer, 1969). Picture # Episode 1-3 Setting 4 Episode 1: Initiating event 5 - 7 Episode 1: Consequences 8 Q Episode 2: Initiating event 10 Episode 2: Consequences 11 Episode 3: Initiating event 12 13 Episode 3: Consequences 14 Episode 4: Initiating event 15 16- 18 Episode 4: Consequences 19 Episode 5: Initiating event 20 Episode 5: Consequences 21-23 Episode 5: Consequences 24 Final Response Source: based on Bamberg and Marchman (1994). Coding for Time Expressions The transcripts were coded for time expression categories according to Berman et al. (1986). Four categories of time expression were coded: 1) Deictic time adverb—e.g., once upon a time, once; 24 2) Temporal time adverbs (make reference to a specific external time)~e.g., at night, the next day; 3) Sequentiality markers (mark sequentiality or simultaneity)—e.g.,.//rtf, and then; and 4) Subordinating temporal connectors—e.g., until, when, while. In addition to these time expression categories, other connectors (e.g., because, so) were noted. Coding for Plot Components The narratives were analysed for Berman and Slobin's (1994) plot components as follows: I. The onset of the plot (the problem)—the boy's realization that his frog has disappeared. Scoring: narrator is required to make explicit mention of the boy's noticing that his frog is missing, e.g., Child 07: "but he couldn't see him / so then he was looking under everything"; II. Unfolding of the plot (the elaboration)—the boy's search for his missing frog. Scoring: narrator must make explicit mention of the search (looking, calling) for the frog, and this must go beyond the initial start of the search inside the bedroom, e.g., Child 07 at picture 13: "so then he decided / he would call out for the frog"; III: Resolution of the plot (the outcome)--the boy finds the frog he has lost (or one to take its place). Scoring: the frog that the boy takes must be explicitly described as being the lost frog or a substitute, e.g., Child 07: "so then he creeped up / and saw there was a family with his frog." 25 As an example of the first criterion, the use of cognitive predicates such as see and find are judged to explicitly make the connection between the events of the jar being empty and the boy's cognizance of this and the missing frog (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 53). For the second criterion, the initial search in the bedroom is considered a local goal, while mention of searching for the frog in the forest and beyond is required to indicate that the child understands the global motivation for the whole story (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 53). The third criterion requires that the child not only mention that a frog is found, but that this frog is the same or a replacement, for example, by use of utterances such as "the frog" or "his frog." For further examples that elaborate the scoring criteria, see Berman and Slobin (1994, p. 47). A note was made on each transcript as to which of the three plot components (if any) were mentioned. Analysis Story Selection Twelve of the 13 stories collected were analyzed. Although a number of the narratives are not typical of adultlike stories, they show children experimenting with story types. All parents of the children who told unusual stories were asked to judge whether the narrative told on the day of the taping was typical for that child at that period of time, and all but Child 09's parents said that the stories were typical of their children's current storytelling style. Child 09's story was excluded from analysis because she used "baby talk," and her parent reported that the story she told was not representative of her usual narrative abilities. 26 When more than one story was told, the "best" story was chosen for analysis based on consistency in anchor tense and Berman and Slobin's three criteria. There was no difficulty in choosing which story to analyze, since the best story was usually superior in terms of organization, detail, and complexity, as well as having higher consistency in anchor tense and meeting more of Berman and Slobin's plot component criteria. Verb Tense and Time Expression Analysis Michael Bamberg (1987) examined verb tense forms in narratives because tense is an important way of creating textual coherence and "ordering events so that they can be interpreted as taking place in some meaningful temporal and/or causal framework" (p. 105). To understand how tense contributes to the narrative, a two-pronged approach is necessary: one needs to look at the distributional frequencies of tense forms in a narrative to determine what tense is the norm for that particular narrative, and one also has to take special care to examine the nonnormative tense forms to see what signalling functions they have and how they contribute to the narrative as a textual whole (Bamberg, 1987, p. 112). Once all verbs were coded, the verbs were counted, and a percentage assigned to each verb tense. Each transcript was then examined for the presence of an anchor tense. The criterion for anchor tense is that a minimum of 75% of all narrative verbs are in one tense (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 62). For the purposes of calculating anchor tense, the verb tense group was considered to include both the simple and the progressive forms of the past or present tense. This was done to allow for maximum comparability between languages since in one of the comparison languages, German, there is no equivalent 27 explicit marking of the progressive form (Bamberg, 1987, p. 122). The progressive forms have been considered as separate verbs in the detailed examination of rarer verb forms since the progressive in English explicitly marks the imperfective aspect. Those transcripts that were not clearly anchored in the past or the present were labeled as mixed, since they had no anchor tense. The 12 narratives were separated into three groups: those based in the past, those based in the present, and those with a mixed anchor tense. In each narrative, the tense forms that stood out were examined for the functions they served, particularly in signalling episode boundaries according to the episodic structure outlined above, but also for other systematic and/or idiosyncratic uses. Another area of analysis was whether the tense forms signalled differences in global or local levels of information. The time expressions and other connectors were examined for their roles in creating narrative coherence through linking and chaining, as well as for the signalling functions that these expressions had. Some children, such as Child 03, made more effective use of time expressions' signalling functions than rarer verb tenses, while other children relied much more heavily on rarer verb tenses to signal episode boundaries or a shift from background to foreground information than time expressions. The connectors were therefore analysed in much the same way as the verb tense forms for their signalling roles in the narratives. 28 The Search Sequence Bamberg, when analyzing his adult data, focused on a particular narrative challenge in Mayer's frog story which occurs in pictures 8 through 12 of the picture book: the search sequence. Because this sequence provided interesting insights into the way children dealt with a difficult narrative task, I paid particular attention to this section of each child's narrative. The search sequence begins in picture 8 with the boy and his dog setting out into the forest to search for the wandering frog. In pictures 9 and 10, the boy encounters a gopher, and in pictures 11 and 12 he is surprised by an owl. Meanwhile, the boy's dog does battle with a hive of bees throughout pictures 9 through 12. As Bamberg points out, the speaker has sixteen options as to how to arrange the frames into a narrative and is confronted with the additional task of communicating the sequential ordering to the listener (1987, p. 124). I examined how the children dealt with each scene separately, and looked at the packaging of the entire search sequence. The Deer/Deception Episode One final narrative challenge I analysed for some of the children was the deer/deception episode in pictures 14 and 15, where the boy grabs hold of what he believes to be branches but are in fact antlers. Berman and Slobin remark that these pictures require that the narrator infer that "the event in 17 [i.e., picture 15] is a consequence of the ill-conceived or at least unintentional act in 16 [i.e., picturel4]" which "imposes a considerable burden in terms of perceptual interpretation of the pictures, conceptualization of the link between two apparently distinct events, and linguistic formulation of the initial event and its 29 unforeseeable consequences" (pp. 54-5). This deceptive narrative sequence requires complex backtracking at three levels of information processing: perceptual, conceptual, and on-line production of verbal output. While most children do not go beyond "straightforward temporal contiguity" (Berman & Slobin, p. 56), some of the more sophisticated storytellers attempt to deal with the narrative deception in interesting ways. 30 CHAPTER THREE ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Overview This chapter presents the results based on the coding and analysis. The first part of this chapter presents the form results generated from the coding procedures as outlined in chapter two. The second part presents the form:function analyses in two sections: the individual analysis of each child's narrative, and the quantitative form:function results. Part One: The Form Results Verbs Summary of Verb Forms Used Table 3.1 describes the verb forms that were coded for, and how many each child used. The percentages of verbs in the present tense group and past tense group can be loosely compared with figures obtained by Michael Bamberg (1987, p. 148). The comparison must be made with caution, since his data are based on results obtained from eight 5- to 6-year old children, and mine are obtained from 12 5-year-old children. 31 8 CJ i CN o O 00 o CJ i c~ CJ © CJ 8 18 ts 8 o CJ £ o? M r- oo cs os os © o\ Q \ as r s ^ o% Q \ c s »-H i n oo >-< r ~ © o o <-* !-"'. P . r - H OS ts ts Co-*> 0 s Co" i 0 s-ts 1 1 1 1 i • f - H sP 0 s-r~ Co1 • 0 s-r-1 1 1 1 00 so ts *— ts 0 s .—> i s» ' 0 s-r-1 1 1 1 • • 1 • i 1 1 1 1 1 1 sd OS -—' /—s 1 vP 1 0 s-m : I 1 1 1 Co-0 s r ~ 0 s r -^—s I s» • 6s-1 1 ! *—' © ' so © —s -—' Co" 1 0 s • ! ^ 0 s cn 00 0 s 0 s «-> C o - -0 s-55s v O 0 s-cn OS ' ' vd SO ts' -—' co cn so s? £H 0 s-VO 0 s OS 1 1 1 1 1 1 { 1 1 V I V O 1 0 s i i OS VO ^—• cn w Co" 0 s c=^ ~ 0 s-S? OS-CS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 s-CN • • 00, cs' — CN ^ 1 0 s 00 1 1 1 1 1 Cn I—* v O 1 o> cn 1 1 1 1 1 i 00 ••—' «—i 00 sf ^ 00 Co- ! 0 s-cs 1 1 1 1 o> O 1 1 1 1 1 i i 00 vi cn ^—• Co •* 0 s-© * — - i vP 1 0 s-O 1 1 1 1 SO <£*-©> O ^—^ 1 s« • 0 s 1 1 NT ' 0 s m </-> — ' o 1—1 -—' «/"> r-' t-H V — ' CN Co-t-0 s-00 — v I sP 1 o s OS X © 1 0 s cn 00 Co-ts 0 s-ts s? 0 s VO /—S 1 N © I 0 s CO 1 i i so </-> iri ' CN 00° *—' V ' CN i 2 W 6-B S c?1*0 c? ^ 8s- 8s-o 00 —< 0 s-ts 0 s cs 0 s-H^ cs' w w w w w 1) £1 G O 6J W Q> (X, OH 00 fx, (1, gjCn S 1 s Table 3.2: Distribution of Tense Forms in German and English Speaking Children's Narratives. Present Tense Verbs Past Tense Verbs German Speaking Children 74% 16% English Speaking Children 26% 70% As seen in Table 3.2, an interesting difference is apparent when the English-speaking children are compared with the German children that will be discussed in chapter four. Anchor tense From Table 3.1, the percentage of verbs that fall into each of the past and present tense groups can be calculated. The past tense group is composed of the simple past and the past progressive; the present tense group is composed of the simple present and the present progressive. Table 3.3 describes the percentage of verbs in each tense group that each child used. To qualify as an anchor tense, at least 75% of all verbs counted must fall into either the past or the present tense group. Table 3.4 describes which of the narratives fall into the Table 3.3: The Percentage of Verbs for Each Child That Fall Into the Past and the Present Verb Tense Groups. Verb Tense Group C01 C02 C03 C04 C05 C06 C07 C08 C10 C l l C12 C13 Past 93.7 72.7 65.0 96.9 18.8 95.6 93.5 9.4 ,14.3 100.0 94.6 0.0 Present 4.3 22.7 32.5 3.0 81.3 0.0 0.0 68.8 71.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 33 Table 3.4: The Anchor Tense of Each Child's Narrative. Verb C01 C02 C03 C04 COS C06 C07 C08 CIO C l l C12 C13 Total Tense Group Past x X X X X X 50.0% Present X X 16.7% Mixed X X X X 33.3% past, present, or mixed anchor tense group, and tells the percentage of the total narratives that fall into each group. From table 3.4, it can be seen that 50% of the children's narratives are anchored in the past tense, 16.7% are anchored in the present, and 33.3% of the narratives have a mixed orientation. Of the mixed tense children, two have a clear tense shift from the present to the past part way through the story (Child 02 and Child 03), and two (Child 08 and Child 10) have a number of verbs that are oriented toward the present (e.g., the present participle) but do not belong to the present tense group on the basis of the 75% criterion. These figures can be compared to Berman and Slobin's figures (1994, p. 132). Of their 12 5-year-old children's narratives, 50% were in the past tense group, 33.3% were in the present tense group, and 16.7% in the mixed tense group. These figures are difficult to compare exactly with mine since it is unclear whether Berman and Slobin counted only the simple present and the present progressive in the present tense group as I did, or whether they counted all present oriented verbs to come calculate their figures. If the latter category is the case, 34 3 E2 CN CN fs) ©v t o 1 t o S .8 o U 0 0 o O © C N o O I % 1 I I I ! jq <* I ! ! I I I ! — I ! I - I I --—• : '—• l s t o c t o "1 SD l o U ! m * n I i ! 1 1 1 1 • i l l so 1 I C N i-H o r-o O o O o O 8 : — 2 s - ^ I H VO h N w > | | | | j C N O C \ ! .—I I — I I I I I I M 8\ | IS | I I I ! I CN ve | | j e « o ex 8 8 o o « 6 B 1) O J = 5 6 J 2 to g T J -g V M £ 2 C j C 2 6 S I — « > « 5 5 •S *» <U t o s •£ o 11 1 I a t P <» 1 <s U eg 2 so C c 8 H O H 35 and this category were applied to the narratives I collected, then my figures would more closely approximate theirs, since 85.7% of Child 10's verbs were in the broader present tense oriented group. Time Expression All transcripts were coded for four categories of time expression: deictic time adverbs, temporal time adverbs, sequentiality markers, and subordinating temporal connectives. In addition to time expressions, other connectors were noted. Table 3.5 presents the connectors used by the children. As can be seen in this table, sequentiality markers are commonly used by the 5-year-old children, accounting for 92% of all connectors used. Not all of the children made use of all the possible types of connectors. Table 3.6 describes how many of the 12 children used each of the four different possible time expressions: Table 3.6: Number of Children (N=12) Using Each Type of Time Expression. Time Expression Number of children Deictic time adverbs 3 Temporal time adverbs 2 Sequentiality markers 11 Subordinating temporal connectives 6 36 Seen from this angle, all but one child used sequentiality markers (e.g., and, then), half of the children used subordinating temporal connectives (e.g., when, while), and only a few used each of the deictic time adverbs (e.g., once upon a time) or temporal time adverbs (e.g., at night). All in all, a total of 259 time adverbs and conjunctions were used. This figure can be averaged out to 22 time expressions per child. It is useful to note that the individual children ranged from using 0 to 33 time expressions. Plot Components The children's narratives were analyzed for Berman and Slobin's three plot component criteria. Table 3.7 shows how many of each of the plot components the children's narratives contained. Table 3.7: Plot Components Included by Each Child. Past Tense Narratives Present Mixed Tense Narratives Tense Narratives Child C01 C04 C06 C07 C l l C12 CO CI CO CO CO CI TOTAL Age 5;8 5;8 5;10 5;8 5;i 5;l 5 3 2 3 8 0 5;l 5;2 5;9 5;9 5;3 5;4 I V V V V V V V 9/12 (75.0%) II V V V V V 5/12 (41.7%) III V V 4/12 (33.0%) TOTAL 2/3 1/3 2/3 3/3 3/3 1/3 0/3 0/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 3/3 37 Neither of the present tense narratives contained any of the three plot components. The past-tense anchored narratives averaged two components out of a possible three, and the mixed tense narratives averaged 1.75 out of three. The figures in Table 3.7 can be compared to figures gathered by Berman and Slobin (1994, p. 48). Table 3.8 compares the percentage of narrators making explicit reference to each of the three plot components. In both studies, more children's narratives contain the first component than the second, and the second than the third. The numbers must be compared with caution since "explicit reference to plot components" is not always a straightforward judgment. I scored conservatively, which is consistent with Berman and Slobin (1994), but more conservatively than Trabasso et al. (1994). Component Berman & Slobin Present Study (N=58) (N=12) I 45 (78%) 9 (75%) II 30 (52%) 5 (42%) III 24 (41%) 4 (33%) 38 Part Two: The Form:Function Analysis Section One: Analysis of Individual Narratives This section presents the qualitative analysis and interpretation of each child's narrative and is organized by means of anchor tense. The past tense anchored narratives are discussed first, the present tense narratives second, and the mixed tense narratives last. Each child's narrative is presented within the theoretical framework described in chapters one and two. Nevertheless, the analysis that follows is based on just one person's interpretation of the narratives. There can be no one way to listen to or analyze a narrative, just as there can be no one way to weave a narrative from the pictures in Frog, where are you? The Past Tense Narratives Child 01 Opening Comments Child 01 tells a sophisticated story, using linguistic devices that establish the story in narrative mode. She meets two of Berman and Slobin's three story quality criteria, noting the boy's discovery of his missing frog ("and when he looked into the pot / he didn't see a frog! / so he decided to look for it" [pictures 3 - 4]) and making explicit mention of the search for the frog beyond the initial look in the bedroom ("and then the boy found an 39 owl's home / and he called 'froggie? Are you in there?'" [picture 11]). She does not meet the third criterion—explicitly stating that the frog found by the boy at the end of the story is the same frog (of a replacement frog) that the boy was searching for. Child 01 is one of the few children who mentions asking permission to take a frog from its mother. Anchor Tense Child 01's story is firmly anchored in the past, with 39 of her 47 verbs (83%) in the simple past, and 11% in the past progressive, giving a total of 94% in the past tense group. Her story clearly falls into the narrative mode because of her anchor tense, and also by starting with "once upon a time," a very characteristic English language narrative opening. Of the eight verbs that are not in the simple past, five of them are in the past progressive, with one each in the conditional and present, and one present participle. Rarer Verb Forms Present. The present tense case comes in the coda, when Child 01 finishes up with "and thafs the end of the story." This use of the present clearly signals the end of the story and the return to the here and now. Conditional. Child 01's use of the conditional "could" is used to indicate the modality of permission and follows grammatically from her sentence construction: "and the little boy asked / if he could have one of the little children." Her use of the conditional signals the prospective discourse perspective, because she mentions an anticipated situation (Bamberg, 1987, p. 109). 40 Past progressive and present participle. Child OTs uses of the past progressive are interesting. She uses the past progressive six times, and uses the present participle "calling" one other time where I argue it acts as a past progressive, with ellipsis of the auxiliary. The first time that Child 01 uses a past progressive is to introduce the first plot advancing element of the story. In picture 1, Child 01 sets the scene and offers setting information to the listener: "once upon a time / there was a little boy / he had a pet frog," making explicit the ownership relationship between the boy and the frog. Her next line, "when he was sleeping" (picture 2), signals a change in the type of information being presented. The little boy who was simply described in the first picture now becomes a dynamic actor in the narrative. Her opening use of the past progressive has another function; Child 01 uses the tense form to indicate the function of the subordinating temporal adverb "when." In the opening lines from picture 2 ("when he was sleeping / the frog jumped right out of the pot") the use of the past progressive indicates that "when" is being used synonomously with "while." Child 01 establishes a durative event (i.e., sleeping) and by doing so temporally situates and foregrounds the punctual event of the frog jumping out of the pot. Her use of the past progressive in the above case can be contrasted with her use of "when" with the simple past in picture 3: "and when he looked into the pot / he didn't see a frog!" In the second case, "when" is synonymous with "at the moment that. . . ." Since the verb is in simple past form, the two events (i.e., the boy looking into the pot, and the boy not seeing the 41 frog) occur simultaneously. In picture 15, Child 01 uses the past progressive in a slightly different way: "and then he found out / that the branches / he was holding onto / were deer's antlers." By using the past progressive here, Child 01 indicates to the listener that the boy had already been holding onto what appeared to be branches when suddenly he found out that they were not branches after all. Child 01 juxtaposes the simple past and the past progressive to achieve different narrative effects. In picture 15, Child 01 chooses to put the foregrounding simple tense "found out" before indicating the backgrounding continuous event ("holding onto") since it is only at the inception of the boy's new state of knowledge—his finding out—that the branches become antlers in the context of the story. Another use for the past progressive in Child 01's narrative is to indicate the global theme of the narrative: the boy's search for the frog. In picture 5, and again in picture 8, she establishes continuity within the narrative by using the progressive for an exact repetition of the boy's words when calling to the frog. In picture 5, she says "and the boy was calling 'froggie where are you?! froggie where are you?!" Then, in picture 8, she says "[he] ran out into the forest / calling 'froggie where are you?! froggie where are you?!'" The present participle acts as a past progressive since it mirrors the past progressive case in picture 5. Although Child 01 mentions the boy calling one more time, she changes both the tense form and the words attributed to the boy: "and he called 'froggie? are you in there?'" (picture 11). The change in tense form to the anchor tense signals a difference in the form of the boy's words from the earlier two times, and indicates the local event of the 42 boy calling into the owl's hole. The final cases of the progressive, in pictures 10 and 12, are best understood in the discussion to follow of the search sequence. Connectors Child 01 uses a number of time expressions, including her deictic time adverb opening "once upon a time," the subordinating connectors "when" and "until" (picture 10), and the sequentiality markers "then" (pictures 17 and 18), "and," and "and then." The last two markers are Child 01's most common linking phrases, and they occur throughout her narrative. One pattern that emerges in her use of "and" and "and then" is a tendency, particularly in pictures 10 (clause 2) to 15, to introduce a new event with "and then," and within that event use "and" to connect the intra-event clauses (e.g. "and then the boy found an owl's home/ and he called 'froggie? Are you in there?' / and out came an angry owl"). By using connectors in this way, Child 01 establishes a narrative pattern based on lexical repetition. Once this pattern is established, Child 01 is able to use the absence of an expected link for narrative effect: here, to introduce an element of drama into the story. In picture 16, there is no introductory linking word to "the deer came out furiously." This is the first event since picture 9 that is not prefaced with "and" or "and then," and the absence of the expected makes this event stands out from the previous events. 43 Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence When looking at the first and last clauses referring to the three scenes, an interesting pattern emerges in Child Ol's story: Scene Introductory Clause Final Clause Scene 1 (boy + gopher) he found a hole and something popped out! Scene 2 (boy + owl) and then the boy found an and out came an angry owl owl's home Scene 3 (dog + bees) and then the dog found a bees' and the bees were chasing nest the dog Child Ol's use of "found" unifies the search at a global level by employing repetition, a common narrative device in English. Furthermore, she establishes a syntactic pattern in this sequence, since in each introductory clause the subject of the verb is the finder, and in each final clause the subject of the verb is the animal who was found. In this sequence, Child Ol's use of the past progressive once again plays a role in organizing her narrative. In pictures 10 and 12, Child 01 uses the past progressive twice, each time to describe the actions of the bees. In picture 10, she says "and [the dog] barked and barked at it / until the bees came flying out," and in picture 12, she says "and the bees were chasing the dog." The dog and bees scene is the most difficult scene of the three in this series of pictures, because it spans the other two scenes, the dog starts barking at the bees right as the boy begins to look in the gopher's hole, and the bees are 44 still chasing the dog when the boy finds the owl. Child 01 may be using the past progressive form to describe the dog and bees scene to indicate that it is an ongoing element while the other two scenes are taking place independently of each other. Child 04 Opening Comments Child 04's narrative is linear, told almost entirely picture-by-picture at a local level. Child 04's narrative does not meet the first or third of Berman and Slobin's plot criteria, but does qualify for the second. He does continue the search beyond the bedroom, but quickly looses track of the global framework after the gopher incident when he says "and the boy was looking an a owl's hole / it fell." Child 04 gives sparse setting information: "once a boy caught a frog," and moves into the plot onset information immediately: "but when he was sleeping. . . . " Child 04 has particular trouble organizing the end of the story. From picture 21 onwards, he anticipates and backtracks twice, indicating that his on-line verbal output is not synchronized with his internal time frame and understanding of episode 5: Picture(s) Clause(s) Place in Time Pictures 20 - 21 they looked on target Pictures 22 - 23 Picture 24 and the boy says 'shh' to the dog and they let them have one they let they saw some frogs then they let him have one of the frogs backtracking anticipating anticipating backtracking on target 45 Despite his difficulties, Child 04 succeeds in arriving at the resolution in picture 24 oriented in narrative and on-line verbal time, and finishes up with a brief coda: "the end." Anchor Tense Child 04's story is firmly anchored in the past tense, with nearly 97% of the verbs falling into the past tense group. Child 04 has one nonanchor tense verb, a present tense verb that occurs near the end of the story. Rarer Verb Forms Present. Child 04 uses the present only once in the narrative, at picture 20: "and the boy says 'shh' to the dog." Child 04's choice may be motivated by the colloquial use of "says" in some informal adult storytelling ("and so she says . . . and then I says . . ."). Past progressive. Child 04 uses the past progressive five times during his narrative, once to open the plot onset information as mentioned below in the Connectors section, three times during the search sequence, and once during the deer episode. Child 04's use of the past progressive during the deer episode appears to mark the boundary between the foregrounded information "so it carried him off' and the backgrounded information: "dog was barking." His use of the past progressive in this case mirrors an earlier case of the same verb in the past progressive, and may also be marking the durative nature of the dog's continued barking. Child 04 appears to mark the beginning of episode 2 with the lative aspectual verb in the clause: "so he went out looking for him," signalling 46 the global search for the frog in the scenes to come. The other three cases of the past progressive are best discussed in the scenes 2 and 3 of the search sequence. Connectors Child 04 uses "and" frequently to chain clauses, and uses "but" successfully to indicate disappointment or the unexpected ("he looked in his boot / but he wasn't there"). Child 04 uses the subordinating temporal connective "when" twice. The first instance marks the beginning of the plot onset information with the typical "but when he was sleeping," setting.the stage for the frog's escape to take place during the time indicated during the verb "was sleeping." The second instance of "when" occurs at picture 19. Unfortunately, this occurs after an incomplete clause: "and they were, [incomplete] / when they heard a sound." It is possible that Child 04 had intended to set up a similar durative -punctual distinction, but failed to complete the form. Child 04 uses "so" twice. The first use occurs in episode 1 where the dog falls out of the window, and Child 04 uses "so" to mark a logical consequence of the preceding action: "but he fell out and broke it / so the boy was angry at him." The second use is not as sophisticated, and occurs in episode 4 conjoined with the connector "but." Episode 4 is an episode that most of the children find difficult to express, and Child 04's description is brief: "but there was a deer there / so it carried him off." Although Child 04 does not discuss why the deer carries the boy off, or that the boy was deceived, he clearly understands that the deer was not anticipated (marked by "but") and that the boy was 47 carried off because of the presence of the deer (marked by "so"), suggesting that Child 04's understanding of this episode is greater than his ability to express it. Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence Scene 1 is brief: "he called in the hole / but wasn't in there." This scene appears to maintain the global level of the search for the frog without going into any local detail: the gopher is not mentioned, nor is the boy's reaction to finding a gopher rather than the frog he was calling for. In scene 2, however, local considerations take over, and the past progressive verb appears at the same time: "and the boy was looking in a owl's hole / it fell." The designation "it" in the second clause is ambiguous: "it" could refer to the beehive again, or the boy. Although Child 04 turned the page before saying "it fell," he is probably referring to the beehive, because prior research (Bamberg, 1987; Gomme, 1994) indicates that it would be highly unusual to find "it" referring to the boy. Scene 3 is also brief, and is clearly a chain of events and consequences: "and the dog was barking at some bees / the beehive fell / and the dog was running from the bees." In scenes 2 and 3, which deal with local considerations of the story, Child 04 uses the past progressive in conjunction with the sequentiality marker "and," and follows this clause by reporting falling: "and the boy was looking in a owl's hole / it fell," and "and the dog was barking at some bees / the beehive fell." The use of "and" plus the past progressive may indicate that he is adding to the global framework set up by the gopher incident, or the 48 earlier lative "went out looking," and these are additional, local events that contribute to the search. Child 04 closes the dog plus bees episode with a further "and" plus past progressive verb: "and the dog was running from the bees." Child 06 Opening Comments Child 06 tells a beautifully expressive story, making use of voice, dialogue and prosody, emotion and sound effects, to create an entertaining and well-told narrative. Child 06 provides the most descriptive opening of all the children, making explicit the relationship . between the boy and the frog, and foreshadowing the impending disaster: "he had a frog / and he liked his frog / and he loved him very much / and he watched him very much / he didn't want him to go away / or else he would be a goner." Episode 1, where the boy and dog are searching in the bedroom for the frog, is developed into a short poem of sorts, for which Child 06 even makes up a new verb to maintain the rhyme: "they looked everywhere / they looked in the glass / they looked in the boot / and the dog wasn't careful / he slipped and grouped." Child 06 appears to understand that something is going on in the deer episode, and ^ expresses it by saying "but then some horns were not right / then this bull came and took him." She does not say that the boy thought the horns were branches, however. Child 06 fulfills the first two of Berman and Slobin's criteria, and tells the story at both local and 49 global levels, but she does not make it clear that the boy has found his frog at the end of the story. Anchor Tense This narrative is anchored in the past, with a total of 96% of the verbs being in the past tense group. The only verbs that fall outside the anchor tense are one conditional verb, and one past passive, which will be discussed below. Rarer Verb Forms Conditional. Child 06 uses one conditional verb in the setting information of her story, to indicate the consequence of the boy's wish for his frog: "he didn't want him to go away / or else he would be a goner." The conditional marks the prospective discourse perspective, and as such foreshadows the frog's escape. Child 06 appears to have heard the colloquial word "goner," and associated the connotative meaning (doomed thing or person) with the literal verb root "gone." What she comes up with is very appropriate to the story. The rare conditional verb marks the end of the setting information, and is followed by a past progressive verb that marks the start of the plot onset information: "when he was sleeping," a pattern found in many of the children's narratives. Past progressive. Three of the past progressive verbs all refer to the dog's "leaping." Child 06 chooses to present "leaping at it" in the durative form, and to emphasize the iterative effect of her verb tense choice, she repeats the verb: "and the dog was leaping at it and leaping at i t . . . and then the dog was leaping." By doing so, Child 50 06 employs the past progressive as a rhetorical device to create a narrative effect that is consistent with and reinforces her choice of verb tense. Child 06's final use of the past progressive occurs in the initiating event of episode 4: "and he was shouting for his frog." Her choice of the past progressive appears to have a dual function: it marks both the global search for the frog, and the beginning of a new episode. This past progressive verb comes at the close of episode 3, which ends with a narrowly local focus, and the boy giving a command to the owl. The start of episode 4, and the return to the global search, are marked by a change in verb tense to the past progressive: Episode 3 and he said 'go away pesky owl' Episode 4 and he was shouting for his frog The past progressive verb also serves to begin episode 4, which is a complex episode, and one that Child 06 has some difficulty expressing. She sets off the straightforward calling for the frog with the connective "but then," demonstrating her knowledge that the boy's discovery of the branches being "horns" happened after he called (by her use of "then"), and that it was unexpected (by her use of "but"). Passive. Finally, Child 06 uses one past passive verb at the end of the dog plus bees scene: "the dog was being chased by some bees." Her choice here demonstrates an advanced ability to use verb forms, and appears to signal the end of the very long and elaborate dog plus bees episode. Child 06 marks this complex passive verb formulation with a question directly preceding it: "and know what?" Since she does not wait for my answer before going on to say "the dog was being chased by some bees," the question may 51 act purely to buy her some time in formulating the passive construction (a skill that often does not appear before the age of seven) rather than functioning as a genuine question. Connectors Child 06 uses a variety of connectors. She uses a temporal subordinating connective to mark the start of the plot onset information ("when he was sleeping") after an extensive setting information section. Child 06 uses numerous sequential connectives, using "and" sixteen times, "and then" seven times, "but then" twice, and "then" once. Child 06 uses "and" extensively in the first part of her narrative, and her first use of "and then" appears to mark the end of the rhyme that she creates in episode 1, and closes the episode: "and then he caught him." Child 06's use of "but then" coincides with two poorly expressed incidents in the story and may indicate not only the unexpected for the boy in the narrative, but also a degree of difficulty in verbal expression on the part of Child 06 herself. The first incidence of "but then" prefaces a clause in which she corrects her choice of word and contains a string of unreferenced pronouns: "but then a beaver~a groundhog—he bonked his nose on his nose!" This clause lacks the clarity of many of Child 06's clauses in her narratives. The second incidence of "but then" occurs at the deer/deception scene, where she says "but then some horns were not right." As discussed in the opening comments, Child 06 appears to know that there is a problem with this scene, and captures the notion of an obstacle to the search with her use of "but," but does not express the deception except to preface it with one of her rarer connectors. 52 Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence The search sequence is prefaced by a description of the boy calling for his missing frog that frames the rest of the search sequence: "he yelled 'frog!' like that." Because Child 06 returns to the search for the frog, it can be assumed that she recognizes the boy and dog's continued search. Scene 1 is brief but descriptive: "but then a beaver—a groundhog—he bonked his nose on his nose!" Child 06 corrects her choice of mammal, and gives an explanation for the boy's facial expression in picture 10. Scene 2 is longer than scene 1, and also highly descriptive. Child 06 describes the owl as a "hooty old owl," and follows her description with some dialogue: "and he said 'hoot!' / and he said 'go away pesky owl.'" In the remarks attributed to the boy (uncoded), Child 06 demonstrates flexibility in using nonanchor tense verbs in dialogue. Another example of this flexibility is found later on in picture 20 when she says: "and he said 'shh I hear something' / and he said 'stay low to the ground.'" Scene 3 is the most elaborate scene of all, beginning with the dog thinking that the frog is in the tree as a rationale for his leaping at the beehive. She repeats her use of the verb "bonked" in regards to the beehive (not actually depicted in the story), showing an enjoyment for unusual or onomatopoeic words. 53 Child 07 Opening Comments Child 07 tells a complex and sophisticated story, combining global and local themes with interesting language and consistent tense usage. Child 07 opens her story with "once upon a time" and unusually follows this phrase with "there was a doggie." Child 07 thought a lot before starting the story. This is the second story she told, and she asked if she could make some changes between the two stories, which I encouraged. Her decision to open with "there was a doggie" was one of these changes. Child 07 keeps the dog as the main protagonist only for picture 1, but during this picture she works hard to keep her different approach: "he was looking at the frog / and {it} the boy was too." Child 07's expanded ending to her narrative is another significant change from her first narrative, and shows insight into the frog's situation beyond most of the other children. At the end of the story Child 07 comes up with an ethical dilemma concerning taking the frog back, and provides a solution to this dilemma: "so then they didn't want him to steal any of their family / so he decided / 'maybe if they have a family now /1 shouldn't steal one /1 should ask them / if I can borrow one.'" She closes with the boy "borrowing" the baby frog that appears to have fallen off the log. Anchor Tense This narrative is clearly anchored in the past, with the total of the past tense group verbs equaling 93.5%. The only other verbs are three conditional verbs that occur in the context of decision-making, and will be discussed below in the "Rarer Verbs" section. 54 Rarer Verb Forms Past progressive. Child 07 uses eleven past progressive verbs in her story. Three of these appear to explicitly mark episode boundaries, and at the same time mark the global theme of the quest for the frog: Episode Initiating Event 1 so then he was looking under everything 2 so then he was calling out and calling 4 so then he was calling for him 3 so then the bees' nest fell 5 so then he heard a ribbit sound An interesting pattern emerges when the first clauses of all episodes are compared. Those that are in the past progressive clearly mark the more global theme of searching, whereas in episode 3 and episode 5, the initiating event is in the simple past, and clearly marks a local event. All first clauses begin with the connector "so then." Nearly all of the other past progressive verbs appear to be used to indicate duration, including the use of "was looking" twice, "was running," "were chasing," and "was smiling." A more unusual usage occurs in the prelude: "so then at night he was crawling out of the jar." Child 07 appears to use the past progressive in numerous ways: for signalling the global search theme and episode boundaries, as well as for marking durative events. 55 Conditional. The conditional occurs three times following the modal verb of intention "decided." Child 07 has mastered the use of this construction, and is comfortable using the prospective discourse perspective as can be seen first in picture 13: "so then he decided / he would call out for the frog," and then again right in the last picture: "one fell / so he decided / he would take the one that fell and [would] let it say goodbye to its family." Connectors Child 07 uses many connectors. Her most frequent connectors are the sequential "and" and "so then," but she also uses the temporal time adverb "at night." Child 07 combines two of the temporal connectors to make the move from setting information to plot onset information at picture 2: "so then at night he was crawling out of the jar." Child 07 makes experimental use of the connector "but" four times early on in her narrative. In the first case, at picture 3, she explains why the boy cannot see his frog: "but his room was n(o)t too messy / but he could n(o)t see him." An adult might use only one connector, "even though," to preface the first of the two clauses, however Child 07 conveys her meaning by her doubled use of "but." In the second case at picture 7, Child 07 doubles "but" again, much for the same effect: "but the little boy was n(o)t happy / but the doggie was," which again an adult might replace with one initial "even though." Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence All of Child 07's scenes are brief, and locally focused. The search sequence is framed by the boy calling out in picture 8 and a return to the search for the frog at picture 13. Scene 56 2 is of particular interest, since in it Child 07 ends up making up her own short episode when she goes on in picture 13 to say "so then he thought / 'maybe if I just get into this branch /1 could get the owl' / so then he was calling for him / but then he didn't want to get the owl any more / because it was too far / so then he decided / he would call out for the frog." Child 07 appears to interpret the climb up the stone and holding onto the branches as an attempt to seek revenge for being pushed off the tree by going after the owl. But the boy instead turns to searching again for the frog since Child 07 reasons it would be too far for him to reach the owl. Child 07 uses a number of connectors in this extended part of scene 2. She combines numerous temporal connectors and the perfective aspect ("any more") in pictures 13 and 14: "so then he was calling for him / but then he did n(o)t want to get the owl any more / because it was too far." Child 07's sophisticated combination of clauses indicates an ability to use language hierarchically in terms of time and to express logical conclusions. It is no surprise that she is one of the few children who fulfills all three of Berman and Slobin's plot criteria, and at the same provides an elaborated narrative. Child 11 Opening Comments Child 11's story is highly sophisticated, thematically motivated with global organization, and like Child 07's her narrative contains all three of Berman and Slobin's components. She opens with "the boy found a doggie," a statement which would seem even to predate the finding of the frog since by the start of the story the boy and the dog are looking at the 57 frog together.1 Child 11's narrative opening demonstrates what appears to be a familiarity the starting patterns of stories that is greater than her understanding of usual adultlike content: "the boy found a doggie / he looked in the jar / but they had no cap for it! / so the doggie sniffed his nose." Introducing the characters, giving a problem and a consequence has the rhythm of a traditional story opening, but the consequence ("so the doggie sniffed his nose") is not something an adult would typically say. Anchor Tense Child 11 clearly anchors her story in the past, with 96% in the simple past, and 100% of her verbs in the past tense group. She makes a few morphological errors in her formation of the simple past, such as "sleeped" (picture 1) and "fall" (picture 18), but remains remarkably consistent in her simple past tense usage throughout the narrative. Rarer Verb Forms Past progressive. Child 11 only deviates from the simple past twice in her entire narrative, and both deviations are the past progressive. The first occurs in the first plot onset clause "and then when he was sleeping." This clause, rather than being followed by the expected "the froggie escaped" equivalent, is followed instead by more description "the doggie sleeped on top of him" before Child 11 moves onto the clause "then the froggie tiptoed up." 1 There is a possibility that she has confused "doggie" with "froggie" as might also be the case in picture 14. 58 Child 1 l's second use of the past progressive "and he was yelling for him / but he didn't come back" is more adultlike. Child 11 starts the search sequence at picture 8 with the utterance "so he looked around for the froggie," a well-formed opening, but one that is not explicitly pictorially depicted. She uses this clause to frame the whole sequence that follows at a global level. What follows, "and he was yelling for him" brings the listener to the action and the physical start of the search sequence, highlighted by the rarer past progressive verb. Connectors Child 11 uses "and then" and "then" extensively throughout her story to sequentially link clauses. She uses "when" to mark the move into the plot onset of the story in picture 2: "when he was sleeping." Child 11 experiments with the use of "but then" as a temporal connector with less success than her adultlike use of "but" on its own (to be discussed later on in the Search Sequence discussion). Child 11 experiments in two different ways with "but then": first in picture 3, "but then the froggie was gone," and second in picture 4 "but then the doggie looked in the bottle." In the first case, the "but" is appropriate, however the sequentiality marker "then" does not work in the context of the closing descriptive clause: "and then in the morning he got out / and then the doggie did too / but then the froggie was gone." In the second case, the "then" is the more appropriate of the two connectors, though Child 11 may be using the "but" to warn the listener that something untoward follows from the dog putting his head in the bottle. After these two attempts at using "but then," she abandons this connector and moves to either "but" or "and then." 59 Child ll 's use of "but" is sophisticated, and one of her major devices for creating a narrative pattern. She uses "but" nine times, once as discussed in the opening, and eight other times as follows: Picture 4 he looked in the boot / but he was not there Picture 5 and then he looked outside / but it was not there Picture 8 and he was yelling for him / but he didn't come back Picture 9 he looked in the hole / but it was not there Picture 10 and then he found a skunk / but it was too stinky Picture 11 then he looked in the tree / but the frog wasn't there Picture 13 the owl tried to get the boy / but he could not Picture 14 and then the boy looked for the doggie / but the doggie fell on the /sto:/ Child ll 's use of "but" separates hope from disappointment, the positive from the negative. She grasps the negativity of "but" as a connector and uses it to create a narrative pattern that helps maintain the global level of the story at a thematic, and also lexical, level. Pictures 8 to 12: the Search Sequence Child 11 demonstrates a sophisticated use of narrative pattern that, as in her opening, appears to favour form or pattern over content. There are two sets of clauses in scene 1, each beginning with a declarative clause that describes the action of the boy, followed by a 60 negating clause beginning with "but." The first set retains the global search sequence: "he looked in the hole / but it was not there," whereas the second set of clauses is more locally oriented: "and then he found a skunk / but it was too stinky." Because Child 11 continues on with the global search in later clauses, the second set of clauses in scene 1 does not set her off track; rather it follows the narrative pattern, this time giving more detail to the boy's actions. In scene 2, Child 11 uses a longer set of clauses (three clauses), but with a very similar pattern: "then he looked in the tree / but the frog wasn't there / only the owl was!" Here she has combined the global search and disappointment with further local description of the discovery of the owl. Child 11 adds to the boy plus owl scene (at picture 13) with a very similar three clause set: "the owl tried to get the boy / but he could not / then the owl fell down." This set is from the owl's point of view: the "but" negates the owl's desire to "get" the boy, a global goal for the owl, and then describes the local consequence "and then the owl fell down" (which does not actually happen in the story!). She parallels the boy's goal to get the frog and his disappointment with the owl's goal to get the boy and its disappointment. Scene 3 has a completely different structure altogether. There is no use of "but," instead, Child 11 links the six clauses with "then" and "and then." She adds an unusual part to the story, noting "then the bees fell down / then the bees' house fell down." She appears to be using the verb "to fall" as a lexical pattern in her story, since she noted above that the owl 61 fell down, and in picture 14 that the dog fell down. Child 11 goes on to add that "the bees tried to get it up on the tree again," another addition that goes beyond the depicted story. Child 12 Opening Comments This is a relatively short narrative among those anchored in the past tense, with only 37 verbs. Child 12's choice of the past puts his story in narrative mode, even though he does not use common narrative devices such as providing an opener (e.g. "once upon a time"), setting information, or a coda. In his opening, Child 12 says "and they [the boy and dog] waked up / and saw they [the frog] weren't there / and [the frog] went back home. This clause meets Berman and Slobin's first criterion because he clearly states that the boy has discovered that the frog has disappeared, using the cognitive verb "saw" to do so. Anchor Tense Child 12 anchors his narrative in the past, with over 75% in the simple past, and over 90% of his verbs in the past tense group. He has only two nonanchor tense verbs: one present progressive verb and one present participle. Child 12 has not yet mastered irregular past tense forms, as evidenced by his use of "sticked," "stinged," and "waked." He also uses "push" one time for the past formation of this verb, although in the following clause he says the correct "pushed." 62 Rarer Verb Forms Present participle. Child 12 has a fair amount of dysfluency at the beginning when he starts to tell the story on his own, but his fluency increases as he gets going. It is in his first solo statement that Child 12 produces the present participle in the clause "the dog and the boy looking after it." His usage of the present participle in this case may be attributed to the demands of warming up to the narrative task than a deliberate choice on his part, because he quickly shifts into the past, and his next verb is the correctly formed past progressive "were sleeping." Past progressive. Many of the verbs Child 12 chooses to put in the past progressive are durative verbs (sleeping, looking, running, chasing). He uses the past progressive six times, three times for what appears to be semantic reasons, and three times to mark boundaries. The three semantic uses occur all together, and contribute to the excitement of the dog's run-in with the bees: "and he was running and running / (be)cause the bees were trying to sting him." The past progressive emphasizes the drama and duration of the running, and Child 12 chooses a parallel verb tense for the chasing bees to maintain the drama. The use of the past progressive in this case can be contrasted with the boundary marking choices. In the first instance, as with many children, Child 12 uses the past progressive to mark the beginning of the plot onset information and set the scene for the frog's escape: "they were sleeping." He next uses the past progressive to mark the beginning of episode 2, and clearly uses the past progressive to signal the global search. The global search is 63 particularly opposed to the local search by Child 12's use of the same verb in different tense formation: "and then they were looking for it / and they looked in a hole." Finally, Child 12 uses the past progressive at picture 16 to mark the end of the deer sequence, and marks the abrupt change to the pond: "and the dog was chasing after the deer / and then he fell into the water." Present progressive. Child 12 is one of the few children who attempts to speak about the deception that goes on with the boy and the deer. In his case, although Child 12 clearly has something to say about this complicated scene, he is unable to fully articulate his thoughts. It is in this sequence of clauses, where Child 12 gets excited and slightly held up by his inability to express himself fully, that the present progressive shows up: "{and} and that guy's climbing there / and I know what /ha/ / and now turn the page [laughing]." A momentary loss of anchor tense in this case appears to mark the complicated perceptual/conceptual components of this scene, interfering with Child 12's on-line verbal expression. Connectors Child 12 makes extensive use of "and" and "and then," with no discernible pattern separating his use of the two. The only other connector Child 12 uses is "but," which he uses twice. Child 12 does not make adult use of "but" and appears to be experimenting with this connector. The two examples follow one upon each other near the end of his story: "and then he fell into the water / but it wasn't really deep / but the dog didn't get wet." Although his use of "but" is not adultlike, he uses the connector to signify that these 64 phrases are different from his clauses connected by "and then" clauses since they are descriptive rather than action-advancing. Child 12 uses "because" twice with mastery to indicate a logical connection between the events pictured on the page. In the first case he says "and [the dog] was running and running / (be)cause the bees were trying to sting him." In the second, he provides an equally logical reason for his claim: "but the dog didn't get wet / because he landed on his head!" Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence Child 12's scenes 1 and 2 are both mainly descriptive and locally focused, using a repetitive clause as a patterned narrative device: Scene 1 and then they looked in a hole there was a mouse in it and then he sticked his head out Scene 2 and then the boy climbed up on a branch looked in the hole and then the boy fell down and the owl flew out Child 12 does not indicate what type of hole it is that the boy looks in, keeping the search initially at a nonspecific level. The appearance of the different animal in each scene is a surprise to the boy and to the listener since neither is forewarned what might be expected in each of the holes that the boy searches in. Child 12 closes off each scene with an action 65 on the part of the animal that is inadvertently found by the boy: "and then he [the 'mouse'] sticked his head out" and "and the owl flew out." In scene 3, Child 12 produces a more elaborate end to the episode. He interprets the dog's return with his tail between his legs at picture 14 as indicating something that has happened to the dog off stage, so to speak: "and the dog /1 think the bee stinged him somewhere." In focusing on the dog and the bees in picture 14, Child 12 misses the initiating event of the boy plus deer episode, perhaps adding to his confusion in expressing this scene, as discussed above. The Present Tense Narratives Child 05 Opening Comments Child 05's narrative is unlike any of the other children's. Instead of relating the narrative either at a local or global level, Child 05 appears to be playing with language, rhyme and rhythm. Because her mother reported that this narrative is not unlike the kinds of stories Child 05 tells, it was considered typical of what a 5-year-old might produce and included for analysis. The opening is a joint production by Child 05 and her mother, where they give brief setting and plot onset information together. Although the narrative then turns over to 66 Child 05, the story remains very much an interactive event, with the mother adding laughter and the occasional comment to reassure Child 05 that she is listening. Child 05 does not meet any of Berman and Slobin's plot component criteria. She completely ignores much of the search sequence, and uses only 16 verbs in total. Her narrative takes on a different focus than most of the children's in that her main purpose in narrating appears to be experimentation with language rather than story form. Up until picture 14, Child 05 follows the plotline of the story; however, after this point, she begins to delve more into the rhythm of storytelling, setting up a pattern with the deer's horns as the causal force behind the rest of the story: "horns, horns, horns! / he climbs on the horns / the horns poke up / horns move / horns fall! / horns give a ride over the lake / horns let the boy find frog." The repetition of "horns" is reminiscent of many children's books which use repetition to facilitate early literacy skills, and appeal to the rhythm of the narrative experience. Anchor Tense This story is anchored in the present, with 81.25 % of the verbs being in the simple present. The other verbs found in the narrative are three past tense verbs, which all occur at the beginning of the story. Rarer Verb Forms Past. The three past tense verbs appear to follow the lead given by the mother, who helps Child 05 get started by asking "what did they get?" and "and what did they do?" 67 Child 05's first three clauses on her own (excluding her response to her mother's questions) are the three past tense verbs: "the frog climbed up out of the jar! / the dog got into mischief / and stuck his head in the jar." Child 05 then switches verb tenses and tells the rest of the story (only 13 more verbs) in the present. The tense shift occurs in the middle of a Dr. Seuss-like rhyme, with the shift occurring in between the two "stanzas": the dog got into mischief and stuck his head in the jar he looks out the window but he looks too far Connectors Child 05 uses five sequentiality markers in her narrative, "and" four time, and "and then" once. She also uses "but" once. All of these connectors come in the first part of her narrative where she tends to stay with the plotline. Two of the connectors, one "and" and the "but" occur as part of her rhyme (see above), and both contribute to the rhyme structure by linking themselves to the previous clause (i.e., "and stuck his head in the jar" is linked to "the dog got into mischief by use of the "and," and "but he looks to far" is linked to "he looks out the window"). The remainder of the connectors all come in a row, and follow the mother's lead. After the mother says "and what happened?", Child 05 continues on with four clauses that describe what happened, using "and" and "and then" in each case. Her first clause of the unusual section has no connective: "bees are after me 68 and the dog," so the initial clause of the unusual section appears to be marked by the absence of a connector. Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence Child 05 completely ignores both the boy plus gopher and the boy plus owl scenes, and focuses entirely on the dog plus bees scene. Scene 3 appears to be a point of transition for Child 05, since she begins this scene by relating events in the story and ends with a transition clause into the more unusual section of her narrative. She begins the scene by attempting a new vocabulary word (though mispronouncing it), "and then it disturves [disturbs] a family of bees," and provides a consequence, "and they come after the dog." Child 05 then adds a rather strange coda to this scene: "bees are after me and the dog." It is unclear who Child 05 is referring to when she says "me," since the bees only chase the dog in this scene. However she may be signalling a shift in narrative style since this unusual clause directly precedes the beginning of the unusual "horns, horns, horns!" sequence that dominates the rest of the narrative. Child 13 Opening Comments Child 13 begins his narrative with a description~"the boy has a frog / and the frog's in ajar / and the dog's looking at the frog"~rather than a more conventional story opening. His choice of opening clauses works well with his reporting mode present tense anchor, suggesting that Child 13 is reporting to the listener rather than seeing the task as a "once upon a time" Active past event. It is not surprising, in light of the reporting feel to the 69 narrative, that Child 13 extends events in the narrative to what he observes going on during the taping session. "Sounds like we have some bees in here!" he says, referring to the tape recorder's noise. Child 13 uses emotion to enhance his narrative, noting that the boy "is so sad" to discover his frog is missing, and Child 13 extends the feelings to the dog (in a half-hearted way): "so is the dog /1 guess." Anchor Tense Child 13's story is anchored in the present. One hundred percent of his verbs are in the present tense group, with over three quarters of these verbs being in the simple present. Rarer Verb Forms Present progressive. The first two present progressive verbs occur one after another in the boundary between setting and plot onset information. The first present progressive verb appears to close up the setting information: "and the dog's looking at the frog." Once he has finished describing the scene to the listener, Child 13 is ready to move on to the actions of the story with the next clause "and then they're sleeping". It is interesting that Child 13 says the frog jumps out of the window, because he makes the inference that the frog has jumped out of the crack in the open window, going beyond what is pictured to add logic to his narrative. Child 13 then uses a present progressive verb at the start of episode 2: "and the boy's calling "frog! frog!", also marking the global search theme. 70 Child 13 also uses the present progressive to mark durative events, usually in relation to the dog. He first uses the present progressive near the start of the dog plus bees scene: "and the dog's barking at the bees." As noted in the search sequence (pictures 8 - 12), Child 13's presentation of the three scenes is not fluid. The most difficult and protracted of the three scenes is the dog plus bees sequence. Child 13 may be using the present progressive in this instance to try to add some fluidity in the form of backgrounding information to an otherwise broken up sequence by using the present progressive to show that the dog is barking during both of the boy plus gopher pictures. In picture 12, Child 13 once again uses the present progressive to talk about the dog—this time being chased by the bees: "and the bees are chasing the dog!" In this instance, it appears that he is using the progressive to offset the quicker actions of the boy plus owl sequence "and out pops the owl / and knocks the boy off the cliff!" from the backgrounding action of the bees chasing the dog. In pictures 17-18, Child 13 gives a reason for the dog falling off the cliff: "because he's not looking where he's going." Here, Child 13 incorporates parental-like wisdom into his narrative. In this case, the present progressive serves to mark a description, or explanation, rather than an action. To say "because he does not look where he goes" would turn the phrase into an active phrase, whereas Child 13 clearly wants to provide an explanation for the event that is out of the action sequence. 71 Finally, in picture 21, Child 13 says "and they take the one frog that's jumping." Here, he is differentiating between a characteristic of all frogs (all frogs jump) and the one that the boy takes (the only one that is jumping). Connectors Child 13 uses 22 sequentiality markers. His most common marker is "and," used sixteen times. What is interesting is Child 13's use of the more occasional "(and) then." In four cases, he appears to mark either picture or episode boundaries as follows: Boundary Connector Pictures 1 and 2 "and the dog's looking at the frog / and then they're sleeping" • This instance of "and then" also marks the changeover between setting and plot onset information. Pictures 2 and 3 "and jumps out the window! / then the boy's so sad to lose his frog." • Child 13 also signals the change between the frog's escape and the boy's internal response to his frog's disappearance. Episodes 3 and 4 "hide from the owl / and then the deer takes him away!" Episodes 4 and 5 "and the dog runs in too / because he's not looking where he's going / then the boy hears something." Child 13 has other signalling functions for "(and) then." In pictures 20 and 21, he says "T say I hear something' / and then they both look over the log." Here, although both clauses 72 relate to the same scene, Child 13 appears to be marking the difference between dialogue and action. The use of "then" at picture 10 is different again. In this case, Child 13 uses "then" to return to the narrative task after making an aside to me about the noise the tape recorder made in the room. Child 13 and I have a short interchange: C13: "sounds like we have some bees in here!" / KAR: "yeah it does," after which Child 13 immediately continues on with the story, noting the return to the narrative task with the connector: "then the bees come after the dog!" Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence Child 13 presents the search sequence on a picture-by-picture basis, describing each picture as it comes along rather than attempting to create the three scenes separately. In the boy plus gopher and dog plus bees scenes, no two clauses occur sequentially; they are all separated by clauses referring to other scenes. In the boy plus owl scene, two clauses occur together, and in this one case Child 13 uses more syntactically complex language. The patterns can be compared: , 73 Scene 1 (boy + gopher) Scene 2 (boy + owl) Scene 3 (dog + bees) Clause 1 S V Prepositional Phrase Preposition V S S V O Clause 2 S V Prepositional Phrase Implied S (he) V O Prepositional S V O Phrase Clause 3 - - S V O Clause 4 - - S V O Clause 5 - - S V O In the scenes which are discontinuous, Child 13 uses early developmental, simple grammatical structures, however, in the instance where he combines two phrases together, he puts together more complex structures. The Mixed Tense Narratives Child 02 Opening Comments Child 02 told her story dramatically, using prosody, facial expression, and noises to add drama to the narrative. Child 02's setting information indicates joint ownership of the frog and foreshadows the frog's escape: "they have a pet frog / and it's not lost yet." Her description of the frog's escape is interesting in that the motivation for the escape is given from the frog's point of view: "he wants to get out / and go with his family." Episode 1 is not locally marked in Child 02's story; she stays at the global level of the search theme, 74 giving an explanation for the boy and dog's search without describing the search activities at all: "then the next day / they're looking for him / (be)cause they don't know / that he went out at night / jumped out at night," meeting the first of Berman and Slobin's three plot component criteria. Interestingly, Child 02 revises her less specific verb "went out" to the more specific "jumped out." This opening, while not as elaborate as some of the 5-year-olds' openings, has some sophisticated elements. The logical reasoning behind the search for the frog, and the frog's motivation for leaving add unusual internal and cognitive elements to her narrative's beginning. Child 02's story does not maintain the global level throughout, and she does not fulfill Berman and Slobin's second or third criteria. Anchor Tense Child 02's story is not anchored from start to finish in any one tense; rather it moves from a present tense oriented narrative to a past tense oriented narrative. The total of the past tense group verbs comes to 72.7%, while 22.7% of the verbs fall in the present tense group. Child 02 begins in the present and maintains this tense until slightly before the beginning of episode 2, where she switches into the past. After this point, only three more present tense verbs occur until the end of the story. Her tense shift occurs in the middle of a subordinated clause: "(be)cause they do not know / that he went out at night." This shift may be motivated by the change in narrative time encoded in the clause, since the frog's leaving at night occurs before the boy's knowledge (or lack thereof) of that event. Once she says "went," she revises the clause to "jumped," maintaining the past tense, and continues in the past tense for most of the rest of the narrative. 75 Rarer Verb Forms Because there is a tense shift in this story, the rarer verbs for the first part of the discussion will be the present progressive verbs (when the story is told mainly in the present tense), and then the discussion will shift to discussing the rarer verbs when the story is told in the past. Present progressive (in the present section). Child 02 uses the present progressive in conjunction with the subordinating temporal connective "when" to set the scene for the frog's escape: "when they're sleeping / he wants to get out / and go with his family." Child 02 appears to understand the subordinating principle, however an adult storyteller would probably follow the present progressive verb "were sleeping" with an action verb rather than the nonactive "wants." She uses her second present progressive verb to mark the beginning of the search sequence "then the next day / they're looking for him." Although Child 02 does not mark episode 1 locally (as mentioned above), she does mark the start of the global search theme with this present progressive verb. Rarer verb forms (in the past section). Child 02 uses the present three times and the present participle once in the section of her narrative based in the past. She uses the past progressive seven times and has one past passive. Child 02's final use of the present occurs in the last clause of the story "and that's the end!", clearly using the present verb to signal the coda, bringing the listener out of the Active world created by the narrative. 76 Seven of the 12 rarer tense verbs are found grouped together in episode 4, an episode that in fact contains only rarer tense verbs. The first clause for picture 14, "and he went into the tree," actually completes episode 3 rather than beginning episode 4. Then, once episode 5 begins at picture 19, Child 02 switches back into the predominant simple past. Episode 4 may be the site of many of the rarer tense verbs because it is the episode dealing with the boy's mistaking the deer's antlers for branches, culminating in the deer throwing the boy off the cliff (and the dog falling in too), an episode that many children have difficulty understanding and explaining. Because Child 02 expresses surprise at the appropriate time, she appears to understand the episode better than she expresses it. Child 02 signals the opening of episode 4 by the use of two past progressive verbs: "the boy was climbing onto the rock / and [he was] holding onto some deer's antlers." At this point, Child 02 chooses to makes a facial expression of surprise instead of articulating the complex deception sequence. After her surprised face, Child 02 continues on in this episode with five more coded rarer tense verbs—one past passive, two present, one present participle, and one past progressive, as well as two uncoded present verbs—as follows: "then he was carried off by a deer with his dog / the dog chasing the deer / then he falls of a hill with his dog into a pond / [I think he knows how to swim] / oof! it's not so deep / then the deer was staring at him." Why Child 02 clusters so many rarer tense verbs in this one episode is unclear. In terms of cognitive load, it may be that because the episode is so complex, her language skills decrease as more is demanded of her comprehension skills, and she loses track of her anchor tense and the ability to use rarer verbs as signallers. 77 The other three rarer verbs are all durative past progressive verbs that appear to mark boundaries in the search sequence. One of them concludes the bees plus dog scene: "then all the bees were chasing the dog," a verb that many of the children put into the progressive. The other two open and then close the boy plus owl scene, opening with "then the boy was yelling into a owl's hole," and concluding "then the owl was flying over him." Because of the relative rarity of the past progressive use, it suggests that Child 13 is marking the boundaries of these scenes with the progressive verb. Connectors Child 02 makes extensive use of temporal connectors. Her main connectors are the sequential "and" and "then," but she also uses the more explicit sequential connector "first" on one occasion, following it with the connector "then" to alert the reader explicitly to the order of events: "first he stared at the two parents / then he looked at all the little kiddie frogs." Child 02 orients her listener to external time, using the temporal time adverbs "at night" (when the frog escapes) and "the next day" (the moment of discovery), an element of specificity rarely found in the 5-year-olds' narratives. Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence Emotion is the common thread for the three search sequences. Either by directly expressing emotion, as in scene 2, where she says "and [the owl] scared the boy!", or in the other two scenes which close with Child 02 demonstrating to me the facial expression and emotion of the scenes, Child 02 uses emotion in her story to parallel the three scenes. 78 Child 02 demonstrates use of the cognitive verb "to know" in the search sequence when, at picture 11, she says "then the bees went out at the dog / then they started to chase the dog / and the dog didn't know that." Like in the prelude, when Child 02 foreshadows the loss of the frog, here she foreshadows the bees chasing the dog, letting the listener know that Child 02 herself does indeed know what is going on in the story. Child 03 Opening Comments Child 03 was quite shy when I asked her to tell the story, but warmed up as she went along. She told the story twice, but her first story was the one I chose to analyze, since she rushed through her second production. Her narrative is characterized by experimentation, for example with the subordinating temporal connective "while," the use of the present tense, and the use of "where." Child 03's narrative met the first of the three plot component criteria. She gives no setting information, but immediately begins with plot onset information, which is consistent with a reporting start in the present tense. Child 03 finishes her narrative in the past tense, and concludes with a narrative mode feel: "and he took one [frog] away / and he went back home," extending the story slightly beyond the pictures, and closing the narrative with a return to the boy's home where the story began. 79 Anchor Tense There is no anchor tense running throughout the narrative. Sixty-five percent of the verbs are in the past or past progressive, while 35.5% are in the present or present progressive. Only one verb occurs outside of these two sets, and that is a nature tense verb. The story opens and generally stays in the present, with the verbs being split between the present and present progressive until just after the beginning of episode 2, at the start of picture 9, when the narrative switches into the past. From this point on, the narrative settles into the past with only one more present tense verb appearing much later on. Rarer Verb Forms Because there is a tense shift in Child 03's narrative, and because the first part of her story is told with a variety of verb tenses, only a general comment will be made about her verb usage in the opening eight pictures. The discussion will then shift to discussing the rarer past progressive verbs when the story is told in the past. The opening eight pictures. No distinct pattern in these opening eight pictures could be discerned in Child 03's the choice of present, present progressive or past tense verbs (the use of the future is discussed in the Connectors section). Judging by the number of dysfluencies, and a lack of overall clarity in the opening (e.g. "the frog (the /fro/} / well he's sleeping / and {the dog} the frog's quickly going out into the dark out of his jar"), Child 03 appears to be having some difficulty getting started and settling into a tense, or may be trying out different tenses before stabilizing in the past at picture 9. 80 Present (in the past section). Child 03 uses the present only once in the section based in the past, and this is in picture 20: "and the boy says 'shh' to his dog." Her choice here may be motivated by the colloquial use of "says" in some informal adult storytelling ("and so she says . . . and then I says .. ."). Because much of Child 03's narrative appears to be exploring newer forms, she may be trying out a form she has heard to see how it sounds in her own storytelling. Past progressive. All of the four past progressive verbs appear in relation to the dog, and appear to be motivated locally in relation to the dog, rather than at any global level. All are action verbs that are visually represented on the pages of the story: Picture 11: and then while the dog was shaking the tree Picture 11: and it [the bees] was going after him [the dog] Picture 12: while the dog was running as fast as he could after the bees Picture 16: and the dog was chasing [the deer] Although the dog is not the subject in all of the cases, the past progressive appears to be associated with this animal's adventure, rather than signalling any episode boundaries. Connectors Child 03 makes extensive use of the connector "and," with 23 instances of it found in the narrative. She uses "and then" only four times, and this sequential connector appears to have a signalling function, as it is used to mark the beginnings of episodes 2 ("and then 81 they go out") and 5 ("and then they saw a log"), and the beginning and end of episode 3 ("and then while the dog was shaking the tree," "and then the owl screeched down under him"). Child 03 uses the subordinating temporal connective "when" to start picture 3: "when the boy wakes up," and although she appears to understand its subordinating principle, she follows with a future tense verb: "he is going to look for his frog." Her use of the future tense suggests that she is aware that rarer verb forms are often used with and after "when," but she has not mastered this skill yet. Child 03 uses "while" five times, in what appears to be an experimental stage of the development of the usage of this connective: Picture 4: and he's looking in his boot / while the dog is getting his head caught in the bottle Picture 9: while the boy looked in a hole / and out came a skunk Picture 11: and then while the dog was shaking the tree I... I and it was going after him Picture 12: while the dog was running as fast as he could after the bees Picture 14: while he went against a rock / and there was a moose behind Child 03 uses "while" in places where this subordinating temporal connective could be used, but has not learned yet to structure the environment to make her usage adultlike. 82 Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence Child 03's search sequence is told at a local level, with each scene told in a picture-by-picture manner. Both of scenes 1 and 2 are fairly short and descriptive: "while the boy looked in a hole / and out came a skunk" and "and the boy climbed up the tree / and looked in the hole / and there was an owl." In picture 13, Child 03 adds to the boy plus owl scene by noting "and then the owl screeched down under him," demonstrating an imaginative (if prepositionally inaccurate) use of vocabulary. Scene 3 is the longest and most elaborate of the three. Child 03 appears to be experimenting with "where" as an adverb, and uses it twice, the first instance correctly, and the second incorrectly: "and then while the dog was shaking the tree / where the bees' nest was / where it cracked." Once the dog has dislodged the bees' nest, she adds in a nice adverbial phrase to her description (although her preposition is once again incorrect): "while the dog was running as fast as he could after the bees." Child 08 Opening Comments Child 08's mother opens the story with him, beginning with the traditional narrative mode opening "once upon a time there was a . . . " , but Child 08 immediately moves into a present tense reporting mode ("and I know what the dog is doing"). Child 08 is the only child to name the boy in the story ("Kevin"), a name he returns to at the end. Much of what Child 08 says had to be excluded from coding as per the guidelines in chapter two, 83 since a good deal of the narrative is told interactively, using commands like "look at that!" and "see!" and asking "right?". The opening of Child 08's narrative is not entirely coherent. Child 08 appears uncertain about what event he wants to begin with and is not sure how to give setting information. Instead, he describes the dog looking in at the frog, and foreshadows the jar getting stuck on the dog's head at picture 3. Child 08 begins: "and I know / what the dog's doing / he's trying to look in / but he can't / because there's a hole / but it's not big enough / and then he's going to look in the jar." Once Child 08 gets into plot onset information, however, his story begins to take shape: "well then the frog escapes." Child 08 appears to lose track of the global search for the frog in the middle section of his narrative, but returns to the global theme at the end of the story and recognizes the original frog: "and then Kevin says 'come on let's go that way let's find the frog' / and there they are! / there it is!" Child 08 is the only child who explicitly points out that boy is mistaken when he believes that the deer's antlers are branches at picture 14: "it's the moose / but they do think it's a tree / right?" Because of Child 08's understanding of this scene, and his recognition of the frog at the end, it would appear that his conceptual understanding of the story is greater than his rather disorganized narrative would suggest. There may be a tradeoff here—Child 08 may be putting more energy into the conceptual framework for the story than the actual story narration. 84 Anchor Tense Child 08's narrative has no clear anchor, although the story has a present tense, reporting mode feel to it since many of his rarer verbs are rooted in the present tense. His present and present progressive verbs represent 68.8% of the verbs in the story, but Child 08 has a wide range of verb types, including past, present perfect, present participle, conditional, future, and an imperative. Past tense verbs make up less than 10% of this narrative. Rarer Verb Forms No pattern could be discerned in Child 08's verb tense choices. He uses a wide variety of verbs with skill, if not always with mastery, including a conditional perfect question ("where could he have gone?"), a passive ("well the jar got broke!") [uncoded], and an imperative ("swim across!"). The verbs do not appear to mark episode boundaries, or to be semantically motivated. Connectors Child 08 uses a variety of temporal and nontemporal connectors to link clauses in his narrative. He uses 13 sequentiality markers, using "and" seven times, "and then" five times, and "well then" once. Child 08's use of the less usual "well then" coincides with the start of picture 2 and the plot onset information "well then the frog escapes," and he may be using this rarer connective to mark the move from setting to plot onset information. However, as is the case for Child 08's verb tense choices, no obvious pattern or signalling use of these connectors could be determined. 85 Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence The way Child 08 tells scene one suggests that he is speaking clause by clause with little planning. He starts with the future tense to tell the listener what is about to happen ("and then they're going to see a stinky mole"), followed by the event itself ("and there's a stinky mole"), a descriptive evaluation of the mole ("stinky!") and then Child 08 evaluates his description ("moles are stinky I guess"). He may have realized after he said "stinky!" that moles are not usually classified as stinky animals, so his comment may be a rationalization, or a moment of uncertainty. Scene 2 is also told clause by clause. Child 08 starts by directing the listener to the page ("look at that!"), and uses a question ("and who corned out?!") to preface the surprise entrance of the bird of prey ("the owl!"). The use of the directive and the question involve the reader in the storytelling event, making the narrative interactive. Scene 3 is told interactively in two parts. The first part, at picture 9, has two requests for the reader to examine the events~"but look what the dog's doing / look at it! "--before he continues with a descriptive clause: "and they're calling at the bees." Child 08's use of the imperative to open this scene not only involves the listener; it acts as a signal that something unexpected is going to happen, and the listener should pay attention. The second part of this scene, told at picture 11, redirects the listener: "and look at that! / bzzzzzzzzz!" Child 08 does not further elaborate on what has happened, evidently assuming that the sound effect of the bees chasing the dog is sufficient to explain the scene. 86 Child 10 Opening Comments Child 10 tells a brief story with few verbs (28) and scant detail or elaboration. What keeps this story together is the global search for the frog. Child 10 had a difficult time beginning his narrative and needed some facilitation to get started. Once started, he stays at the global level throughout the narrative with very little local elaboration. Child 10 may be making a tradeoff, favouring the global theme over the local, and keeping his story deliberately short to eliminate potentially distracting detail. In doing so, he meets all three of Berman and Slobin's plot component criteria. Child 10 appears to understand the conceptual framework of the story, and while he certainly sees the local episodes taking place, his production skills may be insufficient to communicate both levels of the narrative simultaneously. Anchor Tense This story is not firmly anchored in any tense, though most verbs are in simple present (60%), and the present tense group takes 71% of the verbs. Child 10 uses three present progressive verbs, four past tense verbs, and four present participles. The present participles in Child 10's case may actually represent poorly formed present progressive verb forms, since he appears to have some verb formulation difficulties. There are also two missing present tense verbs in his questions ("where the froggie?"), and some of his present verbs are not well formed ("owl fly away" and "the deer hold onto the boy"). 87 Rarer Verb Forms Child 10's choices of rarer tense forms appear to be lexically or structurally motivated rather than chosen to signal episode boundaries. In the cases of the present progressive and three of the four present participles, the choices may also be motivated by maintaining rhythmic patterns more than signalling boundaries. Past. Child 10's choice of past tense verbs all have to do with falling: "a dog feU!" (picture 6), "a beehive fell!" (picture 11), "feU into a pond" (picture 18) and "butted off the cliff' (picture 17). He does not use this verb in any other tense, so uses the verb "to fall" in the past as a pattern-setting device. Present progressive. Child 10 uses the present progressive three times, all in the question formation "what is [Subject] doing?", all in picture 6: "what is the doggie doing?", "what is she doing?", and "what is he doing?" Again, a pattern is established, this time combining a the present progressive with a question format and limiting the pattern to one picture. Present participle. The first present participle (in ellipsis form) occurs with the present progressive verbs in picture 6, and is an answer to his own question: "what is the doggie doing? / falling?" The other three cases of the present participle occur near the end of the his story, and these three clauses compose three quarters of episode 5: "floating / looking for frog / looking for the frog / see froggie." It may be that Child 10 is running 88 out of steam by the end of the story, and uses these shorter verbs to carry him through to the end, or that once again he is establishing a narrative rhythm for a brief period of time. Connectors Child 10 uses no temporal connectors at all. He uses the connector "but then" in the prelude once to emphasize his repeated questions about the location of the frog: "but then where's the frog?", but otherwise his clauses are not explicitly linked in any way, which may be a reason for Child 10's use of repetition to hold together his narrative. Pictures 8 to 12: The Search Sequence Child 10 uses three clauses for each of the three scenes, and 70% of his clauses in these five pictures are questions. A series of three questions form scene 1. All are in the present ("in the hole?", "is he in the hole?", "is he in the groundhog?"). The three questions are prefaced by a more general question from picture 8 ("where is the frog?") which opens the whole search sequence. Child 10's curious third question ("is he in the groundhog?") followed my prompt of pointing to the groundhog and may be an example of filling in the question form as a result of pattern following. Similar in structure to scene 1, in scene 2 Child 10 asks repeated questions ("is the froggie in the hole?", "is the froggie in the owl hole?") and follows with the declarative "owl fly away." 89 Scene 3, although pictorially longer and more complex than scenes 1 or 2, still has only three clauses. The first question ("is he in the beehive?") is globally motivated much like the other scenes, and Child 10 extends the global search to the dog, a notion which few of the other children express. Child 10 then expands from the question form with one of his few descriptive clauses: "a beehive fell down in the ground." Section Two: Quantitative Form:Function Results This section presents the trends and patterns found through the individual analyses of the children's narratives. Two main motivations behind the use of signalling verbs and connectors were found. The first motivation was to signal boundaries of different kinds. There were a number of different types of boundaries marked, and each is discussed separately below. The second motivation was semantic motivation, since the inherent semantic content of a number of the verbs or the relationship between the two juxtaposed events appeared to call for rarer forms. Boundary Marking Setting/Plot Onset The most common boundary signalled by the children was the change from the setting to the plot onset information. After the setting information set the scene and introduced the characters, children often moved into the action of the story with a form of the phrase when he was sleeping... with the use of a progressive tense joined to the subordinating temporal connective when. Child 01's opening beautifully illustrates the boundary marking 90 function of the rarer verb and temporal connective: [setting] "once upon a time / there was a little boy / he had a pet frog" [to onset] "when he was sleeping . . . ." Not all children used identical words, but the construction remains similar across the group. Child 07, for example, used a different combination of connector plus progressive verb to perform essentially the same function, as can be seen in her shift to the onset information that occurs with the clause "so then at night he was crawling out of the jar . . . ." Instead of the more typical subordinating temporal connective "when," she used a sequentiality marker plus a temporal time adverb to mark the transition into a different time ("so then at night"), and then used the rarer past progressive as her signalling verb ("was crawling"). All of the children whose narratives were anchored in the past used rarer forms to mark the boundary between the onset and the setting information. This trend was less evident in the remaining narratives, with only half of the children in each of the present tense and mixed tense groups following the trend. Of the mixed tense group, Child 08's signal was restricted to the connector "well then," since he followed this form with a present tense verb that fit in with the rest of his verbs at that point in the story. Two of the children in the mixed tense group did not in fact give any setting information, so there was no boundary to mark when they began immediately with the onset information. Table 3.9 gives the exact wording of the first clauses in the clauses that mark the transition to the onset information. 91 Table 3.9: Onset Transition Clause by Each Child, According to Anchor Tense. Anchor Child First Onset Clause Marked by Rarer Tense Form? C01 when he was sleeping yes C04 but when he was sleeping yes Past C06 when he was sleeping yes C07 so then at night he was crawling out of yes the jar C l l and then when he was sleeping yes C12 they were sleeping yes Present C05 the frog climbed up out of the jar! no C13 and then they're sleeping yes C02 then at night when they're sleeping yes Mixed C03 [no setting given so no transition marked] no C08 well then the frog escapes yes CIO [no setting given so no transition marked] no Signalling the move from the onset to the setting is something that the majority of children did in their narratives. It would appear that many of them understood that stories have an introduction where characters are introduced and descriptive information is given before the action advancing narration begins, and that the changeover is important to mark for their listeners. Episode Boundaries Eight of the children marked at least one episode boundary, and one of the children marked all five episode boundaries with a rarer verb and/or a rare temporal connector. Af 92 least half of the children in each of the three anchor tense categories marked at least one episode boundary. Table 3.10 outlines which children marked which episodes, and notes whether a verb or a connector was used to mark the boundary. There is much variety in the ways that episodes were marked by the children. Some children marked episodes by using a rarer verb as the prime signaller. For example, Child 06 marked the start of episode 4 with the clause "and he was shouting for his frog." The past progressive form was a rarer verb in her transcript, and it stood out when opening the episode. Child 07 used both a rarer verb and a connector pattern to mark the start of episode 4 with her phrase "so then he was calling for him." The rarer progressive form of the verb was used to signal the start of the episode, and this strategy was reinforced by Child 07's use of "so then," the connector she used at the start of all five episodes. Child 05 used only a rarer temporal connector to mark the start of episode 5 when she said "and then they saw a log." Her use of "and then" was restricted to initial and closing clauses of episodes, and as such had a signalling capacity. One final way of marking episodes can be seen in Child 04's narrative. She marked episode 4 by using rarer verbs throughout the entire episode. 93 ro o U CN co O CN c Z > O IS 'if. O o o O cfl c C Z i i • a o 60 .5 '•3 2 ci 3 u c U Cfl 60 £^> 3 1=1 Z J S Z u +3 O g • a o s .5 i t i c O u c 00 O c Z I s • a p . CN cn Cfl 3 CJ CU cfl S3 c3 'SH it ul II 3 CD <L> CO 60 ^ .S cq ing IN) ing IN) initiat (VEP •IS :§ ^ initiat (cois c u 60 O u IS IE a u a ° z • 1—— •18 • a p . ro 60 o T3 S O O -3 o o> o 60 •8 "8 o | • t-i _o <a bo •3 8 p iR T3 •id J< O § 3 3 <2 60 60 "O .3 .3 P P :§ s s s «§ II II II II H <-H rs v i •S-S-S O Q O U V) (A 3 Q a c a a a u w w w w <?4 Global and Local Boundaries The children in this study incorporated varying degrees of both local and global levels of organization into their narratives. Child 01's narrative is a good example of a story that operates on both levels, as can be seen in the section of her transcript which deals with pictures 7 and 8, where the local event of the dog's fall out of the window is resolved and conjoined with the boy's global concern for the whereabouts of the frog: "and then the boy ran all the way to the other side of the house / picked up the dog / and ran out into the forest / calling 'froggie where are you?! froggie where are you?!'" Child 01's narrative can be contrasted with Child 03's representation of the same part of the story, which is much more locally focused: "and he broke the bottle / and the boy's mad / and the dog's licking him / and then they go out where a swarm of bees are." Child 03 focused on what is visually represented in the pictures and did not link the going out to the swarm of bees as the continuation of the initial search for the frog. Child 10 told a completely different story again, with a strong global focus that missed out on much of the local detail of the story. Child 10 mentioned the dog's fall: "a dog fell!" but left out the boy's reaction to the dog's fall out of the window and quickly resumed with the global theme: " where's the frog? / in the hole? / is he in the hole? / is he in the beehive?" In general, by 5 years of age, most of the children maintained both levels in their narratives to a certain extent. While many of the global level clauses occurred in the anchor tense, some of the children used rarer verbs to signal globally oriented clauses, as opposed to locally oriented clauses. The contrast is illustrated by Child 12 at the start of episode 2 where he began globally with a rarer past progressive, "and then they were looking for it 95 [the frog]," and immediately changed to a local focus and an anchor tense simple past form of the same verb "and they looked in a hole." None of the children appeared to use temporal connectors to mark global clauses. An interesting correlation appears when the location of the global clauses marked by signalling verbs is examined: there is a direct correlation between those clauses that mark episode boundaries with rarer tense verbs and those clauses that mark global clauses with rarer tense verbs. In Child 12's example above, he marked the global search with the past progressive, and this clause is also the clause that signals the start of episode 2. The children appear to have assigned multiple uses to the rarer verbs, signalling both global clauses and initiating events at once. Table 3.11 shows which children signal global level clauses with rarer verb forms. Table 3.11 can be compared with Table 3.10 to see that in each case where a rarer verb signalled an initiating event (with the exception of Child 02, Table 3.11: Global Level Clauses Signalled with Rarer Verb Forms According to Episode. Episode C01 C04 C06 C07 C12 C13 1 V 2 V 3 4 V 5 96 who signalled the whole of episode 4 with rarer verbs), the clause also signalled a global level clause with the use of a rarer verb form. Coda Child 01 and Child 02 used rarer verb forms to mark the coda. Both children used a non-anchor present tense verb, Child 01 saying "and that's the end of the story," and Child 02 saying "and that's the end!" Child 01's narrative was anchored in the past, and Child 02's is anchored in the past by this point of the story, so the move to the present in both cases signalled the end of the Active narrative world, and a return to the here and now. Lexical Motivation As discussed above, many of the children use rarer verb forms to mark boundaries in their narratives. Many also use the rarer verbs because of those verbs' functions at a lexical level. Progressive Verbs For most of the children, the progressive form was the main rarer form found in their narratives. Comrie says that "the use of the progressive aspect necessarily requires that the situation in question be not momentaneous" (1985, p. 38), meaning that the progressive verbs mark durative events as opposed to punctual events, or that "progressives focus on the internal contour of events characterized as having temporary duration" (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 137). 97 One of the most common appearances of the progressive aspect cooccured with the onset/setting boundary marking in the clause when he was sleeping (and variations thereof). The progressive verb was sleeping indicated the durative event, during which time the punctual event of the frog's escape occurred. The progressive aspect was not limited to this situation. Child 07 used the progressive verb to create a notion of continued movement in her narrative. For example, when she said "then the deer pushed him up on his horns / and it was running / and the dog was trying to stop the deer / so then they [the deer] pushed him off," the progressive verbs framed by the simple past verbs captured the notion of the rush to the edge of the cliff. The progressive forms also background the actions against which the pushing up and pushing off are foregrounded. Another strategy seen in the narratives is the repeated use of the progressive form to emphasize or reinforce the duration or iteration of the motion. Child 06, for example, says "and the dog was leaping at it and leaping at it." Other Lexical Choices Some patterns occurred in the use of rarer verb choices that appeared to be more idiosyncratic than the choice of progressive verbs to express iteration/duration. Both Child 03 and Child 04, for example, used the nonanchor present tense when they described the boy talking to the dog (Child 03: "and the boy says 'shh' to his dog"; Child 04: "and the boy says 'shh' to the dog"). This choice may have been motivated by the informal English use of "says" in the present tense when relating a story. An unusual use of the present progressive is found in Child 13's narrative. Child 13 used the rarer verb form to mark 98 explanation ("and the dog runs in too / because he's not looking where he's going") and to differentiate one frog from another ("and they take the one frog that's jumping"). 99 CHAPTER FOUR DISCUSSION Overview The results presented in chapter three will be discussed in this chapter with regard to my research hypotheses and to previous research carried out by Bamberg (1987) and Berman and Slobin (1994). I expected to find that at the age of 5 most of the children in this study would: 1) ground their narratives in an anchor tense; 2) use the nonanchor tense verbs and temporal connectors to signal specific narrative boundaries such as: - episode boundaries - local / global boundaries; 3) replicate the results of previous research with English-speaking and German-speaking 5-year-olds (as far as language differences permitted). 100 Results of Research Hypotheses Anchor Tense Most of the 5-year-olds in the study (66.7%) did anchor their narratives in either the past or the present tense. Of those narratives classified as mixed anchor, two demonstrated clear shifts from the present to the past tense, while two had more sporadic use of verb forms. Signalling Function of Rarer Verb Forms and Temporal Connectors Most of the children marked narrative boundaries with rarer verb forms and temporal connectors. Eight of the 12 marked episode boundaries, 9 signalled the transition between the setting and the onset of the plot, and 6 signalled global level (as opposed to local level) clauses with the use of a rarer form. Replication of Results Results of my study compared favorably with those reported in both Bamberg (1987) and Berman and Slobin (1994). Differences between Bamberg's study with German-speaking 5-year-olds and the children I studied generally stemmed from language differences. A more elaborate comparison with the two comparison studies follows. Comparisons With Other Studies Bamberg (1987) study, examined the narratives he collected in an attempt to pull out the motivation for choosing different anchor tense groups. He concluded for his group of German children that he could find no basis for "underlying motives for the choice of one 101 tense group versus the other" (p. 179). Bamberg found a general developmental trend in his sample that suggested that increased use of the perfect tense indicated the more developed stories, in that its use "paves the way for linguistically grounding events in each other and thereby contributing to the establishment of a 'true' story" (p. 184). In my examination of the twelve transcripts, like Bamberg I could find no underlying motivation for choosing different anchor tense groups. Nonetheless, in a general sense, I also found a developmental pattern that progressed from the younger present anchor, to mixed tense, to the more adultlike past tense. The English narratives anchored in the past tense allowed for easier separation of the present time from the story time, and the establishment of "true" stories. The developmental trend I noticed was based on a number of factors. Neither of the two narratives anchored in the present tense mentioned any of Berman and Slobin's plot components. The mixed tense narratives mentioned an average of 1.75 out of the possible 3 plot components, and the past tense narratives a slightly higher average of 2 of the possible 3. The past tense narratives tended to contain more verbs and more connectors, as outlined in Table 4.1. Although increased quantity of verbs and temporal connectors are not necessarily indications of better stories, those children who used more of these forms generally had more tools with which to develop local and global levels of narrative and add detail. 102 Table 4.1: Average Number of Verbs and Connectors Within Each Anchor Tense Group. Tense Group Verbs Connectors Past tense 43.5 25.7 Mixed tense 36.0 19.5 Present tense 26.0 13.5 In comparison with Berman and Slobin's English-speaking 5-year-olds, my group compared very similarly in terms of anchor tense chosen (as outlined in chapter three). Berman and Slobin found that the 5-year-olds they studied shifted tense much more often than the older age groups they looked at. They noted that, as is the case in the mixed tense group I studied, there were children in their group whose narratives ranged from the juvenile, with erratic tense shifting, to the more mature, who shifted tense at a particular point in the story (Berman & Slobin, 1994, p. 136). Based on my study and Berman and Slobin's, it could be hypothesized that the changeover from the unsophisticated present tense group to the more developed past tense narratives may involve a passage through a period of tense-shifting that allows for experimentation and transition between stages before the typical past tense narrative is established. In general, the choice of anchor tense appeared to have to do with the level of comfort with the narrative task, rather than representing any narrative strategy per se. Those with the highest level of comfort with the narrative task tended to be those children who used the past tense as their anchor, those children who used more verbs and temporal connectors, and whose narratives contained more of the three plot components outlined by 103 Berman and Slobin. The choice of anchor tense would also appear to be linked to the conventions of the child's language. It is not surprising that the trend in this study pointing to the past tense anchor as more developmentally advanced is different from Bamberg's finding that the perfect is more developmentally advanced, since he notes that in many German dialects the simple past is often replaced by the perfect, appearing much more frequently, and at an earlier age in German than it does in English (1994, p. 192). The score for plot components between my group and Berman and Slobin's group is also very similar. Nonetheless, any trend must be qualified by the observation that my study only started with twelve stories, and when broken down into anchor tense groups there is a very small study sample indeed. A Methodological Consideration Whereas I followed Berman and Slobin (1994) in audio recording the children on the first day of meeting them, Bamberg's (1987) method of leaving the book at home with the children for a week to become familiarized with the story before audio recording may have resulted in better stories. Evidence to suggest that familiarity would have improved the quality of the stories comes from children such as Child 03 and Child 10 who had difficulty getting started on the narrative task, and children such as Child 08 and Child 10 who appeared to understand some of the more difficult areas of the narrative without being able to fully articulate their thoughts. 104 Summary and Concluding Remarks In the twelve narratives examined, most children anchored their narratives in either the past or present tense, and most signalled narrative boundaries. Some patterns of signalling functions were widespread, while others related to only one or two children. Most of the children used rarer verb forms to signal the difference between the onset and the setting information, and most used the present progressive to signal the durative aspect. Many signalled episode boundaries, and there were many ways of doing so. It is evident that there is a wide range of skill in narrative production by 5 years of age. Berman and Slobin state that "some 4- and 5-year olds' narrations are very similar to those of 3-year-olds, whereas some 5-year-olds tell stories much like school-age 9-year-old children" (1994, pp. 186-7). The 5-year-olds in my study group were also a heterogeneous group, and large differences emerged, especially during the detailed individual analyses, between their narrative strategies and sophistication. Nonetheless, all of the children, even those whose narratives contained few plot components, incorporated different narrative strategies into the way they approached the narrative task and used language in interesting ways. All of them, in one sense or another, produced "good" stories, though not all produced adultlike stories. Directions for Future Research The development of children's narrative skills would be useful to examine through extensive longitudinal studies. Data exists for many of the children I studied that captures 105 them telling the frog story at 3, 4 and 5 years old. Longitudinal data like this could be invaluable in facilitating the investigation of patterns in narrative development over time. Another area of research concerns examining some of the external influences on a child's particular narrative production style. I taped many parents telling the frog story with their children, so it would be interesting to see how the parents' storytelling strategies influence their children's approach to the narrative task. The two suggested areas of research above are merely two in a large area of possibilities. The field for future research into the area of child narrative is vast. Storytelling is a fascinating and entertaining area of study, full of variation and surprise as well as pattern and structure. As long as children continue to be entertained by stories such as Frog, where are you?, the data will always be waiting to be captured by the enterprising narrative hunter. 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES CITED Aksu-Koc, A. A., & von Stutterheim, C. (1994). Temporal relations in narrative: Simultaneity. In R. Berman & D. Slobin (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 393-455). Bamberg, M . (1985). Form andjunction in the construction of narratives: Developmental perspectives. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. Bamberg, M . (1987). The acquisition of narratives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Bamberg, M . (1994). Development of linguistic form: German. In R. Berman & D. Slobin (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 189-238). Bamberg, M . & Marchman, V. (1994). Foreshadowing and wrapping up in narrative In R. Berman & D. Slobin (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 555-590). Berman, R., & Slobin. D. (Eds.) (1994). Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. Berman, R., & Slobin, D. (1994). Development of linguistic forms: English. InR. Berman & D. Slobin (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 127-187). Berman, R., & Slobin, D. (1994). Narrative structure. InR. Berman & D. Slobin (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 39-84). 107 Berman, R., & Slobin, D. (1994). Overview of linguistic forms in the frog stories. In R. Berman & D. Slobin (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 109-126). Berman, R., & Slobin, D. (1994). Research goals and procedures. In R. Berman & D. Slobin (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 17-35). Berman, R., Slobin D., Bamberg M . , Dromi E., Marchman V., Neeman Y., Renner T. & Sebastian E. (1986). Coding manual: Temporality in discourse (rev. ed). Institute of Cognition Studies, University of California, Berkeley. Comrie, Bernard. (1985). Tense. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gibney, K. (1995). The development of coherence and complexity in the narratives of preschool-age children. Unpublished master's thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Gomme, N. (1994). Pronominal anaphoric reference in the narratives of 3-year-old children. Unpublished master's thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Labov, W., & Waletzky, J. (1967). Narrative analysis: Oral versions of personal experience. In J. Helms (Ed.), Essays on the verbal and visual arts. Seattle: University of Washington Press, (pp. 12-44). Mayer, M . (1969). Frog, where are you? New York: Dial Press. Ramanathan, V. (1995). Narrative well-formedness in Alzheimer's discourse: An interactional examination across settings. Journal of Pragmatics, 23, 395-419. Trabasso, T., & Rodkin, P. (1994). Knowledge of goal/plans: A conceptual basis for narrating Frog, where are you? In R. Berman & D. Slobin (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 85-106). Trabasso, T., & Nickels, M . (1992). The development of goal plans of action in the narration of picture stories. Discourse Processes, 15, 249-275. 108 Trabasso, T., Stein, N. L., Rodkin, P. C , Munger, M . P., & Baughn, C. (1992). Knowledge of goals and plans in the on-line narration of events. Cognitive Development, 7, 133-170. Trabasso, T., van den Broek, P., & Suh, S. (1989). Logical necessity and transitivity of causal relations in stories. Discourse Processes, 12, 1-25. Weinrich, H . (1964). Tempus: Besprochene und erzahlte Welt. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer (3rd edition 1977). 109 APPENDIX A Frog, where are you? (Mayer, 1969): Picture by Picture Description 1. The boy, dog, and frog are in the bedroom; the boy and dog are looking at the frog. 2. The boy and dog are asleep in the bed; the frog is tiptoeing out of the jar. 3. The boy and dog are awake and look with dismay at the empty jar from the bed. 4. The boy looks in one of his boots; the dog sticks his head in the jar. 5. The boy and dog are at the window; the boy calls for the frog and the dog has the jar stuck on his head. 6. The dog falls from the window ledge; the boy watches him fall. 7. The boy is down on the ground below the window ledge holding the dog; the dog licks the boy; there is glass on the ground. 8. The boy calls for the frog at the edge of a forest; the dog is with him. 9. The boy calls into a hole in the ground; the dog barks at a beehive. 10. A gopher pops out of the hole; the dog shakes the tree that the beehive is attached to. 11. The boy calls in a hole in a tree; the dog looks at the beehive, which has fallen down. 110 12. An owl pops out of the hole; the boy falls down from the tree; bees chase the dog. 13. The boy begins to climb up a rock, still pursued by the owl. 14. The boy holds onto some "branches" (which are actually antlers) and calls; the dog comes slinking back. 15. A deer picks up the boy with its antlers. 16. The deer runs to the edge of a cliff with the boy caught in its antlers; the dog runs alongside. 17. The boy and the dog tumble off the cliff. 18. The boy and the dog land in a pond. 19. The boy and the dog hear a noise coming from behind a log. 20. The boy signals the dog to be quiet as they approach the log. 21. The boy and the dog peek over the log. 22. The boy and the dog see the missing frog with another frog. 23. The frog couple's baby frogs appear. 24. The boy and dog return home with a pet frog; the boy waves goodbye. I l l 

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