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Information technology linkage in the Canadian Forces Hartung, Sharon Irene 1996

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I N F O R M A T I O N T E C H N O L O G Y L I N K A G E I N T H E C A N A D I A N F O R C E S by C A P T A I N S H A R O N I R E N E H A R T U N G B.Eng. , Royal Mili tary College of Canada, 1990 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F S C I E N C E I N B U S I N E S S A D M I N I S T R A T I O N in T H E F A C U L T Y O F C O M M E R C E A N D B U S I N E S S A D M I N I S T R A T I O N (Department of Management Information Systems) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1996 (c) Captain Sharon Irene Hartung, 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Me<««aes^e^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 2L J M ^ e 9 6 DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T This is a case study of Linkage, and the factors that influence the social dimension of Linkage, as found in the Canadian Forces at the base, or business unit, level. In the course of this study, eight Canadian Forces bases or units were examined to assess their current state of Linkage with regard to Information Technology (IT) Management. The Department of National Defence is a public service organization responsible for the defence of Canada. Like many large organizations today, the Canadian Forces (CF), is faced with budget cuts, and needs to downsize. There is an awareness within the CF that effective use of IT is one way to improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness in a time of cutbacks. The traditional infrastructure of the CF has not kept pace with IT developments in functional areas, such as within its own Administration Branch. An information handling crisis is being faced by all Administration Branch personnel, and this situation is mirrored across other branches of the CF. In the course of this study of the business unit level of the CF, it was determined that Short and Long Term Linkage was influenced by Communication and Shared Domain Knowledge factors. Research results also indicated that Success in IT Implementation did not influence Linkage. Several other contributing factors were also identified, and a Canadian Forces Information Technology Management Partnership System was proposed to overcome these Linkage barriers. The importance of effective management of IT cannot be underestimated. If effective consideration of IT is made a part of the business planning process, Management Information Systems (MIS) practitioners will allow businesses, including militaries, to extract the full benefit and advantage from modern technological developments and procedures. Such is the goal of MIS, and of this work. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Tables vi List of Figures vii Acknowledgments viii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Definition of Linkage 1.3 Research Objectives 1.4 Importance of the Study of Linkage 1.5 Research Overview 9 CHAPTER II THE ORGANIZATION UNDER STUDY 10 2.1 Introduction 10 2.2 Brief Historical Perspective of the Canadian Forces 10 2.3 Nature of the Business 11 2.4 Department of National Defence Products and Services 12 2.5 Canadian Forces Infrastructure 12 2.6 Parallel between the Canadian Forces and Civilian Business 16 2.7 Canadian Forces in the 21 Century 18 CHAPTER III THE RESEARCH MODEL 24 3.1 Introduction 24 3.2 The Definition of Linkage 25 3.3 The Dimensions of Linkage 25 3.4 Linkage at the Corporate and Business Unit Levels 26 3.5 Measurement of Linkage 27 3.6 The Model of Factors that Influence the social dimension of Linkage 29 iii CHAPTER IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 34 4.1 Introduction 34 4.2 The Units of Analysis 35 4.3 Case Selection 35 4.4 Case Study Research 35 4.5 Data Collected 36 4.6 The Research Process 39 4.7 Limitations of the Canadian Forces as Case selection 41 CHAPTER V LINKAGE AT CANADIAN FORCES BASES 42 5.1 Introduction 42 5.2 Linkage - Base H 42 5.3 Linkage - Base E 50 CHAPTER VI Factors that Influence the Social Dimension of Linkage 59 6.1 Introduction 59 6.2 Factors - Base H 59 6.3 Factors - Base E 67 CHAPTER Vll ANALYSIS AND SUMMARY OF CROSS BASE RESULTS 78 7.1 Introduction 78 7.2 Summary of the Linkage Findings on the Bases 78 7.3 Findings Concerning Factors 85 CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 106 8.1 Introduction 106 8.2 Linkage at the Base Level 106 8.3 Influencing Factors 107 8.4 Limitations 111 8.5 Theoretical Contribution of the Research 112 8.6 Practical Contributions of the Research and Recommendations 112 8.7 Summary 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY 122 Military References 122 Academic References 123 iv APPENDIX I LINKAGE MEASURES AND RESEARCH INTERVIEW GUIDES 125 A l . l Introduction 125 A1.2 Linkage Measures 125 A1.3 Modified Shared Domain of Knowledge Factor Measure 130 A1.4 Modified Success in IT Implementation Factor Measure 132 A1.5 Additional Measure of Linkage applicable to the Organization under Study 134 A1.6 Interview Guide: Administration Officers 135 A1.7 Interview Guide: Information Technology Officers 138 A1.8 Interview Guide: Select Administrative Staff 141 APPENDIX II CANADIAN FORCES PARTICIPANTS, STRUCTURE AND PERSONNEL 142 A2.1 Introduction 142 A2.2 Administration Branch 142 A2.3 Information Technology Organization 150 APPENDIX III LINKAGE - REMAINING BASES 154 A3.1 Introduction 154 A3.2 Linkage - Base A 154 A3.3 Linkage - Base B 163 A3.4 Linkage - Base C 173 A3.5 Linkage - Base D 185 A3.6 Linkage - Base F 195 A3.7 Linkage - Base G 206 APPENDIX IV FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE SOCIAL DIMENSION OF LINKAGE OTHER BASES 214 A4.1 Introduction 214 A4.2 Factors - Base A 214 A4.3 Factors - Base B 225 A4.4 Factors - Base C 236 A4.5 Factors - Base D 246 A4.6 Factors - Base F 256 A4.7 Factors - Base G 269 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Interviewees within each of the Bases 38 Table 2 Military Archival Documentation 38 Table 3 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base H 49 Table 4 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base E 58 Table 5 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base H 66 Table 6 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base E 77 Table 7 Summary of Linkage Findings on the Bases 84 Table 8 The Effects of the Shared Domain Knowledge Factor 88 Table 9 The Effects of the Success in IT Implementation Factor 93 Table 10 The Effects of the Communication Factor 97 Table 11 Other Factors 105 Table 12 Base Overall Linkage Ranking 107 Table 13 Scale used To Measure Linkage In Written 1-Year Plans 125 Table 14 Scale used To Measure Linkage In Written 5-Year Plans 126 Table 15 Scale used To Measure Understanding Of Current Objectives 127 Table 16 Scale used To Measure Congruence In Shared Vision For IT 128 Table 17 Original Scale used to Measure The Shared Domain Knowledge Factor 129 Table 18 Scale used to Measure Connection Between IT and Business Planning 129 Table 19 Scale used to Measure Success in IT Implementations 133 Table 20 Scale used to Measure Implementation of the National Admin. IS 134 Table 21 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base A 162 Table 22 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base B 172 Table 23 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base C 184 Table 24 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base D 194 Table 25 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base F 205 Table 26 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base G 213 Table 27 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base A 224 Table 28 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base B 235 Table 29 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base C 245 Table 30 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base D 255 Table 31 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base F 268 Table 32 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base G 277 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Strategic Alignment Model 3 Figure 2 Canadian Forces Current Command Structure 13 Figure 3 Typical Canadian Forces Base 15 Figure 4 Simplified Canadian Forces Chain of Command 16 Figure 5 Simplified Comparison of Business versus Canadian Forces Environment 17 Figure 6 Detailed Comparison of Business versus Canadian Forces Environment 18 Figure 7 Model of Factors that Influence the Social Dimension of Linkage 29 Figure 8 Linkage at the Business Unit Level 34 Figure 9 Factors affecting Linkage at the Canadian Forces Base Level 101 Figure 10 Assessment of the Factors which Influence Linkage at the Base Level 108 Figure 11 Canadian Forces Information Technology Partnership System 118 vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A work of this magnitude is never accomplished in isolation, and a number of individuals have made a significant contribution in the course of this effort. This thesis would not have been possible without the support and guidance of my Commanding Officer, Dr. Izak Benbasat. His interest in the Canadian Forces, over the course of the past two years, was instrumental to the development and completion of this Linkage research. Dr. Blaize Reich also provided tremendous insight, and challenged me to, "go beyond the data," inspiring the concept of an integrated IT partnership system that will take the Canadian Forces into the 21st century. Dr. Merle Ace challenged my preconceived ideas, and ensured the intellectual integrity of this document. To all three, I owe a debt of gratitude. Thanks are also due to my peers, both at UBC and within the Canadian Forces. In particular, this work was encouraged by Captain Peggy Baker, who believed strongly that the Administration Branch personnel must prepare for the Information Age. It was through her efforts that participation in Administration conferences and involvement in the implementation of the National Administration Information System was made possible. Invaluable on-site administrative support was provided by Sgt. Paula Foote, and many enjoyable and thought-provoking dinner hours were spent discussing military IT management with Major Doug Moore. Captain John Mcphail helped examine IT models, while Lt(N) Rhena Izzo actively provided a long distance sounding board. Dr. Kai Lim kindly provided an ongoing academic review of this thesis as it was under construction, and Mr. Dan Keen assisting in editing through the "technobabble". Finally, special thanks to running buddies, Mike and Karen, who put up with "Linkage this, Linkage that" through many long distance training runs, and to my brother Vince, for technical support, and an unlimited paper supply. viii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction This chapter will outline the purpose and structure of this research. Research objectives, and a discussion of Information Technology (IT) Linkage and its importance for Management Information System (MIS) practitioners and the business community is presented. 1.2 The Definition of Linkage The definition of Linkage to be used for the purpose of this research is taken from Reich and Benbasat (1996): "Linkage is the degree to which the IT mission, objectives, and plans support and are supported by the business mission, objectives, and plans. " 1.3 Research Objectives I. Examine the current state of Information Technology (IT) Management at the base level within the Canadian Forces, and provide an assessment of Linkage based on empirical evidence. II. Examine Linkage within a government organization to contribute to a deeper understanding of the factors that influence the social dimension of Linkage at the business unit level in a public organization. 1.4 Importance of the Study of Linkage Although the term Linkage, as applied to Information Technology (IT) Management is relatively new, the concept of aligning strategic business objectives with other functions of a business or organization is not. Business executives are familiar with the fact that Linkage exists between business objectives and other business functions as Marketing, and Finance. 1 "In surveys of information systems and business managers (Galliers et al., 1994; Niederman et al, 1991; Index Group, 1988), Information Technology (IT) Planning has consistently been rated as one of their most important concerns. A review of the empirical literature reveals that one issue, the Linkage of IS plans with organizational objectives, has been among the top problems reported by Information Systems (IS) managers and business executives (Computerworld, 1994; Galliers, 1987; Lederer and Mendelow, 1986) " (Reich and Benbasat, 1996). As an example: if a manufacturing company's primary business objective is to dominate the truck market, its marketing executives should not concentrate on an advertising campaign to sell cars. In the same manner, the Information Technology (IT) direction within an organization must be aligned with the overall business direction. If the IT department is allowed to set its own direction and develop and/or purchase technology without reference to the overall business plan, a significant potential exists for the waste of resources, and the loss of strategic advantage. Business literature discussing the Linkage concept is scarce. Yet there is a realization that within business that Linkage is critical, if not for purely fiscal reasons, then for the long term viability of a business. Henderson and Venkatraman (1993) have proposed a business-IS Strategic Alignment Model (SAM), as shown in figure 1. "The SAM is more comprehensive in that it extends the concept of alignment from the firm's business and IS strategy domain to the decisions undertaken by managers to design organizational units and the internal work processes and information flows necessary to execute strategy" (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1993). Earl, Sampler and Short (1995) point out that the SAM framework was developed before "attention to reengineering and process redesign rekindled interest in the enabling role of IT in process innovation and change." In their case study, they propose a framework for analysis called the Process Alignment Model. 2 The Process Alignment Model recognizes that "effective integration of BPR, strategic business and IS planning requires an alignment between the three domains. In this sense, business process reengineering does prompt an added dimension for strategic alignment models such as that of Henderson and Venkatraman " (Earl et al, 1995). . In many businesses, the IT department has quickly evolved from its traditional role as an isolated support provider, to that of an integrated and integral aspect of strategic planning. (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1993) "As the scope and importance of IS have increased within firms, IS planning agendas have evolved to broader strategy and organizational concerns. Interrelationships between IS and other organizational functions have led to various approaches and methodologies for planning integration " (Earl, Sampler and Short, 1995). Figure 1 Strategic Alignment Model Reference Earl et al.. 1995 A Framework Tor Analysis (tentatively called the Process Alignment Model) 3 IT planning is becoming an important part of everyday business practice. Such incorporation into business activities demands Linkage of business and IT activities. Thompson and Strickland (1995) state that a good business requires a recognition of the following three factors: "1 - Customer needs, or what is satisfied. 2 - Customer groups, or who is being satisfied. 3 - The technologies used and functions performed - how customers' needs are satisfied." The third factor highlights the necessity of Linkage in order to satisfy customer groups and without satisfied customers, any business will fail. Thompson and Strickland (1995) further explain that a fundamental requirement for effective planning is the communication of a strategic vision and the creation of integrated mission statements for specific departments. "Every department can benefit from a consensus statement spelling out its contribution to the company mission, its principal role and activities, and the direction it needs to be moving in. Functional and departmental managers who think through and debate with subordinates and higher-ups [concerning] what their unit needs to focus do have a clearer view of how to lead the unit" (Thompson and Strickland, 1995). Clearly, businesses must provide their IT units with a plan of action in accordance with corporate aims. Thompson and Strickland (1995) describe a strategy-making pyramid in which functional areas (manufacturing, marketing sales, finance, human resources, etc.) must "map" into business strategies, which must in turn map into the corporate strategy. This model demonstrates a recognition that functional strategies must be "linked" to corporate strategies to ensure competitive and financial success and this Linkage has become an integral part of business today. Most Business Schools have incorporated, as a fundamental principle of their 4 teaching philosophy, the recognition of the critical role the management of IT plays in an business' ability to function efficiently and competitively. In addition to being informed or involved in business planning, IT units within businesses must also be effectively managed, if strong Linkage is to be attained. Johansson, McHugh, Pendlebury and Wheeler (1993) describe assets within an organization as including "people, products, and process knowledge and capabilities, the strength of the company's brands, and the contents of information data bases" and they describe three essential issues regarding management of these assets: "1 - If a company does not maintain the new assets, it will not be able to manage and control core business processes. 2 - Once the new assets have been identified, a company must recognize that they can be bought and sold like any physical or financial asset. 3 - The new assets must be able to work, and a return expected from this activity" (Johansson etal, 1993). Johansson, McHugh, Pendlebury and Wheeler (1993) consider the third factor, the ability of new assets to work, as being a critical issue as it provides the "link" for managers between the new assets (typically technologies) and Business Process Re-engineering. "These assets not only provide new products and market access, but they can be leveraged into other areas of the company" (Johansson et al, 1993). These assets or IT "tools" must be managed effectively. The implementation of these tools is fundamental in today's business environment and ignoring their potential and failing to link it with other areas of the business can result in organizational and strategic ineffectiveness and inefficiencies. For example, in the early 1980s, mainframes were used to support dedicated operational functions, such as core manufacturing processes. Primarily due to the cost and the effort involved in maintaining these systems, business executives took a "hands o f f approach to their IT management. 5 Today, decreased costs and increased of use of the personal computer have resulted in a proliferation of information technology in all aspects of business. Before 1985, IT planning was limited, and viewed only as a supporting function. But over the past ten years, there has been growing interest, among both MIS practitioners and business executives, concerning effective IT planning and hence "Linkage," due to the proliferation of IT throughout all aspects of business. Due to the historical failure to manage IT in the same way that other business functions are managed, the technology function has often been left to evolve on its own. As a result it, has tended to evolve in two different directions. In some cases, business executives "trusted" their technology divisions to run themselves. The IT department was left to make its own purchasing decisions, and was not required to justify them according to the business plan. This approach sometimes created extra expenses as inappropriate or unnecessary technology was purchased. In other cases, executives refused to create IT departments, instead allowing individual sections to purchase their own technologies. This second approach resulted in decreases in production as resources were duplicated, or incompatible technologies were purchased. These results sparked an increased realization that IT had to be managed more effectively to ensure that its maximum utility was realized. By doing so, industry has become more efficient. IT is now critically viewed as a strategic "weapon" in the competitive marketplace, one that can lead to strategic or competitive advantage. Cash, Eccles, Nohria and Nolan (1994) note that "[in] some forward-thinking organizations, information technology is being used to transform business processes in three fundamental ways: shifting from predicting events to managing uncertainty; shifting from discrete to continuous processes; increased emphasis on horizontal information flows. In contrast, many other firms were automating history when they should have been inventing the future. " 6 Effective IT management and planning requires an understanding of the business environment as well as an understanding of technology. Without such understanding, Linkage of business and IT goals is not possible. Information Technology and MIS The importance of Linkage has been recognized in MIS literature. Its complexity, however, has resulted in a variety of philosophies regarding it application, and a number of explanations concerning its implementation. A globally accepted concept of Linkage has not yet evolved. Researchers continue to take diverging approaches at a time when a single, focused model or framework would be most useful. A small number of studies directly address the social dimension of Linkage, however attempt to determine the common organizational factors necessary to achieve and influence an effective Linkage construct. To date, most MIS literature has addressed different aspects of Linkage individually. For example, Tavakolian's study (1989) demonstrates a relationship between organizational competitive strategy and the IT organization. In a study involving 52 large organizations, Tavakolian (1989) identified that "the conformity between information technology structure and overall organizational context variables, including competitive strategy, is instrumental to the successful implementation of information technology systems. " A more ambitious study, the Reich and Benbasat Linkage model (1994), attempts to integrate all factors that influence the social dimension involved in the development of Linkage. The importance of this model is that it recognizes that the specific business function of IT must be "linked" or "aligned" with strategic business goals. 7 Pyburn's study (1983) focused on the IT planning practices and concluded "that formal IS planning does not appear to be a critical determinate of perceived IS effectiveness. " Rather, IT planning generally reflects the IT managers' degree of authority, and the interpersonal relationships that exist between the senior management and the IT manager. IT planning often relies on the "good informal relationships." Pyburn (1983) found as well, "as organizations increase in both size and complexity, however, and as their sophistication with information systems technology grows, more formal planning processes help to ensure the kind of broad-based dialogue that is essential to the development of an integrated 'vision for IS.' Clearly this phenomena is not unrelated to the dimension of management style, as great size and complexity often leads to more formal practices. " Pyburn also found that rapid IT growth in the business environment occurs often, regardless of whether IT planning has been done, and sometimes in direct defiance of such planning. In his study, Pyburn states that Linkage of the MIS plan with corporate strategy has moved to the forefront of the business "mind," citing three reasons: First, the effective use of IT is becoming central to the survival of companies in some industries. Second, IT has become critical to the implementation of corporate strategy. Third and most important, IT has become an integral part of, and a necessary support of many of today's products and services. The importance of effective management of IT cannot be underestimated. If such consideration is made a part of the business process, MIS will allow business to extract the full benefit and advantage from modern IT. The selection of an appropriate methodology to support IS planning is a challenging, difficult, risky and costly process and the methodology chosen for individual business cases must take into consideration both the intellectual and social aspects of Linkage. 8 1.5 Research Overview This thesis is structured as follows: chapter two provides a brief historical overview of the Canadian Forces. Infrastructure, products, and services provided by the Forces are outlined, and parallels are drawn between the military and civilian businesses. Chapter three defines Linkage as used for purposes of this research, examines Linkage constructs and measures, and outlines the factors influencing the social dimension of Linkage. Chapter four outlines application of the research model to the Canadian Forces. In chapter five, an assessment of short and long term Linkage at the base level within the Canadian Forces is found. Ratings of mutual understanding of objectives with regard to IT, as well as congruence in vision of IT is examined. Chapter six presents an assessment of the factors affecting the social dimension of Linkage at the base level within the Canadian Forces. Chapter seven compares and contrasts Linkage assessments for the bases studied, and chapter eight provides an overview of research results, and highlights findings. An assessment of Linkage at the base level within the Canadian Forces is presented, as well as a proposed Canadian Forces Information Technology Management Partnership System. 9 CHAPTER TWO THE ORGANIZATION UNDER STUDY 2.1 Introduction This chapter provides a brief historical overview of the Canadian Forces. Infrastructure, products, and services provided by the Forces are outlined, and parallels are drawn between the military and civilian businesses. Present trends and issues within the Canadian Forces are also examined. 2.2 Brief Historical Perspective of the Canadian Forces "Canada's first official organization to over see defence matters was formed in 1868, a year after Confederation. Called the Department of Militia and Defence, it was responsible for a small permanent force, and a volunteer militia left over from colonial times. The Canadian Army, the Royal Canadian Navy and the Royal Canadian Air Force evolved as separate entities [and remained distinct, with their own command structures], until 1968 when the Canadian Forces Reorganization Act created a unified Canadian Armed Forces. Canadians have served in most of the major conflicts of the twentieth century. Over 7,300 Canadians served under British Command in the [Boer] War, [between] 1899 and 1902. During the First World War, Canada made a major contribution to the Allied War Effort. Over 600,000 Canadians served with the Canadian Expeditionary Force. The Canadian Corps distinguished itself on the Western Front, [particularly] at the capture of Vimy Ridge, in April 1917. In addition, 5000 [Canadians] joined the [Royal Canadian Navy] and a further 22,000 were members of the British flying services. Over one million men and women participated in the Second World War. The Canadian Army played a major role in the Italian campaign of 1943-44, and in the battle of Northwest 10 Europe in 1944-45. The Royal Canadian Navy played a key role in protecting Allied shipping throughout the Battle of the Atlantic. Members of the [Royal Canadian Air Force] served throughout the world, but particularly in Canada, Northwest Europe and southeast Asia, while over 131,000 British Commonwealth aircrew received their training at bases in Canada. Since the late 1940s, men and women of the Canadian Forces have taken part in United Nations sponsored peacekeeping missions around the world. In the Korean War, 1950-1953, Canadians served under the auspices of the United Nations; a similar contribution was made to the multinational coalition enforcing United Nations resolutions in the Persian Gulf in 1991. The Canadian Forces are in the process of downsizing from about 70,000 personnel in early 1995, to 60,000 by end of 1997-98. [It is hoped that this action] will release personnel funds for capital expenditures. The Department of National Defence's [current goal is to] maintain current capability as outlined in a 1994 Defence White Paper, while proceeding with equipment acquisitions critical to that goal" (Excerpts from the Canadian Defence Information Release, 1995). 2.3 Nature of the Business The traditional roles of the Canadian Forces (CF) have been the protection of Canada, cooperation with the United States in the defense of North America (NORAD), and participation in peacekeeping and other multilateral operations (e.g. NATO) elsewhere in the world. (White Paper, 1994). "The mission of the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces is to protect Canada, contribute to world peace, and project Canadian interests abroad" (C&L Volume 5, 1994/95). 11 2.4 Department of National Defence Products and Services "The Department of National Defence (DND)/Canadian Forces (CF) may be described as a system whose inputs are some $12.5 bi l l ion of taxpayers's money and whose outputs are one product and two services. The product is defence capability, i.e. trained personnel and modern equipment. The two services are national well-being and national security, delivered through defence alliances, peacekeeping actions, aid to c ivi l authority, disaster and relief actions, search and rescue activity, and other activities resulting in economic and social benefits to Canadians. Canadian defence policy is also an extension of Canadian foreign policy; it is worth noting in this context the exceptional international recognition and credibility attained by our troops in overseas peacekeeping operations" ( C & L Volume 5, 1994/95). 2.5 Canadian Forces Infrastructure 2.5.1 Canadian Forces Structure The Canadian Forces encompasses four levels of infrastructure as shown in figure 2. National Defence Headquarters ( N D H Q ) ; the Commands (Air Command, Land Forces Command, Maritime Command); Formations; and Units & Bases (e.g. C F B Edmonton, C F B Cold Lake). 12 Figure 2 Canadian Forces Current Command Structure National Defence Headquarters 1 1 Maritime Command Land Forces Command Air Command 1 Canadian Forces Contingents United Nations National Defence Headquarters Controlled Units Canadian Forces Recruiting, Education and Training System Canadian Forces Northern Area Headquarters Note: A new command and control structure to suit the needs of a smaller Total Forces, is expected to be placed by mid-1997. Reference: Canadian Defence Information, 1995. 2.5.2 National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) "To provide a legal basis for its' military responsibility, the military component within National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) is organized as an element of the Canadian Forces by Ministerial order. NDHQ is unique in that both the head office of the Department and the senior military headquarters of the Canadian Forces are totally integrated within it" (OPDP 2, 1995/6). 2.5.3 Commands "Below NDHQ the Canadian Forces are grouped into a number of major functional organizations. Five of these are designated Commands. As a general rule, formations and units are allocated to commands on the basis of grouping like resources and activities under a single commander" (OPDP 2,1995/6). 13 2.5.4 Formations "A formation is an element of the CF, other than a command, comprising two or more units grouped under a single commander, designated as a formation by or on behalf of the Minister. The role of a formation is assigned at the time of its organization and will vary with requirements, and, to a lesser extent, on whether the formation is comprised of naval, army or air units" (OPDP 2, 1995/6). 2.5.5 Units and Bases The unit is the basic building block of the structure of the Forces. "A unit is defined in the National Defence Act as an individual body of the Canadian Forces that is organized with the personnel and material thereof. A unit may be a ship, battalion, regiment, company, squadron, or any other appropriate designation in accordance with its role and the custom of the service, but in each case, it is designated as unit by the authority responsible of its original organization" (OPDP 2, 1995/96). A base, as shown in figure 3, is a unit designated as such by or under authority of the Minister. "The function of which is to provide such accommodation and support services for assigned units as may be directed by the Chief of the Defence Staff. In addition to their support responsibilities, certain base commanders are designated to exercise command over assigned units" (OPDP 2, 1995/6). Within the Canadian Forces, Air Force bases are called Wings and include the operational squadrons. For the purposes of this study, because a Wing essentially has the same role and configuration of a base, it will be referred to a base. 1 4 Figure 3 Typical Canadian Forces Base Base provides a support role. Squadron, Ship Brigade or Unit Base is the chain of command and support role. Squadron, Ship, Brigade or Unit Base Operations Administration Technical Services Comptroller Note 1: The above represents the main sub-divisions of a base. Within any branch, sections may be rearranged or combined to suit requirements or individual bases. The relative positions of the various sub-sections is not intended to imply rank or establishment. Reference: OPDP 2, 1995/6. 2.5.6 Functional Relationships Commands are responsible for bases within their specific element (sea, land, air), but Headquarters (NDHQ) is responsible for implementation of direction from Government, and for the centralized functions, such as finance and administration as shown in figure 4. This centralized function is known in the Canadian Forces as the technical authority. Within Headquarters, in the simplest terms, project management offices are established to procure new equipment such as ships and aircraft. The bases/units are responsible for support operations and for buying equipment up to an established 'funding cap'. These limited funds cover requirements such as operating costs and overhead (i.e. building maintenance, fuel for jets). 15 Figure 4 Simplified Canadian Forces Chain of Command Command Canadian Government] (Minister of National Defence) Policy, Orders Policy, Orders National Defence Headquarters Technical control and authority 1 1 1 Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 New Equipment (i.e.. CF 18, Administration Information Systems) Orders for Centralized Functions (i.e. of Canadian Forces Administration Orders) 2.6 Parallel Between Canadian Forces and Civilian Business The Canadian Forces "corporate level", is made up of three components: National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ), the Commands (Maritime, Land Forces, and Air) and to a lesser degree the Formations. The "business unit level" most closely corresponds to the bases and units as shown in figure 5. A formation due to its varying configurations may be considered a corporate a business unit level entity depending on the perspective required. 16 Figure 5 Simplified Comparison of Business versus Canadian Forces Environment National Defence Headquarters (NDHQJI Corporate Business Unit Command (Army, Navy, Airforce Business Unit Canadian Forces Unit/Base Business Environment Canadian Forces Environment In the Canadian Forces, the president and CEO at the business unit level is the Base Commander as shown in figure 6. Within the business unit in the Canadian Forces context, the r Head of IT is most closely corresponds to the Base Telecommunication Officer, or more recently the Base Technical Information Services Officer. In the Canadian Forces context, the vice-president of Administration position most closely corresponds to the Base Administration Officer, and the vice-president of Finance position most closely corresponds to the Base Comptroller. 17 Figure 6 Detailed Comparison of Business versus Canadian Forces Environment Business Environment President CEO VP Manufacturing VP Marketing VP Administration VP Information Tecnology VP Finance B a s e C o m m a n d e i Canadian Forces Environment Commanding Officer S q u a d r o n , S h i p Br igade or Unit Command ing Off icer S q u a d r o n , Unit B r igade or Unit B a s e Opera t i ons Of f i ce r B a s e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Of f icer B a s e T e c h n i c a l Se rv i ces Of f icer Base Compt ro l le r 2.7 Canadian Forces in the 21 Century The Department of National Defence/Canadian Forces is currently undergoing a significant reduction in fiscal budgets and personnel in an attempt to increase efficiency and, at the same time, improve the Canadian Forces' core capabilities. A number of trials and management renewal programs have been implement to cope with these changes under the umbrella of the Defence 2000 program launched in 1992. "Defence 2000 - a program for management renewal that extends across the Department and the Forces - is enabling the organization to increase efficiency through the adoption of improved resource management practices and work methods. Human resource management practices are emphasizing partnership, communication, participation and innovation. Authority and accountability are being delegated to lower levels to give managers the flexibility to find the most cost-effective way to get the job done. The Department is fostering continuous improvement by stressing accountability-oriented planning and emphasizing business planning and cost-effectiveness in the acquisition and use of defence resources. All of these strategies point to a more business-like future for defence. While Defence 2000 extends across the Department and the Forces, other programs to use defence resources more efficiently and effectively are under way throughout the command and control structure " (NDHQ Web Site, 1996). 1 8 2.7.1 The Management, Command and Control Reengineering Team "The Management, Command and Control Reengineering Team, headed up by Major-General A.M. DeQuetteville, was set up in recognition of the requirement to make fundamental change to the way in which the CF and DND will conduct their operations and do business in the coming years. The Team was commissioned this past December by the Defence Management Committee and is [comprised] of senior military Officers and civilian executives. The Team has the task of establishing a new command and control structure, and reengineering the [Canadian Forces] resource management processes. It has also been given the mandate to integrate the many change initiatives currently underway [within the Department of National Defence] to ensure a consistent and coherent approach to business reengineering as the new organizational structure emerges. The Team has [presented] its action plan to senior [Canadian Forces] management and was instructed to have an implementation plan ready by July 1995. The White Paper calls for a new structure to be in place by mid-1997. The Team [will identify at a minimum], one third reduction in resources devoted to headquarters from NDHQ on down to formation level, including the elimination of Command headquarters, and 25 per cent fewer senior positions" (NDHQ Web Site, 1996). 2.7.2 The Business Planning Working Group "The Business Planning Working Group is developing a departmental approach to business planning. They have now developed a plan that replaces the old Multi-Year Operational Plan. Business plans for all Commands should be in place by this spring" (NDHQ Web Site, 1996). 19 2.7.3 Operating Budgets Working Group "The Operating Budgets Working Group has adopted a phased departmental approach to implementation of operating budgets. Direct control by Commands and Bases over their operating budgets has increased from 10 per cent to 40 per cent of the total Personnel, Operations and Maintenance budget allocations and this [level of control] will move towards the 60 per cent mark in the future. The [Defence 2000 Program] Investment Fund totals $10 million, and was [established] for those anxious to get on with renewal, but lacking the dollars. These funds are targeted to support cost savings/ cost avoidance initiatives that would not otherwise be funded. In some cases, the fund can approve an outright grant, if the resulting savings will produce widespread benefits, but in most cases the fund will approve a loan to be repaid in five years. In the short time since the fund has been active, investments offering savings in the order of $3 million over four years have been approved. A number of applications are now in the office that will undoubtedly result in more savings" (NDHQ Web Site, 1996). 2.7.4 Administrative Practices Working Group "The Administrative Practices Working Group (APWG) was set up by the Defence 2000 Committee to allow the review and improvement of administrative practices. To that effect, APWG is currently gathering lists of irritants from Group Principals and Command. Irritants will be prioritized and dealt with. Any difficulties will be brought to the [Defence 2000 program] Committee for decision. While APWG deals with specifics, it was recognized that something had to be done with our overall system of promulgation of directives which has become cumbersome and inflexible" (NDHQ Web, 1996). 20 2.7.5 Red Tape Action Team "The Red Tape Action Team was created with the mission [of] significantly [reducing] the amount of administrative regulations contained in Canadian Forces Administration Orders and other [Headquarters] publications; as well as to increase the delegation of administrative and decision making authority. The Red Team Action Team initiative starts at the top with the identification and review of DND/CF policies with the intent of getting back to basics; cutting red tape; putting customers first; and empowering people so that they can achieve results" (NDHQ Web, 1996). 2.7.6 Food Services Action Team "The Food Services Action Team, set up by the [Defence 2000 program] Committee, looked at all facets of food services. These included: costs, levels of service, the cost of military essential-core capability for food services personnel, a range of options for Alternate Means of Delivery and a final product list of options for Commanders of a Food Services structure that encompasses best practices and an essential core military capability" (NDHQ Web, 1996). 2.7.7 Alternate Service Delivery "One of the messages that is evident in Food Services and in many other areas too, is that we will have to look very closely at the whole question of Alternate Service Delivery (ASD). This will be the major theme in the next few years. The White Paper spells it out, and last fall, at our Defence 2000 Symposium, our Minister called on us to "prove that we are as good as we can be." DND/CF has extensive experience in this area, known as outsourcing or contracting out, and are developing guidance for our senior managers on pursuing optimal delivery options 21 for our non-core support activities. This is part of our efforts to better balance the operational and support aspect of our defence program" (NDHQ Web Site, 1996). 2.7.8 Operation Renaissance Operation Renaissance was initiated to examine personnel management issues and attempt to improve processes and reduce costs. "Operation Renaissance has just been launched by our Personnel Group - it is a fundamental and strategic renewal of our system of personnel management. It encompasses military and civilian [personnel], is people driven and client focused, and it is process reengineering throughout the Assistant Deputy Minister Personnel Group. The various Operation Renaissance teams have just completed conceptual designs, and are now looking at implementing re-engineering processes in order to bring the conceptual designs to reality" (NDHQ Web Site, 1996). 2.7.9 Operation Excelerate Program "The Operation Excelerate Program is the major initiative of the Material Group launched last year (1994). In order to provide quality service to its clients and to dramatically improve cost-effectiveness of its operations, the Material Group will redesign its organizational structure, identify and reengineer core processes, streamline procedures, eliminate duplication, improve computer-based support systems and enhance workforce skills so that managers and staff can operate effectively in the new Material Group environment. Restructuring and the elimination of duplication and non-core activities will result in personnel reductions at all levels of at least 30% by 1 April 96, from the 1 April 94 baseline. Operation Excelerate had just produced an implementation program prospectus which sets out the framework, workstreams and major management issues that are being addressed" (NDHQ Web Site, 1996). 22 2.7.10 Base DelegATT, or Base Delegation of Authority and Accountability Trial "Base DelegATT, or Base Delegation of Authority and Accountability Trial, was actually the first DND/CF renewal effort. The effort was started at Training System Headquarters even before there was a Defence 2000 Committee. [Base DelegATT was conceived] in 1991 with the goal [of achieving] measurable improvements in efficiency in support services at the base level by delegating authority and assignment responsibility to Base Commanders at CFB Borden and [CFB] Kingston. And it worked. The program is just now successfully wrapping up. Of 294 initiatives submitted, 190 were adopted with a resulting $10 million in recurring annual savings" (NDHQ Web Site, 1996). In summary, the Department of National Defence is a federal government organization, which is undergoing dynamic and critical changes. The Defence 2000 program was initiated as a business approach to military processes and functions in order to reduce costs while maintaining core functions. An understanding of military functions and organization is essential to the understanding of the application of business practices and processes to the Department of National Defence, particularly if civilian business processes that encourage and ensure cost efficiency and organizational effectiveness are applied. 23 CHAPTER THREE THE RESEARCH MODEL 3.1 Introduction This chapter defines Linkage as used for purposes of this research, examines Linkage constructs and measures, and outlines the factors influencing the social dimension of Linkage. The concept of aligning the business objectives with the objectives of other components of a business or organization is not new. Businesses have always been concerned with mapping input to output of a product and with trying to reduce the cost associated with each product in order to increase profits. The concept of "Linkage," however, is relatively new. So new, in fact, that linking information technology and business has been overlooked, and has not been managed with the same care and consideration that functional operations have received. The MIS discipline has recognized the importance of Linkage, but has yet to come up with a single approach, philosophy or explanation of this model. The Reich and Benbasat model (1996) is the first model which attempts to provide MIS practitioners with a framework from which to understand the social dimensions which influence Linkage. This is significantly important for both MIS practitioners and business executives as they cope with the information revolution and the resulting proliferation of IT throughout organizations. This research will apply the Reich and Benbasat Linkage model to the Canadian Forces to develop a greater understanding of the factors that influence the social dimension of Linkage at the base level. 24 3.2 The Definition of Linkage In business, the use of the term Linkage is relatively new. The New Webster Dictionary defines Linkage as "the act of linking; state or manner of being linked; a system of links. " The term most commonly used to refer to Linkage in MIS literature is alignment. The New Webster Dictionary defines alignment as "an adjustment to line; arrangement in a straight line; the proper adjustment of components for coordinated functioning. " The definition of Linkage to be used for the purpose of this research is taken from Reich and Benbasat (1996): "Linkage is the degree to which the IT mission, objectives, and plans support and are supported by the business mission, objectives, and plans. " In the simplest of terms, Linkage is the "handshake" between business and information technology. In this definition, "objectives" refers to the goals and strategies of an organizational unit. (Reich and Benbasat, 1996). Reich and Benbasat (1996) consider "organizational processes as potential causes of Linkage and Linkage as the effect, (i.e. outcome). " 3.3 The Dimensions of Linkage There exist two dimensions of Linkage: the intellectual dimension, and the social dimension. The intellectual dimension is defined as "is the state in which IT and business objectives are consistent and valid" (Reich and Benbasat, 1996). The social dimension of Linkage is "the level of mutual understanding of and commitment to business and IT mission, objectives, and plans by organizational members" (Reich and Benbasat, 1996). Two questions arise regarding the social aspect of Linkage: First, do business and IS executives understand each other's missions, objectives and plans? Second, are business and IS executives committed to and supportive of these missions, objectives, and plans? These two aspects of the social dimension of Linkage are equally important. Understanding the strategy is 25 one thing; a commitment to support one another in the implementation of that strategy is another. It is difficult to implement an idea not well understood or agreed with. The social dimension Linkage of this definition establishes a "big-picture" perspective or framework for the study of IT planning. A single, all-encompassing perspective and a thorough understanding of Linkage can provide the framework for effective IT planning and implementation. One particularly useful aspect of the Linkage model is that it incorporates research in the study of successful social dimensions in IT, covering such researched areas as top management support, communication of business plans, and IT steering committees and planning styles. This study of, understanding of, and research into Linkage is critical for the business and MIS professionals. Reich and Benbasat (1994b) also differentiate between Linkage with respect to timing, separating Linkage into short term and long term Linkage. Short Term Linkage is defined as "the state in which business and IS executives understand and are committed to each other's short-term (1-2 year) plans and objectives" (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b, p.8). Long Term Linkage is defined as "the state in which business and IS executives share a common vision of the way(s) in which IT will contribute to the success of the business unit" (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b, p.9). 3.4 Linkage at the Corporate and Business Unit Levels Reich and Benbasat differentiate between two levels of a business organization. The first level is the corporate level and the second level is the business unit level. Linkage exists at both the corporate and business unit levels. 26 3.5 Measurement of Linkage 3.5.1 Short Term Linkage To measure short term Linkage, Reich and Benbasat have developed a four-scale rating system to measure Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives. Within this research the scale used to measure Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives was adapted directly from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1996) and is included in Appendix I. 3.5.2 Long Term Linkage To measure long term Linkage, Reich and Benbasat have developed another four-scale Linkage rating system to measure Congruence in Shared Vision for IT. Within this research the scale used to measure Congruence in Shared Vision for IT was adapted directly from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1996) and is included in Appendix I. To provide support for initial IT Linkage assessments, and to provide greater insight into Linkage at the business unit level, Reich and Benbasat have developed a rating systems to measure Cross References in Written Objectives, and Subjective Ratings of Linkage. Within this research the scales used to measure Cross References in Written Objectives and Subjective Ratings of Linkage were adapted directly from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1995) and is included in Appendix I. 27 3.5.3 Additional Measure of Linkage applicable to the Organization under Study It is possible to determine the extent of short term and long term Linkage within the Canadian Forces using the Linkage Model measures as described above. To provide further support for the initial Linkage assessment an additional measure of Linkage was added to the research called the Implementation of the National Administration Information System measure. Every base and applicable unit was advised by Headquarters that the National Administration Information System was to be delivered to the bases/units to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of base/unit administration operations. Each base/unit was advised in advance when the implementation was to take place and was given the minimum system requirements for its implementation. This research will determine whether the National Administration Information System was successfully implemented by the bases' and whether it is maintained with minimal disruption to work processes. The degree to which base Administration Officers and personnel were involved and the degree to which they became involved in its implementation. The implementation of National Administration Information System required a high degree of involvement between the administration unit and the IT unit to ensure success. Both groups had to work together to develop an effective implementation plan. In particular, planning was required to ensure the necessary resources were in place to support the implementation. Within this research the scales used to measure Implementation of the National Administration Information System is included in Appendix I. 28 3.6 The Model of Factors that Influence the Social Dimension of Linkage The Reich and Benbasat model of the factors that influence the social dimension of Linkage is illustrated in figure 7. Each of the factors in the model will be discussed independently, both in terms of construct and measurement. Figure 7 Model of Factors that Influence the Social Dimension of Linkage Antecedents Current Practices Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Communication between Business and IS Executives Success in IT Implementation Connections between Business and IT Planning LINKAGE Reference: Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.5) 3.6.1 Shared Domain Knowledge 3.6.1.1 Construct Shared Domain Knowledge is defined as "the ability of IS and business executives, at a deep level, to understand and be able to participate in the others' key processes and to respect each other's unique contribution and challenges" (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b, p.l 1). 29 3.6.1.2 Measurement Reich and Benbasat have developed a measuring instrument to assess the Shared Domain Knowledge factor. This three-scale rating (high level, moderate level and low level) assesses the following variables: Industry experience (corporate or military experience); Line Management Experience (business unit versus corporate); IT Management Experience; and Awareness of new information technologies. Within this research the scale used to assess the Shared Domain Knowledge factor was adapted from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b) and modified to suit the organization under study. This modified scale is included in Appendix I. 3.6.2 Success in IT Implementation 3.6.2.1 Construct Past success in IT implementation should facilitate further success in IT implementation. Past failures in IT implementation will most likely reduce the communication level between executives and result in a lower degree of "confidence" in the IT sections' ability to contribute to the business unit. "It is expected that a successful IT implementation history within a business unit would positively influence the amount and type of communication between IS and business executives and would induce tight connections between IT and business planning. An unsuccessful IT history would lead to the opposite, i.e., less communication and a weakly connected planning process " (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b, p. 12). 3.6.2.2 Measurement Reich and Benbasat have developed a scale to measure Success in IT Implementation by determining, through interviewing, the nature and success of past IT implementation. The overall success is assigned a "high", "moderate", or "low" rating. Within this research the scale 30 used to measure the Success in IT Implementation factor was adapted directly from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b) and modified to suit the organization under study. This modified scale is included in Appendix I. 3.6.3 Communication between Business and IS Executives 3.6.3.1 Construct Reich and Benbasat recognize that communication facilitates success in organizations, irrespective of what form the communication takes. The Canadian Forces has long recognized that communication plays a critical role in the successful conduct of "combat" business operations due to the nature of the business. As well because of the rotation of Canadian Forces members through different positions every few years, informal and formal communication is extensively required in order to maintain a continuum of service. "It was expected that Linkage would be increased through contacts between individuals during the daily course of events — either face-to-face or written contact, in groups or in pairs, formal or informal" (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b, p. 13). 3.6.3.2 Measurement Reich and Benbasat have developed a scale to measure the Communication factor: "communication is classified as either: a) 'frequent', 'moderately frequent', or 'infrequent' and b) focused' or 'diverse' with respect to the content of discussions. Focused meant that only IT issues were discussed when business and IS executives communicated; diverse meant that both IT and general business issues were discussed. These two dimensions were combined to identify business units with low', 'moderate' or 'high' levels of communication between IS and business executives" (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b, p. 14). Within this research the scale used to measure 31 the Communication factor was adapted directly from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b). 3.6.4 Connections between Business and IT Planning Processes 3.6.4.1 Construct Connections between business and IT planning processes refers to the degree to which the planning process are interrelated. If business and IT planning occurs in conjunction with each other, the Linkage model indicates that this conjunction will contribute to high levels of Linkage. If business and IT planning exists in "isolation" of one another, low levels of Linkage are the expected result. "Much of the literature on Linkage implicitly or explicitly assumes that the IT planning process is the crucial time during which Linkage is forged" (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b, p. 14). 3.6.4.2 Measurement Reich and Benbasat have developed a scale to measure the Connections in Planning factor by determining through interviewing the steps in the most recent IT and business planning processes. Level 1 is characterized as being 'Isolated', Level 2 is 'Architected', Level 3 is 'Derived', Level 4 is 'Integrated' and Level 5 is 'Proactive' (Reich and Benbasat, 1994). Within this research the scale used to measure the Connections in Planning factor was adapted directly from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b) and is included in Appendix I. 32 In summary, the concept of aligning the business objectives with the objectives of other components of a business or organization is not new. The MIS discipline has recognized the importance of Linkage, and the Reich and Benbasat model (1996) is one of the first models which attempts to provide MIS practitioners with a framework from which to understand the social dimensions which influence Linkage. This is significantly important for both MIS practitioners and business executive to coping with the information revolution and the resulting proliferation of IT throughout the organization. 33 CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1 Introduction This chapter outlines the study of the research model within the Canadian Forces context with regard to units of analysis, case study selection, and data collection and analysis. The chapter also includes a discussion of the limitations of the Canadian Forces as a site to select cases from to support the model. 4.2 The Units of Analysis Business unit Linkage is defined as a situation "which is created by aligning IT and business missions, objectives and plans within a single business unit" (Reich and Benbasat, 1994). Business unit Linkage is illustrated in figure 8. For the purpose of this research, Canadian Forces base/unit level was examined. Chapter two contains a description of the parallels between the Canadian Forces and the Business Environment. Figure 8 Linkage at the Business Unit Level Business Unit Business Objectives Business Unit IT Objectives Reference: Reich and Benbasat, 1994 34 4.3 Case Selection Eight sites within the Canadian Forces were selected. Six bases and two units acting as lodger units on bases were selected. To provide a reasonable cross-section of the Canadian Forces, a representative number of bases from each command were selected. To preserve the anonymity of bases/units and the personnel involved, all bases/units were referred to as bases A,B,C etc., regardless of their elementary origin (i.e. Army, Navy, Air Force). For example, if a Wing was examined, it was called a base. Specifically, the scope of the research was limited to examining the Administration support function and the IT function. Limitation of the selection of the Canadian Forces as a research site is discussed at the end of this chapter. Limitation of the specific site selections will be discussed at the end of the thesis. This research took advantage of the availability of multiple sources of data, including, reviews of historical data; as well as observations, formal and informal interviews that commenced in January 1995 with the National Defence Headquarters. 4.4 Case Study Research Research requiring investigation into real-life events without control over behavioral limits is best achieved through case study research. (Yin, 1989) As the Canadian Forces business unit level is divided into a number of bases and units, individual case study analysis of these units, followed by examinations for comparisons and contrasts, provided an effective method of studying the entire organization. 35 4.4.1 Interviews In order to gain insight into both the facts and the opinions expressed about events, formal interviews should be focused, but open-ended (Yin, 1992). The interview instrument was used in this Case Study to gathering data from the base/unit personnel. If some of the personnel required for interviews were not available during the site visit, telephone interviews completed the process. 4.4.2 Data Analysis Verification of case study information could only be achieved through study of additional documentation, and corroboration statements by administration branch personnel. Interviews assisted in confirming the level of Linkage, and, highlighted the factors that influence the social dimension of that Linkage. Secondary data sources such as business plans, and minutes from steering committee meetings were used to support the interview data. 4.5 Data Collected 4.5.1 Sources Two types of data sources were utilized: personnel interviews and military documentation. The specific business function examined was the administration function, and it was chosen for the following reasons: 1. The Administration function is replicated all in units and bases; 2. The Canadian Forces Administration function most closely parallels the business world Administration function; 36 3. Administration support branch is growing to include other closely related support functions, such as financial support. Such expansion offers an opportunity to study Linkage within the organization; and 4. The Administration function, although dependent on the Headquarters Level for national (Canadian Forces wide) information systems, is dependent, to a large extent, on the support of the base IT unit. Most business units (operations, etc.) within a base have their own IT cells associated with specific equipment acquisition. For example, when the Canadian Forces Fighter Jet was purchased and delivered, a unit called the 4 Software Engineering Squadron was established specifically to maintain the software of the Canadian Forces Fighter Jet. This unit was placed in Cold Lake and was responsible for all the Fighter Jet fleet software requirements both in Cold Lake, and Valcartier. The base of Cold Lake also had IT unit which serviced all the units on the base. The Fighter Jet Software Engineering Squadron did not support, and was not associated with the base IT unit. 4.5.2 Informants Table 1 lists the personnel interviewed at each base. Personnel interviewed were referred only to by position and not identified directly to preserve confidentially. A total of 25 Administration and IT Officers were interviewed. A number of Administrative staff from each base were also interviewed. Appendix II contains a detail description of the roles and function of these individuals, as well as their context within the organization under study. 37 Table 1 Interviewees within each of the Bases Unit of Analysis Administration unit Officers IT unit Officers Base A Head of Personnel Administration Deputy Head of Personnel Administration Select Administrative Staff Head of IT B a s e B Head of Personnel Services Head of Personnel Administration Select Administrative Staff Head of IT Deputy Head of IT Base C Deputy Base Commander Head of Administration Select Administrative Staff Head of IT B a s e D Head of Personnel Administration Deputy Head of Personnel Administration Select Administrative Staff Deputy Head of IT Base E Head of Personnel Administration Select Administrative Staff Head of IT Deputy Head of IT Base F Head of Personnel Administration Deputy Head of Personnel Administration Head of IT Deputy Head of IT Base G Head of Administration Deputy Head of Administration Head of IT B a s e H Head of Personnel Administration Select Administrative Staff Deputy Head of IT 4.5.3 Archival Data Table 2 lists the military documentation solicited from each base. Table 2 Military Archival Documentation Background Base Business Plans IT Plans Meeting Documentation Other Strategic Documents Base Information Packages 1994/5 Base Plan 1994/5 IT Plan Steering Group Meetings Base Standing Orders Base Standing Orders 1995/6 Base Plan 1995/6 IT Plan Special Project Meetings Canadian Forces Administration Orders, Queens Regulations and Orders Annual Reports 1996/7 Base Plan 1996/7 IT Plan Base/ Wing Commander Meetings Branch/Unit Orders and other documents Base Phone Book A n y long term business plans A n y long term IT plans Branch/Unit Meetings IT impact reports 38 4.6 The Research Process 4.6.1 Preliminary Data Collection Headquarters agencies provided numerous documents on the history of IT within the Canadian Forces context. Numerous telephone discussions and documentation provided by Higher Headquarters were instrumental in assessing the organization context and current situation. 4.6.2 Pilot Studies In order to understand the function and responsibility of the business unit level (base) two pilot studies were conducted. The first pilot study was a System Analysis and Design study. The purpose of this study was to examine the 74 Communication Group Paperless Office Vision (Chan, Chun, Hartung, 1995). The second project was a Organizational Development and Change study. The purpose of the second study was to determine how the development and implementation of a specialized information system was influencing the organizational members and their ability to contribute to the process (Babalow, Hartung, Nehru, 1995). In the latter, the most significant observation made concerned the lack of communication among members. These two pilot studies were very useful in providing the business level perspective which was critical in directing the case study research which followed. 4.6.3 Attendance at National Administration Conferences Attendance at two national Administration Branch conferences assisted greatly in clarifying some of the general and unique IT issues that apply to the Administration Branch. As 39 well it provided an opportunity to conduct presentations on Linkage, inform conference participants of the case study requirements, and thank participants in advance for their support in the Linkage research process. 4.6.4 Base Data Collection Bases were contacted via telephone calls to determine the appropriate interview candidates. Each individual was faxed an explanation of the nature of the research and a list of questions. Within this research the question guide used was adapted directly from the Linkage Model research of Reich and Benbasat (1992, 1995) and was modified only to reflect only military terminology and positions. These questions are included in Appendix I. 4.6.5 Actual on-site interviews Traveling and interviewing was conducted between October 1995 and January 1996. Interviews were conducted as outline in the above interview table and as close to the interview guides as possible. Each base was extremely hospitable and provided many opportunities to speak with individuals outside of the research interviews. This additional data was instrumental in corroborating the interviews. 4.6.6 Thesis Write-up The bases were analyzed and the thesis was written February to May 1996. Additional military and academic personnel were solicited to evaluate the measurements made by the researcher and evaluate the way the researcher had prepared the thesis paper. Additional follow-up telephone calls were made to verify and gather addition information. 40 4.7 Limitations of the Canadian Forces as Case selection The Canadian Forces does not completely parallel the business environment for the following reasons: 1. The Canadian Forces has a strong history of "combat" business planning. The Forces, however, does not have a history of "accounting" business planning. Business planning was initiated within the Canadian Forces as an mechanism to cope with fiscal cut-backs and the last five years have seen a management renewal process within the Canadian Forces which has been directed from outside the organization (government directed cuts); 2. The bottom-line in business is profitability, in the Canadian Forces, however, the bottom-line is lives. 3. The Canadian Forces has not historically used activity-based Accounting; 4. In many instances, the Canadian Forces produces an non-quantifiable, "common good" service. For example, the Defence White Paper (strategic policy document) makes only generalized statements about what services are required, and there is no associated price list attached to each service output; 5. Canadian Forces morale is presently at an all-time low, as a result of fiscal cut-backs forced reorganization and reductions; and, 6. The Canadian Forces can not effect activity-based business planning as direction concerning functions and finances comes from the Government. 41 C H A P T E R F I V E L I N K A G E A T C A N A D I A N F O R C E S B A S E S 5.1 Introduction This chapter provides an assessment of Short and Long Term Linkage at the base level within the Canadian Forces. Ratings of Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives with regard to IT, as well as Congruence in Shared Vision for IT are the Linkage measures used. Of eight bases examined, only the highest and lowest rating bases are presented in this chapter. The remainder are presented in Appendix III. The results of three additional rating measures - Cross References in Written Objectives, Subjective Ratings of Linkage, and Implementation of the National Administration Information System - are also presented as support for initial IT Linkage assessments, and to provide greater insight into Linkage at the base level. 5.2 Linkage - Base H Base H has seven main branches: Administration, Comptroller, Technical Services, Construction Engineering, Supply, Hospital, and Operations. The Personnel Administration unit on Base H is called the Base Personnel Administration Organization. The Head of the Base Personnel Administration Organization, the Base Personnel Administration Officer, will subsequently be referred to as the Head of Personnel Administration, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The Head of Personnel Administration is represented at the Branch Head by his direct supervisor, the Base Administration Officer. The Personnel Administration Branch on Base H has flatter organizational structure than normally associated with this unit. The Head of Personnel Administration normally has a number of other Officers 42 below him, but at Base H, senior Non-Commissioned Officers report directly to the Head of Personnel Administration. The IT unit on Base H was established by amalgamating isolated Base H IT units, originally established to support different aspects of base operations. The new IT unit is called the Command Control and Communications Information Systems Unit. Information Systems has been grouped with the Operations Communications Center. The Head of the IT unit is called the Command, Control and Communications Information Services Officer. This person will subsequently be referred to as the Head of IT, which most closely relates the civilian equivalent. The Deputy Head of IT is the individual who is responsible and interacts with the Administration Branch. The IT unit on Base H has 14 persons dedicated to IT management, 90% of the organization is civilian, including: 1. General Information Systems; 2. Computer System Support; 3. Computer Network Support; 4. Computer Systems Development; and 5. Requirements. At Base H, the Head of Personnel Administration, and the Deputy Head of IT were interviewed. In addition, the administrative staff were asked to respond to interview questions that specifically addressed the National Administration Information System implementation. 43 5.2.1 Cross References in Written Objectives There were no written short term or long term business plans for Base H. The only plan that was available was the Command Plan level 2 Business Plan known as the [sub-Command] Business Plan 1996/97. There was no short or long term written IT plan. The [sub-Command] Business Plan Fiscal Year 1996/97 was examined. Included in this document was the Commander's Vision. Business Plan Level 1 is the [Command] Business Plan 1996/97. Future Headquarters planning requirements will see the creation of Business Plans at Level 3 and 4, which will eventually address the business planning at the base level. They are required for fiscal years 1998/99 and 1999/00. The [sub-Command] Business Plan is written in the same general terms used in the Department of National Defence Strategic Document (Defence White Paper). There is a recognition that due to fiscal restraint an increasing role will be required with diminishing resources for support functions. "Within [sub-command] the increasing emphasis placed on the [sub-command] region as an emerging area of interest has resulted in an increased operational tempo without a great deal of infusion of support resources. This trend is expected to increase over the next five years. From a business planning perspective, all efforts toward accomplishing the [sub-command] Mission will be geared towards the maintenance of capability, while considering the need to maintain cost efficient support capabilities. " 44 There are numerous statements in this business plan referring to requirements to "find innovative ways " to reduce personnel strength, while improving efficiency and effectiveness, but they are not supported with directions or plans. Headquarters directed that all business plans were to include an IT plan as an Appendix. The [sub-Command] Business Plan included one paragraph addressing IT. There was no specific directional statements concerning the IT unit. The IT initiatives described by IT personnel and the National Administration Information System implementation was not mentioned. [sub-Command] Business Plan reference to IT: "We are in the midst of an information explosion. Not only is the amount of available information increasing exponentially, but so is the technology to exploit this growing data base. Properly managed, information technology offers significant potential to increase our operational capability while achieving meaningful resource savings. [Sub-command] is determined to maximize the increased productivity available through integrated, shared information. " The Personnel Administration unit has several ongoing projects in response to the Defense 2000 Management focus. These plans, however, do not have written documentation support or are not written into any business plan, but are implemented as day to day project activities. The Head of Personnel Administration stated: "Each branch is required to have a list of ongoing initiatives and a Defence 2000 type ofplan shall we say, that fits into the business plan that's being developed. There are several plans on the books from the Administration Branch. One of them is this 'onestop shopping'. Another initiative I'm working on is to do something electronic such as turn my records management into more of an electronic process with imaging and e-mail coming in and going out. That's on the books as a project to be looked at. There's a potential for savings and efficiency certainly. " 45 As a result of these factors, theTevel of cross references in Base H's written business and IT planning documents was rated as LOW. There were no short term or long term written business plans for Base H. The only short term plan that was available was a higher level planning document known as the sub-Command] Business Plan 1996/97. There was no short or long term written IT plan. Linkage in written short term plans was rated as LOW. Linkage in written long term plans was rated as NO PLANS. 5.2.2 Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives The Deputy Head of IT stated that Base H's business objectives were to determine ways of improving efficiencies, in order to cope with staffing level reductions. In particular, he felt the IT role was to provide IT that facilitated Personnel Administration's ability to provide the highest level of support. With respect to IT objectives, the Head of Personnel Administration could identify several IT projects that were in place because he had initiated them. He was aware of the large IT project to implement a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) throughout the base. Mutual understanding of current IT objectives by Personnel Administration was rated as HIGH. Mutual understanding of current base business objectives by IT was rated as HIGH. 5.2.3 Congruence in Shared Vision for IT The Deputy Head of IT stated that the IT unit was very proud of the progressive action it had taken to implementing the MAN in the last two years. He did, however, express frustration that Base H had organized its IT within its budget, whereas some other bases had not been as 46 progressive, and now the Headquarters was providing them with extra funds to bring them up to the level of Base H. The Head of Personnel Administration indicated that the IT unit was very progressive, and stated an Administration Branch vision for IT. He had confidence in the IT unit's ability to support IT development on the base for the future. "The IT people have had the foresight to wire up buildings long before people recognized they needed the technology or the computers. " Congruence in shared vision for IT was rated as MODERATE. 5.2.4 Subjective Ratings of Linkage a. Personnel Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Administration rated Linkage as HIGH, stating the following reasons: • strong communication between the Deputy Head of IT and himself; • IT unit philosophy is not to automate, but to be receptive in providing support when required by base units/branches; and, • IT unit provides excellent support to existing applications. The Head of Personnel Administration stated: "The IT people here are a very progressive bunch who understand that there are reasons for their jobs to improve, and they provide tools for users. They don't say OK here are some products that we have that we think you need. Instead, they ask what we want. " b. IT Unit The Deputy Head of IT rated Linkage as HIGH stating there were well established channels of communication between the Head of Personnel Administration and himself. 47 5.2.5 Implementation of the National Administration Information System All technical requirements for the National Administration Information System were addressed by the IT unit. At the time of the research the National Administration Information System had only recently come on-line. Nevertheless, administrative staff and the Head of Personnel Administration expressed that the IT unit had been very supportive in addressing the implementation requirements and follow-up work. The Personnel Administration and the IT units are working closely together to obtain the necessary hardware requirements for implementation of the National Administration Information System capability. In a joint meeting arranged by the Headquarters National Administration Information System Analyst, the two sides worked out the acquisition requirements and the IT section appeared very supportive of the requirements. Implementation of the National Administration Information System was rated as MODERATE. 5.2.6 Summary Base H's Personnel Administration unit has several unwritten plans that are in place to improve the efficiency of the unit and are proactive in anticipating organizational reduction. The Administration section have initiated a number of structure changes to facilitate the creation of the 'Super Clerk', amalgamation of financial and administrative services. As well, the Head of Personnel Administration is making every attempt to educate himself and the other Administration Officers concerning management of IT. In coordination with the IT unit, he is attempting to address the electronic Records Management problem. Although this is a national 48 level issue, he believes that the base level involvement will indicate to the Headquarters of some of the base level IT concerns and critical requirements. At Base H, there is a LOW to HIGH rating on all of the Linkage measures. It is concluded that at Base H Linkage is MODERATELY being attained. Table 3 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base H LINKAGE MEASURE RESULTS 1. Cross References in Written Objectives Short Term Plans - LOW Long Term Plans - NO PLANS 2. Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives • IT objectives by Personnel Administration - HIGH • Base business objectives by IT - HIGH 3. Congruence in Shared Vision for IT MODERATE 4. Subjective Ratings of Linkage • Head of Personnel Administration - HIGH • Deputy Head of IT - HIGH 5. Implementation of the National Administration Information System MODERATE 49 5.3 Linkage - Base E There are five main branches on Base E: Administration, Operations, Logistics, Technical Services and Comptroller. The Personnel Administration unit on Base E is called the Base Personnel Administration Organization. The Head of the Base Personnel Administration Organization, the Base Personnel Administration Officer, who will subsequently be referred to as the Head of Personnel Administration, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The Head of Personnel Administration is represented at the Branch Head meeting by his direct supervisor the Base Administration Officer. The IT unit on Base E is the Base Telecommunication and Information Services Unit. The Head of the IT unit is called the Telecommunication and Information Services Officer. This person will subsequently be referred to as the Head of IT, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The Head of the IT unit is represented at the Branch Head meeting by his direct supervisor, the Base Comptroller. Within the IT unit, there are only four members dedicated to IT management. 50 Base E is undergoing tremendous change as many of its operations are being downsized, and some of its functions are being combined with another base. Numbers of personnel are also dramatically being downsized due to this reorganization services, as well as budgetary cuts. In order to cope with these changes, the Base Commander established a re-engineering team six months ago incorporating some of his best people. This re-engineering team is presently addressing IT issues. At Base E, the Head of Personnel Administration, the Head of IT, and the Deputy Head of IT were interviewed. In addition, the administrative staff were asked to respond to questions that specifically addressed the National Administration Information System implementation. 5.3.1 Cross References in Written Objectives Base E does not have written short term or long term business plans. Base E's 1995/96 IT plan was examined. There was no written long term IT Plan.. Many base personnel spoke of or referred to a Base E 1995/96 business plan, yet no one was able to locate a copy. The only other plan available was a document called the Master Implementation Plan, which addressed the amalgamation of support services at Base E with another base over the next fiscal year. Base E's short term IT plan exists in a 'tasking' document format. It lacks depth, responsibility, time-lines and other components most commonly associated with planning documents. 51 For example: 4.0 PROVIDE TELECOMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEM SERVICES 4.1 PLAN AND ORGANIZE TELECOMMUNICA TIONS AND IS/IT SER VICES 4.1.1 Define Long-Rang Plans 4.1.1.1 Develop the [Base] Telecommunication Development Plan and Telecommunication Services Plan. 4.1.1.2 Manage the Development and Maintenance of the [BaseJ's 5-year information systems and technology (IS/IT) plan. 4.1.2 Develop, Interpret, and implement Relevant Policies, Standards, Etc. 4.1.2.1 Develop or interpret, disseminate to personnel and clients, and implement policies, orders, decisions, guidelines, standards, and operating procedures related to telecommunications, and IS/IT. This includes matters related to information and communications security (ITSEC). 4.1.3 Set Up Work Facilities and Resources 4.1.3.1 Ensure the availability of: adequate number of properly skilled personnel, adequate financial budgets, needed information systems, etc. 4.1.3.2 Establish, equip and maintain facilities for the inspection, maintenance, repair and modification of communications and electronic and IS/IT equipment, receiving and storage of supplies and provision of services. 4.1.3.3 Requisition needed supplies, tools, measuring and testing equipment, etc. 4.1.4 Determine Clients' Telecommunication and IS/IT Needs 4.1.4.1 Define, or assist with the definition of, clients' requirements for telecommunications services and Communication & Electronic resources. 4.1.4.2 Review client's requests for Communication and Electronic resources 4.1.4.3 Define, or assist with the definition of, clients' requirements for information systems, equipment, and networks. 5 2 The Master Implementation Plan is a description of each branch and unit on Base E and its new configuration after amalgamation with another base in four months. It does not specify how downsizing is to occur, nor does it allocate areas of responsibility. As well, no associated fiscal or personnel resources are specified as a result of the new configuration. An example: ADMINISTRATION CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS • In conjunction with the amalgamation of [Base E] and [Base XJ, and the downsizing of [Base EJ to a lodger unit of [Base XJ, responsibility for the provision or personnel support to [Base EJ and its integral units will transfer to [Base EJ Sections currently under the command and control of [Base EJ Administration Branch will transfer at different intervals to Base Administration, [Base XJ, Except where otherwise indicated, administrative support services will continue to be provided on-site. In all cases, support agencies will be responsible to Base Commander [Base XJ, but responsive to the Base Commander, [Base EJ. PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS • Following the relocation of [Unit ZJ to [Base YJ, downsizing of [Base EJ and consolidation of [Base EJ with [Base XJ, personnel employed at [Base EJ will continue to require essential personnel administration support. This group of personnel will be comprised of individuals who belong to [Base EJ, various integral units and [Base XJ. • Personnel Administration at [Base EJ will operate as a detached sub-unit of [Base XJ Base Personnel Administration Officer. The [Base EJ sub-unit will be organized along a similar structure to that presently in place, with the Wing Personnel Administration Officer's position becoming one of the [Base XJ Assistant Base Personnel Administration Officers. In the Master Implementation Plan, IT is not addressed in conjunction with the base functions. The new configuration of the IT unit is described, but the description focuses on the telecommunication systems that the IT unit must continue to support as a Telecommunication unit. IT management is referred to in this plan in the following manner: ADP [Automated Data Processing! Resources. • Those ADP resources in support of the .... operations and support functions performed at [Base E] will remain in situ. [Base E] [Base Telecommunication Officer (Head of IT)J and [BMOCJ will coordinate the reallocation of any ADP assets deemed surplus to [Base EJ required through the [Base] Information and Technology Steering Committee. The [Command] OP I [Officer of Primary Importance] for any reallocation is the [Command] MICA.] It is evident that the traditional military approach to planning has been used rather than a civilian business planning cycle. The annual budgetary process (the annual operating and maintaining (O&M) budget) is still being relied upon to fulfill the business planning requirement. There is a lack of understanding of exactly what the Business Planning process is all about. As a result of these factors, the level of cross references in Base E's written business and IT planning documents was rated as LOW. A short term business plan does not exist, and the written short term IT plan does not refer to business objectives. The short term IT Plan is a tasking (itemized account of functions) document rather a business plan. Written long term business and IT plans do not exist. Linkage in written short term plans was rated as LOW. Linkage in written long term plans was rated as NO PLANS. 5 4 5.3.2 Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives The Head of IT stated that the Base E's business objectives were to cope with the amalgamation of operations with another base. This Officer, however, could not identify any Personnel Administration initiatives or projects. With respect to IT objectives, the Head of Personnel Administration could not identify any key IT objectives. Mutual understanding of current IT objectives by Personnel Administration was rated as LOW. Mutual understanding of current base business objectives by IT was rated as MODERATE. 5.3.3 Congruence in Shared Vision for IT The Head of IT stated that the IT unit had no control over the direction of IT development or planning on the base, and, as such, expressed difficulty in outlining a plan or vision for IT at Base E. However, she did express optimism regarding direction and assistance from the Headquarters IT unit. The Head of Personnel Administration stated that he believed the future for IT on the base was bleak, and behind as every base was independently developing their own IT plans. Congruence in shared vision for IT was rated as LOW. 5 5 5.3.4 Subjective Ratings of Linkage a. Personnel Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Administration rated Linkage as LOW, stating the following reasons: • lack of communication between IT and Personnel Administration; • lack of understanding of the civilian business planning process and its application to the Canadian Forces; and, • lack of support from the IT unit. A member of the administrative staff stated: "I'm not against going forward and trying to make things better. We are living in the computer age, but I tell you, big plans and ideas about having things work better but they don't work better. Something that was very easy before, I'm finding more often than not, it is more of a problem." b. IT Unit The Head of IT rated Linkage as LOW, stating the following reasons: • lack of involvement of the Head of IT in Branch Head decisions; • lack of personnel and resources in the IT unit; and, • lack of power 'in terms of rank' of the Head of IT to influence base direction at the Branch Head level. The Head of IT also stated: "Well its funny because the mission of the base doesn't exactly mention IT, except as kind of an after statement. I think in theory they should be trying to help but there seems to be a lot of antagonism between us and the rest of the base. They've always focused on the tools and not how to use them. As far as IT supporting the mission of this base, which is an operational mission, I haven't seen it. I've seen requirements for PC's through memorandums. I haven't seen requirements for PC's as infrastructure data manipulation, dissemination, acquisition, you know, in support of objectives. " 56 5.3.5 Implementation of the National Administration Information System The administration staff felt that the initial implementation had not gone as well as it could have. There has been a significant administration staff turnover in the past year, without continued formal training, and so system effectiveness was reduced. The major criticism concerning the implementation process was the number of times that the system goes down. There was a great deal of frustration experienced in trying to determine if the system problems were national or local. Lack of support from the IT unit was listed as a the major cause of this frustration. Due to fact the Head of Personnel Administration left the IT issues to his staff to work out, they experienced a significantly higher amount of frustration dealing with the IT unit in trying to fix the problems. A member of the administrative staff commented: "The system continually going down is a big irritant for the kind of work I do. Having come from a Windows environment has spoiled us in terms of using this DOS based system. In Windows, all the information is there on screen, you just click on whatever you want. Here I will have to know where to look. You have to know the system. A person couldn't just walk off the street and start using this. You have to know the building. We tried to adapt it to our Base but it has created more problems. " Implementation of the National Administration Information Systems was rated as LOW. 57 5.3.6 Summary Base E is primarily concerned with reorganizing operations, and amalgamating some of its functions with another base. The Base Commander's re-engineering team has identified the structure and function of the IT unit to date as being insufficient to cope with the base's requirements. In conjunction with the Head of IT and unit representatives, the team has formulated a plan to build an IT unit that will begin to satisfy the requirement to management IT. At Base E, there was a LOW rating on all of the Linkage measures. It is concluded that at Base E, Linkage is not being attained. Table 4 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base E LINKAGE MEASURE RESULTS 1. Cross References in Written Objectives Short Term Plans - LOW Long Term Plans - NO PLANS 2. Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives • IT objectives by Personnel Administration - LOW • Base business objectives by IT - MODERATE 3. Congruence in Shared Vision for IT LOW 4. Subjective Ratings of Linkage • Head of Personnel Administration - LOW • Head of IT- LOW 5. Implementation of the National Administration Information System LOW 58 Chapter Six Factors that Influence the Social Dimension of Linkage 6.1 Introduction This chapter provides an assessment of the factors affecting the social dimension of Linkage at the base level within the Canadian Forces. Ratings of Success in IT Implementation, Shared Domain Knowledge, Communication and Connections in Planning are presented. Of eight bases examined, only the highest and lowest rating bases are presented in this chapter. The remainder are presented in Appendix IV. 6.2 Factors - Base H On Base H the Head of Personnel Administration, and the Deputy Head of IT were interviewed. 6.2.1 Success in IT Implementation Base H's IT unit does not have written short term or long term plans, but is in the middle of implementing a base IT infrastructure based on an IT plan developed five years ago. IT development outlined in this plan consists of a five step process. The first three steps involve upgrading computer systems on the base and setting up a Local Area Network (LAN). Step four involves connecting the LANs to a Wide Area Network (WAN). Step five consists of developing a security blanket. Steps one two and three are currently underway. The Headquarters IT unit had nothing to do with this plan developed by the IT unit; they are however aware of its ongoing implementation. There is certain frustration within Base H's IT unit, as expressed by the Deputy Head of IT, that the Headquarters IT unit is now funding IT 59 infrastructure on other bases. The Deputy Head of IT felt that since IT was affordable at Base H, other bases should also prioritize and meet their IT requirements internally. At Base H, the IT unit is viewed very favorably by the Personnel Administration Unit. The Personnel Administration unit has been connected to the MAN for two years. The IT unit has consistently maintained and supported existing equipment as well as supporting administrative initiatives concerning IT. One of the Personnel Administration Defence 2000 initiatives is the development of an electronic records management system. The Head of Personnel Administration is working on this project with the Deputy Head of IT. The military has a standardized format for paper correspondence. The primary aim of their system is to create a 'paperless office', by scanning correspondence when it arrives at the unit. The second aim addresses e-mail, and how e-mail will be traced and tracked. Supporting documentation for this records management plan did not incorporate associated costs, or technological feasibility studies. This project parallels a number of similar projects currently underway at other bases. The Head of Personnel Administration felt that issues such as records management should be addressed at the Headquarters level, but that he had to be proactive regarding his requirements at the base level to initiate national direction or reaction. Success in IT Implementation was rated as MODERATE-HIGH. 60 6.2.2 Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives a. Personnel Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Administration has 16 years of military experience. This Officer has been employed his current position for one year but has worked on the same base at the Command level. He had worked as an administrative clerk for seven years before receiving his commission as an officer. He then received University sponsorship obtaining a Bachelor in Commerce. He felt that this business background facilitated his understanding regarding IT. His command experience was instrumental in introducing him to Base H IT, as Command was the first application of the MAN. He has had a half day course on computers and generally learns on his own how to use different applications. He acknowledges his limited computer literacy skills, and relies heavily on the IT unit for support. • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - MODERATE • Awareness of New Technology - MODERATE b. IT Unit The Deputy Head of IT is a civilian with 20 years of previous military service. The Deputy Head of IT has been employed within the IT field at Base H for sixteen years. The Deputy Head of IT commented that there is a high degree of continuity in the IT unit because it is almost completely civilian. Most of the staff have been there at least five years. • Military Experience - HIGH • IT Management Experience - HIGH • Awareness of New Technology - HIGH 61 6.2.3 Communication between Business and IS Executives a. Direct Communication concerning IT issues occurs regularly at the weekly Base H Commanding Officers/Branch Head Meetings of which neither the Deputy Head of IT nor the Head of Personnel Administration are members. Information is disseminated through the Heads, and through minutes to these meetings. The Head of Personnel Administration does not find this a useful mechanism in obtaining or communicating information about IT. He relies heavily on a direct informal contact between the Head of IT and himself. There is a very strong informal working relationship between the Head of Personnel Administration and the Deputy Head of IT. This association has been instrumental in facilitating Personnel Administration projects involving IT, such as the electronic records management system. This relationship has also been most helpful in ensuring that the National Administration Information Systems implementation was well supported by the IT unit, and that ongoing meetings were arranged to facilitate the implementation of Administrative IT. At the beginning of the Administrative IT project, a meeting was established to coordinate implementation, and although no minutes were taken, and no formal plan written, both groups were confident, based on past working experience, that all parties would contribute the support that they had indicated. The Head of Personnel Administration is a strong advocate of communication, and relies heavily on e-mail as a means of disseminating current information about issues within the Base Administration Branch. For example, one of his initiatives to amalgamate to Finance and 62 Administration functions uses e-mail as a mechanism 'to advertise' the changes in the Personnel Administration unit to the rest of the base. He also uses e-mail as a mechanism to communicate with the IT unit, and with respect to the development of the electronic records management system, tries to keep his superiors informed on projects that have widespread impact on the rest of the base. The Head of Personnel Administration promotes communication about IT issues within the entire Base H Administration Branch. He recently organized the base Administration Branch Seminar, and personally addressed issues concerning the National Administration Information System implementation and the electronic records management system. He is concerned that amongst administrators, both at Base H and within the Canadian Forces as a whole, there is a lack of understanding concerning requirements for administrators to become IT literate if not IT management capable. "Some people believe that technology is a whole mysterious process that belongs to technogeeks, not administrators and there's no place in the administration world. As a matter of fact, that's very much not the case. It's not only important to be computer literate, but you have to understand the process first. It's hard to automate something you don't quite understand. " b. Permanent Teams/Committees There is no formal IT steering group established at Base H, however, there is formal IT Coordinator Group that meets twice a month. Each unit/branch on the base sends a representative, generally the most computer literate person, and this representative supports IT at their respective unit/branch as a secondary duty. The responsibility of the IT coordinator is to address concerns at the unit level, and liaise on behalf of the unit with the base IT unit. There are difficulties with this system in that the unit representatives are not selected by the IT unit, and are 63 not always competent concerning IT. The Deputy Head of IT commented that this group was not as successful as it could be because of varying levels of computer literacy among participants, as well as varying levels of commitment to the secondary duty. Nevertheless, the IT unit supports this Committee concept. The Deputy Head of IT commented: "A perfect example is [Unit X] where they've given the job of [IT coordinator] to the sick, lame and the ugly and it shows when you get in there. " Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFORMAL, FREQUENT and DIVERSE. Permanent Committee (IT Coordinator Group) communication was rated as MODERATELY FREQUENT and FOCUSED on technical issues. 6.2.4 Connections between Business and IT Planning Business Planning at Base H is immature. Neither the Head of Administration, nor Head of IT have been involved in any business planning meetings. The Head of Personnel Administration has been anticipating the requirement for business planning by adding a presentation concerning the requirement for business planning to the Base H's Annual Administration Branch Seminar Agenda. The Head of Personnel Administration expressed frustration at the requirement to create a business plan in the face of fluctuating military requirements. "The actual mission statement, my mission statement for instance, is a bit similar to the Base Administration Branches' - to provide the highest level of personnel administrative support. If the resources are shrinking, then we try to still provide the highest level we possibly can. So really it's a moving target at the moment. Nobody knows for sure where it's going, but we are endeavoring to do the best we can with what we 're given to work with. To a certain extent we have a hand in deciding what the resource levels will be based on substantiating our environment through the business planning process. " 64 One of the plans in progress within the Personnel Administration unit is the amalgamation of the Finance and Personnel Administration staffs and functions. This project has been coined the 'One Stop Shopping Initiative', established in response to plans at Headquarters to amalgamate the Finance and Administration Branches functions to reduce personnel. This local initiative is similar to some of the initiatives on other bases. There are no formal written plans that outline how these functions will be amalgamated, and to what extent, particularly important for this type of initiative is the fact that the Comptroller Branch and the Personnel Administration Branch are separate branches, and some other bases have encounter friction in this type of initiative project. The Base H IT unit has established a regional allocation system in which the units are given equipment, and left to allocate as they see fit. The Deputy Head of IT stated that he "believed strongly in local responsibility and accountability" for IT. He further explained that within the IT unit, there is a planning and requirements section which makes presentations to the base but he was not personally aware of what was presented. Connections between business and IT planning was rated as ISOLATED. 6.2.5 Other Factors a. Contracting Process within IT unit The Deputy Head of IT stated that the contracting process for civilians was particularly frustrating, as some civilian IT personnel were under six month contracting cycles. 65 b. Training and General IT Literacy in the Canadian Forces The Head of Personnel Administration expressed concern at the training and general IT literacy rate of members of the Canadian Forces. "A lot of people have no formal technical training, in the form of computer training, or haven't been exposed earlier in their career, who have to pick it up on their own. And there's still a few people who've decided they 're going to ride it out and not get involved. " Table 5 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base H FACTORS SUMMARY AND RATINGS 1. Success in IT Implementation • IT unit is in the middle of implementing a base IT infrastructure based on an IT plan developed five years ago. • IT unit is viewed very favorably by the Personnel Administration Unit. Personnel Administration has been connected to the M A N for two years. • The IT unit has consistently maintained and supported existing equipment as well as supporting administrative initiatives concerning IT. • Rating - M O D E R A T E - H I G H 2. Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Head of Personnel Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E Head of IT • Military Experience - HIGH • IT Management Experience - HIGH • Awareness of New Technology - HIGH 3. Communication between Business and IS Executives • Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFORMAL, FREQUENT and DIVERSE. • Permanent Committee (IT Coordinator Group) communication was rated as M O D E R A T E L Y FREQUENT and FOCUSED on technical issues. • Rating - M O D E R A T E 4. Connections between Business and IT Planning ISOLATED 5. Other Factors • IT unit contracting process - The contracting process for civilians was particularly frustrating in some of the contracts, as some civilian IT personnel were under six month contracting cycles. • Training and General IT Literacy problem in the Canadian Forces. 66 6.3 Factors - Base E On Base E the Head of Personnel Administration, the Head of IT and the Deputy Head of IT were interviewed. 6.3.1 Success in IT Implementation The previous history of the IT unit is not viewed positively by the majority of units on Base E. This is due primarily to the lack of IT plans, and the ad hoc nature of computer acquisition to date. The Head of IT is fully aware of this situation, but feels constrained by rank, and the workload requests faced simply to keep present systems running. The Head of IT stated: "There are a lot of demands. There a lot things that take our time. A lot of things aren 't set up properly, in just a [Band-Aid] way. It falls down a lot. I get the impression that a lot of people think that we 're not doing a good enough job. And that may be true. We may not be satisfying the crowd". IT Planning has been taken out of the hands of the Head of IT by the Base E Branch Heads, who determine their computer requirements at what is considered budget time, generally at the end of the fiscal budgetary year. The Head of IT also stated: "The way I see it, some of it is that we are being pushed and pulled, no control. We don't have any say over [IT]. A lot of it to me is that there has been no direction and we have to set our own direction and when you do that, you have to fight every step of the way, because you don't have anybody behind you." One of the previous driving forces for IT acquisition was the Base Comptroller. This individual controls the base budget, and for the past several years has encouraged separate units to save money from their budget at year's end. "And at that point it wasn 't so much an overall plan, it was who deserves a [PC] and who doesn't kind of thing. The Commanding Officers and Branch Heads would sit around and fight out the specifics of the priority list and they would just work their way down that list with whatever money they had left over for the year. Buy everything all at once, put it out on the desk, and make it happen. " 67 At Base E, the first major IT project concerns Networking Infrastructure. No formal IT development plans exists for this project. The Head of IT stated: "The plan is really unfolding more than it is being developed I would say. Things are falling into place but nobody can see much further than one year. But I'm not sure that's any different any place else. The five year plan, they had one and about the same time the five year plan was created [Command] stopped asking for the plans so [Command] could spend the money. So ever since then they've just basically been saying well, if you think you need a computer chances are you do and so we 11 see if we have the money to buy you one." The second major IT project currently in progress is the preparation of the base for amalgamation of some of its functions with another base. The Deputy Head of IT commented that he believed that no one really understood the extent of IT unit work required to make this happen. "I don't think they [Senior Base Management] realize how much work we [IT unit] have to do. So I don't know if you've seen their set-up over there, but they're semi major-league and they don't want to mess around, so we have to come under their auspices as a lodger unit and we have to get ready for that. It's only two months away. What we have now is not acceptable for their environment." Success in IT Implementation was rated as LOW. 6.3.2 Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives a. Personnel Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Administration has seventeen years of military service. This Officer has been employed in his current position for one year, and will shortly leave the military. He has had a number of postings to Administrative support positions in the Defense research field. He has limited exposure to IT, and relies heavily on his personnel administration staff to take care of the computers. 68 • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - LOW • Awareness of New Technology - LOW b. IT Unit The Head of IT holds a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering, and has three years of military experience. This Officer has been employed in the position of Head of IT for two and half years. "I don't have any specific background in IT per say, but I have an interest, and I have what I've picked up along the way. You have to learn pretty quickly when you 're in a spot like this. " • Military Experience - MODERATE • IT Management Experience - MODERATE • Awareness of New Technology - MODERATE The Deputy Head of IT is a Civilian with four years of experience working with the military. He has a Community College background in IT, and has been employed in his current position for two years. "My training is community college as a mini/micro computer specialist. This was my first job outside of that, and previously, I was just interested in computers and IT. Since I've been here, I've gone from the bottom to running the shop. " • Military Experience - LOW • IT Management Experience - MODERATE • Awareness of New Technology - MODERATE 69 6.3.3 Communication between Business and IT Executives a. Direct Communication concerning IT issues occurs occasionally at the weekly Branch Head Meetings, of which neither the Head of IT nor the Head of Personnel Administration are members. Information is disseminated through the Branch Heads and through minutes to these meetings. On a working level, there is no interaction between the Head of IT and Head of Personnel Administration. b. Permanent Teams/Committees There are two formal IT steering groups established at Base E. They are the Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC) and the Functional ADP [Automated Data Processing] System Managers (FASMs) Committee: • Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC) This committee is made up of Commanding Officers, Branch Heads, and the MICA [Management Information Control Authority, who is the Base Comptroller]. The Chairman for this committee is Base Operations Officer. The Head of IT was assigned the duty to be Secretary for this committee. Two meetings were held in the last fiscal year. Previous to 1995, meetings were held annually. Issues presented have traditionally been budgetary, and technical in nature. 70 The following is an excerpt from the minutes of the last IMSC Meeting: Nov. 95 15. Role of [Head of IT] Significant discussion ensured regarding the sometimes conflicting requirements for Commanding Officers/Branch Heads to have the flexibility to make cost effective IT purchases, while [Head of IT] requires technical standards to ensure compatibility between newly purchased and existing equipment. The role of the [Head of IT] as a technical advisor was clarified. The [Head of IT] will provide specific guidance to [Base EJ regarding the minimum technical standards for future purchases, especially with respect to equipment to be networked with the rest of the [Base]. 16. Information Services [Base E], like many DND establishments, currently lacks an efficient methods to ensure all personnel are well informed. The IMSC will investigate the possibilities of some type of system. Jan. 96 2. Structured Wiring/Fiber Optic Project Update [Head of IT] briefed the committee regarding the progress to date on the projects, and noted that work is progressing well. Decision: The following is the order ofpriority for remaining DND buildings for both the fiber optic back bone and the in-house structured wiring. 6. Internet Accounts The [Head of IT] announced that an Internet account had been set up for each Commanding Officer/Branch Head, as well as some other [Base E] personnel. 4. SLIP Link [Commanding Officer XJ noted that either a SLIP Link (Serial Line Internet Protocol, the first widely available protocol and extensively used) or a PPP Link (Point to Point Protocol, a newer protocol which can process higher] data rates) would be required for Internet access as well as access to Weather Information through the Met OC, and asked whether the same computer could be used for both. 12. Standardization of e-mail address format Discussion centered around the transparency of names and the difficult for remote users to sort for [Base EJ addresses in an efficient and obvious manner. The following example illustrates IMSC's focus on obtaining funding to purchase computers. No reference to business objectives or support requirements are noted. Business planning simply consists of prioritizing computer requirements. 3. Year End Buy [Base Comptroller - MICA] informed the committee that [Base EJ currently has a surplus of SxM, of which $xK is available for ADP procurements. 14. [Base IT/IM Action Plan] [Base Comptroller - MICA] informed the other committee members that at one time [Base EJ was required to provide a five year plan to [Command] from which ADP items had to be purchased. Most of the equipment listed in the last five year plan was either purchased or rendered obsolete within the first two years. In the meantime, [Base EJ has prepared a priority list each year, from which purchases have been made. Now that funds are devolved, and [Command] no longer requires a five year plan, [Base EJ has not produced one recently. [Base Comptroller] suggested that, although an overall [Base EJ plan was of little use, each Commanding Officer should produce an individual plan, in order that relative progress towards automation may be measured and the IMSC funds allocated accordingly. These IM/IT plans may eventually become an Appendix to the [Unit] Business Plan, but in the meantime, they should be prepared as stand alone documents. Decision: Each Commanding Officer/Branch Head will prepare a unit IM/IT plan for discussion at the next IMSC meeting. 71 • Functional ADP System Managers (FASM) Committee This committee is made up of unit representatives who perform their task as a secondary duty. The individual selected as a representative is generally the most computer literate member of his/her respective unit/branch. The terms of reference for FASM representative state: "FASMs Expertise/Interest: [Units]/Branches must carefully choose FASMs to ensure personnel are chosen who will be enthusiastic and reliable in their performance of this secondary duty, regardless of rank or previous incumbent in the position. " The main function of FASM representatives in their respective units or branches is to provide technical support for the computer systems existing in their unit. This liaison role is also heavily relied upon to determine unit IT requirements. There is a recognition by the units, and the Head of IT, that these individuals' primary duties are being affected by requests for IT support. There are no recorded meeting for this committee and they meet infrequently. c. Temporary Task Force In order to cope with base downsizing, the Base Commander established a re-engineering team, consisting of the most effective, and qualified people on the base. They received training on re-engineering, and are assisted by a full-time consultant. This re-engineering team also worked with the IT unit to determine how they could best support changing base IT requirements. The team conducted months of meetings, interviews with base personnel. The re-engineering team produced a plan that was well received by base personnel. This base wide infrastructure proposal was presented to the Base Commander and was rejected on the advice of 72 two Branch Heads. The team was directed without explanation that the re-engineering would progress instead in a piece-meal fashion, addressing each individual unit at a time. A shock wave of disbelief swept the Base causing the morale to drop and hampering further support for the re-engineering team. The re-engineering team, recognizing weaknesses with base IT management, decided that the first section to be addressed was the IT unit. A special team was established in conjunction with the FASM Committee to develop a new IT organization. Based on the recognized value and success of FASM support, the plan proposed that the 'new IT' be headed by a military member with a post-graduate degree in Management Information Systems supported by approximately 17 full-time civilians employees. One IT qualified civilian would be dedicated to each major unit, and the number 17 was determined based on the approximate number of hours that the FASMs are currently spending on IT support. The plan had not yet been presented to the Base Commander at time of this thesis research. Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFREQUENT. Permanent Committee (Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC)) communication was rated as INFREQUENT and FOCUSED on budgetary and technical issues. Permanent Committee (Functional ADP System Managers (FASMs) Committee) communication was rated as INFREQUENT and FOCUSED on technical issues. Temporary Task Forces (Re-engineering Team) communication was rated as FREQUENT and FOCUSED. 73 6.3.4 Connections between Business and IT Planning Business Planning at Base E is immature, and a full scale business plan has not been required from Headquarters to date. Neither the Head of Administration nor Head of IT have been involved in any planning process meetings. The Head of Personnel Administration commented on business planning: "We haven't seen much of it yet. The whole idea of military business planning has been slow to percolate out to the sections. But as far as I understand it, [Command] comes up with a plan that's very generic and then each base comes up Base a plan that is slightly more specific, but it again it will have a sentence that says we '11 put emphasis on [IT] so everyone can communicate, and leave it at that. " At Base E the IT planning process is weak to non-existent. The Head of IT felt "powerless" in this regard as her IT unit has been directed by the Information Management Steering Committee to act as advisors only. The Head of IT stated: "There will be '96 IT plans because each of the [units] with all their devolved money are going to be expected to come up with where they would like to see their particular squadron and branch go in terms of IT and automation. You could take the stack of nine plans together and say well there you go, that's the plan for Base E. But it's coming from the user end as opposed to the IT end. The Commanding Officers and Branch Heads made it pretty clear here a few months ago that they saw our shop as advisors only as opposed to movers, shakers, and pushers. Making binding decisions was up to them cause they were they were the one with the money. " The Head of IT described her present planning process as reactive. "We take steps' that we know take us in the direction we want to go, even if we're not quite sure where we 're going to end up. Meaning, if we know that we 're trying to get to an automated interconnected kind of system, then buying computers for specific users or units or whatever takes us in that direction, even if we don't quite have a good picture on paper of what the finalized thing is going to be. So, I mean we've said yes to things that go in that direction and no to things that would be against it, but we haven't created a plan ". Connections between business and IT planning was rated as ISOLATED. 74 6.3.5 Other Factors a. Size and Compositions of IT unit The Head of IT expressed concern regarding the way the IT unit had been established. The base provided three IT unit members on a term contract basis. Her concern was that the contracts of six months were uncertain in terms of permanency, and money to renew these contracts was not always guaranteed. Another issue is that the user community has become frustrated with the slow pace of IT development and are diverting money in ingenious ways to buy computers and support. One unit, for example, has hired a full-time network manager to support their unit. This individual reports directly to the unit, and is not responsible for following the guidelines of the IT unit. b. Rank/Status of the Head of IT The Head of IT is a junior Officer on her first posting. She feels her rank and reporting relationship severely hinder her ability to plan, direct and control IT on Base E. "You wonder if things would have turned out differently if I had been a Major [two rank level higher than IT Officer at this base] saying to these people ". c. Headquarters IT unit Support and Direction The Head of IT and the Deputy Head of IT were both pleased that a Headquarters IT unit has been organized as a result of recognition of problems at the base level. Both were concerned, however, that this organization was not moving fast enough to provide required support. The Head of IT stated: "I'm optimistic about the future of IT at the base level. Simply because there is an overlord [Headquarters IT unit] somewhere out there that appears to understand the requirement for a standardized and logical approach. But whoever is pushing IT should push harder and make it happen. And if they let it proliferate willy-nilly down here, its just a tangle of weeds. It has to be centered. It has to be locked down. It has to become a tool. " 75 d. Command Influence Although the Head of IT was optimistic about creation of a Headquarters IT unit, she felt that their influence Canadian Forces wide had been weak to this point due to the Commands. The Head of IT stated: "Historically the problem has been that [Command] was mute to the point that they weren't saying anything because they didn't have any direction. They didn't make decisions. So they've ended up with a mess. In the [Command], the IT people have a lot of sway. What they say goes for the most part and they have the power to dictate. Everybody's done it their own way taking everything from scratch without direction. So if you see a divergence in a heterogeneous environment on every base, that's the reason. DISO [Headquarters IT unit] is influencing things a lot more lately, which is good. If they want everybody to communicate, it has to be directed. " 76 T a b l e 6 S u m m a r y o f Fac to rs I n f l u e n c i n g the Soc ia l D i m e n s i o n o f L i n k a g e f o r Base E F A C T O R S S U M M A R Y A N D R A T I N G S 1. Success in I T Implementat ion • Previous history of the IT unit is not viewed positively by the majority of units. This is due primarily to the lack of IT plans, and the ad hoc nature of computer acquisition to date. • The Head of IT is fully aware of this situation, but feels constrained by rank, and the workload requests faced simply to keep present systems running. • Rating - L O W 2. Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Head of Personnel Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - L O W • Awareness of New Technology - L O W Head of IT • Military Experience - M O D E R A T E • IT Management Experience - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E Deputy Head of IT • Military Experience - L O W • IT Management Experience - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E 3. Communicat ion between Business and IS Executives • Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFREQUENT. • Permanent Committee (Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC)) communication was rated as INFREQUENT and FOCUSED on budgetary and technical issues. • Permanent Committee (Functional A D P System Managers (FASMs) Committee) communication was rated as INFREQUENT and FOCUSED on technical issues. • Temporary Task Forces (Re-engineering Team) communication is rated as FREQUENT and FOCUSED. • Rating - L O W 4. Connections between Business and I T Planning ISOLATED 5. Other Factors • Size and composition of IT is too small to cope with unit requirements. • Rank/Status of the Head of IT considered too junior to influence decisions. • Lack of Headquarters IT unit support and Direction. • Command Influence overrides efforts of Headquarters IT unit. 77 Chapter Seven Analysis and Summary of Cross Base Results 7.1 Introduction In this chapter, Linkage assessments for the bases studied are compared and contrasted. Research findings from all eight bases are combined in order to analyze the effects of factors influencing the social dimension of Linkage as discussed in chapters five and six. Additional issues arising from the research conducted as found in chapter six are also discussed. 7.2 Summary of the Linkage Findings on the Bases In this section, findings from all eight bases are combined in order to analyze the Linkage measures. Table 7 provides a summary of the Linkage findings on all the bases. 7.2.1 Short Term Linkage (Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives) The Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives measure on the eight bases had a high variance, ranging from LOW to HIGH, as examined in chapter five. The following ratings were obtained for Short Term Linkage: Two bases (B,H) rated HIGH, two bases (C,F) rated MODERATE, three bases (A,E,G) rated LOW/MODERATE, and one base (D) rated LOW. On five of the eight bases (B,C,D,F,H), both the Administration Officers and the IT Officers were rated as having the same levels of understanding of objectives. On the three bases (A,E,G), which had different levels of understanding of objectives, the IT Officers were rated as having one level higher level of understanding of base business objectives than the Administration Officers of IT objectives. 78 7.2.2 Long Term Linkage (Congruence in Shared Vision for IT) The Congruence in Shared Vision for IT measure on the eight bases had a low variance, ranging from LOW to MODERATE as examined in chapter six. The following ratings were obtained for Long Term Linkage: Two bases (B,H) rated MODERATE, and six bases (A,C,D,E,F,G) rated LOW. Bases B and H, were the only ones which were also rated as having HIGH levels of Short Term Linkage. Most of the officers interviewed were able to express a vision for IT, but generally this vision was not similar for the Administration Officers and the IT Officers. The IT Officers tended to express the generic Headquarters' IT vision, and how it should in theory, be implemented. The Administration Officers tended to be less optimistic about the role of IT in the future, basing their assessments on their perceived lack of success in implementing national legacy systems. If they had ideas about applications, then they were more local in their focus; they were not interested or able to see how IT could link bases or raise overall performance of services. 7.2.3 Cross References in Written Objectives The Cross References in Written Objectives measure on all eight bases had a low variance, ranging from LOW to MODERATE on Short Term Linkage and a rating of NO PLANS rating on all the bases Long Term Linkage as examined in chapter six. Seven of the eight bases (A,B,D,E,F,G,H) exhibited LOW ratings of Linkage in their short term plans. Only one of the eight bases, Base C, had a short term business plan that referred to the short term IT plan, and vice versa. The reporting relationship of this base, where Head of Administration and the Head of IT reported directly to the Deputy Base Commander facilitated, this Linkage. As 79 well, the Deputy Base Commander was aware of the importance of Linkage and had begun to stress its importance to his personnel. All eight bases exhibited a NO PLANS rating of Linkage in their long term plans. 7.2.3.1 Business Plans Of the eight bases examined, four bases (B,C,F,G) had mandated short term base business plans. Base A was exempt by Headquarters due to a changing configuration of the base. Three of the four bases (A,D,E) without a short term base business plan did have "one time" planning documents which addressed downsizing, amalgamation or moving of the base functions. None of the eight bases examined had long term plans. Reasons given for the lack of long term plans was the nature and immaturity of military business planning in the Canadian Forces and the amount of downsizing, restructuring and reorganizing currently underway. The following observations were made with respect to the base business plans: a. Base business plans were written as "unit job descriptions", rather than in a format normally associated with civilian business plans. They provided broad listing of requirements and generally did not contain specific objectives or projects; b. Administration branch/unit business plans were not identical or similar across the bases in content or format; c. In most cases, base business plans did not include time lines, responsibilities, accountability, resource requirements and businesses planning cycles; d. Annual forecasting and budget requirements typically referred to the operations and maintenance budget, and did not include the capital budget. Resource allocations were given in person years and dollar values, which does not indicate the type of budgeting applied, capital costs or Operating & Maintenance (O&M) budgeting. These values were not allocated to 80 specific objectives or projects. If the business plan contained a category of O&M costs associated with each business function, there was no breakdown associated with these costs, and in the specific business plan, half of the business functions do not have an associated cost; and, e. IT is only briefly referred to in the business plans, with generally only a paragraph or two for reference. No definitive action or direction regarding IT is outlined. 7.2.3.2 IT Plans The development of IT plans generally proceeded any development of base business plans, as true business planning did not begin within the Canadian Forces until 1992, and some long term IT projects, such as the MAN, required long-term planning to commence before this date. In many cases, base IT plans associated with ongoing long term projects were several years old. Of the eight bases examined, four bases (B,C,E,G) had short term IT plans. Of the eight bases, two bases (F,H) had long term IT plans, however, these long term plans were both several years old. Bases without IT plans often maintained a listing of current projects, which they considered sufficient to comply with military requirements. Base C is an interesting case as the nature of the business conducted at Base C is IT Management. The majority of the Base Cs IT plan addressed why the base could not adequately support IT. The business plan gives direction to IT planning primarily because the nature of the business conducted at this base is to provide IT direction to its subordinate units. There is, however, confusion and redundancy in the two plans as some of the business plan covers IT issues and part of the IT plan covers these same issues at varying levels of detail. There are also some IT issues included in the business plan that are not addressed well, or at all, in the IT plan and this indicates a lack of connection in planning processes. 81 In summary, the lack of congruence in the Cross References in Written Objectives measure can be explained by the nature and lack of development of the military business planning process and the change in military concept from that of a centrally controlled organization to a devolved budgetary and responsibility (decentralized) organization. In light of this low variance in written objectives we will not use this measure in the cross base analysis. 7.2.4 Subjective Ratings of Linkage The Subjective Ratings of Linkage measure on the eight bases had a high variance, ranging from LOW to HIGH as examined in chapter five. On Base E, the Subjective Ratings of Linkage was rated as LOW. On five bases (A,C,D,F,G), the Subjective Ratings of Linkage was rated as LOW-MODERATE. On Base B the Subjective Ratings of Linkage was rated as MODERATE and on Base H, the Subjective Ratings of Linkage was rated as HIGH. There was not a strong correlation between the Administration Officers and IT Officers Subjective Ratings of Linkage. On three of the eight bases (E, B, H), all officers (Administration and IT) rated Linkage identically: LOW, MODERATE and HIGH respectively. Of the remaining five bases, Administration Officers on Bases C, F and G rated Linkage one level higher than the IT Officers and the Administration Officers on Bases A and D rated Linkage one level lower than the IT Officers. 7.2.5 Implementation of the National Administration Information System The Implementation of the National Administration Information System measure had a high variance, ranging from LOW to HIGH as examined in chapter five. Five of the eight bases (A,C,D,E,G), were rated as LOW, Base H was rated as MODERATE and two bases (B,F) were rated as HIGH. 8 2 The bases receiving MODERATE to HIGH ratings, (B,F,H), received these ratings due to the actions and involvement of the Administration Officers upon these bases in ensuring that the IT implementation occurred as intended by Headquarters. In general these Administrative staffs were found to possess strong team attributes which facilitated interaction among members, and much mutual assistance occurred with regard to trouble shooting. Two of the bases (C, G) that were rated as LOW, were not given access to the National Administration Information System. The Administration Officers expressed frustration about this lack of access, and the concern that their administrative staff were left behind in terms of training. However, neither of these two bases had requested access to the system or had developed standardized procedures to ensure that this lack of access did not impede the administrative functions. 83 Table 7 Summary of Linkage Findings on the Bases Implementation of National Administration Information System LOW HIGH LOW LOW LOW HIGH LOW MODERATE Table 7 Summary of Linkage Findings on the Bases Subjective Ratings of Linkage Head Pers Admin. - LOW D/Head Pers Admin. - LOW Head IT - MODERATE Average - LOW/MODERATE Head Pers Services - MODERATE Head Pers Admin. - MODERATE Head IT - MODERATE Average - MODERATE Deputy Base Commander - MOD Head Admin. - LOW Head IT - LOW Average - LOW/MODERATE Head Pers Admin. - LOW D/Head Pers Admin. - LOW D/Head IT - MODERATE Average - LOW/MODERATE Head Pers Admin. - LOW Head IT - LOW Average - LOW Head Pers Admin. - MODERATE D/Head Pers Admin. - LOW Head IT - LOW Average - LOW/MODERATE Head Admin. - LOW D/Head Admin. - MODERATE Head IT - LOW Average - LOW/MODERATE Head Pers Admin. - HIGH D/Head IT - HIGH Average - HIGH Table 7 Summary of Linkage Findings on the Bases Congruence in Shared Vision for IT LOW MODERATE LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW MODERATE Table 7 Summary of Linkage Findings on the Bases Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives Pers Admin. - LOW IT - MODERATE Average - LOW/MODERATE Pers Admin. - HIGH IT - HIGH Average - HIGH Admin. - MODERATE IT - - MODERATE Average - MODERATE Pers Admin. - LOW IT - LOW Average -LOW Pers Admin. - LOW IT - MODERATE Average - LOW/MODERA TE Pers Admin. - MOD IT - MODERATE Average - MODERA TE Admin. - LOW IT - MODERATE Average - LOW/MODERATE Pers Admin. - HIGH IT - HIGH Average - HIGH Table 7 Summary of Linkage Findings on the Bases Cross References in Written Objectives Short Term - LOW Long Term - NO PLANS Short Term - LOW Long Term - NO PLANS Short Term - MODERATE Long Term - NO PLANS Short Term - LOW Long Term - NO PLANS Short Term - LOW Long Term - NO PLANS Short Term - LOW Long Term - NO PLANS Short Term - LOW Long Term - NO PLANS Short Term - LOW Long Term - NO PLANS Table 7 Summary of Linkage Findings on the Bases Base < 03 U Q w fa O 53 84 7.3 Findings Concerning Factors which Influence the Social Dimension of Linkage at the Bases In this section, findings from all eight bases are combined in order to analyze the effects of the factors which influence the social dimension of Linkage as examined in chapter six. The hypothesized relationship between linkage and each of these factors is stated and examined across the bases. In addition, other factors are discussed. Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.5) hypothesize, with respect to the factors which influence the social dimension of Linkage, that "the 'antecedent factors', shared domain knowledge and success in IT implementation, would influence the 'current practices' factors, communication and connections in planning and these two in turn would influence the attainment of linkage. " 7.3.1 Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives The following ratings were obtained for the Shared Domain Knowledge Factor: a. Three bases (B,F,H) rated MODERATE; and, b. Five bases (A,C,D,E,G) rated LOW. Two examples follow: a. Base B (MODERATE Shared Domain Knowledge) The Head of Personnel Services holds a degree in Labor Relations, and has fifteen years of military experience. This individual has a good understanding of the potential of IT and is currently setting up a computer training center to address the IT training requirements of the base. The Head of Personnel Administration holds a Bachelor of Commerce degree, with specialization in Marketing Management, and has nine years of military service to date. In spite of acknowledging a "low level of computer literacy", this officer expressed very progressive thinking concerning the role that IT should play in the Personnel Administration Organization. 85 The Head of IT holds a Bachelor of Computer Science degree, and has thirteen years of military service in the communications and electronic engineering field. This officer has been working in the position of Head of IT for one and a half years. The Deputy Head of IT holds a Bachelor of Computer Science and has three years of military experience. This posting is the officer's first, and this individual is regularly called upon to assume the role of Acting Head of IT, sometimes for extended periods. b. Base A (LOW Shared Domain Knowledge) The Head of Personnel Administration has eight years of military experience. This officer has been employed in the position of Head of Personnel Administration for four years, and previously had a Headquarters position in Ottawa before being posted to Base A. This officer has had limited exposure to IT, and doesn't feel comfortable with the technology. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration holds a Bachelor of Arts and has three years of military experience. This officer has been employed in the position of Deputy Head of Personnel Administration for two years. His only IT training has been a one day Lotus course and a one day Microsoft project management course. He started with word processing, and became a self-taught user on most types of application. He considers himself quite comfortable from a user's perspective. This individual is relied heavily upon by administration personnel for technical problems. The Head of IT has been employed in the position of Head of IT for one and a half years. This officer originally joined the military as a Reserve non-commissioned member in the capacity of a teletype operator and, then transferred to the Regular force receiving a commission upon entry. He admits to not having an extensive background in technology but has individually pursued night school courses (towards a certificate of business technology) and self-study. Administration Officers Of the thirteen Administration Officers interviewed, only one officer at Base F had IT management experience. Due to the nature of Administration specialization, an officer will generally not be exposed to IT in a management role. Of the remaining twelve Administration Officers, only two at Base B and Base H felt comfortable with IT and actively pursued IT opportunities. Most expressed frustration at their lack of IT training, and felt that a lack of knowledge severely impeded their ability to participation in IT decisions relating to Administration. The lack of IT training and involvement in IT projects served to lower the Shared Domain Knowledge measured at the bases. 86 IT Officers Of ten IT Officers interviewed, six had less than five years of military experience. The remaining four IT Officers had more than ten years of military experience. None had administration management experience, and this lack of business skills, combined with high mobility, served to lower the Shared Domain Knowledge measured at the bases. Nine of the ten IT Officers had been working in their current position for less than two and a half years. 7.3.1.1 The Effect of Shared Domain Knowledge on Communication between Business and IS Executives Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p. 18) hypothesize that "the level of shared domain knowledge between IS and business unit executives would affect their level of communication. " The results in table 8 support this hypothesis in six cases. On two bases (B,H), a MODERATE Shared Domain Knowledge rating was associated with a MODERATE Communication rating. On four bases (A,D,E,G), a LOW Shared Domain Knowledge rating was associated with a LOW Communication rating. One of the eight bases (C), a LOW rating of Shared Domain Knowledge rating was associated with a MODERATE Communication rating. At Base C, the Deputy Base Commander took responsibility for ensuring that the Head of Administration and Head of IT communicated during his weekly meetings. However, he also felt that it was his responsibility to ensure that both of his subordinate officers learn about each other's role, in order to ensure that that Linkage was attained. On one base (F), a MODERATE Shared Domain Knowledge rating was associated with a LOW Communication rating. At Base F, the Deputy Head of Administration had previous IT 87 experience while working in a Headquarters position. This situation or opportunity is not common among Administration Officers. This knowledge lead the Deputy Head of Administration to state that he felt knowledgeable enough about IT to provide that information to his Administration unit. He did not have a member of the IT unit present during discussions about possible IT implementation in this re-engineering committee. 7.3.1.2 The Effect of Shared Domain Knowledge on Connections between Business and IT Planning Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.21) hypothesize that "high level of shared domain knowledge would result in business and IT planning processes which were tightly interconnected and conversely, that a low level of shared domain knowledge would result in loosely coupled business and IT planning processing. " The results in table 8 do not support this hypothesis because of the null variance in the Connections in Planning rating, discussed in 7.3.4. In summary, Shared Domain Knowledge influenced Communication, yet was not evident on all bases. It was not possible to provide support for the influence of Shared Domain Knowledge upon Connections in Planning due to an ISOLATED rating in all eight cases. Table 8 The Effects of the Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Factor Effect Base Shared Domain Knowledge Communication A LOW LOW - Negative Effect B MODERATE MODERATE - Positive Effect C LOW MODERATE - No Effect D LOW LOW - Negative Effect E LOW LOW - Negative Effect F MODERATE LOW - No Effect G LOW LOW - Negative Effect H MODERATE MODERATE - Positive Effect 88 7.3.2 Success in IT Implementation There is a relatively short history of IT implementation for the support functions (i.e. Administration which is the focus of this research), except for Base C whose main function is Telecommunication Support. The reason for this short history is due to the fact that the traditional Telecommunication unit role has expanded over the past several years to include IT support for base Automated Data Processing (ADP) projects, and National Information Systems. As well, the allocation of responsibility and resources to the base level, as a result of the Defence 2000 management program, has was associated with an expanded IT role for these bases/units. The major project to date for most IT units was the development of the Base Metropolitan Area Network. This change or expansion of role is reflected in the unit's recent name change on a typical base to Base Telecommunication and Information Services Unit. The following ratings were obtained for Success in IT Implementation Factor: a. One base (H) rated MODERATE-HIGH; b. Two bases (D,F) rated MODERATE; c. One base (A) rated LOW-MODERATE; and, d. Four bases (B,C,E,G) rated LOW. Two examples follow: a. Base H (MODERATE-HIGH Success in IT Implementation) Base H's IT unit is in the middle of implementing an IT infrastructure based on an IT plan developed five years ago and Personnel Administration has been connected to the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) for two years. The IT unit is viewed very favorably by the Personnel Administration Unit.. It has consistently maintained and supported existing equipment, and has supported administrative initiatives concerning IT. 89 b. Base E (LOW Success in IT Implementation) The previous history of the Base E's IT unit is not viewed positively by the majority of units. This is due primarily to the lack of IT plans, and the ad hoc nature of computer acquisition to date. The Head of IT is fully aware of this situation, but feels constrained by rank, and the workload requests faced simply to keep the present systems running. IT implementation has also occurred as a result of initiatives within specific units addressing in their specific IT needs and requirements. These initiatives are initiated with varying degrees of IT unit support, and are generally funded by the base at the branch/unit level. One example is documentation creation. Although there is a nationally distributed macro application for message and letter creation, each of the eight bases examined had many personalized and unit specific macros and templates created by members within the unit. Another example specific to the Administration Branch was the documentation storage and retrieval projects dealing with e-mail correspondence, and in an attempt to create a 'paperless environment'. Three of the eight bases (C, F, H) had projects attempting to address the 'paperless environment' issue. One base (C) had the Administration Branch overseeing the project, a second base (H) had a collaborative effort by the Administration Branch and IT unit, and at a third base (F) the project was run by the IT unit. Based on the cost expended at Base C in this effort, a modest estimate of the resources spent nationally on the eight research sites on document, storage and retrieval related projects is $1 Million. 7.3.2.1 The Effect of Success in IT Implementation on Communication between Business and IS Executives Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.24) hypothesize that "a history of successful IT implementation history would positively influence communication between business and IS 90 executives. " The results in table 9 support this hypothesis in only three of the eight bases. On one base (H), a MODERATE-HIGH Success in IT Implementation rating was associated with a MODERATE Communication rating. On two bases (E,G), a LOW Success in IT Implementation rating was associated with a LOW Communication rating. On two of the eight bases (B,C), a LOW rating of Success in IT Implementation was associated with a MODERATE Communication rating. Possible explanations for this relationship include: a. The Canadian Forces population is very transitory, and Success in IT Implementation does not influence communication, as the personnel tend to have faith in the ability of incoming personnel. This faith was verbally expressed by the Head of Administration at Base C; and, b. Due to the limited nature of previous base level IT implementation, personnel have not formulated their communication patterns based on beliefs concerning earlier projects. This situation was the case of Base B, where until the beta project, few computers were available. On three of the eight bases (A,D,F), a higher Success in IT Implementation rating was associated with a LOW Communication rating. These results support Reich and Benbasat (1994b) in that the Shared Domain Knowledge factor can moderate the effects of Success in IT Implementation upon Communication. It is possible that a low Shared Domain Knowledge would cause some bases to base their belief in the success of their IT unit upon the number of computers and the level of support they received, regardless of the actual level of success. For example, at Base A, the Administration Officers were not aware of IT success and instead focused on their specific difficulties with the IT unit. At Base D, the head of Administration had a low Shared Domain Knowledge, and based his appreciation of IT success on the number of computers he expected he would be receiving. The moderating influence of Shared Domain Knowledge is further support by Base F research results, where the deputy Administration 91 Officer, possessing a high Shared Domain Knowledge, was associated with a low Communication rating because he felt that his knowledge was sufficient to guide his section with respect to IT. In the case of this base, Success in IT Implementation level did not influence Communication levels. This situation can occur as Success in IT Implementation may not affect specific branches or units, even if the overall base rating is strong. Alternate explanations for this relationship concern the reporting interactions of base officers. At Bases A, D and F, there is no direct contact, either through steering group meetings or Base Commander meetings, between the Head of Personnel Administration and the Head of IT. The lack of contact may result in the Administration Officers not being aware of the success. 7.3.2.2 The Effect of Success in IT Implementation on Connections between Business and IT Planning Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p. 12) hypothesize that "a successful IT implementation history within a business unit would induce tight connections between IT and business planning. An unsuccessful IT history would lead to the opposite, i.e., weakly connected planning processes. " The results in table 9 do not support this hypothesis because of the null variance in the Connections in Planning measure, discussed in 7.3.4. Success in IT Implementation weakly influenced Communication. Higher levels of Success in IT Implementation influence upon Communication may have been moderated by the Shared Domain Knowledge factor, or other factors as discussed in section 7.3.2.1. It was not possible to provide support for the influence of Success in IT Implementation upon Connections in Planning due to an ISOLATED rating in all eight cases. 92 Table 9 The Effects of the Success in IT Implementation Factor Effect Base Success in IT Implementation Communication between Business and IS Executives A LOW-MODERATE LOW - No Effect B LOW MODERATE - No Effect C LOW MODERATE - No Effect D MODERATE LOW - No Effect E LOW LOW - Negative Effect F MODERATE LOW - No Effect G LOW LOW - Negative Effect H MODERATE-HIGH MODERATE - Positive Effect 7.3.3 Communication between Business and IS Executives The following ratings were obtained for the Communication Factor: a. Three bases (B,C,H) rated MODERATE; and, b. Five bases (A,D,E,F,G) rated LOW. Two examples follow: a. Base H (MODERATE Communication) Communication concerning IT issues occurs regularly at the weekly Base H Commanding Officers/Branch Head Meetings, of which neither the Deputy Head of IT nor the Head of Personnel Administration are members. Information is disseminated through the Heads, and through minutes to these meetings. The Head of Personnel Administration does not find this a useful mechanism in obtaining or communicating information about IT. He relies heavily on a direct informal contact between the Head of IT and himself. There is a very strong informal working relationship between the Head of Personnel Administration and the Deputy Head of IT. This association has been instrumental in facilitating Personnel Administration projects involving IT, such as the electronic records management system project. The Head of Personnel Administration is a strong advocate of communication, and relies heavily on e-mail as a means of disseminating current information about issues within the Base Administration Branch. He also promotes communication about IT issues within the entire Base H Administration Branch. 93 b. Base E (LOW Communication) Communication concerning IT issues occurs occasionally at the weekly Branch Head Meetings, of which neither the Head of IT nor the Head of Personnel Administration are members. Information is disseminated through the Branch Heads and through minutes to these meetings. On a working level, there is no interaction between the Head of IT and Head of Personnel Administration. There are two formal IT steering groups established at Base E . They are the Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC) and the Functional ADP [Automated Data Processing] System Managers (FASMs) Committee. The Information Management Steering Committee is made up of Commanding Officers, Branch Heads, and the MICA [Management Information Control Authority, who is the Base Comptroller]. The Chairman for this committee is Base Operations Officer. The Head of IT was assigned the duty to be Secretary for this committee. Two meetings were held in the last fiscal year. Previous to 1995, meetings were held annually. Issues presented have traditionally been budgetary and technical in nature. Direct Communication: On seven of the eight bases examined, the Head of IT reported to a senior officer and did not communicate on a direct or formal basis with Administration Officers. This lack of direct contact reduces the ability to create Linkage as no communication about IT issues is likely to occur. On the remaining base (F), the Head of IT reported directly to the Base Commander. In this situation, however, there is a two level difference in rank and the difference in rank reduced the Head of IT's ability to influence Linkage on the base level. Permanent Committees: Generally, all the eight bases had at least one of two types of IT steering committees established to examine IT. These committees facilitate communication, but do not contribute to Linkage, as their focus is technical or budgetary in nature; business and IT planning issues are rarely discussed. One type of IT steering committee typically included members of the branch/unit Heads, or their delegated representatives, but this committee did not address strategies or projects concerning business functions. The other typical IT committee was a users' IT committee, usually headed by the Head of IT or the Base Comptroller. Its members included representatives from the branches/units who had a acknowledged level of "self acquired" IT literacy. These representatives were chosen by 94 the branches/units themselves, on the basis of their computer expertise, irrespective of rank or ability to influence IT decision making in the business context. The benefit of this committee is that it provides a technical resource within the branches/units. Unfortunately, they also address budgetary and policy issues abdicating responsibility for IT management within the branches/units from the management level. These representatives were not generally provided formal training and their superiors were beginning to become concerned at the amount of time theses individuals were spending on IT issues, as opposed to their primary duties The representatives fulfill the IT role within their respective branches/units as a secondary duty. In summary, the influence of these two committees is limited, as they tend to focus on budgetary and technical issues, rather than IT planning. 7.3.3.1 The Effect of Communication on Short Term Linkage (Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives) Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.29) hypothesize that "high levels of communication between IS and business executives would influence the extent to which IS executives could identify the major business goals and the business executives the major IT goals, not just those that were relevant to their area of interest. " The results in table 10 support this hypothesis in four cases. On three bases (B,C,H), a MODERATE Communication rating was associated with a MODERATE or HIGH Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives rating. On one base (D), a LOW Communication rating was associated with a LOW Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives rating. On four of the eight bases, (A,E,F,G), a LOW communication rating was associated with LOW / MODERATE mutual understanding of objectives rating. This association may be 95 explained by the slight effectiveness of indirect contact between subordinate and superior officers. For example, the Head of Personnel Administration could receive either verbal or written information from the Head of Administration about current base IT projects, as obtained at the branch head meeting. 7.3.3.2 The Effect of Communication on Long Term Linkage (Congruence in Shared Vision for IT) Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.31) hypothesize that "contrary to the emphasis placed on the technical issues of strategic IT planning in the literature (e.g. selection of planning methodologies), that shared IT visions, i.e., long term linkage, were crafted when high levels of communication were present. " The results in table 10 support this hypothesis in seven cases. On two bases (B,H), a MODERATE Communication rating was associated with a MODERATE Congruence in Shared Vision for IT rating. On five bases (A,D,E,F,G) a LOW Communication rating was associated with a LOW Congruence in Shared Vision for IT rating. On one of the eight bases (C), a MODERATE Communication rating was associated with a LOW Congruence in Shared Vision for IT rating. The low Congruence in Shared Vision for IT can be explained by the fact that all officers at Base C had been in their positions less than six months, and had not had time to effectively formulate a vision for IT, despite direct weekly communication at section meetings. The Deputy Commanding Officer of Base C stated that it was difficult as well to formulate a shared vision for IT because of the changing nature of the military business. 96 7.3.3.3 The Effect of Communication on Connections between Business and IT Planning Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.28) hypothesize "high levels of communication would result in strong connections between the IT and the business planning processes. " The results in table 10 do not support this hypothesis because of the null variance in the Connections in Planning rating, discussed in 7.3.4. In summary, Communication influenced Short Term and Long Term Linkage. It was not possible to provide support for the influence of Communication upon Connections in Planning, however, due to the ISOLATED ratings determined for all eight bases. Table 10 The Effects of the Communication between Business and IS Executives Factor Effect Base Communication Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives Congruence in Shared Vision for IT A LOW Pers Admin. - LOW, IT - MODERATE Average - LOW/MODERATE, No Effect LOW Negative Effect B MODERATE Pers Admin. - HIGH, IT - HIGH Average - HIGH, Positive Effect MODERATE Positive Effect C MODERATE Pers Admin. - MODERATE, IT - MODERATE Average - MODERATE, Positive Effect LOW No Effect D LOW Pers Admin. - LOW, IT - LOW Average - LOW, Negative Effect LOW Negative Effect E LOW Pers Admin. - LOW, IT - MODERATE Average - LOW/MODERATE, No Effect LOW Negative Effect F LOW Pers Admin. - MODERATE, IT - MODERATE Average - MODERATE, No Effect LOW Negative Effect G LOW Pers Admin. - LOW, IT - MODERATE Average - LOW/MODERATE, No Effect LOW Negative Effect H MODERATE Pers Admin. - HIGH, IT - HIGH Average - HIGH, Positive Effect MODERATE Positive Effect 97 7.3.4 Connections between Business and IT Planning Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.32) hypothesize that "high levels of connection between IT and business planning would result in high levels of linkage. " All eight bases rated ISOLATED for the Connections in Planning Factor, as found in chapter six. There are several explanations for this low variance. First, it is possible that the measuring instrument failed to capture the connections between business and IT planning. Second, the planning process within the military is in the early stages of the development process, begun in 1992. The bases are at various stages within this ongoing transition to the business planning process, and have experienced various difficulties in applying civilian business planning in a military context. Several officers commented about their perception of the usefulness of planning, or the perceived impact of planning. They felt that the full value of the process had not been realized, and that they were wasting their time in the implementation of civilian procedures. For example, at Base C there was a general expression of skepticism about the usefulness of the business plan as directed by Higher Headquarters, with current base operations and requirements being forced to 'fit' into the Headquarters plan. The Deputy Base Commander did express optimism, however, that the business planning process in the military would mature: "I dare say that up until now, little stock has been put into the validity and usefulness of the business plan. We expended a great deal of effort at last year's iteration with little payback. However, I think that ultimately the business planning process is going to be, sort of hold us accountable. I see eventually the jargon filtering down so that people understand that they're doing this for a reason, because of the business plan. " 98 Most officers expressed concern about the nature and lack of development of the military business planning process, and the lack of training and guidance associated with this process. Several officers questioned the application a civilian business model to an organization that does not generate revenue. Most expressed understanding, and positive sentiment regarding the requirement to bring the Canadian Forces into the 21 century of IT, and to improving procedures so as to reduce wastage. Many, however, felt that the creation of business plans was simply a 'paper battle' between the operational and support sides of the Canadian Forces for resource dollars. One Administration Officer pointed out that there were a number of applications in place at the Headquarters level that were not presently available to the bases, and which could prove very effective in assisting the business planning process if implemented at the base level. A senior officer in the Administration Branch commented: "I have great concern about [the way] we bring in this wonderful equipment, we tell people it is going to be less work, and we also say that you can get rid of people but that is not what is being indicated at local levels. The equipment, is requiring more people, more time and more effort. " An example follows: a. Base A (ISOLATED Connections in Planning) Neither the Head of IT nor the Head of Personnel Administration are active participants in the base business planning process, as it does not exists. The Head of Personnel Administration indicated that they are part of the annual budgetary planning process. Their input to the base budgetary process is normally solicited by the Administration Branch Head. IT Planning is conducted separately from the base budgetary planning process. The IT plan is derived from three sources: [Headquarters IT unit], [Army Command] and the units on the base. The Head of IT stated he alone drafted the whole IT plan. The Head of IT expressed that at the senior officer level, there was a tendency to rely on him alone to develop, implement and manage IT for the entire base, regardless of function. Two planning processes are in effect at Base A. The base annual budgeting process is currently considered the business planning cycle, and does not resulting in any written planning documentation other than a budgetary listing of funding requirements. The IT planning process results in a short term plan written exclusively by the Head of IT. 99 7.3.4.1 The Effect of Connections between Business and IT Planning on Short Term Linkage (Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives) Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.32) hypothesize that "closely connected IT and business planning processes would result in executives having a high mutual understanding of each other's objectives, whether or not these objectives were 'correct' in terms of the intellectual dimension. " The results as found in chapter six do not support this hypothesis because of the low variance in the Connections in Planning rating, as discussed in 7.3.4. 7.3.4.2 The Effect of Connections between Business and IT Planning on Long Term Linkage (Congruence in Shared Vision for IT) Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.34) hypothesize that "a shared IT Vision would be created within a tightly connected set of IT and Business planning processes. " The results in chapter six do not support this hypothesis because of the low variance in the Connections in Planning rating, as discussed in 7.3.4. In summary, it was not possible to determine a Connections in Planning influence upon Short Term Linkage (Mutual Understanding) or Long Term Linkage (Congruence in Shared Vision for IT) due to the low variance. 7.3.5 Other Factors Several other factors encountered in the course of this research appeared to influence the social dimension of Linkage, both as direct factors, and as moderating influences as found in chapter six. Table 11 lists these factors, and the bases with which they are associated. Figure 9 displays the effects these factors have on Linkage. 100 Figure 9 Factors affecting the Social Dimension of Linkage at the Canadian Forces Base Level Antecedents IT Unit Resources & Influence \ Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Success in IT Implementation Command Influence Headquarters' Influence Current Practices Communication between Business and IS Executive! L I N K A G E Reference: Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.5) 7.3.5.1 Lack of National (Headquarters) Coordination and Direction Officers at all eight bases expressed concern at the lack of National coordination and direction from Headquarters, and, specifically, the Headquarters IT unit. One possible explanation for this lack of national direction is the decentralized nature of the decision making process (Defence 2000 Management) concerning base budgets. Many officers also expressed concern regarding the number of initiatives and redundant applications being developed at the base level. It was felt that these efforts should be coordinated nationally. There was also level of concern expressed about the number of legacy systems, and the lack of interoperability between these systems. In addition, a strong concern 101 was indicated regarding the lack of standardization from base to base in terms of IT equipment, software, applications, documentation and networking infrastructure. The majority of Administration Officers felt that training for the management of IT was poor, and placed them at a disadvantage in becoming involved in the decision making process concerning IT. As a result of this lack of national coordination and effective training, Short and Long Term Linkage is adversely effected, as Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives & Congruence in Shared Vision for IT is poor, and Shared Domain Knowledge is limited. These failings lead to a lack of effective decision making regarding IT applications and management within the Canadian Forces. 7.3.5.2 Command Influence IT Officers expressed frustration that IT strategic direction from Headquarters was moderated due the existence of direct Command influence on their respective bases. There is a recognition that the newly formed Headquarters IT unit was established to coordinate IT at a national level, but the Commands have diminished the potential influence of the Headquarters at the base level. For example, it appears that Navy Command exerts a strong influence over its associated bases and support units in terms of resource allocation, which facilitates the development of base infrastructure. Bases under Air Force and Army Command bases appear to struggle more significantly in terms of resources and direction concerning IT at the base level. This lack of clear direction affects Linkage by impeding and/or circumventing the established Headquarters IT planning process. 102 7.3.5.3 IT Unit Resources and Influence The expansion of the traditional role of the IT unit has caused concern among a number of IT Officers. IT units have deficiencies in terms of numbers of qualified personnel, and the ability of personnel at hand to support and implement IT throughout their associated bases. This lack of IT unit resources and influence undermines effective implementation of IT. In addition, Linkage is also undermined, as the IT unit may not assigned the importance, in the business context, that is required for effective business and IT planning. IT Officers expressed frustration at the following IT unit issues: • the small number of IT staff qualified to manage and maintain IT throughout bases; • lack of IT unit's influence at the local levels to coordinate (i.e. standardization or interoperability guidelines) IT throughout all branches/units; • the contracting process for civilian IT employees, which prevents offering contracts in excess of six months. This short term contracting, which causes significant difficulties in finding and retaining staff, is especially difficult for units involved in LAN development; • increased reliance on the user groups to provide IT maintenance support at the branch/units due to a lack of sufficient personnel within the IT unit. For example, at Base G, the Head of IT noted that IT management was difficult as he had no staff dedicated to IT, and had to reply on unit representatives to implement and manage IT at the unit level. Most often these unit representatives held their position as a secondary duty; and, • IT Officers also expressed concern that the decentralized or devolved budgeting process, combined with their present inability to support all branch/units, was associated with a number of units purchasing their own IT and establishing their own networking infrastructures. This state of affairs caused difficulties in compatibility, and with "common good" issues such as computer security, redundant application development, standards, and training. For example, several IT Officers expressed concern at receiving numerous "justified" requests for IT which had to be answered, such as Internet Access, when such IT existed as the military Internet (DEMS). The various factors affecting IT development also affect Linkage and Communication. Numerous difficulties encountered in the development and implementation of IT projects, including staffing problems, contacting procedures, support, and budgeting impediments, all contribute to an overall inability to establish effective business and IT planning procedures within the Canadian Forces. 104 Table 11 Other Factors which Influence the Social Dimension of Linkage at the Base Level (Reference: Chapter 6) Base Factor Influence A Lack of Centralized Coordination with Canadian Forces wide Administration Branch Shared Domain Knowledge Short and Long Term Linkage A Lack of Headquarters IT direction. Short and Long Term Linkage B Size and Composition of IT Unit - problems with contracting IT personnel on six month contract, IT unit too small to support base. Communication Short and Long Term Linkage B Lack of Headquarters IT support and direction. Shared Domain Knowledge B Lack of National Coordination of IT Effort. Short and Long Term Linkage C Size and Composition of IT unit deficient to cope with supporting units. Communication Short and Long Term Linkage C Lack of Headquarters support and direction. Shared Domain Knowledge Short and Long Term Linkage D Functioning of IT on base is highly influenced by Navy Command due to resources and personnel at that level. Success in IT Implementation Short and Long Term Linkage D Command and Headquarters both provide direction and varying degrees of influence. Short and Long Term Linkage D Lacking Headquarters support and direction. Shared Domain Knowledge Short and Long Term Linkage E Size and composition of IT unit is too small to cope with unit requirements. Rank/Status of Head of IT considered too junior to influence decisions. Communication Short and Long Term Linkage E Lack of Headquarters IT unit support and direction. Shared Domain Knowledge Short and Long Term Linkage E Command Influence overrides effects of Headquarters IT unit. Success in IT Implementation Short and Long Term Linkage F Size and composition of IT unit - not enough qualified IT personnel. Communication Short and Long Term Linkage F Lack of Headquarters IT unit support and direction. Short and Long Term Linkage F Lack of National Administration Branch Direction and Training. Shared Domain Knowledge F Lack of Canadian Forces wide IT knowledge. Shared Domain Knowledge G Size and composition of IT unit deficient to cope with supporting units. Communication Short and Long Term Linkage G Lack of Headquarters IT support and direction. Short and Long Term Linkage H IT unit contracting process resulting in a deficiency of qualified IT personnel. Shared Domain Knowledge Communication Short and Long Term Linkage H Training and general IT literacy problem in the Canadian Forces Shared Domain Knowledge 105 Chapter Eight - Conclusions and Recommendations 8.1 Introduction This chapter provides an overview of research results, and highlights the most important findings of this study. An assessment of Linkage at the base level within the Canadian Forces is presented, as well as recommendations for overcoming Linkage barriers. 8.2 Linkage at the Base Level Short term Linkage, as measured by the Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives, was found to be varied across the Canadian Forces bases studied in this research. Long term linkage, as measured by Congruence in Shared Vision for IT, is not being attained across the Canadian Forces. The Cross References in Written Objectives measure had a low variance on all eight bases, and was not used in the cross-base analysis. The Subjective Ratings of Linkage measure had a high variance, and the Lmplementation of the National Administration Information System measure also had a high variance on all eight bases. In order to determine which factors seemed to predict higher levels of linkage, bases were ranked according to the average of following three measures: Short Term Linkage, as measured by Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives, Subjective Ratings of Linkage, and the Implementation of the National Information System. As demonstrated in table 12, four bases ranked in the range of MODERATE to HIGH, and four bases ranked as LOW. 106 This result provides two distinct groupings within the results of this Linkage research. The first group, composed of bases H,B,F, and C, has an average MODERATE rating, and is associated with a MODERATE Shared Domain Knowledge factor, and / or a MODERATE Communication factor. The second group, composed of bases G, A, D, and E, has an average LOW rating, and is associated with a LOW measure of Shared Domain Knowledge and Communication. This result suggests a strong correspondence between Linkage levels, and Shared Domain Knowledge and Communication levels. Table 12 Base Overall Linkage Ranking versus Shared Domain Knowledge and Communication Factors Base Overall Rating Shared Domain Knowledge Communication II M O D E R A IE to l i K i l l M O D E R A T E M O D E R A T E B M O D E R A T E to HIGH M O D E R A T E M O D I : R A T E F M O D E R A IK M O D E R A T E L O W C L O W to M O D E R A H i L O W M O D E R A ' I E G L O W L O W L O W A L O W L O W L O W D L O W L O W L O W E L O W L O W L O W 8.3 Influencing Factors Factors that influence the social dimension of Linkage were also examined. These empirical measures included Shared Domain Knowledge, Success in IT Implementation, Communication between Business and IS Executives and Connections in Planning. The relationship of these factors to each other and to Linkage is shown in figure 10 , and further discussed in the following sections: 1 0 7 Figure 10 Assessment of the Factors which Influence the Social Dimension of Linkage at the Base Level based on Empirical Evidence Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Success in IT Implementation ©Moderating / Influence [ 3/8; Current Practices Communication between Business and IS Executives Short Term | Long Term LINKAGE LINKAGE Reference: Reich and Benbasat (1994b, p.5) 8.3.1 Influence of Shared Domain Knowledge Shared Domain Knowledge influenced Communication, as illustrated in figure 10. This relationship was supported in six of the eight bases, as examined in section 7.3.1.1. The influence of Shared Domain Knowledge upon Connections in Planning was not determined, as there was null variance in all of the Connections in Planning ratings. 8.3.2 Influence of Success in IT Implementation Success in IT Implementation weakly influenced Communication, as illustrated in figure 10. This relationship was supported at only three of the eight bases, as examined in section 7.3.2.1. There are several possible explanations for this result, the most probable being that the Canadian Forces population is very transitory, and previous IT implementation does not 108 influence communication, because the personnel tend to have faith in the ability of incoming personnel. In their research, Reich and Benbasat suggested that the influence of Success in IT Implementation can be moderated by Shared Domain Knowledge. This effect was also found in this research, in the cases of bases A, D and F . Higher levels of Success in IT Implementation influence upon Communication may also be explained by the fact that if you personally don't see the success, you will not be influenced, even if the department may be successful. The influence of Success in IT Implementation upon Connections in Planning was not determined, as there was null variance in all of the Connections in Planning ratings. 8.3.3 Influence of Communication between Business and IS Executives Communication influenced Short Term Linkage at four of the eight bases, as illustrated in figure 10 and as examined in section 7.3.3 .1. There are several explanations as to why Communication did not influence Short Term Linkage in the other cases, the most probable being that, although officers often did not meet officially to discuss IT, dissemination of some IT information from other sources such as branch head meetings ensured that a degree of knowledge concerning ongoing IT projects was maintained. Communication that was effective was not direct. Rather, it was indirect and informal, as in the case of base H, where there was a strong informal relationship between the Head of Personnel and the Deputy Head of IT. On seven of the eight bases examined, the Head of IT reported to a senior officer, and had little opportunity for direct communication with Administration Officers. 109 Generally, all the eight bases had at least one of two types of IT steering committees established to examine IT. These committees facilitated communication, but did not contribute to Linkage, as their focus was technical or budgetary in nature; business and IT planning issues were rarely discussed. Communication also influenced Long Term Linkage, as illustrated in figure 10. This relationship was supported in seven of the eight bases as examined in section 7.3.3.2. Effective Communication was indirect and informal, and this situation influenced Long Term Linkage to the same degree as Short Term Linkage, as discussed in the previous section. The lack of a high degree of formal communication may explain the number of bases with LOW ratings of Long Term Linkage. Reporting relationship and the low rank of the Head of IT indicated that IT has not been viewed as a strategic component of the bases decision making process. IT steering groups in existence at the base level deal with budgetary and technical issues regardless of the qualifications of the members, and strategic and long terms IT issues are only infrequently discussed. The influence of Communication upon Connections in Planning was not determined, as there was null variance in all of the Connections in Planning ratings. 8.3.4 Influence of Connections between Business and IT Planning It was not possible to determine the influence of Connections in Planning upon Short and Long Term Linkage due to the null variance in the measure. There are several explanations for this null variance as examined in section 7.3.4. First, it is possible that the measuring instrument failed to capture the connections between business and IT planning. Second, it is also possible that the planning process within the military is in the early stages of the development process, 110 begun in 1992. The bases are at various stages within this ongoing transition to the business planning process, and have experienced various difficulties in applying civilian business planning in a military context. 8.3.5 Other Factors Several other factors encountered in the course of this research appeared to influence the social dimension of Linkage, both as direct factors, and as moderating influences. These factors include lack of National Coordination and Direction, Command Influence, and IT Unit Structure, and are discussed in detail in section 7.3.5. 8.4 Limitations Several limitations were found to exist in the course of this research. The base "business" participants interviewed in this case study were part of the Canadian Forces Administration Branch, and, in particular, the research focused on the personnel administration sub-function. This function is representative of a support function within the Canadian Forces. It is difficult, however, to generalize about the operational side, as many operational communities have dedicated IT support units. Another limitation is the lack of development of the civilian business planning process within the Canadian Forces. As discussed in Chapter two, and further emphasized by the results of this case study, the Canadian Forces is in transition, in both processes and philosophy, and is moving towards a civilian business planning model. As a result, the current situation within Canadian Forces may not accurately represent the organization which will remain at the end of the change process. i l l 8.5 Theoretical Contribution of the Research In spite of the limitations discussed, this thesis research provides useful contributions to Management Information Systems research, and specifically to Linkage research. The two key contributions are partial confirmation of the Linkage model as applied to a publicly funded organization, and demonstration of other factors influencing the social dimension of Linkage. The Reich and Benbasat model was corroborated with regard to demonstrating the influence of Shared Domain Knowledge upon Communication, and the influence of Communication upon Short and Long term Linkage. Results were inconclusive for the effect of Success in IT Implementation upon Communication as the influence demonstrated was weak. Due to the null variance in Connections in Planning measure, it was not possible to determine the influence of Shared Domain Knowledge upon Connections in Planning, the influence of Success in IT Implementation upon Connections in Planning, the influence of Communication upon Connections in Planning, and the influence of Connections in Planning on Short and Long Term Linkage. 8.6 Practical Contributions of the Research and Recommendations This research provides the Canadian Forces with a methodology of assessment of Linkage at the base level. An understanding of this assessment is critical for the Canadian Forces Headquarters in order to determine whether strategic level direction can be effectively implemented as the Canadian Forces make the transition from a traditional military function to civilian-like business processes. Based on this research and assessments as determined in chapter seven, the following strategies are recommended to promote and develop Linkage in the Canadian Forces: 112 8.6.1 Shared Domain Knowledge • Administration Officers should be provided with opportunities for IT training, both as part of their core administrative training, as well as ongoing professional development at the base level; • Provision of greater opportunities for Administration Officers to be included in IT unit projects or postings into IT-related functions; • Administration and IT Officers should be encouraged to pursue part-time education in business and IT (MBA-type) courses; • Some business background should become a prerequisite for recruitment into the Administration Branch of the Canadian Forces; • IT officers should be subject to a selection process, based on a prerequisite background and experience in IT before being appointed to their respective postings, in particular, the Head of IT position at the base level; • A joint Canadian Forces - Business mentor program should be established in order to provide a resource for development of practical business and IT planning skills within the Military framework. For example, officers should be provided with a three to nine month on-the-job training in the civilian business environment; and • IT Officers should be retained in their postings for a longer duration in order to maintain continuity in IT development and planning. 1 1 3 8.6.2 Communication • Direct communication between the Head of IT and the Head of other branches/sections on the base must be established through steering groups or expansion of the branch head meetings; • Informal communication should be encouraged by providing weekly IT information sessions accessible by all members of the base; • The function and process of existing IT steering groups should be reassessed and redirected to provide a forum for discussion of long-term IT planning and budgeting; • Based on the recognized value and success of user-provided IT support, one of the two following proposals should be implemented: a. A new IT unit at the base level, headed by a military member with a post-graduate degree in Management Information Systems, should be established, and supported by full-time civilian IT employees. One IT qualified civilian would be dedicated to each major unit on the base, or, b. Voluntary users who provide their IT services as a secondary duty should be recognized formally in terms of training, task assignment, and formalized steering groups. • National Administration conferences should provide a significantly larger forum for educating administration officers with regard to IT developments in administration, as well as providing opportunities to discuss IT issues with IT personnel. These national conferences provide an excellent opportunity to explore Forces-wide problems and to define creative solutions that are being proposed at the base level. 114 8.6.3 Connections between Business and IT Planning • IT and Business planning processes within the Canadian Forces should be coordinated and should occur concurrently on an annual basis, both at the base and Headquarters level. 8.6.4 IT unit resources and influence • IT units should be provided with resources that more accurately reflect the role that IT plays at the base level; • The contracting process for civilians should be reevaluated to reduce the difficulty in retaining experienced personnel on a long-term basis; and, • The individual appointed to the Head of IT should be carefully selected based on rank, IT experience, and business/military experience. 8.6.5 Headquarters direction • Headquarters must promote base level linkage between IT and Business planning by directing the implementation of a Forces-wide networking architecture, interoperability standards, security functions, and personnel training; • A leadership role in coordination of IT must be assumed by the Headquarters, and innovative solutions regarding the Command influence must be proposed and implemented; and, • Headquarters must encourage technology awareness through Forces-wide innovation reward programs, and involvement in base level projects which have Forces-wide applications. 1 1 5 8.6.6 Other recommendations • There is currently no traceability mechanism existing to verify that Administrative Updates (referred or known as UPDTs) have been completed once Lodger units (as in the case of bases C and G) forward their UPDTs requests to the supporting base. One mechanism being used at another lodger unit was the drafting of memorandums outlining the changes as 'invoices' for future verification of UPDTs sent for processing. A administrative process solution is required for this problem; • Although not measured in this component of Linkage, all six bases with access to the National Administration Information System (A,B,D,E,F,H), expressed extreme frustration with the function and serviceability of the National Administration Information System. In general, most administrative personnel understood and supported the concept of a National Administration Information System. They expressed frustration, however, with the software difficulties of the application, complexity of the application, lack of training, and lack of serviceability of the National Service. More administration personnel involvement in the development process and on-base training is required to overcome these issues; and, • The National Administration Information Systems Implementation will bring the Administration Branch to a 'common baseline' and assist in eliminating some of the redundant system development that has plagued the Branch over the past several years. Nevertheless, many administrators questioned the lack of integration of the Military Personnel Information Systems (MPIS) and asked why the administration system required a duplicate input of information for other National Support Information systems such as the Financial Information System (FIS). As well, there was a general concern among administrative staffs that there is still a redundancy of paperwork, existing in spite of the 116 implementation of an National Administration Information System. There is also lack of awareness of the progress of Administration Working groups or other Working in Groups that are attempting to reduce or eliminate redundant documentation and administrative processes. IT awareness can be raised through national conferences and a central IT registry of software accessible by all Forces personnel should be developed. The above recommendations address specific factors influencing the social dimension of linkage at the base level. Addressing each problem individually, however, is a piecemeal approach and may not be the most effective method of improving IT and business linkage within the Canadian Forces. The following proposed Information Technology Management Partnership System addresses the issue of Linkage on a macroscopic scale, and offers a framework for the definition and implementation of Canadian Forces wide IT management solution based on the importance of Linkage: 8.6.7 Canadian Forces Information Technology Management Partnership System It is proposed that a Canadian Forces-wide system of IT integration and development be established. This system would be structured as follows: the Headquarters IT unit would assume the role of central coordinator. Various IT projects would be assigned to bases or units for development on a contractual bidding or interest basis. Upon receiving authorization to proceed from Headquarters, these units would assume responsibility for development and integration of their IT project. In this manner, a virtual wheel, with the Headquarters (corporate) IT unit at the hub, and unit project teams at the ends of the spokes, would emerge. Figure 11 illustrates the Canadian Forces Management Partnership System. 117 Figure 11 Canadian Forces Information Technology Partnership System Receives advio»on supply issues related to Emergency Preparetiness IT project. Base 1\ Search & Rescue wins busmess case to develop National Emergency Preparedness IT Network. Base A| IT Unit •IT Project Mgmt|< •QA, Advice Base By r,ransportati) Section, Inquire > to see if appl cation is available to manage vehicle i lventory. lTeadquarterss (Corporate) IT Unit •Forces Wide Architecture •Development Standards •Configuration Control •Initiative Registry •IT Project Coordination^ Due to small size of base, Base C views Headquarters IT unjt as distribution center and implements updates for systems as they are available or issue^ . Base D inquires to verify that they have received correct CD-ROl of flying log templates. 4 BaseD J Assigned task of developing Mess and Rations application to be added to the version 4.0 update of the National Administration Information System. Base G and F collabor ite and submit proposal to develop prototype vers ion of a document storage 0dretrie 'al system^ M . I - J BaseF J BaseE | Recreation] Section. Base E Recreation Section registers initiative to develop software to replace paper military fitness profile form. Within this proposed system, the Headquarters IT unit would provide configuration control for the computing architecture. This supervision would ensure that rules and standards for communication, data sharing and storage, interoperability of systems, and definition of common elements would be standardized and preserved throughout the Forces. The Headquarters IT unit would assume the configuration control and influence which it currently lacks. 118 At the base level, personnel selected on the basis of motivation, IT knowledge, and experience would be assigned the dedicated role of IT project managers. These individuals would receive specific IT training, and return to their IT units with the mission of developing the IT system assigned to and managed by their base. Such dedication of personnel resources would eliminate current difficulties with the secondary duty nature of the current role of unit IT representatives. As well, a true Shared Domain Knowledge would be developed through hands on IT project involvement. This knowledge would be maintained as IT project managers, upon posting to new IT units, would carry with them a real and applied understanding of Management of Information Technology, which would continue to expand and deepen. This solution would also facilitate a link between the Headquarters and base IT levels. The benefits of such a system to base business personnel (all personnel outside of the base IT unit) would include an increase in their Shared Domain Knowledge concerning IT. As members become part of IT project teams, their sense of ownership will increase, as will their awareness of IT and the importance of technical issues. This partnership will instill an appreciation for the requirement to link business and IT planning. In addition, the Headquarters IT unit would act as a 'clearing house' for IT products and initiatives forwarded from Canadian Forces Personnel. All members would be encouraged to actively participate in finding innovative IT solutions within the Canadian Forces context. The Headquarters IT unit would also register, assign, track, configuration manage, and issue applications upon development. In this manner, duplication of effort among base IT units would be eliminated. An example of IT project development under the proposed Canadian Forces Technology Management Partnership System: Suppose that the headquarters unit is made aware of a requirement for a national system to keep track of emergency preparedness equipment. A 119 request for proposal would go out to the head of the IT unit on every base. Through the base branch head meeting, all section heads would be made aware of the request, and asked to submit a business case if they felt that they had the resources and manpower on hand, or on call through the IT project manager, to support development of the system. The headquarters IT unit would then evaluate submitted proposals, and assign the task to the unit most suited to assume the role. The relationship of the Headquarters IT unit will vary from unit to unit, depending on requirements. It may supervise only, or it may assign resources, both personnel, technical, and financial. The role of the base IT unit will also vary from project to project, depending on the need for specific personnel, training, and resources. In this manner, a dynamic and flexible system of IT development will emerge within the Canadian Forces. In keeping with the nature of the organization, the system will be tactically effective, as failure or destruction of a portion of the 'wheel' will simply result in re-routing of the affected functions to other spokes. Even central command and control functions could be carried by the IT unit on any base or unit, once personnel are fully trained in the appropriate procedures. This proposal would result in assigning each IT unit a share of the overall national IT development effort. Specifically, each base would have two IT roles: one, to fulfill the requirements of their units, and second, to contribute to the national IT projects. This dual role would result in an increased resource requirement at the base level, and an associated short term start-up cost. This cost, however, would be more than balance in the long term by increased efficiencies due to the establishment of base level linkage. The Canadian Forces Management Information Technology Partnership System would provide an effective and efficient method of funding and encourage IT innovation at a low cost, and with a minimum of administrative effort. 120 8.7 Summary In the course of this study of the business unit level of the Canadian Forces, it was determined that Short and Long Term Linkage was influenced by Communication and Shared Domain Knowledge factors. Research results also indicated that Success in IT Implementation did not influence Linkage. Several other contributing factors were also identified, and a Canadian Forces Information Technology Management Partnership System was proposed to overcome these Linkage barriers. The importance of effective management of IT cannot be underestimated. If effective consideration of IT is made a part of the business planning process, Management Information Systems (MIS) practitioners will allow businesses, including militaries, to extract the full benefit and advantage from modern technological developments and procedures. Such is the goal of MIS, and of this work. 121 B I B L I O G R A P H Y Military References 1. Administrative Support Software Catalogue, Base Level Integrated Personnel Support System - Military (BLIPSS - M) 1995. 2. Assistant Deputy Minister (Personnel) Group Information Systems Plan, Draft 13 July 1994, 1970-26 (PMO PIP). 3. Canadian Forces Officer Specification Personnel Administration Classification PADM MOC 68, A-PD-150-002/PP-004. 4. Annexes to 1971-11-5 (PMO PIP) Dated 29 December 1978. 5. DISO Defence Services Organization Headquarters Organization, Message from CIMS: Mr. Norm Inglis dated February 1994. 6. DISO Defence Services Organization Headquarters Organization - Working Organization as of 19 August 1994. 7. Information Technology Chilliwack 1180-1(BLIPSS-M) dated 20 March 1995. 8. Memorandum 1901 - OPREN4 March 1995, Issues and Processes Personnel Support Program Team. J.E. Finn Col Team Leader. 9. Message DPIS/BLIPSS Information Technology Conference DPIS 006 011144Z Mar 95 10. Phillips Group/Wyatt, Department of National Defence, Military and Civilian Employee Feedback Survey using Pulse-Taker, March 1995. 11. Collenette, Honorable David, Minister of National Defence 1994 Defence White Paper, Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1994. 12. Inglis, Norm, Chief Information Management Services N D H Q , DISO, better prepared to provide services to the DND and CF, February 1994. 13. National Defence, Officer Professional Development Program (OPDP), Volumes 2,3,4,5,6,7 1995/6. 14. Supporting Documentation to PCP G1800 Report on Requirement for Base Level Integrated Personnel Support System (BLIPSS). 15. SRD Task Number 8.0 SDM/70 General Documentation Form, BLIPSS G1800 Date June 1982. 122 16. Wiesman, Major Robert, Draft Service Paper - The Establishment of Command and Control Information Systems Interoperability in the Canadian Forces, Directorate of Information Management Plans and Program Coordination. Academic References 1. Babalow, T., Hartung, S.I., and Nehru T. "A Study of 74 Communication Group Headquarters Vision of the Paperless Office," Term project COMM 524, University of British Columbia, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, Vancouver, B.C., May 31, 1995. 2. Brown, CV. and Magill, S.L. "Alignment of the IS Functions With the Enterprise: Toward a Model of Antecedents," MIS Quarterly, December 1994, pp.371-403. 3. Cash, J.I., Eccles, R.G., Nohria, N., and Nolan, R.L. Building The Information Age Organization: Structure, Control and Information Technologies, Richard D. Irwin Inc., 1994. 4. Chan, K., Chun, F., and Hartung, S.L, "A Study of 74 Communication Group Headquarters," Term Project COMM 536, University of British Columbia, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, Vancouver, B.C., April 18, 1995. 5. Earl, M.J., Sampler, J.L., and Short, J.E. "Strategies for Business Process Reengineering: Evidence from Field Studies," Journal of Management Information Systems. 12:1, Summer 1995, pp.31-56. 6. Emory, C.W. and Cooper D.R. Business Research Methods. Richard D. Irwin Inc., 5th. Edition, 1995. 7. Harvey, D.F. and Brown, D.R. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1992. 8. Henderson, J.C. and Venkatraman, N. "Strategic Alignment: Leveraging Information Technology for Transforming Organizations," IBM Systems Journal, 32:1, 1993, pp.4-16. 9. Johansson, McHugh, Pendlebury, and Wheeler III. Business Process Reengineering -Breakpoint Strategies for Market Dominance, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1993, pp.143-164. 10. King, L.K., Gurbaxani, V., Kraemer, K.L., McFarlan, F.W., Raman, K.S., and Yap, CS. "Institutional Factors in Information Technology Innovation," Information Systems Research. 5:2, June 1994, pp.139-169. 11. Martin, J. Information Engineering, Book II: Planning and Analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990. 12. Oberweiss, Scherrer, and Stucky. "Income/Star: Methodology and Tools for the Development of Distributed Information Systems," Information Systems Research, 19:8, 1994,pp.643-660. 123 13. Pyburn, P.J. "Linking the MIS Plan and Corporate Strategy: An Exploratory Study," MIS Quarterly, 7:2, June 1983, pp.1-14. 14. Premkumar, G. and King, W.R. "Organizational Characteristics and Information System Planning: An Empirical Study," Information Systems Research. 5:2, June 1994, pp.75-110. 15. Pressman, R.S. Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. 16. Reich, B.H. "Investigating the Linkage between Business Objectives and Information Technology Objectives", Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., December 1992. 17. Reich, B.H., and Benbasat, I. "An Empirical Investigation of Factors Influencing the Success of Customer-Oriented Strategic Systems," Information Systems Research. 1:3, 1990, pp. 325-347. 18. Reich, B.H., and Benbasat, I. "A Model for the Investigation of Linkage between Business and Information Technology Objectives", published in Research in Strategic Management and Information Technology. Henderson, J.C. and Venkatraman, N. Volume 1, 1994(a), JAI Press Inc., London England, pp 41-72. 19. Reich, B.H., and Benbasat, I. "Factors that Influence the Social Dimension of Linkage Between Business and Information Technology Objectives," working paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., December 28, 1994(b). 20. Reich, B.H., and Benbasat, I. "Measuring the Linkage between Business and Information Technology Objectives," working paper, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., August 15, 1994, upcoming MIS Quarterly. March 1996. 21. Tavakolian, H. "Linking the Information Technology Structure With Organizational Competitive Strategy: A Survey," MIS Quarterly. 13:3, September 1989, pp.309-317. 22. Thatcher, V.S. and McQueen, A. The New Webster Encyclopedic Dictionary of The English Language, Avenel Books, New York 1984. 23. Thompson, A.A., Jr., and Strickland, A.J. Crafting and Implementing Strategy, Sixth Edition, University of Alabama, Irwin, 1995. 24. Ward, J., Griffiths, P., and Whitmore, P. Strategic Planning for Information Systems, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., March 1994. 25. Yin, R.K., Case Study Research, Design and Methods, 2nd Edition, California, Sage Publications, 1989. 124 Appendix I Linkage Measures and Research Interview Guides A1.1 Introduction This appendix will provide a description of the modification to the Shared Domain Knowledge Factor and provide a measure for the additional measure of Linkage applicable to the Organization under study. Interview guides for administrator and IT Officers is included in this Appendix. The interview guide used to interview select administrative staff is also included. A1.2 Linkage Measures Within this research the Linkage and Linkage Factors were measured with the measurement instruments as adapted directly from Reich and Benbasat research (1994b, 1995) and are provided below. Modified measures are discussed individually in the following sections. Linkage Rating Table 13 Scale used to Measure Linkage In Written 1-Year Plans High Two Plans are in existence: the short term business plan references the current IT objectives and the IT plan references the current business objectives, or One integrated business and IT plan: The plan is formatted such that either: 1) the IT objectives are placed under business unit goals, or 2) the IT objectives are contained in a separate section in the business plan but are articulated in terms of business unit objectives. Example of high linkage within a business plan: "implement an electronic application which will a) reduce unit costs in support of the new business process, b) make it easier for the agent to sell the product, c) provide the client with enhanced services including..." Moderate Two plans in existence: Either the short term business plan references the IT projects or the IT plan references the business objectives. One of the plans may be missing or One integrated IT and business plan: The IT objectives are contained in a separate section of the plan but are not articulated in terms of business goals. Low The short term business plan does not reference the IT projects and the IT plan does not reference the business objectives. No Plans There is no short term plan for the business unit and no short term plan for the IT function within the business unit. 125 Linkage Rating Table 14 Scale used to Measure Linkage In Written 5-Year Plans High The long term business plan identifies general ways that IT will be used in support of business goals and the IT plan places its objectives into the context of business objectives or performance. Moderate Either the long term business plan gives IT some direction or the long term IT plan exhibits knowledge of and support for the long term business plan. One of the plans may be missing. Example of a high level of cross referencing in a business strategy document: "efficiency will have to be combined with more timely and responsive transaction activity. The introduction of the system to allow agents to instantly issue contracts will be a real enhancement to compete at lower unit costs. The use of software to help agents plan clients' portfolios will be important.." There was no 5-year IT plan and so the overall linkage rating was Moderate. Low The long term business plan does not reference IT and the long term IT plan does not mention business objectives. No Plans There is no 5 year business plan and no 5 year IT plan which is operative within the business unit. 126 Linkage Rating Table 15 Scale used to Measure Understanding Of Current Objectives High: IS Execs The IS executives can identify the current objectives of the business unit. These objectives were the ones written in the business plan or articulated by senior business executives. Example: Head of BU: "We are going to concentrate on expense control...we are going to change our regional offices to profit centers...we will be designing a product...our idea is to hook up agents as part of a partnership strategy" Business Execs Head of IS: "Our business objectives are expense control through automation, improving service to the 'good' agents, specific new products and improving our professional image". The business executives can identify most or all of the current high priority projects of the IS group. Moderate (IS or Business) The IS and business executives have only a general understanding of each others' current objectives but cannot identify specific, high-priority ones. Low (IS or Business) Neither the IS nor the business executives can identify each others' major current objectives. Example: Head of BU: "The IS head probably has his own strategies. I probably haven't gotten around to reading them yet and I would think that they are in support of the ones we are looking at" Head of IS: "I want to move to a broader technical platform, to get more effective use of PCs and to get into local area networks" Unknown No business or IS current objectives have been formulated. 127 Linkage Rating Table 16 Scale used to Measure Congruence In Shared Vision For IT High Business executives and the IS executives agree on the overall ways in which IT will contribute to the future of the business unit. Example of a congruent IT vision, focused on the client-company interface: Head of BU: "In the long run, IT will allow us to provide higher quality service to our customers at lower unit costs...to get electronic hooks into our customers and make it hard for them to leave us." VP, Finance: "use of IT in the economies of scale focus...to keep costs down. That will be defensive. There is much more benefit in the front-end use of technology - in the field and underwriting. Single source of data entry by the user." VP, Marketing: "lots of new ways to use IT - selling through terminals, POS..." Moderate There is some agreement on how IT will contribute to the future of the business unit. Some executives might have conflicting or no visions for IT. Low The visions expressed for IT by the executives do not show any congruence. Several visions might be expressed, but they differ on the overall value of IT or on the business processes to which IT can be most effectively applied. Example 1 — no congruence in vision for IT: Head of BU: "you sort of have to be as good as your competitor but you don't gain anything extra. Management information will help us analyze our business better and we'll get to see whether we are actually getting the target loss rations..." Head of IS: "I believe that technology is a thing to support decentralization...you can use technology to restructure the way we do business and achieve efficiencies." Example 2 — lots of conflicting visions, no congruence: Head of Administration: "Our vision is to have a paperless office" Head Of Marketing: "Two IT strategies are important: paying the agent early and issuing the policy on site" Head of IS: "IS goals are flexibility, managed data redundancy, cooperative processing..." No Vision None of the executives have any clear vision for the role of IT within the business unit. 128 Table 17 Original Scale used to Measure The Shared Domain Knowledge Factor Note: This is the original Scale, see below for modified scale used for the Canadian Forces Variables High Level Moderate Level Low Level Insurance Experience > 1 0 years in line roles between 5 and 1 0 years under 5 years Line Management Experience > 5 years between 3 and 5 years under 3 years IT Management Experience > 2 years in IT management management of a large IT project user level involvement only Awareness of new information technologies frequent reader of IT periodicals and experimenter with IT occasional reader or experimenter with IT seldom reads IT periodicals or experiments with IT Table 18 Scale used to Measure Connection Between IT and Business Planning Processes Level Name of Level Dominant Characteristics 1 Isolated IT and business plans are developed separately. 2 Architected IT plans are developed from data and application architectures. 3 Derived IT plans are developed during a top-down analysis beginning with business objectives and involving business and IT participants. 4 Integrated IT plans are developed and ratified at the same time as other business objectives are. Business and IS executives are both present in the planning. 5 Proactive IT objectives precede the formulation of business objectives and are used as input to their development. IT is considered to be significant in changing the basis of competition. 129 A1.3 Modified Shared Domain Knowledge Factor Measure Within this research the scale used to assess the Shared Domain Knowledge factor was adapted from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b, p. 12) and modified to suit the organization under study. In the Linkage Model the measures of Shared Domain Knowledge are identical for business and IT personnel. Due to the specialization of the military occupations, administration personnel do not typically obtain IT management experience. Therefore, for the purposes of this research, the Administration Officers were rated differently than the IT Officers. The number of years associated with a specific rating were modified to reflect military experience equivalency. Military experience refers to the number of years a military person actually spends conducting a military function for which he/she is trained. Military service refers to the actual number of years a military person is considered a military member. For example, an IT Officer who joins at the age of 19 can accumulate up to 5 years of military service time prior to being posted to his first position, (i.e. Given the scenario this IT Officer obtains a Degree from the Royal Military College of Canada and attends a year of military occupation training) Additional modifications were made to reflect terminology difference between the organization under study and the civilian business environment. 130 Al.3.1 Shared Domain Knowledge - Administrators Measure Military Experience (Not including military training and education service time) • > 5 years military experience - HIGH • > 3 and < 5 years - MODERATE • > 3 years - LOW Administration Management Experience • > 5 years administration experience - HIGH • > 3 and < 5 years - MODERATE • > 3 years - MODERATE IT Experience/Exposure • management of the IT function, position held in Headquarters - IT related, coordination of IT project, or management of an IT project - HIGH • management of smaller IT project, involvement in a big project -MODERATE • use IT for day-to-day functions as a tool only, little knowledge of IT - LOW • does not use IT at all, no interest in IT issues - NONE Awareness of New Technology • regularly reads IT publications and actively pursues opportunities - HIGH • reads IT publications and experimenter - MODERATE • seldom reads or discusses new IT - LOW Al.3.2 Shared Domain Knowledge - Information Technology Officer Measure Military Experience (Not including military training and education service time) • > 5 years with the military - HIGH • > 3 and < 5 years - MODERATE • > 3 years - LOW IT Management Experience • > 3 years management of the IT function - HIGH • management of a big project - MODERATE • < 1 years in IT management position - LOW Awareness of New Technology • regularly reads IT publications and experiments with new IT products • irregular reader and experimenter • seldom reads or discusses new IT -HIGH - MODERATE -LOW 131 A1.4 Modified Success in IT Implementation Factor Measure Within this research the scale used to assess the Success in IT implementation factor was adapted from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1994b) and modified to suit the organization under study. There is a relatively short history of IT implementation for the support functions (i.e. Administration which is the focus of this research). The reason for this short history is due to the fact that the traditional Telecommunication unit role has expanded over the past several years to include IT support for base Automated Data Processing (ADP) projects, and National Information Systems. As well, the allocation of responsibility and resources to the base level, as a result of the Defence 2000 management program, has was associated with an expanded IT role for these bases/units. The major project to date for most IT units was the development of the Base Metropolitan Area Network. This change or expansion of role is reflected in the unit's recent name change on a typical base to Base Telecommunication and Information Services Unit. IT implementation has also occurred as a result of initiatives within specific units addressing in their specific IT needs and requirements. These initiatives are initiated with varying degrees of IT unit support, and are generally funded by the base at the branch/unit level. 132 Rating Table 19 Scale used to Measure Success in IT Implementation High IT history is consistently stable, proactive and growing over the last 10 years. IT unit demonstrates that long term plans are followed in principle. Branch/units interact with IT unit and are equally satisfied with IT implementation. IT unit has made a successful transition into its expanded role of IT management and this transition is evident in the successful implementation of the MAN and other IT support services. Examples: • The MAN project has reached over 80% of the base with a good track record of service and maintenance. • All National Information Systems have been implemented with a technical serviceability level of 80% at the base level. • Training programs are evident, successful and provide equal accessibility to IT training access to all base personnel. • Examples of branch/unit initiatives (such as electronic documentation handing applications) have been encouraged and are successfully functioning to the functional satisfaction of the initiating branch/unit and the technical satisfaction of the IT unit. • Base wide guidelines (standards) for security, interoperability are evident. Moderate Some degree of IT planning has been followed over the past several years to a relatively successful level. Some sort of IT plan (long term or short term) appears to have influenced the positive direction of IT over the past 5 years. IT unit has transitioned into its expanded role of IT management with some minor problems. Examples: • MAN project has reached over 50 % of the base with a fair track record of service and maintenance. • Some National Information Systems have been implemented, with a technical serviceability level of 60% at the base level. • Some localized training programs are evident. • Branch/unit initiatives are evident but the success of these projects is varied. • IT implementation success is localized with evidence that branch/units are purchasing IT without the knowledge or involvement of the IT unit. • Base wide guidelines (standards) for security, interoperability are not always evident. Low Computer acquisition is ad hoc in nature, depending purely on a budgetary process versus a business or IT planning process to coordinate IT implementation. IT unit is in reactionary mode and does not appear in control of computer acquisitions network. MAN project is not evident or has just been started. IT unit has not made a transition into its expanded role of IT management. Examples: • Branch/unit initiatives are the only evidence of any IT success. • Base wide guidelines (standards) for security, interoperability are not evident. 133 A1.5 Additional Measure of Linkage applicable to the Organization under Study To provide further support for the initial Linkage assessment an additional measure of Linkage was added to the research called the Implementation of the National Administration Information System rating. This research will determine whether the National Administration Information System was successfully implemented by the bases' and whether it is maintained with minimal disruption to work processes. The degree to which base Administration Officers and personnel were involved and the degree to which they became involved in its implementation. The implementation of National Administration Information System required a high degree of involvement between the administration unit and the IT unit to ensure success. Rating Table 2 0 Scale used to Measure Implementation of the National Administration Information System High Administration and IT Officers met to discuss and plan the implementation of the National Information System. Administrative staff were involved in the discussions and planning. Administration and IT Officer both or independently encouraged the administration staff members to work as a collaborative team to smooth over the transition period. Moderate Administration and IT Officers became involved in discussion after the implementation of the National Information System. Discussions were initiated only due to problematic issues. The Administrative staff were sometimes left to organize the implementation or track down system problems on their own. Low Either the Administration or the IT Officers failed to advise each other of corresponds relating to the implementation of the Nation al Information System. Administrative staff suffered work slowdown due to a lack of communication between the Administration and the IT unit. The Administrative staff were left completely to organize the implementation or track down system problems on their own. 134 A1.6 Interview Guide: Administration Officers The following Interview guide for Administrators was adapted directly from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1994) and modified only to reflect terminology difference between the organization under study and the civilian business environment. Al.6.1 Subjective Assessment of Linkage If we define Business unit linkage as "in which business unit (BU) Information Technology (IT) mission, objectives and plans need to be aligned with the business. We defined business unit linkage as that which is created by aligning IT and business mission, objectives and plans within a single business unit", how would you rate linkage in your organization? Low Moderate High Al.6.2 Short Term Linkage 1. Identify current Business objectives/plan IA. What are the Administration goals and strategies? 2. Identify current Information Technology (IT) objectives/plan 3. What is your level of understanding of the current Business objectives/plan? 4. What is your level of understanding of the current IT objectives/plan? Al.6.3 Long Term Linkage 1. What is your view of the future (i.e. in the next 3-5 years) role of the IT function at your base? IA. How can IT be used strategically in your organization for the future? IB. What will the mission be? Goals? IT strategies for achieving the goals? IC. How will IT contribute to the objectives of the base/CF/Administration? 2. Is a steering committee an appropriate way to oversee the IT function? What will the role of that committee be? 3A. The Administrators executives on the Steering Committee - What are the IT goals and objectives? would the IT executive have the same view of the future as you do? 3B. Who would differ and why? Al.6.4 Factor: Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Personal History and Level of IT awareness within administration executives: 1. What is your work history within the military 2. What is your IT training and experience, work history? 4. What other military training or management experience do you have? 5. Are there any administrators who are particularly interested in the application of IT to their strategies? What have they done? 6. What is the general level of IT awareness? 7. How well do you think each of the Administrators understands the opportunities and constraints of IT? 135 Al.6.5 Factor: Success in IT Implementation 1. Open ended questions about general IT history on base. 2. Impression about IT department. Al.6.6 Factor: Communication Between Business and IT Executives 1. What are you formally involved in face-to-face communications with members of the IT executives, either as a group or individually? a - steering group b - other IT committee c - Base Commander's O group d - Section Head meeting e - other business committee f - scheduled reviews with Base Commander or Delegate g - monthly/annual meetings h - other IA. For each of the above, what topics are discussed? Who initiates (e.g.) the meetings? Who sets the agenda. 2. What informal face-to-face communication occurs between you and members of the IT section, either as a group or individually? a - drops by my office b -1 drop by their office c - meet in the building &chat d - go to meetings with e - social outings with f - Mess TGIF events g - sports h - other 2A. Discuss the frequency of these communications. Is the discussion about IT business, general business or other items? 3. What written communication passes between you and the IT section on a regular basis. a - minutes of steering committee b - minutes of special projects c - IT project reports to d - business updates from e - memorandums f - other 3 A. For each of the above, who writes the communique? 4. In the last year, what irregular written communication has passed between you and the IT section. a. issue #1 b. issue #2 c. IT questions from e. business questions to f. personal notes from/to 4A. Who initiated the issue-oriented communication? Who was involved? What is the frequency of the other communications? 5. For each of the Administrators, what is their level of IT involvement at your base, previous and current? (IT project management, Steering Committee) 6. Do members of the Steering Committee talk about their respective business strategies when they are at meetings? What do you learn about the business units from these meetings? 7. How would you rate the type and frequency of communication between yourself and the IT section? a - infrequent, IT related b - frequent, IT related c - frequent, IT and business related. Al.6.7 Factor: Connections between Business and IT Planning 1. Describe steps in the most recent IT planning processes. 2. Describe steps in the most recent business planning processes. 136 Al . 6 .8 Business Planning 1. Is there a formal business planning cycle at the base? If so what steps are taken in it? Who is involved at each stage. 2. Would you characterize the planning as primarily financial, tactical, or strategic. If not strategic, was strategic direction set a few years ago? 3. For the most recent business plan, was this cycle followed? Were there any new procedures or differences from the previous years? Al . 6 . 9 IT Planning 1. In the IT plan for last year, there were a number of projects identified. Please Discuss. How were they identified? a - from corporate (NDHQ) level strategy setting b - from Base level strategy sessions c - taken from a list of backlogged items on the Base d - emerged in the course of event on the Base e - emerged from discussions at the steering committee f - put on the list by corporate IT group (DISO) 2. Was Corporate-level (NDHQ) information used? What form did it take? a - financial projections b - input from Base (Wing) Commander c - Other sources d - Strategy from Base (documents, talks) 3. Was a formal Planning methodology used? 4. Who is coordinating the preparation of the plan? 5. How were the IT projects prioritized? a - prioritized by the steering committee b - prioritized within the Base and put in the plan intact c - as in b but reprioritized at the Steering Committee 6. What is the role of the Steering Committee in the planning process? Is effective at surfacing and resolving strategic issues? 7. Do you have a long range plan or IT architecture - showing the various systems, and their interconnections? Are you information systems connected within the company? shared corporate (NDHQ) systems shared line of business systems 8. Were draft IT plans subject to scrutiny by the business planners or other units within the company? 9. Would you characterize the recent IT planning cycle as a - formal/informal b - participative/inclusive c - comprehensive/focused 10. Is this method of planning satisfactory? What would you like to see done differently? 11. Is this process typical of what happened last year? the year before? 137 A1.7 Interview Guide: Information Technology Officers The following Interview guide for IT Officers was adapted directly from the Linkage Model (Reich and Benbasat, 1994) and modified only to reflect terminology difference between the organization under study and the civilian business environment. Al.7.1 Subjective Assessment of Linkage If we define Business unit linkage as "in which business unit (BU) Information Technology (IT) mission, objectives and plans need to be aligned with the business. We defined business unit linkage as that which is created by aligning IT and business mission, objectives and plans within a single business unit", how would you rate linkage in your organization? Low Moderate High A.l.7.2 Short Term Linkage 1. Identify current Business objectives/plan 1 A. What are the IT goals and strategies? 2 . Identify current Information Technology (IT) plans 3. What is your level of understanding of the current Business objectives/plan? 4. What is your level of understanding of the current IT objectives/plan? Al.7.3 Long Term Linkage 1. What is your view of the future (i.e. in the next 3-5 years) role of the IT function at your base? 1 A. How can IT be used strategically in your organization for the future? IB. What will the mission be? Goals? IT strategies for achieving the goals? IC. How will IT contribute to the objectives of the Base/CF/Administration? 2 . Is a steering committee an appropriate way to oversee the IT function? What will the role of that committee be? Al.7.4 Factor: Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Personal History and Level of IT awareness: 1. What is your IT training and experience, work history? 2 . What is your job history within the military? 3. Have you held non-IT positions here or elsewhere? 4. What other military training or management experience do you have? 5. Have you been involved in any non-IT business function in the company, in any capacity (management, assisting, committee work, secondary duties)? 6. How well do you think each of the Administrators understands the opportunities and constraints of IT? Al.7.5 Factor: Success in IT Implementation 1. Was there an IT plan prepared for year 1995? 1 A. Going over the plan, what was the level of implementation of each of the major projects. IB. What methods of control and which people were in place to aid in implementation? processes: SC meetings, budget reviews controls: checkpoints, specific project methodologies 138 IC. Was there any form of reward/incentive for timely project implementation in 1995? ID. In summary, how well was the plan implemented? timewise budgetwise attainment of project goals. 2. How successful were each of the major projects? 3. What methods of control were in place to aid implementation? 4. Overall, how well was the plan implemented? 5. Open ended questions about general IT history. 6. Impression about how IT section is viewed by business unit? Al.7.6 Factor: Communication Between Business and IT Executives 1. What are you formally involved in face-to-face communications with other members of the base executives, either as a group or individually? (in particular - the administrators) a - steering group b - other IT committee c - Base Commander's O group d - Section Head meeting e - other business committee f - scheduled reviews with Base Commander or Delegate g - monthly/annual meetings h - other IA. For each of the above, what topics are discussed? Who initiates (e.g.) the meetings? Who sets the agenda. 2. What informal face-to-face communication occurs between you and members of the other sections (in particular - the administrators), either as a group or individually? a - drops by my office b -1 drop by their office c - meet in the building &chat d - go to meetings with e - social outings with f - Mess TGIF events g - sports h - other 2A. Discuss the frequency of these communications. Is the discussion about IT business, general business or other items? 3. What written communication passes between you and the other sections (admin.) on a regular basis. a - minutes of steering committee b - minutes of special projects c - IT project reports to d - business updates from e - memorandums f - other 3A. For each of the above, who writes the communique? 4. In the last year, what irregular written communication has passed between you and the admin, section. a. issue #1 b. issue #2 c. IT questions from e. business questions to f. personal notes from/to 4A. Who initiated the issue-oriented communication? Who was involved? What is the frequency of the other communications? 5. Do members of the Steering Committee talk about their respective business strategies when they are at meetings? What do you learn about the business units from these meetings? 6. How would you rate the type and frequency of communication between yourself and the IT section? a - infrequent, IT related b - frequent, IT related c - frequent, IT and business related. 139 Al.7.7 Factor: Connections between Business and IT Planning 1. Describe steps in the most recent IT planning processes. 2. Describe steps in the most recent business planning processes. Al.7.8 Business Planning 1. Is there a formal business planning cycle at the base? If so what steps are taken in it? Who is involved at each stage? 2. Would you characterize the planning as primarily financial, tactical, or strategic. If not strategic, was strategic direction set a few years ago? 3 . For the most recent business plan, was this cycle followed? Were there any new procedures or differences from the previous years? Al.7.9 IT Planning 1. In the IT plan for last year, there were a number of projects identified. Please Discuss. How were they identified? a - from corporate (NDHQ) level strategy setting b - from Base level strategy sessions c - taken from a list of backlogged items on the Base d - emerged in the course of event on the Base e - emerged from discussions at the steering committee f - put on the list by corporate IT group (DISO) 2. Was Corporate-level (NDHQ) information used? What form did it take? a - financial projections b - input from Base (Wing) Commander c - Other sources d - Strategy from Base (documents, talks) 3 . Was a formal Planning methodology used? 4. Who is coordinating the preparation of the plan? 5. How were the IT projects prioritized? a - prioritized by the steering committee b - prioritized within the Base and put in the plan intact c - as in b but reprioritized at the Steering Committee 6. What is the role of the Steering Committee in the planning process? Is effective at surfacing and resolving strategic issues? 7. Do you have a long range plan or IT architecture - showing the various systems, and their interconnections? Are you information systems connected within the company? shared corporate (NDHQ) systems shared line of business systems 8. Were draft IT plans subject to scrutiny by the business planners or other units within the company? 9. Would you characterize the recent IT planning cycle as a - formal/informal b - participative/inclusive c - comprehensive/focused 10. Is this method of planning satisfactory? What would you like to see done differently? 11. Is this process typical of what happened last year? the year before? 140 A1.8 Interview Guide: Select Administrative Staff The following Interview guide for select Administrative Staff was adapted directly from the Director of Personnel Information Systems Quality Assurance Visits Requirements. Al.8.1 General What is your present job in the orderly room? (R&D, Rec, Rel etc) How much time have you spent in your present job? How much BOR experience do you have? (years) What is your computer background/experience? Are you using the Internet? ( I f yes what is your account #?) Al.8.2 AIMS specific What is your overall opinion of AIMS? Was it what you expected/heard about? How much time were you given for your training? How long did it take for you to feel comfortable working in the AIMS environment? (mins,hours, days) Rate the instructor(s) on a scale from 1-5. l=excellent 5 =needs improvement Was the training time sufficient? If not specify. Is the system User friendly? If not, specify. Do you feel the software will allow you to do business faster and more efficiently? What is your opinion of the User Manual/PIP? (Recommendations for improvement) Do you feel the software is being accepted by the other clerks? Do you foresee other jobs/requirements where AIMS could be utilized? Do you see a possible transfer of responsibilities between the R&D and Rods sections? In other words, will the wall between the two sections gradually come down? Do you see a "Super Clerk" in the near future because of AIMS? (finance/clerk amalgamation idea) How do you feel about "one stop shopping" or "single point service"? Do you feel a person other than an 831 could operate the AIMS software? What is the biggest selling factor of AIM? What is the biggest drawback of AIMS? If you had the power, authority, and the money, what change would you make to AIMS? Al.8.3 BLIPSS-M Specific Have you used BLIPSS? What do you think of BLIPSS? Do you feel a person other than an 831 could operate the BLIPSS software? What is the biggest selling factor of BLIPSS? What is the biggest drawback of AIMS? If you had the power, authority and the money, what change would you make to AIMS? 141 Appendix II Canadian Forces Participants, Structure and Personnel A2.1 Introduction This Appendix provides an additional overview of the two particularly groups under study in this research.. Infrastructure, products, and services provided by the Administration and IT personnel are outlined. Present trends and specific issues addressing each of these two groups is also examined. A2.2 Administration Branch A2.2.1 General Branch Organization The Administration Branch consists of personnel that are trained as Administration Officers and Administrative Clerks. They have no formal organization, but are referred to as the Administration Branch. Each base has at least one administration section. Some bases with associated units may have several administration sections, each supporting a particular unit but ultimately responsible to the Base Administration unit. Some units of the Reserve Force also have administration sections. The Administration Branch presently has a total strength of approximately 3,000 personnel, although this number is being significantly reduced in accordance with department-wide reductions in personnel. All of the administration functions are guided by National Defence Act (NDA). Queen's Regulations and Orders (QR&O's) and the Canadian Forces Administration Orders (CFAOs). 142 A2.2.2 Administrative Branch Personnel Officers of the Personnel Administration classification specialize in providing administrative support to military operations, personnel administration, personnel services, and financial administration. Selected officers from the classification also perform the duties of a Postal Administration officer and a CANEX (canteen) officer. They may serve in any environment (Army, Navy, Airforce), both deployed and static. They may be employed in a large number of general appointments open to other classifications, such as administrative and command staff positions, training and instructing, data processing, exchange and liaison duties, and recruiting. With respect to IT training, the Canadian Forces School of Administration and Logistics indicates that limited IT training at a Branch level is available. Due the cost of such training and the impracticality of holding general computer training as part of any administration training course (held at the Administration Training School in Borden Ontario), IT training is left up to the individual bases. At this time, application and IT management training is not included in classification training. Administration Officer specifications states that, during the second development period of Lieutenant/Captain, officers "could receive training in ADP [Automated Data Processing - IT] training. " During the third development period of Captain/Major, the officer "could receive training in ADP systems" (A-PD -150-002/PP-004). Basic specifications referencing IT management for an Administration Officer are as follows: "Associated Skill - Must be semi-skilled in applying the principles and techniques of command, organization, and management of administrative resources. Associated Knowledge - Must have detailed knowledge of: the procurement and use of clerical services, including Automated Data Processing (ADP) and word processing systems and other related equipment" (A-PD -I50-002/PP-004). 143 Administration Branch personnel belong to the base/unit to which they are posted. They are assigned tasks and managed by base/unit level management. The number of Administration personnel posted to a specific base depends on the size and scope of the base-level requirement. The career management department in Headquarters is the posting authority that oversees the movement of Administration personnel. A typical base, for example, may have several administration cells attached to autonomous units such as squadrons, and central cell generally found at the base Headquarters. The Administration Branch is referred to by most Administration personnel as an "Administration Club." The Administration Branch "club" was formed in 1982 and is headed by a Colonel who performs this function as a secondary duty. The "club" publishes a quarterly magazine and holds annual Administration conferences as there is only an informal hierarchy established for Branch Administration personnel, they have no authority to direct IT purchases at the base level. A2.2.3 Administration Branch Base Level Every base in the Canadian Forces has a similar Administration Branch organization. The Administrative Branch "deals with all matters affecting personnel. These matters are divided broadly into Personnel Administration and Personnel Services. The former deals with manpower allocation, reinforcements and the administration of the individual. The latter deals with the collective needs of the group such as welfare, discipline, education and training. In addition there may be a third sub-division to deal with civilian personnel administration" (OPDP 2, 1995/6). These functions are replicated throughout each element (Army, Navy, Airforce) of the Canadian Forces. 144 "Administration. Common administrative services include the following: a. Personnel Services. Collective personnel services provided by supporting units to assigned units or elements: are physical education and recreation; institutes; chaplain; medical; welfare; accommodation; messing; janitorial; personnel selection; security; language training; members and dependents education services; and CANEXfacilities. b. Personnel Administration. Individual services include the routine administration of military and civilian personnel, orderly room services, reception and dispatch, release, central registry, record support, including the function of Unit Records Support for assigned units and ration accounting" (OPDP 2, 1995/6). The Administration Branch is unique within the Canadian Forces as its personnel support the Commanding Officer in all administration functions, such as Temporary Duty Travel (TD), Redress of Grievances, Claims, Investigations, Budgeting, Assisting Officer, Posting etc. as well as handling all of the information requirements of the unit to which they are posted. In addition, the personnel in the Administration section generally report directly to the base level management or senior management of the unit to which they are assigned. On larger bases such as CFB Cold Lake and CFB Borden, where there are large, dedicated Administration support staff (Base Orderly Rooms), the administrative procedures are generally much more regimented. On smaller bases or units such as Vancouver Detachment, the administration staff work directly for the Commanding Officer. A2.2.4 Headquarters Directorate Personnel Information Systems Directorate Personnel Information Systems (DPIS) is the Headquarters level administration information systems authority. They are responsible for policy and equipment acquisition for the Administration Branch. DPIS oversees the purchase and development of 145 National Personnel Information Systems such as the Base Level Information Personnel Support System - Military (BLIPSS-M). A2.2.5 Base Level Information Personnel Support Systems Base Level Integrated Personnel Systems (BLIPSS) was initiated to be the "Flagship" project for Base ADP. The BLIPSS-Military was a sub-component of this program initiated to facilitate the integration of the Basewide Data requirements. BLIPSS-M is an Headquarters funded and supported major software system which provides the platform for the automation of unit personnel and administrative functions. "A Base ADP Trial was conducted at CFB Petawawa from May 1975 to Dec. 1977 to determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of automating various base functional activities as a means of providing improved operational and administrative support to Base Commanders and base management. The successful trial results led to the awarding of a contract, on 22 July 1977 to install a PD 11/34 computer at each base in support of the initial functional system developed, the Construction Engineering Management Information System (CEMIS) MKII. Concurrent with the CEMIS MKII development during the trial, a representative sample of personnel administrative and support service were automated. The visible qualitative benefits derived from this preliminary system were sufficient to warrant the identification of a requirement for a Base Level Integrated Personnel System - Military (BLIPSS-M) incorporating the design philosophy inherent in the trial systems " (Supplemental PCP G1800). The requirements specified for BLIPSS-M were quite progressive and thorough with regard to information systems, particularly as they were developed in 1978. There was a firm understanding of some of the key issues associated with information systems development, including addressing "Complaints, especially from organizations outside of NDHQ, have become commonplace and for the most part have centered on three key points: lack of data currency; lack of data accuracy; and lack of system responsiveness. The high personnel cost involved in maintaining the current inadequate personnel information system is also a cause for concern " (Supplement PCP G1800). 146 At the Headquarters level, it was felt that, "the early introduction of BLIPSS-M will ensure an orderly development of this automation with the result that valuable programming resources will be conserved and administrative procedures will be standardized across the Department. The phases introduction of ADP will allow staffs to adapt to automated systems in an evolutionary, and therefore non-traumatic, way" (Supplemental PCP G1800). The functional areas served by BLIPSS-M were divided into the categories of Personnel Administration Functions, and Personnel - Related Functions. Personnel Administration Functions encompassed: Records, Ration Accounting, Single Quarter Accommodation Management, Leave Accounting, Quittance Rolls, Base Level Qualifications Recording, Married Quarters Administration, Unit Personnel Records, and Civilian Personnel Administration. Personnel related functions encompasses: medical and dental administration, and security administration (Military Police). "The primary purpose of implementing BLIPSS is to increase the ability of personnel administration to respond to operational requirements - including mobilization. To function properly, BLIPSS must provide users with convenient access to appropriate information. Implementation of BLIPSS will result in more efficient and effective base personnel support and administrative organization and consequently in an overall improvement in Departmental performance. BLIPSS will improve the quality of data in Command and [Headquarters] operational and administrative systems. " (Supplement G1800). The software provided under the initial implementation of BLIPSS-M served a basic function of: "(I) a mainframe base/station repository linked to MPIS [Military Personnel Information System], the [Headquarters] Personnel Information System, through its UPDT [Administration Updates] function. This software, records management system, obtains personnel data at its source, and provides base/unit commanders with current personnel information . A mobile version is planned to be issued to ships andfield units in the near future. (2) A PC-based administrative management system (AMS) that provides the platform for all future automation of Base/Adm. SVCS functions and which will eventually be the core of BLIPSS. Presently, it contains an automated leave function. (3) A PC Lan Based Quarters Management System for single quarters, and a PC based married quarters management package" (DPIS 006 011144Z Mar 95). Ul A2.2.5.1 BLIPSS-M Issues Due to various procurement issues the BLIPSS-M system never worked as promised. This failure has resulted in bases starting to develop different software applications and systems to address their individual administration requirements. "Given the number and variety of software products and custom-developed integrated applications currently in place throughout Canadian Forces units, Director Personnel Information Systems decided to host an IT Conference at Canadian Forces Base Chilliwack on 11 and 12 April 1995 to review the integrated personnel administration systems and software products" (SHL Systemhouse Inc., 1995). A2.2.6 Administration Branch in the 21 Century Examination of the current state of the Administration Branch indicates a Canadian Forces wide IT management and planning inefficiency. "The delay in the implementation of these key corporate strategies (DND/CF Information Management Plan Vision) has not caused a shift away from the vision, but has caused short-term or interim deviations from the plan (both at the [Headquarters] and the Canadian Forces unit levels). The current situation with regard to BLIPSS-M is a prime example. The DND/CF Information Systems Architecture vision includes an integrated, networked computing environment based on a multi-tiered, client/server approach for information processing and information sharing. The current BLIPSS-M environment being rolled out across Canada does not match this architecture, nor do the individual integrated application initiatives, at this time, fully support the vision of a national application capable of operating across all DND/CF groups, commands, bases, and units" (SHL Systemhouse Inc., 1995). The present IT management situation specifically with respect to the Administrative Branch was described as follows: "It is acknowledged that, while units were awaiting BLIPSS, they [bases] took initiatives to develop their own software. At present there is no central location to coordinate such initiatives and thus there is much duplication of effort occurring throughout the forces. This has resulted in some 'have' and 'have-not' units when it comes to ADP [Automated Data Processing] support for administrative functions" (DPIS 006 011144ZMar 95). 148 Some bases/units, under the direction of base/unit level management or self-initiatives, have embarked on their own system development programs, as seen in the following three examples: A2.2.6.1 17 Wing Winnipeg, Manitoba 17 Wing Headquarters, located at 17 Wing Winnipeg, have developed an information system called RAPID. RAPID is defined as "an integrated network application designed to collect and distribute personnel and resource information quickly and efficiently within 17 Wing Headquarters" (RAPID17 Wing). Throughout the project, the development team indicated they followed Headquarters and Air Command data models to ensure national structures were used in designing the databases. Currently there is no direct link between RAPID and MPIS or BLIPSS-M A2.2.6.2 CFB Valcartier, Quebec The CFB Valcartier Base Orderly Room developed a client/server application known as the CFB Valcartier Personnel Information System. It supports the management of the following functional areas: Reception and Dispatch, Release Management, Central Registry/General Administration, Rations, Single Quarters and Married Quarters. "While the CFB Valcartier system has a number of strengths, it also has critical deficiencies. There is no UPDT processing included in the system. Nor is there any provision for approval and accounting of leave. The system is, in general, unilingual French. " (SHL Systemhouse Inc., 1995) A2.2.6.3 CFB Borden, Ontario The CFB Borden Base Orderly Room has developed a client/server application known as the CFB Borden Personnel Information System. This system supports the management of the 149 following functional areas: Reception and Dispatch, Release Management, Central Registry/General Administration, Rations, Medical, Electronic Forms, Single Quarters and Leave Management. The CFB Borden System has several other applications which run concurrently with the Borden Integrated application: Ammunition Storage System, Military Police System (Weapons and Licensing), Receiver/General System (Accounting for outside work force), Military Cashier System (claims, temporary duty, Cheque Program, Mess Accounting (accounting, inventory membership), Sports Stores (loan equipment and inventory), and Civilian Timekeeper System (calculates civilian personnel time and wages). A2.3 Information Technology Organization A2.3.1 Headquarters Defence Information Services Organization The Defence Information Services Organization (DISO) was established at the National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa on July 15, 1994. The mandate of this organization is to establish and maintain an effective Information Technology Infrastructure and to provide responsive and effective Information Management services to all Canadian Forces and departmental clients. "The new directives will provide the Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces with specialized information management and information technology services" (DISO, 1994). DISO is commanded by a Major General or Rear Admiral who is known as the Assistant Deputy Minister (Defence Information Service). There are three Director Generals under his command. The first is the Director General Information Management Development, who is responsible for Information Management (IM) Policy & Architecture, IM Planning & Programming, IM Project Directors, and IT Security & Frequency Spectrum Management. The second is the Director General Information Services Operations, who is responsible for 150 Information Services Operations and Training, IT Client Services, and IT Infrastructure Support Services and Information Services Administration and Logistic Support. This director also acts as the Deputy joint staff officer responsible for communications and electronics advice to the Deputy Chief of Defence Staff. The third and final Director is the Director General Information Services Delivery and Support, who is responsible for Project Management & System Delivery, IT Infrastructure hardware & System software, and the Project Management Office Canadian Forces Supply System Upgrade. (DISO, 1994) "These new directives will provide the DND and CF with specialized information management and information technology services. By using the skills and professionalism of its people, revamping existing training and the development of better, more effective systems, the DISO will [position] the Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces to advance into the 21st century, and to prepare for the missions and tasks that will be detailed to the Department and the military" (DISO, 1994). The Minister of National Defence Steering Group on Information Technology directed DISO to develop a conceptual model for the use of IT within the Department of National Defence. To this end "it has been recognized that Canada's needs for joint and combined military operations can only be met if all of our future Command and Control Systems are "interoperable" (DISO, 1994). In addition, the planning directorate has proposed that the establishment of Command and Control Information Systems Interoperability in the Canadian Forces can be attained through the acceptance of a Common User Core. "The selected option is based upon a Common User Core of functionality whose realization will be highly dependent upon an extremely close cooperation between the DISO, the various Information Systems Staffs and the Research and Development Community. The primary thrust of this model is the acceptance of the concept of a Common User Core based upon the acceptance of a Common Core Data Model and standard software applications. The model will create a guidance framework for progressing these operationally critical projects in a way that will ensure the needed Interoperability. " (Service paper, 1994) 151 A2.3.2 Information Technology Base Level Until recently, base IT units performed the dedicated task of maintaining telecommunication equipment for their assigned base. On the base, the IT unit was typically called the Base Telecommunication Organization, and had a mandate to provide "telecommunication management, frequency management, planning and preparation of Communication Requirement Requisition's and telephone administration and services " (OPDP 2, 1994/5). It was also known historically as the Base Automated Data Processing (ADP) Organization (OPDP 2, 1992). Recently the role of the Base Telecommunication Organization has been expanded to cope with he information technology explosion. They are known as the Base Telecommunication Information Services Unit (BTISU) and generally report to the Base Technical Services Organization, although at some bases they report to the Base Logistics Officer, Base Administration Officer, or directly to the Base Commander himself (OPDP 2, 1995/6). A2.3.3 Information Technology Personnel IT Officers within the Canadian Forces are classified as Communication Electronic Land Engineering (CELE) Officers. All technicians and Officers are trained at the Canadian Forces School of Communications and Electronics in Kingston, Ontario. "The Canadian Forces School of Communication and Electronics maintains close to 100 different Information Technology (IT) courses from basic to advanced levels for nine Communication and Electronics occupations, consisting of Reserve and Regular Forces personnel (Officers and ~Non-Commissioned Officers), as well as other selected occupations in the CF. The School is also responsible for all Performance Oriented Electronics Training for the 200, 400 and 500 series trades. Finally, CFSCE provides limited training for non-military DND personnel and other government departments" (CFSCE, 1994). 152 Typically, CELE Officers are required to have a Electrical or Computer Science Engineering degree. CELE Officers begin their Officer training with a 52 day Young Officer Course at the School of Communications and Electronics in Kingston, Ontario. Following this training, the first introductory course to IT CELE Officers receive is the Basic Command and Control Information Systems Course, which lasts approximately 60 training days. "Basic Command and Control Information Systems Course: "The aim of this course is to train junior CELE officers for employment in all aspects of the C&E Branch that are common to both the land and air environments. Some topics are; maintenance of Command and Control Information Systems, administration of telecommunication services, Electronic Warfare and signal intelligence, financial admin., procurement of C&E systems and equipment, administration of small projects, data communications network design, satellite communications, and management of Command and Control Information Systems. Computer training modules G04, and P01 Parts I and II are included in this course" (CFSCE, 1995). CELE Officers also receive training specific to their element (Air, Land, Navy). For example an Air Force CELE Officer would attend the Air Basic course of approximately 50 training days. "Air Basic: The aim of this course is to provide air CELE officers with the knowledge level required to perform assigned duties at airfields in support of air operations and in the NORAD ground environment. Some topics covered are; C&E maintenance in Air Command, the employment of Air resources, radar theory, environmental Electronic Warfare, battle staff duties, NORAD environment and Airfield environment" (CFSCE, 1995). 153 Appendix ill LINKAGE - Remaining Bases A3.1 Introduction This Appendix provides an assessment of Short and Long Term Linkage at the base level within the Canadian Forces. Ratings of Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives with regard to IT, as well as Congruence in Shared Vision of IT are the linkage measures used. Of eight bases examined, the highest and lowest rating bases, (H,E) were presented in chapter five. The remainder are presented in this Appendix, (A,B,C,D,F,G). The results of three additional rating measures - Cross References in Written Objectives, Subjective Ratings of Linkage, and Implementation of the National Administration Information System - are also presented as support for initial IT Linkage assessments, and to provide greater insight into Linkage at the base level. A3.2 Linkage - Base A Base A has four main branches: Operations, Administration, Technical Services and Comptroller. The Personnel Administration unit on Base A is called the Base Personnel Administration Organization. The Head of the Base Personnel Administration Organization, the Base Personnel Administration Officer, who will subsequently be referred to as the Head of Personnel Administration, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent.' The Head of Personnel Administration is represented at the Branch Head meeting by his direct supervisor, the Base Administration Officer. 154 The IT unit on Base A is called the Base Telecommunication and Information Services Unit. The Head of the IT unit is called the Telecommunication and Information Services Officer. This person will subsequently be referred to as the Head of IT, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The Head of the IT unit is represented at the Base A Branch Head meetings by the direct supervisor the Base Technical Services Officer. According to the terms of the [Command] Memorandum of Understanding, the IT unit is to "provide [Base A] and its supported units with effective yet economical telecommunication and information services." This includes equipment and software support for telephones, teletypes, facsimiles, automated data processing, computers, networks, and radio facilities, including acquisition, management, accounting, and, to a limited extent, operations. Like many bases in the Canadian Forces, Base A is in a period of reorganization. Many of its operations are being downsized, and most of its functions are being moved to other bases. Support personnel number are being reduced drastically due to this reorganization of services, and budget cuts. At Base A, the Head of Personnel Administration, the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration and the Head of IT were interviewed. In addition, the administrative staff were asked to respond to questions that specifically addressed the National Administration Information System implementation. 155 A3.2.1 Cross References in Written Objectives Base A does not have written short term or long term business plans. Base A's 1995/96 IT plan was examined. There was no written long term IT plan. At this time, the only other plan available was a document called the [Base A Downsizing] Plan (5 year plan). Due to the effective downsizing of Base A, this base was not required by Headquarters to produce a business plan. No specific written business plans, either short term or long term, exist, except for a Base Downsizing Plan which addresses the downsizing activities for a five year period. Actual implementation of this downsizing plan is constantly changing, and the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration indicated that he receives constant updates. IT is addressed as an Appendix to this Base Downsizing Plan. The content of the IT plan was drafted by the Head of IT, and is similar to directions found in the written short-term IT Plan. The future configuration of the IT infrastructure on the base is still under debate. "No firm establishment for telecommunication has been agreed upon by [Headquarters IT unit] and [Command]. " A written short term IT plan exists, and is called the Telecommunication and Information Systems Plan (TISP) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1995/1996. Although this document is called a one year plan, it details strategies and objectives concerning IT for the following four years. The IT plan was approved by the Base Information System Steering Committee for implementation commencing FY 95/96. There is no indication in either this short term IT plan or the IT Appendix of the Base Downsizing Plan, as to which plan is to be followed. There are three base business objectives stated in the short term IT plan: "objective 1 - to improve command and control; objective 2 - to automate existing functions; and, objective 3 - to improve efficiency through innovation. " 156 The written short term IT plan proposes several strategies to meet these base business objectives: Maintenance of Metropolitan Area Network Infrastructure and Gateways; Software Application Development; Base Telecommunication Infrastructure Improvement; System Replacement; and Process Innovation. There is no clear direction regarding how IT is to attain or improve these business objectives. The written short term IT plan focuses on technology, and differentiates between standing projects and major IT projects for the current fiscal year. It does refer to specific system and technical implementations, but, neither of the two project categories are linked to base business objectives or specific units. For Base A, written short term and long terms plans do not exist with the exception of the Base Downsizing Plan. There exists a written short term IT plan, which also addresses long term IT issues. An appendix to the Base Downsizing Plan contains an IT plan. There is not link between the short term IT plan and the IT plan which is included as an appendix to the Base Downsizing Plan, and no indication of which document has priority. The written short term IT plan refers to the base business objectives but doesn't link the business objective to IT projects. Linkage in written short term plans was rated as LOW. Linkage in written long term plans was rated as NO PLANS. A3.2.2 Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives With respect to IT objectives, Administration Officers were able to identify one major IT project, the implementation of a Metropolitan Area Network. They expressed a lack of knowledge with respect to other IT objectives or projects. Although they felt that they had 157 received enough computers, they felt that the Administration Branch had not been given priority for required training. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration stated: "As far as priorities, I don't think we are out of place in terms of getting equipment. However for the training my biggest problem was that we are below the infantry people for the priority list in terms of training. Where as the administrators, I believe we have a much bigger need to use these things. " With respect to business objectives, the Head of IT could state Base A's business objectives, and supported them by referring to the written short term IT plan. He did admit, however, that he alone drafted the plan, and that support for the IT plan was not as high a level as he had hoped. He could not state any current Personnel Administration objectives, projects or problem areas. Mutual understanding of current IT objectives by Personnel Administration was rated as LOW. Mutual understanding of current base business objectives by IT was rated as MODERATE. A3.2.3 Congruence in Shared Vision for IT The Head of IT indicated that future IT development on the Base A would be a difficult, because of the lack of a direction regarding the future functions of the base. He described a possible scenario, in which a small cadre of the IT unit at Base A consisting of a network manager and technician would be developed to deal with first line problems and maintenance. Other IT support would be contracted out. He did, however, express a detailed vision of IT for the entire Canadian Forces. 158 "That's the goal of the future, as the son of [Heaquarters IT unit] we want to become a whole new organization that will streamline everybody by giving us firm direction on where we are going, that's nice on paper again, that was said ten years ago and we are still in the same position, so what are we doing rehashing the whole wheel again. " Neither the Head of Personnel Administration nor his Deputy could state a vision for IT in the future. The Head of Personnel Administration seemed to have a limited understanding of the power of technology, and is waiting for centralized direction. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration has taken a more proactive role in coping with IT by suggesting programs personally used but doesn't feel comfortable suggesting new applications or new areas of IT potential. "There is only so much you can learn from osmosis. We want to be able to say what we need technologically, however, we are limited in our knowledge so it is hard to work at that level. " Congruence in shared vision for IT was rated as LOW. A3.2.4 Subjective Ratings of Linkage a. Personnel Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Administration and the Deputy Head of Personnel rated Linkage as being LOW, stating the following reasons: • a lack of communication between IT and Personnel Administration units, describing a personality conflict between the Head of IT and Deputy Head of Personnel Administration; • a lack of understanding of IT on the part of the Personnel Administration Branch Head; • a lack of IT management skills among Administration Branch members; and, • a lack of clear channels of dissemination of information from Branch Head meetings regarding IT issues. 159 b. IT Unit The Head of IT rated Linkage as being MODERATE, stating the following reasons: • an improvement in the his ability to plan IT projects; and, • the use of project management tools to inform the Branch heads of IT projects. He did express a concern that there was no centralized direction or even coordinated direction on the base with respect to the management of IT. "The other problem that I am running into all the time is that there is so many people who want their own systems - their own LAN or possibly new systems to be implemented into our LAN. National Information System Projects, all out of Ottawa, don't look at the conductivity. There are good teams that come out and ensure that the Linkage is there, but the majority of times it doesn't occur. " The Head of IT continued his point with the following example: "I just got a case in point this week, , they are getting a LAN that is Novell based. I only work in UNIX and Banyan. But they still want us to implement it, I tried to explain to this officer who has no background that it doesn't work, but he says it must be. There is capability out there to do everything in computers, why can't we get it done. So that's the problem I have on an ongoing basis, is the continuing inclusion - everyone has a different idea, they just want to shove it in. " A3.2.5 Implementation of the National Administration Information System With respect to the implementation of National Administration Information Systems, considerable frustration was expressed. The Personnel Administration unit felt that this Administration IT project had been overlooked by the IT unit in terms of priority. The system had been delivered with seven terminals, but due to a lack of communication between the Personnel Administration unit and the IT unit, the system was implemented with only one terminal. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration sent a number of letters and memorandum, attempting to correct the situation. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration admitted that he felt that he had been ignored by the IT unit citing, the fact it took up to a year to sort out the situation, and have the other six terminals up and running. 160 The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration stated: "It was the understanding of the [IT unit] that the [National Administration Information System] project was off and they redistributed our equipment. They should have at least should have asked us." The Head of Personnel Administration stated that although the IT unit had this project under its planning cycle, the Personnel Administration unit felt that the implementation further demonstrated that the administrative function took a back seat to other units. The system often crashes, and despite repeated phone calls and memorandums from the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration, the problem never quite seems to be fixed. During one crash, a member from the IT unit personally had the system corrected after the administrative clerk he was dealing with about an administrative issue told him his promotion couldn't be updated until the system was working again. On this specific day, no previous attempts on part of both Administration Officers were successful in having this system crash corrected. Implementation of the National Administration Information System was rated as LOW. A3.2.6 Summary Base A is concentrating on the main business objective of downsizing. Plans are constantly changing concerning the future of configuration of Base A, both in terms of the business functions and IT. At Base A, there was a LOW to MODERATE rating on all of the Linkage measures. It is concluded that Linkage is not being attained. 161 Table 21 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base A LINKAGE MEASURE RESULTS 1. Cross References in Written Objectives • Short Term Plans - L O W • Long Term Plans - N O P L A N S 2. Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives • IT objectives by Personnel Administration - L O W • Base business objectives by IT - M O D E R A T E 3. Congruence in Shared Vision for IT L O W 4. Subjective Ratings of Linkage Administration Officers - L O W Head of IT - M O D E R A T E 5. Implementation of the National Administration Information System L O W 162 A3.3 Linkage - Base B Base B has five main branches: Operations, Administration, Logistics, Technical Services and Comptroller. The Personnel Administration unit on Base B is called the Base Personnel Administration Organization. The Head of the Base Personnel Administration Organization is called the Base Personnel Administration Officer, who will subsequently referred to as the Head of Personnel Administration, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. At Base B the Head of Personnel Administration works directly for the Head of Personnel Services. The Head of Personnel Services is represented at the Base Commander's Branch Head meeting by his direct supervisor, the Base Personnel Administration Officer. The IT unit on Base B is called the Base Telecommunication and Information Services Unit, The Head of the IT unit is called the Telecommunication and Information Services Officer. This person will subsequently be referred to as the Head of IT, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The Head of the IT unit is represented at the Branch Head meeting by his direct supervisor, the Base Logistics Officer. Within the IT unit, there are five persons dedicated to IT management. At Base B, the Head of Personnel Services, the Head of Personnel Administration, the Head of IT and the Deputy Head of IT were interviewed. In addition, administrative staff were asked to respond to interview questions that specifically addressed the National Administration Information System implementation. 163 A3.3.1 Cross References in Written Objectives Base B's 1994/95 business plan and 1994/95 IT plan were examined. At this time, Base B does not have a written long term business plan or a written long term IT plan. Base B's business plan is primarily concerned with an [Command] Cost Center Management Project. The business plan was last updated July 1994, with amendments dated April 1995. The business plan is a tasking document, or Unit Job Description document, rather than an explicit business plan. Specific implementation of a business planning process is required next fiscal year 97/98. On Base B , the Business Plan for the Base Administration Branch identifies 9 specific services or functions: Manage Official Languages Programs Provide Management Support Services Provide services to wing personnel Provide medical, social and spiritual services Perform other Administration services Respond to Emergencies Perform other Duties Manage the Branch Manage Branch Resources. 164 Base B's business plan is written in a format that is normally associated with Base Standing Orders. It is a unit job description rather than a business plan, as seen in the following example: 2.2 PROVIDE PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT SERVICES 2.2.1 Interpret and Implement Personnel-Related Policies 2.2.1.1 Interpret and maintain Canadian Forces Organization Orders as they pertain to the [Base] 2.2.1.2 Interpret, implement and enforce Canadian Forces personnel orders, policies, and procedures. 2.2.1.3 Interpret, implement, and enforce civilian and Non Public Fund personnel orders, policies, procedures, and collective agreements. 2.2.7 Provide Other Personnel Management Services 2.2.7.1 Perform "enhanced reliability" checks for civilian employees. 2.2.7.2 Assign [Base] personnel so special tasks, in consultation with the Appropriate managers. 2.2.7.3 Present the [Base] at quasi-judicial hearings and investigations conducted by the Public Service Commission (PSC), Workers Compensation Board (WCB), Canadian Human Rights Commission (CHRC), etc. 2.2.7.4 Provide arrival and departure briefings. 2.2.7.5 Liaise with service organizations, central agencies, and other organizations on personnel management issues in order to exchange information and resolve problems. 2.2.7.6 Participate in various management committees related to personnel matters. Timelines, responsibility, accountability, resource requirements and the business planning cycle are not included. 165 While Base B's business plan does not contain timelines or resource allocations, the plan, however, does incorporate the following 'planning requirements: 8.0 MANA GE THE BRANCH AND ITS SUB-UNITS Note: The following activities are performed at all levels of all sub-units of the Branch. 8.1 COMMAND MILITARY MISSIONS 8.2 DEVELOP BRANCH FORECASTS AND PLANS 8.2.1 Define Overall Vision, Direction, and Policies 8.2.2 Develop Long-Term Forecasts and Plans 8.2.3 Develop Annual Forecasts and Plans Annual forecasting and budget requirements refer to the operations and maintenance budget, and do not include the capital budget. In the military, budgets are formulated by a "top-down" process. Each section submits 'anticipated requirements,' but then must tailor their actual requirements around the money that is allocated and distributed through the chain of command. At Base B, no other business plan exists except for this' planning' document, originally entitled the Business Function Model. It is evident that this document reflects the traditional military model and methods concerning planning, not a civilian business planning cycle. There is an apparent lack of understanding concerning the nature of civilian business planning. Planning is described in this Function Model as incorporating both annual and long-range planning. The details, however, are left to individual sections to determine. 166 IT and the Base Business Plan IT is referred to, but not specifically addressed in Base B's short term business Plan. No specific IT requirements are outlined for the Administration Branch, only a reference that a plan should be created to address IT. The requirement for IT is outlined as follows: 8.2.2 Develop Long-Term Forecasts and Plans 8.2.2.1 Develop long-range development plans for the Branch (i.e. plans for the development ofpremises, etc.) 8.2.2.2 Develop, at all organizational levels, long-range forecasts of Branch requirements for: services to be provided, financial and human resources, development and training, accommodations, facilities, equipment and tools, materiel, training aids, vehicles, information technology and systems, establishment. 8.2.2.3 Perform analyses of the impact of various scenarios (e.g. reducing the number of staff members). 8.2.3 Develop Annual Forecasts and Plans 8.2.3.1 Develop, at all organizational levels, annual forecasts of requirements for Branch services. 8.2.3.2 Develop, at all organizational levels, annual forecasts of Branch requirements for: services to be provided, financial and human resources, development and training, accommodations, facilities, equipment and tools, materiel, training aids, vehicles, information technology and systems, establishment. 8.2.3.3 Perform at all organizational levels, annual resource plans. Base B 's IT plan exists in the same format as the business plan. Within the IT unit, IT 'planning' is conducted according to project prioritization. A list of current and long term projects has been compiled, and is referred to as an adequate planning summary. 167 As a result of these factors, the level of cross references in Base B's written business and IT planning documents was rated as LOW. It is clear that the Base B's written short term business plan does not address the importance of IT projects, and the written short term IT plan does not reflect business objectives. The business and IT planning process is immature, and full-scale planning at the unit level will not be required until fiscal year 1997/98. Written long term business and IT plans do not exist. Linkage in short term written plans was rated as LOW. Linkage in written long term plans was rated as NO PLANS. A3.3.2 Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives The Head of IT stated that the base business objectives for 1996 were to cope with expansion (arrival of additional flying operations). With respect to IT objectives, the Administration Officers stated that the key IT objective for 1996 was to have the base connected by the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). With respect to IT, Administration Officers are involved in the development of IT training for personnel, and were able to identify one major IT project - the implementation of a MAN, due, in large part, to their involvement as the Base Beta Site. Mutual understanding of current IT objectives by Personnel Administration was rated as HIGH. Mutual understanding of current base business objectives by IT was rated as HIGH. A3.3.3 Congruence in Shared Vision for IT The Head of IT stated that the base did not have a written plan for IT, only a listing of current IT projects. He expressed frustration that other base personnel seemed to have limited 168 visions of IT, based on their personal knowledge of technology, not from the perspective of business requirements. The Administration Officers knew that IT could help them improve efficiency, and already saw the benefits of the Metropolitan Area Network. They were also aware, however, of the limited resources within the IT unit, and the difficulty this situation presented concerning development of a clear IT vision. The Head of Personnel services also commented that that a lack of IT awareness had caused many business personnel on the Base to assume that IT was simply an IT unit problem, not everyone's problem: "Again the problem is communication....instead of assuming it was a telecommunications [IT unit]problem which it isn't. This is an Administration issue, a Logistics issue, and a Comptroller issue. This is me needing to do things more efficiently so I can save money for the system so that I can be productive .... This is the Wing setting down the requirements for technology and the technology people saying, right, this is how we will accomplish this. " The Head of Personnel Services further commented that it was difficult to develop a vision for IT because Higher Headquarters develops systems without the involvement or input of users, and would develop and order the implementation of Forces-Wide information systems. "You gave the example of Peoplesoft [next generation of national administration information systems] explanation. That's exactly what I don't want to see happen, not that I will have any choice in the matter when they come out with the technology and they say, here's the application, now make your life fit into it. I know that's how it is being driven by Treasury Board but it's not DPIS [Director Personnel Information System], [Headquarters] fault, but that's exactly what we don't need in the field. To ignore the re-engineering, to do the re-engineering after you've got the application strikes me as being a backwards way of approaching it, even though we're trying to coordinate a very large and very unwieldy organization called the Canadian Forces. " Congruence in shared vision for IT was rated as LOW/MODERATE. 169 A3.3.4 Subjective Ratings of Linkage a. Administration Unit The Administration Officers rated Linkage as being MODERATE, stating the following reasons: • involvement with Beta-site implementation of the Metropolitan Area Network project; • good communication between IT and Administration; and, • effective delivery of services from the IT unit despite a limited number of personnel dedicated to IT, and limited resources. The Head of Personnel Services stated: "There is spirit, there is intent - they [IT unit] don't have the resources. I am very pleased as a user, based on my knowledge of what their limitations are, and with what they have delivered in the 18 months that I have been here. I think it is quite remarkable, I wish there was a hell of a lot more and a hell of a lot better, but I realize it is not under their control, If they had more bucks and more people they could make it happen a lot more quickly." b. IT Unit The IT Officers rated Linkage as being MODERATE, stating the following reasons: • the Metropolitan Area Network Project proceeding according to plan; • dedicated effort to implement assigned Forces-Wide IT systems; • strong support from their Branch Head; and, • good communication between IT and Administration units. 170 A3.3 .5 Implementation of the National Administration Information System The Administration Officers felt that the implementation of National Systems had gone reasonably well. Although Base B had one of the most significant reductions in administrative personnel, in comparison with the other bases in this study, it had recovered best due to effective training in the use of the new IT applications. In addition, a strong personal relationship between the Base IT unit and their assigned IT representative facilitated correction of site related networking problems. There was a high degree of communication by all members of the administrative staff, from the Head of Personnel Administration to the lowest ranking members. All members of the team were free to express concerns about the functioning of the information system, and an accurate list of problems and system deficiencies was quickly produced to be acted upon. Implementation of the National Administration Information System was rated as HIGH. A3.3 .6 Summary Base B is concerned with incorporating IT as a part of its ongoing expansion. IT has come to be viewed with significant interest, particularly as it offers a cost-effective way of expanding administrative capabilities in the face of budget-induced staff reductions. At this time, plans concerning the future configuration of Base B are in flux, both in terms of business functions, and IT. The business planning cycle and the IT planning cycle processes are immature. Although the Base Business Function Model requires Linkage in both the annual and long term planning cycles, this Linkage is currently weak, and actual determination of the model's success must await future developments. 171 Base B rated LOW to HIGH ratings on all of the Linkage measures. It is therefore concluded that at Base B, Linkage is being MODERATELY attained. Table 22 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base B L I N K A G E M E A S U R E R E S U L T S 1. Cross References in Written Objectives Short Term Plans - LOW Long Term Plans - NO PLANS 2. Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives • IT objectives by Personnel Administration - HIGH • Base business objectives by IT - HIGH 3. Congruence in Shared Vision for IT LOW/MODERATE 4. Subjective Ratings of Linkage • Administration Officers - MODERATE • IT Officers - MODERATE 5. Implementation of the National Administration Information System HIGH 172 A3.4 Linkage - Base C The Personnel Administration unit on Base C is called the Base Personnel Administration Organization. The Head of the Base Personnel Administration Organization is called the Base Administration Officer, who will subsequently referred to as the Head of Administration, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The IT unit on Base C is called the Base Information Systems Unit. The Head of the IT unit is called the Telecommunication and Information Services Officer. This person will subsequently be referred to as the Head of IT, as this title most corresponds to the civilian equivalent. Within the IT unit, there are four personnel dedicated to IT management. At Base C, the Deputy Commanding Officer, the Head of Administration, and the Head of IT were interviewed. There was 100% turnover in these three key positions for the 1995/96 planning cycle. This turnover is of particular note, as Base C has a small staff, but a large span of control. The Head of Administration and the Head of IT both report to the Deputy Base Commander. 173 A3.4.1 Cross References in Written Objectives Base C's 1994/95 written short-term business plan was examined. The 1995/96 plan was not available at the time of the research. Base C's 1994/95 and 1995/96 written short term IT plans were also examined. There were no written long term business plans or written long term IT plans. The nature of the Base C's business operations is to provide Telecommunication, recently referred to as Information Management, direction and support to all of its units. "The mission is to ensure that Commanders, managers and their staff have timely, effective and efficient access to essential information, to ensure the success of Canadian Forces operations and the achievement of Departmental objectives, within the [Base CJ area of responsibility. " The 1994/95 base business plan outlines five mission elements: • strategic Information Management (IM) direction; • IM client services operations, (support to IM operations); • IMproduct design, development and support services; • regional [Corporate IS unit] management, and, • support to military operations; The strategic direction of the business plan stated: "Within the constraints of government policy and DISO [Headquarters IT unit] direction, [Base CJ plans, develops, promulgates and administers the broad orientation necessary for the dissemination of departmental and Canadian Forces information, in support of Canadian Forces command and control of the bases and units within [Base CJ area." 1 7 4 The 1994/95 business plan is the first business plan written by Base C. Its introduction contains the following statement, written by the Base Commander: • This document constitutes the first business plan for [Base CJ, and as such, represents this formation's entry into conducting our "business " on business case principles. I do not see a radical departure from the sound and well-tested principles of military estimates and planning. Rather, I see the precepts of military planning being essential to the business planning process. What is different is the right and proper emphasis on priority setting, and on the subsequent allocation of resources to task. We can no longer justify our resources solely on history. • Just as we in [Base CJ have introduced spending plans as part of Annual Training Directives, the Canadian Forces has instituted business planning to better define resource requirements, and to better track resource expenditures. As part of this process, we must continually refine our resource allocation plans to ensure that we are supporting our essential Mission Elements, as assigned by ADM(DIS) [Headquarters IT unit]. Through better tracking of our resources, we can then better reallocate our limited resources, especially human and financial, to our mission priorities. • Since this is the first [Base CJ business plan, changes and refinement to format are expected; however, the concept is here and is a product of current times. The terminology may be different from that which we in the military are used to, the way we eventually structure the process of budgeting and resource allocation may be different from the way we manage operations today, but the overall planning process is still best served through estimate, preferred course of action, and plan. This statement indicates that although Base C, like other bases, has begun a business planning process. There, however, is a lack of specific direction regarding how this business planning process is to be accomplished, or what the plan should contain. The written one year plans are generic in nature, in that they provide broad listings of requirements. Headquarters' vision, missions, and objectives are clearly stated. The listing of specific business functions are also listed, however, no associated time lines, projects and clear 175 allocation of responsibilities are associated with these business functions. Resource allocations are given in person years and dollar values which do not indicate the type of budgeting, capital or Operating & Maintenance (O&M) budgeting applied. There is a category that O&M costs associated with each business function. There, however, is no breakdown associated with these costs, and in the specific business plan, half of the business functions do not have an associated cost. For example: Base C Business Plan Appendix Business Function Command and Control Administration Logistics Description of Task A Command and Control all A Provide Personnel A Provide Supply Service and Function [Base CJ Units/sub Units Services Support B Provide Transport Services B Provide [Base CJ B Provide Personnel Headquarters Staff Administration (mechanical process/function) C Provide and Administer Safety Program D Provide and Administer Security Program E Provide Record Management Performance Indicators Military Rank Lt Colonel (LCol) x LColx LCol x /Military Person Major (Maj) x Maj x Maj x Years, Reserves Captain (Capt) x Capt x Capt x Person Years Lieutenant (Lt) x Lt x Lt x Chief Warrant Officer - CWO x CWO x (CWO) x MWO x MWO x Master Warrant Officer - WO x WO x (MWO) x Sgt x Sgt x Warrant Officer (WO) x MCpl x Mcpl x Sergeant (Sgt) x Cpl x Cpl x Master Corporal -(MCpl) x Corporal (Cpl) x Civilian Class/ N/A CR-04 x Civilian Person CR-03 x Years CR-02 x STOCE-03 x STOCE-02 x SWE/FTE Budget 0 & M Budget MRs Budget 1 7 6 The business plan gives direction to IT Planning primarily because the nature of the business conducted at this base is to provide IT direction to its subordinate units. There is, however, confusion and redundancy in the two plans as some of the business plan covers IT issues and part of the IT plan covers these same issues at varying levels of detail. There are also some IT issues included in the business plan that are not addressed well, or at all, in the IT plan. For example, the following direction is given in the business plan with respect to support of National Information Systems. The subsequent excerpt from the IT plan also addresses this requirement: Base Cs Business Plan - Appendix Business Function Number Business Function ITI Operations Description of Task and Function Operate, maintain and restore the backbone [IT] including: Performance Indicators Rank /Military Person Years, Reserve Person Years LCol x Maj x Capt x Lt x CWO x MWO x WO x Sgt x MCpl x Cpl x Civilian Class /Civilian Person Years AS-03x, CM-07x, CM-06x, CM-05 x, CM-04 x, EL-05x, EL-04x, CS-02 x, CS-01 x ST OCE-03 x, RO-OIx, DD-04 x, DD-03 x, STSCY-02 x, CR-04x, CR-03 x, CR-02 x, CR-01 x SWE/FTE O&M MRs 177 Base C's IT Plan (9) List of Activities National Projects: [Listed National Systems] Significant Changes (1) [Base C] HQ Banyan conversion and implications; (2) installation of three new LANs ([unit], [unit], [unit]) (3) Base support in procurement (procedural changes, EDI); (4) .., transfer to [Base]; and, (5) MAN connectivity. Taskings listed in the IT plan support the business direction, however, the plan has significant omissions and approximately half of the IT plan is dedicated to discussing problems associated with the IT unit's ability to support the plan. A s an example, it indicates that three of the four positions within the IT unit are filled by Reserve military personnel who have had " a 150% turnover of personnel this year. " Other problem areas as listed as follows: Base C's 1995/96 IT Plan PROBLEMAREAS fl) Personnel • LAN [Land Area Network] Manager - [This] key role [is] held by a Reservist, unstable situation - terms of reference for LAN manager are that of a CS1/CS2 [Civilian Rank] (college/university education) - present LAN Manager, though a Master Corporal [MCpl], is a university graduate • Turnover: - the IS [Information Systems Unit] positions suffer a high turnover (6 months) - untrained IS personnel require 6 month on-job-training to be productive (Software or Hardware) - the high turnover of Reservists make it unwise to invest in contracted IS training (a situation reservist are growing aware of) (2) Funding • Large amounts of time are dedicated at justifying and obtaining funding despite the CFCC [Canadian Forces Command & Control] IS Plan-94 • Canadian Forces Publications and application Software are distributed on CD-ROM's, though no Hardware upgrades have been budgeted (CD-ROM Drive, 1 or 2 GB HDD) • National LAN maintenance contract (Banyan VIP) are not being budgeted for. • National PC maintenance contracts (off-base units) are not being budgeted for. 178 (3) Equipment • Mixed platforms significantly increase the workload as specialized IS skills must be acquired.... • Older PCs are not capable of running latest application SW, LEW upgrades and replacement have not been budgeted to keep up with application SW. • Application Software distribution is time consuming (10 diskettes/ application) - [Base CJ has a requirement for CD-ROM technology (distribution & archiving) (4) Organizational • No inter-[Base CJ IS meetings (semi-annual suggested) • Obsolete equipment is not being replaced [at a rate required toj maintain operational requirements and no established lifecycle period. • No trouble desk for units at Headquarters level. (Banyan LAN, SW, etc.) • IS procurement through base supply: • - extra shipping charges to be delivered outside [Base C Area] only to have the base deliver to [Base CJ in [Base C Area]. • - disappearance/delay of delivered goods. • No training guidelines for IS - strategy, course [training], material, etc. [Headquarters IT unit] has not confirmed the Banyan LAN Manager course for [unit x] and [unit y], scheduled for May 95. DISOT is in possession of x notebooks for IS Training. We request that x be permanently allocated to the [Base C] area due to the geography factor. • No recognized National connection topology design for [Base MANs] • No [Headquarters IT unit] IS Security Orders for the [Base C]s. (5) [National! Systems • [National X Information System] - requirement to be connected with LAN • [ Command Information System] - requirement for a formal and easy to follow procedures to extend to units and bases. • [Province] Tel/ direct billing: connection requirements, security concerns affecting accreditation (access to LAN, archiving) • National configuration and practices for the management of a Banyan LAN has not been established ([Command], [National Canadian Forces Internet] and [Headquarters IT unit] conflicts) 179 The business plan reiterates these same concerns which affect the IT unit's ability to complete its plan: Base C's 1994/95 Business Plan CONSTRAINTS 14. Training • Existing personnel are not, for the most part, trained for the environment in which they are working. [Base CJ personnel have acquired many of the Information Management skills they currently hold through their own initiative or interest. • The Canadian Forces does not yet have an adequate training program to deliver the necessary Information Management skills. • The funding to provide the required training through Out-of Service courses does not exist. 15. Civilian Manpower. The existing web of union contracts, combined with both Departmental and Governmental regulations on the employment and training of civilian workers hinders the acquisition and delivery of a competent and technically proficient civilian work force, a work force fully capable of supporting [Base CJ mission and tasks. 16. Military Personnel • The shortage of regular force Radar Ops following [Or der J will severely limit [Base CJ's ability to support Regional Ops and individual operational taskings. • No personnel of any trade to perform any defined Information Handling (IH) mission. As a result of these factors, the level of cross references in Base C's written short term IT and business plans was rated as MODERATE. There is no doubt that the two plans reflect each other to a degree, and Linkage is present. These plans, however, are somewhat redundant in that the business plan and IT plan in some cases discuss the same IT project. These plans present the ideal situation, however, and the reality of IT implementation has yet to match established goals. Base C does not have written long term business and IT plans. Linkage in short term written plans was rated as MODERATE. Linkage in written long term plans was rated as NO PLANS. 180 A3 .4 .2 Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives The Head of Administration stated that the major IT goals for 1996 were: • Base C move and amalgamation; • work towards standardization of software; and, • development of a proper IS system. He also stated that the Document Management System Project which "had been dumped on the administrative staff", had finally been terminated. This project had been implemented hastily, as the previous Head of IT had money left in the previous budget year, and thought it best spent on the "paperless office concept." The Head of IT was aware of the base business objectives in spite of not having seen the business plan. He, however, could not state any Personnel Administration objectives or projects. "I don't know what's in the business plan because I've never seen it. I just know what I've talked with the [Deputy Base Commander] about, who obviously has seen the business plan and I guess he's providing sort of an encapsulation of what he thinks. If Ifeed him something that's off the wall, he '11 shoot me down. " The Deputy Base Commander is the direct supervisor of both the Head of Administration and the Head of IT. This position has facilitated his intimate knowledge of the business objectives, and made him fully aware of the IT unit projects. Mutual understanding of current IT objectives by Administration was rated as MODERATE. Mutual understanding of current base business objectives by IT was rated as MODERATE. 181 A3.4.3 Congruence in Shared Vision for IT The Head of IT and the Head of Administration were familiar with the DISO [Headquarters IT unit] and Base Cs vision but were very skeptical concerning how these visions could be converted into tangible reality. The Head of Administration felt that the Base Cs IT vision had not been effectively communicated, or mapped to the requirements of the users. He felt it was the IT unit's responsibility to develop an applicable vision, and deliver it to the users. The Head of Administration: "The IT unit purchases hardware and software packages with little to no input from the users. This practice may be good in a sense that most of the users have limited computer knowledge. However, this approach results in users being inundated with new unrequested applications, with insufficient training." The Head of IT could not provide a vision for IT because he felt he had not been the position long enough to make this kind of statement. Congruence in shared vision for IT was rated as LOW. A3.4.4 Subjective Ratings of Linkage a. Personnel Administration Unit The Deputy Base Commander rated linkage as being MODERATE, stating that a change of personnel with a greater understanding of the requirement for linkage. "Linkage from recent past till now: Low. IT has been in it glass house or behind the glass walls cranking out bits. Operations, including Administration and all other functions, have been busy trying to get on with the day to day job. There has been little or no link. Presently, linkage is moving into the moderate range, I think, mainly as a result of my influence. And in the future it will be much more prevalent because the [Head of IT] certainly grasps the idea and agrees with it. I see the other staff coming around to it. They are not yet believers because they have not yet tasted the pudding. [IT unit] has to produce the pudding and I think he's on a similar wave length as me. " 182 The Head of Administration rated linkage as being LOW, stating that it appears that everyone is everyone was running around buying computers and not mapping the Administrative processes to a technological requirements. "We as Administrators are still trying to change the system to meet the technology, changing or buying the technology that meets the required process. " b. IT Unit The Head of IT rated linkage as being LOW, stating he had only been in the job three months, two of which had been spent on military courses. A3.4.5 Implementation of the National Administration Information System Base C is a lodger unit and, as a result, was not given access to the National Administration Information System. The Head of Administration expressed frustration at the efforts required to update this system through a supporting base. He stated that his staff must go through another base by sending information to a base that has a connection to the National Administration Information System. He also stated that there was no way to trace information sent to the system via other bases. He recommended that lodger units be given a "transportable version " of this system, in the same way as the ships have access to the National Administration Information System. Implementation of the National Administration Information System was rated as LOW. 183 A3.4.6 Summary Base C is focused on the main business objective of moving and rationalizing its operations with another base. This base has seen a significant turnover in the three key officers positions on Base C. The three new key players have recognized that management of IT has been neglected. Unlike his predecessor, the new Deputy Base Commander has taken a very active and influential role in trying to align IT with the base objectives. In this base, there was a LOW rating on all of the linkage measures. It is concluded that at Base C linkage is not being attained. Table 23 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base C LINKAGE MEASURE RESULTS 1. Cross References in Written Objectives Short Term Plans - MODERATE Long Term Plans - NO PLANS 2. Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives • IT objectives by Personnel Administration -HIGH • Base business objectives by IT - MODERATE 3. Congruence in Shared Vision for IT LOW 4. Subjective Ratings of Linkage • Deputy Base Commander - MODERATE • Head of Administration - LOW • Head of IT- LOW 5. Implementation of the National Administration Information System LOW 184 A3.5 Linkage - Base D Base D has five main branches: Administration, Construction Engineering, Technical Services, Supply, Comptroller, Environment, and Civilian Personnel. The Personnel Administration unit on Base D is called the Base Personnel Administration Organization. The Head of the Base Personnel Administration Organization, the Base Personnel Administration Officer, who will subsequently be referred to as the Head of Personnel Administration, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The Head of Personnel Administration is represented at the Base D's Branch Head meetings by his direct supervisor, the Base Administration Officer. The IT unit on Base D is called the Base Telecommunication and Information Services Unit. The Head of the IT unit is called the Base Telecommunication Officer. This person will subsequently be referred to as the Head of IT, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. This Base is unique in that the Deputy Head of IT is responsible for all IT on Base D. The Head of IT oversees the Communication Group and Base IT. The Head of the IT unit is represented at the Branch Head meeting by his direct supervisor, the Base Technical Services Officer. The Deputy Head of IT receives any information from these meeting from the Head of IT. The Deputy Head of IT described this relationship as follows: "At [Base DJ we're here as a [unit] and we support the message center, but we're also responsible for providing base telecommunication services [IT] to [Base D], so we're dual hatted. All the ADP [Automated Data Processing = IT] stuff falls under the Base Telecommunication Officer because we 're one unit. I'm the ADP [IT] officer for [Base D]. Although we've had many discussions and there's no such thing as a base ADP officer in [Base D] really. Its a very shared function because there's the different organizations. " 185 At Base D, the Head of Personnel Administration, the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration, and the Deputy Head of IT were interviewed. In addition, administrative staff were asked to respond to questions that specifically addressed the National Administration Information System implementation. Base D is undergoing tremendous growth as it expands it functions to support the downsizing of another base. The Personnel Administration unit is involved in three major project. The first project is the amalgamation with [Base X]. They just completed a study called the Regional Support Study, which basically changes the whole way business is conducted at Base D. That new organization will run under a Formation concept. Secondly, they are involved in implementation the Finance/Administration branch amalgamation. Thirdly, they've just opened another detachment. A3.5.1 Cross References in Written Objectives Base D does not have written short term or long term business plans. Base D does not have written short term or long term IT plans. At this time, the only other plan available was a document called the Formation business plan which addresses the amalgamation of units and services under a Formation concept. Base D's Formation Administration plan was examined as it addresses what will happen in terms of resources and structure of the Administration Branch, during the 1995/96 fiscal year. 186 In the Formation Administration business plan, planning and budgetary issues are address in the following manner: SECTION Military Person Years Civilian SWE Operating and Maintenance O&M Capital Branch Head & Secretary nil $x $x nil Visits & Protocol x $x $x nil Public Affairs X $x $x nil Executive Administration X $x $x nil ...Registry nil $x nil nil The distribution of resources by "enabling capabilities" is illustrated in the following table: ENABLING Military Civilian SWE Operating Capital CAPABILITY Person and Years Maintenance O&M Logistics/Administration X $x $x nil Resource Planning X $x Sx nil Human Resources nil $x • $x nil National Identity Develop X $x Sx Sx TOTALS X $x Sx Sx Significant omissions are found in these two budget tables. For example, the number of military person years does not appear to include the administrative staff. 187 The following is an example of an action plan addressing the Personnel Administration Function within the Formation Administration business plan. ACTIVITY NAME Provide clerical, logistics planning and administrative support services in response to FADMO [Formation Administration Branch Head] Core or Non-Core Activity Core (Public Interest) Related to enabling Capability Related to Strategic Goal Adopt a less bureaucratic approach to Formation Administration Desired Outcome To offer comprehensive, authoritative and timely support to FADMO Unit OP I [Officer of Primary Importance] Staff Officer Formation Administration Other Units involved Potentially, every [sub-Command] Approvals Required FADMO Completion Date (if applicable) Milestones Resources Required Military Person Years - x Civilian SWE - nil O&M-nil Capital - nil Critical Success Indicators Provision of timely and effective solutions in support of FADMO activities. Approved Resources Military Person Year -Civilian SWE -O&M- Capital-188 This action plan is representative of many of the other plans included in the Formation Administration business plan and it is incomplete, generic and does not outline specific projects or actions which will attain the listed strategic goals. As well, there is no associated IT plan or reference to enabling technologies. IT and the Formation Administration Business Plan The opening paragraph in the Formation Administration business plan describes an IT project currently being implemented in the Administration Branch. There are no further explanation of this project, however, such as purpose, time lines or resources allocated. • "The practical priorities of my Branch are outlined in Part 2, however, in a practical sense the setting up of a single Records Management Office as a fully functioning service agency will be particularly challenging. You should be aware, that the organization of the [Formation] has been initially designed to function with a totally paper-based correspondence management regime. Having said that, as the implementation of the Electronic Document Management System [EDMS] progresses during the six-month period commencing , / will be initiating a re-engineering project within my Branch to develop procedures, with the new complementary organization, which takes full advantage of the technology inherent in the EDMS. " The Formation Administration business plan contains little explanation of the nature of IT at Base D, other than the following statement: Information Technology • Due to the very nature of many services provided by the Formation Executive Services Branch, information technology provides a real ability to fully implement innovative practices and procedures (subject to security constraints), which will permit members of the Branch team not only to exceed customer expectations, but also to influence the conduct of Branch activities to a great extend. 189 As a result of these factors, the minimal description of IT as it relates to Base D, the level of cross references between Base D's Formation Administration business plan and IT plans was rated as LOW. Base D's does not have any other written short term or long term business plans. Base D does not have written short term or long term IT plans. Linkage in short term written plans was rated as LOW. Linkage in written long term plans was rated as NO PLANS. A3.5.2 Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives The Head of IT stated that the Base D Business objectives were to cope with expansion of Base D. She, however, was not aware of any Administration project or objectives, including the Administration Electronic Documentation Management System Project mentioned in the Formation Plan. With respect to IT objectives, the Administration Officers could not state any key IT objectives or projects other than Base D's MAN project. Mutual understanding of current IT objectives by Personnel Administration was rated as LOW. Mutual understanding of current Personnel Administration objectives by IT was rated as LOW. A3.5.3 Congruence in Shared Vision for IT The Head of IT could not state a vision for IT as she felt that most of the IT planning occurred at the Command level. Administration Officers were aware that IT could help them improve efficiency, but felt that there was a widespread perception that computers alone could save the system without adequate recognition of the training and coordination required at either the base or Headquarters level. 190 The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration stated: "The problem is the assumption that as soon as you get computers, there's going to be a drastic savings in workload. This is a perception that everyone has. In effect, that's not true. In fact, in some cases the workload actually increases. Not only do we have a computer generated version but because of our military policies and rules we 're keeping a paper version also, so we duplicate work in fact instead of saving time and effort." The Head of Personnel Administration very bluntly stated his opinion of the future of IT at Base D: "If we had a system that talked to every other system in the organization and we were linked, that's ideal, I'll probably be dead by the time that happens." Congruence in shared vision for IT was rated as LOW. A3.5.4 Subjective Ratings of Linkage a. Personnel Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Administration rated Linkage as LOW, stating the following reasons: • lack of personal IT knowledge; and, • lack of IT resources. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration rated Linkage as LOW, stating the following reasons: • lack of consistency of IT across the bases; and • requirement for Administration personnel to continually learn new systems when posted from base to base. She commented: "The knowledge that's in here is either brought with you, or you learn on you own time. One thing that we find is that each time we move around from base to base, its a brand new system all over again, so the consistency, Forces wide, just isn 't there. You fly by the seat of your pants. " 191 b. IT Unit The Deputy Head of IT rated Linkage as MODERATE, stating the following reasons: • she felt that the user community was satisfied with the IT support that they receive from the IT unit; and, • successful development of the MAN, although this was orchestrated by Command planning and resources. A3.5.5 Implementation of the National Administration Information System Base D originally received five terminals which the majority of administrative staff felt was inadequate to support the workload. The Head of Personnel Administration indicated that more terminals are on order to cover the deficiency. The administrative staff are coping reasonably well through team work cooperation and working towards raising the level of concern at both the base and Headquarters level, despite the high degree of frustration caused by the deficiencies and problems with the system. There is no clearly established communication mechanisms or procedures between the Personnel Administration unit and the IT unit to cope with system problems. There are significant problems with some aspects of the implementation. The Head of Personnel Administration was not involved in discussions addressing some of the implementation. This sharply contrasts other bases where the Head of Personnel Administration is coordinating the implementation. At a recent discussion of some of the implementation organized by a senior Administration officer at the Command level, there was a great deal of confusion as to who was responsible to coordinate and solve the technical issues for this implementation. There was a great deal of discussion if the command IT infrastructure changes 192 would be able to continue to support the system. Procedurally, there was also a confusion as to whether the [unit] administrative staff were required to date a member's file or, this update would be the supporting base's responsibility. It was indicated that there were no procedures in place to cope with the changing way these updates would have to handled given the implementation of the system. A senior Administration officer at these discussions did summarize his concerns in the following statement: "I have great concern about [the way] we bring in this wonderful equipment, we tell people it is going to be less work, and we also say that you can get rid of people but that is not what is being indicated at local levels. The equipment, is requiring more people, more time and more effort. " Implementation of the National Administration Information System was rated as LOW. A3.5.6 S u m m a r y Base D is focused on the main business objective of expanding its operations and amalgamating support services with another Base. IT is being viewed by Administration personnel with a significantly greater interest in terms of its ability to assist in expanding Administration capability with the existing staff numbers. Plans are constantly changing in terms of what the future of configuration of Base D will be, both in terms of the business functions and IT. The business and IT planning cycle processes are immature. At Base D, there was a LOW to MODERATE rating on all of the Linkage measures. It is concluded that Linkage is being not being attained. 193 Table 24 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base D LINKAGE MEASURE RESULTS 1. Cross References in Written Objectives Short Term Plans - LOW Long Term Plans - NO PLANS 2. Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives • IT objectives by Personnel Administration - LOW • Base business objectives by IT - LOW 3. Congruence in Shared Vision for IT LOW 4. Subjective Ratings of Linkage • Head of Personnel Administration - LOW • Deputy Head of Personnel Administration - LOW • Deputy Head of IT - MODERATE 5. Implementation of the National Administration Information System LOW 194 A3.6 Linkage - Base F Base F has five main branches: Administration, Technical Services, Hospital, Operations & Training, and Comptroller. The Personnel Administration unit on Base F is called the Base Personnel Administration Organization. The Head of the Base Personnel Administration Organization, the Base Personnel Administration Officer, who will subsequently be referred to as the Head of Personnel Administration, as this title closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The Head of Personnel Administration is represented at the Branch Head by the direct supervisor the Base Administration Officer. The IT unit on Base F is called the Base Telecommunication and Information Services Unit. The Head of the IT unit is called the Base Telecommunication and Information Services Officer. This person will subsequently be referred to as the Head of IT, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The Head of IT is an unique position at Base F, as the Head of IT reports directly to the Base Commander, and, as such, attends the Branch Head Meetings. Within the IT unit, there are approximately twenty persons dedicated to IT management. Base F is an interesting base in that it falls under the command which exists on the same base. There is an officer who is assigned responsibilities for command IT. There is an indirect reporting relationship from this officer to the Head of IT in that the command IT unit indirectly reports to the base IT unit. This individual will subsequently referred to as the Deputy Head of IT. Base F is undergoing tremendous growth with the reorganization of Commands. Base F has just finished a three year Headquarters special project. The project involved giving the base special consideration if they wanted to try something outside of traditional military procedure. 195 The purpose was to find more efficient and economic ways of conducting base activities. The project was considered extremely successful. The Head of Personnel Administration stated: "[Special Project] was a trial. It was run for three years and this past fiscal year. The idea was to find economically more efficient way to do things by changing the old procedures. It wasn't so much related to IT; It was decreasing the frequency that Routine Orders are published to not having Construction Engineering housing where a plumbers is on call 24 hours a day. Anything was open. " This project prompted the Head of Administration to support the creation of a re-engineering team to address the function of Base F's Administration Branch. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration was dedicated to head this team on a full-time basis. On Base F, the Head of Personnel Administration, the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration, Head of IT, and the Deputy Head of IT were interviewed. In addition, administrative staff were asked to respond to interview questions that specifically addressed the National Administration Information System implementation. A3.6.1 Cross References in Written Objectives Base F's 1994/95 Business Plan was examined. There was no long term business plan. Examination of IT plans revealed several documents addressing IT planning. It was difficult to determine if they were short or long term plans or what time period they covered. The last long term IT plan was dated 1992. 196 One hundred pages of Base F's 1994/95 Business Plan specifically addressed Administration Branch functions. It identified priorities, vision, customers, mission, activities, action plans, and summary of resources required. As with other bases, this plan reads like a unit job description, as opposed to a planning document, as each activity is not clearly broken down into associated time lines, responsibilities, and associated costs. Although Base F's business plan is considered an annual plan, it also makes reference to strategic goals and aims in the future. For example: "a. The overall aim is to reduce the cost of poor quality by 5% annually for the period 1 Apr. 94-30 Mar 99. b. A long term goal is effective two-way communication laterally and vertically. All personnel must be sensitized to the possible effects of poor or delayed communication." Base F's business plan covering the Administration Branch has a summary of resources required, but the resource figures are vague and are not linked to business objectives. For example, the business plan stated the following: "In order to carry put the activities described above, and to continue to provide the required level of support to various units, $x million are needed. Of this figure, $x million is dedicated to military pay for x positions, as detailed at Appendix A." There are nine categories listed for the remaining budget and there is no clear description of administrative activities that these costs are associated with. 197 For example: Military Temporary Duty - $x Leave Travel Allowance - $x Civilian Training - $x Temporary Evacuation of Quarters - $x Local Move on Release - $x Postage - $x Printing - $x Funerals - $x Photocopiers Rentals - $x IT is referenced Base F's business plan in the following manner: D CONTINGENCY/ADAPTATION/SUR VIVAL D2 Exploit Technologies The BOR Supt [Base Orderly Room Superintendent] and WO i/c URS [Warrant Officer in charge of Unit Records Section], in consultation with the Branch Information Systems resource person, shall ensure that all Section personnel receive at least an introductory level of ADP [Automated Data Processing = IT] training, that new hardware and software is acquired as necessary to keep pace with new technologies, and that personnel are encouraged to make proposals for streamlined office automation procedures. Base F's business plan does not make direct reference to required IT. On the copy of the business plan provided for the purposes of this research, was a small handwritten footnote that stated: "so you will note on page x, we collected and spent over xK on new computers and programs for only Personnel Administration Staff". Money was diverted from the Operating and Maintenance funds to purchase these computers. It is evident from this note that the traditional military ad hoc budgetary process was used to plan, rather than a civilian business planning approach. 198 Base F's 1992 IT plan is entitled the Strategic Information Plan/Base Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Project. As the title of this plan indicates, it provides a detailed technical description of the MAN project. The IT objectives are listed in the following manner: Some of the major benefits of the Information Plan at Base F are: a. To gain a high level of credibility, with respect to the acquisition of computer systems, thereby reducing the possibility of delays and unnecessary questioning of requirement by approval organizations; b. To provide for the orderly acquisition of computer systems in the most cost effective manner (the Strategic Information Plan will identify and prioritize requirements which will help ensure that the highest requirements are satisfied first); c. To allow for better planning within Base Information Systems to provide technical support and training thereby increasing computer uptime and employee productivity; d. To provide the "big picture " with respect to computer systems being installed on the Base and ensuring that there is no overlap or redundancy of satisfying requirements; e. To retain control of Base F Information, i.e. Be proactive in determining how information is to be maintained, controlled, and accessed on/from the Base; and f. To provide a complete blueprint on the acquisition of information systems so that when funding become available Base F's request is first in line. Base F's long term IT plan attempts to address the base business requirements, but does not provide any link between who the users are, and which base business objectives are being attained. For example the IT plan stated: Business Needs Addressed: The Base MAN project will address a number of problems that were identified during the Strategic Information Plan. These problems include: Communication, Timeliness of Information and the Need to Share Information. End-User tools will be implemented on the Base MAN and will include: word processing, spreadsheets, electronic mail, electronic forms, calendaring, presentation software, and database management system. Benefits: The Base MAN project will provide the Base with: a common technology platform, a common communications network, a reduction of equipment, the ability to share information, the ability to share application, the ability to share end-user computing tools, a state-or the art technology platform, and consistent applications. Most of these benefits are intangible benefits, which cannot easily be translated into dollar values. 199 Base F's long term IT plan outlines the cost of the hardware required for the MAN project and the cost of applications, but does not attempt to address the cost and benefit of the base wide IT implementation: "There will not be a great emphasis on the Cost - Benefit Analysis, as it is widely conceded that improved resource management, communications and cost control will be of major benefit to [Base FJ. A detailed Cost/Benefit Analysis would add a significant overhead to the project to little advantage. " There is a recognition within the long term IT plan that the IT unit must provide input, direction and support to Base F to ensure that Linkage is obtained: "There are a number of Automated Data Processing (ADP) [IT] Plans currently being implemented and it is imperative that the Base direction with respect to hardware, system software and end-user computing tools be determined and communicated to the Base early in the Strategic Information Planning process. It is anticipated that this will occur in the Information Technology Strategy Report." As a result of these factors, the level of cross references in Base F's written business and IT planning documents was rated as LOW. Base F's short term business plan is more of a tasking, or a unit job description document than a business plan. The short term business plan does not refer to IT projects. A written short term IT plan does not exist. Current long term business and IT plans do not exist, however, Base F has a four year old long term IT plan, last updated in 1992. Linkage in short term written plans was rated as LOW. Linkage in written long term plans was rated as NO PLANS. 200 A3.6.2 Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives The Head of IT stated that the base business objectives were chosen to cope with the expansion of the base and absorption of new units. He also stated that as he reports directly to the Base Commander, his involvement at the Branch Head meeting provides visibility for the IT unit, and he is knowledgeable as to what is going on at Base F. He was not aware, however, of Administration's main objective, or of the existence of their re-engineering team to restructure administrative services provided at Base F. With respect to IT objectives, the Head of Personnel Administration could identify only one of the major IT projects on the base. She was involved with the committee that would evaluate a trial document storage and retrieval system, to be implemented in the central registry. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration commented: "My understanding is that by every unit [at Base F] will be connected to the MAN. That's my understanding of their short term goals. Long term, I really don't know. I would venture to bet that there may be some more creative thinking in my own organization about the long term technology ideas than there are across the base community at large. I imagine the technology people are very progressive. " Mutual understanding of current IT objectives by Personnel Administration was rated as MODERATE. Mutual understanding of current base business objectives by IT was rated as MODERATE. A3.6.3 Congruence in Shared Vision for IT The Head of IT stated that the IT unit was trying to finish implementing the MAN, but expressed frustration and limited optimism concerning the future of IT at Base F. "The IT Architecture Design Management [Corporate IT Direction], its a start but it's still too broad. It gives a menu of choices. It doesn't say this is the standard. So we still have Banyan out there, and Novell and everything else. They are all different ways of implemented MANs. We did a study trying to figure out what kind of network we needed. We did a study of all of the application wares available, things that we would have to support, there were something like 200 projects going on. In reading the description of these projects, they 're all so similar and there are at least 20 personnel management systems. One for the Reserves, one for the Army, Navy and Air Force. It's ridiculous. " The Head of Personnel Administration could not outline a vision for the future of IT: "Nope, I guess with our e-mail system our whole base isn't even on the MAN yet. We do have DEMS [national defence Internet] now, and the message handling is going to become electronic external to message centers, because there won't be message centers. Electronic documentation, I have not seen any technology plans. We 're just kind of reacting, saying oh this is neat. " Congruence in shared vision for IT was rated as LOW. A3.6.4 Subjective Ratings of Linkage a. Personnel Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Administration rated Linkage as MODERATE, stating the following reasons: • involvement of Head of Personnel Administration in document storage and retrieval project; • involvement with [Headquarters' Special Program]; • lack of management knowledge of IT; and, • general user resistance to IT. She commented: "Its not just older people that are resistant to it. I mean, I told you myself three years ago I was forced into using a computer. " 202 The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration rated Linkage as LOW, stating the following reasons: • units on the base are evolving and building their own technical capability without involving the base IT unit; • users have felt let down as national pipe systems have been delivered years behind promised delivery dates, and fail to meet expectations; and, • CELE Branch [Typical Military Member of the IT unit] failed to adapt or evolve to the changing requirements of IT at the user [Administration] level. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration commented: "Linkage is limited. What I see right now is that the base follows the conventional model that you just described, of having a distinct technology management organization, and that has a lot of impact. We are by and large a client, and that has some advantages to it, but what seems to happen is that organizations are evolving, and are building in their own technical capability. It's something I've seen in a number of different military organizations, and you get to the point where you'd rather not try to obtain from a third party. You'd rather build the capability internally. " To support Personnel Administration computers requirements, the Administration Branch has diverted funding from their own budget for hardware. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration stated that he felt it absolutely necessary because the IT unit could not support their computer requests in spite of the fact that he realized that this would diminish Linkage with the IT unit. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration stated: "These machines are the best on the base, and it's because my predecessor spend a lot of money from his last year's budget in April that the systems were all delivered here by year end. And the technology support organization on the base [IT unit] has no involvement or ownership with these assets. Because we've gone our own way, in some respects we've severed our support channels a little bit. I find that if you sit tight and you take what they give you, you're in a better position to demand maintenance from [the IT unit]. Having gone our own way and done our own acquisition, we have, to some extent, the need to do our own maintenance and management. " 203 b. IT Unit The Head of IT rated Linkage as L O W , stating the following reasons: • lack of understanding of IT management by base personnel; • rigid IT personnel and resources guidelines; and, • failure of budgetary planning process to allow the IT unit to influence purchases. "I'd say very close to the low end. Their [base personnel] understanding of IT is faster machines and productivity rather than as a vehicle to enable different ways of operating." The Head of IT further stated: "Except through the business planning process [annual base budgetary process and MICA], there's no mechanism to tie their [IT] purchases back to me. They could go out and buy a thousand PCs and my role wouldn't change, I'd have to support them. So there's no means by which I can ask for a 10% cut of their purchase in order to be able to support it, except through the business planning process, and that's always in arrears. " A3.6.5 Implementation of the National Administration Information System At Base F, the National Administration Information Systems implementation was considered quite successful. In particular, the administrative staff, as a result of the Headquarters' Special program, was involved with the development of an add-on application which now runs in conjunction with the National Administration Information System. There was one other base which developed a similar system and both systems were developed out of frustration with using the National Administration Information System. After the Headquarters [Director of Personnel Information System] recognized there was a redundancy of application development, they hired a contractor to assess both applications, and determine which was the best. This type of action points to a degree of frustration at the base level with regard to the types of national applications that are fielded. 204 Implementation of the National Administration Information Systems was rated as HIGH. A3.6.6 Summary Base F is focused on the main business objective of expanding its training capacity. As well with the existing training units, their functions are being rationalized and amalgamated. Specifically, the Administration unit is focused on a re-engineering project to streamline their processes. At Base F, there is a LOW to HIGH rating on all of the Linkage measures. It is concluded that at Base F Linkage is MODERATELY being attained. Table 25 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base F LINKAGE MEASURE RESULTS 1. Cross References in Written Objectives Short Term Plans - LOW Long Term Plans - NO PLANS 2. Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives • IT objectives by Personnel Administration -MODERATE • Base business objectives by IT - MODERATE 3. Congruence in Shared Vision for IT LOW 4. Subjective Ratings of Linkage • Head of Personnel Administration - MODERATE • Head of Personnel Administration - LOW • Head of IT- LOW 5. Implementation of the National Administration Information System HIGH 205 A3.7 Linkage - Base G Base G has three main branches: Operations and Training, Controller, and Administration. The Administration unit on Base G is called the Base Administration Organization. The Head of the Base Personnel Administration Organization is also the Base Administration Officer, who will subsequently be referred to as the Head of Administration, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The Head of Administration sits at the Branch Head meeting. The IT unit on Base G is called the Base Automated Data Processing (ADP) Unit. The Head of the IT unit is called the base Information System Manager (ISM). This person will subsequently be referred to as the Head of IT, as this title most closely corresponds to the civilian equivalent. The Head of the IT is the only person in the Base G IT unit and must rely on a larger supporting Base for IT support. Base G receives on site support, which includes IT support through a lodger arrangement with another base. Base G relies heavily on the unit representatives for internal IT support. In most cases this IT function is a secondary duty assumed by working personnel. 206 The terms of reference for the Information System Manager state: 1. The Base Information System Manager [ISM] reports to the [Base] Ops & Trg O and is responsible to oversee the planning, design, acquisition, development and management of Information Systems (IS) for [Base GJ. 2. The ISM's primary functions is one of an advisor to the [Base] Commander, through the [Base] OPS & Trg O, on matters related to Information Systems. At the same time, the ISM has the responsibility of supporting the [Base] Units' ADP Business Plans and the [Base X] ADP directives, as applicable. 3. Same as the [Base] HQ provides direct support to each [Base] Unit, the [Base] also receives support from [another base] as a lodger Unit. In that view, the [Base] ISM is appointed as the primary contact to the Base Information Services Officer (BISO) for Information Services (IS) common projects such as the development of the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and for ADP policies in general. The [Base G] ISM is responsible for the promulgation of the [Base] ADP policies and procedures while taking into consideration the existing Departmental, Command, [another base] and [Base G] Units' operating procedures. Summary 7. The personnel and technical resources available to the [Base] ISM reside solely within [another base], [Base G] units; more specifically at [Unit X] and [Unit Yj. These existing local resources already form a valuable pool of competence that could be funneled to a specific Units ADP needs as require, thus making all Units active participants in the development of the entire [Base G] ADP structures. On Base G, the Head of Administration, the Head of IT, and the Deputy Head of IT were interviewed. Base G is undergoing tremendous growth with the reorganization of the Commands within the Canadian Forces. A3.7.1 Cross References in Written Objectives Base G's 1994/95 business plan was examined. Base G does not have a written long term business plan. Base G's 1994/95 IT Plan was also examined. It is incorporated within Base G's written short term business plan. Base G does not have a written long term IT plan Base G's business plan contains the following information: background, mission, current status, vision, goals, objectives, resource summaries, and action plans. Goals are well stated and the summary of resources as seen at other bases, refers directly to the Operating and Maintenance budget. The particulars of this summary resources is a list of 21 miscellaneous items which do not reference projects or are not mapped to the action plans. For example: • Temporary Duty $x • Printing $x • School Misc. Codes $x • Signs, labels, etc. $x There is an additional summary of resources entitled Personnel - Salaries. This is a listing of military and civilian employees and their associated pay. This summary of resources, however, has no relevance regarding the business plan, because salaries do not come out of the Base G's budget. The action plans contain the following information for each specific plan: description, participants, approval required, milestones, deliverables, forecast expenditures, actual expenditures, and status. In general, these action plans are incomplete. For example, there is only one action associated with the Administrative unit, namely, the development of organization guidelines to promote common standards and flexibility. The forecasted expenditures reflect either a dollar value from the Operating & Maintaining Budget or a estimation in Person Years. 208 For example: Description Implement an Audio/Visual training aids acquisition strategy for [Unit X] Participants [Unit X] Training, Aids Coordinator(s), Other outside resource sources Approvals Required [Unit X] Commandant, Other HQ Approving Authorities (as required). Milestones Deliverables Forecast Expenditu res Actual Expenditures Status Oct. 95 Conduct preliminary needs assessment & formulate a plan PD Capt. PD Capt. Initial project plan developed, student project proposal completed. Jan 96 Develop awareness of outside sources PD Capt. May 96 Develop acquisition strategy and long term management plan PD Capt. June 96 Procure identified training aids, evaluate production proposals PD Capt. R&D $x Oct. 96 Finalize initial productions PD Capt. Nov. 96 Evaluate impact PD Capt. Dec. 96 Short term AV. aids procured, long term steady state procedures established PD Capt. R&D $500 Regarding the business plan, the Head of Administration stated: "Right now it lacks both. It lacks strategy, it lacks direction, and it lacks focus. In defence of the [Base] Commander, he has yet to hear from [Command] what is happening with [Base G]. We don't know for instance if [another unit] is coming here, we don't know when [trade x] and [trade y] are amalgamating and the last we heard is that in fact they may end up going to [another base]. As I say in his defence, its very difficult for our business plan to have a strategy or direction when he doesn't know what is happening, nor has he been given any direction from the Commander of [Command]." IT and the Business Plan Although the IT portion of this plan is incorporated in the business plan, it is weak and non-specific. For example; there is only objective within the business plan that refers to IT, as follows: "Exploit information technology through expanded area networks and maximize the use of associated management tools such as to enhance productivity, communications, and accountability ". This IT plan only addresses the HQ of the base and does not reference or include any information about the IT in the units associated with this base. " 209 Three of the 21 summary of resource items are related to IT purchases. They are listed as follows: • Tuition ADP [Automated Data Processing] Courses $x • Computer Supplies $x • ADP Software $x The majority of information about the IT associated with this base is outlined in the action plans. Nine of the 17 business plans action plans address IT. As a result of these factors, the level of cross references in Base G's written short term business and IT plans was rated as LOW. The short term business plan and the short term IT plan are more of a tasking document, rather than business plans. Written long term business and IT plans do not exist. Linkage in short term written plans was rated as LOW. Linkage in written long term plans was rated as NO PLANS. A3.7.2 Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives The Head of IT stated that the Base Business objectives were to establish the newly formed Base. With respect to IT objectives, the Head of Administration could not identify any IT objectives or projects. Mutual understanding of current IT objectives by Administration was rated as LOW. Mutual understanding of current base business objectives by IT was rated as MODERATE. 210 A3.7 .3 Congruence in Shared Vision for IT The Head of IT stated that that he did not have a future vision for IT on Base G at this time as his first task was getting control of the fragmented IT units throughout the base. "My first projects were to inform people of what my plans are and to at least standardize and give them the procedure, the (SOPs) [Standard Operating Procedures]." The Head of Administration could not state a vision for IT. Congruence in shared vision for IT was rated as LOW. A3.7 .4 Subjective Ratings of Linkage a. Administration Unit The Head of Administration rated Linkage as LOW, stating there was a lack of communication between Administration and IT units. "Regrettably, low, if not lower than low. " The Deputy Head of Administration rated Linkage as MODERATE, stating that the use of IT has facilitated his ability to do his job. "I'd say its improving every day, I mean we're becoming a computer based organization, a lot of our work is done by computer and for me, its very important that I am able send information out using the IT we have, as well as receiving it so all the information, all my business planning is basically coordinated. I use the computer as the vehicle for it, and I take everybody's input in 16 wing, everybody is part of the business planning process and they use the information highway to give that information to me, so I think it has helped us be a more efficient organization." 211 b. IT Unit The Head of IT rated Linkage as LOW, and expressed frustration at being a one-person show for IT for the Base G and the difficulty in getting involved in IT planning for the units. "I don't have much impact on what they do for IT. I exchange information and make sure we try to standardize our hardware and software. " A3.7.5 Implementation of the National Administration Information System Base G is considered a lodger base and, as a result, was not given access to the National Administration Information System. The Head of Personnel Administration stated that it was cumbersome to have to rely on a supporting base to update this system. She also stated that her administrative staff were "left behind" in terms of training as all the training positions were required for supporting base. She stated that leaves her staff at a disadvantage when they are posted to another unit which is required to use this system. Implementation of the National Administration Information Systems rated as LOW. 2 1 2 A3.7.6 Summary Base G is focused on the main business objective of establishing and organizing itself as a base and bringing all it subordinate units on board. The Head of IT is finding it difficult to manage the supporting units due to the lack of personnel under his direct control, and the well-established infrastructure already existing at the units. At Base G, there was a LOW rating on all of the Linkage measures. It is concluded that at Base G Linkage is not being attained. Table 26 Summary of Linkage Findings for Base G FACTORS/LINKAGE RESULTS 1. Cross References in Written Objectives Short Term Plans - LOW Long Term Plans - NO PLANS 2. Mutual Understanding of Current Objectives • IT objectives by Personnel Administration - LOW • Base business objectives by IT - MODERATE 3. Congruence in Shared Vision for IT LOW 4. Subjective Ratings of Linkage • Head of Personnel Administration - LOW • Deputy Head of Personnel Administration - LOW • Head of IT - MODERATE 5. Implementation of the National Administration Information System LOW 213 Appendix IV FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE SOCIAL DIMENSION OF LINKAGE OTHER BASES A4.1 Introduction This appendix provides an assessment of the factors affecting the social dimension of Linkage at the base level within the Canadian Forces. Ratings of Success in IT Implementation, Shared Domain Knowledge, and Connections in Planning are presented. Of eight bases examined, the highest and lowest rating bases, (H,E), were presented in chapter six. The remainder are presented in this Appendix, (A,B,C,D,F,G). A4.2 Factors - Base A On Base A, the Head of Personnel Administration, the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration and the Head of IT were interviewed. A4.2.1 Success in IT Implementation The implementation of the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) was the first major IT project developed at Base A. The MAN consists of nine Local Area Networks, connected via a fiber-optic backbone. The Personnel Administration staff complained that the system was frequently down, and that the types of software applications made available are insufficient for them to adequately fulfill their job. The Head of Personnel Administration described his unit's relationship with the IT unit as frustrating, and a series of memos and letters were written to the Head of IT outlining problems with equipment and application support. 214 The Head of Personnel Administration stated: "Overall with respect to the [IT unit], we haven't had overly positive things to say, but I don't know personally what kind of restrains financially they are under. I know there are initiatives to divert TD [Temporary Duty] funds from O&M [Operating & Maintenance Budget] so people can get the equipment they need. " The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration further commented: "As far as networking and software to work within Administration, IT keeps on getting pushed back farther and farther. [The IT unit] never tells us when we can expect things. Networking is my biggest concern, a lot of people here think that the only thing the network does is e-mail - they don't realize the full potential. " The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration, in his secondary duty role as unit representative, has mapped out priorities in terms of who should get computer training. He also documents problems, and much correspondence evidence was provided to illustrate difficulties with the IT unit. The Head of Personnel Administration also expressed frustration with Command in that software applications are delivered to Base A without recognition of the systems in place, and without coordinating with the IT Unit. "For example, they [Command] sent stuff in 1994, a database program for a nominal role to keep track of people on bases. They say it was working well and directed us to send in our monthly returns on disk using this program. We don't have Paradox and Windows programs which were required to run their database. So how can we send it the monthly returns to [Command]? We only have one person in administration who know how to use paradox. You can only learn so much on your own. Trying to learn it when you 're doing your day to day stuff is very difficult. We haven't had any computer training since the spring. They [IT unit] are teaching Windows courses, but we're not using Windows in the workplace." The Head of IT, on the other hand, considered the previous year a success as he met all his IT milestones, and he also had a number of systems in place to track different projects. He was less optimistic, however, about future progress and he expressed frustration about the lack of support from the Headquarters IT unit and the base. 215 "This year has gone just right out of whack, basically because funding is now being limited, direction is now very limited because no one wants to give me firm commitments. Shall I put in this fiber optic cable? Well the standard response is: 'Is it worth it? You 're not going to be there long enough. So I have to sell it based on deterioration of copper cable. I need this or I need the bandwidth. It is very difficult to meet milestones because everyone is hesitant to give me firm commitments." Success in IT Implementation was rated as LOW-MODERATE. A4.2.2 Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives a. Personnel Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Administration has 8 years of military experience. This officer has been employed in the position of Head of Personnel Administration for four years. He previously had a Headquarters position in Ottawa before being posted to Base A. He describes his exposure to IT as limited, and doesn't feel comfortable with the technology. In terms of computer training, the Head of Personnel Administration has had little exposure, listing three or four short courses during the duration of his career. He has a computer in his office, but uses it solely for simple tasks such as word-processing, relying heavily on the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration to take care of IT related issues in the Personnel Administration unit. "I can input stuff. It is only a matter that I have a printer that I will try to be more adventurous, but really I don't have previous training at university. I don't have a computer at home. " • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - LOW • Awareness of New Technology - LOW 216 The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration holds a Bachelor of Arts and has 3 years of military experience. This officer has been employed in the position of Deputy Head of Personnel Administration for two years. At university, took a half year computer programming course. "They called it a computer programming course, but really it was just memorize a bit of stuff and punch it in on the test. " Since then his only training has been a one day Lotus course and a one day Microsoft project management course. He started with word processing, and became a self-taught user on most types of application. He considers himself quite comfortable from a user's perspective. He is relied heavily upon by administration personnel for technical problems. • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - LOW • IT Experience/Exposure - LOW • Awareness of New Technology - LOW b. IT Unit The Head of IT has pursued training in agriculture and education and has less than 5 years of regular force military experience. This officer has been employed in the position of Head of IT for one and a half years. Several months after this research was conducted he was posted to another unit outside of Base A. He originally joined the military as a Reserve non-commissioned member as a teletype operator. He then transferred to the Regular force receiving a commission upon entry. He admits to not having an extensive background in technology, but has individually pursued night school courses (towards a certificate of business technology) and self-study. "Due to my position I've gone back to school at nights to pickup as much as I can to put me back into the 20th century. " He also commented that his communication training at the Communication School Kingston was insufficient in preparing him for his current posting. 217 "The training I need is a minimum of baccalaureate of Business Administration [instead of a] technician's point of view; how money flows, where things go, how things operate in business, there is no merger, no connection between training. " • Military Experience - HIGH • IT Management Experience - MODERATE • Awareness of New Technology - MODERATE A4.2.3 Communication between Business and IS Executives a. Direct The Head of IT does not meet on a regular basis with the Head of Personnel Administration. The military protocol and information flow occurs through the Base Unit/Branch Head meetings. Branch Head meetings occur on a weekly basis, and generally addresses base issues. IT issues are infrequently discussed. The Base IT unit offers no unrestricted access for military personnel outside of the IT unit. The IT unit is located in the Base Headquarters building, and entry is restricted by a door key code. Members wishing access must call via a phone located outside the locked entrance. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration stated: "They are downstairs and not visible. They are not part of base commanders meetings, they work under the BTSO [Base Technical Services Organization], a different chain of command. " The Head of Personnel Administration felt that his unit was being by-passed in terms of their its ability to raise their concerns about IT, since the Branch Head meeting included decisions about IT, without consultation with unit heads. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration echoed this frustration by stating: "On broader issues of policy and support they are not very responsive they [IT unit] are not very responsive. As for the meetings, since I have been here I have not had any formal dealings with them, I catch them sometimes in the hall and speak to them about something or phone down when a problem crops up. " 218 b. Head of IT reporting Relationship In effect, the Head of IT has two people to whom he must report. He reports to the Base Technical Services Officer at Base A, and, also to the Commanding Officer at [Base X] who is the Communication Group Commander. As a junior officer, he finds it difficult to exercise influence particularly when discussing issues with Unit or Branch Heads, who are generally of the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. "Based on the budget I am constantly at logger heads with Commandants and Commanding Officers [generally rank of L Colonel or above]. They are not used to having a Captain speaking with them. There is conflict that has developed because they sometimes feel, why is the junior guy here have more span of control and money than we have?. The [IT] Commanding Officer is responsible for [Base X] and one of his detachments, myself runs all of [Province X] How does that fit? There's the hierarchy, but then there is the geographic fit. " In terms of reporting mechanisms, the Head of IT submits a weekly project status report to the Base Technical Services Officer, who in turn circulates it to the other Branch Heads on the base. The contents of this weekly report, however, have never been received by the Head of Personnel Administration. Regarding request for information from the Head of IT, unit heads go directly to the Head of IT himself, and others feel obligated, because of the chain of command, to go through the Base Technical Services Officer. c. Permanent Team/Committee There are two formal Information Technology steering group established at Base A. They are the Information Systems Steering Committee (ISSC) and the Information Systems User Committee (ISUC). The purpose of the Information Systems Steering Committee is stated as follows: "The ISSC will continue to be the instrument for setting local priorities and direction based on the requirements of higher headquarters, and to allocate local funds. It is comprised of all Branch Heads including Commander Officers of the units and is chaired by the Base Technical Services Officer. " 219 The purpose of the Information Systems User Committee is stated as follows: "To ensure that AIS [Automated Information Systems] services are meeting the requirements of the users. It will consist of the [IT unit] Requirements Officer (Chairperson), Network Manager, Database Administrator, TIS [Technical Information Systems] Analyst, Applications Administrator, TIS Main NCO and all unit ADP Representatives." Due to the structure of the chain of command, Head of Personnel Administration is not invited to sit on the ISSC. He expressed frustration due to the fact he was not even consulted or advised of IT steering committee progress. "The [Head of Administration] was the representative at the ISSC [IT steering group], he hasn't had much experience with computers, he is really a little reluctant to get involved. I'm sure you see that all over the place, but I would have appreciated if he had come to the section head and asked if we had any points." The terms of reference of the committees indicate that both of these committees are suppose to meet every quarter. It was found, however, the last Information Systems Steering Committee (ISSC) meeting was about a year ago. The last sitting of the Information Systems User Committee's (ISUC) was over a year ago. It appears that the members of this committee didn't see the need of to pursue further meetings due to the downsizing of the base. The Head of IT did not express optimism about the usefulness of the ISSC meetings. He felt, however, the ISUC were instrumental for providing an 'indirect' technical support to the units and branches without actually using IT personnel. "I think it gets more into a grudge session instead because people don't understand the technology unless you lay it out to them very simplistic. The concern I have is that some of these people have seen things at a trade show or read something in a magazine. I call them the most dangerous people, because they've seen something and that's what they want, they don't understand it doesn't fit into the topography of our systems, but that's what they want and it is very difficult to persuade them it doesn't work. " 2 2 0 The phenomena that this officer describes has been described by other interviewees in this study as the "Byte Magazine Syndrome". Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFREQUENT. Permanent Committee (Information Systems Steering Committee (ISSC)) communication was rated as INFREQUENT. Permanent Committee (Information Systems User Committee's (ISUC)) communication was rated as INFREQUENT. A4.2.4 Connections between Business and IT Planning Neither the Head of IT nor the Head of Personnel Administration are active participants in the base business planning process as it does not exists. The Head of Personnel Administration indicated they are part of the annual budgetary planning process. Their input to the base budgetary process is normally solicited by the Administration Branch Head. The Head of Personnel Administration stated: "On the Administration side, planning is conducted in response to cyclical budgetary requirements. This is the traditional mechanism for planning in the Canadian Forces. I don't have a structured strategic plan. But in the administration side, there is the hospital and food services, I am sure they are more scientific. In the [Personnel Administration unit] we have TD [Temporary Duty] budget identifying our requirements and shortfall on a cyclical basis. " The IT Planning is separate from the base budgetary planning process. The IT plan is derived from three sources: [Headquarters IT unit], [Command] and the units on the base. 221 The Head of IT stated he alone drafted the whole IT plan. "First off, we write a plan every year. That's what we call a Telecommunication Information Plan. Now that of course is derived from [Command's] plan, since I have two masters, I have to draw from [Communications Group's] plan. And then there's the [Headquarters IT unit's]plan. So I have to take three different plans, which can have different goals and objectives and come up with a plan that will satisfy all three masters and also satisfy the requirements of individual units on the base. Now for each one of those what we design is these, implementation plans." The Head of IT expressed his frustration with drafting IT plans to satisfy various 'Masters': "The majority of my guidance I take from [Command] because of the base, I still try to satisfy [Headquarters IT unit], in fact what I really do is write two different plans, there's the one that is the base plan using [Command] guidelines and that is actually what I operate with, the other one which I write is the [Headquarters IT unit] one that is sent to Comm Group. All I really doing is writing something to appease them because I really don't follow the guideline that they put out." The Head of IT expressed that at the senior officer level there was a tendency to rely on him alone to develop, implement and management IT for the entire base, regardless of function. "The Senior Managers are generally computer illiterate. There is a tendency to leave me alone with [IT], they just want to see end results. With lower management, even the ranks they 're more computer literate and more demanding of a clear response. They want to know why doesn't it work, they want more depth to it, which is challenging but also is better for all of us. " Two planning processes are in effect at Base A. The base annual budgeting process is currently considered the business planning cycle, not resulting in any written planning documentation other than a budgetary listing of funding requirements. The IT planning process results in a short term plan written exclusively by the Head of IT. Connections between business and IT planning was rated as ISOLATED. 222 A4.2.5 Other Factors a. Lack of Centralized Coordination with Canadian Forces wide Administration Branch Both Administration Officers felt that centralized direction from DPIS [Director Personnel Information Systems] and DISO [Headquarters IT unit] was lacking in coordination of the initiatives taking place at the base level. "Everyone is trying to work on their own, they are missing so many ideas. - That was the biggest thing I drew out of the Administration Branch conference, everyone is off doing their own thing. We 're about one of the only branches that does not have our own directorate at National Defence Headquarters and that probably diminishes our ability to coordinate at a national level. " b. Headquarters IT Direction Required The Head of IT emphasized several times that although the Headquarters IT unit was established to coordinate IT nationally, the historical existence of the Command has diminished their potential influence at the base level. "The original intention was to have one single body that provided all information and priorities for IT. The [Headquarters IT unit], which is suppose to be higher than a Command, but they are too young, they don't have the political power to fight the rest of the Army, Navy and Air Force. So what you get now is two different directions, and that is frustrating appeasing two masters which sometimes generates more heartache than productivity. " 223 Table 27 Summary of the Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base A F A C T O R S S U M M A R Y A N D R A T I N G S 1. Success in IT Implementation • First Major project - Metropolitan Area Network. • Personnel Administration - Frustrating, plagued with numerous problems, Sent applications from Command which doesn't run on existing IT configuration. • Head of IT - Considers last year a success, established project tracking mechanism for IT project. • Rating - L O W - M O D E R A T E 2. Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Head of Personnel Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - L O W • Awareness of New Technology - L O W Deputy Head of Personnel Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - L O W • IT Experience/Exposure - L O W • Awareness of New Technology - L O W Head of IT • Military Experience - HIGH • IT Management Experience - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E 3. Communication between Business and IS Executives • Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFREQUENT. • Permanent Committee (Information Systems Steering Committee (ISSC)) communication was rated as INFREQUENT. • Permanent Committee (Information Systems User Committee's (ISUC)) communication was as INFREQUENT. • Rating - L O W 4. Connections between Business and IT Planning ISOLATED 5. Other Factors • Lack of Centralized Coordination with Canadian Forces wide Administration Branch. • Headquarters IT direction Required. 224 A4.3 Factors - Base B O n Base B the Head of Personnel Services, the Head of Personnel Administration, the Head of IT and the Deputy Head of IT were interviewed. A4.3.1 Success in IT Implementation A t Base B , the IT unit has faced the same overwhelming requests for technology seen at other bases. Some of the national information systems have been in implementation phases for so long, or present such problems in use, that users have gone out and developed their own systems. There is little faith in many of the national information systems, and this lack of faith affects the bases' ability to enforce standardization and support users. Base B ' s focus concerning IT planning is the Metropolitan Area Network ( M A N ) project, which is supported by the Base Commander. This plan is not officially documented, and was being implemented directly from the IT Project Officer's personal conceptualization. The original IT Project Officer who designed and began implementation of this project, and who was viewed as having development well under control, has now left the Canadian Forces. A s a result, management of this project is currently being turned over to another IT Officer, but a weakness in planning, which seriously affected project continuity, has become apparent. With regard to implementation of the M A N , the IT unit decided to develop a M A N Beta Site, and identified the Administration Staff as the primary users. A s the project progressed, however, several other units on the base simultaneously developed their own unit L A N s . 225 Another of the Base's major expansion projects, the building of a new hanger, was carried out without the IT unit involvement in the project planning phase. As a result the building was built without the correct conduit and wiring requirements for IT. This oversight was no appreciated until it was too late. And the problem cannot be rectified in the short term, as the contract warrantee does not allow alterations to the building for 2 years. The IT unit has lost a degree of control over base wide IT plans as some of the units on the Base have become frustrated with the IT unit's inability to support them, and have used their own resources to develop and implement IT. The IT unit is also not included in planning procedures that will affect it. This situation poses a great problem for the IT unit, as it is ultimately responsible for supporting these purchases. The Head of Personnel Services stated: "I know there are several sections on the base that are implementing their own LANs, because they're frustrated and they don't understand what's happening. One [Unit] has got money out offighter group to put in their own LAN. They don't want to wait for the base because the base isn 't talking to them. " Overall, Base B considers itself "a little behind the eight ball" in terms of IT implementation in comparison to other bases. The Head of Personnel Administration stated: "We consider ourselves archaic to some of our peers who are saying send it up on the e-mail. We can't do that, not at that this stage yet. " The Base B Personnel Administration unit is satisfied with the service and support provided by the IT unit despite personnel and resource constraints. This 'satisfaction,' however, was due in large part to the selection of the Administration Branch as the Beta site for the M A N Project. Other units on the base do not express the same degree of satisfaction with the IT unit. Success in IT Implementation was rated as LOW. 226 A4.3.2 Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives a. Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Services holds a degree in Labor Relations, and has fifteen years of military experience. This officer has served at seven different bases/units before arriving at Base B 1.5 years ago. This individual has a good understanding of the potential of IT. "I suffer from the Byte Magazine Syndrome. As well, I have a pretty good idea what is out there, suffer the same sorts offrustrations, know what's available... we are trying to address that slowly but surely. " • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E This officer is currently setting up a computer training center to address the IT training requirements of the base. The Head of Personnel Administration holds a Bachelor of Commerce degree, with specialization in Marketing Management, and has 9 years of military service to date. Upon joining the Canadian Forces, this officer did not have a strong background in computers. This individual has pursued upgrading by attending computer-literacy courses offered by the IT unit. In spite of acknowledging a "low level of computer literacy", this officer expressed very progressive thinking concerning the role that IT should play in the Personnel Administration Organization. "Information technology will become critical because we will be that much smaller on the support side, we will have to have those efficiencies that allow us to our work better and more quickly. " • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - LOW • Awareness of New Technology - L O W 227 V) IT Unit The Head of IT holds a Bachelor of Computer Science degree, and has 10 years of military experience. This officer has been working in the position of Head of IT for 1.5 years. • Military Experience - HIGH • IT Management Experience - HIGH • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E The Deputy Head of IT holds a Bachelor of Computer Science and has 3 years of military experience. This posting is the officer's first, and this individual is regularly called upon to assume the role of Acting Head of IT, sometimes for extended periods. This officer is presently assuming management of the largest base IT project, implementation of the M A N . • Military Experience - M O D E R A T E • IT Management Experience - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E Both IT Officers are Communication Officers and received IT training at the Canadian Forces School of Communications and Electronics in Kingston, Ontario. Both officers commented that the training they received did not assist them in coping with IT at the Base level as their training is targeted to their role as communication managers in support of technician repairing communication equipment, i.e. Aircraft radar. A4.3.3 Communication between Business and IS Executives a. Direct Communication concerning IT issues occurs regularly at the weekly Base Branch Head Meetings of which neither the Head of Personnel Administration nor the Head of IT are members. Although not members, both the Head of Personnel Services and Head of IT felt they 228 had a better idea of what was going on than most in their position because they regularly attended at the Branch Head Meetings in place of their supervisors. Nevertheless, these officers expressed a degree of frustration with the poor communications that they deal with. For example: "The installation of LAN is the number one priority from the [Base] Commander's perspective..J generally know what going one because I substitute in branch head meeting regularly, and find out from the adults what's happening. But the adults are not spreading that information to the troops. Although the plan could not be made to occur more quickly, at least the level of frustration could be mitigated if the troops knew what was going on. " There is a high degree of informal communication that occurs and has been instrumental in allowing personnel to gain an appreciation for the problems and constraints faced by the IT Unit. The Personnel Administration Unit, in particular, feels that they are knowledgeable concerning the constraints faced by the IT Unit because of their involvement with the Beta Project. They also feel that their interaction with the IT unit during the Beta Project has significantly improved the level of service and communications. "Being a Beta site for the LAN, we see them [IT Unit] here all the time, we talk with them, we joke with them, we complain directly to them and they are over here trying to troubleshoot with, for example, printer problems, and we say by the way this needs fixing. I know he [person from IT unit] has gone in after hours and weekends to fix it. In summary you can say the level of interaction is very high. " b. Permanent Teams/Committees There is no formal IT steering group set-up at Base B. As indicated, however, IT discussion is incorporated in the Branch Head Meetings. Communication about IT issues is limited, and the Administration Officers expressed frustration at the lack of dissemination of information. 229 "I think the reason people are so disgruntled with computers is that they do not know what is going on. What's the goal, what are we really trying to do, I believe that the communications link is missing. It is important. We know key players have taken FRP [Forces Reduction Program], they [IT unit] have encountered a lot of difficulty. " The IT unit believes they are severely undermanned and ill-equipped to cope with Base's IT requirements. They stated that the personnel within their unit were originally trained as maintainers of specialized military communication equipment, and not adequately trained to cope with the requirements of information technology. They feel they are not adequately supported by their [Headquarters IT unit] and are often "told to solve it on our own". Their problems and frustrations in terms of personnel and resources are understood by the Administration personnel, who empathize with their inability to provide the level of ideal service and communication. There is a formal unit representative group that meets irregularly. This group is made up of representatives from each unit on the base and meetings focus on short training sessions and discussing technical issues. The unit representative is assigned the role of IT coordinator as a secondary duty in addition to his primary task. This position has been viewed as overtaxing to the member and taking away from his primarily duties. The IT unit has relied heavily on this 'supporting' system but has realized that the extra 'resources' obtained form this person are over taxing. The Head of Personnel Administration commented: "We all tend to overuse him, [IT] representative due to depth of his knowledge. We have a Corporal, self taught, very fortunate to have him. What we really need are low-grade system managers. It should not be secondary duty. Formal training not hackers from home. As soon as that guy leaves, what do we do? " Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration is rated as INFORMAL, FREQUENT and FOCUSED on the Beta MAN project. 230 Permanent Committee (Unit Representative Group) communication is rated as FORMAL, FREQUENT and FOCUSED on technical issues. A4.3.4 Connections between Business and IT Planning At Base B the business planning process is immature, and a full scale plan is not required by higher headquarters until fiscal year 1997/98. At this time, Base B's business planning consists of a Business Functional Model, which does not address timelines or resource allocation. One interesting aspect is that all personnel interviewed thought that the 'Business Process Model' was the "Base Business Plan" and did not realize the scope and requirement of an actual civilian type business planning model. Business planning in the military was viewed as the latest of the Headquarters initiatives to reduce spending without, a realization that business planning is a core business function. "This was all the big thing to do, it was the buzz project about two years ago before I got here, and then it ran for about 8 or 9 months and became the buzz project again about 7 or 8 months after I got here. We all bashed away at it, looked at it, dragged out what percentage of time we spent on this and that. We fine tuned areas and it all went off to the Consumer Consumption Awareness People, everyone was looking at the numbers, more paperwork came out last summer, and it kind of just died a quiet death. At least it has gone to sleep for a while, I don't know if that's the way the system has responded to it." Business planning in the military context was not appreciated, particularly because members of Base B could not decide which personnel would be assigned to their unit, and the budgeting process gave them access only to the operating and maintenance budget, not the capital budget. This situation indicates a lack of linkage between business and IT activities. "I really don't know where it is, but I know it's sleeping right now, it has been taken over by various other initiatives. There have been so many other short term, I suspect that's exactly the problem, with SEW cuts and O&M cuts, deployments, everything else going on it has been put on backburner as being not critical enough." 231 The lack of connection between business and IT planning was further demonstrated in the implementation of the MAN: "They put the LAN up and gave a course that didn't actually teach what the LAN was doing, that's what we thought it was because the communication hadn't been there. They were running people through the course who weren't going to be on the LAN for 3 or 4 years till I stuck my nose in and said this is stupid, we have people in headquarters who don't even now how to turn the thing on, but we are training people over in [unit] hanger who won't be hooked up until 2001, and who will have long since been posted. " It was the Head of Personnel Services who defended the IT unit over their inability to plan for the future: "Don't fault for a second [Head of IT] or his world here on the base, this is simple lack of money. If he had double the amount of money he would be able to hire the right people, and the right number of people to be able to sit down and actually study this and put it together, whereas with most of what we do in Department of National Defence, he is getting little drops of money and somebody manages to scrap a few hundred thousand bucks here and an extra million there and he's saying okay quick I am going to put fiber in here, okay now I ran out of money, he's peacemealing it together, he doesn't have opportunity to do a comprehensive plan and follow it because he doesn't know if the money is going to be there. " Connections between Business and IT planning was rated as ISOLATED. A4.3.5 Other Factors a. Size and Composition of IT unit In the Base B IT unit there are five individuals dedicated to supporting IT development, implementation and maintenance. Three of these individuals are civilians. The Head of IT indicated that expressed that contracting constraints prevented offering contacts in excess of six months. He considered this situation a significant problem in maintaining long term continuity in the IT unit, as well as in attracting qualified help. He also expressed concern about this rigidity in contracting as the isolated nature of the base, combined with a lack of qualified 232 persons from the local area, created hiring problems. Many qualified persons outside the region were not willing to relocate with only the guarantee of a six-month contract. Training of IT Unit personnel has been another criticism: "There were some probably not ideal decisions made when they were putting this thing together, typical Department of National Defence we are terrified of contracting anything out, we've got to do it all ourselves, so we've taken telephone conference guys who were never trained to deal with all this computer shit, we throw them in and say you are CELE guys, communications, you should be able to figure all this stuff out. and they do because most to of them are computer geeks as well, but it was not what they were trained to do, and it is not helping to. maintain a skill set on their part, and they having to hack through this stuff and figure it out, and half the time they don't know what's going on any more than the users. " One interesting situation occurred when the Head of Personnel Administration took a basic computer course, and was surprised to meet some one from the IT field on the same course, illustrating that the training and computer literacy level of the IT professionals was suspect. "/ was just recently on a introduction course, where we all introduced ourselves as novices, and the fellow sitting across from me introduced himself as being a [IT] unit rep. He said he just wanted to become familiar with the system because he was going to be the one maintaining it, and I thought isn't that interesting that we are at the same knowledge level. " b. Headquarters IT Support and Direction The Head of Personnel Services of Base B commented that some of the national information systems under development lacked user input, and that users would be directed to use them without an assessment of their actual needs. "Its going to be forced on us, its not going to be a function like the [Base] Commander says, the "shoot, ready, aim" concept. In the Peoplesoft [next generation of Personnel Information Systems], we are going to cut people and be given the computer and told, okay now figure out a way to do this more efficiently." 233 The Head of Personnel Administration gave an example of Canadian Forces Administrative Orders (CFAO), the CF- wide administrative procedures guides, that have been put into a CD-ROM format recently. The paper CFAOs still exist, no one is uses the CD-ROM anymore because the CFAO amendments are updated in the paper version, but there is no guarantee that the CD-ROM was up do date, c. Lack of National Coordination of IT Effort The Head of Personnel Administration pointed out that there were a number of initiatives happening at other bases that should be coordinated nationally. "Really what bothered me, in terms of IT, was that there seems to be a real lack of consistency across the Canadian Forces, in the way we approach it. For example, automation of central registry. Now it would seem to make a lot of sense to me that [Headquarters] would be looking at a bulk purchase -something that we could use, that would now be compatible with systems on other bases. It seems that it is a function that is happening very independently, for example, Moose Jaw automated the Central Registry, and the reason they did that was because they were test base for [Headquarters], who happened to give them as much money as they needed. So we look at doing the same thing here. Well the funding of course is always a problem, but we were thinking: are we the people that should be making these decisions, do we have the expertise, do we not know that in a couple of years the system that we decide to purchase is going to be anticipated, or somebody else has knowledge that we do not? it just seems something that should be coordinated centrally, but it doesn't seem to be happening. " 234 T a b l e 28 S u m m a r y o f Fac to rs I n f l u e n c i n g the Socia l D i m e n s i o n o f L i n k a g e f o r Base B F A C T O R S S U M M A R Y A N D R A T I N G S 1. Success in I T Implementat ion • Personnel Administration unit is satisfied with the service and support provided by the IT unit despite personnel and resource constraints. • IT unit has lost a degree of control over the IT plans as some of the units on the Base have become frustrated with the IT unit's inability to support them, and have used their own resources to develop and implement IT. • Rating - L O W 2. Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Head of Personnel Services • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E Head of Personnel Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - L O W • Awareness of New Technology - L O W Head of IT • Military Experience - HIGH • IT Management Experience - HIGH • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E Deputy Head of IT • Military Experience - M O D E R A T E • IT Management Experience - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E 3. Communicat ion between Business and IS Executives • Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration is rated as I N F O R M A L , FREQUENT and FOCUSED on Beta M A N project. • Permanent Committee (Unit Representative Group) communication is rated as F O R M A L , FREQUENT and FOCUSED on technical issues. • Rating - M O D E R A T E 4. Connections between Business and I T Planning ISOLATED 5. Other Factors • Size and Composition of IT unit - problems with contracting IT personnel on six month contract, IT unit too small to support base. • Lack of Headquarters IT support and direction. • Lack of National Coordination of IT Effort. 2 3 5 A4.4 Factors - Base C On Base C the Deputy Base Commander, the Head of Administration, and the Head of IT were interviewed. There was 100% turnover in these three key positions for the 1995/96 planning cycle. Each of these officers have been in their job for less than six months. A4.4 .1 Success in IT Implementation There is a history of IT project delays and failures at Base C. Although lack of resources and lack of direction caused the failure of some projects, most users attributed the failures to the personal discredit of the former Head of IT, and to a lack of understanding of IT at the senior officer level. The Deputy Base Commander commented: "I'll give you two answers. One answer implicates people, the other answer is more general. It should be stronger than it is, but we had a weak person in charge of IT in this headquarters for, I guess, about 18 months, so things fell off the track if they were on one. So that is the implications statement. Aside from that, I'd say that we 're relatively IT aware, but poorly positioned for having IT support, strategy, or operations. We're a classic case of the [Byte Magazine] syndrome." The change of staff in the last four months was an attempt to rectify the situation. The Head of Administration expressed that his unit was extremely unhappy, and lacked confidence in the IT unit. There were two major IT projects during the past year (1994/95) Taskings within the IT unit were not prioritized. The first project was the conversion of a networking system, and the second was the development of a Document Management System. Listed below are the written references for these projects, as found in the 1994 Base C IT plan. 236 Budset Year 94/95 (reference: 1994 IT Plan) DISO fHeadauarters IT unit! WAN {Wide Area Network] Phase II/III Integrate all existing and future LAN throughout the DISO [Headquarters IT unit] Structure a. Convert Group Novell LAN to Banyan b. Install LANs for [unit], [unit], [unit] c. Integrate all existing LANs throughout the [unit]. d. Provide training for LAN Managers & users Cost: Estimated Capital $xM, O&M: $xK Budget Year 95/96 (reference: 1994 IT Plan) Document Management System a. Acquire Document Control Software for... HQ. b. Develop procedures and naming convention for document control c. Automate standards forms. (TD requirement) Costs: Estimated Capital: $x, O&M: $xK The first major project, conversion to the Banyan Network System, was delayed for a year due to "contractual problems, " and a lack of expertise within the IT unit. The Head of Administration stated that his unit had been inundated with upgrades to software, without being adequately informed about the upgrades. This situation led to confusion, and decreased the general impression of competency within the IT unit. The second major project, the Document Management System Project, was misprioritized, in terms of outstanding IT projects critical to Base C. This project is similar to many efforts that are occurring independently at different bases through the Canadian Forces. The "paperless office" concept was to be implemented using a commercial software package, with associated upgrades to the existing hardware. No plans were developed to cover the implementation process of the Document Management System, and no mechanism of appraisal was developed to determine its success. There was a great deal of confusion concerning who was to spearhead the paperless office 237 change program. The Document Management System project was considered by members of Base C to be a 'pet' project of the former Head of IT and the former Deputy Base Commander. This project was not well received by the Personnel Administration unit and the project was canceled when the new Deputy Base Commander and Head of IT took over. Training at Base C The Head of Administration commented that there is little, if any, training provided to users about computer systems and the software that accessible. Video tapes on a few common software packages are available to be signed out. (e.g. Windows, WordPerfect). Users are expected to learn new software packages on their own: This officer felt that the process generally takes a long period of time with no guarantees as to their actual level of knowledge at the end of their 'self-taught' training sessions. In addition, no training manuals or software documentation are available. It was further indicated that administrative personnel were unwilling to use new technologies, due to the frustration brought about by a lack of training and support services from the IT unit. Although the Document Management System project had failed, the Head of Administration felt optimistic that the new Head of IT had renewed confidence in the IT unit's ability. Support to Subordinate Units The Head of IT stated that providing support and guidance to subordinate units was sometimes difficult because they are actually located in different cities, and resources are limited. "Now that I've been on the job for a while, I can say its definitely challenging. There is so little staff here to do what we 're supposed to do. We 're supposed to take care of the local IT plus all the units. Its easy to get bogged down with the local stuff because its what you see everyday. As well as not having enough people working here, the previous people seemed to just buy new toys and never got the old system working properly. " 238 He stated that he was aware of user confusion and frustration and would be making every attempt to overcome the implementation problems that had occurred in the past: "There's going to be lot of changes, because over the last little while there doesn't seem to have been very much training. One example: one weekend right before I got here, people went home on Friday up and running up Novel and WordPerfect. Came back Monday and it was Banyan and Microsoft with nothing left. They couldn't even use their old files if they wanted to. It was just cold turkey. " The history of IT implementation at Base C is one of confusion, difficulties, and problems. Base C has been unable to effectively direct, control, and support IT within their subordinate units. Success in IT Implementation was rated as LOW. A4.4.2 Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives a. Administration Unit The Deputy Base Commander holds an Electrical Engineering Degree and has 21 years of military experience. The Deputy Base Commander has been employed in his current position for four months. This officer has an extensive background in the communications field both in Headquarters and field postings. This individual completed a Masters Degree in Software Engineering 8 years ago and actively maintains IT currency through reading articles. "I have consciously been trying to make the link between our business functions and the way IT supports that. That isn't a recent thing but it certainly has been reinforced because that's exactly the problem with the focus that I think we should be working on. " • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - MODERATE • IT Experience/Exposure - HIGH • Awareness of New Technology - HIGH 2 3 9 The Head of Administration holds a Bachelor of Arts in History and has 12 years of military service. The Head of Administration has been working in their current position for four months. This officer has limited computer knowledge, but makes an attempt to learn applications as required, such as word-processing and spreadsheets. This individual feels that he has learned a lot about IT in the last four months because he is required to deal with the IT unit to obtain the resources needed for the Personnel Administration unit and try to resolve the problem of the system constantly going down. "All my IT type knowledge is based with having to interface with these people [IT unit] to get the resources that I need to do my job. But here I've had to fight in order to get the facilities that I want and the systems go down a lot. The problem is they tell me they can't give it to me. Well, my last [Head of IT] who is supposed to be quite a technology guru said it couldn't be done. I know what I want but if they tell me they can't do it, I'm not in a position yet to say, yes you can. " • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - LOW • Awareness of New Technology - LOW b. IT Unit The Head of IT holds a Bachelor Degree in Computer Science has one year of military experience. This officer has just completed a Masters Degree in Computer Science and has been working in his current position for three months. • Military Experience - LOW • IT Management Experience - LOW • Awareness of New Technology - HIGH 240 A4.4.3 Communication between Business and IS Executives a. Direct Communication about IT issues occurs regularly at the weekly Deputy Base Commander's Meetings, which both the Head of Administration and Head of IT attend. There is also a monthly Base Commander meeting, which both the Head of Administration and Head of IT attend. The Head of Administration expressed his feeling that not enough information about IT was communicated at these meetings. "At that meeting the [Head of IT] briefs us as to what progress they're making, how the software is going, and what's wrong with the system. But it's just basically a conversation for them, we don't really get involved at the other staff offices." The Deputy Base Commander has a clear understanding of the lack of communication between the business side and the technology side, and uses these weekly meetings, as well as one-on-one discussions, as an opportunity to bridge this communication gap. "I am constantly [telling] the [Head of IT] with my ideas and concepts about IT. I've had discussions with the [IT unit] and training folks regarding my philosophies on training, for example. Giving them guidance, and, from time to time specific direction, and doing similar things with the other branches as well. For example, going into the Administration branch and observing that there are better ways of doing things that I see, and that they aren't using IT to it's full potential, and on the other side of the coin, IT isn 't supporting them as well as they should. So I'm constantly making those sorts of observations to both the users and the suppliers. " The Head of IT indicated that his time was severely limited and tended to rely on e-mail to communicate with users about system changes. 241 "If we make some changes we do it in stages. We try to give warnings to people. Usually we do it through e-mail or we '11 get the Information Systems representatives together and talk about it and then they go back to their section and tell them. " The Deputy Base Commander expressed optimism in his ability to lead his team to a clearer understanding of each other's role, despite the fact that all the players have been in their jobs for a relatively short time. "They each are, I see, caught up in their own tunnel vision, their own little bubble without making good use of crossing those boundaries. Their little boundaries that they've drawn around themselves. So I try to break those boundaries or blur those boundaries so that there is a little bit more interaction." b. Permanent Teams/Committees There is no formal IT steering group established at Base C and this deficiency was documented in the annual IT plan. The Head of IT felt that this issue was a significant concern, because the majority of the units that the IT unit was responsible for directing were scattered throughout the province. At base Headquarters, a unit representative group exists. The unit representatives do not meet formally, however and, similar to other bases are made up of volunteers who hold the position as a secondary duty. IT support for the units under Base C jurisdiction is limited and there are no unit representatives. "Locally at the Base Headquarters, we have an [IT] representative for each section which may help with [IT] training, small things that they can take care of in their section and they can come to us with major requirements. We don't have such a system for the units at this time. " Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration is rated as FORMAL, INFREQUENT and DIVERSE. 242 Permanent Committee (Unit Representative Group) communication is rated as INFORMAL, INFREQUENT and FOCUSED. A4.4.4 Connections between Business and IT Planning Base C has produced annual business plans for the past two years. There is a lack of continuity with respect to the business planning process as there has been 100% turnover in the that produced the first and second plan. There was a general expression of skepticism at Base C about the usefulness of the business plan as it was directed by Higher Headquarters, and current base operations and requirements must 'fit' into the Higher Headquarters plan. The Deputy Base Commander did express optimism that the business planning process in the military would mature: "I dare say that up until now, little stock has been put into the validity and usefulness of the business plan. We expended a great deal of effort at last year's iteration with little payback. However, I think that ultimately the business planning process is going to be, sort of hold us accountable. " I see eventually the jargon filtering down so that people understand that they're doing this for a reason, because of the business plan. " The Deputy Base Commander expressed an understanding of the importance of the connectivity between business and IT planning. He stated, however that the connectivity of the planning cycle was not present and that he was attempting to provide that connectivity until his staff got up to speed. "IT will amalgamate with the business plan. I insisted that the [IT unit] develop an IT plan for me. As much in the first pass for us to exchange ideas and me to understand where he's coming from so that I can influence where he's coming from with where I want to see us go. " The Deputy Base Commander indicated that long term planning was next to impossible because of the conflicting requirements and changing direction from Higher Headquarters than seemed to occur daily. 243 "I've produced five year plans in the past, and discovered that they survive a few months, and are then forgotten, then revived for the annual redrafting of the five year plan. It would be difficult, no, its impossible to make a five year plan, because technology doesn't have a five year life span. Right now the Canadian Forces object as a mission doesn't have a five year life span. We don't have direction to tell personnel what we 're doing in five days much less five years. So contemplating a five year plan I think is pure fantasy. " There is no formal business planning cycle or IT planning cycle at Base C and document preparation is completed to fulfill Headquarters requirements. Informal comments made by Base C staff indicated that there was a great deal of confusion over who was responsible for the documentation. Most officers felt it was a burden, rather than an actual benefit to their day-to-day and long term activities. Connections between business and IT planning is rated as ISOLATED. A4.4.5 O t h e r F a c t o r s a. Size and Composition of IT Unit The IT unit has deficiencies in terms of qualified personnel and their ability to support and implement the IT plan. A unique problem within the IT unit on Base C was the number of Reserve personnel, who were rotated out of the base every 6 months. b. Headquarters IT Support and Direction The Deputy Base Commander expressed a concern about the direction that was provided nationally from the Headquarters IT unit: "I'd like to see someone, and for now that's DISO [Headquarters IT unit], take the helm on [IT] and information handling in total. The [Headquarters IT unit] should play out that role and start living up to its billing instead of putting up road blocks, being indecisive or failing to adequately enforce policy by allowing users to go off in their own directions. That's a pretty tall order to do at one swoop, and I have some ideas on where we should start. Networking would be the first place. If we 're going to control the Network, then we should absolutely have punitive repercussions for people who go around that, or incorrectly connect to that. And if we follow through with that, where DISO [Headquarters IT unit] is taking the lead, and is indeed providing the support that the users want and need, then the users are going to be more apt to allow us to take a bigger role in the future. We have to do what we say we 're going to do. So far we've just been waving our hands. " Table 29 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base C FACTORS SUMMARY AND RATINGS 1. Success in IT Implementation • There is a history of IT project delays and failures at Base C. • Although lack of resources and lack of direction caused the failure of some projects, most users attributed the failures to the personal discredit of the former Head of IT, and to a lack of understanding of IT at the senior officer level. • Rating - L O W 2. Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Deputy Commanding Officer • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - M O D E R A T E • IT Experience/Exposure - HIGH • Awareness of New Technology - HIGH Head of Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - L O W • Awareness of New Technology - L O W Head of IT • Military Experience - L O W • IT Management Experience - L O W • Awareness of New Technology - HIGH 3. Communication between Business and IS Executives • Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration is rated as F O R M A L , INFREQUENT and DIVERSE. • Permanent Committee (Unit Representative Group) communication is rated as I N F O R M A L , INFREQUENT and FOCUSED. • Rating - M O D E R A T E 4. Connections between Business and IT Planning ISOLATED 5. Other Factors • Size and Composition of IT unit deficient to cope with supporting units. • Lack of Headquarters IT support and direction. 245 A4.5 Factors - Base D On Base D the Head of Personnel Administration, the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration and the Deputy Head of IT were interviewed on Base D. A4.5.1 Success in IT Implementation The Deputy Head of IT described a very positive picture of Success in IT Implementation. She explained that the focus of IT had been the development of the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) on the base and throughout the Command. "At [Base DJ I think, traditionally the [Command] has had more money than other people. We have a LAN setup^ but it's all throughout [Base D]. Some might call it a LAN because its through different buildings. But Base D has had a LAN set up for about three years and its called the [the command network]. It's an administrative network and I think its original intent was just so people could talk to each other over the e-mail. It has grown to over 2000 users throughout the base. Everyday they add more users as we get fiberized. As we get fiber to more buildings, more people get connected onto the [command network] and the [command network]' is connected to the DEMS [National Military Internet] which gives us access to the rest of the country. So in that respect, Base D is well ahead. " The Head of IT also explained that the Command's influence facilitated IT infrastructure development on Base D by developing the MAN plans and providing the necessary financial resources. "They have [Computer Specialists] who are responsible for the [Command Systems], and I think there was a lull in projects and they decided, 'Hey, this would be a good idea to do.' They 're not CELE [Communication Electronic Land Engineering - traditional IT Officer Military background] by trade, but they had the money and they had the expertise so they set it up. They have the money and they have the people not normally found at the base level. I think that's always been one of the problems with the other bases in [other Commands]: We may have some of the expertise in the CELE branch, but we don't have the funding. Without the funding we can't do a lot. " 246 At Base D, implementation of the MAN is well underway, and the Deputy Head of IT anticipated it would be completed in accordance with the Headquarters IT guidelines. "The base telecommunication [IT unit] function is coordinating the infrastructure and they 're in the middle of it right now. They 're up to their eyeballs. Through additional O and M funding that's come through, we've hired extra people and they 're doing designs for a number of buildings in [Base D]. So Base DI think is doing all right with that, and they're trying to meet the 1997 or 1998 deadline [Headquarters IT]." When asked about general user satisfaction with IT on Base D, she responded: "The users that have computers with connections to the [Command network] are happy. The users that are trying to get equipment are unhappy until they get equipment. So people seem to be positive about moving toward ADP [Automated Data Processing], to a certain extent. " The Head of Personnel Administration expressed a different viewpoint of that of the Deputy Head of IT. He explained that the Personnel Administration unit was seriously under equipped and under trained with respect to IT: "Our present situation is we are in desperate need of computers. We only have 8 computers for a section of basically 50 or 60 people. " The Head of Personnel Administration did feel that the level of maintenance support was reasonable given the number of computers within the unit, and he had seen improvement over the last couple of months. "On troubleshooting itself I have seen them active both here and on the base proper. Initially, when they started up, they were a little hesitant, they weren 't sure either, but they were new. But now, I think, nobody's saying anything negative for the last two months, and the response is quicker, whether it's due to an increase in strength I'm not sure. " The Administration officer did recognize that a lack of resources did exist in the IT unit. "From what I viewed in the three months here, I just think that they're overwhelmed. I think they have all sorts of queries and all sorts of stuff to fix and Ijust don't know if they have enough bodies to do that. " 247 The Personnel Administration unit is expecting to have an additional 50-60 computers within four months. The Head of Administration did not have a business plan for their use other than word-processing, e-mail and connection to the National Administration Information System. The acquisition had been a matter of submitting a requirement list for extra equipment to the IT unit. There is an apparent dichotomy regarding opinions of IT implementation at Base D. The Deputy Head of IT, responsible for IT at Base D, felt that the previous and present IT projects were well on target, well organized through the Command and that the level of user satisfaction was high. The Head of Personnel Administration, on the other hand, felt he had insufficient IT resources for his unit, but felt his lack of IT management knowledge limited his ability to organize, and in particular manage the acquisition of the computers due to arrive in four months. Success in IT Implementation was rated as MODERATE. A4.5.2 Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives a. Personnel Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Administration has 10 years of military service. This officer has been employed in the position of Head of Personnel Administration for three months. He has had a variety of postings, most of which have been in 'hard' administrative jobs. He has limited exposure to IT and views it strictly as a tool. "With respect to information technology I use it strictly as a tool. I think of the computers as basically my keyboard to write correspondence, draft correspondence. I don't use it for much more than that. Presently, I'm not even on the LANs, so I can't send e-mail, but I look forward to when I do get a computer that will have those capabilities. " 2 4 8 He further stated that, with respect to IT training, the Administration Branch had failed to provide the necessary IT management: "The Administration Branch has given us no training from a Branch perspective. I've gone on a one day course in WordPerfect and I think I did a one day course in Lotus before I even had a computer, that's the only training that I've had. Other than that, Ijust do my own training. " • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - LOW • Awareness of New Technology - LOW The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration has 15 years of military service. This officer has been employed in the position of Deputy Head of Personnel Administration for ten months. She has had a number of postings in IT related project organizations in an Administrative support role. • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - MODERATE • Awareness of New Technology - LOW b. IT Unit The Deputy Head of IT holds a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering and has 2 years of military experience. This officer has been employed in the position of Deputy Head of IT for ten months. She commented that her basic command and control information system courses were instrumental in teaching her the technical side of communications i.e. "radar systems and things like that". The course, however, only covered approximately 30 hours of information on IT issues such as LAN management networking. • Military Experience LOW • IT Management Experience - LOW • Awareness of New Technology - MODERATE 249 A4.5 .3 Communication between Business and IS Executives a. Direct The Personnel Administration unit does not have any direct contact with the IT unit. The Administration unit calls the IT units only when they have a problem and rely completely on the IT unit representative to provide support from the IT unit. There is no direct contact through correspondence or meetings between the Head of IT and the Head of Personnel Administration. b. Permanent Teams/Committees There is no formal IT steering group of Branch Heads or Commanding Officers set-up at Base D. There is a group in place which deals with IT acquisition called the BMICA [Base Management Information Control Authority] Committee. This group has been expanded to discuss IT issues. The Deputy Head of IT stated: I'm not sure if we have an IT steering group on the base or as part of the Command. I've never heard of that name so I don't know. The closest thing would be the base MICA. Its all ADP reps from the different units. I believe that a large part of it is that MICA is for standardizing things. Also, another part of it is prioritizing requirements. Deciding who should get what in what order. Money is made available from the Base Controller. There's one pot of money unless units come up with money to convert to capital, but that's only done once a year. " The Deputy Head of IT described the general running of the IT business in terms of customer support as follows: "They call the [Command] help desk. We have a target system which fills in all the information about what the problem is, and then they pass it on to the appropriate area. My computer will ring up there saying here's a new trouble call. So for end users that's mainly how they get things around. I generally get phone calls more from higher authorities saying where's my ADP equipment? Or what's the status on this or things like that? " 250 The BMICA group is made up of individuals who are selected based on their 'computer' knowledge from each unit or branch. They meet approximately every two months to discuss computer resource allocation. The BMICA meetings are chaired and coordinated by the Base Comptroller. Recently, the Deputy Head of IT had proposed that the BMICA establish a sub-committee to address technical support issues. "I think MICA helps that because we [IT unit] have the exposure. All the units know that the MICA is there and they're the ones that have the authority to approve [IT] procurements, so they [units] can't really plead ignorance. " The BMICA group is the only direct line of communication between many units and the IT unit. One interesting aspect of this group is that is primarily composed of junior officers, from branch/units, in contrast to other bases where the role of unit computer representative is normally a junior non-commissioned officer. Most minutes from BMICA Committee meetings indicate that discussions focus on obtaining resources for computer acquisitions. For example: a. Base Comptroller Representative stated that there are two ways to obtain funds to purchase Automated Data Processing (ADP) equipment for the Base. They are through Base Management Information Control Authority (BMICA) meetings and Defence 2000. b. Base Comptroller Representative stated that he would like in the future an organized list of DND 90's to purchase Automated Data Processing (ADP) equipment as moneys become available. This would avoid large purchases at the end of the fiscal year. The Base Comptroller further stated that it is very possible that some Defence 2000 funds may be made available in the near future to apply to ADP purchases. At Base D, both Administration Officers expressed concern about the secondary duty nature of IT support within the Administration Branch. "I don't think he [Administration representative at BMICA Committee] had a true idea of what his task is supposed to be. He basically got appointed because the interest was there. He would be a contact for us to get to the ADP cell [IT unit]. He's not a system maintainer, he's not a system analyst. But none of our people are trained. We just go to someone who has a little bit of interest and say, well look, you 're the appropriate rank and you have an interest in computers and you sure know more than most of us, so you 're it. That's just the way it goes. " Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFREQUENT. Permanent Committee (BMICA Committee) communication was rated as MODERATELY FREQUENT and FOCUSED on budgetary issues. A4.5.4 Connections between Business and IT Planning Fiscal year 1995/96 was the first year that business planning has been conducted at Base D. The Head of Personnel Administration stated that things are changing so quickly that the originally drafted plan is already out of date. "Well, as I understand it, I've only been here a short time, this is the first year that we've actually put together a business plan. There is so much change going on right now that we could probably update the business plan weekly. Nothing is stable at this time. In fact, we were going to update the business plan two weeks ago based on one organization being within my unit and only two days ago I found out that they're not coming to us, so its pretty fluid right now. " When asked about the IT planning process on Base D, the Deputy Head of IT responded in the following manner. "For the most part. I don't have a lot to do with the planning for the base. [Command] takes more of a planning role in that. But on the other hand I sit on the base (MICA) committee - basically its for procurement of ADP equipment for the base. So there are representatives from all the small base Base D and they put through their ADP requirements. What we [IT unit] were trying to do was establish ADP plans for all the different units through that committee, [BMICA] so that we would have a base plan for IT, but it hasn 't gone very far yet. " 252 Further investigation revealed that a business planning process was not in place at the unit level. The Administration Officers, for example, are not involved in a business planning cycle at Base D, instead were required to provide input to a business planning process happening one level higher. A4.5.5 Other Factors a. Structure of the IT unit Even though the Deputy Head of IT is a junior officer, she did not express the same frustrations as other IT officers at other bases because she felt that Command had provided resources and direction for IT at Base D. b. Headquarters and Command Influence Although not explicitly stated by the Deputy Head of IT, her description of the functioning of her computer systems indicates that she has different networks to communication with the Command and the Headquarters IT unit. "We have a Banyan LAN set up because [Headquarters IT unit] world is on Banyan and , / have two systems right here. I have to reboot to use either Banyan or Novell. So we support our own banyon that works for the squadron and the group. The other one is for technical support. We do ADP hardware support to users in Base D. " c. Headquarters Support and Direction Base D Administration Officers recognized that IT was not being leveraged in the most effective manner. They indicated that there is a perception in the Military, as in civilian organizations, that implementation of computer systems means a reduction in staff. Presently it is difficult because computer applications are developed 'piecemeal' and not all organizations have access to computers or applications. 253 The Head of Personnel Administration stated: "The problem is that the assumption is that as soon as you get computers, the work load is going to somehow, there's going to be a drastic savings in workload. And this is a perception that everyone has. In effect, that's not true. In fact, in some cases the workload actually increases. Not only do we have a computer generated version but because of our military policies and rules we 're keeping a paper version also, so we duplicate work in fact instead of saving time. " He commented further: "Well, one of the things that we should be doing as an Administration Branch in my opinion, is we should be trying to harness records management. With e-mail, I mean things are being sent and distributed now where there's no copies, no backup, there's no history for the organization. " The Deputy Head of Administration commented that she felt that Headquarters should give stronger national direction regarding reducing redundancy in applications, as it contributed to an increased frustration on part of the user community every time a military member moves from bases to base. "If they could standardize at least software and maybe a networking system, I think it would help everyone involved including your end users. If they get posted and have to learn a new software package every place they go, they're just going to get frustrated with it and they 're going to give up. " 254 Table 30 Summary of Factors Influencing the Social Dimension of Linkage for Base D FACTORS SUMMARY AND RATINGS 1. Success in IT Implementation • There is an apparent dichotomy regarding opinions of IT implementation at Base D. • The Deputy Head of IT, responsible for IT at Base D, felt that the previous and present IT projects were well on target, well organized through the Command and that the level of user satisfaction was high. • The Head of Personnel Administration, on the other hand, felt he had insufficient IT resources for his unit, but felt his lack of IT management knowledge limited his ability to organize, and in particular manage the acquisition of the computers due to arrive in four months. • Rating - M O D E R A T E 2. Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Head of Personnel Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - L O W • Awareness of New Technology - L O W Deputy Head of Personnel Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - L O W Deputy Head of IT • Military Experience - L O W • IT Management Experience - L O W • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E 3. Communication between Business and IS Executives • Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFREQUENT. • Permanent Committee (BMICA Committee) was rated as M O D E R A T E L Y FREQUENT A N D FOCUSED on budgetary issues. • Rating - L O W 4. Connections between Business and IT Planning ISOLATED 5. Other Factors • Functioning of IT on base is highly influenced by Command due to resources and personnel at that level. • Command and Headquarters both provided direction and varying degrees of influence. Deputy Head of IT has two networks to communicate, one for the Command, and one for the Headquarters IT unit. • Headquarters support and direction was lacking according to Administration Officers. Headquarters should give stronger national direction regarding reducing redundancy in applications, as it contributed to an increased frustration on part of the user community every time a military member moves from bases to base. 255 A4.6 Factors - Base F On Base F, the Head of Personnel Administration, the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration, and the Head of IT were interviewed. A4.6.1 Success in IT Implementation At this time, the main focus of Base F's IT unit is to complete the rest of the MAN implementation, as outlined in the written long term IT plan of 1992. This plan is out of date, but the Head of IT has no intention of updating it until the end of the current five year period. He recognized that there was a high degree of frustration on the base regarding IT, and attributed it to user dissatisfaction, and lack of knowledge of IT management. The Head of IT stated: "There's quite a level of frustration on this base. Because they 're sort of coming to the realization that IT hasn't helped them as much as they've read in the magazines. Originally, we could replace a typewriter with a PC and you'd get 300% improvement. And then people saw how that works - lets replace it with a faster PC. We can get a little bit more improvement. Then Windows. We can get a little more improvement. Well we 're at the point now where it's not possible anymore, you know, a faster PC doesn't help you out anymore. So we 're at the point now where changes to the infrastructure don't matter so much. My goal is to start targeting services delivered on demand, rather than worry about faster PCs or better MAN connections. " The Head of Personnel Administration felt she was not in a position to comment on the IT unit's ability to support her unit, as she felt her level of knowledge about IT management was limited. "I used to have a lot of interaction because one of the guys in my car-pool was the Head of IT. So it was very much informal interaction. He's now gone. My knowledge about the IT units and their success with the implementation of IT? It doesn't mean a whole lot to me. My impression is that I'm not getting the service that I need, and I don't know if that's because I don't know that much about how the systems works, or if it's in fact a problem with the section. I find that frequently the system is down or it can't do what I want it to do, and it should be able to do it. Its very frustrating. " 256 Frustration about the lack of IT unit support has resulted in the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration purchasing equipment on his own initiative for the Personnel Administration unit. He did express his concern that it was difficult to find support in terms of maintenance from the IT unit for these purchases. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration has also taken it upon himself to consider a number of other technology initiatives. "Outside of the re-engineering, we had a number of what they call continuous improvements since I arrived here and things that were, the re-engineering gurus would call glaring stupidity, and you don't wait for re-engineering to address them, you just go after them. One of the things that I saw right away is that we have this network here yet we still produce all these hard copy routine orders. It's still not fully implemented now, but when I first got here, we were, on a weekly basis, producing 325 copies of the routine orders for the base. Direct cost to us, not including our overhead and our salary dollars, but our direct costs were over $1000 per issue. In order to address the whole cost issue in the short term, we put them on the network " Success in IT Implementation was rated as MODERATE. A4.6.2 Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives a. Personnel Administration Unit The Head of Personnel Administration has ten years of Regular force military service and six years of Reserve military service. This officer has been employed in the position of Head of Personnel Administration for three years. She was originally reluctant to use computers when she was first introduced to them three and one half years ago, and uses them today primarily for e-mail and drafting letters. She expressed a concern that the Administration Branch as a whole lacked the necessary training to manage IT: "One of the things that I find is that, for example, on the Document, Storage and Retrieval project and also on Aims, we [the Administrators] don't have the management knowledge of IT, and we 're left to accept what the experts are telling us as gospel." 257 • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - LOW • Awareness of New Technology - LOW The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration holds a Bachelor degree in Politics and has eight years of military experience. This officer has been employed in the position of Deputy Head of Personnel Administration for three months. He has had an exposure to IT while employed at a previous Headquarters job. As a secondary duty, he was delegated Technology Manager for a large network installation project. "I had an elementary understanding of data communications, and some basic programming experience that everybody goes through at university. When the installation started, I went on the network administrators course. Armed with that amount of knowledge, plus a lot of knowledge about to contracting, I was able to effectively manage the project. " • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - MODERATE • Awareness of New Technology - MODERATE b. IT Unit The Head of IT holds a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering and has ten years of military experience. This officer has been employed in the position of Head of IT for less than a year. He had held a number of positions as a Software Engineer. After obtaining a Masters Degree in Software Engineering he moved onto a position as a Satellite Engineer. He was them made a project manager for the national communication systems infrastructure program. • Military Experience - HIGH • IT Management Experience - HIGH • Awareness of New Technology - HIGH 258 A4.6 .3 Communication between Business and IS Executives a. Direct Communication regarding IT issues occurs irregularly at the weekly Base Branch Head Meetings, of which the Head of IT is a member, but the Head of Personnel Administration is not. There is no direct contact either through correspondence or meetings between the Head of IT and the Head of Personnel Administration. Information from the Branch Head is disseminated through the Head of Administration to the Head of Personnel Administration Branch. Communication about IT is normally conducted through the unit representatives. The Head of Personnel Administration stated that she was more aware of the IT unit on an informal basis in the past because the former Head of IT used to be in her car-pool. When asked about involvement in steering committees or interaction between the IT unit, she described her relationship with them as follows: "Other than the project [Document, Storage and Retrieval] that I'm personally involved in, no. Occasionally an e-mail from them [IT unit] saying we're reorganizing to help you. " 259 b. Permanent Teams/Committees There is no formal IT Steering Committee established at Base F at the unit/branch head level. The Head of IT is presently organizing a Steering Group. "There are a lot of issues that need to be resolved. Particularly, what are the priorities for attaching units to the MAN. Commanding Officers or representatives from the different schools and major units on the base will make up that group. You 're looking at about 20 or 30 people. I've thought of different structures like having kind of an IT working group and then having to report to the Steering Committee of the say the Base Comptroller or Base Commander. I'd also have something at a lower level Committee chaired by myself [Head of IT], the Working Group. We could do all the real work and could provide the recommendations to the people that have the money. " There is a formal unit representative group that has evolved to cope with the lack of IT infrastructure support. This group is made up of individuals from each unit/branch who are selected based on their 'computer knowledge.' They generally meet infrequently to discuss specific technical issues. These meetings are the only direct line of communication between many units/branches and the IT unit, and only offer limited support. The Head of IT described this group: "Every unit has a unit information services officer who has [IT unit] contact telephone numbers and mainly look after the network. It is a secondary duty. We had a meeting a few weeks ago and I asked them what their status was. Because it can be anybody out there, cook, mechanic, whatever. I asked [the unit/branch representatives] for whom is this a full-time duty? The majority didn't put up their hand. It's a position that's kind of taken out of the hide of the organization. They don't have enough training right now to do as much as we would like them to do. " The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration also expressed concern about the secondary duty nature of IT support within his organization. Within his Administration unit, the unit representative is relied heavily upon for a variety of technical support for the computers. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration felt that this representative was being overwhelmed with technical requests and did not have time to concentrate on his primary duty. 260 "He'd rather be working on machines, however this doesn't serve the organization. For example, we're dealing with a computer that broke this morning. After moving the machine, it wouldn't read from the hard drive. The pat answer was, well, computer support [from unit representative] happens between two and four in the afternoon. We will not free him because it will be detrimental to his career development to have him available all the time. So that's essentially my management problem. " The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration felt that this IT support problem may be relieved by a recognition of IT support as a sub-function of the Administration trade: "There are a few people that are doing it as a secondary duty and its going to become conflict in the organization from a management standpoint, because there are people in the section that are concerned about career development. I would like nothing better than to see first line hardware support as a sub specialty within administration, because we do a lot of it anyway. And when you think about it, years ago, we used to teach clerks how to maintain typewriters. They used to do first line maintenance on typewriters. So the logical progression is that they become trained and dedicated to supporting your technology infrastructure." c. Temporary Task Force In order to cope with a Headquarters directed amalgamation of Finance and Administration, the Head of Administration established a re-engineering Team two months ago. This team was also asked to examine organizational issues, such as improving efficiency and effectiveness. The mission statement of the re-engineering team: "The Base Personnel Administration section is undertaking a project to critically examine its operations and structure, renew its essential concepts of service delivery, and ensure a motivating and challenging environment for it members. " The members of the received re-engineering training, and are headed by the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration. All team members work on this project on a full-time basis. They 261 \ have a six month mandate to establish a new organizational structure and implement new procedures. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration commented: "I see IT as a main part of our solution. I see it as being critical to anything that we come up with. This is a concern that I have because of this project is supposed be finished and ready to operate in our new configuration by 1 April. If there are massive changes in technology, the development time isn't going to be enough to put those on line." With respect to the Management of IT or the implementation of IT within this project, the project plan addresses IT in the following manner: "Technology Focus : Information Technology significantly expands the range of available options for our new processes; it should be applied wherever a business case exist to do so. We must not devote our efforts to automating process which should or can be eliminated Don't Automate; Obliterate. Technology is a means, not an end." This re-engineering team does not have direct contact with the with IT unit, but the Deputy Head of Administration feels that he can address IT issues as they arise. "We don't have a member of the [IT unit] on our project on a standing basis. Because the [IT] has been treated as a functional area. Because of my experience, I can fulfill most of the technology needs of the core teams work. If somebody says, can you do this, I'm there at least to say, yes that's feasible. Whether it can be developed between the time that we redesign our processes and implement the solution, that's highly unlikely. " Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFREQUENT. Permanent Committee (Unit Representative Group) communication is rated as FORMAL, INFREQUENT and FOCUSED on technical issues. 262 Temporary Task Forces (Administration Re-engineering Team) communication with IT unit was rated as INFREQUENT. A4.6.4 Connections between Business and IT Planning Business Planning at Base F has been involved in the base business planning process for the last five years. Despite this relatively long period of time in comparison to other bases, Linkage was rated as LOW. The Base Commander has issued many documents outlining requirements of the base business planning process. The Head of IT described the business planning process as follows. Nevertheless, despite the Head of IT's understanding of the process, and his function within the process, the IT unit has not produced an IT plan for the last four years: "There is a formal business planning process on the base. They have quite a lot of documentation. They've been doing it for a number of years apparently. I have volumes on how to write your business plan, handouts and other things. So yes, we've had some meetings with the Base Commander. We sat down and worked out what the goals of the base are and the relationship to the goals of the Headquarters. I then worked out what my goals are in relationship to the base plan. The base has worked out its capabilities within the capability its responsible for to the Headquarters. " The Head of Personnel Administration has been actively involved in the base business planning process, but her comments indicate that there is a lack of understanding about what business planning in the civilian context involves. With other bases, the base business plan reads much like a tasking document as opposed to a plan of action tied to resources. "We are definitely involved in the formal business planning cycle. The Base commander gets his strategic guidance, he establishes goals, and then passes them on to the Branch Heads, who in turn pass it on to us in the section. We have to identify our goals, objectives, and priorities. Those are based on our superior's goals and objectives and priorities. We don't have to accept them all or in the same order, and we can add more of our own if we wish. We then indicate the summary of resources that are required. Really, we 're only seeing some small things change from year to year as we 're refining the process. " 263 She also indicated that, with respect to IT, units were expected to determine their requirements on their own. "Unless a section wants to acquire hardware or is looking at a specific system, they don't really mention [IT], not that I've seen anyway. " The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration reiterated a point that was stated at many other bases: the development of a long term plan was difficult because of the nature of the military business, and the governmental business budgetary process. "A five year plan is unrealistic now. The five year plan was an assumption of the stability that we knew maybe in the 60's and 7O's. That kind of cycle is understandable when you 're talking about major capital acquisitions, you can't go from concept to design to delivery of a major weapons system in a short cycle. But one of the things that I would like to see is funding cycles broken out of the year start to year end mode. Its starting a little bit already. We have some latitude to carry funds to future years. Why the government can't be permitted to allow organizations to save money from a past fiscal for future years is a problem." Connections between business and IT planning was rated as ISOLATED. A4.6.5 Other Factors a. Size, Compositions and Reporting Relationship of IT unit The Head of IT expressed concern that the unit representative group did not have enough qualified people support IT in the different units/branches on the base. b. Headquarters IT Unit Support and Direction The Head of Personnel Administration commented that although the Administration Branch was involved with the Document Storage and Retrieval project, she questioned the base's involvement in this type of project and suggested it should have been coordinated on a national level. 264 "I found out there's an initiative in place that is basically the same as this [Document, Retrieval and Storage] one. It looks like its going to be accepted departmentally, so why are we working on this project at this base? There's tremendous potential to do things there, but there's no one office, to my knowledge, that is advised of all these projects that are ongoing. So you can say to Base X no, don't bother doing that, Base Y is already working on it. There are a lot of gains to be made but there's also a lot of duplication of effort. " The Head of IT commented that he felt that the Headquarters IT unit did not support his ability to manage IT at the base level. "/ need more resources and I need a change in procedures to allow me to use those resources more effectively. Using exactly the same procedures that are in place today I need a lot more people. But if we could just get rid of some of those procedures I wouldn 't need so many people. " c. National Administration Branch Direction Both Administration Officers commented that there were many bases involved in redundant administrative Information Systems development and Re-engineering initiatives. The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration stated: "One of the feelings that I have about this project [re-engineering] is that it is doing roughly the same thing as three or four other projects at the base level right now. Kingston is doing this, Halifax is, Cold Lake, and Ottawa is really pressing ahead quickly. We 're all pursuing this on independent tracks. I'm not feeling really competitive about it but I'm feeling that one of the solutions should emerge as maybe a national standard." d. Business Planning Applications/Tools at the Headquarters Level The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration pointed out there were a number of applications in place at the Headquarters level that he felt were very effective in assisting in the business planning process. He expressed frustration at the fact that these application were not made available or implemented at the base level. 265 "I think the possibilities within Lotus notes for business planning and also for the linkage idea, I think its really worth exploring. I had a good understanding in Ottawa one of the tools that we were planning to establish on the network was to have a business planning in Lotus notes. I saw a lot of demonstrations given by DFMIS [Director Finance Management Information Systems] and then we were doing the customization on our system. " e. Lack of IT Knowledge Canadian Forces Wide The Head of Personnel Administration did feel it necessary to restate that there is a general lack of IT knowledge and Management of IT knowledge at all levels. She felt that this state of affairs was significantly detrimental to managing of IT in the Canadian Forces in general. "I think that a lot of people think that computer systems are the answer to all your problems and they say if we put it on computers it will be faster and better. Well unfortunately, we 're just doing the same bad things on a computer as on paper, and there's a lot more effort required than just automating process. We have to change the process and then apply the IT to it. There's a lot of resistance out there." The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration echoed this comment by stating that everyone is trying to get on the technological 'bandwagon' for fear of being left behind, instead of determining what their actual requirements are. "I think the fear is there and then people automatically assume that if they haven't got a PC at home or if they don't know a lot of applications that either they're not technically literate, and or they are not confident to manage it. " 266 f. Administration Branch IT Management Training The Deputy Head of Personnel Administration was involved in assisting in the development of the Administration Branch new Resource Management Course. He felt it was critical that the Administration Branch recognize that the expanding role of Administrator must be accompanied by additional support in terms of IT training. He did express skepticism about how much IT management training that would be provided in the new Administration Resource Management Course. "The business concepts course for Personnel Administration Officers and was intended as an extension to the basic Personnel Administration. It will offer a number of business skills, like financial accounting, using IT, and the focus was on managing IT and not on the technical aspects. This was something that I found at previous job at [Headquarters] as a technology manager. An understanding of [IT] concepts and terminology by themselves can give you a huge advantage in your ability to manage those assets. We looked at it as a pre MBA. We said if an MBA is a table and has four legs, [IT] better be one of them." g. Personnel Evaluation Reports (TERs) Tied to the Business Plan The Headquarters' special program did prompt a recognition that the business planning process might more effective if not tied to annual Performance Evaluation Reviews (PERs). Presently, the PER process is a subjective evaluation of a military members performance, and is not generally tied to tangible constructs. The Head of Personnel Administration stated: "Once its done there's supposed to be a contract between you and your boss as to what you 're going to accomplish in the next year, and the resources that you 're going to use. If you don't achieve what you say you 're going to achieve, then its up to your boss whether he wants to hold you accountable for that or not. And the hope for this process is that your PER is going to be tied to the business plan, and to date we haven't done that. I don't think we '11 be able to do that until such time as we actually have control of the funds that are allocated. As an example, in our business plan this year we asked for x dollars, and if we got x dollars that's great. Then reductions were announced, and rather than a detailed analysis of all the base business plans to see who could afford to lose, there was straight percentage cut and that defeats the whole purpose and value of having a business plan. " 267 T a b l e 31 S u m m a r y o f Fac to rs I n f l u e n c i n g the Socia l D i m e n s i o n o f L i n k a g e f o r Base F F A C T O R S S U M M A R Y A N D R A T I N G S 1. Success in I T Implementat ion • Main focus of Base F's IT unit is to complete the rest of the M A N implementation, as outlined in the written long term IT plan of 1992. • This plan is out of date, but the Head of IT has no intention of updating it until the end of the current five year period. • Head of IT recognizes that there was a high degree of frustration on the base. • Rating - M O D E R A T E 2. Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Head of Personnel Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - L O W • Awareness of New Technology - L O W Deputy Head of Personnel Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - M O D E R A T E Head of IT • Military Experience - HIGH • IT Management Experience - HIGH • Awareness of New Technology - HIGH 3. Communicat ion between Business and IS Executives • Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFREQUENT. • Permanent Committee (Unit Representative Group) communication is rated as F O R M A L , INFREQUENT and FOCUSED on technical issues. • Temporary Task Force (Administration Re-engineering Team) communication with IT unit was rated as INFREQUENT. • Rating - L O W 4. Connections between Business and I T Planning ISOLATED 5. Other Factors • Size and composition of IT - not enough qualified IT personnel. • Lack of Headquarters IT unit support and direction. • Lack of National Administration Branch Direction and Training. • Business planning application at Headquarters not provided to bases. • Lack of Canadian Forces Wide IT Knowledge. 268 A4.7 Factors - Base G On Base G the Head of Personnel Administration, the Deputy Head of Personnel Administration, and the Head of IT were interviewed. A4.7.1 Success in IT Implementation Base G has been formed in the last year as a result of the amalgamation of a number of units. Base G's major IT plan in process is connection to the MAN of the supporting base. The Head of Base G IT felt that assistance from the support Base IT unit was strong to this point, but was concerned about the continued support when the number of computers on Base G increased. He already spends some of his time on a daily basis fixing computers. N The Head of Administration commented that she felt the level of support form the IT unit was lacking. Also she believed that the amalgamation of a number of units to form Base G in terms of IT would pose difficulties to overcome in terms of the existing infrastructure and established practices of these units. "He hasn 'tyet come to talk to me. I would hope that will happen in the very near future. But he has certainly not come to my orderly room or to me to say how can I make your life easier, or where can I help. But I certainly would anticipate that. " Success in IT Implementation was rated as LOW. 269 A4.7.2 Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives a. Administration Unit The Head of Administration has 17 years of military service and has been employed in her current position for four months. She has had many postings at larger bases and felt that up to this point, her workload prevented her from becoming involved in IT. "I think my awareness of what we can accomplish with IT might be 25%, which is pretty sad being in Administration. " She feels that her lack of IT knowledge is a handicap because she does not know enough to know what training she requires, let alone recommend or request IT. She also expressed concern that the IT training that has been provided is not followed up by support on the unit level. The Head of Administration commented about IT training: "They ship you off on a one day Word Perfect and a one day this and a one day that, and then put you back in your office and there you are. Figure it out. " • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - LOW • Awareness of New Technology - LOW The Deputy Head of Administration has over 22 years of military service, as a communication technician. He was commissioned from the ranks three years ago as a Communications Officer. He has been employed in his current position for three months, working exclusively on coordinating the business plans for the entire unit. • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - LOW • IT Experience/Exposure - MODERATE • Awareness of New Technology - LOW 270 b. IT Unit The Head of IT has over 20 years of military, service, as a technician. He was commissioned from the ranks four years ago as an Aerospace Engineering Officer. His last posting involved the management of a large aircraft information system at Headquarters. He commented: "Most of the [IT] personnel are' CELE. I'm more the management side of the thing than on the technical side, although I do have some experience on the technical side. " • Military Experience - HIGH • IT Management Experience - MODERATE • Awareness of New Technology - LOW A4.7.3 Communication between Business and IS Executives a. Direct Communication about IT issues occurs regularly at the weekly base Branch Head Meetings of which the Head of IT and the Head of Administration are members. Information is disseminated through the Branch Head and minutes to these meetings. IT is infrequently discussed at these meeting. On a working level, the interaction between the Head of IT and Head of Administration is limited. There is, however, a high degree of interaction between the Base Commander and the Head of IT. The Head of IT commented: "My first job is to advise him. That is the first job of the [Base G] Information Services Officer. He tells me what he wants, what he needs, and he's very open. He wants to know what's going on, he wants to be informed, and he recognizes the importance of communication within his units. " 271 b. Permanent Teams/Committees There are two IT steering groups at Base G. The first group is called the ADP [Automated Data Processing] Steering Committee. The second group is called the ADP [Automated Data Processing] Group Committee, also referred to by the Head of IT as the [Base G] Information Services Officers steering Group. The Head of IT felt is was critical that second group be maintained as each unit had already developed its own IT section and concept. "There was a need for that [referring to unit representative] because [Unit X] had their own ADP setup and system. When we became a part of [Base G] then we needed to coordinate these resources. Since we also wanted to go on the [supporting base] MAN then we needed the coordination. That is basically what I'm doing. Passing all the information down from [Command] to the units. Standardizing basically." The Head of IT further commented: "There's three levels. There's the steering group for the [Units X]. The biggest user is [Unit Yj. They got their own steering group under the Commanding Officer. They also have an ADP coordinator group. I had the first meeting with the [Base G] information services users group, it was last week with all the units from [Base G]. I have one representative from each school plus the security officer. Then each school has their own Commanding Officer and within the school the assistant ISSO have meetings with their ADP people of each section. So the information is passed on and goes back up." The Head of Administration expressed concern about the secondary duty nature of IT support and gave an example where IT support for Administration had been suspended because the Base Commander had assigned this person full time to another project. "We have a Master Corporal who is very knowledgeable about [IT] and provided a lot of the systems support. However, since I've been here, they shipped off occupied him with the CCM [Cost Centered Management] project. Basically we have been told from the Colonel we can not tap him for [IT] assistance in any way until he is finished with his donation of time to CCM. " 2 7 2 ADP [Automated Data Processing] Steering Committee The ADP Steering Committee is made up of Unit Commanding Officers, the ADP security Officers, the Head of IT and is chaired by the Base Commander. The last meeting of the ADP Steering Committee was held two months ago in September 1995. The new Head of IT has not conducted another meeting to date. Issues discussed in September were purely technical in nature. For example: • 2. Para 2 - E-Mail SOP The [Head of Administration] will circulate the administrative procedures for paperless memos and other correspondence. • 3. Para 3 - MAN/LAN Update Phase II, hook up to the MAN, will still take place mid to end Oct. Building X has first priority, followed by Building Y and Building Z. • 5. Internet. [Base G Head of IT] liaising with the Base X [supporting base] to determine what will be provided to Units. • 6. Para 11 - Washer Virus. Captain X requested that [IT unit] check for viruses as a routine procedure whenever they are doing trouble calls. [Head of IT] will advise his staff. • 7. Para 13 - Software OP Is. A list of software experts has been made and attached to the minutes of the ADP working Group meeting. Still required is a Harvard Graphics expert. Interested individuals can forward their names to [Head of IT]. • 9. Para 15 - VCRs ISSO has received three VCRs. One will be held in [IT unit] and the other two will be distribute to the other [units] as required. • 11. Para 19 - Power Bars The new power bars have been received and distributed throughout the school. The warranties, which cover up to 10K for replacement of equipment if damaged while plugged into the power bars, are held in [IT unit]. The purchase was paid for by O&Mfunds. Budgetary issues are discussed at the ADP Steering Committee but focused on ways of freeing up funding from the various base budgets to purchase equipment. No reference to business objectives or other requirements to support computers are indicated in the minutes. For example: 12. [Unit XJ Equipment Upgrade. The forecasted budget for ADP equipment upgrades was reviewed and discussed. [Head of IT] reported that he reduced the number of printers ordered from six to three. There are two accounts for CompuServe in CBT; this requirement will be reviewed. Since the CompuServe is a recurring expense of IK per account, Commandant suggested that it should be covered by the O&M budget. The Examiner purchase should first come under the MR budget and, if not possible, then [special program] budget should cover this purchase rather that the ADP upgrade budget. This will free up 45K. CBT will be returning three extra PCs to [IT unit] for redistribution within [Unit XJ. The Quest upgrade will be purchased and with the balance remaining, laptops will be ordered. ADP [Automated Data Processing! Group Committee The ADP Group Committee is made up of unit representatives who perform the IT support function as a secondary duty. The last meeting of the ADP Group Committee was held in September, 1995. The new Head of IT has not conducted another meeting since then. Like the ADP Steering Committee, issues discussed were technical or with concerned IT training. For example: • 1. CTC training; two courses of Beyond Mail/CaLANdar have been canceled. Personnel on these courses will be re-scheduled through [Base G] Scheduling. [Units X] personnel questioned the training on CaLANdar because this program was not available. I informed them that we have only one license provided by the Base and is installed in server in the [Unit X] building. Every one will have access to CaLANdar once connected to the MAN. • 4. Many LAN users are having problems logging out, the computer sometimes freezes up or re-boots it's self This seems to be a wide spread problem, [could] be a software problem of conflicting programs. Will be addressed during final cleanup of the system. • 5. The problem of LAN computers sending a message 'out of memory' is happening more and more. I believe the problem to be Norton And Virus. We are currently looking at replacing this program with another which will eliminate the problem. • 8. Windows 95 operating system was discussed at length. [Unit X] may purchase this program for trial purpose only by selected people under a control environment. To be discussed further at a later date. 274 Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFREQUENT. Permanent Committee (ADP [Automated Data Processing] Steering Committee) communication was rated as FORMAL, MODERATELY FREQUENT and FOCUSED on budgetary issues. Permanent Committee (ADP [Automated Data Processing] Group Committee) communication was rated as FORMAL, MODERATELY FREQUENT and FOCUSED on technical issues. A4.7.4 Connections between Business and IT Planning Business planning for Base G is coordinated through the Deputy Head of Administration using the network. Each unit and section has a business planning representative who provides input to the business planning process. Business planning is somewhat fragmented because units develop their own plans and the new status of the Base is still undergoing growing pains in bringing the once independently run units into a wider base concept. One problem faced the Head of IT on Base G is that he doesn't control money provided to the units for IT acquisition and as such feels this constricts his ability to plan for IT at the base level. "I have no budget, that's why I have no money for what I'm doing. The units do their own budget. " 275 The business planning cycle has occurred infrequently to date but the Deputy Head of Administration stated that would be occurring more frequently in the future, as he was attempting to have it reviewed on a quarterly basis. The Head of Administration expressed frustration at the lack of training in how business planning should be conducted and felt this was detrimental to Base G's ability to produce an effective business plan. "I've had a lot of help from various people but it would be nice if we had business planning training and direction from [Command] on how its suppose to be done. " Connections between Business and IT Planning is rated as ISOLATED. A4.7.5 Other Factors a. Size and Compositions of IT Unit The Head of IT expressed concern that IT management throughout Base G was difficult with no direct staff and the requirement to rely on the units' Information Services Officers to implement and manage IT at the unit level. b. Headquarters Support and Direction The Head of IT stated that to enable his ability to conduct effective IT management at the base level he required more direction and support from the Headquarters IT unit. "We need more direction from [Headquarters IT unit]. For example, the handling of classified material as far as security is concerned is to protect personnel. The software that will allow us have protected material on the LAN and this has not been done yet its supposed to come out this fall. So in the meantime we are forced to go by the existing rule and its not always easy. We have to put more money in our system to make sure that we have enough stand alone computers in a protected rooms, a costly solution, instead of having a software product out of [the Headquarters] that will solve this problem. " 276 T a b l e 32 S u m m a r y o f Fac to rs I n f l u e n c i n g the Socia l D i m e n s i o n o f L i n k a g e f o r Base G F A C T O R S S U M M A R Y A N D R A T I N G S 1. Success in I T Implementat ion • Base G has been formed in the last year as a result of the amalgamation of a number of units. Base G's major IT plan in process is connection to the M A N of the supporting base. • The Head of Base G IT felt that assistance from the support Base IT unit was strong to this point, but was concerned about the continued support when the number of computers on Base G increased. He already spends some of his time on a daily basis fixing computers. • The Head of Administration commented that she felt the level of support form the IT unit was lacking. Also she believed that the amalgamation of a number of units to form Base G in terms of IT would pose difficulties to overcome in terms of the existing infrastructure and current practices of these units. • Rating - L O W 2. Shared Domain Knowledge between Business and IS Executives Head of Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - HIGH • IT Experience/Exposure - L O W • Awareness of New Technology - L O W Deputy Head of Administration • Military Experience - HIGH • Administration Management Experience - L O W • IT Experience/Exposure - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - L O W Head of IT • Military Experience - HIGH • IT Management Experience - M O D E R A T E • Awareness of New Technology - L O W 3. Communicat ion between Business and IS Executives Direct communication between IT and Personnel Administration was rated as INFREQUENT. Permanent Committee (ADP Steering Committee) communication was rated as F O R M A L , M O D E R A T E L Y FREQUENT and FOCUSED on budgetary issues. Permanent Committee (ADP Group Committee) communication was rated as F O R M A L , M O D E R A T E L Y FREQUENT and FOCUSED on technical issues. Rating - L O W 4. Connections between Business and I T Planning ISOLATED 5. Other Factors • Size and Composition of IT unit deficient to cope with supporting units. • Lack of Headquarters IT support and direction. 277 

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