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Environment Canada’s environmental choice program (ECP) : using information about the way consumers think… Bartman, Celeste Camille 1995

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ENVIRONMENT CANADA'S ENVIRONMENTAL CHOICE PROGRAM (ECP) USING INFORMATION ABOUT THE WAY CONSUMERS THINK ABOUT THE ECOLOGO TO INCREASE THE PROGRAM'S UTILITY FOR CONSUMERS. By CELESTE CAMILLE BARTMAN B.A.,The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1995  © C e l e s t e C a m i l l e Bartman, 1995  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be granted her  for  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Ce>yv^w\c r>v \  ^  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  K f t y . <=>r> c j L  V ^ c ^ ^ \  ABSTRACT Environment o f f i c i a l l y consumers the  Canada's announced  find  t h e EcoLogo  symbol  takes  with  p o l l  conducted  some  level  w i l l  explain  Group  Limited,  programs  t o t a i l o r  are there  used  forty and a  structured  2)  search.  maple A  consumers  that  the  1994 have  what  topic  inform research that  help  i s consumer and the EcoLogo the EcoLogo  information included  inquiries  think  insights  t o three  t o make  of environmental  interviews,  EcoLogo  o f t h e EcoLogo  how  products  need  this  a  Choice".  characteristics  EcoLogo  t o investigate  The  into  t o better  are sought  o f t h e EcoLogo,  source  library  awareness  the program  consumers  c e r t i f i e d  p.10).  any consumer  do  exist.  on  37% of Canadians  i n t h e hope  answers  o f the EcoLogo,  credible  only  i s to investigate  t o t h e EcoLogo  be u s e d  1)  methods  groups,  thesis  a n d 3) w h a t a  that  help  a product  "Environmental  Research  understanding  program  found  t o have  intertwined  or unaided  low recognition  Program,  doves  (ECP) was  reduce the burden  guidelines  aided  Specifically,  questions:  that  of either  and respond  consumers.  The  f o r t h e ECP  purpose of this  gained  appropriate  Program  I t spurpose i s t o  can apply  the accompanying words:  (Environics  about  and services  Companies where  Choice  o f 1988.  the form of three  leaf  The  i n June  products  environment.  with  Environmental  t o  two  t o a c t on. focus  relevant  Three  consumer  recognition comparison labels,  shop,  help  that  information  about  products.  These  step  licensees  Third, unheard  impediments with  consumers  t o  which read  consumer consumers  product  i n three  gives  additional messages.  efforts  i s made  of a l l relevant  b e made should  more  b e made  that the  Consumers the  and  accessing  and safety of  t o as "unheard  process  connection  accessing  credibility,  performance  informed should  understanding  product  a  t h e knowledge  on products,  t h e EcoLogo  are referred  t h e EcoLogo  lack  areas:  found  quality,  be  they  represents  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o rt h e EcoLogo.  recommendation  should  t h e EcoLogo  however,  information  information  Second,  t o which  understand  government  additional  three  t o be  the frequency  the detail  the environment;  environmental  A  found  o f t h e EcoLogo:  Consumers  Canadian need  were  and o v e r r i d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o rn o n - e c o l o g i c a l  traits. with  t r a i t s  EcoLogo  messages".  t o t h e ECP. research  prominent  on  First,  results. products.  t o communicate  the three  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS PAGE  Abstract T a b l e Of C o n t e n t s L i s t Of T a b l e s L i s t Of F i g u r e s Acknowledgements CHAPTER  I  i  - INTRODUCTION  i i i i v i i i x x i 1  Purpose Are t h e r e any consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o low r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e EcoLogo? What i s consumer u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e E c o L o g o , EcoLogo products and t h e EcoLogo Program? What do c o n s u m e r s n e e d t o make t h e E c o L o g o P r o g r a m a credible source of environmental information t o act on? _  10  The  11  Significance  3 8 9  o f t h e Work  Context Consumers Industry Government Market Based Approaches A Voluntary Approach  12 12 13 14 15 16  Consumers P o l l Consumers P o l Consumers P o l Consumers P o l  17 17 19 21  e l l l  d ed ed ed  On E n v i r o n m e n t a l I s s u e s About Green Products About t h e EcoLogo  Method Scope Thesis CHAPTER  .  24  and Limitations  25  Organization  26  I I - THE  Background Marketing  ENVIRONMENTAL  CHOICE  on t h e Environmental  PROGRAM  Choice  Program  t h e EcoLogo  A Review of Critiques Choice Program  (ECP)  28 28 37  of the  Environmental 41  iv  CHAPTER  I I I - METHODS  4-7  Introduction Are  There  Any Consumer  47 Characteristics  That  Contribute  t o Low R e c o g n i t i o n o f The E c o L o g o ? Do c o n s u m e r s b e l i e v e t h e y n e e d t o c h a n g e their l i f e s t y l e s i n order t o protect the environment? H a v e c o n s u m e r s made a n y e f f o r t s t o r e d u c e t h e i r ecological impact? How d o c o n s u m e r s f e e l a b o u t t h e i r e f f o r t t o r e d u c e their ecological impact? How o f t e n d o c o n s u m e r s c o m p a r i s o n s h o p ? Do c o n s u m e r s n o t i c e g r e e n s i g n a l s o n p r o d u c t s ? Do o t h e r p r o d u c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s override consideration f o r the environment? Is t h e EcoLogo n o t i c e a b l e enough? Have consumers been e x p o s e d t o EcoLogo p r o d u c t s ? Do c o n s u m e r s f e e l o v e r w h e l m e d b y t h e p l e t h o r a o f green labelling? What I s Consumer U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e E c o L o g o , EcoLogo P r o d u c t s And The EcoLogo Program? W h a t d o e s t h e E c o L o g o s y m b o l r e p r e s e n t t o c o n s u m e r s ? ... Do c o n s u m e r s k n o w who p u t s t h e E c o L o g o o n p r o d u c t s ? .... What a r e c o n s u m e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s a m p l e EcoLogo product? A r e consumers i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing more about t h e way t h e EcoLogo p r o g r a m i s r u n ? What Do C o n s u m e r s N e e d To Make T h e E c o L o g o P r o g r a m A C r e d i b l e S o u r c e Of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Information To A c t On? Does t h e EcoLogo Program s a t i s f y t h e consumer's basic requirements o f an e c o - l a b e l l i n g program? Is t h e amount a n d t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t f o r c o n s u m e r s t o make i n f o r m e d purchasing decisions? Do c o n s u m e r s s e e g o v e r n m e n t a s a n a p p r o p r i a t e b o d y t o a d m i n i s t r a t e an e c o - l a b e l l i n g program? What t r a i t s make a p r o d u c t a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h o i c e ? .... Are the present c e r t i f i e d products considered environmental choices by consumers?  v  53 53 54 55 56 57 59 61 63 63  64 64 65 65 66  67 67  68 69 69 70  CHAPTER  I V - R E S U L T S AND  ANALYSIS  71  Introduction Demographics Recognition Are  There  71 Of  The  Remains  Structured  Interview  Sample  71  Low  Any Consumer  72 Characteristics  That  Contribute  t o Low R e c o g n i t i o n o f The E c o L o g o ? .. Do c o n s u m e r s b e l i e v e t h e y n e e d t o c h a n g e their l i f e s t y l e s i n order t o protect the environment? H a v e c o n s u m e r s made a n y e f f o r t s t o r e d u c e t h e i r ecological impact? How d o c o n s u m e r s f e e l a b o u t t h e i r e f f o r t t o r e d u c e their ecological impact? How o f t e n d o c o n s u m e r s c o m p a r i s o n s h o p ? Do c o n s u m e r s n o t i c e g r e e n s i g n a l s o n p r o d u c t s ? Do o t h e r p r o d u c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s override consideration f o r the environment? Is t h e EcoLogo n o t i c e a b l e enough? Have consumers been exposed t o EcoLogo p r o d u c t s ? Do c o n s u m e r s f e e l o v e r w h e l m e d b y t h e p l e t h o r a " o f green labelling?  73 73 74 79 80 81 88 96 98 99  What I s Consumer U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e E c o L o g o , EcoLogo P r o d u c t s And The EcoLogo Program? W h a t d o e s t h e E c o L o g o s y m b o l r e p r e s e n t t o c o n s u m e r s ? ... Do c o n s u m e r s know who p u t s t h e E c o L o g o o n p r o d u c t s ? .... What a r e c o n s u m e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e sample EcoLogo product? A r e consumers i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing more about t h e way t h e EcoLogo p r o g r a m i s r u n ? W h a t Do C o n s u m e r s N e e d T o M a k e T h e E c o L o g o P r o g r a m A C r e d i b l e S o u r c e Of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Information To A c t On? Does t h e EcoLogo Program s a t i s f y t h e consumer's b a s i c requirements o f an e c o - l a b e l l i n g program? Is t h e amount and t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t f o r c o n s u m e r s t o make i n f o r m e d purchasing decisions? Do c o n s u m e r s s e e g o v e r n m e n t a s a n a p p r o p r i a t e b o d y t o a d m i n i s t r a t e an e c o - l a b e l l i n g program? What t r a i t s make a p r o d u c t a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h o i c e ? .... Are the present c e r t i f i e d products considered environmental choices by consumers?  v i  102 102 104 105 106  107 107  109  I  110 l l 112  CHAPTER  V  - CONCLUSIONS  AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  114  Introduction  114  Are There Any Consumer C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o Low R e c o g n i t i o n o f The E c o L o g o ?  That  Contribute 114  What I s Consumer U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e E c o L o g o , P r o d u c t s And The EcoLogo Program?  EcoLogo 118  W h a t Do C o n s u m e r s N e e d T o M a k e T h e E c o L o g o Program A C r e d i b l e Source Of E n v i r o n m e n t a l I n f o r m a t i o n To A c t On? Recommendations Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Implications Future  F o r The  Environmental  Choice  119 Program  For Sustainability  Research  Appendix  A  B  -  -  132 13 6  The Canadian Government's R e g u l a t o r y Role i n Environmental Labelling  141  Non-Government O r g a n i z a t i o n ' s Involvement In Environmental Labelling  142  Appendix  C  -  G l o s s a r y Of  Appendix  D  -  Environmental Choice Final Guidelines  Appendix  Appendix  Appendix  Appendix  Appendix  E  F  G  H  I  -  -  -  -  -  122 122 125 126 131  BIBLIOGRAPHY Appendix  ....  (NGO's)  Terms  ECP Sample F i n a l Water-Conserving  14 7 Program's 148  Guideline: Products  S i x Mohawk A n d One Advertisements I n t e r v i e w e r ' s Guide Focus Groups  Power  149  Smart 151  To  Conducting 155  I n t e r v i e w e r ' s Guide To C o n d u c t i n g The S t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w s  16 0  Agencies Involved With Labelling  166  v i i  Environmental  LIST  OF  TABLES PAGE  Table  Table  1  2  -  P e r c e n t a g e Of C a n a d i a n s Environment As The Most F a c i n g Canada Today  -  Who V i e w T h e Important Problem 18  Response Of C a n a d i a n s To The Q u e s t i o n Who D o Y o u T h i n k H a s T h e P r i m a r y R e s p o n s i b i l i t y F o r P r o t e c t i n g The Canadian Environment?  19 22  Table  3  -  Total  Table  4  -  Summary o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s a n d Sub-Questions w i t h Question Type  51  Ages of p a r t i c i p a n t s that the structured interview  72  Table  5  -  awareness  o f the EcoLogo  Table  6  -  Principal  Table  7  -  Do y o u b e l i e v e i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r p e o p l e t o make p e r s o n a l l i f e s t y l e c o m p r o m i s e s i n order t o protect the environment?  74  O v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s h a v e y o u made a n y changes t o your l i f e s t y l e because you were concerned about t h e environment?  74  Can you t e l l have been?  76  Table  Table  Table  Table  8  9  10  11  -  -  -  -  Activity  completed  me  of Participants  what  some  of these  72  changes  H a v e y o u made a s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o b u y p r o d u c t s that are environmentally responsible?  77  What have  78  environmentally friendly you bought?  Table  12  -  How  Table  13  -  On a v e r a g e , when y o u a r e s h o p p i n g f o r s m a l l t i c k e t i t e m s , how o f t e n d o y o u p u r c h a s e t h e same i t e m b e f o r e r e e v a l u a t i n g a n d a c t i v e l y engaging i n comparison shopping?  81  What a s p e c t s o f t h i s p r o d u c t ' s l a b e l influence your purchasing decision?  86  Table  14  -  do y o u f e e l  about  making  products  v i i i  these  changes?  ...  80  would  Table  1 5 - 1  w o u l d l i k e t o know w h e t h e r e a c h o f t h e s e aspects i s a p l u s , a negative or i f you feel quite n e u t r a l about that aspect of the product's  label  Table  16  -  Which  Table  17  -  Why  Table  18  -  Table  19  -  A s p e c t o f ECO's i n f l u e n t i a l on p How i n f l u e n t i a l t r a i t s on y o u r p s c a l e o f one t o  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  product  d i d you  88  would  choose  you this  choose?  8 9  product?  91  l a b e l r a t e d as most urchasing decision i s each of these product u r c h a s i n g d e c i s i o n s on a ten?  I n y o u r view, i s t h e EcoLogo, as p r e s e n t e d on t h i s l a b e l , n o t i c e a b l e enough f o r i t t o affect your purchasing decisions? Which of these p r o d u c t s have you p u r c h a s e d i n t h e p a s t 12 m o n t h s ?  93  96  97  personally 9 9  I n g e n e r a l , how w o u l d y o u characterize yourself i n terms of environmental labelling?  101  Can you t e l l l o g o means?  103  Who do y o u products?  me  think  what  you  puts  think  this  logo  this  on 105  W o u l d y o u l i k e t o t a k e home a f a c t - s h e e t that further explains the Environmental Choice Program and the EcoLogo?  106  Now that you are f a m i l i a r w i t h the do y o u p r e d i c t i t w i l l a f f e c t y o u r purchasing decisions?  108  I n y o u r o p i n i o n what makes a environmentally responsible?  ix  EcoLogo, future  product 112  LIST  OF  FIGURES PAGE  Figure  1  -  The  EcoLogo  Figure  2  -  Channels-Messages-Receivers  Figure  3  -  The  Current  5  Government  Environmental Figure  4  -  The  Standard  Figure  5  -  The  SCS  Figure  6  -  Figure  7  -  Front Motor Front Oil  Choice EcoLogo  Environmental  And Back O i l And Back  7  Structure  Above  The  Program  2 9  Advertisement  3 9  Report  L a b e l s Of  The  Labels  The  Card  14 6  ECO 161  Of  NUGOLD  Motor 163  x  Acknowledgements  I wish t o thank Tim McDaniels f o rbeing a f a c i l i t a t i v e advisor: he m a n a g e d t o b e b o t h p a t i e n t a n d m o t i v a t i n g . He made h i m s e l f a v a i l a b l e throughout t h e process, d e f i n e d t a s k s , helped t o keep the r e s e a r c h focused and removed b a r r i e r s t o completion. One o f t h e s e b a r r i e r s was t h e c o m p u t e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Tim McDaniels m a d e t h i s t a s k c o n s i d e r a b l y e a s i e r b y i n t r o d u c i n g me t o Larry Axelrod. I want t o thank L a r r y f o rh i s time, e f f o r t and enthusiasm i n g u i d i n g me s t e p b y s t e p t h r o u g h t h e c o m p u t e r s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. I would a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge the help of L y l e MacWilliam, G r a h a m H a r d m a n a n d K e v i n G a l l a g h e r who p r o m p t l y p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on a n y a s p e c t o f t h e ECP t h a t I r e q u i r e d , i n v i t e d me t o a t t e n d t h e 1 9 9 3 V a n c o u v e r E C P W o r k s h o p for Licensees and expressed genuine interest i n reading the f i n a l document. On a p e r s o n a l n o t e , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my f a m i l y a n d f r i e n d s f o r t h e s u p p o r t a n d a s s i s t a n c e t h e y p r o v i d e d me o n a daily basis.  xi  CHAPTER The  I  -  INTRODUCTION  world's  ecological  systems  an  e x p o n e n t i a l l y growing  or  emulate  nature's  Industrialization, f o s s i l of  fuels  ethic,  which  a c t i v i t i e s Evidence  humankind  destabilize  acid  rain  insufficient  t o determine  supports systems  Scan,  systems  experiment  with  challenge  adopt  nature's towards  that  t o be  faces  policies  taken  now,  governments that  sustainable world,  the  ozone  knowledge and  agree,  time-  the world's Canadian  publication, preserve  and t r e a t e d as  t o improve  an  information.  and i n d i v i d u a l s  today  i s t o  i n an e c o l o g i c a l  policies One  rising  our  action to  need  crucial  i s t o change  1  of  severity  (CCME)  are rooted  of resources.  sanctions  systems.  I n t h e 1993  that  of results  successful, these  management a  be  monitoring  ecological  Ultimately,  i t i s suggested should  time,  t o preserve  1989).  people  the thinning  experts  of M i n i s t e r s of the Environment  ecological  The  (Ruckelshaus  nature,  i n the form  this  However,  t a k i n g a c t i o n now  on the  unsustainable  from  of species, At  respect  and the use of  ethic  This  the character,  feedback.  not  ecological  comes  erosion.  does  resources.  as separate  loss  o f s t r e s s due t o  systems  the world's  gases,  and s o i l  of ecological  Environmental  that  1989) .  destabilization  layer,  Council  economic  regards  that  ecological  of natural  (Ruckelshaus  f o r this  evidence  management  nations  of greenhouse  line  population  signs  i n g r a i n e d an unsustainable  levels  is  human  free market  have  developed  are showing  to  step,  consumer  ethic.  emulate on  the  patterns  road  (Ruckelshaus  1989).  Two  principal  consumer  patterns  approach  and the informational  amenable  t o the refinement of including  explicit  variable  Governments  a  direct  of  goods  by  a  The  second  easier based choose  approach  1986).  policies  that  translate  the  approach  i s the  of ensuring that  involves t o shop that have  approaches  the f u l l  topic.  has been  providing with  an e c o l o g i c a l  lesser  This  adopted  choice,  impact  t o changing  thesis  on  2  ethic.  makes i t I t i s  consumers  behaviour  e x p l o r e s an  Choice  opposed  1989).  that  research has  by the Canadian  Environmental  costs  w i l l  the environment.  consumer  l i t t l e  i t i s  (Ruckelshaus  information  given a  area,  environmental  f o r ; however,  interests  when a  and growing  Canada's  The p r i c i n g  are accounted  of business  that  on t h i s  Environment  an  costs.  the premise,  that  as  economic  products  conducted  l i f e  into  lobby  new  product  are  disposal  approach  relatively  approaches  use and  means  informational  Both  pricing  i n the manufacture,  f o r consumers on  the  changing  incurred  and services  strong  t o government:  t o  costs  commodity  most  (Stahel  approaches  approach.  can design pricing  environmental of  are available  policy  are a  been  informational  government,  Program.  As  PURPOSE Environment o f f i c i a l l y Its  Canada's announced  purpose  reduce have  the burden  guidelines  about  into  of this  (ECP D e s i g n  find  products  symbol  a maple  leaf  with  1993).  and services can apply  where  takes  (ECP) was Statement  Companies  t h e EcoLogo  insights  thesis  that t o  appropriate  the form  of  three  the accompanying  i s t o investigate  t o t h e EcoLogo  consumer-friendly  t o move  into  label  that  in  t o consider  how  towards  I t i s hoped  t o transform  provides  how  i n t h e hope  further  eco-label.  familiar order  Program  words:  Choice".  c a n be u s e d  provide  with  The EcoLogo  and respond  gained  o f 1988  consumers  c e r t i f i e d  intertwined  purpose  Choice  on t h e environment.  exist.  "Environmental  The  i n June  i s t o help  a product  doves  Environmental  that  an  the  this  information  research  t h e EcoLogo  impacts  think  informative  that  the information  the ecological  consumers  that  into  w i l l  a  consumers  of their  need  purchasing  decisions.  The  thesis  EcoLogo only  of Canadians  awareness  friendly  with  the assumption  i s low as documented  3 7%  •p.10).  begins  have  of t h e EcoLogo  To  determine  eco-label  interrelated  why  would  research  i n a  some  that  recognition  1994 s u r v e y  level  that  of either  found  aided  (Environics  Research  recognition  i s l o w and what  entail,  answers  questions:  1)  3  w i l l  are there  Group  be any  of the  or  that unaided  Limited, a  sought  consumert o  consumer  three  characteristics  that  help explain  low  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  2) what i s consumer u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e E c o L o g o , p r o d u c t s and  t h e E c o L o g o Program, and  3) what do  t o make t h e E c o L o g o p r o g r a m a c r e d i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o a c t on.  The  thesis will  questions both q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  Consumer r e s p o n s e t h e s i s because  and  that  consumers need environmental  t r y t o answer t h e s e  chosen  as t h e  t h e consumer i s t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f t h e t h e government  program.  through  Program,  t h e p r o d u c e r s o f g o o d s and  c a r r y or expect  to carry  t h e EcoLogo, and  (Figure  perspective lessening  1).  Each  on t h e E c o L o g o .  impacts  o f these groups F o r t h e ECP,  on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  by  has  possibly  one  comprehensive  environmental  purchasing  that  management s y s t e m .  4  consumer. tool  and  to a For the  a product's  h e l p s them t o make more  decisions.  different  a marketing  commitment  the EcoLogo i s a s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the environment  a  services  informed  informing the  the EcoLogo i s , at the l e a s t , component o f t h e i r  the  the  i t i s a means o f  For industry, just  three  focus f o r t h i s  Choice  consumer  on  EcoLogo  qualitatively.  t o t h e E c o L o g o was  T h i s program u n i t e s t h r e e groups: Environmental  source of  EcoLogo,  informed  consumer, impacts  Fi guv^jL •TW EcoLogo  Program Raffle  Symbol  Ont standard unit Is equal to the length ot the stem of the maple leaf. Identifier of • Registered Mark  One Unit  Reduced-pollution w a t e r - b a s e d paint.  Criteria Statement  2/3 of a unit  P e i n t u r e a base d'eau _ a pollution reduite.  Centred on a measure equal to the width of the Symbol.  '  '  I  • I  •Vhe. fermv <£ <x ^V%sa& ttvjpWW? <fetpt^s&n+s ^ ^ n e T B ^ S cxrrNonc^ various Sey>eriVs  0^rcui\ar\ s o o ^ J j SOcY\ cxS  . \o.V*>of^ Mk)S%o$&> coopc.ca.Vv ve. actons o\n<i Comi^*"WNefik""te +V\e. €w»ron«r«rA* ana.  <^ \Ke socoeSS < ^  A  simple  sender-channel-message-receiver model  communication for  this  sender the  can  thesis  i s the  messages  provide a  (McQuail  ECP, are  the  variable  collection  communication  models,  the  communicator  their  intended audience  The  above,  were  gather  improve  the  ECP  Canadian  and  to  consumers  feedback  effectiveness  of  refers  information  three  this are  used  to  are  any  be  communications  In  process  (McQuail  can  the  2).  whether  to modify  that  the  multiple,  (Figure to  conducted  case,  and  by how  and  ongoing  research questions,  future  6  as  messages  feedback  consumers.  In  intended receivers  i s t y p i c a l l y  communications.  mass  research  communication  received  future  designed  1981).  Canadian  obtains  Feedback  of  the  term  has  f o r the  Windahl  and of  the  which  1981).  and  channels  heterogeneous  Windahl  framework  of  or  outlined  used  to  between  the  G\>cvr\r\cAs  OTXxferv^er^K agfsd  l - t<w»roAm«»<t Canada, i s  EcoLdcp VrbAocAs^-VorlabVz. washes. FW  SexNxces On f oseri o& <x so*^  Cory^o mers?  SOOCTDBS. ]\x^  consu mars /  cxce Vveii VLJ  o  Concjurrsers •  Are  there  any  recognition In  consumer  of  the  budget  EcoLogo.  In late  strategic  marketing  problems that  nine  that  2,  the absorption  conditions  f o r consumers  1)  Do  consumers  order 2)  Have  low  be  are  consumers  t o EcoLogo  of  through by  they  the  need  these  sub-questions. what  the  t o change  of  traits  The cognitive  consumer  to  These  to absorbing form  to  This  information.  i n the  new  consumer  hypothesising  amenable  below  o r more  within  the  In addition  recognition. nine  EcoLogo  being  l i s t e d  made  one  a  correcting  EcoLogo).  are necessary  believe  to protect  may  at  strategy  recognition of  implementing  there  conditions  the EcoLogo  began  generated  f a c i l i t a t e  about  explain  marketing  consumer  i s aimed  i s explored were  of  The  barriers  sub-questions behavioral  help  inadequate  Marketing  marketing,  question  an  levels  t h e ECP  plan  a r e a c t i n g as  had  high  1994,  (Chapter  with  research  and  t h e ECP  t o generate  deficiencies  that  EcoLogo?  i t searly years,  and  characteristics  information  questions.  their  l i f e s t y l e s  i n  environment? any  efforts  to reduce  their  ecological  impact? 3)  How  do  consumers  ecological  about  their  effort  to reduce  their  impact?  4)  How  5)  Do  consumers  6)  Do  other  the  often  feel  do  consumers notice  product  comparison  green  shop?  s i g n a l s on  characteristics  environment?  8  products?  override  consideration f o r  7)  Is  the  EcoLogo  8)  Have consumers  9)  Do c o n s u m e r s  noticeable been  feel  enough?  exposed  to  EcoLogo  overwhelmed by  the  products?  plethora  of  green  labelling?  What And It  Is  Consumer U n d e r s t a n d i n g Of The E c o L o g o ,  The EcoLogo is  to  look  learn  how c o n s u m e r s  about  it.  messages  Like  held.  think the  received  to  determine  I n mass  The  as:  communications  four  1)  What  2)  Do c o n s u m e r s  3)  What  are  the what  are  consumer  the  EcoLogo  the  listed  know who p u t s  consumers'  understood,  a n d what  the  perceptions  this  below,  EcoLogo of  the  with  what  question the  guided  the  this  the  misperceptions  decoding  represent  know  and w i r e s ,  has  been  to  they  sent  receivers  symbol  a n d what  messages  understanding of  EcoLogo  recognition  telephone  terminology,  sub-questions,  of  does  compare  communication e x i s t  how w e l l  investigation  the  consumer  c h i l d h o o d game,  to  in  than  about  is  rephrased sent?  in  further  purpose  deficiencies  Products  Program?  necessary  section's  EcoLogo  are  could  messages this  EcoLogo.  to  consumers?  on  products?  sample  EcoLogo  product? 4)  A r e consumers EcoLogo  interested  program  is  in  k n o w i n g more  run?  9  about  the  way  the  be  What  Do  Source This  Consumers Of  of  program  on.  reviewed,  1)  below  consumers'  3)  used  administrate  t o make  that  participants responses.  the  information to  a planned  research results  t o organize  Program  t o make  avenue  were  had voiced at The  f i v e sub-  the information  s a t i s f y t h e consumer's  generated  informed  5)  Are the present  make  a product c e r t i f i e d  purchasing  s u f f i c i e n t  decisions?  as an a p p r o p r i a t e body  an e c o - l a b e l l i n g  What  basic  program?  of information provided  see government  4)  by  need  not i n i t i a l l y  o f an e c o - l a b e l l i n g  consumers  choices  Credible  needs.  consumers  traits  was  i n their  I s t h e amount a n d t y p e  Do  A  of environmental  the primary  needs  Does t h e EcoLogo  for  consumers  source  apparent  were  requirements 2)  i s on what  Y e t , when  of their  Program  I n f o r m a t i o n To A c t On?  credible  i t became  some  questions about  a  The EcoLogo  The q u e s t i o n o f needs  research.  least  To Make  Environmental  section's focus  EcoLogo act  Need  program?  an environmental products  consumers?  10  to  choice?  considered  environmental  THE  SIGNIFICANCE  Since and  the EcoLogo  research  thesis  w i l l  EcoLogo, basic w i l l  has been  staff  about:  consumer  sent  have  forest  of a  i n order  w i l l  lead made  industry. products  (Environmental insights  of this  t r a i t s  and growing  area,  any of i t s aspects.  This  research  that  void  affect  o f t h e EcoLogo,  credible  eco-label.  the needs  research  i n this  This  i t i s hoped  this  i s being  program  as coming 1994).  Program  two  that  changes  principal  this of the  thesis.  program new  results  substantial  of their  of the  consumers'  the EcoLogo  a w i l l i n g n e s s t o make t o meet  and  The  As  by p r o v i d i n g  perceptions  t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f some  Review  t o guide  consumers'  part  i s a new  into  and i n d u s t r y ) ,  eco-labelling  wood  conducted  understanding  demonstrated  recommendations  Another  e s t a b l i s h e d as r e c e n t l y as 1988,  i n general  consumer  (consumers  willingness  was  t o t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e ECP.  the program  clients,  and  to f i l l  requirements be  WORK  labelling  help  information  THE  Program  environmental  l i t t l e  to  OF  from  label  by  some  the  results  especially  needs.  11  may  Canadian  Canadian  sustainably harvested  These  process,  w i l l  developed  have  wood  forests  valuable  i n the area  of  CONTEXT "Modern i n d u s t r i a l c i v i l i z a t i o n has developed w i t h i n a c e r t a i n system o f convenient myths. The d r i v i n g f o r c e o f modern i n d u s t r i a l c i v i l i z a t i o n has been i n d i v i d u a l material gain, which i s accepted as l e g i t i m a t e even praise-worthy on the grounds that a p r i v a t e l i c e n c e y i e l d s p u b l i c b e n e f i t i n the c l a s s i c formulation. It's long been understood, very w e l l , that a s o c i e t y based on t h i s p r i n c i p l e w i l l destroy i t s e l f i n time.  that  i s  It can only p e r s i s t , with whatever s u f f e r i n g and i n j u s t i c e i t e n t a i l s , as long as i t ' s p o s s i b l e t o pretend that the d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s t h a t humans c r e a t e a r e l i m i t e d , t h a t t h e world i s an i n f i n i t e resource, that the world i s an infinite garbage can. At t h i s stage o f h i s t o r y , e i t h e r one o f two t h i n g s i s possible. E i t h e r the general population w i l l take c o n t r o l i t s own d e s t i n y , a n d w i l l c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h community i n t e r e s t s guided by values of s o l i d a r i t y , sympathy and c o n c e r n f o r o t h e r s , o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y t h e r e w i l l be no d e s t i n y f o r a n y o n e t o c o n t r o l " (Noam C h o m s k y 1 9 9 2 ) .  of  Consumers It  i s predicted  strong  p o l i t i c a l ,  nineties  reported  are  on  many  and s o c i a l p.13).  continue  trend  Canadians  are a  on  i n their  l i t t l e every  the environment.  environmental comparable  a  management,  and coherent  environment  more  day l i f e Just  as  t o begin  i n order  12  on  the  they  I t seems  they  c a n do  to lessen  realm,  Canadians as their  realm  of  pertinent  the impacts  f o r consumers  see  cumulative  i n the scientific  i n t h e consumer  information  i s needed  what  a  are increasingly  result of the  about  t o be  throughout  of the e c o l o g i c a l problems  t h e n i g h t l y news  to learn  individuals  the  that  News,  w i l l  of i n d i v i d u a l s , including themselves.  ready  impact  environmentalism  economic  (Marketing  acknowledging  impacts  that  of products  t o voice  their  on  values. need  The  by  EcoLogo  certifying  example  have  that  reduced  Economic  1990  and  year  2000  aware take  of  impacts  w i l l  (Daily  direction,  consumers their  5-6%  encourage on  win  values,  include  ways  well,  producers  ecological  a  to  estimates $250 $375  more  more  improve  be  for buying  world i n by  people  become  companies  w i l l  i n  use  a  the  b i l l i o n  a  their  can  that for  b i l l i o n  the  new products'  their  ecological  can  label.  Organization  was  As  product's  an  for products  development  This  a  of  reaching  provide  gain  type  (OECD)  consumers  choices  setting  size  place,  product  by  The  1993).  informational  and  on  products  market  products.  increased and  News  this  the  environment.  industry to  their  to  considerable  innovative As  f i l l  EcoLogo  annually  their  record.  to  sensitive  i n the  focus  the  Development  Commercial  finding  information  of  the  and  power  and  environmental to  on  increase  their  with  to  l i c e n s e e s as  market  ecologically  notice  power  a  Co-operation  for  begins  i s appropriate  i s already  market  products  f o r non-Ecologo  information  There  Program  and  buying  impact  win/win  products  situation:  that  marketing  advantage.  there  an  reflect  Industry When for  i t f i r s t  environmentally  Canadian This  became  market,  apparent sound  t r i v i a l  products  manufacturers  r e s u l t e d i n many  general,  that  or  claims  unclear  by  a  jumped that  i n  13  growing  onto  were  their  was  the  increased segment green  as  of  the  bandwagon.  unsubstantiated,  application,  demand  over-  well  as,  consumer being  confusion.  more  cautious  consumers  and  91).  experts  Now  businesses'  law  the  early  nineties,  because  their  claims  enforcement suggest  treatment  organization's to  By  implement  green  responsibility perception  of  and that  that  of  efforts  agencies  the  to  more  become  reality"  being  honest be  to  be  made:  News  of  a  "...  by  an  total  a  March  by  Oct  responsible  consumers  (Marketing  challenged  account  accompanied  give  were  Reports,  environmentally  must  a b i l i t y  were  (Consumer  environment  marketing the  a  manufacturers  and  social  truthful 1992).  Government An  ecological  was  heard,  Canada. this  ethic  understood,  The  ethic  by  ECP,  the  The  to  1991).  has  just  supported  program  by  about  to  the  wide a  to  a  as  value  of  of  a  and  an  volume  Government  form  Here  the  i t s role.  approval,  Canadian  that  private sector  of  help  With  domain  of  of  services to  laden  that  amplifier  some  decisions.  range  stamp  act  of  to  Federal  provide  boundaries  entered  roots the  products  purchasing  influence a i s not  grass  the has  the  interests.  i t represents  a  world-view.  Governments policies  a  i s stretching  EcoLogo  changing  informed  from  i s attempting  information  government  potential  and  developing  make  government  grown  government  environmental consumers  has  at  with Some  a l l levels their  of  the  are  looking  f o r ways  to  harmonize  constituent's ecological  values  tools  Government  which  the  14  Canadian  their  (Yearly has  been  using  to  lessen  international  the  burden  agreements,  programs  and  Canadian  government's  Appendix  B  Market One  based the  of  forces  of  the to  standards,  go  innovation  and  help  Canadian  deter  (Stavins  the  A  outlines  non-  labelling.  tradable  beyond  (or) the  p.5) .  based  reduce  less  regulators  approaches  market tipping  pollutants,  and  encourage  1989).  compatible with  In existing  structures.  Government  recognizes  the  advantages  of  report.  are  to  i n e x p e n d i t u r e s by  see  a  further  departments  decrease  i n favour  15  of  "In the  market  i n i t s Environmental Scan  environmental  based  increasingly  require,  (Stavins  are  of  of  expensive than uniform  can  advances  of  l a n d f i l l  are  enlist  degradation  Examples  approaches  Market  designed to  ingenuity  schemes,  they are  technological  and  forces.  permits f o r industrial  Market  what  measures  pollution 1989,  market  approaches l i k e l y  the  labelling.  involvement of  i s to u t i l i z e  deposit/refund  typically  market  institutional  The  of  "...innovative  charges.  because  addition,  educational  i n environmental  i n environmental  m a r k e t p l a c e and  taxes,  pollution  popular  are  include:  green  include  policies, Appendix  role  examples  approach  resources"  approaches  and  some  policy  entrepreneurs  fees,  regulatory  systems  Approaches  approaches  natural  legislation,  organizations  Based  type  ecological  investment i n research.  provides  government  on  environmental  based  future,  policy  we  mechanisms  that  environmentally  The  rely sound  Environmental  market given  choice,  lesser  burden  on  should  a c t as a  forces to  behaviour"  Choice  t o achieve a  on market  (CCME  Program  i t s goals.  Canadian  1993,  u t i l i z e s  the environment.  p.43).  the forces of the  I t i s r u n on  consumers  catalyst  encourage  the premise  w i l l  buy products  This  ongoing  f o r producers  that  that  shift  to provide  when  have  a  i n demand  more  green  choices.  It  i s logical  providing  a  to t r yt o actively  credible  source  today,  meaningless  and m i s l e a d i n g c l a i m s  half an  A  on  consumers.  of respondents  insincere  Voluntary  There have  limited  promote  that one  are having survey  found  environmental  Demographics  recognition  effects because  minimum  that  command  a  In the  suspect,  negative that  nearly  advertising  was  1991) .  our efforts  to reach  they  are slow,  expensive,  compliance.  Regulations  programs  which  do  Voluntary  programs  which  are supported  typically  bought  and c o n t r o l  on  voluntary  are  information.  a plethora of general,  I n t h e USA,  (American  by  Approach  i s growing  development  exists  believed that  gimmick  the market  of environmental  marketplace  impact  there  influence  into  by  not suffer  industry,  16  by  sustainable hard  c a n be  from  regulations  to police,  complemented  t h e same  economic  and promote  and by  drawbacks.  instruments cultural  change.  This  stewarding  The Of  and  ECP  i s a  pollution  i t s approach  not  based  and  consumers  the  CONSUMERS the  go  beyond  engaging  i n  continual  programs  (Beals,  EcoLogo  to  Cascio,  and  orders or  commitment alike"  polls are  Quite  Gallup  bans the  (RAL  Angel  but  on  agrees  Program,  Deutsches  felt  Institut  industry.  with i t s which  information  environment  three  some  by  and both  1992,  relevant  environmental issues,  On  Environmental  has  been  consistently  unemployment  between  that  the  June  asking  however,  the  the  and  1988  environment  Canadians;  sections,  important problem  time  indicate  to  Blue  ECP  and  states:  " I t  motivation, producers  p.3).  green  results  from  p r o d u c t s and  the  reported.  most  economy,  on  Polled  1985  the  on  the  the  consumers  POLLED  Consumers Since  f o r both  to participation,  subsequent  consumer  1).  and  prevention  program,  i n Germany,  on  is  f o r companies  compliance  voluntary  and  In  stage  1994).  counterpart is  the  t o minimum  improvement Wolf  sets  was since  environment  Canadians:  facing  this  majority  more  and  Issues  of  becoming February i s their  17  the  1990,  the  top  1990 top  do  you  think  country today?"  Canadians  recently,  February  "What  answer  deficit.  poll  fewer  concern.  and  the  During  results  concern  (Table  the  indicate  f o r many fewer  These  Canadians  Gallup  results  remind  Canadians'  us  that  there  attentions  and  are  many  competing  issues  efforts.  T A B L E 1 - P e r c e n t a g e O f C a n a d i a n s Who The E n v i r o n m e n t As The M o s t Important Problem F a c i n g Canada Today. Date  Of  Poll  January  1 9 94  September  May  1  %  3  %  3  %  1991  2  %  January  1991  4  %  14  %  17  %  16  %  9  %  1990  1989  June  1989 1988  February  1988  4  %  February  1987  3  %  From:  separate poll, primary  The  responsibility  that  finding  The  could  Gallup Poll,  Gallup asked  responsibility  Environment?".  This  -  October  March  the  Respondents  1992  July  a  of  1992  February  In  Percentage  View  1993  November  f o r  most  Canadians:  f o r protecting  interesting  Canadians indicate  Jan  are  they  may  18  be  "Who  the  trend  taking  31,  on  1994  do  you  has  Canadian  i s the  increase  themselves  w i l l i n g  think  to  i n  (Table  devote  more  2).  efforts  towards  selecting  products  that  are  less  harmful  to  the  environment.  T A B L E 2- R e s p o n s e s O f C a n a d i a n s To The Question Who Do Y o u T h i n k H a s T h e P r i m a r y Responsibility F o r P r o t e c t i n g The C a n a d i a n Environment?  Government  23  %  26  %  27  %  Individuals  29  %  21  %  16  %  9  %  5  %  5  %  1  %  2  %  3  %  36  %  44  %  46  %  2  %  2  %  2  %  Private  Industry  Conservation Groups Volunteers A l l Don't  Know From:  A  cross  country  Angus  quarters  of  focus  environmental  on  Canadians  Reid  from  the  suggests  that  Canadians  effectively  Consumers Consumer  polls  buying  poll the  recession  About  are  products  Gallup  even  of  July  1991  government  (Alberta  approve  Poll,  i n March  protection  protect the  Polled  The  think  recovery  and  December 1989  March 1992  June 1994  11,1994  found  should  not  i f i t means  Business  government  that  1991)  a .  three  reduce  i t s  slower This  expenditures  result that  environment.  Green  finding that  Products  that  have  a  that  they  are  choosing  products  that  they  are  spending  more  many  Canadians  lesser that  money 19  on  burden  have these  are on  looking  the  recyclable products,  for  environment, packaging, and  that  they  believe  that  environment.  Age  determinants with  a  on  higher  behaviour.  The  friendly asked.  level  Poll  The  Gallup impact  clear.  1993  the  asked  Canadians  packaged (The  71%  Gallup  to  those  70%  1991  who  Report,  those  from  high  school,  those  who  attended  to 75%  to  i n the with  purchased  went  of  13,  intent  and  region May  higher  green  those  university  of  that do  20  that  1990  at  of  having  i s had  i n the  May  p o l l .  The  The  those  who  went  to  college,  having  poll  are  show  of  have  as  they  education  Figures  the  Columbia  84%.  any  though  question  products  poll  to  damage Even  64%  report  products.  the  B r i t i s h  products.  who  been  products  products  i n the  with  levels  have  i s  no  reported  46%  1993  consumer  below.  1993).  friendly  public school, of  which  Canadians  those  r e c e n t l y purchased  characterizes green the  be  and  questions  products-  May  to  green  reviewed  Two  you  methods  poll,  region  percentage  have  "Have  found  the  environmentally  times.  environmentally  i n the  been  to  respondents  are  about  friendly"  environment,  v a r i e d from  that  was:  using  mistakenly  the  results  different  question  purchased  found  l i k e l y  has  three  have  harmful  r e p o r t i n g more  poll  encouraging  highest  also  of  on  p o l l ,  results  education  less  younger  these  and  poll  An  recently  of  truly  levels  issues, with  "environmentally  environment?"  are  of  f i r s t  manufactured  no  products  education  these  products  so-called  the  and  Some  Gallup  these  more  that  56%  graduated and  purchased  79% green  of  The  second  general, really  question asked  do  are  you  better  percentage, since with  the  78%  1991  Quebec  determinant  on  83%  of  when  Reid  making  properties was  respond  a  Group  of  and the  53%  they  increasingly  (Playback  Strategy  Consumers  Polled  t h e r e were  i t s e l f  younger  This  The  the Of  country  B r i t i s h  E d u c a t i o n was  more  a  affirmative  answers  i n December  ecological This  impacts  poll  also  factored  to  more  impacts  consumer  of  the  i n  packaging that  84%  selection.  l i k e l y  to  their  environment  concern  found  ecological  product  were  that  found  i n the  determine  that  1990  i n the  w i l l future  EcoLogo  measured  Canadians'  unaided  increase  1991).  About  1994).  68%.  products  high  percent across  at  Canadians  important  which  and  poll  suggests  Group  aided  a  i n the  Research  (Environics  A  "In  education.  Environics they  one  affirmatively.  considered ecological  decisions.  was:  not?".  varied  "frequently"  product  a  skeptical  conducted  factored  or  are,  results  more  issue:  determinant:  that  an  they  purchasing decisions.  of  purchasing become  that  levels  Gallup Poll  'environmentally friendly'  Again  this  same  environment  responded  Canadians  "occasionally"  Age  agreed  increasing  Angus  f o r the  considerably 83%  The  that  poll.  Columbians,  with  think  i n the  In  has  their  awareness  conducted awareness  polls, of  the  21  four of  polls the  Environics EcoLogo,  f o r the  ECP  EcoLogo measured  which  when  both added  i n  together,  gives  was  tested  you  seen,  a  f o r by heard  consumers  The  of  read  identify  participants a  results  awareness  i f they  of  about  on  awareness.  were the  are was  aware  of  EcoLogo  (Table  June  awareness  1990 1992  September October  Environics October  of  the  EcoLogo".  EcoLogo  and  reported this  which  asked  they  question  location, education, l i k e l y  to  with and have  had  1993 1994  1994  allowed  poll  i f they seen  had  i t .  l i v i n g seen  the  birds  levels  i n  the  Choice. of  of  were  i n the  the  were ever  19  %  42  %  51  %  37  %  carried  i n homes  measure  shown seen  out  a  i t .  Of  that  levels  and  younger,  having  a  logo.  22  Western  of  the  the  Canadians,  education  three  for  "identification  mock-up  E n v i r o n i c s found  i n c l u d e d : age, who  was  Environics to  Participants  those  help  asking  three  that  have  Percentage  August  time,  to  Environmental  reveal  Date  f i r s t  the  to  f o r by of  symbols  meant  harmful  symbol  or  special  awareness  3).  T A B L E 3- T o t a l the EcoLogo.  The  less  a  Unaided  labels  tested  Environics polls  low  "What  product  that  awareness  leaf,  the  remain  total  products  Aided  maple  of  asking participants:  or  environment?".  shape  measure  44%  determinants geographic  post  Provinces  secondary being  more  on  The  Environics  the  Environmental  showing mean  three  it  to  and  mean  also  found  they  or  Two  the  into  asked,  EcoLogo  whether  the  safe  as  and.  only  of  a  and  by  safe,  would  Environics  found  that  57%  buying  of  thought  had  that  for that  been  the the  environment.  23  purchased  an  EcoLogo  had  polls that  the  product said  49%  are a  of  dropped  time  or  that  Also, was'  safe  that  to  20%.  to  the  of confidence  question the  when  either  i t meant  absolutely  some  this  take  Canadians  relevant  majority  informed  EcoLogo.  Canadians i t meant  thought  1992,  of  Environics  or  confidence At  would  knew  this  of  they  friendly.  who  In  found  guide.  already  meant 68%  reported  1994  deal  EcoLogo, leaf  Environics  great  the  thought  maple  decreasing.  the  had  of  they  a  Canadians  Environics  a  shape  household  responsible  19%  the  what  called  environmentally  number  from  EcoLogo  absolutely  was  steadily  had  symbol  product.  their  participants i s  form  category,  71%,  participants  Vancouverites  questions.  government  or  i n  results  Canadians, the  the  been  this  other  of  a  product  that  has  research  in  59%  asked  Program's  which  i t on  someone  Product f e l l  saw  also  Choice  doves  i f they  Canadians  survey  federal asked r e l a t i v e l y  r e l a t i v e l y for  was  the  METHOD The  s t r a t e g y used  that  1)  a  library  2)  correspondence  3)  focus,  4)  structured  primary  the  EcoLogo,  evaluation issue,  attain ECP,  the  had  four  components  explored  l i t t l e  and  labelling  Sound  Community  Conference,  &  agencies,  both  source  conducted,  further  Strategic  Marketing  groups.  available  Because  i n the  literature,  Packaging  Coalition  included program  i t i s a .current the  EcoLogo  ECP  were  (CSA),  (ESP),  made  i n Vancouver,  contact  with  Forecast Omnibus  Restructuring Strategies  were  After  the  ECP  European  Systems  f o r the  24  primary  yielded and  a  Awareness Public  and  attended  the  f o r 1995/96, Report:  Workshop  the  Globe were  research of  November  Sector.  (SCS),  (ISO  and  copies  of  to  the  the  Certification  Manufacturers'  and  library.  inquiries  Association  Scientific  search  labelling,  information about  information.  Monitor  product  Standards  held  of  library  Organization f o r Standardization  1993  first-hand  Environmental  focus  was  (EEC),  International  the  labelling,  program  Canadian  the  through  analytical  up-to-date  Also  r e l e v a n t programs  interviews.  environmental  the  14000).  and  with  techniques  very  Economic  '94  thesis  groups,  Environmentally  and  this  search,  topics  environmental  the  research  included:  The  To  to  the  a was  their 1994  EcoLogo  The  third  and fourth  conducting Chapter  3  components  two focus contains  structured  groups  were  S C O P E AND  LIMITATIONS  The  of this  focus  EcoLogo,  and  needs  terms of a  complete 2,  Program",  called:  "A B r i e f  to explore  to  through  of  carried  participants  seen  this  thesis  However,  Critique  Of  commentary  about  understanding scheme.  as t h e consumer  a  In slice  i s not intended short  section  i n context, may  t o be  i n  The E n v i r o n m e n t a l  consumers  the  More  recognition,  t o p u t t h e ECP p r o g r a m  negative  groups  out i n Vancouver respectively.  confidently  these  opinions  and feelings used  results  only  research,  and the structured  However,  interviews  and  Choice as  be  well  exposed  t h e media.  the focus  n o t be  groups  think  eco-labelling  of the limitations of the primary  were  can  what  the focus  products.  c a n be  pie:  evaluation.  as  One  consumer  program  i s included  interviews.  consumers  and EcoLogo  research  evaluation  both  o n how  i n r e l a t i o n t o the EcoLogo  the program  structured  o f how  centres  Program  this  involved  conducted.  i tinvestigates  o f scope,  Chapter  thesis  t h e EcoLogo  specifically,  and f o r t y  descriptions  interviews  of the research  and each  could o f some  be  i s that  had t e n and  forty  EcoLogo  25  of  these  both  results  Canada.  as i n d i c a t i v e of the  Canadians.  one sample  speaking,  t o the rest  seen  consisted  interviews,  S t a t i s t i c a l l y  generalized  which  As w e l l , product,  the  structured  MotorMaster's  "ECO".  Some  unique  of the results  t o "ECO",  EcoLogo  rather  OF  For  part,  t h e most  framework  THE  What  What  1,  source  Chapter  2:  a  brief  critique  4  are organized  3  well,  a  need  explain low  used  i s given  to collect  t o t h e ECP about  has been  Chapters  the three  of  the primary  and 3 and  principle  sub-question. data.  Chapter As  questions  and  and preliminary analysis pertinent  questions,  how  depicted  i s the focus  context.  t h e most  26  t o a c t on?  of the research  the results  research  a  s t r a t e g y are reviewed,  accompanying  5 reviews  principle  The ECP  provides  f o reach 4  EcoLogo  Program  of the research  fashion under  and t h e i r  Chapter  recommendations  help  information  introduced.  i n parallel  are  the three  that  t h e EcoLogo  and marketing  I n Chapter  presented.  t o make  of the program  rationale  questions:  Program?  context  i toperations  t h e methods  using the  o f t h e EcoLogo,  of environmental  sub-questions.  under  to  EcoLogo?  questions  questions,  describes  research  understanding  the broad  the research  research  are general  organized  characteristics  and t h e EcoLogo  credible  and  of the  do consumers  Chapter  has been  by i t s ' three  i s consumer  Products  In  properties that  thesis  any consumer  recognition  3)  influenced by properties  THESIS this  provided  Are there  2)  than  be  products.  ORGANIZATION  1)  may  results  makes  t h e EcoLogo  could  be  made  more  consumer  research. provide the of  friendly,  Several  terms  that  concludes  appendixes,  information  understanding  and  of  which  suggestions  referred to throughout  i s germane,  the thesis.  are used  with  although  Appendix  frequently  27  i n the  C  not  the  text,  essential  contains  text.  f o r future  a  to  glossary  CHAPTER  II  -  Background The  On  The  under  Protection the  1991  a  with  half  and  commitment dollars  i s to: the  responsible  products  above  Figure the  3  demand  shows  i s an  human  under over the  the  "Act  l i f e  the five  established  the  Canadian  health"  Green  years.  The  on  supply  services"  the of  (ECP  28  the  protection  (ECP  Design  was  assured  Plan  ECP's  of  twelve  mission  environment  by  environmentally Annual  current organization  ECP.  1988,  Environmental  continuance  federal  stress  i n  respecting  and  program's  f o r and  and  and  (ECP)  Program  (ECP),  Canada  The  "Reduce  encouraging  p.l).  of  PROGRAM  Choice  Program  CEPA  p.18).  million  statement  Choice  (CEPA).  environment 1993,  CHOICE  Environmental  Environment  Act  Statement  a  ENVIRONMENTAL  Environmental  operates  of  THE  Report of  1993/94,  government  i n and  THE GKEEH  ( W ^  pcxrVrftf&Vip GoorciA\cu\s  - w)\\Y\ vVs  WJTVJJGJCXN  <^c*/erft*f\erfc \t\iosVcy OorvA )  prefect "VV\e e^V\<brvf*-\er^:.  9VJC^Q6C  W n c ^ -Vo*... ^f&YYvfte. \onc^ Vertv-v vcAvv  THE ENV\W>NWEKTKLCMO\C^ \WWS*\(\<\^. - vxMrVvVs ^uC^ose. \>e\n<^'Vc> Ce^oce ^W. sVsssor\Ti>e, eiwirorimejfA" b y sV\\?V\v\c^ mcxrVerV Soy^V^ ami w^-VsA*  The  following  program's  excerpt  operating  from  the  ECP  Design  Statement  outlines  the  objectives.  "The ECP r e l i e s o n m a r k e t f o r c e s t o a c h i e v e environmental o b j e c t i v e s and i s b a s e d on v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n by consumers and b u s i n e s s e s . I t s operating objectives are to: enhance r e c o g n i t i o n of the EcoLogo and i t s acceptance by consumers as an a u t h o r i t a t i v e and t e c h n i c a l l y sound g u i d e t h a t enables them t o take the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t o account i n their purchasing decisions; provide a market incentive, i n the form of a license to use the EcoLogo, t o businesses t h a t p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n the m a r k e t p l a c e by o f f e r i n g f o r s a l e p r o d u c t s and s e r v i c e s t h a t reduce s t r e s s on the environment and c h a l l e n g e o t h e r businesses to follow their lead; d e v e l o p and i s s u e p r o d u c t c a t e g o r y g u i d e l i n e s t h a t are i m p a r t i a l , s c i e n c e - b a s e d and, t o t h e e x t e n t of c u r r e n t knowledge, employ a l i f e - c y c l e review t o determine environmental impacts; and, ensure t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are i n t e g r a l i n p r o d u c t c a t e g o r y s e l e c t i o n and c r i t e r i a setting f o r p r o d u c t g u i d e l i n e s so as t o m a x i m i z e environmental b e n e f i t s and a v o i d s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e economic impact" (ECP D e s i g n S t a t e m e n t 1993, p.2). To  achieve  that  have  serving  a  same  For  Criteria must  be  attributes  the  ECP  burden  on  purpose.  Statement  EcoLogo.  also  lesser  the  Criteria  the  i t s goals,  accompanied  ownership  EcoLogo  of  by the  Attribution  Statement  i s as  Environment  Canada".  The  licensees  i n the  accompanying provided  to  proper  Attribution help  EcoLogo  "Reduced the  use  pollution  make  more 30  product  -  Statement  and  Standards  Criteria  informed  products  by  a the  battery The  has  EcoLogo  which  Canada.  O f f i c i a l  The  EcoLogo  carries  zinc-air  EcoLogo.  Statement,  consumers  "M  the  other  Environment  Graphics the  than  battery".  Attribution  follows:  of  the  c e r t i f i e d  to  with  i s accompanied  why  EcoLogo  ECP's  products  environment  identifies  an  Statement:  the  The  which  example,  c e r t i f i e s  mark  of  manual  EcoLogo, Statement  purchasing  The  guides the are  decisions  and i s based  consumers  t o be  The  ECP  and  several  more  Refer  guidelines. refined have the to  some  guidelines t o Appendix  o i l .  impact  program  t h i r t y  Products  motor  was  the principle  that  t h e instrument o f change  has developed  process.  on  range  The  on  ECP  D  f o r a  from  l i s t i n g  changed  from  the Environmental Choice  the  guidelines, development  o f t h e ECP's  saving  recognizes that  the environment;  specific  through  water  shower  f i n a l  heads  a l lconsumer  f o r this  reason,  by the f i r s t  to r e -  products  t h e name  the Environmental Friendly Program  empowers  i n the marketplace.  f i n a l product are going  information  of  Program  ECP A d v i s o r y  Board.  The to and  ECP help  has adopted  p r i o r i t i z e t h e development  t o determine  "They  s i xenvironmental principles  product  specific  of product technical  which  specific  are  used  guidelines  c r i t e r i a .  are t o : encourage t h e e f f i c i e n t management o f r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s t o ensure t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y t o future generations; promote the e f f i c i e n t use o f non-renewable resources, including energy; f a c i l i t a t e the reduction, reuse and r e c y c l i n g of i n d u s t r i a l , commercial and consumer waste; encourage the p r o t e c t i o n of ecosystems and species diversity; encourage t h e p r o p e r management o f c h e m i c a l s i n p r o d u c t s ; and encourage i n d u s t r y l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f more e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e p r o d u c t s " (ECP D e s i g n Statement 1993, p . 3 ) .  There  are several  EcoLogo  Program.  way They  i n which  consumers  can take  c a n c o n t a c t t h e ECP 31  t o be  part  i n the  included  on  their for  mailing  products  like  l i s t . that  t o see on  program  by  public  program  period.  As  when  Businesses  draft  well  making  that  development  ECP  wish  their  certification  of their  the  An  displays been  products forms. more  are paper  products  produces  have  suggestion to  i n some  In cases  purchasing  fashion.  products  where  been  developed,  detailing  the environment  than  of the  t h e s i x week as  public  informed  decisions.  can take They  part  i n the  can apply  f o r EcoLogo  authorized users  i s a  or organization that  firm  c e r t i f i e d  product  as envelopes  guidelines  the business  products  purpose.  32  has  converted  i n having  one  or  f o r the products i t can complete  a n d why that  that  of  or multi-sheet  i s interested  the product  other  f i n a l  o r become  a business and no  and  Currently the only  such  read  guidelines f o r  any aspect  during  would  with the  widely  of draft  on  categories  they  t o date  can function  an EcoLogo  certified,  form  guidelines  of guidelines.  on  up  amendments  feedback  products,  product  In this  the public  authorized user  t h e EcoLogo  converted  Gazette.  to participate  and review  EcoLogo.  can keep  consumers  new  or f o r products  guideline  can provide  including  consumers  notifies  significant  They  now  They  t h e Canada  t h e ECP  guidelines.  review  the market.  review,  can suggest  are available  reading  publication,  Consumers  a  i t i s less  serve  the  harmful  same  In  cases  where  a  guideline  becoming  c e r t i f i e d  guidance  through  a  copy  of  the  agreement, c e r t i f i e d testing  guideline  annual the of  fee  involves  to  Director  the  marketing.  collection  The  ECP  retains  applicant's  and  the  i s based  enforcing  1993, of  and  the  fees  under  (ECP  on  applicable  product  guideline  documents  necessary  Compliance  testing  certification,  as  to  annually,  after  the  continued  adherence  at  the  licence  having  a  product  by  business,  the  paying  licensing  a  firm's  gross  the  Technical Agency  the by  guideline  regular has  costs  and through  v i s i t s  compliance  the  testing.  adheres  to  processes,  products  and  examining  compliance.  business  intervals,  been  applicable  33  a  of  p.4) .  verifying  testing  after  ECP's  that  business  the  The  i t s costs  1993-94,  conduct  with  sales  administration of  cost of  fee.  annual  offsets  Report  to  f u l l  agreement  annual  15%  form,  v e r i f i c a t i o n  license  i n  standard  an  systems,  product(s) to  a  c r i t e r i a  establish  as,  of  application  ensuring  i s conducted well  process  recovered  contract a  involves  application  the  for i n i t i a l  Annual  testing  w i l l an  of  i t p a r t i a l l y  ECP  control  provide  compliance,  Compliance  quality  which  copy  into  site/factory/offices  reviewing  interested  T e c h n i c a l Agency,  paying  product(s)  In  the  by  entering  fee  m o n i t o r i n g and  a  an  of  businesses  process,  submission  ECP,  licensing  c e r t i f i e d  guideline,  T e c h n i c a l Agency  the  ECP  The  compliance, of  the  information.  inspection the  contact  exist,  c e r t i f i c a t i o n  relevant  and  and  recovery  can  does  c e r t i f i e d  guidelines.  applies at  for  least  to The  ensure Canadian  Standards  Association  v e r i f i c a t i o n  and  (CSA)  conducted  compliance  the  a c t i v i t i e s  ECP's  from  product/service  August  1990  to  May  testing  i s a  review  1993 .  As the  mentioned  above,  quality  control  quality  and  certified.  As  a l lEcoLogo  governmental  and  compliance  The  ECP  control  effective  when  of  systems.  well,  annually  result,  part  assurance/ quality  operational,  least  one  before  quality  system, the  control  compliance  i s  systems  that  the  documented,  company's  testing  p r o d u c t s meet  industrial  establishes  of  product(s) i s  are  reviewed  i s conducted.  As  at a  or  exceed  a l l applicable  quality,  safety  and  performance  standards.  The  ECP  has  developing  endeavoured new  considering  product  guideline  labelling  programs  Guideline  development  technical  agency,  committee,  i s expected  guidelines  by  general  f o r new and  to  and  have  As  within  contracted  Communication  staff  September  public,  been  expedite the  partnerships  other programs  Calian ECP  and  guidelines.  development  has  of  simplify  specific  and  assistance  Suggestions  the  to  the  process  well, with  they  other  out  to  the  eco-  ECP's  Calian,  interdepartmental an  are  government.  Systems.  completed  of  with  advisory  additional  forty  1995.  product  categories  program  staff.  34  The  come  from  business,  information  for  the  the  guidelines cycle  i s gathered  approach  manufacture, addition, might  a  be  to look  from  caused  by  sources  at the product's  distribution, forecast  existing  ecological  transportation,  i s provided  a  l i f e  impacts  during  use, and disposal.  of possible  i n c r e a s e d demand  and takes  market  shifts  In  that  f o r and p r o d u c t i o n of the  product. "In l i n e w i t h environmental  t h e ECP g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s , variables as:  i t addresses  such  energy consumption and the use of non-renewable versus renewable resources i n the product's manufacture, use and disposal; the r e l e a s e of t o x i c chemicals during the production, use and d i s p o s a l o f t h e p r o d u c t ; the r e d u c t i o n i n demand on l a n d f i l l s i t e s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f recycled products; the r e d u c t i o n o f volume, weight and/or t o x i c i t y o f packaging material; and any d e s i g n f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o d u c t which c o u l d a f f e c t i t s recycling potential" (ECP D e s i g n S t a t e m e n t 1993, p.10). When the  considering environmental potential  shift  i n buying  products.  The  performance purpose  qualify  During  ECP  levels  The  means  Draft  from  about  f o r ECP  guidelines  ECP  also  from  considers  of products  f o r which  o f t e n uses  t h e ECP  burdens  products current  on  to  a  c e r t i f i e d  serving the  the market  same  i s being  threshold level on  from  at  environmental  the market  a  i s looking  expected  the guideline  20% o f products  o f about  should  be  20%: able  t o  certification.  are released f o r a  t h e s i x week  comments  i n ecological  non-certified  as the product  developed. this  decrease  benefits,  public  review  a l l interested  s i x week  t h e ECP  parties. 35  public  staff  After  review.  accept  the review  written period,  the  ECP s t a f f  guideline.  received and revise  G u i d e l i n e s c a n be r e v i e w e d  especially market  consider t h e feedback  after  significant  developments.  developing significant  environmental,  The p r o c e s s  a guideline changes  public  products  time o r  t o the process  review.  may  at any  technological  i s similar  including  a r e made  a n d amended  the draft  of  Where  require r e -  c e r t i f i c a t i o n .  In  their  for  final  selecting  product the  the  a product  must  must  meet  EcoLogo,  guidelines are  meet,  that  of key  that  i n order  now  1) -  a business  identifying simplifying  substantial  t h e program  p r i o r i t i e s using  one page  that  terms, that  an a p p l y i n g  and the right  t o use  uses.  information sheets  by consumers. consumer  Appendix  oriented  i t s clients  changes  t o i t s p r i o r i t i e s  t o behave  i t s goals.  t o set goals,  development  36  E  based  i n a business-  The ECP's t o p  and understanding  the guideline  which  final  include: framework  Final  products.  needed  t o realize  rationale  requirements  o f p e r m i t t e d EcoLogo  of water-conserving  the belief fashion  into  licensing  o f one o f these  on  3)  definitions  t o be u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  1 9 9 3 , t h e E C P made  (  the ecological  requirements  t o secure  are translated  In  2)  category,  and a description  an example  guideline,  like  include  specific  i n order  customized  contains  guidelines  categories and subcategories, general  product  firm  form,  their  process,  needs,  4)  seeking  partners  with  which  t o share  t h e work  of  guideline  development, 5)  developing  a mechanism  which  i twould  could  be c e r t i f i e d  6)  with  developing  a procurement  procurement  the marketing  ECP's  marketing  MARKETING  THE  business  of businesses  using  overall  of the revised  goal  the level  Forecast  it  and say i toften"  more  marketing  awareness  f o r 1995/96,  Campaign  communicate  and r e l y  o f t h e EcoLogo  They  on t h e i r  media  information  Forecast  f o r 1995/96).  The  marketing  strategy  i s built  Media  Campaign,  Relations  include a  37  as  adopted  relations  around  a National  licensee  t o "... Canada's  a  "keep  National  about  Marketing  These  have  i n their  detailed  communication.  was  (ECP S t r a t e g i c  p.5).  strategy  i n December 1994.  strategy  Strategic  ECP's  allow the  t o guide the  strategy  responsibility..."  Marketing  to  would  environmentally  of licensees  marketing  of public  environmental  Advertising  their  ECOLOGO  The  simple  on  ventures.  i t s revised  of  which  as having  expertise  ECP l a u n c h e d  symbol  guidelines,  and judged  line  products f o r  practices, and  The  increase  t o develop  t h e EcoLogo  merits,  considerate  t h e ECP, b y w h i c h  n o t be economical  individual  certification  7)  within  t h e program  five  venues  Advertising  Marketing  campaign (ECP  of  Campaign,  Manual,  a  Youth  a  Campaign,  and  Marketing  Forecast  The  National  reach  Member  intended  they  secondary  with  a  represent market  the  e n g l i s h magazines  The  Canadian  Media  more  radio  shown  Homes,  drive  regional  and  show  Strategic  message  i s women,  aged  twenty-five  that  are  hosts  consumer aged 4  read  Chatelaine  has by  been these  are  about sent  and  n a t i o n a l media  and  entails the to  TV  38  The  to forty-nine. french  groups  including  Guide,  Reader's  Maclean's.  EcoLogo  community print  to  journalists encourage  newspapers, and  with  news morning  electronic  Strategic Marketing  1995/96).  The  forty-  group.  i n several  providing  mainstream (ECP  spending  to  to  4).  (Figure  twenty-five  Canadian Workshop,  Campaign  kits  n a t i o n a l magazines  part  i s men  detailed information Media  (ECP  three  i n Figure  Living,  Relations  coverage.  Campaign  employs  largest  targeted  and  Select  simple  audience  advertisement  Digest,  Parliament  f o r 1995/96) .  The  Canadian  of  A d v e r t i s i n g Campaign  consumers  primary nine:  a  Forecast  f o r  R  A I'e'coute Je I environnement  Think This  Do  This  . A I'appui Je 1 environnement  m  A /a defense Je  Choose This  l'environnement  EcoLogo  fico-Logo  M  CanaJas symbol  Le symbole canaaien Je la responsabilite" environnementale 1  of environmental responsibility. Look for it when you shop.  Pour obtentr plus ^'information, composer le (819) 097-358* de TECOFHX.  Canada  For More Information Call EcoFax (819) 997-33S4  39  .••I  Canada  The  licensee  licensees to  Marketing  reap  encourage  benefits  the  advertising  they  their  planned A  F.  The  some  This  Youth  awards, The  well  credits,  over and  schools  found  of  as,  a  time  with the  the  of  of  well  the  i s currently  way  Strategic  The  A  80%  of  1993  had  advertising  f i f t h  and  ECP  also  licensee  had used  licensees  promoting  i n the  budget  licensees  86%  advertisement  i n  the  the  reported the  EcoLogo  and  advertisement  informs  consumers  EcoLogo  of  that  Program,  and  categories.  joint  corporate  "Street Cents" class-room of  and  based  for environmental EcoLogo  The  symbol of  being  Marketing  developed Forecast  40  sponsorship YTV  programs  during  the  posters  based with for  Campaign.  rewards and  the  ECP  advertising,  programs' with  School pilot  with  achievement  Awareness  segments  17,000  class-room  the  School  television  distribution  i n Canada.  ECP.  these  i n their  licensee  includes a  Campaign (ECP  be  sponsorship  television  voice  to  product  Canada  corporate  with a  as  can  and  As  a  with  50%  help  advertising  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  Campaign  Environment  than  of  to  i t s licensees.  product  Mohawk  Canada ECP  more  of  developed  their  efforts  EcoLogo  example  Program  Environment l i s t s  the  been  of  advertising. use  good  EcoLogo  Appendix  to  that  EcoLogo  i n their  future. the  found  has  benefit  marketing  questionnaire  EcoLogo  f u l l  joint  from  advertised  the  Manual  the  Awareness  projects  1995/96).  EcoLogo  under  The  Member  awareness federal to  A  of Parliament o f t h e ECP,  REVIEW  the it  develop  representative,  include  This  Campaign  i n their  OF  w i l l  ECP have  OF  THE  This  t o recognize  material that  t o address.  Another  affected  by negative  Environmentalists program  "Market  c r i t e r i a  spotlighted Place",  of fine  contain  over  50% by weight  post-consumer  consider  (Market This  fibre.  the bleaching  post-consumer  fibre  They  marketplace  today.  consequence  of the lobbying  consumers they  are.  perceiving A  related  may  their  material  argued  have  contended  that  EcoLogo  products  concern  comes  of  t o and  o f t h e CBC  They  specific used the  that  with  paper  a minimum o f  the guideline  should  a higher  of  are available this  level i nthe  leniency  was  a  and resulted i n  as e c o l o g i c a l l y  from  and  the  exposed  product  paper,  that  because  i n t h e media.  requires  of b i g business  41  been  1993).  and require  products  included  of  f o rthe inclusion  t h e EcoLogo Place  critics  of recognition  1993 segment  guideline  process  They  reason  of recycled  as such  and  of the obstacles  o f t h e ECP  i n a  judged  paper.  MP's  PROGRAM  that  has been  some  consumers  criticisms  as t o o l e n i e n t  example  10%  some  CHOICE  low levels  program  i s that  relevant  the concerns  are only  section  licensees  with  ENVIRONMENTAL  by consumers  this  between MP's  understanding needs  t o increase  householders.  briefly, outline  vocalized.  i s important  link  and provide  quarterly  CRITIQUES  section  a  attempts  better  the Environmentally  than Sound  Packaging  Coalition: they  "...  not  does  encourage  substantially  more  EcoLogo"  1992,  The  ECP  (ESP  defends  guidelines, stringent product  sound,  there  consumer  ECP  uses  20%  of  for  ECP  a  i s  to  periodically stringent.  few  update  materials:  segment destined  that  e x i s t i n g ones  Program may  with  be  the  that be  i n  made  having  on  The  between  suffer.  the ECP's  of  stringent  20%.  should  strategy  making product  include:  the  i s  means be to  product  them  earlier, that  able  to  the  about qualify  attract c r i t e r i a  and  to  increasingly  guidelines engine  acoustical products,  label;  mentioned This  attainable  guidelines  of  Raising  environmentally  As  market  having  licensees.  designated  about  with  establishing  and  that  have  been  coolant  concentrate,  building  materials:  insulation.  criticism i s  that  for  the  environmentalists dry  are  of  examples  building  second  level  program  to  and  w i l l  currently  Three  EcoLogo  products  l i m i t e d awarding  products  made more  A  standards  education  the  the  saying  trade-off  requires  recently  thermal  a  certification.  licensees  of  the  p.89).  threshold  products  that  development  b e n e f i c i a l than  ecological  i f too  the  concerned  i t s p o l i c y by  standards  however,  are  cleaning  of  some  the  EcoLogo  categories  hazardous cited  services.  program  are  waste  are  solvent  based  The  ECP  a  42  the  inappropriate  stream.  has  from  The  as  Place"  they  examples  paints,  solid  "Market  are  that  the  batteries  and  rationale  for  i t s  position. in  The  the program  consumers in  time,  so  Program,  an  batteries. batteries weight.  consumers their  to  c e r t i f i e d  not  contain  of  mercury  years after batteries  made the  this were  batteries  i n part  because  competing keep  of  market  concerned about the purchase  the  do  highest  available. EcoLogo  dictating  that  Battery  The  EcoLogo  mercury  entry  free  This  of  the  p r o d u c e r s were of  ecological  headway EcoLogo forced  impacts  procurement  of  products.  EcoLogo  take  EcoLogo  solution  to  advantage  of  the  products are  not  protection this  p r o d u c t s must  be  that  problem  i n procurement  43  by and  government  not  but  %  by of  share.  ecological  Program,  cylindrical  finalized  available. the  i n terms  their  such p o l i c i e s  of  alkaline  0.020  the market,  became  marketplace.  start  on  was  be  EcoLogo  alkaline  i n excess of  guideline  point  harmful  that  i n the m a r k e t p l a c e as  the  less  requires  authorizing  currently  of  ECP  blindly  within  development  this should  i n the  The  also  necessarily  harmful alternative participates  included  appear  these products at  reduced-pollution  are  options  the  be  not  with  Critics  that  less  i t does  happened  products to  assert  using  i f industry  cylindrical  into  stop  First,  has  few  probably  reasons. to  speed  c e r t i f i e d  alkaline  these products should  as  must A  that  ecologically  Second,  alternatives  battery  f o r two  i t may  EcoLogo  argues  are w i l l i n g  available.  was  ECP  policies They ecological  i s  lies  not  policies.  purchased,  Instead  policy  should  be  amended  standards  Another  are  related  concern  i s that  can  not  afford  makes  the  program  s o l e l y by solution  the  to  to  considering  fundamental  issues  land  attention  that  e c o - l a b e l l i n g schemes  Plant  Choice  1991).  Program  options Program  f o r what  (Yearly may  encourage  lead  from  footprint"  reinforcement  of  f i s c a l  bigger picture structure  no  restraint. as  as  society  p o l i c y  "deep  policies  issues  the  ecological  1993), changes  f o r  and and  warn  (Plant  Environmental  considering  responsibility  w i l l  a  action  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the of  and  become  like  towards  awareness  on  e c o - l a b e l l i n g schemes  green"  44  not  and  of  to  behavioral  i s  environment.  that  people  i s  individual appeal  the  (Wackernagel  for future  time  Critics  scheme  There  not  Consumer  take  labelling  complement,  green"  increased  l i c e n s i n g fees.  fundamental  must  h e l p move  individuals to  "ecological  to  i s referred  1991). to  the  worry  more  "Lighter  can  at  specific  surpassing  products.  the  changes  take  substitute  on  about  ownership,  away  the  their  looking  product  the  rely  are  like  of  as  i n a  Some  who  EcoLogo's  problem  concerned  c r i t i c s  ECP  some p r o d u c t s  biased  merit  this  businesses have  the  micro-businesses  and  the  requirement.  dictated  Small  that  minimum  this  obvious  require  a  guidelines say  to  these EcoLogo problems,  their  act  as  a  positive  sacrifices.  The  ECP  staff  identify ECP  routinely  major  problem  identified  attempting  to  recognition two  four  the  guidelines,  program  Strategic  of  sufficiency,  market  awareness  (MacWilliam of  these  lack  of  like market  p.2).  fashion.  valuable  they  talked  purpose:  about.  Canadians, amenable  Having ECP,  they The  to  consumer  (ECP  explored issues  problem  keep  b r i n g up ECP  change  to  other  i s familiar  b r i e f l y  p r i o r i t y  For  v i s i b i l i t y  and  and  the  staff with  he  and  of  appears  on  self-  to  1995).  45  the  program  to  root  1992)  fundamental the  cause  behave  the  i n  EcoLogo's  serve  a  acting  that  need  feedback  as to  be  from a l l  and  i s  .  surrounding and  a  strategy.  shortcomings  concerns  For  the  t r a c k by  welcome  July  strong  achieved"  that  issues  the  five  marketing  the  program's  the  not  under  1995/1996  attributes  program  several of  (MacWilliam  licensees,  i n a b i l i t y  contentious  as  being  financial  past  low  products  concludes  c r i t i c s  the  included:  identifies  s t i l l  the  actively  ECP's  unfocused  Newsletter,  endure  the  were  example,  the  no  to  Report,  industry confidence,  ECP's  an  of  1993  MacWilliam  was  Omnibus  These  author  A p r i l  c r e d i b i l i t y  Environmentalists  watchdogs,  "By  v i s i b i l i t y ,  d i f f i c u l t i e s  business  the  program  been  70%  In  the  1992  have  than  resources.  ECP.  and  1995,  they  more  Forecast,  the  their  guidelines having  limited  shortcomings  public  that  EcoLogo,  Marketing  In  at  ( E n v i r o n i c s 1992).  eleven  having  c r i t i c a l l y  areas.  issues  remedy  of  looks  highest  program  to  be  the  effective, symbol,  and  consumers  need  understand  to recognize  the  i t s implications.  46  symbol,  look  f o r the  CHAPTER  I I I -  METHODS  INTRODUCTION This  chapter i s divided  corresponds  t o one  Chapter  In each  1.  structured  of  interview  questions  indented  and  printed  the text.  Except  accompanied  As  one  of  by  a  where  of  were  brevity,  groups  and  section  structured group  Two  took  modified  focus groups  a  them  that  interviews  i n their  c a n be  were  were  final  However, found  held  a  of  more  asked  i n addition  to the moderator  occupational  backgrounds  of  of  focus by  the  before purpose  focus i n the  they appeared  i n the  a l l focus  G.  1993 .  participants  made  For the the  before  the  included  l i s t  asked.  develop  of  comments  been  complete  i n November  was  comprehensible  as  i n Appendix  There  i n each  the participants  47  Many  body  i s  conducted  i n both  have  the  question  interview.  form,  from  to help  form.  result  i n the structured  interview.  questions  as  t o make  the structured only  i t sfinal  the  been  the question  were  a l lquestions  below  each  the focus groups  participants  included  why  have  them  was  interview  they  questions  i n  and  t o answer  the focus groups  structured  were  used  of  the  introduced  focus group  to distinguish  explaining  section  questions  were The  each  i t i s redundant,  rationale  interview,  group  that  i n i t a l i c s  structured  focus  research  are described.  the  questions  sections:  the relevant  questions  the purposes  group  three  the three  section  research  of  into  were  were  five  group.  The  varied,  from  engineers narrow  l i s t  secretaries.  i n range,  Appendix a  to  G  of  between  contains  simply,  focus  who  assures  that  encouraged  many be  angles  less  the  participants  Put  is  However,  twenty-three moderator  i n each  groups  are  and  i n a  may  cumulative  as  a  research  on  manner the  topic  have  the  f o r the  probing  areas, from The  like  the focus  The  focus  depth,  answered,  groups data  group  of  view,  consumers  and  the  develop  allowed  those  a  and  from  that  of  Focus  providing for  (Stewart  help  to  case,  1990,  the  the  used  about  follow  research  define  were  would  the  issues  consumer.  to  generate  EcoLogo,  to  structured interview.  to  be  explored needs.  questions  had  i n  more  After  the  been  structured interview  description  48  interaction  responses,  consumers'  understanding group  and  moderator  group.  f o r new  think the  to  the  i n this  for topics  relating  focus read  to  of  tool  thesis  a  insights  responses"  they  about  venue  were  because  for this  how  of  appropriate  point  r e c o g n i t i o n and both  of  conducted  hypotheses,  participants  an  eco-labelling,  especially  specific  are  participant's  qualitative generate  groups  groups  explored  advantage  up  Focus  Group  being  interaction  c l a r i f i c a t i o n  p.16).  were  years.  for both  producing  f o r the  and  used  topic.  "...opportunities questions,  thirty-seven  d i s c u s s i o n s l e d by  i n the  method,  and  ages  group.  group  result  participants'  guide  d i s c u s s i o n remains  accessible without  groups,  the  of  the  EcoLogo.  The  program  description f a c i l i t a t e  Some  given  a deeper  t o p i c s were  because  i t was  preconceived to  e l i c i t  who  t o the focus  covered  opinion:  straightforward  only that  some  thought  had explored  interviews  understanding  unlikely  well  the average  conversation  might  were  i t was  more  i n the focus  issues  questions  was  group  that  topics.  would  and debate reflect  think.  t o  discussions  consumer  that  included  clear  detailed  and discussion of  out responses  these  because  groups  have  were what  necessary consumers  Conversely,  only  a  some  i n the structured  q u a n t i f i a b l e data  was  preferable.  Forty of  s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s were  19 94.  chosen sites  The  because were  Kitsilano each and  able  Beach  have steps  was  information.  A  copy  Interview  After  and responses  i n the v i c i n i t y  Appendix  approached  pedestrian  t o ensure  times  there  49  July  were  t r a f f i c :  these  ranged  each while were  i f they  sampling,  were  from  w i l l i n g  t e n and  interview, the the interviewee no  was  missing  o f t h e s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w c a n be  H.  and  that  selective  and asked  reviewed  March  A r t G a l l e r y and the  against  completing  were  between  a t two s i t e s  of Vancouver's To p r o t e c t  to participate. minutes.  conducted  considerable  Seawall.  passerby  forty-five questions  they  t h e back  sixth  s t i l l  i n t e r v i e w s were  completed  found i n  The  structured interview technique  consumers way  for  area,  think  about  students  the  to  consumer  information.  The  talk  situations:  from  unsolicited  comments. into  reporting  of  questions  and  question(s) legend  at  The  expert  The  of  Table  used  the  answers for  data  table  4).  50  i s  accessible  this  research source  quantitative  r e s u l t e d from  and  from  the  open-ended  and  two  participants' questions  of q u a n t i f i a b l e  summarizes  primary  how  an  valuable  i n d i c a t e s the  the  investigate  i n  most  purpose  below  and i n  to  the  this  both  questions  categories  were  and  to  Also,  generated  sub-questions,  that  because  qualitative  The  used  consumers.  open-ended  results.  end  to  interviews  data.  grouped  EcoLogo  i s the  qualitative  were  the  was  the  type  research'  research  of (Refer  to  of  T a b l e 4- S u m m a r y o f R e s e a r c h w i t h Q u e s t i o n Type.* Questions  and  Questions  and  S u b- Q u e s t i o n s ,  Question Type*  Sub-Questions  1)  Are there that help EcoLogo?  a)  Do c o n s u m e r s b e l i e v e t h e y their l i f e s t y l e s i n order environment ?  b)  H a v e c o n s u m e r s made a n y e f f o r t s t o reduce t h e i r e c o l o g i c a l impact?  Both  c)  How d o c o n s u m e r s . f e e l a b o u t t h e i r effort to reduce t h e i r e c o l o g i c a l impact?  Open  d)  How  shop?  Open  e)  Do c o n s u m e r s products?  on  Both  f)  Do o t h e r p r o d u c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s override consideration f o rthe environment?  Both  g)  Is  Both  h)  Have consumers products?  i)  Do c o n s u m e r s f e e l plethora of green  2)  What I s Consumer U n d e r s t a n d i n g Of EcoLogo, EcoLogo P r o d u c t s And The EcoLogo Program?  a)  What does t h e E c o L o g o to consumers?  symbol  b)  Do on  puts  EcoLogo  Open  c)  What a r e c o n s u m e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s a m p l e ECOLOQO p r o d u c t ?  Open  often  any consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s explain low recognition of the  do  consumers notice  the EcoLogo  need t o change t o protect the  comparison  green  signals  noticeable been  consumers know products?  enough?  exposed  to  overwhelmed labelling?  who  51  EcoLogo  by the  Closed  Closed  The  represent  the  Closed  Both  i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing more the EcoLogo program i s  Closed  d)  Are consumers a b o u t t h e way run?  3)  W h a t Do C o n s u m e r s N e e d T o M a k e T h e E c o L o g o P r o g r a m A C r e d i b l e S o u r c e Of E n v i r o n m e n t a l I n f o r m a t i o n To A c t On?  a)  Does t h e EcoLogo Program s a t i s f y t h e consumer's b a s i c requirements o f an ecolabelling program?  b)  I s t h e amount a n d t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n provided sufficient f o r consumers t o make i n f o r m e d p u r c h a s i n g d e c i s i o n s ?  Open  c)  Do c o n s u m e r s s e e g o v e r n m e n t a s a n appropriate body t o a d m i n i s t r a t e an ecolabelling program?  Open  d)  What t r a i t s make a p r o d u c t environmental choice?  Open  e)  Are the present c e r t i f i e d products considered environmental choices by consumers?  an  Closed  Open  Legend Q u e s t i o n Type i n d i c a t e s t h e type o f q u e s t i o n ( s ) t h a t were u s e d i n t h e p r i m a r y r e s e a r c h t o answer each subquestion . Open open-ended questions. C l o s e d .... c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s . Both both open and closed-ended q u e s t i o n s .  52  ARE  T H E R E ANY  RECOGNITION Nine  CONSUMER OF  THE  questions  generated  to  that  test  explore  whether  l e v e l s of  recognition  i s due  about  These  explanations  the  and  for  may  be  labelling  program.  consumer  EcoLogo. to  a  It  by  towards  recognition.  less  l i k e l y  A  "+"  to  precursor  recognition.  precursor  low  -  Do  Consumers To  delegate  Protect  point  may  may  a  be  a  these assumptions  detailed  focus  factor  factor  of  more  on  about  that  indicates  low  basic  information  be  that  some  questions  i f  that  reasons an  eco-  consumers  that  that  low  contributes  i f  consumers  contributes  to  this  Need  Canadians  i n  order  to  worry  i r r e l e v a n t to  about  f i x i s  program,  To  Change  around  would  not  protect to  the  exposed  they  do  to  responsibility  i n d i v i d u a l s are  labelling  They  Their  Lifestyles  In  Environment?  that  technological  when  The  changes  unnecessary  be  Believe  i s possible  l i f e s t y l e  a  that  of  to  were  recognition.  Order It  negatively,  contribute  indicates  to  "-"  t r a i t s  examining  absorb  point  answer  LOW  behaviours  i s expected  The  affirmatively, that A  and  t e s t i n g some  answer low  EXPLAIN  values  combination  begin  progress  low  consumers  consumers'  any  i n part  questions  consumers  THAT HELP  ECOLOGO?  recognition  factors.  CHARACTERISTICS  believe the  they  or  even  e c o l o g i c a l impacts  to  corner.  If  information  not  them.  53  attempt  to  environment.  government  the  need  to  They  consider of  this  about  make  absorb  i t  humankind  i s a  may  the  case,  national i t .  as  It  ecowould  Some p a r t i c i p a n t s may question morally  motivated  were  interview,  after  issues  been  had  transparent.  responded  not  by  their  In  an  attempt  righteous.  participants  have  q u e s t i o n e d on their  general  established  In  the  a f f i r m a t i v e l y to  beliefs to  limit  this  structured  by  of  a  this  matter  level  through  but  desire  the on  end  appear bias,  of  the  environmental  questions that  interviews  to  potential  near  concern  this  were  less  respondents  were  asked:  Do you  believe  lifestyle  -  Have  it is necessary  compromises  Consumers  Made Any  for  in order  people  to make personal  to protect  E f f o r t s To  Reduce  the  Their  environment?  Ecological  Impact? This the  question depth  of  generally it  not  may  be  level of  made that  i s not  Recognition  of  Four  to  reduce  the  degree  of  their  the  EcoLogo  about  that  enough may  the  impact.  had  f a c i l i t a t e s  These  made  any  warrant  be  low  over  green  because this  behavioral such  changes  impacts,  Canadians  i s not  or  efforts  to  reduce  open-ended  whether  their  rather  ecological  than  at  a  absorbtion  changes.  determine  54  have  consumerism.  concern  to  of  ecological  although  asked  q u e s t i o n s were  indicator  ecological  concern  to  good  participants  their  environment,  individual  i s a  that  effort  r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s were  participants  behaviour  an  catalyses  information  because  I f i t i s found  extensive  concerned that  asked  beliefs.  i s l i k e l y  issues  was  i n  a  checklist This  form  format  behaviours the  t o reduce  also  the  you  Have  for a better  t e n years  because  tell  you  perceive  me  made  you  what  -  yes,  be  effort  I n  asked:  made  any about  these  motivated.  changes  to buy  changes  to  the  environment?  have  products  your  been?  that  are  Feel About  Their  Efforts  To Reduce  Their  Impact?  past  may r e p o r t  efforts  due t o f e e l i n g s  associated  with  that  t o reduce that  feelings  whether  the  cause  o f t h en e g a t i v e  the  effort  information  had negative  ecological  c a nmake  feelings,  they  and consequently  after  program being  55  feelings  impacts.  T h i s may  was t o o i n v o l v e d o r may b e  o f hopelessness.  t h eEcoLogo  interviews,  have  their  an individual  i sr e p e a t e d about  they  t h ee f f o r t  wondering  structured  of  o f what  what?  Participants about  you  demand.  responsible?  How Do C o n s u m e r s  Ecological  were  concerned  some  a special  environmentally  If  as ecologically  have were  o f experimenter  understanding  interviews respondents past  lifestyle  Can  allows  participants  structured Over  theinfluence  Canadians  a difference. make less  i t less l i k e l y  i sabsorbed.  asked  may b e  what  Whatever l i k e l y  that  that I n the  changes  they had  made t o t h e i r l i v e s because o f t h e i r c o n c e r n about t h e environment, respondents were asked: How do you feel  about making  these  changes?  - How O f t e n Do Consumers Comparison Shop? The EcoLogo Program i s based on t h e assumption t h a t consumers comparison shop.  I f consumers r e p o r t t h a t t h e y don't o r o n l y  r a r e l y comparison shop i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e y would n o t become aware o f t h e EcoLogo w h i l e shopping.  A l s o , when exposed t o  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e EcoLogo Program i n o t h e r venues, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would n o t be r e t a i n e d as i t would have no s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e consumer who does n o t comparison shop.  P a r t i c i p a n t s were q u e s t i o n e d about s m a l l t i c k e t items r a t h e r t h a n big  t i c k e t items because t h e y make t h e s e p u r c h a s e s more  frequently.  As w e l l , i t s e r v e s as a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f t h e  f r e q u e n c y w i t h which consumers comparison shop: p e o p l e a r e more l i k e l y t o comparison shop on b i g t i c k e t i t e m s .  In the s t r u c t u r e d  i n t e r v i e w s r e s p o n d e n t s were asked: On average, how often  when you are shopping do you purchase  and a c t i v e l y engaging  ticket  the same item before  in comparison  you to think  of a few specific  toilet  or dish  paper  for small  soap.  56  shopping?  products  like  items, re-evaluating  It may tin  foil,  help  -  Do  Consumers  Participants simulate insight data  into  however,  questions  purchasing  o f t h e subsequent  questions  have  the advantage  consumer  spends  1995).  questions  w i l l  n o t be  the f i r s t  that  here  be noted  situation;  a s much  at this  time  and  s t u d i e s show choosing of  that  each  simulated the  point  second  that the  o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was so that  preconception.  which  The  i n detail,  eco-labelling  by this  set of questions  or less  o f t h e two s e t s  the subject  rather than  contaminated  In fact,  seconds  be d e s c r i b e d  I t should  told  labelling,  five  The f i r s t  section. were  decisions.  provide  allowing the  rarely  invest  t o  provide  sections.  participants  purchasing  intended  d e c i s i o n s and  i ti s likely  (20/20  research  make  These  i n a quasi-real  participants  is  consumers  of questions  participants  t h e next  would  Products?  t o observe  average  product  experience.  t o i n many  i n their  shopping in  how  S i g n a l s On  i n v o l v e d i n two s e t s  shopping  researcher  product  Green  the shopping  simulated  the  were  referred  effort  Notice  was  asked  The  i n both  the  results  following primary  venues:  (Give The Interviewee examine  the label  to decide aspects  negative,  of this  I would like  motor oil.  whether or not to buy it.  of this  information  Motor Oil 1)  product's  and style  Can you l i s t  catch  your eye?  in terms of  your decision  the aspects  Are there  any 57  you are  trying  Think about what  of presentation,  that influence  buy.  label,  Pretend  you to  both positive  and  of whether or not to  of the product's others?  written  label  that  I  would  like  a plus, or  quite  and  back  the  Canada".  to  influenced  their  were  to  positive, as,  and  Consumers  asked  or  aspect  consumers  n o t i c e green  that  the  unlikely  they  be  that  low  "M-  A  aspect  the  what of  imagine  aspects  whether  whether  each aspect  was  most  o i l " , of  of  the  label.  product's  front  EcoLogo  accompanied and  by  the  shopping  product's  to  these  you  of  were  the  not  if  Environment  they  of  or of  neutral the  mark  or  i s an  EcoLogo  re-refined  product,  product's  this  This  either  the  you,  the  of  is  buy  container  H.  shows  to  to  of  photocopy  o f f i c i a l  asked  you  traits  displeases  l i t r e  50%  An  that  signals  i f participants signals  may  one  label  "over  question  environmental  they  a  these  buy.  was  product's  influential  on  label  Then  t r a i t s  for  they  a  label,  as  their  decision.  to  while  the  decision  Returning  assume  it  that  O i l .  verbalize  negative  purchasing  given  of  encourages  words  about  were  identify  which  each  i s include i n Appendix  Statement  o i l and  it  other  Motor  Statement  Attribution  well  were  product  Criteria  motor  in  ECO  labels  c e r t i f i e d  words  neutral  participants  Motormaster's  know whether  other  a negative,  feel  The  in  to  were  on  would  shopping.  because  do  the  i s being on  products,  not  sample  mention  Therefore, do  not  58  any  of  i s  signals  on  n o t i c e of  do to  the  label,  recognition  take  that  i t i s logical  product's  notice similar  consumers  explored,  i t would  other of  be  labels  the  EcoLogo  green  signals  or  because  hence  they  they  characterise  would  not  the  become  green  familiar  signals  with  the  negatively, EcoLogo  and  through  i t s  Consideration For  The  u t i l i z a t i o n .  +  Do  Other  Product  Environment Three  Characteristics  ?  questions  explore  traits.  The  f i r s t  simulate  the  shopping  {Give  The  you  what  i s the  Is to  consumers  second  of  the  Oil  1  value  as  important  product  sets  of  questions  that  experience:  Interviewee  (NUGOLD)) lead  Override  there  chose  Motor anything  one  (ECO)  about  over  the  And  these  Motor  Oil  products  2  that  would  ECO,  and  other?  What? Which?  In  the  structured  comparison its no  shop  between  non-certified environmental  that  they  are  the  same  (1  l i t r e ) .  include chose  brand  the  the  original  claims  but  i s similar  same  price  ($1.69),  (Motormaster), photocopy  product  H.  over  characteristics  of  and  another are  and  most  to the  the same  and  explores  imparts  important  59  to  o i l ,  NUGOLD m o t o r  front  question  asked  motor  contain the  NUGOLD's  This  were  sample  c o u n t e r p o i n t , NUGOLD.  i n Appendix  one  product  A  interviews participants  ECO  motor  weight  o i l i n (10W30),  same  amount  of o i l  back  labels  i s  why  insight to  o i l makes  participants into  consumers.  what  The  f i r s t  about  simulated  what  product  Participants influenced  I  shopping  question  characteristics  were  directly  asked  label  like  important  on your  decision  to buy  reading  back  are  most  are  arena.  your  question important  products,  are important  which  to know which  most  third  provides  aspect  information  to  consumers.  o f ECO's  label  most  them.  would  The  also  wider  like  were  answer  this  that  It  have  you  what  to read  with  by  is a brand  aspects  sample shopping  no  question  you  I would  a list like  an  somewhat  bearing You  I just  is  item  on your need  not  the product name  product.  60  of  am  to rate is  take  advertised.  a  potentially on  a  very  influential  decision  want a general  from  purchasing  you  an  item  I  your  10 meaning  a product.  seen  the  shopping.  what influences  which  question,  following  of general  going  has  the  feel. You  impact  asked:  5 meaning  to buy  i n f o r m a t i o n about  to answer  1 to 10,  or not  help  the wider  factors  item  I will  into  in knowing  an  product's  the most  the participants  influential  meaning  to buy.  has  the  from  you  influential,  which  of  away  I am  of  aspects  moves  decisions.  scale  or not  provides  perspective,  interested  to you,  t o consumers  Participants  these  responses.  that  and brings  I would  of  of  and whether  too much time idea  1  of how  to you  The product  is  The product's  label  It seems like  a well made quality  The product's  label  Recognition  ecological  a r e more  t o become  choice. exposed  familiar  would  be l o o k i n g  could  not explain  I s The EcoLogo  Noticeable  i snot noticeable  structured questions the  sample  interviews were  centred  motor  information  about  would would  be  less  notuse  product  t h e EcoLogo i f Conversely, i f  t o consumers  information,  o f t h e EcoLogo  f o rl o w r e c o g n i t i o n  enough  read  were  i n their  are important impact  the product's  as they  information  t o attract  a r e shopping.  t o which consumers  than  product  i s  they  and this low.  Enough?  explanation  they  other  consumers  t h e EcoLogo  why r e c o g n i t i o n  EcoLogo  when  by consumers  f o r ecological  Instantly.  product.  be i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l .  impacts  possible  depth  with  impact  Another  consumers  You Could Win  i s t h e case,  not retain  ecological  would  -  valued  Responsible.  product.  may b e l o w b e c a u s e  t o i t as i t would  products'  Environmentally  reads  I f this  ecological  They  reads  has recommended the  impacts.  o r other  attractive.  o f t h e EcoLogo  characteristics  it  priced.  The packaging  A friend  l i k e l y  is competitively  This  labels.  used  61  looks  Two q u e s t i o n s  t o test  this  the attention  question  around t h e sample  o i lt o d i s c u s s  i sthat the  this  question  atthe  i n the  hypothesis.  motor  o i l .  of  Both  The u s e o f  should not  influence as  results  specified  participants their  focus  i nt h eECP's were  decision  recorded  your  asked  must  u s e t h eEcoLogo  t o verbalize  they mentioned  and interviews,  view,  noticeable  what  traits  t h eEcoLogo.  participants  is the EcoLogo,  enough  consistently  Graphic Design Guidelines.  were  your  when  influence  o i l , i t was  Second,  i nb o t h t h e  asked:  as presented  for it to affect  First,  would  t o b u y o r n o t t o b u y t h e ECO m o t o r  whether  groups  In  as licensees  on this  label,  purchasing  decisions?  The  focus  groups  following  explored  product  includes  all signals  is environmentally  label  again  would  you consider  logo,  description  communicates  How?  question  further  with t h e  questions:  Eco-labelling  Should  this  with  most  the EcoLogo What effect  this  to consumers  friendly.  in mind.  to be part  Look  that  at the  What aspects  the product's  of this  of the eco-labelling?  and use of the green  colour,  label Of the  which  effectively?  be changed would  this  62  so it is more have  on the  noticeable?  program?  To  Have  Consumers  determine  consumers EcoLogo, I  Been  whether  had  not  Exposed  recognition  been  participants am  me  going  which  to you  To  exposed i n the  list have  some  EcoLogo of  the  Products? EcoLogo  to products  was  that  carry  structured  interviews  products.  I  personally  would  purchased  low  the  were  like  in  because  the  asked:  you  to  past  tell  12  months. Motor  Oil  Gasoline  +  Do  Consumers  Feel  Batteries  Reusable  Paint  Paper  Overwhelmed  By  The  Shopping or  Bag  Envelopes  Plethora  Of  Green  Labelling? Consumers  may  not  differentiate  claims.  They  may  not  products  with  green  of  claims  these  green shed  and some  labelling, In  the  EcoLogo  from  recognize the  EcoLogo  as  claims  provide  l i t t l e  r a r e l y attempt light  on  how  how  environmental  i n the  would  aware, or  guidance  give  you  labelling?  overwhelmed, skeptical,  to  various  their  consumers  participants  general,  from  feel  to  claims about  structured  unaware,  you  interested,  believing?  63  green  number  why  the  Many  product  credibility.  i s  To  environmental were  yourself  in  say  of  i s growing.  interview  characterize Would  the  sources as  other  you  are  learning,  asked: terms  confused, a  of  WHAT AND  I S CONSUMER U N D E R S T A N D I N G OF THE ECOLOGO  This  section  beyond  that  the  Program.  appears than is  a government  the is  similar  label  on EcoLogo  accompanying  words  explains  the  Attribution  the  owner  sample more  about  What  Does  did  asked the as  product  The EcoLogo  i n order  question their  program  Symbol  t h e EcoLogo  Those  who  were  of  perceptions  of interest  also  and as  of the  i n learning  including they  those  they  were  could  on t h e sample  Point)  who  thought the  t h e EcoLogo  of whether  t h e EcoLogo  64  Statement  Consumers?  a s k e d what  Motor Oil 1 And  and the  ascertained.  information.  (Give Interviewee  that  Environment Canada  d i dn o t r e c o g n i z e  using  from  f o rc e r t i f i c a t i o n ,  interviews, were  t h e EcoLogo  t h e EcoLogo  R e p r e s e n t To  t o get an i n d i c a t i o n  accurately  source  level  on t h e environment  The i n f o r m a t i o n  identifies  of  t h e EcoLogo  the Criteria  Participants'  i n the structured  meant.  product.  Choice,  and their  understanding  c a n be a s c e r t a i n e d  qualified  Statement which  of  i s knowing  includes:  Environmental  why t h e p r o d u c t  not recognize  EcoLogo  c e r t i f i e d  that  burden  knowledge  products  t h e EcoLogo  Participants  lesser  The second  This  o f t h e EcoLogo.  EcoLogo  PRODUCTS  consumer  a r e two pieces  i s knowing  a  products.  o f any EcoLogo  standard  which  have  program.  t o  f o ra rudimentary  The f i r s t that  recognition  There  are required  on products  other  consumer  o f t h e EcoLogo.  information EcoLogo  ECOLOGO  PROGRAM?  moves  understanding  THE ECOLOGO,  answer  product  Do you recognize Can you tell Anything  Do  this  me what you think  K n o w Who  Puts  When p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e that  participants, were the  asked  asked  were  asked  what  i n c l u d i n g those t h e logo  question,  i norder  Attribution  The E c o L o g o On  Statement.  r u nprogram.  who d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e communication  A r e Consumers'  product  with  from  mechanism  a discussion that  {Distribute  they  one over  groups provide  o ft h e interview  on  EcoLogo  products?  Product?  o f t h e sample  EcoLogo  shopping  interesting  comments  counterpoint  h a d a n d what  about  that  give  trade-offs  they  the other.  additional  began  logo  of the simulated  several  concerns  making by choosing  focus  perceptions  and i t sn o n - c e r t i f i e d  o f what  this  Of The Sample  both  P a r t i c i p a n t s made  indication  The  Perceptions  obtained  EcoLogo product  were  t h e EcoLogo  Participants i nthe structured  about p a r t i c i p a n t s '  were  questions.  an  way t o  asked:  Information  the  t h e EcoLogo,  I n a similar  Do you know or can you guess who puts  What  some  However a l l  who d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e on products.  those  t o test  Products?  t h e EcoLogo meant,  i ti s a g o v e r n m e n t  who p u t s  previous  were  it means?  else?  Consumers  volunteered  logo?  information  on this  with:  Motor Oil Without 65  Certification)  question  In what ways does the EcoLogo product the environment  Are  Consumers  EcoLogo It  would  detailed the  EcoLogo  the  f u t i l e  o f t h e EcoLogo  o f t h e number  fact  sheet  As well,  that  some  about t h e  as levels  knowledge  of participants was o f f e r e d  were  whether  they  o f t h e program. who w a n t e d  comments  o f consumers'  level  o f  Choice  that  o ft h e  participants  of interest i n  further  Program and the EcoLogo?  or comments about this  the program?  66  A  t o take  asked:  to take home a fact-sheet  the Environmental  o f awareness o f  at the conclusion  o f t h eparting  Do you have any questions or  T h e Way T h e  consumers  program  their  indication  Participants  Would you like explains  About  i t was a s c e r t a i n e d  i n furthering  an q u a l i t a t i v e program.  More  t o question  a r e low; however,  was kept  interview. give  been  interested  t a l l y  I n Knowing  counterpoint?  I s Run?  running  EcoLogo  were  the  have  the impact on  compared to its non-certified  Interested  Program  reduce  interview  WHAT DO CONSUMERS NEED TO MAKE THE ECOLOGO PROGRAM A SOURCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION TO ACT  CREDIBLE  ON?  T h i s s e c t i o n ' s f o c u s i s on what consumers need t o make the EcoLogo program a c r e d i b l e source of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o a c t on.  When t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s was conducted,  r e c o g n i t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g were the f o c u s e s ,  and t h e t o p i c o f  consumer needs was not a p l a n n e d avenue o f t h e r e s e a r c h . However, i n r e v i e w i n g the p r i m a r y r e s e a r c h r e s p o n s e s , i t became apparent t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n about consumers' needs had been collected.  Because the t o p i c o f consumers' needs was not a  planned part of the research, p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s were n e v e r asked d i r e c t l y what t h e y needed from an e c o - l a b e l l i n g program.  I n any case, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the  m a j o r i t y of consumers have not y e t g i v e n t h i s q u e s t i o n  serious  thought.  Does The EcoLogo Program S a t i s f y The Consumer's  Basic  Requirements Of An E c o - L a b e l l i n g Program? D u r i n g the s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s , p a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e EcoLogo program w h i c h i n c l u d e d i t s most salient points: This  symbol  is  called  Canadian  Government's  products  have  Environmental EcoLogo  that  an  EcoLogo.  It  Environmental  impact  Choice have  the  on  a lesser  labels  burden  67  a part  Choice  ecological  Program  is  systems  the  the  Program.  products on  of  but, with  environment  All the the than  other  similar  products.  a independent  third  The program has contracted  party  made on these products visits  test and verify  are accurate,  to the factories  to ensure  that  to have  the claims  and make unannounced  that  the claims  continue  to be true.  To  establish  the  w h e t h e r c o n s u m e r s who h a d a b a s i c  EcoLogo program would include  purchasing  decisions  where  structured  interview  were  i t i sa v a i l a b l e ,  The  will  affect  responses  what  that  eco-labelling  p r o g r a m t o some  should  may  influenced  have  T h e Amount  Consumers The  question  participants' ecological  interviews  impact  exercises  do you  t h eq u e s t i o n o f responses  t h ep a r t i c i p a n t s '  extent.  The responses  interpreted  predict  decisions?  affirmative  Of I n f o r m a t i o n  Informed  level  i n the  do  needs  o fan  t o this  as experimenter  demand  participants.  A n d Type  To Make  structured  shopping  be c a u t i o u s l y  the EcoLogo,  do n o taddress  the program s a t i s f i e s  question  future  participants  purchasing  a r econsumers' needs; however,  indicate  Is  with  your future  t o this  i nt h e i r  asked:  Now that you are familiar it  t h eE c o L o g o  understanding of  Provided  Purchasing provide  information. a record  Decisions?  some  of understanding  insight  68  into t h e  o f t h esample  I n t h ef i r s t  was kept  Sufficient F o r  product's  o f t h e simulated  o f how many  participants  volunteered reduced into  base  were  having  e c o l o g i c a l impact.  this  EcoLogo  they  category,  Program  their  noticeable  enough. were  a  the  on In  asked  or  i s  the  the  high  number  they  of  had  by  for  buy  one  f a l l  consumers  shopping  a  the  i s a v a i l a b l e but  simulated to  ECO  participants  insufficient  chose  why  provided  information  second  why  determining  information  Motormaster  decisions  participants  If  either  and  d i f f i c u l t y  to  not  exercise,  product  over  another.  In  Do  a d d i t i o n , the  focus  group  What do you  think  of  provided  by  the  Consumers  See  Administrate  An  This  t o p i c was  some  thought  focus  group  This  question  kinds  of  approached  Make  As  and  shopping less  c r i t e r i a  type of  to  what  directly:  information  Body  To  Program? i n  with  the  focus  groups  An  the  It  consider  of  69  The  Choice?  gives  a an  appropriate  Program.  requires  eco-products?  c r i t e r i a  whether  also  i t  question:  Environmental  kinds  as  plausible alternatives.  body to certify  determine  harmful. they  Appropriate  d i s c u s s i o n of  Product  explores  An  only  appropriate  A  asked  EcoLogo?  Eco-Labelling  the  Traits  ecologically  amount and  d i s c u s s i o n began  What  everyday  the  Government  about  What is  in  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  consumers  product  the  use  i s  indication for  might  of  EcoLogo  what  The  structured  interview  In your opinion,  participants  were  asked:  what makes a product  environmentally  responsible?  Are  The  Present  Choices This  some  whether  sought.  of the  This  interview  Products  Considered  Environmental  Consumers?  q u e s t i o n was  judged to  By  Certified  asked  the  because  guidelines  average  as  consumer  q u e s t i o n was  because  c r i t i c s  this  not  of  the  program  inappropriate. would  have  included  the  i n the  question requires  have  C l a r i f i c a t i o n same  concerns  as was  structured  considerable time  and  discussion.  The  participants  l i s t e d  the  ECP's  i n the final  focus  groups  guidelines  were  given  (Appendix  D),  a  hand-out  and  they  that  were  asked:  I have a l i s t of products certified Choice you  by  the  Board, are  would hesitate  and  EcoLogo. there  services  If you  any  70  were on  products  to certify?  that are  Why?  or  the  services  currently Environmental listed  that  CHAPTER  IV - RESULTS AND  ANALYSIS  INTRODUCTION In t h i s  chapter  the r e s u l t s  d i s c u s s e d and a n a l y z e d . main s e c t i o n s . of  of the primary  The c h a p t e r  In the f i r s t ,  research w i l l  i s organized  the demographic  into  sections  recognition levels.  acquire  their  research questions. analysis  presented  principle  To f a c i l i t a t e  i n tables containing frequencies i s qualitative  and b o t h  In t h e s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w , a p p e a r t o be f a i r l y  has been  o r means.  individual  The and g r o u p  the exception  INTERVIEW  SAMPLE  the demographics o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the general o f age  (Table  5).  population,  F o r t y - f i v e percent  r e s p o n d e n t s were i n t h e i r  twenties.  reasons  b i a s i n c l u d i n g the s e l e c t i o n  two As  for. t h i s  sampling  interview sites a result,  levels  easy  are reported.  DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE STRUCTURED  with  three  s e c t i o n s t h e r e s u l t s and  the s t r u c t u r e d interview data  group data  opinions  from t h e t h r e e  In these  The s e c o n d  The s u b s e q u e n t  of the research are presented.  understanding,  focus  titles  five  characteristics  t h e s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w sample a r e d e s c r i b e d .  s e c t i o n reviews  be  T h e r e a r e many p o s s i b l e of the  and t h e c o i n c i d i n g age o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  the s t r u c t u r e d interview data  of ecological  of  concern  may r e f l e c t  and awareness then  in  the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n as o t h e r  is  a determinant  on e n v i r o n m e n t a l  71  w o u l d be  s t u d i e s have found issues, with  higher  younger  found  t h a t age  respondents Jan  reporting  more  green  behaviour  (Playback  Strategy,  1991) .  T A B L E 5- A g e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t completed the structured interview. Age  Table  6  was in  Percentage  of  Sample 45.0  %  30-39  27.5  %  40-49  15.0  %  50-59  12 . 5  that  I t was  female,  old)  20-29  shows  employed.  (years  seventy-five also  and only  the interview  found  fifteen  contributed  percent  that  forty  percent t o one  of  of  %  the sample  percent those  o r more  of  who  was  the sample participated  environmental  organizations.  T A B L E 6- P r i n c i p a l Participants.  A c t i v i t y  Percentage  of  of  Employed Unemployed  Sample 75.0  %  7.5  %  Student  12 . 5  Retired  5.0  RECOGNITION  REMAINS  LOW  As  reported  earlier,  an  of  Canadians  and  54%  Environics  survey  of Vancouverites  72  found  recognized  % %  that  only  3 7%  the EcoLogo.  The  structured  1994  f o rthis  the  interviews thesis,  EcoLogo,  conducted  found  that  t h e EcoLogo.  confidence  t o the r e l i a b i l i t y  ARE  f o rthis  THERE ANY  RECOGNITION The  structured  various  Order A l l  To  40  make  personal  concern  them  They  The  (Table felt  they  label  relevant  natural  about  7).  that  This  must  likely  t o their  making  ecological  To  groups  Change  they  compromises  serve  they  t o add  research  HELP  were  EXPLAIN  used  LOW  t o  any consumer  Their  felt  test traits  Lifestyles  about  make  In  that  information  of t h e EcoLogo  changes  i n their  systems.  73  issues own  about  level  has  lead  lives  and  an eco-  i t i s u n l i k e l y a r e due t o  lives  t o  t o  the  the general  to their  Therefore,  necessary  t o protect  ecological  changes  lives.  i t was  i n order  indicates  consider  levels of recognition  attitudes  whether  o f t h e EcoLogo.  Need  reported  they  would  THAT  as t o whether  by consumers  t o believe  recognized  Environment?  lifestyle  hence  low  and focus  hypotheses  respondents  July  ECOLOGO?  Believe  Protect  environment of  of the primary  t o low recognition  Consumers  unsure  s i m i l a r results  CHARACTERISTICS  interviews  specific  contribute  Do  THE  and  thesis.  CONSUMER  OF  These  March  55% o f t h e sample  37.5% d i d n o t , a n d 7.5% were  recognized  conducted  between  that  consumers'  preserve  T A B L E 7- D o y o u b e l i e v e i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r p e o p l e t o make p e r s o n a l l i f e s t y l e compromises in order t o protect the environment? Percentage Affirmative  Consumers  of  Sample 100  Response  E f f o r t s To  Made A n y  Reduce  Their  %  Ecological  Impact? Four  related  q u e s t i o n s were  participants  h a d made  reduce  impact  their  of  whether  of  the f i r s t  majority  they  amenable  of these  further  indication  protect  t o their  lives  t o future  h a d made  concern that  changes  i n order t o an  changes.  indication The  i n Table  t o their  f o rthe environment. consumers  whether  and give  questions are given  o f t h e sample of their  to  changes  t o determine  on the environment  were  because  asked  are w i l l i n g  results  8.  The  lifestyles  This provides a t o make  changes  the environment.  T A B L E 8- O v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s h a v e y o u m a d e any changes t o your l i f e s t y l e because y o u were concerned about t h e environment? Percentage Affirmative  Next, made The need was  participants because  responses  definition. indicated  were  asked  concern  grouped  what  into  where  k i n d s o f changes  f o rthe environment  The c a t e g o r y ,  i n cases  Sample 92.5  Responses  of their were  of  seven  categories,  "notable l i f e s t y l e  one o r more 74  %  they had (Table 9 ) .  two o f  which  changes",  o f t h e changes  the  respondent effort  reported  l i f e s t y l e reducing  indicated  change.  one's  apparatus  second  This that  primarily  by their  lessened  lessen  their  garden,  buying  quitting  which  typically  organic  concerns,  This  h a d made  o r pesticides  impacts  make d e c i s i o n s  economic  enter  into  other  based factors  that other  75  that  examples  i n the vegetable  they some  and  t o indicate  were  motivated  behaviours  benefits.  s o l e l y on including making  benefits  choices  Some  also  15.0% of  a vegetarian  because  the decision  the non-ecological  that  was n o t made  have  motivated  but has  healthier  on t h e environment.  v a l i d  bags.  respondent  9 shows  becoming  a bag  i s "healthier  h a d made was  Table  distinction  plastic  own h e a l t h ,  but t o underline  concerns:  Advertising  they  are less  environmental cost  impact.  produce,  ecological  don't  f o rtheir  vegetarian,  and devising  when a  they  notable  researching  t o reuse  definition  one  automobiles,  business,  i teasier  f e r t i l i z e r s  changes  reduce  that  impact  smoking.  these  health  concern  reported  not using  by  becoming  was c h e c k e d  ecological  include  that  include  use of private  needs  42.5% of  at least  one o f t h e changes  their  sample  that  that  on t h e "ecosystem  makes  category  indicated  also  their  individual  h a d made  examples  impact  that  category  choices".  the  they  an e c o l o g i c a l l y responsible  t o reduce  drying  Some  considerable  I t c a n be seen  that  or eliminating  operating  The  involved  or resourcefulness.  respondents  how  making  People  their health  and the  process.  of specific  EcoLogo  products  would  ecologically  l i k e l y  Many  respondents  blue  box  This  behaviours  participation  Table  9  their  concern  indicates  decisions.  ecological  they  how  consumers  to  act  that making  ecologically of  i n  an  shows that  I t also  for ecological  impact  a  product suggests  with  the  ecologically result  motivated  i n  behaviours.  volunteered  influenced  that  answer.  recycle  would  respondents  environment  conscious  i t i s to  f o r Canadians  47.5%  result  impacts.  frequently given  easy  suggests  i n more  that  This  most  easier  f o r the  are  the  commented  their  looking  was  program.  consumers  more  r e s p o n s i b l e manner.  "Reusing/recycling"  motivated  persuade  their  that  purchasing  c o n s i d e r a b l e number choice  can  that  these  i n f o r m a t i o n about  have  of  d i f f e r i n g  consumers the  products  buy.  T A B L E 9- C a n have been?  you  t e l l  me  what  some  of  these  Percentage  changes  of  Sample  Reusing/Recycling  72.5  %  Purchasing  47.5  %  Notable  Decisions  Lifestyle  Conservation Healthier  42.5%  Changes  Efforts  Choices  Composting P o l i t i c a l  Behaviour  76  are  27.5  %  15.0  %  7.5  %  7.5  %  Participants  were  also  buy  products  that  are environmentally  the  previous  question  that  one way t h e y  through  their  whether  they  the  asked  where  tried  environment,  they  90.0% r e p l i e d  their  that  When  asked  what  asked a  directly  lesser  affirmatively  specific  products  reusable in  they  they  frequent  products percent less,  A  products  are less  of respondents  which  ecological  Sixty-five product.  considerable  that  chose  looked  with  of  Sample  a t 52.5%,  i n reusable  number  toxic  their  product  f o rwhen  o r products  was  and have that  consumer  t r a i t s  have  less they  buying  a  products recycled  looked f o r  packaging. tried  choice  Ten  t o consume  f o r reducing  impacts.  o f respondents  Common e x a m p l e s  mentioned  included:  77  a  and  (Table  containers,  which  %  ecological  shopping  of participants,  reported  i s an e f f e c t i v e  percent  on  (Table 1 0 ) .  t o reduce  both  response,  recyclable containers,  content.  burden  90.0  responded  that  products,  was  y o u made a s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o b u y are environmentally responsible?  products  participants  The most  impact  Response  impacts,  11).  Whereas i n  ecological  have  t o  volunteered  Percentage Affirmative  tried  responsible.  d e c i s i o n s , when  f o rp r o d u c t s  TABLE 10- Have products that  whether  47.5% of respondents  t o reduce  purchasing looked  directly  specific  recycled paper,  non-  phosphorous sprays. than  detergent,  EcoLogo  half  of  product  the of  mentions  recycled  developing products  the  product  has  been  ecologically  data  A  method  consumers  to  exist  for  to  the  indicates  EcoLogo  paper  products.  products  Percentage  of  Sample  Reuse/Recycle/Recyclable  52.5  %  Less  Toxic  45.0  %  Less  Packaging  22 . 5  %  10 . 0  %  Buy  Less  Specific Products For Which G u i d e l i n e s E x i s t Specific W h i c h No Exist  focus  Products For Guidelines  group  environmentally reported  they  interview the  that  exposing  TABLE 11- What e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y f r i e n d l y have you bought?  The  numerous  for recycled for  more  detailed  due  This  guidelines  non-aerosol  more  was  products.  effective  and  guidelines  revealed this  paper  concerned  tuna,  mentioned.  specific an  free  specific  products  examination of  dolphin  participants friendly  had  rarely  because  claims  are  false.  asked  products  they  had  was This  the  same  including  reported she  also  purchased  participants,  respondents  were  she  only  worried i s one  bought  about  the  indicator  78  %  30.0  %  what  bought.  products  dolphin  35.0  free  as  They  did  the  tuna.  One  dolphin free p o s s i b i l i t y that  some  tuna that  of and the  consumers  are  concerned  that  To  about  i tinfluences  their  t o reduce  majority  have  their  begun  including  changing  including  trying  environment. their  EcoLogo  does  l i f e s t y l e ready  How  changes.  Ecological  about  their none had  l i v e s  good  add that  that  i n the structured  the ecologically (Table  12).  Sixty-five  about  various  a  Efforts  they  s t i l l  considerable  participants  motivated  felt  appear  with  of the t o make t o be  program.  To Reduce  responded  suggested  about  of those  not doing  amount  changes  o f t h e sample  a n d many were  were  remarkable  negative  percent  t h e changes,  interviews  The most  12.5% of p a r t i c i p a n t s  involved  Their  t o the  i n line  recognition  o f consumers  effort  harmful  t o be  o f an e c o - l a b e l l i n g  About  of the respondents made.  are less  Low  lives  considerable  appear  attitudes.  t o their  Their  Impact?  Participants felt  behaviours  The m a j o r i t y  Feel  that  made  i tappears the  changes  require  have  t o be due t o an u n w i l l i n g n e s s  advantage  Consumers  impacts,  that  t o buy products  ecological  consumers  tangible  behaviours  not appear  t o take  Do  ecological  t o make  t o the degree  decisions.  of whether  Consumer's  reported  of claims  purchasing  sum u p o n t h e q u e s t i o n  efforts  to  the c r e d i b i l i t y  how  they  h a d made i n  result  was  that  t h e changes  they  reported  they  participants  by saying  a common  79  they  enough.  of effort.  asked  Table  felt  went  12  on  shows  t h e changes  Comments  evolution  of  from feelings:  some  participants  effort  i n the  habits  they  noted  that  beginning,  felt  good  TABLE 12changes?  but  about  How  making  do  once  they  their  you  these  changes  became  a  was  part  feel  about  making  of  Sample 65.0  %  Negative  0.0  %  15.0  %  It  i s an  12 . 5  Effort  No r e p o r t e d l i f e s t y l e changes  Behaviouralists, reinforced to  participants  felt  ecological  continue  with  efforts.  It  This  good  about  these  i s unlikely their  negatively  impact  on  Of  the  small  Do  ticket  product  to  65.0%  items  serve  good  feelings,  suggests  that  as  their  at  the  that burden  their  Consumers  sample,  behaviours  like  behaviours,  reduce  Often  that  past  and  the  reported  that  every  same p u r p o s e , 80  of  the  of  of they  increase  feelings  more  majority  lives,  environment  recognition  Comparison  least  perhaps  consumers' on  the  are  experiences  considerations i n their  to  How  theorize  rewards  repeated.  %  7 . 5%  Skinner  with positive be  including  like  daily  these  Positive  Neutral  efforts  of  efforts.  Percentage  l i k e l y  an  w i l l  their  about  past  would  EcoLogo.  Shop? they five  comparison times  while  only  they 7.5%  shop  on  purchase reported  a  they  never  comparison  possibility reduced EcoLogo,  that  exposure a  cross  recognition shopping  shop  (Table  13).  who  rarely  comparison  those  t o , interest tabulation  o f t h e EcoLogo  was  run.  insignificant,  the result  12.5%  o f t h e sample  who  reported  times  or less  recognized  they  have  of the of  that  s t a t i s t i c a l l y none  comparison  of the  shop  every  EcoLogo.  T A B L E 1 3 - On a v e r a g e , when y o u a r e s h o p p i n g f o r s m a l l ticket i t e m s , how o f t e n d o y o u p u r c h a s e t h e same i t e m before r e - e v a l u a t i n g and a c t i v e l y engaging i n comparison shopping? Percentage Every  Purchase  of  Sample 25.0  %  Every  Other  Purchase  12.5  %  Every  Third  Purchase  7.5  %  Every  Fourth  7.5  %  Every  Fifth  Every  Eighth  Every  Ninth  Every  Tenth  Every  Fifteenth  Every  Seventeenth  Every  Twentieth  Everv  Fortieth  Purchase  12 . 5  Purchase  %  2.5  %  Purchase  2.5  %  Purchase  2.5  %  2.5  %  2.5  %  10.0  %  Purchase  Purchase Purchase  Purchase  2.5  Purchase  81  a  comparison  were  t o note  the  would  the variables  and frequency o f  i t i s interesting  the  shop  i n and recognition  between  Although  often  Examining  %  40  Every  F i f t i e t h  Purchase  Never  Do  Consumers  The  ECP's  aware to  one  of symbols  found  simulated  look  omnibus  on t h e sample  label  o i l ,  would  which  are less  %  t o name The  a broader  i tlooked  harmful  at  least  f i r s t  of the  range  than  at a l l green  Participants  were  a n d comment  influence  were  t h e 1994 E n v i r o n i c s  1994, p . 7 ) .  ECO,  7.5  69% o f Canadians  are able  explored  product.  motor  that  As w e l l ,  survey:  %  Products?  products  (Environics  questions  a t t h e sample  their  asked  to  on what  aspects  purchasing  (Table 14).  sample  product's  label  consumer.  These  categories  f o ranalysis:  Information,  green  displays  signals  EcoLogo  and  not the accompanying  green  been  grouped  t h e EcoLogo,  category  includes only Criteria  Statement.  The E n v i r o n m e n t a l  information  on t h e product's  or  concrete  provides  have  many  purchasing  Claims  t h e EcoLogo Statement  Information label  that  i n f o r m a t i o n from decisions.  signals  four  and Green symbol  or  category  educates  which  Flags. i t s e l f  Attribution encompasses  t h e consumer  consumers  The E n v i r o n m e n t a l  82  into  to the  Environmental  Unspecified Environmental  The  informed  found  54% o f Canadians  shopping  decisions  survey  (ECP 1992) .  symbols  the product's  S i g n a l s On  identifying  o f t h e ECP's  signals  The  that  of these  that  Green  1992 omnibus  t h e environment  study  of  Notice  2.5  c a n make  Information  category refined  includes the o i l " ,  o f f i c i a l  mark  information renewable motor  of  and  of  Considerate  by  "Eco  Motor  category  label  and  c o n t a i n s more  ecological Oil",  includes the  of  commented  the  upon  by  95.0%  result  participants  were  allowed  one  the  case,  Canada.  to  be  the In  interpreted  The  due  any to  EcoLogo  the as  on  other meaning  i n t e r v i e w s and  generally  than  fuel  -  re-  An  pieces  of  preserve  a  50%  non-  re-refined  centre".  includes  The  three  "Environmentally  Conserving"  and  "Contains  economy". name  The  "ECO"  Green  and  i t s  of  to  In of  the  spend  the the  two  interviewees. be  remembered  as  much  cases  was  interpreted  case,  time  where  environmental  misinterpretation  green  the  of  as  In that as  they  the  the  i t  signals.  name,  made ECO,  wanted  respondents  signals,  meaning  product's  signals  In  i n was  economical.  focus  appreciative  various environmental  i t should  product.  comment  appeared  "Help  Claims  product's  product's  this  not  three  collection  benefits:  "Energy  interpreting  did  o i l to  "M  50%  cap.  one  examining  and  manufacture:  used  "Over  Statement:  Canada",  the  "Return  imply  Flags  was  Attribution  m o d i f i e r s f o r improved  least  Statement:  Unspecified Environmental  that  f r i c t i o n  Criteria  Environment  resource",  category  At  ECP's  provided  o i l " ,  phrases  the  ECP's  of  groups green  83  suggest  that  flags.  At  people  least  one  are of  the  green the  flags  was m e n t i o n e d  structured  participants their and  attention  product  to  with  which  product  claims  negative  a company  f o r some  by hard  t o attract  hard  also  of the  commented  attracted  information  the product  impacts  t h e impact  i n i t i a l l y  t o be e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y  their  commented  as a whole  environmentally  if  served  participants  which  of  ecological  evaluate  Some  about  number  their  a s t o why  friendly,  they  and would  be  would  unlikely  purchase i t .  that  and  could  or claims  feelings  participants  it  of the label  they  participating i n  flags  of product's  were u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d  Some  any  considerable  the green  on t h e environment.  attention  have  that  search  i fthe signals  the  A  t o the issue  i n a  information  that  interviews.  commented  resulted  by 65.0% of those  of their offensive  claims  products. that  Canadian  ecological plastic  Tire  impacts  rather  efficient  was  F o r example Tire  o i l .  t r u l y making  paper  they  a  recycling.  84  indication  consistently would  i n an  distrust  sell  both  an e f f o r t they  a l l of  t o purchase  few p a r t i c i p a n t s  participant  products,  label  had any  be u n l i k e l y  should  Another  of their  than  manner, and would  Canadian  v i r g i n basestock  i fthey  was n o t a c t i n g  considerate  environmental  that  found  re-refined  suggested  t o reduce the should  t o encourage  easy  use a and  that  At  least  one element  information positive various  of the product's  was m e n t i o n e d  indication that environmental  information  upon  by 47.5% o f t h e sample. consumers  signals  which  unexpected  categories  the  structured  interviews.  the or  would  influence  with  their  significant  Correction  that  and  recognition  o f t h e EcoLogo.  who  volunteered  they  signals didn't square=  recognized volunteer 12.75117,  skepticism  leads  recognition  EcoLogo's  recognition. may made  reduce  skepticism  As w e l l ,  t h e number  on EcoLogo  may  question  were A  working  a  64.5% of those t h e EcoLogo I t may  that  products.  85  who  (chi-  be t r u e  that  or that  t h e EcoLogo  t o increase who  subjects  the environmental  increase  a positive effect  of Canadians  skepticism  o f the EcoLogo  about  done  s t a t i s t i c a l l y  22.2% of the  messages  have  s k e p t i c a l o f one  Only  .0017).  22.5% o f  cross-tabulation  was  whereas  during  product  volunteered  t o low recognition  case,  f o r solid  this  recognized  2 dof, s i g>  c r e d i b i l i t y  looking  this  s k e p t i c a l about  t h e EcoLogo,  In either  noticing the  decisions,  they  there  o f and understanding  skepticism.  from  signals.  found  i s a  decisions.  purchasing  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  were  This  When v e r b a l i z i n g w h a t  of the environmental  the Yates  their  resulted  participants volunteered more  are not only  but are also  t o base  Two  t r a i t s  environmental  leads  low  t o  the  on  recognition  are skeptical of  levels claims  The  second  unexpected  volunteered  that  environmental results,  the  statements  result refined  signals  the  o i l " ,  TABLE would  meant. the  O i l " and that  even  was  of  40.0%  what  Upon  label: "Over  one  closer  confusion  of or  more  stemmed  of  the  from  of  the  two  "Environmentally  50%  re-refined  o i l " .  "Over  explanation f o r  50%  This re-  a  Canadians.  14- What a s p e c t s o f t h i s p r o d u c t ' s label influence your purchasing decision? Percentage  Green  respondents  examination  information like  requires additional  number  that  unsure  product's  Motor  indicates  significant  were  m a j o r i t y of  on  Considerate  they  result  Sample 65.0  Flags  Package  of  62 . 5  Detail  % %  47.5  %  47.5  %  Brand  47.5  %  Volunteered Unsure About Environmental Meaning  40.0  %  EcoLogo  37.5  %  Quality  37.5  %  Price  37.5  %  37.5  %  22.5  %  Environmental Unspecified Claims  Product  Information Environmental  Information  Volunteered Skeptical Environmental Claims  of  86  Participants about to  the  made  both  product's  indicate  encouraged  effect  would  forty  or  environmental  whether  mentioned  appreciative  each them  categories being  times,  with  perceived  Many  of  them  as  likelihood  that  the  were  the  categories, positive  EcoLogo  gives be  a  aware  product,  had  the  resulted  i n the  four  would  buy  a  total  were  they a  rated  21.5%  cases  about  the  meaning  into  the  four  The  environmental  of  as  being  product  from  neutral  product.  decreasing  sample  asked  seventy-nine  signals  r a t e d as the  of  product,  resulted  down  Environmental  the  (Table  15).  where  one  of  the  influence at  on  73.3%,  purchasing the  Environmental  Green  Claims  indication  decisions than  were  participants  also  environmental  I n f o r m a t i o n was  make  flags  aspects  buying  11.4%  unsure  they  from  and  environmental  Green  the  sample  that  to  the  the  when  comments  signals.  positive  which  buy  environmental  ratings  results  next  Unspecific  buy  they  neutral  environmental  a  to  signals  indicated  the  neutral,  participants  Breaking  of  suspicious  product's  them  comments  signal  67.1%  the  to  discourage  respondents'  encouraging  of  and  decision  Flags at  that  most  next  52.6%.  the  often  signal rated  at  73.7%,  the  at  69.2%,  and  This  break  down  general  public  appears  information i s a  better  tool  unspecified  rated quite  appreciated that  87  environmental  positively, the  green  perhaps  flags  had  as  to  with  claims. because drawn  their  attention  to  the  issue  of  the  impacts.  88  product's  ecological  TABLE 15- I w o u l d l i k e t o know w h e t h e r e a c h o f these aspects i s a p l u s , a n e g a t i v e , or i f you f e e l quite n e u t r a l about that aspect of the product's label. Positiv  Negative  Neutral  e 73.7  Environmental Information  13 . 3  %  %  1 3 .3  %  69.2  %  26.9  %  3.8  %  52.6  %  31.6  %  15.8  %  67.1  %  21.5  %  11.4  %  Flags  Claims  appears  these  on  Signals  consumers  products  green  Other  The  that  %  1 5 .8  Green  signals  The  %  73 . 3  Environmental Average  Do  10.5  EcoLogo  Unspecified Environmental  It  '%  and,  overwhelmingly f o r the  most  do  notice  part,  they  green  appreciate  signals.  Product  Characteristics  Override  Consideration  For  Environment? second  discussion competing  simulated of  what  product  decisions.  In  shopping  weight  the  second  were  asked  NUGOLD m o t o r  oils,  and  sample  decision. chose  the  consumers  characteristics  participants  their  exercise i n i t i a t e s  As ECO  to to  Table motor  give  on  shop what  indicates,  o i l , but  89  a  various  their  shopping  comparison  16  the  i n making  simulated  explain  to  the  exercise  between basis  the  shopping  the  they  ECO  and  made  m a j o r i t y of  the  c o n s i d e r a b l e number,  a  quarter  o f t h e sample,  responded, less  chose  " i tdepends",  expensive  car,  NUGOLD.  The p a r t i c i p a n t  reported she would  b u t u s e t h e NUGOLD  who  t r y t h e ECO o n a  f o ra h i g h  performance  car.  A  cross-tabulation  investigate selection  with  the Yates  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of products.  interviewees respondents  were  who w e r e  their  thirties,  those  i n their  significant  more  that  l i k e l y  result  TABLE  i n their  ECO.  forties,  This  was shown  15.79663,  product  would  were  you of  NUGOLD  25.0  %  2.5%  Depends  2.5  Both  Consumers five  %  2.5%  responded:  o f t h e second on what  .0012).  Sample %  who  >  choose?  67.5  participant  asked  t o be a  3 dof, s i g  Neither  findings  a n d 2 0 . 0 %o f  ECO  Try  The  younger  t h e ECO p r o d u c t . A l l  Percentage  It  on  twenties, 72.7% of those i n  (chi-square=  16- Which  revealed that  t o choose  40.0% of those chose  was done t o  age was a d e t e r m i n a n t  The a n a l y s i s  i n their  f i f t i e s  Correction  half  basis  reported they  of this  they chose  perceived distinctions  " i tdepends",  q u e s t i o n where  h a d made between  summarized 90  foreshadows  their  the  respondents  decision.  the products i n Table  based  17.  on  While  none  of  those  those  who  chose  quality. done  A  which  a  to  23.04009,  findings the  of  products water  the  that  national  quality  misperception realize  Products  of  example,  respondents  their  the  used  In  as was  significant  thermal meet  not  i n the the  focus  quality  i n Appendix  D.  diaper  materials:  to  or  of  These  services,  acoustical  insulation.  After  exceed a l l  groups  came  eradicate  groups  may  were  fact,  that  f o r the  the  with  concerned choice  as  according  91  and they  affect  i n tandem  environmental  car.  about  o i l ,  i n order  focus  quality  that  an  Correction  of  to  the  this EcoLogo  to  potential.  products  not  are  motor  necessary  choice  perception i s  listed  focus  i n t e r v i e w s commented  compromised  this  must  the  80%  .0000).  building  consumers  Yates  concerned  products  reason,  Participants  materials:  i t was  members  structure  of  were  standards,  i t s f u l l  Further,  o i l .  a  s t a t i s t i c a l l y  that  re-refined  EcoLogo  among  be  as  for their  the  s i g a  dof,  they  building  that  with  1  conserving products,  learning  reason  to  motor  included the  conclusion  the  quality  result  EcoLogo  and  was  gave  indicate  sample  products,  this  this  reported that  number  ECO  NUGOLD g a v e  showed  Qualitative  groups  chose  cross-tabulation  (chi-square=  limited  who  participants were  longevity  of  re-refined  i t would to  concerned  an  the that  other  eco-products.  that  i n  For motor o i l  decrease  environmental  the  l i f e  engineer  who  participated  o i l  i s better  satisfied  advantageous  a  similar  of  EcoLogo  The  concern  that  product,  The have  major not  marketing  recycled  the  a l lpossible  re-refined  i t as  informational Another  respondent  reducing the need  end  motor  o i l companies,  viewed  or  paper  This underlines  response  i s t i t l e d  the  of  on  the  f o r  uses  "meaningless  five  had  longevity  lifecycle  i n determining  to  17-  Why  when  because  of  respondents  perceived be  why  d i d you  Environment"  Environment",  environmental  TABLE  question,  indicated  product  they  label  the  "Positive  The  "Negative  to  was  EcoLogo  o i l because  signals  groups,  misperception.  about  environment.  category motor  this  Environment"  chose  the  quo,  i n a  consider  popular  "Positive they  focus  guidelines.  most  this  status  change  the  vehicle.  invest  photocopiers.  analyses  on  the  to  to  of  f o r your  with  campaign  i n one  the  i t s reduced  burden  f e l l  choose  into the  choose  environmental  "deceitful"  this  and  product?  Percentage  of  Sample 67.5  %  Quality  25.0  %  Aesthetics  15.0  %  Positive  Negative  Environment  12 . 5  Environment  92  the ECO  hype".  d i d you  17.  reported  various  "misleading",  i n Table  respondents  who  didn't  choose  %  5.0  Convenience  The  f i r s t  simulated  information to  label  not  t o buy.  the  sample  the  wider  with  The of  product  when  they  were  had t h e most The  shopping  was  most  a positive should  As  mentioned  category 50%  Information":  use hard  o f f i c i a l pieces  impacts  included both  mark  o i l " ,  many  t o make of a  previously,  re-refined  on t h e i r  group  (Table 18).  into  the  category reported  i n f o r m a t i o n on  purchasing consumers  ECO's  decision.  a r e aware  This  that  unspecified  determination  about  product.  the "Environmental  the EcoLogo's  Canada",  of information provided  Information"  Criteria  and i t s A t t r i b u t i o n  o f Environment  most categories,  this  an accurate  to  generalized t o  25.0% of p a r t i c i p a n t s  of environmental  that  t o buy o r  signal  information, rather than  claims,  ecological  environmental  f e l l  of  are specific  The m a j o r i t y was  into  important  aspect  decision  confidently  f a l l i n g  influential  are  which  question  of respondents  indication  environmental the  to this  experience.  one o f t h e p i e c e s  provided  asked  on t h e i r  and c a n n o t be  percentage  "Environmental  label  directly  by one o f t h e f o u r  highest  they  responses  also  characteristics  impact  55.0% o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  that  is  what  product  influenced  question  about  consumers  ECO's  shopping  Statement:  Statement:  as w e l l  - an  as the three  by the manufacture:  93  "M  "Over  "Help  preserve 50%  a  r e - r e f i n e d motor  centre". written that  that  the  7.5%  of  of  have  o i l " ,  and  that  certified.  accompanies  misleading.  It  ECP's  goal  decisions  consumers  to  brings enable  which  make  +  p r i n c i p a l l y  This  a  contains  used  information  p a r t i c i p a n t s made  provided  "Eco  "Return  p a r t i c i p a n t s (25.0%  information  i s the  resource",  environmental  i s somewhat  purchasing to  the  information  32.5%  EcoLogo it  As  only  EcoLogo  on  non-renewable  up  includes  the  the  their  choice  based  i s more 7.5%)  accurate  based  because  on  to  the say  decision  product  important to  result  their  the  than  collection  EcoLogo,  consumers  purchasing  o i l to  the  an  include  more  was  distinction:  make  more  e c o l o g i c a l impacts, decision based  informed and  solely  EcoLogo.  TABLE 1 8 - ' A s p e c t o f ECO's i n f l u e n t i a l on p u r c h a s i n g  Label rated decision. Percentage  Environmental Green  Information  Brand  Information  EcoLogo Package  Sample 25.0  % %  12.5  %  10.0  %  10.0  %  10.0  %  7.5  %  7.5  %  Environmental  Price Product  of  most  12 . 5  Flags  Unspecified Claims  as  Detail  5.0  Quality  94  %  not on  The  third  aspects  question  a r e most  sample  products,  making  when  about  how  responses f i r s t  decision  simulated  by  a  signals  characterised  only  5.0%  and  t r a i t  shopping  exercise,  values  where  of  received  possible  an  were  product  labelled  8.05  value  with  ecological  their  different  In the were  of  the  quality  and  sample product  respectively,  important 19  and  both  respondents,  one  Also  from  a  t r a i t  whereas  sample  shows  price  product  different  the highest  mean  environmental  claims  7.10.  a v a i l a b i l i t y  ecological  to  quality  least  received  f o r these  information:  than  at  Table  respectively  of  and  important  t h e most  questioned  exercise.  37.5% of  influence.  and p r i c e  explanation  variable  compare  and  a mean  by  mentioned  t h e most  quality  8.95  price  influences  decision  were  were  the  to ten.  10.0% of p a r t i c i p a n t s  signals  from  are considerable  f o r 55.0% of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  picture,  the  as  away their  t r a i t s  o f one  simulated  as  about  product  scale  shopping  what  Participants  question  as p u r c h a s i n g  environmental  of  participants  several  on  about  t o consumers moves  95.0% of p a r t i c i p a n t s  were  information  i n general.  to this  environmental  A  asks  to the f i r s t  mentioned and  and  shopping  responses  provides  important  influential  purchasing  The  that  and  price  inconsistent  comparability and  impacts. impact 95  quality Today,  results  of  certain  are easier most  information,  lies  kinds  to  products and  i n  are not  f o r those  products  that  accurate  comparison  purpose.  In fact,  index  are, i t i s r a r e l y i n a  with  the closest  other  hand,  easily small  compared. items  Consumers  have  expensive  items,  the  product  the information  more  that  may  give  importance  arrival this  than  System's  report  today.  Price,  products  by  card on t h e  and i s  q u a l i t y  consumers  and t a c t i l e  Standards t o meet  on  through  appraisal.  assessment.  On  found  more on  Association  or  exceed  t o comparison  i s available, looking best  ability.  are  aware.  96  when  shopping at prices  However w i t h  of e c o l o g i c a l impact  information,  they  i n i t s early  reputation.  are accustomed  quality to their recent  claims  same  comparable  quality i s often  o f : Canadian  o r by  the  f o r an  i s s t i l l  at this  about  allows  a product's  a visual  manufacturers'  consumers  consumers  and  store  about  experienced  i n the form  Generally,  relatively  common  discovered  information  standards,  assessing  a v a i l a b l e on  or through  government  using  of a  the market  i s often  become  certification,  on  Information  trial-and-error,  serve  Certification  system  i s always  ticket  that  e c o l o g i c a l impacts  Scientific  being  that  products  development  of products'  stages,  between  form  the  information,  i t i s available,  and  T A B L E 1 9 - How i n f l u e n t i a l i s each of these product t r a i t s on your p u r c h a s i n g d e c i s i o n s on a s c a l e o f one t o t e n ? Mean  Values  Quality  8 . 95  Price  8 . 05  A  Friend Product  has Recommended  the 7.50  The P r o d u c t ' s L a b e l R e a d s Environmentally Responsible  7 . 10  Its  6 . 00  a Brand  Attractive  Name  Product  5 .10  Packaging  4 . 77  Advertising The P r o d u c t ' s L a b e l R e a d s Could Win I n s t a n t l y To  sum  up  on the q u e s t i o n o f whether  override  consideration  indicate  that  Ironically, connected that  Is  The  First,  quality  i s a  competing  appears  EcoLogo when  means t o be  influence  motor  o i l ,  i t was  the  traits  findings  of a product Consumers'  a product  a barrier  Noticeable  their  impact.  buying  participants  would  product  consideration.  and l o n g e v i t y  t o i t s ecological green  other  f o r the environment,  the quality  buying  quality,  1. 8 7  You  to the  of  i s  misperception  compromised  EcoLogo.  Enough? were  decision  recorded  asked  t o verbalize  what  traits  t o buy o r not t o buy the  whether  97  they  mentioned  ECO  t h e EcoLogo.  Figures their they  show t h a t  appraisal were  t h e ECO  When  was  long  as the logo  t h e EcoLogo were  as i t appeared t o have  20).  saying  although  Therefore,  they  t h e EcoLogo i n 55.0%  Many  that  i n their  familiar  was  on t h e sample  of the respondents  familiar  t o  was  appraisal  with i t .  an e f f e c t on t h e i r  t h e EcoLogo  reported  17.5% o f  62.5% of p a r t i c i p a n t s reported  enough  (Table  by  the logo.  o i l although  t h e EcoLogo,  decisions  mentioned  product,  t o mention  directly,  noticeable  answers  with  failed  motor  asked  believed  o f t h e sample  familiar  participants of  37.5% o f t h e sample  that  they  product, purchasing  qualified  noticeable  enough  their as  them.  TABLE 20- I n y o u r view, i s t h e EcoLogo, as presented on t h i s l a b e l , n o t i c e a b l e enough f o r i t to affect your purchasing decisions? Percentage Affirmative  The  focus  There that  was  group a  consensus  products'  labels,  with  Both  i t .  attention ecological look  62.5%  among  explored  this  t h e members  not noticeable  question  of both  enough  as  e s p e c i a l l y f o r consumers  groups  impacts  f o rhard  impact  was  grabbers  Sample  Response  discussions  t h e EcoLogo  of  saw  that  the green  remind  of product  information  as  choices  focus  on  are unfamiliar important  t o consider  and lead  the  t h e consumer  the product  Participants felt  98  groups  i t appears  who  t h e consumer  a s t o why  on e c o l o g i c a l systems.  flags  further.  has a that  t o  reduced this  closer of  examination  the EcoLogo  focus of  group  f o r consumers  members  the EcoLogo  symbolic, decline  were  as they  and worried  i n consumer  licensees. more  of the product  i t s e l f ,  on  as w e l l  Statements' EcoLogo  on  found that  they  labels  three  on  a green  background  print  on  a green  background.  f o r Licensees  allows  licensees  "...background allow  legible" the  a  advertise  Have At  five  considerable f i f t y  should  that  noticeable than  Choice  long  c o n t r a s t f o r the EcoLogo  t o be  Manual  Standards  Program  as the enough  to  clearly  1992, p . 7 ) .  r e q u i r e a prominent way,  white  the black  the Graphic  light  i n this  logo  Attribution  concluded  value  contrast;  made  of the  and  tonal  should  be  Perhaps  contrast rather  the EcoLogo  would  i t s e l f .  Consumers  least  they  more  Standards  to a  current  as  (ECP G r a p h i c s  legible  lead  print  i s of a  design  the presentation of the  Currently,  t o use black  specifications  than  was  to the  the size  of the Environmental  colour  sufficient  of  of the Criteria  products,  print  would  the EcoLogo  increasing  The  appropriately  and an exodus  examining  different  changes  changes  thought  After  Manual  are "label-readers".  major  by  to the discovery  i t attractive,  as, the size  print.  lead  against making  interest  However,  prominent  who  would  percent  Been  Exposed  of the EcoLogo circulation  To  EcoLogo  product  as  they  were  of the sample  i n a  one  99  Products?  c a t e g o r i e s have purchased year  period  by  at  a least  (Table 21).  As  well,  least  every  one o f these  product and  respondent  specific  users  consumers products EcoLogo  i n the past  f o rt h e EcoLogo  had purchased year  have  t o the conclusion  comparison  shop  quite  often,  that  EcoLogo  licensees  n o t be h e a v i l y  of  fronts.  place.  t h e numbers  and increasing  recognition.  exist,  influenced  i n the market  increasing  developed  that i f purchase  recognition  of the  by the prevalence However,  of products  t h e numbers  Efforts  and they  at  f o r which  been  leads  increase these  they  This  products  guidelines  that  licensed.  should  indicate  s i x products  c r i t e r i a  f o rwhich  certified  reported  logic  does  with  of licensees  a r e b e made  of  would  b y t h e ECP on  both  TABLE 21- Which o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s have y o u p e r s o n a l l y p u r c h a s e d i n t h e p a s t 12 m o n t h s ? Percentage Paper  or  of  Sample 95 . 0  Envelopes  Batteries  82.5%  Gasoline  80.0  %  Motor  65.0  %  50.0  %  20.0  %  O i l  Paint Reusable  Do  %  Consumers  Shopping  Feel  Bag  Overwhelmed  By The P l e t h o r a  Of  Green  Labelling? When p a r t i c i p a n t s characterise  i n the structured  themselves  i n relation  100  interview t o  were  asked  environmental  t o  labelling, being  only  5.0%  overwhelmed,  labelling  (Table  considering  that  marketplace  and  number  of  the  label  and  22).  These  are  green  labels  green  consumers  The  were  ecological also  the  are  are  that  about  there  results  found 40.0%  the  i s more  to  the  on  to an  of  the  numbers  new  the  increasing  respondents  meaning  on  as  environmental  relatively  information  that  by  themselves  s u r p r i s i n g l y low  labels  unsure  characterised  confused  result  impact  suggests than  sample as  that  they  the 15.0%  products.  volunteered of  of  of  some  sample  confusion  or  a l l  product's  among  characterisation  question  suggest.  Table  22  also  themselves in  as  w i l l i n g  of to  decisions  Table  22  than  sample  result given  to  consumers  the  the  sample  learning, These  a  and  characterised 7.5%  results  about  as  interested  indicate  positive attitude  themselves  making  the  and  better  are purchasing  environment.  that  number  product's  35.0%  who  green  the  to  sample  labelling.  volunteered  the  skepticism  purchasing  of  environmental  specific  reducing  of  as  have  s k e p t i c a l of  the  i s not  25.0%  sample  indicates as  52.5%  labelling.  educate  themselves higher  the  for  that  aware,  environmental  majority  the  shows  EcoLogo  acts  products.  101  This were  information.  EcoLogo, that  they  characterised  attention as As  a  i s  skeptical Although should  b a r r i e r well,  12.5% of this be  to  skepticism  should the  not  be  perceived  marketplace  trade. are  Note  Also,  act  as  misleading  that  respondents to  this  as  watchdogs,  consumers  vague,  response  entirely  should  or  not  were  question  be  a  f a i r  weary  of  green  a  third  permitted the  as  ensuring  verified  so  negative,  by  to  give  cumulative  skeptics  and  i n  honest  claims  that  party.  more  than  percent  one  exceeds  one-hundred.  TABLE 22In general, how would you c h a r a c t e r i z e y o u r s e l f i n terms of environmental labelling? Percentage  As  only  20.0%  52 . 5  Skeptical  35.0  %  Learning  25.0  %  Confused  15.0  %  Unaware  10.0  %  Interested  7.5  %  Overwhelmed  5.0  %  Believing  2.5  %  of  the  sample  or  overwhelmed,  plethora  of  green  of  to  Sample  Aware  confused  contribute  of  low  i n  labelling  characterised the  eyes  of  of  consumers.  102  the  themselves  participants  i s manageable  recognition  %  and  EcoLogo  hence for  the  as the does  not  majority  103  WHAT I S C O N S U M E R  U N D E R S T A N D I N G OF  PRODUCTS AND  THE ECOLOGO  This  explores consumers'  section  perceptions interest  What A l l  Does  participants,  EcoLogo,  were  Table  23  shows  terms  that  this  category  the  environment  choice, be  gave  k i l l e d " .  probably  t o mind  used  terms  vast  that  imply  recognized  the logo,  answers  i n tandem  images that  represent  "harms  peace  i n product  with  or that the  environmental  close,  i t ' sgoing  t o  with motor o i l  of the Valdez  implied  that  choice",  O i l , c o u l d be an gets  of  category of  i s considered  " I f a bird  disaster.  Some  the product  has no  impact  "environmentally safe",  rather  than  t h e term  t o express  a variety  of their  "doves  meant.  expressing her skepticism  a reduced  m a j o r i t y used  "ecological"  like  used  the general  others",  the birds  t h e environment,  terms  than  t h e meaning:  brought  d i dn o t r e c o g n i z e t h e t h e EcoLogo  Samples  t h e ECO M o t o r  Seeing  participants on  less  of  Consumers?  "theenvironmental  One r e s p o n d e n t  product,  thought  into  and "theenvironment  packaging".  who  To  70.0% o f t h e sample  include:  and level  t h e ECP.  those  considerate.  on t h e EcoLogo,  product  Represent  they  c a n be grouped  f i t  sample  Symbol  what  that  environmentally  nature",  about  including  asked  thoughts  EcoLogo  more  The EcoLogo  ECOLOGO  PROGRAM?  o f t h e sample  i n learning  THE ECOLOGO,  burden  on the environment.  "environmental"  themselves.  and 70.0% were  104  As able  rather  The  than  55.0% o f t h e sample t o determine  that the  EcoLogo number the  meant  of participants  EcoLogo  Only  is  were  gave  was  this  Canada", of  a  t o derive  volunteered  considerable  this  answer  indicated  finding  "Other",  that  t h e EcoLogo, that  they  meaning  i s comprised  "meaningless",  a n d some were  guessing.  enhancers.  Tire  respondents  running  of responses  "the Canadian  of the  The  like: logo",  me  what  you think  this  Percentage Environmentally Volunteers  "made i n a n d "a  logo  of  Considerate  a Government  Non-Government  Standard  i n the focus  design  ecosystems.  l i v i n g  impacted  70 . 0  %  15.0  %  20.0  Participants  of  Sample  2.5  Standard  Other  thoughts  This  peace".  TABLE 23- Can y o u t e l l means?  clever  from  the Canadian  as the government's  i s one o f i t s k e y c r e d i b i l i t y  category,  symbol  able  involved with  an important  EcoLogo  considerate,  i t s e l f .  15.0% of p a r t i c i p a n t s  Government who  environmentally  by  that One  effectively  focus  saying  group  that:  organisms, b y human  groups  agreed  communicates  participant  "the EcoLogo  plants  that  105  a  connection  articulated  represents  and animals,  a c t i v i t i e s " .  the EcoLogo  which  both  % %  has  a  t o  her kingdoms  a r e most  Do  Consumers  A l l  K n o w Who  Puts  participants i n the  whether  they  products.  or  30.0% the  question, thought  of  could  15.0%  guess  what of  government  Government  Products?  interview  who  puts  was  was  responsible  be  inconspicuous  to  make  that or  too  involved.  knew,  When  guessed or  t o make  as  EcoLogo's  asked  to  on  them  the  This  i s an  i t increases  i n the  that  asked  they  directly,  determined  from  Canadian  (Table  24).  This  A t t r i b u t i o n Statement  f a r from the  the connection.  meant  f o r the EcoLogo  the  were  the EcoLogo  the EcoLogo  A t t r i b u t i o n Statement that  indicates  consumers  On  participants volunteered  participants either  EcoLogo's  finding  or  EcoLogo  structured  When d e f i n i n g  previous knew  knew  The  logo  i t s e l f  important  f o r  consumers  connection  the c r e d i b i l i t y  may  of  f o r  the  EcoLogo.  After  p a r t i c i p a n t s had  questions, Program  they  that  were  given  included  program.  Spontaneous  that  felt  they  Program The  focus  group  brief  fact  comments  positively  was  that  a  very  needed  of  the  description  that  i t i s a  interview of  managing  to the a  Canadians.  106  the  c r e d i b i l i t y  EcoLogo  indicated EcoLogo of  similar reaction  important  t o be  of  the  government  from p a r t i c i p a n t s  p a r t i c i p a n t s had  this  the EcoLogo  the  a  several  government's  contributed  believed' that for  that  answered  c r e d i b i l i t y  communicated  the  logo.  and enhancer  t oa l l  T A B L E 2 4 - Who products?  do y o u t h i n k puts  this  Percentage  of  on  Sample  Know  60.0  %  Government  30.0  %  Motormaster/Manufacturer  10 . 0 %  Don't  What  logo  A r e Consumers'  Perceptions  Earlier  i n this  chapter,  product  characteristics  Of The Sample  EcoLogo  i n the section t i t l e d : override  "Do  Product?  other  consideration f o r the  environment?",  structured interview and focus  group  were  that  prevalent and  discussed  purchase  influencing  ecologically In  fact,  both  suggest  less  harmful  meet  o r exceed  label,  they  large  print.  On  both  requirements Provides  corrosion  and sludge  emphasize NUGOLD  among  consumers  that  that  as well,  national quality s a y : "New  they  f o rg a s o l i n e  both  t o imply  ecologically  say:  "...exceeds diesel  engine  wear,  The c o l o u r i n g o f t h e l a b e l s the products:  high  less  On t h e  Approved" i n  and light-duty  i ti s environmentally  i s gold  on  a l l EcoLogo  excellent protection against build-up".  quality.  i s identical  standards.  Car Warranty  label,  that  a r e o f compromised  oils,  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  label  concerns  motor  t h e back  engines.  connotes  products  f a i r l y  the information pertaining t o quality  front  warranty  i s a  misperception  t h e ECO a n d NUGOLD  products  there  results  less  107  i s green  harmful,  quality.  harmful  ECO  while the  Consumers'  products  t o  areof  compromised  quality  the  EcoLogo.  Are  Consumers  EcoLogo A l l  need  Interested  Program  are  I n Knowing  About  More  took  o r read  a t the end of the interview,  interested  Program read  i n the marketing  reaction  sheet  who  that  considered  more  25).  One  t h e EcoLogo indicating  about  and return  was c o u n t e d  respondent company  i n knowing  i s r u n (Table  the fact  T h e Way  of  The  I s Run?  b u t one p a r t i c i p a n t  offered  t o be addressed  a  respondent  consumers  insisted  that  he  i tso i tc o u l d be re-used:  fact  i s an authorized user  himself very  that  sheet  t h e way t h e EcoLogo  as an a f f i r m a t i v e  d i dnot take  fact  response.  sheet  works  this  The  f o ra  o f t h e EcoLogo,  paper  and  informed.  T A B L E 2 5 - W o u l d y o u l i k e t o t a k e home a f a c t sheet that further explains the Environmental Choice Program and t h e EcoLogo? Percentage Affirmative  Some  of interest  included: most I  have  I'm  parting  i n t h e EcoLogo  " i fy o u c o u l d do t h i s  people  would  Sample 97.5  %  reflect  a  high  Typical  comments  Response  of the participants'  level  of  be  l e a r n e d what  looking the logo  comments Program.  survey  with  everyone  f o rt h e EcoLogo" means  shopping".  108  and w i l l  i n Canada  and "thank you,  look  f o ri t when  WHAT DO SOURCE A  CONSUMERS OF  already  research  amount  been  MAKE  THE  Below,  results are  The EcoLogo  this  Program  i n the structured o f t h e EcoLogo  would  include  where  i ti s available.  comprised  have  verifies  a  that  EcoLogo  i n their  indication  that  requirements  Some would to  purchase,  program  and then future  pieces  r u n program,  a n d 3)  future  and  made  2)  that  asked  their  third  they  products other t e s t s and  are  accurate.  include the  giving  a  the participants'  answers  was  information:  party  would  they  decisions  given  than  products  brief  whether  were  crude basic  (Table 2 6 ) .  by saying  determinant  o f what  appreciated  the information  109  a  purchasing  decisions,  satisfies  given  i tc e r t i f i e s  on these  purchasing  qualified  Basic  o f program  an independent  the program  but they  i s reviewed  on t h e environment  90.0% i n d i c a t e d  n o t be t h e s o l e  two  were  o f an e c o - l a b e l l i n g program  respondents  t o the f i r s t  The d e s c r i p t i o n t h e y  the claims  respondents,  needs  Program?  i n their  lesser burden  products,  consumers'  information  interview  fundamental  i t i s a government  similar  Of  the EcoLogo  of three  CREDIBLE  ON?  S a t i s f y The Consumer's  Participants description  A  discussed.  Of An E c o - L a b e l l i n g  that  PROGRAM  about  i n t h e answers  Requirements  1)  ECOLOGO  of information  discussed  questions.  additional  Does  TO  E N V I R O N M E N T A L I N F O R M A T I O N TO A C T  considerable  has  NEED  products  t h e EcoLogo they  chose  about t h e  product's i t  ecological  i s not the purpose  consumers compared that to  what  make  they  believed  Program  i t was  participants reported  who  that  purchasing Canadians.  were  they  decisions.  pay  o f f i n several  the  marketing  recognition  wants  the burden  buy: t h i s a n d make  unaware  e f f o r t s t o buy  f o r government  also  interview  i n their true  which  the ecological them  saying  o f t h e EcoLogo future  f o r many  recognition  t h e ECP w i l l  t h e EcoLogo  licensees  encourage  respondents  a s many  t o increase  would  which  should  w i l l increase  should  result i n  Increasing  increase impacts  t o discern  consumers' of the products  between  needs  less.  T A B L E 2 6 - Now t h a t y o u a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e EcoLogo, do y o u p r e d i c t i tw i l l a f f e c t y o u r future purchasing decisions? Percentage Affirmative  of  Sample 90.0  Response  110  t o  low levels of recognition are  i s probably  of using  as  easier.  on t h e environment.  about  may  behaviours  I f successful,  o f t h e EcoLogo  awareness  some  Box Program,  use t h e EcoLogo  ways.  attitude  t o prescribe  role  of the program  attempts  i n a t t r a c t i n g new  decreasing  they  t o the Blue  that  This  advantage  Program  As w e l l ,  previously  would  The ECP's  i s a positive  an appropriate  indicates  b a r r i e r t o the success  general  buy.  ecologically motivated  finding also  result  This  o f the EcoLogo  should  t h e EcoLogo  they  This a  impacts.  %  and  Is  The  Amount  Consumers Although  To  of  the  The  Type  Make  the  amount  The  understood  sample  product's The  volunteered  environmental  claims  quality i n the as  the  the  of  simulated  f i r s t  and  ECO's  minimal. as  80%  comparison  the  35.0%  of  of  of  concern  those  shopping  of  22.5%  about  Also  area of  by  label,  skeptical  t h i r d  EcoLogo.  c r e d i b i l i t y  skeptical  products:  focus  were  type  of  group  products  performance on  The  the  who  exercise  reason.  amount  communicated  to  themselves  EcoLogo  to  were  being  i n general.  not  involves the  they  impacts  participants  quality,  group  that  characterized  group  of  second  was  information: i n response  a l l EcoLogo  ECP  terms  label  the  indicated  the  i n  information  The  focus  concern  environmental  EcoLogo.  well  of  to  a l l of  quality  national  areas  responses  or  NUGOLD  thought  their  some  sample  focus  interview,  the  i s that  i n the  gave  d i r e c t l y to  by  environmental  chose  posed  information provided  participants  lies  Decisions?  of  ecological  product's  For  type  participants.  the  Sufficient  and  40.0%  of  never  i d e n t i f i e d three  on  the  Provided  Purchasing  structured  provided of  Information  Informed  i n the  questions  f i r s t  Of  q u e s t i o n was  participants various  And  the  considered communicate:  and  that  services safety  product's  four pieces that  d i r e c t l y what  of  quality  111  they  information provided  thought and  sample  asked  the  information that meet  or  standards label.  exceed was  not  The  second  information v i t a l and  by  performance  for  standards  are  met  or  government that the  each  exceeded,  that  the  standard,  that  s c i e n t i f i c  EcoLogo  environment,  that  and  c r e d i b i l i t y  the  of  understandability  group  also  talked  about  ecological  be  i n  educating  Do  Consumers  issue  was  that  began  by  body  to  Organization  posing  advantage  to  funding  immune also  to  thought  equally  as  i n  the  well  voluntary  research  has  can  rely  the  claim.  on  Criteria  as,  demonstrated  reduces  issue  As  the  An  of  what  the the In  burden  on  EcoLogo  to  the  context  Statements,  consumer the  ECP'  this  knowledge role  should  from  focus  question:  that  of  a  arrangement government,  the  accountable  of  big  public  and  groups "who  Both  Body  with  i s of  the  the  grassroots  concluded  lobbying  Appropriate  To  Program?  administering  groups  this  the  wider  eco-products?".  (NGO)  Both  and  the  p o s s i b i l i t y  program.  of  EcoLogo  Government  debated  the  of  Eco-Labelling  certify  considered  a  consumers.  An  This  consumers  issues,  See  Administrate  about  i s  significantly  and  assure the  truth  standard  EcoLogo  a  as and  there  i t would would  business would  credible.  112  see  appropriate  focus  groups  Non-Government  Canadian  that  discussions  eco-labelling would  be  require  therefore than  the  l i t t l e  close be  no  ECP.  government  and  ties less  They a  NGO  as  What  Traits  Asking  Make  interview  environmentally of  c r i t e r i a  program. answer, (Table a  27).  the  7.5%  of  answer  i n the  found  the  ecological  c e r t i f i e d  products  that  their not  products  business  consider  a  ethic.  meet  EcoLogo  continues  ecological  to  be  that  an  continue  can to  c r i t e r i a . every i n a  to  answer  out  of  giving  relied  specific  on  are  guidelines  ethic.  f i t the  kinds  hardest  participants  conducted  113  the  they  ecological  although  impacts.  be  what  eco-labelling  opted  saying by  of  provide  Companies  they  c e r t i f i e d  to  product  response  although  to  participants  company's  gave  not  unable  mentioned  the  product  f o r an  question  of  Choice?  indication  t r a i t s  15.0%  their  sample  development  products  an  a  appropriate  this  of  makes  q u e s t i o n by  participants,  have  what  t h i s  exception of  do  as  10.0%  to  the  view  the  Another  company's  Environmental  responsible gives  A l l of  considered  An  participants  consumers  with  labels.  Product  Respondents  concrete  with  A  Of  category  have  of  their  produce  similar  Companies other  the  can  aspect  manner  that  of does  TABLE 27- I n y o u r o p i n i o n what environmentally responsible?  makes  a  product  Percentage  65.0  %  Recyclable/Recycled/Degradable  52 . 5  %  Generally Less Harmful i n Production & Disposal  47.5  %  Company's  15.0  %  10.0  %  High Quality/Long Life Expectancy Products  7.5  %  Products that are not D e t r i m e n t a l t o Human H e a l t h  5.0%  Many  2.5  %  7.5  %  on  The  Choices  Labels  Present By  they  saw  or  to certify. that  Considered  unsound a  product  Members  fuels  groups were  services  the EcoLogo  automotive  of  focus  f i n a l  products  ecologically scenario  i n the  t h e ECP's  any  concerned  Products  Environmental  Consumers?  l i s t e d  and  Involved  Certified  participants  hesitate  Ethic  Know  that  o i l  Ecological  Trade-offs  Don't  The  Sample  Specifically Less: Packaging, Waste, T o x i c , P o l l u t i o n o r Energy Used  Rely  Are  of  of  behaviour.  consumer  guidelines  l i s t e d both  seeing  of  consumers One  a  on  hand-out  and they  groups  asked  by  i f  would were  re-refined  participant  the EcoLogo  114  that  focus  c e r t i f i c a t i o n  confused  given  motor  encouraging outlined  those  the  products  and  thinking  environment their  they when  doing  really  use of the c a r .  participants burden  were  they  their should  A t t h e same  d i d acknowledge  on t h e environment  duty  that  compared  counterparts.  115  be  t o preserve reducing  time, these  or  the focus products  t o their  do  the eliminating group reduce  non-certified  the  CHAPTER  V  -  CONCLUSIONS  AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  INTRODUCTION In  the f i r s t  pertinent under the  three  results  the three  research  fairly' clear EcoLogo.  The  sections of this from  the previous  principal  questions  chapter,  research  have  aided  chapter  chapter  F o r The  Environmental  section  a  step  findings into  the  content,  the  focus  ECP's what  rather  of these  current  advertising  market.  The  research  i n the area  ARE  THERE  WHY  R E C O G N I T I O N OF  The  focus  agencies  ANY  final  THE  products  program.  well  has c l e a r l y t o reach  future  This the  emphasised  f i t s  that  venue, i s with the  defined  their  target  directions f o r  C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S T H A T WOULD H E L P ECOLOGO  that  EXPLAIN  I S LOW?  consumers  information Canadians  t o make  t o help  are ready  personal  116  from  various  are looking f o r  A l l of the participants  i t i s necessary  the  eco-labelling.  environmental  and services.  labelling  This  a  Program".  be  i n t e r v i e w s and information  a l l indicated  meaningful  believe  of  of  t o  t i t l e d :  of communication  are appropriate  s e c t i o n suggests  CONSUMER  groups,  the choice  strategy which  venues  answers  with  i s  Choice  I t should  recommendations.  marketing  reviewed  strategy f o r integrating  t h e ECP.  than  The  relationship  "Recommendations  research  be  i n the development  fourth section of this  three  w i l l  questions.  p i c t u r e of consumers'  presents  t h e most  them  chose  f o r an ecoreported  lifestyle  they  compromises.  Motivated  environment, changes  that  92.5% o f t h e sample  t o their  reported  they  have  a  lifestyles.  made  lesser burden  shopping  that  on reported  one  o f t h e sample  participants is  lagging  briefed to  exercise  their  97.5%  wanted  Three  consumer  recognition  t o learn  The  ECP c a n n o t e x p e c t  can  attempt  The  consumer  the  was  EcoLogo  their  t h e number  noticeable  purchasing  interview  more  with  purchasing about  sample,  t o select  these  o f how  decisions.  would  117  Of that  being  As  well,  Program.  t o low  product  consumers  read  shop,  characteristics.  consumer  t r a i t s ,  their  thoroughly  that  at least  comparison  but  impacts.  consumers  specific  f o rconsumers  62.5% responded  results  use t h e EcoLogo  t o which  The m a j o r i t y  f i r s t  after  decisions.  t o lessen  t h e EcoLogo  enough  who  consumers  of other  products  a percentage  contribute  the detail which  The  signals.  t h e EcoLogo  the program  into  they  90.0%  t o these  (90.0%),  that  t o change  characteristic  translated  shopping  t h e EcoLogo,  consideration  t o t a i l o r  directly,  environmental  o f t h e EcoLogo:  consumers'  h a d made  as 95.0% noticed  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may  the frequency  they  credence  behaviours,  future  and  labels  gives  product's  behind  asked  the  on t h e environment.  on t h e ECP, i n d i c a t e d  f a c i l i t a t e  labels,  while  55.0% recognized  well  t o protect  reported  When  an e f f o r t  simulated rely  by a desire  read  question:  t o include  i s  i t  of the structured  t h e EcoLogo  was  i n  noticeable  enough.  stipulation familiar EcoLogo  that  with  this  i n i t i a l  So c o n t r a r y  interviewed,  However,  appraisal  group  was  not noticeable  structured  interview  attracted  their  impacts.  The g r e e n  flags  own w e r e  on t h e sample  stipulations are  many  any  green  some water  o f them  o f t h e ECP's  examples flags  i n their  of the c e r t i f i e d conserving  label  products  were  labelling.  reduced  products.  interviews  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  noticeable  enough  that A  asked  118  As well,  and  include paints  and  structured  t h e EcoLogo  decisions  there  incorporate  based  groups  whether  t o affect purchasing  various  few examples  In the focus  assess  not a result of  do n o t  p o l l u t i o n water  to  ecological  The  use o f t h e EcoLogo.  of EcoLogo  t o  the product's  t o t h e EcoLogo.  product's  ecological  ecological  t o consumers  about  flags  not sufficient  had reduced  reminder  information  a n d l e d many  flags  as a  of the  the green  on t h e i r  but d i d serve  green  a n d some  of the product's  impacts,  the  t h e EcoLogo  t o issue  participants the product  impacts,  with  comment.  agreed  groups  the  those  familiar  p a r t i c i p a n t s acknowledged  attention  available hard  of  to e l i c i t  focus  convince  any  were  product,  recognized  o f many  enough  The  37.5% mentioned the  they  p a r t i c i p a n t s unanimously enough.  who a r e  o f t h e sample  who  i t was n o t n o t i c e a b l e  focus  only  reported  of those  added t h e  f o r consumers  t o the opinion  f o r many  The  respondents  true  55.0% o f t h e sample  EcoLogo.  EcoLogo,  many  i s only  t h e EcoLogo.  i n their  whereas,  However,  was  whereas t h e  ECP  might  set a higher  goal  the EcoLogo  enough  t o advertise  source  of cost-effective advertising that  taken  A  f u l l  second  of  i t s e l f  of making  advantage  shop.  frequently  are less  shop  labels.  f a i r l y  product.  third  that  recognition  the  sacrificing  quality.  made  shops  while  shopping  q u a l i t y as the reason, This  purchase  by  choice  may  i s a  about  t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e sample  the 35.0% o f the  t o low  as  common  green  i n the  i s  strong  simulated  who  chose  f o r one f i f t h  n o t due t o hard  119  means  misperception  products  other  consideration f o r  f a i r l y  buying  accounting  r e s u l t was  a  t o  contribute  80.0% of those  sample.  of  often.  consumers'  this  on  comparison  more n o t i c e a b l e  that  that  total  they  i n v e s t i g a t i n g whether  I t appears  exercise  shop  t o the EcoLogo  f i f t h  less  there  consumers  product  consumers  i t i s noticed  I t appears  to influence  comparison gave  every  characteristic  among  which  exposed  characteristics override  misperception  i s a  noticeability  65.0% reported  be  that  uncovered  environment.  enough  should  the  do n o t c o m p a r i s o n  t o be  comparison  was  with  who  on a t l e a s t  consumer  This  has not y e t been  f o r increasing  t h e sample,  the likelihood  population  product  often,  l i k e l y  The EcoLogo  increase  The  argues  Consumers  Of  products.  date.  i s the frequency  comparison  product  of t o  result that  t h e EcoLogo  on c e r t i f i e d  prominent  as the  NUGOLD of the  information information  was  identical  were the  also  hence  of other  the quality  ignore  contribute  information  that  The  the quality  EcoLogo  about  c e r t i f i e d  EcoLogo  products  The  AND  EcoLogo,  mean the  appears  symbol'.  EcoLogo  However  Program  volunteered  from  product's  label  for  briefed  look  result  claims  ECOLOGO,  t o  and  The  national  ECOLOGO  only  directly  Statement  55.0% recognized  Only 15.0% knew, g u e s s e d o r on the  made  they  responded  would  i n conjunction  s u g g e s t s t h e ECP needs  120  with on  were  t o the  believe  t o focus  responsible  participants  involvement by saying  and that  sample  was  interview  many  to  involvement i nthe  communicated.  Program,  meaning  u n d e r s t o o d t h e EcoLogo  while  structured  program  i t s environmental  t h e Canadian Government  After  f o r t h e EcoLogo  impacts,  more d e t a i l e d  the government's  o f government  environmental This  considerate,  on t h e EcoLogo  information  THE  sample  the Attribution  t h e EcoLogo.  consumers  consumers.  t o communicate  i s not well  that  some  ,of t h e E c o L o g o .  other  a n d 3 0 . 0 % when a s k e d  discerned  Concern  meet o r e x c e e d  OF  from  70.0% of t h e interview environmentally  lead  o i la n d  PROGRAM?  i n isolation  information, well:  ECOLOGO  motor  ecological  t o reach  WHAT I S C O N S U M E R U N D E R S T A N D I N G  participants  products.  may  t o low recognition  group  o f t h e ECO  a product's  r e q u i r e m e n t s needs  PRODUCTS,  focus  of green products  information  quality  labels.  concerned about  quality  about  on both  they  would  the  t h e EcoLogo. strategies  now  about is  how  t o better  responsible  would  l i k e l y  communicate  that  f o rt h e EcoLogo  increase  the Canadian  as t h i s  aspect  the c r e d i b i l i t y  Government  of the  of the claims  logo  f o r many  consumers.  As  mentioned i n the previous  interviews common  and strong  EcoLogo  suggest  operation  W H A T DO SOURCE  90%  would  knowledge  NEED  TO  I N F O R M A T I O N TO  listening  quality.  MAKE ACT  t o a brief  THE  include  decisions,  a n d many  government's behaviours generally  t h e EcoLogo  ECOLOGO  attempts  easier.  Program's point  PROGRAM  supportive  t o t h e amount  products, problem  the research  areas  i n their  CREDIBLE  that  they  appreciated the  ecologically  motivated that  consumers a r e  program.  indicate First,  121  they  purchasing  of information provided  results  Program,  reported  findings indicate  f o rconsumers.  A  of t h e EcoLogo  future  o f t h e EcoLogo  and type  i n time.  ON?  t o make  These  including  t h e EcoLogo  at this  description  reported  f a i r l y  Consumers'  about  o f t h e EcoLogo limited  i s a  green products,  of understanding  be e x t r e m e l y  CONSUMERS OF  that  there  of the structured interview participants  would  As  their  the structured  indicate  a r e o f compromised  low levels  that  groups  misperception  products,  relatively  After  and the focus  section,  a  there  on  EcoLogo  are three  significant  number o f  consumers  are having  information various sample  trouble interpreting  provided.  degrees  Clearly  about  the public  environmental  was  unsure  about  ecological  impact  i n f o r m a t i o n on  motor  o i l ) label,  "Over  50% r e - r e f i n e d  Second, made  some  skeptical product,  in  the  as  t h e EcoLogo  were  not as  c l a i m s made  increase  the c r e d i b i l i t y  research  of the focus  program. of  consumers  (ECO  Statement:  agreed  suggests  Environics supports  asked  that  they  were  directly,  t o be  skeptical  product.  The  increasing  hypothesis.  122  This  would  also  the  focus  i s an a p p r o p r i a t e , eco-labelling  consumers'  responsibility A  of  qualitative  one s o l u t i o n :  government  claims  who  t o increase recognition  suggest  c e r t i f i e d  participants  l i k e l y  the EcoLogo. this  Of t h e  of environmental  a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f an that  claims  on the EcoLogo  on t h e EcoLogo  that  Government's t o trust  the ecological  of the EcoLogo.  groups  and c r e d i b l e  the Canadian  help by  actions taken  This  Criteria  when  skeptical found  that  accountable  of the  product's  as c r e d i b l e .  claims  i t was  participants  or of a l l of the  22.5% volunteered  As w e l l ,  suggests  group  product  sample,  themselves  environmental  o f some  t h e sample  and 35.0% o f respondents,  recognized  to  a s 4 0%  t h e ECP's  of the environmental  general.  i s informed  issues,  d i d not judge  sample  interview  characterised  environmental  o i l " .  consumers  on t h e EcoLogo  structured  the meaning  including  the  awareness  f o r t h e ECP  quantitative A  would  finding  1994 E n v i r o n i c s  poll  found  that  responsible some  after  hearing  f o r t h e EcoLogo,  or a great  deal  that  the federal  71% of Canadians  of confidence  government said  they  i n the EcoLogo  as a  was  had buying  guide.  Another  aspect  o f t h e ECP  consumers'  perceptions  the  choice  of product  the  ECP's  thought chosen on  final  t o certify  gasoline drive for  personal  ECP's  part,  to  use t h e EcoLogo  advertisements  that  ecologically choosing  on  o i l .  biking  may  i s a  F  The  second F  makes  misinterpret  behaviour  legitimate  contains  Mohawk  123  i s  rather  certified  g a s o l i n e s and on i t s  as good  examples  a personal  o r car-pooling over  to  transcripts  of the  These  the  concern but,  education the  t o eliminate the  behaviour.  They  ethanol-blended  and t h i r d  serve  driving  the burden  products.  sound  i t s ethanol-blended  of  t h e ECP h a d  reduces  o i l and  advertisements.  can serve  EcoLogo sound  This  Appendix  i n Appendix  o f messages buying  motor  that  similar  consumers  l i s t  participants  i t i s an i s s u e o f consumer  television  motor  group  i t i s ecologically  credibility.  s i x Mohawk  types  some  influence  reviewing a  the products  t o other  t o  o f t h e EcoLogo i s  appropriate as each  automobiles.  of  re-refined  that  of re-refined  t h e most  than  part,  that  as meaning  After  the focus  compared  however,  certification  guidelines.  were  the environment  has t h e p o t e n t i a l  of the c r e d i b i l i t y  guidelines,  f o r t h e most  worried,  that  what  misinterpretation automobile  advertisements driving  of  alone.  an  promote  The  research  also  established  product  t r a i t s  believe  make a p r o d u c t  one  i n developing  exception.  volunteered their  that  product  less  harmful  Of t h e i n t e r v i e w  that  a company's  evaluation  t h e ECP c o n s i d e r s  of whether  guidelines  t h e same  that  consumers  t o the environment,  with  respondents, 15.0%  ecological a product  ethic  was  was p a r t  of  environmentally  considerate.  The  third  about  problem  area  the quality,  f o rconsumers  safety  Consumers  d i dnot access  product's  label.  simulated  comparison  the  reason  ECP's  final  should or  exceed  national  This  section  Environmental integrating  Step The  selected  choice.  After  the focus that  THE  apply  Choice  Program,  the research  i nt h e  a  of the  that i t  products  and safety  meet  standards.  PROGRAM.  findings  and suggest into  q u a l i t y as  l i s t  believed  c e r t i f i e d  research  findings  on t h e sample  reviewing  ENVIRONMENTAL CHOICE these  eco-products.  80% s i t e d  groups  EcoLogo  information  NUGOLD  quality, performance  FOR  w i l l  who  of  information  exercise,  explicit  RECOMMENDATIONS  q u a l i t y  shopping  guidelines,  b e made  and performance  Of t h o s e  f o rt h e i r  involves  three  t o the stages i n  t h e ECP's  operations.  One f i r s t  ECP's  step  i s t o communicate  licensees.  appropriate  venue.  The l i c e n s e e This  the research  Marketing  communication  124  findings  Manual  would  may  serve  be two  t o the an  purposes. the to  First,  benefits their  1)  may  Second,  f o r f u t u r e changes  should  Green  be  flags  distance,  take  the opportunity to  of the research by applying the research  operations.  licensees points  licensees  i t may  serve  i n t h e ECP's  are visual  signals  consumers  harmful  t o t h e environment.  colours  i n labelling,  that  that  and choosing  or "green-that".  appreciate  green  flags  a name  Research  as they  serve  are only  2)  As  the  traits  consumers  widening the  that  accept  has a  become make  more  ecological  packaging  Consumers  don't  want  less  harmful  i s not treated  recycled  about  with  125  are not  specifically  issues,  choice are  are buying  want  product  but  products they  won't  i f i thas  i s hard  chlorine  impacts.  ecological  they  paper,  consumers  their  Increasingly,  that  green  environment.  Consumers  o r packaging just  on t h e  the product  a  less  that  i fthey  an environmental  ethic.  from  be  ecological  flags  educated  contradictions.  an e c o l o g i c a l l y  that  Four  f o rthe product,  communicates  burden  a product  ecological  excessive  paper  lesser  t o include not just  company's  without  deterred by green that  may  t o attract  Consumers  statement  seen  has found  to the issue of the product's  by a  c a n be  include using  attention  the product  prepare  requirements.  a product  Examples  "eco-this"  why  findings  emphasized.  and a l e r t  substantiated  t o  reap  t o  they  bleach.  recycle.  want  recycled  Consumers  have  low  confidence  friendly  products  environment. t r a i t s There  and  can  and  More  products  companies  consumers  i s a  EcoLogo  i n companies  are  p l e t h o r a of  certified  These  Statement  i n educating  comprehensive confidence such  3)  to  i n a  company  Consumers  f o r the  environment  non-ecological  and  advertisement product  power the  on  smart  the  market  by  i n the from  going  to  which  making  a  ECP's  can  and  i t s  Criteria a  system.  i t s products  companies  product's  developing  management  having  company  beyond  to  selective.  Consumers'  be  increased  product  t r a i t s  while  with  shopping.  i s important  not  to  i n marketing economic  advantages  i n Appendix  products  ecological  override a l l other  other  a l l of  on  the  not  benefits  any  consider  does  i n f o r m a t i o n about  benefits  a  I t  ecologically-  measures.  c o n s i d e r many  considerations.  include  and  don't  i n addition  consumers,  environmental  both  increasingly  range to  s e l l  competing  confidence  recycle,  pro-environment  Concern  on  behaviours  easy  are  becoming  products  packaging  that  behaviours  i n c r e a s e consumers'  products.  that  F  plans.  savings,  I t  a  product's i s wise  personal  to  health  of  a  product(s).  The  f i n a l  provides  a  good  of  selling  i t s advantages. and  ignore  reads:  environment".  126  "How  The to  example  advertisement save  money,  and  i s  for  save  4)  When  selecting  significant about  number  quality,  information on  less  of consumers  h e s i t a t e as they  performance  about  the product's  information  ecologically  more  quality, label.  products, are  or safety.  This  performance  or safety  One  prominent  harmful  solution  may  so consumers  i s true  be  a concerned  even  when  i s provided  t o make  can access  this  i t more  easily.  Step The  Two second  suggested  step  re-evaluate  the EcoLogo  should  f u l l  to  take  manual  and strengthened was  green  darker  changed  Additional  higher  labelling,  t o t h e ECP  on products.  of the opportunity i t s appearance updated  t h e ECP Pantone  369  colour  contrasts, using  and r e q u i r i n g t o bear  green  EcoLogo  the EcoLogo  127  The  EcoLogo  8  the  1992, p . 3 ) .  the presence  of  requirements, point  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e EcoLogo,  licensees incorporate  EcoLogo  348, making  Issue  increasing i t s size  ECP  Standards  colour.  t o Pantone  (EcoLogo  The  c e r t i f i e d  i t s Graphics  corporate  i s to  f o r the  on  f o r further strengthening  t o draw  appropriate,  research  i t appears  and e a s i e r t o read  include:  cards  requiring  from  options  EcoLogo  requiring (POP)  through  I n 1992, t h e ECP  Green  the  as  advantage  advertise i t s e l f  products.  of this  flags  c e r t i f i e d  of  purchase  suggesting  into  their  products,  i n an enduring  or  form.  where  There easy  are several t o emboss  reusable  with  shopping  efficient  lamps,  efficient  major  form  meets due  t o their  The  The  their  quality that  ventilators,  would  establish  and safety  a  a  and of  the  on products  similar  scheme  EcoLogo  that  c e r t i f i c a t i o n on  permanent  Standards  standards  rather than  systems,  energy  t o consumers  directly  to design  and  be  energy  of the Canadian  t h e CSA  itself,  would  composting  o f the EcoLogo  success  of labelling  found  b y t h e ECP,  "unheard  numbers  a  product  i s  l i k e l y  sticker  i s  packaging.  may  serve  as  a  f o r t h e ECP.  the C r i t e r i a motor  o i l " .  are being  are referred  text.  First,  information that consumers  on t h e sample  Third, among  i t appears consumers  considerate products  128  are having  are of  by t o as  some  gives  i n f o r m a t i o n on  Statement  held misperception  environmentally  These  i n t h e subsequent  Second,  that  received o r understood  the environmental  re-refined  messages  of consumers.  claims.  understanding  commonly  important  are not receiving  EcoLogo  including  three  are not being  messages"  consumers  50%  This  that  Three  significant  to  recovery  advertising  by which  research  sent  including:  conserving products,  on t h e product  prototype  The  water  heat  requirement  CSA m o d e l  Step  bags,  products  (CSA) i n c o m m u n i c a t i n g  o r exceeds  placed  t h e EcoLogo  available.  Association  c e r t i f i e d  appliances.  of low-cost  products  EcoLogo  c r e d i b i l i t y  d i f f i c u l t y  products product: there  i s a  that compromised  "Over  quality, not on  performance  accessing the  The  ECP  past  has  few  mediums  marketing  that  print, venues  messages  Program,  the  POP  outlets  information three the  messages  the  a  as  and  consumers  safety  ECP  information  i s to  decide  what  down  these  break  they to  of  the  i s an  youths  to  Campaign.  the  These  mediums"  are  Point  provide  occur  w i l l  consumers  on  the  be  an  the at  a  point time  EcoLogo  environmental  of  to  claims  environmental  129  or  choice.  (POP)  classroom-based to  as  the  POP  Of  the  Program  POP may  i n  detailed  deliver  they or  found  label.  sale.  product,  more  Purchase  more  the  when  the  text.  with  which  the  ECP's  these  commonly  perhaps  the  referred  product's  by  of  the  i n subsequent  mediums,  at  of  and  i n  adults using  Three  information cards  i s found  of  and  plan  communicate  R e l a t i o n s Campaign  consumers  c r e d i b i l i t y  marketing  television.  consumers:  messages  quality  product  i n  effectively  comprehensive  a p p r o p r i a t e mechanism  communicate about  most  recommended  to  that  than  detailed  most  and  f o r the  targets both  are  messages  shelf-talkers  r e t a i l  step  would  radio  Media  Awareness  "detailed  results  performance  third  developed  detailed  School  This  barriers.  years of  The  venue(s)  informational  safety.  quality,  eco-products.  communication  and  i s  these displays  be  wondering  questioning  s p e c u l a t i n g about  the why  Next,  s t r a t e g i e s more  message ECP  w i l l  be  on  the EcoLogo  information graphic  requirements  ensuring ethic,  that  and  conducts  be  research enhanced  product  consumers labels.  do  licensees that  that  that  a  have  a  they  can  environmental  include:  communicating strong  independent  t o consumers  f o r EcoLogo  f o r consumers  of Environment not t y p i c a l l y  presented  changing  the  providing  shared  a  values,  ecological  third  party  Canada",  read  A t t r i b u t i o n Statement  the  size  of the EcoLogo,  and  t o the EcoLogo  with  the  a  be  print  made  This  be  EcoLogo  to f a c i l i t a t e  "An  product  of the  placed  was  that  on  larger  can  Canadian  sample  suggesting  the size  i t should  i t s e l f  that  certification.  the fine  should  of the EcoLogo  A t t r i b u t i o n Statement:  t o increasing  the  the  of  the c r e d i b i l i t y  communicating  In addition  proximity  symbol  had the accompanying  mark  consumers  These  line,  i s responsible  that  o f f i c i a l  convince  to the  testing.  suggests  even  unheard  of the A t t r i b u t i o n Statement,  EcoLogo  by  of the three  a d d i t i o n a l refinements  credible  information  compliance  problem  a  communicating  Government a  Five  t o help as  t o two  i n the marketplace.  1-800-Eco-Logo  The  discussed.  a r e recommended  rely  specific  EcoLogo,  i n relation  to  i n closer  consumers  making  connection.  Another  way  t h e ECP  could  EcoLogo  i s by providing  increase  personal  130  consumer  answers  to  confidence consumers'  i n the  questions  through  consumers  felt  questions  at  about  phoning  and  office  third  to  way  at  part, Report  does  the  to  not the  consumers  incur  the A  whether  could  shared this  type  the  less  For  states:  environment. shared  renovate,  as  I t  detailed  messages  As  consumers  consider  a  some  reuse  option" of  the  would  i s  a  be  by The  their  ECP's  instances,  w i l l  (ECP  include these  shared  shared  to  be  the  value i s :  adverse ECP  to  1991 the  continue  Report  most  impact  identify value  on some  messages  mechanisms.  company's  product  personnel  consumers. with  example,  the  three  offices  option.  and  that  the  new  confidence  i s recommended  in  a  ECP  by  ECP's  ECP's  viable  an  and  ECP  cost-analysis  have  values  the  additional  a l lproducts  these  whether  or  their  information, f o r the  "In  example  of  evaluating  the  If  confident  the  communication  consumers.  Another  i s best  the  this  e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y sound  buying  of  of  the  1991).  reach  phoning  i s a  but  to  more  costs of  values  Stakeholders  repair,  feel  i n c r e a s e consumer  literature, reach  answer  Making  this  to  Stakeholders  by  number.  to  can  detailed  decision most  or  604-664-9088.  ECP  program  l i k e l y  613-952-9440,  p r e s e n t l y does  various  w i l l i n g  would  Today  would  the  1-800-Eco-Logo  someone  they  determine  communicating ECP  a  distance charges.  required  A  at  of  was  cost,  accessible long  use  EcoLogo.  Ottawa  Vancouver more  there  no  buying  the  ecological  ethic  i n  i s environmentally considerate,  131  the  ECP  would  gain  c r e d i b i l i t y  among  their  licensees.  could  take.  Currently  certify  companies  policies.  possible  program.  In the  Or, that  goes  beyond  that  the  own  A  have  future,  unannounced  the  may  follow  this  an  consumer may  ECP  to  use  could  factory  Ontario  holds  contract  gain  claims  and  detailed with  this  to  ECP  as  an  everything messages  mediums  that a l l  the  by licences.  develop  information.  132  used  l i k e l y has  of  i s  reach  Kanata  agency. to  nothing  the  by  third  L t d . of  technical  party One  sound.  including  independent  Systems  to  their  confidence  a r e more  deceit.  that  ecologically  ECP's  third  be  an  the  recommended  EcoLogo to  with code  i t i s  consumer  consumers  could  require  program to  by  should this  compliance testing,  t o be  by  ECP  practices  well,  Communications  lose  the  companies  business  i s done  to  procurement  information  independent to  certify  preference  that  knowledge,  to  green  f o r this  program  ECP  procurement  want  As  ethic  the  expansion of  business  their  audits,  Calian  this  may  increase  Currently  EcoLogo  ECP  a  program  f o r future  this  consumers  the  green  this  policies.  party.  with  of  wish  f o r making  the  communicating  Armed  adopted  this  approaches  i s developing  prepare licensees  licensees  way  ECP  procurement  ECP  various  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  have  i n i t i a t i v e s  f i f t h  ECP  directions  the  communicating EcoLogo  that  licensees  program. EcoLogo  the  are  During development  consider  EcoLogo  There  i f they encouraged  trust to  three  consumers  The  second  EcoLogo impact  informational  products  i s the  information.  mediums  c o u l d be  specific  descriptions  of  the  This  the  have,  of  of  F  prevented  saying:  choice  the  the  good on  to  programs.  spilled  A  F  a i r " .  dumped  An  of  product  contained  "...  and  to  i n  the  impact  from  the  over have  150  been  advertisement  product  used  our  consumers  choices,  exert  sixth  Valdez  into  non-EcoLogo  their  emissions  of  many  i n general.  reads:  impact  i n the  of  communicating  The  litres  product  educate  purchasing  of  tailpipe  million  o i l ,  choice that's  disaster,  by four  has  been  environment...".  SUSTAINABILITY  realize  past  our  to  a l l of  environment.  harmful  with  advertisements  i n Appendix  being  FOR  impacts  examples  the  serve  ecological  messages  impact  behaviours  environmental 200  from  sound  the  rather than  EcoLogo  television  into  amount  IMPLICATIONS order  of  going  "Over  prevented  extend  reinforce  provide  translates  In  to  pounds  consumers  EcoLogo  purchasing  detailed  cumulative  ecological  advertisement  million  times  of  Mohawk  product  fourth  buy  ecologically  the  Appendix  to  consumers  the  information would  kinds  encourage  Two  of  provide  products.  choices  A l l three to  choosing  to  c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y of  used  consumer's  about  barrier  sustainability,  the  government  and  go  further  c r i t i c a l  mass  of  people  133  effort  than must  w i l l  have  eco-labelling adopt  a  strong  to  ecological and  the  become  ethic  way  that  they  familiar  behaviours,  like  information  can  changes  live. with  the  way  they  I t i s necessary  the  adverse  consumerism, serve  to  motivate  on  world  for individuals  impacts  have  perceive the  that  the  to  their  environment.  changes  i n ethics  This  and  l i f e s t y l e .  It  i s i n the  Program  role  takes  broad  involving Program  The  objective  associated  i n f o r m i n g consumers  i t s most  sustainability. its  of  with  the  significant  importance of  Canadians.  Through  p r o v i d e s , i t can  Canadians  about  the  strides  of  the  reducing the  consumption  way  of  the  the  EcoLogo  towards  EcoLogo  goods,  to  regard  shift  the  past  impacts  informing  information a  engendering  extends  environmental  f a c i l i t a t e they  that  the  and  EcoLogo  i n thinking  world's  among  ecological  systems.  FUTURE There are  RESEARCH are  suggested  section.  1)  many p o s s i b l e  How  Some  do  by of  the  f o r future  recommendations  these  consumers  directions  made  research  i n the  research questions are  respond  to  different,  respond  to  POP  that  previous  l i s t e d  more  below.  prominent  EcoLogos? 2)  How  do  consumers  developed  to  communicate  more  134  displays  detailed  that  were  messages  to  consumers?  Has  t h e POP  display  communicated  the  intended  messages? 3)  What  are the parameters  o f t h e ECP's  role  i n  informing  consumers? 4)  How  can businesses  communicate  their  ecological  ethic  t o  knowledge  of  consumers? 5)  From a  6)  what  sources  products'  How  impacts  can consumers'  compromised  One  do  needs  considerable  on  quality,  a r e many  influence  their  decisions  quality, price,  considerations. compare  interval there  some  scale,  recycled  toilet  price  n o t know what  i s a  impacts  i f a  eradicated?  to the  t o stimulate  When  brand  a  consumers a r e  f a i r l y  follows  about  i n a  form  135  environmental  the rules  are not that  consumer  that  most  an Often  ecological where  there  i s easy  paper,  reduce  of  facile.  has the choice  t o i l e t  that  easy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  i n cases  would  t o buy  and  Even  or unbleached  choice  ahead  products  information  i t i s rarely  paper  what  a s money  label.  For instance,  looks  be  are of  characteristics that  aesthetics,  l i t t l e  on a product's  that  projects.  about  products  or very  eco-products  o r performance  product  ecological  information,  compare.  would  between  i s no  impacts  Whereas  that  has the p o t e n t i a l  number o f r e s e a r c h  there  to  safety  o f consumers,  their  environment?  question,  shopping,  include:  the  derive  misperception  additional research  future  consumers  i s  t o of  they  the impacts  buying s t i l l t o  the  ecosystem.  towards be  Both  comparing  informational  and p r i c i n g  the environmental burdens  approaches  of products  could  studied.  7)  How make a l l  c a n we  move  towards  meaningful  What  options  information impact  system  by which  environmental impact  products on the  7a)  a  consumers  comparisons  can  between  market?  exist that  f o rproviding  allows  comparisons  them  between  consumers  with  t o make e n v i r o n m e n t a l  a l lproducts on t h e  market? 7b)  Would each an  a  system  of f u l l - c o s t pricing,  product's environmental costs  appropriate  replacement  that  translated  into  dollars  be  o r companion  t o eco-  labelling? 7c)  Could  t h e ECP b e g i n  to l a y foundations f o rf u l l - c o s t  pricing? 7d)  Through buy  7e)  what  into  the  informational  (SCS) Report  Report Card,  Card,  now,  t o provide  information  consumers  and  industry  o r a t what comparable  point  w i l l  i t be  environmental  impact  on a l lproducts?  system,  S c i e n t i f i c C e r t i f i c a t i o n  i s already  attached  w i l l  system?  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March  Consumer  Guide. T o r o n t o :  " R e s p o n s i b l e M a r k e t e r s Work (21/28 December 1992):6.  7  97  World."  pp. 1 5 6 - 1 7 5 .  56 (Oct  1991):687-691.  Schossberg, Howard. "Marketers Warned t o Heed Message o f ' E c o l o g i s m ' : G r e e n M a r k e t i n g . " Marketing News 2 6 ( 3 0 M a r c h 1992) :6. (SCS)  S c i e n t i f i c  Certification  Card: Consumer Research California:  Gerstman  . Environmental Environmental  Systems.  (Phase III),  andMeyers  Report  Inc,  Environmental Report Evaluation Report. August  Card: Linking  Performance.  California,  Quality  1993.  and Value  A 2 page  With  information  sheet, 1994. Shewchuk, Ron. "Green 1993) :16-20. Sommers, Etzel,  Gold?"  Communication  World 1 0 ( M a y  Montrose S . ; B a r n e s , J a m e s G.; S t a n t o n , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l J . ; W a l k e r , B r u c e J . Fundamentals Of  141  J . ;  Marketing. 1992 . Stahel,  6th  Walter  Variable: Policy  "They  Ryerson  Limited,  "Hidden Resources, Product Life as a Notion of Utilization." S c i e n c e and Public to  Protect  W. a n d S h a m d a s a n i , P r e m N . Focus A p p l i e d S o c i a l Research Methods C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1990.  Groups,  Stewart, 20.  McGraw-Hill  (1986):185-193.  Stavins, Robert Environment."  and  Toronto:  R.  The  13  ed.  N. "Harnessing Environment 31  Market Forces (1989):4-35.  David  Practice.  Scream,  Alberta 20/20. A sizes,  We  Business  Scream,  8  We  (Sept  A l l Scream  f o r More  Series,  the  Theory vol  Green."  1991) :5.  segment on p r o d u c t s 6 June 1995.  that  have  decreasing  serving  Wackernagel, M a t h i s w i t h The T a s k F o r c e on P l a n n i n g H e a l t h y Sustainable Communities. "How B i g i s Our Ecological Footprint?." U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, (November 1 9 9 3 ) :8 . Yearley,  Issues,  The Green Case: A Sociology of Arguments and Politics. London: Harper  Steven.  Academic,  1991.  142  &  Environmental Collins  A P P E N D I X A - THE C A N A D I A N GOVERNMENT'S REGULATORY ENVIRONMENTAL L A B E L L I N G  ROLE  IN  C o n s u m e r a n d C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s C a n a d a (CCAC) i s r e s p o n s i b l e for regulating product labelling. "Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s c l e a r l y has t h e a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t r o l information on l a b e l l i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g . In fact, there i s l e g i s l a t i o n i n place that prohibits false or misleading i n f o r m a t i o n on package l a b e l s and i n a d v e r t i s i n g " (ESP 1992, p.75). This l e g i s l a t i o n c a n be f o u n d under The C o m p e t i t i o n A c t a n d The Consumer Packaging and L a b e l l i n g A c t . CCAC h a s t a k e n t h e t i m e t o d e f i n e i t s r o l e i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l labelling: "... t o p r o v i d e c o n s u m e r s w i t h a c c u r a t e a n d meaningful information, and not t o s e t environmental standards" (ESP 1992, p . 7 5 ) . I t p u b l i s h e d a document i n May 1991 t i t l e d Guiding P r i n c i p l e s f o rEnvironmental L a b e l l i n g and Advertising. T h i s document i n t e r p r e t s C a n a d i a n Law a n d g u i d e s industry i n complying with regulations. T h i s g u i d e was d e v e l o p e d i n December o f 1990 b y a w o r k i n g group t h a t included i n d u s t r y and a d v e r t i s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada, t h e Consumers A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, t h e Department o f t h e Environment, and the R e c y c l i n g Council o f Ontario. Some s a y g u i d e l i n e s a r e n o t a s t r o n g e n o u g h d e t e r r e n t t o misleading a d v e r t i s i n g , and they would l i k e t o see l e g i s l a t i o n that restricts environmental claims ( K e e l e r 1992) . One American state has introduced l e g i s l a t i o n that l i m i t s the use of environmental terms w i t h t h e C a l i f o r n i a Environmental A d v e r t i s i n g Claims A c t o f 1990. By 1992 a c o a l i t i o n o f a d v e r t i s i n g and manufacturing groups had banned together t o p r o t e s t t h i s a c t o n t h e b a s i s t h a t i t v i o l a t e s F i r s t Amendment rights concerning non-commercial and f a c t u a l commercial speech (Lawrence and C o l f o r d 1992). In addition, the constantly changing nature o f our knowledge about e c o l o g i c a l systems, and h e n c e what i n f o r m a t i o n i s h e l p f u l t o c o n s u m e r s t o make e c o e t h i c a l c h o i c e s make w r i t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t i s t i m e l y a n d advantageous d i f f i c u l t .  143  A P P E N D I X B - NON-GOVERNMENT O R G A N I Z A T I O N S ' IN ENVIRONMENTAL L A B E L L I N G  (NGO's)  INVOLVEMENT  The c o n t a c t t e l e p h o n e n u m b e r s and a d d r e s s e s o f t h e s e and other a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n e c o - l a b e l l i n g can be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x I. The  Environmentally  Sound P a c k a g i n g C o a l i t i o n  (ESP)  The Environmentally S o u n d P a c k a g i n g (ESP) C o a l i t i o n of Canada is a non-profit corporation headquartered i n Vancouver. One of i t s concerns i s the d i r e c t i o n that green l a b e l l i n g has taken. "ESP was hearing f r o m c o n s u m e r s o n a d a i l y b a s i s who were c o n f u s e d , f r u s t r a t e d , and a n g r y o v e r e x a m p l e s of blatant m i s u s e of l a b e l l i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g c l a i m s . Many, a t the same t i m e s t a t e d t h e i r u r g e n t n e e d f o r c l e a r , accurate e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n on p r o d u c t s . ESP quickly recognized and feared that this trend could lead to a backlash against a l l products "improved" f o r the environment o r d i s p l a y i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l c l a i m s w h i c h w o u l d be contrary t o c o n s u m e r i n t e r e s t s " (ESP 1992, p.2). I n J u l y o f 1992, t h e ESP took a c t i o n by h o l d i n g three workshops c o - s p o n s o r e d by the Consumers' A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada p r o v i n c i a l b r a n c h e s i n V a n c o u v e r , W i n n i p e g and T o r o n t o . These workshops had the p u r p o s e of r e v i e w i n g , e v a l u a t i n g and making r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r the Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s ' (CCAC) Guiding Principles for Environmental Labelling and Advertising. The CCAC p a r t i c i p a t e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s and used the recommendations to a s s i s t them w i t h u p d a t i n g the Guidelines i n J u l y 1993 (ESP 1992).  The  Canadian Standards A s s o c i a t i o n  (CSA)  A n o t h e r non-government agency t h a t has been i n v o l v e d i n the issue of green l a b e l l i n g i s the Canadian Standards A s s o c i a t i o n (CSA). The CSA i s a not-for-profit private-sector organization. The CSA i s one of f i v e standards w r i t i n g bodies a c c r e d i t e d by the S t a n d a r d s C o u n c i l of Canada. They provide c e r t i f i c a t i o n and t e s t i n g s e r v i c e s w o r l d w i d e and are a c t i v e i n t h i r t y - s i x technology areas, including q u a l i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l management. I n November 1993, t h e CSA published G u i d e l i n e on E n v i r o n m e n t a l L a b e l l i n g (Z761-93) as a p a r t of t h e i r E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management s e r i e s . "This guideline was developed to a s s i s t businesses i n their e f f o r t s to identify acceptable environmental labelling for their products and packaging" (CSA 1993, p.vii). This guideline i s harmonized w i t h t h e CCAC g u i d e l i n e s , so t h a t b u s i n e s s e s t h a t f o l l o w the CSA g u i d e l i n e s w i l l be i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h f e d e r a l guidelines a n d C a n a d i a n Law. The fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between the CSA's and the CCAC's g u i d e l i n e s i s t h a t the CSA's has been  144  t a i l o r e d to guide (CSA 1993) .  business  beyond  what  regulations require  S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e USA, v a r i o u s groups have d r a f t e d v o l u n t a r y g u i d e l i n e s f o r environmental l a b e l l i n g i n c l u d i n g the Committee of A d v e r t i s i n g P r a c t i c e , t h e B r o a d c a s t A d v e r t i s i n g Clearance C e n t e r and the Radio A u t h o r i t y ( M a r k e t i n g 1993). The CSA h a s b e e n i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r e c o - l a b e l l i n g v e n t u r e s . The CSA c o n d u c t e d t h e E C P ' s p r o d u c t / s e r v i c e v e r i f i c a t i o n and c o m p l i a n c e a c t i v i t i e s f r o m A u g u s t 1990 t o May 1993. A l s o , the CSA, through the Standards C o u n c i l of Canada, h o l d s the main s e c r e t a r i a t f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l c o m m i t t e e s on q u a l i t y management ( T C 1 7 6 ) a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n a g e m e n t (TC2 07) f o r the I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n (ISO) (Beals, C a s c i o and W o l f 1994) . The CSA i s a l s o a p r o v i d e r o f e c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e EnerGuide label. EnerGuide l a b e l s m u s t be a t t a c h e d t o a l l new "big s i x " home a p p l i a n c e s . The "big s i x " are dishwashers, c l o t h e s washers, r e f r i g e r a t o r s , ranges (electric), freezers, and d r y e r s ( e l e c t r i c ) . The l a b e l r a t e s t h e a p p l i a n c e ' s e n e r g y u s e i n kWh per month. T h i s a l l o w s the consumer t o compare m a j o r a p p l i a n c e s on e n e r g y e f f i c i e n c y , w h i c h i s a second economic and e c o l o g i c a l p r i c e t a g ( P o l l u t i o n Probe Foundation 1989) . The  International  Organization for Standardization  (ISO)  The ISO b r i n g s t o g e t h e r i n d u s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m 92 c o u n t r i e s t o d e v e l o p v o l u n t a r y s t a n d a r d s i n many a r e a s i n c l u d i n g q u a l i t y management and e n v i r o n m e n t a l management. The ISO i s a n o p e n p r o c e s s , a n d a l l t h o s e who w a n t t o a n d are a b l e t o come t o t h e t a b l e a r e i n v i t e d . The ISO has demonstrated the importance of i t s consensus developed standards f o r doing business i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y with the w i d e s p r e a d u s e o f t h e ISO 9000 S e r i e s (TC176) f o r q u a l i t y management. Many f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n s u r a n c e c o m p a n i e s and r e g u l a t o r s make ISO 9000 c e r t i f i c a t i o n a r e q u i s i t e of doing business. The ISO T e c h n i c a l C o m m i t t e e on E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management (TC 207) was f o r m e d i n 1993 and i s c u r r e n t l y p r o d u c i n g a s e t of d o c u m e n t s t i t l e d t h e ISO 14000 S e r i e s . The I S O h a s 36 voting m e m b e r s o r P - m e m b e r s ( p a r t i c i p a t i n g m e m b e r s ) a n d 12 observer c o u n t r i e s on t h e committee. The s c o p e o f t h e ISO 14000 S e r i e s i s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n the f i e l d of e n v i r o n m e n t a l management t o o l s and systems. Sub-committees to develop g u i d i n g documents have been formed f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l management systems, environmental auditing, lifecycle assessment, environmental performance evaluation, lifecycle assessment, environmental product standards, industry mobilization and 145  environmental labelling. These documents don't s e t l i m i t values regarding pollutants or environmental performance levels. The f o c u s i s on what a r e t h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e management systems i n each area. E s t a b l i s h i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y a c c e p t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l management s t a n d a r d s c a n h e l p move u s t o w a r d s s u s t a i n a b l e development by producing an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y acceptable framework o f core minimum e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s ; b y p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r common u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t w e e n c o n s u m e r s , p r o d u c e r s a n d n a t i o n s ; by r e d u c i n g t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c burdens on and r e l u c t a n c e o f companies caused by the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l s t a n d a r d s ; a n d b y a s s i s t i n g c o m p a n i e s down t h e p a t h o f c o n t i n u a l improvement. An i n t e r n a t i o n a l approach a l s o reduces the l i k e l i h o o d that environmental standards r e s u l t i n nont a r i f f trade barriers. There a r e four working groups under t h e Environmental L a b e l l i n g Subcommittee. One i s d e v e l o p i n g t e r m s a n d definitions f o r specific applications i n environmental labelling. The second g r o u p i s g e n e r a t i n g a s e t o f environmental l a b e l l i n g symbols f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l use. t h i r d group i s working on environmental t e s t i n g and verification methodologies.  The  The f o u r t h g r o u p i s t r y i n g t o d e v e l o p some g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s for the v a r i o u s e c o - l a b e l l i n g programs around t h e world. This fourth group i s working a t developing c r i t e r i a f o rt h e c r i t e r i a makers, not a t developing product specific guidelines. The ISO document, when c o m p l e t e d , w i l l provide c r i t e r i a f o r e c o - l a b e l l i n g programs that w i l l help i n the development o f those programs' product s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a . For e x a m p l e , c r i t e r i a may r e q u i r e t h a t p r o d u c t s p e c i f i c guidelines are s c i e n t i f i c , (testable, transparent, reproducible) or that s e l f - d e c l a r a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r a i t s s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d . When t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l l a b e l l i n g d o c u m e n t s a r e c o m p l e t e , programs l i k e t h e ECP w i l l be a b l e t o a p p l y f o r ISO 14000 certification. International p a r t i c i p a t i o n should prevent e c o - l a b e l l i n g programs from becoming t h e next g e n e r a t i o n of non-tariff trade barriers (Beals, Cascio and Wolf 1994).  Scientific  Certification  Systems (SCS)  S c i e n t i f i c C e r t i f i c a t i o n Systems (SCS), a l s o know a s t h e G r e e n Cross, i s one o f two major, p r i v a t e , n o t - f o r - p r o f i t e c o l a b e l l e r s i n t h e USA. SCS p r o v i d e s t w o m a j o r environmental services f o rbusinesses. Their Environmental Claims C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1990 a n d c e r t i f i e s products t h a t have a l e s s e r burden on t h e environment based on their individual merits. T h e i r logo takes t h e form o f a t h i c k green cross w i t h a blue h a l f - g l o b e on t h e l e f t - h a n d side. Their second l a b e l l i n g approach, the Environmental Report Card 146  i s "... a new g e n e r a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l l a b e l l i n g b a s e d on f u l l d i s c l o s u r e r a t h e r t h a n p a r t i a l c l a i m s " (SCS 1994). Companies which d i s p l a y the Report Card are demonstrating commitment t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . The Environmental Report Card g r a p h i c a l l y communicates to consumers the environmental burdens of a product over i t s entire life-cycle. F i g u r e 5 s h o w s a SCS m o c k - u p o f t h e i r E n v i r o n m e n t a l Report Card. Other  Nation  Wide  Environmental  Labelling  Programs  Presently there are f o r t y e c o - l a b e l l i n g programs worldwide. The f i r s t was i n t r o d u c e d i n Germany i n 1977. Canada and other c o u n t r i e s have used Germany's Blue Angel e n v i r o n m e n t a l label as a b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r e c o - l a b e l l i n g schemes. As a r e s u l t , t h e r e a r e many s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e and goals of the programs: they l a b e l products w i t h a reduced environmental impact, they g r a d u a l l y define product groups and r e l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r i t e r i a , and i n v o l v e m e n t by business and consumers i s v o l u n t a r i l y . Most of the o t h e r n a t i o n a l ecol a b e l l i n g schemes v a r y from the Canadian program i n t h a t t h e r e i s a set p e r i o d f o r which the environmental c r i t e r i a are valid, often three years. Canada's approach i s ongoing: g u i d e l i n e s may b e u p d a t e d a n d b e c o m e m o r e s t r i n g e n t a t any time.  147  F\  Q  U  re5 • TV* e, CSC t n s h r o n N w A b A  ^ e ^ o A  C<xrA.  Environmental Report Card  4  Burdens from production, distribution, use and disposal. PRODUCTS PACKAGING: TYPE OF BURDEN  AMT.*  RESOURCE DEPLETIONWATER WOOD OIL GAS (non-fuel) MINERALS  ENERGY-USE -  TOTAL ENERGY USED  WORSE HEAVIER BURDENS  11 MJ  AIR POLLUTION^^¥S CARBON DIOXIDE CARBON MONOXIDE SULFUR OXIDES NITROGEN OXIDES HYDROCARBONS PARTICULATES UNCLASSIFIED HAZARDOUS  6 kg 97 g 150 g 34 g  BETTER  LOWER BURDENS  0.5 kg 2g 5g 5g 4g 1 g 0.002 g 50 mg  -WATEffPOLLUTION*: V S i - ^  TOTAL SOLIDS 3g OXYGEN DEPLETERS 0.05 g TOXIC 45 mg SOLID W A S T E 0 e f f * $ S ^ & r g S UNCLASSIFIED 250 g HAZARDOUS 0.9 g  IFOR INFORMATION CALL  Jl-800-ECO-FACTS  SCIENTIFIC CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS  \x\<\ T W -facWc VoAWe o<jV\V-¥r\e W<* eAer^s^Vxe xnofe fa^»A\v^ -Vt\e V>oc<W»s r i s e . TVus  TvckeA  \>K^  \Vve \ ( N c r o f x s \ o ^  148  SCO\Q.  <\se vs  on^eW^orr. <^r  APPENDIX  C  - GLOSSARY  OF  TERMS  To f a c i l i t a t e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d e f i n i t i o n s are provided below.  this  thesis,  a  few  The " A t t r i b u t i o n Statement" a t t r i b u t e s ownership of the EcoLogo to Environment Canada and must accompany the EcoLogo on p r o d u c t s . The A t t r i b u t i o n S t a t e m e n t r e a d s : "An o f f i c i a l mark of Environment Canada". A " C r i t e r i a Statement" i d e n t i f i e s the s p e c i f i c reason a p r o d u c t has r e c e i v e d the EcoLogo and must accompany the EcoLogo on p r o d u c t s . E a c h g u i d e l i n e h a s i t s own Criteria Statement. The " d e t a i l e d messages mediums" i n c l u d e t h e ECP's P o i n t of Purchase Program, t h e i r Media R e l a t i o n s Campaign, and their school-based Classroom Awareness Campaign. This definition i s specific to this thesis. The " E c o L o g o " i s a s y m b o l made up o f t h r e e d o v e s intertwined t o form a maple l e a f and i s e n c i r c l e d by the words "Environmental Choice - Choix Environnemental". The EcoLogo i s accompanied by a C r i t e r i a Statement and the Attribution Statement. The the  "Environmental Choice Program", the "ECP" are interchangeable terms.  "EcoLogo  Program"  and  " G r e e n f l a g s " a r e v i s u a l s i g n a l s on p r o d u c t s t h a t c a n be seen from a d i s t a n c e and have the p o t e n t i a l t o a l e r t consumers t h a t a p r o d u c t may b e l e s s h a r m f u l t o t h e environment. "Green products", " e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y c o n s i d e r a t e products" and " e c o l o g i c a l l y considerate products" are interchangeable terms d e f i n e d as p r o d u c t s t h a t have a l e s s e r b u r d e n on the environment than other products serving a similar purpose. "POP"  i s an  "Products"  abbreviation f o r point generally  A "Product S p e describes the apply for c e r t provides a des c a n be a v o i d e d products that  refers  to  both  of  purchase.  products  and  services.  c i f i c G u i d e l i n e " i s an ECP d o c u m e n t which c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a p r o d u c t must meet i n o r d e r t o i f i c a t i o n w i t h the EcoLogo. T h i s document also c r i p t i o n o f what t y p e s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage when consumers change t o EcoLogo p r o d u c t s from do n o t c o n s i d e r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n their design.  149  APPENDIX  D  - ENVIRONMENTAL  : : : :  Re-refined motor o i l . P r o d u c t s made f r o m r e c y c l e d plastic. Batteries. Water-borne surface coatings (Reduced-pollution water-based paint). Fine paper from recycled paper. Miscellaneous products from r e c y c l e d paper. Newsprint from recycled paper. Reduced p o l l u t i o n solvent based paints. Heat Recovery Ventilators. Diapers. Composting systems f o r r e s i d e n t i a l waste. Automotive fuels (ethanol-blended gasoline). Reusable u t i l i t y bags. Major household appliances. Energy-efficient lamps. Diaper services. Water c o n s e r v i n g products. Compost. Laundry detergents. Automatic dishwashing detergents. Batteries: non-rechargeable Domestic water heaters. Building materials: acoustical products. Dry c l e a n i n g services. Building materials: thermal insulation. Toner cartridges. Engine coolant concentrate. Adhesives. S e a l a n t s and c a u l k i n g compounds. Recycled water-borne surface coatings.  ECPECPECPECP-  01030407-  89 89 89 89  ECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECPECP-  0810111213141516171819212223242527343537404243•44•45•67-  89 : 89 : 89 : 89 : 89 : 89 : 90 : 90 : 90 : 90 : 90 : 90 : 90 : 90 : 90 : 90 : 90 : 90 : 91: 91 : 91: 91 : 91 : 92 : 92 : 94 :  Note: group  G u i d e l i n e s 40 participants.  C H O I C E PROGRAM'S  through  67 w e r e  150  FINAL  GUIDELINES  not presented t o focus  APPENDIX E PRODUCTS  - ECP  SAMPLE  FINAL  GUIDELINE:  E v e r y Canadian uses an average o f each day, m o s t l y f o r showers and f up t o an enormous demand on o u r f r consumes s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s of p u r i f i c a t i o n and h e a t i n g of water. the EcoLogo" on p r o d u c t s t h a t h e l p good e n v i r o n m e n t a l choice. The  Environmental Burden  Well over half the water for showers and f l u s h i n g Most showerheads transmit per m i n u t e , f a r more t h a n  Of  WATER-CONSERVING  390 l i t r e s o f w a t e r a t home lushing toilets. That adds e s h water r e s o u r c e s and energy i n the pumping, T h a t ' s why w e ' r e p u t t i n g conserve water. They're a  Household  Water  used i n Canadian toilets.  Use  homes  every  between 15 a n d 3 0 l i t r e s i s needed to get clean.  C o n v e n t i o n a l t o i l e t s u s e b e t w e e n 23 a n d 32 f l u s h , a t l e a s t f o u r t i m e s more w a t e r t h a n operate a water-saving t o i l e t .  day  of  l i t r e s of i s needed  i s  water  water to  per  The p r o d u c t i o n o f d r i n k a b l e w a t e r f o r u s e i n s h o w e r s and toilets i n c r e a s e s t h e demand on o u r f r e s h w a t e r r e s o u r c e s and p l a c e s an e n d l e s s s t r a i n on o u r w a t e r p u r i f i c a t i o n p l a n t s . As w e l l , e v e r y b i t of energy consumed i n the pumping, h e a t i n g and treatment of water i s energy wasted i f the fresh water i s then wasted. The  Environmental Benefit  Of  Water  Conserving Products  Water-conserving showerheads r e p l a c e some o f t h e w a t e r w i t h a i r to produce a f o r c e f u l spray f u l l y capable of d e l i v e r i n g a p e r f e c t l y good shower. Showerheads c a r r y i n g the EcoLogo use a m a x i m u m o f 9.5 l i t r e o f w a t e r p e r m i n u t e , s a v i n g b e t w e e n 3 7% and 68% o f t h e w a t e r p r e v i o u s l y used, d e p e n d i n g on t h e showerhead b e i n g replaced. T r i c k l e valves, d e v i c e s i n s t a l l e d w i t h showerheads, c a n be used to reduce the water flow, rather than leaving i t running at f u l l f o r c e throughout the shower. Trickle valves carrying the E c o L o g o r e d u c e t h e w a t e r f l o w t o 4 0 0 mL p e r m i n u t e o r l e s s , h e l p i n g t o conserve water and energy t h a t would o t h e r w i s e be u s e d i f t h e s h o w e r was r u n c o n t i n u o u s l y . Water-conserving t o i l e t s c a r r y i n g the EcoLogo use o n l y 6 l i t r e s o f w a t e r o r l e s s p e r f l u s h , s a v i n g f r o m 50 t o 8 0 % o f the water used by c o n v e n t i o n a l t o i l e t s . Toilet retrofit components, s u c h as t o i l e t dams, c a n be i n s t a l l e d i n c o n v e n t i o n a l t o i l e t s t o r e d u c e t h e amount o f w a t e r s t o r e d i n  151  the t o i l e t tank, least 20%.  and  subsequently  W a t e r - c o n s e r v i n g f a u c e t s and s a v i n g b o t h water and energy Which  Water-Conserving  used  f o r flushing,  aerators reduce the used to heat water.  Products  Qualify  For  The  flow  by  at  rate  EcoLogo?  Each w a t e r - c o n s e r v i n g p r o d u c t must meet t h e . c r i t e r i a specific to i t s sub-category: showerheads, t r i c k l e valves, toilets, t o i l e t r e t r o f i t d e v i c e s , f a u c e t s and aerators. W a t e r - c o n s e r v i n g s h o w e r h e a d s must have a maximum f l o w r a t e o f l e s s t h a n 9.5 L / m i n a t 5.5 k g / c m . T r i c k l e v a l v e s must have a m a x i m u m f l o w r a t e o f 1.9 L / m i n w h e n i n " t r i c k l e " mode operation. W a t e r - c o n s e r v i n g t o i l e t s must use 6 l i t r e s o r less per flushing cycle. Water-conserving t o i l e t retrofit devices m u s t r e d u c e t h e w a t e r c o n s u m p t i o n b y a t l e a s t 2 0% w h e n t e s t e d u s i n g CSA S t a n d a r d C A N / C S A - B 4 5 . 0 . Water-conserving faucets a n d a e r a t o r s m u s t h a v e a m a x i m u m f l o w r a t e o f 6.4 L/min. at 4.1 kg/cm . 2  2  A l l products i n this and meet a p p r o p r i a t e f i t t i n g s as s p e c i f i e d For complete d e t a i l s conserving products, ECP-22.  g u i d e l i n e must have a t h r e e - y e a r w a r r a n t y CSA s t a n d a r d s f o r p l u m b i n g f i x t u r e s and i n each sub-category i n the guideline. of the c e r t i f i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r waterrefer to Environmental Choice" guideline  152  APPENDIX Mohawk  F  Television  Message: Image  - S I X MOHAWK A N D O N E P O W E R  Buy  A d #1  Mohawk  O c t o b e r 1 9 9 3 , 15 with EcoLogo. i f y o u want  Television  Message:  ADVERTISEMENT seconds,  cleaner a i r . Voice  Of  A d #2:  March  Going further really care.  Over:  "Mohawk i s a c o m p a n y with a difference. Now this i sour idea of return on i n v e s t m e n t , c l e a n e r a i r . T h a n k s t o Mohawk customers f i l l i n g up w i t h regular plus and premium p l u s ethanol blended gasolines. Cleaner gas, clearer thinking."  Clouds high i n t h e sky, as i f seen from a g l i d e r . Shows g a s pump w h i c h h a s a Mohawk s t i c k e r o n i t , a n d is i na prairie field. At bottom o f s c r e e n shows t h e Mohawk Logo, a n d "Mother Nature's Gas S t a t i o n '  Mohawk  SMART  1 95,  30 seconds,  than selling  our product,  Voice  Image O f : Hand p i c k s up s e t o f keys. I d y l l i c house and dog. Woman u s e s g a r a g e d o o r opener. Garage door opens, r e v e a l i n g a Volvo. Woman w a l k s i n t o garage. Woman r i d e s o u t o n b i k e w e a r i n g helmet. Shows Mohawk Logo. "Mother Nature's Gas S t a t i o n " .  153  no  EcoLogo. we  Over:  "To h e l p c u t d o w n o n a i r p o l l u t i o n , Teressa Green a l w a y s u s e s Mohawk c l e a n e r burning ethanol blended g a s o l i n e made w i t h Prairie grain i nher c a r . Mind y o u she doesn't always use h e r c a r . Mohawk, M o t h e r Nature's Gasoline."  Mohawk  Television  Message:  Image  A d #3:  March  1 9 9 5 , 30  We c a r e a b o u t m o r e t h a n for alternatives.  Television  Message:  Image  our bottom  Voice  Of:  Ad  #4:  no  EcoLogo.  line,  look  Over:  "To h e l p r e d u c e p o l l u t i o n i n t h e a i r B r i a n McDermit d r i v e s on Mohawk's c l e a n e r burning ethanol-blended g a s o l i n e made w i t h Prairie grain. That i s , when i t s h i s t u r n to drive. Mohawk, M o t h e r N a t u r e ' s G a s Station."  A close-up of a driver through the w i n d s h i e l d o f a c a r . The d r i v e r t u r n s t o h i s r i g h t and s m i l e s . The shot widens revealing a passenger. The c a r s t o p s a n d t w o more passengers enter. Shows Mohawk Logo. "Mother N a t u r e ' s Gas S t a t i o n " .  Mohawk  seconds,  March  1 9 9 5 , 30  seconds,  Individual action can prevent damage t o o u r e n v i r o n m e n t . Voice  Of:  Stop l i g h t changes from y e l l o w to r e d . Camera pans o v e r t o a stationary c a r which appears t o be s u c k i n g fumes o u t o f t h ea i r . Pedestrians and a bike pass. Shows Mohawk Logo. "Mother N a t u r e ' s Gas S t a t i o n " .  154  no  EcoLogo  substantial  Over:  "Since people f i r s t started f i l l i n g up w i t h Mohawk's ethanol-blended gasoline made w i t h p r a i r i e grain, o v e r 150 m i l l i o n pounds o f harmful tailpipe emissions have been p r e v e n t e d from going i n t o o u ra i r . Mohawk, M o t h e r N a t u r e ' s G a s Station."  Mohawk  Television  Message: Image  We  Ad  #5:  care  M a r c h 1 9 9 5 , 30 with EcoLogo. ing  and are  Television  Message:  Image  an educational Voice  Of:  Ad  #6:  approach.  Over:  "Environment Canada's EcoLogo has been awarded to 7 water conserving p r o d u c t s , 14 r e u s a b l e s h o p p i n g b a g s , 20 mercury free batteries, 30 recycled paper stationary products, but to o n l y one g a s o l i n e i n Western Canada. Cleaner burning ethanol-blended G a s o l i n e made f r o m Prairie Grain. O n l y a t Mohawk, Mother N a t u r e ' s Gas Station."  A d i s p l a y o f t h e d i g i t s 00. The d i g i t s i n c r e a s e b y increments o f one u n t i l t h e d i s p l a y shows 30. The s c r e e n pans out t o r e v e a l t h e d i s p l a y is of the dollar total at a g a s pump. T h e g a s pump h a s a large EcoLogo on i t s base a n d i s a t a Mohawk S t a t i o n . Shows Mohawk Logo. "Mother N a t u r e ' s Gas S t a t i o n " .  Mohawk  seconds,  March  1995, 30 seconds,  no  EcoLogo.  The r e s u l t s a r e i n , a n d w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r i s p r e v e n t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l e c o l o g i c a l damage. Voice  Of  Over:  "Over 200 m i l l i o n l i t r e s o f used o i l , t h a t ' s more t h a n f o u r t i m e s t h e amount spilled i n the Valdez d i s a s t e r , has been p r e v e n t e d from b e i n g dumped into our environment, t h a n k s t o Mohawk's used o i l c o l l e c t i o n and r e refinement program. Mohawk."  A seascape shot from the shore t h a t shows a s l o w moving black ocean and rocks that appear t o be c o a t e d i n o i l . Gradually transforms into an oil-free pristine setting. Birds f l y by. Shows Mohawk Logo.  155  Power  Smart  Message: Background  Television Save Music:  A d #1:  money  The B l u e  May  1 9 9 5 , 15  seconds.  and the environment Danube. Overlay  Image O f :  Of:  How t o s a v e m o n e y . . . (separate screen) and save t h e environment. (screen clears)  A sky of stars. Camera p a n s down t o a piggy-bank globe. A hand drops i n a loonie,  SHOP POWER SMART BC P o w e r 21 S m a r t  156  APPENDIX  G  Moderator:  -  INTERVIEWER'S  Celeste  GUIDE  TO  CONDUCTING  FOCUS  GROUPS  Bartman  Participants: Focus Group N o v e m b e r 16  Focus Group November 3 0  1: 1993  2: 1993  Darlene Anderson Bernard LaRochelle Jennie Moore Don McCallum A l l e n Werker  Serena Arduino Lynn Boardman Dwight Heintz Cheryl Kennedy Daria Sidjak Introduction Good evening. participate i n  I want to thank t h i s focus group.  a l l of  you  for  agreeing  to  L e t ' s s t a r t by b r i e f l y i n t r o d u c i n g o u r s e l v e s . I am am c u r r e n t l y s p e n d i n g my s p a r e t i m e w o r k i n g o n my the other p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Celeste, thesis.  and Now  If you have not had the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a focus g r o u p b e f o r e y o u may b e a s k i n g y o u r s e l f , e x a c t l y w h a t i s a focus group. Essentially a focus group i s an exercise i n brainstorming which i s centred around a t o p i c of i n t e r e s t to the researcher. I am h e r e t o l e a r n f r o m you. In the course move f r o m e x p participant's what i s reall l i s t e n t o and  o f d i s c u s s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c we w i l l l i k e l y loring individual views, to l e a r n i n g from other perspectives to developing a strong opinion of y important to you. I would like everyone to hear what i s b e i n g said.  As i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t we communicate e f f e c t i v e l y you should f e e l f r e e t o ask f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n on any p o i n t and you should not h e s i t a t e t o v o i c e any t h o u g h t s you have. T h e r e a r e no right or wrong answers. I h a v e a s e t o f t o p i c s f r o m w h i c h we c a n b e g i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n s . When d i s c u s s i o n o f one t o p i c r u n s d r y , I w i l l i n t r o d u c e t h e n e x t topic. S o m e t i m e s , i t may s e e m l i k e we are covering the same t o p i c more t h a n once. T h i s happens when a g e n e r a l t o p i c t h a t I h a v e i n t r o d u c e d e l i c i t s more s p e c i f i c t h o u g h t s f r o m one o r more i n d i v i d u a l s and I want t o r e t u r n t o t h a t t o p i c t o ensure that everyone has had a chance t o s t a t e t h e i r opinion. Does  anyone  have  any  questions?  157  On  Product  Labelling  T h e t o p i c we a r e e x p l o r i n g t o d a y i s product labelling. includes not only t h e w r i t t e n content on a l a b e l , but the of p r e s e n t a t i o n . I want t o s t a r t o f f w i t h an e x e r c i s e product labelling. I would like you  {Give each participant  an EcoLogo  aspects  t o get us thinking about t o examine t h i s product.  motor oil)  Pretend you are deciding whether o product... study the l a b e l , and t h i n k product's label, both information influence your d e c i s i o n t o buy o r not this. Which you?  This style  of the product's  r not t o purchase this about the aspects of the and style, that would t o buy. Lets t a l k about  label  a r e most  important  t o  On E c o - L a b e l l i n g In fact I am i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i s s u e o f e c o - l a b e l l i n g . Ecol a b e l l i n g i n c l u d e s a l ls i g n a l s t o c o n s u m e r s t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i s environmentally friendly. Look a t t h e product's label again with this i n mind. What aspects of this label would you c o n s i d e r t o be p a r t o f t h e e c o - l a b e l l i n g ? Of t h e l o g o , d e s c r i p t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e g r e e n c o l o u r , communicates most effectively? Impressions I  would  like  of the  which  EcoLogo  to hear  about  What  does  t h e EcoLogo  Does  t h e EcoLogo  What  i s i t s purpose?  serve  your  impressions  communicate  t o  o f t h e EcoLogo.  you?  i t s purpose?  ( D i s t r i b u t e EcoLogo B a t t e r i e s and EcoLogo Paper) Is t h i s logo n o t i c e a b l e enough f o r t h e average consumer, such as y o u r s e l f , t o see i t ? Further, i s the logo purchasing decisions?  noticeable  enough  f o r i t t o  affect  I f N o t : How c o u l d t h e f u l l m e a n i n g o f t h e E c o L o g o b e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ? What k i n d s o f e d u c a t i o n w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e ? S h o u l d t h e EcoLogo be changed so i t i s more n o t i c e a b l e ? How? What a f f e c t w o u l d t h i s have on t h e program? 158  EcoLogo  Description  The symbol o f t h e three doves s t y l i z e d into a maple l e a f i s called t h e EcoLogo. The EcoLogo i s a part of the Canadian Government's Environmental Choice Program. The EcoLogo was designed t o communicate t o consumers that the products and services designated as environmental choices have a lesser burden on t h e environment than other similar products and services. The program i s r u n on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s r a t h e r than an imposed s t a n d a r d . C u r r e n t l y t h e r e a r e 25 f i n a l i z e d product guidelines, 145 companies licensed t o use the EcoLogo, r e p r e s e n t i n g 750 p r o d u c t s . EcoLogo products range from t r i c k l e valves, t o diaper services t o r e - r e f i n e d motor o i l . The p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n b e c o m i n g a u s e r o f t h e E c o L o g o begins w i t h producers and consumers s u b m i t t i n g suggestions o f products and services that they would like t o see c e r t i f i e d t o the Environmental Choice Program's Board. The Board screens the suggested products and services p r i o r i t i z i n g those which they predict w i l l have the greatest positive impact on the environment. The chose product and services are research by independent consultants and draft guidelines are developed. The d r a f t p r o d u c t s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s a r e t h e n made p u b l i c i n the Canadian Gazette as w e l l as through t h e Environmental Choice mailing l i s t . Interested consumers, producers, and e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s h a v e 60 d a y s t o r e v i e w a n d r e s p o n d t o t h e draft guidelines. The Environmental Choice Board reviews responses a n d d e c i d e s what r e v i s i o n s , i f a n y , t o make t o t h e guidelines. The f i n a l g u i d e l i n e s a r e r e l e a s e d a n d p r o d u c e r s c a n apply t o be c e r t i f i e d . So, f o rexample, t h e g u i d e l i n e s f o r r e refined o i l were developed by the product category being suggested, then screened, then studied, t h e n made i n t o draft guidelines, then reviewed by the public, then finalized, and then the product category was opened t o applications from business. An independent t e c h n i c a l c o n s u l t a n t makes an i n i t i a l v i s i t t o a l l of the producer's sites and ensures that the producers are i n fact meeting the guidelines. The p r o d u c e r pays a f e e t o t h e ECP t h a t h e l p s t o p a y f o r t h e r u n n i n g o f t h e p r o g r a m . This fee is scaled i n relation t o the producer's annual sales. The independent technical consultant returns unannounced periodically t o ensure the products continue t o meet the guidelines. I n s h o r t t h e ECP c e r t i f i e s , regulates and labels products w i t h t h e EcoLogo that have a lesser burden on t h e environment. Does  this  description  raise  any questions?  159  Credibility,  Appropriate  Criteria  I would l i k e t o d i s c u s s how p r e s t i g e and c r e d i b i l i t y . Do How could the i n the market  EcoLogo place?  the you  &  Appropriate  Organization  EcoLogo could a t t a i n have any i d e a s about  Program  encourage  proactive  greater this? changes  {Display motor oil without certification) In what ways does the EcoLogo product reduce the impact on the environment compared to i t s n o n - c e r t i f i e d counterpoint? Do you look f o r any environmentally friendly products? What k i n d s o f c r i t e r i a do y o u t h i n k w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e i n the s e l e c t i o n of EcoLogo products? What q u a l i t i e s make a product less harmful to the environment? What do you p r o v i d e d by  (Hand-out  t h i n k of the the EcoLogo?  l i s t of  ECP  final  amount  guidelines  and  type  of  (Appendix  information  D))  I have a l i s t of products and s e r v i c e s that are c u r r e n t l y c e r t i f i e d by the EcoLogo. I f you were on t h e Environmental Choice Board, are there any products or services listed t h a t you would h e s i t a t e t o c e r t i f y ? Why? Do y o u t h i n k t h e the s e l e c t i o n of What  i s the  c r e d i b i l i t y of products t o be  appropriate  body  to  the EcoLogo certified? c e r t i f y  i s affected  by  eco-products?  As I mentioned i n the program description, the Environmental Choice Program i s run as a voluntary program. Is t h i s appropriate, or should the Environmental Choice Board pursue having i t s guidelines l e g i s l a t e d ? What Logo  Misleading  are your opinions on an Environmentally Unfriendly for products t h a t do n o t m e e t v o l u n t a r y g u i d e l i n e s ?  Green  Advertising  Do you believe that general non-certified Environmentally F r i e n d l y confuse consumers? Do  they  reduce  the  EcoLogo's  c r e d i b i l i t y  and  claims  of  impact?  Should legislation p r o h i b i t i n g such claims be introduced i n Canada? I f y e s , how c o u l d t h e b a r r i e r s t o t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n be overcome? I f yes, what form should t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n take? 160  Have y o u products?  noticed  any  misleading  claims/advertising  of  (Play Video (Appendix F , Mohawk Television Advertisement What a r e y o u r i m p r e s s i o n s of this advertisement? Are there any issues like t o discuss? Anything else? Thank you labelling.  that  we h a v e  f o r furthering  not touched  humankind's  161  on that  knowledge  green  #1))  you would  of  product  APPENDIX  H  -  INTERVIEWER'S  GUIDE  TO  THE  STRUCTURED  INTERVIEW  Hello, I am a graduate student at UBC i n the Planning Department. I am conducting a questionnaire on product l a b e l l i n g a s a p a r t o f my t h e s i s r e s e a r c h . Could I have about 15 m i n u t e s o f y o u r t i m e t o a s k y o u s o m e q u e s t i o n s ? Thank Do  you  you. l i v e  i n  Canada?  A. (Give The Interviewee Motor Oil 1 ( F i g u r e 6 ) ) . I w o u l d you t o examine the l a b e l of t h i s motor o i l . Pretend you trying to decide whether or not t o buy i t . Think about aspects of t h i s product's l a b e l , i n terms of w r i t t e n i n f o r m a and style of p r e s e n t a t i o n , both positive and negative, i n f l u e n c e y o u r d e c i s i o n of w h e t h e r o r not t o buy. Can you the aspects of the product's l a b e l t h a t c a t c h your eye? t h e r e any others? I w o u l d l i k e t o know w h e t h e r e a c h o f plus, i n other words i t encourages you negative, i n other words i t d i s p l e a s e s n e u t r a l about that aspect of the produ  these t t o buy you, or ct's la  l i k e are. what tion that l i s t Are  r a i t s i s either a the product, or a i f you f e e l quite bel.  I w o u l d l i k e t o know w h i c h of these aspects of the product's l a b e l i s the most important t o you, which has the most impact on y o u r d e c i s i o n t o buy o r not t o buy. I w i l l h e l p you by r e a d i n g back your responses.  162  \gure.€>* FracfV rVvA Back \jaW\s 0£ TV>e ECO  Oft.  *\0\*)3Q"  over 50ft plus tic 50% rtvrcfincd oil d'huilr rcgi-nt-i'iV  Help preserve a nonrenewal*) resource ECO contains mote - • tJ^S<3%re-fetned motor cjiMo)omasW • ConsxteraieNtoiwOiBanal'Seasonrnuag^ • EXCEEDS WARRANTY REQUIREMENTS tor oaso*ne and 1 »gh» -duty dead engines. Provides eiceleM protection against engine »ear. corroaon and sijriytwioHip.Cort^rncw modifierstartTTpro^xj luei economy. Return used oi ID colectiori cenee. BLENDED ANO PACKAGED K»ldCTO)iASTCTBY«jrPErmOC;'  r  Aide a preserver une de nos resources naturelesrnnrenouvelable^ injaeECOrxn»entrjiusd»50%rnijierf^^ rnoiM MrjumastM ecxatigir^ qui est CONFORME AUX GARANTES DES CONSTRUCTEURS * qjand i est utfese dans les moiBurs a essence el les pews I rtesete fXte hu»e o*re une exCelerae p oleum coetre lusure la cxxitson a raccumutaton de droits EJe con&ert des reducteors de hjoernent afn de raduwe la oonsomrnaaonde carourar*. -i.-~:v r ; . :  Retoumei les huies usees •uceree de recuperabW : : MELANGSE ET MSE EN BOUTEKJJE POUR MOTOMASTER PAR LA COMRAGME PE7R0UERE BUfftRlALE LMITEE. |  B. I would l i k e you to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n from a wider perspective, that of general shopping. I am i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing what i n f l u e n c e s y o u r p u r c h a s i n g d e c i s i o n s . I am going to read you a l i s t of p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s which I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o r a t e o n a s c a l e o f 1 t o 10 w i t h 10 m e a n i n g a n item i s very influential, 5 meaning an item i s somewhat influential and 1 meaning an item has no bearing on your d e c i s i o n of whether o r not t o buy a p r o d u c t . You need not take t o o much t i m e t o a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n , I j u s t want a g e n e r a l i d e a o f how y o u feel. You have seen t h e p r o d u c t a d v e r t i s e d . I t i s a b r a n d name p r o d u c t . The p r o d u c t i s c o m p e t i t i v e l y p r i c e d . The p a c k a g i n g i s a t t r a c t i v e . The p r o d u c t ' s l a b e l r e a d s E n v i r o n m e n t a l l y R e s p o n s i b l e . I t seems l i k e a w e l l made q u a l i t y p r o d u c t . The p r o d u c t ' s l a b e l r e a d s You C o u l d Win Instantly. A f r i e n d has recommended the p r o d u c t . C. Comparison shopping i s the process that consumers, such as yourself, go through to chose which specific product from a selection of products best s a t i s f i e s t h e i r needs. Different consumers use different c r i t e r i a to evaluate a product's suitability. F a c t o r s such as p r i c e and q u a l i t y a r e examples of possible criteria. C o n s u m e r s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p a r i s o n shop every time they are at a store. Sometimes consumers buy products they have p r e v i o u s l y decided best s a t i s f y t h e i r needs. On of ac th di  D.  t t i s  average, when you a r e s h o p p i n g for small ticket items, how e n do y o u purchase t h e same i t e m b e f o r e r e - e v a l u a t i n g and i v e l y engaging i n comparison shopping? I t may h e l p you to n k o f a few s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t s l i k e t i n f o i l , t o i l e t p a p e r or h soap.  (Give  The  Interviewee  (NUGOLD) (Figures  6  products Which?  that would  E. me  going to you have  I am which  Motor O i l Gasoline F. (Give this logo? Else? Do products?  &  lead  Oil  Is  you  to chose  1  Interviewee  one  Reusable Paper or  Motor Oil  y o u t e l l me w h a t know o r can you  164  (ECO)  there  l i s t some p r o d u c t s . p e r s o n a l l y purchased  Batteries Paint  Can you  Motor 7))  1 And  And  Motor  Oil  anything  about  these  other?  What?  over  the  2  I would l i k e you t o t e l l i n t h e p a s t 12 m o n t h s . Shopping Bag Envelopes  Point)  you t h i n k g u e s s who  Do y o u recognize i t means? Anything puts this logo on  The.  N*Aoc OA.  HO&OVJD  NEW CAR WARRANTY APPROVED CONFORME AUX QARANTIES DES VEHICULES NEUFS  M O T O R OIL • 1 LITRE . • H U 1 L E MOTEUR MOTOMASTER NUGOLD is an all-season multigrade motor oil made from 100% virgin basestocks. Exceeds warranty requirements for gasoline and light-duty diesel engines. Provides excellent protection against engine wear, corrosion and sludge build-up. Contains friction modifiers for improved fuel economy. Blended andpackaged for Motomaster by Imperial Oil. L'huile moteur MOTOMASTER NUGOLD. un lubrifiant toute saison, est faite d'huile de base 100 % vierge. Ses specifications surpassent cedes des huiles recommande'es par les constnicteurs dans le cadre de leur garantie de moteurs a essence et de petits moteurs diesel. Elle offre une excellente protection contre I'usure du moteur. la corrosion et ('accumulation de cambouis. Elle contient des modificateurs de coefficient de frottement afin de re"duire la consommation d'essence. Milsngie et mise en bouteille pour Motomaster par la Pitroliire Imptriale.  28 8213  2 ""  7S7«s  oauotnnTon cnm>OMTton. umira raotuu«w iwrm  165  (If Respondent Description) G. Have What?  Does  you ever  Not  bought  Recognize  a product  The  that  EcoLogo  has this  logo  Skip  To  on i t ?  Description. This symbol i s c a l l e d t h e EcoLogo. I t i s a part of t h e Canadian Government's Environmental Choice Program. A l l products have an impact on e c o l o g i c a l systems but, the Environmental Choice Program labels products w i t h t h e EcoLogo t h a t have a lesser burden on t h e environment than other similar products. The program has c o n t r a c t e d t o have a independent third party test and v e r i f y t h a t t h e c l a i m s made o n t h e s e p r o d u c t s a r e a c c u r a t e , and make u n a n n o u n c e d v i s i t s t o t h e f a c t o r i e s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e claims c o n t i n u e t o be true. H. I n g e n e r a l , how w o u l d y o u c h a r a c t e r i z e y o u r s e l f i n t e r m s o f environmental labelling? Would you say you are confused, overwhelmed, aware, unaware, i n t e r e s t e d , l e a r n i n g , a s k e p t i c a l , or you b e l i e v i n g ? I. I n your view, n o t i c e a b l e enough Any comments?  i s t h e EcoLogo, as presented on t h i s label, f o r i t t o affect your purchasing decisions?  J. O v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s h a v e y o u made l i f e s t y l e because y o u were concerned about  (If Can How  Reply  Is Negative,  y o u t e l l me do y o u f e e l  Skip  Ahead To K)  w h a t some o f t h e s e about making these  K. Have y o u made a s p e c i a l environmentally responsible? If y e s what? L. In your responsible?  opinion,  any changes t o your t h e environment?  what  changes have changes?  effort  makes  t o buy  a  been?  products  product  that  are  environmentally  M. Do y o u b e l i e v e i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r p e o p l e t o make p e r s o n a l l i f e s t y l e compromises i n order t o p r o t e c t t h e environment? N. it  Now w i l l  t h a t y o u a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e EcoLogo, do y o u affect your future purchasing decisions?  predict  0. Would you l i k e t o take home a f a c t - s h e e t t h a t further explains t h e Environmental Choice Program and t h e EcoLogo? P.  Do y o u b e l o n g  t o o r support  any environmental organizations? 166  Q. or R. S.  Do y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s the EcoLogo Program? Age by Sex.  or  decade.  167  comments  about  this  interview  APPENDIX  I  - AGENCIES  The Blue Angel, B e r l i n 33.  INVOLVED  WITH  Umweltbundesamt,  ENVIRONMENTAL ZAD,  LABELLING  Bismarckplatz  Calian C o m m u n i c a t i o n s S y s t e m s L t d . 3 00 L e g g e t Ontario, K2K 1Y5, T e l e p h o n e (613) 5 9 9 - 8 5 6 1 , F a x  1,  1000  Drive, Kanata, (613) 591-8587.  Ontario, Canadian Standards A s s o c i a t i o n , 178 R e x d a l e ( T o r o n t o ) Fax (416) 747-2475, C a n a d a M9W 1R3, T e l e p h o n e (416) 747-4000, Telex 06-989344. Environmental Choice Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 952-9465.  Program, 107 Sparks 0H3, T e l e p h o n e (631)  Environmental Choice Program, 1200 Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, 664-9088 .  Street, Suite 952-9440, Fax  200, (631)  West 73rd, Suite V 6 P 6H9, Telephone  606, (604)  Environmentally Sound Packaging (ESP) Coalition, 2150 Maple S t r e e t , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada, V 6 J 3T3, T e l e p h o n e (604) 736-3644, F a x (604) 7 3 6 - 7 8 2 2 . Industry Canada (Previously Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada was a separate department.), 2000-300 W Georgia, V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada, T e l e p h o n e (604) 666-5000, Fax (604) 666-8330. The 56,  International Organization f o r Standardization, CH-1211, Geneve 20, Switzerland.  Case  Postale  Power Smart Inc., International Headquarters, 520-475 Georgia Street, Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada V6B T e l e p h o n e (604) 688-4637, F a x (604) 688-7342. Scientific One K a i s e r The  West 4M9,  C e r t i f i c a t i o n S y s t e m s , The Ordway B u i l d i n g , S t e . 901, P l a z a , O a k l a n d , CA 9 4 6 1 2 , T e l e p h o n e (510) 8 3 2 - 1 4 1 5 .  Standards  Council  of  Canada,  Telephone  1-800-267-8220.  UK C o n t a c t o f T h e EC E c o - L a b e l A w a r d S c h e m e , UK Eco-labelling Board, 7th Floor, Eastbury House, 30-34 Albert Embankment, L o n d o n , SE1 7TL, T e l e p h o n e (44-71) 820-1199, F a x (44-71) 8201104.  168  

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