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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An evaluation of the effectiveness of design guidelines in the City of Vancouver Ruddy, Carol 1996

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A n E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f D e s i g n G u i d e l i n e s r i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r by Carol Ruddy B.A., University of Alberta, 1987 B.F.A., University of Manitoba, 1989 A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts (Planning) in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1995 © Carol Ruddy, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) Abstract An evaluation of the effectiveness of design guidelines in the City of Vancouver was undertaken. Three neighborhoods were studied where design guidelines have been applied. The guidelines for each neighborhood were studied and summarized and then site visits were made to evaluate the implementation of the guidelines. Evaluation of the guidelines took the form of a comparison of the objectives of the guidelines with the actual conditions in the neighborhoods. Factors that influenced the success or failure of the guidelines were identified and summarized. General comments regarding the implementation of design guidelines in the city of Vancouver were outlined in the concluding chapter. ii Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Figures v Acknowledgments vii Chapter 1: Introduction to Design Guidelines 1 1.1 Introduction to the problem 1 1.2 Literature review 2 1.2.1 Design guidelines defined •• 3 1.2.2 History of the use of design guidelines 5 1.2.3 Introduction to the use of design guidelines in Vancouver 13 1.2.4 The cases for and against design guidelines 14 Chapter 2: Case Study: Southlands RA-1 Guidelines 27 2.1 Part 1: Summary of the guidelines .27 2.2 Part 2: Evaluation of the implementation of the guidelines 37 2.2.1 3380- 3388 Celtic Avenue 37 2.2.2 7349 Blenheim Street 41 2.2.3 6680 Balaclava Street 44 2.3 Summary of Results 50 Chapter 3: Case Study: South Shaughnessy RS-5 Design Guidelines 52 3.1 Part 1: Summary of the guidelines 53 3.2 Part 2: Evaluation of the implementation of the guidelines 68 3.2.1 4538 Margeurite 68 3.2.2 1163W40th..: 75 3.3 Summary of Results 83 Chapter 4: Case Study: Angus West CD-I (No. 184) Design Guidelines 87 4.1 Part 1: Summary of the guidelines 87 4.2 Part 2: Evaluation of the implementation of the guidelines 97 4.2.1 Tidewater Place and 75th Avenue 97 4.3 Summary of Results 106 Chapter 5: Summary of Results 110 5.1 Factors that determine the effectiveness of the guidelines 110 5.2 Conclusions 115 5.3 Ideas for further research 118 iii BIBLIOGRAPHY List of Figures 1. Maxwell Fry cottage 25 2. new development providing a characteristic street treatment 28 3. preferred site planning 29 4. height relaxation- front yard situation 31 5. relaxation of side yards 31 6.. preferred parking location and treatment 32 7. preferred width and depth configuration 33 8. preferred open space configuration 34 9. preferred private open space location and treatment 35 10. landscape zones 36 11. site planning schematic 37 12. neighborhood character 38 13. street character 39 14. views into private open space screened by buildings and vegetation 40 15. site plan schematic 41 16. neighborhood character 41 17. elevation- a gradual transition from the public domain at the street edge to the private domain at the rear of the property 43 18. site plan schematic 44 19. residence viewed from Balaclava Street 45 20. existing site plan (left) with prominent siting of residence versus alternative site plan (right) which emphasizes open space 46 21. street edge at southwest corner of Balaclava Street and 51 Avenue 48 22. street edge of 6680 Balaclava Street 48 23. South Shaughnessy RS-5 zoning district 54 24. The surrounding properties linked by the dot dash line define the streetscape reference when designing a new house or renovation 55 25. streetscape for 4538 Margeurite 69 26. 1688 and 1689 W29th 70 27. 4538,4564 and 4588 Margeurite 71 28. 4538 and 4564 Margeurite 72 29. 1688 W29th 72 30. 4538,4564 and 4588 Margeurite 74 31.. 1688 and 1689 W29th 74 32. streetscape for 1163 W40th 76 33. 1191, 1177 and 1163 W40th 78 34. 1149 and 1135 W40th 79 35. 1177, 1163 and 1135 W40th 80 v List of Figures continued 36. 1191, 1177 and 1163 W40th 81 37. 1149 and 1135 W40th 82 38. Angus West CD-I (No. 184) zoning district 87 39. masonry, trees and substantial hedging 95 40. street character 96 41. privacy 98 42. massing and roofscape 99 43. the setback of the left side of the house is a few feet forward of the right side of the house; roof line dips to eave of first storey 100 44. visual interest in the fore, middle and background of common open space 102 45. private open space 104 46. 75th Avenue is bordered with long lengths of hedge punctuated by residences at the entry areas to the six cul de sacs 105 vi Acknowledgments I would like to thank my family for their encouragement and support. I would also like to thank Michael Seelig for his guidance and interest. vii Chapter 1: Ir^oducCtotv to- VeiC&tv Guideline* \ Introduction to the problem an design guidelines achieve what their writers intend? What factors determine the y effectiveness of the design guidelines? These questions will be answered by the author through the evaluation of selected areas. Three neighborhoods will be selected where design guidelines have been implemented by the City of Vancouver Planning Department- the Southlands RA-1 neighborhood, the Shaughnessy RS-5 neighborhood, and the Angus West CD-I (No. 184) neighborhood. The design guideline document for each neighborhood will be reviewed. Each neighborhood will then be visited and the implementation of the design guidelines studied. Photographs and diagrams will be used as aids to the evaluation of each area. The evaluation of each neighborhood will include the following components: Part 1. Summary of the objectives and recommendations of the guidelines Each guideline document contains a lengthy list of design objectives. For each objective there are several recommendations. The recommendations are the physical means to meet the objectives of the guidelines. For example, if the objective of the guideline is to minimize the visual impact of private open space, then the guideline may recommend screening private open space areas behind buildings and landscaping. Part 2. Evaluation of the implementation of the guidelines The objectives and recommendations of the guidelines will be compared to the actual conditions in the neighborhoods selected. Chapter 1: Int)'(wlMctu^t^De4t^^(5u< i^eZt^ie4' 2 Finally, the factors that influence the success or failure of the guidelines will be identified for each neighborhood and summarized. Literature Review "The Hampstead Garden Suburb [London, Great Britain], which is just north of Hampstead itself, was established around the turn of the century as a place where people of every class could live together harmoniously in verdant surroundings. Its spectrum of housing rangedfrom near mansions to rows of artisans' cottages done in English-vernacular architecture. The assortment of classes did not materialize; the artisans cottages turned out to be too expensive for artisans... But the impression an outsider gets from driving through its quiet streets, passing some houses that look as if they might have been snatched from a National Trust village in Kent and replanted intact, is an impression of enduring Englishness. If the [Hampstead Garden] Suburb failed to become a model of class mixing, it did become a model of town planning, and it has been declared by the Department of the Environment a "Conservation Area of Outstanding Architectural or Historical Interest". Its residents seem to pour the energy once generatedfor a variety of causes into seeing that it remains just the way it is. Listening to stories of the frustrations faced by homeowners who wanted to alter their homes in relatively minor ways, a visitor can come to feel that it might be easier to get a slow child into Cambridge than to change your porch railing in the Hampstead Garden Suburb."1 This passage about the Hampstead Garden Suburb makes reference to many issues related to design guidelines that are relevant to this thesis. Design guidelines have been instituted to keep things the same in historical design districts, as in the Hampstead Garden Suburb, or simply to establish a bench mark of 'design quality' for new development. The distinction between 'quality of design' and 'style of design' has caused considerable confusion in the debate about the appropriate use of design guidelines. Experience with writing effective design guidelines has shown that the participation of residents from the neighborhood in the writing of the guidelines is crucial to the success of the guidelines. 1 Calvin Trillin. "Drawing the Line". The New Yorker. December 12, 1994. pages 54-55. Note the interest the residents of the Hampstead Garden Suburb take in the guidelines, "Its residents seem to pour the energy generated for a variety of causes into seeing that it remains just the way it is."2 Once the guidelines are written, the interpretation and implementation of the guidelines become the focus of the struggle. The perfection hinted at in the passage, "...But the impression an outsider gets from driving through its quiet streets, passing some houses that look as if they might have been snatched from a National Trust village in Kent and replanted intact, is an impression of enduring Englishness,"3 could be interpreted pejoratively. Guidelines have been blamed for creating homogeneity, creating static, prettified neighborhoods and stifling creativity. Finally, the unintended, or intended consequences of the use of design guidelines can have results far more serious than the difficulties associated with changing a porch railing in the Hampstead Garden Suburb. Design guidelines defined Janice Pregliasco, of the California Main Street Program, defines design guidelines as, "recommendations for the improvement of visual quality. They are an analysis of what is special about an area, developed into a plan toward enhancing those qualities. Guidelines are: flexible, otherwise they promote excessive conformity; a result of public participation, or the community will not accept them; an identification of the most characteristic design elements; minimum standards of compatibility."4 2 Ibid, page 55. 3 Ibid, page 54. 4 Janice Pregliasco. Developing downtown design guidelines. California Main Street Program. Sacramento, California. 1988. page 1. In Britain, 'aesthetic control' is the term that is used most commonly to describe the exercise of planning control over the external appearance and visual impact of development.5 The following is a description of design guidelines by a British planner, "The best examples of this type of design policy (I prefer this to 'aesthetic control') that I found in American cities are based on a very careful and detailed analysis of the existing scene, the distinctive qualities of each district, its local characteristics, architectural features, incidental landmarks, the mix of uses and types of business that generate its character. This very deliberate endeavor to understand and delineate the nature of each area provides the basis for the development of a design policy and its incorporation into Design Guidelines. But it has nothing to do with replication or pastiche. What it does mean is that whatever degree of control is exercised over design, it is based on an assessment of the buUding's context and does not focus narrowly on the individual design or subject it to erratic personal preferences.."6 Design guidelines may be of three different types- generative, regulatory or evaluative. Most guidelines are a hybrid of these types. Generative design guidelines function as a methodological tool for the designer to assist in generating a design for a particular project. Generative guidelines make recommendations for various problem situations, but are meant to be sufficiently general and abstract to allow the designer a wide arena of design solutions. Guidelines of this type usually contain 'if and 'then' statements. For example, the guideline may read, "//there is a problem of a certain kind, 5 John Punter. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 1, 1909- 1953". Town Planning Review. 57(4) 1986. page 251. 6 John Delafons. "Planning in the USA- Aesthetic Control." The Planner. May 10, 1991. pages 7-8. Chapter 1: Introdu<cti0YvtfrVeiC$w<i 5 then make use of a certain design approach for the following reason...". The generative guideline type offers a range of solutions to the design problem.7 Regulatory design guidelines outline specific design requirements. Guidelines of this type do not give a rationale for the guideline, or a range of solutions. An example of this kind of guideline would be, "the back yard should have a minimum depth of 7 meters."8 Design guidelines'used to aid in the evaluation of a development permit application are called Evaluatoty Guidelines. They may be either generative or regulatory in nature. Evaluative guidelines act as a bench mark or standard for planners and developers to measure a particular development against. Regulatory guidelines are the simplest to administer when used as evaluative guidelines. Generative guidelines are not as simple to administer when used in an evaluative sense, as the range of design solutions offered forces decision making on the part of the planner that is widely discretionary. History of the use of design guidelines According to Haverfield the earliest attempts at formalized town planning occurred in Greece during the fourth and fifth centuries. From the Greek heritage, Roman town planning emerged and a unified approach to the planning of settlements occurred, "these towns had unity. Their various parts were, in some sense, harmonized, none being neglected and none grievously over-indulged, and the whole was treated as one organism. Despite limitations which are obvious, the Roman world made a more real sober and consistent attempt to plan towns than any previous age 7 Richard G. Bernstein. Vancouver's Residential Design Guideline Process: a case study. M.A. Thesis. School of Community and Regional Planning. U.B.C. 1980. page 19. 8 Ibid, page 22. Chapter 1: Introduction to- Oejig^w GuUxleliA\e& g had witnessed."9 There were few building laws, with one notable exception. From about 50 BC onwards there is evidence of a standing provision in many municipal charters in the Roman empire that forbid the demolition of an urban building unless the owner was prepared to replace it with a building, "at least as good."10 In Rome around the same time the use of the first laws to control building height and limit the use of balconies were haphazardly administered and enforced.11 These provisions in municipal charters are examples of the first attempts to control the physical appearance of development. Other writers recognize the efforts of much earlier societies as bonafide examples of purposeful urban planning. A.E. J. Morris credits the Harappan cities in the Indus River basin (2150 -1750 BC) as the, "'first' planned urban settlements (with intriguingly lost antecedents) and the already ancient gridiron established as the basis of their layouts... One highly significant aspect of this new civilisation is the evolution of a theoretical and practical basis of urban planning, according to strictly religious principles, which involved the selection and application of a suitable predetermined plan-form, the term for which is mandala."12 Morris goes on to discuss the systematic planning of Miletus and Priene (479 BC) in Greece by Hippodamus. Morris states that although these cites were planned, "The planned Greek city, for all its regularity and formal building relationships, was never the result of academic urban planning rules."13 9 F. Haverfield. Ancient Town Planning. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. 1913. page 18. 1 0 Ibid, page 139. 1 1 Ibid, page 139. 1 2 A.E. J. Morris. History of Urban Form before the Industrial Revolution. London, Great Britain. George Godwin Limited. 1979. page 18. 1 3 Ibid, page 35. Chapter 1: IrfaoduxXtinvterVetigw QaldeUtne* 7 Another early recorded building law is a statute written in 1262 AD in Siena, Italy, which regulated the form of the buildings fronting the Piazza del Campo. Two hundred years later, Brunnelleschi used a contextual approach to the design of a Foundling Hospital in Florence (1419. AD) based on a system of design principles also applied to the surrounding neighborhood.14 Barnett states that the, "Architectural harmony that is one of the attractions of central Paris is not an accident; it is the result of a series of closely related design guidelines imposed over more than two centuries. The facades of the first buildings along the Rue de Rivoli... were officially adopted in Napoleonic Paris as the design guideline for the entire street. Anyone who wished to build had to follow the facade design exactly. From 1784 onward, development of buildings in Paris had been controlled by legislation that related building height limits to street width, and imposed a setback angle for attics. Under Napoleon JJI, Baron Hausmann... condemned land on both sides of the new streets . he was creating, and sold this property to developers subject not only to the height regulations but to controls that imposed a strict architectural vocabulary."15 After the industrial revolution, cities in North America and Europe experienced rapid growth. The inadequacies of the new urban areas motivated the use of practical zoning controls and later, control of the aesthetic aspects of development. The use of formal design guidelines began in the 20th century. Bernstein states that design guidelines in North America grew out of theory developed by the human ecology movement of the 1 4 David Gosling. "The downtown public realm: lessons for the American mid-west." Town Planning Review. 61 (4) 1990. page v. 1 5 Jonathan Barnett. "In the public interest: design guidelines". Architectural Record. July 1987. page 114. Chapter 1: Introducttim/ to- DejCg^ v Guidelines g early 20th century, health and safety standards developed around the same time, and early attempts at aesthetic regulations developed in the 1930s. Architectural control ordinances were the first attempts at aesthetic regulations, and these came into practice in the 1930s to regulate the appearance of private as well as public buildings and structures. Ordinances control development on the basis of a preconceived and flexible civic pattern. This pattern is based on comprehensive zoning and city planning in which all exteriors are harmonized as to materials, colors, styles, silhouettes and scale. The objective of architectural ordinances is to ensure that buildings are neither excessively uniform or dissimilar. This type of ordinance is usually adrriinistered through a special provision in the local zoning by-laws which gives the municipality the legal power to create an Architectural Board of Review. The Urban Design Panel in Vancouver is an example of such a board of review. Special zoning ordinances are another form of aesthetic control. These ordinances are often used to protect areas with historical or architectural, significance.16 The human ecology movement contributed a theoretical basis for the foundation of design guidelines. Human ecologists study the relationship between human beings and their environment. Robert Park, from the United States, and Sir Patrick Geddes and Ebenezer Howard from Great Britain are notable examples of human ecology theorists from the early part of this century. Howard developed the tremendously influential Garden City concept of town planning. Access to open space in urban settings was key to Howard's Garden City concept. In this way residents could enjoy both the revitalizing 1 6 Bernstein, pages 10-17. Chapter 1: iAtrodAAxXixyyvtcrVetix^Gu^ 9 benefits of a rural setting and the intellectual and social benefits of an urban setting.17 The development of human ecology theory continued with the work of theorists such as Jane Jacobs and Christopher Alexander. Their work focused on topics such as the effects of high density on human behavior and the social aspects of architecture.18 Health and safety standards grew out of concerns for living conditions in the new industrial cities. The health and safety standards campaign was spearheaded by members of the business elite, Kellogg, Hershey and Carnegie for example, whose concern was to safeguard the health of their workers. New municipal departments of health and sanitation were created to administer regulations dealing with air and light requirements, fire protection, sewage services and the occupancy of buildings. The laws of nuisance and building setbacks originated as forms of regulation for health and safety standards.19 In Great Britain the formal control of the external appearance of development began to occur in the first decade of the 20th century. Beginning in the 1600s, the lords and officials of great estates laid down very precise frameworks for development and land use, "This specifically British form of planning was the work of the great landlords and an outgrowth of the particular status of land tenure in some English cities, notably London. The great land-holding families, whose rural estates surrounded the towns and could be used for urban expansion, retained ownership of their property, while renting to building contractors. From the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries leases were gradually extended from thirty to sixty, then to eighty and ninety-nine years, with increasingly 1 7 Jonathan Barnett. The Elusive City: five centuries of design, ambition and miscalculation. Harper and Row. New York. 1986. page 73. 1 8 Bernstein, page 11. 1 9 Ibid, page 12. Chapter 1: IntrodxuXiovv to- V&Htyv Guideline* ] Q restrictive and detailed clauses pertaining to rental or building... Evidence of this is found in London in the Bloomsbury districts, Mayfair, Belgravia, Regent's Park, Covent Garden for which Inigo Jones received the commission from the fourth Earl of Bedford, Bedford Square, Tavistock Square and Gordon Square... Population density was limited, streets broadly designed, and the squares gave a meaning and focus around which to arrange the individual houses whose standardization permitted a maximum of comfort at the same time as they converted these residential areas into class communities." 2 0 In a continuation of these private controls, planning law extended to deal with concerns with health and safety and after 1909, with the concept of the City Beautiful.21 Central government in Britain has steadfastly avoided the use of guidelines, asserting that aesthetics are extremely subjective. On the other hand, local governments have attempted repeatedly to gain legal grounds for greater aesthetic control. In 1977, a compromise was finally struck by the House of Commons'Eighth Expenditure Committee, "whose remit was to examine public expenditure and the economical implementation of policies, [but] set itself the narrow task of examining the planning system 'with a view to identifying reasons for delays and the resource costs that such delays create'."22 Most of the recommendations of the Committee were related to speeding up the systems of consultation and decision making. A large amount of evidence on design guidance and aesthetic control was presented and the recommendations the 2 0 Donald J. Olsen. Town Planning in London: the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. New Haven. Yale University Press. 1964. In Francoise Choay. The Modern City: Planning in the 19th century. George Braziller. New York. 1969. pages 12-13. 2 1 Judy Hillman. Planning for Beauty: the case for design guidelines. Royal Fine Art Commission. London: HMSO. 1990. page 10. 2 2 John Punter. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 2, 1953-1985." Town Planning Review. 58 (1) 1987. page 48. Committee made strongly influenced subsequent policy, "We have some sympathy with the RIBA's (Royal Institute of British Architects) view but consider that the complete removal of aesthetic control would be quite unacceptable to public opinion. We accept that planning authorities should be able to exercise a degree of aesthetic control. However, we think they must exercise restraint in this regard, since it would be most undesirable to stifle creativity and innovation. They should therefore reject applications solely on grounds of aesthetic detail only when they affect National Parks, Areas of Outstanding National Beauty, conservation areas, listed buildings, or other particularly sensitive cases."23 The decision of the Expenditure Committee further entrenched the already existing two-tier system of planning controls with the, "equity implications of providing a higher level of aesthetic control in 'designated' and other 'environmentally sensitive areas'... obvious. Essentially such controls would protect and enhance property values and ensure the maintenance of positional goods for the generally wealthier residents of these areas.24 Meanwhile in the remainder of the country, where the majority of the population spend the majority of their time, a lower quality of design would be condoned and environmental disadvantage intensified."25 In North America the use of design guidelines has generally been more readily accepted than in Great Britain. Barnett summarizes the three traditional approaches to development control: zoning, deed restrictions (in suburban subdivisions and condorninium 2 i House of Commons (1977), Eighth Report from the Expenditure Committee; Session 1976-77; Planning Procedures, Volume 1, London, HMSO. pages xliii-xliv. In John Punter. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 2, 1952- 1985." Town Planning Review. 58 (1) 1987. page 49. 2 4 J.N. Smith. Environmental Quality and Social Justice. Washington DC Conservation Foundation, 1974. Chapters 1,2 and 4. In John Punter. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 2, 1953- 1985." Town Planning Review. 58 (1) 1987. page 57. 2 5 Punter. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 2, 1953- 1985." page 57. Chapter 1: Introduction/ to- Design/ Guidelines ] 2 agreements in planned communities) and design review.26 Almost every municipality in North America maintains some control over the appearance of the built form with respect to aesthetic detail. For example, the use of light colors for skyscrapers is encouraged in San Francisco as these hues are widespread throughout the city. In Denver, new developments must maintain the existing street frontage with respect to the rhythm and vertical proportions established by the historic context. The Pasadena (City of Gardens) code ensures that gardens and lawns are visible and of a minimum size and shape. Design guidelines for the planned town at Seaside, Florida are comprehensive and extremely detailed.27 The use of design guidelines in Vancouver began in the mid 1970s. Amendments to the Zoning and Development by-laws in the city of Vancouver began in 1974 to allow a more discretionary approach to the evaluation of new developments by city officials. The amendments came in response to the general consensus by both architects and planners that the Zoning District Schedules were excessively regulatory and were resulting in mundane standardized designs that responded to neither the needs of the user or the surrounding environment. Three instruments formed the basis of the new discretionary zoning system: Planning Policies, the Official Development Plan By-law, and the Design Guidelines. Planning Policies outline general goal statements as well as highlight specific policies that are pertinent to the zoning area. The Planning Policies are intended as a general reference for decision-making bodies and those preparing development proposals, and are not a part of the Zoning By-law or Official Development Plan. The Official Barnett. "In the public interest: design guidelines." page 115. Hillman. page 26. Cha$t^ 1: Ivtoo<kjudAxmt^ \ 3 Development Plan By-laws set out basic planning objectives as well as the general parameters for a new development such as land use, density, height, parking and loading and social and recreational amenities and facilities. The Design Guidelines, "represent a quality control upon which to base design decisions and judgments. The guidelines prescribe the general criteria for new development and form the basis for the preparation of, and approval of development proposals. Various municipal staff and several official civic boards and panels may in their discretion, refuse or require modification to a Development Permit Application proposal for failure to meet the standards of the guidelines in whole or in part."28 Introduction to the use of design guidelines in Vancouver In the city of Vancouver, design guidelines are used as a form of discretionary zoning. Design guidelines are meant to act as a guide to the development permit applicant in the planning and design of their project. The guidelines are also meant to act as an aid to the Planning department in their evaluation of the project throughout the development permit application process. Design guidelines are prepared by the Plarining department, most often in response to requests by residents for the drafting of guidelines for their neighborhood. Guidelines may also be initiated by the City Council itself, in anticipation of rapid development in a particular area. Repeated requests by developers may also 28 Downtown Guidelines (11). Design Guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department. 1975. page 1. In Richard C. Bernstein. Vancouver's Residential Design Guideline Process: a case study. M A . Thesis. School of Community and Regional Planning. U.B.C. 1980. page 58. Chapter 1: Introdu<£Uyn/to-Ve&CgYv<5ulc^ ] 4 prompt the writing of guidelines. The guidelines are approved and amended by the City Council.29 The application of design guidelines occurs when a conditional use or discretionary relaxation of a by-law is applied for in a zoning area where design guidelines are in force. Conditional uses are listed in the zoning district schedules and official or area development plan by-laws. A conditional use may be permitted if all of the applicable by-laws and guidelines are complied with and the application receives the approval of either the Development Permit Board or the Director of Planning. Discretionary increases and relaxations allow for the variance of regulations, such as an increase in building floor area or height for example, when certain community objectives are met by the new development. A request for a relaxation or variance is dealt with in the same way as an application for a conditional use. In order to successfully apply for a development permit with a conditional use or a discretionary increase or relaxation, the design guidelines must 30 be consulted along with all of the applicable by-laws and regulations. The cases for and against design guidelines The case for the use of design guidelines has been made and debated repeatedly in the literature. Judy Hillman presents the following argument for judging and imposing standards of quality on architecture, "Does Architectural beauty- or ugliness- simply lie in the eye of the beholder, as the Earl of Arran told the Chairman of the Royal Fine Art Commission in the House of Lords in January 1989? If so, it seems odd that governments have managed to list so many 2 9 Yardley McNeill. Interview. Vancouver Planning Department. Wednesday August 16,1995. 30 The Development Permit Process. A detailed guide to Vancouver's development permit process. City of Vancouver Planning Department, page 4. Chapter 1: Tv\ltYodAuXi<mto-Qe4L^^ ] 5 buildings, designate conservation areas and select scenic countryside for elevation into national parks. The fact that such choices are made and continue to be made implies that benchmarks do exist for measuring architectural quality. It is as possible and sensible to judge the quality of architecture as it is to judge anything else. Such judgments are not questions of style or fashion. There are good designs for a single site in many different styles. In the context of place, the basis of good design lies in whether or not a proposal is suitable or appropriate for both purpose and for context, which normally means other buildings, but can equally apply to rural settings with their own natural forms and character."31 Hillman presents design guidelines as a safeguard or minimum standard that new development must measure up to, "The introduction of local guidelines as a development checklist could well help eliminate the third and fourth rate."32 Ellen Beasley, an architectural preservation consultant in Houston, Texas, also presents design guidelines as a means of establishing a minimum standard of quality, "I also suspect that the quality issue is akin to the old argument that *you can't legislate good design'. But one has only to compare what is built outside of design districts with what is built within their boundaries to see that the review process and design guidelines usually make a difference. They may not produce great architecture, but how much of that do we get anywhere, a comparison that should be made within the total context of our communities not just the district boundaries. Usually, greater attention is given to 3 1 Hillman. page 2. 3 2 Ibid, page 2. Chapter 1: Introd^AxXUm/t^Ve^y^GuldcUr^ i g placement, detailing, materials, landscaping, and overall results where design review is practiced."33 In the United States the constitutionality of local design guidelines has been upheld by the Supreme Court in Perm Central v. City of New York(1978Y The court found that, "the restrictions are substantially related to the promotion of the general welfare. " 3 4 Guidelines may be a means of promoting the general welfare of the public, but according to Janice Pregliasco of the California Main Street Program, they cannot, "regulate growth, control non-exterior changes, guarantee good design or be law."35 Conversely, Pregliasco states that guidelines can, "improve the quality of physical changes, protect the value of investment, protect existing architectural character, act as a base for objective decision-making, increase public awareness of architectural quality and prevent incompatible new construction"36 The American National Trust for Historic Preservation outlines the following limitations of design guidelines, "They cannot provide formula for design. They may help prevent incompatible schemes, but they do not guarantee good construction or rehabilitation projects. The quality of the end product depends in large part on how skilled the designer is, how clear the guidelines are in describing the desired results of design change, how amenable property owners are to consider making improvements... and how 3 3 Ellen Beasley. "Design guidelines: a preservation perennial". Preservation Forum. September/ October 1992. page 11. 3 4 Pregliasco. page 2. 3 5 Ibid, page 1. 3 6 Ibid, page 1. Chapter 1: Introduction/ to- VeH^rv GuideUnet- \ 7 successful the community's design review program is in encouraging responsible design changes."37 Pregliasco emphasizes the importance of public participation in the process of developing design guidelines, "Developing design guidelines is a political process; realization hinges on timing and public participation. The process of obtaining community input is the single most important factor in ensuring the success of the document... Those most affected by guidelines, the property owners and tenants, must feel they have a voice in the process and can therefore control it. Otherwise, guidelines will be seen as being imposed from outside and they will fail."38 Architects have traditionally resented input from government agencies which requires changes to their designs, "Many architects remained very critical of aesthetic control, the skills of the officers practising it, and the dilution and mediocrity it was said to produce."39 With the input of various planning personnel, design guidelines, a Board of Review and other varied forms of control, designers despair over whether the integrity of their designs will survive. An interesting example of the problems associated with a multiplicity of players in the design and review of a development is the 1535 foot, Oriental Pearl Television Tower, located in Shanghai, China. Shanghai city planners intend the tower to be a symbol of a rejuvenated Shanghai, but, "On the other hand, in their rush to modernize, perhaps the planners overdid it. Built with red glass and pallid gray concrete-like a bulky spaceship out of a bad 'Star Wars' remake- the tower seems to reflect a 3 Guiding Design on Main Street. National Main Street Center, National Trust for Historic Preservation. 1988. Chapter 6. page 1. 3 8 Pregliasco. page 2. 39Punter. "AHistory of Aesthetic Control: Part 1, 1909- 1953". page 375. concern for modernity more than esthetics. The tower's most important feature.. is that it features not one, not two, but 11 sphere-shaped 'pearls'."40 The New York Times international news correspondent was not impressed by the design of the television tower and attributed its failure to the design process employed, "China does not lack talented architects. But architectural decisions are still made by committee in China, with arguably appalling results."41 Barnett states that design review boards are much more effective when guidelines are in place, "It is much easier to conduct a design review when some articulated standard or guideline has been published in advance. Without guidelines, the review process often degenerates into a confrontation... All too often a compromise involves both sides giving a little, with a result that is worse than either the original design or the review boards' original suggestion."42 Ellen Beasley argues for the use of design guidelines because, "on a practical level... a historic district or, for that matter, any design district, needs a set of design guidelines in order to be properly administered. Guidelines provide a common vocabulary and a set of standards for all of the participants in the review process. They offer guidance and direction to applicants who are designing projects and to reviewing bodies who are evaluating projects."43 Beasley also emphasizes the importance of public participation in the development of design guidelines, "There should be a forum for public participation, especially for those people who will be affected directly- property owners, district 4 0 Seth Faison. "China stands tall in the world, and here's proof. The New York Times. Wednesday, July 26, 1995. page A4. 4 1 Ibid, page A4. 4 2 Barnett. "In the public interest: design guidelines", page 124. 4 3 Beasley. page 7. . ch^ter l: Iv^oduc£U3vvto-Ve46^ 19 residents, designers. Although a public-participation process does prolong the writing of guidelines, cultivating that public support is absolutely essential to their acceptance."44 David Gosling also speaks about the need-for. a "common vocabulary"45 and makes the following comment on the consequences of the absence of an urban design framework, "The ad hoc site-by-site approach should be abandoned if an attractive downtown area is to emerge... The guidelines generate an urban vocabulary for the interface between buildings and street, squares and other public spaces... with pedestrianisation and urban landscape.1,46 Gosling uses Sir Bannister Fletcher's evaluation of the international headquarters of Procter and Gamble in Cincinnati, designed by Kohn, Pedersen Fox and completed in 1985 to illustrate his point, "(it) exemplifies contemporary efforts in skyscraper design to the ambience of the existing metropolis... Generally speaking, development was on a site-by-site, ad hoc basis resulting in acceptable if bland contemporary architecture, and an increasingly fragmented downtown, lacking any sense of unity or visual coherence. The premise in those days, as in the early days of London Docklands, was that planning restrictions within a comprehensive urban design plan would frighten developers away."47 Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk are the project architects of the rigorously planned and regulated town, Seaside, located on the northwest coast of Florida. Andres Duany defends design guidelines on the basis of their practicality and expediency as a design tool, "It is interesting to compare the Seaside code with 4 4 Ibid, page 8. 4 5 David Gosling. "The downtown public realm". Town Planning Review. 61 (4) 1990. page vi. 4 6 Ibid, page vi. 4 7 Sir Bannister Fletcher. History of Architecture (19th edition).London. Athlone Press. 1987. In David Gosling. "The downtown public realm." Town Planning Review. 61 (4) 1990. page vi. Chapter 1: IntrodA/xXicnv to- Oeji^ +v Guidelines 20 Christopher Alexander's "pattern language." We agree with the town that he proposes. He knows what he is talking about as an end, but he is too idealistic about implementation. You must be intelligent and literate, and have a good deal of time, to read Alexander's book, which is the instrument of implementation. But you can build your part of Seaside without understanding any of the principles because we use a code, not a book. Designers are accustomed to following codes in this country, which is fortunate because they hardly know anything about making urbanism. Their buildings do not make towns. So if we and Alexander are after the same town, we are more practical about it. We count on codes having a much greater impact in salvaging American urbanism than books ever could."48 Duany admits there have been problems with regulating the environment at Seaside so rigorously. Instances where the design guidelines were not implemented through an oversight on the part of project administrators resulted in welcome departures from the expected, "There is a good bit of that sort of error, which is not all bad since it gives character to the place. We are torn between wanting the perfection embodied in the plan and code, and the exceptions that give so much character... For example, I don't know why Deborah Berke's house on Savannah Street seems to be a Type VII instead of a Type VI as coded, but it is just fine. And I love the beach pavilion on Tupelo Street, which does not line up properly with the axis of the street, thanks to a surveying error."49 Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk states that the implementation of design guidelines has had a profound effect on the process of urban and rural development in America, "It is important because the codes are there, and they have been determining our urbanism for 4 8 David Mohney and Keller Easterling (eds). Seaside: making a town in America. Princeton Architectural Press. New York. 1991. page 65. 49Ibid.page72. Chapter 1: Ir^oduc(XorutO-V^ 21 years, even though it may not seem important for those architects who simply respond to the existing codes. Codes are a horrifying, but significant, device for controlling design in this country, and codes are generally unconscious of their effect. They are trying to keep things from being too bad, but they have outlived their usefulness in the form in which they are now, and people are only beginning to realize this. If what we are proposing seems revolutionary to some people, it is only because we have been stuck with the other codes without reviewing them for too long. There should be a constant process of evolving controls."50 Pregliasco recommends that design guidelines should be reviewed every nine to twelve months to evaluate their success. Issues such as whether the guidelines are being reinforced by city policy or design review board decisions, and whether recent physical changes attain the visual quality aimed for, should be examined.51 The guidelines for Seaside have been criticized on several levels. John Delafons describes the environment at Seaside as," The effect is curiously ambiguous. On the one hand, the brightly colored houses, with their friendly porches, white picket fences and coy detailing; the dinky pavilions; the patterned brick roads; the neat planning- all invoke a Toy Town image. It is all so squeaky clean and rather endearing. On the other hand it reflects a serious purpose, a personal vision, and great care in every aspect of design and layout. On the whole it commands respect for the sincerity and sensitivity of its creators, and its integrity in pursuit of their idiosyncratic objectives... But the notion that it provides 5 0 Ibid, page 78. 5 1 Pregliasco. page 34. Chapt&r 1: IntroducU<m/txrVe^^G 22 any kind of model for wider adoption, or a prototype for new development in town or country, seems absurd."52 Many of the criticisms of the Seaside guidelines are representative of the criticisms of design guidelines in general. Plater- Zyberk states that the guidelines for Seaside have been criticized for being, "stifling [of architectural innovation and creativity] and too controlling [of the rights of property owners]."53 The guidelines have been criticized for producing homogeneity, or, "too much of a style."54 Plater-Zyberk counters these criticisms by pointing out that Victorian, Postmodern, Classical and other styles of architecture are present, proving that the guidelines are, "not merely stylistic".55 In answer to the criticism that Seaside is, "too homogeneous in terms of everything being new and bourgeois", she answers, "how could it be anything but that in its first generation?"56 The use of design guidelines as a means of excluding the particular tastes associated with newcomers or less advantaged groups is a complicated and contentious issue repeated throughout history in different contexts. Design guidelines in Britain in the 1930s became associated with the tastes of the educated elite, "Efforts at aesthetic control exemplified the conservative-escapist side of upper-middle-class values, and in general, educated and informed taste played a more important role in the 'rampage against the values and taste of the lower orders', and against builders as 'vindictive monsters', than did the architectural establishment. In the wider campaign the elitism of the 'cultured selfish' 52Delafons. page 7. 53Mohney and Easterling. page 78. 5 4 Ibid page 78. 5 5 Ibid, page 78. 5 6 Ibid page 78. Chapter 1: IntroductCorvto-VejtywGuCd 23 was exemplified in books like Britain and the Beast57... In these writings what was ultimately at stake can be clearly identified- mass enjoyment of suburbia, exurbia and the countryside threatened the privileged enjoyment of those fortunate enough already to be in possession of such positional goods. Upper-middle-class support for planning control has always been based upon using it as a means of controlling the unpleasant externalities of a system from which that class have already benefited."58 In Vancouver, rapid re-development in established neighborhoods has sparked resentment between those already living there and newcomers. The 'differentness' of the houses built or purchased by newcomers has been the target of bitter attacks by established residents. Should the guidelines represent the tastes of the established residents or the newcomers? Community involvement in the writing of the guidelines is crucial to arriving at a compromise that both sides can live with. If both sides of a conflict are not represented in the objectives of the guidelines, the seriousness of this issue can extend further from limiting the allowed range of taste, to the exclusion of individuals from neighborhoods because their tastes are at odds with the aims of the guidelines. Punter writes that during the first half of this century aesthetic control in Britain, "was still effectively being used as a social filter for the exurban migration."59 In fact, the language used to attack the 'tastes of the lower orders' and the 'vindictive monster builders' is uncomfortably similar to the language used by established Vancouverites when they discuss the newcomers and the builders of the 'monster houses' C. Williams-Ellis, (ed.). Britain and the Beast. Letchworth, Great Britain. Temple Press. 1938. Punter. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 1, 1909- 1953". page 369. Ibid, page 374. Chapter 1: IntrodactOoY^txrVei^a^QuCd^liY^ 24 in their neighborhoods. Refer to the introduction of Chapter 3: South Shaughnessy RS-5 Design Guidelines for a discussion of the resolution of such a situation. Further to the point that guidelines inadvertently carry the bias of their authors is the work of Clare Cooper Marcus and David Chapin. Cooper Marcus and Chapin are environmental design researchers whose area of expertise is the creation of design guidelines based on design research. They make the point that even when guidelines are based on analytical studies of post occupancy case studies, and other such objective research, "the process of translation from research to design is highly erratic and layered upon this inherently erratic process is a largely subjective expression of the guideline author's values."60 The use of design guidelines in Britain has been mired in arguments related to the merits of various architectural styles, and judgments about what constitutes 'quality' in architecture, "In many respects, the debates of the period were... fueled by a series of extraordinary incidents where conspicuously modern houses, designed by the young architects of the British modern movement, were modified or rejected by the local authorities and their panels. While the articles describing these events can easily be interpreted as a deliberate compilation of the most embarrassing evidence against design control, it is constructive to note that at least a dozen of the most acclaimed 1930s buildings fell foul of the control system, and these instances must have inhibited patronage of modern architects and the commission of modern designs... Since many of these buildings won widespread professional acclaim at the time, occupy pride of place in ^David Chapin and Clare Cooper Marcus. "Design guidelines: reflections of experiences passed." Architecture and Comportement. 9 ( 1 ) page 99. CTwpter 1: IrdXodMjctAS^ 25 histories of modern architecture, and are now protected by listing, their difficult passage through the development control process brought the whole system into disrepute. On the other hand, the majority were eventually approved, indicating that the appeal process served its purpose... The myopia of the tirades emphasises the cyclical nature of taste and the meaning and values that longevity, familiarity and association themselves bestow."61 In all but the most drastic instances of shoddy design and construction, the distaste for the newly constructed 'monster' homes in established neighborhoods in Vancouver could be attributed to the, "meanings and values that longevity, familiarity and association [did not] bestow."62 In 1935 in Great Britain, the house below by Maxwell Fry was finally approved by the Watford Rural District Council after extensive modifications. This modified version with a pitched roof, and in brick and timber rather than concrete, was accepted. The figure 1 Maxwell Fry cottage63 Council has required the use of materials completely and disastrously at odds with the modern architectural idiom. Punter. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 1, 1909- 1953". page 365-366. Ibid, page 365-366. Ibid, page 360. Chapter 1: IntroducXX<yrvto-Ve&J^<juid^ 26 Because the aesthetic and social complexities of creating and administering design guidelines are unique to each instance they are applied, there are equally vehement arguments for and against the use of design guidelines. Their widespread use is a testament to the optimism that municipal governments look to design guidelines with. As in many other areas of municipal government, public participation is crucial to the success of design guidelines. The Hampstead Garden suburb example speaks about the, "stories of the frustrations faced by homeowners who wanted to alter their homes in relatively minor ways."64 Design guidelines do not offer instant solutions to problems and are often time consuming to administer, and almost always time consuming to create or alter. Progress is being made however, and as design guidelines are repeatedly altered to respond to the changing objectives of a community, the repetition of the process of creating and altering the guidelines can be streamlined.65 Trillin, page 54. McNeill. Interview. Wednesday, August 16, 1995. Chapter 2: SouXKLand*KA -l Veii^ Guideline* 27 Chapter 2: The Southlands RA-1 Design Guidelines In response to the concerns of Southlands residents regarding the size and character of new development in their neighborhood, the City of Vancouver Planning Department undertook the Southlands Neighborhood Study66 The information from this report and the Southlands Plan Report completed in 1988, was used to create and amend the Southlands RA-1 Design Guidelines61 The guidelines were adopted by the City Council on October 20, 1987 and amended by the Council to their present form on February 4, 1992. The Southlands neighborhood is unique in that it is represented by a remarkably vocal neighborhood group, the Southlands Neighborhood Association. This group, along with the immediate neighbors of a new development receives the plans for all new developments in the Southlands area. Part 1. Summary of the objectives and recommendations of the guidelines The general objective of the Southlands RA-1 design guidelines is to ensure that new development maintains and enhances the semi-rural character of the area. The following are the objectives and recommendations for each of the design guidelines. 6 6 Southlands Neighborhood Study. City of Vancouver Planning Department. 1987. 6 1 Southlands Plan. Southlands Citizen's Planning Committee. City of Vancouver Planning Department. March 8, 1988. Chapter 2: SouXKLandi-KA-l DeHg*/Guideline* 28 Neighborhood character The objective of the neighborhood character guideline is to ensure that new development will maintain and enhance the prevailing semi-rural character of the neighborhood, and to ensure that the prevailing development pattern is not compromised. This guideline defines semi-rural character as, "an assemblage of design elements such as expansive vistas, equestrian functions, open pastures and informal landscaping along the side edges."68 The definition of semi-rural character is important as it establishes a benchmark for the other guidelines to refer back to. This guideline does not include any recommendations. Street character The objective of the street character guideline is to maintain the semi-rural character of the street pattern. A semi-rural street pattern is characterized by a gradual visual transition from the public street edge to the private development site. The guideline recommends three acceptable edge treatments that will foster this semi-rural street pattern. figure 2. < new development providing a characteristic street treatment69 S T R E E T TMT*OKMAL- ] INFORMAL- £>IT£ MORE FORMAL Z O N G CURB AREA! PERIMETHP* ^ -PRIVATE peVELOFMENT SVTE-—> 6 8 Southlands RA-1 Guidelines. Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department. February 4, 1992. page 1. 6 9 Ibid, page 2. Chapter 2: SouXhlarulyllA -1 Veti^GuX&elJtoe* 29 The first is the use of informal planting materials along the perimeter of the site. Hedges are to be low, not solid, and informal in character. The third is for fencing that is open in style, allowing views through the property. Site character The objective of the site character guideline is to reinforce the prevailing site planning pattern in the Southlands area. The site planning pattern is characterized by the grouping of a residence with farm buildings in an expansive pasture setting. To preserve this characteristic arrangement, the guideline recommends that buildings should be clustered on the site. Clustering of buildings with those of adjacent properties is also recommended where there is no conflict of use. figure 3. preferred site planning70 y 0 j gL-.-J7^1-!. ^ _ A t WW. II In OH 6 I T E Building character Informal landscaping and open space are the visually dominant elements in the Southlands area.71 Buildings are typically subordinate to the landscape. As such, the objective of the building character guideline is to ensure that residential buildings remain as secondary elements in the semi-rural context. The guideline recommends that buildings should be low-scale, semi-rural forms that blend into the I b i d , page 4. I b i d , page 4. Croixpter 2: Sou£hXcwfo 30 landscape. Infill and caretaker's units should be compatible with and subordinate to the principal residence. Infill buildings should not appear as separate buildings on a subdivided lot. Caretaker's quarters The objective of this guideline is to ensure that a caretaker's unit is occupied by a bona fide caretaker. The guideline lists the requirements that must be met to justify the existence of a caretaker's unit. Additional requirements ensure that the caretaker's quarters are occupied by a bonafide caretaker on a continuing basis, and allow for the demolition of the building if the conditions of the guideline are not complied with. Retail Uses The RA-1 zoning regulations allow for limited retail functions related to nurseries and stables. The objective of this guideline is to ensure that retail functions present a low-key image. The guideline recommends integrating any retail functions into the principal stable or greenhouse building to minimize the visual impact of the retail activities. Building Height The RA-1 District Schedule allows for a maximum height of 9.2 m or 2-1/2 storeys.72 The Director of Planning may permit an increase in this maximum based on the following considerations outlined in this design guideline. The objective of the building height guideline is to ensure that the height of a new development is compatible with the height of existing built form and that the new development fits unobtrusively into the low-lying landscape. The guideline also ensures that granting an increase in height will not result in significant view blockage or increased shadowing of adjacent properties. An increase in height may be allowed if the setback of the building is RA-1 District Schedule. Zoning and Development By-law. City of Vancouver Planning Department. February 1992. page 5. Chapter 2: Southlands ~RA -1 De*£g+v Guideline* 31 increased from the street and property lines. Increases in setback diminish the visual impact of the building when viewed from the street. The use of pitched roof forms may also allow for an increase in height, since this reduces the apparent height of a building when viewed from the street. figure 4. height relaxation- front yard situation73 O U T R I G H T M A X I M U M _ H&IGHT-MJILP1HG, eETBAC-^ / JNGR.EASEP T O _ / \Ae>UALi.y P1M|NI£>H"TH£ IMPACT O f y IMGREASE OPHEICUHT p-i " — r RELAXED M A X I M U M HEIGHT—-j^ Front, rear and side yard width The objective of this guideline is to protect the contiguous open space between separate properties. Open space between properties figure 5. relaxation of side yards74 PROPERTY UMt' t L . _ . IN6REA6EPJ O U T L O O K INCREASE!? FRONT \ARpL L-lNfc* S T R E E T Southlands RA-1 Guidelines, page 7. Ibid, page 7. Chapter 2: SouXMancLyRA-l Vetlg^GuldelOnei- 3 2 contributes to the creation of views and "expansive vistas... and open pastures"75 that are typical of semi-rural character. The guideline recommends that relaxations of the by-law be granted only in cases where it can be demonstrated that adjacent properties will not be adversely impacted. A relaxation of a side yard width should be accompanied by an increase in the front yard setback. In addition, relaxation of any side yard or rear yard width should enhance the visual outlook of a neighboring house and the privacy of an adjacent property should not be impacted negatively. Off-street parking and loading Off-street parking and loading is a concern in the Southlands area because of the number of new parking areas associated with sites being developed to include equestrian or nursery facilities. The objective of this guideline is to figure 6. preferred parking location and treatment76 — 1 | 66J2JEE-WEP LAW&6A.PIHC, O P T I O N STREET OPTION, PARfc-lHc L0CAT£T> ? > U | L P | N C » C f T l O N minimize the impact of parking areas related to new development. The first recommendation is to provide some intervening screening between any parking area and the street and adjacent sites. The second is to locate parking areas behind buildings to Ibid page 1. Ibid, page 9. Chapter 2: SouXKLa^uisliA -1 D e a ^ ^ G u i d e l t n e j - 33 make them less visible from the street. The final recommendation is to locate residential parking within a building, or to ensure it is appropriately screened. Building width and depth The objective of the building width and depth guideline is to limit the visual impact of large, visually dominant buildings. Views are also a consideration as large buildings limit views through pastures to adjacent sites. New developments should be compatible with the prevailing built form in width and depth. The guideline recommends ensuring that buildings are not sited or configured so as to create a wall along the street edge. The location of indoor riding rings should be well back from the street edge. Other intervening buildings of a more compatible scale may be used to screen and reduce visual impact. Finally, riding rings should be sited so as not to adversely impact any adjacent sites. figure 7. preferred width and depth configuration77 C O N F I G U R A T I O N MAXtHUH BOIUplWGrWtvTH s CONFIGURATION LlMrr_T7 -SUiUPSHtx ALONCi THE ST£££T 1| Open Space Open space is key in the definition of semi-rural as "expansive vistas, equestrian functions and open pastures," 7 8 all refer to open space. The amount of open space in the Southlands area is one of the elements that sets it apart as unique in the Ibid, page 10. Ibid, page 1. Chapter 2: Sovcthlandy'RA -1 VetCgtv Guideline* 34 City. The objective of the open space guideline is to ensure that new development maintains or creates contiguous green areas or equestrian related open space. The guideline recommends three ways to achieve this objective. The first is to locate buildings figure 8. preferred open space configuration79 CONX»GiuOU& sfAoe. A AT INTOfc&eCTlOH UMCHA-FACTgW^ri^ T?l£COWTtNOoO£. -I r on the site to create single, large open space areas rather than a series of isolated, smaller and less visible ones. The second is to locate open space areas along street edges and especially at intersections. The third recommendation is to have smaller lots consolidate their open space areas at the street edge rather than at the rear of the site where it is less visible. Private Open Space Common uses of private open space, such as swirnming pools and tennis courts, are visually incompatible with the semi-rural character of the area.80 The objective of this guideline is to ensure that new development minimizes the visual impact of private open space areas. The guideline recommends that private open space and uses incompatible with semi-rural character should not located in the required front yard and should not be conspicuously visible from the street. Buildings and 7 9 Ibid, page 11. 8 0 Ibid page 1. Chapter 2: SouXKLaruU-IZA-1 De4ig*vGuideline* 35 appropriate landscaping should be used to screen these areas. Private open space areas and uses incompatible with a semi-rural character should be located adjacent to dwelling units. figure 9. preferred private open space location and treatment81 J I I I ButuPIN<A SC/KBENIHG PRIVATE OPEM SPAG& PKflM T H E STREET STfce-CT P R I V A T E O P E H LANPfitAPlNCt PftVATE. OPEM T H E S T R E E T N — t t » I f - . * -Landscaping Informal landscape styles and informal landscaping along the side edges of properties are two components in the definition of semi-rural character that relate to the landscaping.82 The objective of this guideline is to ensure that new development maintains and enhances, "the emphasis on a soft, informal, green image."83 Several recommendations are made by the guidelines to ensure the informal style of landscaping is maintained. All developments should provide a landscape plan that clearly notes the mature size and type of plant species. Formal plantings and gardens should be restricted to the private open space zones around dwelling units. Informal landscaping should be used in any area not used as private open space. Fencing used in any area except the private open space zone should be low, open and allow views through the site. 83 1 Ibid, page 12. !Ibid. page 13. Ibid, page 13. Chapter 2: SoutfaLasidy'RA -1 O&sig^ v Guideline* 36 figure JO. landscape zones 84 J 1 J I IHPOP-MA.U Filling and Drainage Filling and drainage are important aspects of building and development in the Southlands area. Floodproofing and drainage will usually be employed as a component of most new developments. The objective of this guideline is to ensure that floodproofing fill and impervious surfaces are inconspicuously integrated into the topography and landscaping. In addition, flood proofing fill and impervious surfaces should not have a detrimental impact on adjacent properties. Extensive recommendations related to grading, impervious surfaces, flood proofing aprons and septic fields are made. A filling and drainage plan is also required. Ibid, page 13. Chapter 2:S<nrfhlarid*'RA~l VeiO^n/Guideline* 37 Part 2. Evaluation of the implementation of the guidelines Three developments where the design guidelines have been implemented were selected and evaluated, 3380 Celtic Avenue and 3388 Celtic Avenue, 7349 Blenheim Street and 6680 Balaclava Street. The most influential guidelines for each property are evaluated below. 3380 and 3388 Celtic Avenue Neighborhood character Objective: "to ensure that new development will maintain and enhance the prevailing semi-rural character of the Southlands neighborhood."85 figure 11. site plan schematic These addresses were developed together and thus share the same building materials and very similar building forms. The development maintains and enhances the neighborhood character through the use of a semi-rural site planning style (clustered) and Ibid, page 1. Chapter 2: Sou£hlaruJLy~RA-l Ve^v^QuXxieliY^e* 38 the use of the semi-rural architectural forms recommended by the building character guidelines. The retention of informal vegetation along the edges of the lots does much to help this development blend into its context. Al l of the components of semi-rural character defined in this guideline, "expansive vistas, equestrian functions, open pastures and informal landscaping along the side edges,"86 have been made use of at this address. figure 12. neighborhood character Ibid, page 1. Chapter 2: S&uihlaridi-'RA-l Design/GuXdelCnei- 39 3380 and 3388 Celtic Avenue Street character Objective: to maintain the semi-rural character of the street pattern. figure 13. street character The semi-rural street pattern is characterized by a gradual visual transition from the public road edge to the private development site. The edges of these lots are informally landscaped. Native plant materials have been retained despite the construction and they have not been shaped or pruned. In addition, the fencing style is low and open. The partial screening offered by this edge treatment prevents the buildings from having a dominant presence when viewed from the street. The transition from street edge to residence is thus softened by the informal street edge treatment. Chapter 2: SouthlastcU-'RA-l VetO^Qui&eUwefr 40 3380 and 3388 Celtic Avenue Private open space Objective', to, "minimize the visual impact of private open space... and other uses incompatible with semi-rural character."87 figure 14. views into private open space screened by buildings and vegetation Private open space at 3380 Celtic Avenue is inconspicuous and is screened from the street by the careful arrangement of the buildings. The residence screens the private open space from view from Celtic Avenue and Blenheim Street. At 3388 Celtic Avenue private open space in the form of a patio-verandah wraps from the front of the house around to its west side and south side. Most of the private open space area is behind the residence and barn. The site planning solutions have been successful in reducing the visual impact of the private open space when viewed from the road. Ibid, page 12. Chapter 2: SouXhlayncLy'RA -1 Design/ Guidelines 41 7349 Blenheim Street Neighborhood character Objective: "to ensure that new development will maintain and enhance the prevailing semi-rural character of the Southlands neighborhood."88 figure 15. site plan schematic figure 16. neighborhood character Ibid, page 1. Chapter 2: SouXtdaruLy'RA -1 Ve#C<^Gu£delCnei- 42 This development has made use of, "expansive vistas, equestrian functions, open pastures and informal landscaping along the side edges."89 There are deep views into the property from the street, equestrian functions, large open space areas and informal native plant materials along the street edge. Although the architecture of the residence is not in a semi-rural style its modest location on the lot ensures that it is an unobtrusive presence. A semi-rural character has been preserved at this address. Ibid, page 1. Chapter 2: SouXMaruU-KA -1 Design/ Guideline* 43 7349 Blenheim Street Street character Objective: to maintain the semi-rural character of the street pattern. figure 17. elevation- a gradual transition jrom the public domain at the street edge to the private domain at the rear of the property Going in from the road edge to the rear of the property there is a row of native deciduous trees, an open low fence, riding ring, farm buildings, the principal residence and finally the private open space. Informal landscaping styles and open, low fencing have been employed, and as with 3380 Celtic Avenue the native trees at the road edge have been retained. Views from the street are possible deep into the property. The rural street character is maintained because of the partial screening offered by the informal landscaping and the diminutive siting of the building. Chapter 2: Sou£hla*uli-1lA~l DeiO^QiUdelOnei- 44 6680 Balaclava Street Site character Objective, to ensure that, "new development reinforces the prevailing site planning pattern."90 figure 18. site plan schematic The existing site planning pattern in the Southlands neighborhood is characterized by a cluster of residential and farm buildings in an expanse of pasture. Thus the guideline recommends clustering buildings in order to maximize the area of open space. Going from west to east the first third of this lot is occupied by the house and related buildings which are spaced closely together and appear as a single mass. The middle third contains a hard surfaced patio and a gazebo surrounded by ornamental plantings, and the final third of the lot contains a tennis court partially screened by ornamental plantings. The recommendations of the guideline have been complied with in that the structures are clustered together. However, the remaining area of the lot is taken up by private open space functions, such as the tennis court and patio, and there are no significant areas of Ibid, page 3. Chapter 2: Sotrfhla<ndi-1lA-l Vevig^GuidelOnei- 45 informal open space or pasture. Clustering of the buildings, as the guideline recommends, has not been sufficient to preserve the prevailing site planning pattern. figure 19. residence viewed from Balaclava Street Chapter 2: Southlandy'tlA-l Ve#i^ Guideline* 46 6680 Balaclava Street Open space Objective', to, "maintain or create significant, visible and contiguous green areas or equestrian related open space. " 9 1 te*mi*court •u—i>—a-a n-4 51 avenue^ L U X 1 viewy Onto: open/ ipace> from- U^reriectUm/ " — 4 — a — a — a — » tl n n •» w i J i l , l ' , i" tr • 51 ove+vae- private' open/ ipace> y>reenedi • b y g ^ ^ figure 20. existing site plan (left) with prominent siting of residence versus alternative site plan (right) which emphasizes open space Significant areas of visible green space or equestrian related open space have not been maintained at this address. The buildings have been located to one side of the lot as the guideline recommends but the remainder of the lot has been programmed with functions which do not allow for significant areas of open space. In addition, an open space area has not been located at the intersection of 51 Avenue and Balaclava Street as the guideline recommends. Leaving this corner as open space, as the corner of Blenheim Street and Celtic Avenue was left open, would have provided a visual amenity that is characteristic of the Southlands area. The guideline recommends that developments on small lots should consolidate open space areas at the street edge where they are most visible. Areas of open space have been located at the street edge but these areas are not large enough to amount to a visually significant open space. Instead, a series of small, less visible green spaces have been created, which is precisely what the guideline Ibid, page 10. Chapter 2: Sou£hla<nds1?A -1 Design/ Guidelines 47 recommendations sought to avoid. The recommendations of this guideline have not been sufficient to create or preserve open space at this address. Chapter 2: SoutMaruU-KA -2 "Design/ Guideline* 48 6680 Balaclava Street Landscaping Objective: to maintain the characteristic landscape that, "emphasizes a soft, informal, • ? » 9 2 green image. figure 21. street edge at southwest corner of Balaclava Street and 51 Avenue figure 22. street edge of6680 Balaclava Street Formal plantings should be restricted to private open space zones around dwelling units, and informal landscaping should be used in any areas that are not private open space. As most of the outdoor area of this property is programmed for private open space activities, the majority of the landscaping is formal in style. All of the original plant Ibid, page 13. Chapter 2: SouXKiand*'RA-1 Veiig^v Guideline* 49 materials were removed during the construction process and extensive planting has been undertaken. The newly planted nursery stock does not, "evoke images of soft, informal greenery"93 that the guideline seeks to maintain. These formal plantings are not screened from view and are clearly visible from the street. The guideline has not been successful in maintaining the soft, informal landscaping characterisic of the Southlands neighborhood. Ibid page 13. Chapter 2: S<nrfhla*idi''RA-1 VesCgrv Guideline* 50 Summary of Results The general objective of the Southlands RA-1 Guidelines is to, "ensure that new development will maintain and enhance the prevailing semi-rural character."94 Two of the three developments evaluated did present a semi-rural character through compliance with the guidelines. In discussions with city of Vancouver planners, three elements were identified as crucial to maintaining semi-rural character. The first is the clustering of buildings on the site. The second is the preservation of deep views through filtering layers of informal vegetation and rural fence forms. The third is the subordinate placement of the built form in the landscape.95 Development in compliance with the Street character guideline at 3380 and 3388 Celtic, and 7349 Blenheim resulted in street edges bordered with informally maintained native plant materials and open fence forms. This edge treatment combined with the distance the buildings were sited from the street allowed for the filtered views and gradual visual transition from the public to private that characterizes a semi-rural street character. As the Private open space guideline recommends, the private open space at both of these addresses is screened from view by the buildings reducing its visual impact. Both properties have maintained or created the, "expansive vistas, equestrian functions [and] open pastures,"96 the Neighborhood character guideline defines as part of a semi-rural character. The guideline which deals with the site planning of new development, the Site character guideline, requires that buildings be clustered in an expanse of pasture. This is an extremely powerful means of preserving views. Even buildings that are not in a rural architectural style present a rural Ibid, page 2. 9 5 Yardley McNeill. Interview. Planning Facilitator. City of Vancouver Planning Department. Friday, October 6, 1995. 9 6 Southlands RA-1 Guidelines, page 2. Chapter 2: SoxAXMancU-TiA -1 VetCgn/ Guideline* 51 character when they are arranged in this manner. Clustering also tends to set the buildings subordinately in the landscape. The buildings at 3380 and 3388 Celtic and 7349 Blenheim were clustered so as to preserve vistas and to reserve the largest area of open space possible for pasture. The instances at 6680 Balaclava Street where the guidelines were unsuccessful were related to site planning issues that fell outside the powers of the Site character and other guidelines. Semi-rural character is defined by the guidelines as, "an assemblage of design elements such as expansive vistas, equestrian functions, open pastures and informal landscaping along the side edges."97 A semi-rural approach to site plarining is difficult to achieve because the lot at this address is smaller than the lots typical of the Southlands neighborhood. The owners chose to build the largest house possible allowed by the zoning regulations. They also constructed a tennis court which was partially screened from view. The Private open space guideline recommends that uses such as this be screened from view as they are out of character for the neighborhood. The Building character guideline requires that the residence and other buildings be sited subordinately to the landscape. The residence at this address is sited conspicuously at the corner of the lot. The decision on the part of the owners to site a large residence in a visually dorninant location, and to build a tennis court on a modestly sized lot does not allow for the "expansive vistas, equestrian functions, open pastures,"98 the guidelines define as characteristic. Ibid, page 2. Ibid, page 2. Chapter 3: Sou£faShaugh*ieiiy1ZS-5 Vevi%n> Guideline* 52 Chapter 3: South Shaughnessy RS-5 Design Guidelines In the late 1980s the RS-1 zoning which applied to the present RS-5 zoning area was amended to reduce the permitted above-grade floor area and to encourage a more "neighborly"99 approach to the design of homes. Residents were dissatisfied with these amendments and expressed continued concerns about the visual incompatibility of new development. In response to these concerns the City Council initiated a review of the residential zoning in South Shaughnessy and parts of Kerrisdale and Oakridge. The results of this review formed the basis for the South Shaughnessy RS-5 Design Guidelines and the current RS-5 District Schedule. These were developed by City staff in consultation with the community and adopted by City Council in July 1993 1 0 0 Two opposing groups of residents vied to determine the direction the guidelines would take. One group wanted the overall objective of the guidelines to be the protection and encouragement of the original housing styles characteristic of the neighborhood. These housing styles include Tudor Revival, Colonial Revival, Craftsmen, Moderne and the Post-war Bungalow style. The other group was opposed to any involvement of the city in the design of single family residences. In response to the objectives of both groups, planners developed an approach to determining what new development will look like which depends on the existing streetscape around the development site. In this way new development must respond to its context, and it is the streetscape which determines what is acceptable. As each streetscape is unique, infinite variation and responsiveness is built into the guidelines. The intent of these guidelines is not to establish a preferred style or to 9 9 South Shaughnessy RS-5 Design Workbook. City of Vancouver Planning Department. July 1993. page 2. 1 0 0 Ibid, page 2. Chapter 3: Sooth ShtuAxjh^etey "RS-5 Ve^u^GiUdeliYie*' 53 encourage the design of homes that simply replicate the homes in the streetscape. The intent of the guidelines is to encourage compatibility rather than replication.101 In fact, both the Design Guidelines and the RS-5 District Schedule emphasize the importance of design compatibility with the established streetscape.102 Part 1. Summary of the objectives and recommendations of the guidelines The general objectives of the RS-5 Design Guidelines are to encourage new developments to be compatible with adjacent residences and landscaping, and to encourage the continuing use of high quality materials and design. The guidelines are based on two principles. The first is that the architecture and landscape elements of adjacent properties should provide the pattern upon which new development is based. The second principle is that the selection of materials and detailing of architectural elements should be compatible with the materials and detailing of adjacent properties. The proposed design should contribute to the compatible transition between residences along the street. The focus of the guidelines is the design of residences and gardens as viewed from the street. Yardley McNeill. Interview. Planning Facilitator. City of Vancouver Planning Department. Wednesday, August 16, 1995. 1 0 2 RS-5 District Schedule. Zoning and Development By-law. City of Vancouver Planning Department. July 1993. page 1. Chapter 3: SoxAXfoSha^ghnetiy -RS-5 Ve*U^ Guideline*' 54 figure 23. South Shaughnessy RS-5 zoning district1' Streetscape character The objective of the streetscape character guideline is to define streetscape character and explain the relevance of streetscape patterns in the design of new developments. A streetscape's character or image is based on, "the design of the public realm (curbs, street trees, lot sizes etc.) and the visible portions of the private realm (yard landscaping, building form, materials, detailing etc.)."104 The RS-5 guidelines address the elements in the private realm only. Central to the definition of streetscape is the idea that a new development is not viewed as a separate entity. Instead, the new development is seen as one part of the many parts that make up the streetscape. The new development can strengthen a streetscape by interpreting and combining existing architectural and landscape patterns and elements. In order for the new development to be South Shaughnessy RS-5 Design Guidelines. Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department, page 1. 1 0 4 Ibid, page 4. Chapter 3: SouXKStuusxfhsuitey RS-5 Ve*Cgw Guideline*' 55 compatible with adjacent properties it should range from direct replication to more general derivations of the design of neighboring properties. The guideline describes two different streetscape scenarios. In the first scenario the streetscape is composed of residences with many similar characteristics. The guideline • ( P • | . p p • i —\— / 1—t—1 1 1—4—1 / s ' i 1—i 1 ^ Near Comer • Mid Block • '*At Comer • • • • • • \Jr kJ. • Propoeed Development Site • Neighbouring Property figure 24. The surrounding properties linked by the dot dash line define the streetscape for reference when designing a new house or renovation.105 recommends that the proposed design should be derived from these readily discernible patterns and elements. In the second scenario the streetscape is composed of residences in widely varying styles built during different periods in the history of the neighborhood. It may be difficult to identify a design pattern that is representative of residences in the streetscape. In the absence of an identifiable pattern the guideline recommends that the designer select individual elements and forms from surrounding properties and combine these elements into the design of the new residence. In this way visual links will be made between the design of neighboring houses and landscaping and the design of the new development. Ibid page 4. Chapter 3: ScnA^ShaAA^hnesy/ "RS-5 De*£0*vGuidelOriey' 56 Form- streetscape patterns The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the basic building form or massing of the proposed residence is derived from the pattern of building massing existing in the streetscape. The complexity of massing, roof line silhouette and the use of secondary massing elements such as porches, chimneys, entries and bay windows in the streetscape should be used as the basis for which the massing of the proposed residence is derived. Established patterns should be respected by the designer. For example, on a street with an established pattern of complex roof forms the designer should incorporate a complex roof form into the design. Building form- primary forms The objective of this guideline is to identify characteristic primary building forms found in the Shaughnessy neighborhood. The guideline states that although the form of residences varies widely some or all of the following characteristics are often displayed: simple massing using only one or two primary forms; significantly pitched or hipped roof forms providing a visual 'hat' to the house, and main roof forms springing from the first storey eave lines; front entries expressed as single storey attached forms, or indented into the front facade; front entry areas with a significant single storey porch or verandah; asymmetrical massing; on wide lots secondary forms used for conservatories, porte-cocheres or attached garages; substantial cliimney forms occurring on side walls. Building form- primary roof The guideline recommends the use of pitched roof forms as they are the most common roof form made use of in the area. For primary pitched roof forms the guideline requires a minimum pitch of 5:12. Flat roofed areas may be incorporated into a portion of the roof if they are concealed behind the sloping roofs. Ch^ter 3: ScniXh/Shcuighne*^^ 57 The use of combination roofs which include flat roofs may be acceptable if they are compatible with streetscape patterns and the flat portions of the roof step down to the level of the eave lines of houses on adjoining sites. Building form- secondary roofs and dormers The guideline recommends that the slope and proportions of roofs over subordinate portions of a building should match the primary roof form and should be an integral part of the building design. Dormer and secondary gable forms should remain secondary to the primary roof form. Secondary roofs and dormers may have a slope less than the primary roof if they are integral with the overall building design. In order to avoid a top-heavy appearance, dormers on the third storey should be relatively small. Building form- entrances, porches and verandahs The guideline recommends that the design of front entrances should be integrated into the overall building design. Front entrances should be one-storey with sufficient cover. Cover for the entry may be achieved by recessing the front door, by the addition of a porch or a combination of both. Entry areas with double height columns, second storey arches and large fan lights are not typical of most existing residences and should not be used. Building form- chimneys The guideline encourages the use of chimneys in the house design, with chimneys in real brick or stone preferable. The brick or stone used for the chimney should be the same brick or stone used on other parts of the house and landscape. Framed in chimneys which are an integral part of the total design of the building may be used. Chimneys finished in thin-set brick or stone veneers and exposed metal chimneys Chapter 3: SouthShaMghneiiy RS-5 Ve&awGuideline*' 53 should not be used. Metal furnace flues and vent caps should be screened with a durable enclosure and detailed to match the rest of the building. Building form- balconies anddecksThe guideline recommends that balconies and decks which are visible from the street should be integrated into the building massing and facade. Porches and verandahs may be located over entry areas where there are precedents for this in the streetscape. The detailing of guards and posts should be consistent with other building detailing. Building form- bay windows The guideline recommends that bay windows should be limited to one or two locations on any facade visible from the street. Two-storey bay window forms are not recommended. Building form- conservatories and music rooms The guideline recommends that conservatories, music rooms and similar secondary rooms should be placed to the side or rear of the residence and should be a secondary element in size and scale. These secondary rooms should be consistent with the rest of the residence in their detailing and construction. Building form- porte-cocheres and attacked garages A single car porte-cochere is acceptable in circumstances where it is compatible with the streetscape and a front driveway is permitted. The porte-cochere should be located on the side of the residence and set back from the front facade. The massing and detailing should be compatible with the rest of the house. Attached garages should be located to the side of the residence and set back a minimum of one meter from the front facade. As with the porte-cochere, the design of the attached garage should be well integrated into the design of the building. Chapter 3: SouXKShoAAxfhne-isy RS-5 DeM^n^ (guideline*' 59 Composition- streetscape patterns The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the composition of the street facing facade of the new development is based on the composition of the street facing facades of adjacent buildings. The guideline recommends that the scale, proportions and rhythm of the facades of adjacent properties provide the basis for the design of the facade of the new development. Elements from adjacent properties such as the proportions and placement of windows and entry doors, belt courses, accent elements, and emphasized structural components may be included in the new development to achieve a compatible facade design. For example, if there are identifiable patterns in the composition of the facades, the new design should be derived from these identifiable patterns. The proportions, orientation, scale and complexity of existing house facades on the streetscape should provide the basis for the new facade. If the streetscape is composed of many different house styles and there are no identifiable patterns, the designer should select some of the elements from the facades of adjacent houses and arrange them into a compatible new facade design. Wall composition- primary facades The objective of this guideline is to ensure that street-facing facades have appropriate three-dimensional depth. Building facades are given depth through the use of bays, recesses, reveals, substantial trim and secondary building elements such as porches, verandahs, balconies and bay windows. These elements should be integral with the building design and be derivative of other secondary building elements found in the streetscape. Wall composition- flanking street facades The objective of this guideline is to ensure that flanking street facades are detailed to the same degree as the front facade. The Chapter 3: SouthShaughneiiy "RS-5 Ve*ign/Guideline*' go guideline recommends that the flanking street facade of buildings on smaller lots should have windows and projections similar to the front facade. Buildings on larger lots may introduce one-storey building elements to the flanking street facade. Wall composition- secondary facades The objective of this guideline is to ensure that side walls that are visible from the street are detailed to the same extent as the front facade. The guideline recommends that where sideyards are narrow the side wall facade can be varied with shallow wall recesses, wall detailing or a chimney. Wider sideyards will accommodate corner setbacks and bay windows. Doors and windows- streetscape patterns The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the arrangement of doors and windows on the building facade is derivative of the arrangements of doors and windows found in the streetscape. The guideline recommends that attention should be given to the shape, scale, proportion, vertical and horizontal orientation, alignment, grouping and detailing of the doors and windows found in the streetscape. Doors and windows- front door design A single door, with or without a narrow side window is the usual treatment for the front entry area in South Shaughnessy. A double door that is similar in width to a single door is also acceptable. The design of the front door and entry area should be well integrated. Doors and windows- window design The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the design of the windows for the new development responds to the pattern of windows found in the streetscape. Large areas of window should be divided by structural elements. Where streetscape patterns support their use, muntins may be used to further divide the surface area of the window. Doors and windows- skylight design Skylights should be located so that they are not visually obtrusive in areas such as the eave or ridge of the roof. Bubble skylights should not be used if they are visible from the street. Materials and detailing- roof The objective of this guideline is to outline acceptable roof materials. The following materials are considered acceptable: cedar shingles or shakes, slate, asphalt shingles in muted tones, low profile concrete tiles in muted colors and copper standing seam roofs for secondary roofs. Wide fascias that continuously outline all eaves, gables and other roof elements should be avoided. Materials and detailing- eaves This guideline outlines the acceptable detailing of eaves. The traditional South Shaughnessy home has eave fascias of slim appearance with contrasting substantial barge boards on building and dormer gables. Soffits under eaves are usually sloped. If the soffits are flat they are supported by eave brackets made of substantial timber. Materials and detailing- walls This guideline outlines the acceptable detailing of walls. The guideline recommends that wall cladding should be limited to two materials to avoid a cluttered appearance. The choice of cladding material should respond to the design of the building. Higher quality cladding materials should be used on all visible facades in order to avoid a 'false front' image. The following are acceptable cladding materials: wood shingles or siding such as clapboard, beveled siding or board and batten, true dimension brick in solid colors, true-cut stone, stone-dash stucco, pebble-dash stucco Chapter 3: South ShaAA^hneiiy US-5 Ve*igvu Guideline*' 52 and medium-textured stucco when used with adequate detailing such as recessed bands or integral half timbering. Unacceptable materials include thin veneers, simulated materials and polished stone. The trim around doors and windows and decorative elements should be wood. Ceramic tile is acceptable for minor accent elements. Colors for wall cladding will usually be muted or white. Bright pastel or primary colors should not be used for wall cladding but may be acceptable for minor detailing or on front doors. Wood shingles may be left unpainted. Any other wall cladding should be painted or solid stained. Materials and detailing- doors and windows This guideline outlines the acceptable detailing of doors and windows. Wood is the most common material used for windows and exterior doors in South Shaughnessy. The use of wood is encouraged and the use of material other than wood may be acceptable if sash, frame size and proportions match those of their wood equivalents. Large, unrelieved areas of glass block and thin-framed door or window systems are not acceptable. Substantial trim boards at heads and jambs of doors and windows should be used. Divided pane windows should use true-divided lights. Window sash should be balanced. Reflective, tinted or mirrored glass is not acceptable. Colored glass should only be used in small panes as an accent and is otherwise not encouraged. Landscape design The objective of the following landscaping guidelines is to ensure that the landscaping of the new development is compatible with the streetscape. Plant materials can also contribute to the visual transition from one site to another and from one . house to another. Chapter 3: SoufivShaAA^hnetiy RS-5 VetC&n/Guideline*' 53 Property edges- streetscape patterns The treatment of edges at the new development site should be derivative of existing patterns on the streetscape. There are three general patterns that describe the treatment of property edges. The first pattern is the totally enclosed front yard. The second pattern is the partially enclosed yard which has groupings of heavily planted areas. The third pattern is the open front yard where in some cases the side property line is defined with planting and the front property line is not. Consideration should be given to these patterns when deciding on the property edge treatment. Property edge forms- soft landscape The soft landscaping that defines the property edges may take a variety of forms including hedges, massing of plants, shrubs and/or trees, rows of shrubs and linear flower beds. The guideline recommends the use of layers of plant materials to create the visual depth typical of south Shaughnessy gardens. Property edge forms- hard landscape Walls and fences may be used if there are precedents for them in the streetscape. Walls and fences should be used in combination with plant materials in order to create the layered landscape typical of the neighborhood. The scale of the soft and hard landscaping should be balanced. Property edge forms- topography The guideline recommends that the topography along property lines may be changed only to match the existing conditions on adjacent properties. Retaining walls along the front edge of the property should match the height and slope of retaining walls in the streetscape. Property edge forms- corner sites The landscape along both the front and flanking street edges should enhance and be compatible with the streetscape. The degree Chapter 3: SouthShaughneay KS-5 VetCgrvQuCdelOne*' 54 of enclosure of front and side yards should be compatible with the degree of enclosure exhibited on the streetscape. The edges of rear yards on flanking streets should generally be bounded by a hedge or fence. High, solid fences along rear yards may be used with soft landscaping for screening. Property edge forms- front driveways Vehicular access should be from the lane wherever possible. Where front driveways are permitted the driveway entry width should be as narrow as possible and integrated into the overall landscape design. Dual-entry, semi-circular driveways in the front yard should not be used unless they are supported by streetscape precedent. Property edge finishings The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the materials and detailing of property edges are compatible with the streetscape. The first recommendation is that the soft landscape edging materials should be similar in species to others along the streetscape. The materials used for hard landscaping edging elements should match other hard landscaping elements used on the site or the foundation of the principal building. The materials used for hard landscaping should also respond to the hard landscaping used elsewhere in the streetscape. Acceptable materials include metal railings and open picket fences in darker colors, granite blocks, and rough-set stone or brick. Solid wood fences should not be used in front yards. Front yard- streetscape patterns The objective of this guideline is to ensure that front yard landscape designs are derivative of typical streetscape patterns. As with edge treatments, the layering of shrubs, flower beds, lawn, groundcovers and trees should be used to create visual depth. Chapter 3: SouXh>Shau£pwe*y>> US -5 Veslan, Guideline*' 55 Front yard forms- soft landscape The objectives of this guideline are to encourage informal, asymmetrical landscape design and the use of large caliper native tree species. The guideline recommends the massing of a combination of plants or the grouping of trees and shrubs as preferable to the planting of individual specimens. The use of large single specimen trees may be appropriate where there are streetscape precedents. Every site under 15.2 m wide should have at least one tree of a medium or large species in the front yard (retained or planted). Yards wider than 15.2 m should have at least two medium to large trees. In addition to these minimum tree requirements, ornamental, dwarf, weeping or other small varieties may be planted. Front yard forms- hard landscape The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the area of paved surface is ntinimized. Large expanses of pavement should be avoided. Surfaces such as sidewalks, driveways, and solid surface patios should be as small as possible. Hard landscape elements should be clearly subordinate to soft landscape elements. Front yard forms- topography The grading of front yards should match the existing grading patterns in the streetscape. The use of berms and other artificially graded forms are acceptable where they are consistent with the streetscape. Front yardforms- lighting The objective of this guideline is to preserve the existing night-time streetscape character. The guideline encourages the use of front entry, walk, and gate lighting. The use of incandescent or true color light sources to light pathways and entries is encouraged. The use of high intensity and flood lighting are not recommended. Chapter 3: SouX^Shau^Kneiiy RS-5 Design*Guideline*' Front yardfinishings- materials and detailing The guideline recommends the use of native species or other species of plants materials which flourish in the lower mainland and resist drought, disease and pestilence. Newly planted coniferous trees should be at least 3.5 m in height. Newly planted deciduous trees should be a minimum of a 60 mm caliper. Materials used for the hard landscaping should be consistent with the materials used in the principal building and compatible with the hard landscaping materials in the streetscape. Permeable materials are encouraged for paved areas and the paved surfaces should complement the building and the landscaping. Materials such as brick, concrete pavers and the limited use of asphalt or exposed aggregate are acceptable. Asphalt or exposed aggregate concrete surfaces should be divided by strips or grids of other materials to give them a residential character. Poured- in- place concrete stamped and finished to resemble concrete pavers may also be acceptable. Foundation planting- streetscape forms The objective of this guideline is to encourage the foundation planting of a new development to be derivative of the typical patterns of foundation planting found in the streetscape. Aspects of the streetscape pattern which should be considered are the transition from garden to house, the blending of the house into the overall landscape and the relative lushness of the foundation planting. Foundation planting- forms Foundation planting takes the form of a massing of shrubs, flowers, groundcovers, and sometimes trees, along the foundation lines of a building. The goals of foundation planting are to enhance the facade, emphasize the entry area and integrate grade changes. The guideline recommends that the foundation plantings should be laid out in beds rather than as individually-planted specimens. The Ciuxpter 3: SouthShGughywty 57 shortest plant materials should be the farthest from the facade, while the tallest plant materials should be the closest to the building facade. Foundation planting finishings- plant material The guideline recommends that a variety of plant materials is preferred to the mass plantings of a single species. Foundation planting finishings- detail Foundation plantings may be planted at grade, contained by low retaining walls or incorporated into a rock garden. Foundation planting finishings- color The guideline encourages the use of plant materials with colored foliage as accents or for contrast. Chapter 3: ScnrfhShaughnebiy RS-5 Ve*C%n>Guideline*' gg Part 2. Evaluation of the implementation of the guidelines Two addresses were selected where the design guidelines were implemented, 4538 Margeurite and 1163 W40th. The guidelines were recently adopted, and for this reason the residences are still in the process of being constructed. They are, however, far enough along in the construction process to evaluate the majority of the guidelines. As the streetscape forms the basis for which the design of the new residence is to be based, the streetscape for each of the selected addresses will be photographed and included as a reference for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the guidelines. The most influential guidelines for each property are evaluated below. Streetscape for 4538 Margeurite The streetscape for 4538 Margeurite includes 4564 Margeurite, 4588 Margeurite, 1688 W29th and 1689 W29th. 1688 and 1689 W29th face one another on W29th. The residences at 4538 and 4563 Margeurite are located on a lot that previously had only one house on it. These houses were constructed at the same time by different architects and contractors. The residence at 4538 Margeurite was built on speculation, while 4564 Margeurite is a custom built home. This is a mixed streetscape with houses built in differing styles at different points in the history of the neighborhood. The two houses on W29th were built sometime in the 1980s before these guidelines were written. The residence at 4588 Margeurite is about forty to fifty years old. The residence at 4564 Margeurite is a recent adaptation of the east coast Adam's style and 4538 is in the Tudor revival style. The design of 4538 Margeurite has made use of elements from the older existing residence at 4588 Margeurite, the Chapter 3: SouXKShau$wei$y KS-5 Ve&igwGuidelOne*' JQ 4538 Margeurite Form- streetscape patterns Objective: "The basic form of the proposed design should be derived from the forms and patterns existing in the surrounding streetscape's houses. Though existing house forms need not be copied, the form of a proposed new house or renovation should be a compatible addition to the streetscape's existing character. Contextual issues such as form complexity, roof line silhouette, and the use of secondary elements (porches, chimneys, entries, bay windows, etc.) should all be used as the basis from which the massing of a 107 new house is derived." figure 26 1688 and 1689 W29th The Tudor revival building form of 4538 Margeurite is derivative of 4588 Marguerite, while the roof line silhouette is a simplified version of 1688 W29th. The inset entry area is similar to the approaches taken at 1688 and 1689 W29th and at 4564 and 4588 Margeurite. The projections on the sides of 4564 Margeurite and at the front of 1688 and 1689 W29th are the precedents for the shallow projections at the front and side of 4538 Margeurite. The location of the chimney at 4538 Margeurite is the same as the Ibid, page 6. Chapter 3: ScntXh/ShaM$hne*iy RS-5 VetCgtvGuideline*' J2 4538 Margeurite Building form- primary and secondary roof Objective: "Pitched-roof forms are most common to the area and should generally be used.. Roofs over subordinate portions of the building should generally match the slope and proportion of the primary roof and should be an integral part of the building design. Dormer and secondary gable forms should be positioned and proportioned so as to remain secondary to the primary roof form."108 As with the other guidelines, the form of the roof should be derivative of the existing roof forms in the streetscape. figure 28 4538 and 4564 Margeurite figure 29 1688 W29th Ibid, page 9. Chapter 3: South/Shau$hn&&iy RS-5 Vetign/QuldeUne*' 73 The pitch of the roof at 4538 Margeurite is very similar to the pitch of the roof at the house next door at 4564 Margeurite. The main roof form drops to the level of the top edge of the second storey windows at 4538 Margeurite, as it does at the other residences in the streetscape. As a complement to the simple massing of4538 Margeurite, the roof form is also simple. The roof form of 4564 Marguerite is a precedent for this simple approach, while the roof of 1688 W29th is a more complex version of that used at 4538 Margeurite. 1 H 3-CT cr g i •s 6. g. O cr o < CT 3-CT CT a CT P9 0 0 2 CJQ CD C a. n CT 3. t/i o ft a o >*5 H cr ro o CL rt CO o U \ U) 0 0 _ C L - t i ( V i O O 0 0 _ a rt rt o 3" rt H C P-0 "i 1 p_ 3 o CL rt CP)' 3 O 3 cr rt CO O | rt en cr o e cr rt c cn rt (X £S 3> Q . rt I O O o 0 1 1 rt 3 1 h-8 g s 5-' cy 9$ 5 • EM 3 . I a a-< ^ I Si a Chapter 3: SouthSha^ghneiiy US-5 V&big-n*Guideline*' 75 arches over the entry areas at 1688 and 1689 W29th. The residence at 4564 Margeurite has belt courses in the same location as those used at 4538 Margeurite. For the most part, windows at 4538 Margeurite are arranged symmetrically, as they are at 4564 Margeurite. Windows are predominantly rectangular in proportion with the divided lights at the top of the rectangle, as they are at 4588 Margeurite. in 2 <>0 co cu - o 3 o d o ro u co — 03 CO cu co ha * i 09 CO - c H co JS +^ 00 g '•5 c -o t CO CO 0> CO =5 O x co X H o >/-> m -a § X ON o x C a o -a c x co -d 3 '3 < + -o co > TO 3 CU CO CO i -Q. X O CI x T ~ o 5 ON 0 3 cu O C CU J2 '« cu o 0 Ix .ia 1 cu s o fe to CU fe x o SO o <u CO X '53 c 0 co CU 1 cu ~o 'to 8 <+-< O <u J3 CO .2P "&D ^ CO CU T 3 -a S CO c cu O B .2 ' - 3 'co O a. S o co cc U « c cu o c o o o 0 1 -3 3 X c2 CU X cS O O <2 E? '3 cu X H ai T3 co $ cu 03 CU o C cu 'to <U u, CU x H CO O 3 X) CU x CO X cu O . cd o co h CU cu X H oo c '3 X co a o o c o c cu CO X co 03 X X co C o o O CM o CU > 03 CU g O 9 CO cu X +3 « S C O CO O CU x CO CU CO 3 o x u. CU X X o 3 X o X 3 O CO '5 f £>• •*-» ! > O « ON 8 8 ** s 0 cfc X 1 a C O CO CU O O 03 TJ CU o o CU 12 '3 pq cu X o co s-2 cu u, 0 +-» CO 1 O 5 I £ '-3 _co X 0 1 _co co co o 00 ON i i ° fc co to •2 g xi o § s ^ "S \D Xi x^ •* - H XI 03 c CU "2 'co CU -a co s O 3 4fl II 1 IE 1 i-II II • Chapter 3: South/ShaMghneiiy RS-5 Vetign/Guideline*' 77 building forms are present in the streetscape, the massing of the residence at 1163 W40th is not directly derivative of one approach to building massing evident in the streetscape. Rather, the designers have decided to make use of the "wide latitude"113 the guidelines allow, within the requirement that the form, "still be derived from the context's patterns and elements."114 1 1 3 Ibid, page 6. 1 1 4 Ibid, page 6. 3 CD 3 er o C co V J a a 0. Q . Q a. < Cu a. to cr <3 Q co rt rt-o CO 3" O c rt C co rt O-BJ co <-+ 3 -rt cr P3 CO 3 3* & rt-3" ro 1 CO CO rt -3 00 O o 0 1 0? rt CO Cu & 3' 5' 3 co rt-rt rt a CO 0 1 rt CO I I* 0 3* 1 rt o o 3 CO CO C rt CO s o 3 " 8 3s 3 rt rt Cu 3 O rt cr n> o o -o rt" a. cr rt O •o rt o o co rt Cu 3 rt 3 -O C co rt rt 3 O < S rt s X I S' ^ 3 O EL co u? —. 3^ O cr rt ( 8 T3 1 rt 3 CO I 3 ' 00 3" rt co C c g. i ' co rt-rt t CO 0 1 rt CO cr o c CO rt CO H cr o c 00 3" i . 3" O C co rt I. H cr rt cr pg CO O <•*} rt-3 -rt O T3 0 CO rt Cu Cu rt CO f CO §* C_ Cu cr rt Cu rt 1 rt Cu o rt o1 CO Cu CO ! I I ! CO S i 00 Chapter 3: SouthShaughn&iiy 1ZS-5 De^i^n/Guideline*' 79 there are precedents in the streetscape for the relatively complex, asymmetrical massing. The placement of the chimney away from the edge of the house at 1163 W40th has precedents at 1135 and 1149 W40th. figure 34 1149 and 1135 W40th cr s •a s qq S3 -t rt a. ro 3. < E i < o I o rt-U1 -u o H pr rt -Q —. O •Q O o OS O rt> rt-=r 05 3 Cu O B 3 * rt a. s: cn 5° 3 O i-h rt-3" rt 3Cu O cn 3 rt-o OQ 3" H 3" rt a. rt rt-s . 3' 90 o its rt cr* rt 3 Cu o cn pa o rt-3 " rt 2. cn O rt 3 rt o rt> rt-3-rt 3 O < cn pa 3 Cu O cn o 3 rt cr rt cn O pa -cs rt H cr rt o O 3 •a o cn_ 3* 5' 3 o rt; rt 3-rt Cu O o p 3 Cu 3 Cu O cn O 3 rt-3" rt cr C B> o 03 c . rt cn cr o c I I 3 SS S ft. 5s I rtJ.', Chapter 3: SouthShaughnesiy US-5 Design/Guideline*' g2 presents a symmetrical arrangement that was not influential in the design of the roof at 1163 W40th. The primary roof form at 1163 W40th seems to most closely resemble the orientation, pitch and shape of the roof of 1177 W40th. Both of these residences have primary roof forms which face the street and have ridges that run at about 30 degrees from the street edge. figure 37 1149 and 1135 W40th Chapter 3: South Shaughv^iy "RS-5 Ve*^^ Guideline*' 33 Summary of Results The South Shaughnessy RS- 5 Design Guidelines have two general objectives. The first is that the, "existing architecture and landscape elements in neighboring houses and gardens provide the basic patterns upon which new development should be based. The proposed design should be derived from the immediate context of adjacent sites and contribute to the compatible transition of houses and gardens along a street."118 The second is that the, "selection of materials and the detailing of architectural and landscape elements should be derived from the Overall neighborhood characteristics."119 The contextual approach that forms the basis of the RS-5 guidelines is an ingenious way of allowing an infinite variety of design responses for each development site. The residences evaluated demonstrated that the guidelines were successful in ensuring that the design and detailing of the new developments were compatible with and derivative of the design and detailing of residences in the streetscape. The streetscape was strengthened by the implementation of the objectives of the guidelines. The approval process for the house located at 1163 W40th was a difficult one that required extensive changes to the original floor plans and facade. The owners of the lot had design objectives in mind that were not related to compatibility or contextual issues.120 As the general consensus among residents of that neighborhood is to create new compatible buildings and strengthen streetscape, the design objectives of the owners of 1163 W40th were at odds with the objectives of the guidelines. The owners of the residence at 1163 W40th decided that an X shaped floor plan best suited the needs of their family. The arms of the X shaped floor plan were arranged at 45° angles to the street 1 1 8 Ibid, page 3. 1 1 9 Ibid, page 3. 1 2 0 McNeil l . Interview. Friday, October 6, 1995. Chapter 3: Soath'Shaaghr^eiiy RS-S Vevig^GuUdeline*' 34 edge. The original house plans had deep insets in the facade that corresponded to the X shaped floor plan. They also wanted to incorporate a turret form to one side of the residence. The turret was a full two storeys, and there were no continuous eave bands at the first storey level, a condition existing in three of the four houses in the streetscape. The proposed second storey level was higher and more substantial than what was finally built. Planners objected to the obvious X shaped floor plan as there were no precedents for this in the streetscape.121 A compromise was finally reached that allowed the X shaped floor plan but required the inset in the facade to be filled in, creating a condition that was compatible with the articulation of the facades Of neighboring homes. The continuous eave band at the first storey level was added to be consistent with the streetscape. The turret, which was without precedent in the streetscape, was shortened to make it appear more like a dormer than a turret form. The downsizing of the turret was also an attempt to express the house primarily in the first storey, in keeping with the expression of the majority of the houses in the streetscape. The entry area which had been located inside one of the arms of the X shape was arranged to one side of the new smooth facade. This was also a response to the frontward facing entry areas presented by all of the houses in the streetscape. When the planner was asked whether the house that was finally approved was, on its own, better or worse architecturally as a result of the changes required by the development approval process, she responded that the changes did not significantly lessen or enhance the quality of the building.122 She added that the required changes did improve the compatibility of the new building with the streetscape.123 The compromises made in the process of giving development permit approval to the residence at 1163 W40th were reppresentative of the overall aim of the RS-5 guidelines, that is that new development should be responsive to its context. The owners were still able to build their X shaped, turreted house, but with modifications that required they incorporate elements from the streetscape. The process of reviewing and permitting the residence at 4538 Margeurite was completed with more ease, as the design of the home was comprehensively responsive to the streetscape. A traditional building form and expression was chosen, the precedent being the Tudor revival home located at 4588 Margeurite. 4538 Margeurite rises to two stories, with the homes at 1688 and 1689 W29th, and 4564 Margeurite as precedents for this. The strong belt course is a response to the belt course of the neighboring 4564 Margeurite. The planner stated that the designer could have chosen to create a hybrid of the 1980s homes located on W29th and the more traditional house forms found in the streetscape.124 As the architect decided to design a straight forward rendition of a Tudor Revival based on an existing precedent in the streetscape, and the new home also responded to elements from other homes in the streetscape, the approval process was uncomplicated. The objectives of the guidelines were achieved in that the design, selection of materials and the detailing of the architectural elements were derived from the streetscape. The new residence contributes to the, "compatible transition of houses and yards along a street."125 In relation to the front yards at 4538 Margeurite and 1163 W40th it should be noted that as the RS-5 guidelines were adopted as recently as 1993, it was 1 2 4 Ibid. 125 South Shaughnessy RS-5 Design Guidelines, page 3. Chapter 3: SouXfoShau%hr\eiiy'RS~5 De*i#n/Guideline*' 85 difficult to find examples of fully completed projects. It is regrettable that 4538 Margeurite and 1163 W40th were not completed to a the point that would allow for the evaluation of the guidelines dealing with new landscape elements. Chapter 4: An^ayWeitCV-l Dei^gr^ Guideline* 87 Chapter 4: Angus West CD-I (No. 184) Design Guidelines Part 1. Summary of the objectives and recommendations of the guidelines The general objective of the Angus West CD-I Design Guidelines (By-law No.6063) (No. 184) is to ensure a high standard of development in the Angus West area. figure 38 Angus West CD-I (No. 184) zoning district126 Neighborhood character The objective of the neighborhood character guideline is to ensure that new development reflects the semi-rural character of previous land usage while incorporating design components from estates located nearby on Southwest Marine Drive. These components would include gated entries, hedgerows and large layered groups of trees. The By-laws regulating this zoning area allow for a maximum of 78 dwelling units consisting of one or two-family dwellings.127 Clusters of residences in "classical and elegant proportions suitable for riverfront, park and estate contexts"128 are to be set into a park-like setting. The design of individual buildings 126Angus West CD-I Design Guidelines. Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department, page 1. i 2 ; CD-I (184). Angus West Lands. By-lawNo. 6063. City of Vancouver Planning Department. November 4, 1986. page 1. 1 2 8 Angus West CD-I Design Guidelines, page 2. Chapter 4: An#u*We*tCV~l VetCgn/Guideline* gg should respect the cluster arrangement as well as take advantage of opportunities for individual expression. Street character A series of recommendations are made that relate to the street edge. Entry to the clusters of residences should be from 75th avenue. The entry areas should have distinctive identifying qualities. Gateways of different scales should be used for pedestrian and vehicular entry areas. Internal streets should have curbs with grass running to the curb edges. The use of different kinds of paving is recommended to provide distinct identities to driveways and cul de sac courtyards. Residences should be designed in harmony with the physical setting and neighboring buildings. In order to foster this harmony within building clusters, the built form and building materials should be uniform for each building cluster. Enclosed garages should be incorporated into the design of the house in order to minimize the visual impact of parking areas. Off street parking spaces for visitors should be screened with landscaping. Parallel parking on the street is discouraged. Views The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the site planning maximizes the privacy and views enjoyed by the residents of the building clusters. Compatible siting, massing, and orientation of buildings is encouraged. Topography The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the topography is treated as a series of gently undulating terraces. These terraces fall from the +6 meter elevation at the edge of the northern escarpment to the +3 meter elevation at the southern boundary on 75th avenue. The guideline recommends that the grading concept Chapter 4-: An$Wb-M)e*t CD-1 Oeji^n/GiMdelCnet- 39 should, "provide aesthetic variation to the land."129 The grading plan should facilitate surface drainage and at no point be lower than 3.5 meters. A subsurface drainage system should be installed at the base of the escarpment to capture overland run-off and subsurface seepage. Noise The objective of this guideline is to ensure that noise proofing measures within residences can accommodate the increased noise levels accompanying the opening of the third runway at Vancouver International Airport. The noise proofing measures shall include the addition of sound deadening materials and triple glazing of south facing windows. Where possible bedrooms should be oriented to the north. Privacy The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the privacy of individual homes is maintained through the use of layers of landscaping along street edges and around private open spaces. The guideline defines layered as, "the sequencing of low plantings, walls or fences, hedges and trees."130 Safety The safety guideline has two objectives. The first is that open space designed for children should be protected from traffic and easily observable from the residences. This is especially important for areas adjacent to 75th avenue and Angus Drive. The second objective is that common open space and facilities should be observable to minimize security problems. Architectural Components- building design The objective of the building design guideline is to ensure that common architectural themes are developed for each u s Angus West CD-I Design Guidelines, page 3. 1 3 0 Ibid, page 3. Chapter 4: An#u*We*t CD -1 DesigrvGuideline* QQ sub-area. A development permit for each sub-area is required before a development permit for an individual strata lot will be issued. Architectural Components- massing The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the massing of the buildings presents a low silhouette. Buildings should not visually overwhelm the site. The guideline recommends the use of variations in height and massing to create visual interest. These variations should respect the scale of adjacent buildings. Architectural Components- exterior walls and finishing The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the surfaces of buildings are well articulated in order that flat, unrelenting areas of building facade are avoided. The guideline recommends that the entire facade does not reach its maximum height on a single plane. Variations in the setback from the property line are also recommended. The guideline recommends pastel colors used in combinations to set off windows, trim and other design details. Acceptable wall finishes include smooth stucco, painted wall shingles and painted wood siding materials such as board and batten and narrow board shiplap. Materials used for retaining walls in the landscape can be repeated on the exterior walls of the house to visually integrate the house and garden. The use of stone should be limited to local granite in irregular, uncoursed cut stone or river rock. The use of brick should be limited to chimneys and should be the same color and type within each building cluster. Architectural Components- windows and skylights The objective of this guideline is to ensure that windows and skylights are well proportioned and detailed with substantial trim. The use of dormers and bay windows is encouraged. Dormers and bay windows Chapter 4: Angu*Weit CD-1 Design/Guideline* g\ may project 0.53 m into a required yard - Windows are to be fully cased and of high quality. The guideline recommends that the design of skylights should be compatible with the roof style and window treatment. Architectural Components- entrance, stairs and porches The objective of this guideline is to ensure that the design and materials used in entry areas are of high quality and compatible with the other buildings in the cluster. Architectural Components- balconies The objective of this guideline is to encourage the extension of house interiors on to balconies, verandahs and terraces. The guideline recommends that these features should be fully integrated into the design of the building. The construction standard and construction materials should be of high quality and compatible with the other buildings in the cluster. Architectural Components- roofscapes The objective of this guideline is to encourage steep roofs, and to ensure that all roofs are made of cedar shingles. A roof slope of 6 in 12 is to be considered the minimum. Flat roofs may only be used for up to a maximum of 25% of the roof plan. Open Space- common open space The first objective of this guideline is to ensure that the common open space is developed concurrently with the buildings in each sub-area. In order to ensure that this is the case, a development permit for the common open space within a sub-area will be required prior to the issuance of any development permit for construction on an individual strata lot. Further, the common open space areas must be developed in accordance with the development permit prior to the issuance of an occupancy permit for any dwelling within the sub-area. Chapter 4 : Angu*We*tCD-1 Design/Guideline* 92 The second objective of this guideline is to ensure that each development provides a common open space framework with strong fingers of vegetation and specific view corridors extending to the site edges. This framework should tie the semi-rural character of the common areas to the park, riverfront and escarpment. Secondary focal points and landscape features such as knolls, pocket orchards, specimen plantings and gazebos should be included within the larger framework established above. The guideline offers several recommendations in order that these goals may be achieved. Native plant materials should be used along common area edges. Ornamental plant materials should be used in entry areas and courts. Specimen plantings should be used to reinforce focal points within the site. Formal rows of trees or hedgerows should be used to identify different points of interest in the developments and to reinforce the boundaries between the seven sub-areas of this zoning district. Hedgerows or formal tree rows should also be used to flank walkways and frame important views to the Fraser River. The spaces between buildings should be purposefully designed and have an identifiable function and character. Glimpses of private gardens, common spaces and distant vistas should be provided. Site furnishings, lighting and signage are to be functional, durable and coordinated. Lighting for pedestrian and vehicular traffic, seating and features in common areas such as entry gates and gazebos will be reviewed for design, scale, color and location. In private open spaces lighting, storage facilities and other prominent features will be reviewed for design, scale, color and location. Open Space- private open space The objective of this guideline is to ensure that private gardens act as an integrating link between the common open space and the Chapter 4 : Angut-WejtCD-1 VetCguvGuideline* 93 residences. In addition, private gardens should be treated as extensions of the interiors of the residences. The guideline recommends the use of changes in grade, low rock walls, trellises, fences and hedges to define private open space areas and establish links to the common areas. The guideline recommends the use of filtered views through layers of vegetation to achieve a balance between privacy and security. Landscaping The landscaping guideline has several objectives. The first objective is to respect the fragile nature of the Marine Drive escarpment taking special precautions to prevent erosion, maintain proper drainage conditions and maintain the native plantings on the slope. The stream course that originates in the upland area and flows down the escarpment through the clusters is to be enhanced. The second objective is to establish landscape continuity along 75th avenue which serves as the primary interface with the public realm and the private development site. The guideline recommends that hedges, stone walls and fences should be used to screen residences adjacent to 75th avenue. The private domain of a cluster of residences should be marked with a distinctive gate at each internal street. Views into common areas should be maintained through the use of open split rail fencing. Landscaping should respect and enhance view corridors into the common open space areas and out of the private development site. Chapter 4: Angu*We*tCD-1 Design* Guideline* 94 Part 2. Evaluation of the implementation of the guidelines The Angus West CD-I (No. 184) development area is divided into six sub-areas, each area a cluster of residences organized around a cul-de-sac. A common approach to site design and building massing is shared by all of the housing clusters. One of the sub-areas was chosen at random and evaluated. The most influential guidelines are evaluated below. Tidewater Place at 75th Avenue Neighborhood character Objective. "New development in Angus West should reflect the semi-rural character of the previous land usage and at the same time create a stronger identity for the area by incorporating certain design aspects of the Southwest Marine Drive estates such as gated entries, hedgerows and layered groups of trees. The projected concept is based on developing carefully designed clusters of houses integrated into a park-like setting..."131 figure 39 masonry, trees and substantial hedging Ibid, page 2. Chapter 4: AngUi-WeitCV-1 DesCg^GuldelOne* Entry to Tidewater Place is marked by a masonry wall, hedging and specimen trees. This arrangement is reminiscent of the estates located along Southwest Marine Drive. The large native conifers growing along the Marine Drive escarpment form a dense green background for the housing clusters. Open space areas between the sub-areas are planted generously with plant materials of varying scales and textures. The size of the open space areas is sufficient to create a park-like setting for the housing clusters. The undeveloped forested area along the escarpment and the landscaped open space between the housing clusters create the park-like setting the guidelines intend. Chapter 4." Angu&Weit CD -1 DeiCgrv QuicLelCrie* gfi Tidewater Place at 75th Avenue Street character Objective: "Internal streets should reflect semi-rural lanes with curbs and grass running to the curb edge. Houses should express a sense of harmony with the physical setting and with the neighboring buildings. Built form treatments including roofs, facades and materials should be shared by each cluster of houses [within a sub area]. Parking garages should be visually unobtrusive by blending into the house architecture or screened with landscaping." 1 3 2 figure 40 street character The internal streets are narrow and surfaced with decorative paving stones. Gardens are thickly planted to the curb. Cars are screened from view with hedges and trellises, and garages are incorporated discretely into the design of the homes. This street design combined with the backdrop of large native conifers creates the impression Tidewater Place is a semi-rural lane. 1 3 2 Ibid, page 2. Chapter 4: AnguyWettCV-l Design Guidelines 97 All of the residences at Tidewater Place make use of the same details and materials for roofs and facades. In addition, the residences are set modestly behind a thick layer of foliage. These two conditions contribute to a harmonious relationship between the residences and the physical setting. Chapter 4: Angus West CV-1 Vesvgn> Guidelines 93 Tidewater Place and 75th Avenue Privacy Objective "Privacy for the individual home sites should be established using a layered landscape treatment along street edges and defining private open spaces " 1 3 3 figure 41 privacy Privacy is achieved at this address through the layering of plant materials and hard landscape elements. From the front layer going in, the boundary of the public realm ends with the gold cedar hedge and the masonry wall (at the left of the picture). The common area between two housing clusters is concealed from view from 75th Avenue by this hedge and wall. The darker green Western Red Cedar hedge and gate screen the private garden from view from the road. Overlapping the wall with the darker cedar hedge contributes to establishing the boundary between the public and private realms. The sequencing of the wall and hedges has created privacy for the common area and the private open space areas. Ibid, page 3. Chapter 4: Angus-West CD-1 VetCgw QuidelOnei- 99 Tidewater Place and 75th Avenue Architectural Components- Massing and Roofscape Objectives. "The massing of the building is to present a low silhouette and should not overwhelm the site." 1 3 4 "Roofs [are] to be made of cedar shingles and steep roofs are encouraged with a minimum slope of 6 in 12. 1 , 1 3 5 figure 42 massing and roofscape The housing clusters present a low profile because of the modest massing of the second storey levels. The steep roofs associated with this modest massing open the spaces between the residences to air and sunlight. When viewed from the ground the spaces between the second levels of the residences allow views through to the backdrop of large native conifers. The massing of the second storey level and the steepness of the rooflines combine to ensure the residences do not overwhelm the site. Ibid, page 4. Ibid, page 5. Chapter 4: AngwyWeitCD-l Vetigr^GuidelirveilQQ Tidewater Place and 75th Avenue Architectural Components- Exterior Walls and Finishing Objective'. "Building design should emphasize facade articulation to prevent a flat, boring surface. This can be achieved by ensuring that the entire facade does not reach its maximum height on a single plane and by creating variations in the setback from the property line."136 figure 43 the setback of the left side of the house is a few feet forward of the right side of the house; roof line dips to eave of first storey The facade of this residence is typical of residences in the Angus West Lands. The facade steps in and out from under the roof line. Interest is generated by the variation in setback from the property line of various sections of the house. Smaller portions of single rooms also vary in setback (note rooms enlarged by bay windows). These small changes in relief add interest two dimensionally through the play of shadow and light on the exterior walls. The fact that the facade must not reach its maximum height on a single plane is a strong factor in the appearance of all of the residences in the Angus West Lands. The practical outcome of this guideline is that the second storey roof line must dip down to Ibid, page 4. Chapter 4; Angu&WeitCV-l Ve&gwGuidelCnei\Q\ reach the level of the first storey eave along the entire length of the residence. The facade of the second storey wall have few vertical components. This approach lessens the visual impact the residence has when viewed from the street. Dormers, a natural addition to steeply pitched roofs, add further interest to the facade and the form of the roof. Chapter 4: A ngu*\Oeit CD-1 VetCgrv Guideline*] Q2 Tidewater Place and 75th Avenue Common Open Space Objective: "The development is to provide common open space with strong fingers of vegetation and specific view corridors extending to the site edges... Within this larger framework, secondary focal points, and landscape features should include knolls, pocket orchards, specimen plantings and gazebos. The siting and design of buildings should create in-between spaces with identifiable purpose and character providing glimpses of private gardens, common spaces and distant vistas. Specimen plantings should be used to reinforce focal points within the site." 1 3 7 figure 44 visual interest in the fore, middle and background of common open space Special attention to the planning and landscape design of the common areas has created spaces that have "identifiable purpose and character."138 The common areas do not give the visual impression that they are simply the spaces left over after the housing 1 3 7 Ibid, page 5. 1 3 8 Ibid, page 5. Chapter 4: Angui-WeitCD-l VetCgwGuidelOne&iQy cluster arrangements were laid out. Rather they appear as visually self sufficient components in the overall design of the housing development. Most of the common open space is organized along a curving framework that does not allow the viewer to observe the entire length of the view corridor. Clusters of specimen trees provide focal points for some of the common areas. Views into the common areas offer visual interest in the fore, middle and background. Views are narrowed in the middle distance with'mass plantings of shrubbery and trees. Native conifers in the background draw the eye into deeper vistas. Plantings along the street edge of the common areas provide interest in the foreground. Chapter 4: AngusWest CD-1 Design/ Guidelines] 04 Tidewater Place and 75th Avenue Private Open Space Objective: "Private gardens should be extensions of the interiors... Visually, there is to be a porous interface of layered landscaping between common open space and private space allowing filtered views balancing the need for privacy with the need for security."139 figure 45 private open space Private open space at this address is defined by low plantings and partially screened by small trees. The private open space is relatively open to the common area and filtered views from the road allow some visual access to the patio. The need for privacy has been balanced with the need for security at this address. Ibid, page 6. Chapter 4: AngwyWeitCD~1 Ve^Cgr\/Guid^linei\Q^ Tidewater Place and 75th Avenue Landscaping Objective: "New development should establish landscape continuity along 75th Avenue which serves as the primary interface with the public realm and the image of the development from the park. Hedges and stone walls or fences should be used to screen and create privacy immediately surrounding houses along 75th Avenue." 1 4 0 figure 46 75th Avenue is bordered with long lengths of hedge punctuated by residences at the entry areas to the six cul de sacs Long lengths of cedar hedge along 75th Avenue are used to screen the common areas from view. The hedge establishes the continuity in the landscape the guideline intended as it provides a uniform appearance along the length of the development site as well as a visual amenity for the street. Ibid, page 6. Chapter 4: Angus-West CD-I Design QuldeiX^\es\Q^ Summary of Results The general objective of the Angus West CD-I Design Guidelines is, "to ensure high standards of development in the Angus West area."141 The evaluation of the effectiveness of the guidelines found that the conditions in the cul de sac at 75th Avenue and Tidewater Place were congruent with all of the objectives of the guidelines. A Comprehensive Development (CD) zoning area is unique in that the zoning requirements are tailored to the site and its context. A CD-I zoning area is created when the rezoning of a small area within a larger zoning area is applied for. A reclassification of an existing zoning designation to a CD-I zoning designation is a relatively rare occurrence with only about ten new CD-I zoning areas created each year.1 4 2 In order for a rezoning to be approved, applicants must demonstrate to the City Council that a rezoning to a CD-I status will provide substantial public benefit. Rezoning to a CD-I status is a lengthy, expensive and arduous process with extensive public involvement. For a project the size of the Angus West zoning area, the rezoning process may take as long as two years, with another additional year required to receive a development permit. To make an analogy, the relationship of a CD-I zoning area to the rest of the city is similar to the relationship a newly appointed embassy has with the its host country. The By-laws of the original zoning designation that used to regulate the CD-I zoning area do not apply anymore, and a whole new set of completely unique regulations tailored to that site, and that site only, come into force.143 The Angus West development is similar to the development at Seaside, Florida in that the site plans for both were completely planned and designed by a single developer. 1 4 1 Ibid, page 1. 1 4 2 McNeill. Interview. Friday, October 6, 1995. Chapter 4: AngwyWettCV-l Ve4l$rbGuidelCne#[Qj The comprehensive planning approach used in the Angus West CD-I zoning area allowed the street space, the open space areas, the arrangement of the lots and the built form to relate to one another in the way intended by the planners of the development, rather than as a set condition they were required to respond to. The Open space- common open space guideline required that the design of the open space areas and spaces between buildings be given the same attention as the design of the built form. This approach to the planning of the area ensured a better fit between the buildings and their context. Open space areas were composed so as to have a purposeful form that responded to the relationships between the residences and the open space, and the open space and the street. The writers of the Seaside guidelines also strove to create a better fit between the built form and its context, "The problem with urban planning as it is currently practiced in the suburbs is that land is platted and sold in "pods". These are large amorphous tracts containing dozens of buildings. No determined physical result is possible with such a crude planning tool. Spatial definition occurs only by accident and a coherent urbanism is virtually impossible...The plan has to be designed together with the code (design guidelines). Of course, Seaside is at the maximum of refinement; you could design a more crude urbanism and it would still work. After all, there are traditional neighborhoods with only one type of lot, and they aren't bad."144 Like the CD-I zoning area, Seaside was planned in a comprehensive manner. The street design was tailored to the building types, and the building types were tailored to the yards and open spaces. In addition, the streets, Mohney and Easterling. page 68. Chapter 4: AngusWeitCV-l De*Cgw<5u£dellne4\r)$ homes and private and public open spaces were arranged to respond to the location and orientation of natural and man made site foci. The approach of the Seaside architects has other parallels to the comprehensive planning strategy used for the Angus Lands. "A really good code takes care of the urban quality. The Seaside code creates urban qualities through the control of building type. Its primary concern is the making of the public realm through the definition of space. But there are other prescriptions with social implications: sideyards, location of parking, provision for porches or arcades, variations from one neighborhood to another, the encouragement of out-buildings, etc. And then there are elements that may be considered purely aesthetic, but that we believe to be essential to the urban quality. One is that roof pitches are specified within a certain range, and the other is that window proportions must be vertical or square. Towns considered beautiful are made of buildings which share an attitude towards the proportion of openings and towards roof type.1 , 1 4 5 It should be noted that the objectives of the Angus West By-laws and guidelines differ from the objectives of the Seaside architects and planners. The point in the Angus Lands is not so much to create a "public realm"146 or "making a town"1 4 7, but to foster a better relationship between the built form and the surrounding open space. In the Angus Lands the building type has been controlled within a narrow range of variation by three particularly powerful guidelines. The general form of the buildings is controlled by the Architectural components- exterior walls andfinishing guideline which requires that the roof line dip to the first storey level. The Architectural components-1 4 5 Ibid pages 64-65. 1 4 6 Ibid, page 64. 1 4 7 Ibid, page 1. Chapter 4: Angu&We&CV-l VejigwGuideliA^e^QQ roofscape guideline specifies the acceptable range of roof pitches. The steep roofs which drop to the level of the first storey eave allow for wider views between the houses. The Architectural components- massing guideline requires massing of the buildings which presents a low silhouette and buildings, "should not overwhelm the site."148 A low profile for the residences is achieved through the modest massing of the second storey level. Thus the buildings share a similar "attitude"149 regarding roof type and roof pitch, and there is a certain visual harmony which is achieved through this repetition. Angus West CD-I Guidelines, page 4. Mohney and Easterling. pages 64-65. Chapter 5 : Summary ofKe^uXty \\Q ChapterS: Summary of Results r | This thesis asked two questions, Can design guidelines achieve what their writers J L intend? and, What factors determine the effectiveness of design guidelines? The results of the case studies showed that the objectives of the guidelines were reached in the vast majority of instances. A comparison of the objectives of the guidelines with the actual conditions in the three neighborhoods indicates that the guidelines can achieve what their writers intend. Factors that determine the effectiveness of the guidelines There were various factors identified which determined the degree to which the guidelines were effective for each of the neighborhoods. Consideration of these factors will be instructive to those developing and writing design guidelines. The following is a discussion of these factors. Factor 1. Establishing the appropriate defining point of reference for the objectives of the design guidelines to be measured against The three guideline documents discussed in this thesis presented differing approaches to establishing a defining point of reference for the design guideline objectives to be measured against. Where the South Shaughnessy RS-5 Design Guidelines focus on four or five specific houses as the defining point of reference for the objectives of the guidelines to be measured against, the Southlands RA-1 Guidelines refer to a general definition of semi-rural neighborhood character as the point of reference for the objectives of the guidelines to be measured against. The Angus West CD-I Design Guidelines focus on elements from the estates on Marine Drive as the reference point for the objectives of the guidelines, but also focus solidly on the more general objective of ensuring the new residences relate sensitively to Chapter 5: SUtvunary ofUesaLty \\\ one another, to the street, and to the open spaces between the residences. In each case the approach of the guidelines was responsive to the unique qualities and needs of the neighborhoods. The South Shaughnessy neighborhood is characterized by streetscapes containing many architectural styles, some of these styles bitterly criticized by neighborhood groups. Guidelines which continue to allow this mix of styles, while at the same time emphasizing design compatibility between new and existing homes, are an appropriate response to the wishes of the residents. In addition, since the emphasis is also on strengthening streetscapes, it makes sense that the reference points for evaluating each new development are the specific homes surrounding that lot, rather than the more generalized standard that is used by the Southlands RA-1 Guidelines. In the case of the Southlands RA-1 Guidelines, the objective of the residents was to preserve, "an assemblage of design elements,"150 representative of the semi-rural character of the area. The appropriate reference point then, is the collection of general semi-rural characteristics the residents wish the designers of new development to respect. The approach of the Angus West CD-I Design Guidelines makes sense because it responds to the fact that the guidelines are not addressing infill development but the development of many lots by a single developer.151 Factor 2. Establishing the appropriate guiding objective for the guideline document Observation of the implementation of these three guideline documents leads the author to conclude that careful consideration must be given to the subtle task of establishing the guiding objective of the guideline document. This guiding objective creates a framework Southlands RA-1 Guidelines, page 1. McNeill. Interview. Friday, October 6, 1995. Chapter 5: Summary ofUeialty \ ] 2 that is appropriate for the neighborhood and appropriate to direct the writing of the more specific objectives of the guidelines. The RS-5 guidelines aim to strengthen streetscape, the RA-1 guidelines to preserve semi-rural character, and the Angus West CD-I to maintain high quality. This first step in writing the guidelines, determining the appropriate overall objective for each neighborhood, determines the direction and ultimately the effectiveness of all of the other more specific objectives. Factor 3. 'The talent at the table', or the abilities of the designer of the new development If the designer cannot understand the concepts in the design guidelines, he or she cannot possibly hope to carry through the objectives of the guidelines. Guideline documents make use of design language and concepts that are detailed and extremely complex. The designer must have achieved a certain level of competency to be able to incorporate the ideas communicated by the guidelines into their design. Factor 4. The objectives of the client A client may decide on a program for their site that is not realistic or appropriate to the limitations of the site and the guidelines. Consider the example of the residence at 1163 W40th in which the owners of the lot decided they wanted a home that does not respond to the objectives of the guidelines. Their objective was not to have a home that resembled the other houses in the streetscape. Determining how far their design should be pushed to comply with the guidelines was a matter of considerable difficulty for the owners, the designer and the planner. The owners of the lot at 6680 Balaclava also decided on a program for their site that was incompatible with the overall objective of the guidelines in place for their neighborhood. In this Chapter 5: Summary oflZeiulty \ ] 3 instance, the guidelines did not specifically forbid the tennis court or the non-semi-rural type of plant materials chosen by the owners of the lot. Factor 5. The client's budget The amount of money the client has to spend on the project will determine the quality of materials used, and possibly the extent to which the objectives of the guidelines can be carried out. The use of inferior materials limits the overall quality of the final product. Regarding the materials used for one of the residences studied in the South Shaughnessy case study, the planner commented, "Oh! Look at the horrible flashing material they used!".152 Factor 6. The skill level of the contractor A competent set of drawings that conforms to the guidelines does not guarantee that the finished product will be what the designer intended. Even if the guidelines do not address architectural quality, reaching the objectives of other guidelines will be that much more difficult if the building construction is inferior. Note the warnings of the American National Trust for Historic Preservation, "[Design guidelines] may help prevent incompatible schemes, but they do not guarantee good construction or rehabilitation projects."153 Factor 7. Establishing the appropriate level of prescriptiveness The more prescriptive the guidelines are, the simpler they are for designers to use and understand, and the more straightforward they are for planners to administer.154 Prescriptive guidelines limit the number of discretionary decisions that must be made by planners, and limit the 'gray areas' that can make decision making seem arbitrary. Regarding 'gray areas' Barnett states that, "Assessing what constitutes compliance is often a matter of judgment, and knowing when Guiding Design on Main Street. Chapter 6. page 1. McNeill. Interview. Wednesday, August 16, 1995. Chapter 5: Sum*nary ofTtetulty 114 to insist and when to give ground means balancing design requirements of the district against valid design imperatives of the individual building."155 Guidelines for certain kinds of neighborhoods and objectives are more effective if they are more restrictive. Most notably, guidelines for historical districts are most effective when they are highly prescriptive because the correct materials and detailing are essential to maintaining historical integrity.156 Ellen Beasley writes that the objectives of the guidelines will determine how prescriptive the guidelines should be, "If communities want what are essentially replicative buildings in their districts, then most commissions [planning departments] need to be far more demanding regarding the overall design, scale, proportions, materials, and detailing of these buildings- and their guidelines should reflect that demand. If, on the other hand, communities want a broader sweep of solutions for new design... then most guidelines need to be far more forceful both verbally and pictorially in promoting that option. A greater range of design possibilities should be illustrated, not just the one or two examples of infill projects that most design guidelines offer."157 Prescriptive guidelines are often rejected on the grounds they unfairly hmit design expression. However, as guidelines are increasingly the result of extensive public involvement it is difficult for designers to justify design approaches that are not in keeping with the collectively agreed upon design standards and vocabulary in the guidelines. Factor 8. The objectives of the guidelines no longer match the new objectives of neighborhood The First Shaughnessy neighborhood and the First Shaughnessy 1 5 5 Barnett." In the public interest: design guidelines." page 124. 1 5 6McNeill. Interview. Friday, October 6, 1995. 1 5 1 Beasley. page 12. Chapter 5: Summary ofKe&ulty ] \ 5 Design Guidelines illustrate this situation. The objective of the guidelines is to preserve the particular historic architectural styles characteristic of that neighborhood.158 Many residents have recently contacted planners urging them to change the guidelines to allow a wider range of architectural expression. Planners have started to allow developments in a wider range of architectural styles to respond to the general change of opinion among residents. The guideline documents have yet to be amended. Unfortunately, planners estimate it could be years before the Community Planners are able to begin the lengthy process of revising the guidelines as many other neighborhoods also require urgent attention. There is a widespread impression among residents in other areas of the city that the Shaughnessy area has received more than its fair share of resources and attention from the Planning Department that also may play a part in the timing of the revising of the guidelines.159 Revision of design guideline documents is limited by the available budgets of municipal planning departments. Conclusions What has been learned through the observations in these case studies? 1. The creation and implementation of design guidelines is a very complex process Design guidelines attempt to communicate complicated ideas about three-dimensional form, the landscape and the spaces between, using the written word and pictures. The implementation of the objectives of the guidelines is carried out in a tug-of war 158 First Shaughnessy Design Guidelines. Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department. Adopted May 11, 1982. Appendixes added April 1994. page 4. 1 5 9McNeill. Interview. Friday, October 6, 1995. Chapter 5: Summary ofKeiulty environment between the developer and designer, the approving officer, and residents of the neighborhood. 2. The legitimacy of the whole idea of design control is debated every time new guidelines are developed and implemented by a Municipal Planning Department Those opposed to the use of design guidelines see them as the pet project of a highly organized, elite group of residents. Opponents to guidelines object vociferously to the discretionary powers the approving officers are allowed by the guidelines. Those in favor of guidelines see them as a means to represent the desires of the majority of the residents in a neighborhood, and the discretionary powers of the approving officer as necessary to the implementation of the democratically decided upon objectives in the guidelines. What is certain is that these differences of opinion regarding the appropriateness of guidelines as a means of design control, and the defensibility of discretionary powers, will persist. There will always be neighbors who want to build as they please, and other neighbors aghast at this prospect. A public participation process forms the foundation of the contents of a guideline document and the legitimacy of the powers of the approving officer. 3. A common denominator in design guidelines prepared by the Vancouver Planning Department is the attention paid to the landscape elements in new development This attention can be seen as an attempt to address sensitivity to design issues related to context. The landscape elements create the connections between adjacent homes in a streetscape and represent a significant part of a site's context. It is also recognition that Chapter 5: Summary ofHesulty ] ] 7 the landscape is more than the space between buildings, and it ensures that the landscape is not an unconsidered back drop to the architecture. 4. Design guidelines are a response to a widespread tendency to not respond to context A non-contextual approach to the site planning and design of buildings is characteristic of most current architectural practice. This approach is associated in the literature with the Modernist Style, specifically with its tendency to regard the building as an element separate or without relationship to its context. Brooks writes that the modernists and the, "various post-modernists who came next, did not try to tap back into historical authority, but instead decided that there was no authority since little could actually be known and no truths fixed... For many of today's leading academics, the meaning of a building or a set of standards shifts from one moment to the next."160 With such an approach to the relationship between new built form and its surroundings it is not surprising that design guidelines have become widespread in Canada and elsewhere to remedy the lack of sensitivity infill developments display to the architecture and landscaping of established neighborhoods. 5. Design guidelines can provide an assurance of higher architectural standards and of responsiveness to context that will be valued by successive generations of residents in a neighborhood In Vancouver, these higher architectural standards are obtained through measures that are considerably less undemocratic than the measures used by Haussmann for example, in Napoleonic Paris. Haussmann's brutal measures resulted in an architectural legacy that continues to provide amenity to the residents of and visitors to the David Brooks. "The great revival." The Wall Street Journal. Monday, August 21, 1995. page A8. Chapter 5: Summary ofRetulty j j g city of Paris. The guidelines in the city of Vancouver balance the fleeting concerns of today, such as the length of the design review process and the restrictiveness of the guidelines, with the positive long term results of the objectives of the guidelines. 6. The growing popularity of a prescriptive approach to the writing of design guidelines was noted Approving officers want firm ground to stand on when reviewing plans for development permit approval. Prescriptive guidelines offer a clearer basis for decision making. Ideas for further research There are many topics related to design guidelines that would be fruitful for study that are outside the realm of discussion of this thesis. The following is a selection of some of these topics. 1. There is a conspicuous absence of literature related to the history and use of design guidelines in Canada It would be instructive to undertake a survey of the history and current use of guidelines in various communities to see if anything can be learned from the experiences of these communities. Is there a sequence of events that can be identified that indicates an increasing sophistication or ascending learning curve with regard to the writing and implementation of design guidelines? 2. Detailed documentation of the various ways that design guidelines are given the force of law in Canada and other countries is also absent from the literature How does the legal framework that the guidelines operate within effect their form and implementation? For instance, do guidelines that are attached to the title of a parcel of Chapter 5: Summary ofUeiulZh- ] ] 9 land differ significantly in their form and implementation from guidelines that are implemented as a form of discretionary zoning? 3. It would be interesting to study cultures that have a strong collective agreement about what is aesthetically acceptable and do not make use of design guidelines The use of design guidelines in the 20th century has been a response to the widespread tendency to ignore contextual issues as communities grow and develop. This indifference to context has not always been so widespread. How are these widely held ideas about what is aesthetically acceptable, the architectural vernacular, transmitted and carried through? 4. Do design guidelines improve the quality of the new development? The subject of the effectiveness of design guidelines has been studied in this thesis. The next, and more subjective question to ask is whether the quality of architecture and landscaping was actually improved through the implementation of the guidelines. Predevelopment approval and post development approval architectural plans would be compared. Evaluation would be based on a comparative design analysis of the pre and post development approval plans carried out by a selection of design professionals. Those evaluating the plans would not be told which drawings were the revised drawings. Conclusions about the relative merit of the pre and post permit plans would indicate whether the quality of the new development was actually improved through implementation of the guidelines. 5. How do design guidelines affect property values? Are there identifiable patterns in property values that result from the implementation of design guidelines? A historical overview of property values over time in relationship to the adoption and implementation Chapter 5: Summary ofKeiulty j 2 0 i of design guidelines could be undertaken in several neighborhoods. These findings could be compared with property values in neighborhoods without design guidelines. 6. How much influence does the public participation process have on the contents of various design guideline documents? What portion of the objectives of a design guideline document was actually generated by the residents of the neighborhood? What portion was generated by planners, design professionals and consultants? 121 Bibliography Angus West CD-I Design Guidelines. Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department. Adopted Novemer 4, 1986. Barnett, Jonathan. "In the public interest: design guidelines." Architectural Record. July 1987. page 114-125. Barnett, Jonathan. The Elusive City: five centuries of design, ambition, and miscalculation. New York: Harper and Row. 1986. Beasley, Ellen. "Design guidelines a preservation perennial: considering purpose, format and content." Preservation Forum. 6 (6) 1992. pages 6-12. Bernstein, Richard Charles. Vancouver's residential design guideline process: a case study. M A . Thesis. School of Community and Regional Planning. University of British Columbia. 1980. Brooks, David. "The great revival." The Wall Street Journal. Monday, August 21, 1995. page A8. CD-I (184). Angus West Lands. By-law No. 6063. City of Vancouver Planning Department. November 4, 1986. Chapin, David and Marcus, Clare Cooper. "Design guidelines: reflections of experiences passed." Architecture andComportement. 9(1) 1993. pages 99-120. Choay, Francoise. The Modern City: planning in the 19th century. New York: George Braziller. 1969. Delafons, John. "Planning in the USA- Aesthetic Control." The Planner. May 10, 1991. pages 7-8. The Development Permit Process: a detailed guide to Vancouver's development permit process. City of Vancouver Planning Department. 1987. Downtown Guidelines (11). Design Guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department, In Bernstein, Richard Charles. Vancouver's Residential Design Guideline Process: a case study. M A . Thesis. School of Community and Regional Planning. University of British Columbia. 1980. Faison, Seth. "China stands tall in the world, and here's proof." New York Times. Wednesday, July 26, 1995. page A4. 122 First Shaughnessy Design Guidelines. Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department. Adopted May 11, 1982. Appendixes added April 1994. Fletcher, Sir Bannister. History of Architecture (19th edition). London: Athlone Press. 1987. In Gosling, David. "The downtown public realm: lessons for the American mid-west." Town Planning Review. 61 (4) 1990. page v-viii. Gosling, David. "The downtown public realm: lessons for the American mid-west." Town Planning Review. 61 (4) 1990. page v- viii. Guiding Design on Main Street. National Main Street Center, National Trust for Historic Preservation. Washington,DC. 1988. Haverfield, F. Ancient Town Planning. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. 1913. Hillman, Judy. Planning for Beauty: the case for design guidelines. London: Royal Fine Art Commission. HMSO. 1990. House of Commons (1977), Eighth Report from the Expenditure Committee, Session 1976- 77. Planning Procedures, Volume 1. London: HMSO. pages xliii-xliv. In Punter, John. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 2, 1952- 1985." Town Planning Review. 58 (1) 1987. page 49. Kitsilano RT-7 andRT-8 Guidelines. Land Use and Development Policy and Guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department. May 17, 1994. McNeill, Yardley. Interview. Planning Facilitator. Vancouver Planning Department. Wednesday, August 16, 1995. McNeill, Yardley. Interview. Planning Facilitator. Vancouver Planning Department. Friday, October 6, 1995. Mohney, David and Easterling, Keller. Seaside: making a town in America. New York: Princeton Architectural Press .1991. Morris, A.E.J. History of Urban Form George Godwin Limited. 1979. Olsen, Donald J. Town Planning in London: the eightennth and nineteenth centuries. New Haven. Yale University Press. 1964. Pregliasco, Janice. Developing downtown design guidelines. Sacramento, California: C alifornia Main Street Program .1988. 123 Punter, John. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 1, 1909- 1953: the control of the external appearance of development in England and Wales." Town Planning Review. 57 (4) 1986. pages 351- 381. Punter, John. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 2, 1953- 1985: the control of the external appearance of development in England and Wales." Town Planning Review. 58 (1) 1987. pages 29- 62. RA-1 District Schedule. Zoning and Development By-law. City of Vancouver Planning Department. February 1992. RS-5 District Schedule. Zoning and Development By-law. City of Vancouver Planning Department. July 1993. Smith, J.N. Environmental Quality ana\ Social Justice. Washington D C . Conservation Foundation, 1974. Chapters 1,2 and 4. In Punter, John. "A History of Aesthetic Control: Part 2, 1953- 1985." Town Planning Review. 58 (1) 1987. page 57. Southlands Neighborhood Study. City of Vancouver Planning Department. 1987. Southlands Plan. Southlands Citizen's Planning Committee. City of Vancouver Planning Department. March 8, 1988. Southlands RA-1 Guidelines. Land use and development policies and guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department. Amended Febuary 4, 1992. South Shaughnessy RS-5 Design Guidelines. Land Use and Development Policy and Guidelines. City of Vancouver Planning Department. Adopted July 20, 1993. South Shaughnessy RS-5 Design Workbook. City of Vancouver Planning Department. July, 1993. Trillin, Calvin. "Drawing the Line." The New Yorker. December 12, 1994. pages 54-55. Williams-Ellis, C. (ed). Britain and the Beast. London: Letchworth Press. 1938. 

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