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Balancing business and family : a comparative study of the experiences of male and female entrepreneurs.. Phrast, Indira-Natasha 1995

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B a l a n c i n g Business and Family: A Comparative Study o f t h e Experiences o f Male and Female Entrepreneurs, i n B r i t i s h Columbia  BY INDIRA-NATASHA PRAHST B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Guelph, 1991 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department o f Anthropology  and S o c i o l o g y )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 28th, 1995 © Indira-Natasha Prahst, 1995  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  partial fulfilment  of  British Columbia,  I agree  and study.  this  his  or  her  requirements that the  I further agree  thesis for scholarly purposes by  the  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  is  that  Department of  _J[Y]-H\rO^>o\O^y  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  Dec  1 ^ 9 5  a  n  c  permission for extensive  granted  allowed  permission.  ^ ^OC/o/o^y-  advanced  Library shall make it  by the  understood be  for an  that without  head of my copying  or  my written  11  ABSTRACT In  recent  years  there  has been  i n Canada,  as i n other  i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , a s u b s t a n t i a l increase i n the s i z e of the self-employed  element  i n the occupational  structure.  This  r e v e r s e s a long s t a n d i n g t r e n d and c h a l l e n g e s t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l economic  theories  decline.  From  foretell  and/or  that  predicted  t h e mid-nineteen account  and e x p l a i n e d seventies  the h i s t o r i c  new t h e o r i e s  f o r the renaissance  that  of the small  business s e c t o r emerged. P a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e most r e c e n t p e r i o d i s t h e r a p i d growth i n t h e numbers o f female entrepreneurs r i s e n t h r e e times  which has  as f a s t as t h e r a t e f o r self-employed  men i n  Canada. F e m i n i z a t i o n o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s c a l l s f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l research t o explore  why more women a r e s t a r t i n g  e n t e r p r i s e s . Given t h e i r disadvantaged  up t h e i r own  p o s i t i o n s i n t h e labour  market what p a r t i c u l a r o b s t a c l e s d i d they have t o overcome? A l s o t h i s r a i s e s i n t e r e s t i n g questions and  gender  roles  affect  about how f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s  growth  and  vitality  of  small  enterprises. The explain  purpose  of t h i s  how self-employed  thesis  i s t o explore  and h e l p t o  men and women o r g a n i z e  f a m i l y and  business. Forty  self-employed  interviewed  men and women  i n December  i n British  Columbia  were  1994 t o December 1995. The data  were  o b t a i n e d from a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The study found t h a t self-employed men and women c o o r d i n a t e  I l l  business  and  outlooks  on  motivation  family the  responsibilities  family  which  in  turn  Gendered influenced  f o r becoming self-employed, determined the types of  e n t e r p r i s e s chosen, and organized.  emerged  differently.  ways i n which b u s i n e s s and  family  are  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS T i t l e Page Abstract Table of Contents  i i i iv  Acknowledgement  viii  Dedication  viii  Chapter I . Introduction Statement of the Problem Forces Behind Self-Employment Sex-Segregation i n the Canadian Labour Force T h e o r e t i c a l Framework: D i v i s i o n o f Labour w i t h i n the Household S o c i a l Context Definitions  1 4 10 16 20 24 26  Chapter I I . L i n k s t o the L i t e r a t u r e  31  Chapter I I I . Research Agenda Research Questions Framework For Assessment Data C o l l e c t i o n and Sample S e l e c t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of sample Procedure Access Rapport Interviewer E f f e c t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Data C o l l e c t i o n Methods and L i m i t a t i o n s l i m i t a t i o n s of i n t e r v i e w i n g Data a n a l y s i s  64 64 65 66 74 74 75 79 81 81 85 86 86  Chapter IV. Data and F i n d i n g s Introduction P r o f i l e of Self-employed Sample Breakdown of Four Groups  95 98 106  O r g a n i z a t i o n of Business and Domestic L i f e Problems Encountered  115 136  V  Household Arrangements A t t i t u d e t o Present S i t u a t i o n C o n c l u s i o n o f Chapter  163 171 182  Chapter V Purpose o f r e s e a r c h : Significance Limitations Recommendations Trends Conclusion  187 188 192 193 196 197  BIBLIOGRAPHY  199  APPENDICES  210  Appendix A.  Interview Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  210  Appendix B.  L e t t e r : purpose o f r e s e a r c h  221  Appendix C.  Consent Form  223  Appendix D.  Model  Appendix E.  Vancouver Home-Based B u s i n e s s Association  (process o f f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n ) . . . 225 226  vi  LIST OF TABLES Table 1  C o n f l i c t Statements  88  Table 2  R e s u l t s of L i k e r t Questions  91  Table 3  Breakdown of Business Type  102  Table 4  Percentage  104  Table 5  Four Groups of Entrepreneurs  106  Table 6  Percentage of Business and and Family O r g a n i z a t i o n  116  Table 7  of Success d e f i n i t i o n s  Family  Percentages of B l e n d i n g o r S e p a r a t i n g Business and F a m i l y ' a c t i v i t i e s  123  vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1  Self-Employment i n B.C  3  Figure 2  Self-Employment i n B.C. by Sex  4  Figure 3  Percentage of r e g i s t r a t i o n of b u s i n e s s e s  Figure 4  Percentage of "business s e c t o r t y p e "  99 101  V l l l  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o express my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. B r i a n  Elliott  f o r h i s s c h o l a r l y support and s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h i s study, as w e l l as  the advice  and  assistance  of  the  other  members  of  my  committee, Dr. Dawn C u r r i e and Dr. G i l l i a n Creese i n conducting the  research;  t o Dr. M a r t i n  Meissner who o f f e r e d  constructive  c r i t i c i s m ; Ann Van Beers, Nariko Takayanagi and Margaret  Baskett  f o r o f f e r i n g both encouragement and i n s p i r a t i o n i n w r i t i n g t h i s thesis. Appreciation Secretary its  i s expressed  to  Walter  Coole,  Executive  o f t h e Vancouver Home-based Business A s s o c i a t i o n and  members.  I would l i k e  t o thank the many e n t r e p r e n e u r s o f  B r i t i s h Columbia who gave f r e e l y and generously o f t h e i r time. I would a l s o l i k e t o r e c o g n i z e husband  Armin,  thank  you  for  t h e men i n my l i f e . your  constant  To my  support,  encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e g r a p h i c s . To my dad and my brother spirits.  B e n j i , my acknowledgement o f your t r u e Last  but not l e a s t ,  t o my  entrepreneurial  mother whose support and  guidance cannot be thanked enough.  DEDICATION  This t h e s i s i s dedicated  t o my mother Dr. K a r i n Doerr  1 Chapter  I : The Research  Question  Introduction The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine how self-employed men  and women i n B r i t i s h Columbia o r g a n i z e t h e i r b u s i n e s s and  family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f a m i l y on t h e i r In  recent  advanced  and t h e competing demands o f b u s i n e s s  lives.  years  industrial  there  has been  societies,  i n Canada,  a substantial  as i n o t h e r  increase i n the  s i z e o f the self-employed element i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s r i s e r e f l e c t s t h e massive economic r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h a t i s c u r r e n t l y under way i n Canada and i n other modern s o c i e t i e s . The consequence  of t h i s  environmental  phenomenon  forces  including  has been  linked  globalization,  t o macro  technological  advances, demographic s h i f t s and government p o l i c i e s which have been changing  t h e workforce  p a t t e r n a t a f a s t r a t e . The advent  of new t e c h n o l o g i e s such as t h e micro computer, modem, and t h e fax  machine have helped  Unemployment  i n large-scale  i n t o self-employment some sense  t o make s m a l l  business  more  viable.  o r g a n i z a t i o n s has l e d i n d i v i d u a l s  t o c r e a t e jobs f o r themselves  of personal c o n t r o l .  and g a i n i n g  Self-employment has a l s o been  shaped by s h i f t s i n s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s (Goffee and Scase,  1985).  Currently  British  Columbia  changes i n the workplace,  i s facing  serious  structural  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the resource s e c t o r s .  Recognizing t h i s change, the M i n i s t r y o f B.C. and the Government have encouraged  t h e development  o f s m a l l - s i z e d b u s i n e s s e s so  2 t h a t t h e economies of l o c a l communities would be l e s s  dependent  on l a r g e , t r a d i t i o n a l resource-based i n d u s t r i e s ( P r o f i t s ,  1993).  The t r e n d s suggest t h a t i f a g r i c u l t u r e i s excluded, B.C. has t h e highest  level  o f self-employment  i n Canada  1993). Between 1981 and 1993 t h e t o t a l  (B.C. S t a t i s t i c s ,  self-employment i n B.C.  i n c r e a s e d from 174,000 t o 255,000. The comparative p r o p o r t i o n of the  workforce who a r e self-employed i n Canada i s approximately  10% (The Labour Force, Cat. No. 71-001). There has been among women which  a significant  increase  i s an important t r e n d  i n self-employment  in itself.  Almost 10  percent of employed women i n Canada are self-employed (Anderson, 1995). S i n c e 1975, t h e t o t a l Canada  has r i s e n  three  number o f s e l f - e m p l o y e d women i n  times  self-employed men. Women's t o t a l 1993 them  as  fast  as  t h e number  of  self-employment s i n c e 1981 t o  i n c r e a s e d by 75% from 48,000 up t o 84,000 i n 1993 marking as t h e f a s t e s t  growing  segment  of the small  business  p o p u l a t i o n . Men i n c r e a s e d by 35% from 126,000 i n 1981 t o 171,000 in  1993 ( S t a t i s t i c s  Canada, March  1993).  Thus, self-employed  women a r e t h e f a s t e s t growing group o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners i n Canada.  The growth  o f self-employed i n d i v i d u a l s  demonstrated i n F i g u r e I .  by sex i s  3  Figure 1  Self-employment in B.C.  1976  1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984  Year • •  Woman self employed  EZZJ  -*-  % women 8 E (out  - B - % women 8E (out  TOT)  men self-employed 8E)  (B.C. women's programs, 1985).  The produced Total  self-employment  t r e n d s o f B.C. between 1975-1984 were  from  Canada's monthly  Statistic  self-employment  refers  to  four  l a b o u r - f o r c e survey. categories  of  self-  employment: b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s of employer (employing more than one  o r more), "own accountant"  (without p a i d help) and with an  i n c o r p o r a t e d o r u n i n c o r p o r a t e d b u s i n e s s . F i g u r e 1 shows a steady i n c r e a s e o f t h e t o t a l number of self-employed from 1975 t o 1984 and t h e r i s e  i n female  entrepreneurship.  Different  data  sources  (Labour  Force  Annual  Data,  1988-  March 1993) show s i m i l a r t r e n d s . F i g u r e 2.  salf employment trends for B.C. by aex 300  people (thousands)  35  250  mm  200 160  0  25 20  100 60  30  II  I  I  1 •  •  HI I I I I I '  •  v: •  :  •  •••• B  •  m  •  -  II m  •  i  II  •  I  I  16 10  I I •  ~ i  5  1881 1082 1888 1884 1886 1888 1887 1888 1888 1880 1881 1BX83 (March)  men  Year  women  women % (of Total)  (Labour Force Annual Data, 1988-March 1993)  F i g u r e 2 shows t h a t t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n s e l f employed  numbers  except  i n 1988  and March  1993  where  self-  employed numbers decreased. Among t h i s group of self-employed i n d i v i d u a l s are those who are home-based. T h i s subgroup o f the self-employed s e c t o r i s on the  rise  (Belcourt  et  a l . , 1991;  Ministry  of  Economic  5  Development,  Small  Business  and Trade,  and t h e M i n i s t r y of  Finance, 1991) and w i l l be growing over t h e next decade  (Foster  and Orser, 1993). The  "renaissance"  interesting  and c a l l s  explanation.  General  demise o f small competitive  o f self-employment  i s i n many  ways  f o r a s o c i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and Marxian  businesses  theories  foresaw  the  as they were swallowed  eventual  up i n t h e  process by l a r g e r e n t e r p r i s e s . F o r t h e g r e a t e r  of t h i s century  part  t h e small b u s i n e s s s e c t o r has been i n d e c l i n e ,  but t h e shrinkage was p a r t i c u l a r l y marked a f t e r t h e second world war.  However i n t h e 1980's we see a r e v i v a l o f t h i s s e c t o r and  Post  I n d u s t r i a l and Post  Fordist perspectives  have  concerned  themselves with c a p i t a l i s t development h i g h l i g h t i n g f o r c e s t h a t shape t h e growth perspective  of t h i s  predicted  boost t h e small  that  entrepreneurial technological  sector.  The former  advancements  would  b u s i n e s s s e c t o r because new t e c h n o l o g i e s  open  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r self-employment. Often knowledge r a t h e r capital  was t h e c r u c i a l  formed what B e l l where  knowledge  perspective smaller  resource.  (1973) c a l l e d is  focuses  an  I t i s this  t h e "Post  important  and more f l e x i b l e labour  t r a n s i t i o n that  Industrial  commodity.  i t ' s explanation  than  Society"  The  latter  on t h e development o f  forces. Propositions  from t h e  labour market segmentation theory and gender theory p o i n t t o t h e b a r r i e r s women experience w i t h i n t h e labour f o r c e and w i t h i n t h e home. These b a r r i e r s h e l p  t o e x p l a i n why women i n such  numbers a r e t u r n i n g t o self-employment.  large  6 The h i g h growth r a t e o f women i n s m a l l b u s i n e s s s t a r t e d my interest  i n this  contradiction  topic.  My concern  stems  from  t h e apparent  i n t h e v a l u e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e demands o f men and  women w i t h i n t h e home and b u s i n e s s . Women i n t h e labour f o r c e are  expected  t o be committed  to their  jobs  while  they a r e  required t o place family o b l i g a t i o n s i n the f o r e f r o n t of t h e i r l i v e s (Coser and Rokoff,  1970). These incompatible  expectations  f a l l on women i n t h e i r d u a l b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r o l e s (Coser and Rokoff, and  1970). The f a c t t h a t men operate  i n both  p l a c e work i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e i r  lives,  environments i s socially  acceptable. Though  i t i s g e n e r a l l y recognized  that  women a r e o f t e n  c o n f r o n t e d with a dual r o l e o f the home and c a r e e r , most s t u d i e s focus  on  women  administrators, consequences career  sales  of t h i s  earner  household  in  regular  workers, have  families;  and working  as nurses  been  being  employment,  reported  as  and t e a c h e r s . The i n studies  primarily responsible  outside  t h e home  clerical  can l e a d  on dual for to  the  role  o v e r l o a d , c o n f l i c t , s t r e s s and exhaustion f o r women (Meissner e t al.,  1975; Lennon  e t a l . , 1994; G l a s s ,  e t a l . , 1992 and  H o c h s c h i l d , 1989). Luxton e t a l . (1990) s t a t e t h a t some women i n Canada a r e h e a v i l y burdened with and  care g i v i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  a r e r e f e r r e d t o as t h e "sandwich g e n e r a t i o n " because  they  care f o r c h i l d r e n , and e l d e r s a t t h e same time. Much o f t h e Canadian r e s e a r c h on self-employment examines the  profiles,  financial  conditions  of businesses  and some  7 s t u d i e s d e a l w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f self-employed  individuals.  Some r e s e a r c h e r s argue t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f banks and  l e n d e r s and l a c k o f b u s i n e s s experience a r e problems women  often  encounter  Stevenson,  (Litton,  1987; H i s r i c h  and  Brush,  1986;  1984; S w i f t , 1988; L a v o i e ; 1984; B e l c o u r t , e t a l . ,  1991). Researchers have used these f a c t o r s t o e x p l a i n why women tend  t o operate  smaller  sole  proprietorship  type  businesses  compared t o t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s who run l a r g e r e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t are i n c o r p o r a t e d . The few s t u d i e s on e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p t h a t address f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e p o r t t h a t t h e r e a r e dilemmas in  managing b u s i n e s s and household  1985;  B e l c o u r t e t a l . , 1991;  Development, Finance, Stoner  Small  Business  1991; L o n g s t r e t c h ,  Towler,  d u t i e s (Goffee and Scase, 1986; M i n i s t r y o f Economic  and Trade,  and t h e M i n i s t r y o f  e t a l . , 1987; Stevenson,  e t a l . , 1990) b u t e x a c t l y what they  1986,  a r e and how they  i n f l u e n c e t h e e n t e r p r i s e and t h e b u s i n e s s owner has y e t t o be examined i n d e t a i l . More s t r u c t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s which take i n t o account c u r r e n t labour f o r c e t r e n d s and changing f a m i l y p a t t e r n s should be c o n s i d e r e d i n the a n a l y s i s o f the experiences o f s e l f employed  i n d i v i d u a l s . A l s o , l a r g e r q u e s t i o n s should be r a i s e d  about " i n t a n g i b l e s o c i e t a l b a r r i e r s " (Brush, 1993:29) and f a m i l y v a l u e s when c o n s i d e r i n g problems women encounter More  insight  into  (Brush, 1993).  the family/business i n t e r f a c e  needs  t o be  examined, s i n c e the c o n t e x t i n which f i n d i n g s are o f t e n examined or e x p l a i n e d i s outdated. The  rapid  growth  i n self-employment,  but e s p e c i a l l y t h e  8 "feminization"  of small  business,  could  be s a i d  t o prompt  r e s e a r c h on t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s because it  raises  questions  about  how  this  very  demanding,  time-  consuming k i n d o f work can be done by women who have f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s . We know t h a t women assume primary  responsibility  f o r household d u t i e s and t h a t they experience work o v e r l o a d and s t r e s s from having t o j u g g l e f a m i l y and work a c t i v i t i e s . Hence, one  can assume  responsibility  that  female  entrepreneurs  who assume  f o r t h e f a m i l y and household  would  primary  encounter  d i f f e r e n t experiences i n j u g g l i n g t h e two spheres. Since has  been w r i t t e n on domestic  middle  c l a s s groups,  important  arrangements  focus on t h i s  gap i n t h e Canadian  little  of entrepreneurial  group o f workers f i l l s an  r e s e a r c h and i s o f s o c i a l and  economic concern. For one, s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n B.C.'s changing  economy  (Profits:  1993:6). C o l l e c t i v e l y  small  b u s i n e s s e s ( i n c l u d i n g home-based ones) are an important economic e n t i t y and a r e not marginal forms o f economic a c t i v i t y ( F o s t e r and  Orser,  1993).  In f a c t  they  have  been  fuelling  economic  growth i n Canada and they account f o r 85% o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s new jobs  (Profits:  1993:6).  Therefore  any p o t e n t i a l  barriers to  b u s i n e s s success are o f economic concern. Secondly, female owned businesses are of s p e c i a l fifty likely  interest  s i n c e they make up almost  percent o f t h e b u s i n e s s p o p u l a t i o n . They a r e a l s o more t o c o n f r o n t problems  of r e c o n c i l i n g  their  f a m i l y and  b u s i n e s s l i v e s because women o f t e n perform most o f the household t a s k s . These e x t r a commitments can a f f e c t  t h e growth o f t h e i r  9 b u s i n e s s e s and t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e i r For insight  these into  reasons  potential  coordinating their  families.  i t i s important dilemmas  t o generate  entrepreneurs  might  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s  further face i n  and whether  gendered p a t t e r n s emerge. T h i s focus responds t o recommendations proposed  by other prominent r e s e a r c h e r s i n e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p :  "The scope o f the women e n t r e p r e n e u r s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r household t a s k s , g e n e r a l maintenance and r e p a i r s , c h i l d r e a r i n g , and d e c i s i o n making ( f i n a n c i a l , investment and o t h e r i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g the f a m i l y ) has y e t t o be s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l " ( B e l c o u r t e t a l . , 1991). T h e r e f o r e , the purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o examine from a s o c i o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n and i n a Canadian c o n t e x t how male and female  entrepreneurs,  organize  their  including  domestic  lives,  those  who  particularly  a r e home-based, how they  try  to  r e c o n c i l e t h e demands o f both b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y . Since many women choose home-based b u s i n e s s e s t o accommodate f a m i l y needs, i t seems reasonable t o a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s important sub-group of t h e s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e addressed  i n this  study:  1)  How do self-employed family?  2)  What a r e t h e outcomes o f c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y ?  3)  Are self-employed i n d i v i d u a l s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r arrangements?  4)  How do self-employed persons cope w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n o f managing b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? There  considers  i s need recent  men and women o r g a n i z e b u s i n e s s and  for a  labour  sociological  market  trends  perspective  domestic  which  and t h e f a m i l y i n i t s  10 analysis  of  self-employed  paramount importance  women.  This  perspective  i s of  s i n c e much o f t h e data on entrepreneurs t o  date a r e analyzed o n l y from an economic p e r s p e c t i v e . F o r c e s Behind  Self-Employment  Many t h e o r i s t s have concerned i n t h e workforce.  themselves  The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s  w i t h t h e changes  section  i s to briefly  present p r o p o s i t i o n s about c a p i t a l i s t development t h a t p r o v i d e insight  into  factors  employment s e c t o r . Post  Fordist,  Perspectives explain  influencing  of  the  self-  B r i e f overviews  o f t h e Monopoly C a p i t a l i s t ,  Industrial  are  Post  on Women's  Labour  the increased a c t i v i t y  However, t h e o r e t i c a l women's domestic  t h e growth  viewpoints  labour  perspectives Market  presented.  Segmentation  among female  help t o  entrepreneurship.  r e g a r d i n g gender i d e o l o g y and  a r e t h e main  theoretical  tools  that  t h r e a d through t h e t h e s i s t o e x p l a i n how self-employed men and women  coordinate business  and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  These  p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e chosen s i n c e t h e experiences o f self-employed women cannot into  be adequately  examined without  taking the family  account. Why i s self-employment  other  industrial  on the r i s e ?  c o u n t r i e s , we  a r e w i t n e s s i n g t h e impact o f  economic r e s t r u c t u r i n g , t h e downsizing c o r p o r a t e and p u b l i c  In Canada as i n many  o f many s e c t o r s i n t h e  s e c t o r and h i g h unemployment  James, 1992). Some o f t h e i n c r e a s e i s a d i r e c t the  d e s t r u c t i o n o f jobs  (Orser and  consequence o f  i n the older i n d u s t r i e s .  However, i n  o t h e r cases i t i s generated by t h e emergence o f new t e c h n o l o g i e s  11 connected with economies.  the  major t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  More  industrialized  and  world  more is  of western  production  organized  and  activity  around  a  new  world  in  the  cluster  of  i n d u s t r i e s r e l a t e d t o computers, i n f o r m a t i o n , communication  and  genetics. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l base and the growth of very  large  service  interpreted  in  perspectives,  sectors  many  and  in  ways.  theoretical  modern There  economies are  have  several  approaches used  to  of  Industrial  modernization  and  Post  have  been  F o r d i s t claims  general  analyze  causes and consequences of the r e - s t r u c t u r i n g t h a t has Theories  1995)  the  occurred.  "replaced"  (Arai,  been  by  Post  which seem t o  o f f e r the most p e r s u a s i v e arguments. The main arguments i n t h e o r i e s of Monopoly C a p i t a l i s m focus on  the  firms  concentration (cf. Arai,  b o u r g e o i s i e who According  and  centralization  of  Capital  in  1995). Large companies overpower the operate  large petite  i n the p e r i p h e r a l s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y .  to t h e i r claims, small businesses  would not  survive  because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o compete with l a r g e r e n t e r p r i s e s . This  perspective  enterprises.  foresaw  Until  1970,  s i g n i f i c a n t decrease  the i t was  eventual  demise  reported  among the self-employed  that  of  there  sector  small was  a  (Steinmetz  and Wright, 1989). Research began t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s group i n the beginning  of  the  formation  of new  1970's  (Bechhofer  and  Elliott,  1974).  professional associations, specialized  j o u r n a l s , r e s e a r c h and new  The  trade  forms of e d u c a t i o n a l programs suggest  12 an emerging i n t e r e s t i n the i n c r e a s e i n e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . more r e c e n t l y women are r e c o g n i z e d sector  (Winter,  et a l . ; 1991; These  1980;  f i n d i n g s do  as an a c t i v e group i n t h i s  Stevenson, 1986;  H i s r i c h e t a l . , 1986 not  lend  Also,  Lavoie,  1988;  Belcourt,  and Goffee and Scase, 1985).  support  to  the  claims  that  small  businesses  would e v e n t u a l l y disappear,  i n f a c t the converse i s  happening  rendering  of  the  perspective  Monopoly  Capitalism  inadequate. Instead, one c o u l d argue t h a t the t r e n d s an i n c r e a s e i n self-employment support Post  Fordist perspectives  suggesting  the Post I n d u s t r i a l  which p r e d i c t e d the  growth  in  and this  sector. Other observers industrial trends  have continued  capitalist  "Post  societies,  Industrial  and  have  labelled  current  s o c i e t y " . Most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  group i s D a n i e l B e l l (1973) who occupational  t o examine the changes i n  structure.  this  r e c o g n i z e d the s h i f t i n the  The  emergent  sectors  of  U.S. Post  I n d u s t r i a l i s t s o c i e t y are the s e r v i c e s e c t o r s which l e a n towards d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and f l e x i b i l i t y . B e l l  (1973) argued t h a t p o s t -  i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y c o u l d come t o i n v o l v e more p r o d u c t i o n and dissemination  of  knowledge.  Power would  no  longer  reside  ownership of p r o p e r t y but access t o knowledge would be the Another proponent of t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s John N a i s b e t t He  includes  data  entry  concluding  diverse  occupational  clerks into his that  now  the  groups  category  of  information  m a j o r i t y of the workforce. "The  new  such  source  in key.  (1982).  as s e c r e t a r i e s ,  information  sector  the  workers,  constitutes  of power i s not  the in  13 money i n the hands of a few, many"  ( c f . Krahn  technology  and  empowers  but  Lowe, the  information  i s i n the hands of  1988:33). N a i s b e t t  i n d i v i d u a l so  that  suggests  small  that  firms  can  compete i n arenas p r e v i o u s l y dominated by l a r g e ones ( c f . F o s t e r and Orser, 1993). The d i s c u s s i o n of p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y moved the a n a l y s i s forward drawing our a t t e n t i o n t o the of  the  service  occupational  sector  and  opportunities  to  the  (Krahn and  resulting  has  growth  changes  in  Lowe, 1988). Among these  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s the small b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . The census data show t h a t t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n the s e r v i c e s e c t o r f o r Canada.  The  Canadian economy i s moving toward a g r e a t e r emphasis on s e r v i c e s where  70%  sectors. increase  of  Canadians  By  the  t o 75  year  percent  are  c u r r e n t l y working  2000  it  of the  is  predicted  labour  force  i n the that  this  ( F o s t e r and  1993). Small b u s i n e s s e s are well-equipped t o access and information  service will Orser, transmit  and t h i s allows them t o e x p l o i t these market  niches  ( A r a i , 1995). Another group, the Post F o r d i s t s , have concerned themselves with  processes  of  "economic r e s t r u c t u r i n g " t o  s o c i e t a l changes (Burrow, G i l b e r t , P o l l e r t ,  best  interpret  1992). The  concept  of Post Fordism can b e s t d e s c r i b e the g l o b a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g under way  in  our  society  (Bonefeld  and  Holloway,  1990).  The  Fordism r e f e r s t o the c a p i t a l i s t formations which occurred the  1930's  characterized  to by  the  1950's  (Harvey,  mass p r o d u c t i o n  based  1989). on  the  term from  Fordism  was  assembly  line  p r i n c i p l e adopted s u c c e s s f u l l y by Henry Ford, by r i s i n g wages,  14 which  provided  a basis  consumption" and institutionsassumed  new  relationship  between  "mass p r o d u c t i o n " , and by a s e t of  the  that  for a  welfare  the  process  state  (Harvey,  of  1989).  restructuring  "mass  supportive  I t has  been  have  been  we  e x p e r i e n c i n g i n r e c e n t years has l e d t o the emergence of  "Post-  Fordism,"  which  social  relations  (Burrow e t a l . , 1992). "Post-Fordism"  characterized  involves a  by  new  new  methods  pattern  of  of  Capitalist  production  i s said to  based  on  be  micro-  e l e c t r o n i c s , s m a l l batch niche products, j u s t - i n time systems of production, between  by  flexible  production  and  working  p r a c t i c e s and  consumption  (Bonefeld  1990). T h i s i n c r e a s e d r e s t r u c t u r i n g has new  a new  " f l e x i b l e worker", a b l e and w i l l i n g t o perform  expanded  and  contracted  rapidly  Holloway,  l e d t o a demand f o r a  t a s k s , and more b r o a d l y f o r a " f l e x i b l e workforce" be  and  relation  (Burrow, e t  a v a r i e t y of -one t h a t can a l . , 1992:2).  Under these c o n d i t i o n s f i r m s have t o be f l e x i b l e enough t o meet the r a p i d l y changing marketplace,  s i n c e the new g l o b a l market i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by standards o f v a r i e t y , c u s t o m i z a t i o n and q u a l i t y ( F o s t e r and to  Orser, 1993). Small b u s i n e s s e s can respond q u i c k l y  market needs and  produce and  design  i n n o v a t i v e products  by  t h e i r f l e x i b l e c a p a c i t i e s t o meet q u i c k changing market demands, without  l a y e r s of  businesses  bureaucracy.  This  flexibility  allows  small  t o e x p l o i t the market n i c h e s . A l s o i n f o r m a t i o n  computer technology  and  have made s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e s more v i a b l e .  However, a Post F o r d i s t s o c i e t y as a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y has been a s s o c i a t e d with i n e q u a l i t y . G l o b a l i z a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d the  15 number of competitors and t h a t has i n f l u e n c e d p r i c e , q u a l i t y and service  standards which  international  market.  have  With  to  meet  increasing  the  criteria  competition,  have taken advantage of the p o o l s of s u r p l u s labour t o push f o r more f l e x i b l e work p r a c t i c e s practices  occurring  within  the  upon  part-time,  (unemployed)  (Harvey, 1989). These  context  arrangements.  of  weakening  sub-contracted  few  large  numbers  of  primarily  in  routinized,  low  the  and  job s e c u r i t y . paying,  service  are  In t h i s  Post  unskilled  sector,  insecure  (1990)  work  i n d i v i d u a l worker as non- u n i o n i z e d , having a low income, little  Holloway  increasing  the  and  and  or  unions  characterize  benefits  Bonefeld  temporary  the  employers  i n v o l v e a move away from r e g u l a r employment towards reliance  of  jobs  because  jobs which  workers  male  and  changes.  These  changing  structures  influenced workers  and  perspective  the  workers  transformations  are  clearly  capitalism  under  working  conditions  of  i n the s m a l l  Monopoly  business  Capitalism,  the  Post  (Arai,  to  by  these  how  the  Fordism  have  male  sector.  and  female  Unlike  the  for  Post  changes  F o r d i s t s seem t o be i n the d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s e d and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  strongly  technologies.  effected  both  created  are s u b j e c t  illustrate  of  growth of  female  are are  i n c r e a s e d l a y o f f s as they become r e p l a c e d by new Inevitably,  Fordist era,  flexibility  1995).  O v e r a l l we see t h a t the s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the economy and  i n labour  markets,  (the l o s s  of  opportunities  f o r wage  employment, the demand f o r f l e x i b i l i t y , and a s h i f t from access  16 t o raw m a t e r i a l t o i n f o r m a t i o n ) growth o f self-employment and  a r e a l l f a c t o r s t h a t shape t h e  according  t o t h e Post  Industrialist  Post F o r d i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s . How a r e women a f f e c t e d by t h e growth o f t h i s  new "Post  F o r d i s t " and h e a v i l y s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d economy, e s p e c i a l l y i n a modern  economy  writers  like  increasingly  that  i s split  into  core  Armstrong,  (1984) suggest  "flexible"  labour  market  and p e r i p h e r y ? that  Some  women w i t h i n an  a r e badly  a f f e c t e d by  these changes where they f i n d themselves o p e r a t i n g i n p e r i p h e r a l sectors  o f t h e labour  Fordist  workplace  wage  earners"  concentrated be  force.  Hisrich  i s characterized  (cf. Arai,  1995).  argues  that  t h e Post  by "new h i e r a r c h i e s among No  doubt,  i f women a r e  i n t h e p e r i p h e r a l s e c t o r o f t h e economy, they would  on the lower end o f t h e s c a l e i n t h e l e v e l o f renumeration  they r e c e i v e . These i n e q u a l i t i e s stem p r i m a r i l y from i n j u s t i c e s based on gender which a r e rooted i n t h e unequal r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the pubic and p r i v a t e spheres o f economic and s o c i a l l i f e , which are  a t t h e core  of Capitalism.  Women's c o n d i t i o n s  within the  labour f o r c e a r e examined below and should o f f e r f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o why women i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t y i n self-employment. Sex-Segregation i n t h e Canadian Labour F o r c e Since World War I I , women have i n c r e a s e d t h e i r labour  force  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a t l e a s t one t h i r d (Malveaux, 1990). As women's status  i n the global  government  (like  market  others)  has i n c r e a s e d ,  has passed  laws  which  t h e Canadian address t h e  17 access o f women t o employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and improved wages (equal o p p o r t u n i t y l e g i s l a t i o n ) .  Increased access t o education  among women has p r o v i d e d more r e s o u r c e s f o r women t o compete f o r jobs i n t h e e x i s t i n g market. Walby, the  (1989:138) suggested  " e r o s i o n o f some forms o f p a t r i a r c h i c a l  work" has g i v e n women a d i f f e r e n t  place  that  practices i n paid  i n the r e s t r u c t u r i n g  labour market. However, d e s p i t e these changes, gaps between male and female working c o n d i t i o n s s t i l l  exist  today.  S e v e r a l w r i t e r s have assumed a d i v i s i o n peripheral 1976)  sectors  i n t h e labour  market  between core and  (Barron  and N o r r i s ,  and a tendency f o r core workers t o be equated w i t h male  workers  and p e r i p h e r a l w i t h  disproportionate industrial  number  female  o f women  workers  (Walby,  a r e found  s e c t o r s and a r e e a r n i n g  in  l e s s than  1989). A  lower-paying  68% o f what men  earn ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1991). On examining women's employment i n Canada, the most s t r i k i n g t r e n d s t i l l i s t h a t o f o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation.  Occupational  and i n d u s t r i a l  segregation  by sex  means t h a t women a r e c o n f i n e d t o a narrow range o f occupations (Walby, 1989). There a r e over who a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d  fifty  percent  o f Canadian women  i n t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r whereas  men a r e  spread more evenly between v a r i o u s s e c t o r s ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1991). In Canada, as i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e has been a marked i n c r e a s e o f p a r t - t i m e female workers. In 1988, B.C. 9%  30% o f women i n  worked p a r t - t i m e which i s up from 25% s i n c e 1975. of part-time  part-time  workers were male.  In Canada,  women workers were i n s e r v i c e s e c t o r  In 1988,  70% o f female jobs  (Alfred,  18 1989).  Part-time  women workers  f i t the  model  of p e r i p h e r a l  workers s i n c e they have minimal r i g h t s t o permanent employment and do not have the same p r o s p e c t s as men, b e n e f i t s and  are p o o r l y p a i d w i t h  1989). However, a case  little  r e c e i v i n g few or job s e c u r i t y  challenging a "core-periphery  no  (Walby, dualism"  can a l s o be made e s p e c i a l l y i n c l e r i c a l work (Walby, 1989:133). There i s much c o n t r o v e r s y as t o the p l a c e o f c l e r i c a l work i n the  stratification  system.  Some s e r v i c e s e c t o r work, s t a b l e  secure p o s i t i o n s and the requirement a s s o c i a t e d w i t h primary  of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , can be  jobs and should t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d  as p a r t of the core (Walby, 1989). On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e are those men in  jobs t h a t are i n the p e r i p h e r y as mentioned above where  can a l s o be employed. A l s o t h e r e has been a marked i n c r e a s e post-secondary  them  to  be  education  represented  enrollments  in  various  of women which  professions  allows  (Statistics  Canada, 1991). Hence, the a n a l y s i s of core and p e r i p h e r y i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y because not a l l women's jobs are p e r i p h e r a l nor are a l l males jobs i n the c o r e . Since we  are e x p e r i e n c i n g many  new  types of jobs t h a t r e q u i r e d i s p a r a t e s k i l l s , core and p e r i p h e r a l distinctions  do  not  capture  s e c t o r s t o which they We job" for  see  the  c o m p l e x i t i e s of  jobs  and  the  belong.  t h a t many women were c o n f i n e d t o the  "ghettoized  c o n d i t i o n s ( p a r t - t i m e work, s e g r e g a t i o n , low wages). Hence, some women self-employment may  working c o n d i t i o n s and Scase,  1983)  which  be a means of e s c a p i n g poor  l i m i t e d promotion p r o s p e c t s  perspectives  on  the  (Goffee  segmentation  of  and the  19 labour market suggest. F o r o t h e r s , t u r n i n g t o self-employment i s one means o f overcoming the problem o f j u g g l i n g t h e i r d u a l r o l e s of mother and worker female  woman. Another  entrepreneurship i s that  reason f o r t h e growth i n  i t p r o v i d e s a way back  into  g a i n f u l work a f t e r a p e r i o d s t a y i n g home t o c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n i f their  skills  competition  have become somewhat outdated. No doubt f o r paid  work  i s more  fierce  starting  i f a  the  small  b u s i n e s s i s an a p p e a l i n g o p t i o n . Technologies i n the form o f the microcomputer,  f a x machines  and modems a r e making s m a l l b u s i n e s s more v i a b l e f o r women w i t h child  rearing  obligations  (Orser and James, 1992).  F o r some  women t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e l a b o u r market i s changing too s l o w l y to  accommodate  t h e needs  o f working  women  adequate day-care, and g r e a t e r exemption  with  children,  o f t a x from day-care.  Hence, f o r these women, e s t a b l i s h i n g a home-based b u s i n e s s can minimize  t h e adverse  effects  of career  interruptions  and o f  r a i s i n g a f a m i l y (Aronson, 1991). P e r s p e c t i v e s on woman's work c o n d i t i o n s  demonstrate  that  women's i n e q u a l i t y w i t h i n t h e l a b o u r market w i t h r e s p e c t t o j o b segmentation  and lower wages e x i s t s .  discrimination, work.  A  second  where women earn explanation  s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e l a b o u r market  One e x p l a n a t i o n  less  than men f o r t h e same  derives which  i s wage  from  t h e segregated  results  i n lower  female  wages (Krahn and Lowe, 1988). The d u a l approach l i n k e d women's t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i n the home t o t h e i r r o l e i n the workplace. The assumption  here  i s that  women  tend  to  choose  part-time  20 employment i n order t o balance the two r o l e s they occupy. In t h e Post  Fordist  method  of  e r a we see how t h e n o t i o n  production  also  exists  of f l e x i b i l i t y  i n t h e form  of  as a labour  f l e x i b i l i t y . These c o n d i t i o n s have manifested themselves i n t h e form o f i n c r e a s e d and  automation r e s u l t i n g i n replacement o f work  s h i f t s i n t o p a r t - t i m e employment e s p e c i a l l y among those i n  peripheral  s e c t o r s . To escape these c o n d i t i o n s ,  self-employment.  The  growth  technological innovation small  and i n f o r m a t i o n  businesses allowing  industries  (Orser,  i n service  women opt f o r  activity,  are more a c c e s s i b l e t o  them t o c a p i t a l i z e on these emerging  and James,  1992).  These  technologies  making small b u s i n e s s more v i a b l e f o r women w i t h c h i l d obligations. means  Some would argue t h a t  t o overcome  greater  gender  job m o b i l i t y  greater  and h i g h e r  rearing  self-employment c o u l d  inequality  within  earnings  are  be a  t h e workplace,  (Goffee  and Scase,  1985).  Theoretical Framework: D i v i s i o n of Labour within the Household The  changes w i t h i n  the structure  o f t h e f a m i l y have a l s o  p r o p e l l e d women i n t o self-employment. The s o c i o l o g i c a l change i n the  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t can be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o  the i n c r e a s e i n women e n t e r i n g the workforce and i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r own v e n t u r e s . In t h e l a s t t h r e e decades, t h e s t r u c t u r e o f women's  lives  has been  reformulated.  Paid  employment  now  i n c r e a s i n g l y dominates women's l i v e s as i t does men's. Women's increased  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e workplace has l e d t o a g r e a t e r  number o f d u a l - e a r n e r f a m i l i e s  ( A l f r e d , 1989) and t h e working  21 f a t h e r and stay-at-home mother i s becoming l e s s common  (Duffy,  Mandell, Pupo, 1989). High l e v e l s o f unemployment amongst men and women, labour market u n c e r t a i n t y , and t h e steady e r o s i o n o f wages have f o r c e d more f a m i l i e s t o i n t e n s i f y t h e i r wage-earnings by means o f wives seeking The  p a i d employment (Duffy e t a l . , 1989).  economic, s o c i a l and demographic changes i n r e c e n t  decades  have upset t h e once e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n o f work and f a m i l y (U.S. Bureau  of National  However,  Affairs  the t r a d i t i o n a l  c e r t a i n core  on  Work  ideology  o f domestic labour  and Family,  which  1986:31).  prescribes  that  a  i s woman's work and t h a t "the  d e f i n i t i o n o f housework i s women's work" ( F e r r e e , 1991:162) has not  changed. These p r e s c r i p t i o n s i n e v i t a b l y c o n s t r a i n women's  p o s s i b i l i t i e s both w i t h i n t h e home and a t work as they must now j u g g l e p a i d work and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T r y i n g t o f u l f i l f a m i l y and work o b l i g a t i o n s can o f t e n l e a d t o c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e s and  work o v e r l o a d  (Greenhaus and B e u t e l l , 1985). Although t h e  change i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f unpaid labour by gender between t h e late  1960's and 1970's was s m a l l , many notable  ( F e r r e e , 1991). According given  t o Pleck  t o housework, those  trends  emerged  (1985) women reduced the time  who were employed  reduced  i t even  more, and husbands i n c r e a s e d t h e i r time i n c h i l d care but n o t i n housework. Luxton e t a l . (1990) explored  t h e impact o f woman's  p a i d employment a c t i v i t y on t h e domestic d i v i s i o n o f labour and found  that  husbands  o f working  women  d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r involvement i n domestic Explanations  labour.  as t o why women take on t h e a d d i t i o n a l " l o a d "  22 of  unpaid  work  1991:158).  assigned  According  d i v i d i n g household with  respect  t o them  by  t o resource  gender  theory,  vary  (Ferree,  the key i s s u e i n  labour i s t h e r e l a t i v e power o f each spouse  to their  external  resources  (Blood  and Wolfe,  1960). These r e s o u r c e s can take t h e form o f education and income and  can a c t as a b a r g a i n i n g t o o l  l a b o u r . Although  i n t h e s h a r i n g o f household  r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t husbands and wives vary i n  power, such t h e o r i e s view resource-based essentially  gender-neutral  ways  power as o p e r a t i n g i n  ( c f . Berk,  1985).  Feminist  r e s e a r c h on men's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n housework has found t h a t time demands  a r e more  important,  but  difference  (Coverman and Sheley,  does  a r e summed  what"  "There  i s no simple  resources  do  make  1986). C o n c l u s i o n s  up by Thompson  and Walker  some  f o r "who (1989:856)  t r a d e - o f f o f wage and f a m i l y work hours  between husbands and wives, nor do p a r t n e r s a l l o c a t e f a m i l y work based  on  time  availability"  ( c f . Ferree,  1991:160).  This  approach r e c e i v e d c r i t i c i s m because t h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e r e s o u r c e model  should  be  more  sensitive  to  variation  in  women's  experience w i t h i n t h e labour f o r c e ( c f . F e r r e e , 1991). As F e r r e e (1991:160) c i t e s disadvantage  from  Blumenberg  i n t h e wider  and Coleman  society  i s transmitted  i n t e r n a l power s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l According and  structural  (1989)  t r e a t e d as a s o c i a l f a c t  i n t o the  household."  t o p e r s p e c t i v e s o f gender t h e o r y , a s s o c i a t i o n o f housework  "gender  t h e symbolic  as woman's  work i s  ( F e r r e e , 1990).  "Understanding t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f housework as p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n o f womanhood e x p l a i n s why women's p a i d  23 employment does not excuse women from t h i s s o c i a l demand" ( c f . F e r r e e , 1991:160). Women who i n t e r n a l i z e achievements credibility justifies that  based on  on f u l f i l l i n g  them  as women  performing t h i s  many working  within  women  these  still  roles  and wives  "unpaid  t h e home t o d e a l w i t h  enough f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s 1993).  t r a d i t i o n a l norms measure t h e i r own which  (Berk,  women w i t h i n t h e household  1985) and  l a b o u r . " Some w r i t e r s c l a i m  take guilt  on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l that  they  of t r a d i t i o n a l  role  a r e not doing  (Greenhaus and B e u t e l l ,  The i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n  reflects  1985;  norms  has served t o e x p l a i n  Timson,  f o r men and t h e unequal  d i v i s i o n o f labour w i t h i n t h e home and i s one way i n which our s o c i e t y c r e a t e s gender (Hartmann, 1981). However, female  gender  societal  i t i s important role  t o recognize  i s changing.  This  that  t h e modern  i s reflected  i n major  changes such as e s c a l a t i n g d i v o r c e r a t e s and f a m i l i e s  headed by s i n g l e mothers. These p a t t e r n s suggest t h a t many women are  attempting  t o negotiate  these  new  contradictory  role  requirements w i t h i n the home (Duffy, e t a l . , 1989). Men are a l s o a f f e c t e d by these changes and a r e f a c e d w i t h o b l i g a t i o n s extend  beyond  children,  financial  support  to  include  that  parenting the  housework and s u p p o r t i n g the marriage.  But d e s p i t e  these changes, women continue t o j u g g l e t h e c o n f l i c t i n g demands of  f a m i l y and work. Wives' own e x p e c t a t i o n s o f themselves and  those o f t h e i r why  husbands i n performing  less  housework e x p l a i n s  the changes i n t h e gender d i v i s i o n o f housework o f employed  wives has o c c u r r e d where women a r e r e d u c i n g t h e i r own hours o f  24 housework ( P l e c k , 1985). T r a d i t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f men and women w i t h i n t h e home based  on gender, as w e l l as t h e r e s o u r c e s they have, t o g e t h e r  w i l l be u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g how self-employed men and women i n t h i s study o r g a n i z e t h e i r b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and t h e outcomes t h i s may have on t h e i r Social  lives.  Context  I t i s important t o s i t u a t e t h e study o f self-employed men and women i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n Canadian  society  as a whole. Women c o n f r o n t a range of problems i n s o c i e t y where i d e o l o g y j u s t i f i e s t h e i r r o l e s w i t h i n t h e home and paying women l e s s . When they a r e b u s i n e s s women they f a c e problems as w e l l ( B e l c o u r t , e t a l . , 1991). One o f t h e dilemmas woman encounter i s that  i n t h e b u s i n e s s world  they  operate  i n a male  dominated  sphere and t h e r e f o r e have t o prove t h a t they a r e v i a b l e b u s i n e s s individuals  (Goffee and Scase,  1985; B e l c o u r t e t a l . , 1991).  Secondly, women have been sources o f unpaid labour i n a s s i s t i n g their  husbands i n t h e i r  Thirdly,  they  prescriptions  businesses  are affected that  they  (Goffee and Scase,  socially  be p r i m a r i l y  because  of  1985).  cultural  responsible f o r c h i l d  r e a r i n g and housework. Consequently they a r e l e s s a b l e t o l e a v e their  homes  networks  to participate  i n organizations of established  ( B e l c o u r t e t a l . , 1991) and t h e r e f o r e may not have a  w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d network o f t r a d i n g and b u s i n e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be important clients.  resources f o r generating  On t h e same note s t u d i e s r e v e a l t h a t women a r e o f t e n  25 s t e r e o t y p e d as i n c a p a b l e b u s i n e s s women ( B e l c o u r t e t a l . , 1991), and  a r e t h e r e f o r e not taken  seriously  i n the business  world.  Those women who choose t o work o u t s i d e t h i s male-defined model are a l s o not counted as s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s people  work  (Campbell,  1994:8). T h i s s t e r e o t y p e c r e a t e s s t r u c t u r a l b a r r i e r s f o r women i n a c c e s s i n g loans and i n d e a l i n g with s u p p l i e r s al.,  1991).  experience 1984;  Another  women  i n t h e b u s i n e s s world  Winter,  face  i s the lack  (Schwartz,  of  1976; Stevenson,  1980). T h i s makes women more v u l n e r a b l e because  they a r e l i m i t e d and  obstacle  (Belcourt et  are less  i n t h e type o f b u s i n e s s e s they can e s t a b l i s h  aware o f a v a i l a b l e  market  opportunities.  These  o b s t a c l e s make o p e r a t i n g a b u s i n e s s more d i f f i c u l t f o r women. For  female  entrepreneurs  t o be accepted  i n t h e world o f  b u s i n e s s one would assume t h a t they need more time, s i n c e they must work harder i n t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s t o prove t h e i r s k i l l s as business  owners  opportunities.  to  receive  equal  I f t h e mainstream  access  culture  to  dictates  business  that  women  should take on t h e primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e household as w e l l as f o r c h i l d - c a r e then c o o r d i n a t i n g these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s with  those  o f business  requires  considerable  time.  These  s t e r e o t y p e d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f women's r o l e s w i t h i n t h e household and  business  employed  world  can be conceived  women s i n c e they  as b a r r i e r s  a r e f a c e d with  for self-  t h e two burdens o f  t r y i n g t o prove v i a b i l i t y as b u s i n e s s owner and as parent. These c o n s t r a i n t s p r e s e n t themselves  f o r some women a t t h e o u t s e t o f  e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s . For these reasons, any experience  26  of  a  self-employed  male  or  female  cannot  be  understood  s e p a r a t e l y from h i s or her s o c i a l experience w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the labour market and w i t h i n the f a m i l y . Definitions It  is  throughout  important  this  to  clarify  certain  terms  employed  thesis.  D e f i n i n g a Small Business Owner: Selection understanding problem  of a  for  the  small  appropriate business  academic  basis  owner  researchers.  for  creates Some  defining  and  a challenging focus  on  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the b u s i n e s s i n terms of i t s s i z e based the number of employees  (Cunningham e t a l , 1991). Yet  r e f e r t o the a c t i v i t i e s  of the p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e and  on  others concern  themselves with t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the economy (Bechhofer and Elliott,  1981).  Self-employed:  The  titles  such  as  the  self-employed,  small  b u s i n e s s owner, entrepreneur, owner manager, p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e are used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y throughout  the t h e s i s . For the purpose  of t h i s study, the d e f i n i t i o n of the self-employed  i s based  on  the one e s t a b l i s h e d by Lavoie (1984) "the head of a b u s i n e s s  who  has  who  taken  the  initiative  of  launching  a  operates from w i t h i n or o u t s i d e the home, who  new  venture,  i s a c c e p t i n g the  a s s o c i a t e d r i s k s and i s i n charge of i t s day t o day management (Lavoie, 1984).  27 Small b u s i n e s s : Firms a r e t y p i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as s m a l l on t h e b a s i s o f number o f employees o r annual s a l e s ( G a l l a n t , 1990). In Canada, a b u s i n e s s w i t h s a l e s under $2 m i l l i o n per year and l e s s than 100 employees i n t h e manufacturing s e c t o r and 50 employees i n other s e c t o r s i s c o n s i d e r e d a s m a l l b u s i n e s s ( G a l l a n t , 1990). Women-owned b u s i n e s s e s  r e p o r t earnings  around  one-third  less  than male-owned b u s i n e s s e s (White, 1984; B e l c o u r t , 1991).  Entrepreneur; I t i s important t o understand how t h e r o l e o f t h e entrepreneur i s embedded i n t h e s o c i a l world o f work. The term entrepreneur  originates  from  which means t o undertake, According  t o Carland,  t h e French  verb  "entreprendre"  t o venture, t o t r y ( G a l l a n t ,  Hoy and C a r l a n d ,  currently  no  1990). single  d e f i n i t i o n o f entrepreneur has been u n i f o r m a l l y accepted i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( c f . G a l l a n t , 1990). E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p has meant many t h i n g s t o d i f f e r e n t people f o r the l a s t e i g h t hundred years ( c f . G a l l a n t , 1990:20): "the word entreprendre (with t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f doing something) was i n use as e a r l y as t h e t w e l f t h century and i n t h e course of t h e f i f t e e n t h century t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g noun entrepreneur developed." Entrepreneurs are c h a r a c t e r i z e d as persons who are f l e x i b l e problem s o l v e r s , empire b u i l d e r s , have r i s k - t a k i n g a b i l i t i e s and have managerial s k i l l s ( G a l l a n t , 1990). Some c l a i m t h a t s p e c i f i c values  such  as  the  need  f o r achievement  are  necessary  p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . T h i s b e l i e f stems from t h e assumption  that  an i n d i v i d u a l  rewards and encourages  growing  up i n a c u l t u r e  that  i n d u s t r i o u s n e s s i s most l i k e l y t o have a  28 high  need  to  work  (Cunningham, e t a l . , t e x t on The that  of  and  1991). Max  achieve  something  their  achieve  people.  more  In  meaningful  Weber concluded i n h i s c l a s s i c  P r o t e s t a n t Work E t h i c and the Theory  some c u l t u r e s  values  hard  than  this  others  case,  of C a p i t a l i s m  because  of  the  Protestant countries  encourage the need f o r achievement. Much r e s e a r c h has i d e n t i f i e d o n l y men "little  attention  (Schwartz,  has  been  given  1976). A l s o assumptions  entrepreneurial  endeavour  full-time  will  and  will  exhibit  to  as entrepreneurs and  female  remain  function  entrepreneurs"  unchallenged t h a t  an  for profit,  be  aggressive  will  growth-orientation  (Campbell, 1994). I t i s important t o h i g h l i g h t t h a t these v a l u e s c o n s t i t u t e a b i a s f o r work i n the p a i d economy and may many e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l women who (Campbell,  Petite  1994)  operate  home-based  exclude  businesses  or under circumstances of r a i s i n g a f a m i l y .  B o u r g e o i s i e : The  definitions  behind  the  activities  of  s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners are v a r i e d . Marx's " p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e " was  a s m a l l - s c a l e c a p i t a l i s t who  own  capital  family  and  member  exploitation (Bechhofer  l a b o u r . The  use of labour from an employee or  i s conceived of  and  their Elliott,  r e l i e d p r i m a r i l y on h i s or her  as  labour 1981).  an  extension  r a t h e r than  in  order  earn  The  to  activities  of  a the  an  living petite  b o u r g e o i s i e are not uncommon w i t h the s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners of this  study.  members  who  They  also  are  hired  have to  paid  assist  employees rather  including  than  replace  family their  29 labour,  support  which i s c r u c i a l  f o r s u s t a i n i n g the business.  The hard work, long hours and heavy r e l i a n c e on f a m i l y i n p u t has been c o n s i d e r e d t o be a form o f s e l f - e x p l o i t a t i o n (Bechhofer and E l l i o t t , 1981) which entrepreneurs  i n t h i s r e s e a r c h o f t e n engage  i n , r a t h e r than e x p l o i t a t i o n o f p r o l e t a r i a n s .  Gender;  I t i s necessary  to define  t h e word  gender,  and t o  d i s t i n g u i s h i t from t h e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d word sex. "Sex can be viewed as t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females and gender as t h e s o c i o cultural e l a b o r a t i o n s o f these d i f f e r e n c e s . Sex i s t h e b i o l o g i c a l dichotomy between females and males. Gender, on t h e other hand, i s what i s s o c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y " (Mackie, 1983:1). The point  cultural  i n time,  norms and v a l u e s identify  certain  of s o c i e t y a t a p a r t i c u l a r ways  o f behaving,  feeling,  t h i n k i n g as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r males and other ways o f behaving, f e e l i n g and t h i n k i n g as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r females.  (Mackie,  1983).  Housework: Includes t h e c l u s t e r o f t a s k s t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d with c l e a n i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g , and r e p a i r i n g the home, with t h e purchase and p r e p a r a t i o n o f food, with doing t h e laundry and w i t h mending c l o t h e s (Rosenberg, 1990). P a r t o f housework f o r t h e purpose o f this  study  a l s o i n v o l v e s what as been termed  as "motherwork"  which i s : "the c u l t u r a l l y o r g a n i z e d s e t o f t a s k s t h a t a r e p a r t of f e e d i n g , c l o t h i n g , n u r t u r i n g and s o c i a l i z i n g a c h i l d ( o r c h i l d r e n ) u n t i l he o r she l e a v e s t h e home and becomes s e l f s u p p o r t i n g " (Rosenberg, 1990:60). C o n f l i c t : r e f e r s t o a c l a s h o r t e n s i o n between opposing resulting  from  c o i n c i d i n g time  demands o f both  elements  b u s i n e s s and  30 family.  These t e n s i o n s can a l s o  be i n f l u e n c e d by c o n f l i c t i n g  norms and v a l u e s (Katz, 1989).  Dual-Role: tasks  with  The d u a l - r o l e i s d e s c r i b e d as a s i t u a t i o n t h e household  and b u s i n e s s  r e s o u r c e s . Here r e s o u r c e s r e f e r s t o time  compete  i n which  f o r scarce  and energy  which a r e  r e q u i r e d t o some extent o r another f o r the performance o f e i t h e r r o l e w i t h i n t h e b u s i n e s s o r household  (Moore,  (1960).  T h e s i s Overview T h i s t h e s i s focuses on s e v e r a l i s s u e s . Chapter One i n c l u d e s a statement buting Also, the  o f t h e problem, and a d i s c u s s i o n o f f a c t o r s c o n t r i -  t o t h e growth o f self-employment  g e n e r a l assumptions about t h e d i v i s i o n  household  family  among men and women.  provide  o f labour w i t h i n  a framework w i t h i n which  responsibilities  of  entrepreneurs  b u s i n e s s and  a r e analyzed  and  e x p l a i n e d . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by d e f i n i t i o n s o f terms used i n t h i s t h e s i s . Chapter  Two c o n t a i n s a review o f t h e p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a -  t u r e t h a t d e a l s with the p r o f i l e s o f entrepreneurs and the exper i e n c e s o f self-employed men and women w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r on  their  domestic  arrangements.  Chapter  Three  focus  presents the  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , d e s i g n and methods. F i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n are presented i n chapter Four, f o l l o w e d by a summary, d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , l i m i t a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n i n chapter F i v e .  31 Chapter  I I Links t o Literature  Introduction Although t h e r e has been some i n c r e a s e i n r e s e a r c h i n s e l f employment i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s , work on women b u s i n e s s owners is  i n i t s i n f a n c y . Many q u e s t i o n s remain unanswered and we a r e  l e f t w i t h s e v e r a l gaps t o be f i l l e d . Themes e x p l o r e d i n e x i s t i n g research  on female  entrepreneurs  business  s t a r t - u p , gender  ownership and p r o f i l e s  related  centre  on m o t i v a t i o n s f o r  barriers  o f self-employed  during  women. There  phase o f i s some  r e s e a r c h on the e x p e r i e n c e s o f self-employed women which focuses on m o t i v a t i o n s and b a r r i e r s . Although  t h e r e a r e a few s t u d i e s  t h a t examine t h e domestic arrangements o f self-employed men and women, t h e treatment  of research  i n this  area  has been  very  g e n e r a l , and has d e a l t w i t h broad q u e s t i o n s . From my review o f the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e , no Canadian study has a c t u a l l y compared i n depth t h e domestic  arrangements among self-employed men and  women. T h i s chapter w i l l themes  that  emerge  p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l overview in  the  i n d i v i d u a l s . An examination experiences, owners  should  barriers help  literature  o f t h e domestic  and g e n e r a l  t o uncover  profiles  the v a r i e t y  on  o f t h e main self-employed  arrangements, t h e of small  business  o f domestic  work  arrangements t h a t male and female entrepreneurs make. Methodology The  research  predominately  methods  employed  in  past  studies are  surveys and i n t e r v i e w s . The problem w i t h s t u d i e s  32 i n t h i s area i s t h a t they attempt t o d i s c o v e r the world o f women as b u s i n e s s owners, b u t impose an a l r e a d y s t r u c t u r e d view o f t h e world  based  on male c e n t r e d  ideas  (Stevenson,  1990).  Studies  t h a t d e a l with t h e experiences o f self-employed persons tend t o generalize  findings  based  on male  1992). A l a c k o f comparative  s u b j e c t s t o women  (Brush,  r e s e a r c h between self-employed men  and women e x i s t s . There i s a l s o need t o e x p l o r e t h e experiences of women a g a i n s t a c o n t r o l group of men t h a t a r e drawn  through  the same sampling methods a t t h e same time and employ i d e n t i c a l survey  instruments. These i s s u e s a r e r a i s e d  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  review. Theoretical  Frameworks  and  Feminist  approaches  to  Entrepreneurship Most o f t h e w r i t i n g individuals coming  business  i s essentially  from  According  on t h e experiences  clearly  t o Brush does  descriptive  articulated  (1992) much  not r e l y  and few s t u d i e s a r e  theoretical  research  on c l e a r l y  o f self-employed  perspectives.  o f women  defined  and s m a l l  theory  of either  women's experiences o r e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p (Brush, 1992). F i s c h e r el  a l . (1993)  state  that  there  frameworks f o r understanding  is a  lack  of  integrative  i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o gender, sex and  e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . There i s much r e s e a r c h e r b i a s i n t h e a n a l y s i s of d a t a . Stevenson  (1990) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e attempt a t  explanation  of  specifically  refers  small businesses  women's  entrepreneurial  experiences.  t o Huisman and deRidde's  i n twelve  She  (1984) study o f  c o u n t r i e s . These authors  concluded  33 that  women do not expand  their  b u s i n e s s e s because  e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e i n s m a l l e r companies" Stevenson proposes an a l t e r n a t i v e less  access t o c a p i t a l  or t i e s  they "are  ( c f . Stevenson,  1990:).  e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t women have  t o a home-based b u s i n e s s and  f a m i l y which c o u l d have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on women's a b i l i t y t o expand t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s . Where some t h e o r e t i c a l grounding i s p r o v i d e d , most o f t h e research  in  this  area  has  concentrated  on  individual  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , u s i n g t r a i t approaches d e r i v e d from psychology (cf.  Barrett,  from  1994).  original  business  research  owners.  motivation  Many o f these s t u d i e s have been  is  entrepreneurship  conducted  on male  McCleland's  (1961)  frequently  used  aptitude,  only  concept as  b u t was developed  samples  of  an  derived of  achievement  indicator using  only  of male  samples. S o c i a l a c t i o n and network t h e o r i e s from s o c i o l o g y have been  used  t o account  f o r ways  i n which  b u s i n e s s e s . However, these s t u d i e s  characteristics  start  a r e flawed because  t o o l s they r e l y on such as i n v a l i d a t e d i n v e s t i g a t e men and used  women  their of the  instruments designed t o  on female e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n terms o f  and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l  e x p e r i e n c e s . As Stevenson  argues (1990:440 c i t i n g Ward and Grant, 1985) t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l account  suffers  from  a series  o f male  biases  that  o f women  as  pervade  s o c i o l o g y as a d i s c i p l i n e : 1)  omission  subjects,  and under  representation  2) c o n c e n t r a t i o n  social l i f e ,  on masculine dominated  research  sectors of  3) use o f concepts and methods which p o r t r a y men's  34 rather  than  lifestyles  women's  experiences  as the norms  against  and 4) which  t h e use of men's  social  phenomena a r e  i n t e r p r e t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o B a r r e t t (1994) these d e f i c i e n c i e s a r e now  beginning t o be r e d r e s s e d and s p e c i f i c  inclusion  s t r a t e g i e s and t h e  o f women i n r e s e a r c h i s being proposed  i n feminist  w r i t i n g on e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . Fischer female  e t a l . (1993) d e a l  with  f e m i n i s t frameworks i n  e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . Two frameworks employed i n t h i s  study  are L i b e r a l Feminism (LF) and S o c i a l Feminism (SF). The L i b e r a l Feminist relative  perspective  suggests  that  women  a r e disadvantaged  t o men due t o o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  d e p r i v e them o f v i t a l  and f a c t o r s t h a t  r e s o u r c e s such as education and r e l e v a n t  experience which l e a d s women t o have l e s s s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s e s . The  aim o f t h i s approach i s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t women can reach  a s t a t e o f s i m i l a r i t y with men i f systemic and s t r u c t u r a l forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women are removed. T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s consistent  with  discrimination,  research such  provides  as l a c k o f access  women's b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y Scase,  that  1983; H i s r i c h  evidence  that  t o resources,  overt  impedes  ( B e l c o u r t , e t a l . , 1991; Goffee and  and  Brush,  1986; Stevenson,  1986).  K a l l e n b e r g and L e i c h t (1991) found i n t h e i r study t h a t the l a c k of  business  experience  was  associated  with  having  smaller  businesses. S o c i a l Feminism suggests t h a t due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n e a r l y and ongoing s o c i a l i z a t i o n women and men d i f f e r i n h e r e n t l y . Women are t y p i c a l l y more group based  and s o c i a l  (relationship driven  35 in  their  social  counterparts. differ,  interactions)  Though  their  women a r e e q u a l l y  men. P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h and  traits  (cf.  differ of  1980).  Statistics  Research  differences  male may  comparing males and females along v a l u e s with  1990) as w e l l  Business  their  as entrepreneurs  a social  as f i n d i n g s  from men i n t h e i r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l  Central  Small  approaches  to  e f f e c t i v e when they a r e compared t o  are consistent  Fischer,  compared  feminist  perspective  revealing  t h a t women  motivation  ((Ministry  Bureau o f t h e M i n i s t r y  Development, suggests  e x i s t they  o f Industry and  1986; Stevenson, that  whatever  do not determine  1984; Winter,  male  and  business  female  performance  ( F i s c h e r e t a l . , 1993). Only  one study  (Kallenberg  and L e i c h t ,  1991) examined  whether o r not p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n or s o c i a l i z a t i o n a f f e c t b u s i n e s s performance. The f i n d i n g s from a  l a r g e randomly s e l e c t e d  there  group o f entrepreneurs r e v e a l s  were few d i f f e r e n c e s  motivations  i n education  among t h e male and female  that  and i n t h e b u s i n e s s  entrepreneurs  from t h e  manufacturing, r e t a i l and s e r v i c e s e c t o r s . However, t h i s study found  that  women's l e s s e r  business  experience  could  explain  t h e i r s m a l l e r s i z e b u s i n e s s e s and lower s a l e s . However, F i s c h e r et a l . (1993) c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n whether the disadvantages found i n Kallenberg to  cause  sample  and L e i c h t ' s  women t o be l e s s  o f manufacturing  examined.  (1991) study a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y  They  tested  successful  i n business.  retail  and s e r v i c e  three  hypothesis  type drawing  great  A random firms  was  on  two  36 perspectives  1): Liberal  Feminism:  e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l l y r e l e v a n t formal firms  will  therefore  women  education  be l e s s s u c c e s s f u l  will  have  less  than men and t h e i r  2) L i b e r a l Feminism:  Women w i l l have l e s s e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l l y r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e than men  and t h e i r f i r m s w i l l t h e r e f o r e be l e s s s u c c e s s f u l 3) S o c i a l  Feminism: Women w i l l motivation, success.  a  differ  trait  Kallenberg  from men i n t h e i r  previously  linked  to  entrepreneurial entrepreneurial  and L e i c h t (1991) found t h a t women d i d have  l e s s experience than men i n managing employees and working i n s i m i l a r f i r m s . They a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t women d i f f e r e d from men in  having  find  greater  support  relevant  financial  fortheir  education.  motivation.  claims  However they  o f women having  d i d not  l e s s access t o  The authors c l a i m t h a t o v e r t  bias  against  women has been n e g l e c t e d and t h a t more a t t e n t i o n should be drawn to  customer  or  supplier  bias,  or  gender  differences  in  management s t y l e . However, t h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e t o women's dual role  as a p o s s i b l e  conclude  that  both  b a r r i e r t o business the L i b e r a l Feminist  success.  The authors  and S o c i a l  Feminist  t h e o r i e s may not be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , because o f the  mixed  support  f o r the h y p o t h e s i s .  This  approach  received  c r i t i c i s m from B a r r e t t (1994) who argued t h a t f e m i n i s t t h e o r i e s have a broad  function  (1994) p o s t u l a t e s  extending beyond being  t h a t these two p e r s p e c t i v e s  proven.  Barrett  are i n s u f f i c i e n t  on t h e i r own t o e x p l a i n women's b u s i n e s s performance. In Stevenson's (1990:440) a r t i c l e on t h e o r e t i c a l recommendations,  she  proposed  that  theories  of  female  37 entrepreneurship reality: (1994)  should  the r e a l i t y refutes  because  by  frameworks  take  i n which  employing  writing remain  t h e form o f "a new d e f i n i t i o n o f  a  women  women l i v e . " "separatist  into  unchallenged  However,  research  t h e models,  Barrett  strategy"  existing  and unchanged  male  and a r e merely  being r e p l a c e d by female models. Brush  (1992)  entrepreneurship rooted that  terms  her  perspective  as t h e " i n t e g r a t e d  perspective"  i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l women  a r e more  which i s  i n their  interactions.  Here  interconnected  system o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The c r i t i c i s m  approach l i e s  Overall, of  assumptions inadequate  on  framework small  as  an  of t h i s  a new best way" o f  the feminist  research  are often  (Barrett,  ventures  ( B a r r e t t , 1994).  reviewing  existing  used  integrative research  upon  social  i n p l a c e o f t h e male o r i e n t e d "one b e s t  t h a t dominated b e f o r e  elements  their  i n i t s " r i s k of perpetuating  female e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p way"  perceive  women's  t h e o r i e s which s t a t e  relationship driven  women  on  1994). or  business  on  theoretical  entrepreneurship  contradictory The problem  sociological  and  or  lies  the  theoretically in a  explanation  f o r use i n e x p l a i n i n g  lack of i n the women's  inequality. This i s also a function of, "the r e l a t i v e newness o f t h e f i e l d . However, i f we want t o be e f f e c t i v e . . . i n t h e knowledge we generate, now i s t h e time t o take a c l o s e look a t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , s y n t h e s i z e the f i n d i n g s and u t i l i z e other s c h o l a r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o women's developmental i s s u e s and l a y a s o l i d foundation on which t o base f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n " (Sekaran, 1990).  38 Other r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f female e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p also  recommend  combining  different disciplines  feminist  (Barrett,  perspectives  and those o f  1994).  Motives behind self-employment Studies  demonstrate  that  self-employed  individuals  e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own e n t e r p r i s e s f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons and f o r some t h e r e  is little  choice  (Goffee and Scase,  1985).  Some  w r i t e r s conclude t h a t female m o t i v a t i o n s f o r s t a r t i n g a b u s i n e s s are  s i m i l a r t o those o f men and a r e i d e n t i f i e d as: t h e d e s i r e t o  be independent achieve  ( a l s o i n c l u d e s f l e x i b l e hours) and t h e need t o  (Fraboni  and  Saltstone,  1990;  Schwartz,  1976:47;  Stevenson, 1984). F r a b o n i and S a l t s t o n e (1990) found t h a t  need  for  ones  accomplishment,  lifestyle  independence  and a b i l i t y  t o choose  a r e v a l u e d more by both male and female e n t r e p r e n e u r s  than monetary g a i n which c o n t r a d i c t e d the f i n d i n g s o f an e a r l i e r study by Schwartz Some  (1976).  studies  motivational  factors  on  female  entrepreneurs  the  that  f o r becoming self-employed can be gender  r e l a t e d and l i n k e d t o t h e economic i n the labour force  reveal  i n e q u a l i t y women experience  ( M i n i s t r y of C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s Bureau o f  M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small Business Development, 1986;  Stevenson,  1984; Winter, 1980) and f o r f i n a n c i a l  independence  (Lavoie, 1979; Collom, 1981; Stevenson, 1983). Some r e s e a r c h e r s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t women e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own ventures t o a v o i d t h e difficult 1978;  tasks of climbing  Winter,  1980).  Others  the corporate ladder found  that  female  (Stevenson,  entrepreneurs  choose  self-employment  f o r more  intrinsic  reasons,  for  the  c h a l l e n g e ( M i n i s t r y of C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s Bureau o f the M i n i s t r y of  I n d u s t r y and Small Business Development, 1986; L a v o i e , 1979;  Collom,  1981) and f o r i n c r e a s e d  satisfaction  (Ministry  of  C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s Bureau o f t h e M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r y and Small Business Development, 1986). Depending life-  cycle  demonstrate  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l  and whether  o r not they  stage  are parents,  businesses  studies  r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t women tend t o e s t a b l i s h because  i t i s more  compatible  with  demanding r o l e i n c h i l d r e a r i n g because o f g r e a t e r a f f o r d e d by s e t t i n g ones own work hours 1994;  i n the  t h a t t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n s f o r  self-employment; their  entrepreneur's  Towler,  1986).  This  is  their  flexibility  ( S c o t t , 1986; Roberts,  rarely  reported  by  male  entrepreneurs. Business c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S t u d i e s on Canadian found  that  retail  they  based  Cachon,  and some American self-employed women  a r e r e p r e s e n t e d predominantly  businesses  1989; S w i f t ,  (Small  Business  1988; Towler,  i n s e r v i c e and  S e c r e t a r i a t , 1979;  1987; Stevenson,  1983;  L a v o i e , 1979; Collom, 1981; Schwartz, 1976; M i n i s t r y o f Economic Development, Finance,  Small  Business  and Trade,  1991). Men on t h e other hand  and t h e M i n i s t r y o f are concentrated  ina  v a r i e t y o f s e c t o r s , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e manufacturing and b u i l d i n g contractor Swift,  industries  1988). S w i f t  (Statistics (1988) found  Canada, 1991; A l f r e d , 1989; i n h e r study which  compared  40 Canadian male and female h e a v i l y concentrated  entrepreneurs,  that  i n the service industry  women were more compared t o men.  Other s t u d i e s demonstrated t h a t women a r e i n a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f industrial,  commercial,  service  and  manufacturing  sectors  (Winter, 1980; Stevenson, 1984). A  possible  concentrated explained those  reason  f o r the high  i n either service or r e t a i l  (Towler,  lack of relevant  1987).  o f women  businesses,  as such ventures r e q u i r i n g l e s s c a p i t a l  i n manufacturing  have been  proportion  Other  compared t o  interpretations  experience o r s k i l l s ,  f o r c e s women i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l l y female s e c t o r s  has been  which  often  (Cachon, 1989).  R e g i s t r a t i o n o f Business There a r e d i f f e r e n t l e g a l forms an o r g a n i z a t i o n can take. For  t h e purpose  of t h i s  study  t h e advantages  and marked  d i f f e r e n c e s between the s o l e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p and an i n c o r p o r a t i o n are b r i e f l y Under  described. a sole  proprietorship,  you a r e f r e e  t o c a r r y on  b u s i n e s s under any name. The law does not r e c o g n i z e  t h e name o f  a p r o p r i e t o r s h i p and t h e p r o p r i e t o r w i l l  personally.  The  be named  a s s e t s o f a p r o p r i e t o r s h i p belong t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l and not  the b u s i n e s s . Therefore investments owner.  c r e d i t o r s have a l e g a l c l a i m on both t h e  i n the business  and t h e p e r s o n a l  assets  of the  Owners a r e f u l l y l i a b l e f o r debts i n c u r r e d w h i l e a c t i n g  i n t h e course o f t h e b u s i n e s s ( I n c o r p o r a t i o n and Business Guide f o r B.C., 1995). An  incorporated  organization  i s a legal e n t i t y . Just  like  41 a r e a l person, i t has a separate e x i s t e n c e . The a s s e t s and debts of  a  corporation  belong  to  advantages  to incorporating  means t h a t  your  liability  it-not  the shareholders.  a r e : 1) l i m i t e d  as a s h a r e h o l d e r  liability  i s limited  The which  t o the  amount o f money you owe t h e company 2) community r e c o g n i t i o n o f an i n c o r p o r a t e d  company which u s u a l l y has more c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h  banks, c r e d i t o r s and customers, because t h e t r o u b l e and expense of i n c o r p o r a t i n g that  i s then  advantages.  first  about  more There  incorporating (the  i n d i c a t e s a long range p l a n likely can  be  a business:  seriously  substantial  tax reduction  tax  and 3) t a x  advantages  on b u s i n e s s  to  earnings  $200,00 o f a l l n e t income from a c t i v e b u s i n e s s i s  22%), expense  several  t o be taken  f o r your b u s i n e s s  deductions  other b e n e f i t s  and s p l i t t i n g  (Incorporation  income  and Business  among  Guide f o r  B.C., 1995). Canadian comparative s t u d i e s on t h e type o f b u s i n e s s e s male and  female  entrepreneurs  l i k e l y t o incorporate 1990;  operate  suggest  that  t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s (Fraboni  men a r e more and S a l t s t o n e ,  S w i f t , 1988). Research on B.C. self-employed women r e v e a l  t h a t they a r e more l i k e l y t o be r e g i s t e r e d as s o l e in the service industry  (Central S t a t i s t i c s ,  proprietors  1986; M i n i s t r y o f  Economic Development, Small Business and Trade, and the M i n i s t r y of  Finance,  1991).  One  factor  that  might  explain  the  preponderance o f s o l e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p among women i s t h e ease o f set-up  compared  t o incorporated  firms  where requirements a r e  more s t r i n g e n t and have h i g h e r s e t up c o s t s  (Lavoie,  1988). I f  42 women  business  owners  seek  t o expand  businesses possessing l i t t l e them  to  meet  requirements predominantly have  fixed  business  by most  size  and  lenders. Also,  collateral  s i n c e women a r e  i n s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d work, they are l e s s l i k e l y t o  assets  manufacturing  their  c a p i t a l can make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r  t h e minimum  imposed  or incorporate  that  can serve  as c o l l a t e r a l  compared t o  o r o t h e r types o f b u s i n e s s e s (Bush e t a l . ,  1991).  Since women f i n a n c e t h e i r ventures through p e r s o n a l a s s e t s and savings (given t h e low wages they earned i n t h e past) i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t few have s u f f i c i e n t money t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e i r businesses.  Revenues The average earnings o f self-employed women are w e l l below those o f men. A comparative business  owners  s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s found t h a t male  i n Canada  h i g h e r than earnings found  reported  annual  earnings  by women, which suggests  some 66% t h a t wage  gaps a l s o e x i s t i n e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p ( S t a t i s t i c s , Canada, 1986). I t a l s o suggests t h a t t h e gap i s much l a r g e r i n t h i s area than i n t h e work f o r c e as a whole. Female-to-male e a r n i n g s r a t i o i s 71.8  percent and t h e average  $28,350,  (Canadian  F e d e r a t i o n o f Independent Business,  Women-owned b u s i n e s s e s  r e p o r t earnings  than male-owned b u s i n e s s e s On examining  annual e a r n i n g o f women i n 1992 i s  (White,  around  one-third  less  1984; B e l c o u r t , 1991).  revenues generated among female  i n Canada, f i n d i n g s r e v e a l t h a t women's annual insufficient  1994).  entrepreneurs  income i s o f t e n  t o incorporate t h e i r businesses. Belcourt e t a l .  43 (1991)  found  i n their  entrepreneurs earned were a l s o 1984;  Canadian  sample  that  80% o f  female  l e s s than $50,000 a n n u a l l y . These f i g u r e s  consistent with  other  Canadian  studies  (Stevenson,  S w i f t , 1988; M i n i s t r y o f C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s Bureau o f t h e  Ministry  o f Industry  A c c o r d i n g t o Stevenson smaller  revenues  and Small  Business  Development,  1986).  (1984) f a c t o r s t h a t might account f o r t h e  o f female  entrepreneurs  a r e t h e type and  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e . Other f a c t o r s t h a t can account f o r t h i s a r e owning s m a l l e r b u s i n e s s e s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from l e n d e r s and  differences  i n education  o r work  experience  (Belcourt,  1991) . Home-Based Business On  the  one  characterized  as  hand,  home-based  traditional  businesses  cottage  industry  e n t e r p r i s e s which a r e a l s o p a r t o f t h e s o - c a l l e d economy" ( P r i e s n i t z , (Towler,  the  growth  i n establishing  often  types  of  "underground  1988). They have not been taken  1986) o r s u f f e r  b u s i n e s s world  are  seriously  credibility  in  the  (Good, and Levy, 1992). On t h e other hand, w i t h  among self-employed  women o t h e r  researchers  have  i d e n t i f i e d t h a t many e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l women r u n h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l and  visible  home-based  businesses  (Priesnitz,  1988)  thus  increasing their legitimacy. There has been i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t based  business a c t i v i t y  Priesnitz,  i n t h e study  ( F o s t e r and Orser,  1991 and Roberts,  1994).  They  o f home-  1993; Olson, 1989; tend  t o be under  r e p r e s e n t e d i n r e t a i l and wholesale and over r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e  44 service, 1991;  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication  sectors  (Priesnitz,  Orser, 1993). Priesnitz  (1988)  studied  the a c t i v i t y  of  530  female  Canadian home-based b u s i n e s s owners by means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The  results  showed t h a t f o r t y - f i v e  chose t o operate  their  businesses  percent o f t h e respondents from  home so they  c o u l d be  a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h i r t y percent e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r businesses  t o have  a more  flexible  work  schedule,  while  25  p e r c e n t mentioned the low overhead, tax deductions and s a v i n g on travel  time.  Olson  (1989)  reports  that  self-employed  establish  home-based b u s i n e s s e s  for different  different  ways. She suggests  men  and women  reasons  t h a t more h i g h l y p a i d  and i n  forms o f  home-based b u s i n e s s e s are the p r e s e r v e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l males who have c o n t a c t s p r i o r t o l e a v i n g t h e job market. C o s t e l l o ,  (1989)  found t h a t women e s t a b l i s h home-based b u s i n e s s e s t o r e s o l v e t h e conflicting  demands o f b u s i n e s s and household.  Other  problems  commonly experienced by home-based b u s i n e s s owners are i s o l a t i o n (Olson, 1989; Towler, for  personal  1992),  1986; Roberts,  interaction  increased stress  with  1994) l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y  other  people  (Good  and Levy,  and longer hours as disadvantages o f  working from the home. Olson (1989) and C o s t e l l o (1989) p o i n t t o the  potential  combining above  home-based  work  adding  home and work. Good and Levy  results,  businesses  of  where  relates  the p r i n c i p l e  to  conflicts  (1992) concur  drawback  t o separating business  life  of  with the  f o r home-based from  personal  45  l i f e . Advantages o f home-based a c t i v i t y l i e s i n t h e freedom and f l e x i b i l i t y o f s c h e d u l i n g , and s a v i n g on commuting time (Olson, 1989). Success f a c t o r s f o r a P r o f i t a b l e Business Comparative  research  on t h e p r o f i t a b i l i t y  o f male and  female b u s i n e s s owners suggests t h a t women have l e s s p r o f i t a b l e v e n t u r e s . A l s o f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o f i n a n c i a l venture success a r e d i f f e r e n t f o r males and females  (Miskin and Rose, 1990). M i s k i n  and Rose (1990) found i n t h e i r American  study t h a t females who  s t a r t e d t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s a t t h e same time as males r e p o r t e d a lower  level  of p r o f i t a b i l i t y  after  a two year  period.  They  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o venture s u c c e s s , a f f e c t e d the profitability  o f male  and female  entrepreneurs  differently.  P r e v i o u s experience o r ownership, market f a m i l i a r i t y and support from  family  profitability significant  were  not  f o r female factors  significantly  related  respondents.  affecting  to  However,  profitability  venture  these  were  for  male  e n t r e p r e n e u r s . P e r c e i v e d support from f r i e n d s i n s t e a d o f f a m i l y and product development o f the b u s i n e s s were s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s influencing explained  profitability i n terms  f o r women.  of the s o c i a l  These  issues  findings  that  discriminate  against  t h e development  of business  skills  related  self-confidence  of  i n t h e workplace.  females  are  and  performance The  r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o s t a t e t h a t women have t o spend more time b e i n g s o c i a l i z e d i n t o work which may compete f o r t h e i r time more than their  male  counterparts  and  impinge  upon  their  financial  46 success.  However, u n l i k e t h i s study, some American and Canadian  research  on female entrepreneurs r e p o r t t h a t p r e v i o u s  experience and f i n a n c i a l s k i l l s (Candid e t a l . , 1988; 1983)  and l e v e l  o f education  important explanatory  (Candid,  business  Stevenson,  e t a l . , 1988), a r e  v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e venture success o f men  and women. B a r r i e r s t o F i n a n c i a l Success Many small  business  owners f i n d  difficulty  i n obtaining  c a p i t a l t o s t a r t an e n t e r p r i s e and t o s u s t a i n and develop i t i n its  infancy,  an i s s u e  which  has been  very  well  documented  (Zimmer e t a l . , 1987). Some r e c e n t w r i t i n g suggests t h a t women may  face more problems than men when i t comes t o d e a l i n g  banks because banks d i s c r i m i n a t e H i s r i c h and Brush, 1986; 1984;  Lavoie,  against  Schwartz, 1976;  1984/85). B e l c o u r t  with  women ( L i t t o n , 1987;  Stevenson, 1984;  Swift,  e t a l . (1991) found t h a t  half  of t h e i r sample o f female Canadian entrepreneurs p e r c e i v e d some degree o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from lenders and s u p p l i e r s . However, i t i s important t o p o i n t out t h a t many o f these s t u d i e s d i d not i n c l u d e a male c o n t r o l group. A l l s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners face f i n a n c i a l problems, they a r e not unique t o women. In a survey conducted f o r the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n of Independent Business,  S w i f t and R i d i n g  (1988) compared a matched sample o f  b u s i n e s s owners who had a p p l i e d t o t h e banks f o r c r e d i t .  They  concluded t h a t banks r e q u i r e d a t l e a s t 300 percent c o l l a t e r a l on lines  of c r e d i t  f o r women, w h i l e o n l y  one-quarter o f t h e men  were s u b j e c t t o such s t r i n g e n t requirements. However, S w i f t e t  47 al. be  (1988) a l s o demonstrate t h a t women-owned b u s i n e s s e s tend t o younger and more h e a v i l y based  those  o f men, e x h i b i t i n g  i n the service  different  s e c t o r than  characteristics  than  male  b u s i n e s s e s . T h e r e f o r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between p a t t e r n s o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s ownership between and men and women a l l o w a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f what might a t f i r s t  appear t o be gender b i a s  ( S w i f t and R i d i n g , 1990). However, i t i s important not t o l o o s e sight  of the findings  women  tend  to  own  competitive r e t a i l  mentioned smaller  earlier,  businesses  which  revealed that  i n the  high-risk  and s e r v i c e s e c t o r s and a r e u n i n c o r p o r a t e d .  These b u s i n e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are not f a v o u r a b l e f o r o b t a i n i n g b u s i n e s s loans s i n c e t h e r e i s no r e a l e s t a t e , no heavy machinery n o t h i n g s o l i d t h a t t h e bank can s e i z e a g a i n s t a l o a n  (Campbell,  1990)  to  unlike  their  male  counterparts  who  tend  have  i n c o r p o r a t e d b u s i n e s s e s i n manufacturing. Other b a r r i e r s are l a c k o f b u s i n e s s experience and h a n d l i n g money (Schwartz,  1976; Stevenson,  1984; Winter,  of management experience. Research as w e l l as i n s u f f i c i e n t failure  (Schwartz,  capital  1980) and l a c k  shows t h a t i n e p t management  a r e major causes  f o r business  1976). Another o b s t a c l e i s c o n f l i c t between  family  and b u s i n e s s  Scott,  1986).  (Goffee  and Scase,  Common b a r r i e r s  cited  1985; Neider, 1987;  i n t h e B.C. survey on  female entrepreneurs was a l a c k o f s u i t a b l e c h i l d - c a r e and time away from b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s . Recent n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s o f women running home-based b u s i n e s s e s  i n Canada demonstrate t h a t they  are d i s t r a c t e d by f a m i l y and household  tasks (Belcourt e t a l . ,  48 1991)  and experience  conflict  demands ( L o n g s t r e t c h , e t a l . ,  i n meeting 1987).  A d i f f e r e n t dilemma o f t e n encountered women  i s the lack  f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s  o f networks  among self-employed  and c o n t a c t s  (Lavoie,  However, i t i s important t o emphasize t h a t i n B r i t i s h there  are several  including  women  o r g a n i z a t i o n s open  and a  woman's  t o small  business  1984). Columbia  businesses,  advocate,  Kathleen  C o s t e l l o , who i s c u r r e n t l y working w i t h banking a s s o c i a t i o n s and other f i n a n c i a l  institutions  to assist  women b u s i n e s s owners.  A l s o s e v e r a l b u s i n e s s conferences h e l d throughout t h e p r o v i n c e , for  example,  "Business  Success  f o r Women"  sponsored  by The  M i n i s t r y o f Economic Development, Small Business and Trade, a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r women. T h e r e f o r e t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r networking are more a v a i l a b l e and open t o women than they were i n the p a s t . However, s i n c e women have l i t t l e time o r the necessary r e s o u r c e s many a r e prevented from t a k i n g advantage o f these o p p o r t u n i t i e s (Belcourt e t a l . ,  1991).  Experiences o f Self-Employed There  a r e few  i n depth  qualitative  studies  of the  experiences o f self-employed men and women. Few s t u d i e s a r e o f an ethnographic k i n d , and not many r e p o r t i n d e t a i l t h e o v e r a l l experience o f t r y i n g t o run a s m a l l b u s i n e s s . But t h e r e a r e some i n c l u d i n g Bertaux's and  Elliott's  (1981) work on French bakers and Bechhofer  (1981) study o f s m a l l shopkeepers.  However, few  d e a l w i t h the experiences o f women (Stevenson, 1986; B e l c o u r t e t al.,  1991 and Goffee and Scase,  1985).  49 Stevenson's (1984) study i n v o l v e d a comprehensive survey o f the  experiences  businesses  o f 1200 self-employed  i n t h e Maritime  establishment  of a  who  p r o v i n c e s . The primary  business  independence. B a r r i e r s  women  venture  unique  among  own  small  motive f o r  these  women was  t o them as women were: being a  woman b u s i n e s s owner i n a world p e r c e i v e d by many t o be a male domain;  barriers  resulting  from  conflicting  roles  o f being  wife/mother; f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ; and f e a r o f not being taken s e r i o u s l y as a b u s i n e s s owner. The g r e a t e s t needs among these women were i n d e v e l o p i n g b u s i n e s s management s k i l l s . Over s i x t y percent  felt  simultaneously that  dual  that  managing  presented  work  a  business  difficulties.  responsibilities  and t h e  household  The r e s e a r c h e r  o f t h e home  and  claims  business  p r e s e n t s c o n f l i c t f o r women which may not be as s a l i e n t f o r male b u s i n e s s owners. B e l c o u r t e t a l . (1991) conducted hundred  and n i n e t y - t h r e e Canadian  challenges  and achievements  a nationwide  study o f one  women on t h e i r  as e n t r e p r e n e u r s .  struggles,  The  findings  r e v e a l e d t h a t most o f t h e women entrepreneurs a r e married c h i l d r e n working over  70 hours a week t o meet t h e i r  with  business,  household and f a m i l y needs. They bear most o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  household  maintenance, but share  the task of r a i s i n g the  c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r spouses. However, i t i s u n c l e a r whether t h e women v a l u e d these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s afford  to  hire  extra  help.  o r whether they c o u l d not  Contrary  to  popular  belief,  r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t a h i g h l e v e l o f p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l  50 demands a r e compatible  with  high  levels  o f s a t i s f a c t i o n and  competence. They a l s o found t h a t i s o l a t i o n from support networks and  isolation  "discriminatory" problem  that  stems  treatment  from  the  "exclusionary"  i n t h e b u s i n e s s world  and  was a major  ( B e l c o u r t , 1990; Goleman, 1986). B e l c o u r t e t a l . (1991)  d e s c r i b e t h i s s e c l u s i o n as women working isolation,"  where  female  i n t h e " g l a s s box o f  entrepreneurs  a r e surrounded  by  o p p o r t u n i t i e s b u t do not have t h e time o r necessary " r e s o u r c e s " to  grasp  them.  Although  representative  Canadian  entrepreneurs,  their  their  study  survey sample  was one o f t h e b e t t e r  studies was  to  selected  date  on  from  women  Dun  and  B r a n d s t r e e t ' s l i s t o f c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s . T h i s means t h a t the survey r e p r e s e n t e d l a r g e r b u s i n e s s e s that applied  for credit  v a l u a b l e though these  ( i n t h i s case,  those  approval and t h a t had employees). So,  findings  are, they  still  l e a v e us w i t h  l i t t l e knowledge o f the numerous r e a l l y s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e s run by women.  The s m a l l  business  sector  has remained  existing  r e s e a r c h community and c a l l s  randomly  selected  sample  outside the  f o r research of a large  of small business  owners,  including  home-based b u s i n e s s e s . Goffee experiences,  and  Scase's  attitudes  (1985)  study  and l i f e - s t y l e s  investigated  of f i f t y - f o u r  the female  b u s i n e s s owners i n t h e U.K. The f i n d i n g s  r e v e a l e d t h a t women  establish  o f reasons  their  businesses  f o r a variety  major ones were: independence, a v e h i c l e t o express c r a f t  and t h e  t o generate a l a r g e r income, as  skills  without n e g l e c t i n g domestic  51 responsibilities,  and p e r s o n a l  autonomy.  The g r e a t e s t  gain  d e r i v e d from b u s i n e s s ownership among the women was an i n c r e a s e i n p e r s o n a l s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and f e e l i n g s o f g r e a t e r autonomy. Major problems unique  t o women were: c r e d i t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and  dependency on o t h e r s  for their  also  found  business female  that  s e v e r a l women  d e a l i n g s because identity  they  i n dealing  survival  and p r o s p e r i t y . They  experienced were  with  tension  i n their  forced to exploit  customers  and  their  suppliers.  Although not r e p o r t e d as one o f the major b a r r i e r s f a c i n g women, respondents  felt  t h a t they  encountered  more c o n f l i c t  between  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . In a p r e v i o u s study on t h e experiences o f male entrepreneurs Scase and Goffee (1982) found t h a t male entrepreneurs c o u l d not s u r v i v e without the  "unpaid"  contribution  o f wives  who  are forced  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r both the f a m i l y and home. In t h i s study, did  t o be females  not have comparable h e l p from t h e i r husbands. They conclude  t h a t although women share  s i m i l a r e x p e c t a t i o n s and rewards t o  those o f male entrepreneurs, women s t i l l Economic  f a c e d i s t i n c t l y gender  related  problems.  inequality,  marital  s t a t u s and  domestic  commitments a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t  factors  i n f l u e n c i n g these e x p e r i e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s t a r t - u p phase (Goffee and Scase,  1985).  Since Stevenson did  (1984) and B e l c o u r t e t a l ' s (1990) s t u d i e s  not have male experiences t o compare t o those o f women, i t  i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n t o what extent they are unique t o women. Of  equal  importance  i s to  also  know  whether  there  are  52 experiences  unique  t o men. Goffee  and Scase  (1985)  compared  p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s on t h e experiences o f male entrepreneurs t o those of females  i n t h e i r p r e s e n t study, which allowed them t o  i d e n t i f y some problems t h a t were unique t o women. However, t h e r e was  no d e t a i l e d  responsibilities  description  on t h e way domestic  are organized  and f a m i l y  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s involved,  making i t d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y what consequences t h i s had f o r t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s . Goffee and Scase's  (1985) study i s among t h e  few t h a t analyze t h e experiences o f female entrepreneurs from a sociological market  perspective taking  experience  employment. occurred  However,  an  much  account  explanation global  women's labour  f o r choosing  economic  self-  r e s t r u c t u r i n g has  i n t h e l a b o u r market s i n c e t h e 1970's. The changing  structures changes  as  into  of Capitalism  i n the  relations  under of  Post-Fordism production  which  and  involve  under  Post  I n d u s t r i a l i s m the move towards a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f knowledge and the i n c r e a s e i n t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r have a l l shaped t h e working c o n d i t i o n s o f modern s o c i e t y . How women have been a f f e c t e d by these  changes  needs  t o be addressed.  The Dual  Segmentation  Theory which Goffee and Scase, (1985) employed i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s has drawbacks i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the economic i n e q u a l i t y o f women. T h i s i s because t h e work d i s t r i b u t i o n o f males and females i n the  labour market  primary  i s t o o complex t o be separated  o r secondary  labour markets. There  into  either  are several  f a c t o r s beyond t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s o f employers have t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n e x p l a i n i n g women's unequal  other that  workplace  53 c o n d i t i o n s . Domestic Domestic  o b l i g a t i o n s a r e prime among them.  Responsibilities  There i s no d e t a i l e d comprehensive  account o f t h e domestic  arrangements o f both male and female e n t r e p r e n e u r s . In a study of  stress  among s m a l l b u s i n e s s people  one might  expect  that  t h e r e would be some focus on t h e t e n s i o n s between b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y but the f a c t i s F r a b o n i and S a l t s t o n e (1990), whose study r e p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n work s t r e s s ,  failed to  c o n s i d e r t h e f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . The s t r e s s assessment  was based  on work l o a d ,  utilization  o f s k i l l s and  r o l e ambiguity, but not on t h e f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e individuals. significant  This stress  might  explain  difference  why  the r e s u l t  showed  no  between males and females. The  f i n d i n g s o f M i s k i n and Rose (1990) r e v e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e perceived /  support  entrepreneurs. measured  of the family  However,  i n that  study  of either  the aspects were  ambiguous  of  male  support  or that  and l a c k i n g  female were  important  detail. Other r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t women experience d i f f i c u l t y i n j u g g l i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (Stevenson, 1984; Belcourt, 1987;  1990; Goffee and Scase,  Ministry  o f Economic  1985; Cachon, 1989; Towler,  Development,  Small  Business and  Trade, and t h e M i n i s t r y o f Finance, 1991). The e f f e c t s on women are 1987;  i n c r e a s e d demands from Ministry  o f Economic  their  families  Development,  f o r time Small  (Towler,  Business and  Trade, and the M i n i s t r y o f Finance, 1991). Thus women f e e l more  54 p r e s s u r e , as they are t r y i n g t o cope with f a m i l y and responsibilities.  This  condition  is  referred  business  to  as  the  "superwoman syndrome" ( M i n i s t r y of Economic Development, Small Business  and  Trade,  and  the M i n i s t r y  of Finance,  1991). Some  s t u d i e s r e f l e c t t h i s s i t u a t i o n and show t h a t working mothers get fewer  hours  of  s l e e p and  have  less  leisure  time  than  working husbands (Duffy e t a l . , 1989; B e l c o u r t , 1990; 1984;  Goffee and Scase,  their  Stevenson,  1985).  L o n g s t r e t c h , e t a l . (1987) examined time c o n s t r a i n t s on self-employed women i n America,  both  full-time  and  114  part-time.  The f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t women who are self-employed spend much more time i n household work than t h e i r comparable male b u s i n e s s owners.  Women who  run  their  own  businesses  full-time  spend  approximately 25 hours a week on household chores i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r working  hours. T h i s study d i d not compare male b u s i n e s s  owners. Stoner encountered Their  et  al.  (1990)  focus  specifically  on  conflicts  by female entrepreneurs r e l a t i n g t o home and work.  findings  significant  conflict  between home and work r o l e s . Work-home r o l e c o n f l i c t ,  fatigue,  difficulty  reveal  that  t h e r e was  a  i n r e l a x i n g and schedule c o n f l i c t s are the f o u r top  ranked c o n f l i c t dimensions. demands produced  Questions c o n c e r n i n g whether "work  at-home i r r i t a b i l i t y "  and whether the b u s i n e s s  took up time they would p r e f e r t o spend with f a m i l y produced c l e a r c o n c l u s i o n . The drawback w i t h t h i s study i s the one view  of  the  conflict  of  coordinating business  and  no  sided family  a c t i v i t i e s . Statements used t o measure t h i s c o n f l i c t o n l y d e a l t with  business  influencing  the f a m i l y .  Questions  on f a m i l y  i n f l u e n c i n g the b u s i n e s s were not i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c o n f l i c t statements.  O v e r a l l , t h e r e s e a r c h on self-employed  individuals  c l e a r l y suggests t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f r e s e a r c h t h a t examines the domestic It  arrangements o f self-employed men and women.  i s known t h a t i n r e c e n t years  households  t h e number o f Canadian  i n which both husband and w i f e c o n t r i b u t e t o f a m i l y  income has r i s e n s t e a d i l y (Falkenberg e t a l . , 1990). T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g when today many f a m i l i e s r e q u i r e two pay cheques t o maintain  a minimal  standard  of l i v i n g .  No doubt  t h e need t o  examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and f a m i l y has i n t e n s i f i e d with the i n c r e a s i n g growth i n the number o f d u a l - e a r n e r f a m i l i e s i n our s o c i e t y , not t o mention t h e growth among  self-employed  women. The e n t r y o f women i n t o t h e p a i d labour f o r c e and i t s impact  on f a m i l y l i f e  i s important  women who a r e mothers,  because  t o examine, e s p e c i a l l y f o r  i t has g r e a t l y  added  t o the  amount o f work t h a t they a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (Hessing,  1991).  Often t h e f a m i l y and t h e workplace have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "greedy energy  institutions"  because  t h a t each demands  intensification  of  o f t h e commitment  o f time and  ( c f . G l a s s and Camarigg,  demands  on  working  parents  1992). The has  e s p e c i a l l y acute f o r mothers s i n c e they a r e a p t t o r e t a i n  been child  r e a r i n g as t h e i r primary duty even while they work i n the labour market (Glass e t a l . ,  1992).  S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have documented t h e gendered d i v i s i o n s o f  56 household labour and r e v e a l women's c o n t i n u e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o perform most o f t h e housework (Meissner e t a l . ,  1975). A study  of  t h e households i n Hamilton, O n t a r i o suggests t h a t when women  are  employed t h e i r husbands do a l i t t l e more housework than when  women a r e f u l l - t i m e unequal  division  households time  ( c f . Luxton  but there  still  e t a l . , 1990).  remains  housework  husbands  and when 9.5 hours  women  d i d between were  p e r week  7.5  employed  ( c f . Luxton,  an  A survey o f 800  (of a l l c l a s s e s ) showed t h a t where women were  housewives,  invested  home makers  to 8  full-  hours  full-time  of  husbands  e t a l . 1990).  Pleck  (1985) found t h a t married women perform around t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e household chores such as cooking, c l e a n i n g and laundry. In  a  follow  households Manitoba,  up  in Flin Luxton  study  Flon,  of  which  one  hundred  i s a mining  working  town  class  i n northern  (1990) examined women's work i n t h e home t o  d i s c o v e r whether o r not changes had o c c u r r e d s i n c e h e r p r e v i o u s study  five  years  b e f o r e . She found  that  married  women  with  paying jobs s t i l l performed more housework. However she d i d f i n d a change i n a t t i t u d e i n t h e form of women e x e r t i n g p r e s s u r e on t h e i r husbands t o take on more household r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . O v e r a l l we see t h a t  women who p a r t i c i p a t e  i n t h e labour f o r c e  still  assume primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f household work. Lennon consequences  and R o s e n f i e l d  (1994)  examined  t h e sources and  o f employed wives' p e r c e p t i o n s o f f a i r n e s s i n t h e  d i v i s i o n o f housework. Data used f o r t h e study d e r i v e d from t h e National  Survey o f F a m i l i e s and Households  conducted  i n 1987-  57 1988  by the c e n t r e f o r Demography and Ecology a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of Wisconsin. Interviews from 13,017 households were conducted. In  their  women  analysis  and men  comparing  from  t h e amount o f housework done by  dual-earner  employed men perform an average  marriages,  they  found  that  of 18.2 hours o f housework per  week. In c o n t r a s t women r e p o r t doing  33.2 hours  o f housework  each week, almost twice as much as employed men. The r e s u l t s a r e e x p l a i n e d from a s o c i a l exchange viewpoint t h a t women who have fewer  alternatives  resources  are  t o marriage  more  prone  than to  responsibilities  as f a i r ,  and  view t h e same type  alternatives  men and l i m i t e d viewing  their  economic housework  w h i l e women with more o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f household  d i v i s i o n as  unfair. Upon r e c o g n i z i n g from e x i s t i n g s t u d i e s t h a t women i n f a c t are occupying a "dual r o l e " i n performing most o f t h e housework compared t o t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s , i t i s important t o focus on the dual r o l e and what i t s i g n i f i e s . The d u a l r o l e i s u s e f u l t o understand women's r o l e i n the workplace because i t demonstrates the l i n k between women's t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s w i t h i n the f a m i l y and t h e i r l a b o u r market p o s i t i o n . S e v e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s reviewed so far  on  entrepreneurship  do  not take  into  account  women's  domestic r o l e as a f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the labour f o r c e . Coser and Rokoff (1971) a f f i r m t h a t women are expected t o p l a c e f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s ahead o f c a r e e r demands which in  large  positions.  part This  f o r women's i s explained  account  low r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n academic from  the perspective that  high  58 s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r e s e r i o u s commitments. Since women a r e not "expected cause  t o be committed t o t h e i r work because t h i s would  d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e f a m i l y system  they  choose p o s i t i o n s  where they do not have t o be t o o committed and jobs where they are e a s i l y r e p l a c e a b l e " (Coser and Rokoff, 1971: 543). Thus the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f women i n low paying jobs o r p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s are e x p l a i n e d as a matter o f c h o i c e on t h e p a r t o f women t r y i n g t o balance out t h e i r d u a l r o l e s . There a r e two approaches t h a t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e study of t h e d u a l r o l e s working mothers c a r r y . F i r s t t h e " r o l e expansion" model by Marks (1977) which views t h e dual s i t u a t i o n more p o s i t i v e l y .  Here t h e dual  role  i s seen as e n r i c h i n g t h e  i n d i v i d u a l with a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s which h e l p s t h e dual occupant t o improve her performance and t o reduce s t r a i n 1989). On the o t h e r hand, t h e r o l e that  t h e two  resources.  roles  This  (1960) and S l a t e r  (work  approach  strain  and f a m i l y )  was developed  approach compete  role  (Katz,  maintains  f o r scarce  by Gad (1960)  Moore  (1963). Here t h e dual r o l e i s d e s c r i b e d as a  s i t u a t i o n with which s e v e r a l t a s k s compete f o r s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . S t r a i n i s generated qualitatively  which expresses  and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  itself  i n a r e d u c t i o n both  on t h e r o l e s  outputs.  This  approach p r e d i c t s n e g a t i v e consequences t h a t manifest themselves i n p h y s i c a l and emotional  fatigue,  possibility  o f withdrawing  from t h e dual r o l e by e i t h e r q u i t t i n g work o r t r a n s f e r r i n g t o p a r t - t i m e work (Katz, 1989)  o r f o r t h a t matter self-employment.  S e v e r a l problems have been i d e n t i f i e d  f o r women i n these  59 situations  (Falkenberg,  1990). Having a double l o a d  influences  o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n (Lennon e t a l . , 1994), p s y c h o l o g i c a l 1989) and  p h y s i c a l s t r e s s (Coser and Rokoff, 1971) conflict  (Katz,  and work o v e r l o a d  (Meissner e t a l . , 1975). H o c h s c h i l d  (1989) found  t h a t wives expend more e f f o r t and time i n p a i d and unpaid work and  l e s s i n l e i s u r e time compared t o husbands. They r e f e r t o  t h i s s i t u a t i o n as t h e "second s h i f t " . According Gilbert  (1976) t h e time commitment  required  t o Holahan and  by t h e work r o l e  leaves women with inadequate time f o r household and c h i l d - c a r e activities  ( c f . Falkenberg,  1990). Negative  effects resulting  from the dual r o l e were r e p o r t e d i n Glass e t a l . ' s (1992) study. They used data from t h e 1977 Q u a l i t y o f Employment survey (QES) containing  537 women and 944 men. In t h e i r a n a l y s i s they  assessed gender i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h f a m i l y conditions Findings  i n their revealed  determinants  that  three  of  status  and employment  job-family  interactions  also  were  conflict. marginally  s i g n i f i c a n t : mothers o f small c h i l d r e n , mothers i n l a r g e r f i r m s and  married  fathers  report  greater  i n s i m i l a r circumstances.  findings being  mothers  The authors  i n terms o f domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  culturally  conflict  job-family  t o mothers  explain  than these  and c h i l d - c a r e  and t h a t  job-family  a r e acute t o women. The f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y  demonstrate  the negative  assigned  conflict  consequences t h a t r e s u l t from meeting t h e demands  of f a m i l y and p a i d work. Whether work and f a m i l y t e n s i o n w i l l be l e s s o r more acute for  small  business  owners i s d i f f i c u l t  t o say a t t h i s  point  60 since  there  conducted  i s very  i n this  little  area.  in-depth  However,  research  one can assume  employed women who a r e home-based would problems general  i n coordinating business because they  work  from  that  that  experience  and f a m i l y  has been self-  different  than  women i n  t h e home. Problems unique t o  home-based b u s i n e s s e s a r e i s o l a t i o n and s e p a r a t i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y d u t i e s . A l s o women who a r e home-based o f t e n do not have the same k i n d o f networks o r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s working women i n g e n e r a l tend t o have. They a r e a l s o l e s s l i k e l y  t o have access  to domestic d i s c o u r s e which can p r o v i d e emotional and p r a c t i c a l support  f o r working  women  i n dealing  with  their  domestic  arrangements (Hessing, 1991). However, one major advantage t h a t self-employed  women may have over working women i n g e n e r a l i s  greater f l e x i b i l i t y This f l e x i b i l i t y needs as they  o f time  a f f o r d e d by being t h e i r own boss.  a l l o w s them more l a t i t u d e  arise  f o r meeting f a m i l y  compared t o women who a r e not t h e i r own  bosses. Conclusion I I S t u d i e s o f d u a l c a r e e r f a m i l i e s suggest t h a t women c o n t i n u e to  perform  more  housework  than  their  male  c o u n t e r p a r t s and  s u f f e r from r o l e c o n f l i c t . From t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e experiences of  female  entrepreneurs  conflict  between b u s i n e s s  and f a m i l y  d u t i e s and c r e a t i n g boundaries were r e p o r t e d ( B e l c o u r t , e t a l . , 1991; and  L o n g s t r e t c h e t a l . , 1987; Stoner e t a l . , 1990; and Goffee Scase,  experiences  1985). However these to  those  o f women  s t u d i e s d i d not compare male nor was  there  a  detailed  61 description  on  t h e way  domestic  and b u s i n e s s  duties  were  a c t u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d and o r g a n i z e d . The  e x i s t i n g s t u d i e s suggest t h a t women i n g e n e r a l  suffer  from t h e e x t r a burden o f domestic  work i n c l u d i n g those who a r e  self-employed.  also  isolation,  However,  coordinating  research business  points  and  t o problems o f  family,  and  creating  boundaries t h a t a r e unique t o home-based b u s i n e s s owners. But no research  examined  commitment  to  whether  business  domestic  growth.  obligations  Having  restrict  smaller  and  less  p r o f i t a b l e b u s i n e s s e s among women b u s i n e s s owners i s e x p l a i n e d by the L i b e r a l F e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e as r e s u l t i n g from a l a c k o f education there  and l a c k o f r e l e v a n t b u s i n e s s  i s no  affecting  reference  t o household  women's b u s i n e s s  entrepreneurship theoretical  growth.  duties  Since  i s i n i t s infancy  frameworks d e a l i n g w i t h  experience. as  potentially  research  there  However,  is a  t h e experiences  i n female lack  of  of s e l f -  employed women. There i s need f o r f u r t h e r development i n t h i s area  especially  with  the increase  i n self-employment  among  women. Overall  the l i t e r a t u r e  r e v e a l s t h a t f a m i l y and domestic  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been overlooked and undervalued effect  on t h e b u s i n e s s e s  o f self-employed  f a c t t h a t they have been excluded  i n their  individuals  by t h e  or treated i n a masculinist  way i n t h e Canadian s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s review p o i n t s t o t h e need f o r a study t h a t examines how self-employed men and women c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  62  the outcomes t h i s type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n may have on t h e i r  lives.  Such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s o f s o c i a l and economic concern f o r t h e following  reasons:  first,  entrepreneurship  contributes to  economic growth i n B.C and i n Canada, t h e r e f o r e i t i s important t o examine f a c t o r s t h a t may prevent men and women from b u s i n e s s growth.  Second,  research  suggests  owners experience d i f f e r e n t and  family  activities). important  (creating How  they  that  home-based  business  problems i n c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s  boundaries deal  with  and  these  blending  the  two  issues  i s especially  s i n c e t h e r e i s a movement back toward  workplace and  f a m i l y o p e r a t i n g i n t h e same l o c a t i o n . T h i r d , i n f a m i l i e s t h e r e must be a degree r o l e s each  o f consensus  about  f a m i l y member p l a y s . Lack  does what w i t h i n t h e household,  what i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e o f consensus  between who  and women b e i n g overloaded w i t h  work i n t h e home and b u s i n e s s , c a r r i e s w i t h i t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t between spouses, and i n some cases d i v o r c e . Too l i t t l e time  spent  with  t h e f a m i l y i s another  outcome and should be  taken s e r i o u s l y . R a i s i n g and s o c i a l i z i n g a c h i l d i s an important social  interactive  home environment  process which  conducive  to teaching  f u n c t i o n i n g member o f s o c i e t y Investigating their  business  r e q u i r e s time a child  and a h e a l t h y how t o be a  ( c f . Hagadorn, 1990).  how self-employed men and women c o o r d i n a t e  and f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s  i s warranted  given  that  d i f f e r e n c e s which do e x i s t might h e l p t o account f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e experiences o f male and female also  fills  an  important  e n t e r p r i s e s . T h i s focus  gap i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e .  The  study  63 r e p o r t e d i n the subsequent chapter draws on s t u d i e s by B e l c o u r t et a l .  (1991); Stoner e t a l .  (1990) and Goffee and Scase (1985).  64 CHAPTER I I I Research Research  and Method  Agenda  T h i s chapter reviews t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s developed the study, t h e sample s e l e c t i o n ,  t h e data c o l l e c t i o n ,  approach t o data a n a l y s i s . Reasons f o r employing  and t h e  t h i s method as  w e l l as t h e problems commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e method also  be reviewed.  The c o l l e c t i o n  o f data  for  i n British  will  Columbia  covered the p e r i o d o f one year between December 1993 t o December 1994. A. Research  Questions  Research  t o date  does  not p r o v i d e  us with  an i n - d e p t h  understanding o f t h e domestic arrangements o f self-employed men and  women.  This  research  is a  step  towards  a  greater  understanding o f the nature o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f household and b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f entrepreneurs w i t h f a m i l i e s and the outcomes i n d e a l i n g w i t h interpreted recent  from  labour  these  obligations.  a sociological  market  trends  The data w i l l be  view p o i n t and w i l l  o f men  and women  consider  and f a m i l y  o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s focus f i l l s an important gap i n t h e Canadian literature questions  on self-employed and a  information  research  t o answer  individuals. A series design  was  the research  developed  questions  of research to  generate  and o b j e c t i v e s  posted below: 1.  How do self-employed men and women o r g a n i z e t h e i r b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y l i v e s ? Do they o r g a n i z e b u s i n e s s around t h e f a m i l y o r t h e f a m i l y around t h e b u s i n e s s ? Do they attempt to blend o r separate t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s from t h e i r f a m i l i e s ?  65 2.  What problems ( i f any) do male and female encounter in coordinating business responsibilities?  entrepreneurs and family  3.  What r e s o u r c e s ( a s s i s t a n c e i n f a m i l y and domestic help) do male and female entrepreneurs draw on t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t as they mange b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ?  4.  How a r e domestic  5.  What a r e the consequences o f t r y i n g t o c o o r d i n a t e b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the l i v e s o f self-employed men and women?  and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d i v i d e d ?  These r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r understanding the  experiences  o f both  men  and women w i t h  respect to t h e i r  domestic and b u s i n e s s l i v e s and p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n from which future  r e s e a r c h can b u i l d  i n answering  some o f the q u e s t i o n s  raised. B. Framework F o r Assessment The l a c k o f comparative how  self-employed  business  and i n depth r e s e a r c h i n Canada on  individuals  responsibilities  deal  supports  with a  their  domestic  descriptive  and  and an  exploratory research strategy. The  strengths  of  qualitative  research  methods  are  e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n r e s e a r c h t h a t i s o f an e x p l o r a t o r y and a d e s c r i p t i v e nature and t h a t make c l e a r r e f e r e n c e t o the c o n t e x t , setting,  and the s u b j e c t ' s  frame  Rossman, 1989). The aim o f t h i s achieve  a  representative  of reference  ( M a r s h a l l and  r e s e a r c h t h e r e f o r e i s not t o  sample  but  rather  i n f o r m a t i o n about these k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e s .  to  collect  66 C.Data C o l l e c t i o n and Sample S e l e c t i o n (i).  Interview The  nature of the study  obtain  information  around  i s e x p l o r a t o r y . The issues  of  b e s t way  business  and  to  family  c o o r d i n a t i o n i s by i n t e r v i e w r a t h e r than by q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The c h o i c e between a l t e r n a t i v e techniques of i n t e r v i e w i n g i n v o l v e s t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the type of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d and the way  i n which the a n a l y s i s of the data would take p l a c e . Upon  r e c o g n i z i n g the drawbacks of employing types  of  interviews, t h i s  study  s t r u c t u r e d and i n f o r m a l  relies  on  a semi-structured  i n t e r v i e w w i t h a good many open-ended q u e s t i o n s t o a l l o w f o r discovery. The  reasons  for  choosing  this  type  of  method  are  as  f o l l o w s . F i r s t i n t e r v i e w s a l l o w f o r an i n depth i n v e s t i g a t i o n of areas which cannot be e x p l o r e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . The research business  aim of t h i s  i s t o get c l o s e r t o the experience of b e i n g a s m a l l owner,  and  to  be  able  to  offer  an  in-depth  understanding of t h e i r experiences i n c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s and family  obligations.  An  ethnographic  approach,  to  live  with  e n t r e p r e n e u r s , might h e l p t o access some of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . However, a more f e a s i b l e technique  i s t o develop an i n t e r v i e w  schedule which i s s u f f i c i e n t l y open-ended t o a l l o w the of  meaning  interviewing respondents  to  emerge.  i s an  For  important  the  purpose  method  to  of  this  understand  "mean by what they say" ( M i s h l e r , 1993)  matters study,  what  the  i n response  t o the q u e s t i o n s posed about domestic and b u s i n e s s arrangements.  67 Stevenson  (1990)  asserts  that  entrepreneurship  i s a highly  p e r s o n a l and s u b j e c t i v e process and f o r t h i s reason i t may be an i n a p p r o p r i a t e way t o t r y t o measure such experiences by means o f a  totally  s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedule  adequately light  understand  onto  "how"  this  process,  entrepreneurs  o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . To  i t i s necessary  attach  meaning  t o shed to  their  experience. T h i s can be b e s t achieved by means o f an i n t e r v i e w t h a t can capture t h e complexity surrounding t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l experience  (Stevenson,  1990).  This  information  is  often  overlooked and not c a t e g o r i z e d i n e x i s t i n g Canadian census d a t a . Secondly, and  their  t h e i n t e r v i e w a l l o w s us t o hear peoples  own  voices  on c e r t a i n  definitions  like  stories success.  Through open- ended q u e s t i o n s on p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n s one does not r u n t h e r i s k o f imposing world  of  entrepreneurs  definitions  (Stevenson,  an a l r e a d y s t r u c t u r e d view of t h e  based  on  1991).  male-centred  Structured  notions  surveys  and  may not  adequately d i s c o v e r the world o f women as a b u s i n e s s owner. T h i s has  been  cited  as a  common  problem  i n research  on  female  e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . For these reasons an i n depth i n t e r v i e w method was  p r e f e r r e d and has been  female  encouraged  among  r e s e a r c h e r s on  entrepreneurship:  "We- a r e s t i l l a t t h e e x p l o r a t o r y stage i n terms o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e o r i e s o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and as such, more q u a l i t a t i v e f a c e t o f a c e and i n depth i n t e r v i e w methods a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e " ( c f . Stevenson, 1991:442). In  a d d i t i o n t o f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w s , phone i n t e r v i e w s  were conducted. stories  These methods allowed respondents  i n their  own words about t h e i r  to t e l l  experiences  their  discussed  68 further in this  chapter.  ( i i ) Interview Questionnaire Construction of  Schedule  In order t o t r a n s l a t e r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s i n t o a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s an i n t e r v i e w schedule was c o n s t r u c t e d (Appendix A ) . In creating developed  the  interview  and  some  schedule,  were  taken  open-ended  from  existing  questions  were  questionnaires  B e l c o u r t , e t a l . , 1991 and Stoner e t a l . , 1991). S e m i - s t r u c t u r e d and  open-ended  designed  so  questions  that  they  were could  chosen. be  easily  q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of s i x broad d e a l t w i t h demographic and respondents,  These  questions  administered.  s e c t i o n s . The  family related  were  first  The part  i n f o r m a t i o n (age  of  l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , age and number of c h i l d r e n ) .  The second p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e a l t w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about the b u s i n e s s . Respondents were asked  about the type  of  b u s i n e s s they operated, number of employees and hours worked i n the e n t e r p r i s e . Information about b u s i n e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and  the g e n e r a l p r o f i l e of the entrepreneur are important s i n c e age, number of employees, hours worked i n the b u s i n e s s and number of c h i l d r e n family  conflict  Longstretch  et  age  and  have been shown t o i n f l u e n c e b u s i n e s s  and  (Stoner e t a l . , 1990; a l . , 1987;  Goffee  and  B e l c o u r t e t a l . , 1991; Scase,  1985).  Liberal  F e m i n i s t Theory on female e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p c l a i m s t h a t e d u c a t i o n and  p r i o r r e l e v a n t b u s i n e s s work experience  are two  important  f a c t o r s t h a t e x p l a i n the s m a l l e r , l e s s p r o f i t a b l e ventures women have r e l a t i v e  to t h e i r  male c o u n t e r p a r t . T h i s  information i s  69 important  s i n c e these  f a c t o r s c o u l d be conceived as r e s o u r c e s  t h a t c o u l d h e l p entrepreneurs  i n managing b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y  obligations. The t h i r d s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d open-ended q u e s t i o n s on d e f i n i t i o n s o f success and m o t i v a t i o n f o r becoming self-employed open-  and how f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s  ended  questions  entrepreneurs  were  especially  own v o i c e s on these  a r e o r g a n i z e d . The  useful  issues.  t o hear  the  The m o t i v a t i o n f o r  e s t a b l i s h i n g an e n t e r p r i s e i s an important f a c t o r t h a t can h e l p t o understand how b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y a r e c o o r d i n a t e d s i n c e t h i s often will  i n f l u e n c e s t h e type o f b u s i n e s s s e l e c t e d and whether i t run from  owners tend different  i n s i d e o r o u t s i d e t h e home. Home-based b u s i n e s s  t o blend  their  business  f o r entrepreneurs  the home (Towler,  activities  which may be  operating businesses  from  outside  1986).  The f o u r t h s e c t i o n examined how entrepreneurs cope w i t h t h e demands  i n the business  a t t i t u d i n a l approaches. et  and f a m i l y  using  To accomplish t h i s ,  a l . ' s (1991) t y p o l o g y  o f coping  three  different  I adapted  responses,  which  Belcourt proposed  t h r e e types o f coping s t r a t e g i e s : 1) To r e d e f i n e ones p r i o r i t i e s 2) Changing one's own e x p e c t a t i o n s o r h a b i t s and 3) Do a l l t h e demands ( w i t h i n t h e home and b u s i n e s s ) . The statements  fifth  section  of  this  questionnaire  listed  six  r e l a t e d t o t e n s i o n s i n meeting b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y  o b l i g a t i o n s . These statements were drawn and adapted from Stoner et  al.'s  (1990)  study  on  home  role  conflict  which  were  70 originally  drawn from  t h e 1977 Q u a l i t y  o f Employment  Stoner e t a l . (1990:35) used these statements  Survey.  t o measure work-  home r o l e c o n f l i c t on s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners. Each q u e s t i o n was designed t o a s c e r t a i n t h e e x t e n t t o which b u s i n e s s e x e r t e d an influence  over  time  spent  a t home. However,  I found  these  statements t o be r a d i c a l l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c because t h e r e was an i m p l i c i t assumption  t h a t o n l y b u s i n e s s o b l i g a t i o n s would e x e r t  an  the family  influence  over  instead  of f a m i l y  obligations  impacting t h e b u s i n e s s , which may be e s p e c i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e f o r women e n t r e p r e n e u r s . To overcome t h i s d e f i c i e n c y o f a one s i d e d view o f work/home c o n f l i c t ,  I m o d i f i e d and a l s o  reversed the  q u e s t i o n s so t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n about f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s e x e r t i n g an i n f l u e n c e over t h e b u s i n e s s c o u l d a l s o be c a p t u r e d . A f o u r point L i k e r t - s t y l e scale was  utilized  questions  f o r each o f these s i x items. The data from  helped  perceived  ( s t r o n g l y agree t o s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e )  t o reveal  tension  in  whether meeting  these  o r n o t t h e entrepreneurs family  and  business  responsibilities. In organized  order  t o understand  i t i s important  how  business  and  t o know how much time  family are i s spent on  housework, s i n c e housework i s s a i d t o be an o b s t a c l e among s e l f employed  women  (Longstrech,  in  meeting  1987; Stoner  1985). To i n v e s t i g a t e  time  and  family  e t a l . ; 1990 and Goffee spent  budget" was developed drawing al.  business  demands  and Scase,  on housework, a s m a l l  "time  from t h e one used by Meissner e t  (1975) i n t h e i r study o f household demands. Since responses  71 that  rely  specific  on  past  events  are  subject  to  errors  of  recall,  q u e s t i o n s on time spent on household d u t i e s were a l s o  i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n order t o o b t a i n a more r e l i a b l e and  accurate  account  entrepreneurs.  These  of  the  domestic  q u e s t i o n s asked  arrangements respondents  of  these  t o estimate  time spent on housework per t a s k , day and per week. T h i s openended format was accurately  actual  estimates  of  (Shelton,  1992).  There  chosen time  total  s i n c e these measures may than those measures t h a t  time  spent  were t h r e e p r e - t e s t  on  household  reflect  are based  tasks  i n t e r v i e w s which  more  per  were used  on day  to  complete and r e f i n e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t took approximately one month t o develop the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Geographical Location The  need  for a  G r e a t e r Vancouver, Burnaby,  relatively  accessible  site  explains  why  i n c l u d i n g The West End, North Vancouver  and  were s e l e c t e d . Coquitlam, New Westminster, White Rock,  Surrey and M i s s i o n were chosen f o r telephone i n t e r v i e w s because of the g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e from the c i t y of  Vancouver.  S e l e c t i o n of Type of Business Owner The  c r i t e r i a s e t f o r b u s i n e s s owners i n t h i s  study were:  p a r e n t s , l i v i n g with t h e i r spouse, with c h i l d r e n l i v i n g a t home who  were up t o a maximum age  been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r a t l e a s t owner t h i r t y  of 18. The one  full  b u s i n e s s had  t o have  year, operated by the  hours o r more per week, and the owner had  t o be  72 involved  i n i t s day t o day management. These  criteria  were  e s t a b l i s h e d i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e comparison o f s u b j e c t s . Since f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were a major focus o f t h i s study i t was necessary  t h a t a l l t h e s u b j e c t s were l i v i n g  with t h e i r  spouse  and were parents o f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g a t home. T h i s approach a l s o minimizes  d i f f e r e n c e s between comparison groups s i n c e i t h e l p s  t o e s t a b l i s h a d e f i n i t e s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s under which a category exists  (Glauser e t a l . , 1967).  Recruitment  o f Business Owners  F o r t y self-employed men (20) and women (20) were r e c r u i t e d f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g u s i n g non-random r e c r u i t m e n t t e c h n i q u e s . One o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n doing r e s e a r c h on s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners i s  the l a c k o f a data base from which t o draw a sample which can be seen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f women entrepreneurs (Stevenson, 1990). F i n d i n g a comprehensive data s e t on b u s i n e s s owners i n B.C. was p r o b l e m a t i c . I wanted t o have a mixed group o f b u s i n e s s owners who operate  from  t h e home and o u t s i d e t h e home t o see what  experiences might be d i f f e r e n t . employed for  individuals  s e v e r a l reasons.  I decided t o s e l e c t from  a subgroup o f home-based b u s i n e s s First  there i s a substantial  activity  o f home-based  Roberts,  1994); secondly, they a r e o f t e n excluded  thirdly,  their  businesses  experiences  and  (Foster  selfowners  increase i n  and Orser, 1993;  domestic  i n studies;  and  business  arrangements may be d i f f e r e n t than e n t e r p r i s e s o p e r a t i n g o u t s i d e the home; and f o u r t h , choose  home-based  self-employed  businesses  women w i t h c h i l d r e n o f t e n  to coordinate  t h e two  spheres  73 (Roberts, 1994; Towler, The  process  obtaining  1986).  of s e l e c t i o n  entrepreneurs  businesses  from  who  was  guided  by  an  interest i n  were home-based and who  operated  o u t s i d e the home. The sample o f self-employed  i n d i v i d u a l s t o be i n t e r v i e w e d was chosen i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. Since I am a member o f the home-based b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n I had access  t o the Home-Based  listed  telephone  Business  Directory. This  numbers o f home-based b u s i n e s s e s  directory in British  Columbia and a few i n A l b e r t a . Because the c r i t e r i a  I s e t was  q u i t e l i m i t e d , I phoned a l l the b u s i n e s s e s i n G r e a t e r Vancouver, The  West  End,  North  Vancouver  and  Burnaby,  Coquitlam,  New  Westminster, White Rock, Surrey and M i s s i o n t h a t were l i s t e d i n this directory.  I became acquainted w i t h the a c t i n g P r e s i d e n t  and S e c r e t a r y o f the Vancouver Home-Based Business A s s o c i a t i o n (of which the r e s e a r c h e r i s a member) who a l s o a s s i s t e d i n t h e recruitment Bulletin  process  sampling Trade  advertisements  i n the Computer  Dial-A-File.  I relied running  through  on a d i f f e r e n t  businesses frames:  source  to recruit  entrepreneurs  o u t s i d e the home which came from  Members  f o u r key  o f the B r e a k f a s t Club, The Vancouver  Show, The YMCA E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l Program, and s n o w b a l l i n g  (referrals  from  respondents,  contacts  through  various  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s ) . I n d i v i d u a l s I knew were chosen f o r the p r e - t e s t i n t e r v i e w s because my f r i e n d s h i p would a l l o w more d i r e c t feedback  from them and I f e l t more comfortable  i n t e r v i e w i n g them as the f i r s t s u b j e c t s . However, I d i d not use  74 respondents  t h a t I a l r e a d y knew as p a r t of the data s e t .  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f Sample Sampling home-based, findings  s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners, e s p e c i a l l y i s known  t o be  difficult.  The  those who a r e  extent  can be g e n e r a l i z e d t o a l l entrepreneurs  t o which i s limited  because of the nature of the sample and the q u a l i t a t i v e process used t o generate the data. However, the r e s u l t s from t h i s study were  consistent  with  studies  of  entrepreneurs  in  British  Columbia and t h e r e were no r e s u l t s t h a t l e d one t o suspect t h a t the entrepreneurs were e x c e p t i o n a l o r u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Procedure Forty  self-employed  individuals  (twenty  males and twenty  females) were r e c r u i t e d f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g . T h i s number was chosen because  i t was  entrepreneurs  to  considered  to  be  a  interview  in  depth.  manageable Subjects  number were  of  first  c o n t a c t e d through telephone c a l l s t o see whether they f i t t e d t h e established  criteria.  s i n c e the c r i t e r i a call  I specifically  objectives.  T h i s was  an important  preliminary step  I s e l e c t e d were very s p e c i f i c . In the phone e x p l a i n e d the nature of my  I f the i n d i v i d u a l  study  matched the p r o f i l e  and i t s  and showed  i n t e r e s t , I asked whether I c o u l d send a l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g the nature and o b j e c t i v e s of the study and how they were s e l e c t e d (Appendix B ) . In the l e t t e r t h e r e was a s e c t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r would phone respondents  approximately  one week  a f t e r they r e c e i v e d the l e t t e r and i f p o s s i b l e s e t a convenient time and p l a c e t o meet those who agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e , t h a t the  75 i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be tape recorded  (with p r i o r p e r m i s s i o n o f the  i n t e r v i e w e e s ) and would run approximately one t o one and a h a l f hours.  Ethical  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . To  ensure  anonymity, i t was s t r e s s e d i n the l e t t e r t h a t the v o l u n t e e r ' s r e a l names would not be used i n any w r i t t e n o r taped m a t e r i a l , and  a consent  form  was a l s o  reason names a r e not used  attached  (Appendix  C ) . For t h i s  i n the d i s c u s s i o n . From a t l e a s t 150  phone c a l l s and other p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , 68 c o n t a c t s f i t t e d the criteria. showed  Ten r e f u s e d a l t o g e t h e r , e l e v e n were t o o busy, t h r e e  no i n t e r e s t ,  and f o u r were  not comfortable  revealing  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s . Gaining  Access  Gaining  access  t o small  businesses  required  me  t o be  p e r s i s t e n t and p a t i e n t . S e v e r a l b u s i n e s s owners d i d not f i t the c r i t e r i a I was l o o k i n g f o r , e i t h e r because they were not l i v i n g with  a  children  spouse,  because  not l i v i n g  were  working  only  part-time  o r had  a t home. A l s o s e v e r a l entrepreneurs  with  f a m i l i e s were not i n t e r e s t e d because they d i d not have one t o one  and a h a l f hours t o spare. However, some entrepreneurs who  d i d q u a l i f y were very c o o p e r a t i v e , and seemed i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e s e a r c h I was c o n d u c t i n g . I t was a l s o easy t o s e t a mutually convenient Other  time  with  entrepreneurs  those  entrepreneurs  were r e l u c t a n t  who were  to participate  intrigued. o r even t o  l i s t e n t o me d u r i n g the phone stage o f my r e c r u i t m e n t because they d i d not have the time, were u n i n t e r e s t e d o r s u s p i c i o u s . In some cases I p e r s i s t e d p o l i t e l y and e x p l a i n e d the importance o f  76 my study and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n . I made an effort the  t o assure those respondents  phone,  that  the content  of  who were apprehensive the i n t e r v i e w was  over  strictly  c o n f i d e n t i a l . I a l s o r e a s s u r e d these entrepreneurs t h a t I was a UBC  student  and not a f f i l i a t e d  with  Revenue Canada, as some  feared. I t was very tough t o f i n d b u s i n e s s owners who met the exact c r i t e r i a t h a t I was l o o k i n g f o r . Since the entrepreneurs I chose for  t h i s study had l i t t l e  spare time t o devote t o an i n t e r v i e w ,  I was l e f t w i t h two c h o i c e s : reduce my sample s i z e t o t h i r t y o r i n t e r v i e w f o r t y respondents chose  the l a t t e r .  but r e s o r t t o phone i n t e r v i e w s . I  Those entrepreneurs who  had l i t t l e  time t o  spare p r e f e r r e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d over the phone on the spot o r later  i n the evening  when the c h i l d r e n  were  asleep.  Others  agreed t o a phone i n t e r v i e w simply because i t was f a s t e r . were  several  instances  where  telephone  interviews  There  had  an  advantage over f a c e - t o f a c e i n t e r v i e w s . The c h i e f advantage of the telephone  interview i s that  i t i s fast  and r e q u i r e s l e s s  time than a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . Through the phone i n t e r v i e w I was a b l e t o save on t r a v e l time, t h e r e were l e s s  interruptions  and they were more focused than w i t h a f a c e - t o f a c e i n t e r v i e w . Also,  i n large  cities  where  escalation  i n personal  property  crimes have l e a d t o an i n c r e a s i n g r e t i c e n c e t o admit s t r a n g e r s i n homes, phone i n t e r v i e w s have been e s p e c i a l l y convenient here. I a l s o found i t e a s i e r t o i n t e r v i e w male s u b j e c t s over the phone because  I felt  more  comfortable  asking  them  questions  about  77 their  domestic  arrangements  than  face-to  e s p e c i a l l y convenient because i n a few  face.  This  face-to face  was  interviews  some of the male respondents were apprehensive about d i s c u s s i n g household  issues  which  was  manifest  in  their  body  language  i n v o l v i n g ( b l u s h i n g , no eye c o n t a c t or s t a r i n g a t me and for  a r e a c t i o n ) . These were uncomfortable moments and  me  at  times  from  i n t e r v i e w , I was the  the  However,  in  distracted  a  telephone  a b l e t o a v o i d these types of s i t u a t i o n s , s i n c e  respondents'  remained  interviews.  Therefore  were  open  more  interview.  waiting  and  c o o r d i n a t i n g business  more  under free and  anonymous  these to  than  in  circumstances,  discuss  f a m i l y and  I was  their  personal  respondents problems  able to  of  concentrate  more on the i n t e r v i e w . Over the phone the i n t e r v i e w e r i s not much of a t h r e a t t o the respondent as he or she cannot her  so  identify  ( B a i l e y , 1978). However, disadvantages with the phone i n t e r v i e w d i d emerge.  For one, me  to  I d i d not have the necessary equipment t h a t would a l l o w tape  record  phone  interviews.  Secondly,  I  felt  that  respondents were l e s s motivated over the telephone and were on occasions  less  likely  to  take  the  phone  interview  seriously  compared t o f a c e - t o f a c e i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s f e e l i n g would emerge when the responses from the i n t e r v i e w e e s were s h o r t , abrupt reflecting l i t t l e  and  thought. In some i n s t a n c e s I would hear n o i s e  i n the background which I d i s c o v e r e d were sounds of a respondent either  wiping  interviewees  the  kitchen  counter,  were k i n d enough t o t e l l  or me).  cooking  (which  T h i s c o u l d not  the occur  78 in  a f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w . Another d i s t r a c t i o n t h a t  occurred  d u r i n g the phone i n t e r v i e w was being put on h o l d j u s t as some o f the most important when  they  be,"sorry  were  q u e s t i o n s were being answered. U n f o r t u n a t e l y  back  on the l i n e  comment  would  about that..now where were we." Although they  would  attempt t o answer the q u e s t i o n depth  of  the f i r s t  inevitable  their  first  again t h e i r response l a c k e d the  one. A f t e r  such  interruptions  i t was  f o r some o f the respondents not t o be d i v e r t e d and  focused on t h e i r busines s r a t h e r than on t h e i n t e r v i e w . A t times I f e l t very rushed conducting  phone i n t e r v i e w s . In some cases,  a f t e r h a l f an hour o f i n t e r v i e w i n g , one respondent would breathe h e a v i l y and ask, "are t h e r e s t i l l  more q u e s t i o n s ? "  I  and on  made  i t clear  interview  would  i n the l e t t e r require  However, t h i s should respondents  who  at  least  one  even though  the phone hour  that the  of t h e i r  time.  not come as a s u r p r i s e s i n c e most of the  were  extremely  busy  chose  a phone  interview  because i t i s f a s t e r . I t would have been b e t t e r t o have a l l the i n t e r v i e w s tape recorded and d e r i v e d from the same sampling method. However, the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e was employed i n the phone i n t e r v i e w and the quality issues  o f the m a t e r i a l of coordinating  disadvantage entrepreneurs. which  me  that  Three  was not worse on major business much.  interviews  i t became known t h a t  and f a m i l y In  total  served  items  and thus I  around d i d not  interviewed  as a p r e - t e s t  a d d i t i o n a l questions  f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s were needed. Twenty e i g h t p e r s o n a l  43  through  surrounding interviews  79 were conducted  i n a d d i t i o n t o 12 telephone i n t e r v i e w s .  To understand  how  self-employed men  and women c o o r d i n a t e  t h e i r b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the impact type of o r g a n i z a t i o n may tape  recorded  few  have on these e n t r e p r e n e u r s , i n depth  semi-structured  q u e s t i o n s were conducted  this  interviews  with  open-ended  except with the phone i n t e r v i e w s , on a  o c c a s i o n s where the l o c a t i o n was  i n a p p r o p r i a t e and  i n one  f a c e - t o f a c e i n t e r v i e w where a respondent d i d not permit i t .  The  aim of the i n t e r v i e w was t o get beneath the s u r f a c e on i s s u e s of how  and  why  these  entrepreneurs  organize  their  business  and  f a m i l y arrangements i n c e r t a i n ways, the problems they f a c e i n meeting  the  competing  demands  of  both  spheres,  coping  mechanisms, and the m o t i v a t i o n f o r becoming self-employed. A l s o c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the nature of the b u s i n e s s and owner p r o f i l e were o b t a i n e d . Rapport  " A t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o how an i n t e r v i e w e r can e s t a b l i s h a relationship that i s conducive to a respondent's e x p r e s s i o n of b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s g i v e n the s p e c i a l f e a t u r e of the i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n " ( M i s h l e r , 1993:29). It  is  important  to  recognize  in  interviews that  small  b u s i n e s s owners o f t e n f e e l v u l n e r a b l e and apprehensive when i t comes  to  private  questions lives.  The  about  their  respondents  business may  also  p e r s o n a l matters r e g a r d i n g t h e i r household I spoke with my feel  f o r who  respondents  they were and  revenues be  or  their  evasive  about  arrangements. Since  b e f o r e I i n t e r v i e w e d them, I got a c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y prepared myself  advance t o d e a l w i t h these i s s u e s t o the b e s t of my  ability.  in  80 The  sample I i n t e r v i e w e d  i n f o r m a l businesses I dressed  accordingly  t o the  I wore a b l a z e r  pants and My type  place  and  businesses  and  blouse.  type of b u s i n e s s . operating  Otherwise  business  interview  from downtown I wore  casual  to  the  I  was  i n i t i a t e d the i n t e r v i e w by commenting on  the  owner. With  q u i t e i n f o r m a l and  s t y l e changed a c c o r d i n g some s m a l l e r  enterprises  weather or speaking with the owner's c h i l d r e n who I entered t h e i r home or s t o r e . With b u s i n e s s e s formal  For  a sweater.  a t t i t u d e and  of  formal,  t o ventures i n p r e s t i g i o u s downtown o f f i c e s .  example, when I i n t e r v i e w e d offices  ranged from home-based,  manner  I  maintained  a  more  peered on  as  s e t up i n a more  professional  approach.  I  always expressed i n t e r e s t i n the products or s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the  businesses.  i n t e r v i e w s was  The  purpose  these  adjustments  t o e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t which was  the data c o l l e c t i o n . M i s h l e r , t h a t the  of  the  a c r u c i a l p a r t of  (1993) c i t e s Oakley, who  c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the  to  need f o r " r a p p o r t "  asserts and  the  requirement o f between i n t e r v i e w c o m p a r a b i l i t y cannot be s o l v e d . She  proposes  personal  a  mode  of  responsiveness  feminist and  interviewing  involvement  on  the  that part  requires of  the  interviewer: "A f e m i n i s t methodology... r e q u i r e s , f u r t h e r , t h a t the mythology of " h y g i e n i c " r e s e a r c h with i t s accompanying m y s t i f i c a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r and the researched as o b j e c t i v e instruments of data p r o d u c t i o n be r e p l a c e d by the recognition that personal involvement i s more than dangerous b i a s - i t i s the c o n d i t i o n under which people come t o know each other and admit others i n t o t h e i r l i v e s " ( c f . M i s h l e r , 1993:31)  81 Interviewer  Effect  Since I was difficult  the o n l y person conducting the i n t e r v i e w s i t i s  t o know i f the  f i n d i n g s would be  similar  i f someone  e l s e (namely) a male conducted the i n t e r v i e w s . Since the of  the  interview  also  involved  open-ended  questions  depending on the s i t u a t i o n , the context and my own or mood, my s t y l e was was  style  varied. A relatively  used i n o f f i c e  s e t t i n g s . A more "maternal"  c a r i n g approach was  interview approach  a sensitive,  used when b u s i n e s s owners were emotional  s e n s i t i v e . Throughout, I assumed the proper maintain  and  and  s t a t e of mind  more formal  employed when young c h i l d r e n were present  nature  the c o o p e r a t i o n  r o l e t o adopt  and and  of the respondent because f o r :  "most i n t e r v i e w i n g s i t u a t i o n s i t i s most p r o d u c t i v e of information for the interviewer to assume a nonargumentative, s u p p o r t i v e and s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y understanding r o l e " ( c f . M i s h l e r , 1993:27). The  fact  t h a t the  some i n f l u e n c e d u r i n g  interviewer the  s i n c e the i n t e r v i e w e r was  interview.  reasons  required  i t is  female seemed t o have The  this resulted in  f u r t h e r probing  difficult  to  determine  on  the unique aspects of the two on  the  validity  of  my  what  e f f e c t s on the s u b j e c t s were. However, "one  effects  women assumed  female she c o u l d i d e n t i f y with  "domestic" problems. U n f o r t u n a t e l y responses and  was  their  incomplete  p a r t . For the  that  these  interviewer  needs t o be aware of  person i n t e r a c t i o n and p o t e n t i a l the  data  obtained"  (Mishler,  1993:30). I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Data An  i n t e r v i e w i s a case of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n between  two  82 persons ( B a i l e y , 1978). C r i t i c a l here i s r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t words may  have d i f f e r e n t  meanings depending upon the  which they are used. The women may  experiences  of self-employed  be q u i t e gendered i n c e r t a i n aspects  These experiences interview  may  questions  subculture  of t h e i r  l e a d them t o understand and differently  and  could  men  in and  lives.  i n t e r p r e t the  therefore  respond  d i s p a r a t e l y t o some of the q u e s t i o n s posed. The s t r e n g t h of t h i s interview issues.  format  The  was  its flexibility  interviewer  was  able  to  in  dealing  probe  answers and t o c o n t r o l f o r c o n s i s t e n c y  with  f o r more  specific  i n the responses and  c l a r i f y any misunderstandings. Here the i n t e r v i e w e r was ensure t h a t t h e r e questions  asked  were a c c u r a t e often  a  joint  construction  ( B a i l e y , 1978). To  and  repeated  confirming  was  that  the  I was  insure  that  what they s a i d . On  responses,  the  to  able to  of meaning on  i n t e r p r e t i n g them  interviewee's  these  the  responses  correctly, I as  a  more s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s  way  of  regarding  problems and domestic arrangements (some of my male respondents expressed  discomfort  on  this  threatened) a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d ended  questions  enabled  me  subject interview  to  adjust  and style my  felt  a  little  i n v o l v i n g open-  research  questions  a c c o r d i n g t o the p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e o f the i n t e r v i e w e e  on  some q u e s t i o n s . Through t h i s type of i n t e r v i e w , the respondent's own  v o i c e s on c o o r d i n a t i n g business  were captured. answers and  The  i n t e r v i e w e r was  and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s able t o r e c o r d  spontaneous  responses expressed i n s t o r y format as examples of  t h e i r experiences.  These s t o r i e s are more l i k e l y t o be  captured  83 v e r b a l l y because people may p r e f e r t o respond v o c a l l y i n s t e a d of in  written  format which can be more time consuming  and  less  convenient. A drawback with t h i s method of i n t e r v i e w i n g was t h a t i t was easy  to record  only  what  one thought  t o be  appropriate  and  s a l i e n t t o the r e s e a r c h . T h i s o c c u r r e d on o c c a s i o n s when I was unable t o tape r e c o r d  the i n t e r v i e w due t o the i n a p p r o p r i a t e  l o c a t i o n of t h e i n t e r v i e w . Such l o c a t i o n s were The Bread Garden, or Starbuck's Cafe where t h e r e was q u i t e a b i t of n o i s e i n the background. T h i s o c c u r r e d not  tape  recorded.  a l s o on phone i n t e r v i e w s which were  However,  s i n c e the i s s u e s of c o o r d i n a t i n g  bu si ness and f a m i l y , and household arrangements were c r u c i a l t o the  research,  responses  I  focused  and attempted  my  attention  t o capture  around  everything  these that  lengthy was  said  around them. A f u r t h e r weakness of the s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w i s t h a t on the open-ended s e c t i o n of t h e i n t e r v i e w , one q u e s t i o n elicit  could  a lengthy response not very r e l e v a n t t o the q u e s t i o n . I  attempted t o probe f o r as much i n f o r m a t i o n  as I c o u l d ,  required  others  necessary  more time  on some o c c a s i o n s  information  was  revealed.  than On  other  which  before  occasions  the some  "yes" o r "no" responses which r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r depth had t o be worked out through c a r e f u l probing and p a t i e n c e . The disadvantages of employing i n t e r v i e w s was the time they take. time  A l s o the r e c r u i t m e n t  s c h e d u l i n g was very  consuming. The f a c e - t o - f a c e  interviews  exhausting  were  lengthy  and and  84 required  the  interviewer  to  dilemma I encountered was committed am draw  the  me  a great  around the  I expected t o be t o my  line?  These  s u b j e c t s , phoned me ask  travel  about my  phone a t  the  Another  i s s u e of commitment. s u b j e c t s and  arose  back a f t e r the  more q u e s t i o n s  answer over the  questions  distance.  How  where do  when  one  of  interview  and  persisted to  research  which  the  you  I was  male  glad  time. However, a month l a t e r  received  s e v e r a l phone c a l l s  from the  same respondent. On  occasion  the respondent appeared angry at me  to I one  because I d i d not  r e t u r n h i s c a l l back immediately. In any event, he asked t o meet with me his  t o d i s c u s s c o o r d i n a t i n g h i s business  disabled  obligation  to  "tentative" returned  son.  At  answer  that some  moment of  I  his  felt  activities  that  I had  questions  so  we  arrangement t o meet i n a p u b l i c c a f e .  the  call  to  reschedule  one  hour  earlier  around a  moral  made  a  However, I because  my  husband needed the c a r . That n i g h t , the respondent c a n c e l l e d the meeting and I never heard from him again. T h i s i n c i d e n c e l e a d to question  whether i t i s such a good i d e a t o have the  me  phone  numbers and addresses of the i n t e r v i e w e r s on the consent l e t t e r . Because the  respondent i s doing  the  interviewer  a "favour"  in  t a k i n g the time t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , the i n t e r v i e w e r f e e l s a moral obligation  to  reciprocate  prompted.  However,  which may  or may  ulterior  and  clarify  motives  of  issues this  the male  not have been a t p l a y caused the  interview respondent interviewer  unnecessary s t r e s s and c o u l d have been avoided by not g i v i n g out home phone numbers. S a f e t y i s s u e s a l s o c r o s s e d my  mind because  85 some o f my i n t e r v i e w e e s operated home-based b u s i n e s s e s r e q u i r i n g me t o e n t e r i n t o homes t h a t were strange t o me i n a d d i t i o n t o being w i t h a complete s t r a n g e r alone f o r an hour o r more. P l a c e o f I n t e r v i e w and C o l l e c t i o n Methods The data c o l l e c t i o n methods v a r i e d depending on where the i n t e r v i e w took p l a c e and whether i t was a f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w or  over the phone. Interviews t h a t were conducted  i n home-based  b u s i n e s s e s , i n downtown o f f i c e s o r i n s t o r e s were tape recorded and  I  filled  in  the  interview  questionnaire  as  I  posed  questions. Through  a  series  of  questions  I  attempted  to  elicit  r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n from respondents. Tape r e c o r d i n g was u s e f u l here  so as t o capture the context i n which the respondent  answering  was  the q u e s t i o n o r e x p r e s s i n g a c e r t a i n viewpoint on a  p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e r a i s e d . I t a l s o allowed t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t o be more a t t e n t i v e t o the respondent through eye c o n t a c t . Interviews conducted Starbuck's,  i n more  public  and  loud  settings  (Bread  Garden,  food c o u r t s i n m a l l s , White Spot Restaurants)  phone i n t e r v i e w s were not tape r e c o r d e d .  and  Interviews t h a t were  not tape recorded were more d i f f i c u l t t o conduct s i n c e I had t o c o n c e n t r a t e more on what was being s a i d and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w r i t e and maintain eye c o n t a c t t o show an i n t e r e s t . However, I found that  the occasions  respondents  when  t o speak more  I  bent  freely  down  to write  and they  allowed  the  seemed t o be  less  d i s t r a c t e d upon d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r experiences than on o c c a s i o n s when t h e r e was eye c o n t a c t . A l s o l o o k i n g down helped t o c o n c e a l  86 some o f my countenance s l i p s when i n t e r v i e w e e s would respond i n predicted  manners  around  issues  of  housework.  One  male  respondent s a i d t o me "I know what your t h i n k i n g , you must t h i n k I am a male c h a u v i n i s t . . I can see i t i n your eyes." T h i s comment made me more aware and c o n s c i o u s o f my f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s so I made an e f f o r t ,  though d i f f i c u l t  T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y  hard  a t times, t o remain  neutral.  i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h some o f the male  respondents. The  average  However, they  interview  varied  depending  Interviews i n o f f i c e s owners s p e c i f i c a l l y  lasted  approximately  on where they  one  were  hour.  conducted.  l a s t e d no more than an hour s i n c e these  stated  they  only  had one hour  t o spare,  phone i n t e r v i e w s l a s t e d around t h i s time t o o . Longer i n t e r v i e w s ranged  between one and a h a l f  t o two hours  i n d u r a t i o n and  tended t o take p l a c e i n s t o r e s o r a t the owners home and o f t e n i n v o l v e d a t o u r o f the b u s i n e s s . Data A n a l y s i s : Data From Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s The data from the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e were t r a n s c r i b e d . The open-ended q u e s t i o n s were examined by o b s e r v i n g p a t t e r n s o f responses  and  subsequently  placing  them  into  categories  coded. Hours per week devoted  added up from the time budget. Frequency  which  were  t o housework were  counts were made from  the coded responses which were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o  percentages.  Three important p o i n t s o f focus were s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s in  order  to  understand  how  business  and  household  87 responsibilities  a r e c o o r d i n a t e d and t h e outcomes t h i s type o f  arrangement c o u l d have on t h e l i v e s o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s .  1.  Business c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and time devoted t o t h e b u s i n e s s , (type, s t r u c t u r e , f l e x i b i l i t y o f time, home-based).  2.  Family c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s arrangements (actual responsibilities).  (age o f c h i l d r e n ) and hours spent on  household domestic  Rough estimates o f time spent on domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s per day were compared t o t h e measurement estimates t h e respondents gave per household t a s k . T h i s approach made i t e a s i e r t o monitor how c o n s i s t e n t t h e respondents estimate on time spent on housework were. I f t h e r e was an incongruencey between t h e estimates g i v e n per day and per t a s k , I used t h e l a t t e r ones because p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t e s t i m a t e s per t a s k y i e l d h i g h e r e s t i m a t e s than those based on an estimate o f time spent p e r day on household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( S h e l t o n , 1992). 3.  Strategies employed responsibilities.  to  organize  business  and  family  The focus here was whether b u s i n e s s o r f a m i l y took p r i o r i t y i n c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e two spheres and i f t h e two were blended or separated. A n a l y s i s o f Four Groups o f Entrepreneurs T h i s study their  examined how s e l f  b u s i n e s s and domestic  employed i n d i v i d u a l s  responsibilities  manage  and t h e outcomes  t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n may have on t h e i r b u s i n e s s and/or f a m i l y l i f e . The data were analyzed around outcomes o f c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e two  spheres.  sense  Four  o f t h e data  statements  groups emerged out o f my attempts on t h e s i x b u s i n e s s  shown i n t a b l e 1.  and f a m i l y  t o make conflict  88 Table 1  Six L i k e r t Questions: 64a My f a m i l y and household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t e n c o n f l i c t s with my b u s i n e s s schedule: s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree  strongly disagree  64b My b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t e n c o n f l i c t s . w i t h on f a m i l y and household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree  time spent  strongly disagree  65a In my f a m i l y and household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I have so much t o do t h a t i t takes time away from my b u s i n e s s : s t r o n g l y agree  agrees--—  disagree  strongly disagree  65b I have so much t o do i n my b u s i n e s s t h a t i t takes time away from my household and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree-  strongly disagree  66a My household and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s take up time I would l i k e t o spend on my b u s i n e s s : s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree  strongly disagree  66b My b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s take up time I would l i k e t o spend on my f a m i l y and household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : s t r o n g l y agree  I  chose  questions.  agree  to  The  analyze  first  disagree  my  sample  set derives  strongly  based  from  on  disagree—-  two  responses  sets  of  from s i x  statements which formed f o u r groups. The second s e t i n v o l v e s a s e r i e s o f open-ended q u e s t i o n s used t o v e r i f y responses o b t a i n e d from  the  Likert  questions  that  classified  four  groups  of  e n t r e p r e n e u r s . But b e f o r e I e x p l a i n how the groups were s e l e c t e d  89 it  i s important  four  t o examine why I chose t o base my a n a l y s i s on  groups o f entrepreneurs  continuum  o f meeting  business.  During  based  on where they  t h e competing  the analysis,  demands  stood  on a  o f f a m i l y and  i t became c l e a r  that several  p a t t e r n s o f managing b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y emerged. A t y p o l o g y o f e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l groups based on manners o f c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s I thought would be a u s e f u l way t o analyze my sample and t o capture t h i s d i v e r s i t y . Stevenson t h a t entrepreneurs diversity  (1990) s t a t e s  a r e not an homogeneous group and t h a t t h i s  can be  captured  i n an  analysis  by  developing  t y p o l o g i e s . T h i s approach i s not uncommon, as Goffee and Scase (1985) analyzed t h e i r sample o f female entrepreneurs i n the form of  t y p o l o g i e s because t h e experiences  o f self-employed  women  were s p e c i f i c t o c e r t a i n "types" o f women. The data d e r i v e d from the s i x c o n f l i c t statements were used to  form  t h e groups.  following  patterns:  The f o u r  business  groups  or family  emerged  based  on t h e  responsibilities  may  e x e r t a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e over t h e o t h e r , demands i n f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s a r e so g r e a t r e s u l t i n g i n c o n f l i c t i n attempts one  t o meet both o b l i g a t i o n s . The f o u r t h s i t u a t i o n i s  where responses  family  activities  conflict.  arising  suggest  are less  Hence,  t h a t commitments t o b u s i n e s s and and do not produce a s i t u a t i o n o f  coordinating  business  and  family  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be more balanced compared t o the other t h r e e groups.  Each q u e s t i o n was designed t o a s c e r t a i n  whether f a m i l y o r b u s i n e s s e x e r t e d a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e over t h e  90 other. How  respondents were c l a s s i f i e d  i n t o the f o u r groups are  d e s c r i b e d below. Four groups based on p a t t e r n s o f b u s i n e s s  and  family  organization 1.  Time c e n t r e d around the b u s i n e s s  (Business-centred  groupV.  Subjects t h a t f e l l i n t o the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group answered e i t h e r agreed or s t r o n g l y agreed on a t l e a s t two of the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e questions (64b, 65b, and 66b) (as shown above) on business a f f e c t i n g f a m i l y and were c l a s s i f i e d as i n d i v i d u a l s who were b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d . The p a t t e r n of these responses suggest t h a t a c t i v i t i e s i n the business are more weighted than those of the f a m i l y . 2. Time c e n t r e d around the f a m i l y ( F a m i l y - c e n t r e d  group).  The r e v e r s e p a t t e r n occurred f o r respondents who answered e i t h e r s t r o n g l y agree or agree on a t l e a s t two of the f o l l o w i n g three questions (64a, 65a, and 66a) where family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a f f e c t e d the b u s i n e s s . The responses i n d i c a t e t h a t r e l a t i v e t o the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group, these e n t e r p r i s e s are more c e n t r e d around f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . 3.  Business and Group)  f a m i l y are c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n ( C o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  Responses where business owners c o n s i s t e n t l y s t r o n g l y agree or agree the m a j o r i t y of times on a l l s i x questions (64a, 64b, 65a, 65b, 66a, 66b) on business and f a m i l y i s s u e s , r e v e a l e d a s i t u a t i o n where a c t i v i t i e s were h e a v i l y weighted on both s i d e s in meeting the two domains of business and family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . R e l a t i v e t o the other group t h e i r s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n c o n f l i c t coming from both spheres i n c o o r d i n a t i n g business and f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . 4. Business and  f a m i l y are i n balance (Balance  Group)  In c o n t r a s t t o the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group, responses t h a t read s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e or d i s a g r e e a m a j o r i t y of times on a l l s i x questions (64a, 64b, 65a, 65b, 66a, 66b) suggested t h a t meeting business and f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s were i n g r e a t e r harmony compared t o the responses from the other t h r e e groups. Two  answers  that  were  inconsistent,  thus  difficult  to  c l a s s i f y , r e q u i r e d a judgement c a l l and were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the  91 f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group a c c o r d i n g t o other responses on t h i s i s s u e . The r e s u l t s  are l i s t e d below i n t a b l e 2.  R e s u l t s from L i k e r t Questions T a b l e 2.  B u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d Group Question #  SA  A  D  SD  Total  64a  5.3  26.3  68.4  0  100  64b  10.5  42.1  47.4  0  100  65a  0  0  89.4  10.6  100  65b  10. 6  84  5  0  100  66a  0  10.5  73.7  15.8  100  66b  15.8  84.2  0  0  100  D  SD  Total  33  0  100  F a m i l y - c e n t r e d Group Question #  SA  A  64a  0  67  64b  0  33  66  0  100  65a  0  33'  67  0  100  65b  0  0  100  0  100  66a  0  100  0  0  100  0  100  0  100  66b  ;  R e s u l t s from L i k e r t Table  Questions  2.  C o n f l i c t Group Question #  SA  A  D  SD  Total  64a -  40  50  10  0  100  64b  40  60  0  0  100  65a  30  70  0  0  100  65b  40  50  10  0  100  66a  20  50  30  0  100  66b  20  60  20  0  100  B a l a n c e d Group Question #  SA  A  D  SD  Total  64a  0  12.5  62.5  25  100  64b  0  12.5  75  12.5  100  65a  0  0  87.5  12.5  100  65b  0  0  87.5  12.5  100  66a  0  12.5  75  12.5  100  66b  0  0  87.5  12.5  100  93 Since  these  questions  alone  a r e n o t adequate  indicators to  d i s t i n g u i s h the degree o f c o n f l i c t and harmony experienced among respondents  i n coordinating business  and f a m i l y a s e r i e s of  open-ended q u e s t i o n s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the a n a l y s i s . These q u e s t i o n s n o t o n l y served t o access i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e types of problems experienced, degree of harmony o r c o n f l i c t , but were a l s o used t o t e s t t h e responses from the l i k e r t q u e s t i o n s t o see i f they h o l d . (The r e s u l t s of t h e l i k e r t q u e s t i o n s and the openended responses  a r e compared  i n the findings section  of t h i s  thesis). Information on the b u s i n e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r o f i l e o f the  entrepreneurs  determine,  are  as i n o t h e r  incorporated  into  s t u d i e s , whether  the they  analysis  to  i n f l u e n c e how  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y a r e o r g a n i z e d . I chose t e n f a c t o r s (they a r e discussed  i n greater  frequently cited  detail  i n chapter  IV) t h a t  have  been  t o i n f l u e n c e and e x p l a i n b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y  arrangements. I examined t h e data t o determine  whether t h e t e n  f a c t o r s emerged d i f f e r e n t l y o r s i m i l a r l y among the f o u r groups of  entrepreneurs. Overall  the a n a l y s i s  groups o f entrepreneurs  of t h i s  study  d e r i v e d from  r e v o l v e d around  six Likert  four  questions. A  s e r i e s o f open-ended q u e s t i o n s were a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the analysis  to  entrepreneurs  test  the  organize  above  typology  their  and  domestic  to  examine  and  how  business  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the outcomes these arrangements had on t h e i r l i v e s and how they d e a l t with t h e i r c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . The t e n  94 factors  were employed as e x p l a n a t o r y  experiences;  where  they  fell  short  tools in  to interpret their  these  explanations,  r e s o u r c e theory and gender i d e o l o g y were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o  the  a n a l y s i s t o i n t e r p r e t experiences t h a t were unique t o e i t h e r the male or female  entrepreneurs.  95 Chapter  IV; Data and F i n d i n g s  Introduction The men  purpose of t h i s study i s t o examine how self-employed  and  women  organize  their  household  and  business  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and t h e e f f e c t t h a t meeting t h e two competing demands  can have  on t h e i r  lives.  First,  t h e f i n d i n g s and  d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e a b r i e f demographic p r o f i l e o f t h e b u s i n e s s owners and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s t o p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f t h e respondents  i n the interviews.  Second, i n t r y i n g t o analyze t h e m a t e r i a l one s e t o f L i k e r t q u e s t i o n s seemed t o o f f e r t h e b e s t g e n e r a l way o f c a p t u r i n g my concern w i t h household  and b u s i n e s s arrangements and enabled me  t o s u b d i v i d e t h e sample i n u s e f u l ways on these i s s u e s . Based on this  s e t of s i x questions  t h e respondents  are organized  into  f o u r groups around i s s u e s o f c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y responsibilities: 1) Time c e n t r e d around t h e Business 2) Time c e n t r e d around t h e Family  (Business-centred)  (Family-centred)  3) Business and Family a r e c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  (Conflict-ridden  group) 4) Business and Family a r e i n Balance  (Balance group)  T h i s mode o f a n a l y s i s was chosen t o capture t h e d i v e r s i t y  found  i n t h e experiences o f managing b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y commitments. However, upon a n a l y z i n g t h e data broad  groups do not p r o v i d e  where t h e owners stand  i t looks as though t h e f o u r  a comprehensive  understanding o f  i n t h e degree o f c o n f l i c t  and harmony  96 they  experience  in  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The  coordinating  business  and  family  a n a l y s i s of the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s takes  us  so f a r , but i n order t o get f u r t h e r a t the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n I found  i t necessary t o draw on a s e r i e s of open-ended q u e s t i o n s  r e l a t e d t o aspects of b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y c o o r d i n a t i o n . Third,  ten  factors  that  may  help  to  explain  why  entrepreneurs o r g a n i z e t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s i n p a r t i c u l a r ways are presented  briefly  (home-Based, o p e r a t i n g b u s i n e s s  o u t s i d e the  home, spouse's working s t a t u s , number of hours devoted t o the business  and  to  housework,  flexible  or  inflexible  with  work  schedule, o u t s i d e h e l p f o r c l e a n i n g household, s a l a r y , age  and  number  of  are  chosen  since past  children  and  spousal  research  has  support).  These  demonstrated  factors  t h a t they  i n f l u e n c e b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y c o n f l i c t (Stoner e t a l . , may  have a b e a r i n g on how  arranged.  These  could  1990)  and  domestic and b u s i n e s s workloads are  factors  including  gender  ideology,  are  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the a n a l y s i s t o e x p l a i n some of the u n d e r l y i n g processes t h a t l e a d t o c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s of o r g a n i z i n g business and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and the e f f e c t managing the two  may  have on t h e i r ventures, f a m i l i e s and themselves. Fourth, the f i n d i n g s r e v o l v e around t h r e e themes. The i s a d i s c u s s i o n of how become  increasingly  first  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y are o r g a n i z e d . I t has common  in  our  society  f o r business  and  domestic l i f e t o be p h y s i c a l l y separated. But i n some areas of the economy and i n some economic n i c h e s , the two continue t o be closely  enmeshed and  are o f t e n p h y s i c a l l y  linked.  Shopkeepers  97 living  over t h e i r s t o r e s was  once a common p a t t e r n , but  these  days a whole v a r i e t y of b u s i n e s s e s can be home-based, where t h i s type  of  blending occurs.  employment  and  with  Today with  the  women f i g u r i n g  t h e r e are many d i f f e r e n t  types  resurgence  centrally  of b u s i n e s s e s  of  self-  in this t h a t can  change be  run  from the home, e s p e c i a l l y those i n the s e r v i c e s e c t o r . No doubt mixing f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s o f t e n c r e a t e s c o n f l i c t and competing demands f o r b u s i n e s s great  d e a l . These  owners. How  range  from  they mange the two  either  around the f a m i l y , or r e v o l v i n g  varies  constructing a  a  business  f a m i l y around the e n t e r p r i s e .  Other ways entrepreneurs c o o r d i n a t e the two spheres i s by e i t h e r s e p a r a t i n g b u s i n e s s and  or b l e n d i n g the  two  where f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s are i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d . For some the  way  they  not  arrange  developed  the  two  satisfactory  exploitation  works  well.  strategies  and  arising  others  have  r e p o r t much t e n s i o n and two  d i r e c t i o n s . These i s s u e s are examined s i n c e d e c i s i o n s about  how  and  themselves,  However,  in  business  of  family a c t i v i t i e s  from  f a m i l y are c o o r d i n a t e d can  being  be  pulled  a means of b e t t e r  managing the two r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s however, depends on the entrepreneurs p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n and whether or not they  are  home-based. The second theme d e a l s w i t h the outcomes of p a r t i c u l a r ways of o r g a n i z i n g b u s i n e s s and  f a m i l y on c e r t a i n  b u s i n e s s e s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s and themselves. by  an  attempt  to  answer  the  The  aspects of  their  focus i s guided  following questions:  a)  what  problems do these entrepreneurs f a c e i n attempting t o c o o r d i n a t e  98 business  and  obligations  family  affect  responsibilities?  their  businesses?  c)  b)  how  what  do  family  suffers  in  the  process of managing the competing demands of b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s ? and d) are these entrepreneurs s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t household  arrangements?  Entrepreneurs  often e s t a b l i s h t h e i r businesses with  g o a l s , however, some f i n d themselves  clear  i n s i t u a t i o n s where t h e i r  a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n i s incongruent with t h e i r i n i t i a l  expectations  of the types of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and commitments w i t h which they are f a c e d . E x p l o r i n g the a t t i t u d e s of male and female  business  owners i n coping w i t h the demands of the b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y i s the  third  theme  understanding  of  that their  is  examined  management  of  and work  should and  add  to  an  f a m i l y . Three  coping s t r a t e g i e s are examined: 1) changing ones e x p e c t a t i o n s , 2) doing i t a l l or 3) r e d e f i n i n g ones p r i o r i t i e s .  P r o f i l e of Self-Employed Sample Business Characteristics A t o t a l of 40 i n t e r v i e w s (twenty males and twenty were completed the respondents businesses  females)  i n the Vancouver area. In t h i s sample, (63%) ran home-based b u s i n e s s e s , and  outside  the  home.  Seventy  percent  (37%) of  of  operated  the  female  entrepreneurs were home-based compared t o s i x t y p e r c e n t of the male b u s i n e s s owners. Forty-five proprietorship,  percent 38%  of  the  businesses  were  i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s and  sole 17%  had  99 partnerships spouse).  ( o f which  one female  partnership  However, 60% o f t h e women c o n s i d e r e d  was w i t h h e r  themselves  sole  p r o p r i e t o r s , compared t o 30% o f t h e men. Only 15% o f t h e women were i n c o r p o r a t e d , compared t o 60% o f t h e men.  F i g u r e 3.  Type of Business Structure 25%  H Female  Partnership  •  Incorporated  Male  ^^^^^^^PipiS!j5R n i'  Sole Proprietorship  1  1  r, >•  i,| „ W'A it  i  1111  , , ' , .,  ••;  !  i  i  . . . -  5  ^  .  30% I  0  10  .  I  1  20  30  ;  H  40  1  I  50  —  1  60  100 This male  f i n d i n g shows t h a t a much g r e a t e r  sample  had r e g i s t e r e d  their  proportion  businesses  as  of the  corporations  which i s c o n s i s t e n t with other r e s e a r c h i n t h e area (Fraboni and S a l t s t o n e , 1990; S w i f t , 1988; Lavoie, 1988; M i n i s t r y o f Economic Development, Finance,  Small  1991).  differences  Business  It  and Trade,  serves  i n business  to  and t h e M i n i s t r y o f  illustrate  registration  that  there  are  between male and female  e n t e r p r i s e s . T h i s has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r women business owners,  since  incorporated (Belcourt  proprietors  have  less  credibility  f i r m s , and f a c e b a r r i e r s when a p p l y i n g  e t a l . , 1991).  Also  there  p r o p r i e t o r s s i n c e t h e owners p e r s o n a l  are r i s k s assets  than  f o r a loan  involved f o r  can be s e i z e d i f  they i n c u r debt. There a r e many t a x b e n e f i t s t h a t  incorporated  f i r m s can take advantage o f . Some r e s e a r c h e r s have e x p l a i n e d and l i n k e d the lack of incorporated  f i r m s among women t o t h e h i g h  i n c o r p o r a t i o n fees which can range between $500 t o $1000. Women are  less likely  earnings  t o be a b l e  t o a f f o r d these  fees  since  their  i n g e n e r a l a r e lower than those o f men, o r t h e r e a r e no  savings t o draw on f o r women e n t e r i n g t h e workforce a f t e r c h i l d rearing  years.  Seventy percent o f t h e businesses the  i n t h i s study belonged t o  s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y . The second most common  retail  (15%).  demonstrating industry  This  an i n c r e a s e  (Cachon,  Secretariat;  finding  1989;  is  consistent  i n self-employment Lavoie,  1979;  i n d u s t r y was i n with  research  i n the service Small  M i n i s t r y o f Economic Development, Small  Business Business  101 and Trade, and the M i n i s t r y of Finance, 1991).  Figure  4.  Business Types  2.50%  5  o  A  A f u r t h e r breakdown of the type of b u s i n e s s e s i n t a b l e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s the v a r i e t y of b u s i n e s s e s these entrepreneurs run i n the s e r v i c e  industry.  102 T a b l e 3. Breakdown o f Business Type Business Type  Male  Female  Retail  C h r i s t i a n Bookstore, Soccer Sports Equipment  A r t Card P r i n t i n g Children's Clothing L i g h t i n g Signs  Service  Graphic Designer Consultant ( a r c h i t e c t ) C o n s u l t a n t (business) C o n s u l t a n t (computer) Consultant ( e l e c t r o n i c s ) Consultant ( f i n a n c i a l ) C o n s u l t a n t (oceanic g r a p h i c ) Landscape Design c o n t r a c t o r Accountant Autoglass I n s t a l l e r Electrical Installer E l e c t r i c a l Repair Shop U p h o l s t e r y of F u r n i t u r e Truck/freight delivery Gold Coins I n v e s t o r Restaurant Cafe Photography S t u d i o Corporate v i d e o p r o d u c t i o n  F l o r a l Design D r i e d Flowers G i f t Baskets Gourmet G i f t Baskets Tooth Brushes Jewellery Animation Design Fundraiser I n t e r i o r Designer Computer S e r v i c e s Workshop/leadership Employment Agency Insurance Agency F i n a n c i a l Planning Graphic Designer  Manufacturing  Production of Decorate-stencils  Agriculture  Grow  Flowers  F i f t y - t w o percent o f t h e business owners d i d not have any employees, 38% had between one and f i v e f u l l - t i m e employees and 10% had over 5 employees. S i x t y - t h r e e percent o f t h e businesses were r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d and f a i r l y young between 2 t o 4 years o l d . H a l f o f those i n t e r v i e w e d p a i d themselves a wage t h a t  fell  i n t o the $25,000 t o $50,000 range, the second most common s a l a r y range  (32%) was  $10,000  to  $25,000.  There  was  a  salary  d i s c r e p a n c y between men and women. Most o f t h e women a l l o c a t e d themselves a s a l a r y between $10,000 t o $25,000, compared t o t h e  103 male entrepreneurs $25,000 1994;  who p a i d themselves  t o $50,000.  This  confirms  a salary  existing  White, 1984; B e l c o u r t , e t a l . ,  ranging  research  from  (Potts,  1991).  Demographic P r o f i l e o f Business Owners More than h a l f (52.5%) o f t h e respondents  were between t h e  ages o f 41 t o 50. The m a j o r i t y (55%) o f t h e women had a c o l l e g e or  u n i v e r s i t y degree,  compared t o o n l y 25% o f t h e men. F i f t y -  f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e owners had p r e v i o u s b u s i n e s s experience. I t is  of interest  t h a t 65% o f t h e women had p r e v i o u s  experience  compared t o 45% o f t h e men. These f i n d i n g s c o n t r a d i c t feminist lack  assumptions  o f experience  about  female  and education  entrepreneurship a r e t h e two main  liberal  such  that  resources  women a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o have than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . The  t h r e e most common reasons  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r own  b u s i n e s s e s were "to be your own boss",  "greater f l e x i b i l i t y " ,  and " s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t . " These r e s u l t s compliment those o f Goffee and Scase,  (1985); Fraboni and S a l t s t o n e , (1990); and Stevenson,  (1984). Women o p e r a t i n g b u s i n e s s e s from t h e i r home chose employment t o c o o r d i n a t e work l i f e consistent activity  social  Canadian  (Roberts,  established findings  with  their  lean  self-  with  family l i f e  which i s  on  home-based  business  research  1994). Only  t h r e e men who were home-based  businesses  for familial  towards  the research  reasons.  and assumptions  f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e on female  These  from t h e  entrepreneurship,  that  self-employed men and women would have d i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i o n s f o r establishing  their  enterprises. This  finding  i s especially  104 common among women with c h i l d r e n ,  which a l l o f t h e owners i n  t h i s study have. Each  respondent  was asked  t o d e f i n e success  f o r him o r  h e r s e l f as a self-employed person. The most common r e p l i e s based on  t h e respondent's  satisfaction  own d e f i n i t i o n  o f success  was p e r s o n a l  (33%) making a b e t t e r l i v i n g than b e f o r e (30%) and  a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r balance between f a m i l y and f i n a n c i a l  needs  (22%) . T a b l e 4: D e f i n i t i o n o f Success  Making a b e t t e r l i v i n g B e t t e r balance on l i f e (meet f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s needs) Personal s a t i s f a c t i o n Other Breaking  respondents  Kale  Female  40% 20%  20% 25%  15% 25%  50% 5%  down by gender,  half  o f t h e women  (50%) and 15% o f t h e males d e f i n e d success i n terms o f p e r s o n a l satisfaction,  25% o f t h e women (20% o f t h e men) viewed  i t as  a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r balance between b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y and 20% of t h e women (40% males) d e f i n e d i t i n terms o f making a b e t t e r l i v i n g than b e f o r e . Breakdown o f t h e f o u r groups by number and sex o f entrepreneur The typology  analysis  of the research  findings  i s based  o f f o u r groups o f b u s i n e s s owners i n terms o f where  they stand on a continuum i n b e i n g a f f e c t e d by t h e i r and or  on a  business  f a m i l y d u t i e s . Understanding whether c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s produce  more t e n s i o n f o r one group than  105 for  another  research  group, i s important  question.  Comparing  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r answering the  how  entrepreneurs  i n the four  groups arrange t h e i r b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s might tell  us more about why one group may experience more c o n f l i c t  than  another.  I t has been r e p o r t e d t h a t domestic  commitments  have a n e g a t i v e impact on t h e l i v e s of women, and t h a t men have worked so hard i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s t h a t i t a f f e c t s t h e i r f a m i l y life.  Therefore  experiences  i t i s equally  important  of c o o r d i n a t i n g business  to  examine  the  and f a m i l y arrangements  between men and women; t h i s should be tempered w i t h an a n a l y s i s of t h e gendered p a t t e r n s w i t h i n each group and a c r o s s This  approach  i s similar  (1985). They analyzed t h e i r  to that  o f Goffee  sample o f female  groups. and  entrepreneurs i n  the form o f t y p o l o g i e s , i n order t o capture t h e d i f f e r e n t of  experiences  entrepreneurs.  that Their  entrepreneurial business  emerged  among  their  typology  was based  sample on f o u r  women' ( i n n o v a t i v e e n t r e p r e n e u r s ,  women, r a d i c a l  Scase  of  types female  "types" o f conventional  p r o p r i e t o r s and co-ownership).  In my  study d i s t i n c t experiences o f c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y responsibilities based  emerged  on d i f f e r e n t  among t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r s .  degrees  A typology  o f c o n f l i c t and harmony  resulting  from managing the two domains o f work and f a m i l y i s one way o f capturing  these  experiences  more  vividly.  This  approach  overcomes t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f assuming t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y one type of experience i n o r g a n i z i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y demands. I draw on Stoner e t a l . ' s (1990) c o n f l i c t statements  employed i n t h e i r  106 study  on  work  and/home  conflict  (described i n  the  previous  c h a p t e r ) . T h e i r statements are m o d i f i e d f o r t h i s study and based on  the  family  respondent's influences  p r i o r i t y was  p e r c e p t i o n of whether e i t h e r  the  other.  These  responses  business  reveal  whether  a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r b u s i n e s s or f a m i l y d u t i e s which  i n t u r n were used t o c l a s s i f y the entrepreneurs i n t o groups. identify  or  I  f o u r groups of entrepreneurs based on where they stand  i n adapting b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y arrangements. T h i s i s u s e f u l f o r describing  different  patterns  of  where  business  and  family  o b l i g a t i o n s are weighted. Groups of entrepreneurs are summarized i n Table 5. T a b l e 5.  Percentages o f Four groups o f Entrepreneurs N*  Business-centred (% of t o t a l = 47.5)  Family-centred (% of t o t a l = 7.5)  Male Female  12 7  Total  19  Male Female  1 2  Total Conflict-ridden (% of t o t a l = 25)  Balance group (% of t o t a l = 20)  *N=number of  Male Female  63 37  33 67 3  2 8  20 80  Total  10  Male Female  5 3  Total  8  respondents  %  62.5 37.5  107 As Table 5 i l l u s t r a t e s , male and female e n t r e p r e n e u r s were d i s p e r s e d d i f f e r e n t l y among the f o u r groups. From t h i s t a b l e i t is  apparent t h a t the l a r g e s t group of the t o t a l sample (47.5%)  fell male  i n t o the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group respondents  comprising  a m a j o r i t y of which were  this  group  (63%  were  male  respondents compared t o 37% female r e s p o n d e n t s ) . Twenty-five p e r c e n t of respondents f e l l category;  consisting  of  80%  women.  Out  of  i n t o the a  conflict  total  of  ten  respondents i n t h i s group o n l y two were male. Twenty p e r c e n t of the  respondents f e l l  i n t o the balance category w i t h 5 male and  o n l y 3 female respondents. The c e n t r e d group w i t h o n l y 7.5%  s m a l l e s t group was  of the t o t a l  the  family-  respondents  falling  i n t o t h i s category (two females and one male respondent). The  respondents  were d e s i g n a t e d t o these  four  groupings  from responses t o s i x L i k e r t q u e s t i o n s based on the respondents perception decisions  of  how  behind  business the  initial  and  family  are  classification  coordinated.  The  of entrepreneurs  i n t o the f o u r groups were d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . The p a t t e r n of the responses f o r the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group suggest t h a t a c t i v i t i e s i n the b u s i n e s s a r e more weighted than those o f the  family.  The  reverse  pattern  occurred  for  respondents  c l a s s i f i e d as the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group whose responses i n d i c a t e t h a t r e l a t i v e t o the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group, t h e i r are  more  centred  around  family  activities.  enterprises  Responses  where  entrepreneurs c o n s i s t e n t l y s t r o n g l y agree or agree around i s s u e s of  family  and  business revealed  a situation  where  activities  108 were h e a v i l y weighted of  business  and  conflict-ridden  on both s i d e s i n meeting  family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . group,  respondents  the two domains  In c o n t r a s t t o the  classified  as the group i n  balance suggested i n t h e i r responses t h a t f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s were i n g r e a t e r harmony. However,  these  simplification,  four  groups  must  be  regarded  as  a  i f o n l y because few owners f i t n e a t l y i n t o any  one o f the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . J u s t  because the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  group i s d e s c r i b e d as a group e x p e r i e n c i n g c o n f l i c t  does not  exclude the b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y - c e n t r e d groups from e x p e r i e n c i n g tension these  as w e l l .  groups  either  are d i f f e r i n g  business  business  What i s r e a l l y  going  degrees  on f o r respondents  of  priority  or f a m i l y arrangements,  matters  are more  important  and  where  assigned  i n some  i n others  in to  cases  domestic  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s take p r i o r i t y . The main p o i n t here i s t h a t o f t e n t h e r e i s an uneasy t e n s i o n between the two as w e l l . In the case of the b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y - c e n t r e d groups,  i t i s more  weighted  t o e i t h e r b u s i n e s s or f a m i l y , u n l i k e the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group where b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y are both p e r c e i v e d t o produce t e n s i o n . The responses  from the entrepreneurs c l a s s i f i e d as the balance  group suggested  t h a t they d i d not " p e r c e i v e " c o n f l i c t  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y commitments. However,  s i n c e these  between replies  r e v e a l an almost " i d e a l " s i t u a t i o n o f "no c o n f l i c t " they should be accepted w i t h c a u t i o n . Whether the responses used t o c o n s t r u c t t h i s t y p o l o g y h o l d when  a  series  of o t h e r  questions  are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o  the  109 analysis really  will  be examined.  The s i x L i k e r t  questions  r e v e a l enough about t h e degree of c o n f l i c t  experienced  by t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r s .  do not  o r harmony  Hence, a s e t o f open-ended  questions are incorporated into the a n a l y s i s . Ten  Important  F a c t o r s t h a t h e l p t o e x p l a i n how b u s i n e s s and  family are organized There  are  vast  differences  in  the  experiences  c o o r d i n a t i n g work and f a m i l y which a r e l a r g e l y accounted ten f a c t o r s . An examination understanding  and  o f these  explaining  factors  the  individuals  Studies  several  have  work/home  demonstrated  conflict.  that  The most  common  and  business  of t h i s  factors  ones  f o r by  i s important f o r  domestic  arrangements o f t h e self-employed  of  sample.  influence  reported  i n the  l i t e r a t u r e a r e b r i e f l y presented below. Time p r e s s u r e has been r e p o r t e d t o have a b e a r i n g on t h e extent o f work-home r o l e c o n f l i c t  ( c f . Stoner e t a l . , 1990). On  the same note, one can assume t h a t number o f hours devoted t o the b u s i n e s s and housework c o u l d i n f l u e n c e work/home c o n f l i c t . Quite  naturally,  as  more  time  is  devoted  to  business  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , l e s s time i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e f a m i l y , o r the r e v e r s e . Other r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f workfamily c o n f l i c t f o r larger families business  owners)  (Keith  (though not f o r home-based  and Schafer,  1980).  However,  Storm,  Hartman and Arora (1990) found i n t h e i r study t h a t t h e number o f c h i l d r e n and hours worked a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o workhome c o n f l i c t . They s t a t e t h a t t h i s may be a unique  feature of  110 being  a  small  accommodate their  business  many dimensions  findings  business  one  can  schedule,  i n f l u e n c i n g the business  owner, where of  assume  could  be  work-home that  Greenhaus  and  of  time  conflict.  the  considered  degree of c o n f l i c t  demands.  flexibility  Based  flexibility an  Kopelman  of  important  in coordinating  factor  found  and  therefore family  reported  more l i k e l y  than  that  parents  and that  parents of younger c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e more time l o o k i n g a f t e r are  on  ones  family  (1981)  can  and  t o experience c o n f l i c t  between work  with  It  home-based  older  business  children. owners  has  frequently  been state  problems of  j u g g l i n g b u s i n e s s and  family  responsibilities  and  maintaining  boundaries, which are  l i n k e d t o both b u s i n e s s  and  family one  functioning  can  assume  i n one  that  problems than not  l o c a t i o n (Towler, 1986).  being  being  home-based  could  Therefore,  pose  home-based i n c o o r d i n a t i n g  different enterprise  and domestic d u t i e s . Family support has been c o n s i d e r e d t o s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s e s and  has  been r e p o r t e d  f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g work-home c o n f l i c t and women i n general  as an  the  important  i n s t u d i e s of working  (Stoner e t a l . , 1990). Though the  key  men  research  suggests t h a t t h e r e are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t have been shown t o influence  the  degree  of  conflict  experienced  in  managing  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y demands, o n l y a few of the s t u d i e s are based on small b u s i n e s s owners. The  f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d above seem t o i n f l u e n c e the  patterns  of home/work arrangements and so are i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s of t h i s study.  Ill Ten f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g Work/Family C o n f l i c t / A r r a n g e m e n t s 1) Home-Based, o p e r a t i n g b u s i n e s s o u t s i d e the home 2) Spouse working:  f u l l - t i m e , p a r t - t i m e , not  working  3) Number of hours devoted t o the b u s i n e s s 4) Number of hours devoted t o housework 5) F l e x i b l e or not f l e x i b l e with work schedule 6) Outside h e l p f o r c l e a n i n g household 7) S a l a r y owner a l l o c a t e s t o s e l f 8)  Age  9) Number of c h i l d r e n 10) Spousal  support  F i n d i n g s : Groups Based R e s u l t s B u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group The owners  findings in  the  indicate  that  more than  business-centred  group  half  operated  o u t s i d e the home. S i x out of t e n males and females flexible  were  not  home-based.  with t h e i r  time  (53%)  out  of  f o u r out of  ten men  terms of the  extent t o which they  and  could a l t e r  seven  were  not  four  seven women were not f l e x i b l e ) . F l e x i b i l i t y of time was in  the  enterprises  S i x t y - t h r e e percent  (eight  of  out  assessed  their  work  schedule t o accommodate f a m i l y needs, whether they c o u l d leave work a t any time t o run household errands and dropping c h i l d r e n o f f t o and from s c h o o l . E l e v e n out of the n i n e t e e n entrepreneurs had a spouse working e i t h e r p a r t - t i m e or not a t a l l (among them ten  were  male).  This  finding  d i f f e r e n c e s between male and  suggests female  that  there  are  clear  entrepreneurs w i t h i n t h i s  112 group, which data r e v e a l has s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r experiences  i n coordinating  business  and  family  activities.  These entrepreneurs devoted the l e a s t amount of time t o domestic and  child  performed  care  responsibilities;  12  out  of  19  respondents  19 o r l e s s hours per week on household d u t i e s . More  than f i f t y p e r c e n t of the women performed more than 19 hours per week compared performed  t o more than  half  19 o r l e s s hours  of the male respondents  per week. Again t h e r e were  who  gender  d i f f e r e n c e s here. These e n t r e p r e n e u r s worked the l o n g e s t  hours  per week i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s compared t o the o t h e r groups, with the m a j o r i t y (58%, e l e v e n out of nineteen) working over 50 hours per week (Nine out of twelve men  compared t o two  of the seven  f e m a l e s ) . Twenty-six p e r c e n t (5 out of 19) worked over 60 hours per  week  (four  percent  (15  centred  group  were  out  of  had  male 19)  at  and  one  of  the  least  two  was  female).  respondents children  Seventy-nine  i n the b u s i n e s s -  and  tended  to  have  teenaged c h i l d r e n . Seventy-four p e r c e n t of these b u s i n e s s owners allocated year.  themselves  Fourteen  mostly  in  a salary  respondents  consulting  Family-centred  operated  (eight  respondents were i n r e t a i l  between $25,000 t o $50,000 per  male  service and  six  type  industries  females).  Three  (two males and one f e m a l e ) .  group  A l l t h r e e respondents (two female one male) from t h i s group were home-based, had working  full-time.  f l e x i b l e work schedules and had  Two  respondents had two  a  spouse  c h i l d r e n under  the  113 age  of  t e n . The  third  respondent  who  was  female  had  two  teenagers. The two female respondents devoted 20 t o 29 hours per week t o housework. However, the one male owner performed  30-39  hours per week. The respondents tended t o work 40 hours o r more per week i n the b u s i n e s s . $10,000 t o $25,000 per year i s the s a l a r y they a l l o c a t e d themselves. Two respondents (both female) ran r e t a i l b u s i n e s s e s (card p r i n t s and c h i l d r e n ' s c l o t h i n g ) . The male entrepreneur operated a s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y i n g r a p h i c d e s i g n .  Conflict-ridden Like  the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group,  respondents (80%)  i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  the m a j o r i t y (80%) o f the group  had a f l e x i b l e work schedule  were home-based and  (the two respondents  that  were not home-based and had an i n f l e x i b l e work schedule were women) . 90% had a spouse the  working  full-time  (except f o r one o f  two male r e s p o n d e n t s ) . These e n t r e p r e n e u r s had the l a r g e s t  f a m i l i e s r a n g i n g from two t o t h r e e c h i l d r e n . The m a j o r i t y (7 out of 10) o f the respondents i n t h i s group devoted 30 o r more hours per week t o housework ( i n c l u d i n g one o f the male r e s p o n d e n t s ) . The m a j o r i t y spent f o r t y hours per week i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s (40% of the respondents i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group who were female worked  over  themselves earned  50 a  hours  salary  $25,000  to  in their  b u s i n e s s e s ) . Most  between $10,000 $50,000  per  t o $25,000  year  allocated  and a t h i r d  (including  both  male  r e s p o n d e n t s ) . Seven out o f t e n respondents operated s e r v i c e type industries  (including  both  males  in  this  group  who  ran  114 businesses  i n computer  networking  and landscape d e s i g n ) . The  o t h e r s e r v i c e type b u s i n e s s e s were i n c o n s u l t i n g ,  and s e l l i n g  j e w e l l e r y . One female respondent ran a manufacturing b u s i n e s s i n stencils  and another  owned  one i n wholesale  producing  gift  baskets.  Balance Group S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t (6 out o f 8) o f t h e respondents were home-based.  Two  of  t h e male  respondents  operated  their  b u s i n e s s e s from o u t s i d e the home. E i g h t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t (7 out o f 8) had a f l e x i b l e work schedule, and a l l o f t h e respondents had a  spouse  working  full-time.  The m a j o r i t y  (5 out o f 8) o f  respondents perform 29 hours o r l e s s t o housework p e r week. Two of the t h r e e women devoted 30 hours o r more. They worked over 40 hours  i n their  b u s i n e s s . These  respondents  had t h e s m a l l e s t  f a m i l i e s w i t h e i t h e r one o r two c h i l d r e n . They were s p l i t t h r e e equal groups  between a l l o c a t i n g themselves  into  a salary of:  $10,000 t o $25,000, $25,00 t o $50,000 and above $50,000 (20% o f the men earned $50,000). A l l t h e respondents i n t h i s group r a n s e r v i c e type i n d u s t r i e s . Two males r a n p r o f e s s i o n a l b u s i n e s s e s one  i n ( o c e a n i c g r a p h i c c o n s u l t i n g and t h e o t h e r i n f i n a n c i a l  c o r p o r a t e management). The o t h e r male operated b u s i n e s s e s were in  corporate video  p r o d u c t i o n , a photography  studio  e l e c t r i c a l r e p a i r shop. Two o f t h e women r a n s e r v i c e in  floral  design  and  selling  toothbrushes.  entrepreneur r a n a r e t a i l o u t l e t o f l i g h t s .  and an  industries  One  female  115 Gender d i f f e r e n c e s f o u r groups on two  were apparent  factors.  w i t h i n and  Female entrepreneurs  between devoted  the more  hours per week t o housework than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s i n a l l four  groups.  Male  working  spouse t o  working  spouse  unlike  the  entrepreneurs rely  on.  claimed  to  full-time  entrepreneurs who  tended  to  have  a  part-time  A l s o , those  men  with  a  full-time  divide  the  working  household  husbands  work e q u a l l y  of  the  female  d i d not do t h e i r f a i r share of housework.  The b u s i n e s s owners i n a l l f o u r groups tended  not t o h i r e  o u t s i d e h e l p . T h i s f i n d i n g corresponds with the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by Lavoie (1988) where o n l y 10% of the b u s i n e s s owners drew on outside  help.  Also,  spousal  support.  the  majority  This finding  of  these  respondents'  i s c o n t r a r y t o the  made by Sexton and Kent (1981) who  had  assumptions  c l a i m t h a t f a m i l y support f o r  females may be l i m i t e d because husbands are o f t e n u n s u p p o r t i v e . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Business and Domestic L i v e s T h i s s e c t i o n e x p l o r e s the d i v e r s e p a t t e r n s of o r g a n i z i n g business  and  family  business  is  organized  responsibilities. around  the  It  family  examines or  the  whether  family  o r g a n i z e d around the b u s i n e s s , and whether f a m i l y and  is  business  are separated or blended domains. These i s s u e s are not addressed i n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , or are t r e a t e d i n a very g e n e r a l (Belcourt, et a l . ,  1991)  and are important  t o an  way  understanding  of how b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are c o o r d i n a t e d . The r e s u l t s were drawn from q u e s t i o n #49  i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e :  "Do  you o r g a n i z e your f a m i l y arrangements around your b u s i n e s s or do  116 you o r g a n i z e your b u s i n e s s around your f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? "  Percentages of Owners who (by group) Table  Organize Family  around the  Business  6.  Business around Family Business-centred Family-centred Conflict-ridden Balance Group  Family around Business  16% 100% 40% 50%  Around Each Other  68% 0 30% 38%  16% 0 30% 12%  Table 6 demonstrates t h a t only respondents from the f a m i l y centred  group  form  a  majority  in  revolving  their  business  a c t i v i t i e s around t h e i r f a m i l i e s . However, the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n and balance groups have t h e i r l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n on the f a m i l y side  unlike  the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d  group who  are more weighted  toward o r g a n i z i n g the f a m i l y around the b u s i n e s s . Explanations f o r why Entrepreneurs Organize t h e i r Business Around the Family, or choose to revolve t h e i r Family Around the Business: Business-centred  Group  Respondents  from  revolve  their  family  the  business-centred  activities  around  group their  tended  to  businesses.  However, g i v e n t h a t t h i s group i s d e f i n e d as b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d , f i n d i n g 16% o f the respondents r e v o l v i n g b u s i n e s s around f a m i l y and another 16% doing both, i s q u i t e h i g h . These  f i n d i n g s are  117 contrary  to  those  obtained  in  the  typology  and  raises  the  q u e s t i o n of whether the t y p o l o g y i s an adequate i n d i c a t o r alone of where t o p l a c e entrepreneurs with r e s p e c t t o t h e i r and  f a m i l y commitments. One  the  b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group o r g a n i z e d  family.  out of the 12 male respondents  T h i s male entrepreneur  o p e r a t i n g h i s e n t e r p r i s e from wife  recently  assisted  her  remaining  was  extending  eleven  male  the  business  own  around  a professional  a downtown o f f i c e .  e s t a b l i s h e d her by  business  retail  h i s domestic  respondents  the  accountant  However, h i s  business,  and  thus  responsibilities.  organized  in  their  The  families  around the b u s i n e s s . F i v e out of the seven female respondents i n this  group  also  organized  their  f a m i l y around  the  business.  However, the o t h e r two females r e v o l v e d t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s around the f a m i l y (they were home-based). Respondents i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group r e v o l v e d  their  f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s around t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s because they operated businesses  from  o u t s i d e the home and  work schedule, u n l i k e the respondents  d i d not have a  flexible  i n the o t h e r t h r e e groups.  These c o n d i t i o n s p l a c e d the b u s i n e s s owners i n a s i t u a t i o n where organizing  family  life  around  their  enterprises  was  f e a s i b l e . Another reason f o r t h i s type of arrangement was  more having  a spouse t o r e l y on l o o k i n g a f t e r the household. T h i s s i t u a t i o n was  e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t t o the male respondents where 10 out of  12 had a spouse working p a r t - t i m e or not a t a l l compared t o one out  of  allowed  the  seven  male  female  respondents.  entrepreneurs  to  run  This a  extra assistance  business  with  less  118 c o n s t r a i n t s imposed on them by f a m i l y commitments. Without assistance  of  wives  (Bechhofer and  many small  Elliott,  1981;  businesses  Goffee and  would  not  the  survive  Scase, 1985). In  this  study the wives a s s i s t e d w i t h the household but a l s o ran errands (going  t o the  messages,  bank, post  work  which  office,  the  husbands  important f o r the b u s i n e s s . on  i n turn  from  allowed  outside  enterprises schedule.  home  and do  female  and  to  taking  be  very  Having the e x t r a a s s i s t a n c e t o r e l y entrepreneurs t o  often  Although  considered  these  the  which  buying s u p p l i e s )  to not  operate  establish allow  respondents  businesses  more  for  a  stated  demanding  flexible that  work  they  also  r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e from t h e i r husbands, the amount of work l e s s s i n c e t h e i r husbands had of the entrepreneurs who Another  important  full-time  jobs, u n l i k e the  were working p a r t - t i m e factor  that  seems  to  was  wives  or not a t a l l . influence  the  d e c i s i o n t o make the venture the f o c a l p o i n t of l i f e i s the of the c h i l d r e n . T h i s was  age  i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g comment,  "business comes f i r s t , the age of the k i d s i n f l u e n c e d why I started my business..they are o l d e r now..I would not r i s k i t i f the k i d s were younger." (male respondent w i t h teenaged c h i l d r e n ) . T h i s male entrepreneur e s t a b l i s h e d a b u s i n e s s around which  he  managed f a m i l y  he  had  life.  This  teenaged c h i l d r e n who  arrangement was were f a i r l y  p o s s i b l e because  independent and  r e q u i r e very much time commitment from t h e i r  did  not  parents.  The same p a t t e r n of a r r a n g i n g f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s around the business  emerged  for  some of  the  female  respondents  in  this  119 group. T h i s type o f arrangement was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by t h e ages of t h e c h i l d r e n . Some o f the female entrepreneurs  established  t h e i r ventures f o r s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t and as a way o f surmounting constrains rearing.  imposed  After  by  domestic  responsibilities  years o f committing  and  child  themselves t o c h i l d  care,  these women sought self-employment t o f u l f i l p e r s o n a l  ambitions.  These female entrepreneurs had o l d e r c h i l d r e n and t h e r e f o r e that  operating  their  businesses  from  outside  felt  t h e home and  r e v o l v i n g t h e i r f a m i l y around t h e e n t e r p r i s e was j u s t i f i e d . In her  sample,  different "being  Scott  (1986)  priorities  their  found  that  as b u s i n e s s  own boss",  men and women may have  owners,  with  and women p l a c i n g  men s t r e s s i n g  more  emphasis on  "personal c h a l l e n g e " and " s a t i s f a c t i o n " depending on t h e i r stage of  the l i f e - c y c l e .  female  respondents  This  trend  with  also  older  emerged  children  f o r some o f t h e  who  sought  self-  employment f o r p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and p l a c e d t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e i r l i v e s . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe that  t h e two women who operated  enterprises  home and who had younger c h i l d r e n , claimed their  present  child  when she e s t a b l i s h e d h e r b u s i n e s s .  did  from o u t s i d e t h e  t o have f a l l e n  into  b u s i n e s s s i t u a t i o n . One o f them d i d not have a  n o t expect  to receive  such  large  The other work  respondent  contracts  which  e v e n t u a l l y f o r c e d her t o r e l o c a t e her b u s i n e s s o u t s i d e the home. Of  i n t e r e s t here  their  enterprises  organize  i s that into  these  two women were r e s t r u c t u r i n g  home-based  ones  so t h a t  they  could  them around t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h i s p o i n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d  120 i n t h e f o l l o w i n g comment: "I am aiming f o r a s m a l l e r b u s i n e s s so t h a t I can operate from home and have more f l e x i b l e time t o be a v a i l a b l e f o r my f a m i l y . " (female respondent from b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group with c h i l d r e n under t h e age o f t h r e e ) The that  examples o f t h e two female  family  duties  do  affect  entrepreneurs  entrepreneurs  illustrate  and appear t o  i n f l u e n c e women t o a l a r g e r e x t e n t . P a r t o f t h e reason f o r these women t o be more a f f e c t e d by f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s , stems from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e male entrepreneurs i n t h e same group had spouses working  p a r t - t i m e o r not a t a l l .  They c o u l d r e l y  on them t o  a t t e n d t o f a m i l y needs. A l s o women performed more housework than their  male  c o u n t e r p a r t s . Two o f t h e male respondents  f u l l - t i m e working  with a  spouse d i v i d e d housework e q u a l l y w i t h  their  wives. T h i s o c c u r r e d o n l y f o r t h r e e out o f t h e s i x women w i t h a f u l l - t i m e working  spouse.  C o n f l i c t - r i d d e n , Balance and F a m i l y - c e n t r e d Groups A l l t h r e e respondents  (two females and one male) from t h e  f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group r e v o l v e d t h e i r home-based b u s i n e s s e s around t h e i r f a m i l i e s , which i s c o n s i s t e n t with t h e t y p o l o g y . Two out of t h e f i v e male respondents  from t h e balance group o r g a n i z e d  t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s around the f a m i l y . They are both home-based and have working  wives  (one p a r t - t i m e t h e other  full-time)  which  e x p l a i n s why they are more l i k e l y t o choose f a m i l y as t h e f o c a l p o i n t . However, b e i n g home-based does not always s e t t h e stage f o r o r g a n i z i n g b u s i n e s s around the f a m i l y . One o f the t h r e e male respondents  who r e v o l v e d t h e f a m i l y around  t h e b u s i n e s s was  home-based. T h i s was p o s s i b l e s i n c e he had a nanny who looked  121 a f t e r h i s seven month o l d baby. The o t h e r two e n t r e p r e n e u r s who were not home-based, o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s around t h e f a m i l y . Among the  female  respondents  three organized t h e i r female  respondent,  revolved  (who were  two out o f  b u s i n e s s e s around t h e f a m i l y . The o t h e r  despite  her f a m i l y  a l l home-based)  operating  around  h e r venture  the business  from  because  home,  h e r work  involved a l o t of t r a v e l l i n g . Half  (4 out o f 8) o f t h e female  conflict-ridden (all  respondents  from t h e  group o r g a n i z e d t h e i r b u s i n e s s around t h e f a m i l y  t h e females except f o r one were home-based). Two females  who were  home-based  responsibilities revolved  their  c l a i m e d t o o r g a n i z e b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y  around family  each o t h e r . The o t h e r two respondents  around  t h e b u s i n e s s (one was not home-  based) . Among t h e two male respondents i n t h i s group who were both home-based, one r e v o l v e d h i s b u s i n e s s around t h e f a m i l y t h e o t h e r d i d not. The l a t t e r respondent had a w i f e working time t o r e l y on a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o  part-  o f b e i n g home-based  o r g a n i z e t h e f a m i l y around t h e  b u s i n e s s i s s i m i l a r t o t h e male respondent i n t h e balance group (with  a seven  business  month  the f o c a l  o l d baby) who point  because  also  made h i s home-based  he had a nanny t o r e l y  on  l o o k i n g a f t e r h i s son. T h i s s i t u a t i o n does not p r e s e n t i t s e l f t o the  home-based women i n a l l f o u r groups because they had f u l l -  time working husbands and d i d not have a nanny (except f o r one female  respondent  home-based).  i n t h e b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group  who was not  122 Respondents from the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n , balance and f a m i l y centred  groups tended  to revolve t h e i r  businesses  around  f a m i l y because they p l a c e d f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s i n the of t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s p r i o r i t y was of  the  children  who  tended  forefront  l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d by the  t o be  younger  than  the  those  age  i n the  b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group. Respondents had t o rearrange t h e i r work schedule and adapt t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e t o t h e i r c h i l d r a t h e r than the c h i l d t o the b u s i n e s s . In t h e i r case, b e i n g home-based and having a f l e x i b l e work schedule allowed them t o r e v o l v e t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s around f a m i l y d u t i e s and made a l l o c a t i o n of b u s i n e s s and type  f a m i l y time of  o r g a n i z a t i o n occurs  younger c h i l d r e n also  more manageable. F a c t o r s e x p l a i n i n g  and  distinguished  are:  a flexible  the  being  home-based,  work schedule.  conflict-ridden,  why  These  balance,  and  this having  factors family-  c e n t r e d groups from the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group, who on the o t h e r hand, were not f l e x i b l e ,  operated a b u s i n e s s from o u t s i d e the  home, had a spouse working p a r t - t i m e t o manage the household had o l d e r c h i l d r e n who  c o u l d look a f t e r  However, gender d i f f e r e n c e s  and  themselves.  d i d emerge between male  and  female respondents w i t h i n and between the f o u r groups. The male respondents  had a w i f e working  some cases a nanny t o r e l y on  p a r t - t i m e or not a t a l l ,  and i n  l o o k i n g a f t e r the household  c h i l d c a r e . U n l i k e the female entrepreneurs who  and  d i d not have a  nanny or r e c e i v e the same amount of a s s i s t a n c e . Are Businesses Separated o r Blended w i t h Family? Another  way  i n which entrepreneurs o r g a n i z e t h e i r f a m i l y  123 and  business  responsibilities  is  by  either  blending  s e p a r a t i n g t h e i r business and f a m i l y l i v e s . Combining and  family  involves  linking  the two  so  that  or  business  there  is a  r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. S e p a r a t i n g them means t h a t t h e r e i s no involvement (Belcourt,  o f the f a m i l y i n the a c t i v i t i e s o f the e n t e r p r i s e  e t a l . , 1991). The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s  responses  from q u e s t i o n 61b.  T a b l e 7.  Percentages Separate  Business-centred Family-centred Conflict-ridden Balance group  Blend  58% 3 3% 10% 12%  a r e based on  Each o t h e r  37% 67% 90% 63%  5% 0 0% 25%  More than h a l f o f the entrepreneurs i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group separated t h e i r business and f a m i l y l i v e s . Respondents i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n , f a m i l y - c e n t r e d , and balance  groups  tended  t o blend t h e i r business and f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r S e p a r a t i n g Business and Family R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Some o f the f a c t o r s presented respondents their  i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group opted  businesses  individuals  e a r l i e r h e l p t o e x p l a i n why  from  ran t h e i r  their ventures  families.  These  f o r separating self-employed  from o u t s i d e the home. Hence,  having a p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n from f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s makes i t e a s i e r t o keep the two environments s e p a r a t e . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g comment:  124 " i t i s p o s s i b l e t o separate the two s i n c e I do not work from the home, and do most of my work i n my o f f i c e " (female respondent from b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group, w i t h two young children). However, continued  some respondents  t o separate t h e i r  i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y d u t i e s ,  when they were home-based. Among the seven male respondents  even who  separated t h e two spheres, two were home-based. T h i s i s because substances used i n the b u s i n e s s were hazardous t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n (ie.  autoglass  and  repair  business).  Five  respondents who blended the two environments based.  Two of these respondents  blended  the two  spheres.  of  the  male  tended t o be home-  were not home-based but s t i l l  For them  blending  involved taking  c h i l d r e n w i t h them on d e l i v e r i e s o r running errands, s i n c e t h e i r wives worked f u l l - t i m e .  G e n e r a l l y b e i n g home-based o r l o c a t e d  o u t s i d e the home i n f l u e n c e s whether a b u s i n e s s w i l l be blended or  separated. Upon  group,  examining  the seven  women  i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d  f o u r of them separated the two environments.  among them two respondents business  ( d e s p i t e b e i n g home-based) separated  and f a m i l y s i n c e the type  inappropriate  f o r blending  of b u s i n e s s  blended  environments  the two (despite  spheres not  they  r a n was  (both r a n b u s i n e s s e s t h a t i n v o l v e d  w r i t i n g r e p o r t s and o r g a n i z i n g workshops). Three who  However,  still  being  claimed  of the women  to link  home-based).  s t r a t e g i e s these women employed t o b l e n d t h e two  Some  the two of  the  environments  can be c o n s i d e r e d unique t o them as women. T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d in  the f o l l o w i n g comment,  125 "I l e t them get i n v o l v e d i n my b u s i n e s s so they can see how much I do..the support of my v i s i o n from the c h i l d r e n i s important so they are not angry when you cannot be t h e r e a l l the time..and a l s o they see t h a t they are t a k i n g a responsibility t o h e l p me w i t h my success." (Female respondent from the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group, with two teenaged c h i l d r e n ) For these female entrepreneurs i t appears t h a t b l e n d i n g or s e p a r a t i n g f a m i l y from b u s i n e s s i s i n f l u e n c e d by the age of the children. and,  The  because  above of  female  their  respondent  age,  was  had  able to  teenaged  involve  daughters  them  i n her  v i s i o n of success so t h a t they would be more understanding when she i n v e s t e d so much time i n t o her b u s i n e s s . T h i s b u s i n e s s woman also  used  her  cooperation  children's  and  example of both Many  of  the  support  as  a r e s o u r c e t o g a i n more  a s s i s t a n c e w i t h i n the household, f a m i l y labour a t home and  female  respondents  relied  on  i n the their  a s s i s t them because t h e i r husbands were working One based  respondent  was  forced  which  enterprise. children  from  to  full-time.  from the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group who  t o separate the b u s i n e s s  i s an  her  was homefamily i n  order t o keep peace w i t h her husband. "My husband does not l i k e t o see my b u s i n e s s s t u f f around the house..in the morning when i t i s cheaper t o make phone c a l l s i t gets my husband mad.. .my b u s i n e s s has t o be i n v i s i b l e f o r him..he wants me t o be t h e r e f o r him when he i s home..so i t s d i f f i c u l t t o separate the two...I am i n f l u e n c e d by him t o o r g a n i z e my work around him when he i s home. "(Female i n f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group with teenaged children) It  was  easier  for this  home-based woman t o separate  b u s i n e s s from her f a m i l y because she had a teenaged not  need much l o o k i n g a f t e r .  husband who  was  o l d e r (60)  Her  and  situation  i s one  more t r a d i t i o n a l  her  son who d i d where  her  i n h i s views  126 about the r o l e o f w i f e and f a m i l y , b e l i e v e d t h a t when he came home h i s w i f e should be t h e r e f o r him. He d i d not want t o see any b u s i n e s s work i n the house because a "house i s a house and work i s work." He b e l i e v e d i n a c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n o f work o u t s i d e the  home  and  the f a m i l y .  However,  for this  woman  i t was  d i f f i c u l t t o completely separate her b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from the home (when her husband was present) because the nature of her b u s i n e s s r e q u i r e d her t o make c a l l s d u r i n g her f a m i l y ' s breakfast  and d i n n e r time because  i t was cheaper  and due t o  d i f f e r e n t time zones. She i s s t i l l i n the process o f s o l v i n g her dilemma o f t r y i n g t o meet both f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s d u t i e s . B l e n d i n g Business and Family: Family-centred,  Conflict-ridden  and Balance Groups The  respondents  and balance groups responsibilities.  from the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d ,  tended t o b l e n d t h e i r S i x out o f the e i g h t  conflict-ridden  family  and b u s i n e s s  respondents  balance group combined the two environments males and two o f the t h r e e females) . Two  i n the  ( f o u r o f the f i v e (one male  and one  female) respondents i n t h e f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group blended the two spheres. The other female was f o r c e d by her husband t o separate her b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s from the f a m i l y earlier).  (which was i l l u s t r a t e d  A l l respondents i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group  except  f o r one, fused the two environments. One reason f o r b l e n d i n g the two  spheres among entrepreneurs i n these groups  home-based encourages  b u s i n e s s e s . The nature an  atmosphere  of  of t h i s  involvement  type  i s operating of business  because  of  the  127 flexibility  a f f o r d e d by being  home-based.  Also  some  o f the  owners had p r e - s c h o o l e r s a t home. Having young c h i l d r e n makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o separate home from the b u s i n e s s sphere,  especially  i f the owners a r e f u n c t i o n i n g i n the same environment. I n v o l v i n g children age,  varies according to a c t i v i t i e s  stage  of  development  and  i n t e r e s t s . T h i s i s demonstrated  appropriate f o r t h e i r  along  the  lines  of  their  i n the f o l l o w i n g comments,  "I have a t h r e e year o l d daughter who wants t o be w i t h me., she has her l i t t l e office i n mine so we p l a y t o g e t h e r . . s o t h e c h i l d r e n are p a r t o f what I am doing ..I b r i n g one o f my c h i l d r e n with me on t r i p s . " (female respondent, f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group, with a 3 year o l d c h i l d ) T h i s female respondent was home-based and looked a f t e r her two-and-a-half  year o l d daughter  w h i l e she r a n her home-based  b u s i n e s s . S e p a r a t i n g the two environments would  be very  difficult  and a t times  f o r t h i s entrepreneur  even  impossible. I t i s  t h e r e f o r e i n her i n t e r e s t t o f i n d a way o f b l e n d i n g her b u s i n e s s w i t h her daughter's  a c t i v i t i e s i n order t o minimize  conflict.  T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B e l c o u r t , e t a l . (1991) who found  that  women who own and mange t h e i r own b u s i n e s s e s o f t e n combine the roles  o f spouse  and s m a l l b u s i n e s s  owner. T h i s  respondent's  older  son accompanied her on some b u s i n e s s t r i p s which was a  common way o f managing b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y f o r some o f the male respondents  as w e l l .  A f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f b l e n d i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y , y e t i n a d i f f e r e n t way, i s demonstrated  i n the f o l l o w i n g comment by  a male respondent who i s home-based, "My k i d s l o v e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the b u s i n e s s : they f i g h t t o  128 get t h e fax..they can t e l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e type of r i n g s , answer t h e phone, and take t h e paper out of t h e fax t o g i v e t o me. "(male i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group w i t h c h i l d r e n between t h e ages o f 6-12 and 12-18) T h i s respondent taught h i s c h i l d r e n how t o operate some o f the b u s i n e s s equipment, and they became a resource t h a t a s s i s t e d him.  One woman h i r e d her son t o b a b y s i t  housework paying  and t o a s s i s t  him from her own s a l a r y  because  i n the  i tis  "her  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " t o ensure t h a t t h e household i s maintained. One female entrepreneur p a i d her son one cent per l e t t e r he stamped. Another  interesting  way  of  nurturing  a  sense  of  family  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e b u s i n e s s was i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g comment:  " I g e t my k i d s  involved:  they  are hired  t o do t h e  b a b y s i t t i n g f o r parents t h a t take my c l a s s e s i n the home." Other forms o f p a i d labour by f a m i l y members ( c h i l d r e n ) i n t h i s sample were answering t h e phone and making d e l i v e r i e s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s not uncommon. Women shopkeepers and women who develop p i e c e work businesses frequently involve the c h i l d r e n i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the e n t e r p r i s e (Bechhofer and E l l i o t t , 1981). Bertaux found t h a t the  French baker r e l i e s on h i s wife  Bechhofer and E l l i o t t , According  to a  t o keep shop f o r him ( c f .  1981). fundamental  proposition  of the Marxist  p e r s p e c t i v e , the f a m i l y i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y i s an e x p l o i t a t i v e institution oppression.  and t h e f a m i l y  i s most  responsible  f o r women's  In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , self-employed men g a i n a s s i s t a n c e  from t h e i r spouse whom they do not pay and i s c o n s i d e r e d  t o be  e x p l o i t i v e . Zimmer and A l d r i c h (1987) found i n t h e i r study t h a t spouses and c h i l d r e n o f shopkeepers o f t e n work f o r l i t t l e o r no  129 pay d u r i n g odd hours. However, the f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study r e v e a l t h a t the r e l a t i o n s are not of an e x p l o i t i v e nature i n the degree t h a t M a r x i s t s viewed describe  in their  i t , but  as  Bechhofer  study  as  "an  own  s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e i r own  and  Elliott  extension  l a b o u r . " Parents  (1981)  r a t h e r than  in this  a  sample p a i d  t h e i r c h i l d r e n and even self-employed women r e c e i v e d much unpaid assistance  from  their  husbands  especially  i n computer  work,  o f f i c e s e t up and i n g e n e r a t i n g c l i e n t s . E a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , i t was  found t h a t the w i f e ' s a s s i s t a n c e was  important  contribution  entrepreneurs  i n the  to  the  well  c o n s i d e r e d t o be an  being  b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group,  of  the  male  however some of  these wives were g e t t i n g p a i d , w h i l e o t h e r s d i d not have another p a i d job. T h i s k i n d of a s s i s t a n c e demonstrates  how the f a m i l y i s  not o n l y a u n i t of consumption but a l s o a u n i t of p r o d u c t i o n f o r the  entrepreneurs  those  by  Bechhofer  in this and  sample.  Elliott  These  findings  (1981) showing  how  compliment wives  and  c h i l d r e n are bound t o g e t h e r i n e a r n i n g a l i v i n g . Some of these entrepreneurs  (especially  women) have  to  use  every  means a t  t h e i r d i s p o s a l t o lower c o s t s , and do so by drawing on a spouse or  t h e i r c h i l d . The b u s i n e s s owners i n t h i s study reduced c o s t s  by having t h e i r c h i l d r e n work f o r t h e i r allowance. Apart  from  r e d u c i n g labour c o s t s ( f a m i l y can reduce l a b o u r c o s t s s i n c e they o f t e n work f o r l e s s than the market wage (Zimmer e t a l . , another  reason why  f a m i l y members may  be p r e f e r r e d  1987),  i s because  they are more p r e d i c t a b l e and more r e l i a b l e employees (Zimmer e t al.,  1987).  130 One  fundamental  difference  between t h e self-employed men  and women between and w i t h i n t h e groups i s having a p a r t - t i m e spouse o r a spouse not working a t a l l t o r e l y on, which t h e men and  not t h e women had. T h i s means t h a t  women r e c e i v e d  less  a s s i s t a n c e from t h e i r husbands compared t o male e n t r e p r e n e u r s . I t a l s o e x p l a i n s why t h e women i n t h e t h r e e groups drew more on their  c h i l d r e n ' s h e l p ; t h e male entrepreneurs d i d not need t o  because they had t h e i r wives' a s s i s t a n c e . However, o f i n t e r e s t i s t h a t self-employed husbands w i t h f u l l - t i m e working wives d i d i n f a c t draw on t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a s s i s t a n c e . Male and Female D i f f e r e n c e s f o r B l e n d i n g Business and Family Although  t h e age and type o f b u s i n e s s i n f l u e n c e d t h e way  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y were blended, gender a l s o i n f l u e n c e d  this.  Female respondents i n a l l f o u r groups attempted t o engage f a m i l y members i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s i n o r d e r t o g a i n t h e i r support,  and r e s p e c t  f o r their  work  when  immediately spend time w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  understanding,  they  c o u l d not  T h i s d i d not emerge  f o r any o f t h e male respondents. F o r these women i t seems as i f blending  became a r e s o u r c e  cooperation  on which  w i t h i n t h e household  they  drew t o g a i n more  and acceptance  from  family  members f o r spending time i n t h e b u s i n e s s . One reason why these female  entrepreneurs  environments encounter  stems  than t h e i r  were  from  more  barriers  inclined women  t o blend a r e more  male c o u n t e r p a r t s . One b a r r i e r  t h e two likely  to  i s gender  i d e o l o g y , which t r a d i t i o n a l l y p r e s c r i b e s women's primary d u t i e s to  be i n c h i l d  rearing  and i n t h e home, which a f f e c t e d  these  131 women. These women have t o j u s t i f y the e x t r a time they devote t o their  business  t o overcome  guilt  feelings.  These  facts are  supported by t h e f o l l o w i n g , "I t r y t o i n v o l v e my c h i l d r e n so t h a t they can understand what I do, they are more f o r g i v i n g i f I cannot do something w i t h them" (female from the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group, c h i l d r e n aged 6-12) T h i s woman e x p l a i n s t h e importance  o f the b u s i n e s s t o her  c h i l d r e n i n order t o g a i n t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . T h i s i n t u r n makes i t e a s i e r f o r her t o devote e x t r a time i n t h e b u s i n e s s without f e e l i n g g u i l t y . An important f a c t o r t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t h e type o f s t r a t e g i e s used  i n b l e n d i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y i s t h e age o f  the c h i l d r e n . Other seriously  problems s p e c i f i c  t o women i n c l u d e not b e i n g  taken  i n t h e b u s i n e s s world. T h i s p o i n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n  the f o l l o w i n g comment: "I take t h e k i d s t o f u n c t i o n s so they can see me when I speak p u b l i c l y . . they g e t a p e r c e p t i o n o f me i n p u b l i c so they can g e t an impression o f me as a b u s i n e s s women and they can understand and r e s p e c t my b u s i n e s s more" (female i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group with c h i l d aged 6-12) In  the business  incompetent,  fragile  world and  stereotypes incapable  p o r t r a y i n g women as are  widely  known.  C o n s e q u e n t i a l l y , some o f t h e female respondents c h a l l e n g e these f a l s e images by b l e n d i n g t h e i r b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s , l i k e t a k i n g t h e f a m i l y t o t r a d e shows so t h a t they can have an image o f them as p r o f e s s i o n a l woman and not always as mothers. This spent  enables  them t o g a i n more support  i n the business  and makes  and r e s p e c t f o r time  i t easier  t o gain  family  132 a s s i s t a n c e w i t h i n the household. Another respondent who i s homebased  said, "there i s a lack o f r e s p e c t from my c h i l d r e n and husband..my husband wanted me t o g e t an o f f i c e o u t s i d e the home..it was not taken s e r i o u s l y because i t was i n the home" (female respondent from the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group). These problems a r e more common f o r female entrepreneurs who  are home-based. T h i s i s because f o r one, women i n g e n e r a l a r e not taken s e r i o u s l y i n the b u s i n e s s world and, secondly, homebased  businesses  b u s i n e s s world. (which  are  are s t r u g g l i n g Part of t h i s  slowly  home-based b u s i n e s s  being  to gain  stems from  challenged)  credibility existing  stereotypes  portraying  owner as a woman working  i n the  a  typical  a t her k i t c h e n  t a b l e dressed i n a robe with a baby on her l a p . These p o r t r a y a l s r e v e a l a low p r o f e s s i o n a l image o f home-based b u s i n e s s work when in  fact  most  operate  very  professional  businesses  with  well  equipped o f f i c e s ( F o s t e r and Orser, 1993), of which I can a t t e s t from my own v i s i t s . These s t e r e o t y p e s pose s e r i o u s problems f o r woman home-based b u s i n e s s owners and can be c o n s i d e r e d t o be problems unique al.  t o them. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B e l c o u r t , e t  (1991) and Goffee and Scase,  (1985) who found  that  being  taken s e r i o u s l y i n the b u s i n e s s world has emerged as a b a r r i e r f o r female b u s i n e s s owners. However, not much r e s e a r c h has d e a l t with the i s s u e o f f a m i l y members t a k i n g female b u s i n e s s owners s e r i o u s l y i n t h e i r work. " I t i s important f o r c h i l d r e n t o be r a i s e d i n the b u s i n e s s environment because i n their mind my business i s important" (female i n balance group, one c h i l d aged 6-12) T h i s response demonstrates  t h a t g a i n i n g r e s p e c t from f a m i l y  133 members v i s - a v i s the b u s i n e s s i s important f o r these women and e x p l a i n s why  they b l e n d the two worlds. In g e n e r a l s i n c e i t i s  more d i f f i c u l t  t o separate b u s i n e s s and  f u n c t i o n i n g i n one who  f a m i l y when they  l o c a t i o n , respondents  from the t h r e e groups  were home-based p r e f e r r e d t o b l e n d the two.  does not mean they would favour combining business  owners,  financial following  and  especially  family  women, are  reasons.  statements  This  expressed  are  T h i s however,  the two, forced  is  s i n c e some  to  do  illustrated  primarily  by  so  for  in  the  the  female  entrepreneurs. "being a t home t h e r e i s low overhead....I am more a v a i l a b l e f o r my c h i l d r e n . . . y o u can i n t e g r a t e f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s with work because of b e i n g a t home."(female respondent i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group). "there are pros and cons as c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r yours and their needs change..being home-based provides an o p p o r t u n i t y t o be on s i t e f o r the k i d s . , i f they need me when they are s i c k . But b e i n g home-based does not meet my_ needs..I should be downtown where the c l i e n t s come t o me" (female i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group). The responses r e v e a l the extent t o which some of the s e l f employed women are i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r the  life-cycle  latter  response  respondent  of t h e i r is  children.  the  aspect  r e f l e c t s on how  f a m i l y commitments  What i s i n t e r e s t i n g of  time  These responses g i v e us i n s i g h t i n t o how connected.  I t also  reminds  us  years  down  the  road,  change.  these  her own  business  This (life-  development.  t i g h t l y the two  that  arrangements are i n c o n s t a n t f l u x and few  i n the  the change of her c h i l d r e n ' s  c y c l e ) i n f l u e n c e s her b u s i n e s s - c y c l e and  are  and  and  and  worlds family  s u b j e c t t o change; i n a  arrangements  might  be  very  134 different.  Overall  the findings  here  suggest  that  women  entrepreneurs are i n f l u e n c e d by the l i f e - c y c l e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n more than t h e male b u s i n e s s owners o f t h i s sample. T h i s stems from being p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r household d u t i e s along with running a b u s i n e s s . Regardless o f what group t h e female they  a r e t h e o n l y ones who t a l k  respondents  fall  into  about b l e n d i n g b u s i n e s s and  f a m i l y i n order t o g a i n f a m i l y support and c o o p e r a t i o n . T h i s was one  way these women d e a l t w i t h f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t  f o r spending  long hours i n t h e b u s i n e s s . F o r t h e male respondents  blending  meant t a k i n g c h i l d r e n on d e l i v e r i e s o r have them r u n e r r a n d s . This  strategy also  obtain  assistance  became a resource from  uncommon f o r the women  family  on which  members,  which  they was  drew t o a l s o not  respondents.  Summary of how b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y a r e o r g a n i z e d To  understand  businesses  how and why entrepreneurs  i n a p a r t i c u l a r way i t i s important  organize  their  t o view  their  d e c i s i o n s as "processes" t h a t l i n k back t o t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r becoming  self-employed.  These  motivations  influence  s t r u c t u r a l framework entrepreneurs choose f o r t h e b u s i n e s s  the like  the type o f venture, being home-based o r o p e r a t i n g from o u t s i d e the home. T h i s type o f s t r u c t u r e seems t o i n f l u e n c e whether t h e business  will  be o r g a n i z e d  around  t h e f a m i l y o r whether t h e  f a m i l y w i l l r e v o l v e around t h e b u s i n e s s . I t a l s o has a b e a r i n g upon  blending  or separating business  and f a m i l y  activities.  These f i n d i n g s demonstrate t h a t the age o f t h e c h i l d r e n  impacts  135 both  men and women i n the way they  arrange  their  enterprise  d u t i e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f what group they belong t o . However, t h e l i f e - c y c l e o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d women t o a l a r g e r extent than  men  i n the d e c i s i o n  t o become  self-employed.  Hence  s t r a t e g i e s such as b l e n d i n g f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s was more common f o r women. The f i n d i n g s r e v e a l t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e age o f t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e main motive t o become self-employed among men was to  11  be t h e i r own boss." Women on t h e other hand, became s e l f -  employed f o r g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y for  "personal  findings  satisfaction"  illustrate  t o a t t e n d t o f a m i l y needs o r  after  childbearing  years.  These  how gender i d e o l o g i e s , namely t h e r o l e o f  women as primary c a r e - g i v e r , can a f f e c t the d e c i s i o n o f women t o become  self-employed  and why  we  find  gendered  differences  between male and female entrepreneurs w i t h i n the groups from the o u t s e t . These gendered d i f f e r e n c e s e x p l a i n the v a r i e d s t r a t e g i e s they employ i n o r g a n i z i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y . B e a r i n g primary responsibility women opted  f o rchildren  e x p l a i n s how and why some o f t h e  f o r organizing their  blend t h e two environments  business  around  f a m i l y and  more than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s .  Women a l s o o r g a n i z e d t h e i r b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s around t h e f a m i l y because they d i d not have a spouse working  part-time or  not a t a l l t o r e l y on. That women are expected t o assume primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r housework, e x p l a i n s why they f i n d  themselves  i n a s i t u a t i o n o f o p e r a t i n g a home-based b u s i n e s s where b u s i n e s s is  secondary  blended  their  and t h e r e f o r e r e v o l v e s around families  fordifferent  t h e f a m i l y . Women  reasons  than  their  male  136 c o u n t e r p a r t ; t o g a i n f a m i l y support and t o overcome problems of not b e i n g taken two  seriously.  C e r t a i n s t r a t e g i e s of b l e n d i n g the  spheres f o r women resembled  male  counterparts  they  deliveries  or  tended  organize  to  had  them  those of men.  took run  their  their  children  errands. family  Similar to t h e i r  The  around  men  with  them  in this  business  on  sample  activities  p r i m a r i l y because they c o u l d r e l y on t h e i r spouse t o manage the household.  This  e x p l a i n s why  some  of  the  men  were  able  to  operate a b u s i n e s s from o u t s i d e the home and t h e r e f o r e separate the two  spheres.  Overall,  gendered  e x p e c t a t i o n s of  w i t h i n the household  men's and  women's  roles  seems t o i n f l u e n c e the whole process t h a t  leads t o the d e c i s i o n of o r g a n i z i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y l i f e i n v a r i e d ways. What a r e the E f f e c t s of t r y i n g t o Balance Business and Responsibi1ities?  Family  One can a l r e a d y make i n f e r e n c e s about the k i n d of problems the b u s i n e s s owners i n the f o u r groups would encounter. However, using  open-ended  questions  on  the  same  f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r predicaments. respondents would  issue  one  can  gain  O b s t a c l e s expressed by  i n the balance group sounded more l i k e the ones one  expect  experiencing.  respondents Hearing  i n the  their  own  conflict-ridden v o i c e s on  group  to  be  i s s u e s of managing  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y l i f e which were i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the L i k e r t q u e s t i o n s demonstrates  the complexity of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and the  i n c o n s i s t e n t ways t h a t they p e r c e i v e i t .  137 Are t h e r e problems Encountered Responsibilities?  i n B a l a n c i n g Business and Family  Respondents were d i r e c t l y problems  juggling  business  asked  and  whether they  family  experienced  responsibilities.  entrepreneurs from a l l the groups, except f o r the balance expressed d i f f i c u l t y is  consistent  1984;  with  The  group,  i n c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y which several  studies  (Scott,  1986;  Stevenson,  Stoner, e t a l . , 1990; Brown, 1988; Goffee and Scase,  1985;  B e l c o u r t , e t a l . , 1991; C o l l e r e t and Aubry, 1988). However, most of these s t u d i e s examined female entrepreneurs o n l y . Some of the replies  in  example,  this  80%  study  of the  yielded  respondents  claimed t o experience problems. the  entrepreneurs  respondent conflict.  whose  contradictory  did  not.  response  i n the  conflict-ridden  For group  T h i s however means t h a t 20% of This  in  responses.  the  occurred Likert  for  one  questions  female revealed  However, i n the open-ended q u e s t i o n s she claimed t o  experience c o n f l i c t o n l y "sometimes." The balance  same i n c o n s i s t e n c y was group.  experience  Although  problems,  the  25%  found among respondents majority  did.  (75%)  Responses  entrepreneur were c o n t r a d i c t o r y when the two  claimed from  i n the not  one  male  s e t s of q u e s t i o n s  were compared. The t y p o l o g y suggested t h a t t h i s respondent not  experience  conflict,  yet  c l a i m s t o experience c o n f l i c t family  life.  respondent  who  i n the  open-ended  does  questions  i n c o o r d i n a t i n g h i s business  This inconsistency also  to  o c c u r r e d f o r one  he and  female  answered " s o r t o f " t o the open-ended q u e s t i o n s  around the same i s s u e s of meeting  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y demands.  138 I t i s important t o s t r e s s t h a t t h i s combination of measures show the complex and  contradictory  p r e s s u r e s on women's and  men's  l i v e s and the i n c o n s i s t e n t ways t h a t people sometimes p e r c e i v e them. F i f t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group s a i d they experienced problems. 67%  (two out of the t h r e e respondents) i n  the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group experienced problems. One respondents  who  was  primarily  responsible  of the male  f o r the  household  a s s e r t e d t h a t he experienced no problems. T h i s can be e x p l a i n e d by  the  fact  that  he  d i d not  receive  enough  work  contracts,  hence, c o u l d f i t domestic d u t i e s i n t o h i s schedule. The  dilemmas  experienced  vary  between  male  and  female  respondents w i t h i n and between the groups. They can be e x p l a i n e d by f a c t o r s such as b e i n g home-based, the age o f the  children,  and by gender and are d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l below. The Type o f Problems Experienced i n C o o r d i n a t i n g B u s i n e s s and Family R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Not Spending enough Time w i t h the Family Both male and group  respondents  i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d  f a c e the dilemma o f not spending enough time w i t h t h e i r  c h i l d r e n . The hours  female  reasons f o r these d i f f i c u l t i e s  they spend  in their  b u s i n e s s e s which  lies  i n the l o n g  they operate away  from the home. But female respondents from t h i s group p e r c e i v e d and e x p e r i e n c e d not spending time w i t h t h e i r f a m i l y d i f f e r e n t l y from the male e n t r e p r e n e u r s . One  problem  responses  female  feeling  and  of  was  guilt.  unique  t o the  Several  female  that  emerged  respondents,  respondents  i n the was  in this  the group  139 confessed: "There i s an i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t which i n v o l v e s g u i l t i n t h a t I am not a v a i l a b l e f o r my f a m i l y as I would l i k e t o be. But I enjoy both working and b e i n g a parent. I am s t i l l d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s problem" (female, b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group w i t h young k i d s ) . " I t s hard. ..sometimes my k i d s would say I need t o see you..you work t o o hard you should stop and come and see my championship ...you are p u l l e d and you have t o balance even if you don't find t h e time you j u s t take t h e time... sometimes I have t o leave my f a m i l y t o meet c l i e n t s a t e i g h t o ' c l o c k a t n i g h t so i t s a very f i n e l i n e . . i t s a judgement c a l l . . w h a t i s more important i n a given s i t u a t i o n . . I t h i n k e v e r y t h i n g can be worked o u t . . i t i s important t h a t we can see t h e l o n g term b e n e f i t s o f t h e b u s i n e s s and keeping f a m i l y needs i n p l a c e " (female i n b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group with teenaged c h i l d r e n ) . " I t has l i m i t e d me and i n c r e a s e d my s t r e s s l e v e l because deep down when I am working I would r a t h e r be w i t h them. A l s o I f e e l g u i l t y when I am away from home..my f i v e year old daughter complains and asks my husband where I am" (She a l s o says t h a t t h e "type o f b u s i n e s s I am aiming f o r would be d i f f e r e n t . . p r o b a b l y aimed a t l a r g e c o n t r a c t work s i n c e t h e r e i s more money i n i t " (female respondent i n b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group). " G u i l t i s the way my f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s have a f f e c t e d me..I would l i k e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the f a m i l y more" (female respondent i n b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group). One  might  argue  problems o f g u i l t However,  this  hours  i s especially  working  their  self-employed  a week women  most  working  (Greenhaus and B e u t e l l ,  owners who operate because  that  i n their  pronounced  mothers  1985; Timson, 1993). f o r certain  e n t e r p r i s e s away from  individuals  experience  home. T h i s i s  a r e known t o work  b u s i n e s s e s , which  i n g e n e r a l . A l s o , most  business  over  i s o f t e n more  women  i n this  50  than  sample,  though not uncommon among women b u s i n e s s owners i n g e n e r a l , tend t o form u n i n c o r p o r a t e d b u s i n e s s e s . T h i s means they run t h e r i s k of  having  personal  assets seized  i f they  have  a loan. This  140 becomes an a d d i t i o n a l m o t i v a t i o n and i n c e n t i v e t o work harder and e x p l a i n s t o some extent why so many women work long hours i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s . Working women i n g e n e r a l a r e not f a c e d w i t h these s i t u a t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t most o f t h e female in  t h e b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group  businesses,  away from  their  worked  several  families,  respondents  hours  i n their  e x p l a i n s why they  felt  g u i l t y . These f i n d i n g s p a r a l l e l e d those o f Neider's (1987) study where women claimed neglecting problems (1985) "primary  their  children  experienced  study.  t o be d e a l i n g w i t h which  was  issues of g u i l t f o r  also  one o f t h e f o u r  by d u a l - c a r e e r marriages  Normative  societal  c a r e - g i v e r " can e x p l a i n  i n Stanfield's  expectations why f e e l i n g s  o f women as  of g u i l t  often  c r e p t i n t o the p i c t u r e f o r women and not the male respondents i n t h i s group.  This finding  i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e c u l t u r a l  mandate  d i c t a t i n g t h a t t h e f a m i l y should be a woman's p r i o r i t y .  Since  these women were unable t o devote t h e "expected" time with t h e i r f a m i l y , they f e l t  bad f o r not complying  w i t h what i s a c t u a l l y  expected o f them. The  male  experienced  respondents  in  the  problems o f a d i f f e r e n t  business-centred kind. Their  group  difficulties  c e n t r e d on not b e i n g a b l e t o take time o f f from t h e b u s i n e s s t o spend with t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The hinderance was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  b e i n g t h e s o l e bread winner as w e l l as t h e development stage  of  t h e e n t e r p r i s e . These f i n d i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Stoner,  et  a l . (1990) who found t h a t time c o n f l i c t s were among t h e f o u r  top-ranked  problems.  Here  a r e some  of t h e i r  v o i c e s on t h i s  141 issue, "Because we have been under such f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e i t has n e c e s s i t a t e d more work on my p a r t . . I have l e s s s t a f f so I have t o do more work..this i s where t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n comes out s i n c e I would l i k e t o spend more time w i t h my f a m i l y " (male i n b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group). "My b u s i n e s s i s very time c o n s t r a i n i n g because my customers are very demanding, .they r e q u i r e immediate s e r v i c e , . i f the glass i n their c a r i s broken I have to f i x i t immediately..so i f someone c a l l me t o do the job I have t o g i v e up what I am doing w i t h t h e k i d s and work on i t immediately otherwise I l o o s e a customer which I can't a f f o r d t o do e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the b u s i n e s s I am i n i s tough and very c o m p e t i t i v e " (male i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group). These male entrepreneurs operated b u s i n e s s e s t h a t d i d not have f l e x i b l e  work hours.  They were c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e f i x e d  work hours o f t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e and c o u l d not accommodate f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t h e i r schedule. The  physical  s e p a r a t i o n o f f a m i l y and work r e s u l t i n g i n  f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t among the women and the problem o f i n t e g r a t i n g f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t o the b u s i n e s s schedule were problems unique t o men and women i n t h e b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group. The f a c t that  gender  responsible  ideology  prescribes  f o r t h e household  women  to  be  primarily  d u t i e s e x p l a i n s why they  were  b a t t l i n g f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t . Because men had wives (working p a r t time o r not a t a l l ) t o r e l y on l o o k i n g a f t e r c h i l d r e n e x p l a i n s why  they operated b u s i n e s s e s t h a t were more demanding and why  they c o u l d a f f o r d t o spend so much time a t work. The f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t working  long hours i n t h e e n t e r p r i s e and d e v o t i n g  l e s s time t o household  a c t i v i t i e s are the factors that  the  to  dilemmas  centred  group.  specific  t h e respondents  explain  i n the business-  142 Creating  Boundaries  Respondents groups  i n the  experienced  family-centred  problems  different  and from  entrepreneurs i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group. creating  boundaries  C r e a t i n g boundaries  between t h e i r  business  i s an acute problem  conflict-ridden those  o f the  T h e i r dilemma was and f a m i l y  lives.  t o home-based b u s i n e s s  owners because work impinges d i r e c t l y on h o m e - l i f e . A home-based b u s i n e s s compresses two worlds i n t o one adding an e x t r a measure of  strain  t o both.  psychological,  These  temporal,  problems and  emerged  physical  i n the form  separation.  of  This i s  e x p l a i n e d by f a c t o r s such as b e i n g home-based, having a f l e x i b l e work  schedule  comments  and young  reflect  psychological  children  the problems  i n the home. The f o l l o w i n g  of c r e a t i n g  boundaries  on a  level.  "My g r e a t e s t problem i s c r e a t i n g boundaries..when I am on a b u s i n e s s c a l l . , then I have t o cook supper..I have t o be more c l e a r with time..when i t s time t o be with the k i d s I should not answer t h e phone" (female, i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group). " i t s r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t . . y o u always f e e l g u i l t y doing what your not doing, .when I work I f e e l g u i l t y t h a t I am not spending time with my f a m i l y and when I am with my f a m i l y I feel guilty that I should be working i n the business...you f e e l t o r n . . I would be h a p p i e r i f I c o u l d h i r e more people and work h a l f the time t o balance the two" (female i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group). " g u i l t i t s l i k e a r o l l e r c o a s t e r : when I spend t o o much time with the f a m i l y I g e t g u i l t f e e l i n g t h a t I am not working i n my b u s i n e s s and when I am working i n the b u s i n e s s I g e t g u i l t f e e l i n g s t h a t I should be spending time with my f a m i l y " (male respondent i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group). These comments r e v e a l the d i f f i c u l t y i n c r e a t i n g boundaries and appear t o stem from the s t r u g g l e t o commit t o e i t h e r f a m i l y  143 or  business  roller  under t h e same r o o f and d e a l i n g w i t h  c o a s t e r emotions. Operating  a business  a range o f  from w i t h i n t h e  home and having a f l e x i b l e work schedule makes drawing t h e l i n e much more d i f f i c u l t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r entrepreneurs with younger children  (the m a j o r i t y had a t l e a s t one c h i l d  i n t h e 6-12 year  age group) and not being a b l e t o r e l y on a spouse working time.  From  the responses,  i t appears  that  full-  t h e women a r e  e s p e c i a l l y a f f e c t e d because t h e r o l e o f mother i s r e i n f o r c e d by being  a t home and t h e s t r u g g l e t o know when t o s t o p being a  parent and b u s i n e s s owner i s more pronounced. They do not have the same a s s i s t a n c e with t h e household counterparts  because  they  have  compared t o t h e i r male  full-time  working  husbands,  u n l i k e t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s who have p a r t - t i m e o r housewives who a s s i s t them. T h i s f i n d i n g demonstrates how women conform t o gender i d e o l o g y p r e s c r i b i n g t h a t housework i s woman's work and how  this  affects  women. Some o f t h e problems  experienced by  these b u s i n e s s owners a r e c r y s t a l l i z e d by P r i e s n i t z  (1988) who  c l a i m s t h a t home-based b u s i n e s s owners, e s p e c i a l l y women, f a c e dilemmas which a r e s p e c i f i c t o home-based e n t r e p r e n e u r s . These difficulties  range  from  becoming  side  tracked  by  household  t a s k s , t h e need t o j u g g l e b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y , and fragmented time. T h i s can d i s t r a c t from t h e b u s i n e s s ( P r i e s n i t z , Another  problem  i n creating  boundaries  1988).  f o r home-based  b u s i n e s s owners i s around time management. The f i n d i n g s r e v e a l t h a t these respondents temporal  (mostly women) manipulate time and c r e a t e  s e g r e g a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with o t h e r  144 f i n d i n g s t h a t women a r e pre-eminent time-managers i n f a m i l i e s (Luxton,  1990).  Hall's  conflict  demonstrates  (1972) that  study  on time  "simultaneous  management and  demands"  a r e more  c h a l l e n g i n g because they i n v o l v e p r i o r i t i z a t i o n o f t a s k s t o be accomplished This  within  a constrained  s i t u a t i o n i s more  operating  common when  simultaneously  themselves  i n this  o r l i m i t e d amount o f time. family  under one r o o f . Women e s p e c i a l l y f i n d  situation  because  they  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e household. " S e q u e n t i a l t h a t can be organized respondents t h a t  and b u s i n e s s a r e  are primarily  demands" are demands  w i t h i n a l a r g e r temporal framework which  a r e not o p e r a t i n g  a home-based b u s i n e s s a r e  more l i k e l y t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r ( H a l l , 1972). The d i v e r s e ways i n which a c t i v i t i e s are segregated and organized discussed arrange  primarily their  schedules. required  by  business  t h e female activities  A few entrepreneurs much c o n c e n t r a t i o n  would  temporally  respondents.  They  around  the  perform  the tasks  were would  children's that  when c h i l d r e n were s l e e p i n g . One  respondent s a i d she stamped h e r l e t t e r s when her daughter was p l a y i n g a t h e r l i t t l e desk (she a l s o h i r e d her son t o stamp and lick  envelopes  activities example,  at this  can be women  time).  organized  with  children  However,  around under  a  not a l l fixed  children's  schedule. F o r  two cannot  schedule i n  f e e d i n g time and know e x a c t l y when t h e baby w i l l feed, s l e e p o r c r y . One woman i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d to  p u t her work a s i d e  group s t a t e d t h a t she has  f o r h e r teenaged  son when he wants t o  d i s c u s s a problem. D e a l i n g with teenagers and t h e i r problems a r e  145 u n p r e d i c t a b l e and make c r e a t i n g boundaries between b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y time extremely d i f f i c u l t . One respondent from the f a m i l y centred  group  "telephone separate  talked  time"  from  about  which  family  she  the  felt  especially  difficulties  t o be with  of  creating  the h a r d e s t aspect  a two  year o l d  to  daughter  running around the house " l i k e a monkey". In her case, important c a l l s keep coming i n j u s t when her daughter wants a t t e n t i o n , and she  prefers  not  t o have t o r e l y  on  her  voice mail  answering  machine when she i s home. Problems especially  of  trying  acute  for  to  create  home-based  physical  business  boundaries  owners.  are  Prieznitz  (1988) found l a c k of d e d i c a t e d space f o r the b u s i n e s s t o be a common problem c i t e d by her respondents. One entrepreneur i n the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group  d i d not have her own  separate o f f i c e  found i t d i f f i c u l t t o c r e a t e boundaries. Her o f f i c e was k i t c h e n which was  separated by a s m a l l paper  and  i n the  wall.  "my o f f i c e i s d i s p e r s e d i n the k i t c h e n and downstairs I s t o r e my s t u f f . . I had my o f f i c e i n the basement b e f o r e but i t was too dark and i s o l a t i n g , .no windows so I moved u p s t a i r s . But where I work now can be an o b s t a c l e t o e f f i c i e n c y because of the d i s t r a c t i o n s . . . . l i s t e n i n g t o my son chew on h i s c e r e a l i n the morning. . a l s o having t o t h i n k of space e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h i n the home prevents me from thinking big." Another woman who had  her o l d e r  had an o f f i c e on the main f l o o r of the house  son  assist  her  i n creating  a physical  boundary  between her o f f i c e and her younger son which i s m a n i f e s t i n the f o l l o w i n g comment: "my from  disturbing  business-centred  son h e l p s me...he prevents my younger son  me..so he group  who  p r e o c c u p i e s him." operates  her  One  woman i n the  business  from  the  146 basement  creates  business  and  a  her  physical children  b u s i n e s s space. Her c l o s e d "mom"  boundary by  between  t r a i n i n g them  her to  home-based respect  her  c h i l d r e n know t h a t when the o f f i c e door i s  i s not t o be d i s t u r b e d  and  no  f r i e n d s are  allowed  over t o p l a y . What  we  b u s i n e s s and  learn  The  responses  is  f i n d i n g s r e v e a l the  activities:  temporarily.  these  that  balancing  f a m i l y i s a complex process t h a t i n v o l v e s a l o t of  s t r a t e g i c planning. segregating  from  We  also  either discover  d i f f e r e n t ways of  spatially, that  physically,  these  or  entrepreneurs,  e s p e c i a l l y those o p e r a t i n g b u s i n e s s e s from the home and who women, experience c o n f l i c t counterparts.  The  t o a l a r g e r degree than t h e i r  why  their  c o n f l i c t u a l . T h i s makes c o o r d i n a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s more d i f f i c u l t and Business and  s i t u a t i o n appears t o  t h e i r b u s i n e s s and  s t r e s s f u l than those of  the  family-centred  be  family men.  Family R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  Another problem t h a t emerged among the in  male  f a c t t h a t they have more t o j u g g l e because of  f a m i l y commitments e x p l a i n s  Coordinating  are  and  female respondents  conflict-ridden  groups  was  c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s o b l i g a t i o n s so t h a t they d i d not i n t e r f e r e with  family  commitments.  This  type  of  coordination  became  a  complex j u g g l i n g a c t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r women w i t h young c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s obvious i n the f o l l o w i n g responses. "to balance how much work you take from the c l i e n t so t h a t i t compliments f a m i l y n e e d s . . i t s a s t r u g g l e i n my work because sometimes work can be very demanding and very c h a l l e n g i n g s i n c e I am c r e a t i n g t h i n g s i n my b u s i n e s s . . s o a l l t h i s has t o be balanced w i t h f a m i l y needs., i t i s important f o r me t o be balanced because from there  147 everything else gets balanced, t h e mother i s the c o o r d i n a t o r " (female respondent i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group, 6-12 y r o l d ) . Another women i n t h e c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group says, "Having t o j u g g l e a l o t o f t h i n g s a l l a t one f a m i l y and meeting c l i e n t s needs..when you have a home o f f i c e you focus on a l o t o f t h i n g s and you can l o o s e your focus..you have t o g i v e up some o f t h a t focus because o f a l l t h e t h i n g s t h a t surround you...you have so much t o j u g g l e t h a t i t can become an i n t e r r u p t i o n i t s e l f j u s t t h i n k i n g about it" These d i f f i c u l t i e s  stem from  being f u l l y  responsible f o r  the household which i n t u r n c o n s t r a i n e d t h e b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s of the female e n t r e p r e n e u r s . The b u s i n e s s work o f these women i s limited  because  they  have  t o be s e l e c t i v e  with  t h e type o f  c o n t r a c t s they accept so t h a t t h e work would not i n t e r f e r e with family  responsibilities.  This  juggling  act i s  especially  cumbersome i f t h e i r g o a l i s t o achieve an e q u i l i b r i u m the demands o f t h e b u s i n e s s and t h e household.  between  These b u s i n e s s  women have f u l l - t i m e working husbands and cannot r e l y on them t o look a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n , u n l i k e t h e male entrepreneurs who can rely  on t h e i r  wives).  This  experience  wives  (even  situation  problems  those  who have  explains  of juggling  why  more  business  full-time women  than  men  and f a m i l y and why  t h e i r v o i c e s and not those o f t h e male respondents this  working  a r e heard on  issue.  No Time f o r S e l f A problem conflict-ridden business  t h a t i s unique t o t h e female respondents  i n the  group was having t o o much work t o do i n both  and household.  These  findings  are consistent  with  148 Stoner and C h a r l e ' s , (1990);  and Longstrech e t a l ' s . ,  (1987),  where female owners o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s experienced s i g n i f i c a n t conflict  between  their  work  and home  roles.  r e p o r t e d as a major b a r r i e r , women respondents  Although not  from Goffee and  Scase's (1985) study claimed t h a t they encountered more c o n f l i c t between meeting b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t e i g h t o f t h e ten  respondents  female  i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  respondent  from  this  group  "being everywhere f o r everyone  group were women. One  d e s c r i b e d h e r c o n f l i c t as  a t t h e same time except f o r me."  " a b s o l u t e l y . . I cannot commit myself t o a n y t h i n g and I don't get the support I n e e d . . i f I had a w i f e t o h e l p w i t h t h e f a m i l y i t would be e a s i e r " (female respondent i n c o n f l i c t r i d d e n group). The  need  for a  wife  was  also  expressed  among  female  b u s i n e s s owners i n B e l c o u r t e t a l . ' s (1991) study. The comment r e f l e c t s the s t e r e o t y p i c a l notions of a "wife" being associated w i t h the home and shows how i t i s perpetuated, even by the women themselves. Another female respondent shared her s t o r y about the time she devotes t o h e r parents and s i b l i n g . "yes I helped my b r o t h e r through h i s l a s t year as he was d y i n g o f cancer, my parents are e l d e r l y I spent hours away from my b u s i n e s s t a l k i n g t o d o c t o r s and t a k i n g them t o t h e h o s p i t a l " (female respondent i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group). T h i s response  i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t demonstrates  the i l l n e s s o f a f a m i l y member o r t h e c a r e o f e l d e r l y are  responsibilities  Luxton  that  e t a l . , 1990).  o f t e n tend  Caring  to f a l l  f o r elderly  enormous time demands on i n d i v i d u a l s  that  parents  on women  parents  (cf.  can make  (Meissner, e t a l . ,  1975).  149 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h i s b u s i n e s s woman h i r e d o u t s i d e help  to assist  devote  many  several  her w i t h the household  hours  hours  t o "domestic  a day on f a m i l y  and t h e r e f o r e  chores." However, responsibilities  d i d not  she spent  ( h e l p i n g her  b r o t h e r through h i s l a s t year o f cancer and c a r i n g f o r e l d e r l y parents by t a k i n g them t o the d o c t o r ) which l i m i t e d her time f o r her b u s i n e s s , her c h i l d r e n and husband. These demands produced a s i t u a t i o n where time commitments t o f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s were so g r e a t they i n t e r f e r e d w i t h both spheres. The problems s p e c i f i c t o these women i n c o n f l i c t stem from demands o f m u l t i p l e r o l e s which generate o v e r l o a d much  o r t o o many  things  t o do"  (Belcourt  "having t o o  e t a l . , 1991).  "Overload" r e f e r s t o a number o f s o c i a l r o l e s an i n d i v i d u a l i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e n a c t i n g (Falkenberg and Monachello, 1990) where involvement i n one r o l e becomes more d i f f i c u l t because o f time commitments i n another  (Greenhaus  and B e u t e l l ,  1985).  Because  the respondents i n t h e c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group devoted more hours t o housework than e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e groups and worked f u l l - t i m e i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s , they were c o n s t r a i n e d and experienced much c o n f l i c t . The above assumption i s supported by Burke  and Bradshaw  (1981) who found  c o n f l i c t was p o s i t i v e l y per  related  week among d u a l c a r e e r  that  t h e work-home  role  t o t h e number o f hours worked  women. One reason why t h i s  group  performed more housework than t h e o t h e r groups was because t h e majority  o f t h e respondents were women  (8 out o f 10). I t  is  s i g n i f i c a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e group who performed t h e l e a s t  150 amount  o f housework was t h e b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d  m a j o r i t y of males b e l o n g i n g t o i t . expectations responsible themselves can  that  dictate  f o r household conforming  that  (Neider,  women  should  be  many  primarily  women  find  t o these e x p e c t a t i o n s . Family commitments sample  t e n s i o n between t h e i r  1987;  with t h e  Since t h e r e a r e i d e o l o g i c a l  and c h i l d - c a r e ,  e x p l a i n why women i n t h i s  experienced  group  Belcourt,  et  and i n s i m i l a r  studies  p e r s o n a l and b u s i n e s s al.,  1991).  This  lives  finding  demonstrates t h a t an i n e q u i t a b l e d i v i s i o n o f labour w i t h i n t h e household sample  between t h e self-employed  still  exists.  Further,  men and women w i t h i n t h i s  i t illustrates  that  normative  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f men and women a r e s t i l l very much gendered with r e s p e c t t o the domestic d i v i s i o n o f labour, which E p s t e i n (1977) a l s o found i n her study. In a d d i t i o n t o housework, in  the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  respondents  group had two o r more c h i l d r e n .  It i s  i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e two men i n t h i s sample with t h r e e or  more c h i l d r e n  having  fell  more c h i l d r e n  into  the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  i n c r e a s e s t h e domestic  group. Hence,  work l o a d . These  f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t with K e i t h and Schafer (1980) who found t h a t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f work-family r o l e c o n f l i c t were experienced for  l a r g e r f a m i l i e s . A l s o 7 out o f 10 respondents o f t h i s sample  had  children  i n t h e 6-12 age b r a c k e t which made j u g g l i n g t h e  responsibilities  o f both  business  and f a m i l y more  difficult.  T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Greenhaus and Kopelman (1981) who found t h a t parents o f younger c h i l d r e n experienced more r o l e c o n f l i c t than parents o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n . F o r a l l these reasons  one can  151 assume t h a t t h i s group e x p e r i e n c e s c o n f l i c t t o a l a r g e r  degree  than the o t h e r groups. Overall coordinating  these  business  entrepreneurs different  findings  from  in  and  the  suggest family  that  the e x p e r i e n c e s o f  obligations  conflict-ridden  group  among are  female  not  much  those o f o t h e r women i n d u a l - c a r e e r marriages  (Falkenberg and Monachello, 1990; Holahan and G i l b e r t  1976).  Family o b l i g a t i o n s Respondents were d i r e c t l y asked whether f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s affected  their  businesses  i n any way.  Findings reveal  g e n e r a l l y respondents from a l l f o u r groups  that  admitted t o f a m i l y  a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t i n g them. T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the responses from the L i k e r t q u e s t i o n s . S u r p r i s i n g l y , f o u r out o f the f i v e family  male respondents  obligations  from  affected  the balance group  them. Moreover,  stated  a l l three  that  female  respondents i n the balance group r e p l i e d " s o r t o f " t o the s e t o f open-ended q u e s t i o n s on the same i s s u e . However, i n t h e L i k e r t q u e s t i o n s they c o n t r a d i c t e d themselves. Inconsistencies entrepreneurs  in  also the  occurred  i n the responses  conflict-ridden  group  where  by the some  respondents claimed t h a t f a m i l y d i d not a f f e c t them. Among them one with  male respondent h i s business,  said and  f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s d i d not i n t e r f e r e one  female  responded  "sometimes."  However, i n the L i k e r t q u e s t i o n s , responses were o p p o s i t e t o the ones s t a t e d above. A l l the entrepreneurs i n t h e f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group admitted  152 to  family  affecting  responses  from  the  them  these  is  consistent  L i k e r t questions.  open-ended questions effected  which  revealed  owners  how  which  the  with  their  However, responses  and  why  family  Likert  from  obligations  questions  did  not  capture. Nine centred  out  of  group  the  nineteen  claimed  responsibilities.  not  However,  respondents to  be  eight  of  in  the  affected them  businessby  family  were,  and  one  respondent r e p l i e d " s o r t o f . " Among those a f f e c t e d were f o u r out of  the  seven  surprising other  to  women and find  questions  However, their  that  in  business-centred  the  group  responses  businesses  four  out  of  according  to  same was  from  the  influenced  data  the the  set,  affected  by  twelve material  It  drawn  is  from  nearly  half  family  obligations.  L i k e r t questions family  men.  of  suggested  activities  and  the  that  not  the  reverse. These c o n t r a d i c t o r y responses demonstrate t h a t c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s and than people  family  responsibilities  imagine or  are  willing  is a  to  l o t more  admit t o  difficult  themselves  or  others. I t a l s o s t r e s s e s the need t o ask questions adequately  capture  the  outcomes of  i n d i f f e r e n t ways t o  coordinating  business  and  f a m i l y among t h i s sample of e n t r e p r e n e u r s . Through the responses from open-ended questions ways i n which  family  we  l e a r n t h a t the  three  most common  o b l i g a t i o n s a f f e c t e d respondents  f o u r groups are f e e l i n g s of g u i l t ,  in a l l  involvement w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s  153 a c t i v i t i e s and business expansion.  T h e i r dilemmas around  these  i s s u e s a r e examined below. Feelings of G u i l t Respondents i n t h e b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group s a i d a f f e c t e d by f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . One respondent three  Likert  business  questions  and agreed  asking  whether  were  d i s a g r e e d on a l l  family  on a l l t h r e e q u e s t i o n s  they  affected her  a s k i n g whether her  business a f f e c t e d her f a m i l y . Yet i n t h e open-ended q u e s t i o n s , she  talks  about  psychologically enough  time  how  family  responsibilities  i n terms o f g u i l t  with  her c h i l d r e n .  a f f e c t her  because she does n o t spend  This  pattern  of inconsistent  responses a l s o o c c u r r e d with two other female e n t r e p r e n e u r s . One of t h e female respondents  had teenaged c h i l d r e n and t h e o t h e r  had young c h i l d r e n under f i v e . The l a t t e r respondent a f f e c t e d by g u i l t more than the former respondent.  seems t o be  T h i s business  woman confessed t h a t she c o u l d no longer bear h e a r i n g from her husband t h a t h e r f i v e year o l d daughter keeps a s k i n g him "when is  mummy coming home?" and "why i s mummy n o t home?" She was  deeply a f f e c t e d by t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t o t h e extent t h a t she i s r e d u c i n g h e r workload and r e s t r u c t u r i n g h e r business so she can operate i t from t h e home. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t women were a f f e c t e d i n t h i s way, which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r research. response who  also  However,  i t i s important  n o t t o overshadow t h e  from one o f t h e male respondents claimed  t o be a f f e c t e d  (with young c h i l d r e n )  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y by f a m i l y  commitments i n t h e same way as t h e women above.  154 Involvement with Children's Activities: C o n f l i c t - r i d d e n and Balance Groups  Family-centred  f  The s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners from the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n , f a m i l y centred  and  involvement  balance with  groups  children's  all  expressed  activities.  concerns  Even  two  about of  the  entrepreneurs from the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group were a f f e c t e d i n this One  way. respondent  s a i d the f o l l o w i n g :  "definitely ..there are a l l the a c t i v i t i e s k i d s are involved in..there i s a big time commitment with them..school a c t i v i t i e s a l l e f f e c t s the way you do your b u s i n e s s . , the c l i e n t s you take based on the commitment of the job and the hours you work...the age the k i d s are i n now i s more demanding because they are i n v o l v e d i n a l o t of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h s c h o o l , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the c u t back i n s c h o o l so we have t o get them i n v o l v e d o u t s i d e of s c h o o l i n e x t r a a c t i v i t i e s . . .you have t o time t o spend w i t h them so you know what they are up t o " (female respondent i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group, c h i l d r e n ages 6-12 y r ) . " i n a sense ...determining my work schedule..yes i f I d i d not have k i d s I would probably be b u s i e r and take more h o l i d a y s " (male b u s i n e s s owner i n the balance group w i t h two children). The activities their  responses  reveal  impacts  the time  business;  this  makes  how  involvement  with  these  entrepreneurs  time  management  can  more  children's spend i n difficult.  However, answers from the L i k e r t q u e s t i o n s d i d not capture the o b s t a c l e s p r e o c c u p a t i o n with c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s can p l a c e on the b u s i n e s s l i v e s of these e n t r e p r e n e u r s . One  male  consistently  respondent  disagreed  on  from  the  a l l the  whether f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  business-centred Likert  questions  group asking  a f f e c t e d h i s b u s i n e s s . Yet i n  the open-ended q u e s t i o n s , he c l a i m s t o have worked l e s s hours i n  155 his  venture  pattern  because  of h i s children's  of inconsistent  responses  activities.  emerged  from  The same  another  male  entrepreneur who c l o s e d h i s r e s t a u r a n t on Sundays t o spend time with  h i s family.  These  examples  demonstrate  how  family  a c t i v i t i e s can a f f e c t b u s i n e s s hours and t h e i n c o n s i s t e n t ways these entrepreneurs p e r c e i v e these p r e s s u r e s . What t h e responses f o r the open-ended q u e s t i o n s a l s o r e v e a l i s t h a t time i n v e s t e d i n c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s i s i n f l u e n c e d by the age o f t h e c h i l d r e n . The b u s i n e s s owners had t o be s e l e c t i v e with  t h e type  flexible  of c l i e n t s  enough  with  they  their  chose,  work  so t h a t  to also  they  c o u l d be  accommodate  their  c h i l d r e n ' s schedules i n t o t h e i r work l i v e s .  the  There  d i d not appear t o be gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n some o f  ways  children's  activities  affected  the  respondent's  b u s i n e s s . S i m i l a r t o t h e women, t h e men seemed t o take an a c t i v e r o l e i n r a i s i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , not a p a s s i v e r o l e w i t h involvement children  which  played  i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h watching  on t h e i r  own. Another  way i n which  little  t v while children  i n f l u e n c e d t h e e n t e r p r i s e s o f these entrepreneurs was b u s i n e s s expansion. T h i s i s examined below. Business  Expansion  Postponing expansion o f t h e b u s i n e s s i n o r d e r t o spend more time w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n was a common problem the b u s i n e s s owners i n t h e c o n f 1 i c t - r i d d e n  expressed among  and f a m i l y - c e n t r e d  groups and i s c o n s i s t e n t with both s e t s o f q u e s t i o n s . However, an  unexpected  finding  was  that  four  out o f t h e f i v e  male  156 respondents i n the balance group claimed t h a t f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o expand t h e i r v e n t u r e s .  Although  the entrepreneurs from t h i s group had b u s i n e s s e s t h a t were r i p e for  expansion,  they d i d not expand because  they had  under the age of twelve. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was  children  captured i n the  responses from the open-ended q u e s t i o n s . I t i s important t o note how  this  combination  entrepreneurs business  is  of  i t i s very affected  measures  clear  by  time  shows  in their  that  for  minds how  allocation  in  one  some  family  or  sphere  or  another. Yet f o r other b u s i n e s s owners these p r e s s u r e s are not well defined. Yet another respondents would l i k e possible other  surprising  t o expand t h e i r  because  questions  up  time  "household  two  of the f o u r  male  i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group c o n f e s s i n g t h a t they  of  he  b u s i n e s s e s . T h i s however, was  family  yielded  s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d on two took  f i n d i n g was  would  obligations.  inconsistent statements, like  to  Here  responses  responses. "family  spend  in  not  One  from owner  responsibilities  the  business"  and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s took time away from h i s b u s i n e s s . "  However, i n the responses from the open-ended q u e s t i o n s we  learn  about t h i s b u s i n e s s owner's i n a b i l i t y t o expand h i s e n t e r p r i s e because from  of h i s seven month o l d baby. Another male entrepreneur  the  same group  confessed that  he  "would  be  a  l o t more  a g g r e s s i v e take more r i s k s and make more money" had i t not been f o r h i s f a m i l y commitments. T h i s i s an important comment s i n c e " r i s k t a k i n g " behaviour i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h expansion.  157 One  of the two  male entrepreneurs  group a l s o responded questions  i n the  conflict-ridden  d i f f e r e n t l y when the open-ended and  were compared.  He  answered  "no"  on  the  Likert  open-ended  q u e s t i o n which asked whether or not f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s a f f e c t e d him. Yet h i s answers from the L i k e r t q u e s t i o n s were c o n t r a r y t o the open-ended ones. F u r t h e r p r o b i n g l e d t o a d i s c u s s i o n about him  wanting  to  expand  h i s business  and  his decision  not  to  because of h i s commitment t o coaching h i s son's hockey games. The  responses  children learn  r e v e a l t h a t g e n e r a l l y entrepreneurs  (under  that  12)  since  are unable children  with  young  t o expand t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s .  of  this  age  group  require  We  more  a t t e n t i o n , these entrepreneurs chose t o opt f o r the s t a t u s quo in  their  businesses.  Some male entrepreneurs  value  increased  involvement w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s more than expanding businesses. This i s c o n s i s t e n t with Pleck's f i n d i n g  their  (1985) on  husbands i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r time i n c h i l d - c a r e . However, one must also  recognize  entrepreneurs  that  the  financial  position  of  these  i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n s as w e l l . Again,  important t o emphasize the need f o r f u r t h e r probing and  i t is asking  several questions. Women i n the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d and c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n groups were a l s o a f f e c t e d by t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n terms of b u s i n e s s They postponed an  age  b u s i n e s s expansion  when b u s i n e s s  commitments  expansion.  until their children would  not  reached  challenge family  arrangements. T h i s expansion postponement i s made obvious i n the following  statement.  158 " I f I d i d not have a f a m i l y I would concentrate more time i n the business, .but we chose t h a t we want t o i n v e s t time i n the family..we c o u l d expand i f we wanted t o " (male, balance group w i t h c h i l d r e n between the ages of 3-6). " Y e s . . i f I d i d not have a f a m i l y I would probably s o c i a l i z e more..I never thought of t h a t . . I would be doing work with the b u s i n e s s . . . h i r e more workers t o do data e n t r y I would be busier and would not be juggling family and b u s i n e s s . ... I see more work i n the b u s i n e s s when the k i d s get i n t o s c h o o l and s t u f f , t h a t w i l l change and then I w i l l be able t o work more l i k e i n an o f f i c e " (female, f a m i l y c e n t r e d group, c h i l d r e n aged 3-6 and 0-3). We  saw  e a r l i e r t h a t some of the male respondents chose not  t o expand t h e i r b u s i n e s s and children.  But  the  decision  develop the e n t e r p r i s e may, a voluntary  choice.  rather by  the  i n v e s t t h a t time i n t h e i r female  respondents  not  to  on the s u r f a c e , appear t o have been  However, on  closer  look  i t appeared  that  many of these female entrepreneurs were indeed c o n s t r a i n e d family  obligations  consequence,  more  these  than  female  their  male  counterparts.  entrepreneurs  As  constructed  them  a choice  to  take  because as  this  continue t o be  option.  imposed on  commitments i n the  women i t was The  fact  that  women f o r not  f o r e f r o n t of t h e i r  socially  expected  negative  not of  sanctions  placing their  l i v e s could  a  their  b u s i n e s s e s w i t h i n the parameters of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . That was really  by  family  explain  these female owners chose not t o r e j e c t c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s women's r o l e s w i t h i n the household. T h i s gendered i d e o l o g y  why of had  important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the type of e n t e r p r i s e s these female entrepreneurs chose, how how  they  children's  made  them  life-cycle  they conducted t h e i r  revolve a l s o had  around  their  a significant  businesses,  and  families.  Their  impact  their  on  159 business Brown  activities.  This result  (1988) where f a m i l y and  ranked  third  out of 14  i s consistent  with  that  personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  f a c t o r s p e r c e i v e d as l i m i t i n g  of  were  business  a c t i v i t y . However, i n Brown's study t h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e t o the age very  of the c h i l d r e n ,  which the p r e s e n t study  demonstrates  is  influential.  Balance Group; Experience the l e a s t amount o f c o n f l i c t The  responses  from  the  Likert  scale  suggest  that  entrepreneurs i n the balance group do not experience problems i n r e c o n c i l i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y . But r e l y i n g on the open-ended q u e s t i o n s and f u r t h e r p r o b i n g around these i s s u e s we  learn that  they do i n f a c t experience d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h e r e f o r e c l a s s i f y i n g them as a group i n balance i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r  responses  from the open-ended q u e s t i o n s . However, r e l a t i v e t o the problems experienced by  the  respondents  i n the  o t h e r t h r e e groups  t e n s i o n they experience appears t o be of a l e s s e r  the  degree.  Upon examining the women i n the balance group, we f i n d from the  other  questions  entrepreneurs problems.  One  in this female  that  two  out  group c l a i m e d respondent  of they  the  three  female  experienced  "minor"  d e s c r i b e d these  problems  as  follows, "on o c c a s i o n t h e r e are c e r t a i n events where c h i l d and b u s i n e s s c o n f l i c t but my p r i o r i t i e s are clear-my child comes f i r s t " (female i n balance group). " I f t h e r e i s an i l l n e s s of the c h i l d I w i l l spend time w i t h him.. I don't see i t as a problem, .the people I market t o do not r e q u i r e immediate c a t e r i n g t o ..I have s t r u c t u r e d my b u s i n e s s t o d e a l w i t h these types of i n t e r r u p t i o n s " (female i n balance group)  160 "I have an employee who i s p h y s i c a l l y p r e s e n t i n the home so t h a t t h e r e i s someone home when my son comes home from s c h o o l " (female i n balance group). One reason why these b u s i n e s s owners encounter o n l y "minor" problems  compared  to  the  women  i n the  other  groups  is  the  c l a r i t y of t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s . They s t r u c t u r e d t h e i r b u s i n e s s work around p o t e n t i a l f a m i l y i n t e r r u p t i o n s . One respondent  conducted  most of her b u s i n e s s through the m a i l so she c o u l d be a t home. The o t h e r h i r e d a female employee so t h a t someone was p r e s e n t i n the  house when her  son  came home from  s c h o o l . By  f a m i l y needs i n t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s p l a n s we balance  group managed t o reduce  see how  including  women i n the  t e n s i o n between b u s i n e s s  and  f a m i l y commitments compared t o women i n the other groups. When one  compares  their  experiences  counterparts,  there  are  with  gendered  those  of  male  Women  still  perform more housework than the male entrepreneurs w i t h  full-  time working wives and those men to  accommodate  gendered  f a m i l y , have  differences.  their  who  a  e s t a b l i s h t h e i r businesses  nanny  to  assist  d i f f e r e n c e s occur between male and  them.  female  These  respondents  w i t h i n a l l f o u r groups. It  is  respondents  of  interest  to  i n t h i s group,  note  two  that,  among  the  problem  business  f o r them  owners under entrepreneurs  as  and  family  responsibilities  i t d i d f o r many of  similar claimed  circumstances? that  male  established t h e i r businesses to  look a f t e r the c h i l d r e n w h i l e t h e i r wives worked. Why balancing  five  they  For  not  the  female  one,  these  divided  then does  household  pose  a  business two  male chores  161 " e q u a l l y " w i t h t h e i r spouses, them. However, s i n c e they with p r o f e s s i o n a l  hence, had t h e i r wives t o a s s i s t  were home-based and both  had wives  jobs (lawyer and s o c i a l worker) e a r n i n g more  than they d i d one would expect  them t o perform  more  household  d u t i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o resource t h e o r y . T h i s i s because these men have fewer r e s o u r c e s  t o bargain with  relative  to their  wives  (income) and being home-based, they were more a v a i l a b l e t o do the housework. Resource t h e o r y i n p a r t e x p l a i n e d why women i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group performed similar  c o n d i t i o n s . However,  entrepreneurs  the resource  d i v i s i o n o f household the  female  most o f t h e housework under  i n t h e case  theory  does  o f these  not h o l d  two male  because the  d u t i e s was equal f o r the men b u t not f o r  entrepreneurs  with  full-time  professional  working  husbands. Why then do the f a c t o r s o f being home-based and having a f u l l - t i m e working p r o f e s s i o n a l spouse e a r n i n g a h i g h e r income not i n f l u e n c e the d i v i s i o n o f labour i n t h e household  o f these  two male b u s i n e s s owners t h e same way as i t d i d f o r t h e females in  the  conflict-ridden  prescriptions professional  around wives  group?  In  family obligations o f these  men  still  their  case,  gender  e x p l a i n why even t h e perform  half  of the  housework as c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of women r e q u i r e them t o do so. Apart from having a "wife" t o r e l y on doing t h e housework, one o f t h e male respondents  had h i r e d a nanny t o look a f t e r h i s  son while he worked i n h i s home-based b u s i n e s s . The o t h e r male entrepreneur was a l s o c o n s i d e r i n g h i r i n g o u t s i d e h e l p . The way these  two  self-employed  men  arranged  their  domestic  lives  162 c l e a r l y demonstrates t h a t i t i s not working f u l l - t i m e o r having a p r o f e s s i o n a l spouse e a r n i n g more t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t h e d i v i s i o n of  labour w i t h i n  still  t h e household, but r a t h e r t h a t  woman's work and t h a t  gender  explains  housework i s  this  difference.  T h i s gender i d e o l o g y becomes an advantage f o r men by m i n i m i z i n g housework and by t a k i n g more time f o r b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  leisure. Overall,  there  are several  factors  that  can e x p l a i n why  entrepreneurs i n t h e balance group might e x p e r i e n c e c o n f l i c t t o a l e s s e r degree than the e n t r e p r e n e u r s from t h e o t h e r groups. For one, i n d i v i d u a l s from the balance group worked l e s s hours i n their  b u s i n e s s e s compared  centred  t o respondents  and c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  groups. They  from also  the businessperformed  less  housework compared t o respondents i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n and the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d groups. T h i s can be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by having smaller  families  (one o r two c h i l d r e n ) .  Also  t h e m a j o r i t y of  respondents i n t h i s group were male who had a spouse o r a nanny t o r e l y on w i t h household c h o r e s . Hence they had fewer domestic responsibilities the groups  compared t o t h e i r  including  female c o u n t e r p a r t s  t h e balance group. By combining  in a l l t h e two  measures one can conclude t h a t women e x p e r i e n c e more problems i n coordinating  business  and  family  c o u n t e r p a r t s , which stems from gender  needs  than  their  ideology that  male  prescribes  domestic r o l e s f o r women. These e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n s t r a i n t h e way these women can r u n t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s . F o r men, these gendered ideologies  can be used  to their  advantage  because  they a r e  163 excused even  from  taking f u l l  when they  responsibility  establish  their  w i t h i n the  businesses  to  household,  assume  primary  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h e r e f o r e , the self-employed men  in this  sample  can  devote  more  time  and  energy  to  the  b u s i n e s s or t o l e i s u r e u n l i k e t h e i r female c o u n t e r p a r t s . Overall  the f i n d i n g s suggest  t h a t the respondents  f o u r groups are a f f e c t e d by the f a m i l y i n some way.  in a l l  However, the  d i f f e r e n c e s l i e i n the extent t o which f a m i l y a f f e c t s them, and i n t h i s study having a spouse t o o f f - l o a d f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s  and  household chores determined the degree of c o n f l i c t experienced. This  was  the  main  factor  distinguishing  the  male and  female  entrepreneurs. L a s t but not l e a s t , the f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y demonstrate  that  understanding the outcomes of c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y requires  many  different  typology  d i d not  questions  capture  i n depth  on  the  same  the c o n f l i c t  owners are f a c e d w i t h i n the process of meeting demands of b u s i n e s s complex  and  questions  to  and  therefore get  a  f a m i l y . The required  clear  problems  extensive  sense  of  the  issue.  The  that  business  the  competing  are  a  probing  l o t more and  business  many owners  experiences.  S a t i s f a c t i o n with Household Arrangements Another family  possible  arrangements  satisfaction  outcome  of  coordinating business  f o r entrepreneurs  with household  with  families  arrangements. I asked  and  i s their  respondents  d i r e c t l y how they f e l t about these i s s u e s . The f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d  164 t h a t seventy-nine percent o f t h e entrepreneurs i n t h e b u s i n e s s c e n t r e d group were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r household A l l the respondents with t h e i r three  arrangements.  i n t h e balance group expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n  p a r t o f domestic  respondents  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Two out o f t h e  i n the family-centred seventy  percent  group,  were  also  satisfied.  However,  respondents  i n t h e c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h  t h e i r share o f domestic chores  (7 out o f 10) o f t h e  ( s i x of t h e e i g h t women and one  of t h e two males). E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r S a t i s f a c t i o n and D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Household arrangements: I t was not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t most o f t h e respondents i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r domestic arrangements males).  ( f i v e out o f seven  This  housework  i s because  compared  they  women and t e n out o f twelve  performed  t o t h e respondents  the l e a s t from  amount o f  the other  three  groups. Women i n t h i s category were content with t h e i r s i t u a t i o n because they had  very s u p p o r t i v e spouses  who helped them a t  home and 71% c l a i m e d t o perform l e s s housework s i n c e they were self-employed.  Because  these  women a r r i v e d  home a f t e r  their  husbands, they were not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r cooking and p i c k i n g up the  children  from  school  o r daycare.  The women  with  older  c h i l d r e n engaged them i n the household and l o o k i n g a f t e r younger siblings.  I t i s interesting  expressed  dissatisfaction  t o note  said  they  that  t h e two males who  wanted t o h e l p out t h e i r  wives more with household d u t i e s . One female respondent was not content f o r t h e same reason as t h e two men above, and t h e o t h e r  165 female entrepreneur was d i s s a t i s f i e d because she was overloaded w i t h household  responsibilities.  A l l t h e respondents their  i n t h e balance group were content w i t h  arrangements. T h i s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by having s m a l l e r  families  and a  Although  supportive  we l e a r n e d e a r l i e r  conflict,  Two female)  that  one can assume t h a t  harmony i n t h e i r the o t h e r  spouse  to assist  this  there  them  group a l s o  a t home.  experiences  i s a g r e a t e r degree o f  f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s arrangements compared t o  groups. out o f t h e t h r e e  entrepreneurs  i n t h e f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group  were  (one male satisfied  and one w i t h her  household arrangements. One o f t h e women had a c l e a n i n g lady and the male respondent respondent  had h i s w i f e t o a s s i s t him. The one female  who was d i s s a t i s f i e d  said  she needed  a "cleaning  lady". The m a j o r i t y (seven out o f 10) o f t h e b u s i n e s s owners from the  conflict  group  responsibilities.  were  dissatisfied  with  their  Among them, s i x out o f e i g h t o f t h e females  and one o f t h e two males expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . that distinguished t h i s that  they  percent  devoted  The f a c t o r  group from t h e o t h e r t h r e e groups was  t h e most hours  o f t h e respondents  more o r t h e same amount employed. A l a r g e  domestic  i n this  t o housework. A l s o , e i g h t y group s a i d  o f housework  they  s i n c e they  proportion of the i n d i v i d u a l s  performed were  claimed  selfthat  t h e i r household and b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were so demanding they had t o be met a t t h e expense o f themselves. T h i s  situation  166 f u r t h e r e x p l a i n s why  they expressed d i s c o n t e n t . One  respondent  lamented, "Too many t h i n g s b e i n g compromised..no s o l u t i o n . . i t c o u l d be changed i f people are w i l l i n g t o change" (female i n c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group). One  e x p l a n a t i o n as  to  why  respondents  i n the  conflict-  r i d d e n group were performing most of the housework i s t h a t they have  husbands  who  nutritionists,  are  i n professional  doctors,  company  (Falkenberg and Monachello, conclude  that  important. because  often  This she  the  is  managers).  1990;  the  wife  expected  (lawyers,  Several  studies  B e u t e l l and Greenhaus,  husbands  limits  occupations  career  i s considered  i n her  to  1982)  business  take  on  more  management  more  domestic  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s so t h a t her husband can pursue h i s c a r e e r . The husbands  of  the  female  entrepreneurs  i n the  conflict-ridden  group seemed t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r work t o be more important  than  that  more  of  their  housework  wives.  compared  to  Another the  reason  other  for  groups  performing  was  having  larger  f a m i l i e s and young c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s i n accordance w i t h Meissner et  a l . (1975) who  found  that,  among  340  married  couples  Vancouver, demands of housework were g r e a t e r among those young c h i l d r e n . The f i n d i n g s demonstrate conflict-ridden  group experience  Overall, claimed  to  only  perform  20%  of  more  the  employed compared t o 45% of the men.  to  a  larger  degree  the  entire  sample  group.  women from  housework  with  t h a t respondents i n the  conflict  than entrepreneurs i n the o t h e r t h r e e  in  since The  they  became  self-  i n c r e a s e i n household  167 d u t i e s among men  can be a t t r i b u t e d t o more time spent on c h i l d -  c a r e . T h i s has been c o n s i d e r e d t o be one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of men's involvement i n domestic labour (Luxton, 1990). What d i s t i n g u i s h e s many of these self-employed from  those  Operating  in a  the  general  business  from  workforce the  home  is  can  working  fathers  at  home.  i n c r e a s e demand  to  perform more domestic work as one male respondent d e s c r i b e d i t , "I run the household.. I do a l l the cooking, vacuuming because you are p o s i t i o n e d i n the home..before I d i d not do anything..above a l l i t makes you more maternal" (Male from the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group) T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t with Ross (1987) and P l e c k ' s (1985) r e s u l t s showing an i n c r e a s e i n household  a c t i v i t i e s among  O v e r a l l the f i n d i n g s r e v e a l t h a t more men (55%)  are s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r household  (85%) than women  responsibilities.  i n t e r e s t i n g question that merits attention male entrepreneurs who  men.  i s why  An  some of the  claimed t o be performing more hours  of  housework, would be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r household arrangements. One  possible  e x p l a n a t i o n , a p a r t from  d e v o t i n g fewer  hours  to  housework compared t o t h e i r female c o u n t e r p a r t s , i s the type of t a s k s they perform. These men the o t h e r hand were l e f t  enjoyed c h i l d c a r e . The women on  performing the more r o u t i n e and  less  p l e a s a n t jobs l i k e house c l e a n i n g , cooking and laundry. T h i s i s consistent  with  confirmed t h a t men  Staines  and  O'Connor's  (1980)  study  which  assumed most of the l e i s u r e l y type a c t i v i t i e s  i n t a k i n g c a r e of the c h i l d r e n . Luxton  (1990) a l s o found i n her  study t h a t the women were l e f t w i t h more unpleasant chores. Most of the female entrepreneurs and the wives of the male  168 business  owners i n t h i s  study  were p r i m a r i l y  responsible f o r  indoor household t a s k s such as p r e p a r i n g meals, indoor c l e a n i n g and  washing. T h i s r e s u l t  (1991) who found  that  i s c o n s i s t e n t with  female  business  Belcourt, et a l .  owners were  primarily  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r managing the household. However, B e l c o u r t e t a l . (1991)  d i d not d i s t i n g u i s h  business  owners.  This  between  finding  full-time  concurs  with  and p a r t - t i m e  Cozen  and West's  (1991) r e s e a r c h who demonstrated t h a t d u a l - c a r e e r women performed  still  the s t r o n g e r gender typed t a s k s . Cozen and West (1991)  d e s c r i b e d women's household t a s k s as being l e s s " d i s c r e t i o n a r y , " which means t h a t a meal f o r example, cannot  be put o f f u n t i l  tomorrow. T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h mens' t a s k s which on t h e whole, are more " d i s c r e t i o n a r y " with r e s p e c t t o s c h e d u l i n g (Cozen and West, 1991). T h e i r f i n d i n g this  i s c o n s i s t e n t with  study. Even t h e male entrepreneurs  businesses  t o look  after  the r e s u l t s of  who e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r  the c h i l d r e n ,  were  not p r i m a r i l y  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r performing t h e l e s s " d i s c r e t i o n a r y " t a s k s  such  as evening meal p r e p a r a t i o n . These f i n d i n g s serve t o demonstrate that  the  division  of  labour  within  the  household  for  entrepreneurs i n t h i s sample was s t i l l gendered, and i t e x p l a i n s why  men were more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r domestic arrangements i n  c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r female c o u n t e r p a r t s . It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g though not u n s u r p r i s i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t  although housework  t h e male since  entrepreneurs  business they  owners  became  claimed  t o perform  self-employed,  i n a l l t h e groups were s t i l l  the  more female  d e v o t i n g more hours  169 t o domestic work compared t o t h e i r male counter p a r t s . all  Almost  t h e women (85% 17 out o f 20) perform 20 o r more hours p e r  week on household d u t i e s compared t o 45% o f the men. A l s o no man c l a i m s he performed more than 39 hours p e r week whereas 25% o f the women d i d so. L o n g s t r e t c h e t a l . (1987) came t o t h e same c o n c l u s i o n ; they found t h a t f u l l - t i m e s e l f - employed women spend more  time  on  household  work  than  counterparts. Also Belcourt e t a l ' s .  their  comparable  male  (1991) r e s u l t s support t h e  f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study. Both show t h a t f u l l - t i m e woman b u s i n e s s owners were more burdened the  male  entrepreneurs.  with domestic Several  responsibilities  r e s e a r c h groups  than  ( K e i t h and  Brubaker, 1979; K e i t h and S c h a f e r , 1980; L e i n , 1974), a l s o agree t h a t women took on the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the household i n a d d i t i o n to  performing  female  them. A l l o f these  business  similar  owners  experiences  and women with  findings  suggest  i n t h e labour  respect  to  that the  force  their  have  household  responsibilities. Why a r e female e n t r e p r e n e u r s p e r f o r m i n g more hours o f housework than male e n t r e p r e n e u r s ? E x p l a n a t i o n s can be found i n r e s o u r c e t h e o r i e s  (Blood and  Wolf, 1960) where e d u c a t i o n and income a c t as b a r g a i n i n g t o o l s in  the sharing  o f household  l a b o u r . S i n c e most o f t h e s e l f -  employed women i n t h i s  study earned  (especially  i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  t h e women  l e s s than t h e i r group  husbands, who had  p r o f e s s i o n a l husbands) they had l e s s b a r g a i n i n g power than t h e i r husbands  concerning decisions  around  the d i v i s i o n  of labour  w i t h i n the household. Having l e s s b a r g a i n i n g power c o u l d e x p l a i n  170 why  t h e women i n t h i s sample, e s p e c i a l l y  ridden  group,  still  performed  more  those i n t h e c o n f l i c t housework  than  their  husbands. T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n a l s o holds t r u e f o r some o f the s e l f employed men. They were e a r n i n g more than t h e i r wives who were working p a r t - t i m e  o r not a t a l l and t h e r e f o r e possessed  more  b a r g a i n i n g power concerning d e c i s i o n s taken i n who does what i n the household. However, t h i s approach f a l l s s h o r t i n e x p l a i n i n g why  an equal d i v i s i o n o f household  labour would occur f o r some  of the self-employed men who were e a r n i n g l e s s than t h e i r  wives.  I t a l s o f a l l s s h o r t i n e x p l a i n i n g why an unequal d i v i s i o n o f t h e household women  would  of t h i s  occur sample.  f o r t h e h i g h l y educated I f there  self-employed  a r e powerful  norms  making  housework woman's work then a c c e p t i n g an equal share may be a big  s t e p . The woman's b a r g a i n i n g power i s s u f f i c i e n t t o ensure  this  change but not t h e more s u b s t a n t i a t e d one where t h e man  does most o f t h e housework. The unequal chores  f o r these  business  division  o f household  women can be b e t t e r e x p l a i n e d by  f e m i n i s t theory, which suggests t h a t "housework i s s t i l l woman's work." These s o c i a l sanctioned  rights  norms f o r men and women d i c t a t e  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  (Meissner,  socially  1975). A l s o  women i n c o r p o r a t e t h e i d e a o f housework as women's work their all  into  s e l f - i m a g e by p r o v i n g t h a t they a r e good wives by doing  the housework ( F e r r e e , 1990). T h i s a t t i t u d e seems t o p l a y an  important  role  i n e x p l a i n i n g why women i n t h i s  sample  perform  more housework than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . Another e x p l a n a t i o n l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t many women e s t a b l i s h  t h e i r own b u s i n e s s e s  171 t o a t t e n d t o f a m i l y needs and t o f u l f i l  their traditional  role  w i t h i n s o c i e t y . T h i s p l a c e s them i n a lower income b r a c k e t than t h e i r husbands because f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y p l a c e s r e s t r i c t i o n s on the type o f b u s i n e s s and degree o f involvement they can have. In t h e i r case both m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s and s o c i e t a l v a l u e s p l a y an important p a r t i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a gendered d i v i s i o n o f labour w i t h i n t h e home. The  findings  significant women,  clearly  impact  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l s  and determine  business  demonstrate  the o v e r a l l  that  housework  involved,  experience  had a  especially  of r e c o n c i l i n g  and f a m i l y d u t i e s . Since women a r e s t i l l  performing  more housework than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s , t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i s unique  t o them as women and they do not f a r e as w e l l as t h e i r  male c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e i r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l endeavour. They a r e , with  a few e x c e p t i o n s  respect these  (as seen  above) a t a disadvantage  t o coordinating business findings,  deterrent commitment  housework  f o r business t o work.  distinguished  between a l l f o u r  should  activity  Housework  t h e male  and f a m i l y needs. be  as  t h e main  entrepreneurs  Based on a  i f i t involves  i s also  and female  viewed  with  serious full-time  factor  that  w i t h i n and  groups.  A t t i t u d e t o present s i t u a t i o n Entrepreneurs  often e s t a b l i s h t h e i r businesses with  clear  g o a l s and have motives t h a t range from f i n a n c i a l , p e r s o n a l o r t o c r e a t e a b e t t e r balance with t h e i r  f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s  However, some entrepreneurs f i n d themselves  lives.  i n situations  172 where  their  actual  circumstance  i n i t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . How  is  incongruent  with  their  then do self-employed i n d i v i d u a l s d e a l  w i t h t h e i r present s i t u a t i o n  of b a l a n c i n g b u s i n e s s and  family  responsibilities? Exploring  how  self-employed  individuals  cope  with  demands imposed on them might add t o an understanding  the  of t h e i r  management of b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y . To accomplish t h i s I adapted a  typology  from  Belcourt et  a l . ' s (1991) study,  (originally  adapted from H a l l ' s t y p o l o g y of coping responses) which proposed t h r e e types of coping s t r a t e g i e s i n ways of managing f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s needs: 1) changing t h a t which i s expected of you w i t h i n the household "doing  i t a l l " by  household first  or b u s i n e s s , 2) r e d e f i n i n g your p r i o r i t i e s , or 3) taking  on  full  responsibility  for  both  and b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s . H a l l p r e d i c t s t h a t o n l y the  two  will  experienced  be  effective  i n lowering  ( c f . Belcourt et a l . ,  the  level  of  stress  1991).  Changing E x p e c t a t i o n s The  findings  of t h i s  study  suggest  t h a t the m a j o r i t y of  women i n a l l the groups (except f o r the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group) dealt  with  their  current business  arid  f a m i l y commitments  by  changing t h e i r " e x p e c t a t i o n s " i n terms of t h e i r r o l e s w i t h i n the household  and  acted  household  chores  on  these  between  expectations  their  spouse  by  and  redistributing children.  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of work enabled them t o adequately  fulfil  This their  b u s i n e s s commitments which have been i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d by their  spouse as  important  sources  of  supplementary  earnings.  173 T h i s change i n a t t i t u d e  might a l s o e x p l a i n why these women were  satisfied  household  with  their  arrangements  and why  they  performed l e s s housework than t h e women i n t h e c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group. A t t i t u d e s women have towards t h e i r work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (both  paid  and unpaid)  affect  t h e way they  are w i l l i n g to  p e r c e i v e a change i n t h e gendered d i v i s i o n o f labour i n s i d e t h e household  (Luxton,  1990). These women l i k e  those  i n Luxton's  (1990) supported t h e i d e a of r e d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e domestic labour by  increasing  p r e s s u r e on t h e i r husbands and c h i l d r e n  them. Luxton  (1990) i n t e r p r e t e d  "women c h a l l e n g i n g  the e x i s t i n g  these  attitudinal  ideology  to assist changes as  and p r a c t i c e  of the  gendered d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r " (Luxton, 1990:44). The and  female b u s i n e s s owners i n t h i s group had o l d e r  children  were i n a c e r t a i n phase i n t h e i r l i v e s where they c o u l d r i s k  working o u t s i d e the home. They seemed t o have reached a phase i n their  lives  where they  were q u e s t i o n i n g  their  role,  and t h e  e q u i t y o f t h e i r r o l e w i t h i n t h e household and i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a  full-time  business  owner. These  element i n t h e e x i s t i n g businesses  and  relations  children.  The  findings  reveal  a dynamic  between e n t r e p r e n e u r s , relations  between  their  them a r e  c o n s t a n t l y changing and because they are so t i g h t l y connected we see  how they i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r , e s p e c i a l l y  the  children  the l i f e - c y c l e of  on t h e b u s i n e s s .  Doing i t a l l The  situation  very d i f f e r e n t  of t h i s  group o f woman b u s i n e s s owners i s  from t h e p r e v i o u s group. F i v e out o f t h e e i g h t  174 women i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group tended t o "do i t a l l , " could  explain  why they devoted  over t h i r t y  hours  which  o r more t o  housework. One respondent d e s c r i b e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n terms o f "being  everywhere  f o r everyone  except  f o r me."  Four  of the  female respondents from the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group lamented about s u f f e r i n g "themselves" i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e t o c o o r d i n a t e b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y d u t i e s . "I s u f f e r because no matter a t what c o s t , I am always meeting everyone's needs" (female from c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group). In  order t o meet t h e demands o f both t h e household and  business,  these women had t o s a c r i f i c e  increased  stress.  This  finding  their  own time  i s consistent  with  which  Stoner,  Hartman and A r o r a ' s (1990) study which found t h a t t h e i n a b i l i t y to  pursue  personal i n t e r e s t s  was one o f t h e t o p f o u r  ranked  c o n f l i c t dimensions among self-employed i n d i v i d u a l s . The women in  this  group  also  stated  "everything  suffer"  consequences  t h a t ensue  demands  o f two  full  that  serves  "everything" to  illustrate  suffered. the  Having  negative  from b e i n g p r e s s u r e d i n t o meeting t h e workloads  within  the family  and t h e  b u s i n e s s . Those women who attempted t o complete t h e i r work were "burnt out" f o r doing i t a l l o r s t r e s s e d out f o r i n c o m p l e t i o n o f the t a s k s they s e t out t o do. T h i s f i n d i n g several  studies  particular, parents,  although  paid  notable s h i f t  on  dual-earner not u n l i k e  employment  does  women. other  i s consistent with  F o r these  women i n  full-time  employed  not a u t o m a t i c a l l y  t r i g g e r any  i n t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r a t home and l e a d s t o a  175 double day, o r as H o s c h i l d and Machung (1989) d e s c r i b e w i f e ' s second s h i f t " o f unpaid Overload  "a  work.  was minimized t o some extent by t h e women i n t h e  business-centred chores  it,  and balance  and heaping  groups  by d e l e g a t i n g  responsibilities  on t h e i r  household  family  t o meet  d e a d l i n e s u n l i k e the women i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with H a l l ' s p r e d i c t i o n t h a t e f f o r t s t o respond t o a l l demands does not lower s t r e s s ( c f . B e l c o u r t e t a l . , 1991). P a r t of the e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r why these women are more i n c l i n e d t o "do it the  all,"  apart  from e n a c t i n g  discussion earlier  traditional  about having  other  ridden  group  groups) may not be f i x e d  l i n k s back t o  p r o f e s s i o n a l husbands and  l a r g e r f a m i l i e s . I t i s however important women i n t h e c o n f l i c t -  roles,  t o p o i n t out t h a t t h e  (just  like  those  i n the  i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . They c o u l d  change t h e i r business and f a m i l y arrangements t o resemble  those  of the women i n the b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d , f a m i l y - c e n t r e d o r balance groups as t h e i r c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r , o r as they change t h e i r own expectations. subject  Their  life  situation  t o change and should  and a t t i t u d e s a r e always  be p e r c e i v e d  as a process  in a  p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n time. Redefining Most female  Priorities male  counterparts  obligations. justify their  business  They  working  families,  in  owners  coordinating  "redefined  long  coped  hours  their  differently business priorities,"  i n the business,  or to rationalize  becoming  time  than and  their family  to either spent  self-employed  with in  176 order t o assume primary  responsibility  of the  their  priorities  these  wives worked. The  subject  to  change,  for  those  of  who  just  children owners are  established  while also their  b u s i n e s s e s t h e i r p r i o r i t y i s the e n t e r p r i s e . Other entrepreneurs who  have a l r e a d y worked i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s f o r a number of y e a r s  are a t a d i f f e r e n t  stage i n l i f e  where f a m i l y i s v a l u e d more.  These changes are not o n l y i n f l u e n c e d by the l i f e - c y c l e of the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r own  development, but by the l a r g e r  namely changes i n normative r o l e s w i t h i n the household  society,  e x p e c t a t i o n s of men's and women's  and i n c h i l d  rearing.  For some of the male b u s i n e s s owners, working l o n g hours a t the expense of f a m i l y time  seems j u s t i f i e d  or r a t i o n a l i z e d i n  terms of needing t o work t o support t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h i s comes as no s u r p r i s e s i n c e the m a j o r i t y of male respondents group had  e i t h e r a spouse working  in this  p a r t - t i m e or not a t a l l who  they had t o support f i n a n c i a l l y . Those male entrepreneurs t h a t took time o f f from t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s t o be w i t h t h e i r  families  j u s t i f i e d doing t h i s by e x p r e s s i n g the joy they experienced j u s t being with them. Respondents c l e a r l y  s t a t e d t h a t they d i d not  want t o l o o s e out on t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s c h i l d h o o d . Here are some of  t h e i r v o i c e s t h a t r e f l e c t these p o i n t s , "I t e l l my w i f e t h a t I don't spend enough time w i t h the b u s i n e s s but when I am with the f a m i l y I am s a t i s f i e d " (male from c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group). "I have backed o f f on the b u s i n e s s more. I am t r y i n g not t o work on Saturdays t o be w i t h the k i d s . . t h e y have hockey game..I would normally expand and spend more time i n the b u s i n e s s but the k i d s are a t an age where they needed time and I want t o be t h e r e " (male from b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group) .  177 These responses echo the v o i c e s of s e v e r a l male respondents who  specifically  part  in  their  priorities  closed  their  children's  the  male  b u s i n e s s e s on  activities.  entrepreneurs  By  weekends t o redefining  were  able  their  to  justify  s a c r i f i c i n g t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s t o spend time with t h e i r T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h P l e c k ' s (1978) r e s e a r c h who  take  families. found  that  husbands were more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r f a m i l y r o l e s . Redefining p r i o r i t i e s choice,  i s applicable  as a means of  t o the t h r e e men  b u s i n e s s e s t o look a f t e r the c h i l d r e n  justifying who  a current  established  their  (two from the balance  and  one from the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group). There were o n l y t h r e e out of the twenty male respondents who  established t h e i r businesses f o r  the above reasons, but t h e i r v o i c e s should be heard. These  men  were home-based, p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ,  and  had p r o f e s s i o n a l working wives who were the main income e a r n e r s . Although  i t was  not the i n t e n t  of the study t o f o c u s on what  leads these male entrepreneurs i n t o the d e c i s i o n of e s t a b l i s h i n g their  businesses  children,  to  assume  primary  responsibility  of  the  i t i s a q u e s t i o n worth a s k i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o  note t h a t a l l t h r e e of these men  had c a r e e r s i n very s p e c i a l i z e d  fields  entrepreneurs  (relative  to  the  other  in this  sample)  which made f i n d i n g a job d i f f i c u l t f o r them. For two of them, i t c o u l d have been a means of r a t i o n a l i z i n g the b l o c k e d they  experienced  in  the  occupational  structure.  mobility Another  important f a c t o r t h a t c o u l d h e l p t o e x p l a i n the process t h a t l e d t o t h i s d e c i s i o n i s t h e i r l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n . A l l t h r e e of these  178 men  were h i g h l y educated  with  Graphic A r t . Since these men were e c o n o m i c a l l y their  secure,  "maleness" and  a PHD,  an MBA  and  a degree i n  had a h i g h l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n  they  were  probably  and  more secure  in  t h e r e f o r e d i d not mind r i s k i n g d e v i a t i o n  from the norm and assuming f u l l  responsibility for child-  d u t i e s . They were more l i k e l y t o f i n d themselves  care  i n a supportive  p o s i t i o n among t h e i r peers, s i n c e performing housework, which i s generally  associated  "progressive"  with  in their  male. In t h e i r  case  "woman's"  circle  of  work,  friends  t h e r e seems t o be  is  conceived  when performed  a positive  as  by  a  connotation  a s s o c i a t e d with men performing housework. Thus i t makes choosing t o e s t a b l i s h a home-based b u s i n e s s f o r f a m i l i a l reasons a l l the more  rewarding.  These  c o n d i t i o n s can  e x p l a i n very  o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n they experienced i n t h e i r new f i n d i n g i s c o n t r a r y t o K e i t h and Schafer men  engaging  esteem  dissatisfaction  maleness,  the  roles. This  (1980) who  found t h a t  i n more feminine chores were prone t o l o s s of s e l f -  or had  financially  well  identity  problems.  occurs  secure  f o r working  and  especially  I t can  if  therefore their  class not  be  argued  men as  "maleness"  who  that may  secure is  based  this  not  in  be  their on  the  s t e r e o t y p i c a l n o t i o n of being the primary breadwinner. T h i s  was  found  men  were  i n Luxton's afraid  domestic  that  (1990) study, i f the  public  where some working c l a s s knew  they  were  involved i n  labour they would be t e a s e d and r i d i c u l e d . One man  the vacuuming on h i s knees so t h a t no one would see him, men  o n l y d i d t a s k s i n s i d e the house  did  other  ( r e f u s e d t o hang out  the  179 laundry)  (Luxton, 1990). In t h e i r case a n e g a t i v e stigma would  be a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r c h o i c e of performing "women's" work. These circumstances t h i s study who  are  i n c o n t r a s t with  the male entrepreneurs  in  were content w i t h t h e i r r o l e as a self-employed  parent assuming most of the c h i l d c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s i s consistent  with  the  findings  of  Staines,  Fudge  and  Pottick  (1986) t h a t show t h a t d u a l - c a r e e r husbands are i n c r e a s i n g participation  i n the f a m i l y , are adapting t o t h i s new  are e n j o y i n g i n c r e a s e d involvement Although  role,  and  ini t .  t h i s group of self-employed men  an anomaly, t h e i r s i t u a t i o n  their  can be viewed as  can g i v e us i n s i g h t  into  a pattern  t h a t might r e f l e c t a f u t u r e t r e n d w i t h i n the labour market. With the  i n c r e a s e of  educated  people,  especially  among the  self-  employed, and the r e d e f i n i t i o n of f a m i l y v a l u e s f o r both men women, one the  c o u l d assume t h a t the process of change may  direction  operate  where  self-employed  home-based b u s i n e s s e s  bilities.  It  is  entrepreneurs  who  role  more  still  important would  experience  like  men  are  and  move i n  choosing  to  t o accommodate f a m i l y r e s p o n s i to  recognize  t o take on  social  that  several  more of the  pressure  because  male  familial normative  e x p e c t a t i o n s about these r o l e s are s t i l l v e r y gendered. T h i s i s manifest i n the f o l l o w i n g comments: "my w i f e has problems d e a l i n g w i t h me. She i s b a s i c a l l y e n v i o u s . . i t s a r e v e r s a l . . I don't know i f t h a t ' s a problem. I have never been i n a s i t u a t i o n where I have worked and my w i f e hasn't..my mother always worked a t home..I mean t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l model r i g h t - a man works and a women s t a y s a t home and l i k e my parents t h a t was never a problem f o r them...my mother was never expected t o work..now my w i f e would l i k e t o be me the one working a t home and t h a t i s how  180 she views i t . . s h e i s d i s s a t i s f i e d fed-up w i t h what she i s doing so t h a t c r e a t e s problems f o r us..we do t a l k about i t i t s something t h a t comes up" (male i n the balance group assuming primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the c h i l d r e n ) . " B a l a n c i n g f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s needs has had a t o l l on our r e l a t i o n s h i p . . i t w i l l improve a f t e r my d e c i s i o n t o get t o work only one day a week..that will help our r e l a t i o n s h i p , .he wants t o do t h a t too., t o be a t home with our daughter and work once a week ..but I won..mothers should do i t " (Female i n b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group, one year o l d daughter). This  self-employed  operates  woman  just  had  a  baby  and  owns  and  a p a r t n e r s h i p b u s i n e s s w i t h her husband o u t s i d e the  home. They both want t o work one day a week i n the b u s i n e s s so that  they  can  accommodate  simply because she was  f a m i l y needs. But  got  her  the c h i l d r e n ,  who  but  would l i k e  t o be  a t home and  are not g i v e n the chance.  Their  v o i c e s should be heard i n the realm of the domestic sphere, as  women's  voices  way  a female. T h i s s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t  t h e r e are self-employed men look a f t e r  she  should  be  increasingly  heard  within  just the  b u s i n e s s sphere. The  f i n d i n g s of t h i s study suggest t h a t the self-employed  women from t h i s sample e i t h e r changed t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n or it  all"  i n the  business  their priorities. their  and  household,  whereas men  redefine  Perhaps these women d i d not have t o r e d e f i n e  family p r i o r i t i e s  because they  were a l r e a d y  socialized  i n t o p l a c i n g f a m i l y d u t i e s i n the f o r e f r o n t of t h e i r l i v e s . male respondents to  set  up  "do  seemed t o be f a c e d w i t h the dilemma of  their  business  for  long  term  stability  The  wanting versus  n u r t u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n . O v e r a l l , i t appears t h a t some of these male  entrepreneurs  are  faced  with  similar  predicaments  of  181 creating lives.  a b e t t e r balance  between  their  f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s  However, t h e nature o f t h e i r problems and t h e way they  are f o r women e x p e r i e n c i n g them s t i l l  remain very d i f f e r e n t and  gendered. From t h i s micro learn  that  t h e arrangements  always changing. how  a n a l y s i s o f self-employed small  business  owners  We heard the b u s i n e s s owners own v o i c e s about  that  are also  o c c u r r i n g i n t h e wider  i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l society  society  changes,  that  i s undergoing  changes  on  time,  major  t h e macro  t h e experiences  understood  normative  level  o f these  as a p a r t i c u l a r  Nearly everything i n l i f e  o r changes  are a l l functioning i n  which  i n f l u e n c e t h e i r o v e r a l l experience on a micro mind,  position  and economic penetrate  entrepreneurs  should  and experience  i s i n a state  group may have s i m i l a r  and  l e v e l . With t h i s  of constant  w e l l as how you d e a l with these changes. Women i n the ridden  are,  ( c f . Hagedorn, 1980). B u s i n e s s ,  f a m i l y and t h e entrepreneurs themselves  in  make a r e  i n t e r c o n n e c t e d f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s l i f e - c y c l e s r e a l l y  cycles  a  i n d i v i d u a l s we  o u t l o o k s as those  be  i n time. f l u x - as conflict-  i n the other  groups i n time as t h e i r f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s e s change. L i k e w i s e , entrepreneurs  i n t h e balance  group might  shift  p r i o r i t i e s of  f a m i l y t o b u s i n e s s as t h e i r c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r . The normative timing  of l i f e  transition, may  events  and changing  social  roles  that are  in  a r e s u b j e c t t o change f o r these entrepreneurs and  be d i s s i m i l a r  f o r future  entrepreneurs-leading  d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s arrangements.  t o very  182 Conclusion How b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y l i f e the  motivation  f o r becoming  are organized i s linked t o  self-employed,  a decision  made  w i t h i n t h e context o f these entrepreneurs l i v e s as p a r e n t s . The p e r c e p t i o n o f f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s and how these self-employed men and women a c t on them were gendered, h e l p i n g t o e x p l a i n why men and women e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s e s f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. The male entrepreneurs  i n this  study  were  motivated  primarily f o r  " f i n a n c i a l reasons" and " t o be t h e i r own boss." But t h e r e were a l s o a few self-employed men who e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s for  familial  sought  reasons.  The female  self-employment  entrepreneurs  i n this  f o r "greater f l e x i b i l i t y "  study  i n order t o  balance f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s needs. The women w i t h o l d e r c h i l d r e n established  their  enterprises to create a better  w i t h i n t h e i r own l i v e s becoming  self-employed  equilibrium  ( s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n ) . The m o t i v a t i o n f o r f o r entrepreneurs  i n this  study  i n f l u e n c e d by what they p e r c e i v e d as t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y work and p r i v a t e  spheres  of t h e i r  lives.  was  i n the  T h i s appeared  t o be  gendered from the o u t s e t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s . T h e i r commitment t o f a m i l y had consequences f o r t h e type o f b u s i n e s s they  chose,  how  they  ran t h e i r  enterprises,  t h e way  they  o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y , and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s on t h e i r l i v e s (Appendix D). The s u b t l e p a t r i a r c h i c a l  e x p e c t a t i o n s which emphasize t h a t  housework and c h i l d - c a r e a r e g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h women, and  the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n  of t r a d i t i o n a l  norms  around  family,  183 helped t o e x p l a i n why d i f f e r e n c e s between self-employed men and women emerged i n t h e way b u s i n e s s  and f a m i l y were o r g a n i z e d .  Gender i d e o l o g y a l s o e x p l a i n s why men and women were  distributed  d i f f e r e n t l y between t h e f o u r groups around i s s u e s o f o r g a n i z i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . the m a j o r i t y o f t h e male respondents c e n t r e d and balance groups, i n t o the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  Out o f t h e f o u r fell  groups,  under t h e b u s i n e s s -  whereas t h e m a j o r i t y o f women  fell  and b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d groups. T h i s means  t h a t more women than men experience a g r e a t e r degree o f c o n f l i c t in  coordinating their  performed  business  and f a m i l y commitments. Women  the most hours o f housework and d i d not have a spouse  to r e l y on i n a s s i s t i n g much with household work. Respondents i n the  business-centred  group  tended  t o organize  their  around t h e i r b u s i n e s s and separated t h e two environments. individuals groups around  i n the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n ,  on t h e o t h e r their  hand,  families  tended  and  family Those  f a m i l y - c e n t r e d , and balance t o adapt  tried  to  their  businesses  harmonize  t h e two  environments. However, r e g a r d l e s s o f what group the women f e l l i n t o , they tended  t o blend t h e i r b u s i n e s s and household  They a l s o  experienced  guilt  f o r not being  families.  The women i n t h e c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  problems o f s a c r i f i c i n g themselves  responsibilities. available group  to their  experienced  i n t h e process o f b l e n d i n g  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y ; thus " e v e r y t h i n g s u f f e r e d . " In c o p i n g w i t h their  present  situation  some o f t h e women  ( i n the business-  c e n t r e d and balance groups) r e d e f i n e d the e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r  184 role  as  mother  responsibilities These  women  restructuring  or  wife,  of t h i s  were  and  role  more  i n turn  to their  committed  redistributed  children  to  and spouse.  equal  sharing  gender r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e household.  the group o f women i n t h e c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group, all  t h e housework  themselves  at their  the  However,  tended  and t h e i r  and  t o do  businesses  expense. The self-employed men encountered problems o f s c h e d u l i n g i n f a m i l y time. A l s o some o f the male b u s i n e s s owners choose not t o expand t h e i r v e n t u r e s , and reduced t h e i r working  hours  they p r e f e r r e d t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s They were t o r n between t h e normative primary  bread  oriented. influenced  How by  winner t h e men what  and t h e i r dealt  group  they  activities.  expectations of being the  desire  with  because  their  fell  t o be  more  situation  into,  but by  family was not gender.  R e d e f i n i n g t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s was one way i n which they coped w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n o f a l l o c a t i n g f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s time. The a n a l y s i s r e v o l v e d around f o u r groups which were formed and  based  on responses  from  six Likert  questions. A series of  open-ended q u e s t i o n s were a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e a n a l y s i s . Upon  comparing  t h e two s e t s o f q u e s t i o n s  on t h e same  issue  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s emerged. The b u s i n e s s - c e n t r e d group experienced problems o f spending  l e s s time w i t h f a m i l y . However, they down  played t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s f a m i l y had on t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s i n the L i k e r t q u e s t i o n s . Responses from the open-ended q u e s t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t they were a f f e c t e d by f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s i n terms  185 of  guilt  which  is  different  from  the  other  respondents.  Responses from the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group were c o n s i s t e n t when the two  sets  of  questions  were  compared.  However,  problems  emerge i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n and groups.  The  responses  f o r entrepreneurs  i n the  did  balance  conflict-ridden  group suggested t h a t commitments t o b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y were so g r e a t t h a t they produced questions Since  some respondents  conflict  commitment  conflict.  to  stems the  denied  from  However, i n the open-ended e x p e r i e n c i n g any  performing  family,  a  better  too  conflict.  much housework  and  a  more  and  accurate  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group would be a " f a m i l y centred  group", but  experiencing a  larger  degree of  conflict  r e l a t i v e t o the o t h e r f a m i l y - c e n t r e d group. Responses from the L i k e r t q u e s t i o n s among entrepreneurs i n the balance group suggest t h a t they experienced no c o n f l i c t i n meeting b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y commitments. However, the open-ended q u e s t i o n s y i e l d e d responses s u g g e s t i n g t e n s i o n . Four out of f i v e men claimed t h a t f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s . They too are a f f e c t e d  by  conflict  less  appears  to  their  f a m i l y , however the degree of  compared  to  the  other  groups.  C l a s s i f y i n g t h i s group as one i n balance does not r e f l e c t  their  real  as  situation.  family-centred  Instead group,  compared t o the o t h e r  but  they one  too  could  be  classified  t h a t experiences  less  a  conflict  groups.  O v e r a l l , the combination  of measures show the complex  and  c o n t r a d i c t o r y p r e s s u r e s on the l i v e s of these entrepreneurs i n  186 combining  business  and  they sometimes p e r c e i v e  family them.  and  the  i n c o n s i s t e n t ways  that  187 Chapter V Purpose o f t h e Research T h i s study was t h e f i r s t female  self-employed  business  individuals  responsibilities  situation  order t o conduct  their  f a m i l y and that  this  l i v e s . I t a l s o examined whether o r  situations this  organize  and t o show t h e e f f e c t s  can have on t h e i r  not t h e i n d i v i d u a l  i n B.C. t o compare how male and  differed  a c c o r d i n g t o gender. In  research a t o t a l of forty  men and women were i n t e r v i e w e d i n B r i t i s h  self-employed  Columbia.  Although  time consuming, t h e i n t e r v i e w was t h e o n l y method which would have y i e l d e d r e v e l a t i o n s i n t e g r a l The and  results  of t h i s  women o r g a n i z e t h e i r  differently  study  t o the research.  suggest  t h a t self-employed men  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y  and experience  outcomes  that  responsibilities  a r e unique  t o each  gender. The a n a l y s i s o f t h e study i n d i c a t e s t h a t gender d i r e c t l y enters  into  t h e process  of coordinating business  and f a m i l y  d u t i e s . Resource t h e o r i e s helped t o e x p l a i n why t h e d i v i s i o n o f labour was unequal f o r some o f t h e female e n t r e p r e n e u r s . However this males  approach f e l l experienced  household. resource  s h o r t o f e x p l a i n i n g why some an  equal  division  self-employed  o f labour  within the  I t was a l s o weak i n e x p l a i n i n g why education  d i d not a s s i s t  women i n t h e i r  b a r g a i n i n g power  as a over  household l a b o u r . The p e r s p e c t i v e o f gender t h e o r y , which c l a i m s t h a t housework i s s t i l l a s s o c i a t e d as "woman's work," helped t o demonstrate these shortcomings and not men, f a l l  and e x p l a i n why so many women,  i n t o t h e c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n group.  188 O v e r a l l t h e t y p o l o g y i s not a complete the s i t u a t i o n s entrepreneurs encounter  i n d i c a t o r alone o f  i n meeting  b u s i n e s s and  f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . No entrepreneur i s i n complete  balance,  and a l l respondents undergo some form o f c o n f l i c t . By comparing responses  from t h e L i k e r t  and open-ended q u e s t i o n s , a g r e a t e r  understanding of t h e degree o f c o n f l i c t and harmony encountered by  the business  owners  was  between males and females on  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  experience  conflict  achieved.  Gendered  differences  i n t h e f o u r groups d i d emerge. Based of  to  a  the f o u r larger  groups  degree  women  than  tend  their  to male  c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s i s e x p l a i n e d by two f a c t o r s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i r s i t u a t i o n from those o f men w i t h i n and between a l l groups: being p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e household p a r t - t i m e o r non working  and not having a  spouse t o r e l y on f o r a s s i s t a n c e .  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e study The  f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e i n f o r m a t i v e from  a t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and o f f e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the study o f self-employment British  Columbia.  processes  of  occupational under  change  parental  numbers.  role  thesis  with  structure  represented.  burgeoning  This  women  i n which  Today,  shows  this  us  entering  they  among workers i n some a  interesting  part  of the  have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  change  i s marked  Some o f t h e women who have  are t r y i n g  several  t o assume an i d e n t i t y  by  been their  assumed t h e as "business  woman." However, j u s t as women take on e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l r o l e s , t h i s study g i v e s i n s i g h t i n t o how men a r e r e o r i e n t i n g  themselves  189 i n t h e i r r o l e s as p a r e n t s . Men have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been known t o sacrifice  f a m i l y time because o f work. However, i n t h i s  study  some o f the self-employed men opted f o r spending more time w i t h the f a m i l y and assume more o f a f a m i l i a l also  seeking  a better  balance  role.  between t h e i r  These men a r e  work  and f a m i l y  l i v e s l i k e t h e i r female c o u n t e r p a r t . What these f i n d i n g s suggest is  that  these  entrepreneurs  are experiencing a r e o r i e n t a t i o n  w i t h i n t h e b u s i n e s s world and the r o l e s expected o f them w i t h i n their family l i v e s . The type o f b u s i n e s s e s these entrepreneurs operate f i t the  gendered  traditional clothing  structure sectors,  or  creating  jewellery.  businesses  because  experience  i n other  family  o f work.  responsibilities.  or l i f e  less  these  capital,  style  The male owned  clustered  baskets,  established  required  areas  were  and s e l l i n g  Many  they  Women  into in  children's types  of  lacked the  decisions involving b u s i n e s s e s were  also  t r a d i t i o n a l l y gendered, they operated s p o r t s equipment shops and e l e c t r o n i c s and c a r r e p a i r b u s i n e s s e s . In a d d i t i o n t o o p e r a t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l l y gender typed e n t e r p r i s e s , women and men d i f f e r i n their  experience  of s t a r t i n g ,  capitalizing  and running  them.  Women c i t e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t and b e i n g on s i t e for  their  These  children  motives  operate  as reasons  already  influence  and c o n s t r a i n s t h e i r  established  their  businesses  they had wives working  f o r choosing t h e type  workload.  self-employment. of business  they  Men on t h e o t h e r hand  forfinancial  reasons  and s i n c e  p a r t - t i m e o r n o t a t a l l t o a s s i s t them,  190 they  were not c o n s t r a i n e d  i n their  businesses.  This  demonstrates how gender a l r e a d y p l a y s an important  clearly  r o l e a t the  o u t s e t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r b u s i n e s s which s e t s t h e stage f o r how  t h e two environments a r e c o o r d i n a t e d . Women tend  t o organize  their  business  activities  around  t h e i r f a m i l y and blend the two environments t o g a i n r e s p e c t and c o o p e r a t i o n from t h e i r f a m i l y i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s endeavours. Men on  t h e o t h e r hand separate  t h e two environments and o r g a n i z e  t h e i r b u s i n e s s around the f a m i l y . The outcome o f r e c o n c i l i n g two  spheres  the  f o r women i s t h a t they experience a g r e a t e r degree  of c o n f l i c t than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s stems from women having  t o assume t h e r o l e  struggle obstacles  to reconcile unique  their  t o women  o f primary business  care  hence  and f a m i l y l i v e s .  are: creating  b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y environments,  giver,  boundaries  they Other  between  g u i l t f o r not spending enough  time w i t h t h e f a m i l y and s t r e s s from doing i t a l l . Men on t h e o t h e r hand experience problems o f s c h e d u l i n g i n time f o r f a m i l y . In  the p u b l i c  entrepreneurs improved  i n this  sphere  the conditions  female  sample as w e l l as f o r o t h e r women have  i n terms o f e d u c a t i o n ,  "entrepreneurship  f o r the  i s enjoying  employment, and s t a t u s where  high  status  i n the ranking of  v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s " ( B e l c o u r t , 1991:53). However, the changes i n their  domestic  l i v e s have been much more d i f f i c u l t  f o r women  than f o r men. I n e q u a l i t y i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere o f women's l i v e s still  exists.  entrepreneurs  This  study  demonstrates  continue t o perform  that  these  female  more housework, more b o r i n g  191 t a s k s , and assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t i v i t i e s which are o f t e n not v o l u n t a r y , as they a r e f o r men i n t h i s recent  changes  breadwinner  i n the expectations  held  sample. Even with  f o r fathers,  men's  r o l e t y p i c a l l y remains dominant. Men's freedom from  domestic work r e l a t i v e t o women's r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o invest  more time  i n their  businesses  o r on themselves,  when  compared t o women's ( S h e l t o n , 1992). The outcome o f performing more housework i s l e s s time spent i n the b u s i n e s s which e x p l a i n s why  t h e e n t e r p r i s e s o f many women tended t o be s m a l l and s t a y e d  s m a l l . T h i s l e a v e s these women i n a p o s i t i o n where they less  financial  b a r g a i n i n g power  education);  i t also  traditional  normative  (despite t h e i r  demonstrates  that  high  they  e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r  level of  still  roles  have  follow  within the  f a m i l y . These f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Blumberg and Coleman (1989)  who  affirm  that  gender  ideology  disadvantages  women  w i t h i n the power s t r u c t u r e o f the household. Although the men i n this  sample c l a i m t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y within the  household s i n c e they became self-employed, they devoted most o f their  time  to child-care.  This  i s consistent  with  existing  r e s e a r c h and c u r r e n t t r e n d s . In t h i s study, gender i d e o l o g y i s an  o b s t a c l e f o r self-employed  women i n t h e i r  b u s i n e s s e s and  w i t h i n the home which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h ( F e r r e e , 1991). O v e r a l l what t h i s study suggests i s t h a t t h e work l i v e s o f these  women  business  p a t t e r n s o f working  owners  are quite  similar  t o t h e work  women i n g e n e r a l . They a r e both  struggling  192 with having t o r e c o n c i l e household d u t i e s and p a i d work. J u s t as gender  ideology  affected  women  i n general  ( i n t h e type o f  employment and work hours they can work) t h e b u s i n e s s women i n t h i s sample were c o n s t r a i n e d i n s i m i l a r ways because they had t o e s t a b l i s h s m a l l e r b u s i n e s s e s and operate them from t h e home t o be on s i t e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . Hence, t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s suggest  that  self-employment  does  not p r o v i d e  study  an escape f o r  women i n r e l i e v i n g them o f household d u t i e s and lower e a r n i n g s . The the  issues raised i n t h i s thesis f i l l  existing  literature  and p r o v i d e  an important gap i n  a foundation  from  which  f u t u r e r e s e a r c h can b u i l d . Before proceeding t o f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , it  i s important  to clarify  the l i m i t a t i o n s  of t h i s  research  inquiry. Limitations L i m i t a t i o n s occur because f i n d i n g s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d t o l a r g e r randomly s e l e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n s . Although t h e data  cannot  be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , i t does shed on  situations  Vancouver,  experienced  which  might  by some  self-employed  be a shared  experience  light  workers i n  among  others  o u t s i d e t h e scope o f t h e study. There example,  were a l s o c o n s t r a i n t s considerable  appropriated housework  to  a  time  discussion  responsibilities  i n qualitative  during  the  a n a l y s i s . For  interviews  o f t h e entrepreneurs  and no  a t t i t u d e w i t h r e g a r d t o the performance i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n t h i s area.  direct  question  was  actual on t h e  o f household t a s k s . More  193 I t was  a l s o c o n c e p t u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o c a t e g o r i z e household  a c t i v i t i e s . The  entrepreneurs  p e r c e p t i o n of performing  household t a s k s needed t o be more c l e a r l y c l a s s i f i e d .  certain  Gardening,  r e p a i r , b u i l d i n g , sewing and baking c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d as work or l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s f o r some entrepreneurs. Problems which may i n c l u d e inadequate  impose l i m i t a t i o n s on t h i s r e s e a r c h a l s o  means of e n s u r i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y .  Subjects  might have been r e l u c t a n t t o r e v e a l c e r t a i n t r u t h s about t h e i r actual  earnings.  general  feel  This  is  vulnerable  because  and  small  threatened  business in  owners  discussing  in  their  income because of t a x e s . Hence, the earnings they c l a i m t o make should be accepted with c a u t i o n . From a methodological p e r s p e c t i v e , i t was the  researcher  occasions  had  where  to  resort  respondents  to  would  unfortunate that  telephone only  interviews  agree  to  a  on  phone  i n t e r v i e w . T h e r e f o r e data o b t a i n e d from t h i s study was a mixture of f a c e t o f a c e and phone i n t e r v i e w s , hence not a l l i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d be tape  recorded.  Recommendations f o r Future Research The f a c t t h a t common i s s u e s are r a i s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e on entrepreneurship  does not  mean they  have a l l been  addressed.  S e v e r a l recommendations can be formulated a t t h i s p o i n t . The f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r new of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p which i n c l u d e the experiences and  women, and  existing  as  Stevenson  (1993) suggested,  theories  of both  that  men  challenge  s t e r e o t y p e s . F i s c h e r e t a l . (1993) have claimed  that  194 t h e r e e x i s t s a l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i v e framework f o r understanding i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o gender. T h i s needs t o be f u r t h e r Research is  developed.  on how women a r e c o o r d i n a t i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y  necessary  to  determine  how  to  address  the  barriers  experienced by women. These should focus on coping mechanisms. This  should  experience, traditional  also  assist  and  women  overcome  to  improve  traditional  their  norms  r o l e s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y t h a t stand  of  business fulfilling  i n the way o f  b u s i n e s s endeavours. A  f o u r t h recommendation  i s the issue  o f employing  the  " c o n v e n t i o n a l " d e f i n i t i o n o f success i n r e s e a r c h . In t h i s study, I  d i d not impose  a  definition  of success.  These  findings  demonstrate t h a t f o r s e v e r a l women and a few men, success i s having  a b e t t e r balance  within their  T h e r e f o r e , success cannot  the c o n v e n t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n  definitions  terms.  More  lives.  and should not be u n i v e r s a l i z e d f o r  entrepreneurs who f i n d themselves  "financial"  work and f a m i l y  i n a situation  unable t o meet  t h a t i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y measured on  voices  by  entrepreneurs  on  their  o f success should be heard.  A l s o t h e n o t i o n o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p should be r e d e f i n e d t o include d i f f e r e n t taking  behaviour  characteristics women cannot same  types o f men and women. T h i s i s because r i s k  extent  constrained  and  used  business  expansion  t o describe entrepreneurs.  are  often  However, some  be r i s k t a k e r s o r expand t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s t o t h e as by  their their  male family  counterparts  because  responsibilities.  they a r e  This  study  195 demonstrated t h a t these d e f i n i t i o n s of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p d i d not even apply time  t o some male entrepreneurs  with  their  family  over  business  increasing  numbers of s m a l l b u s i n e s s  that  not  are  entirely  who  consistent  opted  for  spending  expansion.  Perhaps  owners w i l l with  the  a c t i n ways  image  entrepreneur as " r i s k t a k e r . " In f a c t , t h i s f i n d i n g s i n c e shopkeepers i n Bechhofer  and  Elliott's  of  the  i s not  new  (1981) study d i d  not want t o expand and take more r i s k s , however, f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons than entrepreneurs i n t h i s  study.  T h i s study showed t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r g a n i z i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s e x i s t between self-employed men Explanations  for  systems  their  and  this  revolve  perception  around of  their  their  and women.  different  obligation  value  with  the  f a m i l y . More r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t h i s area t o uncover t o what extent  these  perceptions  influence  their  entrepreneurial  experience. T h i s r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t the l i f e - c y c l e of the c h i l d r e n has a major e f f e c t on b u s i n e s s . What we need are s t u d i e s l i n k i n g e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y and the l i f e course so t h a t we focus on stages i n f a m i l y l i f e . Research  f o c u s i n g on the e x t e n t t o which  the age of c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e s the b u s i n e s s expansion should be f u r t h e r developed. Although t h i s study d i d not focus e x t e n s i v e l y on how  the "type" of venture can i n f l u e n c e b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y  o r g a n i z a t i o n , f i n d i n g s d i d suggest t h a t the "type" of b u s i n e s s can impact on c o o r d i n a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , g e n e r a t i n g more knowledge on f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g b u s i n e s s and f a m i l y would be  useful.  196 T h i s study i s a s t e p i n the implementation  of a s c a l e t h a t  c o u l d measure the degree of harmony or c o n f l i c t experience  in  coordinating  business  and  entrepreneurs  family  activities.  Although two s e t s of q u e s t i o n s t o g e t h e r p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on these  issues,  degrees  a more a c c u r a t e  scale  t o measure the  of c o n f l i c t and harmony would be  different  useful.  C u r r e n t Trends O v e r a l l we from  this  learn  study  from  are  t h i s t h e s i s t h a t the  responding  to  the  r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h a t i s c u r r e n t l y under way downsizing  of  entrepreneurs  massive  economic  i n Canada. With the  l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s , weakening of labour  unions,  the l a c k of job s e c u r i t y the advent of new t e c h n o l o g i e s and more f l e x i b l e labour f o r c e s , these entrepreneurs are s e c u r i n g t h e i r economic  future  by  establishing  their  own  businesses.  a l l o w s them t o e x p l o i t market n i c h e s because of t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s t o meet q u i c k changing  This  flexible  market demands. Many of  the  women are a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n r a i s i n g a f a m i l y hence choose t o establish  their  own  business.  picture  of  through  self-employment.  reconciling  escaping  f a m i l y and  entrepreneurs still  their  had  adapting  fulfilment entrepreneurs  and  others  However, business  i n t h e i r own  this  life  dreamt  enduring freedom  painted  an  s u b o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the  initially  and  Yet  the  study  suggests  as  easy  i t would  be  and  entrepreneurship unique  workplace  i s not  hardships.  way  idyllic  But  that  as  some  many the  offers  are  selfthese  compensates f o r a l l the  a n t i c i p a t e d o b s t a c l e s they encounter. T h e i r d e c i s i o n t o opt f o r  197 self-employment flexibility  i s part  of the s o c i a l  trend  and c o n t r o l over one's own l i f e  i n Canada  where  i s becoming h i g h l y  prized. Concluding Remarks The differ  f i n d i n g s demonstrate t h a t self-employed men and women  i n starting, capitalizing  a l s o vary  and running a b u s i n e s s .  They  i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o accommodate f a m i l y and b u s i n e s s  commitments due t o gender and subsequent d i f f e r e n t experiences w i t h i n the labour market. These f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t with the assumption s t a t e d a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e t h e s i s . The r e s u l t s lend further  support  t o the claim  that  t h e experiences  employed men and women cannot be viewed without the  traditional  gendered  roles  of s e l f -  incorporating  o f men and women w i t h i n t h e  family into the a n a l y s i s . In order have  t o understand how b u s i n e s s owners who choose t o  families  responsibilities structure  organize within  their  a changing  and t h e f a m i l y ,  business  and  family  society,  the o c c u p a t i o n a l  i t i s imperative  t o continue t o  examine t h e i r "dual r o l e s . " T h i s means t h a t t h e v o i c e s o f both men and women should be heard on these i s s u e s . T h i s should  help  t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which support o r suppress men's and women's entrepreneurial  initiatives  and  to  create  ameliorating  s t r a t e g i e s t o b e t t e r cope w i t h and enhance t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l experience t h a t i s becoming t h e norm w i t h i n t h e workplace. T h i s information  should  help  men and women shape t h e i r  own f u t u r e  (Campbell, 1994) when both a r e f i r m l y committed t o equal s h a r i n g  198 of  the household  and  r e s t r u c t u r i n g of gender r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n  the labour market and the home. The study of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p has added i n f o r m a t i o n t o the field  and  demonstrates  that  the  impact  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s should not be underestimated on  potentially  themselves. for  the  This finding  well  becoming, but this  viable  study was  being  of  businesses  and  of  domestic  in their  effects  on  entrepreneurs  i s not o n l y i n t e r e s t i n g , but  crucial  the  is  future  workforce,  which  i s the era of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . 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Walby, S. 1989 " F l e x i b i l i t y and the Changing Sexual D i v i s i o n o f Labour" i n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f Work? ed's Wood, S. London: Uniwin Hyman, p. 127-140. White, J . 1984 The R i s e o f Female Capitalism-Women as E n t r e p r e n e u r s . Business Q u a r t e r l y 49 S p r i n g , p. 133-136. Wilson, Andrea. 1993 "Women i n Home-Based Report. F e b - A p r i l , p. 29-30.  Businesses"  Home  Business  Winter, M. 1980 Mind Your Own Business, be your Own Boss. Waxwing Productions. Zimmer, C a t h e r i n e , and A l d r i c h Howard. 1987 Resource Mobilization Through Ethnic Networks:Kinship and F r i e n d s h i p T i e s o f Shopkeepers i n England. S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , 30 (4):422-445.  210 Interview # Date: Time: Male/Female Phone/personal  APPENDIX A  I n t e r v i e w Questions Work H i s t o r y and  Profile:  1. Were you p r e v i o u s l y employed? Where and f o r how  long?  2. Did you undergo any management t r a i n i n g i n your p r e v i o u s job? 3. Did you have any p r i o r b u s i n e s s experience when you your b u s i n e s s ? under 3 years 3-5 y e a r s 5-10 years over 10 years other  started  4. What i s your h i g h e s t l e v e l of education? 5) What is/was your f a t h e r s primary occupation? What is/was your mother's primary occupation? Have they ever owned or operated t h e i r own yes no—  business?  6. What age c a t e g o r y do you f a l l under? (25-30, 31-35, 36-40, 41-50, over 50). 7. How  o l d were you when you assumed ownership of your business?  8. Are you married? yes no And p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g with your spouse yes 9. Is your spouse employed? yes F u l l time or p a r t - t i m e ? In what k i n d of employment?  no  no  D e s c r i p t i o n of Business: 10. How d i d you assume ownership o f your b u s i n e s s ? c r e a t e d a new b u s i n e s s ? i n h e r i t e d a business? bought an e x i s t i n g b u s i n e s s ? s t a r t e d with a f r a n c h i s e ? 11. When d i d you assume ownership  o f your b u s i n e s s ?  12. I s t h i s t h e f i r s t b u s i n e s s you own? yes  no  13. What k i n d o f a b u s i n e s s do you own? 14. What i s t h e major product o r s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by your business? 15. Why d i d you choose t h e type o f b u s i n e s s you a r e i n ? 16. How many persons a r e employed i n your b u s i n e s s ? Are f a m i l y members employed? yes F u l l or part-time?  no  17. Does your spouse h e l p you i n t h e b u s i n e s s ? yes What does she/he do and do they g e t paid? How many hours? 18. In what k i n d o f s e t t i n g i s your b u s i n e s s l o c a t e d ? -space purchased f o r t h e b u s i n e s s - i n your home - i n a separate l e a s e d f a c i l i t y -other Was t h i s out o f c h o i c e o r n e c e s s i t y ? Why?  no  212 19. What type o f l e g a l s t r u c t u r e have business: sole proprietorship, partnership, incorporated, l i m i t e d other 20. Approximately  what percentage  you chosen  f o r your  o f the b u s i n e s s do you own?  21. Where i s your o f f i c e l o c a t e d ? • 22. I s i t a good working environment f o r you t o work i n yes  no-  Is i t q u i e t , n o i s y ) ? 23. Where do you meet b u s i n e s s c l i e n t s ? 24. What does your b u s i n e s s networking  consist of?  25. Are you a member o f any b u s i n e s s c l u b ? yes no ( I f yes) Which ones? What l e d you t o j o i n t h i s c l u b ? factor)  (time  What do you g e t out o f these c l u b s ?  How have they helped t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n o f your business? yes  no  26. Your b u s i n e s s might r e q u i r e development o r improvement i n c e r t a i n key a r e a s . What needs do you p e r c e i v e as necessary f o r your business? ( f i n a n c i a l arrangements, b e t t e r banking r e l a t i o n s h i p , s u p p l i e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , a c c o u n t i n g , management strategies). 27. How many hours a week do you work on average? more than 60 h r s 50-59-  213 40-49— 30-39— 20-29— 10-19— 19 or l e s s What time do you s t a r t work and f i n i s h ? Do you work i n the evenings? On weekends? I n t r i n s i c Factors: 28. Why d i d you become self-employed? 29. On a s c a l e from one t o f i v e : Rate the c h i e f reason f o r becoming"self-employed, ( f i v e b e i n g h i g h e s t ) . 1- no i n f l u e n c e 2- l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e 3- some i n f l u e n c e 4- c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e 5- extreme i n f l u e n c e a - be your own boss b - financial c - t o devote more time t o f a m i l y d - greater f l e x i b i l i t y e - Challenge f - self-fulfilment g - l o s s o f my job h - d i f f i c u l t y t o f i n d a job 30. From the above l i s t , l i s t i n o r d e r most important reasons f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g  2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 of importance the t h r e e your own b u s i n e s s :  1) 2) 3) 31. How would you d e f i n e success f o r y o u r s e l f as a s e l f employed person?  32.  Would you c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f s u c c e s s f u l ? ( i f yes) i n what way?  214 ( I f no) why? 33.  Would you c o n s i d e r your b u s i n e s s a success?  34.  What k i n d o f g o a l s have you s e t f o r your  35. What have you gained i n being  business?  self-employed?  36. What have you s a c r i f i c e d ?  Income: 37. How d i d you come by the c a p i t a l t o g e t s t a r t e d i n the b u s i n e s s : bank mortgage, p e r s o n a l s a v i n g , i n h e r i t a n c e , a s s i s t a n c e from f a m i l y . 38.  Was t h i s out o f c h o i c e o r n e c e s s i t y ?  39. D i d you ever apply f o r a loan? ( I f yes) Did  you g e t one? ( I f yes)  Did you experience any d i f f i c u l t y when you a p p l i e d f o r a loan? ( I f yes) what k i n d o f d i f f i c u l t i e s d i d you encounter? What f a c t o r s do you t h i n k i n f l u e n c e d the bank t o accept your loan?  40.  ( I f no) What f a c t o r s do you t h i n k i n f l u e n c e d the bank t o r e j e c t your l o a n ( l a c k o f c o l l a t e r a l , n o p r e v i o u s c r e d i t h i s t o r y , r e l u c t a n c e t o l e n d t o s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners e t c . . ) How might t h i s have e f f e c t e d your b u s i n e s s ?  (size,  type,  215 expansion) 41. Can I ask i f you can g i v e me a rough estimate o f the gross annual earnings o f your b u s i n e s s from these f i g u r e s ? Under what category does your average gross annual income f a l l : a) — l e s s than $10,000 —10,001 and 25,000 —25,001 t o 50,000 —50,001 t o 100,000 —100,001 t o 200,001 —200,001 t o 300, 000 —300,001 t o 500,000 — o v e r 500,000 42. Do you pay y o u r s e l f a wage, o r a s a l a r y o r what? And i f so what i s your gross annual s a l a r y ? 43. Do you have any other f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s s a l a r y , other?)  (wife/husband's  44. What i s t h e gross annual income o f your spouse? —none — u n d e r 10,000 —10,001-25,000 —25,001-35,000 —35,001-60,000 —60,001-80,000 —80,001-100,000 —100,001-150,000 — o v e r 150,001 45. Has the f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n o f your b u s i n e s s : improved, stayed the same, o r d e t e r i o r a t e d s i n c e you e s t a b l i s h e d i t during the l a s t y e a r ( s ) . Family  responsibilities:  46. How many c h i l d r e n do you have and which age category do they f a l l under? Age l e s s than 3 years o l d 03 through-6 years 06-12 years 12-18 years  Number o f C h i l d r e n  216 47. Who l o o k s a f t e r the c h i l d r e n when you work? 49. Do you o r g a n i z e your f a m i l y arrangements around your business? Or/ Do you o r g a n i z e your b u s i n e s s around your f a m i l y responsibilities?  50. How much on average per day do you spend on housework? ( i n c l u d e s spending time w i t h the k i d s ) On weekends?  51. What h e l p do you r e l y on w i t h your household responsibilities? ( c h i l d r e n and household c h o r e s ) ? 52. Are c h i l d r e n o l d enough t o help? How much time do they a s s i s t you per day?  53. How many hours per day does your spouse a s s i s t you? and on weekends? 54. Do you have o u t s i d e help? I s t h i s out o f c h o i c e ? 55. What a r e your primary domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? (check o f f list) 57. Have f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s e f f e c t e d your b u s i n e s s i n any way? 58. What would you do w i t h your time i f you d i d not have any f a m i l y and household o b l i g a t i o n s ? -spend more time on the b u s i n e s s -recreation -personal care -other 59. Are you s a t i s f i e d w i t h your household and f a m i l y arrangements? yes No  217 60. Would you say t h a t you engage i n more or l e s s domestic work s i n c e you are s e l f employed compared t o working o u t s i d e the home? Yes No 61.  Do you face problems i n b a l a n c i n g f a m i l y and work? Yes No— What are the main ones?  Do you attempt t o separate f a m i l y and your b u s i n e s s ? or/ Blend the two?  62. What s u f f e r s when you balance household and b u s i n e s s ? -reduce standards of the household - l e s s time w i t h c h i l d r e n - l e s s time f o r b u s i n e s s -other 63. How  do you  cope?  1) change e x p e c t a t i o n s and h a b i t s : ask f o r more a s s i s t a n c e 2) change your standards-new r e d e f i n i t i o n s of p r i o r i t i e s 3) you do i t a l l 64a My f a m i l y and household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t e n c o n f l i c t s w i t h my b u s i n e s s schedule: s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree  strongly disagree  64b My b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t e n c o n f l i c t s w i t h time spent on f a m i l y and household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree  strongly disagree  65a In my f a m i l y and household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I have so much t o do t h a t i t takes time away from my b u s i n e s s : s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree  strongly disagree  65b I have so much t o do i n my b u s i n e s s t h a t i t takes time away  218 from my household and f a m i l y s t r o n g l y agree  agree  responsibilities:  disagree  strongly disagree  66a My household and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s take up time I would l i k e t o spend on my b u s i n e s s : s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree  strongly disagree  66b My b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s take up time I would l i k e t o spend on my f a m i l y and household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree  strongly disagree  67a Due t o f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o be the k i n d of b u s i n e s s owner I would l i k e t o be: s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree  strongly disagree  67b Due t o b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o be the k i n d of parent I would l i k e t o be: s t r o n g l y agree  agree  disagree  strongly d i s a g r e e - —  68. Does b e i n g a parent have an impact on your e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l r o l e ? yes no  69. Has self-employment b e n e f i t e d you i n having f l e x i b l e work hours? Yes No In what ways? Is t h i s important t o you? yes  No  70. Does your spouse have a f l e x i b l e work schedule? 71. How  does your f a m i l y view your b u s i n e s s ?  72. Has your f a m i l y supported you i n your b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s ? Yes No  219 73. Has s e l f employment allowed you t o spend more time w i t h your f a m i l y ? yes no 74. What support do you t h i n k i s necessary f o r s m a l l b u s i n e s s i n B.C.? 75. What p a r t i c u l a r b a r r i e r s i n a c h i e v i n g a f i n a n c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l business have you experienced? Are t h e r e any b a r r i e r s you f e e l male/female?  were unique  76. What do you l i k e b e s t about being s e l f  t o you as a  employed?  77. What a r e the advantages o f o p e r a t i n g a b u s i n e s s from (the home/outside the home)? Are t h e r e any disadvantages? 78. What a d v i c e would you g i v e o t h e r entrepreneurs w i t h f a m i l i e s i n b a l a n c i n g t h e i r work and f a m i l y r o l e s ? What do you d i s l i k e the most?  Time Budget: D a i l y A c t i v i t i e s : Time spent per day commute t o work Daily  cooking  House c l e a n i n g K i t c h e n wash-up child  care  recreation p e r s o n a l care sleep other Time spent p e r week i n c l u d i n g weekend Vacuum/sweeping Bathroom c l e a n i n g Regular  shopping  Laundry Ironing I r r e g u l a r housework repair/maint. building lawn weekend: time spent w i t h f a m i l y recreation: child  care  business  224 APPENDIX C R i g h t s o f t h e Interviewee: Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y and you may r e f u s e t o take p a r t i n t h i s study. You have the r i g h t t o r e f u s e any q u e s t i o n o r terminate the i n t e r v i e w a t any p o i n t . Consent I agree t o be i n t e r v i e w e d f o r the p r o j e c t Experiences Female S e l f Employed Workers i n Vancouver. Yes  I g i v e my p e r m i s s i o n  o f Male and  No  t o have the i n t e r v i e w tape  Yes  recorded.  No  I acknowledge t h a t I have r e c e i v e d a copy o f t h i s consent form f o r my own r e c o r d s .  Signature o f i n t e r v i e w e e  THANK YOU AGAIN FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION AND  COOPERATION  Appendix D Model demonstrating how family obligations a f f e c t the process of balancing business and family  Family and Houshold obligations  Motivation for S/E  Effects that S/E individuals experience Type of business  type of organization  227  9:1 _ 2. 3 D O " 5'  19 3  "I  vi !_. a <a  •o in  Q. 2. O <Q T3 a •< •  Cu  o  _ < cr CL « VI cu u n  5'  8.!  5CL i  ?  o 7? Cu VI  -  to  O  S o. «•? o D> CL  2" -Vi  00  X  a. 31  LO « 3 Ol » •o -ri v» ro  U n O  mPo ° D  r— to c VI  3  NJ  01  «3r-  -I  2  •  a  in  3=5; IO to2. to7T VI  9_  LI  go 5' o  o  VI  m  9:= 5  w S  00  ^  01 01  •  .  H  r^' VI  CL  5" rI/It>  o US cr on ro in  3 m  Wl  O <  to  3  wt wt O Wl  -. io  O a>  — — • "D < ro - • 3 ^ vi n *"* o> ft* l/l O. rt TJDl rt> wt 3 < g  n  rt) 3 3 Q.  cCL  1  C cr 3-  o  C vi  Ii  »  i?  c 3 3 CL CL CU  CU  0  si!  c 3 2-  CD  rt>  Z3  n  O."  > <  X  CQ CQ > WJ  n  it  3  -1  3 3 ro r c 5?S —  l wc D > "<ro ro n  '< '  I  0>  cr-  3  3  VI  3' 33n  00  Dl  *  ft)  Cu  cr  -  C vi 3 3-  I/I  c  in  rt  o c 2to2 n -i  m2  o cr  t/i  3  rD  5" 3 "ro>  Wl  -  n  CL  i>  VI  02,5  n  -n  Dl T5 VI  3 S ? i -3o  g" E c  —  n  to a  zr  3  <»' 3  3  — 3 vi  to  TJ  n e» o  n  n CL  2  n —y  • O5- "f ">  3 ro  3  c  TTJ •< "n Lu Di O O A 2. C -i ui £ <" Ul • TJ -» —* Di  har  o  Wt Wl  ^ ro < TJ 0 S>  c_  be  P  pa  *»n 2 s. • a.  0  3  rile  ?!  O 3 W  •a  ins ran  3 0J_ 61  VI  V)  c  » •a  M  n 3  3 *o  u  n  irre  11  a.  c  ectronic m ational fac s; network  3 »  °  2 <Q 3 Cu VI  to to •7 a.  j, g.9:  2 v» >  3  a  S-'S- o1 -o -t soo— "" < n C o TJ ™* 3 o 3 Is 5'  C L T3  urc as ng of mb ice  S * 3 S  « O C  w  $  1 3  Ho  z  3 5"ro  O 3  - g- o a o "> c. Xi  ? 3lQ  01  - iI  ">  VI I*  3 • O  rt)  •  Name  •  will you serve on a VHBBA committee? See over.  Business Name. Address  Member-to-member offer (Accepted practice: SK discount)  city.  PR  PC  Telephone _  FAX How shall we send your newsletter? • • E-mail • FAX HI Mall  Computer •  D-A-F  Id:  IBM/compatible •  Mac •  DAF-BBS •  CIS/WfH  Other  Do you want VHBBA to actively promote your business thru publicity and referrals? • yes • no-all info confidential  CompuServe:  E-mail:  Dale of birth  Please attach a 250-character profile that describes your present business or future plans. Also: additional information you'd like for us to know about-voicemail, pager or call-times. Attach your cheque or money order.  Signature _  (lor insurance purposes)  Referred by: Indira Prahst  

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