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Sustainable housing : reducing the "Ecological footprint" of new wood frame single-family detached houses Shawkat, Hijran Ali 1995

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SUSTAINABLE HOUSING: REDUCING T H E " E C O L O G I C A L FOOTPRINT" OF NEW WOOD F R A M E SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED HOUSES  by HIJRAN ALI S H A W K A T t!  Laurea di Dottore in Architettura, The University of Genoa, 1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A D V A N C E D STUDIES IN A R C H I T E C T U R E in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES (School of Architecture)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required* standard  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A October 1995 © Hijran A l i Shawkat, 1995  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  (2/88)  I  I further  purposes  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  DE-6  study.  of  be  It not  is be  that  the  for  Library  an shall  permission for  granted  by  understood allowed  advanced  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT  Sustainability will require that human activity become significantly less material and energy intensive than at the present time. Single family detached housing is one area that has to meet the challenge of sustainability. This thesis investigates the extent of the potential improvement in the environmental performance of wood frame single family detached houses. The Ecological Footprint or Appropriated Carrying Capacity method (EF/ACC) is used to evaluate the environmental performance of the houses examined throughout the study. The thesis came to the following key conclusions:  •  Land areas required to absorb CO2 emissions are the largest constituent of the Ecological Footprint of single family detached houses followed by land area required to produce energy. These results show clearly that energy, as a major contributor to CO2 emission today and as a resource in the post-fossil fuel era, is the most important environmental concern that has to be addressed.  •  Operating energy represents the largest component of energy consumption in a house. It constitutes 76% and 73% of the total life cycle energy in the base case study house and the improved house respectively.  •  The reductions obtained in the improved house compared to the base case study house were: Directly occupied land  48.0%  Building materials use  49.2%  Life cycle energy consumption  34.0%  Life cycle CO2 emission  33.0%  ii  The reduction in the ecological footprint of the house is obtained by reducing its size, improving its design and adopting only energy efficient strategies which are cost effective.  A 35.6% reduction in the Ecological Footprint of the base study house is obtained. The Ecological Footprint of the improved house is 58.68 in comparison to 91.06 ha in the base case study house. A greater reduction could have been achieved without the limits imposed by E F / A C C method use and the commitment to the principles of cost effectiveness and minimum change in life style.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  T A B L E O F CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF T A B L E S  i  LIST O F FIGURES  x  x  AKNOWLEDGEMENT  x  i  i  C H A P T E R I: I N T R O D U C T I O N  1  1.1. S T A T E OF T H E ENVIRONMENT  2  1.2. SUSTAINABLE D E V E L O P M E N T  3  1.3. BUILDINGS A N D T H E E N V I R O N M E N T  4  1.4. THESIS OBJECTIVES  5  1.5. M E T H O D  6  1.6. THESIS L A Y O U T  7  C H A P T E R II: H O U S I N G  & SUSTAINABILITY  2.1. INTRODUCTION  9  2.2. HOUSING TYPES  9  2.3. POPULARITY O F SINGLE F A M I L Y HOUSES  11  2.4. D E V E L O P M E N T OF SINGLE F A M I L Y HOUSES  12  2.5. E N V I R O N M E N T A L IMPLICATIONS OF SINGLE F A M I L Y HOUSES  13  2.5.1. Land Occupation  13  2.5.2. Resource Consumption  14  2.5.3. Energy Consumption  15  iv  i  v  i  2.5.4. Water Consumption  15  2.5.5. Pollution Generation  16  2.6. SUSTAINABLE D E V E L O P M E N T  17  2.7. S U S T A I N A B L E HOUSING  19  2.7.1. Sustainable Resources  20  2.7.2. The Design of the House  21  2.7.3. The Use Of The House  21  C H A P T E R III: T H E " E C O L O G I C A L F O O T P R I N T "  OF A WOOD  F R A M E SINGLE F A M I L Y D E T A C H E D HOUSE  3.1. INTRODUCTION  23  3.1.1. Objectives  23  3.1.2. Approach  24  3.1.2.1. Life Cycle Analysis  24  3.1.2.2. Land Equivalency Calculation  26  3.2. H O U S E DESCRIPTION  26  3.3. LIFE C Y C L E ANALYSIS  27  3.3.1. Land Occupation  27  3.3.2. Material Consumption  29  3.3.2.1. Initial Material Consumption  30  3.3.2.2. Waste Materials  32  3.3.2.3. Recurring Material Consumption  33  3.3.3. Life Cycle Energy Analysis  36  3.3.3.1. Initial Embodied Energy  37  3.3.3.2. Recurring Embodied Energy  41  3.3.3.3. Demolition Embodied Energy  43  3.3.3.4. Operating Energy  45  3.3.4. Life Cycle C02 Analysis  46  3.3.4.1. Initial C02 Emission  47  3.3.4.2. Recurring CO2 Emission  49  3.3.4.3. Operating CO2  50  3.4. L A N D E Q U I V A L E N C Y C A L C U L A T I O N  51  3.4.1. Land Required For Renewable Energy (Ethanol) Production  51  3.4.2. Land Required For CO2 Absorption  53  3.4.3. Land Required For Wood Production  56  3.4.4. Total Ecological Footprint Calculation  58  3.5. CONCLUSION  CHAPTER  IV: S T R A T E G I E S  59  EXAMINED  IN I M P R O V I N G T H E  E N V I R O N M E N T A L P E R F O R M A N C E OF T H E B A S E C A S E  4.1. INTRODUCTION  61  4.2. STRATEGIES T O MINIMIZE L A N D OCCUPATION  61  4.3. STRATEGIES T O MINIMIZE M A T E R I A L CONSUMPTION  63  4.3.1. Strategies To Minimize Material Wastage  65  4.4. STRATEGIES T O MINIMIZE EMBODIED E N E R G Y  67  4.5. STRATEGIES T O MINIMIZE OPERATING E N E R G Y  67  4.5.1. Space Heating  68  4.5.1.1. Improving Envelope Thermal Resistance  68  4.5.1.2. Improving Air tightness  74  4.5.1.3. Solar Design  75  4.5.1.4. Mechanical Space heating system  77  vi  4.5.2. Domestic Hot Water  79  4.5.3. Lighting  80  4.5.4. Efficient appliances  80  4.5. CHOOSING A L E V E L OF E N E R G Y CONSERVATION  81  4.5.1. Cost Effectiveness  81  4.5.2. Life Style Implications  82  4.5.3. Balance and Compatibility Among the Various Strategies  83  4.5.4. Strategies Adopted  83  4.6. STRATEGIES T O MINIMIZE LIFE C Y C L E CO2  86  4.7. C O N C L U S I O N  86  CHAPTER  V: T H E " E C O L O G I C A L FOOTPRINT"  OF T H E  IMPROVED WOOD F R A M E SINGLE F A M I L Y D E T A C H E D HOUSE  5.1. INTRODUCTION  87  5.1.1. Objectives  87  5.1.2. Approach  87  5.2. H O U S E DESCRIPTION  88  5.3. LIFE C Y C L E ANALYSIS  90  5.3.1. Land Occupation  90  3.3.2. Material Consumption  91  5.3.3. Life Cycle Energy  94  5.4.3.1. Embodied Energy  94  5.4.3.2. Operating Energy  95  5.3.4. Life Cycle CO2 Emission Analysis  96  5.4. T O T A L E C O L O G I C A L FOOTPRINT C A L C U L A T I O N  vii  97  C H A P T E R VI: CONCLUSIONS 6.1. INTRODUCTION  99  6.2. FINDINGS  99  6.3. T H E V A L U E S O F E F / A C C M E T H O D  101  3.4. SUGGESTIONS A B O U T T H E M E T H O D  102  3.5. SUGGESTIONS  103  References  104  APPENDICES  Appendix A l : Base Case Study House Life Cycle Calculations: Initial.  Ill  Appendix A2: Base Case Study House Life Cycle Calculations: Recurring.  120  Appendix BI: Improved House Life Cycle Calculations: Initial.  130  Appendix B2: Improved House Life Cycle Calculations: Recurring.  137  Appendix CI: Base Case Study House's Embodied Energy Detailed Tables.  144  Appendix C2: Base Case Study House's CO2 Emissions Detailed Tables.  145  Appendix DI: Improved House's Embodied Energy Detailed Tables.  146  Appendix D2: Improved House's CO2 Emissions Detailed Tables.  147  viii  LIST OF TABLES Table 3-1. Detail of Land Areas Occupied Directly By The Base Case Study House  28  Table 3-2. Weight of Building Materials Used Throughout 40 Years of Life Cycle  31  Table 3-3. Initial and Recurring Material Relationship Throughout Three Life  Cycles  35  Table 3-4. Indirect Initial Embodied Energy  40  Table 3-5. Indirect Recurring Embodied Energy For 40 Years Life Cycle  41  Table 3-6. Initial and Recurring Energy Relationship Throughout Three Life Cycles. Table 3-7. Various Uses of Operating Energy in the House  42 44  Table 3-8. Energy Consumption of A Typical Canadian House As Reported By Star-Housing Database (Hamilton, 1992).  45  Table 3-9. CO2 Emissions For Common Stationary Uses of Conventional Fuels (Cole and Rousseau, 1992)  46  Table 3-10. Initial CO2 Emissions  48  Table 3-11. Recurring CO2 Emissions Throughout 40 Years of Life Cycle  49  ix  Table 3-12. Fuel Requirements Per Year In The Base Case Study House.  49  Table 3-13. The Annual Operating C02 Emissions in The Base Case Study House.  50  Table 3-14. The Average C 0 Absorption Capacity of Different Types Of Forests 2  (Apps et al. 1993, Dixon et al. 1994, Birdsay 1992, And Marland 1988 In Wada, 1994)  54  Table 3-15. The Quantity of Wood Fibers In Various Forest Types In Canada (Canada Environment, 1991, In Wackernagel 1994)  57  Table 3-16. Constituents of The Base Case Study House's Ecological Footprint  59  Table 4-1. Heat Loss Through Envelope Components.  69  Table 4-2. Various Type of Insulation Materials (EMRC, 1990, Lencheck et al,1987, GBG, 199 ).  70  Table 4-3. The Composite RSI Values of Various Wall And Roof Assemblies (Sar Engineering Ltd. & Habitat Design+Consulting Ltd.)  72  Table 4-4. Different Window Types And Their RSI Values  73  Table 4-5. The Contribution Of Envelope Components To Air Infiltration (National Research Council In Erdg-U.S., 1981)  75  x  Table 4-6. Cost Effective Strategies For B.C. - Zone A, Gas Heating. (Sar Engineering Ltd. & Habitat Design+Consulting Ltd.)  85  Table 5-1 A Comparison Between The Area of The Improved House And The Base Case Study House.  88  Table 5-2 A Comparison Between The Spaces In Both Houses.  89  Table 5-3. A Comparison Between The Land Occupied Directly by the Base Case and Improved House.  91  Table 5-4 A comparison of material Consumption in both houses over 40 years  92  Table 5- 5. A Comparison Of Wood-Based Materials Use In Both Houses Over 40  Years  92  Table 5-6. The Estimates of Construction waste in the Improved House.  93  Table 5-7 Embodied Energy Comparison  94  Table 5-8 Comparison of Life Cycle Energy Consumption in the two houses.  95  Table 5-9 Various Strategies Adopted To Examine The Potential For Operating Energy Reduction In The Improved House Table 5-10 A Comparison Between Life Cycle C02 Emission In Both Houses.  xi  96 97  Table 5-11 Constituents of Improved house's Ecological Footprint  Table 5-12 Ecological Footprint Comparison  xii  98  98  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Base Case Study House Plans  149  Figure 2. Base Case Study House - Elevations  150  Figure 3. Base Case Study House - Elevations  151  Figure 4. Improved House Plans  152  Figure 5. Improved House Plans  153  Figure 6. Improved House - Elevations  154  Figure 7. Improved House - Elevations  155  Figure 8. Material Consumption Comparison  156  Figure 9. Life Cycle Energy Comparison  156  Figure 10. CC»2 Emissions Comparison  156  Figure 11. Ecological Footprint Comparison  157  xiii  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I thank Dr Ray Cole and members of the supervisory committee Chris Mattock and Dino Rapanos for their support.  xiv  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION c  To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all people, states should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns ofproduction and consumption  Principle 8- Rio Declaration-1992 (Rogers, 1993)  This thesis investigates the extent of the potential improvement in the environmental performance of a wood frame single family detached house. It is based on the premise that "Sustainable Development" will require that human activity remain within the limited regenerative and assimilative capacities of the biosphere. One area that has to meet the challenge of sustainability is single family detached housing. Despite the significant ecological cost, this housing type has certain characteristics that continue to make it the "dream home" for most Canadians. Furthermore the potential for improvement in the environmental performance of single family house is believed to be greater than any other housing type (Burby et al, 1982, Marbek, 1993).  The thesis makes extensive use of the Ecological Footprint or Appropriated Carrying Capacity method developed at Planning School, University of British Columbia. The method is used to evaluate the environmental performance of single family detached houses examined throughout the study. The thesis offers a critique of the value of the method for assessing the impact of buildings.  1  1.1. S T A T E O F T H E E N V I R O N M E N T  Human activity has changed in the last two hundred years at unprecedented rate and magnitude. Deterioration of the global environment is one of the negative changes. The uncontrolled exploitation of resources and industrial pollution have reached a level that is unsustainable by the biosphere. The biosphere is the 'source' of all the resources consumed by humans and the 'sink' for their waste. The components of the biosphere (ecosystems) are limited in the amount of resources they can produce and waste they can absorb. Historically the scale of human activity has been small relative to these limits (Goodland, 1992) and the environment was capable of absorbing the impact of human activity without serious consequences. Environmental degradation, when it occurred, had local characteristics and related mainly to the supply function. The increase of the human population and the per-capita consumption rate of natural resources have changed these conditions. "World population has grown at around 2 percent annually, doubling every thirty-five years, and world consumption has grown at about 4 percent annually, doubling every seventeen or eighteen years" (Daly, 1989). Human activity is currently growing so rapidly that it will take only two years for the economy to grow as much as it did throughout human history until 1900 (Speth in Goodland, 1992).  The current scale of human activity consumes natural resources and produces waste at a rate that is higher than the assimilative and regenerative capacity of the environment in many areas. This leads to the depletion of planet's natural capital and the accumulation of the unabsorbed pollution in the air, water, and land. Environmental problems such as ozone layer depletion, desertification, global wanning, acid rain, biodiversity reduction, and urban air pollution, are some critical aspects of growth-induced depletion and pollution.  A continuous growth in human activity would require an infinite supply of natural resources. On this planet, where the total amount of matter is fixed, continuous growth is not possible. It would  2  lead to a continuous reduction in the carrying capacity of the environment, which could reach a point where the ability of the environment to sustain future human and other forms of life on the planet will be seriously threatened.  1.2. S U S T A I N A B L E  DEVELOPMENT  Protecting the right of future generations to a healthy environment was the reason given by the United Nation's World Commission on Environment and Development for embracing the concept of sustainable development. The report entitled "Our Common Future," released by the Commission in 1987, defined sustainable development as;  "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of f generations to meet their own needs" (WCED, 1987)  In order to achieve the objectives of sustainable development, the policies and practices that perpetuate continuous material and population growth must be changed. The negative environmental consequences in each area of human activity should be minimized. Greater emphasis should be given to resource efficiency, and greater reliance on renewable energy. It is essential to minimize waste, maximize reuse and recycling, avoid the use of hazardous materials, and preserve biodiversity. Development of more environmentally benign production technologies, and design products to be more durable and repairable (Renner, 1991).  Planning is an indispensable tool to achieve sustainability. Existing planning instruments should be modified to incorporate the principles of sustainability. The ecological implication of any future activity, in terms of resource supply and waste absorption, should be analyzed throughout it's life cycle prior to its realization. The Ecological Footprint or Appropriated Carrying Capacity method (EF/ACC) was developed by Rees and Wackernagel for this purpose (Wackernagel, 1994). The  3  method calculates the aggregate land area in various categories required to continuously provide an activity with resources and to absorb the waste discharged. The method is already used as planning tool (e.g., Urban Form and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: An Examination of the city center of Richmond, B.C. by Parker, 1993) and to evaluate the sustainability of economic practices (e.g., the Ecological Footprint of hydroponic Greenhouse by Wada, 1993 and the Ecological Footprint of the average Canadian, by Wackernagel, 1993).  1.3. B U I L D I N G S A N D T H E E N V I R O N M E N T  The building sector is an area that has to be planned to be within the carrying capacity of the environment. The number, and the design of contemporary buildings make them a heavy burden on the environment. The destruction of large green areas, the consumption of large amounts of energy and natural resources, and the generation of air, water, and soil pollution during the construction, maintenance and operation of buildings have made the city "an entropic black hole drawing on the concentrated material resources and low-entropy production of a vast and scattered hinterland many times the size of the city itself" (Rees, 1992).  Housing is the main component of buildings in Canadian cities. Residential areas take up 70% of Canada's urban land (D'amour, 1991). The Canadian housing sector consumes 20% of the total national energy consumption (Cole, 1993 and D'amour, 1991).  Single-family detached houses comprise 60% of housing units in Canada (D'amour, 1991). Statistics show that they continue to be the most desired form of housing ( C M H C , 1994). Unfortunately, the local, urban, global ecological impact of currently developed single-family detached houses is very high. The area of land, materials, energy, and water consumed and soil, water, and air pollution generated by existing single-family detached houses make their Ecological Footprint unsustainable (see chapter II & III). Therefore, a drastic reduction in the "Ecological  4  Footprint" of single-family detached houses is needed. Achieving this requires significantly improving the environmental performance of its design. The principles of energy-conscious design are already used to produce a small percentage of existing single-family detached houses with improved thermal performance. However, the thermal upgrading of conventional houses affects only their operating energy. An underlying principle of a sustainable house, by contrast, is to minimize not only the consumption of energy but any "throughput" such as land, materials, and water.  In contrast to the extensive knowledge base and many existing examples of energy-efficient house design, the principles of a sustainable house design are still evolving. A number of houses have been developed lately as expression of 'sustainability (e.g., winners of healthy house Competition in Toronto and Vancouver, 1993).  1.4.  THESIS  OBJECTIVES  This thesis has the following objectives:  •  To examine the constituents of the Ecological Footprint of a wood frame single-family detached house (land, material, energy, and water consumption and waste and pollution generation).  •  To identify design strategies which lead to the reduction of the Ecological Footprint of single-family detached houses.  •  To redesign the single family house using the above strategies and verify the effectiveness of the strategies.  5  1.5. METHOD  The first objective is achieved by calculating the Ecological Footprint of a conventional wood frame single family detached house. A life cycle analysis is conducted to estimate land, material, and energy consumption and waste and pollution generation to use them in Ecological Footprint calculation.  The second objective is achieved by critically reviewing the current literature on sustainable house design. A series of strategies that reduce land, material, and energy use and CO2 emissions were examined.  The third objective is achieved by using design strategies identified in the fulfillment of the second objective to redesign the base case study, and comparing the Ecological Footprint of the new design with the Ecological Footprint of the base case study.  The following programs and methods are used throughout the thesis:  •  The Appropriated Carrying Capacity method developed at the U B C Planning School by Rees and Wackernagel (Wackernagel et al, 1993). The method calculates the aggregate land area in various categories required to provide an activity with resources and to absorb the waste discharged throughout its life cycle.  •  Life Cycle Analysis is used to quantify energy and material consumption, pollution emission, and waste generation by each project throughout its life cycle which include: - the production of the building; - the use of the building; - the maintenance of the building;  6  - the demolition of the building  •  The H O T 2000 program is used to estimate operating energy for each house. H O T 2000 is a computer program designed to aid in simulation and design of buildings for thermal effectiveness, passive solar heating, and the operation and performance of heating systems by using heat-loss/gain and system performance models.  1.6. THESIS LAYOUT  The thesis is divided into six chapters.  Chapter 2 introduces Canadian single family housing, the development process, reasons of its continued popularity, its environmental implications, and the extent to which it contributes to the current environmental crisis. The concept of sustainable development is introduced as a possible solution for environmental problems. The chapter concludes with the implication of sustainable development in the single family housing sector.  Chapter 3 estimates the "Ecological Footprint" of a conventional wood frame, single-family detached house. A detailed analysis of the components of the Ecological Footprint is presented.  Chapter 4 examines various strategies that could be used for land, energy, and material conservation and pollution prevention in single family housing. The criteria for selecting  the  strategies to be used in redesigning the base case study are presented.  Chapter 5 estimates the Ecological Footprint of the improved house and compares the results with the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house.  7  Chapter 6 concludes the thesis by presenting the findings of the study and comments regarding the method.  8  CHAPTER II : HOUSING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  2.1.  INTRODUCTION  Housing quality is an important indicator of the health and prosperity of a given population. 1  Housing people and housing them in the best possible manner is an important goal in a sustainable society (BC. Round Table in Economy and Environment, 1990).  Housing is a form of built environment designed for "private" activities. Space arrangements within a housing unit are based on cultural, economic, climatic, and technological considerations. Different dwelling types have different ecological implications. Housing choices, directly and indirectly, influence the extent of resource depletion and pollution generation. The direct influence is through the building's construction, operation, and maintenance. The indirect influence occurs through the pattern of transportation and infrastructure in a city.  2.2. H O U S I N G  TYPES  The most common housing types in Canada are:  •  Single Family Detached House: a housing type designed for occupancy by one family. It consists of one dwelling unit built on its own property and completely separated on all sides from any other dwelling or structure.  ^The quality of housing is determined by indicators such as affordability, adequacy, suitability, safety, security, privacy, image and form, open spaces, accessibility to services and transportation, management and maintenance, and community facilities ( C M H C , 1992). 9  •  Semi-detached  House (Duplex): a housing type that represent the first step toward  multiple units housing. Two dwellings (adjoining no other structure) separated by a party wall extended from ground to roof and built on one parcel of land.  •  Row House (Town Houses): a series of similar dwellings attached horizontally. The resulting row structure contains three or more units, each with a private entrance and a small yard at front and rear.  •  Low Density Apartments: generally three to four storey wood frame buildings. A l l units share a common entrance and services. This type consists of bachelor, one- and two-bedroom units. Most low density apartment buildings are located near major shopping centers, basic civic and community facilities, and with public transit and major arterial roads close at hand.  •  High rise Apartments: usually located in highly centralized urban areas of high land value. Underground parking and common facilities such as a swimming pool, and a recreation room are usually provided. Units are usually, composed of bachelor and one-bedroom and a small number of two bedrooms.  Single-family house is the most desired housing type by Canadians. There are approximately 6 million single family detached houses in Canada (Statistics Canada, 1991 ) which constitute 60% 2  of Canada's housing stock (CMHC, 1994) . Statistics for the last five years indicate that single3  family houses continue to grow at approximately the same percentage (CMHC, 1994).  2  There are 5,702,915 single family detached houses in Canada (Statistics Canada, 1991).  3 The diagram of Canadian Housing Statistics from C M H C for the years 1950-1985 indicates that the percentage of starting single family housing from all housing units was 10  2.3.  POPULARITY O F SINGLE F A M I L Y HOUSES.  There are many reasons behind the preference of Canadians for this type of housing:  •  Self-re flection: a psychological reasoning of the desire to live in a single-family is based on defining the home as the symbol of the self (Cooper, 1971). People refer to their home as a symbol of how they see themselves and want to be seen by others (Despres, 1991). The freestanding house in its clearly defined plot of land facing an ordinary road avoiding any form of grouping expresses the desire to be independent (Cowburn in Rapaport, 1969).  •  Social recognition: The housing unit, particularly its exterior, transmits information about the household's social position in terms of economic and professional status. The desire to own a single-family detached house was found to be related to a desire for living in a neighborhood of a given economic level. Rental neighborhoods are often described as being of lower status by home owners (Anderson-Khleif, 1981 in Despres, 1991). Having a monthly mortgage payment for a house is also perceived as a sign of "having made it" since obtaining a loan for the purchase of a home gives one some mark of respectability (Perin, 1977, Jackson, 1985 in Despres, 1991).  •  Financial investment: Owning a single-family house is considered to be a solid economic investment in North America. The resale value of the house is an important factor in the acquisition of a house. Land ownership reinforces the value of single family house, whereas  approximately 70% for the years 1950- 60, 47% for 1961-1970, 48% for 1971-80, and 60% for the first five years of the eighties (CMHC, 1987).  11  the exclusion from land ownership of the high-rise apartment buildings is considered the main reason for the low desire to own them.  •  Suitability for families with children: privacy, low floor levels, larger spaces than other units, and access to private open areas are some of the reasons that make single family house popular among families with children.  2.4. D E V E L O P M E N T O F S I N G L E F A M I L Y  HOUSE  Technology and life style during the twentieth century have undergone rapid changes. However, the changes in single family house design have occurred much slower. The basic form of most houses today is similar to those popular at the turn of the century. Rapaport suggests that housing design changes as the social image of "right" and "adequate" housing changes. Most North Americans still hold an image of "right" housing as being a private house with a fence, trees, and open space (Stewart, 1979).  Although the form of single family houses has seen little change,  their size has increased  noticeably, inspite of a decline in the size of the average Canadian household. An average new house in 1912 was 140 m which was reduced to 93 m during the depression of 1930. Sizes 2  2  began to increase again after World war II, until the 1960's, the average house area was 135 m ; 2  in 1989, it jumped to 186 m . Consequently the average living space for each family member 2  increased from 24 m in 1912 to 60 m in 1989. The living space per person has increased inspite 2  2  of the change of life style. In the past home was the center of the social life. There were no cinemas, sport arenas, shopping malls, and automobiles. Home was the place where women and children spent most of their time, only adult males used to go outside to work. (Grady, 1993).  12  Technological development and the general improvement in economic conditions in Canada and other developed countries, particularly following the second world war, have reduced physical and economic constraints, allowing people to do very much more than what was possible in the past. A larger part of the population were able to choose rather than be constrained to live in a certain life style. Furthermore, these choices, increasingly, were based on desires rather than needs. This lead to the production of large amount of industrial products , including houses, in relatively short time. The unprecedented material growth was attained with severe environmental consequences.  2.5. E N V I R O N M E N T A L I M P L I C A T I O N S O F S I N G L E F A M I L Y  HOUSING  The large number and growing size of single family houses made them a burden on the biosphere. Single family houses are the most ecologically "expensive" housing type in terms of land, energy, and material consumption and pollution generation to house a given number of occupants.  2.5.1. L a n d Occupation  At an average of 45 persons per net hectare, the number of single family homes occupants is 41.6% of those housed by row houses (an average of 108 persons per net hectare), 28% of those housed by walk-up apartments (an average of 156 persons per net hectare), and anywhere from 3% to 23 % of the occupants of high density, multi-family housing (D'amour, 1991). Land use for single family houses results in the loss of large areas of biologically productive lands and negative urban implications. Urban areas with single family detached houses are low density areas and difficult to plan for mixed uses. These characteristics other than giving the cities certain shape, create transportation problems (Automobile dependency, long distance driving, traffic congestion, necessity of long streets, highways, bridges), and lead to overextended municipal services.  4 A Single family House requires at least four times more linear infrastructure per unit than duplex (Gagnon, in D'amour, 1991). 13  4  2.5.2. Resource Consumption  Single family house units are usually larger than other types of housing units per the number of occupants. This implies that more resources will be used in constructing and maintaining them. Timber is the main renewable source of building materials used in housing construction in Canada. Timber is a product of the forest. Forests take from 30 to 400 years to regenerate, depending upon species composition and the local environment. Before being cut and used as building materials and other purposes, trees serve many important ecological functions. Trees act as watersheds and absorb, hold and release water; they protect soil and play a major role in preserving the life-support system of the entire ecosphere, absorbing carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. They provide habitats for a rich variety of animal and plant life and are capable of withstanding relatively heavy recreational pressure. Locally, trees help to absorb pollutants and noise, everywhere they are a source of beauty and aesthetic pleasure (Miller and Armestrong, 1982). Trees are the most effective tools in fighting a very serious environmental problem which is global warming. They are an essential part of the carbon absorption function of the environment. Harvesting trees for use in house construction reduces the capacity of the environment to carry out this function. Ecologist Howard Odum developed a formula to put a dollar value on the "ecological value" of natural elements. He found that the dollar value of an average tree is $ 13,000 or about $ 130 a year over a 100 year life span. (Miller and Armstrong, 1982).  The extraction of non-renewable resources (such as composite materials and metals) to be used in Canadian single family houses leads to the immediate destruction of important ecosystems and to air, soil, and water pollution.  14  2.5.3. Energy Consumption  Single-family detached houses, because they have a greater exposed surface area, consume significantly more energy for heating and cooling than townhouses or apartments. Single-family dwellings require more energy to construct and operate, and more energy for neighborhood facilities and services (Burby et al, 1982). The production of energy whether it is based on hydro, fossil fuel, or nuclear fuels induces substantial ecological costs. Trees in many areas of the world show traces of damage, a considerable portion of them are virtually dying, mainly due to the pollution generated from the production of energy by combustion processes (e.g., acid rain). The incident at Chernobyl illustrates the high price in human and ecological terms that nuclear generators of energy can induce (Hohmeyer, 1992). Even hydroelectricity has severe ecological costs in terms of damages to the flora and fauna and water supply and quality.  2.5.4. Water Consumption  A large quantity of water is used in single family houses throughout their life cycle. "Water is the lifeblood of the planet, without a steady supply of clean, fresh water, all life, including human, would cease to exist" (Environment Canada, 1990). The average daily Canadian domestic water consumption is 350 liters (Ministry of Environment, 1990) more than twice that of U K average of 160 liters and more than 1.5 times the US. average of 220 liters (Vale, 1991). The water to supply human demands is drawn almost entirely from rivers. Only 0.0001 per cent of the earth's water is in rivers. There is enough water in the rivers to supply world population with a little less than 26000 liter/person/year. Despite the apparent abundance in water many people in the world have little or no clean drinking water becauseriversare contaminated (Vale, 1991).  15  2.5.5. Pollution Generation  A large amount of solid waste is also generated by single family houses. Waste generation starts with the first step, the extraction of raw materials, and continue throughout the life cycle of the building ending with the demolition of the building. The environmental consequences of construction waste are the loss of valuable resources, the loss of the energy embodied in these resources, valuable land occupied as landfill, damage to health, and soil, water, and air pollution.  Single family houses are a major contributor to global warming which is one of most serious threat facing our planet. The excessive concentration of C02 and other so called green house gases could lead to an increase of 1.5-4.5 degree Celsius before the year 2030. This increase in the earth temperature will have global physical, chemical, and biotic effects. The Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that 100-200 million hectares of forests will disappear with most of the species living in them. The sea-level will rise between 30-100 centimeters as a consequence of thermal expansion and the melting of glaciers. This will pose serious problems for the low lying nations and coastal zones. IPCC predicts the displacement of millions of people, destruction of low-lying urban infrastructures, inundation of arable lands, and contamination of fresh-waters (Leggett, 1991).  Choices in housing type made by Canadians and people of other developed countries, is part of a general trend that includes all areas of human activity. The environmental impact of these choices, combined with the needs of a large population in developing countries, has placed increased pressure on the available resources on the planet. The consequences of uncontrolled resource exploitation and industrial pollution are too high to be sustained by the regenerative and absorptive capacities of the biosphere. The future of human life on this planet could be jeopardized if environmental degradation continues. However, there is increased awareness among people around the world, their governments, and the international institutions of the seriousness of the  16  threats that environmental problems pose. The general secretary of the United Nation formed a commission to study the state of the global environment, and the relationship between the environment and economic development. In 1987, the commission released a document called "Our Common Future" presenting the concept of sustainable development as a solution for the environmental problems facing the planet.  2.6. S U S T A I N A B L E D E V E L O P M E N T  The World Conservation Strategy, prepared by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature along with United Nations Environment Program and the World Wildlife Fund, was the first international document to define the concept of "sustainable development";  "For development to be sustainable it must take account of social and ecological factors,  well as economic ones; of the living and non-living resource base; and of the long term a well as the short term advantages and disadvantages of alternative actions." (World Conservation Strategy, 1980)  But it was the United Nation's Commission on Environment and Development report "Our Common Future," released in 1987, that popularized the concept of sustainable development. Dr. Brundtland, the Prime Minister of Norway, chaired the Commission composed of a group of 22 members from developed and developing countries. The Commission has defined sustainable development as  "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of f generations to meet their own needs" (WCED, 1987).  The ability of future generation to meet their needs will be insured by not compromising the productivity of the natural environment. The productivity of the environment can be preserved by  17  keeping the scale of the economy within the carrying capacity of the environment. Defining the carrying capacity of the environment and how it varies across regional, national, or global environments is crucial for determining the implications of sustainability.  Carrying capacity is "the maximal population size of a given species that an area can support without reducing its ability to support the same species in the future" (Daly and Ehrlich 1992). The available natural capital, population size and the per capita rate of material consumption and waste generation are factors which affect the carrying capacity of an environment. Not balancing population number and consumption rate will result in consuming the natural capital of the environment rather than living on its "interest".  The consequence is the degradation of the  environment. Therefore, sustainability requires that a "constant capital stock" (Rees, 1992) be kept to ensure that "each generation could inherit an adequate stock of natural assets alone no less than the stock of such assets inherited by previous generation" (Daly 1989, Constanza and Daly 1990, in Rees 1992). "It is best to at least provisionally assume that we are at or below the range of sustainable stock levels" (Constanza, 1991). So "humankind must learn to live on the annual flows - the 'interest'- generated by remaining stock of natural capital" (Rees, 1990) and allow no further deterioration of the natural capital. The current human per capita resource consumption and waste generation should not exceed what is within the carrying capacity of today's environment.  The biologically productive lands and water areas present in the ecosystems of various regions of the planet are natural capital requirements of human carrying capacity. The per capita biologically productive land on the planet is currently approximately 1.6 hectares (WRI, 1992). This figure is diminishing every year as result of the increase in world population and the loss of biological productivity due to deforestation, desertification, urbanization. The rivers and oceans are used primarily, as dumping grounds for waste generated by increasing human activity. This leads to the reduction of the life supporting services offered by these ecosystems. For example, wild fish stocks, the main renewable resource from fresh-water and marine ecosystems, currently provide  18  less than two and a half percent of the human food requirements, and most fisheries are already over-harvested (Wackernagel, 1994). While there are methods available to measure the areas of biologically productive lands and the productivity of these lands, no such methods are available for water areas. Oceanic currents, for example, lead to a significant material and heat exchange between the various areas of the oceans rendering next to impossible, for most cases, to determine the area that corresponds for a certain ecological productive or absorptive function.  The analysis of the Ecological Footprint of the Canadian economy, shows that the current per capita appropriated carrying capacity from natural resources in Canada is approximately 4.2 hectares of biologically productive land, (Wackernagel et al, 1993) which is almost three times the per capita biologically productive land currently available on the planet. In a sustainable world economy, the average Canadian would have to reduce his/her Ecological Footprint to less than half of its current size . 5  The debate about the implications of sustainable development concept for various areas of human activity in Canada and around the world has continued for the last decade. Canadian housing sector, dominated by single family houses, is one of these areas.  2.7. SUSTAINABLE HOUSING  The implications of sustainable development on housing can be examined at a variety of levels ranging from the macro to the micro scales. The implications of sustainability on the macro-scale involve the relation between housing sector and other sectors of the built environment (e.g., commercial and transportation areas) and the relationships among different types of housing within  5 Assuming that the global carrying capacity will be considered as the measure of sustainability.  19  the housing sector (e.g., between single family housing and multi family developments). This study is on the micro scale, concerned specifically with the implication of sustainability on a base case study single family detached house.  The ecological sustainability of a house depends on three factors; the carrying capacity of the environment, the environmental effectiveness of building's design, and the way in which the house is used.  2.7.1. Sustainable  Resources:  The sustainable per capita resource consumption and pollution generation level is based on the carrying capacity of the environment. The carrying capacity of an environment is determined by its physical boundaries. Different models (regional, national, or global environments) give different values to determine the sustainability of a house, or any other human activity, because of the uneven distribution of natural resources on the planet. If the measure is the regional environment, the sustainability of an activity depends on the available resources in a region. A level of resource and energy consumption for housing could be sustainable in Vancouver yet not in Toronto. If the measure is the national environment, the amount of resources required by a house could be sustainable in Canada (the Canadian per capita is higher than most of the other countries of the world) but not in Japan. If the measure is global, the determination of the sustainability of a consumption level for a house would be independent from it's geographic location.  Once the sustainable limits of resource consumption available for housing in a community are defined, the Ecological Footprint of housing units needed by members of the community should be planned to fall within these limits. The decision would be made, by planning authorities, of how to distribute these units among various housing types. Single family detached house has, and will continue to have (even after optimizing the environmental performance of housing types) the  20  largest Ecological Footprint per occupant. Therefore, it is possible that the available resources for housing in a community will not be enough to build any of these units as single family houses.  2.7.2. The Use of the House:  A sustainable house is designed to be operated within certain per capita energy and material consumption levels. A sustainable house designed for four persons may not be sustainable anymore if it is occupied by two persons only. This would represent a waste of land, materials, and energy. The behavior of the occupants also influence the effectiveness of the strategies used in a house in order to make its operation sustainable. The most efficiently designed system may not be efficient if it is used carelessly (e.g., efficient lighting and hot water devices left on when they are not needed).  2.7.3. The design of the house:  A sustainable house has to be built, operated and maintained within the sustainable energy and resource limits available to its occupants. Therefore, floor area, available spaces, energy and material consumption should be based on the number of its occupants.  The limits of sustainability in Canada, as elsewhere, are currently undetermined, but in a planet so over-stressed ecologically, and where a large number of humans are in desperate need for resources to survive, every effort should be made to minimize the Ecological Footprint of new single family houses. However, even in a housing sector with unsustainable Ecological Footprint such as exists in Canada, there is large difference in the Ecological Footprint of single houses, based mainly on the financial status of their owners. Different house designs should be treated differently. Most of the pressure should be put, by planning authorities, on house designs with large Ecological Footprints. The pressure could be exercised through high levels of taxation and by  21  imposing low operating energy consumption levels obtainable through the use of advanced technologies. The requirements from houses with modest Ecological Footprints should be limited to cost effective strategies (see CHAPTER IV).  22  CHAPTER III: T H E "ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT" OF A CONVENTIONAL WOOD F R A M E SINGLE F A M I L Y DETACHED HOUSE  3.1.  INTRODUCTION  The Ecological Footprint of a wood frame single family detached house is defined as the biologically productive land area continuously required to supply the house throughout its lifecycle with energy and resources, and to absorb the waste it discharges. The calculation of the land area is based on the Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity (EF/ACC) method developed by Rees and Wackernagel (Wackernagel, 1993). The method calculates the land area whose carrying capacity has to be "appropriated" to supply an activity with energy and resources and to absorb the waste it discharges throughout its life cycle.  3.1.1. Objectives  The purposes of studying the Ecological Footprint of a single family house are:  •  To provide a better understanding of the environmental consequences of single family houses through the quantification of resources consumed and waste discharged.  •  To identify areas for potential resource conservation and pollution reduction which may contribute to the improvement of the environmental performance of single family houses.  23  3.1.2. Approach  The calculation of the "Ecological Footprint" is based on a life-cycle analysis of the energy and material use of a house distinguishing between initial and recurring values. Materials and energy estimates are converted to areas of biologically productive land using land equivalency procedures. The various categories of biologically productive land are subsequently added to give the Ecological Footprint of the house.  3.1.2.1. Life Cycle Analysis  A life cycle analysis is the process of documentation and evaluation of material and energy flow in a product, process, or activity (Liitzkendorf, 1992).  The life cycle of a building includes: •  the production of the house the use of the house  •  the maintenance of the house the demolition of the house  Resource depletion factors included in a life cycle analysis of a building are:  •  Land occupation  •  Resource consumption  •  Energy Consumption  •  Water Consumption  Pollution generation factors included in a life cycle analysis of a building are:  24  •  Air Pollution (e.g. Ozone layer depleting substances and global warming gases)  •  Water Pollution  •  Soil Pollution  The newly developed E F / A C C method, currently, considers only direct land degradation, renewable resources, and renewable energy factors from consumption area, and C02 emission from pollution area. Research is needed to resolve the difficulties associated with accurate quantification of other factors that should be included in the Ecological Footprint calculation (e.g., the inclusion of water consumption, the regenerative and assimilative role of the oceans, and land requirements of extracting non-renewable resource). These omissions could result in an Ecological Footprint of the house smaller than its actual size.  A detailed life cycle analysis of the house is carried out for the following factors:  •  Land areas occupied directly as a result of developing the house  •  Building materials used to construct, and maintain the house  Energy consumption of the house throughout its life cycle  •  CO2 emission throughout the life cycle of the house for both energy use and materials production.  25  3.1.2.2. Land Equivalency Calculations  Land area equivalency procedures are used to calculate land requirements for the following categories:  •  Land to produce renewable energy (ethanol).  •  Forest land to absorb CO2 emission.  •  Forest land to produce wood.  3.2. HOUSE DESCRIPTION: The base case study is a two storey house with an unfinished full depth basement and attached double garage. The house is designed for 4 persons and composed of 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, a family room, a kitchen, a living and dining rooms. The total floor area of the house is 350 m : 2  111.6 m are the main floor, 80.6 m are the second floor (Figure 1), 111.6m are the unfinished 2  2  2  full depth basement, and 46.2 m are the attached double garage. 2  •  The basement foundation walls are of poured concrete, and are insulated with 89 mm fiberglass batts (RSI 2.2).  •  Exterior walls are 38x89 mm framed and insulated with 89 mm fiberglass batts (RSI 2.2). Interior walls are 38x89 mm framed.  •  The attic is insulated with 225 mm blown mineral wool (RSI 5.3).  •  Interior finish on walls and ceilings is a single coat paint plus primer on 12 mm gypsum board.  26  •  The floor finish is 3 mm vinyl in the kitchen and bathrooms and carpet everywhere else.  •  The exterior finish is cedar siding and brick veneer.  •  Roofing is asphalt shingles.  •  A l l windows are double glazed.  The design of this house is similar to most currently built Canadian single family detached houses. The results obtained in this study, therefore, reflect the conditions of new Canadian single family detached houses.  3.3. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS  A detailed life cycle analysis of the house was carried out for the following factors:  3.3.1.  Land Occupation:  There are two categories of land occupied as a result of developing a single family house:  •  Direcdy occupied land areas which include the lot on which the house is built and the area from property lines to the center of both the street in front and the back lane.  •  Indirectly occupied land areas which include lands occupied by the premises for the production and transportation of the energy and materials related to the house, water consumed by the house, and the transportation and treatment of the waste generated  27  throughout the house's life cycle (e.g., hydro reservoirs, factories to produce building materials and components, bridges).  Because of the difficulties associated with indirectly occupied land area calculations, only the direcdy occupied land areas are included in the calculation of the Ecological Footprint of the house. Occupied land is one constituent of the Ecological Footprint that is already expressed in land area units.  Table 3-1. Detail of Land Areas Occupied Direcdy By The Base Case Study House LAND CATEGORY  AREA  Lot size  622.43 m  Half the area of the street in front of the house  2  205.40 m 6 2  Half the area of back lane  62.24 m  Total Occupied Land Area  890.07 m  2  2  Biologically productive land area lost as a result of developing the base case study house is 0.089 ha (Table 3-1). Almost one tenth of a hectare is a large area, and considering the large number of houses built in Canada it represents a major damage of biological productivity. In 1995 alone this would account for the degradation of approximately 89,000 ha of biologically productive land, directly, by single family detached housing.  The Ecological Footprint of the house calculates the occupation of the area estimated above throughout 40 years of life cycle. However, the area of biologically productive land degraded as a  ^The distance between the property lines of the two houses facing each other across the street is assumed to be twenty meters (Nichols Vandenberg Architects). 28  result of developing a single family house could be much larger than the land occupied by it, and the duration of that loss could be much longer than the useful life of the house because;  •  These lands are often part of an ecosystem and the occupation of a portion of that ecosystem could degrade an area much larger than the area estimated.  •  The land, to return to biological productivity, requires that every impact of the house to be eliminated. The land, instead, could be left non productive biologically long after the useful life of the house. The land occupied by streets are much more permanently removed from productivity.  3.3.2 Material Consumption: All building materials, from renewable and non-renewable sources, used throughout the life cycle of the house were estimated. These estimates include:  •  Initial material required to build the house  •  Recurring material required to maintain the house.  The estimate of both the initial and recurring material consumption includes materials expected to be wasted during construction activities.  The Ecological Footprint method currently considers land implication of only renewable resources. Land areas affected by non-renewable resources extraction are excluded because of the difficulty associated with their precise calculation and more importantly because the size of land areas  29  affected by non-renewable resources extraction are irrelevant taken on global scale. Wood is the main source of renewable building materials used in Canadian house construction.  The amount of non-renewable materials is estimated despite their exclusion from the Ecological Footprint, so as to understand their relative proportion and the need for such data in life cycle energy analysis.  3.3.2.1. Initial Material Consumption  The analysis of the materials used initially to build the house (Table 3-2) shows that the weight of three materials constitute almost 90% of the total weight of the materials used in the house. These materials are; concrete (64.1%), sand and gravel (14.8%), and wood products (9.34%). Concrete is used in two forms; ready-mix Concrete (63.6%), and Concrete Products (0.69%). Wood is used in four forms; lumber and timber (7%), veneer and plywood (1.6%), millwork (0.79%), and paper (0.05%).  The total weight of building materials of renewable sources included in the Ecological Footprint is 30385.3 kilograms or 3.04 tonnes-  30  Table 3-2 Weight of Building Materials Used In Various Parts Of The House Throughout 40 years of life cycle Commodities  Initial  Percent  Recurring  Percent  Kg  Kg  Total  Percent  Kg  Concrete  195347.8  64.13  2090.8  12.32  197438.5  61.39  Wood Products  28462.6  9.34  1922.7  11.33  30385.3  9.45  Sand and Gravel  45142.3  14.82  0  0  45142.3  14.04  Gypsum Products  12064.5  3.96  1206.5  7.11  13271  4.13  Bricks and Tile  11888.4  3.9  1046.9  6.17  12935.3  4.02  100  0.03  10  0.06  110  0.03  Insulation  2218.7  0.73  547.0  3.22  2765.7  0.86  Steel  1774.4  0.58  1497.0  8.82  3271.3  1.02  Glass  1276  0.42  85.9  0.51  1361.9  0.42  Paints  138.2  0.05  967.7  5.7  1105.9  0.34  Carpet  464.8  0.15  1766.4  10.41  2231.2  0.69  Asphalt  2529.9  0.83  5057.3  29.8  7587.2  2.36  Plastics  533.9  0.18  475  2.8  1008.9  0.31  Joint Compounds  1854.8  0.61  79.5  0.47  1934.3  0.60  205  0.07  24.6  0.14  229.6  0.07  Cooper  122.2  0.04  145.2  0.86  267.4  0.08  Others  503.6  0.17  46.6  0.27  550.2  0.17  304627  100  16969  100  321596  100  Mortar  Aluminum  Total  31  3.3.2.2. Waste Materials  The percentages used to estimate construction waste are collected from the following sources:  "Waste Prevention on Site" by Skoyles and Skoyles which is an in-depth study of British construction practices (OPTIMIZE, 1992).  •  Data contained in E R G - U B C School of Architecture files.  •  Construction industries operating in British Columbia.  The largest component of construction waste was found to be wood products (44.7%) followed by Gypsum board (21.7%), and concrete (19.03%).  Construction waste estimated by this study is higher than figure given by Canadian Builders Association study as the average weight of construction waste in single family houses. The 2.5 ton figure given by the Association seems to be low, the EnviroHome (Nova Scotia's advanced house), for example, despite its on-site waste management program, has generated 3418 kg of onsite construction waste.  One of the environmental consequences of construction waste is the loss of further land area to serve as landfill. There are various types of landfills with different land implications. In a landfill with maximum allowable height of 6 meters, for example, (e.g., Eco-waste in Richmond, B.C.), each m of land is able to take 1.5 tonne of construction waste (based on weight to volume ratio of 2  32  1 tonne = 4 m^)- Assuming that all the construction waste produced in this project will end in landfill, the land area required for construction waste of this house is  Total construction waste (5.11) -----1.5 t/m  - =  3.4 m  2  2  This area appears to be small, nevertheless, considered on national basis, It means 340,000 m o f 2  biologically productive land wasted. There are however, problems related to determining how long the land will be occupied by construction waste. This depends on the characteristics of the landfill (size, depth of waste, type of waste materials) and the economic value of the land. There are techniques followed to reclaim and develop waste landfills. A landfill could be developed for various purposes in just few years after being closed (GVRD, 1995).  Because of the difficulty in estimating the duration for which the land will be used as a landfill and the growing tendency to re-use and recycle building materials, land area required for construction waste will not be included in the Ecological Footprint calculation.  3.3.2.3. Recurring Material Consumption  The estimation of recurring material consumption is based on the following assumptions:  •  Maintenance involves replacing less than 100% of a material or component. For a product, the number of repair cycles required is the product life divided by repair intervals corrected for the possibility of forgone repairs near the end of the product life.  33  •  Replacement refers to the total replacement (100%) of a material or component. The number of times a component is replaced is given by the building life time divided by product life corrected for the possibility of forgone repairs near the end of the building life.  Recurring materials are calculated by first obtaining a replacement factor for each building material used. Replacement factor is created by using a formula which relates the maintenance interval with the expected lifetime of the product and the lifetime of the house . Recurring amount of a material 7  is obtained by applying the replacement factor to the initial amount of that material. Figures used in the formula for product life (yr), repair intervals (yr), repair percentage (%), and replacement intervals are taken from OPTIMIZE program.  Analysis of recurring materials for 40 years of life cycle (Table 3-2) shows that the weight of 8  asphalt used as roof shingles (replacement frequency of 15 years) is the main material consumed constituting 29.8% of all recurring materials. The second material is concrete with 12.32% followed by wood with 11.3% (used mainly for kitchen cabinet replacement), carpet with 10.4%, steel with 8.8% (used mainly in appliances), gypsum (7.1%), brick and tile (6.2%), and paint (5.7%). The frequent repair and replacement requirements are the reasons for the high consumption of these materials. Many of the materials used do not need maintenance during a life cycle of 40 years and most of these materials do not need replacement during this period.  ^Detail information about the derivation of replacement factor may be seen in Optimize Appendices, 1991: Appendix IV-p x. 8 Assessing the lifespan for a building is a major problem with life cycle analysis. There are factors other than the physical life of a building which influence the termination of a building. These include escalating repair costs and functional and technological obsolescence (OPTIMIZE, 1991). A life cycle of 40 years is used by other studies of life cycle analysis such as Optimize, 1991 and Hood, 1995. 34  Recurring material consumption for two additional life cycles were estimated to assess the performance of recurring materials for periods longer than 40 years life cycle (Table 3-3). The percentage of initial and recurring material consumption from the total life cycle consumption changes in these three life cycles. Initial consumption continues to be higher than the recurring consumption in each of these periods despite a decrease in magnitude with the prolonging of life cycle.  Table 3-3. Initial and Recurring Material Relationship Throughout Three Life Cycles.  Life Cycle  Initial  %  Recurring  kg  %  Total  %  kg  kg  40 years  304,627  95%  16,969  5%  321,596  100%  60 years  304,627  72%  121,128  28%  425,755  100%  80 years  304,627  68%  140,813  32%  445,440  100%  Analysis of recurring material through these three life cycle periods show that recurring material consumption during 60 years life cycle is 121,128 kg which is 613% higher than that of a life cycle of 40 years (16,969 kg), while recurring material consumption in a life cycle of 80 years (140,813 kg) is higher than that of a life cycle of 60 years by only 16%. The reason behind the large increase in the amount of recurring material consumption in the second period (60 years life cycle) is that a large proportion of materials used have a life cycle of 40 to 50 years. Therefore, recurring material consumption during the first 40 years are, primarily, due to maintenance, recurring materials consumed over 60 years of life cycle, instead, include the replacement of large part of the materials used in the building. Recurring consumption over 80 years life cycle is once again due, mainly, to maintenance.  35  3.3.3. Life Cycle Energy Analysis  A life cycle energy analysis is the process of determining how much energy a building requires throughout its life cycle. Energy in a buildings is consumed in three ways; operating, embodied, and demolition energy.  Operating energy is the energy consumed in heating, cooling, lighting, and operating domestic appliances.  •  Embodied energy is the energy used to extract or recycle, manufacture, transport and install building products.  •  Demolition energy is the energy used to demolish a building and haul the debris  In analyzing the embodied energy of the house a distinction was made between the initial and recurring embodied energy.  •  Initial embodied energy is the energy embodied in materials required to initially produce the house; and  •  Recurring embodied energy is the energy embodied in materials required to maintain the house.  36  The embodied energy includes the energy associated with construction waste.  3.3.3.1. Initial Embodied Energy  The analysis of initial embodied energy for the house required the evaluation of its two main components; direct and indirect energy.  •  Indirect energy is the energy consumed in the production of building materials, their associated transportation during processing and to distribution centers within a region. It forms the larger portion of embodied energy.  •  Direct energy is the energy actually consumed in the construction of buildings. It represents the final transportation and installation of a component or assembly. Direct energy is estimated to be 7-10% of the initial embodied energy.  Calculation of the indirect embodied energy in a house requires the energy intensity of the materials used in that house. Energy intensity is the energy used to produce a given amount of a material. It represents the indirect energy in unit terms either expressed as energy/mass or volume such as MJ/kg or M J / m or energy/standard unit such as MJ/sheet or block etc. (Cole and Rousseau, 3  1992). A review of literature from various sources and covering different periods included amongst others' Stein (USA, 1976), Baird and Aun (New-Zealand, 1983), Optimize and Forintek Corp (Canada, 1992 and 1994) has revealed a large variation in energy intensity values for a given material from one source to another. These differences could be accounted for by:  37  •  Different Methods of Energy Analysis: Energy analysis is a formalized method for calculating the energy consumed in the production/prevision of goods and services. There are four methods of analysis available (Baird and Aun, 1983): Statistical Analysis, Input-Output Analysis, Process Analysis, Eco-Energetic Analysis. The method used depends mainly on the overall objectives of the analysis and the available data. Statistical analysis, input-output analysis, and process analysis are the most widely used methods to calculate energy intensity of building materials. "Calculation of energy requirements carried out using different conventions and methods will often give different results" (Baird and Aun, 1983).  •  System Boundary Level: there is no absolute or correct energy intensity of a material (Kohler, 1991). The stated value is a direct function of what was included and what was excluded from its derivation (Cole and Rousseau, 1992). According to IFIAS (Baird and Aun, 1983) there are four boundary levels that can be drawn in calculating energy intensity of a material; Energy to process only, energy to extract material, energy to make capital equipment, and energy to make machines to make machines. The first and the second boundaries cover almost 90% of the total embodied energy in a material.  • Production Efficiency: Level of efficiency of the production process is another reason behind these differences. Technology and efficient use of resources are factors that influence the energy intensity figures from different times and geographic areas.  • Transportation: the distances that building materials are transported and transportation method used are other reasons that cause differences in energy intensity figures.  Energy intensity figures for building materials were collected, mainly, from the following sources;  38  •  Forintek Canada Corp. reports "Building Materials in the Context of Sustainable Development". Energy intensity figures in these studies are based on process analysis provided by major Canadian wood, concrete and steel industries directly participant in the studies.  •  The OPTIMIZE program developed for Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC, 1991). The program uses Statistics Canada Input/Output model of the Canadian economy to generate energy intensity values for 58 commodities produced in Canada, categorized for each of the 8 energy sources (oil, nuclear electric,... etc.). The program has a comprehensive scope, which covers energy requirements from harvesting/mining of raw materials to the distribution of products to retail oudets. The first problem with the program is that limiting the data to only 58 commodities makes the data lack in precision and the second is that time lag between the age of the data and publication of the tables may result in an overestimation of the energy intensity of current building materials (Hood, 1995). 9  •  Data contained in the records of U B C Environmental Research Group derived from group's work, national, and international studies.  Energy intensity figures were chosen for being the most recent and accurate, and related to the Canadian situation. Energy intensity per unit weight (kg) of each building material were applied to the initial amounts of the material used to obtain the indirect initial embodied energy.  The direct initial embodied energy in a building is estimated to constitute 7-10% of the total embodied energy in a building (Stein et al., 1976, Salokangas, 1990 in Cole, 1994). Construction  ^There has been a steady decrease in the embodied energy of commodities produced in Canada of approximately 1.0% per year (Hood, 1995). 39  energy in a house depends on the degree of on-site equipment usage, and the distance of the site from distribution centers and workers residence. In estimating the direct embodied energy, a general figure of 7% has been applied to the total initial indirect embodied energy.  The estimates of the direct and indirect embodied energy include embodied energy associated with construction waste.  The analysis of initial embodied energy (Table 3-4) shows that finish materials (21.18%) have the highest initial embodied energy. Finish materials, carpentry (20.45%), insulation and moisture protection (18.79%), and concrete(14.35%), constitute more than 75% of the total initial embodied energy in the house.  Table 3-4 Indirect initial Embodied Energy (See Appendix CI for detail) Sections Section-1. Site Work Section-2. Concrete Section-3. Masonry Section-4. Metals Section-5. Carpentry Section-6. Insulation And Moisture Protection Section-7. Doors, Windows And Finish Hardware Section-8. Finishes Section-9. Specialties Section-10. Cabinets And Appliances Section-11. Mechanical Section-12. Electrical Total  MJ  Percent 44413.2 133681.5 31839.7 8887.6 190466.6 175064.6 29729.5 197340.6 6939.6 50891.5 51407.8 10906.1 931568.3  v  4.77 14.35 3.42 0.95 20.45 18.79 3.19 21.18 0.74 5.46 5.52 1.17 1 00  Initial embodied energy = 931568.3 x 1.07 = 996,778 MJ. Initial embodied energy per m of floor area of the house for a life cycle of 40 years 2  = Initial embodied energy (MJ)/ Total floor area of the house (m ) 2  = 996,778 MJ / 350 m =2848 MJ 2  40  3.3.3.2. Recurring Embodied Energy  The recurring embodied energy, like the initial embodied energy is sub-divided into direct and indirect embodied energy. The estimate of indirect recurring embodied energy for the house is obtained by applying building material's energy intensity figures to the amount of recurring building materials. A general figure of 7% has been applied to the total indirect recurring embodied energy to estimate the direct recurring embodied energy. In calculating recurring embodied energy, no provision was made for possible future changes in the energy intensity of building materials needed to maintain the house.  The analysis of recurring embodied energy (Table 3-5) shows that finish materials (57.44%), as in initial embodied energy, have the highest embodied energy but in much higher percentage followed by insulation And moisture Protection (20.56%) cabinets and appliances (13.13%), mechanical equipment (3.51%). These high values are due to high replacement rate of the materials included in these sections.  Table 3-5. Indirect Recurring Embodied Energy For 40 Years Life Cycle (See Appendix CI for detail) Sections Seclion-1. Site Work Section-2. Concrete Section-3. Masonry Section-4. Metals Section-5. Carpentry Section-6. Insulation And Moisture Protection Section-7. Doors, Windows And Finish Hardware Section-8. Finishes Section-9. Specialties Section-10. Cabinets And Appliances Section-11. Mechanical Section-12. Electrical Total  41  MJ  Percent 1354.49 0 3289.23 428.65 14793.4 153409.6 5691.23 428665.47 0 98010.24 26197.98 14406.64 746246.94  0.18 0 0.44 0.06 1.98 20.56 0.76 57.44 0 13.13 3.51 1.93 1 00  Recurring embodied energy = 746246.94 x 1.07= 798,484.2 M J  Recurring embodied energy per m of floor area of the house throughout 40 years of life cycle= 2  Recurring embodied energy (MJ)/ Total floor area of the house (m )= 2  798,484.2 MJ / 350 m = 2281 MJ. 2  Recurring embodied energy for two additional life cycles were estimated (Table 3-6). The percentage of initial and recurring energy from the total embodied energy changes in these three life cycles. Initial embodied energy goes from being the major component of the embodied energy during a life cycle of 40 years to becoming a relatively minor contributor during a 60 and 80 year of life cycles.  Table 3-6. Initial and Recurring Energy Relationship Throughout Three Life Cycles.  Life Cycle  40 y e a r s 60 y e a r s 80 y e a r s  Initial Energy (MJ) 9? Recurring Energ t (MJ) °k  996778 996778 996778  56% 37% 31%  798484 1697310 2260927  44% 63% 69%  Total (MJ) 1795262 2694088 3257705  Comparing recurring embodied energy during these three life cycles  95  100% 100% 100%  shows that prolonging  the life cycle of the house by 20 years (from 40 years to 60 years) the recurring embodied energy will increase by 112%. In an additional increase of 20 years (from 60 years to 80 years) there will be an increase in embodied energy of 33% with respect to a life of 60 years. The reason behind the large increase in the recurring embodied energy in the second period  42  examined (60 years life cycle) is that a large part of the materials used have a life cycle of 40 to 50 years. Therefore the recurring embodied energy during the first 40 years is primarily due to maintenance. Recurring energy consumed over 60 years of life cycle, instead, include replacement. Recurring consumption between 60 and 80 years of building life is once again due to maintenance.  It is interesting to note the different performances of recurring materials (Table 3-3) and recurring embodied energy (Table 3-6) during these three different life cycles. The percentage of both recurring material and recurring energy is increasing in 60 and 80 years life cycles causing a decline in the percentage of initial materials and energy, however initial materials continues to be the major component of the life cycle material consumption while the percentage of recurring embodied energy is exceeding that of the initial embodied energy. This indicates that the increase in the recurring embodied energy is much higher proportionally than the amount of recurring materials which means that while materials used for repair and replacement are lighter than initial materials but their energy intensities are higher.  3.3.3.3. Demolition Energy:  Demolition embodied energy includes the energy consumed in demolishing the house and hauling away debris to landfill. Any use of demolished materials other than as debris (recycle or reuse of materials, components or parts of the house) should be accounted for as the embodied energy of the buildings which they will be used in. There are, currently, no reliable estimates of the demolition embodied energy (ERG, 1994). Because of the uncertainties surrounding demolition embodied energy, it is not included in estimating the total life cycle energy of the house.  The total embodied energy of the house (demolition energy excluded) for a life cycle of 40 years is 1,795,262 MJ. The percentage of initial embodied energy from the total embodied energy is 56%  43  and recurring energy is 44%. The total embodied energy per m of floor area of the house is 5.13 2  GJ.  3.3.3.4. Operating Energy  The H O T 2000-Version 6 energy analysis program was used to estimate operating energy for the house. This program was developed under the direction of the R-2000 Home program of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. H O T 2000 is a computer program designed to aid in simulation and design of buildings for thermal effectiveness, passive solar heating, and the operation and performance of heating systems by using heat-loss/gain and system performance models (CHBA, 1991).  The program estimates the annual operating energy requirements in a house taking into account space heating, water heating, appliances, and lighting (Table 3-7). The program requires input about the geographic location, desired temperature levels, specific building components, and mechanical systems.  Space heating in the case study house is provided by a natural gas furnace.and forced air system. No central ventilation system is used. The house is located in Vancouver, B. C . Therefore the results obtained below are based on Vancouver's weather data.  Table 3-7. Various Uses of Operating Energy in the House Use Space Heat DHW others Total  Amount  GJ/yr 65.35 38.13 26.35 129.83  44  Percentaqe 50.3 29.4 20.3 100  Heating ( Space + DHW) energy consumption of the house is 103.48 GJ, while the annual R2000 target ^ for this house is 75.12 GJ. This means that a 27% reduction in heating 1  requirements would be needed to meet R-2000 target.  Comparing operating energies of the base case study (Table 3-7) to that of the average Canadian house, as reported by STAR-HOUSING Database (Table 3-8), the base case study house is 17% lower. This is due largely to climate differences and because the database considers all Canada's housing stock part of which has lower insulation and higher air leakage level than those in the base case study house.  Table 3-8. Energy Consumption of A Typical Canadian House As Reported By Star-Housing Database (Hamilton, 1992).  USE Space Heat DHW others TOTAL  AMOUNT GJ/yr 110.9 21.4 23.9 156.2  PERCENTAGE 71% 14% 15% 100%  The Building Energy Performance (BEPI) of the base case study single family house is = 11  10  T h i s energy use target is set by NRCan with partners in the industry. The target must be  met in order for a house to be certified as an R-2000 house. The description of how the target is set may be found in "R-2000 Design Approval Procedures and Guidelines".  11 The Building Energy Performance Index (BEPI) is a unit that is used to measure operating energy performance in buildings. It is measured in Giga joules per square meter per year (GJ/m2/yr.) 45  Operating energy (GJ)/ Floor area of the heated spaces in the house (m )= 2  = 129.83/303.55= 0.427 GJ/m2/yr.  Operating energy of the base case study house constitutes 73% of energy consumption during 40 years life cycle. This shows the significance of operating energy in single family houses.  3.3.4. Life Cycle C O 2 Emission  Life cycle CO2 emission takes into account the CO2 emitted during the initial construction, the operation, and the maintenance of the house.  The two types of CO2 emission during the life cycle of the house are; energy related and nonenergy related emissions :  •  energy-related emission is the CO2 generated as a result of fuel combustion. It forms the major component of life cycle CO2 emitted by the house.  non energy-related emission is the CO2 generated as a result of processing materials used throughout the life cycle of the house.  The amount of energy consumed is not the only factor determining CO2 emission. The type of fuel used to generate the energy is another important factor (Table 3-9). The quantity of CO2 generated by a given fuel type is the product of three parameters: the quantity of fuel consumed, the carbon content of the fuel, and the fraction of the fuel oxidized.  46  Table 3-9. CO2 Emissions For Common Stationary Uses Of Conventional Fuels (Cole and Rousseau, 1992) FUEL/USE  C 0 2 (g/ MJ)  Distillate Oil (0.5% S)  72.1  Natural G a s / L P G  50.5  Coal (Bituminous, 3 % S)  87.5  Canadian Electricity  52.3  The contribution of CO2 emission to the Ecological Footprint of the house is based on calculating CO2 emission during the various stages of the life cycle.  3.3.4.1. Initial  C O 2 Emission:  Initial CO2 is the sum of the CO2 emitted during production of building materials and in the construction of the house.  Many published sources were reviewed to determine CO2 emission figures for the materials used in the base case study house. Because of the direct connection of CO2 emission to energy usage the problems in evaluation of energy consumption also apply to CO2 analysis. Figures for CO2 emission are, therefore, even less accurate than energy figures. CQ2 emission figures for various building materials used were collected from the following sources;  •  "Building Materials in the Context of Sustainable Development" reports (Forintek Canada Corp., 1994).  •  Data contained in the records of the U.B.C. Environmental Research Group derived from the group's own work, and from national and international studies.  47  "Healthy House" project final report prepared by Habitat Design+Consulting and Archemy Consultants (CMHC, 1994).  For those materials where it was not possible to obtain accurate CO2 emission figures, These figures were calculated by multiplying the global CO2 emission value of 67 mg/MJ (See 3.4.2) to each material's energy intensity figure. Collected CO2 emission figure (g/kg) for each building material was multiplied to the initial amount of that material (kg). CO2 emission associated with construction waste and direct embodied energy are also part of the initial CO2 emissions in the house.  Initial CO2 emission data (Table 3-10) shows that concrete has the highest CO2 emission (24.8%) followed by carpentry, finish materials, insulation and moisture protection which together constitute more than 77% of the total initial CO2 emission in the house.  Table 3-10. Initial CO2 Emissions Sections Section-1. Site Work Section-2. Concrete Section-3. Masonry Section-4. Metals Section-5. Carpentry Section-6. Insulation And Moisture Protection Section-7. Doors, Windows And Finish Hardware Section-8. Finishes Section-9. Specialties Section-10. Cabinets And Appliances Section-11. Mechanical Section-12. Electrical Total  48  Initial (kg) 2787.6 14465.1 1 920 548.1 13587.9 5566.7 1881.9 1 1500.7 329.6 2284.3 2701.3 743.1 58316.3  Percent 4.8 24.8 3.3 0.9 23.3 9.5 3.2 19.7 0.6 3.9 4.6 1.3 1 00  The total initial CO2 emission of the house is found to be 58316.3 kg (58.316 tonnes) or 166.62 kg/m . 2  3.3.4.2. Recurring CO2 Emission  Recurring CO2 of the house (Table 3-11) is obtained by multiplying CO2 emission figures to the estimated amount of materials to maintain the house. Because of the high replacement rate of materials involved in finish materials section, they are responsible for the largest recurring CO2 emission (69.9%), followed by insulation (10.9%), cabinets and appliances(10.2%), Electrical (2.7%) and mechanical Section (2.6%).  Table 3-11. Recurring CO2 Emission Throughout 40 Years Of Life Cycle  Sections Section-1. Site Work Section-2. Concrete Section-3. Masonry Section-4. Metals Section-5. Carpentry Section-6. Insulation And Moisture Protection Section-7. Doors, Windows And Finish Hardware Section-8. Finishes Section-9. Specialties Section-10. Cabinets And Appliances Section-11. Mechanical Section-12. Electrical Total  C 0 2 (kq) 144.9 0 198.9 28.3 566.9 3986 456.3 25641.4 0 3732.5 953.4 992.2 36700.9  Percent 0.4 0 0.5 0.1 1.5 10.9 1.2 69.9 0 1 0.2 2.6 2.7 1 00  The total recurring CO2 throughout 40 years life cycle of the house is found to be 36700.9 kg or 104.86 kg/m . 2  49  3.3.4.3. Operating C O 2  The H O T 2000 program-Version 6 estimates the amount of various fuel types needed to meet the annual operating energy requirements for the house (Table 3-12).  Table 3-12. The Annual Operating Fuel Requirements in The Base Case Study House.  Fuel N. Gas m3/yr Elect. kWh/yr  DHW 1023.5 0  Space 1 625 1335.5  Appliances 0 7320.5  Total 2648.5 8656  To estimate C02 emission associated with operating energy (Table 3-13), the amount of each fuel used is multiplied to the C02 emission factor for that fuel (Table 3-9). The sum of CO2 emission from these two energy sources is the annual CO2 emission expected to arise from operating the house.  Table 3-13. The Annual Operating C02 Emissions in The Base Case Study House.  Fuel type  Energy production  Fuel amount  MJ  C02 Emission kg  N. Gas  2648.5 m /yr  98683  4983.5  Electricity  8656 kWh/yr  31162  1629.8  3  50  The total amount of C02 emission associated with operating energy throughout 40 year of life cycle of the house is 264530.6 kg. The annual operating CO2 emission for a m of heated floor 2  area of the house is found to be 21.8 kg.  3.4. L A N D E Q U I V A L E N C Y C A L C U L A T I O N  PROCEDURES  Having estimated the quantity of land, energy, renewable resources, and CO2 emission, the next step was to use land equivalency procedures to determine the biologically productive land area capable of producing the resources required and to absorb CO2 emission.  The following land equivalency procedures were used to calculate the Ecological Footprint of the house.  3.4.1. Land Required For Renewable Energy (Ethanol) Production  The authors of E F / A C C method consider ethanol as the ideal renewable substitute for liquid hydrocarbons. It exhibits similar physical properties, such as heating value or homogeneity, and its ease of transportation and storage. Ethanol could also be a substitute for natural gas because of its low entropic value, and most probably it is superior to coal.  Ethanol production depends on two factors; the biological productivity of biomass on a given land area, and the technological efficiency for conversion of biomass into ethanol.  Wackernagel has reviewed various studies about how much ethanol can be produced per hectare of arable land (Wackernagel, 1994). The studies are conflicting in their results. They go from a net loss in available energy (Pimentel 1991, Kendrick et al. 1978) to a net yield of a maximum of 101  51  GJ/ha/yr. (Kirk-Othmer 1980). Differences arise due to the assumed source of the energy used in processing biomass into ethanol. All studies which assumed a process energy powered by fossil fuel concluded that ethanol production amounts to a net loss, whereas those assuming a process powered by agricultural waste registered high net yields.  In order to make these studies comparable, the different measurements and standards of efficiency used in them were normalized. The farming and harvesting energy for all the studies assumed to be powered by ethanol while the thermal energy for the ethanol processing was assumed to be provided by agricultural waste. Re-evaluation on this bases shows that many of the studies which initially reported a net loss, now show a net gain in low entropy energy.  The productivity proposed by a study from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL 1992) in Golden, Colorado is chosen as the energy-land equivalence ratio for ethanol production. This state of the art process depends on fast growing poplar trees as its input and reaches a net ethanol productivity of 80 GJ/ha/yr. Using this value and assuming that the energy required for the base case study house had to be provided by biomass, the calculation of life cycle Ecological Footprint is as follows:  Ecological Footprint of the energy required to build the house =  --  Initial embodied energy (996.78 GJ) -— 80 GJ/ha/yr  =12.46 ha/yr  Ecological Footprint of operating energy throughout a life cycle of 40 years would be =  52  5,193,680 MJ = 64.92 ha/yr 80 GJ/ha/yr  Ecological Footprint of maintenance energy =  Recurring embodied energy (798.48 GJ)  = 9 . 9 8 ha/yr  80 GJ/ha/yr  Despite the strong argument that fossil fuel is the product of biologically productive lands of the past, and that current consumers should be debited for consuming it, this land will not be included with other land areas in calculating the Ecological Footprint of base case study house because it is an available resource and its generation is not an active part of the environmental mechanism. Fossil fuel availability reduces the current dependency on biomass as an energy source, especially in the developed world. However, the situation in the post-fossil fuel era will be different; biomass could become a major source of renewable energy. But in contrast with current conditions, the land area required for purposes such as CO2 absorption is expected to be considerably reduced.  The analysis of renewable energy-land equivalency calculation was useful to show:  •  the pressure that will be put on biologically productive lands in the post fossil fuel era.  • the difficulty associated with renewable energy production and the importance of conserving fossil fuel energy.  53  3.4.2. Land Required For C02 Absorption  The equilibrium temperature at the earth's surface is a function of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The rise of C 0 2 concentration would cause the mean earth surface temperature to rise likewise. Following the industrial revolution, the concentration of C O 2 in the atmosphere has been rising. Carbon dioxide has been released in large and increasing quantities as a consequence of fossil fuels combustion and through continuing decrease in the total mass of terrestrial biosphere, i.e., through the destruction of forests. The excessive concentration of C O 2 is the main contributor to global warming which is one of most serious threats facing the planet. (Chapter 2). It is essential to find sufficient sinks to absorb C O 2 and avoid its accumulation in the atmosphere. The most obvious and direct solution is to use photosynthesis to capture the newly emitted fossil C02- Indeed tree planting and the maintenance of "carbon sink" forests is the only currently practical means of sequestering excess atmospheric carbon (Wackernagel, 1994).  While the deliberate use of forest as a carbon sink is a relatively new idea, it is estimated that there is 2000 billion metric tones carbon in the world's remaining biomass and soils. This is three times the amount in the atmosphere (Brown et al. 1988:93 in Wackernagel, 1994).  The authors of the E F / A C C method provide a simple calculation procedure to determine the land area capable of absorbing C O 2 emitted by the consumption of a given amount of energy. The energy-land equivalence ratio is 100 GJ/ha/year. This ratio is based on a study by Siegenthaler et al. reporting that every year about 5,400x10^ t of carbon is released as a result of fossil fuel combustion. This emission corresponds to a fossil fuel consumption of 300,000 PJ. In other words one GJ of fossil fuel emits about 18 kg of carbon into the atmosphere. Based on the average sequestering capacity of forests (Table 3-14), this means that one hectare of forest could annually sequester the C O 2 emission of 100 GJ of fossil fuel.  54  Table 3-14. The Average C 0 2 Absorption Capacity of Different Types of Forests (Apps et Al.  Forest Type  CO2 Absorption  Average boreal forest  0.5 t carbon/ha/yr  33%  Average temperate forest  1.5 t carbon/ha/yr  25%  Average tropical forest  3.0 t carbon/ha/yr  42%  Average global forest  1.8 t carbon/ha/yr  100%  Global Percentage  CO2 emission calculation procedure followed in this study which consist in determining CO2 emissions of each material and process should produce more accurate results. The calculation of CO2 contribution to the Ecological Footprint of the house was made in two steps. First, finding CO2 emissions for each material according to various energy sources used, Second, converting the CO2 values to areas of forest land. For this calculation it is essential to find carbon content of a certain amount of CO2.  Initial Carbon (t) = Initial CO2 (t) x Carbon content of tonne of CO2 = 58.3 x 0.273 = 15:9 t  Then the amount of carbon is converted to its equivalence land area according to the global average of CO2 absorption capacity of the forest.  12 The global average of grassland adds up to about 0.12 t carbon/ha/yr.  55  Initial Carbon 15.9 t Ecological Footprint of initial CO2 =  —  = 8.84 ha/yr 1.8 t carbon/ha/yr  Ecological Footprint of maintenance and operating CO2 throughout 40 years of life cycle =  (Recurring CO2 + Operating C02) x Carbon content 1.8 t/ha/yr  (36.7+264.53) x 0.273 =45.69 ha/yr 1.8 t/ha/yr  The base case study house requires the absorption capacity of 8.84 ha of forest land to absorb the initial CO2 and 45.69 ha of land to absorb the CO2 emitted throughout the 40 years life cycle of the house due to maintenance and operation.  The Ecological Footprint calculation of CO2 emissions was repeated by using the procedure followed by Wackernagel and other researchers at U B C Planning school. They estimate the land area required to absorb C 0 2 emitted by a given amount of energy by using 100 GJ/ha/yr ratio. The results obtained as the life cycle CO2 Ecological Footprint differs from the calculation followed by the study, based on the CO2 emission for every single material, by only 0.5 ha/yr.  3.4.3.  Land Required For Wood Production  Wood is the only renewable resource that is processed to produce building materials for this house.  56  In calculating the Ecological Footprint, the annual productivity of one hectare of forested land is assumed to be 2.3 m3 of roundwood. This is based on the average productivity of Canadian forests which is assumed to be 163 m3/ha (Table 3-15) and based on a 70 years rotation period (the state of Canada's Environment sets cutting cycles of 50-80 years) the average annual productivity of Canadian forest becomes =  163 m /ha 3  -=  2.3 m /ha/yr. 3  70 yr  Table 3-15 The Quantity of Wood Fiber in Various Forest Types in Canada (Canada Environment,  Productivity m3/ha  Forest type Overmature forest in B.C. (only 0.18%)  350  Mature forest in B.C. ( B.C. average)  255  Average forest in Canada  107  Mature forest (Canadian average)  163  The land area requirement in non-sustainable harvest of the forest is different. In 1986, for example, the Canadian roundwood industry harvested 177,097,000 m3 of roundwood from 930,000 ha. This resulted in a "productivity" of  177,097,000 m  3  =  930,000 ha  57  190 3/ha M  The first step in estimating the land area required to produce wood is to convert the various processed wood materials used in the house to roundwood. Two ratios were used; one to convert processed lumber to roundwood (P-R) and the second to convert weight to volume (density).  Initial wood (t) x (P-R)  28.5 x 1.29 =  —=  density (t/m )  70.7 m of roundwood 3  0.52  3  The second step is to convert the roundwood to forest land. roundwood (70.8 m ) 3  =  30.78 ha/yr  2.3 m /ha/yr 3  Ecological Footprint of wood supply to build the house = 30.78 ha/yr  Ecological Footprint of wood needed for maintenance of the house throughout a life cycle of 40 years = 28.5 (t) x 1.29 — - = 2.1 ha/yr 0.52 (t/m ) x 2.3 (m /ha/yr) 3  3  3.4.4. Total Ecological Footprint Calculation  The total Ecological Footprint of the house includes land area occupied by the house, forest land area required for C02 absorption, and the land area required to produce renewable resources.  58  The Ecological Footprint of the house is the sum of initial Ecological Footprint and recurring Ecological Footprint obtained, by converting initial and recurring energy and material requirements, separately.  Initial Ecological Footprint = directly occupied land + land area for wood productivity + land area for initial CO2 absorption = 0.089 + 30.78 + 8.84 = 39.71 ha/yr  Recurring Ecological Footprint throughout 40 years of life cycle = directly occupied land + land area for maintenance wood production + land area for operating and recurring CO2 absorption = 3.56 + 2.1 + 45.69 = 51.35 ha/yr  Each year the productivity of 1.28 ha has to be appropriated to operate and maintain the house.  The total Ecological Footprint = 39.71 + 51.35 = 91.06 ha/yr of biologically productive land area.  The average annual Ecological Footprint of the house would be 2.28 ha The annual per capita housing Ecological Footprint of the occupants will be 0.57 ha.  The area of the Ecological Footprint of the house is 1,023 times the area of its physical footprint.  59  Table 3-16. Constituents of The Base Case Study House's Ecological Footprint C02  Material  Land  Total 8.84  39.71  2.1  45.69  51.35  32.88  54.53  91.06  Initial Ecological Footprint  .089  30.78  Recurring Ecological Footprint  3.56  Total Ecological Footprint  3.65  3.5. C O N C L U S I O N  The quantification of resources consumed and waste generated has provided an improved understanding of the environmental consequences of single family houses. The use of hectares of productive lands as a yardstick by E F / A C C method made it easy to visualize the impact of single family houses on nature. However, the most important results obtained by this study is the identification of areas to be targeted in the process of improving the environmental performance of a single family house.  Land area required to absorb C02 is the largest constituent of the Ecological Footprint followed by land area required to produce biomass to generate energy . These results show clearly that energy 13  as generator of pollution today, and as a resource in the post -fossil fuel era is the most important environmental issue that has to be addressed. Reducing energy consumption as much as possible and using fuel types with low C 0 2 emission should be given the priority when choosing the environmental strategies to reduce the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house.  13 The calculation of Land area required to produce energy (not included in the ecological footprint of the base case study house) has served to reach this conclusion. 60  CHAPTER  IV: S T R A T E G I E S E X A M I N E D IN I M P R O V I N G T H E  ENVIRONMENTAL  4.1.  PERFORMANCE  OF THE BASE CASE  HOUSE  INTRODUCTION:  Analysis of the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house has shown that the most significant environmental impacts are energy-related. In designing an environmentally responsible house, priority should be given to reducing its energy requirements and using energy sources with minimum CO2 emission. The various specialists working in a house should coordinate their efforts, from the initial steps of their work, to consider all factors that can contribute to the reduction of the embodied and operating energy of the house.  This Chapter identifies a series of energy and resource efficient strategies which were examined in order to improve the environmental performance of the base case study house.  4.2. S T R A T E G I E S T O M I N I M I Z E L A N D O C C U P A T I O N  Two steps were taken to reduce the land area directly occupied by a single family detached house; minimizing lot area and reducing street width.  Reducing lot size is a crucial step in improving the environmental performance of a single family house. Generally, municipal by-laws tie the maximum allowable size of a house to the size of the lot in which it is located. Smaller lots result in smaller houses, reduce the length of streets, sidewalks, curbs, gutters, and utilities and produce substantial savings in site preparation. Zoning requirements generally include minimum front-, side- and rear-yard setbacks. These requirements limit the usability of small lots. Affordable housing design has a rich tradition in overcoming these  61  limits. Zero lot line, Z lot configuration, and clustering arrangements are some of the options available to maximize the benefits of a small lot. Zero lot line permits units to be sited on one or more lot lines, making efficient use of available space by creating a single, usable yard area rather than two small and difficult to use narrow sideyards. "Z" lot concept is an adaptation of Zero Lot Line approach. These angled lots expand frontages and expose more of the home to the street. Clustering arrangements are designed to combine higher density, aesthetics, and livability. Clustering can be incorporated into site development plans to preserve open space for community use while reducing development land requirement.  Reducing street width in residential areas could result in a substantial land reduction. The width of the street in front of the improved house is assumed to be 16 meters instead of the current 20 meters (Nichols Vandenberg Architects, 1992).  Other strategies which could minimize the loss of productive land are:  •  Avoid building in highly sensitive ecological areas.  •  Design with minimum impact on the site (e.g., earth sheltered homes)  Locate new developments in areas with minimum damage to the biologically productive lands (within existing urban areas, e.g., infill projects).  •  Maximize efforts to protect existing natural flora on site.  •  Minimize out-side covered areas and maximize areas of vegetation.  62  4.3. S T R A T E G I E S T O M I N I M I Z E M A T E R I A L C O N S U M P T I O N  There are two basic material use strategies in designing environmentally responsible buildings; substitution and reduction (Cole, 1995).  •  Substitution is using building materials that are considered "environmentally friendly" for characteristics such as durability, renewable source, low energy content, low off-gassing, and recycled content instead of currently used materials that do not have these characteristics.  •  Reduction involves reducing the quantity of materials normally used in a conventional house. The premise is that buildings could be smaller and less massive and yet meet the needs for which they are built.  The combination of material substitution and reduction strategies could potentially result in much more environmentally responsible buildings.  The quantity of materials used in the base case house is reduced by designing a smaller house and incorporating other design strategies. A smaller house is considered as the most important feature in a more sustainable house (A.C.E., 1991). The size of the base case study house was reduced without losing any of the amenities. The floor area in the improved version became 129.7 m  2  which is a 33% smaller than the base case study house. The reduction was achieved by designing spaces stricdy for the need of actual occupants of the house, reducing excess circulation spaces and the size of less frequently used areas such as entrance foyers. Large under-used spaces are a waste not only of materials but also of land and energy.  Other choices made to reduce material use are:  63  •  Eliminating the basement, and thereby conserving a large amount of concrete, steel, and formwork materials.  •  Obtaining a more compact design and reducing exterior surface area which is one of the most material intensive assemblies in the house.  Minimizing interior walls and doors on the main floor.  The strategy of using more environmentally friendly materials was not fully implemented in the improved house. The type of materials are kept the same as the original project to achieve a direct comparison between the Ecological Footprints of the two versions. However, this has eliminated the opportunity to choose materials which would have contributed to a further reduction of resource consumption by having recycled content and being durable, reusable, and recyclable. The following are some such strategies;  Using advanced framing techniques.  •  Substituting a carport for the garage.  •  Using concrete with 20% fly ash additive, which increases its strength from 3000 p.s.i. to 3400 p.s.i. and allows a reduction in the thickness of foundation walls from 200 mm to 150 mm (Loken, 1993).  •  Reducing the use of solid dimensional lumber products and increasing the use of engineered wood products (finger-jointed studs, stress skin foam core panels, structural panels of plywood skins and honycomb core of phenolic-resin-saturated kraft paper) 64  Using pre-cast concrete to reduce the amount of materials used and wasted, the amount of formwork, noise, dust, and damage to natural and built structures on the job-site and surrounding area.  •  Using pre-assembled homes or components.  •  Replacing wall to wall carpeting with wood flooring.  4.3.1. Strategies to Minimize Material Wastage  Analysis of the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house shows a large amount of material wasted during construction and maintenance of the house. The reduction principle followed throughout the improvement process should be embraced again to reduce construction waste.  Waste reductions could be achieved at the various stages of construction (SPARK, 1991 and C M H C , 1991):  •  Minimization of site-clearing waste.  •  Specification of durable and low-packaging materials.  •  Optimization of materials handling during transportation and delivery.  •  Improvement of material storage procedures.  65  •  Avoidance of inappropriatly ordered materials or materials ordered in surplus which are nonreturnable.  The use of experienced workforce to optimize the use of purchased materials.  •  The use of prefabricated elements wherever possible.  •  Creation of financial incentives for workers to reduce waste.  Re-use and recycling strategies should also be followed in waste management.  Re-usable  materials, components, and parts of the previous building should be diverted from the landfill and re-used in the construction of new houses. Materials that normally are thrown into the disposal bin, such as off-cuts from framing lumber should be re-used as bridging, blocking or forming stakes. Similarly, waste sheet metals should be used for patching. The future re-usability and recyclability of materials used in the new project has to be considered at design and construction stages. Planning for future re-use of materials and components includes the use of durable materials, the use of easy to separate materials and components. Durability and ease of separation of a material increases the probability of it being salvaged and reused.  Recycling is the third strategy in waste management and is becoming a growing option in Canada. There are, already, many companies in B.C. which recycle various building materials including, asphalt, cardboard, concrete, gypsum board, land clearing waste, metals and others (SPARK, 1991). Effective waste management requires knowledge of the existence of these centers and planing the transfer of recyclable materials to these centers as early as possible.  66  4.4. S T R A T E G I E S T O M I N I M I Z E E M B O D I E D E N E R G Y  The embodied energy of a smaller house is reduced due to the reduction in the amount of materials and the energy required to construct them. Eliminating the basement drastically reduces the amount of concrete usage in the house. The production of cement, a component of concrete, is one of the most energy intensive of all industrial manufacturing processes. About 5000 MJ are consumed to produce one tonne of cement.  Further reduction in embodied energy could be achieved by:  •  Choosing alternative materials with low energy intensities (e.g., wood flooring instead of wall-to-wall carpeting).  Using local materials and labor to reduce transportation of material and personnel.  •  Using efficient construction equipment.  •  Using the equipment efficiently.  •  Eliminating exterior sheathing.  4.5. S T R A T E G I E S T O M I N I M I Z E O P E R A T I N G E N E R G Y  Operating energy, as shown in the analysis of the base case house, represents 76% of the life cycle energy consumption. Operating energy is the energy consumed for:  67  • •  Space heating DHW  •  Lighting  •  Operating appliances.  4.5.1. Space Heating Space heating represents 50.3% of operating energy in the base case study, reducing space heating energy therefore, becomes a major goal in improving the environmental performance of single family houses. Space heating energy requirements are a function of Auxiliary space heating = (envelope loss + Air Exchange Losses) - (Useful solar heat gain + Useful internal gains ). 14  15  Reducing envelope and air exchange heat loss and increasing the useful solar gain, therefore, are the main objectives to persue in order to reduce space heating requirements. The use of energy efficient heating equipment could reduce energy consumption further.  4.5.1.1. Improving Envelope Thermal  Resistance  The envelope of the house includes the exterior walls, roof, floor, windows, and doors. Heat loss through the envelope accounts for 73% of the total heat loss in a typical house (Lencheck et al,  14  Useful solar gain is the proportion of solar gain that contribute to the reduction in output  of a house's heating equipments. The quantity of solar gain that is above the desired heating level is unwanted and solar gain that is not sensed by the thermostat could be considered not useful solar gain.(Yannas, 1994)  l ^ A house is considered to be a skin dominated building where operating energy is strongly linked to the thermal characteristics of the envelope.  68  1987). Table 4-1 shows the contribution of each envelope component to total heat loss (CHBA, 1987).  Table 4-1. Heat Loss Through Envelope Components. Percentage of heat loss  Envelope component Ceiling  11-12%  Walls  10-17%  Basement floor  15-21%  Windows and doors  28-30%  Heat flow through an envelope component depends on its thermal resistance and the temperature difference between the inside and outside. The thermal resistance of the envelope is improved by using insulation materials in the walls, roof, floor, and selecting improved performance windows and doors.  Insulation Materials: Effective insulation materials should have the following characteristics (EMRC, 1990):  •  Resistance to heat flow Ability to fill the space completely and evenly  •  Durability  •  For some locations, ability to withstand exposure to light, heat or moisture.  There are four basic forms of insulation.  •  Batt or blanket  •  Loose fill 69  •  Rigid boards  •  Foamed in-place:  Table 4-2. Presents Various Type of Insulation Materials (EMRC, 1990, Lencheck et al, 1987, G B G , 199 ). TYPE Bat Bat Bat Loose Loose Loose Loose Loose Loose Loose Loose Loose Rigid Rigid Rigid Rigid Rigid Rigid Rigid Rigid Rigid Foam Foam Foam  BEST U S E Exposed walls and attics as above as above Irregul. and inaccessible spaces as above as above Open horizontal surfaces Vertical and horizontal Attics and walls Vertical and horizontal Vertical and horizontal Concrete block cavities Below grade exterior Above grade sheathing Interior and ext. sheathing Ext. foundation walls Int. and ext. sheathing Ext. foundation walls At premium spaces At premium spaces At premium spaces cavities  MATERIAL Glass fiber Mineral wool Agricultural fiber Cellulose-blown Cellulose-poured Glass fiber-blown Glass fiber-poured Mineral wool-blown Mineral wool-poured Vermiculite-treated Vermiculite-untreated Perlite insulation Glass fiber board-below grade Glass fiber board-above grade Expanded Polystyrene-low density Expanded Polystyrene-high density Extruded Polystyrene-low density Extruded Polystyrene-high density Polyurethane and polyisocyanrate Phenolic foam board-open cell Phenolic foam board-closed cell Polyurethane Cementitious foam Semi-flexible isocyanurate plastic foam  cavities  _ _ _ RSI/mm 0.022 0.023  _  0.025 0.024 0.02 0.021 0.021 0.022 0.016 0.017 0.029 0.031 0.026 0.028 0.034 0.035 .040-.050 0.3 1.46 0.042 0.03  In addition to the thermal effectiveness of an insulation material other characteristics are also considered in an environmentally responsible design. The impact on human health, resource and energy use,  and ozone layer depleting content should be considered in selecting the type of  insulation. Fiberglass batts are currently the most common form of wall insulation and often used under floor cavities and cathedral ceilings. Fiberglass is manufactured by melting silica sand and recently some manufacturers have started to add recycled glass to their mix. This process of  70  manufacturing fiberglass insulation is, therefore, very energy intensive. The possible damage to human health is an important disadvantage of this type of insulation. Fiberglass fibers may constitute a health hazard for workers manufacturing the product as well as those installing it. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has designated all man made mineral fibers as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" (Grady, 1992). Mineral wool consists of natural rock or industrial slag and does not contain toxic additives. Cellulose fiber is made from shredded newsprint and treated with chemicals (borax, and boric acid) that resist fire and fungal growth. Agricultural fiber insulation is available in the form of cotton insulation made with mill waste, low grade, and recycled cotton. It is treated with a non-toxic fire retardant (GBG, 1991). Rigid insulation's employed as sheathing in houses have played an important role in achieving high RSI values. The use of ozone depleting materials used in manufacturing many of these insulation causes environmental concern. Rigid fiberglass, produced from glass fibers, is thought to be the most environmentally benign of the rigid insulation material. Extruded polystyrene insulation is foamed with (CFC) or (HCFC) both of which contribute to ozone depletion. Expanded polystyrene, by contrast, is free from ozone depleting substances.  The selection of a certain type and thickness of insulation is influenced by type of structure and the characteristics of other materials composing the assembly. A 38x140 mm exterior wall frame offers the opportunity for higher insulation than 38x89 mm wall and a double wall construction offers the opportunity for even higher insulation levels. The combined RSI value of all the parts that make up the assembly, called the composite RSI value, can be evaluated as if they were one homogeneous material with an average value (Lencheck et al, 1987). Table 4-3 presents RSI values of various envelope components.  71  Table 4-3. The Composite RSI Values of Various Wall and Roof Assemblies (SAR engineering  ROOFS  WALLS Description  Description  R-Value (m C/W)  R-Value (m C/W)  2  2  38x89; RSI 2.4 bat  2.35  RSI 4.9 Blown  5.12  38x89; 25 mm xtps II  2.98  RSI 5.6 Blown  5.83  38x140 filled cavity  3.06  RSI 7.0 Blown  7.24  38x89; 37 xtps I  3.43  RSI 8.8 Blown  9.05  38x140; 25 mm xtps II  3.97  RSI 10.6 Blown  10.85  38x140; 38 mm xtps II  4.16  38x140; 38 mm xtps I  4.44  Windows: Historically, windows have had relatively low thermal resistance due, mainly, to the poor insulating properties of glass. However, window technology is advancing faster than any other single building technology. Windows have, already, undergone substantial improvement in their thermal performance during the last few years. This is due to the following developments;  •  Use of multiple glazing (double, triple, and quadruple)  •  Use of low-emissivity coating on the glass surface. Low-e coatings block some of the solar heat (near infrared) from passing through the window; the fraction of solar radiation blocked depends on the amount of coating applied (low, medium, and high levels). Low-e windows also reflect back into the house most of the radiation being emitted by indoor objects.  72  Use of heat mirror films. This works in the same way as low-e windows, except the special low-e coating is applied to thin plastic Heat Mirror films suspended between the two panes of glass rather than onto the glass itself.  •  Reduction of conductive heat losses by filling between glazings with low-conductivity gas such as argon and Krypton.  •  Replace aluminum spacers with insulating spacers (e.g., fiberglass, silicone foam) to reduce heat loss through the spacer separating the panes of glass in sealed insulating windows.  •  Use of vinyl, wood, and thermal broken aluminum frame instead of solid aluminum.  Table 4-4. Different Window Types and Their U-Values DESCRIPTION  U-VALUE W/m C 2  Double Glazing and low-e Double Glazinq low-e argon Double Glazing, low-e, argon, and insulating spacer FFV Double Glazing low-e, argon, and insulating spacer FFV T G low-e argon insulating spacer FFV T G 2 low-e argon 2a FG T G 2 low-e 2 argon  2.01 1.88 1.77 1.61 1.25 1.06 1.06  Doors:  There are various types of exterior doors with different levels of resistance to heat loss and different environmental characteristics. Wood, steel, and fiberglass doors are available (Kokko and Carpenter, 1993).  73  •  Wood Doors: the door industry, forced by declining supply of high quality clear lumber, has moved to innovative ideas to reduce the demand on the traditional solid-wood doors. Products such as finger-jointing and edge gluing of low quality woods are covered with high quality veneers from clear heartwood. Wood doors have lower embodied energy and insulating value than steel and fiberglass doors. The thermal resistance of a typical wood door is 0.45 m .K/W 2  •  Steel Doors: Steel doors are made with a thermally broken steel skin over a wood perimeter frame and the center filled with polyurethane foam. A typical steel door offers twice the thermal resistance of a wood door (0.88 m -K/W) although the embodied energy is 52% higher. 2  Water-blown polyurethane cores are being developed to replace the current C F C blown polyurethane.  •  Fiberglass Doors: the construction of fiberglass doors is similar to steel doors. However, the environmental impacts of producing this type of door is lower than steel doors. A fiberglass door has 75% the thermal resistance of a steel door (0.65 m .K/W) and has the same embodied 2  energy and life expectancy.  4.5.1.2. Improving A i r tightness  Air infiltration refers to leakage of cold air into the house and the escape of heated air to the exterior through cracks, windows, and doors. The loss of heat through infiltration is a function of:  •  The overall air tightness of the house  •  The temperature and pressure difference between the interior and exterior  Wind forces, stack effect, forced ventilation (e.g. bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans) and combustion appliances that draw unheated air into the house through cracks and openings (Table 4-  74  5), are all mechanisms which drive air infiltration. Airtightness can be expressed as an air change rate per hour (ACH). Air leakage for a typical house could be as high as 1.5 A C H at normal pressure, whereas in an energy efficient house it could be as low as 0.1 A C H (CHBA, 1987).  Table 4-5. The Contribution of Envelope Components To Air Infiltration (National Research CounciHn ERDG-U.S., 1981) Walls and basement floor  60%  Ceiling  20%  Window and door  20%  The airtightness of a house can be quantified by using "Air leakage testing" that measures air changes rate per hour in a house at standardized pressure difference of 50 pascals between indoors and outdoors. This difference is maintained by using equipment to de-pressurize or pressurize the house. Air leakage in new Canadian housing ranges between 2.5-12 A C H at 50 Pa (Mattock, 1995). Another measure of air tightness is Normalized Leakage Area (NLA). This method rates a building envelope in terms of average area of cracks and holes in c m per square meter of envelope 2  area. N L A is considered to be the best comparative measure of airtightness (Mattock, 1995). N L A for new Canadian housing ranges from 0.35 cm /m to 6 cm /m (Mattock, 1995). 2  2  2  2  The improved house will be assumed to incorporate a continuous air barriers which will minimize air infiltration.  4.5.1.3. Solar Design  Solar design can reduce the need for auxiliary heating. The degree of benefits from solar heating depends on general climatic and site-specific conditions. Climatic conditions include; daily and 75  seasonal variation in air temperature, the speed, direction, and frequency of seasonal winds, and the amount of solar radiation. Site specific conditions include; topography and surrounding urban development and vegetation. Effective orientation is the most important prerequisite of solar design. The house and the glazed areas should be designed to maximize the useful solar energy by.  •  Providing a southern exposure to the widest elevation  •  Avoiding permanent obstruction of sunlight by parts of the same house or other buildings and vegetation.  •  Shielding the house from winter winds while promoting summer breezes.  •  Shielding the south glazing from excessive summer sun.  The following are three passive solar heating systems.  Direct gain:  This is the process where the solar energy penetrates glazed areas in a house (windows, clerestories) and strikes the floor and walls which then act as thermal storage elements. Glazing material properties, area, orientation, amount of sunlight, and the availability of shading devices are factors that determine the effectiveness of direct gain.  Thermal storage wall:  This heating mode involves the use of a dark colored massive wall (positioned between a glazed opening and a living space) that collects solar radiation incoming through the glass and releases it  76  to the living space. Thermal storage walls have found limited acceptance due to their architectural limitations and because of the extreme difficulty in incorporating an effective night-time insulation between the glazing and the wall (Cole, 1993).  Attached Sunspace:  This strategy develops thermal storage concept by widening the glazed area to form a greenhouse. The greenhouse in addition to providing solar heat creates a new space usable as living space and to grow plants.  4.5.1.4. Mechanical Space heating system:  The capacity of space heating equipment is an important factor to determine its efficiency. "It has long been a common practice for residential furnaces and furnace fans to be oversized often by 40% or more" (Marbek, 1993). Heating requirements for an energy efficient house are less than a conventional house. Therefore traditional rules of thumb for sizing of a system will result in further oversizing. A room by room heat loss analysis is necessary in order to have proper sizing of the system.  Electric, gas-, oil-, and wood-fired space heating equipment is available. A gas-fired equipment is considered to be the most environmentally benign form of space heating (Yannas, 1994). It has the highest overall efficiency from primary energy to useful heat. Furthermore, gas has the lowest level of C 0 2 emission among fossil fuel types. Electric space heating system is the most efficient system at the point of use, but there is large amount of heat wasted during the generation of electricity. A nuclear plant, for example, produces an amount of heat which is three times the electricity generated. Further 10% of the electricity generated by various plants (nuclear, hydro, fossil fuel) is lost to resistance in transmission lines (Grady, 1992). Heating a house is not  77  considered to be the most efficient use of electricity  16  (CMHC.1991). A large number of older  houses still use oil fired furnaces, and there are also wood firing equipment in use, mainly as a secondary heat source. Oil and wood fired equipment generates large amount of CO2 and other pollutants both in and out of the house. In an efficient mechanical system, combustion equipment must have an induced venting system or a sealed combustion system which directly draws combustion air from and discharges combustion gases to outside.  Active solar space heating systems can provide part of the home's space heating needs. Active solar systems differ from passive systems in using external energy (usually electricity) to pump water or blow air from a solar collector to a separate store or living space.  Photovoltaic is a form of active solar systems which can provide clean renewable electricity to be used in operating a house. A photovoltaic system is composed of panels, inverters, charge controllers, wiring, and batteries. The productivity of PV panels depends on their size, rating (the power generated in an hour of direct sunlight), and on daily operating time. P V arrays must be oriented to receive the maximum sunlight. Inverters are used to convert the direct current (DC) produced by the system to alternating power (AC) which is typically used by domestic appliances. Batteries are used to store energy from a PV system for the periods when there is insufficient sunlight. Charge controllers regulate the voltage entering batteries to avoid overcharging the batteries.  Mechanical Ventilation: The continuous renewal of indoor air is essential for occupant health and well being. The use of mechanical ventilation is required in an energy efficient house.  16 Not matching resources to the best uses is considered a waste. Using electricity for residential space heating is considered to be a waste of a "high quality resource" in a function that could be accomplished by a "lower quality" fuel. 78  Ventilation system controls the introduction of fresh, clean outdoor air and the extraction of stale, polluted and moisture-laden air from the house. A central system operates more efficiently than a separate system for each function (Lenchek et al, 1987). An efficient ventilation system should be capable of supplying fresh air and exhausting polluted air in each room at a rate that prevents the accumulation of indoor air pollutants.  4.5.2. Domestic Hot Water  ,  Domestic hot water consumes more than 20% of heating requirement in the base case study house. Hot water energy requirement depends on hot water use characteristics, water heater efficiency, and tank heat loss. The average daily demand for hot water in Canada is 78 liters per house. The typical temperature rise for domestic hot water is 45o C (Marbek, 1993). There are two types of domestic hot water systems; the tank type that heats and stores the water and the instantaneous heater. Water is heated by electricity, gas burners, or oil burners. An efficient gas fired hot water tank should be of the induced draft or sealed combustion type.  Solar water heating systems are a viable option which could provide up to 40-50% of a family's annual hot water needs. Water solar heating system is composed of solar collectors, circulation system, storage tank, backup heating system, and control system to regulate the overall system operation. Water heating requirements could be reduced as much as 70% by conservation measures such as; installing low-flow shower heads, insulating pipes near the tank and increasing tank insulation (Lenchek et al, 1987).  79  4.5.3. Lighting  Daylighting should be maximized in an environmentally responsible house. Daylighting provides a better quality of illumination than electric lighting. Designing for daylight can result in substantial savings in electricity use.  The electricity consumed for lighting depends in the size of the house, number of occupants, the amount of natural lighting, number of light fixtures, and the efficiency of lamps used. Almost all residents in BC use incandescent lamps for lighting (Marbek, 1993). Lighting energy use could be reduced through:  •  Use of energy efficient lamps  •  Use of task lighting  •  Use of sophisticated lighting controls  Fluorescent lamps should become the first choice in lighting an energy efficient house. Fluorescence produce much higher lumens per watt of electricity consumed (a compact fluorescent bulb delivers about 50 lumens per watt compared to 13 lumens per watt delivered by an incandescent bulb) and last 8 to 24 times longer than incandescent lamps (Grady, 1992).  4.5.4. Efficient  appliances  More than 50% of all the electricity consumed in the residential sector is used to operate appliances (Marbek, 1993). There are major and minor domestic appliances. Major appliances include; refrigerator, freezer, clothes washer, clothes dryer, dishwasher, and range/microwave. Minor appliances include; small cooking appliances (e.g., toaster, frying pans), television and video recorder, music systems, computers, and electric lawnmowers. 80  The energy consumed by each of these appliances could be reduced drastically by using energy efficient models and by using them efficiently. The efficiency of appliances is improving rapidly. There are new models for all type of appliances that are at least 50% more efficient than models considered efficient just 15 years ago.  4.5. C H O O S I N G A L E V E L O F E N E R G Y C O N S E R V A T I O N  An important question to be addressed in energy efficient building design is which of the various strategies examined above should be adopted and on what basis. The factors to consider in adopting an energy conservation strategy are:  •  Capital cost effectiveness  •  Life style implications  •  Balance and Compatibility with other strategies  4.5.1. Cost  Effectiveness  Technological development in the last twenty years has made achieving any target of operating energy reduction possible. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, for example, has built a completely self-sufficient solar house in Freiburg, Germany. The entire energy demand for heating, domestic hot water, electricity, and cooking is supplied by the sun (Stahl et al, 1994). In Canada, all entries to CMHC's "Healthy house" competition were able to reduce their operating energy needs to 50% of the R-2000 target. These results are obtained by using technologically advanced products and high level of insulation. The use of these products result in very high construction and maintenance costs which make them not cost effective.  81  The adoption of energy efficient strategies is cost effective for the owner as long as the cost of the energy conserved by using them is higher than their capital cost. Cost effectiveness of an energy efficient strategy is not a fixed matter, it depends on climatic conditions, energy cost, capital cost, and the possible inclusion of "external" costs of providing energy. Cost effectiveness seems to be the main obstacle preventing the widespread adoption of advanced energy conserving technologies. This could be overcome through strict energy and material conserving regulations and energy taxes. Tax exemption and subsidies, by governments and utility companies, for modest income people to ensure the affordability of single family houses. Energy codes could also be effective in achieving this goal by assessing houses with different ecological footprint differently. Energy codes, including the national energy code which is expected to be implemented in 1996, are based on a general prescriptive envelope and mechanical system requirements rather than an evaluation of the overall energy performance of the house examined. For example, two houses, "A" and "B" designed to house the same number of people. The energy requirement of "A" is lower than "B" 's because of its efficient design. However, "A" can be penalized if the thermal resistance of some of its envelope does not meet code requirements, whereas "B" can pass by meeting those requirments. The evaluation of energy performance should not be based on the efficiency of certain components of the house, but should instead cover the overall performance of the house. New houses should aim to achieve a standard target of energy consumption considered to be sustainable. This level should be set based on the floor area of the house and on the number of its occupants. Small and efficiently designed houses should be able to meet the target by using only cost effective energy strategies (real or subsidized). All other houses should improve their energy efficiency as much as necessary to meet the target.  4.5.2. Life Style Implications  There are many examples around the world of "Autonomous" houses that have achieved complete autonomy from power utilities. Most of these buildings are not technologically sophisticated, but  82  depend instead on various energy and resource efficient features that require continuous occupant involvement. The occupants of these houses, usually experience low comfort levels, especially in extreme weather conditions.  The health and well being of occupants should not be sacrificed in order to reduce energy and resource use in a house. Continuous user involvement could be desirable by highly motivated individuals but experience has shown that the public at large do not desire such level of involvement. This is the main reason for the scarcity of the autonomous house experience (Rousseau, 1994).  4.5.3.  Balance and Compatibility Among the Various Strategies  A building is a system in which each part is related and dependent on other parts of the system. Many of the energy conservation strategies examined could effect positively or negatively other strategies in the specific area or those in other areas. A strategy, therefore, should not be applied in isolation from others. A design strategy to eliminate wasteful spaces, for example, will have positive implication for embodied and operating energy of a building while reducing north facing window area could reduce natural lighting opportunities. A balance should be achieved between various strategies to improve the environmental performance of the house.  4.5.4.  Strategies Adopted:  The challenge of providing future sustainable houses is to make them affordable and have minimum impact on the life style of the people living in them. The objective of minimizing life style change was already been followed in the design improvement process which led to keeping all the amenities offered in the base case study house. Strategies adopted to reduce operating energy requirements will also have minimum impact on occupants life style.  83  Considering the efforts made to improve the overall environmental performance of the new design, only energy efficient strategies that are cost effective were adopted in the improved project. The strategies adopted to improve thermal performance of the improved house are based on a study prepared by SAR engineering ltd. and Habitat Design+Consulting Ltd. for the British Columbia Ministry of Energy called B C M E M P R N E C H Evaluation. The report contains a detailed costing of envelope components that was carried out using information obtained from building material suppliers and construction contractors in the lower mainland. The results of a detailed life cycle costing analysis for electric, oil and gas heating for five regions of B.C. are reported. The report 17  presents a table for each envelope component with the L C C values for different RSI levels of that component.  The evaluation of the cost effectiveness of each strategy is based on whether the estimated cost of adopting the strategy is lower than the estimated cost of the energy conserved by that strategy. Life cycle cost analysis takes into consideration the fact that the cost of adopting the strategy has to be paid for immediately, yet its benefits will be spread over the life cycle of the component. To find the present worth of the energy conserved over the life span of the strategy, the concept of a "present worth factor" (P) is used. The present worth is calculated by (NECH 1995):  PW = C x P or  PW= Cx 1-n+aVn a  l^These regions are; Lower Mainland (Zone A), Northern Interior (Zone B), Centra Gas Distribution (Zone C), Southern Interior, B C H P A Distribution (Zone D), and Southern Interior, W K P L Distribution (Zone E) 84  Where a  = the effective interest rate  P W = the present worth of the heating costs over n years P  = the present worth factor  C = the annual heating cost in the first year n = the number of years under consideration.  The calculations of L C C for natural gas heating in the lower mainland were based on the following assumptions;  a  = 4.95%  P  = 15.5  C  = based on $/m3=.213  n  =30 years.  The most cost effective strategy for each component examined in the study, in gas heating Zone A (Lower Mainland) is chosen for the house (Table 4-5).  Table 4-6. Cost Effective Strategies for B.C. - Zone A , Gas Heating. (SAR engineering ltd. & Habitat Design+Consulting Ltd.) ASSEMBLY  DESCRIPTION  RSI  Walls  38x89 wall, 89 mm batt, 25 xtps II  2.98  Roof  202 mm Cellulose-Blown (RSI-4.9)  5.12  Windows  Double Glazing  .393  Ventilation  Without heat recovery  N/A  85  4.6. S T R A T E G I E S T O M I N I M I Z E L I F E C Y C L E  C02  C O 2 emission is, mainly, a result of the amount and type of energy used in the house. A l l strategies used, in every stage of the house's life cycle, to reduce energy consumption will also reduce CO2 emission. The main source of energy used in operating the house will be natural gas which has the lowest amount of C 0 2 emission per M J of energy consumed. There are many other strategies that could be used to reduce C 0 2 emissions further. U s i n g passive and active solar energy strategies such as solar water heating system and photopholtaic panels would reduce dramatically fossil fuel energy consumption and associated CO2 emission.  The reduction of concrete use in the improved house have reduced the amount of a non energyrelalated C 0 2 emission. The production of cement is a major source of C 0 2 emission around the world.  4.7.  CONCLUSION:  This chapter has presented the various possible strategies examined to reduce the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house. The strategies examined offer high potential for Ecological Footprint reduction. However, the adoption of strategies were conditioned by the limits imposed by the method and by the commitment to the principles of cost effectiveness and minimum life style modification.  86  CHAPTER  V: T H E " E C O L O G I C A L F O O T P R I N T " O F  IMPROVED  5.1.  BASE CASE  STUDY  THE  HOUSE  INTRODUCTION  5.1.1. Objectives  The Ecological Footprint of the improved version of the base case study house is calculated for the following purposes:  •  To evaluate the consequences of adopting various resource conservation and pollution prevention strategies.  •  To evaluate the effect of a such reduction on the Ecological Footprint of new Canadian single family houses built each year.  5.1.2. Approach  The Ecological Footprint of the improved house is determined, as in the base case study house, by conducting a life-cycle analysis to estimate material and energy consumption, and then using land equivalency procedures to convert the estimates to biologically productive land areas. Life cycle analysis included the same resource depletion and pollution generation factors used in the base case study house. They are land, renewable resources, and energy from resource consumption area and CO2 emission from pollution area. The same land equivalency values were used to calculate the Ecological Footprint. They include the productivity of 80 GJ/ha/yr for renewable energy supply, the global average CO2 absorption capacity of forest at 1.8 ton per ha, and the average annual  87  productivity of Canadian forests of 2.3 ton of wood per ha for wood supply. The calculation of the Ecological Footprint of the improved house is based on the same methods, techniques, figures, and assumptions used in calculating the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house.  5.2. HOUSE DESCRIPTION:  The improved house is designed for 4 persons. It is a wood frame two storey house with attached double garage. The total floor area of the house is reduced to 175.9 m : 75.8 m on the main floor, 2  2  53.9 m on the second floor and 46.2 on the attached double garage. A total reduction of 49.7% in 2  floor area is achieved compared to the base case study house (Table 5-1).  Table 5-1 A comparison between the area of the improved house and the base case study house.  Floor  Improved House m 0 75.8 53.9 46.2 175.9  Base Case House m 111.6 111.6 80.6 46.2 350  2  2  Basement Main Second Garage Total  Reduction % 1 00 32 33 0 49.7  The size of the house is reduced without losing the amenities found in the base case house (Table 5-2). The size of all the spaces in the improved house meet building code requirements.  88  Table 5-2 A comparison between the spaces in both houses.  Improvec House  Base Case House  Room  No  Area (m )  No  2  Area (m ) 2  Living  1  19.51  1  14.49  Dining  1  11.64  1  11.15  Family room  1  22.60  1  11.15  bedrooms  3  19.22  3  10.03  10.19 8.89 Kitchen  1  14.72  1  12.26  bathrooms  3  2.16  3  2.23  1  Den Sunspace  .0  5.76  3.25  9.40  3.90  7.64  0  _  _  1  3.34  Utility room  1  4.00  1  4.00  Mechanical room  1  4.63  1  4.98  Double garage  1  41.5  1  41.5  The following is a description of the improved house.  •  The foundation is a poured concrete slab on grade.  68 mm rigid insulation is used  foundation wall and 68 mm expanded polystyrene insulation below concrete floor slab.  89  •  Exterior walls (RSI-2.98) are framed with 38x89 mm wood studs and insulated with 89 mm batt (RSI-2.1) and 25 mm extruded polystyrene insulating sheathing (RSI-0.88). Interior walls are 38x89 mm framed.  •  The attic (RSI-5.12) is insulated with 202 mm (RSI 4.9) cellulose-blown.  •  Interior finish on walls and ceilings is single coat paint plus primer on 12 mm gypsum board.  •  The floor finish is 3 mm sheet vinyl in the kitchen and bathrooms with carpet elsewhere.  •  The exterior wall finish is cedar siding.  Roofing is asphalt shingles.  All windows are double glazed.  5.3. LIFE C Y C L E ANALYSIS  A detailed life cycle analysis of the improved house was carried out based on the following factors:  5.3.1. Land Occupation:  A 43% reduction in the total land area directly occupied by the improved house was achieved (Table 5-3) by decreasing lot size and reducing the width of the street in front of the house. Lot size was reduced by decreasing the floor area of the house (Table 5.1) and reducing setbacks. The front-setback is reduced from 6 to 3 meters, rear-setback from 7.6 to 6 meters, western side  90  setback from 1.5 meters to zero lot line. The eastern side setback is increased from 1.5 meters to 2.4 meters.  A 43% reduction in the land area occupied by a single family house can reduce, considerably, transportation distances and the length of urban infrastructure. These changes are based on proposals presented in a study prepared for the Regional Municipality of Ottawa (Vandenberg Architects, 1992).  Table 5-3. A Comparison Between The Land Occupied Directly by the Base Case and Improved House.  The Use  Base Case  Improved  Reduction  m 622.42  m 320.72  % 48  205.4  120.8  41  890.07  503.76  43  2  2  Lot size Area of the street Total  5.3.2  Material Consumption:  All building materials, from both renewable and nonrenewable sources, used throughout the life cycle of the house were estimated.  These estimates include initial and recurring material  consumption. An analysis of the results shows a 49.2% reduction in material consumption compared to the base case study house (Table 5-4).  91  Table 5-4 A comparison of material Consumption in both houses over 40 years Material Consumption Cycle  Base Case (kg)  Improved (kg)  Reduction  % Initial Recurring Total  304,627  153,039  49.8  16,969  10,394  38.7  321,596  163,433  49.2  The largest reduction in building material use is in concrete. Concrete represent 71.5% of the total weight of the materials conserved in the improved house, followed by brick (7.6%), sand and gravel (6%), lumber and timber (5%), and gypsum products (4%). The remaining (6%) is distributed among all other building materials. A 43.4% reduction in wood products use in the improved house (Table 5-5) was achieved.  Table 5- 5. A comparison of Wood-based materials use in both houses over 40 years. The use  Base Case kg  Improved  Reduction  kg  %  Lumber and Timber  21,187  11,690.3  44.8  Veneer and Plywood  5,502  3,277.4  40.4  Millwork  3,584  2,138.6  40.3  159  121.2  23.8  30,432  17,227.5  43.4  Building Paper Total  The estimate of construction waste (Table 5-6) shows that four building materials; wood products (50.22%), gypsum board (22.95%), concrete (15.14%), and asphalt (4.04%) constitute 90% of  92  the total initial construction waste. The total construction waste from the improved house was reduced by 48% compared to the base case study house. Applying waste reduction strategies examined in Chapter 4 will considerably reduce the amount of waste material that will end up in landfill. In the EnviroHome (Nova Scotia's advanced house), for example, the on-site waste management program was successful in reducing the amount of construction waste ending up landfill to only 33%. 66% of total construction waste was recycled and 6% was reused (CFiBANS).  Table 5-6. The Estimates of Construction waste in the Improved House. Amount of Waste  Material  Percentage of total  kg 402.3  15.14  1334.40  50.22  Gypsum basic Products  556.7  20.95  Insulation  50.5  1.90  Steel  6.7  0.25  Glass  21.3  0.80  Paints  0.9  0.03  Asphalt  107.4  4.04  Carpet  13.98  0.53  Plastics  20.4  0.77  Joint compound  33.4  1.26  8.9  0.34  100.18  3.77  2657.00  100.00  Ready-mix Concrete Wood Products  Aluminum Others Total  93  5.4.3. Life Cycle Energy  A life cycle energy analysis was conducted to estimate energy consumption in the improved house including both embodied and operating energy.  5.4.3.1. Embodied Energy  In analyzing the embodied energy of the house a distinction was again made between initial and recurring embodied energy.  A total of a 31.9% reduction in total embodied energy was achieved (Table 5-7). The changes made were more effective in reducing initial embodied energy (37.7%) than that of recurring embodied energy (24.8%). This is due mainly, to the maintaining of the same materials used in the base case study house in the new project. Choosing alternative materials would result in much higher reduction in recurring embodied energy. Replacing wall to wall carpeting with wood floor alone, would conserve  174,353 MJ in recurring embodied energy throughout 40 years of life  cycle. This represents 29% of the total recurring embodied energy of the improved house.  Table 5-7. Embodied energy comparison Type of Embodied Energy  Base Case  Improved  Reduction  MJ  MJ  %  Initial  996,778  621,159  37.7  Recurring  798,484  600,794  24.8  1,795,262  1,221,953  31.9  Total  94  Maintaining the same materials is also the reason why the embodied energy per square meter of floor area in the improved house for a life cycle of 40 years (6.94 GJ) is higher than the embodied energy per square meter of the base case study house (5.13 GJ).  3.4.3.2. Operating Energy  A reduction of 35% in operating energy requirements in the improved house is achieved (Table 58). However, the Building Energy Performance Index (BEPI) of this house is 0.478 GJ/m2/year which is higher than the BEPI of the base case study (0.427 GJ/m2/year). The lack of improvement in improved house's BEPI is due to limiting the improvement in operating energy to cost effective strategies and because the unfinished basement is included in base case study house's BEPI calculation despite it is heated at a lower degree than other areas of the house.  Table 5-8 Comparison of Life Cycle Energy Consumption in the two houses. Type of Energy  Base Case  Improved  Reduction  MJ  MJ  %  Embodied  1,795,262  1,221,953  32  Operating  5,193,680  3,369,866  35  Total  6,988,942  4,591,819  34  In a parallel exercise to explore the potential for operating energy reduction in the improved house, a series of widely available strategies were adopted (Table 5-9). These strategies which are currently not cost effective, have reduced space and domestic water heating requirements to 24,089 MJ, 50% lower than R-2000 target figure. This represents a 60% and 76% reduction in heating requirements with respect to the improved house and the base case study house respectively. The  95  percentage of embodied energy in the total life cycle energy for 40 years becomes 33%, and operating energy 67%.  Table 5-9 Various strategies adopted to examine the potential for operating energy reduction in the improved house  Advanced Strategies Windows  T G + coated/DG + 2 films, Low-E/Heat Mirror,  Cost-effective strategies DG  Argon, Insulating, Vinyl, Shutters HRV  Heat Recovery Ventilator  Without (HRV)  Heating  Air Source Heat Pump  Condensing Furnace  DHW  Solar collector and Gas  Gas-fired  Walls  38x140; 37 mm xtps I  38x89, 25 mm xtps II  Roof  RSI 10.6 Blown  RSI 4.9 Blown  5.3.4. Life Cycle C O 2 Emission Analysis  An estimated 33% reduction in life cycle C O 2 emission was achieved in the improved house (Table 5-10). The improvement in recurring C O 2 emissions is the lowest recurring because fast replaced materials such as carpet and asphalt shingles dominate recurring material use.  96  Table 5-10 A comparison between life cycle CO2 emission in both houses Over 40 years. Type of CO2 emission  Base Case  Improved  Reduction  kg  kg  %  Initial  58,316  36,240  38  Recurring  36,701  33,063  10  Operating  264,530  171,976  35  Total  359,547  241,279  33  5.4. TOTAL ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT CALCULATION  The Ecological Footprint of the improved house is the sum of initial and recurring Ecological Footprints. Initial Ecological Footprint = directly occupied land + initial materials + initial CO2 (Table 5-11)  Recurring Ecological Footprint = directly occupied land + recurring materials + recurring C 0 2 absorption (Table 5-11)  97  Table 5-11 Improved house's total Ecological Footprint constituents Direct land  Material  CO2  ha  ha  ha  ha  Initial E F  0.05  18.58  5.500  24.13  Recurring E F  2.02  1.44  31.090  34.55  Total E F  2.07  20.02  36.59  58.68  Life cycle period  Total  The Ecological Footprint of the improved house is 58.68 ha of biologically productive lands which is 35.6% smaller than the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house (Table 5-10).  Table 5-12 Ecological Footprint Comparison Ecological Footprint  Base Case House  Improved House  Reduction  ha  ha  %  Initial  39.71  24.13  39.2  Recurring  51.35  34.55  32.7  Total  91.06  58.68  35.6  A reduction of this magnitude in the Canadian single family housing sector would result in the conservation of vast areas of Canada's biologically productive land used to build new single family houses and maintain and operate them throughout their life cycle.  98  CHAPTER VI: CONCLUSIONS  6.1. INTRODUCTION There is general agreement that sustainability will require that human activity become, significantly, less material and energy intensive than at the present time. This thesis has contributed to the sustainability debate by studying the potential for energy and material conservation and pollution prevention in single family detached housing.  6.2. FINDINGS The thesis has determined the following key conclusions:  •  Energy is the most important environmental issue related to single family houses. Land areas required to absorb CO2 emission are the largest constituent of the Ecological Footprint of houses followed by land areas required to produce biomass to generate energy. These results show clearly that energy, as a major contributor to CO2 emission today and as a resource in the post-fossil fuel era, is the most important environmental concern that has to be addressed.  •  Operating energy represents the largest component of energy consumption in a house. It constitutes 76% of the total life cycle energy in the base case study house. Despite the large reduction in the overall operating energy requirements in the improved house, operating energy still accounts for 73% of life cycle energy consumption. The percentage of operating energy  99  was reduced to 67% in the improved house, only, when the use of a series of expensive, technologically advanced strategies were assumed.  The reductions obtained in the improved house compared to the base case study house were: Directly occupied land  48.0%  Building materials use  49.2%  Life cycle energy consumption  34.0%  Life cycle CC»2 emission  33.0%  To maintain the affordability of single family detached house, the reduction of the ecological footprint is obtained by reducing its size, improving its design and adopting only energy efficient strategies that are cost effective.  A 35.6% reduction in the Ecological Footprint of the base study house is obtained. The Ecological Footprint of the improved house is 58.68 ha in comparison to 91.06 ha in the base case study house. A greater reduction could have been achieved without the limits imposed by E F / A C C method use and the commitment of the Ecological Footprint reduction process to the principles of capital cost effectiveness and minimum change in life style.  In a parallel exercise to explore the potential for operating energy reduction, the adoption of a series of advanced technologies which, currently, are not cost effective were assumed. The Ecological Footprint of the improved house was reduced to 41.63 ha of biologically productive land. This represents a greater than 54% reduction of the Ecological Footprint over that of the base case study house.  100  6.3. T H E V A L U E O F T H E E F / A C C  •  METHOD  The Ecological Footprint method provides the basis for comparing the magnitude of various environmental factors by using a single indice (hectares of productive land areas) to measure elements (land, energy, materials) which otherwise have different measurement units with no immediate connection among them.  •  Using land area which is a tangible direct physical unit made the environmental impact of single family house easy to visualize. It is much easier to relate to a m of land area rather than a GJ 2  of energy or a kg of CO2.  •  The method clearly shows the link between the various competing human activities and available natural resources and how the carrying capacity appropriated by one activity diminishes the carrying capacity that can be appropriated by others.  •  By defining resource consumption and pollution in terms of biologically productive land area, whose availability is limited, the method has effectively demonstrated the limits to growth in human economy. Continuing growth in human activity would require an infinite supply of biologically productive lands.  •  The method was effective in analyzing the environmental impact of the base case study house and identifying the areas to be targeted in the process of improving the environmental performance of the house.  •  The Ecological Footprint of the house does not include indirectly occupied land areas, land implications of extracting non-renewable materials, construction and demolition waste landfills, and demolition energy because of the difficulties associated with their calculation. As result of  101  these omissions, the Ecological Footprint of the projects examined in this thesis are smaller than their actual size.  Not including every possible impact of the materials that could potentially be used in a house, has limited the ability of the study to use more environmentally benign materials in place of those used by base case study. The use of a material whose impacts are all included in its Ecological Footprint instead of another for which they are not, or vice versa, would lead to an unfair comparison.  The magnitude of the environmental impact of an activity can be underestimated by some of current Ecological Footprint procedures. The area of biologically productive lands degraded by a building or any other project, for example, could be much larger than the specific land it occupies. The specific land area is often part of an ecosystem and the occupation of a portion of that ecosystem could destroy a large part, if not the entire ecosystem.  .5. S U G G E S T I O N S A B O U T T H E M E T H O D  The method, currently, considers biomass as the only choice to supply an activity with renewable energy. Renewable energy sources other than biomass ( wind, solar, hydro, hydrogen, geothermal) should be considered as potential suppliers of energy.  To be precise and effective in evaluating technological products, the method has to include land implication of greater range of materials and processes (e.g., extracting non-renewable materials, hydro-electricity, and providing water).  102  •  The precise share of the biologically productive lands of the planet from human resource supply and waste absorption is unknown. The contribution of factors such as oceans has to be investigated.  6.4.  SUGGESTIONS  The thesis has identified a series of key directions for future work:  •  Determining the per-capita sustainable level of material and energy consumption that could be allocated for housing, based on the carrying capacity of regional, national and global environments would help in assessing the sustainability of a housing unit.  •  Examining the relationship between global resource conservation and pollution prevention which concerns this method and other environmental issues which are related to buildings such as site ecology and indoor air quality.  •  Examining the apparent conflict between regulations that constrain resource use, needed to implement sustainability, and the principles of an economy based on maximizing material growth opportunities.  103  References A . C . E . Alternative and Conservation Energies Inc., Design Of A Generic Sustainable House. Prepared for Alberta Municipal Affairs, 1991. 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Bond Ltd.  110  APPENDIX A l : BASE CASE STUDY HOUSE LIFE CYCLE CALCULATIONS: INITIAL. Item/Location  Qnty  SECTION 1 SITE WORK 1 CONCRETE FLATWORK Driveway 14.0 Sidewalks 1.0 Patio 3.0 SITE DRAINAGE 4" perforated plastic 220.0 pipe perimeter footing drainage 3/4" course gravel 11.8 backfill  No  1.00 1.00  1.00  1.00 1.00  Units  Initial wt kg  14  1,797  25,283.8 0.75 0.75 1,806.0 0.75 5,418.0  18,962.8 75 1,354.5 75 4,063.5 75  1,896.3 135.4 406.3  115.5  18,480.0 508  58.6  Yd3 Yd3 Yd3 .  3  1  1,797 1,797  25158 1797 5391  Ft  220  0.500  110  1,468  17249  Yd3  IJnit a E MJ/kg  Tot Qty Conver As Buit Waste -sion to kg kg kg  11.75  125.79 8.99 26.96  5.50 0.00  160  17,249.0 0.09  Initial EE MJ  1,552.4  C02 g/kg  Initial C02 kg  6  108.5  449 449 449 449 449 449  68.4  6.9 243.8  449  29.9  SECTION 2 CONCRETE FORMWORK BASEMENT FOUNDATI ON Strip footing forms 428.0 0.20 Pad footing forms 92.0 0.20 Pedestal forms 25.0 0.20 Slab edge forms 18.0 0.20 Grade beam forms 3.0 0.20 Foundation wall 106.0 0.20 forms Retaining wall 13.0 0.20 forms 1x2 level strip 271.0 0.20 Exterior bsmnt strs 40.0 0.20 frms Exterior steps 1.0 0.20 foims(ply) Exterior steps 16.0 0.20 foimsflmbr) 2x4 keyway 214.0 0.20 CAST IN P L A C E CONCFLETE 1 BASEMENT FOUNDATION Strip Footings 8.0 1.00 Footing pads 2 .5 1.00 Basement floor slab 12.3 1 .00 Garage floor slab 6.0 1.00 Grade beam 2.3 1.00 Foundation wall .5 1.00 1.00 Ext basement stairs 5i 1.3 Exterior steps 0.5 1.00 Retaining walls 4.8 1.00 REINFORCING Structural slabs rebar Garage floor slab w.w.m.  65.0 495.0  1.00 1.00  Ft Ft Ft Ft Shts Shts Shts  85.6 18.4  5  3.6 0.6 21.2  2.6  1.695 0.339  145.092 7.25 6.2376 0.31 5.09 0.25 1.018 0.678 0.12 2.4408 24.390 14.634 0.73 24.390 517.068  152.3 6.5 5.3 2.6 15.4 542.9  5.8 5.8 5.8 5 .8 5.8  24.390 63.414  3.17  66.6  5.8  0.46 0.41  9.6 8.6  5.8 5.8  55.8 49.6  449 449  4.3 3.8  25.85  883.6 38.0 31.0 14.9  89.1  3,148.9  386.2  2.9 2.4  1.2  Ft Ft  54.2 8  0.169  Shts  0.2  24.390 4.878  0.24  5.1  10.04  51.4  559  2.9  Ft  3.2  1.018  0.16  3.4  5.8  19.8  449  1.5  Ft  42.8  0.678  1.45  30.5  5.8  176.7  449  13.7  8  14376 71.88 4492.5 2.46 22013.25 2 110.07 10782 53.91 4043.25 20.22 92545.5 462.73 2246.25 11.23 898.5 4.49 8535.75 42.68  14,447.9 4,515.0 22,123.3 10,835.9 4,063.5  32.3  36.05  52.0  48  1.018  9.1598 8.144  5.8  3.2576  29.0184  Yd3 Yd3 Yd3 Yd3 Yd3 Yd3 Yd3 Yd3 Yd3  0.5 4.75  1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797 1797  Ft  65  0.473  30.745  Ft2  495  0.100  49.5  2 .5 12.25 6 2.25  5 1.5 1.25  CONCRETE ACCESSOR IES 111  1.54 2.48  0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 93,008.2 2,257.5 0.75 903.0 0.75 8,578.4 0.75  10,835.9 75 75  1,083.6 338.6  8,126.9 75 3,047.6 75 69,756.2 75 75 1,693.1 75 677.2 6,433.8 75  1,659.2 812.7 304.8 6,975.6 169.3 67.7 643.4  3 ,386.2 75 16,592.5  1,163.8 2,494.8  2326  75.1  2648  137.6  1/2" dia Anchor bolts Damproofing Granular fill under bsmnt slab Granular fill under garage slab 6 mil poly moisture barrier 1/2" expansion joint filler  No  58  0.130  1475.0 1.00 17.0 1.00  Ft2 Yd3  1475 17  0.680 1003 1127.0 19159  7.8  Yd3  7.75  Ft2  58.0  1.00  1.00  1094.0 1.00 159.0  1.00  7.54  0.15  7.7  45  346.1  50.15 0.00  1,053.2 2.5 19,159.0 0.03  2,632.9 632 574.8 6  665.3 120.5  1127.0 8734.25 0.00  8,734.3 0.03  262.0  6  54.9  1094  0.013  14.222  0.71  14.9  28.6  427.1  508  7.6  Ft  159  0.045  7.155  0.36  7.5  38  285.5  No  32  22.680  725.76  14.52  740.3  1.32  977.2  81  60.3  No  28  0.057  1.596  0.08  1.7  45  75.4  2747  4.6  No Yd3 No No  1710 1.5 170 84  3.100 31.750 0.057 15.500  5301 47.625 9.69 1302  106.02 2.38 0.48 65.10  5,407.0 50.0 10.2 1,367.1  2.50 1.80 45 1.32  13,517.6 90.0 457.9 1,804.6  139 106 2747 81  750.7  No No No  1747 180 20  2.040 3563.88 71.28 3.310 595.8 0.00 12.700 254 5.08  3,635.2 2.50 595.8 2.5 259.1 2.5  9 ,087.9 1,489.5  647.7  139 139 139  5 04.7 82.7  Yd3 No No  1.5 190  31.750 47.625 0.057 10.83 4.536 4.536  2.38 0.54  50.0 11.4 4.5  1.8 45 28  90.0 511.7 127.0  106 2747 1730  5.3 31.2  No  3.180  0.00  3.2  28  89.0  1730  5.5  No No  10.210 10.21 6.270 6.27  0.00 0.31  10.2 6.6  28 28  285.9 184.3  1730 1730  17.7  No No No  10.000 10 5.000 5 40.000 40  0.50 0.25 0.00  10.5 5.3 40.0  2.5  28 20  26.3 147.0 800.0  139 1730 1044  2747  21.1  0.0  S E C T I O N 3 MAS O N R Y CONC. B L O C K WALLS  8"x8"xl6" solid 32.0 blocks Reinforcing wall ties  28.0  M A S O N R Y VEN1: E R  Common bricks Mortar Metal wall ties Split face cone. block-4"xl2"xl6"  1710.0  1.5  170.0 84.0  1.00  5.3  27.9 111.4  MASONRY FIREPLACES  Common bricks 1747.0 Fire bricks 180.0 12"xl6"x8" flue 20.0 linings Mortar 1.5 1.00 Metal wall ties 190.0 8"x8" cast iron clean 1.0 out doors 5"x8" cast iron ash 1.0 dumps Metal dome damper 1.0 Fireplace lintel 1.0 angles Hearth finish 1.0 Combustion air kit 1.0 Tightfittingglass 1.0 doors brick 181.0  3.18  0.00  36.0  7.8  11.4 1.5  9.1 41.7  No  181  3.100  561.1  11.22  572.3  2.50  1,430.8 139  79.5  3.65  76.5  28  2,143.3 1730  132.4  S E C T I O N 4 M E TA L S STRUCTURAL STEEL  Steel angle lintels  30.0  1.00  Ft.  30  2.430  72.9  314.4  1.00  Lb  314.4  0.454  142.7376 7.14  149.9  45  6,744.4 2534  379.8  NAILS  SECTION 5 CARPENTRY ROUGH CARPENTARY BASEMENT FOUNDATION FRAMING  Exterior Walls Precut 2x6 Plates 2x6 Interior Walls Headers 2x10 Furring studs 2x3 Furring Plates 2x3  25.0  7.77  Ft  25  7.910  197.75  19.78  217.5  5.80  1,261.6 449  97.7  88.0  1.00  Ft  88  1.018  89.584  8.96  98.5  5.80  571.5  449  44.2  32.0  1.00  Ft  32  1.696  54.272 5.43  59.7  5.80  346.3  449  125.0  1.00  Ft  125  0.509  63.625  70.0  5.80  405.9  449  26.8 0.0 31.4  326.0  1.00  Ft  326  0.509  165.934 16.59  182.5  5.80  1,058.7 449  82.0  112  6.36  Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10 2x12  114.0 300.0  1.00 1.00  Ft Ft  114 300  2.142 2.572  244.188 24.42 771.6 77.16  268.6 848.8  5.80  1,557.9 4,922.8  449 449  120.6 381.1  8.00  Ft No  40 5  6.353 31.840  254.12 159.2  25.41 7.96  279.5 167.2  5.80 28.00  1,621.3 4,680.5  449 1996  125.5 333.7  Ft2  25  0.047  1.175  0.06  1.2  12.01  14.8  632  0.8  FIRST FLOOR F RAMING Joists 2x10 D. Fir 1128.0 1.00 2x2 188.0 1.40 2x2 36.0 1.20  Ft Ft Ft  1128 263.2 43.2  2.142 0.509 0.396  2416.176 241.62 133.9688 13.40 17.1072 1.71  2,657.8 147.4 18.8  5.80 5.80 5.80  15,415.2 449 854.7 449 109.1 449  1,193.3 66.2 8.4  Solid Blocking 2x10  62.0  1.00  Ft  62  1.695  105.09  10.51  115.6  5.80  670.5  449  51.9  Sill Plates 2x4  165.0  1.00.  Ft  165  0.678  111.87  11.19  123.1  5.80  713.7  449  55.3  165.0  1.00  Ft  165  0.001  0.165  0.02  0.2  160.00  29.0  4836  0.9  Subflooring 5/8" T&G Plywood 38.0  Shts  38  24.390 926.82  46.34  973.2  10.04  9,770.5  559  544.0  Sublloor adhesive  No.  12  0.910  10.92  0.55  11.5  97.00  1,112.2  1551  17.8  165 75  7.910 1.018  1305.15 130.52 76.35 7.64  1,435.7 84.0  5.80 5.80  8,326.9 449 487.1 449  644.6 37.7  960  1.018  977.28  97.73  1,075.0  5.80  6,235.0 449  482.7  34  1.695  57.63  5.76  63.4  5.80  367.7  449  28.5  Shts  50  14.630  731.5  73.15  804.7  10.04  8,078.7  559  449.8  1.00 1.00 1.00  Ft Ft Ft  14 170 310  1.717 2.142 2.572  24.038 364.14 797.32  2.40 36.41 79.73  26.4 400.6 877.1  5.80 5.80 5.80  153.4 449 2,323.2 449 5,086.9 449  11.9 179.8 393.8  8.00  Ft  8  3.053  24.424  2.44  26.9  5.80  155.8  449  12.1  Posts and Columns 6x6 5.0 3" diameter steel 5.0 columns 45# Asphalt felt  Capillary Break Polyethylene foam sill gasket  25.0  1.00  12.0  FIRST STOREY 1EXTERIOR WA1LLS Walls Precut 2x6 165.0 7.77 . Ft 2x6 75.0 1.00 Ft Plates 2x6 960.0 1.00 Ft Headers 2x10 34.0 1.00 Ft Sheathing 3/8" Plywood  50.0  Beams Built up D.Fir 2x8 2x10 2x12  14.0 170.0 310.0  Posts and Columns 6x6 1.0  FIRST STOREY Walls Precut 2x4 Plates 2x4  5.80  NTERIOR WALLS 105.0  7.77  Ft  105  5.268  553.14  55.31  608.5  5.80  3,529.0  449  273.2  420.0  1.00  Ft  420  0.681  286.02  28.60  314.6  5.80  1,824.8  449  141.3  135.60  1,491.6  5.80  8,651.3  449  669.7  SECOND STORE V FLOOR SYS1rEM Joists 2x10 SPF 800.0 1.00 Ft Cross bridging 2x2 66.0 1.40 Ft 2x2 30.0 1.20 Ft  800  1.695  1356  92.4 36  0.509 0.396  47.0316 4.70 14.256 1.43  51.7 15.7  5.80 5.80  300.1 91.0  449 449  23.2 7.0  Solid Blocking 2x10  27  1.695  45.765  50.3  5.80  292.0  449  22.6  27.0  1.00  Ft  113  4.58  Subflooring 5/8" T&G Plywood 26.0 Subfloor adhesive  12.0  Shts  26  24.390 634.14  63.41  697.6  10.04  7,003.4  559  389.9  No  12  0.910  10.92  1.09  12.0  97.00  1,165.2 1551  18.6  SECOND STORY EXTERIOR W/tiLLS Walls Precut 2x6 2x6 Plates 2x6 Headers 2x10  Sheathing 3/8" Plywood  33.0  Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10  48.0  110.0 10.0  7.77 1.00  Ft Ft  110 10  7.910 1.018  870.1 10.18  87.01 1.02  957.1 11.2  5.80 5.80  5,551.2 449 64.9 449  429.7 5.0  588.0  1.00  Ft  588  1.018  598.584 59.86  658.4  5.80  3,819.0  449  295.6  32.0  1.00  Ft  32  1.695  54.24  5.42  59.7  5.80  346.1  449  26.8  Shts  33  14.630 482.79  24.14  506.9  10.04  5,089.6  559  283.4  Ft  48  2.142  102.816 10.28  113.1  5.80  656.0  449  50.8  1.00  SECOND STORY INTEF IOR WALLS Walls 100.0 7.77 Ft Precut 2x4 Plates 2x4 420.0 1.00 Ft  100  5.268  526.8  52.68  579.5  5.80  3,361.0  449  260.2  420  0.678  284.76  28.48  313.2  5.80  1,816.8 449  140.6  ROOF SYSTEM Ceiling Joists 40.0 2x4 SPF 160.0 2x6 SPF  1.00 1.00  Ft Ft  40 160  0.678 1.018  27.12 162.88  2.71 16.29  29.8 179.2  5.80 5.80  173.0 449 1,039.2 449  13.4 80.4  Dropped ceiling furring 2x4 284.0  1.00  Ft  284  0.678  192.552 19.26  211.8  5.80  1,228.5 449  95.1  Roof Framing Rafters 2x8 SPF 2x10 SPF  546.0 132.0  1.00 1.00  Ft Ft  546 132  1.359 1.695  742.014 74.20 223.74 22.37  816.2 246.1  5.80 5.80  4,734.0 449 1,427.5 449  366.5 110.5  42.0  1.00  Ft  42  0.678  28.476  2.85  31.3  5.80  181.7  449  14.1  4.0  1.00  Ft  4  1.695  6.78  0.68  7.5  5.80  43.3  449  3.3  Exterior Soffit Framing 2x4 471.0  1.00  Ft  471  0.678  319.338 31.93  351.3  5.80  2,037.4 449  157.7  Ledgers 2x4  9.0  1.00  Ft  9  0.678  6.102  0.61  6.7  5.80  38.9  3.0  Sheathing 1/2" Plywood  79.0  Shts  79  19.500  1540.5  77.03  1,617.5  10.04  16,240.0 559  904.2  Strapping 1x4  4321.0  1.00  Ft  4321  0.339  1464.819 146.48  1,611.3 5.80  9,345.5  449  723.5  H Clips  316.0  1.00  Ft  316.0  0.540  170.64  170.6  4,777.9  1730  295.2  Ft Ft2  3456 2613  0.434 0.022  1499.904 149.99 57.486 0.00  1,649.9 5.80 57.5 33.60  9,569.4 449 1,931.5 1045  740.8 60.1  Shts  2  19.500 39  41.0  411.1  22.9  2x12 StrJ  Rafters 2x4 Ridge board 2x10  0.00  28.00  449  EXTERIOR FINI SH CARPENTRY |  EXTERIOR FINISH Siding Wood 1x6 Building Paper Plywood 1/2" Plywood  3456.0 2613.0 2.0  1.00 1.00  114  1.95  10.04  559  Corner trim 1x4  185.0  SOFFIT AND FASCIA Fascia board 2x8 278.0 Barge board 2x10 16.0 Soffit Perforated 429.0 aluminum  1.00  Ft  185  0.340  62.9  1.00  Ft  278  1.359  1.00  Ft  16  1.00  Ft2  1.00 1.00  6.29  69.2  5.80  401.3  449 .  377.802 26.45  404.2  5.80  2,344.6 449  181.5  1.695  27.12  1.90  29.0  5.80  168.3  13.0  429  0.091  39.039  1.95  41.0  274.00  11,231.5 4667  191.3  Ft  28  1.695  47.46  3.32  50.8  5.80  294.5  449  22.8  Ft  42  2.036  85.512  5.99  91.5  5.80  530.7  449  41.1  Shts  1  19.500  19.5  1.37  20.9  10.04  209.5  559  11.7  Ft  24  1.395  33.48  2.34  35.8  5.80  207.8  449  16.1  Shts  1  24.390 24.39  1.22  25.6  10.04  257.1  559  14.3  1.00  Ft  28  1.695  47.46  3.32  50.8  5.80  294.5  449  22.8  1.00  Ft  42  2.036  85.512  5.99  91.5  5.80  530.7  449  41.1  Shts  1  19.500  559  11.7  19 56 2  0.678 0.239 7.080  20.9 0.0 13.8 14.3 15.2  209.5  Ft No No  1.37 0.00 0.90 0.94 0.99  10.04  1.00  19.5 0 12.882 13.384 14.16  5.80 5.80 5.80  79.9 83.1 87.9  449 449 449  6.2 6.4 6.8  1.00  Ft  24  1.359  32.616  2.28  34.9  5.80  202.4  449  15.7  Shts  1  24.390 24.39  1.71  26.1  10.04  262.0  559  14.6  8.32  174.7  22.3  3,896.3  904  157.9  449  31.1  INTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY STAIRS Basement to first storey Stringers 2x10 28.0 Treads 2x12 42.0 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood 1.0 Handrail 2x8 SPF 24.0 Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood 1.0 First to second store;i Stringers 2x10 28.0 Treads 2x12 42.0 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood 1.0 Handrail 2x4 19.0 Balusters 56.0 Newels 2.0 Landing joists 2x8 SPF 24.0 Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood 1.0  1.00  SECTION 6 INSULATIO V AND INSULATION Basement walls Fiberglass 89mm (3 1/2") batt 1600.0 1.00 First floor walls Fiberglass 152 mm (5 1/2") 1544.0 1.00 batt Second floor walls Fiberglass 152 mm (5 1/2" ) 900.0 1.00 batt Fiberglass Vaulted ceiling/152 235.0 mm (5 1/2" ) batt Attic 1709.0 Insulation/M.wool (R40) DAMPROOFING Basement under slab 1710.0 6 mil poly Basement wall spray 1596.0 on damp  1VIOISTL RE PROTECTION  Ft2  1600  0.104  166.4  Ft2  1544  0.171  264.024 13.20  277.2  22.3  6,182.1  904  250.6  Ft2  900  0.171  153.9  7.70  161.6  22.3  3,603.6  904  146.1  1.00  Ft2  235  0.171  40.185  2.01  42.2  22.3  940.9  904  38.1  1.00  Ft2  1709  0.871  1488.539 74.43  1,563.0 22.3  34,854.1 904  1,412.9  1.00  Ft2  1710  0.013  22.23  23.3  667.6  508  11.9  1.00  Ft2  1596  0.680  1085.28 54.26  2,848.9  508  578.9  115  1.11  28.6  1,139.5 2.5  Basement wall 6 mil 1470.0 poly damp 193.0 Sill gasket  VAPOUR BARR1ER  Basement walls Hist floor walls Second floor walls Attics Band joists  AIR B A R R I E R Basement walls Caulking First floor walls Caulking Secondfloorwalls Caulking Attic Ceiling Caulking Band joists Caulking  1596.0 1544.0 900.0 1709.0 236.0  1.00  Ft2  1470  0.013  19.11  0.96  20.1  28.6  573.9  508  10.2  1.00  ft  193  0.001  0.193  0.01  0.2  160.0  32.4  4836  1.0  1.00 1.00  Ft! Ft2 Ff2 Ft2 Ft2  1596 1544 900 1709 236  0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013  20.748 20.072 11.7 22.217 3.068  1.04  21.8 21.1 12.3 23.3 3.2  28.6 28.6  508 508 508  28.6 28.6  623.1 602.8 351.4 667.2 92.1  508  11.1 10.7 6.2 11.9 1.6  1.00 1.00 1.00  0 0  1.00 0.59 1.11 0.15  0.00 0.00  0.0 0.0  28.6  508  3.0  No  3  0.227  0.681  0.03  0.7  160.0  114.4  4836  3.5  3.0  No  3  0.227  0.681  0.03  0.7  160.0  114.4  4836  3.5  4.0  No  4  0.227  0.908  0.05  1.0  160.0  152.5  4836  4.6  4.0  No  4  0.227  0.908  0.05  1.0  160.0  152.5  4836  4.6  6.0  No  6  0.227  1.362  0.07  1.4  160.0  228.8  4836  6.9  Ft Ft  100 97  0.042 0.042  4.2 4.074  0.21 0.20  4.4 4.3  26.0 26.0  114.7 111.2  1945 1945  8.6 8.3  Ft  278  0.400  111.2  5.56  116.8  274.0  31,992.2 4667  544.9  Ft Ft Ft  278 115 40  0.162 0.233 0.042 0.200 0.042 0.042  45.036 26.795 1.68  2.25 1.34 0.08  2  0.58 0.02 0.10  47.3 28.1 1.8 1.0 12.3 0.4 2.1  274.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0  12,956.9 731.5 45.9 26.0 318.8 9.2 54.6  4667 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945  220.7 54.7 3.4 1.9 23.8 0.7 4.1  2.78  58.4  33.6  1,961.4  1045  61.0  2,528.6  27.7  70,043.4 632  1,598.1  FLASHING AND SHEET METAL Wall to roof flashing 100.0 1.00 Window and door 97.0 1.00 head flashings. 2" aluminum soffit 278.0 1.00 vent Gutter-Aluminium 278.0 1.00 Valley flashing 115.0 1.00 Skylight flashing 40.0 1.00 Roof vents 5.0 Roof edge 278.0 1.00 5"x7" leaf flashing 8.0 1.00 Chimney chase caps 1.0 R O O F I N G M A T E. R I A L S 15# Building Paper 2527.0 Roofing finish Asphalt shingles 2527.0  No  5  1  278 8 1  1.00  Ft2  2527  0.022  55.594  1.00  Ft2  2527  0.953  2408.231 120.41  2.000  11.676 0.336  0.00  Ft Ft No  SECTION 7 DOORS WINDOWS AND KI NISH HARDWARE DOORS & FRAMES EXTERIOR SWINGING 3'-0"x6'-8" 1 3/4" thick metal 2'-8"x6'-8" 1 3/4" thick metal 13/4" thick metal  3.0  No.  3  20.480  61.44  0:00  61.4  28  1,720.3  1945  119.5  1.0  No. No.  1  30.300 30.300  30.3 60.6  0.00 0.00  30.3  2  60.6  28 28  848.4 1,696.8  1945 1945  58.9 117.9  No.  2  3.000  6  0.00  6.0  5.8  34.8  449  2.7  No.  2  15.100  30.2  1.51  31.7  20  634.2  1044  33.1  No.  1  0.00 0.00  2.0  No.  2  11.340  13.15 85.75 22.68  0.0  7  13.150 12.250  0  1.0  13.2 85.8 22.7  5.8 5.8 5.8  0.0 76.3 497.4 131.5  449 449 449  5.9 38.5 10.2  No. No. No. No.  1 1  12.700 17.620 24.950 30.370  12.7 17.62 49.9 30.37  0.00 0.00 0.00  12.7 17.6 49.9 30.4  5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8  73.7 102.2 289.4 176.1  449 449 449 449  5.7 7.9 22.4 13.6  16.330 16.780  16.33 16.78  0.00 0.00  16.3  5.8 5.8  94.7  449 449  7.3 7.5  2.0  SIDELIGHTS l'-0"*5'-0" wood 2.0 frame:wood r-0"*5'-0" wood 2.0 frame:glass INTERIOR SWING ING  2'-8"x6'-8" 2'-6"x6'-8" 2'-4"x6'-8" BI-FOLD DOORS 2'-0"x6'-8" 3'-0"x6'-8" 4'-0"x6'-8" 5'-0"x&-8"  7.0  1.0 1.0  2.0 1.0  POCKET DOORS c/w track and hardware 2'-6"x6'-8" 1.0 2'-8"x6'-8" 1.0  No.  No. No.  2 1  1  1  116  0.00  0.00  0.00  16.8  97.3  1 OVERHEAD DOORS 9'x7' 2.0  No.  2  51.450  102.9  0.00  102.9  5.8  596.8  449  46.2  AUTOMATIC OPEJNER 2.0  No.  2  18.140 36.28  0.00  36.3  5.8  210.4  1898  68.9  No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No.  4 8 1 2 2 4 1 2 2 4 1 2 2 4 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 l 2 1 2 1 2  3.770 15.120 3.170 13.610 4.530 18.400 5.430 22.680 3.020 12.100 4.530 18.150 5.290 21.170 7.560 30.240 6.050 24.190 7.560 30.240 4.830 18.900 5.440 22.680 7.560 30.240 9.070 36.290 3.290 22.680 2.820 20.410  15.08 120.96 3.17 27.22 9.06 73.6 5.43 45.36 6.04 48.4 4.53 36.3 10.58 84.68 7.56 60.48 6.05 48.38 7.56 60.48 4.83 37.8 5.44 45.36 7.56 60.48 9.07 72.58 3.29 45.36 2.82 40.82  0.00 6.05 0.00 1.36 0.00 3.68 0.00 2.27 0.00 2.42 0.00 1.82 0.00 4.23 0.00 3.02 0.00 2.42 0.00 3.02 0.00 1.89 0.00 2.27 0.00 3.02 0.00 3.63 0.00 2.27 0.00 2.04  15.1 127.0 3.2 28.6 9.1 77.3 5.4 47.6 6.0 50.8 4.5 38.1 10.6 88.9 7.6 63.5 6.1 50.8 7.6 63.5 4.8 39.7 5.4 47.6 7.6 63.5 9.1 76.2 3.3 47.6 2.8 42.9  5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20  87.5 449 2,540.2 1044 18.4 449 1044 5 71.6 449 52.5 1,545.6 1044 31.5 449 952.6 1044 35.0 449 1,016.4 1044 26.3 449 762.3 1044 61.4 449 1,778.3 1044 43.8 449 1,270.1 1044 35.1 449 1,016.0 1044 43.8 449 1,270.1 1044 28.0 449 793.8 1044 31.6 449 952.6 1044 43.8 449 1,270.1 1044 52.6 449 1,524.2 1044 19.1 449 1044 9 5 2 . 6 16.4 449 857.2 1044  6.8 132.5 1.4 29.8 4.1 80.6 2.4 49.7 2.7 53.0 2.0 39.8 4.8 92.8 3.4 66.3 2.7 53.0 3.4 66.3 2.2 41.4 2.4 49.7 3.4 66.3 4.1 79.5 1.5 49.7 1.3 44.7  No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No.  5 6 5 8 5 5 5 2 3 3  1.500 1.500 1.500 0.057 0.400 0.500 0.023 0.089 0.300 1.500 0.500  7.5 9 7.5 0.456 6 2.5 0.115 0.445 0.6 4.5 1.5  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  7.5 9.0 7.5 0.5 6.0 2.5 0.1 0.4 0.6 4.5 1.5  60 60 60 60 45 60 60 60 60 60 60  450.0 540.0 450.0 27.4 270.0 150.0 6.9 26.7 36.0 270.0 90.0  2747 2747 2747 2747 2747 2747 2747 2747 2747 2747 2747  20.6 24.7 20.6 1.3 16.5 6.9 0.3 1.2 1.6 12.4 4.1  Ft Ft No. No.  29 49 14 24  0.084 0.914 0.914 0.454  2.436 44.786 12.796 10.896  0.12 2.24 0.64 0.54  2.6 47.0 13.4 11.4  5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8  14.8 272.7 77.9 66.4  449 559 449 449  1.1 26.3 6.0 5.1  No No No  14 1425 30  1.590 0.454 0.054  22.26 646.95 1.62  1.11 32.35 0.08  23.4 679.3  28 2 28  654.4 1,358.6 47.6  1045 134 1730  24.4 91.0 2.9  Ft2  1596  0.911  1453.956 145.40  1.599.4  7.4  11,835.2 352  563.0  Ft2  1201  1.134  1361.934 136.19  1,498.1  7.4  11,086.1 352  527.3  Ft2  1544  0.911  1406.584 140.66  1,547.2 7.4  11,449.6 352  544.6  WINDOWS (wood) Size 2'-0"x5'-0"-F 2'-0"x5'-0"-g 3'-0"x3'-0"-F 3'-0"x3'-0"-g 3-0"x4-0"-F 3-0"x4'-0"-G 3'-0"x5'-0"-F 3'-0"x5'-0"-G 4'-0"x2'-0"-F 4'-0"x2'-0"-G 4'-0"x3'-0"-F 4'-0"x3'-0"-G 4'-0"x3'-6"-F 4 -0 'x3'-6"-G 4'-0"x5'-0"-F 4'-0"x5'-0"-G 4'-0"x4'-0"-F 4'-0"x4'-0"-G 4'-0"x5'-0''-F 4'-0"x5'-0"-G 5'-0"x2'-6"-F 5'-0"x2'-6"-G 5'-0"x3'-0"-F 5'-0"x3'-0"-G 5'-0"x4'-0"-F 5'-0"x4'-0"-G 6'-0"x4'-0"-F 6'-0"x4-0"-G 5' diameter 1/2-F 5' diameter 1/2- G 4'diameter 1/2-F 4' diameter 1/2- G ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  4.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  FINISH HARDWARE Locksets 5.0 Passage Sets 6.0 Privacy Sets 5.0 Bifold Pulls 8.0 Door Stops 15.0 Threshdolds 5.0 Sweeps 5.0 Weather stripping 5.0 Latch 2.0 Dead bolts 3.0 Safety chain 3.0 Closets Rods Shelves Rod Brackets Shelf Brackets  29.0 49.0 14.0 24.0  1.00 1.00  15  SECTION 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOAR Joint tape 500' 14.0 .00 Joint compound 1425.0 1 1.00 Metal corner beads 30.0 1.00 BASEMENT EXTERIOR WALLS 1/2" regular [1596.0 1.00 BASEMENT CEILINGS 5/8" regular 11201.0 1.00 FIRST FLOOR EXTERIOR WALLS 1/2" regular |1544.0 |1.00  117  1.7  FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR WALLS 1/2" regular |2240.0 1.00 Ft2 FIRST FLOOR CEILINGS 5/8" regular |868.0 1.00 Ft2 SECOND FLOOR EXTERIOII WALLS 1/2" regular |900.0 |1.00 Ft2 SECOND INTERIOR FLOOR WALLS 1/2" regular 1756.0 1.00 Ft2 1/2" water resistant 100.0 1.00 Ft2 SECONDFLOOR CEILINGS 5/8" regular 1047.0 1.00 Ft2 4  FLOORING Vynel Carpet  198.0 1900.0  PAINT Basement interior 1596.0 walls Basement ceiling 1201.0 First floor exterior 1544.0 walls First floor interior 2240.0 walls First floor ceiling 1201 Second floor 900.0 exterior walls Second floor 1856.0 interior walls Second floor 868.0 ceilings  0.911  2040.64 204.06  2,244.7  7.4  16,610.8 352  790.1  868  1.134  984.312 98.43  1,082.7  7.4  8,012.3  352  381.1  900  0.911  819.9  901.9  7.4  6,674.0  352  317.5  1756 100  0.911 1.134  1599.716 159.97 113.4 11.34  1,759.7 7.4 124.7 7.4  13,021.7 352 923.1 352  619.4 43.9  1047  1.134  1187.298 118.73  1,306.0 7.4  9,664.6  459.7  81.99  352  1.00 1.00  Ft2 Ft2  198 1900  0.635 0.233  125.73 442.7  6.29 22.14  132.0 464.8  160 160  21,122.6 10496 74,373.6 10496  1,385.6 4,878.9  1.00  Ft2  1596  0.012  19.152  0.19  19.3  76  1,470.1  858  16.6  1.00 1.00  Ft2 Ft2  1201 1544  0.012 0.012  14.412 18.528  0.14 0.19  14.6 18.7  76 76  1,106.3 858 1,422.2 858  12.5 16.1  1.00  Ft2  2240  0.012  26.88  0.27  27.1  76  2,063.3  858  23.3  1.00 1.00  Ft2 Ft2  1201 900  0.012 0.012  14.412 10.8  0.14 0.11  14.6 10.9  76 76  1,106.3 829.0  858 858  12.5 9.4  1.00  Ft2  1856  0.012  22.272  0.22  22.5  76  1,709.6  858  19.3  1.00  Ft2  868  0.012  10.416  0.10  10.5  76  799.5  858  9.0  No No No  3 3 3  0.91 0.45 4.00  2.721 1.362 12  0.00 0.00 0.00  2.7 1.4 12.0  60 90 29.4  163.3 122.6 352.8  1996 1996  5.4 2.7  No No No  1 1 2  60.00 50.00 16.00  60  60.0 50.0 32.0  20 20 28  1,200.0  32  0.00 0.00 0.00  896.0  1044 1044 1945  62.6 52.2 62.2  No No No  1 1 1  30.00 39.30 48.40  30 39.3 48.4  0.00 0.00 0.00  30.0 39.3 48.4  27.23 27.23 27.23  816.9 1,070.1 1,317.9  1044 1044 1044  31.3 41.0  SECTION 9 SPECIALTIES BATHROOM ACCESSORIES Towel bar 3.0 Paper holder 3.0 Soap holder/grab 3.0 bar Shower doors 1.0 1.0 Bath tub doors Medicine Cabinets 2.0 Mirrors 5'-0"x4'-0" 1.0 6'-6"x4*-0" 1.0 8'-0"x4'-0" 1.0 SECTION 10 CABINETS CABINETS Kitchen counter tops 22.0 & wall splash Kitchen base 20.0 cabinets Kitchen upper 21.0 cabinets Pantry & Broom 1.0 closets Bathroom vanity 21.0 tops & wall splash Bathroom base 21.0 cabinets Laundry counter 5.0 tops & wall splash Laundry room base 5.0 cabinets Laundry room upper 5.0 cabinets Dropped fluorecent1.0 ceiling Island 1.0  2240  5o  1,000.0  0.0  50.5  AND APPLIAN CIES 1.00  Ft  22  7.50  165  8.25  173.3  10.4  1,801.8  559  96.8  1.00  Ft  20  20.00  400  20.00  420.0  10.4  4,368.0  559  234.8  1.00  Ft  21  15.00  315  15.75  330.8  10.4  3,439.8  559  184.9  1.00  No  1  82.00  82  4.10  86.1  10.4  895.4  559  48.1  1.00  Ft  21  7.50  157.5  7.88  165.4  10.4  1,719.9  559  92.4  1.00  Ft  21  20.00  420  21.00  441.0  10.4  4,586.4  559  246.5  1.00  Ft  5  7.50  37.5  1.88  39.4  10.4  409.5  559  22.0  1.00  Ft  5  20.00  100  5.00  105.0  10.4  1,092.0  559  58.7  1.00  Ft  5  15.00  75  3.75  78.8  10.4  819.0  559  44.0  1.00  No  1  4.00  4  0.20  4.2  10.4  43.7  559  2.3  1.00  No  1  20.00  20  1.00  21.0  10.4  218.4  559  11.7  1  70.00  70  0.00  70.0  80  5,600.0  2837  198.6  KITCHEN & LAJNDRY EQUIPMENT Washer 1.0 | |No  118  Dryer Refrigerator Range Hood Range Microwave Dishwasher Garburator  No No No No No No No  1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  SECTION 11 MECHANICAL ROUGH IN PLUMBING Polybutylene Supply Lines 1/2" dia piping 260.0 1.00 3/4" piping 64.0 1.00 1/2" fs 12.0 1/2" connectors 20.0 Supply header 1.0 ABS Waste Lines 1 1/2" pipe 138.0 1.00 1 1/2" 90 el 15.0 1 1/2" 45 el 10.0 1 1/2" T 3.0 1 1/2"Trap 5.0 1 1/2" Clean Out 2.0 2" 90 el 78.0 2" 45 el 15.0 2"T 10.0 2" Trap 3.0 2" Clean Outs 4.0 3" 45 el 44.0 4"T 52.0  70.00 80.00 10.00 50.00 35.00 55.00 15.00  70  35 55 15  50  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  70.0 80.0 10.0 50.0 35.0 55.0 15.0  80 80 80 93.952 80 80 80  5,600.0 6,400.0 800.0 4,697.6 2,800.0 4,400.0 1,200.0  2837 2837 2837 2837 2837 2837 2837  198.6 227.0 28.4 141.9 99.3 156.1 42.6  0.27 0.12 0.02 0.23 0.34 0.00 0.94 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.37 0.05 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.45 2.11  5.7 2.6 0.3 4.8 7.1 0.0 19.7 1.0 0.4 0.3 0.8 0.2 7.8 0.9 1.5 0.9 0.6 9.4 44.3  87 87 87 87 87  498.8 228.0 27.4 414.7 621.5  508 508 508 508 508  2.9 1.3 0.2 2.4 3.6  87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87  1,714.5 90.4 37.5 24.7 68.5 17.9 676.9 82.2 81.9 54.8 820.0 3,857.2  508 508 508 508 508 508 508 508 508 508 508 508 508  10.0 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.1 4.0 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.3 4.8 22.5  80 10  Ft Ft No No No  260 64 12 20 1  0.021 0.039 0.025 0.227 6.804  Ft No No No No No No No No No No No No  138 15 10 3 5 2 78  0.136 0.066 0.041 0.090 0.150 0.098 0.095 0.060 0.145 0.299 0.150 0.204 0.812  5.46 2.496 0.3 4.54 6.804 0 18.768 0.99 0.41 0.27 0.75 0.196 7.41 0.9 1.45 0.897 0.6 8.976 42.224  15  10 3 4 44 52  132.5  PLUMBING FIX TURES Water heaters 1.0 Water closet 3.0 Bathroom sink 3.0 Kitchen sink 1.0 Showers 1.0 Tub/shower 2.0 Hose bibs 2.0 Laundry tub 1.0  No No No No No No No No  3 3 1 1 2 2 1  1  75.000 40.000 20.000 25.000 50.000 300.000 0.100 10.000  75 120 60 25 50 600 0.2 10  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  75.0 120.0 60.0 25.0 50.0 600.0 0.2 10.0  80 29.4 29.4 45 29.4 29.4 29.368 29.4  6,000.0 3,528.0 1,764.0 1,125.0 1,470.0 17,640.0 5.9 294.0  2837 2837 1929 2454 1929 1929 1927 1929  212.8 340.5 115.7 61.4 96.4 1,157.2 0.4 19.3  HEATING FORCED AIR Furnace Gas Furnace 1.0 Filter 1.0 Floor registers 16.0 R/A grilles 5.0 Dampers 2.0 Gas piping 150.0 Electrical connection 1.0  No No No No No Ft No  1 1 16 5 2 150 1  85.000 85 0.100 0.1 0.500 8 0.500 2.5 0.250 0.5 0.500 75 0.100 0.1  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.75 0.01  85.0 0.1 8.0 2.5 0.5 78.8 0.1  80 12 45 45 45 28.23 23.071  6,800.0 1.2 360.0 112.5 22.5 2,223.1 2.4  2837 787 2837 2837 2837 1945 1513  241.2 0.1 22.7 7.1 1.4 153.2 0.2  No No No  2 1 1  2.500 5.000 0.300  5 5 0.3 0 0 0  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  5.0 5.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0  60 60 32.956  300.0 300.0 9.9  3936 3936 2162  19.7  19.7 0.6  No  1  0.272  0.272  0.00  0.3  87  23.7  508  0.1  Ft No No  8  1  4  0.322 0.771 0.100  508 508 508  1.3 0.4 0.2  0.091 3.000  2.6 0.8 0.4 0.0 1.9 6.3  224.1 67.1 34.8  20 2  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.30  87 87 87  Ft No  2.576 0.771 0.4 0 1.82 6  29.457 32.956  56.3 207.6  1932 2162  3.7 13.6  VENTILATION Bath fans Bath fan low sone Controls  1.00  2.0 1.0 1.0  SECTION 12 ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL ROUGH IN U/G PVC 1.0 connection box 2" PVC conduit 8.0 1.00 2" PVC L.B. Box 1.0 2" PVC couplings 4.0 Circuits #2 bare copper wire 20.0 1.00 6'x5/8" galv st 2.0 1.00 gmdng ids  119  200 amp main breaker 14-2 NMD copper wire 14-3 NMD copper wire 12-2 NMD copper wire 10-3 NMD copper wire 8-3 NMD copper wire FIXTURES WALL OUTLETS Duplex Half switched G.F.I. Waterproof SWITCHES Single pole 3 way 4 way timers  1.0  1.00  No  1  30.000  30  0.00  30.0  32.956  988.7  2162  64.9  2000.0  1.00  Ft  2000  0.029  58  2.90  60.9  29.457  1,793.9  1932  117.7  1000.0  1.00  Ft  1000  0.038  38  1.90  39.9  29.457  1,175.3  1932  77.1  35.0  1.00  F  35  0.072  2.52  0.13  2.6  29.457  77.9  1932  5.1  6.0  1.00  Ft  6  0.122  0.732  0.04  0.8  29.457  22.6  1932  1.5  30.0  1.00  Ft  30  0.182  5.46  0.27  5.7  29.457  168.9  1932  11.1  45.0 5.0 3.0 2.0  No No No No  45 5 3 2  0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250  15  16 3 1  0.250 0.500 0.500 0.250  11.3 1.3 0.8 0.5 0.0 3.8 8.0 0.3  71.02 71.02 71.02 71.02  799.0 88.8 53.3 35.5 0.0 266.3 568.2 106.5 17.8  4659 4659 4659 4659  No No No No  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  71.02 71.02 71.02 71.02  15.0 16.0 3.0  11.25 1.25 0.75 0.5 0 3.75 8 1.5 0.25  4659 4659 4659 4659  52.4 5.8 3.5 2.3 0.0 17.5 37.3 7.0 1.2  No  21  2.000  42  2.10  44.1  71.023  3,132.1  4659  205.5  No  5  2.000  10  0.50  10.5  71.023  745.7  4659  48.9  1.00 No No No No  1  1  0.500 0.250 0.500 0.500 0.500  0.5 0.5 0.5 1.5 0.5  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  0.5 0.5 0.5 1.5 0.5  50.449 50.449 50.449 71.02 71.02  25.2 25.2 25.2 106.5 35.5  3309 3309 3309 4659 4659  1.7 1.7 1.7 7.0 2.3  No  1  0.250  0.25  0.00  0.3  71.02  17.8  4659  1.2  No  1  0.500  0.5  0.00  0.5  32.956  16.5  2162  1.1  299525  5101  304,626. 5  1.0  LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) Surface mounted |21.0 LIGHT FIXTURES (exterior) 5.0 Surface mount MISC. CONNEC TIONS 1.0 Door chimes Smoke detector 2.0 Burglar Alarm 1.0 Air conditioner 3.0 Heat recovery 1.0 ventilator Overhead door 1.0 operator 30 amp. dryer outlet 1.0  1TEM/LOCATIO QNTY N  No  £  1  UNITS TOT QTY  CONV AS ERSIO BUILT N  1.5  931,568. 3  WAST INITIA UNIT E INITIA C02 L WT E LEE  APPENDIX A2: BASE CASE STUDY HOUSE LIFE C Y C L E CALCULATIONS: RECURRING. Building 40 Life (Years) RP  RI  PL  TR  RCC  RCI  RF*  120  54,501.2  INITIA L C02  40  ITEM/LOCATION  RECURR RECURR RECURRING -ING -ING C02 MATER- ENERY IALS  |  SECTION 1 SITE WORK  kg  MJ  kg  Waste %  |  CONCRETE FLATWOR it Driveway 0 1 Sidewalks 0 1 Patio 0 1  SITE DRAINAGE  4" perforated plastic 0 pipe perimeter footing drainage 3/4" course gravel 0 backfill  50 20  50  0 1 0  49 19 49  39 19 39  0.0 1.0 0.0  0 1806 0  0 1354 0  0 135  0  0.01 0.01 0.01  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.00  200 200 200 200 200 200  0  39 39 39 39 39 39  0 0 0  0.05 0.05  0 0 0  0  0.0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  0 0  199 199 199 199 199 199  0.0  0 0 0  0 0  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05  200  0  199  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  200 200  0 0  199 199  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0.05  200  0  199  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  200  0  199  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  200  0  199  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74  39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0.0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01  SECTION 2 CONCRETE FORMWORK BASEMENT FOUNDAT ION Strip footing forms 0 Pad fooling forms 0 Pedestal forms 0 Slab edge forms 0 Grade beam forms 0 Foundation wall 0 forms Retaining wall 0 forms 1x2 level strip 0 Exterior bsmnt strs 0 frms Exterior steps 0 forms(ply) Exterior steps 0 forms(lmbr) 2x4 keyway 0  0.0 0.0 0.0  0.0  0  0.05  CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE  | BASEMENT FOUNDAT ION  Strip Footings Footing pads Basement floor slab Garage floor slab Grade beam Foundation wall Ext basement stairs Exterior steps Retaining walls  REINFORCING  Structural slabs rebar Garage floor slab w.w.m.  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1  16  75 75  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  1  75  0  74  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  0  1  75  0  74  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  0  74  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.02  0 0  1 199  0 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0.05 0.00  75 75 16 75 75 75  CONCRETE ACCESSOFllES 1/2" dia Anchor 0 1 75 bolts Damproofing 25 40 75 Granular fill under 0 1 200 bsmnt slab  121  Granular fill under 0 garage slab 6 mil poly moisture 25 barrier 1/2" expansion joint 0 filler  1  200  0  199  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.00  40  75  0  1  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  1  200  0  199  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  25  15  0  2  1  0.2  148  195  12  0.02  25  75  0  2  1  0.2  0  15  1  0.05  25 25 25 25  75  0 0 0 0  2 2 2 2  1 1 1 1  0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1  541 5 1 137  1352 9 46 180  75 1 3 11  0.02  0.1 0.1 0.1  364 60  65  50 8 4  0.02  26  909 149  5  1  0.1 0.1 0.1  1 0  9 51 13  1 3 1  0.05 0.05 0.00  1  0.1  0  9  1  0.00  0.1 0.1  1 1  29 18  2 1  0.00 0.05  1 1 4  3  15 80  0 1 4  0.05 0.05 0.00  SECTION 3 MASONRY  CONC. BLOCK WALLS  8"x8"xl6" solid 20 blocks Reinforcing wall ties 20 M A S O N R Y VEN1: E R  Common bricks Mortar Metal wall ties Split face cone. block-4"xl2"xl6"  10 10 10 10  15 75 75  0.05 0.05 0.05  MASONRY FIREPLACES  Common bricks 10 Fire bricks 10 12"xl6"x8" flue 10 linings Mortar 10 Metal wall ties 10 8"x8" cast iron clean 10 out doors 5"x8" cast iron ash 10 dumps Metal dome damper 10 Fireplace lintel 10 angles Hearth finish 10 Combustion air kit 10 Tightfittingglass 10 doors brick 10  20 20 20  60  60 60  0 0 0  2 2 2  1 1  20 20 20  60 60 60  0 0 0  2 2 2  1 1  20  60  0  2  20 20  60 60  0 0  2 2  1  20 20 20  60 60 60  0 0 0  2 2 2  1 1 1  0.1 0.1 0.1  20  60  0  2  1  0.1  57  143  8  0.02  20  25  75  0  2  1  0.2  15  429  26  0.05  0  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  1  1  0.02  S E C T I O N 4 M E TA L S STRUCTURAL STEEL  Steel angle lintels NAILS  SECTION 5 CARPENTB V  ROUGH  CARPENTARY  B A S E M E N T FOUNDAT1ION I"RAMI N G  Exterior Walls Precut 2x6 Plates 2x6 Interior Walls Headers 2x10 Furring studs 2x3  0  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  0  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  0  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  0  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  Furring Plates 2x3  0  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10 2x12  0 0  50 50  0 0  49 49  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0.10 0.10  122  Posts and Columns 0 6x6 3" diameter steel columns  1  40  0  39  39  0.0 0  0  0  0.10 0.05  45# Asphalt felt  1  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  50 0 50 0 50 0  49 49 49  39 39 39  0.0 0 0.0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0.10 0.10 0.10  0  FIRST F L O O R F RAMUS G Joists 2x10 D.Fir 1 2x2 1 2x2 1  0 0 0  Solid Blocking 2x10 Sill Plates 2x4 Capillary Break Polyethylene foam sill gasket Subflooring 5/8" T & G Plywood Subfloor adhesive  0  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  6  0  0  0.10  0  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  10  8  18  2 2  0  2.4  0  70  2  0.10  9  7  0.4  341  3420  190  0.05  9 9  7 7  0.4 0.4  4  389 0  6 0  0.05  0  0 0  0 0  0.10 0.10  0  0  0.10  0  0  0.10  80  808  45  0.10  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0.10 0.10 0.10  0  0  0  0.10  5  5 5o 0 5 5 50 0 5 50 5 EXTERIOR  FIRST STOREY WALLS Walls Precut 2x6 0 2x6 0 Plates 2x6 Headers 0 2x10  0  1 1  50 50  0 0  49 49  39 39  l  50  49  39  1  40  0 0  39  39  10  25  So  0  1  1  0  1 1 1  50 50 50  0  49 49 49  39 39 39  1  50  0  49  39  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  0 50 0 50 0  49  39  0  0  0  0.10  49 49  39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0.10 0.10  0  Sheathing 3/8" Plywood  0.0  0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0  0.1  Beams Built up D.ftr 2x8  r  2x10 2x12 Posts and Columns 6x6  0  0 0  FIRST S T O R E Y 1NTER1 O R WALLS Walls Precut 2x4 1 Plates 2x4 0 1  0  SECOND STORE V SYSTEM Joists 2x10 SPF Cross bridging 2x2 2x2 Solid Blocking 2x10 Subflooring 5/8" T & G Plywood  0  0  0.0  0.0  0.0 0.0 0.0  FLOOR  0 0 0  1  0  1  5(1  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  5  5  50  0  9  7  0.4  244  2451  136  0.10  1 1  50  123  Subfloor adhesive  5  5  SECOND STORY EXTE RIOR Walls Precut 2x6 0 1 2x6 0 1 Plates 2x6 0 1 Headers 2x10 0 1  50  0  9  1  0.4  4  408  1  0.10  WALLS 50 50  0 0  49 49  39  39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0.10 0.10  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  Sheathing 3/8" Plywood  10  25  50  0  1  1  0.1  51  509  28  0.05  Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10  0  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  SECOND STORY INTE RIOR WAL1LS Walls Precut 2x4 0 40 0 Plates 2x4 0 40 0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  ROOF SYSTEM Ceiling Joists 2x4 SPF 0 2x6 SPF 0  40 40  0 0  39 39  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0.10 0.10  Dropped ceiling furring 2x4 0  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  0 0  40 40  0 0  39 39  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0.10 0.10  0  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  0  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  Exterior Soffit Framing 2x4 0  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  Ledgers 2x4  0  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  Sheathing 1/2" Plywood  0  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  Strapping 1x4  0  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  H Clips  0  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  EXTERIOR FINISH CA RPEN TRY 1 EXTERIOR FINISH Siding Wood 1x6 0 1 50 0 Building Paper Plywood 1/2" Plywood 0 1 5o 0 Comer trim 5o 1x4 0 1 0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.10  49  39  0.0  39  0.0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0.05  49  0 0 0  Roof Framing Rafters 2x8 SPF 2x10 SPF' 2x12 SPF Rafters 2x4 Ridge board 2x10  124  0.10  1  SOFFIT AND FASCIA  Fascia board 2x8 Barge board 2x10 Soffit Perforated aluminum  6  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.07  0  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.07  20  12  40  0  3  3  0.6  25  6739  115  0.05  I N T E R I O R FINISH C A * P E N  rRY  STAIRS  Basement to first storey Stringers 2x10 25 Treads 2x12 25 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood 25 Handrail 2x8 SPF 25 Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood 25 First to second store} Stringers 2x10 25 Treads 2x12 25 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood 25 Handrail 2x4 25 Balusters 25 Newels 25 Landing joists 2x8 SPF 25 Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood 25  40  60  0  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.07  40  60  0  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.07  40  60  0  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.07  40  60  0  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.07  40  60  0  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  40  60  0  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.07  40  60  0  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.07  40  60  0  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.07  40 40 40  60 60 60  0 0 0  0 0 0  0.0 0.0 o.O  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0.07 0.07 0.07  40  60  0  0  o.O  0  0  0  0.07  40  60  0  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.07  SECTION 6 INSULATION AND MOISTUR E PROTECT I'loN INSULATION  Basement walls Fiberglass 89mm (3 1/2") bait 15 First floor walls Fiberglass 152 mm (5 1/2" ) 15 batt Second floor walls Fiberglass 152 mm (5 1/2" ) 15 batt Fiberglass Vaulted ceiling/152 15 mm (5 1/2") batt Attic 5 Insulation/M.wool (R40)  40  50  0  1  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  40  50  0  1  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  40  5o  0  1  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  40  50  0  1  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  5  50  0  9  7  0.4  547  12199  495  0.05  40  50  0  1  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  40  50  0  1  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  40  5o  0  1  0  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  8  18  2  2  0  2.4  0  78  2  0.05  DAMPROOFING  Basement under slab 25 6 mil poly Basement wall spray 25 on damp Basement wall 6 mil 25 poly damp Sill gasket 10  125  VAPOUR BARRIER 0 iasement walls 0 Firstfloorwalls Secondfloorwalls 0 Attics 0 Band joists 0 AIR BARRIER Basement walls Caulking nrstfloorwalls Caulking Secondfloorwalls Caulking Attic Ceiling Caulking Band joists Caulking  1 1 1  50 50 50 50 50  0 0  30  15  50  30  15  30 30  30  FLASHING AND SHEE 0 Wall to roof flashing Window and door 0 head flashings 2" aluminum soffit 0 vent Gutter-Aluminium 0 Valley flashing 0 Skylight flashing 0 0 Roof vents 0 Roof edge 5"x7"lek' flashing 0 Chimney chase caps 0 ROOFING MATERIALS 15# Building Paper 10 Roofing finish 0 Asphalt shingles  l l  0 0 0  49 49 49 49  39 39  0.0 0.0  49  39 39 39  0  3  2  0.6  50  0  3  2  0.6  15  50  0  3  2  0.6  15  50  0  3  2  0.6  0 0 0 0 1 0 1  15  50  0  3  2  0 0  49 49  A  1 1  ME'rAL 50 50  0.0  0.0 0.0  0  0  0 0  0 0 0  0 0  0 0  0  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05  0.6  2 0 2 0 3 0 3 0 4  0.05  0 1  69 0 69 0 92 0 92 0 137  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0.05 0.05  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05  1  50  0  49  39  o.O  0  0  0  0.05  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  50 50 50 50 50 50  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  49 49 49 49 49 49  49  39 39 39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.05  10  40  0  3  3  0.3  15  2  14  9  2.0  588 18 0 0 140087 3196  0.05  1  18 0 5057  18 0 9 18  516 0 255 509  36 0 18 35  0.00  50  SECTION 7 DOORS W l NDOWS AND FINISH I ARDWARE DOORS & FRAMES EXTERIOR SWINGING 3'-0"x6'-8" 15 14 70 0 4 2 13/4" thick metal 0.3 2'-8"x6'-8" 14 70 0 4 2 0.3 1 3/4" thick metal 15 l5 . 14 70 0 4 2 0.3 1 3/4" thick metal SIDELIGHTS l*-0"*5'-0" wood 25 frame:wood l'-0"*5'-0" wood 25 frame:glass INTERIOR SWING NG 2'-8"x6'-8" 15 15 2'-6''x6'-8" 2'-4"x6'-8" 15  0 0 0  0  0.05  0.00 0.00  20  60  0  2  1  0.3  2  9  1  0.00  20  60  0  2  1  0.3  8  159  8  0.05  7 7 7  30 30 30  1 1 1  4 4 4  1 1 1  1.8 1.8 1.8  0 23 150 40  0 133 870 230  0 10 67 18  0.00 0.00 0.00  15 15 15 15  7 7 7 7  30 30 30 30  1 1 1 1  4 4 4 4  1 1 1 1  1.8  22 31 87 53  129 179 506 308  10 14 39 24  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  POCKET DOORS c/w track and hardware 2-6"x6'-8" 15 2'-8"x6'-8" 15  7 7  30 30  1 1  4 4  1 1  1.8 1.8  29 29  166 170  13 13  0.00 0.00  OVERHEAD DOOR§ 9'x7' |30  8  16  2  1  0  2.6  268  1552  120  0.00  BI-FOLD DOORS' 2'-0"x6'-8" Wx&S" 4'-0"x6'-8" 5'-0"x6'-8"  ,  1.8 1.8 1.8  126  1  AUTOMATIC OPENER  0.00  WINDOWS (wood) Size  49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49  39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39  39  0 0  49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49  0 0 0 0  49 49 49 49  0 Joint tape 500' 10 25 50 0 25 50 Joint compound 10 0 Metal corner beads 110 25 50 BASEMENT EXTERIOR WALLS 50 25 0 1/2" regular |10 BASEMENT CEILINGS 50 25 0 5/8" regular |10 FIRST FLOOR EXTERIORWALLS 1/2" regular |10 |25 |50 0 FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR WALLS 1/2" regular |10 |25 |50 0  1  2'-0"x5'-0"-K 2'-0"xS'-O"3'-0"x3-0"-F 3'-Ox3'-0"-g 3'-0"x4'-0"-F 3'-0"x4'-0"-G 3'-0''x5'-0"-F 3'-0"x5'-0"-G 4'-6"x2'-0"-F 4'-0''x2'-0"-G 4'-0"x3'-0"-F 4'-0"x3'-0"-G 4'-0"x3'-6"-l<' 4'-0"x3'-6"-G 4'-0"x5-0"-F 4'-0"x5'-0"-G 4'-0"x4'-0"-F 4'-0"x4-0"-G 4'-0"x5'-0"-F 4'-0"x5'-0"-G i'-0"x2'-6"-f 5>-0"x2'-6''-G 5'-0"x3'-0"-F 5'-0"x3'-0"-G 5'-0"x4'-0"-F' 5'-0"x4'-0"-G 6'-0"x4'-0"-F 6'-0"x4'-0"-G K  ,  l,  ,  ,  0 0  50 50 50 50  0 0 0 0  0  50  0  0  50 50  0  0  0 0 0  50 50 50 50 50  0  50  6  0  0  0  0  50 50 50  0 0  50 50 50 50 50  0  0 0  50 50  0 0  50 50 50  50 50  1  50  1  50  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1  1  1 1 1  0 0 0  50  50  0 0 0 0  0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  50  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  5' diameter 112 -F 0 5' diameter 1/2- G 0 4' diameter 1/2-F 0 4' diameter 1/2- G 0 FINISH HARDWARE 0 Locksets 0 Passage Sets 0 Privacy Sets 0 Bifold Pulls 0 Door Stops 0 Threshdolds 0 Sweeps Weather stripping 0 0 Latch 0 Dead bolts 0 Safety chain Closets Rods Shelves Rod Brackets Shelf Brackets  50  0 0  50 50  50 50  50  50 50 50 50  50 50 50 50  0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  3 9 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0.0 o.O 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0  0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0  0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0.0  0  0  0  0.0 0.0  0 0 0  0  0  0  0 0  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0.0  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0.00 0.05 0.00 o.o5  0.00 0.05  0.00 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.00  0.05 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.00  0.05 0.00 0.05  0 0  0 0  0.00 0.05 0.00 0.05  0  0  0.05  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  0 0  0  0  0  0.00  0.0 0.0 o.O  0  o.O  0  o.O 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0.0 0.0  0 0  39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0  0 0  0 0  0.05  0  0  0.05  1  0.1 0.1  2 68  2 9  0.05  0.1  0  65 136 5  0  0 0  0.05  56  0.10  150  1109  53  0.10  0  0  0  39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0.0  0.0 0.0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0  .  0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0.00 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.05  0.05 0.05  SECTION 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOARD  |  1 1  1 1  1  1  0.1  1  1  0.1  1  1  1  1  0.1 0.1 127  0 160  155 0 224  1184  1145  0  1661  54 0 79  0.05  0.10 0.10  FIRST FLOOR CEILINGS 5/8" regular |10 25 50 SECOND FLOOR EXTERIOR WALLS 1/2" regular |10 25 50 sEcoNb INTERIOR FLOO kWAlXS 1/2" regular 10 25 50 1/2" water resistant 10 25 50 SECOND FLOOR cEILINGS 5/8" regular 10 25 50 FLOORING Vynel Carpet PAINT Basement interior walls Basement ceiling Firstfloorexterior walls Firstfloorinterior walls Firstfloorceiling Second floor exterior walls Second floor interior walls Second floor ceilings  0 801 0 667 0 1302 92 0 966 0 0 63368 282620  0 38 0 32 0 62 4 0 46 0 0 4157 18540  1  0.1  0  1  0.1  0 0  1 1  0.1 0.1  0  1  0.1  0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10  20 20  5 5  15 10  2 3  2 1  0  1  5  7  4  4  7.0  135  10291  116  0.01  0 0  1 1  5 5  7 7  4 4  4 4  7.0 7.0  102 131  7744 9955  87 112  0.01 0.01  0  1  5  7  4  4  7.0  190  14443  163  0.01  0 0  1 1  5 5  7 7  4 4  4 4  7.0 7.0  102 76  7744 5803  87 66  0.01 0.01  0  1  5  7  4  4  7.0  157  11967  135  0.01  0  1  5  7  4  4  7.0  74  5597  63  0.01  5o 50 50  0 0 0  49 49 49  39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0.00 0.00 0.00  50 50 50  0 0 0  49 49 49  39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0  0 0 0  49 49 49  39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0.00 0.00 0.00  50 50 50  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0.00 0.00 0.00  0  1.2  208  2162  116  0.05  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  0  1.2  198  2064  111  0.05  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  0  1.2  47  491  26  0.05  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.05  9 9 9 1 9  3.0 3.0 3.0 1.5 3.0  210 210 240 15 150  16800 16800 19200 1200 14093  596 596 681 43 426  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  SECTION 9 SPECIALT1 ES BATHROOM ACCESSORIES Towel bar 0 1 Paper holder 0 Soap holder/grab 0 bar Shower doors 0 Bath tub doors 0 Medicine Cabinets 0 Mirrors 5'-0"x4'-0" 0 6'-6"x4'-0" 0 8'-0"x4'-0" 0  SECTION 10 C ABINET S AN D APPLIANCIES CABINETS Kitchen counter tops10 10 30 1 2 & wall splash Kitchen base 50 0 49 0 cabinets Kitchen upper 0 0 50 49 cabinets Pantry & Broom 0 0 50 49 closets Bathroom vanity 10 1 10 30 2 tops & wall splash Bathroom base 0 50 0 49 cabinets Laundry counter 10 10 30 l 2 tops & wall splash Laundry room base 0 50 0 49 cabinets Laundry room upper0 50 0 49 cabinets Dropped fluorecent 0 0 49 5o ceiling Island 0 50 0 49 K I T C H M & L AUNDRY I  Washer Dryer Refrigerator Range Hood Range  3.0 3.8  0 108 0 90 0 176 12 0 131 0 0 396 1766  0  0 0 0 25 0  E O  10  , JIPME slf  0.05 0.05  L  10 10 10 20 10  3 3 3 1 3  9 9 9 1 9  128  Microwave Dishwasher Garburator  0 0 0  1 1 1  SECTION i i MECHANI C A L ROUGH IN PLUMBING Polybutylene Supply Lines 1/2" dia piping 30 8 3/4" piping 30 8 30 8 1/2" t's 1/2" connectors 30 8 30 8 Supply header ABS Waste Lines 1 1/2" pipe 0 1 1/2" 90 el 0 1 1/2" 45 el 0 11/2"T 0 0 1 1/2"Trap 0 11/2" Clean Out 2" 90 el 0 2" 45 el 0 2"T 0 2" Trap 0 2" Clean Outs 0 3" 45 el 0 4"T 0 PLUMBING FIXTURES Water heaters Water closet Bathroom sink Kitchen sink Showers Tub/shower Hose bibs Laundry tub  30 0 0 0 0 0 5 0  10 1  10 10 10 10  25 10  10 10 10  3 3 3  9 9 9  9 9 9  3.0 3.0 3.0  165  45  8400 13200 3600  298 468 128  0.00 0.00 0.00  40 40 40 40 40  0 0 0 0 0  4 4 4 4 4  4 4 4 4 4  1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2  7 3 0 6 9  599 274 33 498 746  3 2 0 3 4  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05  40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39  39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0.05  0.0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  20 40 40 40 40 40 20 40  1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  1 39 3 3 3 3 0 3  1 39 3 3 3 3 0 3  1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0  120 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  9600 0 0 0 0 0 6 0  340 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  15  2  14  9 19 1 1 1 39 39  2.0  1.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0  170 0 1 0 0 0 0  13600 l 36 11 2 0  482 0 2 1 0 0  0  19 2 2 2 49 49  0  0  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.05  o.O  105  0.05 0.05  0.05 0.05  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05  HEATING FORCED AIR Furnace Gas Furnace 0 Filter 0 Floor registers 10 R/A grilles 10 Dampers 10 Gas piping 0 Electrical connection 0  1 20 20 20 1 1  20 50  VENTILATION Bath fans Bath fan low sone Controls  10 10 10  20 20 20  1 1 1  1 1 1  1 1 1  1.3 1.3 1.3  7 7 0  390 390 13  26 26 1  0.00 0.00 0.00  40  0  4  4  1.2  0  28  0  0.00  40 50  50  0 0 0  4 49 49  4 39 39  1.2 0.0 0.0  3 0 0  269 0 0  2 0 0  40 40  0 0  4 4  4 4  1.2 1.2  2 8  68 249  4 16  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.05  40  0  4  4  1.2  36  1186  78  0.00  40  0  4  4  1.2  73  2153  141  0.05  l5 15  15  1  SECTION 12 ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL ROUGH IN U/GPVC 30 8 connection box 2" PVC conduit 30 8 2" PVC L.B. Box 0 1 2" PVC couplings 0 1 Circuits #2 bare copper wire 30 8 8 6'x5/8" galv st 30 gmdng rds o 200 amp main 30 breaker o 14-2 NMD copper 30 wire  50 50  50 50  1 0 0 0 0  129  14-3 NMD copper wire 12-2 NMD copper wire 10-3 NMD copper wire 8-3 NMD copper wire  30  8  40  0  4  4  1.2  48  1410  93  0.05  30  8  40  0  4  4  1.2  3  94  6  0.05  30  8  40  0  4  4  1.2  1  27  2  0.05  30  8  40  0  4  4  1.2  7  203  13  0.05  25  25 25  12 12 12 12  25 25 25 25  1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5  25 25 25 25"  12 12 12 12  25 25 15 25  1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5  1198 133 80 53 0 399 852 160 27 0 0  79 9 5 3 0 26 56 10 2 0 0  0.00 O.OO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  25  1  1  1  1.5  0 1119  0 73  FIXTURES  WALL  OUTLETS Duplex Half switched G.F.I. Waterproof  SWITCHES Single pole 3 way 4 way timers  25  25  1  1  1  1.5  17 2 1 1 0 6 12 2 0 0 0 66 0 l6  1 1 1 1 1  40 40 40 40 40  0 0 0 0 0  39 39 39 39 39  39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  1  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.00  1  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0.00  16969  746247 34300  LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) Surface mounted |25 |12 LIGHT FIXTURES (exterior) Surface mount 25 12 MISC. CONNER TIONS Door chimes 0 Smoke detector 0 0 Burglar Alarm Air conditioner 0 Heat recovery 0 ventilator Overhead door 0 operator 30 amp. dryer outlet 0  4698  0.00 0.00  308  0.05 0.05  Rec Rec Rec C02 Materia Energy Is  Waste %  APPENDIX BI: IMPROVED HOUSE LIFE C Y C L E CALCULATIONS: INITIAL. ITEM/LOCATION QNTY  SECTION 1 SITE WORK CONCRETE FLATWORK Driveway 7.0  No  UNITS TOT QTY  CONV AS  WAST INITIA UNIT L WT E E  ERSIO BUIT N TO KG KG  KG  KG  71.88  INITIA C o l L EE  MJ/KG MJ  INITIA L C02  g/kg  KG  10836  75.00  1083.59  1354 4063  75.00 75.00  135.45 406.35  1  Sidewalks Patio  1.0 3.0  1.00  Yd3  8  1.797  1.00 1.00  Yd3  1 3  1,797  Yd3  1,797  SITE DRAINAGE  130  1797  8.99  14447.8 0.75 8 1805.99 0.75  5391  26.96  5417.96 0.75  14376  14616  507.70 46.38  13652.4 0.09 0  1229  6.29  1.695 169.5 8.48 0.339 6.2376 0.31 1.018 2.8504 0.14 0.678 2.4408 0.12 24.390 102.438 5.12  177.98 5.8 6.55 5.8 2.99 5.8 2.56 5.8 107.56 5.8  1032 38 17 15 624  449.00 79.91 449.00 2.94 449.00 1.34 449.00 1.15 449.00 48.29  10.8 49.8  0.169 0.678  1.8252 0.09 33.7644 1.69  1.92 35.45  5.8 5.8  11 206  449.00 0.86 449.00 15.92  0.75  9617  75.00  961.69  0.75  13545  75.00  1354.49  0.75  8127  75.00  812.69  0.75  12949  75.00  1294.89  0.75  75.00  1.00  Ft  174  0.500  87  1.00  Yd3  9.3  1,468  13652.4 0.00  500.0 92.0 14.0 18.0 21.0  0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20  Ft Ft Ft Ft Shts  100 18.4 2.8 3.6 4.2  54.0 249.0  0.20 0.20  Ft Ft  4" perforated plastic 174.0 pipe perimeter footing drainage 9.3 3/4" course gravel backfill  4.35  91.35  160  85.87  SECTION 2 CONC R E T E FORMWORK FOUNDATION Strip footing forms Pad footing forms Pedestal forms Slab edge forms Foundation wall forms 1x2 level strip 2x4 keyway  CAST IN PLACE CONCRE1E FOUNDATION Strip Footings  7.1  1.00  Yd3  7.1  1797  12758.7 63.79  Floor slab  10.0  1.00  Yd3  10  1797  17970  89.85  Garage floor slab  6.0  1.00  Yd3  6  1797  10782  53.91  Foundation wall  9.6  1.00  Yd3  9.56  1797  Footing pads  2.5  1.00  Yd3  2.5  1797  17179.3 85.90 2 4492.5 22.46  12822.4 9 18059.8 5 10835.9 1 17265.2 2 4514.96  1.00 1.00  Ft Ft2  65 495  0.473 0.100  30.745 49.5  1.54 2.48  32.28 51.98  36.05 48  3386 0 0 1164 2495  1.00 1.00 1.00  No Ff2 Yd3  58 300 12  0.130 7.54 0.680 204 1127.0 13524  0.38 10.20 0.00  45 2.5 0.03  356 536 406  2747.00 21.75 631.70 135.31 6.29 85.07  1.00  Yd3  7.75  1127.0  8734.25 0.00  7.92 214.20 13524.0 0 8734.25  0.03  262  6.29  1.00  Lb  100  0.454  45.4  45.40  45  2043  2534.00 115.04  SECTION 5 CARPENTRY ROUGH CARPENTARY FIRST STOREY EXTERIO R WALLS 2x4 2172.0 1.00 Ft  2172  221.11 2432.21 5.80  14107  449.00  Headers 2x10  80.0  Ft  80  Sheathing 3/8" Plywood  52.0  Shts  52  Beams Built up D.Fir 2x8 2x10 2x12  14.0 170.0 310.0  1.00 1.00 1.00  Ft Ft Ft  14 170 310  2211.09 6 0 1.695 135.6 0 0 14.630 760.76 0 0 0 0 1.717 24.038 2.142 364.14 2.572 797.32  0.00 13.56 0.00 0.00 76.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.40 36.41  5.80 5.80 5.80  0 865 0 0 8402 0 0 0 0 153 2323 5087  0.00 449.00 66.97 0.00 0.00 559.00 467.79 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 449.00 11.87 449.00 179.85 449.00 393.80  Posts and Columns 6x6  1.0  8.00  Ft  8  3.053  24.424 2.44  26.87  5.80  156  449.00  12.06  556  0.681  378.636 37.86  416.50  5.80  2416  449.00  187.01  REINFORCING Structural slabs rebar 65.0 495.0 Garage floor slab w.w.m. CONCRETE ACCESSORIES 1/2" dia Anchor bolts 58.0 300.0 Damproofing Granular fill under M. 12.0 floor slab 7.8 Granular fill under garage slab NAILS  100.0  1.00  FIRST STOREY INTERIOli WALLS 2x4 |556.0 1.00 |Ft  1.018  131  0.00  79.73  0.00 149.16 0.00 0.00 836.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 26.44 400.55 877.05  5.80 10.04  338.62 0.00 0.00 2326.00 75.09 2648.00 137.63  54.94  1092.06  SECOND STOREY FLOOD. S Y S T E M Joists 2x10 SPF 590.0 Ft 1.00 Cross bridging 2x2 50.0 1.40 Ft 2x2 24.0 1.20 Ft  590  1.695  1000.05 100.01  1100.06 5.80  6380  449.00 493.92  70 28.8  0.509 0.396  35.63 3.56 11.4048 1.14  39.19 12.55  5.80 5.80  227 73  449.00 449.00  17.60 5.63  Solid Blocking 2x10  20.0  Ft  20  1.695  33.9  3.39  37.29  5.80  216  449.00  16.74  Subflooring 5/8" T&G Plywood  20.0  Shts  20  24.390 487.8  48.78  536.58  10.04  5387  559.00 299.95  Subfloor adhesive  9.0  No  9  0.910  8.19  0.82  9.01  97.00  874  1551.00 13.97  SECOND STORY I:XTERIOR WALLS 2x4 1126.0 1.00 Ft Header 2x10 58.0 1.00 Ft  1126 58  0.681 1.695  766.806 76.68 98.31 9.83  843.49 5.80 108.14 5.80  4892 627  449.00 449.00  378.73 48.56  Sheathing 3/8" Plywood  30.0  Shts  30  14.630  438.9  21.95  460.85  10.04  4627  559.00  257.61  Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10  48.0  Ft  48  2.142  102.816 10.28  113.10  5.80  656  449.00  50.78  SECOND STORY 2x4  INTERIOR WALLS 837.0 Ft 1.00  837  0.678  567.486 56.75  624.23  5.80  3621  449.00  280.28  260.0 128.0  1.00 1.00  Ft Ft  260 128  0.678 1.018  176.28 17.63 130.304 13.03  193.91 5.80 143.33 5.80  831  1125  449.00 87.06 449.00 64.36  437.0 106.0  1.00 1.00  Ft Ft  437 106  1.359 1.695  593.883 59.39 179.67 17.97  653.27 5.80 197.64 5.80  3789 1146  449.00 449.00  293.32 88.74  34.0  1.00  Ft  34  0.678  23.052 2.31  25.36  5.80  147  449.00  11.39  3.0  1.00  Ft  3  1.695  5.085  5.59  5.80  32  449.00  2.51  Exterior Soffit Framing 2x4 377.0  1.00  Ft  377  0.678  255.606 25.56  281.17  5.80  1631  449.00  Ledgers 2x4  7.0  1.00  Ft  7  0.678  4.746  0.47  5.22  5.80  30  449.00 2.34  Sheathing 1/2" Plywood  64.0  Shts  64  19.500  1248  62.40  1310.40 10.04  13156  559.00 732.51  Strapping 1x4  3456.00 1.00  Ft  3456  0.339  1171.58 117.16 4  1288.74 5.80  7475  449.00  H Clips  253.0  Ft  316.0  0.540  170.64 0.00  170.64 28.00  4778  1730.00 295.21  1.00  Ft  3217.2 0.434  1535.89 5.80  8908  449.00 689.62  1.00  Ft2  2298  1396.26 139.63 48 50.556 0.00  50.56  1699  1045.00 52.83  ROOF SYSTEM Ceiling Joists 2x4 SPF 2x6 SPF" Rafters 2x8 SPF 2x10 SPF Rafters 2x4 Ridge board 2x10  1.00  1.00  1.00  0.51  -  126.24  578.65  EXTERIOR FINIS H CARP ENTRY EXTERIOR FINISH Siding Wood 1x6 3217.2 Building Paper Plywood  2298.0  0.022  132  33.60  1/2" Plywood 10 Comer trim 185.0 1x4 SOFFIT AND FASCIA Fascia board 236.0 2x8 Barge board 2x10 16.0 Soffit Perforated aluminum 236.0  Shts  2  19.500 39  1.95  40.95  10.04  411  559.00 22.89  1.00  Ft  185  0.340  62.9  6.29  69.19  5.80  401  449.00 31.07  1.00  Ft  236  1.359  320.724 22.45  343.17  5.80  1990  449.00  154.09  1.00  Ft  16  1.695  27.12  1.90  29.02  5.80  168  449.00  13.03  1.00  Ft2  236  0.091  21.476  1.07  22.55  274.00 6179  4667.13 105.24  INTERIOR FIN1SFI CARPI:NTRY STAIR Stringers 2x10 Treads 2x12 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood Handrail 2x4 Balusters Newels Landing joists 2x8 SPF Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood  28.00  1.00  Ft  28.00  1.70  47.46  3.32  50.78  5.80  294.54 449.00 22.80  42.00  1.00  Ft  42.00  2.04  85.51  5.99  91.50  5.80  530.69 449.00 41.08  Shts  1.00  19.50  19.50  1.37  20.87  10.04  209.48 559.00 11.66  1.00 19.00 56.00 2.00  1.00  Ft No No  19.00 56.00 2.00  0.68 0.24 7.08  12.88 13.38 14.16  0.90 0.94 0.99  13.78 14.32 15.15  5.80 5.80 5.80  79.95 83.06 87.88  24.00  1.00  Ft  24.00  1.36  32.62  2.28  34.90  5.80  202.41 449.00  15.67  Shts  1.00  24.39  24.39  1.71  26.10  10.04  262.02 559.00  14.59  1.00  SECTION 6 INSUI.ATION PROTECTION INSULATION First floor walls Batt 89 mm (3 1/2" ) 1010.0 25 mm extruded 1010.0 Polystyrene Second floor walls Batt 89 mm (3 1/2" ) 904.0 25 mm extruded 904.0 Polystyrene CLuulos Attic/208 mm Blown 816.0 (RSI 5.3)  AND MOISTURE  1.00 1.00  Ft2 Ft2  1010 1010  0.104 0.217  105.04 5.25 219.17 10.96  110.29 22.3 230.13 22.3  2460 5132  314.00 34.63 904.00 208.04  1.00 1.00  Ft2 Ft2  904 904  0.104 0.217  94.016 4.70 196.168 9.81  98.72 22.3 205.98 22.3  2201 4593  314.00 31.00 904.00 186.20  1.00  Ft2  816  0.486  396.576 19.83  416.40 4.7  1957  314.00  1.00  Ft2  1316  0.013  17.108 0.86  17.96  28.6  514  508.00 9.13  1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  Ft2 Ft2 Ft2 Ft2  1010 904 1316 236  0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013  13.13 11.752 17.108 3.068  0.66 0.59 0.86 0.15  13.79 12.34 17.96 3.22  28.6 28.6 28.6 28.6  394 353 514 92  508.00 7.00 508.00 6.27 508.00 9.13 508.00 1.64  3.0  No  3  0.227  0.681  0.03  0.72  160.0  114  4836.00 3.46  4.0  No  4  0.227  0.908  0.05  0.95  160.0  153  4836.00 4.61  4.0  No  4  0.227  0.908  0.05  0.95  160.0  153  4836.00 4.61  6.0  No  6  0.227  1.362  0.07  1.43  160.0  229  4836.00 6.92  Ft  100  0.042  4.2  0.21  4.41  26.0  115  1945.00 8.58  DAMPROOFING M floor under slab 6 1316.0 mil poly  VAPOUR BARRIE R First floor walls 1010.0 904.0 Secondfloorwalls Attics 1316.0 Band joists 236.0 AIR BARRIER Firstfloorwalls Caulking Secondfloorwalls Caulking Attic Ceiling Caulking Band joists Caulking  449.00 6.19 449.00 6.43 449.00 6.80  FLASHING AND SHEET \IETAL  Wall to roofflashing|100.0  1.00  133  130.75  Window and door head flashings 2" aluminum soffit vent Gutter-Aluminium Valley flashing Roof vents Roof edge 5"x7" leaf flashing  97.0  1.00  Ft  97  0.042  4.074  0.20  4.28  280.0  1.00  Ft  280  0.400  112  5.60  280.0 100.0 5.0  1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  280 100 5 280 8  0.162 0.233 0.200 0.042 0.042  45.36 23.3 1 11.76 0.336  2.27 1.17  280.0  Ft Ft No Ft Ft  1.00  Ft2  2040  0.022  44.88  1.00  Ft2  2040  0.953  1944.12 97.21  8.0  ROOFING MATESJALS 15# Building Paper 2040.0 Roofing finish Asphalt shingles 2040.0  SECTION 1 boo*.S WINDOWS A fit) FTNl SH HARDWARE DOORS & FRAMES EXTERIOR SWINGING 3'-0"x6'-8" 13/4" thick metal 1.0 No. 1 2'-8"x6'-8" 13/4" thick metal 2.0 No. 2 INTERIOR SWINGING 2-6"x6'-8" 6.0 2'-4"x6'-8" 1.0  111  1945.00 8.32  117.60 274.0  32222  4667.13 548.85  274.0 26.0 26.0  0.59 0.02  47.63 24.47 1.05 12.35 0.35  26.0  13050 636 27 321 9  4667.13 1945.00 1945.00 1945.00 1945.00  2.24  47.12  33.6  1583  1045.00 49.24  2041.33 27.7  56545  1855.90 3788.50  O.oS  26.0  26.0  222.29 47.58 2.04 24.02 0.69  20.480 20.48  0.00  20.48  28  573  1945.00 39.83  30.300 60.6  0.00  60.60  28  1697  1945.00 117.87  No. No.  6 1  12.250 73.5 11.340 11.34  0.00 0.00  73.50 11.34  5.8 5.8  426 66  449.00 33.00 449.00 5.09  3.0  No.  3  24.950 74.85  0.00  74.85  5.8  434  449.00 33.61  OVERHEAD DOORS 9'x7' 2.0  No.  2  51.450  102.9  0.00  102.90 5.8  597  449.00 46.20  AUTOMATIC OPEN ER 2.0  No.  2  18.140 36.28  0.00  36.28  5.8  210  1898.00 68.86  No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No.  1 2 1 2 3 6 2 4 2.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 1.0 1.0  3.170 13.610 4.530 18.150 6.050 24.190 7.560 30.240 1.52 4.53 1.754 4.535 9.900 68.250  3.17 27.22 4.53 36.3 18.15 145.14 15.12 120.96 3.04 9.06 7.016 18.14 9.9 68.25  0.00 1.36 0.00 1.82 0.00 7.26 0.00 6.05 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.91 0.00 3.41  3.17 28.58 4.53 38.12 18.15 152.40 15.12 127.01 3.04 9.51 7.02 19.05 9.90 71.66  5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20 5.8 20  18 572 26 762 105 3048 88 2540 5 43 12 86 57 1433  449.00 1043.52 449.00 1043.52 449.00 1043.52 449.00 1043.52 449.00 1043.52 449.00 1043.52 449.00 1043.52  1.42 29.82 2.03 39.77 8.15 159.03 6.79 132.54 1.36 9.93 3.15 19.88 4.45 74.78  No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No.  5 6 5 8 5 5 5 2 3 3  1.500 1.500 1.500 0.057 0.400 0.500 0.023 0.089 0.300 1.500 0.500  7.5 9 7.5 0.456 6 2.5 0.115 0.445 0.6 4.5 1.5  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  7.50 9.00 7.50 0.46 6.00 2.50 0.12 0.45 0.60 4.50 1.50  60 60 60 60 45 60 60 60 60 60 60  450 540 450 27 270 150 7 27 36 270 90.  2747.00 2747.00 2747.00 2747.00 2747.00 2747.00 2747.00 2747.00 2747.00 2747.00 2747.00  20.60 24.72 20.60 1.25 16.48 6.87 0.32 1.22 1.65 12.36 4.12  Ft Ft No. No.  29 49 14 24  0.084 0.914 0.914 0.454  2.436 44.786 12.796 10.896  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  2.44 44.79 12.80 10.90  5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8  14 260 74 63  449.00 1.09 559.00 25.04 449.00 5.75 449.00 4.89  ,  BI-FOLbbOOftS  4'-0"x6'-8"  WINDOWS  (wood)  Size 3'-0"x3'-0"-F 3'-0"x3'-0"-g 4-0"x3'-0"-F 4'-0"x3'-0"-G 4'-0"x4'-0"-F 4'-0"x4'-0"-G 4'-0"x5'-0"-F 4'-0"x5'-0"-G l'-0"x3'-0"-F l'-0"x3'-0"-G 2'-0''xl'-6"-F 2'-0"xl'-6"-G 6'-0"x7'-0"-F 6'-0"x7'-0"-G ,  1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0  3.0 6.0 2.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 2.0  FINISH HARDWARE Locksets 5.0 Passage Sets 6.0 Privacy Sets 5.0 Bifold Pulls 8.0 Door Stops 15.0 Threshdolds 5.0 Sweeps 5.0 Weather stripping 5.0 Latch 2.0 Dead bolts 3.0 Safety chain 3.0 Closets Rods Shelves Rod Brackets Shelf Brackets  29.0 49.0  14.0  24.0  1.00 1.00  15  134  1 SECTION 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOARD 14.0 Joint tape 500' Joint compound 1425.0 Metal comer beads 30.0 First Floor Exterior Walls 1/2" regular |1010.0 First Floor Interior Walls 1/2" regular 11020.0 First Floor Ceilings 5/8" regular |816.0 Second Floor Exterior Walls 1/2" regular |904.0 Second Interior Floor Walls 1/2" regular 1200.0 1/2" water resistant 100.0 Second Floor Ceilings 5/8" regular 672.0  1.00 1.00 1.00  No No No  14 1425 30  1.590 0.454 0.054  22.26 646.95 1.62  1.11 32.35 0.08  23.37 679.30 1.70  28 2 28  654 1359 48  1045.00 24.42 135.00 91.71 1730.00 2.94  1.00  Ft2  1010  0.911  920.11  92.01  1012.12 7.4  7490  352.00  356.27  1.00  Ft2  1020  0.911  929.22 92.92  1022.14 7.4  7564  352.00  359.79  1.00  Ft2  816  1.134  925.344 92.53  1017.88 7.4  7532  352.00  358.29  1.00  Ft2  904  0.911  823.544 82.35  905.90  7.4  6704  352.00  318.88  1.00 1.00  Ft2 Ft2  1200 100  0.911 1.134  1093.2 113.4  1202.52 7.4 124.74 7.4  8899 923  352.00 352.00  423.29 43.91  1.00  Ft2  672  1.134  762.048 76.20  838.25  7.4  6203  352.00  295.06  10720.0 1400.92 0 10496.0 3081.42 0  109.32 11.34  FLOORING Vynel  196.0  1.00  Ft2  196  0.635  124.46  6.22  130.68  160  20909  Carpet  1200.0  1.00  Ft2  1200  0.233  279.6  13.98  293.58  160.00  46973  1010.0  1.00  Ft2  1010  0.012  12.12  0.12  12.24  76  930  858.40  10.51  2240.0  1.00  Ft2  2240  0.012  26.88  0.27  27.15  76  2063  858.40  23.30  816 900.0  1.00 1.00  Ft2 Ft2  8l6 900  0.012 0.012  9.792 10.8  0.10 0.11  9.89 10.91  76 76  752 829  858.40 858.40  8.49 9.36  1856.0  1.00  Ft2  1856  0.012  22.272 0.22  22.49  76  1710  858.40  19.31  580.0  1.00  Ft2  580  0.012  6.96  0.07  7.03  76  534  858.40  6.03  No No No No No  3 3 3 1 2  0.91 0.45 4.00 16.00  2.721 1.362 12 50 32  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  2.72 1.36 12.00 50.00 32.00  60 90 29.4 20 28  163 123 353 1000 896  1996.00 5.43 1996.00 2.72 0.00 1043.52 52.18 1945.00 62.24  No No  1 1  30.00 39.30  30 39.3  0.00 0.00  30.00 39.30  27.23 27.23  817 1070  1043.52 31.31 1043.52 41.01  PAINT First floor exterior walls Firstfloorinterior walls Firstfloorceiling Second floor exterior walls Secondfloorinterior walls Secondfloorceilings  SECTION 9 SPECIALTIES BATHROOM A C C ESSORII£S Towel bar 3.0 Paper holder 3.0 Soap holder/grab bar 3.0 Bath tub doors 1.0 Medicine Cabinets 2.0 Mirrors 5'-0"x4'-0" 1.0 6'-6"x4'-0" 1.0  50.00  SECTION 10 CABINETS AND API k l A N C IES CABINETS  Kitchen counter tops & wall splash Kitchen base cabinets Kitchen upper cabinets Bathroom vanity tops & wall splash Bathroom base cabinets Laundry counter tops & wall splash Laundry room base cabinets Laundry room upper cabinets Dropped fluorecent ceiling  22.0  1.00  Ft  22  7.50  165  8.25  173.25  10.4  1802  559.00  96.85  20.0 21.0  1.00 1.00  Ft Ft  20 21  20.00 15.00  400 315  20.00 15.75  420.00 330.75  10.4 10.4  4368 3440  559.00 559.00  234.78 184.89  21.0  1.00  Ft  21  7.50  157.5  7.88  165.38  10.4  1720  559.00  92.44  21.0  1.00  Ft  21  20.00  420  21.00  441.00  10.4  4586  559.00  246.52  5.0  1.00  Ft  5  7.50  37.5  1.88  39.38  10.4 .  410  559.00  22.01  5.0  1.00  Ft  5  20.00  100  5.00  105.00  10.4  1092  559.00  58.70  5.0  1.00  Ft  5  15.00  75  3.75  78.75  10.4  819  559.00  44.02  1.0  1.00  No  1  4.00  4  0.20  4.20  10.4  44  559.00  2.35  1 1 1  70.00 70.00 80.00  70 70 80  0.00 0.00 0.00  70.00 70.00 80.00  80 80 80  5600 5600 6400  2837.48 198.62 2837.48 198.62 2837.48 227.00  KITCHEN & L A U \ D R Y EQUIPMENT Washer 1.0 No Dryer 1.0 No Refrigerator 1.0 No  135  lange Hood Range vlicrowave dishwasher Garburator  No No No No No  1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  SECTION i i M E LHANICAL ROllGri IN PLUMBING Polybutylene Supply Lines 260.0 1.00 1/2" dia piping 1.00 64.0 3/4" piping 12.0 1/2" t's 20.0 1/2" connectors 1.0 Supply header ABS Waste Lines 138.0 1.00 1 1/2" pipe 15.0 1 1/2" 90 el 10.0 11/2" 45 el 3.0 11/2" T 5.0 1 1/2" Trap 2.0 1 1/2" Clean Out 78.0 2" 90 el 15.0 2" 45 el 10.0 2"T 3.0 2" Trap 4.0 2" Clean Outs 44.0 3" 45 el 52.0 4"T  10.00 50.00 35.00 55.00 15.00  80  15  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  80 80 80 80  800 4000 2800 4400 1200  2837.48 2837.48 2837.48 2837.48 2837.48  28.37 141.87 99.31 156.06 42.56  0.27 0.12 0.02 0.23 0.34  5.73 2.62 0.32 4.77 7.14  87 87 87 87 87  499 228 27 415 622  507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70  2.91 1.33 0.16 2.42 3.63  10.00 50.00 35.00 55.00 15.00  10 50 35 55  Ft Ft No No No  260 64 12 20 1  0.021 0.039 0.025 6.804  5.46 2.496 0.3 4.54 6.804  Ft No No No No No No No No No No No No  138 15 10 3 5 2 78 15 10 3 4 44  52  0.136 0.066 0.041 0.090 0.150 0.098 0.095 0.060 0.145 0.299 0.150 0.204 0.812  18.768 0.99 0.41 0.27 0.75 0.196 7.41 0.9 1.45 0.897 0.6 8.976 42.224  0.94 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.37 0.05 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.45 2.11  19.71 1.04 0.43 0.28 0.79 0.21 7.78 0.95 1.52 0.94 0.63 9.42 44.34  87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87  1714 90 37 25 69 18 677 82 132 82 55 820 3857  507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70 507.70  10.00 0.53 0.22 0.14 0.40 0.10 3.95 0.48 0.77 0.48 0.32 4.78 22.51  PLUMBING FIXTURES 1.0 Water heaters 3.0 Water closet 3.0 Bathroom sink 1.0 Kitchen sink 2.0 Tub/shower 2.0 Hose bibs 1.0 Laundry tub  No No No No No No No  1 3 3 1 2 2 1  75.000 40.000 20.000 25.000 300.000 0.100 10.000  75 120 60 25 600 0.2 10  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  75.00 120.00 60.00 25.00 600.00 0.20 10.00  80 29.4 29.4 45 29.4 29.368 29.4  6000 3528 1764 1125 17640 6 294  5360.00 2837.48 2837.48 2454.18 1969.80 1967.66 1969.80  402.00 340.50 170.25 61.35 1181.88 0.39 19.70  HEATING Forced Air Furnace Gas Furnace Filter Floor registers R/A grilles Dampers Gas piping Electrical connection  1.0 1.0 16.0 5.0 2.0 150.0 1.0  No No No No No Ft No  1 1 16 5 2 150 1  85.000 0.100 0.500 0.500 0.250 0.500 0.100  85 0.1 8 2.5 0.5 75 0.1  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.75 0.01  85.00 0.10 8.00 2.50 0.50 78.75 0.11  80 12 45 45 45 28.23 23.071  6800 1 360 113 23 2223 2  2837.48 804.00 2837.48 2837.48 2837.48 1945.00 1545.76  241.19 0.08 22.70 7.09 1.42 153.17 0.16  VENTILATION Bath tans Bath fan low sone Controls  2.0 1.0 1.0  No No No  2 1 1  2.500 5.000 0.300  5 5 0.3  0.00 0.00 0.00  5.00 5.00 0.30  60 300 60 300 32.956 10  4020.00 20.10 4020.00 20.10 2208.05 0.66  No  1  0.272 • 0.272  0.00  0.27  32.956 9  2208.05 0.60  1.00  Ft No No  8 1 4  0.322 0.771 0.100  2.576 0.771 0.4  0.00 0.00 0.00  2.58 0.77 0.40  32.956 32.956 32.956  85 25 13  2208.05 5.69 2208.05 1.70 2208.05 0.88  1.00 1.00  Ft No  20 2  0.091 3.000  1.82 6  0.00 0.00  1.82 6.00  29.457 32.956  54 198  1973.62 3.59 2208.05 13.25  1.00 1.00  No Ft  1 2000  30.000 30 0.029 58  0.00 0.00  30.00 58.00  32.956 989 29.457 1709  SECTION 12 ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL ROUGH IN U/G PVC connection 1.0 box 8.0 2" PVC conduit 1.0 2" PVC L.B. Box 4.0 2" PVC couplings Circuits #2 bare copper wire 20.0 6'xW gafvst 2.0 grndng rds 200 amp main breaker 1.0 2000.0 14-2 NMD copper wire  1.00  0.227  136  2208.05 66.24 1973.62 114.47  FIXTURES WALL OUTLETS Duplex Half switched G.F.I. Waterproof SWITCHES Single pole —a—I  43 way way timers  Ft  1000  0.038  38  0.00  38.00  29.457  1.00  Ft  35  0.072  2.52  0.00  2.52  29.457 74  1973.62 4.97  1.00  Ft  6  0.122  0.732  0.00  0.73  29.457 22  1973.62 1.44  1.00  Ft  30  0.182  5.46  0.00  5.46  29.457  161  1973.62 10.78  45.0 5.0 3.0 2.0  No No No No  45 5 3 2  0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250  11.25 1.25 0.75 0.5  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  11.25 1.25 0.75 0.50  71.02 71.02 71.02 71.02  799 89 53 36  4758.34 4758.34 4758.34 4758.34  53.53 5.95 3.57 2.38  15.0 16.0 3.0 1.0  No No No No  15 16 3 1  0.250 0.500 0.500 0.250  3.75 8 1.5 0.25  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  3.75 8.00 1.50 0.25  71.02 71.02 71.02 71.02  266 568 107 18  4758.34 4758.34 4758.34 4758.34  17.84 38.07 7.14 1.19  No  21  2.000  42  0.00  42.00  71.023 2983  4758.54 199.86  No  5  2.000  10  0.00  10.00  71.023  710  4758.54 47.59  1.00 No No No No  l  0.5 0.5 0.5 1.5 0.5  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  0.50 0.50 0.50 1.50 0.50  50.449 50.449 50.449 71.02 71.02  25  1  0.500 0.250 0.500 0.500 0.500  25 25 107 36  3380.08 3380.08 3380.08 4758.34 4758.34  No  1  0.250  0.25  0.00  0.25  71.02  18  4758.34 1.19  No  1  0.500  0.5  0.00  0.50  32.956  16  2208.05 1.10  Units  150382 2657 Tot Qty Conver As Wast sion Built  LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) Surface mounted |21.0 LIGHT FIXTURES (exterior) 5.0 Surface mount MISC. CONNECT IONS Door chimes 1.0 Smoke detector 2.0 1.0 Burglar Alarm Air conditioner 3.0 Heat recovery 1.0 ventilator Overhead door 1.0 operator 30 amp. dryer outlet 1.0 Item/Location  1973.62 75.00  1.00  1000.0 14-3 NMD copper wire 12-2 NMD copper 35.0 wire 6.0 10-3 NMD copper wire 8-3 NMD copper wire 30.0  Qnty  No  1  153039 Initial Unit Wt EE  1119  580523 Initial C02 EE  A P P E N D I X B2: I M P R O V E D H O U S E L I F E C Y C L E CALCULATIONS: RECURRING.  RP  RI  PL  TR 40  RCC  RCI  ITEM/LOCATION SECTION 1 SITE iWORK CONCRETE FLATWORK Driveway 0 Sidewalks 0 Patio 0 SITE DRAINAGE 4" perforated plastic 0 pipe perimeter footing drainage  Building Life (Years) 40 RE REC. MATE RIAL KG  1 1 1  40 40  39  39 49  39  50  0 0 0  39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  137  0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0  REC. ENERGY MJ 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0  0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0  1.69 1.69 1.69 7.14 2.38  33869 Initial C02  3/4" course gravel backfill  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0 0 0 0  200 200 200 200 200  0  0 0 0 0  199 199 199 199 199  39  0.0  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0  0 0  200 200  0 0  199 199  39 39  0.0 0.0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0  SECTION 2 CONc RETE FORMWORK FOUNDATION Strip footing forms Pad footing forms Pedestal forms Slab edge forms Foundation wall forms 1x2 level strip 2x4 keyway  39 39 39 39  CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE FOUNDATION Strip Footings Floor slab Garage floor slab Foundation wall Footing pads  0  0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 1  75 75 75 75 75  0 0 0 0 0  74  REINFORCING Structural slabs rebar0 Garage floor slab 0 w.w.m.  1 1  75 75  0 0  74 74  CONCRETE ACCESSORIES 1/2" dia Anchor bolts 0 Damproofing 25 Granular fill under M.0 floor slab Granular fill under 0 garage slab  1 40 1  75  0  0 0  74 1 199  39 0 39  1  200  0  199  39  NAILS  1  0  75 200  50  SECTION 5 CARPENTRY ROUGH CARPENTARY FIRST STOREY EXTERIOJR WALLS 2x4 0 1 50 Headers 2x10 0 1 40  74 74 74 74  39 39  39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0  0  0 0 0 0  0  0  0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0.0  0.0 0.0  0 0 0  0  0  0.0  0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 840 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 47 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  49  39  0.0  0 0 0 0 0  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  39  39  0.0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  0  Sheathing 3/8" Plywood  10  25  50  0  1  1  0.1  Beams Built up D.Fir 2x8 2x10 2x12  0 0 0  1 1 1  50 50 50  0 0 0  49 49  39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0 84 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Posts and Columns 6x6 0  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  FIRST STOREY INTERIOi1 WALLS 2x4 0 1 40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  SECOND STOREY FLOO*I SYSTEM Joists 2x10 SPF 0 1 50 Cross bridging 2x2 0 1 50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0 0 0  49  39  138  0  0  2x2  0  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  Solid Blocking 2x10  0  1  5o  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  Subflooring 5/8" T&G Plywood  5  5  50  0  9  7  0.4  188  1886  105  Subfloor adhesive  5  5  50  0  9  7  0.4  3  306  5  SECOND STORY :XTERIOR W A L L S 2x4 0 1 40 Header 2x10 0 1 40  0 0  39 39  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  Sheathing 3/8" Plywood  10  25  50  0  1  1  0.1  46  463  0 0 0 0 26  Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10  0  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  SECOND STORY 2x4  INTERIOR 0 1  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0  R O O F SYSTEM Ceiling Joists 2x4 SPF 2x6 SPF Rafters 2x8 SPF 2x10 SPF  WALLS 40  0 0  1 1  40 40  0 0  39 39  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  1 1  40 40  0 0  39 39  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0  1  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  0  1  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  Exterior Soffit Framing 2x4 0  1  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  Ledgers 2x4  0  1  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  Sheathing 1/2" Plywood  0  1  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0 0 0 0  Strapping 1x4  0  1  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  H Clips  0  1  40  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  50  0  49  39  0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0 0 0 0  50  0  49  39 •  0.0  0  0  0  Rafters 2x4 Ridge board 2x10  EXTERIOR FINIS  a CARP  E X T E R I O R FINIS H Siding Wood 1x6 0 Building Paper Plywood 1/2" Plywood 0 Corner trim 1x4 0 SOFFIT AND FASCIA Fascia board 2x8 0 Barge board 2x10 0 Soffit  ENTRY  139  Perforated aluminum 20  12  40  0  3  3  0.6  14  3707  63  I N T E R I O R FINISH C A R P E N T R Y STAIR Stringers 2x10 Treads 2x12 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood Handrail 2x4 Balusters Newels Landing joists 2x8 SPF Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood  S E C T I O N 6 INSU PROTECTION INSULATION First floor walls Batt 89 mm (3 1/2" ) 25 mm extruded Polystyrene Secondfloorwalls Batt 89 mm (3 1/2" ) 25 mm extruded Polystyrene CEllulos Attic/208 mm Blown (RSI 5.3)  25.00  40.00  60  0.00  1.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  25.00  40.00  60  0.00  1.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  25.00  40.00  60  0.00  1.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  25.00 25.00 25.00  40.00 40.00 40.00  60  60 60  0.00 0.00 0.00  1.00 1.00 1.00  0.00 0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00  25.00  40.00  60  0.00  1.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  25.00  40.00  60  0.00  1.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00  . A T I O N AND M O I S T U R E  25 25  40 40  50 50  0 0  1 1  0 0  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  25 25  40 40  50 50  0 0  1 1  0 0  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  5  5  50  0  9  7  0.4  146  685  46  DAMPROOFING M floor under slab 6 0 mil poly  1  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  1 1 1 1  50 50 50 50  0 0 0 0  49 49 49 49  39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  30  15  50  0  3  2  0.6  0  69  2  30  15  50  0  3  2  0.6  1  92  3  30  15  50  0  3  2  0.6  1  92  3  30  15  50  0  3  2  0.6  1  137  4  50 50  0 0  49 49  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  50  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  50 50  0 0 0 0 0  49 49 49 49 49  39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  VAPOUR BARRIER Firstfloorwalls 0 Secondfloorwalls 0 Attics 0 Band joists 0 AIR B A R R I E R First floor walls Caulking Secondfloorwalls Caulking Attic Ceiling Caulking Band joists Caulking  F L A S H I N G A N D S H E E T IVI E T A L Wall to roof flashing 0 1 Window and door 0 1 head flashings 2" aluminum soffit 0 1 vent Gutter-Aluminium 0 1 Valley flashing 1 0 Roof vents 1 0 Roof edge 0 1 5"x7" leaf flashing 0 1  50 50 50  140  ROOFING MATERIALS 15# Building Paper 10 Roofing finish 0 Asphalt shingles  10  40  0  3  3  0.3  14  475  1  15  2  14  9  2.0  4083  113089 7577  4  2  0.3  6  172  12  4  2  0.3  18  509  35  SECTION 7 DOOli.S WINDOWS A ND FINI SH HARDWARE DOORS & FRAMES EXTERIOR SWINGING 3'-0"x6'-8" 70 0 15 13/4" thick metal 14 2'-8"x6'-8" 70 0 14 1 3/4" thick metal l5  15  INTERIOR SWINGING 2'-6"x6'-8" 15 2'-4"x6'-8" 15  7 7  30 30  1 1  4 4  1 1  1.8 1.8  129 20  746  115  58 9  Bl-FOLD DOORS 4'-0"x6'-8"  15  7  30  1  4  1  1.8  131  760  59  OVERHEAD DOORS 30 9'x7'  8  16  2  1  0  2.6  268  1552  120  0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0  AUTOMATIC OPEN ER WINDOWS Size 3'-0"x3'-0"-F 3'-0"x3'-0"-g 4'-0"x3'-0"-F 4'-0"x3'-0"-G 4'-0"x4'-6"-F 4'-0"x4'-0"-G 4 -0"x5'-0"-F 4'-0"x5'-0 -G r-0"x3'-0"-F l'-0"x3'-0"-G 2'-0"xl'-6"-F 2'-0"xl'-6"-G 6'-0"x7'-0"-F 6'-0"x7'-0"-G ,  H  50 50 50 50 50  0 0 0  0  0 0 0 0. 0 0 0  50 50 50 5o 50 50 50 50 50  0 0 0  FINISH HARDWARE 0 Locksets 0 Passage Sets 0 Privacy Sets 0 Bifold Pulls 0 Door Stops 0 Threshdolds Sweeps 0 0 Weather stripping Latch 0 0 Dead bolts Safety chain 0 Closets Rods Shelves Rod Brackets Shelf Brackets  50 50 50 50  50  0  0 0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0  50 50 50 50 50 50  0 0 0  50 50 50 50  0  0  0 0  0 0 0  49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49  39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0  0  0  0 0  0  0  0.0 0.0  0 0  49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49  39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0 0  0.0  0 0  0.0  0 0 0  0.0  0  0 0 0 0  49 49 49 49  39 39 39 39  0.0  0  0  0.0 0.0  0  0.0  0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 1 1  0.1 0.1 0.1  2 68 0  65 136 5  2 9 0  0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  SECTION 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOARD 10 Joint tape 500' Joint compound 10 Metal corner beads 10; First Floor Exterior Walls 1/2" regular |10 First Floor Interior Walls 1/2" regular |10  25 25  50 50 50  0 0  0  1 1 1  25  50  0  1  1  0.1  101  749  36  25  50  0  1  1  0.1  102  756  36  25 .  141  First Floor Ceilings 10 5/8" regular Second Floor Exterior Walls 1/2" regular (10 Second Interior Floor Walls 1/2" regular 10 1/2" water resistant 10 Second Floor Ceilings 10 5/8" regular FLOORING Vynel Carpet PAINT First floor exterior walls Firstfloorinterior walls Firstfloorceiling Second floor exterior walls Secondfloorinterior walls Secondfloorceilings  25  50  0  1  0.1  102  753  36  25  50  0  1  0.1  91  670  32  25 25  50 50  0 0  1 1  0.1 0.1  120 12  890 92  42 4  25  50  0  1  0.1  84  620  30  5  15 10.00  2 3  2 1  3.0 3.8  392 1116  62728 4203 178497 11709  0  5  7  4  4  7.0  86  6512  74  0  5  7  4  4  7.0  190  14443  163  0 0  5  5  7 7  4 4  4 4  7.0 7.0  69 76  5261 5803  59 66.  0  5  7  4  4  7.0  157  11967  135  0  5  7  4  4  7.0  49  3740  42  50  50  0 0 0 0 0  49 49 49 49 49  39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0 0  50 50  0 0  49 49  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2  0  1.2  208  2162  116  49 49  39 39  0.0 0.0  0 0  0 0  0 0  2  0  1.2  198  2064  111  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  2  0  1.2  47  491  26  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  49  39  0.0  0  0  0  596 596 681 43 426 298 468 128  3 2 0  20 20  5.00  SECTION 9 SPECIALTIES BATHROOM A C C ESSORIISS 0 1 Towel bar 0 1 Paper holder Soap holder/grab bar 0 1 Bath tub doors 0 1 Medicine Cabinets 0 1 Mirrors 0 1 5'-0"x4'-0" 6'-6"x4'-0" 0 1  50 50  50  SECTION 10 CABINETS AND API 'LIANC IES CABINETS Kitchen counter tops 10 10 30 1 & wall splash Kitchen base cabinets 0 1 50 0 0 1 50 0 Kitchen upper cabinets 10 30 1 Bathroom vanity tops 10 & wall splash Bathroom base 0 1 50 0 cabinets 10 30 1 Laundry counter tops 10 & wall splash 1 0 Laundry room base 0 50 cabinets Laundry room upper 0 1 50 0 cabinets Dropped fluorecent 0 1 50 0 ceiling KITCHEN & L A U NDRY EQUIPMENT 10 0 1 Washer 0 1 10 Dryer Refrigerator 0 1 10 10 20 Range Hood 25 0 1 10 Range Microwave 0 1 10 0 1 10 Dishwasher Garburator 0 1 10  3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3  9 9 9 1 9 9 9 9  9 9 9 1 9 9 9 9  3.0 3.0 3.0 1.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0  210 210 240  165 45  16800 16800 19200 1200 12000 8400 13200 3600  SECTION i i M E c HANICAL ROUGH IN PLUMBING Polybutylene Supply Lines 1/2" dia piping 30 8 8 30 • 3/4" piping 8 • 30 1/2" fs  0 0 0  4 4 4  4 4 4  1.2 1.2 1.2  7 3 0  599 274 33  40 40 40  142  15  150  105  1/2" connectors Supply header ABS Waste Lines 1 1/2" pipe 1 1/2" 90 el 11/2" 45 el 11/2" T 11/2" Trap 1 1/2" Clean Out 2" 90 el 2" 45 el 2"T 2" Trap 2" Clean Outs 3" 45 el 4"T  VENTILATION Bath fans Bath fan low sone Controls  3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1.6 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.0 0.3  120 0 18  8  180 0 3  9600 0 529 338 5292 6 88  643 0 51 18 355 0 6  9 19 1 1 1 39 39  2.0 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0  170 0 1 0 0 0 0  13600 1 36 11 2 0 0  482 0 2 1 0 0 0  40 40  0 0  4 4  4 4  1.2 1.2  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1  40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39  39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  20 40 40 40 40 20 40  1 0 0 0 0 1 0  1 39 3 3 3 0 3  1 39 3 3 3 0 3  14 19 2 2 2 49 49  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  10 1 10 10 10  25 10  0 0 10 10 10 0 0  1 1 20 20 20 1 1  15 20 50 50 50  2 1 0 0 0 0 0  15 15  10 10 10  20 20 20  1 1 1  1  1 1  1 1 1  1.3 1.3 1.3  7 7 0  390 390 13  26 26 1  40  0  4  4  1.2  0  11  1  40 50  50  0 0 0  4 49 49  4 39 39  1.2 0.0 0.0  3 0 0  102 0 0  7 0 0  40 40  0 0  4 4  4 4  1.2 1.2  2 7  64 237  4 16  40 40  0 0  4 4  4 4  1.2 1.2  36 70  1186 2050  79 137  40  0  4  4  1.2  46  1343  90  40  0  4  4  1.2  3  89  6  40  0  4  4  1.2  1  26  2  40  0  4  4  1.2  7  193  13  25 25 25 25  1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  1.5 1.5  17 2 1 1  1198 133 80 53  80 9 5 4  15  SECTION 12 ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL ROUGH IN U/G PVC connection 30 8 box 2" PVC conduit 30 8 2" PVC L.B. Box 0 1 2" PVC couplings 0 1 Circuits #2 bare copper wire 30 8 6'x5/8" galv st 30 8 grndng rds 8 200 amp main breaker 30 14-2 NMD copper 30 8 wire 14-3 NMD copper 30 8 wire 12-2 NMD copper 30 8 wire 10-3 NMD copper 30 8 wire 8-3 NMD copper wire 30 8 FIXTURES WALL OUTLETS Duplex Half switched G.F.I. Waterproof  498 746 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  8 8  PLUMBING FIXTURES Water heaters 30 Water closet 0 Bathroom sink 10 Kitchen sink 10 Tub/shower 10 Hose bibs 5 Laundry tub 10 HEATING Forced Air Furnace Gas Furnace Filter Floor registers R/A grilles Dampers Gas piping Electrical connection  6 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  30 30  25  25 25 25  12 12 12 12  50 50  143  1.5 1.5  SWITCHES Single pole 3 way 4 way timers  25 25 25 25  63  4474  300  1.5  15  1065  71  39 39 39 39 39  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  39  39  0.0  0  0  0  10394  561490 30900  1 1 1 1  1.5 1.5  25  1 1 1 1  1.5 1.5  12 2 0  25  1  1  1  1.5  25  1  1  1  1 1 1 1 1  40 40 40 40 40  0 0 0 0 0  39 39 39 39 39  1  40  0  1  40  0  LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) 12 Surface mounted |25 LIGHT FIXTURES (exterior) 25 12 Surface mount MISC. CONNECT ONS 0 Door chimes 0 Smoke detector 0 Burglar Alarm 0 Air conditioner 0 Heat recovery ventilator 0 Overhead door operator 30 amp. dryer outlet 0  27  0 27 57 11 2  1 1 1 1  12 12 12 12  25 25  25  399 852  6  166  Rec. Rec. Rec. Mater- Energy C02 ials  ITEM/LOCATION  APPENDIX C I : BASE C A S E STUDY HOUSE'S E M B O D I E D E N E R G Y DETAILED  TABLE.  ITEM/LOCATION SECTION 1 SITE WORK CONCRETE FLATWORK SITE DRAINAGE SECTION 2 CONCRETE FORMWORK-BASEMENT FOUNDATION CAST IN PLACE CONCRETEBASEMENT FOUNDATION REINFORCING CONCRETE ACCESSORIES SECTION 3 MASONRY CONC. BLOCK WALLS MASONRY VENEER MASONRY FIREPLACES SECTION 4 METALS STRUCTURAL STEEL NAILS SECTION 5 CARPENTRY BASEMENT FOUNDATION FRAMING FIRST FLOOR FRAMING FIRST STOREY EXTERIOR WALLS FIRST STOREY INTERIOR WALLS SECOND STOREY FLOOR SYSTEM SECOND STORY EXTERIOR WALLS SECOND STORY INTERIOR WALLS ROOFSYSTEM EXTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY SOFFIT AND FASCIA INTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRYSTAIRES SECTION 6 INSULATION AND MOISTURE PROTECTION INSULATION DAMPROOFING VAPOUR BARRIER  INITIAL MJ 44413.2 24380.8  PERCENT RECURRIN PERCENT G MJ 4.77 1354.49 0.18  20032.4 133681.5 4945.1  2.62 2.15  1354.49 0.00  14.35 0.53  120549.5  0.18  TOTAL  PERCENT  45767.7  2.73  25735.3 20032.4  1.53  0.00  0.00 0.00  133681.5  0.00  0.00  4945.1  1.19 7.97 0.29  12.94  0.00  0.00  120549.5  7.18  3658.6  0.39  0.00 0.00  0.22  0.49  0.00 0.00  3658.6  4528.3  4528.3  31839.7  3.42  3289.23  0.44  35128.9  1052.6 15870.0 14917.1  210.51 1587.00 1491.71  0.03 0.21 0.20  1263.1 17457.0 16408.9  428.65  0.06  9316.3  2143.3 6744.4  0.11 1.70 1.60 0.95 0.23 0.72  0.27 2.09 0.08 1.04 0.98  428.65 0.00  0.06 0.00  2571.9 6744.4  190466.6  20.45  14793.40  1.98  205260.0  8887.6  16441.3  1.76  0.00  0.00  16441.3  28675.1  3.08  0.52  32553.7  31214.7  3.35  3878.65 807.87  0.57  17502.9 15526.7 5177.8 41266.8 12313.4 13744.5 3249.6  1.88 1.67 0.56 4.43 1.32 1.48 0.35  0.00 2859.01 508.96 0.00 0.00 0.00 6738.91 0.00  0.11 0.00  32022.6  5353.8  0.38 0.07  0.00  20361.9 16035.7 5177.8 41266.8 12313.4 20483.4 3249.6  175064.6  18.79  153409.60  20.56  328474.2  49477.0 4122.7  5.31 0.44  12198.95  61676.0 4200.5  2336.5  0.25  0.00  1.63 0.01  144  77.82  0.00 0.00 0.00  0.90  0.00  5353.8  2336.5  0.56 0.15  0.40 12.23 0.98 1.94 1.91 0.32 1.21 0.96 0.31 2.46 0.73 1.22  0.19 19.58 3.68  0.25 0.14  AIR BARRIER FLASHING A N D SHEET M E T A L ROOFING MATERIALS SECTION 7 DOORS, WINDOWS A N D FINISH H A R D W A R E DOORS & FRAMES WINDOWS (wood) FINISH HARDWARE" S E C T I O N 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOARD FLOORING PAINT SECTION 9 SPECIALTIES BATHROOM ACCESSORIES S E C T I O N 10 C A B I N E T S A N D APPLIANCIES CABINETS KITCHEN & LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT S E C T I O N 11 M E C H A N I C A L R O U G H IN PLUMBING PLUMBING FIXTURES HEATING VENTILATION S E C T I O N 12 E L E C T R I C A L FIXTURES W A L L OUTLETS LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) MISC. CONNECTIONS  762.7 46360.9 72004.8 29729.5  0.08 4.98 7.73 3.19  457.63 0.00 140675.20 5691.23  0.06 0.00 18.85 0.76  1220.4 46360.9 212680.0 35420.7  0.07 2.76 12.68 2.11  7280.4 19700.3 2748.8  0.78 2.11 0.30  5691.23 0.00 0.00  0.76 0.00 0.00  12971.6 19700.3 2748.8  0.77  197346.6  21.18  428665.47  57.44  626006.1  91338.1 95496.2 10506.3 6939.6 6939.6 50891.5  9.80 10.25 1.13 0.74 0.74 5.46  19393.9 31497.6 51407.8 9449.3 31826.9 9521.7 609.9 10906.1 4841.0 1935.3 3877.9 251.9 931568.3  2.08 3.38 5.52 1.01 3.42 1.02 0.07 1.17  0.52  0.21 0.42 0.03 100.00  9133.81 345987.60 73544.06 0.00 0.00 98010.24  1.22 46.36 9.86  0.00 13.13  100471.9 441483.8 84050.4 6939.6 6939.6 148901.8  4717.44 93292.80 26197.98 2148.55 9605.87 13650.70 792.85 14406.64 5686.92 2902.94 5816.78 0.00 746246.94  0.63 12.50 3.51 0.29 1.29 1.83 0.11 1.93 0.76 0.39 0.78 0.00 100.00  24111.4 124790.4 77605.8 11597.9 41432.7 23172.4 1402.7 25312.7 10527.9 4838.2 9694.6 251.9 1677815.2  0.00  1.17 0.16 37.31 5.99 26.31 5.01 0.41 0.41 8.87 1.44 7.44 4.63 0.69  2.47  1.38 0.08 1.51 0.63 0.29 0.58 0.02 100.00  A P P E N D I X C2: B A S E C A S E S T U D Y HOUSE'S C02 EMISSIONS D E T A I L E D TABLE. ITEM/LOCATION S E C T I O N 1 S I T E WORK CONCRETE FLATWORK SITE DRAINAGE SECTION 2 C O N C R E T E FORMWORK-BASEMENT FOUNDATION CAST IN P L A C E CONCRETEBASEMENT FOUNDATION REINFORCING CONCRETE ACCESSORIES SECTION 3 MASONRY CONC. B L O C K WALLS MASONRY VENEER MASONRY FIREPLACES SECTION 4 M E T A L S STRUCTURAL STEEL NAILS SECTION 5 CARPENTRY BASEMENT FOUNDATION FRAMING FIRST FLOOR FRAMING FIRST STOREY EXTERIOR WALLS FIRST STOREY INTERIOR WALLS SECOND STOREY FLOOR SYSTEM SECOND STORY EXTERIOR WALLS SECOND STORY INTERIOR WALLS ROOFSYSTEM EXTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY SOFFIT A N D FASCIA  INITIAL KG 2605.2 2438.1 167.1 13518.8 381.7  PERCENT RECURRIN G KG 4.78 135.45 4.47 135.45 0.31 0.00 24.80 0.00 0.70 0.00  PERCENT  TOTAL  PERCENT  0.18 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00  KG 2740.7 2573.5 167.1 13518.8 381.7  2.73 1.53 1.19 7.97 0.29  12054.9  22.12  0.00  0.00  12054.9  7.18  212.7 869.4 1794.4 64.9 895.4 834.1 512.2 132.4 379.8 12699.0 1243.7 1937.8 2240.8 414.5 1131.2 1091.4 400.8 2767.0 854.8 385.8  0.39 1.60 3.29 0.12 1.64 1.53 0.94 0.24 0.70 23.30 2.28 3.56 4.11 0.76 2.08 2.00 0.74 5.08 1.57 0.71  0.00 0.00 185.93 12.99 89.54 83.41 26.48 26.48 0.00 529.83 0.00 198.73 44.98 0.00 143.00 28.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 114.79  0.00 0.00 0.44 0.03 0.21 0.20 0.06 0.06 0.00 1.98 0.00 0.52 0.11 0.00 0.38 0.07 O.oO 0.00 0.00 0.90  212.7 869.4 1980.3 77.9 984.9 917.5 538.7 158.9 379.8 13228.8 1243.7 2136.5 2285.8 414.5 1274.2 1119.7 400.8 2767.0 854.8 500.6  0.22 0.27 2.09 0.08 1.04 0.98 0.56 0.15 0.40 12.23 0.98 1.94 1.91 0.32 1.21 0.96 0.31 2.46 0.73 1.22  145  INTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRYSTATRES SECTION 6 INSULATION A N D MOISTURE PROTECTION INSULATION DAMPROOFING VAPOUR BARRIER  AIR BARRIER FLASHING AND SHEET METAL ROOFING MATERIALS  S E C T I O N 7 DOORS, W I N D O W S A N D FINISH H A R D W A R E DOORS & FRAMES WINDOWS (wood) FINISH HARDWARE S E C T I O N 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOARD FLOORING PAINT SECTION 9 SPECIALTIES  BATHROOM ACCESSORIES SECTION id CABINETS A N D  APPLIANCIES CABINETS KITCHEN & L A U N D R Y EQUIPMENT S E C T I O N 11 M E C H A N I C A L ROUGH IN PLUMBING PLUMBING FIXTURES HEATING VENTILATION S E C T I O N 12 E L E C T R I C A L FIXTURES W A L L OUTLETS  LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) MISC. CONNECTIONS  231.2  0.42  0.00  0.00  231.2  0.19  5202.5  9.55  3725.21  20.56  8927.7  19.58  2005.7 601.9 41.5 23.1 871.2 1659.1 1758.8  3.68 1.10 0.08 0.04 1.60 3.04 3.23  494.52 2.35 0.00 13.83 0.00 3214.50 426.41  1.63 0.01 0.00 0.06 0.00 18.85 0.76  2500.2 604.3 41.5 36.9 871.2 4873.6 2185.2  3.68 0.25 0.14 0.07 2.76 12.68 2.11  566.3 1043.7 148.8 10748.3 4365.1 6264.6 118.7 308.0 308.0 2134.9  1.04 1.92 0.27 19.72 8.01 11.49 0.22 0.57 0.57 3.92  426.41 0.00 0.00 23963.96 436.51 22696.79 830.66 0.00 0.00 3488.29  0.76 0.00 0.00 1.22 46.36 9.86 0.00 0.00 13.13  992.7 1043.7 148.8 34712.3 4801.6 28961.3 949.3 308.0 308.0 5623.1  0.77 1.17 0.16 37.31 5.99 26.31 5.01 0.41 0.41 8.87  1042.4 1092.4 2524.6 55.1 2003.7 425.8 40.0 694.5 296.7 127.0 254.4 16.5 54501.2  1.91 2.00 4.63 0.10 3.68 0.78 0.07 1.27 0.54 0.23 0.47 0.03 100.00  253.56 3234.73 891.00 12.54 340.88 485.57 52.01 927.31 355.29 190.43 381.58 0.00 34299.87  0.63 12.50 3.51 0.29 1.29 1.83 0.11 1.93 0.76 0.39 0.78 0.00 100.00  1296.0 4327.2 3415.6 67.7 2344.6 911.4 92.0 1621.8 652.0 317.4 636.0 16.5 88801.1  1.44 7.44 4.63 0.69 2.47 1.38 0.08 1.51 0.63 0.29 0.58 0.02 100.00  57.44  APPENDIX DI: IMPROVED HOUSE'S INDIRECT EMBODIED ENERGY DETAILED T A B L E . Initial MJ 32098.6 16253.9 15844.7  5.53 2.80 2.73  SECTION 2 CONCRETE FORMWORK-BASEMENT FOUNDATION CAST IN PLACE CONCRETEBASEMENT FOUNDATION REINFORCING CONCRETE ACCESSORIES  54785 1943.1  ITEM/LOCATION  Recurring MJ 0.0 0.0 0.0  Percent  Total  Percent  0.00 0.00 0.00  32098.6 16253.9 15844.7  2.81 1.42 1.39  0.33  9.44  0.0 0.0  0.00 0.00  54785 1943.1  4.80 0.17  47623.8  8.20  0.0  0.00  47623.8  4.17  3658.6 1559.5  0.63 0.27  0.0 0.0  0.00 0.00  3658.6 1559.5  0.32 0.14  SECTION 4 METALS NAILS  2043 2043.0  0.35 0.35  0.0 0.0  0.00 0.00  2043 2043  0.18 0.18  SECTION 5 CARPENTRY FIRST STOREY EXTERIOR WALLS FIRST STOREY INTERIOR WALLS SECOND STOREY FLOOR SYSTEM SECOND STORY EXTERIOR WALLS SECOND STORY INTERIOR WALLS ROOF SYSTEM EXTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY  116737 31093.1 2415.7 13157.8 10802.3 3620.6 34140.9 11419.3  20.11 5.36 0.42 2.27 1.86 0.62 5.88 1.97  7201.5 840.2 0.0 2191.4 462.7 0.0 0.0 0.0  1.28 0.15 0.00 0.39 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00  123938.4 31933.2 2415.7 15349.2 11265.0 3620.6 34140.9 11419.3  10.85 2.80 0.21 1.34 0.99 0.32 2.99 1.00  SECTION 1 SITE WORK CONCRETE FLATWORK SITE DRAINAGE  Percent  146  SOFFIT A N D FASCIA INTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRYSTAIRES  8337.4 . 1750.0  1.44 0.30  3707.2 0.0  0.66 0.00  12044.6 1750.0  1.05 0.15  SECTION 6 INSULATION A N D MOISTURE PROTECTION INSULATION DAMPR00F1NG VAPOUR BARRIER AIR BARRIER FLASHING A N D SHEET M E T A L ROOFING MATERIALS SECTION 7 DOORS, WINDOWS A N D FINISH H A R D W A R E DOORS & FRAMES WINDOWS (wood) FINISH HARDWARE  123478.4  21.27  114638.4  20.42  238116.8  20.85  16343.1 513.8 1353.1 648.3 46492.0 58128.1 15528.7  2.82 0.09 0.23 0.11 8.01 10.01 2.67  685.0 0.0 0.0 389.0 0.0 113564.5 3853.7  0.12 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 20.23 0.69  17028.1 513.8 1353.1 1037.3 46492.0 171692.6 19382.3  1.49 0.04 0.12 0.09 4.07 15.03 1.70  4003.7 8796.7 2728.3  0.69 1.52 0.47  3853.7 0.0 0.0  0.69 0.00 0.00  7857.3 8796.7 2728.3  0.69 0.77 0.24  S E C T I O N 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOARD FLOORING PAINT  122075.2 47375.0 67882.1 6818.1  21.03 8.16 11.69 1.17  293688.9 4737.5 241224.5 47726.9  52.31 0.84 42.96 8.50  415764.1 52112.5 309106.6 54545.0  36.41 4.56 27.07 4.78  SECTION 9 SPECIALTIES BATHROOM ACCESSORIES  4421.7 4421.7  0.76 0.76  0.0 0.0  0.00 0.00  4421.7 4421.7  0.39 0.39  S E C T I O N 10 C A B I N E T S A N D APPLIANCIES CABINETS KITCHEN & LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT  49080.1  8.45  95917.4  17.08  144997.5  12.70  18280.1 30800.0  3.15 5.31  4717.4 91200.0  0.84 16.24  22997.5 122000.0  2.01 10.68  S E C T I O N 11 M E C H A N I C A L ROUGH IN PLUMBING PLUMBING FIXTURES HEATING VENTILATION  49937.8 9449.3 30356.9 9521.7 609.9  8.60 1.63 5.23 1.64 0.11  32444.9 2148.6 15852.8 13650.7 792.9  5.78 0.38 2.82 2.43 0.14  82382.7 11597.9 46209.6 23172.4 1402.7  7.21 1.02 4.05 2.03 0.12  S E C T I O N 12 E L E C T R I C A L FIXTURES W A L L OUTLETS LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) MISC. CONNECTIONS  10337.4 4457.0 1935.3 3693.2 251.9  1.78 0.77 0.33 0.64 0.04  13744.8 5302.1 2902.9 5539.8 0.0  2.45 0.94 0.52 0.99 0.00  24082.2 9759.0 4838.2 9233.0 251.9  2.11 0.85 0.42 0.81 0.02  580522.7  100.00  561489.6  100.00  1142012.3  100.00  APPENDIX D2: IMPROVED HOUSE'S C 0 2 EMISSIONS DETAILED TABLE. Item/Location  SECTION 1 SITE WORK CONCRETE FLATWORK  Initial kg 1757.6 1625.4 132.3  Percent  Recurring kg 0.0 0.0 0.0  Percent  Total  Percent  6.00 0.00 0.00  2.81 1.42 1.39  0.0 0.0  0.00 0.00  1757.6 1625.4 132.3 0.0 5422.6 150.4  4.80 0.17  SECTION 2 C O N C R E T E FORMWORK-BASEMENT FOUNDATION CAST IN PLACE CONCRETEBASEMENT FOUNDATION REINFORCING CONCRETE ACCESSORIES  5422.6 150.4  5.53 2.80 2.73 0.00 9.44 0.33  4762.4  8.20  0.0  0.00  4762.4  4.17  212.7 297.1  0.0 0.0  0.00 0.00  NAILS  115.0 115.0  0.0 0.0  0.00 0.00  212.7 297.1 0.0 115.0 115.0  0.32 0.14  SECTION 4 METALS  SECTION s CARPENTRY  7751.5  0.63 0.27 0.00 0.35 0.35 0.00 20.11  245.6  1.28  7997.1  10.85  SITE DRAINAGE  147  0.18 0.18  2271.2 187.0 957.7 761.4 280.3 2282.3 335.5 125.2  2.80 0.21 1.34 0.99 0.32 2.99 1.00 1.05 0.15  5.88  46.8 0.0 109.9 25.8 0.0 0.0  272.4 125.2  1.97  1.44 0.30  0.0  63.1 0.0  0.15 0.00 0.39 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.66 0.00  SECTION 6 INSULATION A N D MOISTURE PROTECTION INSULATION DAMPROOFING VAPOUR BARRIER AIR BARRIER FLASHING A N D SHEET M E T A L ROOFING MATERIALS S E C T I O N 7 D O O R S , WINDOWS A N D FINISH H A R D W A R E DOORS & FRAMES WINDOWS (wood) FINISH HARDWARE  5343.S  21.27  7649.3  20.42  12992.8  20.85  590.6 9.1 24.0 19.6 862.4 3837.7 984.5  2.82 0.09 0.23 0.11 8.01 10.01  45.8 0.0 0.0 11.8 0.0 7591.8  2.67  292.9  0.12 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 20.23 0.69  636.4 9.1 24.0 31.4 862.4 11429.5 1277.4  1.49 0.04 0.12 0.09 4.07 15.03 1.70  344.5 493.1 147.0  292.9  0.69  6833.9 2274.6 4482.3 77.0  16678.7 227.5 15912.1 539.1  52.31  SECTION 9 SPECIALTIES BATHROOM ACCESSORIES  194.9 194.9  0.0  0.00  637.4 493.1 147.0 0.0 23512.6 2502.0 20394.5 616.1 0.0 194.9 194.9 0.0  0.69 0.77 0.24  S E C T I O N 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOARD FLOORING PAINT  0.69 1.52 0.47 0.00 21.03 8.16 11.69 1.17 0.00 0.76 0.76 0.00  S E C T I O N io C A B I N E T S A N D APPLIANCIES CABINETS KITCHEN & L A U N D R Y EQUIPMENT  2075.6  8.45  3488.3  17.08  5563.3  12.70  982.6  3.15  253.6  0.84  1236.1  2.01 10.68  S E C T I O N 11 M E C H A N I C A L ROUGH IN PLUMBING PLUMBING FIXTURES HEATING VENTILATION  2697.9 55. l 2176.1 425.8 40.9  1624.8 12.5 1073.5 485.6 53.1  5.78 0.38 2.82 2.43 0.14  S E C T I O N 12 E L E C T R I C A L  692.6  920.9  2.45  355.2 194.5  0.94  FIRST STOREY EXTERIOR WALLS FIRST STOREY INTERIOR WALLS SECOND STOREY FLOOR S Y S T E M SECOND STORY EXTERIOR WALLS SECOND STORY INTERIOR WALLS ROOF SYSTEM EXTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY SOFFIT A N D FASCIA INTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRYSTAIRES  2224.4 187.0 847.8 735.7 280.3 2282.3  5.36 0.42 2.27 1.86 0.62  796.4  FIXTURES  W A L L OUTLETS' LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) MISC. CONNECTIONS  1092.4  298.6 129.7 247.4  16.9 33869.1  5.31 0.00 8.60 1.63 5.23 1.64 0.11 0.00 1.78 0.77 0.33 0.64 0.04  100.00  148  0.0 0.0  0.0  3234.7  371.2 0.0 30900.4  0.00 0.00  0.84 42.96 8.50  0.00  16.24  0.52 0.99 0.00  100.00  796.4  4327.2 0.0 4322.7 67.7 3249.6 911.4 94.0 0.0 1613.5  653.9 324.2 618.6  16.9 64769.4  36.41 4.56 27.07 4.78  0.39 0.39  7.21 1.02 4.05 2.03 0.12 2.11  0.85 0.42 0.81 0.02  100.00  Figure 2. Base Case Study House -  150  Elevations  Figure 3. Base Case Study House - Elevations  nnn  151  Figure 4. Improved House Plans  152  Figure 5. Improved House Plans  153  Figure 6. Improved House - Elevations  154  Figure 7. Improved House Elevations  155  FIGURE 8 - LIFE C Y C L E MATERIAL CONSUMPTION •  RECURRING CONSUMPTION  •  INITIAL CONSUMPTION  FIGURE 9-LIFE C Y C L E ENERGY COMPARISON  ggj OPERATIN ENERGY •  RECURRING EMBODIED ENERGY  •  INITIAL EMBODIED ENERGY  FIGURE10-LIFE C Y C L E C02 COMPARISON 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 Base Case  Improved  156  g|  Operating C02  •  Recurring C02  •  Initial C02  FIGURE 11-ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT COMPARISON  I | Recurring M Initial  Base Case House  Improvt House  157  

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