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Sustainable housing : reducing the "Ecological footprint" of new wood frame single-family detached houses Shawkat, Hijran Ali 1995

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SUSTAINABLE HOUSING: REDUCING THE "ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT" OF NEW WOOD F R A M E SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED HOUSES by HIJRAN ALI S H A W K A T t! Laurea di Dottore in Architettura, The University of Genoa, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF A D V A N C E D STUDIES IN ARCHITECTURE in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (School of Architecture) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required* standard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1995 © Hijran Ali Shawkat, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Sustainability will require that human activity become significantly less material and energy intensive than at the present time. Single family detached housing is one area that has to meet the challenge of sustainability. This thesis investigates the extent of the potential improvement in the environmental performance of wood frame single family detached houses. The Ecological Footprint or Appropriated Carrying Capacity method (EF/ACC) is used to evaluate the environmental performance of the houses examined throughout the study. The thesis came to the following key conclusions: • Land areas required to absorb CO2 emissions are the largest constituent of the Ecological Footprint of single family detached houses followed by land area required to produce energy. These results show clearly that energy, as a major contributor to CO2 emission today and as a resource in the post-fossil fuel era, is the most important environmental concern that has to be addressed. • Operating energy represents the largest component of energy consumption in a house. It constitutes 76% and 73% of the total life cycle energy in the base case study house and the improved house respectively. • The reductions obtained in the improved house compared to the base case study house were: Directly occupied land 48.0% Building materials use 49.2% Life cycle energy consumption 34.0% Life cycle CO2 emission 33.0% ii The reduction in the ecological footprint of the house is obtained by reducing its size, improving its design and adopting only energy efficient strategies which are cost effective. A 35.6% reduction in the Ecological Footprint of the base study house is obtained. The Ecological Footprint of the improved house is 58.68 in comparison to 91.06 ha in the base case study house. A greater reduction could have been achieved without the limits imposed by E F / A C C method use and the commitment to the principles of cost effectiveness and minimum change in life style. iii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S ABSTRACT ii T A B L E OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES x i i i AKNOWLEDGEMENT x i v C H A P T E R I: I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 1.1. STATE OF T H E ENVIRONMENT 2 1.2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 3 1.3. BUILDINGS AND T H E ENVIRONMENT 4 1.4. THESIS OBJECTIVES 5 1.5. METHOD 6 1.6. THESIS L A Y O U T 7 C H A P T E R II: H O U S I N G & S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y 2.1. INTRODUCTION 9 2.2. HOUSING TYPES 9 2.3. POPULARITY OF SINGLE FAMILY HOUSES 11 2.4. DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE FAMILY HOUSES 12 2.5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF SINGLE FAMILY HOUSES 13 2.5.1. Land Occupation 13 2.5.2. Resource Consumption 14 2.5.3. Energy Consumption 15 iv 2.5.4. Water Consumption 15 2.5.5. Pollution Generation 16 2.6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 17 2.7. SUSTAINABLE HOUSING 19 2.7.1. Sustainable Resources 20 2.7.2. The Design of the House 21 2.7.3. The Use Of The House 21 C H A P T E R III: T H E " E C O L O G I C A L F O O T P R I N T " O F A W O O D F R A M E S I N G L E F A M I L Y D E T A C H E D H O U S E 3.1. INTRODUCTION 23 3.1.1. Objectives 23 3.1.2. Approach 24 3.1.2.1. Life Cycle Analysis 24 3.1.2.2. Land Equivalency Calculation 26 3.2. HOUSE DESCRIPTION 26 3.3. LIFE C Y C L E ANALYSIS 27 3.3.1. Land Occupation 27 3.3.2. Material Consumption 29 3.3.2.1. Initial Material Consumption 30 3.3.2.2. Waste Materials 32 3.3.2.3. Recurring Material Consumption 33 3.3.3. Life Cycle Energy Analysis 36 3.3.3.1. Initial Embodied Energy 37 3.3.3.2. Recurring Embodied Energy 41 3.3.3.3. Demolition Embodied Energy 43 3.3.3.4. Operating Energy 45 3.3.4. Life Cycle C02 Analysis 46 3.3.4.1. Initial C02 Emission 47 3.3.4.2. Recurring CO2 Emission 49 3.3.4.3. Operating CO2 50 3.4. L A N D EQUIVALENCY CALCULATION 51 3.4.1. Land Required For Renewable Energy (Ethanol) Production 51 3.4.2. Land Required For CO2 Absorption 53 3.4.3. Land Required For Wood Production 56 3.4.4. Total Ecological Footprint Calculation 58 3.5. CONCLUSION 59 C H A P T E R IV: S T R A T E G I E S E X A M I N E D IN I M P R O V I N G T H E E N V I R O N M E N T A L P E R F O R M A N C E OF T H E B A S E C A S E 4.1. INTRODUCTION 61 4.2. STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE L A N D OCCUPATION 61 4.3. STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE MATERIAL CONSUMPTION 63 4.3.1. Strategies To Minimize Material Wastage 65 4.4. STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE EMBODIED ENERGY 67 4.5. STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE OPERATING ENERGY 67 4.5.1. Space Heating 68 4.5.1.1. Improving Envelope Thermal Resistance 68 4.5.1.2. Improving Air tightness 74 4.5.1.3. Solar Design 75 4.5.1.4. Mechanical Space heating system 77 v i 4.5.2. Domestic Hot Water 79 4.5.3. Lighting 80 4.5.4. Efficient appliances 80 4.5. CHOOSING A L E V E L OF ENERGY CONSERVATION 81 4.5.1. Cost Effectiveness 81 4.5.2. Life Style Implications 82 4.5.3. Balance and Compatibility Among the Various Strategies 83 4.5.4. Strategies Adopted 83 4.6. STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE LIFE C Y C L E CO2 86 4.7. CONCLUSION 86 C H A P T E R V : T H E " E C O L O G I C A L F O O T P R I N T " O F T H E I M P R O V E D W O O D F R A M E S I N G L E F A M I L Y D E T A C H E D H O U S E 5.1. INTRODUCTION 87 5.1.1. Objectives 87 5.1.2. Approach 87 5.2. HOUSE DESCRIPTION 88 5.3. LIFE C Y C L E ANALYSIS 90 5.3.1. Land Occupation 90 3.3.2. Material Consumption 91 5.3.3. Life Cycle Energy 94 5.4.3.1. Embodied Energy 94 5.4.3.2. Operating Energy 95 5.3.4. Life Cycle CO2 Emission Analysis 96 5.4. T O T A L ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT CALCULATION 97 v i i C H A P T E R VI: C O N C L U S I O N S 6.1. INTRODUCTION 99 6.2. FINDINGS 99 6.3. T H E V A L U E S OF E F / A C C METHOD 101 3.4. SUGGESTIONS ABOUT T H E METHOD 102 3.5. SUGGESTIONS 103 References 104 A P P E N D I C E S Appendix A l : Base Case Study House Life Cycle Calculations: Initial. I l l Appendix A2: Base Case Study House Life Cycle Calculations: Recurring. 120 Appendix BI: Improved House Life Cycle Calculations: Initial. 130 Appendix B2: Improved House Life Cycle Calculations: Recurring. 137 Appendix CI: Base Case Study House's Embodied Energy Detailed Tables. 144 Appendix C2: Base Case Study House's CO2 Emissions Detailed Tables. 145 Appendix DI: Improved House's Embodied Energy Detailed Tables. 146 Appendix D2: Improved House's CO2 Emissions Detailed Tables. 147 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table 3-1. Detail of Land Areas Occupied Directly By The Base Case Study House 28 Table 3-2. Weight of Building Materials Used Throughout 40 Years of Life Cycle 31 Table 3-3. Initial and Recurring Material Relationship Throughout Three Life Cycles 35 Table 3-4. Indirect Initial Embodied Energy 40 Table 3-5. Indirect Recurring Embodied Energy For 40 Years Life Cycle 41 Table 3-6. Initial and Recurring Energy Relationship Throughout Three Life Cycles. 42 Table 3-7. Various Uses of Operating Energy in the House 44 Table 3-8. Energy Consumption of A Typical Canadian House As Reported By Star-Housing Database (Hamilton, 1992). 45 Table 3-9. CO2 Emissions For Common Stationary Uses of Conventional Fuels (Cole and Rousseau, 1992) 46 Table 3-10. Initial CO2 Emissions 48 Table 3-11. Recurring CO2 Emissions Throughout 40 Years of Life Cycle 49 ix Table 3-12. Fuel Requirements Per Year In The Base Case Study House. 49 Table 3-13. The Annual Operating C02 Emissions in The Base Case Study House. 50 Table 3-14. The Average C 0 2 Absorption Capacity of Different Types Of Forests (Apps et al. 1993, Dixon et al. 1994, Birdsay 1992, And Marland 1988 In Wada, 1994) 54 Table 3-15. The Quantity of Wood Fibers In Various Forest Types In Canada (Canada Environment, 1991, In Wackernagel 1994) 57 Table 3-16. Constituents of The Base Case Study House's Ecological Footprint 59 Table 4-1. Heat Loss Through Envelope Components. 69 Table 4-2. Various Type of Insulation Materials (EMRC, 1990, Lencheck et al,1987, GBG, 199 ). 70 Table 4-3. The Composite RSI Values of Various Wall And Roof Assemblies (Sar Engineering Ltd. & Habitat Design+Consulting Ltd.) 72 Table 4-4. Different Window Types And Their RSI Values 73 Table 4-5. The Contribution Of Envelope Components To Air Infiltration (National Research Council In Erdg-U.S., 1981) 75 x Table 4-6. Cost Effective Strategies For B.C. - Zone A, Gas Heating. (Sar Engineering Ltd. & Habitat Design+Consulting Ltd.) 85 Table 5-1 A Comparison Between The Area of The Improved House And The Base Case Study House. 88 Table 5-2 A Comparison Between The Spaces In Both Houses. 89 Table 5-3. A Comparison Between The Land Occupied Directly by the Base Case and Improved House. 91 Table 5-4 A comparison of material Consumption in both houses over 40 years 92 Table 5- 5. A Comparison Of Wood-Based Materials Use In Both Houses Over 40 Years 92 Table 5-6. The Estimates of Construction waste in the Improved House. 93 Table 5-7 Embodied Energy Comparison 94 Table 5-8 Comparison of Life Cycle Energy Consumption in the two houses. 95 Table 5-9 Various Strategies Adopted To Examine The Potential For Operating Energy Reduction In The Improved House 96 Table 5-10 A Comparison Between Life Cycle C02 Emission In Both Houses. 97 xi Table 5-11 Constituents of Improved house's Ecological Footprint 98 Table 5-12 Ecological Footprint Comparison 98 xii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Base Case Study House Plans 149 Figure 2. Base Case Study House - Elevations 150 Figure 3. Base Case Study House - Elevations 151 Figure 4. Improved House Plans 152 Figure 5. Improved House Plans 153 Figure 6. Improved House - Elevations 154 Figure 7. Improved House - Elevations 155 Figure 8. Material Consumption Comparison 156 Figure 9. Life Cycle Energy Comparison 156 Figure 10. CC»2 Emissions Comparison 156 Figure 11. Ecological Footprint Comparison 157 xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENT I thank Dr Ray Cole and members of the supervisory committee Chris Mattock and Dino Rapanos for their support. xiv CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION c To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all people, states should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption Principle 8- Rio Declaration-1992 (Rogers, 1993) This thesis investigates the extent of the potential improvement in the environmental performance of a wood frame single family detached house. It is based on the premise that "Sustainable Development" will require that human activity remain within the limited regenerative and assimilative capacities of the biosphere. One area that has to meet the challenge of sustainability is single family detached housing. Despite the significant ecological cost, this housing type has certain characteristics that continue to make it the "dream home" for most Canadians. Furthermore the potential for improvement in the environmental performance of single family house is believed to be greater than any other housing type (Burby et al, 1982, Marbek, 1993). The thesis makes extensive use of the Ecological Footprint or Appropriated Carrying Capacity method developed at Planning School, University of British Columbia. The method is used to evaluate the environmental performance of single family detached houses examined throughout the study. The thesis offers a critique of the value of the method for assessing the impact of buildings. 1 1.1. S T A T E O F T H E E N V I R O N M E N T Human activity has changed in the last two hundred years at unprecedented rate and magnitude. Deterioration of the global environment is one of the negative changes. The uncontrolled exploitation of resources and industrial pollution have reached a level that is unsustainable by the biosphere. The biosphere is the 'source' of all the resources consumed by humans and the 'sink' for their waste. The components of the biosphere (ecosystems) are limited in the amount of resources they can produce and waste they can absorb. Historically the scale of human activity has been small relative to these limits (Goodland, 1992) and the environment was capable of absorbing the impact of human activity without serious consequences. Environmental degradation, when it occurred, had local characteristics and related mainly to the supply function. The increase of the human population and the per-capita consumption rate of natural resources have changed these conditions. "World population has grown at around 2 percent annually, doubling every thirty-five years, and world consumption has grown at about 4 percent annually, doubling every seventeen or eighteen years" (Daly, 1989). Human activity is currently growing so rapidly that it will take only two years for the economy to grow as much as it did throughout human history until 1900 (Speth in Goodland, 1992). The current scale of human activity consumes natural resources and produces waste at a rate that is higher than the assimilative and regenerative capacity of the environment in many areas. This leads to the depletion of planet's natural capital and the accumulation of the unabsorbed pollution in the air, water, and land. Environmental problems such as ozone layer depletion, desertification, global wanning, acid rain, biodiversity reduction, and urban air pollution, are some critical aspects of growth-induced depletion and pollution. A continuous growth in human activity would require an infinite supply of natural resources. On this planet, where the total amount of matter is fixed, continuous growth is not possible. It would 2 lead to a continuous reduction in the carrying capacity of the environment, which could reach a point where the ability of the environment to sustain future human and other forms of life on the planet will be seriously threatened. 1.2. S U S T A I N A B L E D E V E L O P M E N T Protecting the right of future generations to a healthy environment was the reason given by the United Nation's World Commission on Environment and Development for embracing the concept of sustainable development. The report entitled "Our Common Future," released by the Commission in 1987, defined sustainable development as; "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (WCED, 1987) In order to achieve the objectives of sustainable development, the policies and practices that perpetuate continuous material and population growth must be changed. The negative environmental consequences in each area of human activity should be minimized. Greater emphasis should be given to resource efficiency, and greater reliance on renewable energy. It is essential to minimize waste, maximize reuse and recycling, avoid the use of hazardous materials, and preserve biodiversity. Development of more environmentally benign production technologies, and design products to be more durable and repairable (Renner, 1991). Planning is an indispensable tool to achieve sustainability. Existing planning instruments should be modified to incorporate the principles of sustainability. The ecological implication of any future activity, in terms of resource supply and waste absorption, should be analyzed throughout it's life cycle prior to its realization. The Ecological Footprint or Appropriated Carrying Capacity method (EF/ACC) was developed by Rees and Wackernagel for this purpose (Wackernagel, 1994). The 3 method calculates the aggregate land area in various categories required to continuously provide an activity with resources and to absorb the waste discharged. The method is already used as planning tool (e.g., Urban Form and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: An Examination of the city center of Richmond, B.C. by Parker, 1993) and to evaluate the sustainability of economic practices (e.g., the Ecological Footprint of hydroponic Greenhouse by Wada, 1993 and the Ecological Footprint of the average Canadian, by Wackernagel, 1993). 1.3. BUILDINGS A N D T H E E N V I R O N M E N T The building sector is an area that has to be planned to be within the carrying capacity of the environment. The number, and the design of contemporary buildings make them a heavy burden on the environment. The destruction of large green areas, the consumption of large amounts of energy and natural resources, and the generation of air, water, and soil pollution during the construction, maintenance and operation of buildings have made the city "an entropic black hole drawing on the concentrated material resources and low-entropy production of a vast and scattered hinterland many times the size of the city itself" (Rees, 1992). Housing is the main component of buildings in Canadian cities. Residential areas take up 70% of Canada's urban land (D'amour, 1991). The Canadian housing sector consumes 20% of the total national energy consumption (Cole, 1993 and D'amour, 1991). Single-family detached houses comprise 60% of housing units in Canada (D'amour, 1991). Statistics show that they continue to be the most desired form of housing (CMHC, 1994). Unfortunately, the local, urban, global ecological impact of currently developed single-family detached houses is very high. The area of land, materials, energy, and water consumed and soil, water, and air pollution generated by existing single-family detached houses make their Ecological Footprint unsustainable (see chapter II & III). Therefore, a drastic reduction in the "Ecological 4 Footprint" of single-family detached houses is needed. Achieving this requires significantly improving the environmental performance of its design. The principles of energy-conscious design are already used to produce a small percentage of existing single-family detached houses with improved thermal performance. However, the thermal upgrading of conventional houses affects only their operating energy. An underlying principle of a sustainable house, by contrast, is to minimize not only the consumption of energy but any "throughput" such as land, materials, and water. In contrast to the extensive knowledge base and many existing examples of energy-efficient house design, the principles of a sustainable house design are still evolving. A number of houses have been developed lately as expression of 'sustainability (e.g., winners of healthy house Competition in Toronto and Vancouver, 1993). 1.4. T H E S I S O B J E C T I V E S This thesis has the following objectives: • To examine the constituents of the Ecological Footprint of a wood frame single-family detached house (land, material, energy, and water consumption and waste and pollution generation). • To identify design strategies which lead to the reduction of the Ecological Footprint of single-family detached houses. • To redesign the single family house using the above strategies and verify the effectiveness of the strategies. 5 1.5. METHOD The first objective is achieved by calculating the Ecological Footprint of a conventional wood frame single family detached house. A life cycle analysis is conducted to estimate land, material, and energy consumption and waste and pollution generation to use them in Ecological Footprint calculation. The second objective is achieved by critically reviewing the current literature on sustainable house design. A series of strategies that reduce land, material, and energy use and CO2 emissions were examined. The third objective is achieved by using design strategies identified in the fulfillment of the second objective to redesign the base case study, and comparing the Ecological Footprint of the new design with the Ecological Footprint of the base case study. The following programs and methods are used throughout the thesis: • The Appropriated Carrying Capacity method developed at the U B C Planning School by Rees and Wackernagel (Wackernagel et al, 1993). The method calculates the aggregate land area in various categories required to provide an activity with resources and to absorb the waste discharged throughout its life cycle. • Life Cycle Analysis is used to quantify energy and material consumption, pollution emission, and waste generation by each project throughout its life cycle which include: - the production of the building; - the use of the building; - the maintenance of the building; 6 - the demolition of the building • The H O T 2000 program is used to estimate operating energy for each house. HOT 2000 is a computer program designed to aid in simulation and design of buildings for thermal effectiveness, passive solar heating, and the operation and performance of heating systems by using heat-loss/gain and system performance models. 1.6. THESIS LAYOUT The thesis is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 introduces Canadian single family housing, the development process, reasons of its continued popularity, its environmental implications, and the extent to which it contributes to the current environmental crisis. The concept of sustainable development is introduced as a possible solution for environmental problems. The chapter concludes with the implication of sustainable development in the single family housing sector. Chapter 3 estimates the "Ecological Footprint" of a conventional wood frame, single-family detached house. A detailed analysis of the components of the Ecological Footprint is presented. Chapter 4 examines various strategies that could be used for land, energy, and material conservation and pollution prevention in single family housing. The criteria for selecting the strategies to be used in redesigning the base case study are presented. Chapter 5 estimates the Ecological Footprint of the improved house and compares the results with the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house. 7 Chapter 6 concludes the thesis by presenting the findings of the study and comments regarding the method. 8 CHAPTER II : HOUSING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2.1. I N T R O D U C T I O N Housing quality1 is an important indicator of the health and prosperity of a given population. Housing people and housing them in the best possible manner is an important goal in a sustainable society (BC. Round Table in Economy and Environment, 1990). Housing is a form of built environment designed for "private" activities. Space arrangements within a housing unit are based on cultural, economic, climatic, and technological considerations. Different dwelling types have different ecological implications. Housing choices, directly and indirectly, influence the extent of resource depletion and pollution generation. The direct influence is through the building's construction, operation, and maintenance. The indirect influence occurs through the pattern of transportation and infrastructure in a city. 2.2. H O U S I N G T Y P E S The most common housing types in Canada are: • Single Family Detached House: a housing type designed for occupancy by one family. It consists of one dwelling unit built on its own property and completely separated on all sides from any other dwelling or structure. ^The quality of housing is determined by indicators such as affordability, adequacy, suitability, safety, security, privacy, image and form, open spaces, accessibility to services and transportation, management and maintenance, and community facilities (CMHC, 1992). 9 • Semi-detached House (Duplex): a housing type that represent the first step toward multiple units housing. Two dwellings (adjoining no other structure) separated by a party wall extended from ground to roof and built on one parcel of land. • Row House (Town Houses): a series of similar dwellings attached horizontally. The resulting row structure contains three or more units, each with a private entrance and a small yard at front and rear. • Low Density Apartments: generally three to four storey wood frame buildings. All units share a common entrance and services. This type consists of bachelor, one- and two-bedroom units. Most low density apartment buildings are located near major shopping centers, basic civic and community facilities, and with public transit and major arterial roads close at hand. • High rise Apartments: usually located in highly centralized urban areas of high land value. Underground parking and common facilities such as a swimming pool, and a recreation room are usually provided. Units are usually, composed of bachelor and one-bedroom and a small number of two bedrooms. Single-family house is the most desired housing type by Canadians. There are approximately 6 million single family detached houses in Canada (Statistics Canada, 19912) which constitute 60% of Canada's housing stock (CMHC, 1994)3. Statistics for the last five years indicate that single-family houses continue to grow at approximately the same percentage (CMHC, 1994). 2 There are 5,702,915 single family detached houses in Canada (Statistics Canada, 1991). 3 The diagram of Canadian Housing Statistics from C M H C for the years 1950-1985 indicates that the percentage of starting single family housing from all housing units was 10 2.3. P O P U L A R I T Y O F S I N G L E F A M I L Y H O U S E S . There are many reasons behind the preference of Canadians for this type of housing: • Self-re flection: a psychological reasoning of the desire to live in a single-family is based on defining the home as the symbol of the self (Cooper, 1971). People refer to their home as a symbol of how they see themselves and want to be seen by others (Despres, 1991). The freestanding house in its clearly defined plot of land facing an ordinary road avoiding any form of grouping expresses the desire to be independent (Cowburn in Rapaport, 1969). • Social recognition: The housing unit, particularly its exterior, transmits information about the household's social position in terms of economic and professional status. The desire to own a single-family detached house was found to be related to a desire for living in a neighborhood of a given economic level. Rental neighborhoods are often described as being of lower status by home owners (Anderson-Khleif, 1981 in Despres, 1991). Having a monthly mortgage payment for a house is also perceived as a sign of "having made it" since obtaining a loan for the purchase of a home gives one some mark of respectability (Perin, 1977, Jackson, 1985 in Despres, 1991). • Financial investment: Owning a single-family house is considered to be a solid economic investment in North America. The resale value of the house is an important factor in the acquisition of a house. Land ownership reinforces the value of single family house, whereas approximately 70% for the years 1950- 60, 47% for 1961-1970, 48% for 1971-80, and 60% for the first five years of the eighties (CMHC, 1987). 11 the exclusion from land ownership of the high-rise apartment buildings is considered the main reason for the low desire to own them. • Suitability for families with children: privacy, low floor levels, larger spaces than other units, and access to private open areas are some of the reasons that make single family house popular among families with children. 2.4. D E V E L O P M E N T O F S I N G L E F A M I L Y H O U S E Technology and life style during the twentieth century have undergone rapid changes. However, the changes in single family house design have occurred much slower. The basic form of most houses today is similar to those popular at the turn of the century. Rapaport suggests that housing design changes as the social image of "right" and "adequate" housing changes. Most North Americans still hold an image of "right" housing as being a private house with a fence, trees, and open space (Stewart, 1979). Although the form of single family houses has seen little change, their size has increased noticeably, inspite of a decline in the size of the average Canadian household. An average new house in 1912 was 140 m 2 which was reduced to 93 m 2 during the depression of 1930. Sizes began to increase again after World war II, until the 1960's, the average house area was 135 m 2; in 1989, it jumped to 186 m 2 . Consequently the average living space for each family member increased from 24 m 2 in 1912 to 60 m 2 in 1989. The living space per person has increased inspite of the change of life style. In the past home was the center of the social life. There were no cinemas, sport arenas, shopping malls, and automobiles. Home was the place where women and children spent most of their time, only adult males used to go outside to work. (Grady, 1993). 12 Technological development and the general improvement in economic conditions in Canada and other developed countries, particularly following the second world war, have reduced physical and economic constraints, allowing people to do very much more than what was possible in the past. A larger part of the population were able to choose rather than be constrained to live in a certain life style. Furthermore, these choices, increasingly, were based on desires rather than needs. This lead to the production of large amount of industrial products , including houses, in relatively short time. The unprecedented material growth was attained with severe environmental consequences. 2.5. E N V I R O N M E N T A L I M P L I C A T I O N S O F S I N G L E F A M I L Y H O U S I N G The large number and growing size of single family houses made them a burden on the biosphere. Single family houses are the most ecologically "expensive" housing type in terms of land, energy, and material consumption and pollution generation to house a given number of occupants. 2.5.1. Land Occupation At an average of 45 persons per net hectare, the number of single family homes occupants is 41.6% of those housed by row houses (an average of 108 persons per net hectare), 28% of those housed by walk-up apartments (an average of 156 persons per net hectare), and anywhere from 3% to 23 % of the occupants of high density, multi-family housing (D'amour, 1991). Land use for single family houses results in the loss of large areas of biologically productive lands and negative urban implications. Urban areas with single family detached houses are low density areas and difficult to plan for mixed uses. These characteristics other than giving the cities certain shape, create transportation problems (Automobile dependency, long distance driving, traffic congestion, necessity of long streets, highways, bridges), and lead to overextended municipal services.4 4 A Single family House requires at least four times more linear infrastructure per unit than duplex (Gagnon, in D'amour, 1991). 13 2.5.2. Resource Consumption Single family house units are usually larger than other types of housing units per the number of occupants. This implies that more resources will be used in constructing and maintaining them. Timber is the main renewable source of building materials used in housing construction in Canada. Timber is a product of the forest. Forests take from 30 to 400 years to regenerate, depending upon species composition and the local environment. Before being cut and used as building materials and other purposes, trees serve many important ecological functions. Trees act as watersheds and absorb, hold and release water; they protect soil and play a major role in preserving the life-support system of the entire ecosphere, absorbing carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. They provide habitats for a rich variety of animal and plant life and are capable of withstanding relatively heavy recreational pressure. Locally, trees help to absorb pollutants and noise, everywhere they are a source of beauty and aesthetic pleasure (Miller and Armestrong, 1982). Trees are the most effective tools in fighting a very serious environmental problem which is global warming. They are an essential part of the carbon absorption function of the environment. Harvesting trees for use in house construction reduces the capacity of the environment to carry out this function. Ecologist Howard Odum developed a formula to put a dollar value on the "ecological value" of natural elements. He found that the dollar value of an average tree is $ 13,000 or about $ 130 a year over a 100 year life span. (Miller and Armstrong, 1982). The extraction of non-renewable resources (such as composite materials and metals) to be used in Canadian single family houses leads to the immediate destruction of important ecosystems and to air, soil, and water pollution. 14 2.5.3. Energy Consumption Single-family detached houses, because they have a greater exposed surface area, consume significantly more energy for heating and cooling than townhouses or apartments. Single-family dwellings require more energy to construct and operate, and more energy for neighborhood facilities and services (Burby et al, 1982). The production of energy whether it is based on hydro, fossil fuel, or nuclear fuels induces substantial ecological costs. Trees in many areas of the world show traces of damage, a considerable portion of them are virtually dying, mainly due to the pollution generated from the production of energy by combustion processes (e.g., acid rain). The incident at Chernobyl illustrates the high price in human and ecological terms that nuclear generators of energy can induce (Hohmeyer, 1992). Even hydroelectricity has severe ecological costs in terms of damages to the flora and fauna and water supply and quality. 2.5.4. Water Consumption A large quantity of water is used in single family houses throughout their life cycle. "Water is the lifeblood of the planet, without a steady supply of clean, fresh water, all life, including human, would cease to exist" (Environment Canada, 1990). The average daily Canadian domestic water consumption is 350 liters (Ministry of Environment, 1990) more than twice that of U K average of 160 liters and more than 1.5 times the US. average of 220 liters (Vale, 1991). The water to supply human demands is drawn almost entirely from rivers. Only 0.0001 per cent of the earth's water is in rivers. There is enough water in the rivers to supply world population with a little less than 26000 liter/person/year. Despite the apparent abundance in water many people in the world have little or no clean drinking water because rivers are contaminated (Vale, 1991). 15 2.5.5. Pollution Generation A large amount of solid waste is also generated by single family houses. Waste generation starts with the first step, the extraction of raw materials, and continue throughout the life cycle of the building ending with the demolition of the building. The environmental consequences of construction waste are the loss of valuable resources, the loss of the energy embodied in these resources, valuable land occupied as landfill, damage to health, and soil, water, and air pollution. Single family houses are a major contributor to global warming which is one of most serious threat facing our planet. The excessive concentration of C02 and other so called green house gases could lead to an increase of 1.5-4.5 degree Celsius before the year 2030. This increase in the earth temperature will have global physical, chemical, and biotic effects. The Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that 100-200 million hectares of forests will disappear with most of the species living in them. The sea-level will rise between 30-100 centimeters as a consequence of thermal expansion and the melting of glaciers. This will pose serious problems for the low lying nations and coastal zones. IPCC predicts the displacement of millions of people, destruction of low-lying urban infrastructures, inundation of arable lands, and contamination of fresh-waters (Leggett, 1991). Choices in housing type made by Canadians and people of other developed countries, is part of a general trend that includes all areas of human activity. The environmental impact of these choices, combined with the needs of a large population in developing countries, has placed increased pressure on the available resources on the planet. The consequences of uncontrolled resource exploitation and industrial pollution are too high to be sustained by the regenerative and absorptive capacities of the biosphere. The future of human life on this planet could be jeopardized if environmental degradation continues. However, there is increased awareness among people around the world, their governments, and the international institutions of the seriousness of the 16 threats that environmental problems pose. The general secretary of the United Nation formed a commission to study the state of the global environment, and the relationship between the environment and economic development. In 1987, the commission released a document called "Our Common Future" presenting the concept of sustainable development as a solution for the environmental problems facing the planet. 2.6. S U S T A I N A B L E D E V E L O P M E N T The World Conservation Strategy, prepared by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature along with United Nations Environment Program and the World Wildlife Fund, was the first international document to define the concept of "sustainable development"; "For development to be sustainable it must take account of social and ecological factors, as well as economic ones; of the living and non-living resource base; and of the long term as well as the short term advantages and disadvantages of alternative actions." (World Conservation Strategy, 1980) But it was the United Nation's Commission on Environment and Development report "Our Common Future," released in 1987, that popularized the concept of sustainable development. Dr. Brundtland, the Prime Minister of Norway, chaired the Commission composed of a group of 22 members from developed and developing countries. The Commission has defined sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (WCED, 1987). The ability of future generation to meet their needs will be insured by not compromising the productivity of the natural environment. The productivity of the environment can be preserved by 17 keeping the scale of the economy within the carrying capacity of the environment. Defining the carrying capacity of the environment and how it varies across regional, national, or global environments is crucial for determining the implications of sustainability. Carrying capacity is "the maximal population size of a given species that an area can support without reducing its ability to support the same species in the future" (Daly and Ehrlich 1992). The available natural capital, population size and the per capita rate of material consumption and waste generation are factors which affect the carrying capacity of an environment. Not balancing population number and consumption rate will result in consuming the natural capital of the environment rather than living on its "interest". The consequence is the degradation of the environment. Therefore, sustainability requires that a "constant capital stock" (Rees, 1992) be kept to ensure that "each generation could inherit an adequate stock of natural assets alone no less than the stock of such assets inherited by previous generation" (Daly 1989, Constanza and Daly 1990, in Rees 1992). "It is best to at least provisionally assume that we are at or below the range of sustainable stock levels" (Constanza, 1991). So "humankind must learn to live on the annual flows - the 'interest'- generated by remaining stock of natural capital" (Rees, 1990) and allow no further deterioration of the natural capital. The current human per capita resource consumption and waste generation should not exceed what is within the carrying capacity of today's environment. The biologically productive lands and water areas present in the ecosystems of various regions of the planet are natural capital requirements of human carrying capacity. The per capita biologically productive land on the planet is currently approximately 1.6 hectares (WRI, 1992). This figure is diminishing every year as result of the increase in world population and the loss of biological productivity due to deforestation, desertification, urbanization. The rivers and oceans are used primarily, as dumping grounds for waste generated by increasing human activity. This leads to the reduction of the life supporting services offered by these ecosystems. For example, wild fish stocks, the main renewable resource from fresh-water and marine ecosystems, currently provide 18 less than two and a half percent of the human food requirements, and most fisheries are already over-harvested (Wackernagel, 1994). While there are methods available to measure the areas of biologically productive lands and the productivity of these lands, no such methods are available for water areas. Oceanic currents, for example, lead to a significant material and heat exchange between the various areas of the oceans rendering next to impossible, for most cases, to determine the area that corresponds for a certain ecological productive or absorptive function. The analysis of the Ecological Footprint of the Canadian economy, shows that the current per capita appropriated carrying capacity from natural resources in Canada is approximately 4.2 hectares of biologically productive land, (Wackernagel et al, 1993) which is almost three times the per capita biologically productive land currently available on the planet. In a sustainable world economy, the average Canadian would have to reduce his/her Ecological Footprint to less than half of its current size5. The debate about the implications of sustainable development concept for various areas of human activity in Canada and around the world has continued for the last decade. Canadian housing sector, dominated by single family houses, is one of these areas. 2.7. SUSTAINABLE HOUSING The implications of sustainable development on housing can be examined at a variety of levels ranging from the macro to the micro scales. The implications of sustainability on the macro-scale involve the relation between housing sector and other sectors of the built environment (e.g., commercial and transportation areas) and the relationships among different types of housing within 5 Assuming that the global carrying capacity will be considered as the measure of sustainability. 19 the housing sector (e.g., between single family housing and multi family developments). This study is on the micro scale, concerned specifically with the implication of sustainability on a base case study single family detached house. The ecological sustainability of a house depends on three factors; the carrying capacity of the environment, the environmental effectiveness of building's design, and the way in which the house is used. 2.7.1. Sustainable Resources: The sustainable per capita resource consumption and pollution generation level is based on the carrying capacity of the environment. The carrying capacity of an environment is determined by its physical boundaries. Different models (regional, national, or global environments) give different values to determine the sustainability of a house, or any other human activity, because of the uneven distribution of natural resources on the planet. If the measure is the regional environment, the sustainability of an activity depends on the available resources in a region. A level of resource and energy consumption for housing could be sustainable in Vancouver yet not in Toronto. If the measure is the national environment, the amount of resources required by a house could be sustainable in Canada (the Canadian per capita is higher than most of the other countries of the world) but not in Japan. If the measure is global, the determination of the sustainability of a consumption level for a house would be independent from it's geographic location. Once the sustainable limits of resource consumption available for housing in a community are defined, the Ecological Footprint of housing units needed by members of the community should be planned to fall within these limits. The decision would be made, by planning authorities, of how to distribute these units among various housing types. Single family detached house has, and will continue to have (even after optimizing the environmental performance of housing types) the 20 largest Ecological Footprint per occupant. Therefore, it is possible that the available resources for housing in a community will not be enough to build any of these units as single family houses. 2.7.2. The Use of the House: A sustainable house is designed to be operated within certain per capita energy and material consumption levels. A sustainable house designed for four persons may not be sustainable anymore if it is occupied by two persons only. This would represent a waste of land, materials, and energy. The behavior of the occupants also influence the effectiveness of the strategies used in a house in order to make its operation sustainable. The most efficiently designed system may not be efficient if it is used carelessly (e.g., efficient lighting and hot water devices left on when they are not needed). 2.7.3. The design of the house: A sustainable house has to be built, operated and maintained within the sustainable energy and resource limits available to its occupants. Therefore, floor area, available spaces, energy and material consumption should be based on the number of its occupants. The limits of sustainability in Canada, as elsewhere, are currently undetermined, but in a planet so over-stressed ecologically, and where a large number of humans are in desperate need for resources to survive, every effort should be made to minimize the Ecological Footprint of new single family houses. However, even in a housing sector with unsustainable Ecological Footprint such as exists in Canada, there is large difference in the Ecological Footprint of single houses, based mainly on the financial status of their owners. Different house designs should be treated differently. Most of the pressure should be put, by planning authorities, on house designs with large Ecological Footprints. The pressure could be exercised through high levels of taxation and by 21 imposing low operating energy consumption levels obtainable through the use of advanced technologies. The requirements from houses with modest Ecological Footprints should be limited to cost effective strategies (see CHAPTER IV). 22 CHAPTER III: THE "ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT" OF A CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED HOUSE 3.1. I N T R O D U C T I O N The Ecological Footprint of a wood frame single family detached house is defined as the biologically productive land area continuously required to supply the house throughout its life-cycle with energy and resources, and to absorb the waste it discharges. The calculation of the land area is based on the Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity (EF/ACC) method developed by Rees and Wackernagel (Wackernagel, 1993). The method calculates the land area whose carrying capacity has to be "appropriated" to supply an activity with energy and resources and to absorb the waste it discharges throughout its life cycle. 3.1.1. Objectives The purposes of studying the Ecological Footprint of a single family house are: • To provide a better understanding of the environmental consequences of single family houses through the quantification of resources consumed and waste discharged. • To identify areas for potential resource conservation and pollution reduction which may contribute to the improvement of the environmental performance of single family houses. 23 3.1.2. Approach The calculation of the "Ecological Footprint" is based on a life-cycle analysis of the energy and material use of a house distinguishing between initial and recurring values. Materials and energy estimates are converted to areas of biologically productive land using land equivalency procedures. The various categories of biologically productive land are subsequently added to give the Ecological Footprint of the house. 3.1.2.1. Life Cycle Analysis A life cycle analysis is the process of documentation and evaluation of material and energy flow in a product, process, or activity (Liitzkendorf, 1992). The life cycle of a building includes: • the production of the house the use of the house • the maintenance of the house the demolition of the house Resource depletion factors included in a life cycle analysis of a building are: • Land occupation • Resource consumption • Energy Consumption • Water Consumption Pollution generation factors included in a life cycle analysis of a building are: 24 • Air Pollution (e.g. Ozone layer depleting substances and global • Water Pollution • Soil Pollution warming gases) The newly developed E F / A C C method, currently, considers only direct land degradation, renewable resources, and renewable energy factors from consumption area, and C02 emission from pollution area. Research is needed to resolve the difficulties associated with accurate quantification of other factors that should be included in the Ecological Footprint calculation (e.g., the inclusion of water consumption, the regenerative and assimilative role of the oceans, and land requirements of extracting non-renewable resource). These omissions could result in an Ecological Footprint of the house smaller than its actual size. A detailed life cycle analysis of the house is carried out for the following factors: • Land areas occupied directly as a result of developing the house • Building materials used to construct, and maintain the house Energy consumption of the house throughout its life cycle • CO2 emission throughout the life cycle of the house for both energy use and materials production. 25 3.1.2.2. Land Equivalency Calculations Land area equivalency procedures are used to calculate land requirements for the following categories: • Land to produce renewable energy (ethanol). • Forest land to absorb CO2 emission. • Forest land to produce wood. 3.2. HOUSE DESCRIPTION: The base case study is a two storey house with an unfinished full depth basement and attached double garage. The house is designed for 4 persons and composed of 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, a family room, a kitchen, a living and dining rooms. The total floor area of the house is 350 m 2 : 111.6 m 2 are the main floor, 80.6 m 2 are the second floor (Figure 1), 111.6m 2 are the unfinished full depth basement, and 46.2 m 2 are the attached double garage. • The basement foundation walls are of poured concrete, and are insulated with 89 mm fiberglass batts (RSI 2.2). • Exterior walls are 38x89 mm framed and insulated with 89 mm fiberglass batts (RSI 2.2). Interior walls are 38x89 mm framed. • The attic is insulated with 225 mm blown mineral wool (RSI 5.3). • Interior finish on walls and ceilings is a single coat paint plus primer on 12 mm gypsum board. 26 • The floor finish is 3 mm vinyl in the kitchen and bathrooms and carpet everywhere else. • The exterior finish is cedar siding and brick veneer. • Roofing is asphalt shingles. • A l l windows are double glazed. The design of this house is similar to most currently built Canadian single family detached houses. The results obtained in this study, therefore, reflect the conditions of new Canadian single family detached houses. 3.3. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS A detailed life cycle analysis of the house was carried out for the following factors: 3.3.1. Land Occupation: There are two categories of land occupied as a result of developing a single family house: • Direcdy occupied land areas which include the lot on which the house is built and the area from property lines to the center of both the street in front and the back lane. • Indirectly occupied land areas which include lands occupied by the premises for the production and transportation of the energy and materials related to the house, water consumed by the house, and the transportation and treatment of the waste generated 27 throughout the house's life cycle (e.g., hydro reservoirs, factories to produce building materials and components, bridges). Because of the difficulties associated with indirectly occupied land area calculations, only the direcdy occupied land areas are included in the calculation of the Ecological Footprint of the house. Occupied land is one constituent of the Ecological Footprint that is already expressed in land area units. Table 3-1. Detail of Land Areas Occupied Direcdy By The Base Case Study House L A N D CATEGORY AREA Lot size 622.43 m 2 Half the area of the street in front of the house 205.40 m 2 6 Half the area of back lane 62.24 m 2 Total Occupied Land Area 890.07 m 2 Biologically productive land area lost as a result of developing the base case study house is 0.089 ha (Table 3-1). Almost one tenth of a hectare is a large area, and considering the large number of houses built in Canada it represents a major damage of biological productivity. In 1995 alone this would account for the degradation of approximately 89,000 ha of biologically productive land, directly, by single family detached housing. The Ecological Footprint of the house calculates the occupation of the area estimated above throughout 40 years of life cycle. However, the area of biologically productive land degraded as a ^The distance between the property lines of the two houses facing each other across the street is assumed to be twenty meters (Nichols Vandenberg Architects). 28 result of developing a single family house could be much larger than the land occupied by it, and the duration of that loss could be much longer than the useful life of the house because; • These lands are often part of an ecosystem and the occupation of a portion of that ecosystem could degrade an area much larger than the area estimated. • The land, to return to biological productivity, requires that every impact of the house to be eliminated. The land, instead, could be left non productive biologically long after the useful life of the house. The land occupied by streets are much more permanently removed from productivity. 3.3.2 Material Consumption: All building materials, from renewable and non-renewable sources, used throughout the life cycle of the house were estimated. These estimates include: • Initial material required to build the house • Recurring material required to maintain the house. The estimate of both the initial and recurring material consumption includes materials expected to be wasted during construction activities. The Ecological Footprint method currently considers land implication of only renewable resources. Land areas affected by non-renewable resources extraction are excluded because of the difficulty associated with their precise calculation and more importantly because the size of land areas 29 affected by non-renewable resources extraction are irrelevant taken on global scale. Wood is the main source of renewable building materials used in Canadian house construction. The amount of non-renewable materials is estimated despite their exclusion from the Ecological Footprint, so as to understand their relative proportion and the need for such data in life cycle energy analysis. 3.3.2.1. Initial Material Consumption The analysis of the materials used initially to build the house (Table 3-2) shows that the weight of three materials constitute almost 90% of the total weight of the materials used in the house. These materials are; concrete (64.1%), sand and gravel (14.8%), and wood products (9.34%). Concrete is used in two forms; ready-mix Concrete (63.6%), and Concrete Products (0.69%). Wood is used in four forms; lumber and timber (7%), veneer and plywood (1.6%), millwork (0.79%), and paper (0.05%). The total weight of building materials of renewable sources included in the Ecological Footprint is 30385.3 kilograms or 3.04 tonnes-30 Table 3-2 Weight of Building Materials Used In Various Parts Of The House Throughout 40 years of life cycle Commodities Initial Kg Percent Recurring Kg Percent Total Kg Percent Concrete 195347.8 64.13 2090.8 12.32 197438.5 61.39 Wood Products 28462.6 9.34 1922.7 11.33 30385.3 9.45 Sand and Gravel 45142.3 14.82 0 0 45142.3 14.04 Gypsum Products 12064.5 3.96 1206.5 7.11 13271 4.13 Bricks and Tile 11888.4 3.9 1046.9 6.17 12935.3 4.02 Mortar 100 0.03 10 0.06 110 0.03 Insulation 2218.7 0.73 547.0 3.22 2765.7 0.86 Steel 1774.4 0.58 1497.0 8.82 3271.3 1.02 Glass 1276 0.42 85.9 0.51 1361.9 0.42 Paints 138.2 0.05 967.7 5.7 1105.9 0.34 Carpet 464.8 0.15 1766.4 10.41 2231.2 0.69 Asphalt 2529.9 0.83 5057.3 29.8 7587.2 2.36 Plastics 533.9 0.18 475 2.8 1008.9 0.31 Joint Compounds 1854.8 0.61 79.5 0.47 1934.3 0.60 Aluminum 205 0.07 24.6 0.14 229.6 0.07 Cooper 122.2 0.04 145.2 0.86 267.4 0.08 Others 503.6 0.17 46.6 0.27 550.2 0.17 Total 304627 100 16969 100 321596 100 31 3.3.2.2. Waste Materials The percentages used to estimate construction waste are collected from the following sources: "Waste Prevention on Site" by Skoyles and Skoyles which is an in-depth study of British construction practices (OPTIMIZE, 1992). • Data contained in ERG-UBC School of Architecture files. • Construction industries operating in British Columbia. The largest component of construction waste was found to be wood products (44.7%) followed by Gypsum board (21.7%), and concrete (19.03%). Construction waste estimated by this study is higher than figure given by Canadian Builders Association study as the average weight of construction waste in single family houses. The 2.5 ton figure given by the Association seems to be low, the EnviroHome (Nova Scotia's advanced house), for example, despite its on-site waste management program, has generated 3418 kg of on-site construction waste. One of the environmental consequences of construction waste is the loss of further land area to serve as landfill. There are various types of landfills with different land implications. In a landfill with maximum allowable height of 6 meters, for example, (e.g., Eco-waste in Richmond, B.C.), each m 2 of land is able to take 1.5 tonne of construction waste (based on weight to volume ratio of 32 1 tonne = 4 m )^- Assuming that all the construction waste produced in this project will end in landfill, the land area required for construction waste of this house is Total construction waste (5.11) ----- -- - = 3.4 m 2 1.5 t/m2 This area appears to be small, nevertheless, considered on national basis, It means 340,000 m 2 of biologically productive land wasted. There are however, problems related to determining how long the land will be occupied by construction waste. This depends on the characteristics of the landfill (size, depth of waste, type of waste materials) and the economic value of the land. There are techniques followed to reclaim and develop waste landfills. A landfill could be developed for various purposes in just few years after being closed (GVRD, 1995). Because of the difficulty in estimating the duration for which the land will be used as a landfill and the growing tendency to re-use and recycle building materials, land area required for construction waste will not be included in the Ecological Footprint calculation. 3.3.2.3. Recurring Material Consumption The estimation of recurring material consumption is based on the following assumptions: • Maintenance involves replacing less than 100% of a material or component. For a product, the number of repair cycles required is the product life divided by repair intervals corrected for the possibility of forgone repairs near the end of the product life. 33 • Replacement refers to the total replacement (100%) of a material or component. The number of times a component is replaced is given by the building life time divided by product life corrected for the possibility of forgone repairs near the end of the building life. Recurring materials are calculated by first obtaining a replacement factor for each building material used. Replacement factor is created by using a formula which relates the maintenance interval with the expected lifetime of the product and the lifetime of the house7. Recurring amount of a material is obtained by applying the replacement factor to the initial amount of that material. Figures used in the formula for product life (yr), repair intervals (yr), repair percentage (%), and replacement intervals are taken from OPTIMIZE program. Analysis of recurring materials for 40 years of life cycle 8(Table 3-2) shows that the weight of asphalt used as roof shingles (replacement frequency of 15 years) is the main material consumed constituting 29.8% of all recurring materials. The second material is concrete with 12.32% followed by wood with 11.3% (used mainly for kitchen cabinet replacement), carpet with 10.4%, steel with 8.8% (used mainly in appliances), gypsum (7.1%), brick and tile (6.2%), and paint (5.7%). The frequent repair and replacement requirements are the reasons for the high consumption of these materials. Many of the materials used do not need maintenance during a life cycle of 40 years and most of these materials do not need replacement during this period. ^Detail information about the derivation of replacement factor may be seen in Optimize Appendices, 1991: Appendix IV-p x. 8 Assessing the lifespan for a building is a major problem with life cycle analysis. There are factors other than the physical life of a building which influence the termination of a building. These include escalating repair costs and functional and technological obsolescence (OPTIMIZE, 1991). A life cycle of 40 years is used by other studies of life cycle analysis such as Optimize, 1991 and Hood, 1995. 34 Recurring material consumption for two additional life cycles were estimated to assess the performance of recurring materials for periods longer than 40 years life cycle (Table 3-3). The percentage of initial and recurring material consumption from the total life cycle consumption changes in these three life cycles. Initial consumption continues to be higher than the recurring consumption in each of these periods despite a decrease in magnitude with the prolonging of life cycle. Table 3-3. Initial and Recurring Material Relationship Throughout Three Life Cycles. Life Cycle Initial % Recurring % Total % kg kg kg 40 years 304,627 95% 16,969 5% 321,596 100% 60 years 304,627 72% 121,128 28% 425,755 100% 80 years 304,627 68% 140,813 32% 445,440 100% Analysis of recurring material through these three life cycle periods show that recurring material consumption during 60 years life cycle is 121,128 kg which is 613% higher than that of a life cycle of 40 years (16,969 kg), while recurring material consumption in a life cycle of 80 years (140,813 kg) is higher than that of a life cycle of 60 years by only 16%. The reason behind the large increase in the amount of recurring material consumption in the second period (60 years life cycle) is that a large proportion of materials used have a life cycle of 40 to 50 years. Therefore, recurring material consumption during the first 40 years are, primarily, due to maintenance, recurring materials consumed over 60 years of life cycle, instead, include the replacement of large part of the materials used in the building. Recurring consumption over 80 years life cycle is once again due, mainly, to maintenance. 35 3.3.3. Life Cycle Energy Analysis A life cycle energy analysis is the process of determining how much energy a building requires throughout its life cycle. Energy in a buildings is consumed in three ways; operating, embodied, and demolition energy. Operating energy is the energy consumed in heating, cooling, lighting, and operating domestic appliances. • Embodied energy is the energy used to extract or recycle, manufacture, transport and install building products. • Demolition energy is the energy used to demolish a building and haul the debris In analyzing the embodied energy of the house a distinction was made between the initial and recurring embodied energy. • Initial embodied energy is the energy embodied in materials required to initially produce the house; and • Recurring embodied energy is the energy embodied in materials required to maintain the house. 36 The embodied energy includes the energy associated with construction waste. 3.3.3.1. Initial Embodied Energy The analysis of initial embodied energy for the house required the evaluation of its two main components; direct and indirect energy. • Indirect energy is the energy consumed in the production of building materials, their associated transportation during processing and to distribution centers within a region. It forms the larger portion of embodied energy. • Direct energy is the energy actually consumed in the construction of buildings. It represents the final transportation and installation of a component or assembly. Direct energy is estimated to be 7-10% of the initial embodied energy. Calculation of the indirect embodied energy in a house requires the energy intensity of the materials used in that house. Energy intensity is the energy used to produce a given amount of a material. It represents the indirect energy in unit terms either expressed as energy/mass or volume such as MJ/kg or MJ/m 3 or energy/standard unit such as MJ/sheet or block etc. (Cole and Rousseau, 1992). A review of literature from various sources and covering different periods included amongst others' Stein (USA, 1976), Baird and Aun (New-Zealand, 1983), Optimize and Forintek Corp (Canada, 1992 and 1994) has revealed a large variation in energy intensity values for a given material from one source to another. These differences could be accounted for by: 37 • Different Methods of Energy Analysis: Energy analysis is a formalized method for calculating the energy consumed in the production/prevision of goods and services. There are four methods of analysis available (Baird and Aun, 1983): Statistical Analysis, Input-Output Analysis, Process Analysis, Eco-Energetic Analysis. The method used depends mainly on the overall objectives of the analysis and the available data. Statistical analysis, input-output analysis, and process analysis are the most widely used methods to calculate energy intensity of building materials. "Calculation of energy requirements carried out using different conventions and methods will often give different results" (Baird and Aun, 1983). • System Boundary Level: there is no absolute or correct energy intensity of a material (Kohler, 1991). The stated value is a direct function of what was included and what was excluded from its derivation (Cole and Rousseau, 1992). According to IFIAS (Baird and Aun, 1983) there are four boundary levels that can be drawn in calculating energy intensity of a material; Energy to process only, energy to extract material, energy to make capital equipment, and energy to make machines to make machines. The first and the second boundaries cover almost 90% of the total embodied energy in a material. • Production Efficiency: Level of efficiency of the production process is another reason behind these differences. Technology and efficient use of resources are factors that influence the energy intensity figures from different times and geographic areas. • Transportation: the distances that building materials are transported and transportation method used are other reasons that cause differences in energy intensity figures. Energy intensity figures for building materials were collected, mainly, from the following sources; 38 • Forintek Canada Corp. reports "Building Materials in the Context of Sustainable Development". Energy intensity figures in these studies are based on process analysis provided by major Canadian wood, concrete and steel industries directly participant in the studies. • The OPTIMIZE program developed for Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC, 1991). The program uses Statistics Canada Input/Output model of the Canadian economy to generate energy intensity values for 58 commodities produced in Canada, categorized for each of the 8 energy sources (oil, nuclear electric,... etc.). The program has a comprehensive scope, which covers energy requirements from harvesting/mining of raw materials to the distribution of products to retail oudets. The first problem with the program is that limiting the data to only 58 commodities makes the data lack in precision and the second is that time lag between the age of the data and publication of the tables may result in an over-estimation of the energy intensity of current building materials9 (Hood, 1995). • Data contained in the records of U B C Environmental Research Group derived from group's work, national, and international studies. Energy intensity figures were chosen for being the most recent and accurate, and related to the Canadian situation. Energy intensity per unit weight (kg) of each building material were applied to the initial amounts of the material used to obtain the indirect initial embodied energy. The direct initial embodied energy in a building is estimated to constitute 7-10% of the total embodied energy in a building (Stein et al., 1976, Salokangas, 1990 in Cole, 1994). Construction ^There has been a steady decrease in the embodied energy of commodities produced in Canada of approximately 1.0% per year (Hood, 1995). 39 energy in a house depends on the degree of on-site equipment usage, and the distance of the site from distribution centers and workers residence. In estimating the direct embodied energy, a general figure of 7% has been applied to the total initial indirect embodied energy. The estimates of the direct and indirect embodied energy include embodied energy associated with construction waste. The analysis of initial embodied energy (Table 3-4) shows that finish materials (21.18%) have the highest initial embodied energy. Finish materials, carpentry (20.45%), insulation and moisture protection (18.79%), and concrete(14.35%), constitute more than 75% of the total initial embodied energy in the house. Table 3-4 Indirect initial Embodied Energy (See Appendix CI for detail) Sections M J Percent Section-1. Site Work 4 4 4 1 3 . 2 4 .77 Section-2. Concrete 1 3 3 6 8 1 . 5 14.35 Section-3. Masonry 3 1 8 3 9 . 7 3.42 Section-4. Metals 8887 .6 0.95 Section-5. Carpentry v 190466 .6 20 .45 Section-6. Insulation And Moisture Protection 175064 .6 18.79 Section-7. Doors, Windows And Finish Hardware 2 9 7 2 9 . 5 3.19 Section-8. Finishes 197340 .6 21.18 Section-9. Specialties 6939 .6 0.74 Section-10. Cabinets And Appliances 5 0 8 9 1 . 5 5.46 Section-11. Mechanical 51407 .8 5.52 Section-12. Electrical 10906.1 1.17 Total 9 3 1 5 6 8 . 3 1 00 Initial embodied energy = 931568.3 x 1.07 = 996,778 MJ. Initial embodied energy per m 2 of floor area of the house for a life cycle of 40 years = Initial embodied energy (MJ)/ Total floor area of the house (m2) = 996,778 MJ / 350 m 2 =2848 MJ 40 3.3.3.2. Recurring Embodied Energy The recurring embodied energy, like the initial embodied energy is sub-divided into direct and indirect embodied energy. The estimate of indirect recurring embodied energy for the house is obtained by applying building material's energy intensity figures to the amount of recurring building materials. A general figure of 7% has been applied to the total indirect recurring embodied energy to estimate the direct recurring embodied energy. In calculating recurring embodied energy, no provision was made for possible future changes in the energy intensity of building materials needed to maintain the house. The analysis of recurring embodied energy (Table 3-5) shows that finish materials (57.44%), as in initial embodied energy, have the highest embodied energy but in much higher percentage followed by insulation And moisture Protection (20.56%) cabinets and appliances (13.13%), mechanical equipment (3.51%). These high values are due to high replacement rate of the materials included in these sections. Table 3-5. Indirect Recurring Embodied Energy For 40 Years Life Cycle (See Appendix CI for detail) Sections M J Percent Seclion-1. Site Work 1354 .49 0.18 Section-2. Concrete 0 0 Section-3. Masonry 3 2 8 9 . 2 3 0.44 Section-4. Metals 4 2 8 . 6 5 0.06 Section-5. Carpentry 14793 .4 1.98 Section-6. Insulation And Moisture Protection 153409 .6 20 .56 Section-7. Doors, Windows And Finish Hardware 5 6 9 1 . 2 3 0.76 Section-8. Finishes 4 2 8 6 6 5 . 4 7 57.44 Section-9. Specialties 0 0 Section-10. Cabinets And Appliances 9 8 0 1 0 . 2 4 13.13 Section-11. Mechanical 2 6 1 9 7 . 9 8 3.51 Section-12. Electrical 14406 .64 1.93 Total 7 4 6 2 4 6 . 9 4 1 00 41 Recurring embodied energy = 746246.94 x 1.07= 798,484.2 MJ Recurring embodied energy per m 2 of floor area of the house throughout 40 years of life cycle= Recurring embodied energy (MJ)/ Total floor area of the house (m2)= 798,484.2 MJ / 350 m 2= 2281 MJ. Recurring embodied energy for two additional life cycles were estimated (Table 3-6). The percentage of initial and recurring energy from the total embodied energy changes in these three life cycles. Initial embodied energy goes from being the major component of the embodied energy during a life cycle of 40 years to becoming a relatively minor contributor during a 60 and 80 year of life cycles. Table 3-6. Initial and Recurring Energy Relationship Throughout Three Life Cycles. Life Cycle Initial Energy (MJ) 9? Recurring Energ t (MJ) °k Total (MJ) 95 40 years 996778 56% 798484 44% 1795262 100% 60 years 996778 37% 1697310 63% 2694088 100% 80 years 996778 31% 2260927 69% 3257705 100% Comparing recurring embodied energy during these three life cycles shows that prolonging the life cycle of the house by 20 years (from 40 years to 60 years) the recurring embodied energy will increase by 112%. In an additional increase of 20 years (from 60 years to 80 years) there will be an increase in embodied energy of 33% with respect to a life of 60 years. The reason behind the large increase in the recurring embodied energy in the second period 42 examined (60 years life cycle) is that a large part of the materials used have a life cycle of 40 to 50 years. Therefore the recurring embodied energy during the first 40 years is primarily due to maintenance. Recurring energy consumed over 60 years of life cycle, instead, include replacement. Recurring consumption between 60 and 80 years of building life is once again due to maintenance. It is interesting to note the different performances of recurring materials (Table 3-3) and recurring embodied energy (Table 3-6) during these three different life cycles. The percentage of both recurring material and recurring energy is increasing in 60 and 80 years life cycles causing a decline in the percentage of initial materials and energy, however initial materials continues to be the major component of the life cycle material consumption while the percentage of recurring embodied energy is exceeding that of the initial embodied energy. This indicates that the increase in the recurring embodied energy is much higher proportionally than the amount of recurring materials which means that while materials used for repair and replacement are lighter than initial materials but their energy intensities are higher. 3.3.3.3. Demolition Energy: Demolition embodied energy includes the energy consumed in demolishing the house and hauling away debris to landfill. Any use of demolished materials other than as debris (recycle or reuse of materials, components or parts of the house) should be accounted for as the embodied energy of the buildings which they will be used in. There are, currently, no reliable estimates of the demolition embodied energy (ERG, 1994). Because of the uncertainties surrounding demolition embodied energy, it is not included in estimating the total life cycle energy of the house. The total embodied energy of the house (demolition energy excluded) for a life cycle of 40 years is 1,795,262 MJ. The percentage of initial embodied energy from the total embodied energy is 56% 43 and recurring energy is 44%. The total embodied energy per m 2 of floor area of the house is 5.13 G J . 3.3.3.4. Operating Energy The HOT 2000-Version 6 energy analysis program was used to estimate operating energy for the house. This program was developed under the direction of the R-2000 Home program of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. HOT 2000 is a computer program designed to aid in simulation and design of buildings for thermal effectiveness, passive solar heating, and the operation and performance of heating systems by using heat-loss/gain and system performance models (CHBA, 1991). The program estimates the annual operating energy requirements in a house taking into account space heating, water heating, appliances, and lighting (Table 3-7). The program requires input about the geographic location, desired temperature levels, specific building components, and mechanical systems. Space heating in the case study house is provided by a natural gas furnace.and forced air system. No central ventilation system is used. The house is located in Vancouver, B. C . Therefore the results obtained below are based on Vancouver's weather data. Table 3-7. Various Uses of Operating Energy in the House Use Amount GJ/yr Percentaqe Space Heat 65 .35 50 .3 DHW 38 .13 29.4 others 26 .35 20 .3 Total 129 .83 1 0 0 44 Heating ( Space + DHW) energy consumption of the house is 103.48 GJ, while the annual R-2000 target1^ for this house is 75.12 GJ. This means that a 27% reduction in heating requirements would be needed to meet R-2000 target. Comparing operating energies of the base case study (Table 3-7) to that of the average Canadian house, as reported by STAR-HOUSING Database (Table 3-8), the base case study house is 17% lower. This is due largely to climate differences and because the database considers all Canada's housing stock part of which has lower insulation and higher air leakage level than those in the base case study house. Table 3-8. Energy Consumption of A Typical Canadian House As Reported By Star-Housing Database (Hamilton, 1992). USE AMOUNT GJ/yr PERCENTAGE Space Heat 110.9 7 1 % DHW 21.4 1 4 % others 23.9 1 5 % TOTAL 156.2 1 0 0 % The Building Energy Performance (BEPI) 1 1 of the base case study single family house is = 1 0 This energy use target is set by NRCan with partners in the industry. The target must be met in order for a house to be certified as an R-2000 house. The description of how the target is set may be found in "R-2000 Design Approval Procedures and Guidelines". 11 The Building Energy Performance Index (BEPI) is a unit that is used to measure operating energy performance in buildings. It is measured in Giga joules per square meter per year (GJ/m2/yr.) 45 Operating energy (GJ)/ Floor area of the heated spaces in the house (m2)= = 129.83/303.55= 0.427 GJ/m2/yr. Operating energy of the base case study house constitutes 73% of energy consumption during 40 years life cycle. This shows the significance of operating energy in single family houses. 3.3.4. Life Cycle CO2 Emission Life cycle CO2 emission takes into account the CO2 emitted during the initial construction, the operation, and the maintenance of the house. The two types of CO2 emission during the life cycle of the house are; energy related and non-energy related emissions : • energy-related emission is the CO2 generated as a result of fuel combustion. It forms the major component of life cycle CO2 emitted by the house. non energy-related emission is the CO2 generated as a result of processing materials used throughout the life cycle of the house. The amount of energy consumed is not the only factor determining CO2 emission. The type of fuel used to generate the energy is another important factor (Table 3-9). The quantity of CO2 generated by a given fuel type is the product of three parameters: the quantity of fuel consumed, the carbon content of the fuel, and the fraction of the fuel oxidized. 46 Table 3-9. CO2 Emissions For Common Stationary Uses Of Conventional Fuels (Cole and Rousseau, 1992) FUEL/USE C 0 2 (g/ MJ) Distillate Oil (0.5% S) 72.1 Natural Gas/LPG 50 .5 Coal (Bituminous, 3% S) 87 .5 Canadian Electricity 52 .3 The contribution of CO2 emission to the Ecological Footprint of the house is based on calculating CO2 emission during the various stages of the life cycle. 3.3.4.1. Initial C O 2 Emission: Initial CO2 is the sum of the CO2 emitted during production of building materials and in the construction of the house. Many published sources were reviewed to determine CO2 emission figures for the materials used in the base case study house. Because of the direct connection of CO2 emission to energy usage the problems in evaluation of energy consumption also apply to CO2 analysis. Figures for CO2 emission are, therefore, even less accurate than energy figures. CQ2 emission figures for various building materials used were collected from the following sources; • "Building Materials in the Context of Sustainable Development" reports (Forintek Canada Corp., 1994). • Data contained in the records of the U.B.C. Environmental Research Group derived from the group's own work, and from national and international studies. 47 "Healthy House" project final report prepared by Habitat Design+Consulting and Archemy Consultants (CMHC, 1994). For those materials where it was not possible to obtain accurate CO2 emission figures, These figures were calculated by multiplying the global CO2 emission value of 67 mg/MJ (See 3.4.2) to each material's energy intensity figure. Collected CO2 emission figure (g/kg) for each building material was multiplied to the initial amount of that material (kg). CO2 emission associated with construction waste and direct embodied energy are also part of the initial CO2 emissions in the house. Initial CO2 emission data (Table 3-10) shows that concrete has the highest CO2 emission (24.8%) followed by carpentry, finish materials, insulation and moisture protection which together constitute more than 77% of the total initial CO2 emission in the house. Table 3-10. Initial CO2 Emissions Sections Initial (kg) Percent Section-1. Site Work 2787.6 4.8 Section-2. Concrete 14465.1 24.8 Section-3. Masonry 1 920 3.3 Section-4. Metals 548.1 0.9 Section-5. Carpentry 13587.9 23.3 Section-6. Insulation And Moisture Protection 5566.7 9.5 Section-7. Doors, Windows And Finish Hardware 1881.9 3.2 Section-8. Finishes 1 1500.7 19.7 Section-9. Specialties 329.6 0.6 Section-10. Cabinets And Appliances 2284.3 3.9 Section-11. Mechanical 2701.3 4.6 Section-12. Electrical 743.1 1.3 Total 58316.3 1 00 48 The total initial CO2 emission of the house is found to be 58316.3 kg (58.316 tonnes) or 166.62 kg/m 2. 3.3.4.2. Recurring CO2 Emission Recurring CO2 of the house (Table 3-11) is obtained by multiplying CO2 emission figures to the estimated amount of materials to maintain the house. Because of the high replacement rate of materials involved in finish materials section, they are responsible for the largest recurring CO2 emission (69.9%), followed by insulation (10.9%), cabinets and appliances(10.2%), Electrical (2.7%) and mechanical Section (2.6%). Table 3-11. Recurring CO2 Emission Throughout 40 Years Of Life Cycle Sections C 0 2 (kq) Percent Section-1. Site Work 144.9 0.4 Section-2. Concrete 0 0 Section-3. Masonry 198.9 0.5 Section-4. Metals 28 .3 0.1 Section-5. Carpentry 566 .9 1.5 Section-6. Insulation And Moisture Protection 3 9 8 6 10.9 Section-7. Doors, Windows And Finish Hardware 456 .3 1.2 Section-8. Finishes 25641 .4 69.9 Section-9. Specialties 0 0 Section-10. Cabinets And Appliances 3 7 3 2 . 5 1 0.2 Section-11. Mechanical 953 .4 2.6 Section-12. Electrical 992 .2 2.7 Total 3 6 7 0 0 . 9 1 00 The total recurring CO2 throughout 40 years life cycle of the house is found to be 36700.9 kg or 104.86 kg/m 2. 49 3.3.4.3. Operating C O 2 The HOT 2000 program-Version 6 estimates the amount of various fuel types needed to meet the annual operating energy requirements for the house (Table 3-12). Table 3-12. The Annual Operating Fuel Requirements in The Base Case Study House. Fuel Space DHW Appliances Total N. Gas m3/yr 1 625 1023.5 0 2648.5 Elect. kWh/yr 1335.5 0 7320.5 8656 To estimate C02 emission associated with operating energy (Table 3-13), the amount of each fuel used is multiplied to the C02 emission factor for that fuel (Table 3-9). The sum of CO2 emission from these two energy sources is the annual CO2 emission expected to arise from operating the house. Table 3-13. The Annual Operating C02 Emissions in The Base Case Study House. Fuel type Fuel amount Energy production MJ C02 Emission kg N. Gas 2648.5 m 3/yr 98683 4983.5 Electricity 8656 kWh/yr 31162 1629.8 50 The total amount of C02 emission associated with operating energy throughout 40 year of life cycle of the house is 264530.6 kg. The annual operating CO2 emission for a m 2 of heated floor area of the house is found to be 21.8 kg. 3.4. L A N D E Q U I V A L E N C Y C A L C U L A T I O N P R O C E D U R E S Having estimated the quantity of land, energy, renewable resources, and CO2 emission, the next step was to use land equivalency procedures to determine the biologically productive land area capable of producing the resources required and to absorb CO2 emission. The following land equivalency procedures were used to calculate the Ecological Footprint of the house. 3.4.1. Land Required For Renewable Energy (Ethanol) Production The authors of E F / A C C method consider ethanol as the ideal renewable substitute for liquid hydrocarbons. It exhibits similar physical properties, such as heating value or homogeneity, and its ease of transportation and storage. Ethanol could also be a substitute for natural gas because of its low entropic value, and most probably it is superior to coal. Ethanol production depends on two factors; the biological productivity of biomass on a given land area, and the technological efficiency for conversion of biomass into ethanol. Wackernagel has reviewed various studies about how much ethanol can be produced per hectare of arable land (Wackernagel, 1994). The studies are conflicting in their results. They go from a net loss in available energy (Pimentel 1991, Kendrick et al. 1978) to a net yield of a maximum of 101 51 GJ/ha/yr. (Kirk-Othmer 1980). Differences arise due to the assumed source of the energy used in processing biomass into ethanol. All studies which assumed a process energy powered by fossil fuel concluded that ethanol production amounts to a net loss, whereas those assuming a process powered by agricultural waste registered high net yields. In order to make these studies comparable, the different measurements and standards of efficiency used in them were normalized. The farming and harvesting energy for all the studies assumed to be powered by ethanol while the thermal energy for the ethanol processing was assumed to be provided by agricultural waste. Re-evaluation on this bases shows that many of the studies which initially reported a net loss, now show a net gain in low entropy energy. The productivity proposed by a study from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL 1992) in Golden, Colorado is chosen as the energy-land equivalence ratio for ethanol production. This state of the art process depends on fast growing poplar trees as its input and reaches a net ethanol productivity of 80 GJ/ha/yr. Using this value and assuming that the energy required for the base case study house had to be provided by biomass, the calculation of life cycle Ecological Footprint is as follows: Ecological Footprint of the energy required to build the house = Initial embodied energy (996.78 GJ) -- - — =12.46 ha/yr 80 GJ/ha/yr Ecological Footprint of operating energy throughout a life cycle of 40 years would be = 52 5,193,680 MJ = 64.92 ha/yr 80 GJ/ha/yr Ecological Footprint of maintenance energy = Recurring embodied energy (798.48 GJ) = 9 . 9 8 ha/yr 80 GJ/ha/yr Despite the strong argument that fossil fuel is the product of biologically productive lands of the past, and that current consumers should be debited for consuming it, this land will not be included with other land areas in calculating the Ecological Footprint of base case study house because it is an available resource and its generation is not an active part of the environmental mechanism. Fossil fuel availability reduces the current dependency on biomass as an energy source, especially in the developed world. However, the situation in the post-fossil fuel era will be different; biomass could become a major source of renewable energy. But in contrast with current conditions, the land area required for purposes such as CO2 absorption is expected to be considerably reduced. The analysis of renewable energy-land equivalency calculation was useful to show: • the pressure that will be put on biologically productive lands in the post fossil fuel era. • the difficulty associated with renewable energy production and the importance of conserving fossil fuel energy. 53 3.4.2. Land Required For C02 Absorption The equilibrium temperature at the earth's surface is a function of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The rise of C 0 2 concentration would cause the mean earth surface temperature to rise likewise. Following the industrial revolution, the concentration of C O 2 in the atmosphere has been rising. Carbon dioxide has been released in large and increasing quantities as a consequence of fossil fuels combustion and through continuing decrease in the total mass of terrestrial biosphere, i.e., through the destruction of forests. The excessive concentration of C O 2 is the main contributor to global warming which is one of most serious threats facing the planet. (Chapter 2). It is essential to find sufficient sinks to absorb C O 2 and avoid its accumulation in the atmosphere. The most obvious and direct solution is to use photosynthesis to capture the newly emitted fossil C02- Indeed tree planting and the maintenance of "carbon sink" forests is the only currently practical means of sequestering excess atmospheric carbon (Wackernagel, 1994). While the deliberate use of forest as a carbon sink is a relatively new idea, it is estimated that there is 2000 billion metric tones carbon in the world's remaining biomass and soils. This is three times the amount in the atmosphere (Brown et al. 1988:93 in Wackernagel, 1994). The authors of the E F / A C C method provide a simple calculation procedure to determine the land area capable of absorbing C O 2 emitted by the consumption of a given amount of energy. The energy-land equivalence ratio is 100 GJ/ha/year. This ratio is based on a study by Siegenthaler et al. reporting that every year about 5,400x10^ t of carbon is released as a result of fossil fuel combustion. This emission corresponds to a fossil fuel consumption of 300,000 PJ. In other words one GJ of fossil fuel emits about 18 kg of carbon into the atmosphere. Based on the average sequestering capacity of forests (Table 3-14), this means that one hectare of forest could annually sequester the C O 2 emission of 100 GJ of fossil fuel. 54 Table 3-14. The Average C02 Absorption Capacity of Different Types of Forests (Apps et Al. Forest Type CO2 Absorption Global Percentage Average boreal forest 0.5 t carbon/ha/yr 33% Average temperate forest 1.5 t carbon/ha/yr 25% Average tropical forest 3.0 t carbon/ha/yr 42% Average global forest 1.8 t carbon/ha/yr 100% CO2 emission calculation procedure followed in this study which consist in determining CO2 emissions of each material and process should produce more accurate results. The calculation of CO2 contribution to the Ecological Footprint of the house was made in two steps. First, finding CO2 emissions for each material according to various energy sources used, Second, converting the CO2 values to areas of forest land. For this calculation it is essential to find carbon content of a certain amount of CO2. Initial Carbon (t) = Initial CO2 (t) x Carbon content of tonne of CO2 = 58.3 x 0.273 = 15:9 t Then the amount of carbon is converted to its equivalence land area according to the global average of CO2 absorption capacity of the forest. 12 The global average of grassland adds up to about 0.12 t carbon/ha/yr. 55 Initial Carbon 15.9 t Ecological Footprint of initial CO2 = — = 8.84 ha/yr 1.8 t carbon/ha/yr Ecological Footprint of maintenance and operating CO2 throughout 40 years of life cycle = (Recurring CO2 + Operating C02) x Carbon content 1.8 t/ha/yr (36.7+264.53) x 0.273 =45.69 ha/yr 1.8 t/ha/yr The base case study house requires the absorption capacity of 8.84 ha of forest land to absorb the initial CO2 and 45.69 ha of land to absorb the CO2 emitted throughout the 40 years life cycle of the house due to maintenance and operation. The Ecological Footprint calculation of CO2 emissions was repeated by using the procedure followed by Wackernagel and other researchers at U B C Planning school. They estimate the land area required to absorb C02 emitted by a given amount of energy by using 100 GJ/ha/yr ratio. The results obtained as the life cycle CO2 Ecological Footprint differs from the calculation followed by the study, based on the CO2 emission for every single material, by only 0.5 ha/yr. 3.4.3. Land Required For Wood Production Wood is the only renewable resource that is processed to produce building materials for this house. 56 In calculating the Ecological Footprint, the annual productivity of one hectare of forested land is assumed to be 2.3 m3 of roundwood. This is based on the average productivity of Canadian forests which is assumed to be 163 m3/ha (Table 3-15) and based on a 70 years rotation period (the state of Canada's Environment sets cutting cycles of 50-80 years) the average annual productivity of Canadian forest becomes = 163 m3/ha 70 yr -= 2.3 m3/ha/yr. Table 3-15 The Quantity of Wood Fiber in Various Forest Types in Canada (Canada Environment, Forest type Productivity m3/ha Overmature forest in B.C. (only 0.18%) 350 Mature forest in B.C. ( B.C. average) 255 Average forest in Canada 107 Mature forest (Canadian average) 163 The land area requirement in non-sustainable harvest of the forest is different. In 1986, for example, the Canadian roundwood industry harvested 177,097,000 m3 of roundwood from 930,000 ha. This resulted in a "productivity" of 177,097,000 m 3 = 190 M3/ha 930,000 ha 57 The first step in estimating the land area required to produce wood is to convert the various processed wood materials used in the house to roundwood. Two ratios were used; one to convert processed lumber to roundwood (P-R) and the second to convert weight to volume (density). Initial wood (t) x (P-R) 28.5 x 1.29 = — = 70.7 m 3 of roundwood density (t/m3) 0.52 The second step is to convert the roundwood to forest land. roundwood (70.8 m3) = 30.78 ha/yr 2.3 m3/ha/yr Ecological Footprint of wood supply to build the house = 30.78 ha/yr Ecological Footprint of wood needed for maintenance of the house throughout a life cycle of 40 years = 28.5 (t) x 1.29 — - = 2.1 ha/yr 0.52 (t/m3) x 2.3 (m3/ha/yr) 3.4.4. Total Ecological Footprint Calculation The total Ecological Footprint of the house includes land area occupied by the house, forest land area required for C02 absorption, and the land area required to produce renewable resources. 58 The Ecological Footprint of the house is the sum of initial Ecological Footprint and recurring Ecological Footprint obtained, by converting initial and recurring energy and material requirements, separately. Initial Ecological Footprint = directly occupied land + land area for wood productivity + land area for initial CO2 absorption = 0.089 + 30.78 + 8.84 = 39.71 ha/yr Recurring Ecological Footprint throughout 40 years of life cycle = directly occupied land + land area for maintenance wood production + land area for operating and recurring CO2 absorption = 3.56 + 2.1 + 45.69 = 51.35 ha/yr Each year the productivity of 1.28 ha has to be appropriated to operate and maintain the house. The total Ecological Footprint = 39.71 + 51.35 = 91.06 ha/yr of biologically productive land area. The average annual Ecological Footprint of the house would be 2.28 ha The annual per capita housing Ecological Footprint of the occupants will be 0.57 ha. The area of the Ecological Footprint of the house is 1,023 times the area of its physical footprint. 59 Table 3-16. Constituents of The Base Case Study House's Ecological Footprint Land Material C02 Total Initial Ecological Footprint .089 30.78 8.84 39.71 Recurring Ecological Footprint 3.56 2.1 45.69 51.35 Total Ecological Footprint 3.65 32.88 54.53 91.06 3.5. C O N C L U S I O N The quantification of resources consumed and waste generated has provided an improved understanding of the environmental consequences of single family houses. The use of hectares of productive lands as a yardstick by E F / A C C method made it easy to visualize the impact of single family houses on nature. However, the most important results obtained by this study is the identification of areas to be targeted in the process of improving the environmental performance of a single family house. Land area required to absorb C02 is the largest constituent of the Ecological Footprint followed by land area required to produce biomass to generate energy13. These results show clearly that energy as generator of pollution today, and as a resource in the post -fossil fuel era is the most important environmental issue that has to be addressed. Reducing energy consumption as much as possible and using fuel types with low C02 emission should be given the priority when choosing the environmental strategies to reduce the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house. 13 The calculation of Land area required to produce energy (not included in the ecological footprint of the base case study house) has served to reach this conclusion. 60 C H A P T E R IV: S T R A T E G I E S E X A M I N E D IN I M P R O V I N G T H E E N V I R O N M E N T A L P E R F O R M A N C E O F T H E B A S E C A S E H O U S E 4.1. I N T R O D U C T I O N : Analysis of the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house has shown that the most significant environmental impacts are energy-related. In designing an environmentally responsible house, priority should be given to reducing its energy requirements and using energy sources with minimum CO2 emission. The various specialists working in a house should coordinate their efforts, from the initial steps of their work, to consider all factors that can contribute to the reduction of the embodied and operating energy of the house. This Chapter identifies a series of energy and resource efficient strategies which were examined in order to improve the environmental performance of the base case study house. 4.2. S T R A T E G I E S T O M I N I M I Z E L A N D O C C U P A T I O N Two steps were taken to reduce the land area directly occupied by a single family detached house; minimizing lot area and reducing street width. Reducing lot size is a crucial step in improving the environmental performance of a single family house. Generally, municipal by-laws tie the maximum allowable size of a house to the size of the lot in which it is located. Smaller lots result in smaller houses, reduce the length of streets, sidewalks, curbs, gutters, and utilities and produce substantial savings in site preparation. Zoning requirements generally include minimum front-, side- and rear-yard setbacks. These requirements limit the usability of small lots. Affordable housing design has a rich tradition in overcoming these 61 limits. Zero lot line, Z lot configuration, and clustering arrangements are some of the options available to maximize the benefits of a small lot. Zero lot line permits units to be sited on one or more lot lines, making efficient use of available space by creating a single, usable yard area rather than two small and difficult to use narrow sideyards. "Z" lot concept is an adaptation of Zero Lot Line approach. These angled lots expand frontages and expose more of the home to the street. Clustering arrangements are designed to combine higher density, aesthetics, and livability. Clustering can be incorporated into site development plans to preserve open space for community use while reducing development land requirement. Reducing street width in residential areas could result in a substantial land reduction. The width of the street in front of the improved house is assumed to be 16 meters instead of the current 20 meters (Nichols Vandenberg Architects, 1992). Other strategies which could minimize the loss of productive land are: • Avoid building in highly sensitive ecological areas. • Design with minimum impact on the site (e.g., earth sheltered homes) Locate new developments in areas with minimum damage to the biologically productive lands (within existing urban areas, e.g., infill projects). • Maximize efforts to protect existing natural flora on site. • Minimize out-side covered areas and maximize areas of vegetation. 62 4.3. S T R A T E G I E S T O M I N I M I Z E M A T E R I A L C O N S U M P T I O N There are two basic material use strategies in designing environmentally responsible buildings; substitution and reduction (Cole, 1995). • Substitution is using building materials that are considered "environmentally friendly" for characteristics such as durability, renewable source, low energy content, low off-gassing, and recycled content instead of currently used materials that do not have these characteristics. • Reduction involves reducing the quantity of materials normally used in a conventional house. The premise is that buildings could be smaller and less massive and yet meet the needs for which they are built. The combination of material substitution and reduction strategies could potentially result in much more environmentally responsible buildings. The quantity of materials used in the base case house is reduced by designing a smaller house and incorporating other design strategies. A smaller house is considered as the most important feature in a more sustainable house (A.C.E., 1991). The size of the base case study house was reduced without losing any of the amenities. The floor area in the improved version became 129.7 m 2 which is a 33% smaller than the base case study house. The reduction was achieved by designing spaces stricdy for the need of actual occupants of the house, reducing excess circulation spaces and the size of less frequently used areas such as entrance foyers. Large under-used spaces are a waste not only of materials but also of land and energy. Other choices made to reduce material use are: 63 • Eliminating the basement, and thereby conserving a large amount of concrete, steel, and formwork materials. • Obtaining a more compact design and reducing exterior surface area which is one of the most material intensive assemblies in the house. Minimizing interior walls and doors on the main floor. The strategy of using more environmentally friendly materials was not fully implemented in the improved house. The type of materials are kept the same as the original project to achieve a direct comparison between the Ecological Footprints of the two versions. However, this has eliminated the opportunity to choose materials which would have contributed to a further reduction of resource consumption by having recycled content and being durable, reusable, and recyclable. The following are some such strategies; Using advanced framing techniques. • Substituting a carport for the garage. • Using concrete with 20% fly ash additive, which increases its strength from 3000 p.s.i. to 3400 p.s.i. and allows a reduction in the thickness of foundation walls from 200 mm to 150 mm (Loken, 1993). • Reducing the use of solid dimensional lumber products and increasing the use of engineered wood products (finger-jointed studs, stress skin foam core panels, structural panels of plywood skins and honycomb core of phenolic-resin-saturated kraft paper) 64 Using pre-cast concrete to reduce the amount of materials used and wasted, the amount of formwork, noise, dust, and damage to natural and built structures on the job-site and surrounding area. • Using pre-assembled homes or components. • Replacing wall to wall carpeting with wood flooring. 4.3.1. Strategies to Minimize Material Wastage Analysis of the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house shows a large amount of material wasted during construction and maintenance of the house. The reduction principle followed throughout the improvement process should be embraced again to reduce construction waste. Waste reductions could be achieved at the various stages of construction (SPARK, 1991 and C M H C , 1991): • Minimization of site-clearing waste. • Specification of durable and low-packaging materials. • Optimization of materials handling during transportation and delivery. • Improvement of material storage procedures. 65 • Avoidance of inappropriatly ordered materials or materials ordered in surplus which are non-returnable. The use of experienced workforce to optimize the use of purchased materials. • The use of prefabricated elements wherever possible. • Creation of financial incentives for workers to reduce waste. Re-use and recycling strategies should also be followed in waste management. Re-usable materials, components, and parts of the previous building should be diverted from the landfill and re-used in the construction of new houses. Materials that normally are thrown into the disposal bin, such as off-cuts from framing lumber should be re-used as bridging, blocking or forming stakes. Similarly, waste sheet metals should be used for patching. The future re-usability and recyclability of materials used in the new project has to be considered at design and construction stages. Planning for future re-use of materials and components includes the use of durable materials, the use of easy to separate materials and components. Durability and ease of separation of a material increases the probability of it being salvaged and reused. Recycling is the third strategy in waste management and is becoming a growing option in Canada. There are, already, many companies in B.C. which recycle various building materials including, asphalt, cardboard, concrete, gypsum board, land clearing waste, metals and others (SPARK, 1991). Effective waste management requires knowledge of the existence of these centers and planing the transfer of recyclable materials to these centers as early as possible. 66 4.4. S T R A T E G I E S T O M I N I M I Z E E M B O D I E D E N E R G Y The embodied energy of a smaller house is reduced due to the reduction in the amount of materials and the energy required to construct them. Eliminating the basement drastically reduces the amount of concrete usage in the house. The production of cement, a component of concrete, is one of the most energy intensive of all industrial manufacturing processes. About 5000 MJ are consumed to produce one tonne of cement. Further reduction in embodied energy could be achieved by: • Choosing alternative materials with low energy intensities (e.g., wood flooring instead of wall-to-wall carpeting). Using local materials and labor to reduce transportation of material and personnel. • Using efficient construction equipment. • Using the equipment efficiently. • Eliminating exterior sheathing. 4.5. S T R A T E G I E S T O M I N I M I Z E O P E R A T I N G E N E R G Y Operating energy, as shown in the analysis of the base case house, represents 76% of the life cycle energy consumption. Operating energy is the energy consumed for: 67 • Space heating • DHW • Lighting • Operating appliances. 4.5.1. Space Heating Space heating represents 50.3% of operating energy in the base case study, reducing space heating energy therefore, becomes a major goal in improving the environmental performance of single family houses. Space heating energy requirements are a function of Auxiliary space heating = (envelope loss + Air Exchange Losses) - (Useful solar heat gain 1 4 + Useful internal gains15). Reducing envelope and air exchange heat loss and increasing the useful solar gain, therefore, are the main objectives to persue in order to reduce space heating requirements. The use of energy efficient heating equipment could reduce energy consumption further. 4.5.1.1. Improving Envelope Thermal Resistance The envelope of the house includes the exterior walls, roof, floor, windows, and doors. Heat loss through the envelope accounts for 73% of the total heat loss in a typical house (Lencheck et al, 1 4Useful solar gain is the proportion of solar gain that contribute to the reduction in output of a house's heating equipments. The quantity of solar gain that is above the desired heating level is unwanted and solar gain that is not sensed by the thermostat could be considered not useful solar gain.(Yannas, 1994) l ^ A house is considered to be a skin dominated building where operating energy is strongly linked to the thermal characteristics of the envelope. 68 1987). Table 4-1 shows the contribution of each envelope component to total heat loss (CHBA, 1987). Table 4-1. Heat Loss Through Envelope Components. Envelope component Percentage of heat loss Ceiling 11-12% Walls 10-17% Basement floor 15-21% Windows and doors 28-30% Heat flow through an envelope component depends on its thermal resistance and the temperature difference between the inside and outside. The thermal resistance of the envelope is improved by using insulation materials in the walls, roof, floor, and selecting improved performance windows and doors. Insulation Materials: Effective insulation materials should have the following characteristics (EMRC, 1990): • Resistance to heat flow Ability to fill the space completely and evenly • Durability • For some locations, ability to withstand exposure to light, heat or moisture. There are four basic forms of insulation. • Batt or blanket • Loose fill 69 • Rigid boards • Foamed in-place: Table 4-2. Presents Various Type of Insulation Materials (EMRC, 1990, Lencheck et al, 1987, G B G , 199 ). _ _ _ _ T Y P E M A T E R I A L BEST USE RSI/mm Bat Glass fiber Exposed walls and attics 0.022 Bat Mineral wool as above 0.023 Bat Agricultural fiber as above Loose Cellulose-blown Irregul. and inaccessible spaces 0.025 Loose Cellulose-poured as above 0.024 Loose Glass fiber-blown as above 0.02 Loose Glass fiber-poured Open horizontal surfaces 0.021 Loose Mineral wool-blown Vertical and horizontal 0.021 Loose Mineral wool-poured Attics and walls 0.022 Loose Vermiculite-treated Vertical and horizontal 0.016 Loose Vermiculite-untreated Vertical and horizontal 0.017 Loose Perlite insulation Concrete block cavities Rigid Glass fiber board-below grade Below grade exterior 0.029 Rigid Glass fiber board-above grade Above grade sheathing 0.031 Rigid Expanded Polystyrene-low density Interior and ext. sheathing 0.026 Rigid Expanded Polystyrene-high density Ext. foundation walls 0.028 Rigid Extruded Polystyrene-low density Int. and ext. sheathing 0.034 Rigid Extruded Polystyrene-high density Ext. foundation walls 0.035 Rigid Polyurethane and polyisocyanrate At premium spaces .040-.050 Rigid Phenolic foam board-open cell At premium spaces 0.3 Rigid Phenolic foam board-closed cell At premium spaces 1.46 Foam Polyurethane cavities 0.042 Foam Cementitious foam Foam Semi-flexible isocyanurate plastic foam cavities 0.03 In addition to the thermal effectiveness of an insulation material other characteristics are also considered in an environmentally responsible design. The impact on human health, resource and energy use, and ozone layer depleting content should be considered in selecting the type of insulation. Fiberglass batts are currently the most common form of wall insulation and often used under floor cavities and cathedral ceilings. Fiberglass is manufactured by melting silica sand and recently some manufacturers have started to add recycled glass to their mix. This process of 70 manufacturing fiberglass insulation is, therefore, very energy intensive. The possible damage to human health is an important disadvantage of this type of insulation. Fiberglass fibers may constitute a health hazard for workers manufacturing the product as well as those installing it. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has designated all man made mineral fibers as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" (Grady, 1992). Mineral wool consists of natural rock or industrial slag and does not contain toxic additives. Cellulose fiber is made from shredded newsprint and treated with chemicals (borax, and boric acid) that resist fire and fungal growth. Agricultural fiber insulation is available in the form of cotton insulation made with mill waste, low grade, and recycled cotton. It is treated with a non-toxic fire retardant (GBG, 1991). Rigid insulation's employed as sheathing in houses have played an important role in achieving high RSI values. The use of ozone depleting materials used in manufacturing many of these insulation causes environmental concern. Rigid fiberglass, produced from glass fibers, is thought to be the most environmentally benign of the rigid insulation material. Extruded polystyrene insulation is foamed with (CFC) or (HCFC) both of which contribute to ozone depletion. Expanded polystyrene, by contrast, is free from ozone depleting substances. The selection of a certain type and thickness of insulation is influenced by type of structure and the characteristics of other materials composing the assembly. A 38x140 mm exterior wall frame offers the opportunity for higher insulation than 38x89 mm wall and a double wall construction offers the opportunity for even higher insulation levels. The combined RSI value of all the parts that make up the assembly, called the composite RSI value, can be evaluated as if they were one homogeneous material with an average value (Lencheck et al, 1987). Table 4-3 presents RSI values of various envelope components. 71 Table 4-3. The Composite RSI Values of Various Wall and Roof Assemblies (SAR engineering WALLS ROOFS Description R-Value (m 2 C/W) Description R-Value (m 2 C/W) 38x89; RSI 2.4 bat 2.35 RSI 4.9 Blown 5.12 38x89; 25 mm xtps II 2.98 RSI 5.6 Blown 5.83 38x140 filled cavity 3.06 RSI 7.0 Blown 7.24 38x89; 37 xtps I 3.43 RSI 8.8 Blown 9.05 38x140; 25 mm xtps II 3.97 RSI 10.6 Blown 10.85 38x140; 38 mm xtps II 4.16 38x140; 38 mm xtps I 4.44 Windows: Historically, windows have had relatively low thermal resistance due, mainly, to the poor insulating properties of glass. However, window technology is advancing faster than any other single building technology. Windows have, already, undergone substantial improvement in their thermal performance during the last few years. This is due to the following developments; • Use of multiple glazing (double, triple, and quadruple) • Use of low-emissivity coating on the glass surface. Low-e coatings block some of the solar heat (near infrared) from passing through the window; the fraction of solar radiation blocked depends on the amount of coating applied (low, medium, and high levels). Low-e windows also reflect back into the house most of the radiation being emitted by indoor objects. 72 Use of heat mirror films. This works in the same way as low-e windows, except the special low-e coating is applied to thin plastic Heat Mirror films suspended between the two panes of glass rather than onto the glass itself. • Reduction of conductive heat losses by filling between glazings with low-conductivity gas such as argon and Krypton. • Replace aluminum spacers with insulating spacers (e.g., fiberglass, silicone foam) to reduce heat loss through the spacer separating the panes of glass in sealed insulating windows. • Use of vinyl, wood, and thermal broken aluminum frame instead of solid aluminum. Table 4-4. Different Window Types and Their U-Values DESCRIPTION U-VALUE W/m2C Double Glazing and low-e 2.01 Double Glazinq low-e argon 1.88 Double Glazing, low-e, argon, and insulating spacer 1.77 FFV Double Glazing low-e, argon, and insulating spacer 1.61 FFV TG low-e argon insulating spacer 1.25 FFV TG 2 low-e argon 2a 1.06 FG TG 2 low-e 2 argon 1.06 Doors: There are various types of exterior doors with different levels of resistance to heat loss and different environmental characteristics. Wood, steel, and fiberglass doors are available (Kokko and Carpenter, 1993). 73 • Wood Doors: the door industry, forced by declining supply of high quality clear lumber, has moved to innovative ideas to reduce the demand on the traditional solid-wood doors. Products such as finger-jointing and edge gluing of low quality woods are covered with high quality veneers from clear heartwood. Wood doors have lower embodied energy and insulating value than steel and fiberglass doors. The thermal resistance of a typical wood door is 0.45 m 2 .K/W • Steel Doors: Steel doors are made with a thermally broken steel skin over a wood perimeter frame and the center filled with polyurethane foam. A typical steel door offers twice the thermal resistance of a wood door (0.88 m 2-K/W) although the embodied energy is 52% higher. Water-blown polyurethane cores are being developed to replace the current CFC blown polyurethane. • Fiberglass Doors: the construction of fiberglass doors is similar to steel doors. However, the environmental impacts of producing this type of door is lower than steel doors. A fiberglass door has 75% the thermal resistance of a steel door (0.65 m 2.K/W) and has the same embodied energy and life expectancy. 4.5.1.2. Improving Air tightness Air infiltration refers to leakage of cold air into the house and the escape of heated air to the exterior through cracks, windows, and doors. The loss of heat through infiltration is a function of: • The overall air tightness of the house • The temperature and pressure difference between the interior and exterior Wind forces, stack effect, forced ventilation (e.g. bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans) and combustion appliances that draw unheated air into the house through cracks and openings (Table 4-74 5), are all mechanisms which drive air infiltration. Airtightness can be expressed as an air change rate per hour (ACH). Air leakage for a typical house could be as high as 1.5 A C H at normal pressure, whereas in an energy efficient house it could be as low as 0.1 A C H (CHBA, 1987). Table 4-5. The Contribution of Envelope Components To Air Infiltration (National Research CounciHn ERDG-U.S., 1981) Walls and basement floor 60% Ceiling 20% Window and door 20% The airtightness of a house can be quantified by using "Air leakage testing" that measures air changes rate per hour in a house at standardized pressure difference of 50 pascals between indoors and outdoors. This difference is maintained by using equipment to de-pressurize or pressurize the house. Air leakage in new Canadian housing ranges between 2.5-12 A C H at 50 Pa (Mattock, 1995). Another measure of air tightness is Normalized Leakage Area (NLA). This method rates a building envelope in terms of average area of cracks and holes in cm 2 per square meter of envelope area. N L A is considered to be the best comparative measure of airtightness (Mattock, 1995). N L A for new Canadian housing ranges from 0.35 cm 2 /m 2 to 6 cm 2 /m 2 (Mattock, 1995). The improved house will be assumed to incorporate a continuous air barriers which will minimize air infiltration. 4.5.1.3. Solar Design Solar design can reduce the need for auxiliary heating. The degree of benefits from solar heating depends on general climatic and site-specific conditions. Climatic conditions include; daily and 75 seasonal variation in air temperature, the speed, direction, and frequency of seasonal winds, and the amount of solar radiation. Site specific conditions include; topography and surrounding urban development and vegetation. Effective orientation is the most important prerequisite of solar design. The house and the glazed areas should be designed to maximize the useful solar energy by. • Providing a southern exposure to the widest elevation • Avoiding permanent obstruction of sunlight by parts of the same house or other buildings and vegetation. • Shielding the house from winter winds while promoting summer breezes. • Shielding the south glazing from excessive summer sun. The following are three passive solar heating systems. Direct gain: This is the process where the solar energy penetrates glazed areas in a house (windows, clerestories) and strikes the floor and walls which then act as thermal storage elements. Glazing material properties, area, orientation, amount of sunlight, and the availability of shading devices are factors that determine the effectiveness of direct gain. Thermal storage wall: This heating mode involves the use of a dark colored massive wall (positioned between a glazed opening and a living space) that collects solar radiation incoming through the glass and releases it 76 to the living space. Thermal storage walls have found limited acceptance due to their architectural limitations and because of the extreme difficulty in incorporating an effective night-time insulation between the glazing and the wall (Cole, 1993). Attached Sunspace: This strategy develops thermal storage concept by widening the glazed area to form a greenhouse. The greenhouse in addition to providing solar heat creates a new space usable as living space and to grow plants. 4.5.1.4. Mechanical Space heating system: The capacity of space heating equipment is an important factor to determine its efficiency. "It has long been a common practice for residential furnaces and furnace fans to be oversized often by 40% or more" (Marbek, 1993). Heating requirements for an energy efficient house are less than a conventional house. Therefore traditional rules of thumb for sizing of a system will result in further oversizing. A room by room heat loss analysis is necessary in order to have proper sizing of the system. Electric, gas-, oil-, and wood-fired space heating equipment is available. A gas-fired equipment is considered to be the most environmentally benign form of space heating (Yannas, 1994). It has the highest overall efficiency from primary energy to useful heat. Furthermore, gas has the lowest level of C02 emission among fossil fuel types. Electric space heating system is the most efficient system at the point of use, but there is large amount of heat wasted during the generation of electricity. A nuclear plant, for example, produces an amount of heat which is three times the electricity generated. Further 10% of the electricity generated by various plants (nuclear, hydro, fossil fuel) is lost to resistance in transmission lines (Grady, 1992). Heating a house is not 77 considered to be the most efficient use of electricity16 (CMHC.1991). A large number of older houses still use oil fired furnaces, and there are also wood firing equipment in use, mainly as a secondary heat source. Oil and wood fired equipment generates large amount of CO2 and other pollutants both in and out of the house. In an efficient mechanical system, combustion equipment must have an induced venting system or a sealed combustion system which directly draws combustion air from and discharges combustion gases to outside. Active solar space heating systems can provide part of the home's space heating needs. Active solar systems differ from passive systems in using external energy (usually electricity) to pump water or blow air from a solar collector to a separate store or living space. Photovoltaic is a form of active solar systems which can provide clean renewable electricity to be used in operating a house. A photovoltaic system is composed of panels, inverters, charge controllers, wiring, and batteries. The productivity of PV panels depends on their size, rating (the power generated in an hour of direct sunlight), and on daily operating time. PV arrays must be oriented to receive the maximum sunlight. Inverters are used to convert the direct current (DC) produced by the system to alternating power (AC) which is typically used by domestic appliances. Batteries are used to store energy from a PV system for the periods when there is insufficient sunlight. Charge controllers regulate the voltage entering batteries to avoid overcharging the batteries. Mechanical Ventilation: The continuous renewal of indoor air is essential for occupant health and well being. The use of mechanical ventilation is required in an energy efficient house. 16 Not matching resources to the best uses is considered a waste. Using electricity for residential space heating is considered to be a waste of a "high quality resource" in a function that could be accomplished by a "lower quality" fuel. 78 Ventilation system controls the introduction of fresh, clean outdoor air and the extraction of stale, polluted and moisture-laden air from the house. A central system operates more efficiently than a separate system for each function (Lenchek et al, 1987). An efficient ventilation system should be capable of supplying fresh air and exhausting polluted air in each room at a rate that prevents the accumulation of indoor air pollutants. 4.5.2. Domestic Hot Water , Domestic hot water consumes more than 20% of heating requirement in the base case study house. Hot water energy requirement depends on hot water use characteristics, water heater efficiency, and tank heat loss. The average daily demand for hot water in Canada is 78 liters per house. The typical temperature rise for domestic hot water is 45o C (Marbek, 1993). There are two types of domestic hot water systems; the tank type that heats and stores the water and the instantaneous heater. Water is heated by electricity, gas burners, or oil burners. An efficient gas fired hot water tank should be of the induced draft or sealed combustion type. Solar water heating systems are a viable option which could provide up to 40-50% of a family's annual hot water needs. Water solar heating system is composed of solar collectors, circulation system, storage tank, backup heating system, and control system to regulate the overall system operation. Water heating requirements could be reduced as much as 70% by conservation measures such as; installing low-flow shower heads, insulating pipes near the tank and increasing tank insulation (Lenchek et al, 1987). 79 4.5.3. Lighting Daylighting should be maximized in an environmentally responsible house. Daylighting provides a better quality of illumination than electric lighting. Designing for daylight can result in substantial savings in electricity use. The electricity consumed for lighting depends in the size of the house, number of occupants, the amount of natural lighting, number of light fixtures, and the efficiency of lamps used. Almost all residents in BC use incandescent lamps for lighting (Marbek, 1993). Lighting energy use could be reduced through: • Use of energy efficient lamps • Use of task lighting • Use of sophisticated lighting controls Fluorescent lamps should become the first choice in lighting an energy efficient house. Fluorescence produce much higher lumens per watt of electricity consumed (a compact fluorescent bulb delivers about 50 lumens per watt compared to 13 lumens per watt delivered by an incandescent bulb) and last 8 to 24 times longer than incandescent lamps (Grady, 1992). 4.5.4. Efficient appliances More than 50% of all the electricity consumed in the residential sector is used to operate appliances (Marbek, 1993). There are major and minor domestic appliances. Major appliances include; refrigerator, freezer, clothes washer, clothes dryer, dishwasher, and range/microwave. Minor appliances include; small cooking appliances (e.g., toaster, frying pans), television and video recorder, music systems, computers, and electric lawnmowers. 80 The energy consumed by each of these appliances could be reduced drastically by using energy efficient models and by using them efficiently. The efficiency of appliances is improving rapidly. There are new models for all type of appliances that are at least 50% more efficient than models considered efficient just 15 years ago. 4.5. C H O O S I N G A L E V E L O F E N E R G Y C O N S E R V A T I O N An important question to be addressed in energy efficient building design is which of the various strategies examined above should be adopted and on what basis. The factors to consider in adopting an energy conservation strategy are: • Capital cost effectiveness • Life style implications • Balance and Compatibility with other strategies 4.5.1. Cost Effectiveness Technological development in the last twenty years has made achieving any target of operating energy reduction possible. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, for example, has built a completely self-sufficient solar house in Freiburg, Germany. The entire energy demand for heating, domestic hot water, electricity, and cooking is supplied by the sun (Stahl et al, 1994). In Canada, all entries to CMHC's "Healthy house" competition were able to reduce their operating energy needs to 50% of the R-2000 target. These results are obtained by using technologically advanced products and high level of insulation. The use of these products result in very high construction and maintenance costs which make them not cost effective. 81 The adoption of energy efficient strategies is cost effective for the owner as long as the cost of the energy conserved by using them is higher than their capital cost. Cost effectiveness of an energy efficient strategy is not a fixed matter, it depends on climatic conditions, energy cost, capital cost, and the possible inclusion of "external" costs of providing energy. Cost effectiveness seems to be the main obstacle preventing the widespread adoption of advanced energy conserving technologies. This could be overcome through strict energy and material conserving regulations and energy taxes. Tax exemption and subsidies, by governments and utility companies, for modest income people to ensure the affordability of single family houses. Energy codes could also be effective in achieving this goal by assessing houses with different ecological footprint differently. Energy codes, including the national energy code which is expected to be implemented in 1996, are based on a general prescriptive envelope and mechanical system requirements rather than an evaluation of the overall energy performance of the house examined. For example, two houses, "A" and "B" designed to house the same number of people. The energy requirement of "A" is lower than "B" 's because of its efficient design. However, "A" can be penalized if the thermal resistance of some of its envelope does not meet code requirements, whereas "B" can pass by meeting those requirments. The evaluation of energy performance should not be based on the efficiency of certain components of the house, but should instead cover the overall performance of the house. New houses should aim to achieve a standard target of energy consumption considered to be sustainable. This level should be set based on the floor area of the house and on the number of its occupants. Small and efficiently designed houses should be able to meet the target by using only cost effective energy strategies (real or subsidized). All other houses should improve their energy efficiency as much as necessary to meet the target. 4.5.2. Life Style Implications There are many examples around the world of "Autonomous" houses that have achieved complete autonomy from power utilities. Most of these buildings are not technologically sophisticated, but 82 depend instead on various energy and resource efficient features that require continuous occupant involvement. The occupants of these houses, usually experience low comfort levels, especially in extreme weather conditions. The health and well being of occupants should not be sacrificed in order to reduce energy and resource use in a house. Continuous user involvement could be desirable by highly motivated individuals but experience has shown that the public at large do not desire such level of involvement. This is the main reason for the scarcity of the autonomous house experience (Rousseau, 1994). 4.5.3. Balance and Compatibility Among the Various Strategies A building is a system in which each part is related and dependent on other parts of the system. Many of the energy conservation strategies examined could effect positively or negatively other strategies in the specific area or those in other areas. A strategy, therefore, should not be applied in isolation from others. A design strategy to eliminate wasteful spaces, for example, will have positive implication for embodied and operating energy of a building while reducing north facing window area could reduce natural lighting opportunities. A balance should be achieved between various strategies to improve the environmental performance of the house. 4.5.4. Strategies Adopted: The challenge of providing future sustainable houses is to make them affordable and have minimum impact on the life style of the people living in them. The objective of minimizing life style change was already been followed in the design improvement process which led to keeping all the amenities offered in the base case study house. Strategies adopted to reduce operating energy requirements will also have minimum impact on occupants life style. 83 Considering the efforts made to improve the overall environmental performance of the new design, only energy efficient strategies that are cost effective were adopted in the improved project. The strategies adopted to improve thermal performance of the improved house are based on a study prepared by SAR engineering ltd. and Habitat Design+Consulting Ltd. for the British Columbia Ministry of Energy called B C M E M P R N E C H Evaluation. The report contains a detailed costing of envelope components that was carried out using information obtained from building material suppliers and construction contractors in the lower mainland. The results of a detailed life cycle costing analysis for electric, oil and gas heating for five regions1 7 of B.C. are reported. The report presents a table for each envelope component with the L C C values for different RSI levels of that component. The evaluation of the cost effectiveness of each strategy is based on whether the estimated cost of adopting the strategy is lower than the estimated cost of the energy conserved by that strategy. Life cycle cost analysis takes into consideration the fact that the cost of adopting the strategy has to be paid for immediately, yet its benefits will be spread over the life cycle of the component. To find the present worth of the energy conserved over the life span of the strategy, the concept of a "present worth factor" (P) is used. The present worth is calculated by (NECH 1995): PW = C x P or PW= Cx 1-n+aVn a l^These regions are; Lower Mainland (Zone A), Northern Interior (Zone B), Centra Gas Distribution (Zone C), Southern Interior, B C H P A Distribution (Zone D), and Southern Interior, W K P L Distribution (Zone E) 84 Where a = the effective interest rate PW = the present worth of the heating costs over n years P = the present worth factor C = the annual heating cost in the first year n = the number of years under consideration. The calculations of L C C for natural gas heating in the lower mainland were based on the following assumptions; a = 4.95% P = 15.5 C = based on $/m3=.213 n =30 years. The most cost effective strategy for each component examined in the study, in gas heating Zone A (Lower Mainland) is chosen for the house (Table 4-5). Table 4-6. Cost Effective Strategies for B.C. - Zone A, Gas Heating. (SAR engineering ltd. & Habitat Design+Consulting Ltd.) A S S E M B L Y DESCRIPTION RSI Walls 38x89 wall, 89 mm batt, 25 xtps II 2.98 Roof 202 mm Cellulose-Blown (RSI-4.9) 5.12 Windows Double Glazing .393 Ventilation Without heat recovery N/A 85 4.6. S T R A T E G I E S T O MINIMIZE L I F E C Y C L E C02 CO2 emission is, mainly, a result of the amount and type of energy used in the house. A l l strategies used, in every stage of the house's life cycle, to reduce energy consumption will also reduce CO2 emission. The main source of energy used in operating the house will be natural gas which has the lowest amount of C02 emission per M J of energy consumed. There are many other strategies that could be used to reduce C02 emissions further. Using passive and active solar energy strategies such as solar water heating system and photopholtaic panels would reduce dramatically fossil fuel energy consumption and associated CO2 emission. The reduction of concrete use in the improved house have reduced the amount of a non energy-relalated C 0 2 emission. The production of cement is a major source of C02 emission around the world. 4.7. C O N C L U S I O N : This chapter has presented the various possible strategies examined to reduce the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house. The strategies examined offer high potential for Ecological Footprint reduction. However, the adoption of strategies were conditioned by the limits imposed by the method and by the commitment to the principles of cost effectiveness and minimum life style modification. 86 C H A P T E R V: T H E " E C O L O G I C A L F O O T P R I N T " O F T H E I M P R O V E D B A S E C A S E S T U D Y H O U S E 5.1. I N T R O D U C T I O N 5.1.1. Objectives The Ecological Footprint of the improved version of the base case study house is calculated for the following purposes: • To evaluate the consequences of adopting various resource conservation and pollution prevention strategies. • To evaluate the effect of a such reduction on the Ecological Footprint of new Canadian single family houses built each year. 5.1.2. Approach The Ecological Footprint of the improved house is determined, as in the base case study house, by conducting a life-cycle analysis to estimate material and energy consumption, and then using land equivalency procedures to convert the estimates to biologically productive land areas. Life cycle analysis included the same resource depletion and pollution generation factors used in the base case study house. They are land, renewable resources, and energy from resource consumption area and CO2 emission from pollution area. The same land equivalency values were used to calculate the Ecological Footprint. They include the productivity of 80 GJ/ha/yr for renewable energy supply, the global average CO2 absorption capacity of forest at 1.8 ton per ha, and the average annual 87 productivity of Canadian forests of 2.3 ton of wood per ha for wood supply. The calculation of the Ecological Footprint of the improved house is based on the same methods, techniques, figures, and assumptions used in calculating the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house. 5.2. HOUSE DESCRIPTION: The improved house is designed for 4 persons. It is a wood frame two storey house with attached double garage. The total floor area of the house is reduced to 175.9 m2: 75.8 m 2 on the main floor, 53.9 m 2 on the second floor and 46.2 on the attached double garage. A total reduction of 49.7% in floor area is achieved compared to the base case study house (Table 5-1). Table 5-1 A comparison between the area of the improved house and the base case study house. Floor Base Case House m 2 Improved House m 2 Reduction % Basement 111.6 0 1 00 Main 111.6 75.8 3 2 Second 80.6 53.9 3 3 Garage 46 .2 46.2 0 Total 3 5 0 175.9 49 .7 The size of the house is reduced without losing the amenities found in the base case house (Table 5-2). The size of all the spaces in the improved house meet building code requirements. 88 Table 5-2 A comparison between the spaces in both houses. Room Base Case House Improvec House No Area (m2) No Area (m2) Living 1 19.51 1 14.49 Dining 1 11.64 1 11.15 Family room 1 22.60 1 11.15 bedrooms 3 19.22 10.19 8.89 3 10.03 Kitchen 1 14.72 1 12.26 bathrooms 3 2.16 5.76 9.40 3 2.23 3.25 3.90 Den 1 7.64 0 _ Sunspace .0 _ 1 3.34 Utility room 1 4.00 1 4.00 Mechanical room 1 4.63 1 4.98 Double garage 1 41.5 1 41.5 The following is a description of the improved house. • The foundation is a poured concrete slab on grade. 68 mm rigid insulation is used foundation wall and 68 mm expanded polystyrene insulation below concrete floor slab. 89 • Exterior walls (RSI-2.98) are framed with 38x89 mm wood studs and insulated with 89 mm batt (RSI-2.1) and 25 mm extruded polystyrene insulating sheathing (RSI-0.88). Interior walls are 38x89 mm framed. • The attic (RSI-5.12) is insulated with 202 mm (RSI 4.9) cellulose-blown. • Interior finish on walls and ceilings is single coat paint plus primer on 12 mm gypsum board. • The floor finish is 3 mm sheet vinyl in the kitchen and bathrooms with carpet elsewhere. • The exterior wall finish is cedar siding. Roofing is asphalt shingles. All windows are double glazed. 5.3. LIFE C Y C L E ANALYSIS A detailed life cycle analysis of the improved house was carried out based on the following factors: 5.3.1. Land Occupation: A 43% reduction in the total land area directly occupied by the improved house was achieved (Table 5-3) by decreasing lot size and reducing the width of the street in front of the house. Lot size was reduced by decreasing the floor area of the house (Table 5.1) and reducing setbacks. The front-setback is reduced from 6 to 3 meters, rear-setback from 7.6 to 6 meters, western side 90 setback from 1.5 meters to zero lot line. The eastern side setback is increased from 1.5 meters to 2.4 meters. A 43% reduction in the land area occupied by a single family house can reduce, considerably, transportation distances and the length of urban infrastructure. These changes are based on proposals presented in a study prepared for the Regional Municipality of Ottawa (Vandenberg Architects, 1992). Table 5-3. A Comparison Between The Land Occupied Directly by the Base Case and Improved House. The Use Base Case Improved Reduction m 2 m 2 % Lot size 622.42 320.72 48 Area of the street 205.4 120.8 41 Total 890.07 503.76 43 5.3.2 Material Consumption: All building materials, from both renewable and nonrenewable sources, used throughout the life cycle of the house were estimated. These estimates include initial and recurring material consumption. An analysis of the results shows a 49.2% reduction in material consumption compared to the base case study house (Table 5-4). 91 Table 5-4 A comparison of material Consumption in both houses over 40 years Material Consumption Cycle Base Case (kg) Improved (kg) Reduction % Initial 304,627 153,039 49.8 Recurring 16,969 10,394 38.7 Total 321,596 163,433 49.2 The largest reduction in building material use is in concrete. Concrete represent 71.5% of the total weight of the materials conserved in the improved house, followed by brick (7.6%), sand and gravel (6%), lumber and timber (5%), and gypsum products (4%). The remaining (6%) is distributed among all other building materials. A 43.4% reduction in wood products use in the improved house (Table 5-5) was achieved. Table 5- 5. A comparison of Wood-based materials use in both houses over 40 years. The use Base Case kg Improved kg Reduction % Lumber and Timber 21,187 11,690.3 44.8 Veneer and Plywood 5,502 3,277.4 40.4 Millwork 3,584 2,138.6 40.3 Building Paper 159 121.2 23.8 Total 30,432 17,227.5 43.4 The estimate of construction waste (Table 5-6) shows that four building materials; wood products (50.22%), gypsum board (22.95%), concrete (15.14%), and asphalt (4.04%) constitute 90% of 92 the total initial construction waste. The total construction waste from the improved house was reduced by 48% compared to the base case study house. Applying waste reduction strategies examined in Chapter 4 will considerably reduce the amount of waste material that will end up in landfill. In the EnviroHome (Nova Scotia's advanced house), for example, the on-site waste management program was successful in reducing the amount of construction waste ending up landfill to only 33%. 66% of total construction waste was recycled and 6% was reused (CFiBA-NS). Table 5-6. The Estimates of Construction waste in the Improved House. Material Amount of Waste kg Percentage of total Ready-mix Concrete 402.3 15.14 Wood Products 1334.40 50.22 Gypsum basic Products 556.7 20.95 Insulation 50.5 1.90 Steel 6.7 0.25 Glass 21.3 0.80 Paints 0.9 0.03 Asphalt 107.4 4.04 Carpet 13.98 0.53 Plastics 20.4 0.77 Joint compound 33.4 1.26 Aluminum 8.9 0.34 Others 100.18 3.77 Total 2657.00 100.00 93 5.4.3. Life Cycle Energy A life cycle energy analysis was conducted to estimate energy consumption in the improved house including both embodied and operating energy. 5.4.3.1. Embodied Energy In analyzing the embodied energy of the house a distinction was again made between initial and recurring embodied energy. A total of a 31.9% reduction in total embodied energy was achieved (Table 5-7). The changes made were more effective in reducing initial embodied energy (37.7%) than that of recurring embodied energy (24.8%). This is due mainly, to the maintaining of the same materials used in the base case study house in the new project. Choosing alternative materials would result in much higher reduction in recurring embodied energy. Replacing wall to wall carpeting with wood floor alone, would conserve 174,353 MJ in recurring embodied energy throughout 40 years of life cycle. This represents 29% of the total recurring embodied energy of the improved house. Table 5-7. Embodied energy comparison Type of Embodied Energy Base Case MJ Improved MJ Reduction % Initial 996,778 621,159 37.7 Recurring 798,484 600,794 24.8 Total 1,795,262 1,221,953 31.9 94 Maintaining the same materials is also the reason why the embodied energy per square meter of floor area in the improved house for a life cycle of 40 years (6.94 GJ) is higher than the embodied energy per square meter of the base case study house (5.13 GJ). 3.4.3.2. Operating Energy A reduction of 35% in operating energy requirements in the improved house is achieved (Table 5-8). However, the Building Energy Performance Index (BEPI) of this house is 0.478 GJ/m2/year which is higher than the BEPI of the base case study (0.427 GJ/m2/year). The lack of improvement in improved house's BEPI is due to limiting the improvement in operating energy to cost effective strategies and because the unfinished basement is included in base case study house's BEPI calculation despite it is heated at a lower degree than other areas of the house. Table 5-8 Comparison of Life Cycle Energy Consumption in the two houses. Type of Energy Base Case MJ Improved MJ Reduction % Embodied 1,795,262 1,221,953 32 Operating 5,193,680 3,369,866 35 Total 6,988,942 4,591,819 34 In a parallel exercise to explore the potential for operating energy reduction in the improved house, a series of widely available strategies were adopted (Table 5-9). These strategies which are currently not cost effective, have reduced space and domestic water heating requirements to 24,089 MJ, 50% lower than R-2000 target figure. This represents a 60% and 76% reduction in heating requirements with respect to the improved house and the base case study house respectively. The 95 percentage of embodied energy in the total life cycle energy for 40 years becomes 33%, and operating energy 67%. Table 5-9 Various strategies adopted to examine the potential for operating energy reduction in the improved house Advanced Strategies Cost-effective strategies Windows T G + coated/DG + 2 films, Low-E/Heat Mirror, Argon, Insulating, Vinyl, Shutters DG HRV Heat Recovery Ventilator Without (HRV) Heating Air Source Heat Pump Condensing Furnace DHW Solar collector and Gas Gas-fired Walls 38x140; 37 mm xtps I 38x89, 25 mm xtps II Roof RSI 10.6 Blown RSI 4.9 Blown 5.3.4. Life Cycle CO2 Emission Analysis An estimated 33% reduction in life cycle C O 2 emission was achieved in the improved house (Table 5-10). The improvement in recurring C O 2 emissions is the lowest recurring because fast replaced materials such as carpet and asphalt shingles dominate recurring material use. 96 Table 5-10 A comparison between life cycle CO2 emission in both houses Over 40 years. Type of CO2 emission Base Case kg Improved kg Reduction % Initial 58,316 36,240 38 Recurring 36,701 33,063 10 Operating 264,530 171,976 35 Total 359,547 241,279 33 5.4. TOTAL ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT CALCULATION The Ecological Footprint of the improved house is the sum of initial and recurring Ecological Footprints. Initial Ecological Footprint = directly occupied land + initial materials + initial CO2 (Table 5-11) Recurring Ecological Footprint = directly occupied land + recurring materials + recurring C02 absorption (Table 5-11) 97 Table 5-11 Improved house's total Ecological Footprint constituents Life cycle period Direct land Material C O 2 Total ha ha ha ha Initial E F 0.05 18.58 5.500 24.13 Recurring E F 2.02 1.44 31.090 34.55 Total E F 2.07 20.02 36.59 58.68 The Ecological Footprint of the improved house is 58.68 ha of biologically productive lands which is 35.6% smaller than the Ecological Footprint of the base case study house (Table 5-10). Table 5-12 Ecological Footprint Comparison Ecological Footprint Base Case House ha Improved House ha Reduction % Initial 39.71 24.13 39.2 Recurring 51.35 34.55 32.7 Total 91.06 58.68 35.6 A reduction of this magnitude in the Canadian single family housing sector would result in the conservation of vast areas of Canada's biologically productive land used to build new single family houses and maintain and operate them throughout their life cycle. 98 CHAPTER VI: CONCLUSIONS 6.1. INTRODUCTION There is general agreement that sustainability will require that human activity become, significantly, less material and energy intensive than at the present time. This thesis has contributed to the sustainability debate by studying the potential for energy and material conservation and pollution prevention in single family detached housing. 6.2. FINDINGS The thesis has determined the following key conclusions: • Energy is the most important environmental issue related to single family houses. Land areas required to absorb CO2 emission are the largest constituent of the Ecological Footprint of houses followed by land areas required to produce biomass to generate energy. These results show clearly that energy, as a major contributor to CO2 emission today and as a resource in the post-fossil fuel era, is the most important environmental concern that has to be addressed. • Operating energy represents the largest component of energy consumption in a house. It constitutes 76% of the total life cycle energy in the base case study house. Despite the large reduction in the overall operating energy requirements in the improved house, operating energy still accounts for 73% of life cycle energy consumption. The percentage of operating energy 99 was reduced to 67% in the improved house, only, when the use of a series of expensive, technologically advanced strategies were assumed. The reductions obtained in the improved house compared to the base case study house were: Directly occupied land 48.0% Building materials use 49.2% Life cycle energy consumption 34.0% Life cycle CC»2 emission 33.0% To maintain the affordability of single family detached house, the reduction of the ecological footprint is obtained by reducing its size, improving its design and adopting only energy efficient strategies that are cost effective. A 35.6% reduction in the Ecological Footprint of the base study house is obtained. The Ecological Footprint of the improved house is 58.68 ha in comparison to 91.06 ha in the base case study house. A greater reduction could have been achieved without the limits imposed by E F / A C C method use and the commitment of the Ecological Footprint reduction process to the principles of capital cost effectiveness and minimum change in life style. In a parallel exercise to explore the potential for operating energy reduction, the adoption of a series of advanced technologies which, currently, are not cost effective were assumed. The Ecological Footprint of the improved house was reduced to 41.63 ha of biologically productive land. This represents a greater than 54% reduction of the Ecological Footprint over that of the base case study house. 100 6.3. T H E V A L U E O F T H E E F / A C C M E T H O D • The Ecological Footprint method provides the basis for comparing the magnitude of various environmental factors by using a single indice (hectares of productive land areas) to measure elements (land, energy, materials) which otherwise have different measurement units with no immediate connection among them. • Using land area which is a tangible direct physical unit made the environmental impact of single family house easy to visualize. It is much easier to relate to a m 2 of land area rather than a GJ of energy or a kg of CO2. • The method clearly shows the link between the various competing human activities and available natural resources and how the carrying capacity appropriated by one activity diminishes the carrying capacity that can be appropriated by others. • By defining resource consumption and pollution in terms of biologically productive land area, whose availability is limited, the method has effectively demonstrated the limits to growth in human economy. Continuing growth in human activity would require an infinite supply of biologically productive lands. • The method was effective in analyzing the environmental impact of the base case study house and identifying the areas to be targeted in the process of improving the environmental performance of the house. • The Ecological Footprint of the house does not include indirectly occupied land areas, land implications of extracting non-renewable materials, construction and demolition waste landfills, and demolition energy because of the difficulties associated with their calculation. As result of 101 these omissions, the Ecological Footprint of the projects examined in this thesis are smaller than their actual size. Not including every possible impact of the materials that could potentially be used in a house, has limited the ability of the study to use more environmentally benign materials in place of those used by base case study. The use of a material whose impacts are all included in its Ecological Footprint instead of another for which they are not, or vice versa, would lead to an unfair comparison. The magnitude of the environmental impact of an activity can be underestimated by some of current Ecological Footprint procedures. The area of biologically productive lands degraded by a building or any other project, for example, could be much larger than the specific land it occupies. The specific land area is often part of an ecosystem and the occupation of a portion of that ecosystem could destroy a large part, if not the entire ecosystem. .5. S U G G E S T I O N S A B O U T T H E M E T H O D The method, currently, considers biomass as the only choice to supply an activity with renewable energy. Renewable energy sources other than biomass ( wind, solar, hydro, hydrogen, geothermal) should be considered as potential suppliers of energy. 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Bond Ltd. 110 APPENDIX A l : BASE CASE STUDY HOUSE LIFE CYCLE CALCULATIONS: INITIAL. Item/Location Qnty No Units Tot Qty Conver -sion As Buit Waste Initial w t IJnit a E Initial E E C02 Initial C02 to kg kg kg kg MJ/kg MJ g/kg kg SECTION 1 SITE WORK 1 CONCRETE FLATWORK Driveway 14.0 1.00 Yd3 14 1,797 25158 125.79 25,283.8 0.75 18,962.8 75 1,896.3 Sidewalks 1.0 1.00 Yd3 1 1,797 1797 8.99 1,806.0 0.75 1,354.5 75 135.4 Patio 3.0 1.00 Yd3 . 3 1,797 5391 26.96 5,418.0 0.75 4,063.5 75 406.3 SITE DRAINAGE 4" perforated plastic pipe perimeter footing drainage 220.0 1.00 Ft 220 0.500 110 5.50 115.5 160 18,480.0 508 58.6 3/4" course gravel backfill 11.8 1.00 Yd3 11.75 1,468 17249 0.00 17,249.0 0.09 1,552.4 6 108.5 SECTION 2 CONCRETE F O R M W O R K BASEMENT FOUNDATI ON Strip footing forms 428.0 0.20 Ft 85.6 1.695 145.092 7.25 152.3 5.8 883.6 449 68.4 Pad footing forms 92.0 0.20 Ft 18.4 0.339 6.2376 0.31 6.5 5.8 38.0 449 2.9 Pedestal forms 25.0 0.20 Ft 5 1.018 5.09 0.25 5.3 5.8 31.0 449 2.4 Slab edge forms 18.0 0.20 Ft 3.6 0.678 2.4408 0.12 2.6 5.8 14.9 449 1.2 Grade beam forms 3.0 0.20 Shts 0.6 24.390 14.634 0.73 15.4 5.8 89.1 449 6.9 Foundation wall forms 106.0 0.20 Shts 21.2 24.390 517.068 25.85 542.9 5.8 3,148.9 449 243.8 Retaining wall forms 13.0 0.20 Shts 2.6 24.390 63.414 3.17 66.6 5.8 386.2 449 29.9 1x2 level strip 271.0 0.20 Ft 54.2 0.169 9.1598 0.46 9.6 5.8 55.8 449 4.3 Exterior bsmnt strs frms 40.0 0.20 Ft 8 1.018 8.144 0.41 8.6 5.8 49.6 449 3.8 Exterior steps foims(ply) 1.0 0.20 Shts 0.2 24.390 4.878 0.24 5.1 10.04 51.4 559 2.9 Exterior steps foimsflmbr) 16.0 0.20 Ft 3.2 1.018 3.2576 0.16 3.4 5.8 19.8 449 1.5 2x4 keyway 214.0 0.20 Ft 42.8 0.678 29.0184 1.45 30.5 5.8 176.7 449 13.7 CAST IN PLACE CONCF LETE 1 BASEMENT FOUNDATION Strip Footings 8.0 1.00 Yd3 8 1797 14376 71.88 14,447.9 0.75 10,835.9 75 1,083.6 Footing pads 2.5 1.00 Yd3 2.5 1797 4492.5 22.46 4,515.0 0.75 3,386.2 75 338.6 Basement floor slab 12.3 1.00 Yd3 12.25 1797 22013.25 110.07 22,123.3 0.75 16,592.5 75 1,659.2 Garage floor slab 6.0 1.00 Yd3 6 1797 10782 53.91 10,835.9 0.75 8,126.9 75 812.7 Grade beam 2.3 1.00 Yd3 2.25 1797 4043.25 20.22 4,063.5 0.75 3,047.6 75 304.8 Foundation wall 5i.5 1.00 Yd3 51.5 1797 92545.5 462.73 93,008.2 0.75 69,756.2 75 6,975.6 Ext basement stairs 1.3 1.00 Yd3 1.25 1797 2246.25 11.23 2,257.5 0.75 1,693.1 75 169.3 Exterior steps 0.5 1.00 Yd3 0.5 1797 898.5 4.49 903.0 0.75 677.2 75 67.7 Retaining walls 4.8 1.00 Yd3 4.75 1797 8535.75 42.68 8,578.4 0.75 6,433.8 75 643.4 REINFORCING Structural slabs rebar 65.0 1.00 Ft 65 0.473 30.745 1.54 32.3 36.05 1,163.8 2326 75.1 Garage floor slab w.w.m. 495.0 1.00 Ft2 495 0.100 49.5 2.48 52.0 48 2,494.8 2648 137.6 CONCRETE ACCESSOR IES 111 1/2" dia Anchor bolts 58.0 1.00 No 58 0.130 7.54 0.15 7.7 45 346.1 2747 21.1 Damproofing 1475.0 1.00 Ft2 1475 0.680 1003 50.15 1,053.2 2.5 2,632.9 632 665.3 Granular fill under bsmnt slab 17.0 1.00 Yd3 17 1127.0 19159 0.00 19,159.0 0.03 574.8 6 120.5 Granular fill under garage slab 7.8 1.00 Yd3 7.75 1127.0 8734.25 0.00 8,734.3 0.03 262.0 6 54.9 6 mil poly moisture barrier 1094.0 1.00 Ft2 1094 0.013 14.222 0.71 14.9 28.6 427.1 508 7.6 1/2" expansion joint filler 159.0 1.00 Ft 159 0.045 7.155 0.36 7.5 38 285.5 0.0 S E C T I O N 3 MAS ONRY C O N C . B L O C K W A L L S 8"x8"xl6" solid blocks 32.0 No 32 22.680 725.76 14.52 740.3 1.32 977.2 81 60.3 Reinforcing wall ties 28.0 No 28 0.057 1.596 0.08 1.7 45 75.4 2747 4.6 M A S O N R Y VEN1 : E R Common bricks 1710.0 No 1710 3.100 5301 106.02 5,407.0 2.50 13,517.6 139 750.7 Mortar 1.5 1.00 Yd3 1.5 31.750 47.625 2.38 50.0 1.80 90.0 106 5.3 Metal wall ties 170.0 No 170 0.057 9.69 0.48 10.2 45 457.9 2747 27.9 Split face cone. block-4"xl2"xl6" 84.0 No 84 15.500 1302 65.10 1,367.1 1.32 1,804.6 81 111.4 M A S O N R Y F I R E P L A C E S Common bricks 1747.0 No 1747 2.040 3563.88 71.28 3,635.2 2.50 9,087.9 139 504.7 Fire bricks 180.0 No 180 3.310 595.8 0.00 595.8 2.5 1,489.5 139 82.7 12"xl6"x8" flue linings 20.0 No 20 12.700 254 5.08 259.1 2.5 647.7 139 36.0 Mortar 1.5 1.00 Yd3 1.5 31.750 47.625 2.38 50.0 1.8 90.0 106 5.3 Metal wall ties 190.0 No 190 0.057 10.83 0.54 11.4 45 511.7 2747 31.2 8"x8" cast iron clean out doors 1.0 No 4.536 4.536 0.00 4.5 28 127.0 1730 7.8 5"x8" cast iron ash dumps 1.0 No 3.180 3.18 0.00 3.2 28 89.0 1730 5.5 Metal dome damper 1.0 No 10.210 10.21 0.00 10.2 28 285.9 1730 17.7 Fireplace lintel angles 1.0 No 6.270 6.27 0.31 6.6 28 184.3 1730 11.4 Hearth finish 1.0 No 10.000 10 0.50 10.5 2.5 26.3 139 1.5 Combustion air kit 1.0 No 5.000 5 0.25 5.3 28 147.0 1730 9.1 Tight fitting glass doors 1.0 No 40.000 40 0.00 40.0 20 800.0 1044 41.7 brick 181.0 No 181 3.100 561.1 11.22 572.3 2.50 1,430.8 139 79.5 S E C T I O N 4 M E T A L S S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L Steel angle lintels 30.0 1.00 Ft. 30 2.430 72.9 3.65 76.5 28 2,143.3 1730 132.4 N A I L S 314.4 1.00 Lb 314.4 0.454 142.7376 7.14 149.9 45 6,744.4 2534 379.8 S E C T I O N 5 C A R P E N T R Y R O U G H C A R P E N T A R Y B A S E M E N T F O U N D A T I O N F R A M I N G Exterior Walls Precut 2x6 25.0 7.77 Ft 25 7.910 197.75 19.78 217.5 5.80 1,261.6 449 97.7 Plates 2x6 88.0 1.00 Ft 88 1.018 89.584 8.96 98.5 5.80 571.5 449 44.2 Interior Walls Headers 2x10 32.0 1.00 Ft 32 1.696 54.272 5.43 59.7 5.80 346.3 449 26.8 Furring studs 0.0 2x3 125.0 1.00 Ft 125 0.509 63.625 6.36 70.0 5.80 405.9 449 31.4 Furring Plates 2x3 326.0 1.00 Ft 326 0.509 165.934 16.59 182.5 5.80 1,058.7 449 82.0 112 Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10 114.0 1.00 Ft 114 2.142 244.188 24.42 268.6 5.80 1,557.9 449 120.6 2x12 300.0 1.00 Ft 300 2.572 771.6 77.16 848.8 5.80 4,922.8 449 381.1 Posts and Columns 6x6 5.0 8.00 Ft 40 6.353 254.12 25.41 279.5 5.80 1,621.3 449 125.5 3" diameter steel columns 5.0 No 5 31.840 159.2 7.96 167.2 28.00 4,680.5 1996 333.7 45# Asphalt felt 25.0 1.00 Ft2 25 0.047 1.175 0.06 1.2 12.01 14.8 632 0.8 FIRST FLOOR F RAMING Joists 2x10 D. Fir 1128.0 1.00 Ft 1128 2.142 2416.176 241.62 2,657.8 5.80 15,415.2 449 1,193.3 2x2 188.0 1.40 Ft 263.2 0.509 133.9688 13.40 147.4 5.80 854.7 449 66.2 2x2 36.0 1.20 Ft 43.2 0.396 17.1072 1.71 18.8 5.80 109.1 449 8.4 Solid Blocking 2x10 62.0 1.00 Ft 62 1.695 105.09 10.51 115.6 5.80 670.5 449 51.9 Sill Plates 2x4 165.0 1.00. Ft 165 0.678 111.87 11.19 123.1 5.80 713.7 449 55.3 Capillary Break Polyethylene foam sill gasket 165.0 1.00 Ft 165 0.001 0.165 0.02 0.2 160.00 29.0 4836 0.9 Subflooring 5/8" T&G Plywood 38.0 Shts 38 24.390 926.82 46.34 973.2 10.04 9,770.5 559 544.0 Sublloor adhesive 12.0 No. 12 0.910 10.92 0.55 11.5 97.00 1,112.2 1551 17.8 FIRST STOREY 1 EXTERIOR WA1 LLS Walls Precut 2x6 165.0 7.77 . Ft 165 7.910 1305.15 130.52 1,435.7 5.80 8,326.9 449 644.6 2x6 75.0 1.00 Ft 75 1.018 76.35 7.64 84.0 5.80 487.1 449 37.7 Plates 2x6 960.0 1.00 Ft 960 1.018 977.28 97.73 1,075.0 5.80 6,235.0 449 482.7 Headers 2x10 34.0 1.00 Ft 34 1.695 57.63 5.76 63.4 5.80 367.7 449 28.5 Sheathing 3/8" Plywood 50.0 Shts 50 14.630 731.5 73.15 804.7 10.04 8,078.7 559 449.8 Beams Built up D.Fir 2x8 14.0 1.00 Ft 14 1.717 24.038 2.40 26.4 5.80 153.4 449 11.9 2x10 170.0 1.00 Ft 170 2.142 364.14 36.41 400.6 5.80 2,323.2 449 179.8 2x12 310.0 1.00 Ft 310 2.572 797.32 79.73 877.1 5.80 5,086.9 449 393.8 Posts and Columns 6x6 1.0 8.00 Ft 8 3.053 24.424 2.44 26.9 5.80 155.8 449 12.1 FIRST STOREY NTERIOR WALLS Walls Precut 2x4 105.0 7.77 Ft 105 5.268 553.14 55.31 608.5 5.80 3,529.0 449 273.2 Plates 2x4 420.0 1.00 Ft 420 0.681 286.02 28.60 314.6 5.80 1,824.8 449 141.3 SECOND STORE V FLOOR SYS1 rEM Joists 2x10 SPF 800.0 1.00 Ft 800 1.695 1356 135.60 1,491.6 5.80 8,651.3 449 669.7 Cross bridging 2x2 66.0 1.40 Ft 92.4 0.509 47.0316 4.70 51.7 5.80 300.1 449 23.2 2x2 30.0 1.20 Ft 36 0.396 14.256 1.43 15.7 5.80 91.0 449 7.0 Solid Blocking 2x10 27.0 1.00 Ft 27 1.695 45.765 4.58 50.3 5.80 292.0 449 22.6 113 Subflooring 5/8" T&G Plywood 26.0 Shts 26 24.390 634.14 63.41 697.6 10.04 7,003.4 559 389.9 Subfloor adhesive 12.0 No 12 0.910 10.92 1.09 12.0 97.00 1,165.2 1551 18.6 SECOND STORY EXTERIOR W/t iLLS Walls Precut 2x6 110.0 7.77 Ft 110 7.910 870.1 87.01 957.1 5.80 5,551.2 449 429.7 2x6 10.0 1.00 Ft 10 1.018 10.18 1.02 11.2 5.80 64.9 449 5.0 Plates 2x6 588.0 1.00 Ft 588 1.018 598.584 59.86 658.4 5.80 3,819.0 449 295.6 Headers 2x10 32.0 1.00 Ft 32 1.695 54.24 5.42 59.7 5.80 346.1 449 26.8 Sheathing 3/8" Plywood 33.0 Shts 33 14.630 482.79 24.14 506.9 10.04 5,089.6 559 283.4 Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10 48.0 1.00 Ft 48 2.142 102.816 10.28 113.1 5.80 656.0 449 50.8 SECOND STORY INTEF IOR WALLS Walls Precut 2x4 100.0 7.77 Ft 100 5.268 526.8 52.68 579.5 5.80 3,361.0 449 260.2 Plates 2x4 420.0 1.00 Ft 420 0.678 284.76 28.48 313.2 5.80 1,816.8 449 140.6 ROOF SYSTEM Ceiling Joists 2x4 SPF 40.0 1.00 Ft 40 0.678 27.12 2.71 29.8 5.80 173.0 449 13.4 2x6 SPF 160.0 1.00 Ft 160 1.018 162.88 16.29 179.2 5.80 1,039.2 449 80.4 Dropped ceiling furring 2x4 284.0 1.00 Ft 284 0.678 192.552 19.26 211.8 5.80 1,228.5 449 95.1 Roof Framing Rafters 2x8 SPF 546.0 1.00 Ft 546 1.359 742.014 74.20 816.2 5.80 4,734.0 449 366.5 2x10 SPF 132.0 1.00 Ft 132 1.695 223.74 22.37 246.1 5.80 1,427.5 449 110.5 2x12 StrJ Rafters 2x4 42.0 1.00 Ft 42 0.678 28.476 2.85 31.3 5.80 181.7 449 14.1 Ridge board 2x10 4.0 1.00 Ft 4 1.695 6.78 0.68 7.5 5.80 43.3 449 3.3 Exterior Soffit Framing 2x4 471.0 1.00 Ft 471 0.678 319.338 31.93 351.3 5.80 2,037.4 449 157.7 Ledgers 2x4 9.0 1.00 Ft 9 0.678 6.102 0.61 6.7 5.80 38.9 449 3.0 Sheathing 1/2" Plywood 79.0 Shts 79 19.500 1540.5 77.03 1,617.5 10.04 16,240.0 559 904.2 Strapping 1x4 4321.0 1.00 Ft 4321 0.339 1464.819 146.48 1,611.3 5.80 9,345.5 449 723.5 H Clips 316.0 1.00 Ft 316.0 0.540 170.64 0.00 170.6 28.00 4,777.9 1730 295.2 EXTERIOR FINI SH CARPENTRY | EXTERIOR FINISH Siding Wood 1x6 3456.0 1.00 Ft 3456 0.434 1499.904 149.99 1,649.9 5.80 9,569.4 449 740.8 Building Paper 2613.0 1.00 Ft2 2613 0.022 57.486 0.00 57.5 33.60 1,931.5 1045 60.1 Plywood 1/2" Plywood 2.0 Shts 2 19.500 39 1.95 41.0 10.04 411.1 559 22.9 114 Corner trim 1x4 185.0 1.00 Ft 185 0.340 62.9 6.29 69.2 5.80 401.3 449 . 31.1 SOFFIT AND FASCIA Fascia board 2x8 278.0 1.00 Ft 278 1.359 377.802 26.45 404.2 5.80 2,344.6 449 181.5 Barge board 2x10 16.0 1.00 Ft 16 1.695 27.12 1.90 29.0 5.80 168.3 449 13.0 Soffit Perforated aluminum 429.0 1.00 Ft2 429 0.091 39.039 1.95 41.0 274.00 11,231.5 4667 191.3 INTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY STAIRS Basement to first storey Stringers 2x10 28.0 1.00 Ft 28 1.695 47.46 3.32 50.8 5.80 294.5 449 22.8 Treads 2x12 42.0 1.00 Ft 42 2.036 85.512 5.99 91.5 5.80 530.7 449 41.1 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood 1.0 Shts 1 19.500 19.5 1.37 20.9 10.04 209.5 559 11.7 Handrail 2x8 SPF 24.0 1.00 Ft 24 1.395 33.48 2.34 35.8 5.80 207.8 449 16.1 Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood 1.0 Shts 1 24.390 24.39 1.22 25.6 10.04 257.1 559 14.3 First to second store; i Stringers 2x10 28.0 1.00 Ft 28 1.695 47.46 3.32 50.8 5.80 294.5 449 22.8 Treads 2x12 42.0 1.00 Ft 42 2.036 85.512 5.99 91.5 5.80 530.7 449 41.1 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood 1.0 Shts 1 19.500 19.5 1.37 20.9 10.04 209.5 559 11.7 Handrail 0 0.00 0.0 2x4 19.0 1.00 Ft 19 0.678 12.882 0.90 13.8 5.80 79.9 449 6.2 Balusters 56.0 No 56 0.239 13.384 0.94 14.3 5.80 83.1 449 6.4 Newels 2.0 No 2 7.080 14.16 0.99 15.2 5.80 87.9 449 6.8 Landing joists 2x8 SPF 24.0 1.00 Ft 24 1.359 32.616 2.28 34.9 5.80 202.4 449 15.7 Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood 1.0 Shts 1 24.390 24.39 1.71 26.1 10.04 262.0 559 14.6 SECTION 6 INSULATIO V AND 1 VIOISTL RE PROTECTION INSULATION Basement walls Fiberglass 89mm (3 1/2") batt 1600.0 1.00 Ft2 1600 0.104 166.4 8.32 174.7 22.3 3,896.3 904 157.9 First floor walls Fiberglass 152 mm (5 1/2") batt 1544.0 1.00 Ft2 1544 0.171 264.024 13.20 277.2 22.3 6,182.1 904 250.6 Second floor walls Fiberglass 152 mm (5 1/2" ) batt 900.0 1.00 Ft2 900 0.171 153.9 7.70 161.6 22.3 3,603.6 904 146.1 Fiberglass Vaulted ceiling/152 mm (5 1/2" ) batt 235.0 1.00 Ft2 235 0.171 40.185 2.01 42.2 22.3 940.9 904 38.1 Attic Insulation/M.wool (R40) 1709.0 1.00 Ft2 1709 0.871 1488.539 74.43 1,563.0 22.3 34,854.1 904 1,412.9 DAMPROOFING Basement under slab 6 mil poly 1710.0 1.00 Ft2 1710 0.013 22.23 1.11 23.3 28.6 667.6 508 11.9 Basement wall spray on damp 1596.0 1.00 Ft2 1596 0.680 1085.28 54.26 1,139.5 2.5 2,848.9 508 578.9 115 Basement wall 6 mil poly damp 1470.0 1.00 Ft2 1470 0.013 19.11 0.96 20.1 28.6 573.9 508 10.2 Sill gasket 193.0 1.00 ft 193 0.001 0.193 0.01 0.2 160.0 32.4 4836 1.0 VAPOUR BARR1 ER Basement walls 1596.0 1.00 Ft! 1596 0.013 20.748 1.04 21.8 28.6 623.1 508 11.1 Hist floor walls 1544.0 1.00 Ft2 1544 0.013 20.072 1.00 21.1 28.6 602.8 508 10.7 Second floor walls 900.0 1.00 Ff2 900 0.013 11.7 0.59 12.3 28.6 351.4 508 6.2 Attics 1709.0 1.00 Ft2 1709 0.013 22.217 1.11 23.3 28.6 667.2 508 11.9 Band joists 236.0 1.00 Ft2 236 0.013 3.068 0.15 3.2 28.6 92.1 508 1.6 0 0.00 0.0 AIR B A R R I E R 0 0.00 0.0 Basement walls Caulking 3.0 No 3 0.227 0.681 0.03 0.7 160.0 114.4 4836 3.5 First floor walls Caulking 3.0 No 3 0.227 0.681 0.03 0.7 160.0 114.4 4836 3.5 Second floor walls Caulking 4.0 No 4 0.227 0.908 0.05 1.0 160.0 152.5 4836 4.6 Attic Ceiling Caulking 4.0 No 4 0.227 0.908 0.05 1.0 160.0 152.5 4836 4.6 Band joists Caulking 6.0 No 6 0.227 1.362 0.07 1.4 160.0 228.8 4836 6.9 F L A S H I N G A N D S H E E T M E T A L Wall to roof flashing 100.0 1.00 Ft 100 0.042 4.2 0.21 4.4 26.0 114.7 1945 8.6 Window and door head flashings. 97.0 1.00 Ft 97 0.042 4.074 0.20 4.3 26.0 111.2 1945 8.3 2" aluminum soffit vent 278.0 1.00 Ft 278 0.400 111.2 5.56 116.8 274.0 31,992.2 4667 544.9 Gutter-Aluminium 278.0 1.00 Ft 278 0.162 45.036 2.25 47.3 274.0 12,956.9 4667 220.7 Valley flashing 115.0 1.00 Ft 115 0.233 26.795 1.34 28.1 26.0 731.5 1945 54.7 Skylight flashing 40.0 1.00 Ft 40 0.042 1.68 0.08 1.8 26.0 45.9 1945 3.4 Roof vents 5.0 No 5 0.200 1 0.00 1.0 26.0 26.0 1945 1.9 Roof edge 278.0 1.00 Ft 278 0.042 11.676 0.58 12.3 26.0 318.8 1945 23.8 5"x7" leaf flashing 8.0 1.00 Ft 8 0.042 0.336 0.02 0.4 26.0 9.2 1945 0.7 Chimney chase caps 1.0 No 1 2.000 2 0.10 2.1 26.0 54.6 1945 4.1 R O O F I N G M A T E .RIALS 15# Building Paper 2527.0 1.00 Ft2 2527 0.022 55.594 2.78 58.4 33.6 1,961.4 1045 61.0 Roofing finish Asphalt shingles 2527.0 1.00 Ft2 2527 0.953 2408.231 120.41 2,528.6 27.7 70,043.4 632 1,598.1 SECTION 7 DOORS WIN DOWS AND KI NISH HARDWA RE DOORS & FRAMES EXTERIOR SWINGING 3'-0"x6'-8" 1 3/4" thick metal 3.0 No. 3 20.480 61.44 0:00 61.4 28 1,720.3 1945 119.5 2'-8"x6'-8" 1 3/4" thick metal 1.0 No. 1 30.300 30.3 0.00 30.3 28 848.4 1945 58.9 13/4" thick metal 2.0 No. 2 30.300 60.6 0.00 60.6 28 1,696.8 1945 117.9 SIDELIGHTS l'-0"*5'-0" wood frame:wood 2.0 No. 2 3.000 6 0.00 6.0 5.8 34.8 449 2.7 r-0"*5'-0" wood frame:glass 2.0 No. 2 15.100 30.2 1.51 31.7 20 634.2 1044 33.1 INTERIOR SWING ING 0 0.00 0.0 0.0 2'-8"x6'-8" 1.0 No. 1 13.150 13.15 0.00 13.2 5.8 76.3 449 5.9 2'-6"x6'-8" 7.0 No. 7 12.250 85.75 0.00 85.8 5.8 497.4 449 38.5 2'-4"x6'-8" 2.0 No. 2 11.340 22.68 0.00 22.7 5.8 131.5 449 10.2 BI-FOLD DOORS 2'-0"x6'-8" 1.0 No. 1 12.700 12.7 0.00 12.7 5.8 73.7 449 5.7 3'-0"x6'-8" 1.0 No. 1 17.620 17.62 0.00 17.6 5.8 102.2 449 7.9 4'-0"x6'-8" 2.0 No. 2 24.950 49.9 0.00 49.9 5.8 289.4 449 22.4 5'-0"x&-8" 1.0 No. 1 30.370 30.37 0.00 30.4 5.8 176.1 449 13.6 POCKET DOORS c/w track and hardware 2'-6"x6'-8" 1.0 No. 1 16.330 16.33 0.00 16.3 5.8 94.7 449 7.3 2'-8"x6'-8" 1.0 No. 1 16.780 16.78 0.00 16.8 5.8 97.3 449 7.5 116 1 OVERHEAD DOORS 9'x7' 2.0 No. 2 51.450 102.9 0.00 102.9 5.8 596.8 449 46.2 AUTOMATIC OPEJ NER 2.0 No. 2 18.140 36.28 0.00 36.3 5.8 210.4 1898 68.9 WINDOWS (wood) Size 2'-0"x5'-0"-F 4.0 No. 4 3.770 15.08 0.00 15.1 5.8 87.5 449 6.8 2'-0"x5'-0"-g 4.0 No. 8 15.120 120.96 6.05 127.0 20 2,540.2 1044 132.5 3'-0"x3'-0"-F 1.0 No. 1 3.170 3.17 0.00 3.2 5.8 18.4 449 1.4 3'-0"x3'-0"-g 1.0 No. 2 13.610 27.22 1.36 28.6 20 571.6 1044 29.8 3,-0"x4,-0"-F 2.0 No. 2 4.530 9.06 0.00 9.1 5.8 52.5 449 4.1 3,-0"x4'-0"-G 2.0 No. 4 18.400 73.6 3.68 77.3 20 1,545.6 1044 80.6 3'-0"x5'-0"-F 1.0 No. 1 5.430 5.43 0.00 5.4 5.8 31.5 449 2.4 3'-0"x5'-0"-G 1.0 No. 2 22.680 45.36 2.27 47.6 20 952.6 1044 49.7 4'-0"x2'-0"-F 2.0 No. 2 3.020 6.04 0.00 6.0 5.8 35.0 449 2.7 4'-0"x2'-0"-G 2.0 No. 4 12.100 48.4 2.42 50.8 20 1,016.4 1044 53.0 4'-0"x3'-0"-F 1.0 No. 1 4.530 4.53 0.00 4.5 5.8 26.3 449 2.0 4'-0"x3'-0"-G 1.0 No. 2 18.150 36.3 1.82 38.1 20 762.3 1044 39.8 4'-0"x3'-6"-F 2.0 No. 2 5.290 10.58 0.00 10.6 5.8 61.4 449 4.8 4,-0,'x3'-6"-G 2.0 No. 4 21.170 84.68 4.23 88.9 20 1,778.3 1044 92.8 4'-0"x5'-0"-F 1.0 No. 1 7.560 7.56 0.00 7.6 5.8 43.8 449 3.4 4'-0"x5'-0"-G 1.0 No. 2 30.240 60.48 3.02 63.5 20 1,270.1 1044 66.3 4'-0"x4'-0"-F 1.0 No. 1 6.050 6.05 0.00 6.1 5.8 35.1 449 2.7 4'-0"x4'-0"-G 1.0 No. 2 24.190 48.38 2.42 50.8 20 1,016.0 1044 53.0 4'-0"x5'-0''-F 1.0 No. 1 7.560 7.56 0.00 7.6 5.8 43.8 449 3.4 4'-0"x5'-0"-G 1.0 No. 2 30.240 60.48 3.02 63.5 20 1,270.1 1044 66.3 5'-0"x2'-6"-F 1.0 No. 1 4.830 4.83 0.00 4.8 5.8 28.0 449 2.2 5'-0"x2'-6"-G 1.0 No. 2 18.900 37.8 1.89 39.7 20 793.8 1044 41.4 5'-0"x3'-0"-F 1.0 No. 1 5.440 5.44 0.00 5.4 5.8 31.6 449 2.4 5'-0"x3'-0"-G 1.0 No. 2 22.680 45.36 2.27 47.6 20 952.6 1044 49.7 5'-0"x4'-0"-F 1.0 No. 1 7.560 7.56 0.00 7.6 5.8 43.8 449 3.4 5'-0"x4'-0"-G 1.0 No. 2 30.240 60.48 3.02 63.5 20 1,270.1 1044 66.3 6'-0"x4'-0"-F 1.0 No. l 9.070 9.07 0.00 9.1 5.8 52.6 449 4.1 6'-0"x4,-0"-G 1.0 No. 2 36.290 72.58 3.63 76.2 20 1,524.2 1044 79.5 5' diameter 1/2-F 1.0 No. 1 3.290 3.29 0.00 3.3 5.8 19.1 449 1.5 5' diameter 1/2- G 1.0 No. 2 22.680 45.36 2.27 47.6 20 952.6 1044 49.7 4'diameter 1/2-F 1.0 No. 1 2.820 2.82 0.00 2.8 5.8 16.4 449 1.3 4' diameter 1/2- G 1.0 No. 2 20.410 40.82 2.04 42.9 20 857.2 1044 44.7 FINISH HARDWARE Locksets 5.0 No. 5 1.500 7.5 0.00 7.5 60 450.0 2747 20.6 Passage Sets 6.0 No. 6 1.500 9 0.00 9.0 60 540.0 2747 24.7 Privacy Sets 5.0 No. 5 1.500 7.5 0.00 7.5 60 450.0 2747 20.6 Bifold Pulls 8.0 No. 8 0.057 0.456 0.00 0.5 60 27.4 2747 1.3 Door Stops 15.0 No. 15 0.400 6 0.00 6.0 45 270.0 2747 16.5 Threshdolds 5.0 No. 5 0.500 2.5 0.00 2.5 60 150.0 2747 6.9 Sweeps 5.0 No. 5 0.023 0.115 0.00 0.1 60 6.9 2747 0.3 Weather stripping 5.0 No. 5 0.089 0.445 0.00 0.4 60 26.7 2747 1.2 Latch 2.0 No. 2 0.300 0.6 0.00 0.6 60 36.0 2747 1.6 Dead bolts 3.0 No. 3 1.500 4.5 0.00 4.5 60 270.0 2747 12.4 Safety chain 3.0 No. 3 0.500 1.5 0.00 1.5 60 90.0 2747 4.1 Closets Rods 29.0 1.00 Ft 29 0.084 2.436 0.12 2.6 5.8 14.8 449 1.1 Shelves 49.0 1.00 Ft 49 0.914 44.786 2.24 47.0 5.8 272.7 559 26.3 Rod Brackets 14.0 No. 14 0.914 12.796 0.64 13.4 5.8 77.9 449 6.0 Shelf Brackets 24.0 No. 24 0.454 10.896 0.54 11.4 5.8 66.4 449 5.1 SECTION 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOAR Joint tape 500' 14.0 1.00 No 14 1.590 22.26 1.11 23.4 28 654.4 1045 24.4 Joint compound 1425.0 1.00 No 1425 0.454 646.95 32.35 679.3 2 1,358.6 134 91.0 Metal corner beads 30.0 1.00 No 30 0.054 1.62 0.08 1.7 28 47.6 1730 2.9 BASEMENT EXTERIOR WALLS 1/2" regular [1596.0 1.00 Ft2 1596 0.911 1453.956 145.40 1.599.4 7.4 11,835.2 352 563.0 BASEMENT CEILINGS 5/8" regular 11201.0 1.00 Ft2 1201 1.134 1361.934 136.19 1,498.1 7.4 11,086.1 352 527.3 FIRST FLOOR EXTERIOR WALLS 1/2" regular |1544.0 |1.00 Ft2 1544 0.911 1406.584 140.66 1,547.2 7.4 11,449.6 352 544.6 117 FIRST4 FLOOR INTERIOR WALLS 1/2" regular |2240.0 1.00 Ft2 2240 0.911 2040.64 204.06 2,244.7 7.4 16,610.8 352 790.1 FIRST FLOOR CEILINGS 5/8" regular |868.0 1.00 Ft2 868 1.134 984.312 98.43 1,082.7 7.4 8,012.3 352 381.1 SECOND FLOOR EXTERIOI WALLS I 1/2" regular |900.0 |1.00 Ft2 900 0.911 819.9 81.99 901.9 7.4 6,674.0 352 317.5 SECOND INTERIOR FLOOR WALLS 1/2" regular 1756.0 1.00 Ft2 1756 0.911 1599.716 159.97 1,759.7 7.4 13,021.7 352 619.4 1/2" water resistant 100.0 1.00 Ft2 100 1.134 113.4 11.34 124.7 7.4 923.1 352 43.9 SECONDFLOOR CEILINGS 5/8" regular 1047.0 1.00 Ft2 1047 1.134 1187.298 118.73 1,306.0 7.4 9,664.6 352 459.7 FLOORING Vynel 198.0 1.00 Ft2 198 0.635 125.73 6.29 132.0 160 21,122.6 10496 1,385.6 Carpet 1900.0 1.00 Ft2 1900 0.233 442.7 22.14 464.8 160 74,373.6 10496 4,878.9 PAINT Basement interior walls 1596.0 1.00 Ft2 1596 0.012 19.152 0.19 19.3 76 1,470.1 858 16.6 Basement ceiling 1201.0 1.00 Ft2 1201 0.012 14.412 0.14 14.6 76 1,106.3 858 12.5 First floor exterior walls 1544.0 1.00 Ft2 1544 0.012 18.528 0.19 18.7 76 1,422.2 858 16.1 First floor interior walls 2240.0 1.00 Ft2 2240 0.012 26.88 0.27 27.1 76 2,063.3 858 23.3 First floor ceiling 1201 1.00 Ft2 1201 0.012 14.412 0.14 14.6 76 1,106.3 858 12.5 Second floor exterior walls 900.0 1.00 Ft2 900 0.012 10.8 0.11 10.9 76 829.0 858 9.4 Second floor interior walls 1856.0 1.00 Ft2 1856 0.012 22.272 0.22 22.5 76 1,709.6 858 19.3 Second floor ceilings 868.0 1.00 Ft2 868 0.012 10.416 0.10 10.5 76 799.5 858 9.0 SECTION 9 SPECIALTIES BATHROOM ACCESSORIES Towel bar 3.0 No 3 0.91 2.721 0.00 2.7 60 163.3 1996 5.4 Paper holder 3.0 No 3 0.45 1.362 0.00 1.4 90 122.6 1996 2.7 Soap holder/grab bar 3.0 No 3 4.00 12 0.00 12.0 29.4 352.8 0.0 Shower doors 1.0 No 1 60.00 60 0.00 60.0 20 1,200.0 1044 62.6 Bath tub doors 1.0 No 1 50.00 5o 0.00 50.0 20 1,000.0 1044 52.2 Medicine Cabinets 2.0 No 2 16.00 32 0.00 32.0 28 896.0 1945 62.2 Mirrors 5'-0"x4'-0" 1.0 No 1 30.00 30 0.00 30.0 27.23 816.9 1044 31.3 6'-6"x4*-0" 1.0 No 1 39.30 39.3 0.00 39.3 27.23 1,070.1 1044 41.0 8'-0"x4'-0" 1.0 No 1 48.40 48.4 0.00 48.4 27.23 1,317.9 1044 50.5 SECTION 10 CA BINETS AND APPLIAN CIES CABINETS Kitchen counter tops & wall splash 22.0 1.00 Ft 22 7.50 165 8.25 173.3 10.4 1,801.8 559 96.8 Kitchen base cabinets 20.0 1.00 Ft 20 20.00 400 20.00 420.0 10.4 4,368.0 559 234.8 Kitchen upper cabinets 21.0 1.00 Ft 21 15.00 315 15.75 330.8 10.4 3,439.8 559 184.9 Pantry & Broom closets 1.0 1.00 No 1 82.00 82 4.10 86.1 10.4 895.4 559 48.1 Bathroom vanity tops & wall splash 21.0 1.00 Ft 21 7.50 157.5 7.88 165.4 10.4 1,719.9 559 92.4 Bathroom base cabinets 21.0 1.00 Ft 21 20.00 420 21.00 441.0 10.4 4,586.4 559 246.5 Laundry counter tops & wall splash 5.0 1.00 Ft 5 7.50 37.5 1.88 39.4 10.4 409.5 559 22.0 Laundry room base cabinets 5.0 1.00 Ft 5 20.00 100 5.00 105.0 10.4 1,092.0 559 58.7 Laundry room upper cabinets 5.0 1.00 Ft 5 15.00 75 3.75 78.8 10.4 819.0 559 44.0 Dropped fluorecent ceiling 1.0 1.00 No 1 4.00 4 0.20 4.2 10.4 43.7 559 2.3 Island 1.0 1.00 No 1 20.00 20 1.00 21.0 10.4 218.4 559 11.7 KITCHEN & LA JNDRY EQUIPMENT Washer 1.0 | |No 1 70.00 70 0.00 70.0 80 5,600.0 2837 198.6 118 Dryer 1.0 No 70.00 70 0.00 70.0 80 5,600.0 2837 198.6 Refrigerator 1.0 No 80.00 80 0.00 80.0 80 6,400.0 2837 227.0 Range Hood 1.0 No 10.00 10 0.00 10.0 80 800.0 2837 28.4 Range 1.0 No 50.00 50 0.00 50.0 93.952 4,697.6 2837 141.9 Microwave 1.0 No 35.00 35 0.00 35.0 80 2,800.0 2837 99.3 Dishwasher 1.0 No 55.00 55 0.00 55.0 80 4,400.0 2837 156.1 Garburator 1.0 No 15.00 15 0.00 15.0 80 1,200.0 2837 42.6 SECTION 11 MECHANICAL ROUGH IN PLUMBING Polybutylene Supply Lines 1/2" dia piping 260.0 1.00 Ft 260 0.021 5.46 0.27 5.7 87 498.8 508 2.9 3/4" piping 64.0 1.00 Ft 64 0.039 2.496 0.12 2.6 87 228.0 508 1.3 1/2" fs 12.0 No 12 0.025 0.3 0.02 0.3 87 27.4 508 0.2 1/2" connectors 20.0 No 20 0.227 4.54 0.23 4.8 87 414.7 508 2.4 Supply header 1.0 No 1 6.804 6.804 0.34 7.1 87 621.5 508 3.6 ABS Waste Lines 0 0.00 0.0 1 1/2" pipe 138.0 1.00 Ft 138 0.136 18.768 0.94 19.7 87 1,714.5 508 10.0 1 1/2" 90 el 15.0 No 15 0.066 0.99 0.05 1.0 87 90.4 508 0.5 1 1/2" 45 el 10.0 No 10 0.041 0.41 0.02 0.4 87 37.5 508 0.2 1 1/2" T 3.0 No 3 0.090 0.27 0.01 0.3 87 24.7 508 0.1 1 1/2"Trap 5.0 No 5 0.150 0.75 0.04 0.8 87 68.5 508 0.4 1 1/2" Clean Out 2.0 No 2 0.098 0.196 0.01 0.2 87 17.9 508 0.1 2" 90 el 78.0 No 78 0.095 7.41 0.37 7.8 87 676.9 508 4.0 2" 45 el 15.0 No 15 0.060 0.9 0.05 0.9 87 82.2 508 0.5 2"T 10.0 No 10 0.145 1.45 0.07 1.5 87 132.5 508 0.8 2" Trap 3.0 No 3 0.299 0.897 0.04 0.9 87 81.9 508 0.5 2" Clean Outs 4.0 No 4 0.150 0.6 0.03 0.6 87 54.8 508 0.3 3" 45 el 44.0 No 44 0.204 8.976 0.45 9.4 87 820.0 508 4.8 4"T 52.0 No 52 0.812 42.224 2.11 44.3 87 3,857.2 508 22.5 PLUMBING FIX TURES Water heaters 1.0 No 1 75.000 75 0.00 75.0 80 6,000.0 2837 212.8 Water closet 3.0 No 3 40.000 120 0.00 120.0 29.4 3,528.0 2837 340.5 Bathroom sink 3.0 No 3 20.000 60 0.00 60.0 29.4 1,764.0 1929 115.7 Kitchen sink 1.0 No 1 25.000 25 0.00 25.0 45 1,125.0 2454 61.4 Showers 1.0 No 1 50.000 50 0.00 50.0 29.4 1,470.0 1929 96.4 Tub/shower 2.0 No 2 300.000 600 0.00 600.0 29.4 17,640.0 1929 1,157.2 Hose bibs 2.0 No 2 0.100 0.2 0.00 0.2 29.368 5.9 1927 0.4 Laundry tub 1.0 No 1 10.000 10 0.00 10.0 29.4 294.0 1929 19.3 HEATING FORCED AIR Furnace Gas Furnace 1.0 No 1 85.000 85 0.00 85.0 80 6,800.0 2837 241.2 Filter 1.0 No 1 0.100 0.1 0.00 0.1 12 1.2 787 0.1 Floor registers 16.0 No 16 0.500 8 0.00 8.0 45 360.0 2837 22.7 R/A grilles 5.0 No 5 0.500 2.5 0.00 2.5 45 112.5 2837 7.1 Dampers 2.0 No 2 0.250 0.5 0.00 0.5 45 22.5 2837 1.4 Gas piping 150.0 1.00 Ft 150 0.500 75 3.75 78.8 28.23 2,223.1 1945 153.2 Electrical connection 1.0 No 1 0.100 0.1 0.01 0.1 23.071 2.4 1513 0.2 VENTILATION Bath fans 2.0 No 2 2.500 5 0.00 5.0 60 300.0 3936 19.7 Bath fan low sone 1.0 No 1 5.000 5 0.00 5.0 60 300.0 3936 19.7 Controls 1.0 No 1 0.300 0.3 0.00 0.3 32.956 9.9 2162 0.6 0 0.00 0.0 SECTION 12 ELECTRICAL 0 0.00 0.0 ELECTRICAL ROUGH IN 0 0.00 0.0 U/G PVC connection box 1.0 No 1 0.272 0.272 0.00 0.3 87 23.7 508 0.1 2" PVC conduit 8.0 1.00 Ft 8 0.322 2.576 0.00 2.6 87 224.1 508 1.3 2" PVC L.B. Box 1.0 No 1 0.771 0.771 0.00 0.8 87 67.1 508 0.4 2" PVC couplings 4.0 No 4 0.100 0.4 0.00 0.4 87 34.8 508 0.2 Circuits 0 0.00 0.0 #2 bare copper wire 20.0 1.00 Ft 20 0.091 1.82 0.09 1.9 29.457 56.3 1932 3.7 6'x5/8" galv st gmdng ids 2.0 1.00 No 2 3.000 6 0.30 6.3 32.956 207.6 2162 13.6 119 200 amp main breaker 1.0 1.00 No 1 30.000 30 0.00 30.0 32.956 988.7 2162 64.9 14-2 NMD copper wire 2000.0 1.00 Ft 2000 0.029 58 2.90 60.9 29.457 1,793.9 1932 117.7 14-3 NMD copper wire 1000.0 1.00 Ft 1000 0.038 38 1.90 39.9 29.457 1,175.3 1932 77.1 12-2 NMD copper wire 35.0 1.00 F £ 35 0.072 2.52 0.13 2.6 29.457 77.9 1932 5.1 10-3 NMD copper wire 6.0 1.00 Ft 6 0.122 0.732 0.04 0.8 29.457 22.6 1932 1.5 8-3 NMD copper wire 30.0 1.00 Ft 30 0.182 5.46 0.27 5.7 29.457 168.9 1932 11.1 FIXTURES WALL OUTLETS Duplex 45.0 No 45 0.250 11.25 0.00 11.3 71.02 799.0 4659 52.4 Half switched 5.0 No 5 0.250 1.25 0.00 1.3 71.02 88.8 4659 5.8 G.F.I. 3.0 No 3 0.250 0.75 0.00 0.8 71.02 53.3 4659 3.5 Waterproof 2.0 No 2 0.250 0.5 0.00 0.5 71.02 35.5 4659 2.3 SWITCHES 0 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 Single pole 15.0 No 15 0.250 3.75 0.00 3.8 71.02 266.3 4659 17.5 3 way 16.0 No 16 0.500 8 0.00 8.0 71.02 568.2 4659 37.3 4 way 3.0 No 3 0.500 1.5 0.00 1.5 71.02 106.5 4659 7.0 timers 1.0 No 1 0.250 0.25 0.00 0.3 71.02 17.8 4659 1.2 LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) Surface mounted |21.0 No 21 2.000 42 2.10 44.1 71.023 3,132.1 4659 205.5 LIGHT FIXTURES (exterior) Surface mount 5.0 No 5 2.000 10 0.50 10.5 71.023 745.7 4659 48.9 MISC. CONNEC TIONS Door chimes 1.0 1.00 1 0.500 0.5 0.00 0.5 50.449 25.2 3309 1.7 Smoke detector 2.0 No 0.250 0.5 0.00 0.5 50.449 25.2 3309 1.7 Burglar Alarm 1.0 No 1 0.500 0.5 0.00 0.5 50.449 25.2 3309 1.7 Air conditioner 3.0 No 0.500 1.5 0.00 1.5 71.02 106.5 4659 7.0 Heat recovery ventilator 1.0 No 1 0.500 0.5 0.00 0.5 71.02 35.5 4659 2.3 Overhead door operator 1.0 No 1 0.250 0.25 0.00 0.3 71.02 17.8 4659 1.2 30 amp. dryer outlet 1.0 No 1 0.500 0.5 0.00 0.5 32.956 16.5 2162 1.1 299525 5101 304,626. 5 931,568. 3 54,501.2 1TEM/LOCATIO N QNTY No UNITS TOT QTY CONV ERSIO N AS BUILT WAST INITIA L WT UNIT E E INITIA L E E C02 INITIA L C02 APPENDIX A2: BASE CASE STUDY HOUSE LIFE C Y C L E CALCULATIONS: RECURRING. Building Life (Years) 40 RP RI PL TR RCC RCI RF* 120 ITEM/LOCATION 40 RECURR -ING MATER-IALS RECURR -ING ENERY RECURRING C02 Waste % | kg MJ kg SECTION 1 SITE WORK | CONCRETE FLATWOR it Driveway 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 Sidewalks 0 1 20 1 19 19 1.0 1806 1354 135 0.01 Patio 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 SITE DRAINAGE 4" perforated plastic pipe perimeter footing drainage 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 3/4" course gravel backfill 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 SECTION 2 CONCRETE FORMWORK BASEMENT FOUNDAT ION Strip footing forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Pad fooling forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Pedestal forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Slab edge forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Grade beam forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Foundation wall forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Retaining wall forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 1x2 level strip 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Exterior bsmnt strs frms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Exterior steps forms(ply) 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Exterior steps forms(lmbr) 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 2x4 keyway 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE | BASEMENT FOUNDAT ION Strip Footings 0 1 16 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 Footing pads 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 Basement floor slab 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 Garage floor slab 0 1 16 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 Grade beam 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 Foundation wall 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 Ext basement stairs 0 l 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 Exterior steps 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 Retaining walls 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.01 REINFORCING Structural slabs rebar 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Garage floor slab w.w.m. 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 CONCRETE ACCESSOF l lES 1/2" dia Anchor bolts 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.02 Damproofing 25 40 75 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Granular fill under bsmnt slab 0 1 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 1 21 Granular fill under garage slab 0 1 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 6 mil poly moisture barrier 25 40 75 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 1/2" expansion joint filler 0 1 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 S E C T I O N 3 M A S O N R Y CONC. BLOCK W A L L S 8"x8"xl6" solid blocks 20 25 15 0 2 1 0.2 148 195 12 0.02 Reinforcing wall ties 20 25 75 0 2 1 0.2 0 15 1 0.05 M A S O N R Y VEN1 : E R Common bricks 10 25 75 0 2 1 0.1 541 1352 75 0.02 Mortar 10 25 15 0 2 1 0.1 5 9 1 0.05 Metal wall ties 10 25 75 0 2 1 0.1 1 46 3 0.05 Split face cone. block-4"xl2"xl6" 10 25 75 0 2 1 0.1 137 180 11 0.05 M A S O N R Y F I R E P L A C E S Common bricks 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 364 909 50 0.02 Fire bricks 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 60 149 8 12"xl6"x8" flue linings 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 26 65 4 0.02 Mortar 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 5 9 1 0.05 Metal wall ties 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 1 51 3 0.05 8"x8" cast iron clean out doors 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 0 13 1 0.00 5"x8" cast iron ash dumps 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 0 9 1 0.00 Metal dome damper 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 1 29 2 0.00 Fireplace lintel angles 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 1 18 1 0.05 Hearth finish 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 1 3 0 0.05 Combustion air kit 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 1 15 1 0.05 Tight fitting glass doors 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 4 80 4 0.00 brick 10 20 60 0 2 1 0.1 57 143 8 0.02 S E C T I O N 4 M E T A L S S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L Steel angle lintels 20 25 75 0 2 1 0.2 15 429 26 0.05 N A I L S 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 S E C T I O N 5 C A R P E N T B V ROUGH C A R P E N T A R Y B A S E M E N T FOUNDAT1 ION I "RAMI N G Exterior Walls Precut 2x6 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Plates 2x6 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Interior Walls Headers 2x10 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Furring studs 2x3 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Furring Plates 2x3 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x12 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 122 Posts and Columns 6x6 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 3" diameter steel columns 0.05 45# Asphalt felt 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 FIRST F L O O R F RAMUS G Joists 2x10 D.Fir 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x2 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x2 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Solid Blocking 2x10 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 6 0 0 0.10 Sill Plates 2x4 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Capillary Break Polyethylene foam sill gasket 10 8 18 2 2 0 2.4 0 70 2 0.10 Subflooring 5/8" T&G Plywood 5 5 5o 0 9 7 0.4 341 3420 190 0.05 Subfloor adhesive 5 5 50 0 9 7 0.4 4 389 6 0.05 5 5 50 0 9 7 0.4 0 0 0 FIRST S T O R E Y W A L L S EXTERIOR Walls Precut 2x6 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x6 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Plates 2x6 0 l 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Headers 2x10 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Sheathing 3/8" Plywood 10 25 So 0 1 1 0.1 80 808 45 0.10 Beams Built up D.ftr 2x8 r 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x10 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x12 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 0.0 0 0 0 Posts and Columns 6x6 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 FIRST S T O R E Y W A L L S 1NTER1 OR Walls Precut 2x4 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Plates 2x4 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 SECOND S T O R E S Y S T E M V F L O O R Joists 2x10 SPF 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Cross bridging 2x2 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x2 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Solid Blocking 2x10 0 1 5(1 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Subflooring 5/8" T&G Plywood 5 5 50 0 9 7 0.4 244 2451 136 0.10 123 Subfloor adhesive 5 5 50 0 9 1 0.4 4 408 1 0.10 SECOND STORY EXTE RIOR WALLS Walls Precut 2x6 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x6 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Plates 2x6 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Headers 2x10 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Sheathing 3/8" Plywood 10 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 51 509 28 0.05 Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 SECOND STORY INTE RIOR WAL1 LS Walls Precut 2x4 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Plates 2x4 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 ROOF SYSTEM Ceiling Joists 2x4 SPF 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x6 SPF 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Dropped ceiling furring 2x4 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Roof Framing Rafters 2x8 SPF 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x10 SPF' 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 2x12 SPF 0 0 Rafters 2x4 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Ridge board 2x10 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Exterior Soffit Framing 2x4 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Ledgers 2x4 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Sheathing 1/2" Plywood 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Strapping 1x4 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 H Clips 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 EXTERIOR FINISH CA RPEN TRY 1 EXTERIOR FINISH Siding Wood 1x6 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 Building Paper Plywood 1/2" Plywood 0 1 5o 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Comer trim 0 0 0 1x4 0 1 5o 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.10 124 1 SO F F I T A N D F A S C I A Fascia board 2x8 6 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Barge board 2x10 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Soffit Perforated aluminum 20 12 40 0 3 3 0.6 25 6739 115 0.05 INTERIOR FINISH C A * P E N rRY STAIRS Basement to first storey Stringers 2x10 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Treads 2x12 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Handrail 2x8 SPF 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 First to second store} Stringers 2x10 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Treads 2x12 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Handrail 2x4 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Balusters 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 Newels 25 40 60 0 0 o.O 0 0 0 0.07 Landing joists 2x8 SPF 25 40 60 0 0 o.O 0 0 0 0.07 Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood 25 40 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.07 SECTION 6 INSULATION A N D MOISTU R E PROTECT I'loN I N S U L A T I O N Basement walls Fiberglass 89mm (3 1/2") bait 15 40 50 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 First floor walls Fiberglass 152 mm (5 1/2" ) batt 15 40 50 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Second floor walls Fiberglass 152 mm (5 1/2" ) batt 15 40 5o 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Fiberglass Vaulted ceiling/152 mm (5 1/2") batt 15 40 50 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Attic Insulation/M.wool (R40) 5 5 50 0 9 7 0.4 547 12199 495 0.05 D A M P R O O F I N G Basement under slab 6 mil poly 25 40 50 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Basement wall spray on damp 25 40 50 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Basement wall 6 mil poly damp 25 40 5o 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Sill gasket 10 8 18 2 2 0 2.4 0 78 2 0.05 125 VAPOUR BARRIER iasement walls 0 l 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 First floor walls 0 l 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Second floor walls 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Attics 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Band joists 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 AIR BARRIER Basement walls Caulking 30 15 50 0 3 2 0.6 0 69 2 0.05 nrst floor walls 0 0 0 Caulking 30 15 50 0 3 2 0.6 0 69 2 0.05 Second floor walls 0 0 0 Caulking 30 15 50 0 3 2 0.6 1 92 3 0.05 Attic Ceiling 0 0 0 Caulking 30 15 50 0 3 2 0.6 1 92 3 0.05 Band joists 0 0 0 Caulking 30 15 50 0 3 2 0.6 1 137 4 0.05 FLASHING AND SHEE A ME' rAL Wall to roof flashing 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Window and door head flashings 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 2" aluminum soffit vent 0 1 50 0 49 39 o.O 0 0 0 0.05 Gutter-Aluminium 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Valley flashing 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Skylight flashing 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Roof vents 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Roof edge 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 5"x7"lek' flashing 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Chimney chase caps 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 ROOFING MATERIALS 15# Building Paper 10 10 40 0 3 3 0.3 18 588 18 0.05 Roofing finish 0 0 0 Asphalt shingles 0 1 15 2 14 9 2.0 5057 140087 3196 0.05 SECTION 7 DOORS Wl NDOWS AN D FINISH I ARDWARE DOORS & FRAMES EXTERIOR SWINGING 3'-0"x6'-8" 13/4" thick metal 15 14 70 0 4 2 0.3 18 516 36 0.00 2'-8"x6'-8" 0 0 0 1 3/4" thick metal 15 14 70 0 4 2 0.3 9 255 18 0.00 1 3/4" thick metal l5 . 14 70 0 4 2 0.3 18 509 35 0.00 SIDELIGHTS l*-0"*5'-0" wood frame:wood 25 20 60 0 2 1 0.3 2 9 1 0.00 l'-0"*5'-0" wood frame:glass 25 20 60 0 2 1 0.3 8 159 8 0.05 INTERIOR SWING NG 0 0 0 2'-8"x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 23 133 10 0.00 2'-6''x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 150 870 67 0.00 2'-4"x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 40 230 18 0.00 BI-FOLD DOORS' 2'-0"x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 22 129 10 0.00 Wx&S" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 31 179 14 0.00 4'-0"x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 87 506 39 0.00 5'-0"x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 53 308 24 0.00 POCKET DOORS c/w track and hardware 2,-6"x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 29 166 13 0.00 2'-8"x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 29 170 13 0.00 OVERHEAD DOOR § 9'x7' |30 8 16 2 1 0 2.6 268 1552 120 0.00 126 1 AUTOMATIC OPENER 0.00 WINDOWS (wood) Size 2'-0"x5'-0"-K 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 2'-0"xS'-O"-K 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 3'-0"x3,-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 3'-Ol,x3'-0"-g 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 o.o5 3'-0"x4'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 3'-0"x4'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 o.O 0 0 0 0.05 3'-0''x5'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 3'-0"x5'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 4'-6"x2'-0"-F 6 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 4'-0''x2'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 4'-0"x3'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 4'-0"x3'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 4'-0"x3'-6"-l<' 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 4'-0"x3'-6"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 4'-0"x5,-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 4'-0"x5'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 4'-0"x4'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 4'-0"x4,-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 4'-0"x5'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 4'-0"x5'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 i'-0"x2'-6"-f 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 5>-0"x2'-6''-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 5'-0"x3'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 5'-0"x3'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 5'-0"x4'-0"-F' 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 5'-0"x4'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 6'-0"x4'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 6'-0"x4'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 o.O 0 0 0 0.05 5' diameter 112 -F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 5' diameter 1/2- G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 4' diameter 1/2-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 4' diameter 1/2- G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 FINISH HARDWARE Locksets 0 1 50 0 49 39 o.O 0 0 0 0.00 Passage Sets 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Privacy Sets 0 1 50 0 49 39 o.O 0 0 0 0.00 Bifold Pulls 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Door Stops 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Threshdolds 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Sweeps 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 . 0 0 0.00 Weather stripping 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Latch 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Dead bolts 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Safety chain 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Closets Rods 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Shelves 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Rod Brackets 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Shelf Brackets 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 SECTION 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOARD | Joint tape 500' 10 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 2 65 2 0.05 Joint compound 10 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 68 136 9 0.05 Metal corner beads 110 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 0 5 0 0.05 BASEMENT EXTERIOR WALLS 0 0 0 1/2" regular |10 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 160 1184 56 0.10 BASEMENT CEILINGS 5/8" regular |10 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 150 1109 53 0.10 FIRST FLOOR EXTERIOR WALLS 0 0 0 1/2" regular |10 |25 |50 0 1 1 0.1 155 1145 54 0.10 FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR WALLS 0 0 0 1/2" regular |10 |25 |50 0 1 1 0.1 224 1661 79 0.10 127 FIRST FLOOR CEILINGS 0 0 0 5/8" regular |10 25 50 0 1 0.1 108 801 38 0.10 SECOND FLOOR EXTERIOR WALLS 0 0 0 1/2" regular |10 25 50 0 1 0.1 90 667 32 0.10 sEcoNb INTERIOR FLOO kWAl XS 0 0 0 1/2" regular 10 25 50 0 1 0.1 176 1302 62 0.10 1/2" water resistant 10 25 50 0 1 0.1 12 92 4 0.10 SECOND FLOOR c EILINGS 0 0 0 5/8" regular 10 25 50 0 1 0.1 131 966 46 0.10 0 0 0 FLOORING 0 0 0 Vynel 20 5 15 2 2 3.0 396 63368 4157 0.05 Carpet 20 5 10 3 1 3.8 1766 282620 18540 0.05 PAINT Basement interior walls 0 1 5 7 4 4 7.0 135 10291 116 0.01 Basement ceiling 0 1 5 7 4 4 7.0 102 7744 87 0.01 First floor exterior walls 0 1 5 7 4 4 7.0 131 9955 112 0.01 First floor interior walls 0 1 5 7 4 4 7.0 190 14443 163 0.01 First floor ceiling 0 1 5 7 4 4 7.0 102 7744 87 0.01 Second floor exterior walls 0 1 5 7 4 4 7.0 76 5803 66 0.01 Second floor interior walls 0 1 5 7 4 4 7.0 157 11967 135 0.01 Second floor ceilings 0 1 5 7 4 4 7.0 74 5597 63 0.01 SECTION 9 SPECIALT1 ES BATHROOM ACCESSORIES Towel bar 0 1 5o 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Paper holder 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Soap holder/grab bar 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Shower doors 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Bath tub doors 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Medicine Cabinets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Mirrors 0 0 5'-0"x4'-0" 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 6'-6"x4'-0" 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 8'-0"x4'-0" 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 SECTION 10 C A BINET S AN D APP LIANCIES CABINETS Kitchen counter tops & wall splash 10 10 30 1 2 0 1.2 208 2162 116 0.05 Kitchen base cabinets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Kitchen upper cabinets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Pantry & Broom closets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Bathroom vanity tops & wall splash 10 10 30 1 2 0 1.2 198 2064 111 0.05 Bathroom base cabinets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Laundry counter tops & wall splash 10 10 30 l 2 0 1.2 47 491 26 0.05 Laundry room base cabinets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Laundry room upper cabinets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Dropped fluorecent ceiling 0 5o 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Island 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 K I T C H M & LAI UNDRY E O , L JIPME slf Washer 0 10 3 9 9 3.0 210 16800 596 0.00 Dryer 0 10 3 9 9 3.0 210 16800 596 0.00 Refrigerator 0 10 3 9 9 3.0 240 19200 681 0.00 Range Hood 25 10 20 1 1 1 1.5 15 1200 43 0.00 Range 0 10 3 9 9 3.0 150 14093 426 0.00 128 Microwave 0 1 10 3 9 9 3.0 105 8400 298 0.00 Dishwasher 0 1 10 3 9 9 3.0 165 13200 468 0.00 Garburator 0 1 10 3 9 9 3.0 45 3600 128 0.00 SECTION i i MECHANI CAL ROUGH IN PLUMBING Polybutylene Supply Lines 1/2" dia piping 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 7 599 3 0.05 3/4" piping 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 3 274 2 0.05 1/2" t's 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 0 33 0 0.05 1/2" connectors 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 6 498 3 0.05 Supply header 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 9 746 4 0.05 ABS Waste Lines 1 1/2" pipe 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 1 1/2" 90 el 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 1 1/2" 45 el 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 11/2"T 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 1 1/2"Trap 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 11/2" Clean Out 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 2" 90 el 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 2" 45 el 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 2"T 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 2" Trap 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 2" Clean Outs 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 3" 45 el 0 40 0 39 39 o.O 0 0 0 0.05 4"T 0 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 PLUMBING FIXTURES Water heaters 30 10 20 1 1 1 1.6 120 9600 340 0.00 Water closet 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Bathroom sink 0 10 40 0 3 3 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Kitchen sink 0 10 40 0 3 3 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Showers 0 10 40 0 3 3 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Tub/shower 0 10 40 0 3 3 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Hose bibs 5 25 20 1 0 0 1.0 0 6 0 0.00 Laundry tub 0 10 40 0 3 3 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 HEATING FORCED AIR Furnace Gas Furnace 0 1 15 2 14 9 2.0 170 13600 482 0.00 Filter 0 1 20 1 19 19 1.0 0 l 0 0.00 Floor registers 10 20 50 0 2 1 0.1 1 36 2 0.00 R/A grilles 10 20 50 0 2 1 0.1 0 11 1 0.00 Dampers 10 20 50 0 2 1 0.1 0 2 0 0.00 Gas piping 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 Electrical connection 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.05 VENTILATION Bath fans l5 10 20 1 1 1 1.3 7 390 26 0.00 Bath fan low sone 15 10 20 1 1 1 1.3 7 390 26 0.00 Controls 15 10 20 1 1 1 1.3 0 13 1 0.00 SECTION 12 ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL ROUGH IN U/GPVC connection box 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 0 28 0 0.00 2" PVC conduit 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 3 269 2 0.00 2" PVC L.B. Box 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 2" PVC couplings 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Circuits 0.00 #2 bare copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 2 68 4 0.05 6'x5/8" galv st gmdng rds 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 8 249 16 0.05 200 amp main breaker 30 o 40 0 4 4 1.2 36 1186 78 0.00 14-2 NMD copper wire 30 o 40 0 4 4 1.2 73 2153 141 0.05 129 14-3 NMD copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 48 1410 93 0.05 12-2 NMD copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 3 94 6 0.05 10-3 NMD copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 1 27 2 0.05 8-3 NMD copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 7 203 13 0.05 FIXTURES WALL OUTLETS Duplex 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 17 1198 79 0.00 Half switched 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 2 133 9 O.OO G.F.I. 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 1 80 5 0.00 Waterproof 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 1 53 3 0.00 SWITCHES 0 0 0 0.00 Single pole 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 6 399 26 0.00 3 way 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 12 852 56 0.00 4 way 25 12 15 1 1 1 1.5 2 160 10 0.00 timers 25" 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 0 27 2 0.00 0 0 0 LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) 0 0 0 Surface mounted |25 |12 25 1 1 1 1.5 66 4698 308 0.05 LIGHT FIXTURES (exterior) 0 0 0 Surface mount 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 l6 1119 73 0.05 MISC. CONNER TIONS Door chimes 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Smoke detector 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Burglar Alarm 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Air conditioner 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Heat recovery ventilator 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 Overhead door operator 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 30 amp. dryer outlet 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 16969 746247 34300 Rec Materia Is Rec Energy Rec C02 Waste % APPENDIX BI: IMPROVED HOUSE LIFE C Y C L E CALCULATIONS: INITIAL. ITEM/LOCATION QNTY No UNITS TOT QTY CONV ERSIO N AS BUIT WAST INITIA L WT UNIT E E INITIA L EE C o l INITIA L C02 TO KG KG KG KG MJ/KG MJ g/kg KG SECTION 1 SITE 1 WORK CONCRETE FLATWORK Driveway 7.0 1.00 Yd3 8 1.797 14376 71.88 14447.8 8 0.75 10836 75.00 1083.59 Sidewalks 1.0 1.00 Yd3 1 1,797 1797 8.99 1805.99 0.75 1354 75.00 135.45 Patio 3.0 1.00 Yd3 3 1,797 5391 26.96 5417.96 0.75 4063 75.00 406.35 SITE DRAINAGE 130 4" perforated plastic pipe perimeter footing drainage 174.0 1.00 Ft 174 0.500 87 4.35 91.35 160 14616 507.70 46.38 3/4" course gravel backfill 9.3 1.00 Yd3 9.3 1,468 13652.4 0.00 13652.4 0 0.09 1229 6.29 85.87 SECTION 2 CONC RETE FORMWORK FOUNDATION Strip footing forms 500.0 0.20 Ft 100 1.695 169.5 8.48 177.98 5.8 1032 449.00 79.91 Pad footing forms 92.0 0.20 Ft 18.4 0.339 6.2376 0.31 6.55 5.8 38 449.00 2.94 Pedestal forms 14.0 0.20 Ft 2.8 1.018 2.8504 0.14 2.99 5.8 17 449.00 1.34 Slab edge forms 18.0 0.20 Ft 3.6 0.678 2.4408 0.12 2.56 5.8 15 449.00 1.15 Foundation wall forms 21.0 0.20 Shts 4.2 24.390 102.438 5.12 107.56 5.8 624 449.00 48.29 1x2 level strip 54.0 0.20 Ft 10.8 0.169 1.8252 0.09 1.92 5.8 11 449.00 0.86 2x4 keyway 249.0 0.20 Ft 49.8 0.678 33.7644 1.69 35.45 5.8 206 449.00 15.92 CAST IN PLACE CONCRE1E FOUNDATION Strip Footings 7.1 1.00 Yd3 7.1 1797 12758.7 63.79 12822.4 9 0.75 9617 75.00 961.69 Floor slab 10.0 1.00 Yd3 10 1797 17970 89.85 18059.8 5 0.75 13545 75.00 1354.49 Garage floor slab 6.0 1.00 Yd3 6 1797 10782 53.91 10835.9 1 0.75 8127 75.00 812.69 Foundation wall 9.6 1.00 Yd3 9.56 1797 17179.3 2 85.90 17265.2 2 0.75 12949 75.00 1294.89 Footing pads 2.5 1.00 Yd3 2.5 1797 4492.5 22.46 4514.96 0.75 3386 75.00 338.62 0 0.00 REINFORCING 0 0.00 Structural slabs rebar 65.0 1.00 Ft 65 0.473 30.745 1.54 32.28 36.05 1164 2326.00 75.09 Garage floor slab w.w.m. 495.0 1.00 Ft2 495 0.100 49.5 2.48 51.98 48 2495 2648.00 137.63 CONCRETE ACCESSORIES 1/2" dia Anchor bolts 58.0 1.00 No 58 0.130 7.54 0.38 7.92 45 356 2747.00 21.75 Damproofing 300.0 1.00 Ff2 300 0.680 204 10.20 214.20 2.5 536 631.70 135.31 Granular fill under M. floor slab 12.0 1.00 Yd3 12 1127.0 13524 0.00 13524.0 0 0.03 406 6.29 85.07 Granular fill under garage slab 7.8 1.00 Yd3 7.75 1127.0 8734.25 0.00 8734.25 0.03 262 6.29 54.94 NAILS 100.0 1.00 Lb 100 0.454 45.4 0.00 45.40 45 2043 2534.00 115.04 SECTION 5 CARPENTRY ROUGH CARPENTARY FIRST STOREY EXTERIO R WALLS 2x4 2172.0 1.00 Ft 2172 1.018 2211.09 6 221.11 2432.21 5.80 14107 449.00 1092.06 Headers 0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 2x10 80.0 1.00 Ft 80 1.695 135.6 13.56 149.16 5.80 865 449.00 66.97 0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 Sheathing 0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 3/8" Plywood 52.0 Shts 52 14.630 760.76 76.08 836.84 10.04 8402 559.00 467.79 0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 Beams 0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 Built up D.Fir 0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 2x8 14.0 1.00 Ft 14 1.717 24.038 2.40 26.44 5.80 153 449.00 11.87 2x10 170.0 1.00 Ft 170 2.142 364.14 36.41 400.55 5.80 2323 449.00 179.85 2x12 310.0 1.00 Ft 310 2.572 797.32 79.73 877.05 5.80 5087 449.00 393.80 Posts and Columns 6x6 1.0 8.00 Ft 8 3.053 24.424 2.44 26.87 5.80 156 449.00 12.06 FIRST STOREY INTERIOl i WALLS 2x4 |556.0 1.00 |Ft 556 0.681 378.636 37.86 416.50 5.80 2416 449.00 187.01 131 SECOND STOREY FLOOD .SYSTE M Joists 2x10 SPF 590.0 1.00 Ft 590 1.695 1000.05 100.01 1100.06 5.80 6380 449.00 493.92 Cross bridging 2x2 50.0 1.40 Ft 70 0.509 35.63 3.56 39.19 5.80 227 449.00 17.60 2x2 24.0 1.20 Ft 28.8 0.396 11.4048 1.14 12.55 5.80 73 449.00 5.63 Solid Blocking 2x10 20.0 1.00 Ft 20 1.695 33.9 3.39 37.29 5.80 216 449.00 16.74 Subflooring 5/8" T&G Plywood 20.0 Shts 20 24.390 487.8 48.78 536.58 10.04 5387 559.00 299.95 Subfloor adhesive 9.0 No 9 0.910 8.19 0.82 9.01 97.00 874 1551.00 13.97 SECOND STORY I :XTERIOR WALLS 2x4 1126.0 1.00 Ft 1126 0.681 766.806 76.68 843.49 5.80 4892 449.00 378.73 Header 2x10 58.0 1.00 Ft 58 1.695 98.31 9.83 108.14 5.80 627 449.00 48.56 Sheathing 3/8" Plywood 30.0 Shts 30 14.630 438.9 21.95 460.85 10.04 4627 559.00 257.61 Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10 48.0 1.00 Ft 48 2.142 102.816 10.28 113.10 5.80 656 449.00 50.78 SECOND STORY INTERIOR WALLS 2x4 837.0 1.00 Ft 837 0.678 567.486 56.75 624.23 5.80 3621 449.00 280.28 ROOF SYSTEM Ceiling Joists 2x4 SPF 260.0 1.00 Ft 260 0.678 176.28 17.63 193.91 5.80 1125 449.00 87.06 2x6 SPF" 128.0 1.00 Ft 128 1.018 130.304 13.03 143.33 5.80 831 449.00 64.36 Rafters 2x8 SPF 437.0 1.00 Ft 437 1.359 593.883 59.39 653.27 5.80 3789 449.00 293.32 2x10 SPF 106.0 1.00 Ft 106 1.695 179.67 17.97 197.64 5.80 1146 449.00 88.74 Rafters 2x4 34.0 1.00 Ft 34 0.678 23.052 2.31 25.36 5.80 147 449.00 11.39 Ridge board 2x10 3.0 1.00 Ft 3 1.695 5.085 0.51 5.59 5.80 32 449.00 2.51 -Exterior Soffit Framing 2x4 377.0 1.00 Ft 377 0.678 255.606 25.56 281.17 5.80 1631 449.00 126.24 Ledgers 2x4 7.0 1.00 Ft 7 0.678 4.746 0.47 5.22 5.80 30 449.00 2.34 Sheathing 1/2" Plywood 64.0 Shts 64 19.500 1248 62.40 1310.40 10.04 13156 559.00 732.51 Strapping 1x4 3456.00 1.00 Ft 3456 0.339 1171.58 4 117.16 1288.74 5.80 7475 449.00 578.65 H Clips 253.0 1.00 Ft 316.0 0.540 170.64 0.00 170.64 28.00 4778 1730.00 295.21 EXTERIOR FINIS H CARP ENTRY EXTERIOR FINISH Siding Wood 1x6 3217.2 1.00 Ft 3217.2 0.434 1396.26 48 139.63 1535.89 5.80 8908 449.00 689.62 Building Paper 2298.0 1.00 Ft2 2298 0.022 50.556 0.00 50.56 33.60 1699 1045.00 52.83 Plywood 132 1/2" Plywood 10 Shts 2 19.500 39 1.95 40.95 10.04 411 559.00 22.89 Comer trim 1x4 185.0 1.00 Ft 185 0.340 62.9 6.29 69.19 5.80 401 449.00 31.07 SOFFIT AND FASCIA Fascia board 2x8 236.0 1.00 Ft 236 1.359 320.724 22.45 343.17 5.80 1990 449.00 154.09 Barge board 2x10 16.0 1.00 Ft 16 1.695 27.12 1.90 29.02 5.80 168 449.00 13.03 Soffit Perforated aluminum 236.0 1.00 Ft2 236 0.091 21.476 1.07 22.55 274.00 6179 4667.13 105.24 INTERIOR FIN1SF I CARPI :NTRY STAIR Stringers 2x10 28.00 1.00 Ft 28.00 1.70 47.46 3.32 50.78 5.80 294.54 449.00 22.80 Treads 2x12 42.00 1.00 Ft 42.00 2.04 85.51 5.99 91.50 5.80 530.69 449.00 41.08 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood 1.00 Shts 1.00 19.50 19.50 1.37 20.87 10.04 209.48 559.00 11.66 Handrail 2x4 19.00 1.00 Ft 19.00 0.68 12.88 0.90 13.78 5.80 79.95 449.00 6.19 Balusters 56.00 No 56.00 0.24 13.38 0.94 14.32 5.80 83.06 449.00 6.43 Newels 2.00 No 2.00 7.08 14.16 0.99 15.15 5.80 87.88 449.00 6.80 Landing joists 2x8 SPF 24.00 1.00 Ft 24.00 1.36 32.62 2.28 34.90 5.80 202.41 449.00 15.67 Landing sheathing 5/8"Plywood 1.00 Shts 1.00 24.39 24.39 1.71 26.10 10.04 262.02 559.00 14.59 SECTION 6 INSUI PROTECTION .ATION AND MOISTURE INSULATION First floor walls Batt 89 mm (3 1/2" ) 1010.0 1.00 Ft2 1010 0.104 105.04 5.25 110.29 22.3 2460 314.00 34.63 25 mm extruded Polystyrene 1010.0 1.00 Ft2 1010 0.217 219.17 10.96 230.13 22.3 5132 904.00 208.04 Second floor walls Batt 89 mm (3 1/2" ) 904.0 1.00 Ft2 904 0.104 94.016 4.70 98.72 22.3 2201 314.00 31.00 25 mm extruded Polystyrene 904.0 1.00 Ft2 904 0.217 196.168 9.81 205.98 22.3 4593 904.00 186.20 CLuulos Attic/208 mm Blown (RSI 5.3) 816.0 1.00 Ft2 816 0.486 396.576 19.83 416.40 4.7 1957 314.00 130.75 DAMPROOFING M floor under slab 6 mil poly 1316.0 1.00 Ft2 1316 0.013 17.108 0.86 17.96 28.6 514 508.00 9.13 VAPOUR BARRIE R First floor walls 1010.0 1.00 Ft2 1010 0.013 13.13 0.66 13.79 28.6 394 508.00 7.00 Second floor walls 904.0 1.00 Ft2 904 0.013 11.752 0.59 12.34 28.6 353 508.00 6.27 Attics 1316.0 1.00 Ft2 1316 0.013 17.108 0.86 17.96 28.6 514 508.00 9.13 Band joists 236.0 1.00 Ft2 236 0.013 3.068 0.15 3.22 28.6 92 508.00 1.64 AIR BARRIER First floor walls Caulking 3.0 No 3 0.227 0.681 0.03 0.72 160.0 114 4836.00 3.46 Second floor walls Caulking 4.0 No 4 0.227 0.908 0.05 0.95 160.0 153 4836.00 4.61 Attic Ceiling Caulking 4.0 No 4 0.227 0.908 0.05 0.95 160.0 153 4836.00 4.61 Band joists Caulking 6.0 No 6 0.227 1.362 0.07 1.43 160.0 229 4836.00 6.92 FLASHING AND S HEET \ IETAL Wall to roof flashing |100.0 1.00 Ft 100 0.042 4.2 0.21 4.41 26.0 115 1945.00 8.58 133 Window and door head flashings 97.0 1.00 Ft 97 0.042 4.074 0.20 4.28 26.0 111 1945.00 8.32 2" aluminum soffit vent 280.0 1.00 Ft 280 0.400 112 5.60 117.60 274.0 32222 4667.13 548.85 Gutter-Aluminium 280.0 1.00 Ft 280 0.162 45.36 2.27 47.63 274.0 13050 4667.13 222.29 Valley flashing 100.0 1.00 Ft 100 0.233 23.3 1.17 24.47 26.0 636 1945.00 47.58 Roof vents 5.0 No 5 0.200 1 O.oS 1.05 26.0 27 1945.00 2.04 Roof edge 280.0 1.00 Ft 280 0.042 11.76 0.59 12.35 26.0 321 1945.00 24.02 5"x7" leaf flashing 8.0 1.00 Ft 8 0.042 0.336 0.02 0.35 26.0 9 1945.00 0.69 ROOFING MATES JALS 15# Building Paper 2040.0 1.00 Ft2 2040 0.022 44.88 2.24 47.12 33.6 1583 1045.00 49.24 Roofing finish Asphalt shingles 2040.0 1.00 Ft2 2040 0.953 1944.12 97.21 2041.33 27.7 56545 1855.90 3788.50 SECTION 1 boo* HARDWARE .S WINDOWS A fit) FTNl SH DOORS & FRAMES EXTERIOR SWINGING 3'-0"x6'-8" 13/4" thick metal 1.0 No. 1 20.480 20.48 0.00 20.48 28 573 1945.00 39.83 2'-8"x6'-8" 13/4" thick metal 2.0 No. 2 30.300 60.6 0.00 60.60 28 1697 1945.00 117.87 INTERIOR SWINGING 2,-6"x6'-8" 6.0 No. 6 12.250 73.5 0.00 73.50 5.8 426 449.00 33.00 2'-4"x6'-8" 1.0 No. 1 11.340 11.34 0.00 11.34 5.8 66 449.00 5.09 BI-FOLbbOOftS 4'-0"x6'-8" 3.0 No. 3 24.950 74.85 0.00 74.85 5.8 434 449.00 33.61 OVERHEAD DOORS 9'x7' 2.0 No. 2 51.450 102.9 0.00 102.90 5.8 597 449.00 46.20 AUTOMATIC OPEN ER 2.0 No. 2 18.140 36.28 0.00 36.28 5.8 210 1898.00 68.86 WINDOWS (wood) Size 3'-0"x3'-0"-F 1.0 No. 1 3.170 3.17 0.00 3.17 5.8 18 449.00 1.42 3'-0"x3'-0"-g 2.0 No. 2 13.610 27.22 1.36 28.58 20 572 1043.52 29.82 4,-0"x3'-0"-F 1.0 No. 1 4.530 4.53 0.00 4.53 5.8 26 449.00 2.03 4'-0"x3'-0"-G 2.0 No. 2 18.150 36.3 1.82 38.12 20 762 1043.52 39.77 4'-0"x4'-0"-F 3.0 No. 3 6.050 18.15 0.00 18.15 5.8 105 449.00 8.15 4'-0"x4'-0"-G 6.0 No. 6 24.190 145.14 7.26 152.40 20 3048 1043.52 159.03 4'-0"x5'-0"-F 2.0 No. 2 7.560 15.12 0.00 15.12 5.8 88 449.00 6.79 4'-0"x5'-0"-G 4.0 No. 4 30.240 120.96 6.05 127.01 20 2540 1043.52 132.54 l'-0"x3'-0"-F 2.0 No. 2.0 1.52 3.04 0.00 3.04 5.8 5 449.00 1.36 l'-0"x3'-0"-G 4.0 No. 2.0 4.53 9.06 0.45 9.51 20 43 1043.52 9.93 2'-0''xl'-6"-F 4.0 No. 4.0 1.754 7.016 0.00 7.02 5.8 12 449.00 3.15 2'-0"xl'-6"-G 8.0 No. 4.0 4.535 18.14 0.91 19.05 20 86 1043.52 19.88 6'-0"x7'-0"-F 1.0 No. 1.0 9.900 9.9 0.00 9.90 5.8 57 449.00 4.45 6'-0"x7'-0"-G 2.0 No. 1.0 68.250 68.25 3.41 71.66 20 1433 1043.52 74.78 FINISH HARDWARE Locksets 5.0 No. 5 1.500 7.5 0.00 7.50 60 450 2747.00 20.60 Passage Sets 6.0 No. 6 1.500 9 0.00 9.00 60 540 2747.00 24.72 Privacy Sets 5.0 No. 5 1.500 7.5 0.00 7.50 60 450 2747.00 20.60 Bifold Pulls 8.0 No. 8 0.057 0.456 0.00 0.46 60 27 2747.00 1.25 Door Stops 15.0 No. 15 0.400 6 0.00 6.00 45 270 2747.00 16.48 Threshdolds 5.0 No. 5 0.500 2.5 0.00 2.50 60 150 2747.00 6.87 Sweeps 5.0 No. 5 0.023 0.115 0.00 0.12 60 7 2747.00 0.32 Weather stripping 5.0 No. 5 0.089 0.445 0.00 0.45 60 27 2747.00 1.22 Latch 2.0 No. 2 0.300 0.6 0.00 0.60 60 36 2747.00 1.65 Dead bolts 3.0 No. 3 1.500 4.5 0.00 4.50 60 270 2747.00 12.36 Safety chain 3.0 No. 3 0.500 1.5 0.00 1.50 60 90. 2747.00 4.12 Closets Rods 29.0 1.00 Ft 29 0.084 2.436 0.00 2.44 5.8 14 449.00 1.09 Shelves 49.0 1.00 Ft 49 0.914 44.786 0.00 44.79 5.8 260 559.00 25.04 Rod Brackets 14.0 No. 14 0.914 12.796 0.00 12.80 5.8 74 449.00 5.75 Shelf Brackets 24.0 No. 24 0.454 10.896 0.00 10.90 5.8 63 449.00 4.89 134 1 SECTION 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOARD Joint tape 500' 14.0 1.00 No 14 1.590 22.26 1.11 23.37 28 654 1045.00 24.42 Joint compound 1425.0 1.00 No 1425 0.454 646.95 32.35 679.30 2 1359 135.00 91.71 Metal comer beads 30.0 1.00 No 30 0.054 1.62 0.08 1.70 28 48 1730.00 2.94 First Floor Exterior Walls 1/2" regular |1010.0 1.00 Ft2 1010 0.911 920.11 92.01 1012.12 7.4 7490 352.00 356.27 First Floor Interior Walls 1/2" regular 11020.0 1.00 Ft2 1020 0.911 929.22 92.92 1022.14 7.4 7564 352.00 359.79 First Floor Ceilings 5/8" regular |816.0 1.00 Ft2 816 1.134 925.344 92.53 1017.88 7.4 7532 352.00 358.29 Second Floor Exterior Walls 1/2" regular |904.0 1.00 Ft2 904 0.911 823.544 82.35 905.90 7.4 6704 352.00 318.88 Second Interior Floor Walls 1/2" regular 1200.0 1.00 Ft2 1200 0.911 1093.2 109.32 1202.52 7.4 8899 352.00 423.29 1/2" water resistant 100.0 1.00 Ft2 100 1.134 113.4 11.34 124.74 7.4 923 352.00 43.91 Second Floor Ceilings 5/8" regular 672.0 1.00 Ft2 672 1.134 762.048 76.20 838.25 7.4 6203 352.00 295.06 FLOORING Vynel 196.0 1.00 Ft2 196 0.635 124.46 6.22 130.68 160 20909 10720.0 0 1400.92 Carpet 1200.0 1.00 Ft2 1200 0.233 279.6 13.98 293.58 160.00 46973 10496.0 0 3081.42 PAINT First floor exterior walls 1010.0 1.00 Ft2 1010 0.012 12.12 0.12 12.24 76 930 858.40 10.51 First floor interior walls 2240.0 1.00 Ft2 2240 0.012 26.88 0.27 27.15 76 2063 858.40 23.30 First floor ceiling 816 1.00 Ft2 8l6 0.012 9.792 0.10 9.89 76 752 858.40 8.49 Second floor exterior walls 900.0 1.00 Ft2 900 0.012 10.8 0.11 10.91 76 829 858.40 9.36 Second floor interior walls 1856.0 1.00 Ft2 1856 0.012 22.272 0.22 22.49 76 1710 858.40 19.31 Second floor ceilings 580.0 1.00 Ft2 580 0.012 6.96 0.07 7.03 76 534 858.40 6.03 SECTION 9 SPECIALTIES BATHROOM ACC ESSORII £S Towel bar 3.0 No 3 0.91 2.721 0.00 2.72 60 163 1996.00 5.43 Paper holder 3.0 No 3 0.45 1.362 0.00 1.36 90 123 1996.00 2.72 Soap holder/grab bar 3.0 No 3 4.00 12 0.00 12.00 29.4 353 0.00 Bath tub doors 1.0 No 1 50.00 50 0.00 50.00 20 1000 1043.52 52.18 Medicine Cabinets 2.0 No 2 16.00 32 0.00 32.00 28 896 1945.00 62.24 Mirrors 5'-0"x4'-0" 1.0 No 1 30.00 30 0.00 30.00 27.23 817 1043.52 31.31 6'-6"x4'-0" 1.0 No 1 39.30 39.3 0.00 39.30 27.23 1070 1043.52 41.01 SECTION 10 CAB INETS AND API k l A N C IES C A B I N E T S Kitchen counter tops & wall splash 22.0 1.00 Ft 22 7.50 165 8.25 173.25 10.4 1802 559.00 96.85 Kitchen base cabinets 20.0 1.00 Ft 20 20.00 400 20.00 420.00 10.4 4368 559.00 234.78 Kitchen upper cabinets 21.0 1.00 Ft 21 15.00 315 15.75 330.75 10.4 3440 559.00 184.89 Bathroom vanity tops & wall splash 21.0 1.00 Ft 21 7.50 157.5 7.88 165.38 10.4 1720 559.00 92.44 Bathroom base cabinets 21.0 1.00 Ft 21 20.00 420 21.00 441.00 10.4 4586 559.00 246.52 Laundry counter tops & wall splash 5.0 1.00 Ft 5 7.50 37.5 1.88 39.38 10.4 . 410 559.00 22.01 Laundry room base cabinets 5.0 1.00 Ft 5 20.00 100 5.00 105.00 10.4 1092 559.00 58.70 Laundry room upper cabinets 5.0 1.00 Ft 5 15.00 75 3.75 78.75 10.4 819 559.00 44.02 Dropped fluorecent ceiling 1.0 1.00 No 1 4.00 4 0.20 4.20 10.4 44 559.00 2.35 KITCHEN & LAU \DRY EQUIPMENT Washer 1.0 No 1 70.00 70 0.00 70.00 80 5600 2837.48 198.62 Dryer 1.0 No 1 70.00 70 0.00 70.00 80 5600 2837.48 198.62 Refrigerator 1.0 No 1 80.00 80 0.00 80.00 80 6400 2837.48 227.00 135 lange Hood 1.0 No 10.00 10 0.00 10.00 80 800 2837.48 28.37 Range 1.0 No 50.00 50 0.00 50.00 80 4000 2837.48 141.87 vlicrowave 1.0 No 35.00 35 0.00 35.00 80 2800 2837.48 99.31 dishwasher 1.0 No 55.00 55 0.00 55.00 80 4400 2837.48 156.06 Garburator 1.0 No 15.00 15 0.00 15.00 80 1200 2837.48 42.56 SECTION i i M E L HANICAL ROllGri IN PLUMBING Polybutylene Supply Lines 1/2" dia piping 260.0 1.00 Ft 260 0.021 5.46 0.27 5.73 87 499 507.70 2.91 3/4" piping 64.0 1.00 Ft 64 0.039 2.496 0.12 2.62 87 228 507.70 1.33 1/2" t's 12.0 No 12 0.025 0.3 0.02 0.32 87 27 507.70 0.16 1/2" connectors 20.0 No 20 0.227 4.54 0.23 4.77 87 415 507.70 2.42 Supply header 1.0 No 1 6.804 6.804 0.34 7.14 87 622 507.70 3.63 ABS Waste Lines 1 1/2" pipe 138.0 1.00 Ft 138 0.136 18.768 0.94 19.71 87 1714 507.70 10.00 1 1/2" 90 el 15.0 No 15 0.066 0.99 0.05 1.04 87 90 507.70 0.53 11/2" 45 el 10.0 No 10 0.041 0.41 0.02 0.43 87 37 507.70 0.22 11/2" T 3.0 No 3 0.090 0.27 0.01 0.28 87 25 507.70 0.14 1 1/2" Trap 5.0 No 5 0.150 0.75 0.04 0.79 87 69 507.70 0.40 1 1/2" Clean Out 2.0 No 2 0.098 0.196 0.01 0.21 87 18 507.70 0.10 2" 90 el 78.0 No 78 0.095 7.41 0.37 7.78 87 677 507.70 3.95 2" 45 el 15.0 No 15 0.060 0.9 0.05 0.95 87 82 507.70 0.48 2"T 10.0 No 10 0.145 1.45 0.07 1.52 87 132 507.70 0.77 2" Trap 3.0 No 3 0.299 0.897 0.04 0.94 87 82 507.70 0.48 2" Clean Outs 4.0 No 4 0.150 0.6 0.03 0.63 87 55 507.70 0.32 3" 45 el 44.0 No 44 0.204 8.976 0.45 9.42 87 820 507.70 4.78 4"T 52.0 No 52 0.812 42.224 2.11 44.34 87 3857 507.70 22.51 PLUMBING FIXTURES Water heaters 1.0 No 1 75.000 75 0.00 75.00 80 6000 5360.00 402.00 Water closet 3.0 No 3 40.000 120 0.00 120.00 29.4 3528 2837.48 340.50 Bathroom sink 3.0 No 3 20.000 60 0.00 60.00 29.4 1764 2837.48 170.25 Kitchen sink 1.0 No 1 25.000 25 0.00 25.00 45 1125 2454.18 61.35 Tub/shower 2.0 No 2 300.000 600 0.00 600.00 29.4 17640 1969.80 1181.88 Hose bibs 2.0 No 2 0.100 0.2 0.00 0.20 29.368 6 1967.66 0.39 Laundry tub 1.0 No 1 10.000 10 0.00 10.00 29.4 294 1969.80 19.70 HEATING Forced Air Furnace Gas Furnace 1.0 No 1 85.000 85 0.00 85.00 80 6800 2837.48 241.19 Filter 1.0 No 1 0.100 0.1 0.00 0.10 12 1 804.00 0.08 Floor registers 16.0 No 16 0.500 8 0.00 8.00 45 360 2837.48 22.70 R/A grilles 5.0 No 5 0.500 2.5 0.00 2.50 45 113 2837.48 7.09 Dampers 2.0 No 2 0.250 0.5 0.00 0.50 45 23 2837.48 1.42 Gas piping 150.0 1.00 Ft 150 0.500 75 3.75 78.75 28.23 2223 1945.00 153.17 Electrical connection 1.0 No 1 0.100 0.1 0.01 0.11 23.071 2 1545.76 0.16 VENTILATION Bath tans 2.0 No 2 2.500 5 0.00 5.00 60 300 4020.00 20.10 Bath fan low sone 1.0 No 1 5.000 5 0.00 5.00 60 300 4020.00 20.10 Controls 1.0 No 1 0.300 0.3 0.00 0.30 32.956 10 2208.05 0.66 SECTION 12 ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL ROUGH IN U/G PVC connection box 1.0 No 1 0.272 • 0.272 0.00 0.27 32.956 9 2208.05 0.60 2" PVC conduit 8.0 1.00 Ft 8 0.322 2.576 0.00 2.58 32.956 85 2208.05 5.69 2" PVC L.B. Box 1.0 No 1 0.771 0.771 0.00 0.77 32.956 25 2208.05 1.70 2" PVC couplings 4.0 No 4 0.100 0.4 0.00 0.40 32.956 13 2208.05 0.88 Circuits #2 bare copper wire 20.0 1.00 Ft 20 0.091 1.82 0.00 1.82 29.457 54 1973.62 3.59 6'xW gafvst grndng rds 2.0 1.00 No 2 3.000 6 0.00 6.00 32.956 198 2208.05 13.25 200 amp main breaker 1.0 1.00 No 1 30.000 30 0.00 30.00 32.956 989 2208.05 66.24 14-2 NMD copper wire 2000.0 1.00 Ft 2000 0.029 58 0.00 58.00 29.457 1709 1973.62 114.47 136 14-3 NMD copper wire 1000.0 1.00 Ft 1000 0.038 38 0.00 38.00 29.457 1119 1973.62 75.00 12-2 NMD copper wire 35.0 1.00 Ft 35 0.072 2.52 0.00 2.52 29.457 74 1973.62 4.97 10-3 NMD copper wire 6.0 1.00 Ft 6 0.122 0.732 0.00 0.73 29.457 22 1973.62 1.44 8-3 NMD copper wire 30.0 1.00 Ft 30 0.182 5.46 0.00 5.46 29.457 161 1973.62 10.78 FIXTURES WALL OUTLETS Duplex 45.0 No 45 0.250 11.25 0.00 11.25 71.02 799 4758.34 53.53 Half switched 5.0 No 5 0.250 1.25 0.00 1.25 71.02 89 4758.34 5.95 G.F.I. 3.0 No 3 0.250 0.75 0.00 0.75 71.02 53 4758.34 3.57 Waterproof 2.0 No 2 0.250 0.5 0.00 0.50 71.02 36 4758.34 2.38 SWITCHES Single pole 15.0 No 15 0.250 3.75 0.00 3.75 71.02 266 4758.34 17.84 —a—I 3 way 16.0 No 16 0.500 8 0.00 8.00 71.02 568 4758.34 38.07 4 ay 3.0 No 3 0.500 1.5 0.00 1.50 71.02 107 4758.34 7.14 timers 1.0 No 1 0.250 0.25 0.00 0.25 71.02 18 4758.34 1.19 LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) Surface mounted |21.0 No 21 2.000 42 0.00 42.00 71.023 2983 4758.54 199.86 LIGHT FIXTURES (exterior) Surface mount 5.0 No 5 2.000 10 0.00 10.00 71.023 710 4758.54 47.59 MISC. CONNECT IONS Door chimes 1.0 1.00 l 0.500 0.5 0.00 0.50 50.449 25 3380.08 1.69 Smoke detector 2.0 No 0.250 0.5 0.00 0.50 50.449 25 3380.08 1.69 Burglar Alarm 1.0 No 1 0.500 0.5 0.00 0.50 50.449 25 3380.08 1.69 Air conditioner 3.0 No 0.500 1.5 0.00 1.50 71.02 107 4758.34 7.14 Heat recovery ventilator 1.0 No 1 0.500 0.5 0.00 0.50 71.02 36 4758.34 2.38 Overhead door operator 1.0 No 1 0.250 0.25 0.00 0.25 71.02 18 4758.34 1.19 30 amp. dryer outlet 1.0 No 1 0.500 0.5 0.00 0.50 32.956 16 2208.05 1.10 150382 2657 153039 580523 33869 Item/Location Qnty No Units Tot Qty Conver sion As Built Wast Initial Wt Unit EE Initial EE C02 Initial C02 A P P E N D I X B2: I M P R O V E D H O U S E L I F E C Y C L E C A L C U L A T I O N S : R E C U R R I N G . Building Life (Years) 40 RP RI PL TR RCC RCI RE 40 REC. R E C . ITEM/LOCATION MATE RIAL ENERGY KG MJ SECTION 1 SITE i WORK CONCRETE FLATWORK Driveway 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Sidewalks 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Patio 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 SITE DRAINAGE 0.00 0.00 0.00 4" perforated plastic pipe perimeter footing drainage 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 137 3/4" course gravel backfill 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 SECTION 2 CONc RETE FORMWORK FOUNDATION Strip footing forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 Pad footing forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 Pedestal forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 Slab edge forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 Foundation wall forms 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 1x2 level strip 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 2x4 keyway 0 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE 0 0 0 0 0 0 FOUNDATION 0 0 0 Strip Footings 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 Floor slab 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 Garage floor slab 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 Foundation wall 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 Footing pads 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REINFORCING 0 0 0 Structural slabs rebar 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 Garage floor slab w.w.m. 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CONCRETE ACCESSORIES 0 0 0 1/2" dia Anchor bolts 0 1 75 0 74 39 0.0 0 0 0 Damproofing 25 40 75 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 Granular fill under M. floor slab 0 1 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 Granular fill under garage slab 0 1 200 0 199 39 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NAILS 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SECTION 5 CARPENTRY 0 0 0 ROUGH CARPENTARY 0 FIRST STOREY EXTERIOJ R WALLS 0 2x4 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Headers 0 0 0 2x10 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sheathing 0 0 0 3/8" Plywood 10 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 84 840 47 0 0 0 0 0 0 Beams 0 0 0 Built up D.Fir 0 0 0 2x8 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 2x10 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 2x12 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Posts and Columns 6x6 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 FIRST STOREY INTERIOi 1 WALLS 2x4 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 SECOND STOREY FLOO* I SYSTEM Joists 2x10 SPF 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Cross bridging 0 2x2 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 138 2x2 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Solid Blocking 2x10 0 1 5o 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Subflooring 5/8" T&G Plywood 5 5 50 0 9 7 0.4 188 1886 105 Subfloor adhesive 5 5 50 0 9 7 0.4 3 306 5 S E C O N D STORY : X T E R I O R W A L L S 2x4 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Header 2x10 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0 Sheathing 0 3/8" Plywood 10 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 46 463 26 Beams Built up D.Fir 2x10 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 S E C O N D STORY INTERIOR W A L L S 0 2x4 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 R O O F SYSTEM Ceiling Joists 2x4 SPF 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 2x6 SPF 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Rafters 2x8 SPF 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 2x10 SPF 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Rafters 2x4 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Ridge board 2x10 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Exterior Soffit Framing 2x4 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Ledgers 2x4 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 0 Sheathing 0 1/2" Plywood 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Strapping 1x4 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 H Clips 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 EXTERIOR FINIS a C A R P E N T R Y E X T E R I O R FINIS H Siding Wood 1x6 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Building Paper 0 0 0 Plywood 1/2" Plywood 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Corner trim 1x4 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 SOFFIT A N D F A S C I A 0 Fascia board 0 2x8 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Barge board 2x10 0 50 0 49 39 • 0.0 0 0 0 Soffit 139 Perforated aluminum 20 12 40 0 3 3 0.6 14 3707 63 INTERIOR FINISH C A R P E N T R Y S T A I R Stringers 2x10 25.00 40.00 60 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Treads 2x12 25.00 40.00 60 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Risers Plywood 1/2" Plywood 25.00 40.00 60 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Handrail 2x4 25.00 40.00 60 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Balusters 25.00 40.00 60 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Newels 25.00 40.00 60 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Landing joists 2x8 SPF 25.00 40.00 60 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Landing sheathing 0.00 5/8"Plywood 25.00 40.00 60 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 S E C T I O N 6 INSU P R O T E C T I O N . A T I O N AND M O I S T U R E I N S U L A T I O N First floor walls Batt 89 mm (3 1/2" ) 25 40 50 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 25 mm extruded Polystyrene 25 40 50 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 Second floor walls Batt 89 mm (3 1/2" ) 25 40 50 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 25 mm extruded Polystyrene 25 40 50 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 CEllulos Attic/208 mm Blown (RSI 5.3) 5 5 50 0 9 7 0.4 146 685 46 D A M P R O O F I N G M floor under slab 6 mil poly 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 VAPOUR BARRIE R First floor walls 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Second floor walls 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Attics 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Band joists 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 AIR B A R R I E R First floor walls Caulking 30 15 50 0 3 2 0.6 0 69 2 Second floor walls Caulking 30 15 50 0 3 2 0.6 1 92 3 Attic Ceiling Caulking 30 15 50 0 3 2 0.6 1 92 3 Band joists Caulking 30 15 50 0 3 2 0.6 1 137 4 F L A S H I N G A N D S H E E T IV I E T A L Wall to roof flashing 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Window and door head flashings 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 2" aluminum soffit vent 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Gutter-Aluminium 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Valley flashing 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Roof vents 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Roof edge 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 5"x7" leaf flashing 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 140 ROOFING MATERIALS 15# Building Paper 10 10 40 0 3 3 0.3 14 475 15 Roofing finish Asphalt shingles 0 1 15 2 14 9 2.0 4083 113089 7577 SECTION 7 DOOli HARDWARE .S WINDOWS A ND FINI SH DOORS & FRAMES EXTERIOR SWINGING 3'-0"x6'-8" 13/4" thick metal 15 14 70 0 4 2 0.3 6 172 12 2'-8"x6'-8" 1 3/4" thick metal l5 14 70 0 4 2 0.3 18 509 35 INTERIOR SWINGING 2'-6"x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 129 746 58 2'-4"x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 20 115 9 Bl-FOLD DOORS 4'-0"x6'-8" 15 7 30 1 4 1 1.8 131 760 59 OVERHEAD DOORS 9'x7' 30 8 16 2 1 0 2.6 268 1552 120 AUTOMATIC OPEN ER 0 0 0 WINDOWS Size 3'-0"x3'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 3'-0"x3'-0"-g 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 4'-0"x3'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 4'-0"x3'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 4'-0"x4'-6"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 4'-0"x4'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 4,-0"x5'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 4'-0"x5'-0H-G 0. 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 r-0"x3'-0"-F 0 5o 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 l'-0"x3'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 2'-0"xl'-6"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 2'-0"xl'-6"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 6'-0"x7'-0"-F 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 6'-0"x7'-0"-G 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 FINISH HARDWARE Locksets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Passage Sets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Privacy Sets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Bifold Pulls 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Door Stops 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Threshdolds 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Sweeps 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Weather stripping 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Latch 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Dead bolts 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Safety chain 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Closets Rods 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Shelves 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Rod Brackets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Shelf Brackets 0 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 SECTION 8 FINISHES GYPSUM BOARD Joint tape 500' 10 25 . 50 0 1 1 0.1 2 65 2 Joint compound 10 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 68 136 9 Metal corner beads 10; 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 0 5 0 First Floor Exterior Walls 1/2" regular |10 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 101 749 36 First Floor Interior Walls 1/2" regular |10 25 50 0 1 1 0.1 102 756 36 141 First Floor Ceilings 5/8" regular 10 25 50 0 1 0.1 102 753 36 Second Floor Exterior Walls 1/2" regular (10 25 50 0 1 0.1 91 670 32 Second Interior Floor Walls 1/2" regular 10 25 50 0 1 0.1 120 890 42 1/2" water resistant 10 25 50 0 1 0.1 12 92 4 Second Floor Ceilings 5/8" regular 10 25 50 0 1 0.1 84 620 30 FLOORING Vynel 20 5 15 2 2 3.0 392 62728 4203 Carpet 20 5.00 10.00 3 1 3.8 1116 178497 11709 PAINT First floor exterior walls 0 5 7 4 4 7.0 86 6512 74 First floor interior walls 0 5 7 4 4 7.0 190 14443 163 First floor ceiling 0 5 7 4 4 7.0 69 5261 59 Second floor exterior walls 0 5 7 4 4 7.0 76 5803 66. Second floor interior walls 0 5 7 4 4 7.0 157 11967 135 Second floor ceilings 0 5 7 4 4 7.0 49 3740 42 SECTION 9 SPECIALTIES BATHROOM ACC ESSORII SS Towel bar 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Paper holder 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Soap holder/grab bar 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Bath tub doors 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Medicine Cabinets 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Mirrors 0 0 5'-0"x4'-0" 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 6'-6"x4'-0" 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 SECTION 10 CAB INETS AND API 'LIANC IES CABINETS Kitchen counter tops & wall splash 10 10 30 1 2 0 1.2 208 2162 116 Kitchen base cabinets 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Kitchen upper cabinets 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Bathroom vanity tops & wall splash 10 10 30 1 2 0 1.2 198 2064 111 Bathroom base cabinets 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Laundry counter tops & wall splash 10 10 30 1 2 0 1.2 47 491 26 Laundry room base cabinets 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Laundry room upper cabinets 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Dropped fluorecent ceiling 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 KITCHEN & LAU NDRY EQUIPMENT Washer 0 1 10 3 9 9 3.0 210 16800 596 Dryer 0 1 10 3 9 9 3.0 210 16800 596 Refrigerator 0 1 10 3 9 9 3.0 240 19200 681 Range Hood 25 10 20 1 1 1 1.5 15 1200 43 Range 0 1 10 3 9 9 3.0 150 12000 426 Microwave 0 1 10 3 9 9 3.0 105 8400 298 Dishwasher 0 1 10 3 9 9 3.0 165 13200 468 Garburator 0 1 10 3 9 9 3.0 45 3600 128 SECTION i i MEc HANICAL ROUGH IN PLUMBING Polybutylene Supply Lines 1/2" dia piping 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 7 599 3 3/4" piping 30 • 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 3 274 2 1/2" fs 30 8 • 40 0 4 4 1.2 0 33 0 142 1/2" connectors 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 6 498 3 Supply header 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 9 746 4 ABS Waste Lines 0 0 0 1 1/2" pipe 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 1 1/2" 90 el 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 11/2" 45 el 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 11/2" T 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 11/2" Trap 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 1 1/2" Clean Out 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 2" 90 el 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 2" 45 el 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 2"T 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 2" Trap 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 2" Clean Outs 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 3" 45 el 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 4"T 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 PLUMBING FIXTURES Water heaters 30 10 20 1 1 1 1.6 120 9600 643 Water closet 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Bathroom sink 10 10 40 0 3 3 0.3 18 529 51 Kitchen sink 10 10 40 0 3 3 0.3 8 338 18 Tub/shower 10 10 40 0 3 3 0.3 180 5292 355 Hose bibs 5 25 20 1 0 0 1.0 0 6 0 Laundry tub 10 10 40 0 3 3 0.3 3 88 6 HEATING Forced Air Furnace Gas Furnace 0 1 15 2 14 9 2.0 170 13600 482 Filter 0 1 20 1 19 19 1.0 0 1 0 Floor registers 10 20 50 0 2 1 0.1 1 36 2 R/A grilles 10 20 50 0 2 1 0.1 0 11 1 Dampers 10 20 50 0 2 1 0.1 0 2 0 Gas piping 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Electrical connection 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 VENTILATION Bath fans 15 10 20 1 1 1 1.3 7 390 26 Bath fan low sone 15 10 20 1 1 1 1.3 7 390 26 Controls 15 10 20 1 1 1 1.3 0 13 1 SECTION 12 ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL ROUGH IN U/G PVC connection box 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 0 11 1 2" PVC conduit 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 3 102 7 2" PVC L.B. Box 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 2" PVC couplings 0 1 50 0 49 39 0.0 0 0 0 Circuits #2 bare copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 2 64 4 6'x5/8" galv st grndng rds 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 7 237 16 200 amp main breaker 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 36 1186 79 14-2 NMD copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 70 2050 137 14-3 NMD copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 46 1343 90 12-2 NMD copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 3 89 6 10-3 NMD copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 1 26 2 8-3 NMD copper wire 30 8 40 0 4 4 1.2 7 193 13 FIXTURES WALL OUTLETS Duplex 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 17 1198 80 Half switched 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 2 133 9 G.F.I. 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 1 80 5 Waterproof 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 1 53 4 143 SWITCHES 0 Single pole 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 6 399 27 3 way 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 12 852 57 4 way 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 2 166 11 timers 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 0 27 2 LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) Surface mounted |25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 63 4474 300 LIGHT FIXTURES (exterior) Surface mount 25 12 25 1 1 1 1.5 15 1065 71 MISC. CONNECT ONS Door chimes 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Smoke detector 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Burglar Alarm 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Air conditioner 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Heat recovery ventilator 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 Overhead door operator 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 30 amp. dryer outlet 0 1 40 0 39 39 0.0 0 0 0 10394 561490 30900 ITEM/LOCATION Rec. Mater-ials Rec. Energy Rec. C02 A P P E N D I X C I : B A S E C A S E S T U D Y H O U S E ' S E M B O D I E D E N E R G Y D E T A I L E D T A B L E . ITEM/LOCATION INITIAL PERCENT RECURRIN G PERCENT TOTAL PERCENT MJ MJ SECTION 1 SITE WORK 44413.2 4.77 1354.49 0.18 45767.7 2.73 CONCRETE FLATWORK 24380.8 2.62 1354.49 0.18 25735.3 1.53 SITE DRAINAGE 20032.4 2.15 0.00 0.00 20032.4 1.19 SECTION 2 CONCRETE 133681.5 14.35 0.00 0.00 133681.5 7.97 FORMWORK-BASEMENT FOUNDATION 4945.1 0.53 0.00 0.00 4945.1 0.29 CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE-BASEMENT FOUNDATION 120549.5 12.94 0.00 0.00 120549.5 7.18 REINFORCING 3658.6 0.39 0.00 0.00 3658.6 0.22 CONCRETE ACCESSORIES 4528.3 0.49 0.00 0.00 4528.3 0.27 SECTION 3 MASONRY 31839.7 3.42 3289.23 0.44 35128.9 2.09 CONC. BLOCK WALLS 1052.6 0.11 210.51 0.03 1263.1 0.08 MASONRY VENEER 15870.0 1.70 1587.00 0.21 17457.0 1.04 MASONRY FIREPLACES 14917.1 1.60 1491.71 0.20 16408.9 0.98 SECTION 4 METALS 8887.6 0.95 428.65 0.06 9316.3 0.56 STRUCTURAL STEEL 2143.3 0.23 428.65 0.06 2571.9 0.15 NAILS 6744.4 0.72 0.00 0.00 6744.4 0.40 SECTION 5 CARPENTRY 190466.6 20.45 14793.40 1.98 205260.0 12.23 BASEMENT FOUNDATION FRAMING 16441.3 1.76 0.00 0.00 16441.3 0.98 FIRST FLOOR FRAMING 28675.1 3.08 3878.65 0.52 32553.7 1.94 FIRST STOREY EXTERIOR WALLS 31214.7 3.35 807.87 0.11 32022.6 1.91 FIRST STOREY INTERIOR WALLS 5353.8 0.57 0.00 0.00 5353.8 0.32 SECOND STOREY FLOOR SYSTEM 17502.9 1.88 2859.01 0.38 20361.9 1.21 SECOND STORY EXTERIOR WALLS 15526.7 1.67 508.96 0.07 16035.7 0.96 SECOND STORY INTERIOR WALLS 5177.8 0.56 0.00 0.00 5177.8 0.31 ROOFSYSTEM 41266.8 4.43 0.00 0.00 41266.8 2.46 EXTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY 12313.4 1.32 0.00 0.00 12313.4 0.73 SOFFIT AND FASCIA 13744.5 1.48 6738.91 0.90 20483.4 1.22 INTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY-STAIRES 3249.6 0.35 0.00 0.00 3249.6 0.19 SECTION 6 INSULATION AND MOISTURE PROTECTION 175064.6 18.79 153409.60 20.56 328474.2 19.58 INSULATION 49477.0 5.31 12198.95 1.63 61676.0 3.68 DAMPROOFING 4122.7 0.44 77.82 0.01 4200.5 0.25 VAPOUR BARRIER 2336.5 0.25 0.00 0.00 2336.5 0.14 144 AIR BARRIER 762.7 0.08 457.63 0.06 1220.4 0.07 FLASHING A N D SHEET M E T A L 46360.9 4.98 0.00 0.00 46360.9 2.76 ROOFING MATERIALS 72004.8 7.73 140675.20 18.85 212680.0 12.68 S E C T I O N 7 D O O R S , WINDOWS A N D FINISH H A R D W A R E 29729.5 3.19 5691.23 0.76 35420.7 2.11 DOORS & FRAMES 7280.4 0.78 5691.23 0.76 12971.6 0.77 WINDOWS (wood) 19700.3 2.11 0.00 0.00 19700.3 1.17 FINISH HARDWARE" 2748.8 0.30 0.00 0.00 2748.8 0.16 S E C T I O N 8 FINISHES 197346.6 21.18 428665.47 57.44 626006.1 37.31 GYPSUM BOARD 91338.1 9.80 9133.81 1.22 100471.9 5.99 FLOORING 95496.2 10.25 345987.60 46.36 441483.8 26.31 PAINT 10506.3 1.13 73544.06 9.86 84050.4 5.01 S E C T I O N 9 SPECIALTIES 6939.6 0.74 0.00 0.00 6939.6 0.41 BATHROOM ACCESSORIES 6939.6 0.74 0.00 0.00 6939.6 0.41 S E C T I O N 10 C A B I N E T S A N D A P P L I A N C I E S 50891.5 5.46 98010.24 13.13 148901.8 8.87 CABINETS 19393.9 2.08 4717.44 0.63 24111.4 1.44 KITCHEN & LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT 31497.6 3.38 93292.80 12.50 124790.4 7.44 S E C T I O N 11 M E C H A N I C A L 51407.8 5.52 26197.98 3.51 77605.8 4.63 ROUGH IN PLUMBING 9449.3 1.01 2148.55 0.29 11597.9 0.69 PLUMBING FIXTURES 31826.9 3.42 9605.87 1.29 41432.7 2.47 HEATING 9521.7 1.02 13650.70 1.83 23172.4 1.38 VENTILATION 609.9 0.07 792.85 0.11 1402.7 0.08 S E C T I O N 12 E L E C T R I C A L 10906.1 1.17 14406.64 1.93 25312.7 1.51 FIXTURES 4841.0 0.52 5686.92 0.76 10527.9 0.63 WALL OUTLETS 1935.3 0.21 2902.94 0.39 4838.2 0.29 LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) 3877.9 0.42 5816.78 0.78 9694.6 0.58 MISC. CONNECTIONS 251.9 0.03 0.00 0.00 251.9 0.02 931568.3 100.00 746246.94 100.00 1677815.2 100.00 A P P E N D I X C2: B A S E C A S E STUDY HOUSE'S C02 EMISSIONS D E T A I L E D T A B L E . I T E M / L O C A T I O N INITIAL P E R C E N T R E C U R R I N G P E R C E N T T O T A L P E R C E N T K G K G K G SECTION 1 SITE WORK 2605.2 4.78 135.45 0.18 2740.7 2.73 CONCRETE FLATWORK 2438.1 4.47 135.45 0.18 2573.5 1.53 SITE DRAINAGE 167.1 0.31 0.00 0.00 167.1 1.19 S E C T I O N 2 C O N C R E T E 13518.8 24.80 0.00 0.00 13518.8 7.97 FORMWORK-BASEMENT FOUNDATION 381.7 0.70 0.00 0.00 381.7 0.29 CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE-BASEMENT FOUNDATION 12054.9 22.12 0.00 0.00 12054.9 7.18 REINFORCING 212.7 0.39 0.00 0.00 212.7 0.22 CONCRETE ACCESSORIES 869.4 1.60 0.00 0.00 869.4 0.27 S E C T I O N 3 M A S O N R Y 1794.4 3.29 185.93 0.44 1980.3 2.09 CONC. BLOCK WALLS 64.9 0.12 12.99 0.03 77.9 0.08 MASONRY VENEER 895.4 1.64 89.54 0.21 984.9 1.04 MASONRY FIREPLACES 834.1 1.53 83.41 0.20 917.5 0.98 SECTION 4 M E T A L S 512.2 0.94 26.48 0.06 538.7 0.56 STRUCTURAL STEEL 132.4 0.24 26.48 0.06 158.9 0.15 NAILS 379.8 0.70 0.00 0.00 379.8 0.40 S E C T I O N 5 C A R P E N T R Y 12699.0 23.30 529.83 1.98 13228.8 12.23 BASEMENT FOUNDATION FRAMING 1243.7 2.28 0.00 0.00 1243.7 0.98 FIRST FLOOR FRAMING 1937.8 3.56 198.73 0.52 2136.5 1.94 FIRST STOREY EXTERIOR WALLS 2240.8 4.11 44.98 0.11 2285.8 1.91 FIRST STOREY INTERIOR WALLS 414.5 0.76 0.00 0.00 414.5 0.32 SECOND STOREY FLOOR SYSTEM 1131.2 2.08 143.00 0.38 1274.2 1.21 SECOND STORY EXTERIOR WALLS 1091.4 2.00 28.34 0.07 1119.7 0.96 SECOND STORY INTERIOR WALLS 400.8 0.74 0.00 O.oO 400.8 0.31 ROOFSYSTEM 2767.0 5.08 0.00 0.00 2767.0 2.46 EXTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY 854.8 1.57 0.00 0.00 854.8 0.73 SOFFIT A N D FASCIA 385.8 0.71 114.79 0.90 500.6 1.22 145 INTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY-STATRES 231.2 0.42 0.00 0.00 231.2 0.19 S E C T I O N 6 INSULATION A N D M O I S T U R E P R O T E C T I O N 5202.5 9.55 3725.21 20.56 8927.7 19.58 INSULATION 2005.7 3.68 494.52 1.63 2500.2 3.68 DAMPROOFING 601.9 1.10 2.35 0.01 604.3 0.25 VAPOUR BARRIER 41.5 0.08 0.00 0.00 41.5 0.14 AIR BARRIER 23.1 0.04 13.83 0.06 36.9 0.07 FLASHING AND SHEET METAL 871.2 1.60 0.00 0.00 871.2 2.76 ROOFING MATERIALS 1659.1 3.04 3214.50 18.85 4873.6 12.68 S E C T I O N 7 DOORS, WINDOWS A N D FINISH H A R D W A R E 1758.8 3.23 426.41 0.76 2185.2 2.11 DOORS & FRAMES 566.3 1.04 426.41 0.76 992.7 0.77 WINDOWS (wood) 1043.7 1.92 0.00 0.00 1043.7 1.17 FINISH HARDWARE 148.8 0.27 0.00 0.00 148.8 0.16 S E C T I O N 8 FINISHES 10748.3 19.72 23963.96 57.44 34712.3 37.31 GYPSUM BOARD 4365.1 8.01 436.51 1.22 4801.6 5.99 FLOORING 6264.6 11.49 22696.79 46.36 28961.3 26.31 PAINT 118.7 0.22 830.66 9.86 949.3 5.01 S E C T I O N 9 SPECIALTIES 308.0 0.57 0.00 0.00 308.0 0.41 BATHROOM ACCESSORIES 308.0 0.57 0.00 0.00 308.0 0.41 SECTION id CABINETS A N D A P P L I A N C I E S 2134.9 3.92 3488.29 13.13 5623.1 8.87 CABINETS 1042.4 1.91 253.56 0.63 1296.0 1.44 KITCHEN & LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT 1092.4 2.00 3234.73 12.50 4327.2 7.44 S E C T I O N 11 M E C H A N I C A L 2524.6 4.63 891.00 3.51 3415.6 4.63 ROUGH IN PLUMBING 55.1 0.10 12.54 0.29 67.7 0.69 PLUMBING FIXTURES 2003.7 3.68 340.88 1.29 2344.6 2.47 HEATING 425.8 0.78 485.57 1.83 911.4 1.38 VENTILATION 40.0 0.07 52.01 0.11 92.0 0.08 S E C T I O N 12 E L E C T R I C A L 694.5 1.27 927.31 1.93 1621.8 1.51 FIXTURES 296.7 0.54 355.29 0.76 652.0 0.63 WALL OUTLETS 127.0 0.23 190.43 0.39 317.4 0.29 LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) 254.4 0.47 381.58 0.78 636.0 0.58 MISC. CONNECTIONS 16.5 0.03 0.00 0.00 16.5 0.02 54501.2 100.00 34299.87 100.00 88801.1 100.00 APPENDIX DI: IMPROVED HOUSE'S INDIRECT EMBODIED ENERGY DETAILED TABLE. ITEM/LOCATION Initial Percent Recurring Percent Total Percent MJ MJ SECTION 1 SITE WORK 32098.6 5.53 0.0 0.00 32098.6 2.81 CONCRETE FLATWORK 16253.9 2.80 0.0 0.00 16253.9 1.42 SITE DRAINAGE 15844.7 2.73 0.0 0.00 15844.7 1.39 SECTION 2 CONCRETE 54785 9.44 0.0 0.00 54785 4.80 FORMWORK-BASEMENT FOUNDATION 1943.1 0.33 0.0 0.00 1943.1 0.17 CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE-BASEMENT FOUNDATION 47623.8 8.20 0.0 0.00 47623.8 4.17 REINFORCING 3658.6 0.63 0.0 0.00 3658.6 0.32 CONCRETE ACCESSORIES 1559.5 0.27 0.0 0.00 1559.5 0.14 SECTION 4 METALS 2043 0.35 0.0 0.00 2043 0.18 NAILS 2043.0 0.35 0.0 0.00 2043 0.18 SECTION 5 CARPENTRY 116737 20.11 7201.5 1.28 123938.4 10.85 FIRST STOREY EXTERIOR WALLS 31093.1 5.36 840.2 0.15 31933.2 2.80 FIRST STOREY INTERIOR WALLS 2415.7 0.42 0.0 0.00 2415.7 0.21 SECOND STOREY FLOOR SYSTEM 13157.8 2.27 2191.4 0.39 15349.2 1.34 SECOND STORY EXTERIOR WALLS 10802.3 1.86 462.7 0.08 11265.0 0.99 SECOND STORY INTERIOR WALLS 3620.6 0.62 0.0 0.00 3620.6 0.32 ROOF SYSTEM 34140.9 5.88 0.0 0.00 34140.9 2.99 EXTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY 11419.3 1.97 0.0 0.00 11419.3 1.00 146 SOFFIT A N D FASCIA 8337.4 . 1.44 3707.2 0.66 12044.6 1.05 INTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY-STAIRES 1750.0 0.30 0.0 0.00 1750.0 0.15 S E C T I O N 6 INSULATION A N D M O I S T U R E P R O T E C T I O N 123478.4 21.27 114638.4 20.42 238116.8 20.85 INSULATION 16343.1 2.82 685.0 0.12 17028.1 1.49 DAMPR00F1NG 513.8 0.09 0.0 0.00 513.8 0.04 VAPOUR BARRIER 1353.1 0.23 0.0 0.00 1353.1 0.12 AIR BARRIER 648.3 0.11 389.0 0.07 1037.3 0.09 FLASHING A N D SHEET METAL 46492.0 8.01 0.0 0.00 46492.0 4.07 ROOFING MATERIALS 58128.1 10.01 113564.5 20.23 171692.6 15.03 S E C T I O N 7 DOORS, WINDOWS A N D FINISH H A R D W A R E 15528.7 2.67 3853.7 0.69 19382.3 1.70 DOORS & FRAMES 4003.7 0.69 3853.7 0.69 7857.3 0.69 WINDOWS (wood) 8796.7 1.52 0.0 0.00 8796.7 0.77 FINISH HARDWARE 2728.3 0.47 0.0 0.00 2728.3 0.24 S E C T I O N 8 FINISHES 122075.2 21.03 293688.9 52.31 415764.1 36.41 GYPSUM BOARD 47375.0 8.16 4737.5 0.84 52112.5 4.56 FLOORING 67882.1 11.69 241224.5 42.96 309106.6 27.07 PAINT 6818.1 1.17 47726.9 8.50 54545.0 4.78 S E C T I O N 9 SPECIALTIES 4421.7 0.76 0.0 0.00 4421.7 0.39 BATHROOM ACCESSORIES 4421.7 0.76 0.0 0.00 4421.7 0.39 S E C T I O N 10 C A B I N E T S A N D A P P L I A N C I E S 49080.1 8.45 95917.4 17.08 144997.5 12.70 CABINETS 18280.1 3.15 4717.4 0.84 22997.5 2.01 KITCHEN & LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT 30800.0 5.31 91200.0 16.24 122000.0 10.68 S E C T I O N 11 M E C H A N I C A L 49937.8 8.60 32444.9 5.78 82382.7 7.21 ROUGH IN PLUMBING 9449.3 1.63 2148.6 0.38 11597.9 1.02 PLUMBING FIXTURES 30356.9 5.23 15852.8 2.82 46209.6 4.05 HEATING 9521.7 1.64 13650.7 2.43 23172.4 2.03 VENTILATION 609.9 0.11 792.9 0.14 1402.7 0.12 S E C T I O N 12 E L E C T R I C A L 10337.4 1.78 13744.8 2.45 24082.2 2.11 FIXTURES 4457.0 0.77 5302.1 0.94 9759.0 0.85 WALL OUTLETS 1935.3 0.33 2902.9 0.52 4838.2 0.42 LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) 3693.2 0.64 5539.8 0.99 9233.0 0.81 MISC. CONNECTIONS 251.9 0.04 0.0 0.00 251.9 0.02 580522.7 100.00 561489.6 100.00 1142012.3 100.00 APPENDIX D2: IMPROVED HOUSE'S C 0 2 EMISSIONS DETAILED T A B L E . Item/Location Initial Percent Recurring Percent Total Percent kg kg SECTION 1 SITE WORK 1757.6 5.53 0.0 6.00 1757.6 2.81 CONCRETE FLATWORK 1625.4 2.80 0.0 0.00 1625.4 1.42 -SITE DRAINAGE 132.3 2.73 0.0 0.00 132.3 1.39 0.00 0.0 SECTION 2 CONCRETE 5422.6 9.44 0.0 0.00 5422.6 4.80 FORMWORK-BASEMENT FOUNDATION 150.4 0.33 0.0 0.00 150.4 0.17 CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE-BASEMENT FOUNDATION 4762.4 8.20 0.0 0.00 4762.4 4.17 REINFORCING 212.7 0.63 0.0 0.00 212.7 0.32 CONCRETE ACCESSORIES 297.1 0.27 0.0 0.00 297.1 0.14 0.00 0.0 SECTION 4 METALS 115.0 0.35 0.0 0.00 115.0 0.18 NAILS 115.0 0.35 0.0 0.00 115.0 0.18 0.00 SECTION s CARPENTRY 7751.5 20.11 245.6 1.28 7997.1 10.85 147 FIRST STOREY EXTERIOR WALLS 2224.4 5.36 46.8 0.15 2271.2 2.80 FIRST STOREY INTERIOR WALLS 187.0 0.42 0.0 0.00 187.0 0.21 SECOND STOREY FLOOR SYSTEM 847.8 2.27 109.9 0.39 957.7 1.34 SECOND STORY EXTERIOR WALLS 735.7 1.86 25.8 0.08 761.4 0.99 SECOND STORY INTERIOR WALLS 280.3 0.62 0.0 0.00 280.3 0.32 ROOF SYSTEM 2282.3 5.88 0.0 0.00 2282.3 2.99 EXTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY 796.4 1.97 0.0 0.00 796.4 1.00 SOFFIT A N D FASCIA 272.4 1.44 63.1 0.66 335.5 1.05 INTERIOR FINISH CARPENTRY-STAIRES 125.2 0.30 0.0 0.00 125.2 0.15 S E C T I O N 6 INSULATION A N D M O I S T U R E P R O T E C T I O N 5343.S 21.27 7649.3 20.42 12992.8 20.85 INSULATION 590.6 2.82 45.8 0.12 636.4 1.49 DAMPROOFING 9.1 0.09 0.0 0.00 9.1 0.04 VAPOUR BARRIER 24.0 0.23 0.0 0.00 24.0 0.12 AIR BARRIER 19.6 0.11 11.8 0.07 31.4 0.09 FLASHING A N D SHEET METAL 862.4 8.01 0.0 0.00 862.4 4.07 ROOFING MATERIALS 3837.7 10.01 7591.8 20.23 11429.5 15.03 S E C T I O N 7 DOORS, WINDOWS A N D FINISH H A R D W A R E 984.5 2.67 292.9 0.69 1277.4 1.70 DOORS & FRAMES 344.5 0.69 292.9 0.69 637.4 0.69 WINDOWS (wood) 493.1 1.52 0.0 0.00 493.1 0.77 FINISH HARDWARE 147.0 0.47 0.0 0.00 147.0 0.24 0.00 0.0 S E C T I O N 8 FINISHES 6833.9 21.03 16678.7 52.31 23512.6 36.41 GYPSUM BOARD 2274.6 8.16 227.5 0.84 2502.0 4.56 FLOORING 4482.3 11.69 15912.1 42.96 20394.5 27.07 PAINT 77.0 1.17 539.1 8.50 616.1 4.78 0.00 0.0 S E C T I O N 9 SPECIALTIES 194.9 0.76 0.0 0.00 194.9 0.39 BATHROOM ACCESSORIES 194.9 0.76 0.0 0.00 194.9 0.39 0.00 0.0 S E C T I O N io C A B I N E T S A N D A P P L I A N C I E S 2075.6 8.45 3488.3 17.08 5563.3 12.70 CABINETS 982.6 3.15 253.6 0.84 1236.1 2.01 KITCHEN & LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT 1092.4 5.31 3234.7 16.24 4327.2 10.68 0.00 0.0 S E C T I O N 11 M E C H A N I C A L 2697.9 8.60 1624.8 5.78 4322.7 7.21 ROUGH IN PLUMBING 55. l 1.63 12.5 0.38 67.7 1.02 PLUMBING FIXTURES 2176.1 5.23 1073.5 2.82 3249.6 4.05 HEATING 425.8 1.64 485.6 2.43 911.4 2.03 VENTILATION 40.9 0.11 53.1 0.14 94.0 0.12 0.00 0.0 S E C T I O N 12 E L E C T R I C A L 692.6 1.78 920.9 2.45 1613.5 2.11 FIXTURES 298.6 0.77 355.2 0.94 653.9 0.85 WALL OUTLETS' 129.7 0.33 194.5 0.52 324.2 0.42 LIGHT FIXTURES (interior) 247.4 0.64 371.2 0.99 618.6 0.81 MISC. CONNECTIONS 16.9 0.04 0.0 0.00 16.9 0.02 33869.1 100.00 30900.4 100.00 64769.4 100.00 148 Figure 2. Base Case Study House - Elevations 150 Figure 3. Base Case Study House - Elevations nnn 151 Figure 4. Improved House Plans 152 Figure 5. Improved House Plans 153 Figure 6. Improved House - Elevations 154 Figure 7. Improved House Elevations 155 FIGURE 8 - LIFE CYCLE MATERIAL CONSUMPTION • RECURRING CONSUMPTION • INITIAL CONSUMPTION FIGURE 9-LIFE CYCLE ENERGY COMPARISON ggj OPERATIN ENERGY • RECURRING EMBODIED ENERGY • INITIAL EMBODIED ENERGY 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 FIGURE10-LIFE CYCLE C02 COMPARISON g| Operating C02 • Recurring C02 • Initial C02 Base Case Improved 156 FIGURE 11-ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT COMPARISON I | Recurring M Initial Base Case Improvt House House 157 

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