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The satanic verses and the occidentalism of Salman Rushdie Sobhan, Zafar 1995

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THE SATANIC VERSES AND THE OCCIDENTALISM OF SALMAN RUSHDIE by ZAFAR SOBHAN B.A.(Honours), Pomona C o l l e g e , 1992  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Department o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1995 © Zafar Sobhan, 1995  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by his or  her  representatives.  It  is understood that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Edsusn  uiTEE.fi T O R E  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  a 3 (5)1^5  ABSTRACT  This  paper  i s an  positioning reading paper with  of  the  and  an  identity writing  identity  are  the  brown  Verses  as  an  t h e n o v e l as  of  London  he  does  Orientalist  with  Rushdie  as  brown  reading  of  t h e n o v e l as  basic  within such  West.  which  as  an  rhetorical obscure  the  Rushdie's and  identify  as  brown  Having  Orientalist  attack  device constructed actual  and  the  critique  of  to  coincident  attack  o f how and  Indian the  on  the that  paper  which  the  on  the  on  Islam.  the  of  these  I s l a m can  be  themes  culture The  the  to dismantle the  of  of  as  Orientalism  demonstrates The  how  Satanic  understood  as  authority  i s offered  of  a positioning  then  subvert Rushdie's  of  positioning  such  and  reading  identification  framework paper  of  community,  proceeds  takes  his  repositioning  colonial  discrediting  Islam that  The  ideas from  sahib i s untenable.  dismantled the  of Rushdie  and  with  established  Orientalist  the  presentation  i s dependent  Having  of  thematic preoccupation  i t s British  the novel i s understood,  a positioning  Verses  Orientalist  a reappraisal  sahib i s invalid,  premise.  s a h i b and  of Rushdie's  into  not  of him  Rushdie  its  the  tenability  the Westernized Indian developed  positioning  critical  as  i n the novel.  that  the  exposition  of  his., d e p i c t i o n  that  into  Rushdie  Satanic  with  demonstrates  of  Salman  The  opens  earlier this  of  inquiry  i n the  a and  to  novel.  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Abstract Table  of Contents  i  INTRODUCTION  Chapter  One  Chapter  Two  Three  Indian  Identity  i n Rushdie's  Indian  Identity  i n The  Indians  Four  i  i  Writing  Satanic  Verses  4 7 13  Babylondon  16  The Brown S a h i b  21  Orientalism  30  The G o d - s h a p e d H o l e  36  Gibreel  37  Farishta  The Dream  Chapter  i  1  British  Chapter  i  Sequences  41  Intention  51  Conclusion  55  Bibliography  iii  Islam the  cannot  observation  movement. within of  be t h r e a t e n e d o f new  Threats  galaxies,  will  the authority  or novelist,  surely  engender  of Islam  be n o t a s c i e n t i s t and e x p l o r a t i o n  only  what  can receive  i t s  Mernissi  light. --Adonis  A man And  hears  what  disregards  he wants  t o hear  the rest. —Paul  Simon  but from  A  Galileo  b u t an  of the psyche  sedition.  the sun  Illuminates  as  sovereignty  and tension.  —Fatima  Even  outside,  and t h e i r r e d u c i b l e  must  of a l l future  such  i t s v i s i o n i s o f a cosmos i n  disequilibrium  a Salman Rushdie,  be t h e a r e n a  of astronomy,  do n o t come f r o m  I t i s imagination  the i n d i v i d u a l which  essayist  because  to i t s authority  human b e i n g s .  challenging  by t h e d i s c o v e r i e s  INTRODUCTION  What  i s noteworthy  concerning  Salman  areopagitica under the  h a s come  attention--and and  Ziauddin  Sardar to  attempt This  of the novel  book  Imagination: and Merryl  are packed i s walking  received  of Rushdie gained from  Davies  critical  Verses  as  Orientalist  s a h i b " has, by  widespread  acceptance.  the Rushdie  Affair  t h e most  complete  a t t a c k on  order:  every  slightly  up t o become l i k e  the  the z e n i t h of Western  i s p o s i t i o n e d by t h e i r  Satanic  Verses  i s read  discourse  as t h e product  as a brown  of Rushdie's  p r e j u d i c e s i n h i s attempt  to identify  sahib--and  h i s desperate  brown  sahib  seeks  civilization and  of  this  t o present  with  the colonial  his original extension country  o f t h e brown  Western  project.  1  h i s indigenous  the European  o f t h e mother  endeavours grand  to obliterate  i tinto  as a pre-modern  civilization  literary  attempt  and submerge  sahib  self,  the  c u l t u r e and  of the culture [ . . . ] The are the  H i s brown  The  internalization  culture:  identity  Islam.  (87)  Rushdie  In  by  f o r whom  of history,  to reach  Orientalist  as "brown  i n an h i e r a r c h i c a l  trying  up f o r  w i t h i n which the  as an O r i e n t a l i s t  the incline  drawn  This  l i t t l e  i s perhaps  as a w r i t e r  while  the novel  i t as an  unchallenged.  Lessons  Wyn  of modernity,  civilization.  Orientalist  read  o f The S a t a n i c  of breath,  culture  who  thus  and r e p e t i t i o n ,  i s that  the framework  have  the reading  discourse  written defending  t o be u n d e r s t o o d  p o s i t i o n s Rushdie  culture  Verses  and t h e parameters  contextualize the novel  cultures  out  by those  largely  of the novel  of rhetoric Distorted  The S a t a n i c  of expression,  the coincident positioning  virtue  of the principal  a r e o p a g i t i c a has been  has remained  contextualization novel  novel  of freedom  understanding on I s l a m  the dialectic  Rushdie's  after  the banner  attack  about  product  colour  of  ensures his  t h e eagerness  authentic  confirmed.  This  re-run  read  Council  of Rushdie  o f Mosques  publication Western  brand  attempts  tradition  Islam,  h i s argument  Islam—remains  possesses  this  written  Sahib--that  ties  a novel  attack  like  basic  (8).  position  opposition  has clear Akhtar  principally  tothe  o f Muhammad  echoes  of the  wavers  between  raise  of the early  that  h i s i r e as  history  of  readers" traitor  positioning  (86).  Rushdie  (85)  That  i s assumed by  of cultural  treasonf o r  of Islam f o r the This positioning  of  Rushdie  and t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e n o v e l as an  this  response  Kiss  i thas g i v e n r i s e of Judas:  Affairs  understanding but take  to a o f a Brown  i tas t h e  to the novel.  of Rushdie  the positioning  Rushdie  i s so widespread  not only propagate  " i s Salman  f o r h i s own r o o t s  accuses  attack  at Cornell  f o r h i s own r o o t s ? "  and a r t i c l e s - - T h e  f o rt h e i r  mused:  i sdisrespectful  on Islam  of essays  delivered  of h i s  to the historic  "The p a r o d y  While  that  contempt  Mazrui  a  of the Bradford  the novel  that  account  contempt  t h e novel as O r i e n t a l i s t ,  reinforces  i n their  In a lecture  o f h i sWestern  premise This  of  also  revisionist  sahib or cultural  collection  basic  united  sentiment"  h i sb a s i c  having  Orientalist  Sardar and  "reads  the intellectual  1 s t 1989, A l i M a z r u i  i n h i slecture.  brown  contend  Akhtar  i n The S a t a n i c V e r s e s  constant.  Mazrui  "titillation  which  a g a i n s t t h e n o v e l - - t h a t i t i s an O r i e n t a l i s t  on March  continuing  Rushdie  as  were  t h e two c h a p t e r s o f t h e n o v e l  University  prejudices  through  they  Shabbir  to outline  Akhtar  of Orientalist  o r as Rushdie's  simply  which  against Islam and contends  parody  on  own  Orientalism" (5).  Muhammad!  of the novel.  the Muslim  reading  With  and others that  animus  their  i s t h e framework  The S a t a n i c V e r s e s ,  Be C a r e f u l  organization  worst  have  o f a c u l de s a c o f h i s t o r y . In  and  and thus  to listen to  (86)  positioning  Wyn D a v i e s  voice  o f many E u r o p e a n s  p r o v i d e s t h e framework  f o rthe reading  and t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e novel as  of Rushdie,  2  each  concept  Orientalist  validating the  other. within the that  In this which  paper  the novel  I hope has  p o s i t i o n i n g of Rushdie the  accusation  critically  of  untenable,  to dismantle  been as  brown  paper  positioning  of  Rushdie  can  constructed  to  subvert  Rushdie's  critique  Islam  of  that  understood,  Orientalism this  be  the  sahib. that  intends  understood  framework  and More  3  i n the  than  to demonstrate as  a  into  question showing  Rushdie how  rhetorical  novel.  Orientalism  merely  i s made a g a i n s t  a u t h o r i t y and  i s offered  to call  of  to obscure  such  i s a  device the  actual  INDIAN  The  IDENTITY  identity  Rushdie's 1982,  of  RUSHDIE'S  the  The  In  i n the  Indian  through  those  of  there  are  w h e n we  us  of  are  now  But  Rushdie  him  this  new  plural  who  seem,  the  Hindus  saw  more  translation  The  hybrid word  Latin the  for  supposed  This explored  we  with  the  medicine  the  travelled  eyes:  teeth,  (5).  Not valley  migration  than  he  only also  of  the  a  Indian  now  to  once  of that  us a l l , and  black  water;  r e s u l t — a s  Fall  magnificent  by  in  so  course,  suspect  my  indicates--we  merely  across".  cling  of  l o s s and  displacement--for  experience  and  gained.  identity  Saleem  Aziz to  "Instead noticed d i d Dr. him  Having  always  i n Midnight's  Dr.  e t y m o l o g i c a l l y , from been  who see  of  gets  could  create  the Aziz  in notion  that  of  the  Children  Westernized  Indian  through  character  the  Sinai's grandfather.  the  from  valley  beauty  the  differently:  4  of  of  narrowness, see  across  normally  lost the  the  (17)  returned  the  borne  It is  o b s t i n a t e l y to  the  narrator  saw  comes,  t r a n s l a t e d men.  a l s o be  Heidelberg  giant  the  to  something I  can  s t o r y of at  (15)  are  that  Rushdie  Aadam A z i z ,  West.  a  as  the  the  "bearing  question  by  of  of  be  faced  does  speaking  crossed And  wrote  himself:  India,  I  he  in  identities:  translation; something  have  notion  could  conflicts  ( I am  am  essay  p o s t - l a p s a r i a n men  pork.  "translation"  world,  I  an  move seems w r o n g  who  eat  Christian  partly  at  [ . . . ] and  the  r e c u r r i n g theme  extension,  myself.)  ourselves,  who  and  spectacles.  when  to  are  by  emigrated  Muslims  use  and  of  l o o k i n g back  about  times  w o m e n . We are  West,  is a  Homelands,"  identity  guilt-tinged  talking  we  the  writer,  more,  Indian  "Imaginary  explores  based  WRITING  Westernized  writing.  Rushdie  writers  IN  the  years  his birth  the  valley "as  five  The  tiny  of  the  of  Dr.  begins  studying  through  differently,  though  novel  of  valley  proximity  was  different,  circled the  but  by  horizon" he  old place  felt  that  resented  his  educated,  from of  Heidelberg,  a n d how  T a i t h e shikara,  introduction The  story  tension to  stethoscoped  captures  h i s Western  ( 5 ) . The s t o r y  he i s f o r c e d has branded  to the question  between  British  who  return"  him and those  and t h e Indians,  h i m an o u t s i d e r ,  within who  Given  considered  i s Rushdie's  of the Westernized  Dr. Aziz  himself,  Indian.  as w e l l  h i m somehow  the colonial  the sentiments  return  t h e v a l l e y by t h e d i s p l e a s u r e  of the identity  the tension  education.  from  of Dr. A z i z ' s  less  as t h e  Indian  due  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  on b o t h  sides  were  perhaps  unsurprising. Rushdie Indian  only  constant  touches  on t h e q u e s t i o n  t a n g e n t i a l l y i n Midnight's  return  to the d i r e c t i o n of Rushdie's  would  develop  more f u l l y  Indian  identity  nation  filled  parentage  of Saleem  Rushdie's  ideas  multiplicity,  Sinai  the superabundance,  of  plural  this In  his third  relationship Rushdie  eclectic  i s writing a story  h e h a s come  fact  that  t o know  "however  that  anticipates against  Shame.  world  Rushdie  nature  Indian  India  as a  confused  of Indian  mirrors  identity.  f o r the plurality,  India again  i s the product  f o r Rushdie. touched  on t h e I n Shame. nation  i n s l i c e s - - a n d he r e c o n c i l e s h i m s e l f  to the  to write  i n fragments  about  of broken  over-there, mirrors"  h i s own p o s i t i o n i n g a n d t h e a c c u s a t i o n s to represent  5  the  the  the potential of  to the subcontinent.  set i n a looking-glass  he  of  history)  importantly,  once  many  Pakistan--a  I choose  h i s legitimacy  The  to India's  defines  idea  he sees  and p o t e n t i a l t h a t  hybridity that  of the Westernized  that  reflect  possibility  novel.  Rushdie's  a r e a metaphor and most  provides  subject--which  and hybrid--and  and h y b r i d  c h i l d r e n themselves  I t i s the endless  Verses.  (who i s h a n d c u f f e d  novel's  identity  p o t e n t i a l and p o s s i b i l i t y .  the confused  India.  of the Westernized  yet the  t h i n k i n g on t h i s  eclectic  endless  about  national  i n The S a t a n i c  i s plural,  with  midnight's  Children,  t o t h e theme o f I n d i a n  clues  The  of the identity  I am  (69). that  subcontinent:  forced  to  Rushdie will  be  made  Outsider! subject! We  like  tongue,  once  In  what  explored  always  plutralism, of  India  nature  This  writing.  with  authority.  us i n your  but lies?  of Indian  on i d e a s  hybridity.  i s t h e crowd,  T o my  of Indian  identity  years  since  too.  My  i s by i t s many  i s one t h a t  of Indian  of the Westernized  i t , and  independence:  India  image  very  things  Verses identity  recurs  that  at  Indian.  i n Rushdie's  he expounds  and i n doing  and a p p r e c i a t i n g  6  Midnight.  32)  i n The S a t a n i c  philosophy  of  as he u n d e r s t o o d  the defining  heterogenous,  Homelands,  issue.  multiplicity,  mind,  and a crowd  and h i s o r h e r  the Riddle  family, of  forked  Indian,  identity  Bombay a n d a M u s l i m  around  (28)  i n 1987, e n t i t l e d  new w a y s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  perspective  about  this  wrapped  of the Westernized  made  been based  I t i s only  comprehensive  r e j e c t your  h a d come t o i n t h e f o r t y  (Imaginary  question  to  a t a n g e n t i a l and unresolved  superabundant,  once.  We  no r i g h t  f o r e i g n language  speaking  the nature  India  come f r o m  has  Pirate! your  the identity  remains  where  You have  can you t e l l  a documentary  examined I  a flag:  again,  credentials,  Rushdie  Poacher!  know y o u w i t h  you  But  Trespasser!  a full  and  so presents  the p o s i t i o n and  us  INDIAN  It  IDENTITY  i s i n The  vision  understood.  clear  from  his  Westernized To  day,  to  Indian  racial  What  practical,  t u r n i n g away These  "Imaginary  Homelands.  from  Homelands"  insider  and  an  provide  him  with  truth  and  translation.  outsider  he  feels  or  necessity In  of  the the  to  and  identity  of  principal  those  the  faced  by  be we and  our  hands  of  both  make  ideas  the  are we  are  and  ones  that  a l l a to  came  single,  live  his  and  i n the  his  dual (as  world?  one  within  Children  issue  well  as  angles for  about  as  the  the  f o r him,  and  this  and  Shame t h i s  The  Satanic  Indian  novel.  i s an  of  is issue  not that  the  tension  Verses,  takes  might  benefits  w r i t i n g on  an  construction  subcontinent  a l l his  In  both  British) on  the  f o r him.  the  Westernized  7  writes  on  In  the  he  perspective  persuasively  perspective  themes of  that  complicated  illuminating  resolved. the  i s a  argues  face  Midnight's not  i t is  i t mean  should  into  society  unproblematic  t a n g e n t i a l l y , but of  he  Nevertheless,  uncomplicated  subcontinent.  and  identity  p r a c t i c e s ? What  that  Indian  interesting  reality,  an  the  suggests to  and  i s  face,  does  culture  i s Westernized  perspective he  of  consequences,  and  are  he/she  Indian,  i s to  What  can  from  how  17-18)  Rushdie this  society  the  questions How  of  most  thinking:  r e f u s i n g to  ideas  and  that  questions  play  are of  us?  fact  the  his  within ourselves  embracing  question:  and  Westernized  his  to  practices with  Indian  o s s i f i e d ? How  seeming  of  forth  a  How  change  here  mere  one  being  Western  puts  definition.  India?  for  consequences  subcontinent  is  of  outside  to  (Imaginary  issue  c e n t r a l to  enemies?  existential  to  i s himself  writer in this  need  concessions  of  are  and  Rushdie  writing that  without  spiritual  The  Westernized  the  without  the  community  the  of  problems  preserved discuss  that  Indian  every  VERSES  Verses  earlier  an  be  SATANIC  Rushdie  Indians  be  our  THE  Satanic  comprehensive best  IN  i s  alluded  however,  centre  stage,  this and  In  The S a t a n i c  essentially cultures, culture Mughal  Verses•  plural  some  Rushdie  and h y b r i d ,  indigenous  and i d e n t i t y influences.  i s a melange This  documentary  the Riddle  of  Indian  identity,  resolution which  to the crisis  has loomed  many  different  argues  that  Indian  He  i n Midnight's  Rushdie  o f many  of Indian  this  i s able  of identity  i n the background  Aryan,  Persian  identity  Children  and appears  I t i s through  that  identity i s  o f , among o t h e r s ,  of Midnight•  Verses.  Indian  alien.  understanding  of h i s contention  The S a t a n i c  that  a hotch-potch  a n d some  elaboration  in  argues  and  i s an  and t h e  as a p r i n c i p a l  theme  elaboration of h i s theory  to offer  faced  some k i n d  of  by t h e Westernized  of h i s previous  Indian,  w r i t i n g on t h e  subcontinent. In Indian  the novel,  identity  we  are first  v i a Zeenat  that  folklorist  based  to fit,  Aryan,  Good  Indian.  when  she gave  right  others."  that  whatever  British,  "Why  a l l bad Indians.  Hindu  culture clothes  i t The  she t o l d  should  a wog? T h a t ' s  to  take-the-best-  She h a d c a l l e d  i s a dead,"  him a copy.  we're  put forth  the subject.  cultural  she had sought  Only  Chamcha  there  be a  good,  fundamentalism.  Some w o r s e  than  (52)  philosophy  exploration  Mughal,  "Meaning,  way o f b e i n g  Actually,  of borrowing  [...]  of  validated  f o r was n o t t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n a l  and-leave-the-rest?  conception  of authenticity,  s t r a i g h t j a c k e t which  by an e t h i c o f h i s t o r i c a l l y  on t h e p r i n c i p l e  seemed  t o Rushdie's  of a r t c r i t i c i s m :  book was] on t h e c o n f i n i n g myth  eclecticism,  on  V a k i l ' s book  [her  replace  The  introduced  by Zeenat's  She e x p l o r e s  the nature  comes t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n  identity,  i t has been  i n that  born  that  i t i s hugely  out of centuries  not  a particularly  difficult  one  considers  India  that  book  conclusion  itself  echoes  Rushdie's  of Indian Indian eclectic  a r t , and through  art reflects  Indian  of cross-pollination. t o agree  this  and m u l t i f a c e t e d and  with,  i s more o f a c o n t i n e n t  8  own w r i t i n g  This i s  e s p e c i a l l y when than  a  country  (three Sri  countries  Lanka,  pointed to  India  very  many  culture  was  Indian  regardless  claim  We novel.  conclusion  a r e somehow  less  Muslim  that  outside  of  concept  the  of Indian  i n t h e house  provided  t h e s i s about  from  individual  a many-headed,  literally,  Muslims  was  Indian  identity  part  among U r d u  of t h e Mughals,  Indian  there  Hindus,  c u l t u r e and  a r e s o m e who  view.  of  would  than  r e c u r r i n g throughout the Chamchawala b r i n g s  of  Zeeny nature  The M u g h a l s h a d  p a i n t i n g . One  then  point  of India  many-brushed  would  speakers i n  Indian  proof  was  that  out i s p r e c i s e l y the  hybridized  identity  accepted  Indians  identity: eloquent  profound  are less  o f Changez  tradition.  every  other  heritage,  course,  the eclectic,  artistic  artists  paintings;  create  reason  nor Persian  generally  a r e no l e s s their  of India--pf  p o s i t i n g of Indian  the Indian  brought  trace  shaped  not a culture  had a  t o the time  points  i s , fortunately, a minority  pictures also  Vakil's  Vakil  Muslims  they  precisely for this  T h e Hamza-nama  The  Zeenat  very  Europe  t o t h e argument  back  have  be  the Aryan  British  i s now  c u l t u r e as i t e x i s t s and d a t i n g  with  than  might  Not only i s  (or central  "Indian"  region  she has been  but each  o f what  The l o g i c a l  of the fact  to this  identity.  Mughal,  from  and might  b u t was c e r t a i n l y  Neither  and development  varies  including  has i n f a c t  identity  as a country  to the subcontinent,  fundamentalism.  see t h i s  notion,  influences, beginning  Indian--which  but this  identity  of Indian  on t h e i n s i d e ,  not even  as Rushdie  of Indian  or a Punjabi  notions  and P a k i s t a n  to roots  that  Hindus,  back  that  of Hindu  Indian  h i s t o r i a n s you read)  Indians  not truly  place,  originated i n central Asia  culture.  India  religion  Tamil  indigenous  t o suggest  creed  Children.  a Bengali  on t h e g r o w t h  Northern  In the f i r s t  to the subcontinent.  Westernized  is  which  and t h a t ' s  a Gujurati notion  outside  on w h i c h  indigenous  be  from  different  depending  as  instance  heterogenous  civilization  t o be p r e c i s e ,  or Nepal).  i n common w i t h  effect  days  out i n Midnight's  different  l i t t l e  by  Bhutan  region--for  very  these  t o work  on  submerged t o  Overartist hand  would  who, draw  us  the  mosaic  paint  you could  Kannada  in  theme  from  Dhaka, [he]  Quran-Sharif,  Here  as w e l l  [. ..] s e c u l a r i s t Sufyan  of  Western  culture  heritage?"  (246)  the identity  identity  rejects  the polar  East--between  England  and I n d i a — t h a t  the British  culture,  between  Raj--quite  specifically  culture  and i d e n t i t y .  somehow  less  opposition privileging proportion identity  Indian  between  l e t us n o t pretend after  these  of our  their  Westernization  true  opposition  between  i s based  culture,  and India, years  influence  and h y b r i d i z e d ,  a b i t of this  determinedly  and  hybridized  t h e West  Rushdie  i s no  he i n s i s t s  that  be viewed  Westernization  which  ultimately  of British  10  Western  rule  hotch-potch  more  Indian  leads  a  Indian  as binary  to a  out of a l l I f  Indian  to use Rushdie's  constantly  singular, than  of  posits  on t h e s u b c o n t i n e n t .  and never  as anything  apologist  i s now a n i n t e g r a l p a r t  and a b i t of that,  pluralistic  and t h e  on t h e h i s t o r y o f  The p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e W e s t e r n i z e d  England  as  the multiple  be p a r t  by v i r t u e o f h i s / h e r  i s eclectic  terminology, itself,  as w e l l  of S t . John t h e  the opposite--but  o f t h e two h u n d r e d with  ex-schoolteacher  of Julius  t h e two c u l t u r e s .  English  to  Indian.  Rushdie  for  the  alluded  t o h i s r e p o s i t i o n i n g and r e a p p r a i s a l  of the Westernized  opposition  i s even  Cafe:  swallowed  i s not present;  i s tied  fusing  (70)  s h o w s how h i s p o s i t i n g o f t h e e c l e c t i c  of Indian  colonial  In the  identity  accounts  i tnot also  would  their  Rig-Veda  of the subcontinent--"and  how c o u l d  nature  from  as t h e R e v e l a t i o n s  centuries,  Rushdie  synthesis.  the military  Caesar  that  forming  Shaandaar  Divine  cultures  [...]  b y Muhammad S u f y a n ,  effortlessly  from  a third  miniature  of Indian  the thriving  quote  skies  philosophy  nature  propounded  who r u n s could  cloudy  late-Mughal  of the eclectic  the philosophy  the figures,  see the Persian  and Keralan  characteristically  This  a second  the Chinese-looking  Hamza-nama with  floors,  then  own  refashioning why  should  one o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s  that  might  go  Westernized  towards  Indian  fashioning  i s no  less a  a  person's  true  Indian  Lucknow  steeped  i n Mughal  traditions,  Chinese  border,  where  the  i n f l u e n c e s of  greatly  i n evidence.  The  notion  due  to  his/her  dependent is  on  cultural  the  This plagued  Rushdie  earlier  elaborated  his  a  suggested  base  has  identity  of  said,  we  get  our  crisis  w r i t i n g on, I n d i a .  In  a  right, West,  end  maybe; North.  enterprise, thing used  Indian  to  grin  earth  up  and  then  is full we  of  become  the  or  on  using  the  heritage  i s  identity,  his  which  that  Verses  are  Indian  values,  identity  Satanic  and  Arunachal  he  has has  elaboration  reunderstanding  world's  push  i s , we're  not  Indian the  fridge.  should  we  back.  Indians,  made up  Damn i t , y o u  W h a t was  fight  of  as the  you  "Zeeny," know  that,  tinkers in Australia  i n I d i Amin's  way  us.  identity,  of  from  Indian:  the  to  The  speaker  Indian  d a z z l i n g r e p o s i t i o n i n g and  everywhere,  heads  of  the  A  somehow l e s s  beliefs  r e s o l u t i o n to  of  from  someone b e i n g  singular notion  argues  Westernized  "the  a  Urdu  c u l t u r e and  exist.  Chamcha d e c i d e d he  Chinese  identity?  an  tribal  not  concept  the  a  does  i s Rushdie's  his  or  than  i n f l u e n c e s , language,  p o s i t i n g of  p r e c i s e l y what  of  Indian  of be  like  Indies,  was  East,  of  us,  frontiers.  you.  name o f  Columbus  proud  against  and  You  our  Only  better  get  that  book  you  wrote?"  the  best  ambassador  (54)  Although  Chamcha h i m s e l f  i s perhaps  point  view,  Zeenat  of  denying is  his  having  Indian  Rushdie's.  India  as  a  Westernized  that  he  to  be  the  points  and  out,  attempting  things  that  he  to  his  turn  f i n d s most  result  from  hybridized nature,  and  originality the  regeneration,  in this  Westernized  g u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y Indian. as  an  imitation  11  of  the  does  colonial  the  argument  might not  about  myriad  the  constant  Indian He  the  this  life  attractive  for  her  for  entire  white,  capacity  finds that  Indian  spent  i s her  f o r newness  renewal--and understood  identity of  country  possibilities potential  One  as  not  enormous  recycling therefore see  identity,  and be  the but  as  something Indian be  and  identity  considered  Saladin than of  new  e x c i t i n g — a prime  out  of  disparate  a  mere  imitation  Chamcha  such  a  look  at  the  colonialism—Rushdie  Western  c u l t u r e and  suggests  adapted  Indians  slightest  trace  introduced foreign.  to  influenced one law,  aspects  of  one's  of  Indian  adaptation how  identifies  of  supervisor  or  i s r e f e r r e d to c u l t u r e and  anything  an  Indian the  can  as  be  the  and  than  12  too of  adapted There  of  prism  aspects the  are  no  have  of  take-  the  have  been  longer  been  subcontinent, In  a  Indians them  Rushdie  without  the  might  the  i s no  Rather  without  incharge.  Indian.  culture.  tea  they  not  identity.  activities  undertrial.  Westernized  colonial  in their  the  need  case  taken  national  many p a r t s  languages.  other  have  subcontinent  language,  c u l t u r e and  the  of  appropriate).  British--but  boss as  i n the  c u l t u r e through  These  In  Indian  culture reflects  milk  the  language.  as  with  the  of  quite  Indians  Indian  put  by  languages  English  Western  demonstrate who  the  and  subcontinent  defendant  formation this  by  cricket  be  how  development  regeneration  Westernized  Indian  self-consciousness.  various  r e f e r s to the  of  the  The  play  to  the  (although  might  that  them  of  The  Westerner  i n f l u e n c e on  the-best-and-leave-the-rest Nowadays,  ones.  designation  Western  example  in  cause  court have  of taken  the to  view  i s attempting  being  a  brown  to  sahib  BRITISH  The  INDIANS  Satanic  Verses  i s , i n many w a y s ,  identity,  and by extension,  Rushdie's  ideas  strain  about  of Indian  community  the identity  how W e s t e r n i z a t i o n  identity  of Brickhall.  reappraisal  of British  are reflected The S a t a n i c  Indian  i nhis  definition  British  Indian  culture i sneither  Indian the  nor a diluted  culture--but  Rushdie  depicts  what he t a k e s defines  the  nothing pain  of those  Verses. Indians  and u n f a m i l i a r  Everything  to  identity.  Rushdie  He m a n a g e s  identity  process  outof  that of  that  around  had been  upset  of translation  feel  tired,  t h e sense o f community i n  land  waterways  hard  f o rt h e slow  girls,  who w e r e  13  were  Nobody i n  courtesies  of this  o f home?  her life  to find.  home, o r f o r t h e many o b s e r v a n c e s the poison  Her sounds  s h e knew? Where t h e  she had b u i l t  were  lost.  alien  was s h e n o t e n t i t l e d  and t h e green  which  been  these  V i l a y e t had time  h e r baby  t o convey  of  of faith  life [...]  d e v i l - i s l a n d had  growing  about  h a s meant  by t h e change;  this  of a l l ,  sympathy  t o England  less of a promised  now, t o e m i t  of her youth  worst  great  members o f t h e I n d i a n  has been  t o o ,o r a t l e a s t  infected  has grown  i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n  with  back and  that  that  form o f  Babylon:  obliged,  customs  lost,  up by  British  lesser)  Indian  writes  moan? W h e r e now was t h e c i t y  The  mainstream  p o t e n t i a l and p o s s i b i l i t y  by those  made h e r t o n g u e  village  drawn  I t demonstrates  f o r whom m i g r a t i o n  she valued  i n this  language: that  the lines  o f h i snovel  and a l i e n a t i o n .  f o r whom E n g l a n d  had  a new a n d v i b r a n t  i s a r e p o s i t i o n i n g and  The B r i t i s h  t h e pages  Indian.  depiction of the Indian  new a n d e x c i t i n g  o f both.  and d i s j u n c t u r e f e l t  hostile  Verses  Indian  identity.  but loss  Brickhall  i nhis  (andtherefore  t o be t h e l i m i t l e s s  The S a t a n i c  trials  can create  imitation  or tainted  within  Indian  In  of Indian  something  cross-pollination  of the Westernized  culture along  Rushdie  culture,  a celebration of B r i t i s h  up r e f u s i n g  than  a  to  speak  their  understood  mother-tongue,  every  word,  they  even  did  though  they  i t just  to  hurt.  discontent  of  the  (249-250)  But  while  Indian,  the  i t i s also  that  must  Hind  Sufyan  the  way  novel  be  might  that  growing  that  their  their in but  at  forged  up  out  there  the  as  exists  a  such.  They  i n any  crucial  her the  daughters family  perceive  and  the  inauspicious  she  but  as  way  not that  distinction  be  between  not  (or  and  they  Indians,  i s intertwined  mother  up  in  British  them  growing  does n o t — t h a t  Indian  their  identity  surroundings.  are  self-definition may  new  remained  what  Englishwomen  identity  Bangladeshi)  that  to  transplanted  c e l e b r a t i o n of  done had  imitation  as  a  seemingly  fact  have  personal  case,  such  i t i s important  identification  this  same t i m e  of  would  not  own  the  bemoan  they  Bangladesh--but are  c h r o n i c l e s the  and with  specifically,  can  identify--  the  majority  The  novel  culture. The provides and  Satanic us  with  makes us  formulation  of  had as  on  angel,  of  at  the  the  and  Mahavilayet.  radicals alley by  over up  that  murder  of  the  public  house  attic  days  posses  talking  life  and  Indian  From  the  to  Socialist  where  the  p o l i c e and  stain  Mehta  Ulysses on  the  roamed  the  do  railway with  Three  and  [...]  Street,  the [...]  were  verballed,  scene  marking  last  the  posses  Party  up,  the  Lee,  nocturnal  14  the  Workers  carpet his  Chamcha  battle  find  and  more  under  fitted  E.  the  Pandavas,  in  of  the  that  where These ready  culture  plays  recording  vigilante  Brickhall  then  breathed  her  or,  there, used  the  and  s e l f - h e l p or  Up  about  battleground,  Kurus  s i d e - s t r e e t he'd  the  Singh  being  window,  too.  new  Front  Jamaican,  Jatinder the  of  was  the  of  m o d e r n Mahabharata,  National  done  clear.  Indian  factor that  habit  the  black  accurately,  Down t h a t  British  mythological  exterminator  bridge,  framed;  the a  Chamcha's  in this  the  distinction  identity:  f a b l e s of  racists  fearless  crucial  developed  and  starring  the  an  this  d e p i c t i o n of  i f i t were  high  learned  makes  vivid  such  street  white  a  aware  Mishal  she,  Verses  for  in  the  aggravation. that 'em  The  street without come a n d  Satanic  Rushdie,  in his  other  Indian their  is a  strong  the  identity,  celebration  of  whiteness.  Mishal  out  an  to  their  their  roots—an  their  race  and  their  Indian—this  i s one  recurs  and  or  again  Hanif  this  Johnson  point  talking  so  roots. of  again or  the  the  new  renewed  constantly  DJ  of  are  endlessly,  of  British  Indian  life  and  frameworks  need  to  be  i t as  an  imitation  merely  dimiss  simplification an  capacity  which  fo  that  themes  than of  drawn  not  up of  15  i s  their  but  Indian  British  being  Verses as  Western  identity  the  which  what  Sufyan  home he  i s  has  and  has  Indians  are  an  This  to  an  Mishal  been  depiction  c u l t u r e makes R u s h d i e ' s this  of  connected  so,  regeneration.  understand  have  denial  identity  i s doing  a  youth a  of  of  to  non-  J o s h i hammer  example  or,  British  loyal  Indian  such  of  which  Satanic  Jumpy  and  these  capture  identity.  vision  way  their  identity.  i s deeply  characters  itself,  and  an  self  and  identity,  fiercely  one  The  perfect  and  an  i s anything  i s more  so  such  of  that  identity.  realities,  British  in fact,  renewal  identity  would  how  I n d i a n - - j u s t as  refashioned  and  of  Indian  Indianness—of  of  the  "Let  Rushdie's  P i n k w a l l a or. e v e n They  of  such  in truth  their  text--and  example  new  that  central  breed  and  There  i n the  of  determination  identity,  Rushdie's.  about--a  constantly doing  of  own  f o r themselves  and  their  nature  but  i s a demonstration  race  British  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  deracinated,  their  of  component  Indian  otherness—of  identity  in sight.  concerns,  Indian  Sufyan  (283-284)  statement  essentially  seemingly  Mishal  grass  can."  their  the  said  of  i t i f they  d e c l a r a t i o n s are  own  carved  a blade  demonstrates  youth,  turf,"  d e p i c t i o n of  words,  Mishal's  get  Verses  mythologies, in  " I t ' s our  point  that  identity--and that  essential  would  be  a  Indianness  of  to  crude of  such  BABYLONDON  Rushdie h a s been identifies  with  accused  the colonial  by  countless  is  t h a t he i s n o t h i n g  Macaulay  critics  be  culture.  more t h a n  do o u r b e s t  colour,  but E n g l i s h i n taste,  the fact  the acceptance  English  morals  we p e r c e i v e Satanic regard  that  i s a brown them  emerges as l i t t l e large  against Rushdie there  with  regard  such  truth  to Indian  ones)—  and i n The culture  with  accused o f  to the superiority of  I t takes of the Orient, and h i s t o r y , thus  the distorted o f t h e brown  are constant  readers  superior to the  w o r t h . When e x a m i n e d  i t s tools  t h i n g s as  that of the East:  the d i v e r s i t y  more t h a n  i s dependant  of internalizing,  the Orient.  [ . . . ] The l o g i c  destruction;  exist  presumably,  and meaning o f i t s t r a d i t i o n i t s real  i n morals, 77)  s a h i b h i s Western  with  knowledge o f t h e c o n t e x t ,  writ  line  artistic  Western p r e o c c u p a t i o n  wealth  who may  whom we  R u s h d i e h a s been  and c u l t u r e over  assume he g i v e s  by  i n b l o o d and  that  accused  words,  party  earlier)  imagined  the prejudices of the c o l o n i a l  Because Rushdie  assess  a class  i n opinion,  (as opposed,  In other  the c o l o n i a l i s t  the  Indian  accusation  i s being  reproducing,  b y name  Indian  a n d Wyn D a v i e s ,  this  and i n t e l l e c t  civilization  to  t o form  of Macaulay's b e l i e f  t o h i s own.  parroting  (Sardar  that Rushdie  Verses  Western  of persons,  in intellect.  who  The a c c u s a t i o n made a g a i n s t h i m  between us and t h e m i l l i o n s  a class  aside  Indian  Education:  govern;  Leaving  sahib—an  the Anglicized  on I n d i a n  at present  interpreters  and  on  a brown  (some o f whom I h a v e m e n t i o n e d  i n h i s Minute  We must  of being  Rushdie  imagination sahib  requires  rejection,  abnegation  and d e n i g r a t i o n o f indigenous  tradition,  a positive  means o f a c h i e v i n g t h e e n d t h e y  as  a c c e p t as  g o o d . The o b j e c t i v e i s t h e r e m a k i n g o f t h e non-West i n the  image o f t h e W e s t .  (Sardar  a n d Wyn D a v i e s ,  141 &  271 )  These  are serious accusations  t o make a g a i n s t  16  a.post-colonial writer.  I  hope  to establish  demonstrates non-West  that  that  i n the  to  pre-supposes  East--a  belief  patently  that  of  religious concerns  the  of  absolutism. that  he  had  are  Rushdie  reproduced  English  colonial,  more they  about  the  empire  had  of  The  pervades The  attack  Satanic  remaking  Verses of  the  a positioning  of  the  West  to  demonstrates  opening  Rushdie  He  Britain,  Fire,"  of  the  i s  of B r i t i s h  In  And  inequality  a l l that  not of  the  themes  are  the  n o v e l can  be  wrong w i t h  New  that  Rushdie  i t s neoracism  has fact  towards  the concern  immigration the  other races but  themes  and  Whale,"  only reflect  injustice  the  "The  expresses  and  h i s essays  i s c o r r u p t and  as  racism i s i n  also  These  and  as  attitudes  police  people  and  such  British  this  Rushdie  lastly,  in Britain.  that  attitudes  towards  essayist  essays,  to  West,  many o f  "Outside  these  refers  that  British  these  England  greed,  the  an  Essays and  colonial  for centuries.  as  the  i t i s of  introduce the  argues and  as  of  e l a b o r a t e s on  Homelands.  are that  are,  of  the novel.  His  aside:  17  officially first  in  strong in his  a l l t o be  found  understood  as  at a  British  culture.  i n t r o d u c e s h i s theme o f  pages  centre,  nineteen eighties.  that  critical  regard to England  Satanic Verses.  and  Rushdie  novel,  dominates  life  on  imperial  values.  sanctioned. the  strongly  Satanic Verses.  renewal  suggests  of  the  as  Unimportant  within  mainstream  heart of  an  "An  colonized  and  civilization  than  a  officially  scathing  Such  superiority  t o p i e c e s f o r what he  racism that  denunciations  the  develop  than  authorities,  the  The  propagating the  Satanic Verses  least  i n Imaginary  culture  a new  judgment  r e a d i n g of  i s ludicrous.  The  with  the  neo-imperialist  races  fact,  throughout  would  the  raised  Within Britain,"  attitude  of  i n the  of  i s at  In  Empire  l i t t l e  text  England,  critic  created  West  his belief  social  takes  Rushdie  the  Satanic Verses  in particular,  which  contextual  untenable.  The and  accuse  image  Rushdie  a close  sanctioned racism i n  reference i s nothing  more  Also—for  there  had been  aboard,  yes, quite  grilled  by r e a s o n a b l e ,  the  length  husbands' whose  British  to  almost  incidents unusual,  was  own to  the reader  culture  and  The such,  force  that  i s t o be ah a t t a c k  o u t by  immigration  such  Chamcha into  at their  are  (initself  p h y s i c a l l y abuse chilling  i s anything  these  The  i n h i s depiction  After  he i s  an i r o n y - - t h e  plane  i s b r u t a l i z e d by t h e  him and f o r c e  depiction  casual,  nothing  attitudes.  hands.  bomb) h e  The  he m e n t i o n s  occurrences of racist  country  on  authorities  families.  authorities i s elaborated  t h e book  of such  him t o eat h i s  treatment  but a g l o r i f i c a t i o n  signals  of  English  civilization. i s a strong  condemnation  as an a c c u s a t i o n  Rushdie  that  have  intending  t o frame  suggested  that  draws  that  populaion.  Dr. Uhuru  of the B r i t i s h  police,  of o f f i c i a l l y  sanctioned  of the metropolitan  of authority  of the non-white  the a c t i v i s t  authorities  that  the pervasiveness  entry  upon  theme by a l l u d i n g , a l m o s t i n  meted  up by a t e r r o r i s t  The p i c t u r e  mutilations  this  treatment  h i s point  i s one o f a body  arrests  the novel  i n which  Rushdie's  novel  harrassment  that  introduces  of Saladin  about  had cast i t s  tone  c a n be u n d e r s t o o d  racism.  government  and c e r t a i n l y i r o n i c  p o l i c e , who  been  their  their  i n i s blown  excrement.  upon  with  for illegal  immigration  had  officials  (4)  perceive  of the immigration  the treatment  who  t o be r e u n i t e d  and suggests  arrested he  travelling  reinforces  brutality of  we  Rushdie  off-hand,  of wives  migrants  a sufficiency of children  the B r i t i s h  to the appalling  migrants  a few  doing-their-job  doubts.  opening,  racism.  passing,  a quantity  genitalia,  legitimacy  the very  than  o f and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g moles  ever-reasonable  From  more  Simba  i s guilty This  t e r r o r i z e d t h e community  the framing  i s commonplace,  of non-white a n d when  18  i t takes  police  systematic  i s a police  f o r the s e r i a l  h i m a n d do w h a t e v e r  of  (London)  and as  force  killings  of Brickhall, to convict  that  and fully  him.  i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h e hands  Simba  dies  i n police  custody  I ti s of the under  highly  suspicious  nothing with  out  of  witches'  and  who  in this  can  be  as  the  racism  in his  divided found  society police  and  at  eating  newly can,  not  and  Rushdie  forced  principal  that to  of  the  do,  greed  not  an  His  with  at  as  on  their  a  i s not  non-white  The  only  Satanic finds  the  fault  that  lives  patrons  looking are  taken  councils  official  that  they  outright  that  i s one  they  that  i t  most are  victims  hostility  population  house  negligence.  feels  the  for  of of  and  England the  Verses. with  communities--he  injustice  their  hostile  conditions—where  just  of  racist  who  which  can  and  often  and  i s perhaps  and  racism  a  and  city  community  that  is  trials  Indians  r e s u l t of  large  of  that  British  that of  of  food  where  open  of  police  t e r r o r i z e the  unsanitary  It  the  hands  i t i s the  portrayal  day  the  highlight  unsympathetic  i s the  every  riots  racism  England  and  the  society  and  to  criticism  inequality--it  with  British  primary  a non-white  sections  their  terrorizing  the  attempt  skinheads  is a  racism.  ensure  instigates  an  spitting  death  to  sanctioned  community  i t comes  to  is riddled  depicts  both  where  i n unsafe  of  in his  Indian  This  is  society.  uncaring,  when  of  officially  Verses  society  burn  depiction  of  this  the  i t is this  minority and  harsh  British  in portraying  deal  themes  of  youth  lines.  skinheads.  immigrants  and  Rushdie treatment  is a  condemnation  injustice  white  faced  of  course  seige--and  persecution are  of  succeeds  definitive of  hands  sometimes  under  racist  this  working-class  Joshi  for  Satanic  are  Jumpy  as  that  than  of  Chamcha  that that  force  establishments,  the  arrived  The  they  This  aggavation—and jail,  further  the  force.  Indian  pervading  Pamela  force  police  condemnation  depiction  that  by  police  is a  defence  largely racial  in his  is a  suggested  Chamcha and  Rushdie's  novel.  along  tribulations  is  This  wider  goes  This  Pamela  regard.  racism  Rushdie  to  murder  a  i t i s again  (categorized  community.  read  reflects  of  ordinary.  routinely provides  non-white  be  the  covens  free-masonry) silence  circumstances  he  19  British  ties  feels  this  society  for i t s  i n with  his  i s endemic  to  the  condemnation society.  Rushdie's  depiction of characters  represents  his vision  of  society.  English  Satanic way; but  Verses  that  flawed  England  values  of the greed The E n g l a n d  i s a harsh  and Rushdie's  point  i s now  portrays  civilization—by  no means  upon which  does  image  of the colonizer--which  exactly  and M e r r y l  the opposite.  believes the  Sardar  that  British  world--but  contest  this  "I  the nation's  Wyn  Davies--in  At the beginning  Vakil  seek  o f The  has l o s t i t s  coincidence, essentially  identity  i s based.  flawed  c u l t u r e and  and emulate.  t o remake  fact  itself  The i n the  made b y c r i t i c s the novel  of the novel  such  as Pamela  Saladin  Chamcha)  as  suggests Chamcha  and c u l t u r e t o be t h e p r e - e m i n e n t (as w e l l  heart  of the  to revere  should  at the  that no  Battuta  i s quick  ones i n to  belief:  was  so proud  getting into  the effects  i s the accusation  civilization  Zeenat  country  as a fundamentally  India  lies  t h e pages  i s no a c c i d e n t ,  a civilization  novel  Ziauddin  this  and B i l l y  that  within  country--a  feeling  England  not suggest  t o be f o u n d  i s that merely  as H a l Valance  and c o r r u p t i o n  and c r u e l  and b e l i e f s  Rushdie  such  into  o f Bhupen  b e d . " I n how  some b a r a n d s t a r t  passion,  Toadji;  many  Zeenat  countries  up a d e b a t e  the seriousness,  civilization,  tonight,"  like  the respect.  I like  this  said,  could  y o u go  that?  The  You keep  one p l e n t y  your  fine."  (58)  And, of  of course,  h i s being  progression  the story  made a w a r e towards  Saladin  having  earlier  beliefs,  Zeenat  Vakii  England. that  Verses  him—and  that  point  h i s way b a c k  and embracing  itself  In East.  makes  of the error  Zeenat's  found  he r e f u s e s  of Saladin  Chamcha  of h i s earlier  of view. t o Bombay,  those  t o choose  i tclear  what  h i s primary  collection between  East  h i s choice  of short  concludes  Vakil.  on h i s  India  over  stories--Rushdie  be, were  i s with  the  with  His return to  and West--however, would  and h i s  t u r n i n g h i s back  of h i s choosing  identification  20  i f not the story  beliefs,  The n o v e l  o f Zeenat  i s representative West—a  i s nothing  The  Satanic  one f o r c e d East.  writes  upon  THE  In  BROWN  The  SAHIB  Satanic- Verses,  rejection  of  celebrating the  the and  futility  cautionary  person  of  the  brown  on  the  task  himself--but himself  of  straightforward  of  novel  values  and  modes o f  more  story  name a n d  reflection novel  of  begins  himself  into  actor--the English  with the  i t .  a mask—a  colonial  a  as  of  new  Rushdie's  treatment  charitable.  that  his  lines  than  and  He taking remaking  remaking  of  a  unguestioning Chamcha's  unimaginative,  smudgy  in  r e c r e a t i n g or  thought.  and  a  philosophy  Chamcha's v i s i o n  imitation  identity--and his  of  Chamcha's  his  of  life  Salahuddin  limitations Salahuddin  of  rehabilitation Chamchawala  the  brown  Chamchawala  sahib  Saladin  sahib  having  Chamcha.  his  consequently  in their  f i v e - s t o r e y mansion  lived  to  C l v l s Britannicus  however,  Chamcha  even h i s  appearance  be  worthy  sum.  i s almost are  no  of  a  the of  Looked  at  i s a  England  than  21  mimicry  of  The  with  that  of  his Hill.  poise  represented  another  caricature--his values  more  to  successful  in Notting  challenge from  return  Rushdie's  voice--living  dream  the  his  philosophy.  He  Pamela  vision  a  and  s u c c e s s f u l l y remade  voices  idealized  and  i s  thousand  in his  read  such  and  a  moderation--and phrase  than  be  by  identity  narrow-minded  Saladin  brown  of  can  but  unfulfilling.  of  the  be  the  identity  man  wife  believed  and  bold  Indian  l i t t l e of  and  task  his  to  The  i s the  of  narrative points  taken  of  Rushdie's  i s accused  l e s s even-handed grandness  is  the  into  of  i s shown  the  British  hollow,  buy  refashioning along  philosophy  empty,  and  rejection  vision  or  who  toll  he  u l t i m a t e l y demonstrates  of  idealized  mentality  creator--that  acceptance  personality  a  Chamcha  that  If anything,  those  heroism  is less a  Saladin  mentality  such  i s more  the  of  psychological  mind  the  the  of  the  sahib  of  sahib  folly  and  applauds  story  propagating.  tale  the  even  brown  and  on  the  point  and of  of  beliefs, a  He  and by  the  view, and  "goodandproper"  Englishman—he  mimicry--putting In denied if  his refashioning  t o Bombay  either  attempts his more  have  He  to reclaim  babel,  stepped  the hollowness  and  makes h i s r e c l a m a t i o n  around  Zeenat like  points  wogland part  around  England. only  way  that  She s e n s e s  he  are  When y o u  at your Vakil  peril. who  points  as a brown  sahib,  think  i n England  i t s so  t o terms  face  would  h i s Indian  of h i s situation:  has t o t r a v e l  to  t h e babu  a play.  you love  with  as he  i s t h e wrong  company, p l a y i n g  you stay,  (53)  i s not as p e r f e c t  the truth  whose  i s  wrapped  moustache.  t o come  to get into  I swear.  A deserter accent  a false  T V s , who  two-bit  They  them,  kick  bloody  (61)  i s i n denial  the emptiness  f o r h i m t o become  you.  i n obscuring  colour  and s t i l l  mentality,  insists  like  you, the b i g star  some  that  t o hear, i n  I t i s Zeenat  Angrez  his refusal  on t o p o f i t , j u s t  slave  Zeenat  with  back  and  h i s roots  again.  o f make b e l i e v e  and don't  his life  succeeded  for their  back  you step  tell  your  baba,  and that  a fool,  colour  a flag,  out that  come  with  that h i s  with  had begun  he  her project:  than,  i t slips,  has only  Such  you  English  "He  don't  life  t o terms  finds  t o terms  (58).  what you a r e , I ' l l  t o imagine,  identity  warning:  i s not a l l that  t o come He  t o see  Chamcha's  a r e more p r o b l e m a t i c ,  i n coming  o f Chamcha's  you l i k e  perfect,  f o r himself  c u t you t o shreds"  more  identity.  the looking-glass  out  what,  Indian  years  i s unable  he h a d i m a g i n e d :  mirror  know  that  t o Bombay  and i d e n t i t y .  he  The  You  may  roots  a r e n o t h i s own.  Chamcha he h a s  and he r e t u r n s  finds  an ominous  through  self,  through  that  Saladin  of fifteen  India  than  i n voices  an absence  difficulties  fundamental,  his living  into  h i s Indian  o r h i s own  psychological  India's  with  after  i t t o be.  h i s roots  of himself  of h i s Indian  he c a n make p e a c e  expected  makes  on masks and s p e a k i n g  everything  return  even  whole  about  of h i s existence  again  22  the truth  i s through  of h i s l i f e  i n  and argues  that  coming  t o terms  the  with  India  and  the  Indian  protestations Chamcha's his  identity, new  his  to  come t o  identity  that  he  has  of  futility  have  India,  reclamation nothing  Saladin  into his  seat.  your  clutches  long  i s when he  the  this  exploding moment  again,  you  i s at  this  plane  and  the  true  that  at  over  the  was  time  the  he  inform  him  pathetic of  will  to  to  his  thus  that  and  to  do  of to  through  might  find  bury  his  He  takes as  his  i t into the  symbolic  self,  with  beneath  Indian  incorporate  Indian  Her  crack  father  and  of  returns  Indian  to  identity:  silently,  with  you,  won't  drag  me  I  get  your  back.  (35)  consciousness metamorphose  he  kept  was  with aloof.  woken  thought not  and  that  he  that  into  Chamcha  a devil.  undergoes  falls It  begins  is  to  that  he  version  of  Rushdie  suggests  After  England that  but  thing  i t did  to  with  do  him  was  to  his  half-reconstructed  devil, to  affair  fall  rather  out a  had  feeling  23  of  with  his  i n England  from  fearsome  i s demonized  terms  community  fallen  he  Chamcha  come t o  his  most  that this  first  nothing  Indian  has  taken  (9)  forced  the  what had  unadulterated.  the  into a  i n t o the  England,  the  live,  voices.  p o l i c e , and  has  doubt;  i t wanted  metamorphosis  identify  previously  the  that  no  personality, that  mimicry  immigration  to  his  metamorphosis  had  pure,  that  himself. his  he  to  for  you  cannot  begins  again  i t and  hell  stage  what  behind.  place: But  to  To  of  with  left  in India  cursed  ago,  ago  with  of  Chamcha  long  back  further  back  It  Due  fashioned  sinking  i n t o me  so  once  terms  escaped hooks  take  to  while  reconciliation  attempted  determined Damn y o u  at  had  resolves  than  the  at  he  he  apprehensive  rather  attempt  from  i s so  exterior that  catastrophic  India  that  experiences  s h e l l — b u t he  English  the  and  identity  the  of  nightmares  and  sky  and  grotesque  and  surreal  come t o of  identify  having  woken  which  Chamcha  the  into  with  the  otherness,  from  plane,  by  had  feels  often some  he  and  returns  realm  looking-glass so  i n t o the  closely. most  fearsome  of nightmares  England,  and t h a t  understanding  h i s persecution  i s forced  the Indian  and  breakfast  The  first  only  (here  above  night  else  us,  the Indian  y o u go t o h e a l normal  your  Only  own  when  Cafe  physical  distinctly  [Muhammad  community  I've  spent  h a l f my  Where  else  i n the bed  he  Sufyan. feels  your  own  kind?"  was  alone  and  i n the  with  attic  d i d he  answer  "I'm n o t y o u r  kind,"  the night. trying  said,  "Where  but here,  Chamcha  question.  life  Cafe,  Sufyan] child.  disfigurement  end o f h i s s t r e n g t h  into  closer  refuge  r u n b y Muhammad a n d H i n d  or small  your  people,  rhetorical  said  him i n t o  of  community.  health?  Saladin  at the very  Sufyan's  t o seek  t o be p r e c i s e )  f o r you i s here,"  your  among  room  Bangladeshi  bring  vision  i n England.  by h i s metamorphosis  as i f t o a s i m p l e t o n  would  recover  as an I n d i a n  h i s dream  o f h i s i n c a r c e r a t i o n at the Shaandaar  place  speaking  from  and demonization  t h e Shaandaar  a l i e n a t i o n among "Best  t o awaken Chamcha  of h i s identity  Chamcha among  helps  "You're  n o t my  t o g e t away  he  people.  from you."  (253)  But  Chamcha's  devil  result  community  of  i n the beginnings  which  demonization vision  incarceration at the cafe  forces  of England,  the Indian  terms  eventual  with  Submission" This  to feel  to  come  with  which  with  and l e a r n s  i s :  the  a  Indian  of self.  realities  about  the  and  their  t o t h e community  Chamcha's d e l i v e r a n c e he  into  Chamcha s 1  o f t h e u n r e a l i t y o f h i s own  a connection  identity.  of that  " I am,  experiences  and t o  comes  he a c c e p t e d ,  come  from h i s  that  I  am.  (289). acceptance  of h i s Indian  Chamcha's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , crises.  lives  i n England—their  h i s Indian  acceptance  i n h i s reclamation  an awareness  and as he  begins  of h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n step  him i n t o  community  mythologies--he to  i s the f i r s t  and h i s metamorphosis  Now  that  t o terms  and paves  h e c a n come with  identity t h e way  t o accept  step i n  f o r the r e s o l u t i o n of h i s  h i s Indian  h i s father, h i s past,  24  i s the f i r s t  identity,  and Zeenat  Vakil  he  i s able  herself:  His  o l d English  seemed  very  truncated when can  The  o f a new and r e a l .  his  phase,  i n which  that  approved  looked  the world  "Now like  would  identity  and r e u n i t e d  g e t t i n g another chance"  at l i f e  the be  i s fashioned  i s reconciled with h i s  d e m o n s t r a t e d by h i s r e t u r n  i n s p i t e o f a l lh i s wrong-doing,  he g e t s  you  (534)  Chamchawala,  was  now  like his Zeeny  t o Salahuddin.  Yes, t h i s  reconciled to h i s Indian  humanity—he  that  time,"  i t s evils,  concludes i n r e s o l u t i o n f o r Chamcha—he  name S a l a h u d d i n  seemed  irrelevant,  "About  acting at l a s t . "  start  novel  even  her of h i s return  solid  father, the  remote,  i t sbizarreries,  stage-name.  he t o l d stop  life,  with  Zeenat  weakness  Vakil: " I t  g u i l t — i n  (547)--and t h i s  out of h i s reclamation  to  spite of  new  chance  of h i s Indian  self. The sahib  narrative of Saladin  mentality.  metamorphosis finally for  into  a brown  sahib  first  real  metamorphosis  narrative--the  that  h i s psyche.  Chamcha  comes  to appreciate  to wholeness.  t o become  that  could  into  who  Chamcha  from brown  a devil  I t i s only  merely  25  through h i s  h i s Indian  identity  with  undergoes sahib  This  and become  that  i s the  through the  to Salahuddin  facilitated  and  himself—he  as an I n d i a n .  i n the reclamation  metamorphose  o f t h e brown  The n a r r a t i v e s u g g e s t s  his identity  Saladin  truly  sahib  c o m p l e t e — t o make p e a c e  with  metamorphosis  metamorphosis  within  i s a brown  back  come t o t e r m s  i s a condemnation  Chamcha  a devil  f i n d s h i s way  must  His  Saladin  Chamcha  this  Chamchawala.  deeper  of h i s Indian complete.  change identity  While  there  exist  Chamcha, R u s h d i e character in  of  goes  to  Chamcha.  h i s naming of  "spoon" but  elements  the  The  i n d i c a t e s h i s own  Chamcha  i s not  fun  with  e v e n be being  the  an  appear an  ironic  of  his  Of  or  and  this  Urdu  on  chamcha  he  character.  i s covered  from  of  distance  i n so  brown  naming  less  Rushdie  days,  i n l a t e x and  Rushdie himself  and  of  there  the  i s an  l u r e of  the  struck  contrived,  therefore  actor's  computer and  and  and  room  full  of  was  involved  who  the  theatre  the  for  i n theatre feel  to  that can  only is  quality  signed  the  as  c a r i c a t u r e of  photographs  of  an  colleagues,  production  stills,  citations,  awards,  movie-star  memoirs,  room b o u g h t  volumes of  o f f the  peg,  a mask's mask  the  bronze  [...]  movie p o s t e r s , Eros,  through  ceiling,  love;  by  there  the  table for ninety without  other  red  kissed  the  And  i n the  need  offers,  a mask c a n  consoled,  are  gets  life  the  and  mirror  blood  Saladin's  everybody actor's  i n the  the  by  glow of  carpet,  and  the  theatre  the  at  least  i t seeks.  (174)  at boarding  knowing how--that  Rushdie 26  The  simulacrum  i n c i d e n t s i n Chamcha's l i f e — s u c h minutes  by  oozing the  is darling.  or  wall,  lamp b o r n e  a heart,  the  basis,  satisfied, what  on  d r i p p i n g from In  a  i m i t a t i o n of  the  like  everybody  a daily  echo of  an  everywhere,  for love.  on be  yard,  shaped  Joshi's  Chamcha:  sleepless intruder sad:  in his  Jumpy  f r a m e d programmes,  of  can  simulation,  handbills,  up  having  i s suggesting  i n England  autobiographic  C h a m c h a s room  in  a  there.  course,  life,  While  is  artist  is  him,  Chamcha's p r o f e s s i o n  a voice-over  the  means  sahib.  i s more o r  though Rushdie  Chamcha's s t a t u s  this  literally  the  Saladin  himself  indication  i t i s clear that  i s as  s t o r y of  distance  a t t i t u d e towards  sahib,  he  1  kipper  In  more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  after  comment  explanation  obvious  i n the  means " a s s - k i s s e r " , and  ironically--it  TV  life  younger  a brown  actor,  on  most  to  drawn u n s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y ,  c r e a t i o n of  seen  lengths  character.  idiomatically  of  autobiography  great  Rushdie  caricature  of  as  his  school  attempting  admits  are  sitting  to  eat  echoes of  his  a own  a  experience. his  Chamcha's d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o c o n q u e r  relationship  Warm b e e r ,  with h i s wife: "Part  mince p i e s ,  autobiographical novel,  when t h e  common s e n s e  models  c h a r a c t e r of S a l a d i n  own  principal  s o u r c e s f o r Chamcha.  aspects  between him of  how  with  e x p e r i e n c e , and  i t i s natural  to the  demonstrated  opposed  particular.  of  apparent  s u b c o n t i n e n t as  principal  difference  t o a n y o n e who  was  even  is political,  England.  While  Chamcha b e l i e v e s  colonial  neo-imperialism essay  nineteen  the  has  eighties.  Britain"  Rushdie  the  learn  impatient dream  f o r Bombay h e r e  are  Children and  o f Bombay i n  bullied  and  This  i n which  concerns  their  i n the England  spent  culture  two  i s a powerful colonial  criticism Rushdie  with t h i s  and  familiar  back  to  England  Chamcha,  as  would  the  and  heritage  attacking attitudes.  non-  towards moderation,  and  glorious  what he  terms  Rushdie's  of the r e v i v a l took  be  and  p l a c e i n the "A  jingoism  patriotism  and  colonial  connects  the  New  mid  i n h i s essay  of B r i t a i n ' s  condemns t h e F a l k l a n d s War  27  and  that  i s renewed  connects  revival  attitude  criticism  history  with Rushdie's  o f p o i s e and  decades  neo-colonialism in English  of England's  F a l k l a n d s War  essay,  Rushdie  and  f o r that  vulgarity  and  of  dissimilarities  increasingly  and  t o be  passingly  of England's  " O u t s i d e t h e Whale"  glorification  Within  admirer  history,  from  i s one  i n Midnight's  between Rushdie  work,  i s a staunch  the  longed  a whole, had  drawn  i n the  university.  fictional  and  f o r the dust  times  I n t h e n o v e l , we  to those of Rushdie—who  to attend  are  autobiographical  Chamcha,  and  have  life  Chamcha's f e e l i n g s  U n l i k e Chamcha, R u s h d i e  his father The  the  some  h i m s e l f growing  o f Bombay  h i s great affection  superabundance  own  down t o  Britannia.  to  There  Rushdie's  a r e f a r more p r o f o u n d .  moderation.  bloody  (175)--seem  91-107).  of S a l a d i n  the v u l g a r i t y  o f p o i s e and  me"  t h e r e s h o u l d be  Salahuddin found  and  diametrically  by  Rushdie  the young  England  that  i t ? I was  Chamcha seems t o be  certainly  characterization  and  the dust  and  (see Weatherby,  Rushdie's  While  of  England—even  past.  Empire  In  of  this  support f o r  it  to  the  racism  t h a t he of  these  b e l i e v e s i s endemic  to the  essays  c o n t r a s t to  political  slant  patriotic  c o n s e r v a t i v e c o n v i c t i o n s - - a n d i t w o u l d be  assume t h a t R u s h d i e greatness  of B r i t i s h  colonialist with  shares  the  and  so  anti-imperialist  the  f a t h e r of  came t o E n g l a n d English a good  of  course,  Thatcherism  and  Rushdie  tirade  New  earlier asked  he  replied:  (Imaginary  Chamcha's a t t i t u d e  political  beliefs.  i t i s clear  t h a t he  shares  Chamcha's v i e w s on  political  views are  the  best  Chamcha--the p o l i t i c s boroughs,  and  antiBritain"  the  of  politics  of  those  activists  class  traitors  about  S a l a d i n Chamcha  i s so  s c a t h i n g , and  resolution  exension  and  h i s own,  The  story  of  of  Wyn  The  and  novel  Davies  continually  the  consequences  from  this  a l l too  of  i s the  the the  views—such  Rushdie's  own  J o s h i and  champagne  police  in  socialists-portrays  tongue-in-cheek, aware o f  Pamela  inner  which Rushdie  their,  admiring and  locution of  the  28  t o be  so  as  by  immense. Ziauddin evident  Chamcha/Rushdie change  largely  contextualization  are  Imagination.  connection  nature  f o r the  misreading  in Distorted  take  make u s e  point  half  eighties,  condemning the  S a l a d i n Chamcha i s o f t e n r e a d  t h a t stem  the  but  and  of  failings.  autobiographical, novel  Satanic Verses,  moral vigour,  nineteen  Jumpy  to h i s  denouncer  c o u n c i l s i n London's  anti-racist  i n The  the  of  of  self-deprecatingly  a bitter  If anything,  the  which  politics  been  is tied  Chamcha's p o l i t i c a l  by  city  be  138)  throughout  F a l k l a n d s War.  leftist  of  towards England  none o f  represented  movement,  town h a l l s ,  Merryl  his  to  glory  Empire W i t h i n  thought  R u s h d i e has  conservatism  reading  the  "I t h i n k i t would  Homelands.  British  entire  about  mistake  t h a t when Mahatma  freedom  what he  and  their  Chamcha's  a great  concludes  i n "A  t o remember  an  was  civilization, idea".  conservative  as  Chamcha's b e l i e f s  civilization.  i t i s interesting  Gandhi,  and  of  The  comment:  And  Lastly,  any  i s in direct  nation.  that  In  their  Sardar that  as i n :  of  and  they  the  Chamcha/Rushdie conceives people.  The  authors  point  of  basic of  of  novel.  important,  as  the  result  being  r e a d i n g of  of  subsequent and  as  the  he  remaking  attempt  text.  In  this  Verses  as  an  read  to d i s c r e d i t  paper  of Rushdie  entire  rhetorical  the  and  the  an the  f o r what  c h a r a c t e r of  and  Islam  29  no  be  from  to  brown  which  the  or  It i s  author  and  i d e o l o g y of  the  The  S a l a d i n Chamcha  sahib  is  the  critically  a u t h o r i t y of  r e a d i n g of  i s dependent  understood  critical  the  intellectually  subvert  that the  that  the  Orientalist.  i t is--an  Rushdie  strategy with  step  philosophy  as  the  (mis)understanding  understanding.  of Rushdie  similarly  as  for  novel  argues  d i s t a n c e between  such with  first  novel  t h a t the  a t t a c k on  can  Chamcha,  to task  s a h i b which p r o v i d e s  I hope t o e s t a b l i s h  Orientalist  Rushdie  T h e i r r e a d i n g of  brown  support  positioning be  to take  i s a necessary  Salman R u s h d i e  should  dishonest  dishonest  options  a guite astonishing  to demonstrate  a whole does not  positioning  of  remade and  proceed  t h e r e f o r e , to p o i n t out  untenable,  kinds  c h a r a c t e r of  of Rushdie h i m s e l f  identification and  the  This misreading  character--and  novel  then  t h a t Chamcha v o i c e s .  framework f o r the  his  study  Rushdie with  positioning  the  p o s s i b l e f o r those  this  premise--the  the  envisage,  (181)  view  identifies  as  can  as  an  The upon  his  Satanic this  intellectually  tenability.  ORIENTALISM  What  i s Salman Rushdie  Orientalism? very  being  The p a r a m e t e r s  precisely defined  I believe  necessary  return  t o now  introduction  outline  the defining  f o r the purposes  t o Said's  understanding  chapter  "the Orient" Thus  and  a very  whom a r e p o e t s ,  (most  large  economists,  West  as t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t  this  novels,  basic  social  concerning destiny,  from  Said  upon  paper  attempts  distinction  political  administrators,  distinction  between  f o r elaborate  descriptions,  the Orient,  among  East  and  theories,  and  political  i t s people,  customs,  and so on. (2)  i s never  the idea  identifying  that  made The  of Europe,  a l l Orientalist thinking  distinction  and indeed  between  the East  hegemonic  cultures.  with  a l l  "those"  culture both  identity  that  i n and o u t s i d e  as a s u p e r i o r  a l l the non-European  the  i s precisely  peoples  what  Europe:  one i n and  (7)  Orientalism the  fact  the  Orient  mysteries  notion  i t c a n be a r g u e d  the culture  o f European  Denys Hay h a s  as against  i n European  idea  what  a collective  component  comparison  and  f a r from  "us" Europeans  non-Europeans, major  i s premised  that  upon  exteriority,  the Orientalist,  speak,  describes  poet  by v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t  30  that  or scholar,  the Orient,  p l a i n f o r and t o t h e West  writes,  to  made  West:  called  In  of the time) "the  the p o s i t i n g of a basic  Orientalism  i t i s  an  mass o f w r i t e r s ,  i n t r o d u c t i o n makes i t c l e a r  proceeds  based  and i m p e r i a l  accepted  "mind,"  study  of the concept.  novelists, philosophers,  have  accounts  out and  characteristics of O r i e n t a l i s t thinking:  and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  epics,  laid  of this  of h i s study,  ontological  theorists,  were  i n h i s classic  i s a s t y l e of thought  Occident."  the  Said  Orientalism  between  Said's  that  and f i r s t  o f when he i s a c c u s e d o f  of O r i e n t a l i s t thought  by Edward  Orientalism--and  the  accused  makes  renders i t s  [...]  that  i s , on  What he  says  i ti s said or  and  written, outside fact.  Within  i s meant the  Orient,  basic  Orientalist  thought  takes  (and  all  is identified  Orientalist,  Said's  both  distinction  Occident  operates  indicate that  a l l that  as  from  far  the  Orientalist  as  that  with  as  the  than  of  act  of  Oriental  "them"  as  an  act  question  of  identity  that  Orientalist  he  also  this  succeeded does  a  proceed  from  suggest  Western  civilization  modernization  of  opposition  the  the  internalized the  dismantled  accusation Orientalist  I hope by  East.  beliefs  West--and  definition.  brown  my  the  that  close  Rushdie East  basic to the  my  premise  that  form  of  model  the  to  is a  of  31  the  from  the  Rushdie  "us".  of  being  to  be  traitor. At  a  an  an  The  very  basic  Verses  reading  of  this the  novel The  does i t  advancement  novel  is in direct  Orientalist that  and  thinking.  Rushdie  statement  of  this  has  been  thus  an  s u p e r i o r i t y of  identifying  too,  the  is  supposition.  East—nor  the  of  Satanic  of  novel  to  the  point  supposition, of  The  of  suggests the  i s more  to  accusation  close  the  basis  i t  i n t e r n a l i z e d the  the  for  i s that  Occidental  For  that  that  ideology  novel  reading  the  has  and  Orientalism  this  the  u n t e n a b i l i t y of  prejudices the  that  as  that  to  (and  understands  distance  with  the  thinking  there  i n negation  Rushdie.  sahib  I hope  West,  Orient  Said,  But  Rushdie.  the  and  the  by  p o s i t i o n i n g of  The  of  defined  cultural  that  East  to  or  civilization  the  West)  superiority.  is critical  prejudice.  and  to  a  against  culture  with  moral  s u p e r i o r i t y of  ethnocentrism--Said  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the  not  and  identification  dual  Western  Secondly,  a  is  What makes O r i e n t a l i s t  made a g a i n s t be  the  indicates his/her  suggests  prejudice of  of  been  accusation  expression  novel  must  writer  presupposes  Orientalist  has  has  East).  the  self-definition  The  the  and  between  premise  with  European  Western  w r i t i n g an  Orientalist  i s posited  i t is identified  "other".  level  Orientalist  existential  i t s basic  Oriental  accusation  an  is identified  premise  definition  The  as  the  (20-21)  this  that  to  far.  has himself  selfsuccessfully  At  this  point,  negative  i t i s imperative  representations  perspective  and  can  representations of  Eurocentric  drawn--and for is  of  any  based  on  a  a  not  only  to  as  Western  be  work  and  ethnocentric  with  accusation On  the  Said's for  the  i s not  East  an  an as  of  Rodinson  Said's  and  a kind  other  hand,  i n the  perfectly  capable  ideological  scholars  traditional of  and  and  makes  which  the  refers but  operate  straitjacket.  Jacques  training  ranks  available,  but  invigorates  of  what  traditional  self-consciousness always,  material  first  before  examination  of  problems [...]  of  Orient to  of  a  makes  their  and  from  attempt  to  keep  material  and  to  a  a  then  their  doctrinal  32  from  the  and  are old  Maxime  rigorous  methodological  one  a  finds  in their  sensitivity continual and  work  speak that the  to  work the  self-  practice, responsive  preconception.  a to  the (326-  East  Eurocentric such  biography point  the  are  is their  direct  327)  who  investigations  methodology  constant  most  or is  takes  the  i t a  disciplines  Berque's  the  work  scholar  their  what  a l l , a  them,  not  with  West  of  also  from  dispensation  f r e e i n g themselves  not  premise.  even  critics  product  short-hand  i f controversial  Orientalist  Rodinson's  is  as  Orientalism:  trained  even  of  the  definition  definition  Said  negative  understanding  representation  acclaimed  Orientalist,  applied  audience  that  as  i s often  This  i t s basic  Western  the  that  (pre-Saidian)  as  Eurocentric  o r i g i n a t e s i n the  audience.  Western  a  dismissed  i s commonly  Orient  of  the  Orientalist--and  be  definition a  with  as  that  between  product  distinction  representations  author  the  merely  the  Under  such  of  to  distinction  are  Islam  perspective.  i s not  scholars  of  describes  Western  Maxime R o d i n s o n , Muhammad,  is a  academic  Orient  a  classified  a Western  the  West  that  Orientalism  at  that  argument  se--but  give  of  the  the  per  of  of  draw  cannot  This  audience—and  of  Said's  which  aimed  describes  superiority  be  representation  confusion  Orientalism for  Islam  epithet  negative  Islam  therefore  prejudice.  the  perceived  of  to  to  general  as  Said  i s extremely  evident  that  however arises  i n that  can h a r d l y  negative  (Saidian)  Orientalist  term  paper.  focus  Farishta  their  that,  i s premised  argument  t o quote  Rushdie,  of  The  with the  Rodinson's  that  i n the  I wish t o  The a r g u m e n t  f o r a Western  upon  a mistaken  Verses  Gibreel's attempt  of early  "both  attack  on  Gibreel religion,  of these  critics is  Akhtar:  coherent  to rewrite Taken  material  further.  i n which of a  of the  i s and i s not Islam"  The c o n t e n t i o n  Islam.  that  definition  a s an O r i e n t a l i s t  sequences  i s that  audience—and i s  I have d e m o n s t r a t e d  "Mahound" a n d " R e t u r n dreams,  to J a h i l i a " , are i n effect  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y the together,  i n other  along  chapters,  with  these  o f t h e book p r o f f e r an a l t e r n a t i v e b i o g r a p h y  Muhammad, h i s w i v e s  dialectic  therefore  409).  two c h a p t e r s  sections  confusion.  and i s a p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e b i r t h  some s u b s i d i a r y  confusion  i s Orientalist  of terminology  o n t h e dream  s u c c i n c t l y by S h a b b i r  history  The  a n d n e e d n o t be r e f u t e d  The S a t a n i c  summarized  Rushdie's  au.dience--this  o f t h e term.  I hope t h a t  Homelands.  containing  that  of Islam  negatively  (Imaginary  The  i s an  of Orientalism  and c o n c l u d e s  i s untenable  read  witnesses  Submission,  Islam  an a r g u m e n t  who  f o r a Western  definition  p r e c i s e l y on t h i s  of O r i e n t a l i s m .  Critics  Rodinson  to the  Too many o f t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f R u s h d i e a s  has r e p r e s e n t e d  such  According  f o r condemnation.  and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  understanding  Orientalism—it  Islam  definition  are based  thus g u i l t y because  as grounds  i s p r e c i s e l y the confusion  i n this  of the East.  the East  and i t i s  a s some c a t c h - a l l t e r m o f  of Orientalism,  e l i d e s Said's  apparaisal  This  Rushdie  definition  (pre-Saidian)  secularist  representations  be h e l d  of Orientalism  the concept  he d e s c r i b e s  when a c r i t i c  academic  avoid  f o r European  (pre-Saidian)  Orientalist  in his definition  he d i d n o t p e r c e i v e  condemnation academic  precise  of this  reads  and h i s companions.  argument  the novel  identifies  within  Rushdie  the context  33  (4)  with  t h e West, a n d  of the h i s t o r y of Western  animus  a g a i n s t Islam,  literature corpus  of  Islam,  and  the  that  s c h o l a r s h i p and  Above  who  all,  the  distorts  that  The  essay  there r i s e s  Islamic world  defending  interpreting  us,  expertly  so  and  i n the and  West a  misrepresents  Satanic Verses  a t t a c k s on  discussing  vast  Islam.  the  i s read Edward  as  Said  contextualization  now  r e p r e s e n t us  disrespectfully  language,  in Orientalizaing (Appignanesi  position mistake  of to  those infer  quotes,  Rushdie: one  one  position  on  that  he  by  an  opposed agrees  from  the  A r a b and  portrayed  essay  loathesome  as  being  curse  readers  i t . It is attractive,  carnival,  a dour  the  of  and  engaging,  novel.  Orthodoxies"  i n For  of Free  indicate  Said's  i s much more humane t h a n dogma.  I  people  who  of  the  has  b e e n done w i t h  affection,  not  he  was  a certain  knowingness i n no  way  and  trying 34  that  s p o o f i n g of  at a l l vituperative  i n cheek,  a a  Verses  Islam  of  done  inwardness, to get  260)  Satanic the  amount but  and  riotous  (For Rushdie.  believe  a l l i t s i r r e v e r e n c e and  i t is  funny: i t  but  a  the  i n Defence  Weatherby,  articulating  i t w o u l d be  understanding  "Against  u n s m i l i n g sermon,  o r new  suggests  S a i d i s merely  this  and  176)  against Islam!that  counterdoctrine  tongue  radically  could set i t aside  not  world  so  Writers  W.J.  ignore  one  words,  l e g i o n s of  Maitland,  with  offers  am  Islam  already  history,  i n other  the  here  so  audience  n o v e l more a c c u r a t e l y :  Were i t t h e  for  Muslim  to the n o v e l — a n d  Muslim  i n t e r v i e w with  the  and  point that  are  taken  Essays from  who  that a  reality,  Why,  join  so u n f a i r l y .  this  must  so r o u g h l y ,  t o an  origin?  culture  Orientalists  at  question Why  traditions,  and  a member o f o u r  should mention  the  ask:  and s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y  t o e x c o r i a t e our  religion, must  and  p o i n t i n an  exists  that  of O r i e n t a l i s t  however,  from  c o u l d be  primed  Two  context  s c h o l a r s h i p and  novel:  people  I  There  literature  in a long line this  of Western  Islam.  i t i s within this  latest  the  the h i s t o r y  Orientalizes  makes p r e c i s e l y of  and  with It  r i d of  the  Speech. own  the  world so.  he's  The  work. just  I  hope  a  that  lived  with  novel  i s an  I t ' s not  one  Western  I have  a l l his  astonishingly of  insult  those to  necessitates  the  Chamcha n a r r a t i v e .  of  Orientalism  within  to  now  attention  turn  construct responding  my  a new  and  the  which  more  and  that  easily  to  read  However, novel  to  183)  Satanic  the  Verses  ideology  dismantled  been  understood,  has  the  tenable  framework  35  reduced  having  towards  to i t .  do  of  The  of  to  piece  (Weatherby,  glossing-over  the  continues  brilliant  things  Islam.  demonstrated  Orientalist Saladin  life  Gibreel  Farishta  for  as  that the  informs framework  I would  narrative,  understanding  and  like and  THE GOD-SHAPED  Rushdie need  first  o f D r . Aadam A z i z  caused  principal within  issue  that One  loss  within  him by t h i s  him i s touched  Kashmiri  morning  grandfather hardened  tussock  more u p r i g h t , h i s eyes  as  he b r u s h e d  he  resolved  man.  This  vacancy  God  hole  believe a of  The s t o r y  chamber,  middle  place,  he c o u l d a hole.  Rushdie  of Gibreel  issue  The S a t a n i c  Verses  read  t h e God-shaped  tangential  frost  which  from  once  had sprung moment,  h i s lashes,  f o r any god o r i n him, a  [ h e ] was  knocked  to worship  a  disbelieve.  (3-6)  the concept  Farishta  of this  i s the story  The God-shaped  God-shaped of the  hole  i s one o f t h e p r i m a r y  of Gibreel  continued  36  a  that  t o pray  not wholly  Children  hole.  the conflict  o u t b e t w e e n h i s immense n e e d t o  and t h e s t o r y  as Rushdie's  unable  t o do s o .  i n Midnight's  i s not  leaving him  [...]  explores  i n God a n d h i s i n a b i l i t y  tangential  earth  on t h e  Dr. Aziz  h i shead  made a h o l e  and h i s t o r y  existence  Verses  to kiss  inner  a  t o o ;and a t that  however,  alteration:  with  contemptuously  o f a man who i s s t r u n g  persuasively of  that  against  the tears  opens  o f 1 9 1 5 , my  attempting  he k n e l t  that  again  t o women  i n whose  i n full.  psychology  never  into  The S a t a n i c  h i t h i snose  diamonds  i n a vital  Permanent  sprng  had s o l i d i f i e d ,  decision,  vulnerable forever  i n the early  he f o u n d  to  i tremains  detail:  while  touches  and while  i n any great  until  The n o v e l  of f a i t h — b u t  Children,  of earth  back  and Rushdie  loss  who f e e l s t h e  t o do so i nt h e  Children.  on by Rushdie  Aadam A z i z  [...] L u r c h i n g  but i s unable  of faith,  i n Midnight's  i s not explored  of the individual  i n Midnight's  abrupt  player  rages  In  the psychology  i n God a n d r e l i g i o n  Dr. Aziz's  conflict a  explored  to believe  character with  HOLE  Farishta  exploration  that i j themes  i s most  into  this  concept  GIBREEL  In  FARISHTA  The S a t a n i c  essay  " I n Good  (Gibreel being  Arabic  in  i s a movie  the darkness,  him  version  the choice  To g i v e  star,  and movie  larger  than  Gibreel  life,  halfway  an a n g e l ' s of angelic however,  of a l l h i s torments.  i s born  childhood  Ismail  Najmuddin  us of I s m a i l  prey  moved  youth  to later  djinns,  i n the city  or lamp-posts, that  of discovering purchase,a  would  correct  would  foreshadows  From  caught  what  they  thoughts  began  that  world  seen  were  t o worry create  with about such  afreets,  from  He  would  whom h e  spectacles and a f t e r  t h e dense,  which that  blinding  [...]  that  a  great  interested i n  sometimes  fancy  though  began  the impurity  he  blasphemous t o compare  of the Prophet  terrible  37  he h e a r d  and i f i n a c c u r a c i e s had  he wasn't  [...] [ a n d ]  i n h i s make-up  visions.  of Rushdie  dreams  bullock-  a ghost.  Naima Najmuddin  learn of  supernatural—and  beneath.  [...] h i s s o m n o l e n t  could  the  him as a f a i l u r e i n  i n the a c t of forming  own c o n d i t i o n  an i n f a n t ) .  were  optometrist  t o see through  h i s mother  himself  a n d we  o r dabbawallas  demons,  of green-tinged  into her versions  knowing  he  a magic  s t o r i e s of the Prophet,  crept  his  and i t s t r u c k  pair  to the fabulous  many  397)  t h e blasphemous  h i s r e g r e t t a b l e myopia,  be a b l e  o f Pune,  fascination with  he h a d n e v e r  dream  air  us  on i n l i f e .  would  he  Homelands.  lunch-runners  as m a t t e r - o f - f a c t l y as i f they  own s i g h t  above  half-divinity.  He g r e w u p b e l i e v i n g i n G o d , a n g e l s ,  his  and f a r i s h t a  to the  when h e was s t i l l  Najmuddin's  of Ismail's  carts  name  h i s name b e c o m e s t h e  (Imaginary  as one o f t h e f a b l e d  (where h i s f a m i l y  fall  i n h i s  name w a s t o g i v e  equivalent  account  of this  s t a r s hang  h i sfaith,  Bombay  star--and  o f t h e name G a b r i e l ,  a secular  Gibreel  would  explains  When h e l o s e s source  his  the Arabic  F a r i s h t a i s a movie  f o r angel):  divine.  tells  Gibreel  F a i t h " Rushdie  being  Gibreel  his  Verses.  (21-22)  that  When I s m a i l  becomes a m o v i e a c t o r - - a n d  Farishta—he of  spends  the  minor knockabout  first  comic  roles.  foreshadow h i s blasphemous To  get  the of  becoming  an  boy  of  the  and  Prophet, his  and  return  who  girls'  were b o r n impossible instance  has  movies--films  in his  based  i n the  [was  head" this  (24) first  superstar For  to  and  "based  spend so  who  and  and  the  could  spiderof  the of  Annie incident  the after  surrealism  and  of  young  children  dreamed  incarnations, filled  he  avatars  f l y into  young boys  with  in  for precious  over  to  and  an  the  d i v i n e by  everything  less  the  h i s or  her  s t o r y of the  i s given  that  content  and  than  on  of he  dreams  god  chance [the  the t h e o l o g i c a l  t o be  showcased,  elephant-headed  concealed  career after had  as  instantly  a  god—is  role.  born:  t o one,  the  country  to in  outnumbers most  recognizable,  face  of  and  god] the  time  elephant's It i s  superstar--and  represented,  human p o p u l a t i o n three  i n s i d e an  starring  believers i n that  38  of  t h e o l o g i c a l mythology.  his first  a h a l f he  the  most  of  arrival  l e a d i n g b o x - o f f i c e names o f  Gibreel's  role  day,  the  demonstrate  roughly  the  m i l l i o n s of  this  the  e n t i r e movie  that  a decade  acceptable,  on  none o f  break  of  to  i n foreshadowing  comes w i t h  Gibreel  played  hundreds  the  the  theosophy  consumed,  earlier  pantheon got  lucky  which,  further  devouring  Muhammad's h a r e m  and  (extremely!)  scheduled]  were w i l l i n g  succession  sub-conscious.  b i g break  when a p r o d u c t i o n Ganesh  to  desire,  Rome, t h e  theory,  fortress  future nightmares  a basis  god  in a  (4)  Gibreel's  Every  of  and  early career  of  t o be  faces,  detail  love  the  field  i n the  is extraordinarily careful  Gibreel's of  no  i n a golden  stones.  and  i n triumph;  asking  with  career  is careful  and  i n which b u t t e r f l i e s  mouths,  name G i b r e e l  autodidact,  Greece  politics  Mecca  his  became a f l o w e r ,  unified verses  the  to  newspapers,  Rushdie  the  Satanic  of  omnivorous  woman, C i r c e , e v e r y t h i n g : Besant,  of  Rushdie  subject  metamorphic myths o f J u p i t e r , the  years  the  dreams:  h i s m i n d o f f he  studied,  four  adopts  as  from a  the  Supreme  (for all  any  very  which of  how  t o have  like  i s at  illness  the  that  loss  During  of  his  Allah  Ya  Allah  my  ills.  me  in this  Then and  now  that  but  not  then  with  God  to  thin  he  felt  began  an  and  there  metamorphosis  second  of  i s b l e e d i n g do over  me  so  and  i n myself  the  he  most  him  strength to  being  into  then  he  nobody  But  day  he  anything illness  he  there  ya  felt  found to  changed  and  t h a t he  and  and he  just  be  nothing  no  the  his  talking  all,  nothing,  On  but  terrible  Allah,  feel.  The  was  at  his  have  day,  in his life,  he  God,  came a  realized  ever  the  love?  another  there  emptiness,  be.  suffer  you  with  punished,  Enough,  are  cure  need.  I d i e when I  through  was  than the  one  the  angry. must  i n i t s place as  Ya  your  grievous  was  vengeance or  there  t o be  got why  every  most m e r c i f u l , be  my  t h a t he  isolation,  account  not  long.  some s m a l l mark o f  beneficent  you  an  longer day  of  recovery  (30)  h i s recovery, flesh  nonexistence  retribution  every  of need,  more f o o l i s h  nothing,  began.  upon God,  a time  with  illness  g i v e s us  of  watching  damn i t , j u s t  needed  so  It i s this  minute  t o him  a i r , that  there,  not  every  carried  to plead  of  Gibreel i s struck  door.  t h a t made i t p o s s i b l e t o  i t faded,  emptiness,  forbidden  most  are  was  spent  find  time  after  most  about:  had  words:demanded,  killed,  anger  comes he  I may  my  actor  about  lose h i s f a i t h — a n d Rushdie  after  f o r a time  unspoken  to death's  some s i g n ,  O God  an  f o r Chamcha, b u t i n h i s bonnet  whose s e r v a n t  i t occurred  pain,  f o r such  o f h i s fame t h a t  him  calling  show me  favour,  the  takes  illness  a b a n d o n me  After  height  faith  consciousness minute.  even  a bee  that  (16-17)  causes G i b r e e l to this  agree  much-metamorphosed V i s h n u ,  surprising.  i s when he  mystery  you'll  a c t o r , maybe,  f o r him)  avatars,  It  [...]  of of  G i b r e e l rushes the  God.  begins—a  Rushdie  swine, But  the  the  unclean  i t is after  nocturnal  is careful  to  Taj  h o t e l to partake  guadruped, he  eats  retribution--a  to provide 39  us  not  only  the  to prove pigs  punishment with  the  of to  that of  the himsel  the  dreams.  background  for  the  content of  within  which  the  punishment--a dreams  are  Gibreel's  Gibreel's dreams  t h e s e dreams  by  understood.  the b a t t l e  of  of  and  faith-shaking  Gibreel's  make-believe--a doubts  faith  play  dreams  on  the are  loss  of  between b e l i e f  makes  world of the movie  and  name:  a  Pronounced  dream-name, correctly,  should-be-given, [...]  Here  adopted, around  he  h i s neck  of  Water  i s the i t must  erodes t i l t  with  never  sway.  the  screen of  the  to that  here  MoeHammered; farangis  medieval Mahound  entirely  of  has  hung  Carried  appear  (93)  40  [...]  The  i t rises  code  i t drops  i n the  [...]  i n earthen  (the penal  f o r where  baby-  sand, i t s  d e s e r t whence  spilled  Holes  vision.  mountain-climbing, prophet-  in Jahilia. be  the  synonym:  offenders),  alarmingly.  and  our  i s built  enemy  answer  Mahomet n o r  i s t o be  of  the  roads,  i s  that  this  i s  grotesque—where  he-for-whom-thanks-  demon-tag  [...]  formed  pots,  fiercely  won't  the Devil's  Jahilia  structures  he  the  solitary  frightener,  by  i t means  i s neither  instead,  motivated  city  but  changed  and  blasphemy.  i t clear the  Th  within  f a i t h - - b u t he  imagination: His  faith.  doubt,  his lost  context a  i s being fought  scepticism  looking-glass out  The  with  that  dreamscape  themselves  also  for Gibreel's  i s desperate to regain  depiction  of  Gibreel's  of  subconscious between  haunted  realm  t o be  a representation  Gibreel  a  are  dreams--but  subconscious retribution  unbelief.  Rushdie's  blasphemous  deals  the  city  houses  his  THE  DREAM  Gibreel  SEQUENCES  dreams  recitation. "Mahound" to,  and  that but  In  and  he  the  "Return  are  version  the  Gibreel,  Gibreel Jahilia,  this  recounted Gibreel  of  Gibreel  the  that  the  i n the  dreams  Islam.  source  Prophet Mahound  that  of  of  the  the  he  be  i s witness  remembered  to regain h i s  nightmare  for his loss  of  chapters  I t must  i s desperate  faith-shaking  Islam,  but  Gibreel--the angel  f a i t h —  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of faith.  In  revelation  this  i s not  he,  himself. i s offered  a d e a l by  the  Grandee  of  Simbel:  "It's  a  sand.  Abu  small matter,"  favour heart  of  dreams  Abu  Simbel  [...] to  only house  Allah's  the  worthy  a p p r o v a l of  begins  that  word,  worship  that  we  a mark  elected  the  to  and  Manat.  will  r e c o g n i z e d ; as  of  of  l i t t l e  i t in his  sixty  [ . . . ] He  and  officially  grain  one  concede—that  three hundred of  "A  him  could find  Lat, Uzza,  gives h i s guarantee  again.  to grant  God  used  three of are  he  Allah  great  concede--he  in  the  asks  I f our  three,  he  birth  nocturnal retribution  nightmare angel  are  to J a h i l i a , "  i n , the  by  archangel  that  nightmares.  i s haunted  Islam--the  i s the  dreams  participant  these he  that  be  idols  asks  In  for  return,  tolerated,  which,  I am  council  of  Jahilia.  That's.the  mountain  to  see  the  even  to  be  offer.  (105)  Mahound to  say  ascends about  Gibreel, he, who,  the  this  and  dreamer,  me?  sitting  But  feels  his heart  leaping  watching  this  his finger  bloody  changing spectator  out  bloody  at  but  comes  he, the to  me,  central for  who of  dream  Gibreel,  me  the  and  ever a  player,  in  recitation  recitation  here?  heard  this  actor  the  like;  to  mere  star  asking  I'm  solve  i t s always  longer a the  the  alarm,  theological  revelation, 41  the  now  shifts,  i s no  of  panic:  answer  picture  audience  p l o t ? - - b u t the  form,  of  with  here  the  angel  i s filled  t o know  the  angel  he  supposed  asks  what the  I'm  who  Mahound  concession.  dreamer,  the  points  the  [...] me  to  i s  has  choose and  As  just  you,  Help.  help.  out,  that  been  But  the  story  that  climbs  Mahound "It  making was  listening,  he  as  that  reek  from  the  survive  ever or  ends w i t h  we  said,  you  overthrow am  sorry  us  the by  the  for  what  through a  the  "The  last in  but  are  expunge  sulphur,  and  time,  suggests  he  once  revealed  i t  his the  Devil  so  that  the  returns  ever,  the  to  the  poetry  so  unreliable  to  the  foul  strike that  verses them  they  will  c o l l e c t i o n s of  interpreters will  the  water-carrier  But  you  were  try  and  never  we  said,  were  bringing  than  Mahound: we  compromise,  Mahound us  telling  wiser  a  has  deeper  himself,  so  the  Evil  One,  Right.  You  have  enriched  window,  and  Allah.  i t s diabolic He  of  I  Grandee,  verses  recited in  Then  that  we  and  truth,  could his  our  faith.  thought."  moves away  wonderful  he  to  you.  Devil  workings  Mahound  was  you  the  by  empty a i r ,  archangel,  satanic.  two  the  heard  Mahound w i l l  compromised.  bought  witness  ones  Khalid  knew.  but  the  offer  (123)  doubted  us,  to  has  the  orthodox  story.  recognized  New  tricked, that  of  and  for  betrayed  he  thing  one  First  aloud  been  record  The  Grandee's  concession —  Gibreel.  i t voice.  can,  I  you  says  but  he  make t h i s  revelation  ones:  the  "Messenger,  and  to  consult  in just  dream  tell  Mahound.  the  of  brimstone  their  that  wife  real  as  indicate  within  the  guise  the  from  here—Hind,  old  godly,  quickly of  to  panicked--the  are  has  t r a d i t i o n s and  unwrite  first  not  so  Uzza  i s what  he  been  and  giving  i n the  not  what  Manat,  he  This  have  Mahound  to  the  by  that  were  bhaenchud  yaar,  him--but  mistake  memorized,  opposite, city  a  devil,"  him  a  I know,  not  Lat,  end  of  Shaitan."  tent,  that  not  i t true  verses  to  mountain  the  came t o  old  and  i n place was  need  come f r o m  i t was  the  having  do  alternatives,  (108-109)  not  does  henotheist  actor  fuck  revealed  accepted  Mahound  again  are  and  idiot  the  Gibreel  i t comes does  has  The  some what  verses  to  I'm  monotheist  nightmare,  i t turns  when  to  between  from  "Yes."  thing  the  sunlight  Bitterness,  I did. 42  Deeper  falling  cynicism.  truth.  "It  Bringing  I  you  This is  the D e v i l . Yes, that  blasphemous  desperate  retribution faith,  him that  of  Islam  of  t h e word  the  f o rh i s l o s s  Muhammad  of having  been  these  born  a t t h e same t i m e  and  betrayal—betrayal  cannot  completely  conflicting  1  Jahilia."  uncertainties  his  faith  uncertainty nightmare first  charlatan  desires,  religion  has grown faithful  Mahound--or should the  Prophet  than  worse,  are the  refers  toi n  of faith  f i l l s  some new  of guilt  a  threshold.  and emptiness  o f t h e G o d i n whom h e  are the r e s u l t of these  himself  Gibreel's  and d i s t u r b i n g the Persian,  but i n those  archangel  Gibreel  years  Gibreel?--  by l a w . Amid  appeared rules  this  than the Mahound  authority h i s  code:  tothe  rules  rules  as  doubt and  h i s own p o l i t i c a l  i t s newfound  obsessed  as w e l l  and as a r e s u l t  and repressive  spouting  43  him.  to suit  by lawlessness,  but h i s doubts  i t i sh i ssanity  o f Salman  one say t h a t  "Return t o  h i sfaith,  before,  with  a stifling  of the oasis  and found  These a r e  him, these  crossed  from  the recitation  one s a y Al-lah--became  palm-trees  and d e c e i t .  i n the chapter  more v i v i d — n o w  and, even  lived  perception  him with  t h e dreams  t o the account  should  the religion  loss  more p a i n f u l a n d s h o c k i n g  into  suggest  to believe  t o recapture  extreme  who m a n i p u l a t e s  H i s dreams  o f a man w h o w i s h e s  and b e t r a y a l  i s continued  a r e ever  According  a  emotions.  desperate  i s even more  personal  The  of himself  He  of h i sloss of  Rushdie  a sense  seems t o be s l i p p i n g away  i s even  one.  place  having with  disbelieve--and  and  a t once  o n Muhammad's  within  Gibreel's  he i s f i l l e d  He i s s t i l l  that  middle  again--of  nightmare  hole  nightmare.  and that  duplicity  a r e t h e dreams  and complicated  Gibreel s  that  t o do s o .  But  o f God--but  a God-shaped into  worst  visions.  of a charlatan  n o t on o u t r i g h t  o f a man k n o c k e d  God b u t i s u n a b l e  sense  blasphemous  n o t on t h e word  Children,  i s Gibreel's  and a representation  i s something  of G o d — i f  me." ( 1 2 5 )  y e t i n h i sdreams,  of faith  by these  like  dream  h i sfaith,  o f a man w i t h  Midnight's in  to regain  i s based  dreams  dreams  faith-shaking  he i s haunted  to  sounds  i s a and  until any  the  faithful  damn t h i n g , the  wind,  purpose aspect  a  human  The  sleep,  and  profane--the advanced of  the  and  pure  though  this  miracle  denied matters  worse,  reality  is  recounted  nonbelief he  might  from  he  least  of  his  of  that  line  i n the  be  the  from  with  to  the i f  no  unregulated, the should  received divine  discounted  witnessed  by  others other her  a  blasphemy  commingling  more  of  is a  is a  the  world from  as  any  well,  hand—as  i s losing  the  rug,  an  at  new  times  path  world  of  h i s dreams The to  the  and  has  He  whom h e To  and  world  nightmare  the  of  Islam  validate  his  new  aeroplane,  the  idea  he  notices a  his head—and  he  fears  Diamond  h i s mind--and  to  John  the  him—this madness  make  that  that  crossed  over halo  that  this  i t i s Maslama.  Rekha Merchant,  remind  again  because and  has  guilt.  times  At  as  cannot  well.  i s quick  the  chosen  G i b r e e l has  Rosa  the  living.  archangel  a p p a r i t i o n of  44  he  God  Gibreel with  seemed  and  Gibreel feels  that  the  mere h a l l u c i n a t i o n , as  aeroplane  uncertainties.  racks  behind  such the  as  sacred  consciousness.  from  indistinct.  of  the  blasphemy  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  s i g n from  from  of  upon  It i s a representation  his  the and  "Mahound"  avatar  bokhara  from  idea  dividing  point  as  piles  dream  doubts  miracle  waking  be  he  for  they  die"—and  since his f a l l  be  sign that  to  validation  ever  cannot  a  It is a  have  chapter  sleeping to  on  deeply  of  every  face  as  left  p o s i t i o n s had  thrice--and this  in God—but  around  use  Gibreel falling  the  out  him  how  his faith  you  is a  i s growing  the  of  with  streaming  On  to  I t was  t o be  impure--the  i s beset  the  indeed  turn his  Gibreel's certainties.  first  feeling  at  the  opens  again  the  hand  f a i t h - s h a k i n g dream  and  born  shake  eat,  sexual  exorcism  novel  tread—but  to  sacrilege.  be  to  which  prospect  about  (363-364)  dissolution  The "To  much  upon  painful  l e t him  e x i s t e n c e was  which  terrifying sacrilege  about  the  rules  revelation--the recitation--told how  sanction.  and  farts  said,  c l e a n i n g one's behind.  of  free.  rule  s c a r c e l y bear  Salman  i f a man  of  faithful  This  could  more r e v e l a t i o n ,  following  could  towards  a l l be which  he  feels himself  f a i t h — o r  i t could  Mr.  Gibreel  was o n c e that  Farishta  again  longer  believed  how  "It's I'm  These faith,  faith  t o doubt--from Gibreel's  archangel exile  land  that  against  i s identified  subcontinental Exile is  silently, " i t ' s  somebody  went  and  from  Gibreel's  ground  initial  representation  covered  block,  as Desh  of the  and h i s triumphant (which  in  exile  treason:  country.  In exile,  a l l bought  this  dream  i s taking  carnage  they  i n many  of defeat.  Gibreel  towards 45  i n the exile  turns  on  cooked;  go o u t f o r t a k e - a w a y ,  on G i b r e e l ' s  i n Desh. march  i s ever  t o p u t down r o o t s  t h e Imam f l i e s  as t h e people  no f o o d  bodyguards  are admissions  place  to a  the furniture  a t t h e same t i m e  h o t whenever  In exile  a l l attempts  return  means c o u n t r y  [...] In  spectacled  lives i n  where he p l a n s h i s  anybody  dark  who  i n Bangladesh):  scalding  t a p [...]  middle  ( i nt h e shape  r e l i g i o u s leader from  t h e Empress  he  a n d i n t o o much o f a h u r r y  kitchen  of that  from  goes  shower  loss of  i n the journey  the  the  that  days?  same s t o r e  a  In  expensive,  of recent  t h e Imam--a  languages—as  ugly,  at i t f o r long;  i s one i n which  only  i s a soulless  so b i g  to unbelief.  apartment  Ayesha  was  f o r the miracles,  as Rushdie's  dream  visits  i n a Kensington  revolution  t o look  a l l stem  belief  of course)  i n h i s madness  he t r e m b l e d  turbulent  second  he no  (189)  emotions  emotionally  by what  archangel,  o r B, b a b a ,  and c a n be u n d e r s t o o d  place—the  unmade  of turning  and a p p a r i t i o n s  head,  t o London  [ . . . ] The t e r r o r o f l o s i n g  of being  impossible  the rules."  train  n o t be by t h e f e a r  him f o r h i s l o s s of  was he t o a c c o u n t  o f f my  conflicting  would  to punish  a straight choice,"  changed  entirely:  of a chimerical  i t was  else  metamorphoses  A,  a s who  existed,  the avatar  r e t r i b u t i o n f o r h i s loss of  on t h e r a i l w a y  seized  t o a paradox,  him that  yet  else  by d r i v i n g him i n s a n e  mind  into  be d i v i n e  be s o m e t h i n g  God h a d d e c i d e d  faith his  in  s l i p p i n g could  back  look  to witness  witnesses  the gates  like  (208)  scenes  of  the revolution frightful  o f t h e Empress'  palace  only  to  be  "You  mown d o w n b y  her  see  love  me,"  on  earth  voice. the  how  "No  they tyranny  slow,  walking  "This  isn't  hate.  She  explanation "They  love I  for  habit  my  away  from  sense  of  present to  Here  up  But  at  the  lose  she  and  the  power  replies.  "It's  arms."  time:  of  The  says,  "because  i s decay.  They  I  am  love  me  Human b e i n g s  c e r t a i n t y , and  time,  the  of  forsaking of  that  timeless  who  time  that  turn  also  encompasses  what  of  mouth  march  he  God.  has  turned  the  past,  has  This  dream  away tells  certainty is retribution of  looking  his  your  clocks.  love,  this  away  dream  from  Imam g r o w n m o n s t r o u s , with  weeping,  into  and  boundless  conclusion  people  a  disembodied  withstand  Imam's v o i c e  future;  lack  Gibreel,  at  superficial.  smashing  i s reminded  and  can  the  hundreds  no  need  from  and  (214)  in his  confusion  thin,  the  of  God His  move."  them  fertility  and  Gibreel  given  me,"  am  says  Gibreel,  driven  sounds  water.  guards  love."  love,"  has  household  her  lying  yawning  when  the  open  at  the  through  the  gates  he  again  representation  that  for his  Empress  in horror,  i n the  him  has  his  present  faith.  defeated:  the  palace  forecourt  gates:  as  swallows  he  l o s s of  is  sees  what  the  them  whole.  (215)  This  dream  Gibreel faith  i s once  has  as  knocked  h o r r i f i c — a s  lives--but means t h e  been  at  the of  love  representation  of  the  but  anything  at  the  a power  and  else--it  is a  that  the  middle  place  that  faith  and  doubt.  It  portrays  dominates  and  consumes  Gibreel the  loss  confusion  same t i m e  of  into--between  same t i m e  loss  God,  a  i s warned of  that  unable  to  46  certainty.  Gibreel replace  representation  that  of  the  turn  The  feels, that  to  innocent away  dream  unable  is  to  belief  i n God  God-shaped  hole.  from  God  a  believe with  in  If  G i b r e e l ' s dream o f t h e Imam w a r n s h i m t h a t t o t u r n away f r o m  t o be l e f t emotion.  with  nothing--the  These dreams,  however,  seem t o b e c k o n h i m b a c k [The has as  Ayesha  to k i l l  w e l l as one o f vengeance,  lost  i tfeels  like  t h e o t h e r s , and  whom he, G i b r e e l ,  c a n be a God o f l o v e ,  power,  and i t i s , t o o , a n o s t a l g i c homeland;  than  this  of b e l i e f :  that the deity  unsuccessfully tried  dreams i n t e n s i f y  a r e more b e n i g n  t o the realm  dream] s u g g e s t s  hate;  serial  God i s  duty,  sort  r u l e s and  of tale,  of a  a return to the past.  (215)  This  i s precisely  dreams G i b r e e l had  nourished  that  what  these  dreams a r e - - a  returns to the b e l i e f s him i n h i s days  the s p i r i t u a l i t y  certainty In  In these  t h a t he h a d c h e r i s h e d a n d w h i c h  as a t r u e b e l i e v e r .  t h e dreams r e t u r n h i m t o I n d i a — t h e  between  return to the past.  I t i s f o rthis  return suggesting  of the subcontinent  reason  a connection  and t h e c o m f o r t i n g  of b e l i e f . these  dream  sequences  y o u n g woman named A y e s h a . Ayesha  After  potato  years  to Titlipur  t r a c k , b u t by t h e t i m e  village  some f o r t y - e i g h t  a kind of agelessness, a s snow w h i l e  appears  he a p p e a r s  t h e o r p h a n was n i n e t e e n  began h e r walk back  white  Gibreel  along  later  completely  naked  i n such  wearing  the b u t t e r f l i e s  thick  a dress  the rutted  swarms t h a t  o f t h e most  up i n h e r  she had a t t a i n e d h a d t u r n e d as  had r e g a i n e d  o f a new-born c h i l d ' s ,  body  o l d when s h e  because her h a i r  perfection  the luminous  and a l t h o u g h had s e t t l e d  s h e seemed  delicate  to a  t o h e r she i s t r a n s f o r m e d :  she t u r n e d  hours  her skin  as t h e a r c h a n g e l  s h e was  upon h e r  t o be  material i n the  u n i v e r s e . (225)  Ayesha  i s informed  suffering faith  from  that Mishal Akhtar,  cancer—but  a n d t h a t God w i l l "It  i s the angel's  woman a n d c h i l d prepare  she a l s o  save will  Mishal  the wife  i s informed from  o f t h e zamindar i s that t h i s  the sickness:  that a l l of us, every  i n the v i l l a g e ,  begin  f o r a p i l g r i m a g e . We a r e commanded  47  man,  a t once t o t o walk  i s a test of  from  this  Stone the  i n the  walk  shores and  of  the  parted,  dream and  In dreams  as  the  will  shall  i s a God  of  of  the  Or  Saeed  foam,  waves  shall  be  the  ocean  floor  to  l o v e and the  mercy  and  magnificence and  redemption.  and  emptiness  to  Akhtar  his creed accept  the  of  i s the  It i s  sublimity of  a  life  of  a  faith  without  unbeliever—and  scepticism  beliefs  h i s closed-mindedness  Mishal laughed  Saeed,  You a  imported  maybe you  of  and  and  the  Mercedes-Benz of  and  and  the  imported  faithful  his i l l - w i l l  God  and  the Western  i s depicted his  away  redeems  this  existence.  ultimately  a  from  God  i s shown  life  of  a l l sides,  villagers  to  of  you  talk  here,  and  you  don't  your  His  he  sees  your  indicates  that  to  the  spirituality  dreams  a  of  i t i s the  self-delusion  life and  emptiness: out  of  Titlipur  l i t t l e were  tinkers'  returning 48  accept  from  Ayesha  to  gullies, the  of  beloved  material  the  life  to h i s  the  turn  t o be  enterprise  of  i s to  In  an  Mercedes-Benz  his refusal  to h i s worship away  (238)  heart.  as  attachment  of  know what i t  looked beneath locate  s t o p what  i s connected  turn  which  to  good  but  pilgrimage i n his olive-green  wagon  to  atheism  i f you  tried  Saeed,  live  i s happening  irrationality.  station  unbeliever  bitterly. I can't  European  would  suitings  follows  know  thing  wagon--determined  From  i n the  The  hollowness  of  words.  your  superstition  that  We the  certainty.  words,  English  existence  feet  [...]  reach  across  of  to Gibreel  refusal  suicide.  station  go  Sharif,  pride:  choice  Mirza  Haram  w h e n we  our  Black  f o r us.  walk  dreams M i r z a Saeed  product  is.  open  put  the  surely  and  the  (235-236)  His  with  we  will  we  a rejection  Good  must  sea,  and  these  overweening  we  the  without  atheism.  There  to k i s s  centre of  miles,  suggests  are  the  hundred  spirituality—and and  at  Sharif,  two  dreams God  that  faith  aba  waters  Mecca."  these  Ka  1  s a c r e d Mosque.  will  In  p l a c e t o Mecca  the  place  of  the  world--and  of  that the  denial—and  their  dispersal.  They  were  a l l coated  ankles  i n golden  butterflies,  little  creatures  went b e f o r e  them "I  to  safety  don't  believe  But  i t was  had  been  back  to  that  ankle  the  when t h e injury  closed  as  i f by  awoken  from  fluttering they  had  "Don't you:  be  their  dead,  surprising  of  to  you  the  drawing  that  and  an  bought were  on  a  open wound  the  that  later  broken  s a i d they  Some e v e n and  pilgrimage  claims  settled  find  Saeed  away y o u r  few  the  had  had  butterflies believed  the  that  butterflies  life.  stupid," Mirza  i t washed  had or  lips.  to  of  ropes  butteflies  drowned,  them back  to  Saeed.  Many m a r c h e r s  unconsciousness  been  like  stranger  healed,  magic.  about  bought  the And  creatures  had  lines  s i n g l e member o f  road.  neck  [.. . ]  said Mirza  down by  main  long  them,  a well  Every  tracked the  of  i t , "  true.  made:  had  out  and  from  cried.  enemies,  are  hurt;  so  "The  storm  i t s  Let's  saved  not  be  scientific,  please." "Use  your  be  Saeed,"  the  presence  and  c h i l d r e n enveloped  does  The  eyes,  your  pilgrimage seen  before  science  ends  again--not  drowning  bodies  a  were  Human b e i n g s the  water.  forwards Ayesha,  of  about  the  him,  indicating  a hundred  this?"  head  ever  on  washed of  up  women "What  (494-495)  or  the  Arabian  thrashing  Sea—never  to  arm--no drowned  or  shore:  drowning  struggle  human n a t u r e  the  sea  swallows  Akhtar  and  the  villagers were  against  simply  until  s e a - l e v e l ; and  men,  butterflies.  pilgrims entering  I t i s against  below  over  i n glowing  i n danger  Mishal  told  s i n g l e gasping  meekly  subsided  them  say  with  Mishal  you  up.  of  never  to  walk But  Titlipur  seen  again.  (503)  Those  who  wagon o f face.  had  seems  A l l except  along as  the  scepticism  parting—like them  left  pilgrimage  are  Mirza  p u l l e d from Saeed  hair being  the  though  ocean  to  centuries  the  Mirza  have  the  watched  Saeed  elapsed 49  Mirza  water  witnessed  combed--and  floor.  join  Saeed  drowning  miracle the  returns  instead  of  of  i n the  station  and  blue  the  waters  p i l g r i m s walk to  Titlipur,  months,  in  away  the  from  where i t  a broken  man.  and  waits It  f o rdeath i s only  a t t h e moment o f h i s d e a t h  able  t o abandon  that  he h a d so l o n g  occurs  h i slifelong  creed  denied—and  that  Mirza  of scepticism  i tas that  Saeed  and embrace  moment  that  i s finally the  faith  the miracle  f o r himt o o : Then  something  different broke,  within  choice,  him refused  H i s body  to h i sgroin,  within  split  deep  h i m , a n d now  were,  a n d a t t h e moment o f t h e i r  parted,  and they  Arabian  Sea. (507)  dreams  walked  represent  religious  faith  represent  t o h i m what  to Gibreel  faith.  50  from h i s  she [Ayesha]  opening across  away  could  they a l l  the waters the bed of the  the richness  of a l i f e  he i s t u r n i n g  a  h i s heart  s h e was o p e n ,  t o Mecca  and t h e emptiness  made  that  apart  so that  reach  Ayesha  that,  and at the i n s t a n t  he opened.  adam's-apple  The  t o claim him.  and reward of  of unbelief.  from  i n turning  These away  dreams  from  INTENTION  The  reading  sequences  of the novel  i n which  as an a t t a c k  Gibreel i s witness  birth  of the religion,  "both  i s and i s n o t Islam"  within  which  Rushdie. Islam,  of Islam  presenting  himself  construed Rushdie  of  directly  these  dream  from,  that  I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h  Sunday  plenty (the  that Rushdie i s them  and thus  within  absolve  are presented. be  legitimately  suggestion  put forth  i s that  by  t h e Qur'an i s  Muhammad's p e r c e p t i o n magazine  does  sequences--it  he encodes  many o f h i s c r i t i c s  o f God, b u t t h e Prophet  Rushdie  not suggest  sequences  The p r i n c i p a l  and t h e e a r l y  dream  but that  f o rt h e ideas  that has so offended  God.  Islam,  by  represent  while  be argued  to distance himself  as suggesting?  t h e word  quoted  could  he does  I t can perhaps  about  sequences  However,  i n these  that  context  representation of  o f Muhammad  not tenable.  locution,  i s made q u i t e c l e a r  t h e dream  Islam  i n , the  4 0 9 ) . The  t o be a d i r e c t  that  t o suppose  i n order  then,  Homelands.  of the l i f e  about  of, responsibility  What,  not  are clearly  on t h e dream  t o use Rushdie's  a r e t o be u n d e r s t o o d  i s important).  sequences  that  (Imaginary  account  h i s own i d e a s  i s based  t o , and p a r t i c i p a n t  i s not intended  be d i s i n g e n u o u s  distinction  dream  dreams  revisionist  say anything  would  Submission,  and t h e r e f o r e accusations  history not  these  Submission  Rushdie's  on I s l a m  o f t h e word  of India, Rushdie i s  as saying: I  don't  then  b e l i e v e t h a t Muhammad h a d a r e v e l a t i o n b u t  I don't  didn't  doubt  h i ssincerity  make u p t h e a n g e l .  experience.  and you don't  going  o n ? What  experience?  He h a d t h a t  But i fyou don't  truth  that  we a c c e p t  i thappens  b e l i e v e i n God a n d a r c h a n g e l s . t o w r i t e about.  (Appignanesi  That's  a n d we what  and Maitland,  the incident of the satanic verses 51  mystical  of the mystical  tried  uses  genuine  him e i t h e r - - t h e n what's  don't  Rushdie  Muhammad  b e l i e v e i n t h e whole  disbelieve  i s the nature  Given  either.  I 41)  to put forth  h i s ideas  about  the  nature  of  historian  al-Tabari  orthodoxy  as  suggests as  the  have on  unreliable.  quite  by  that  damn  such  i s not of  and  suggestions  as  content, to  Davies,  151)  critically  to  as  to  that  i s presented  also  a  a  a of  the  a  life  a  and  any  the  of  lived the  of  without dream  a  Qur'anic  of  that  criticism of  Islam and  and  a  that  i s untenable.  wife is  but  also  novel  is  and  Wyn  accepted dream  by of  i t  Rushdie the  Satanic  acknowledge  to  a  as  Islam--however  and  a  and  the  be  The  the  irreverent  questioning  textual  reveals  his  (Sardar  sublimity If  retort  Muhammad  suggested  faith  Close  of  Jahilia of  of  response "The  call  that  i t can  the  like  word  teaching  Islam"  before  read  the  offensive  must  tract  and  accusation  goes  i t i l l becomes  life  one  sequences  52  the  than  extremely  sequences.  faith.  anti-Islamic  the  then  Verses  to  i t  might  Satanic  Prophet:  Arab  faith,  the  uses  "rules  seems  hand,  some  beauty  dream  Islamic  of  vein  denied  the  Ayesha  celebration  straightforwardly  the  even  of  the  but  petty  A l i Dashti's  i s undoubtedly  criticism  depiction  a l l of  makes  jugular  be  of  other  satire  The  rather of  ignorant  However,  critique  in  enemy  of  and  Rushdie and  i t often  an  novel  cannot  that  the  he  incident  incident,  trivial  On  origin  the  with  some q u a l i f i c a t i o n  questioning  in part of  the  at  It  compelling  is  analysis  such,  reconcile  the  i n part  curse  an  the  Islamic  the  desires.  instance,  Rushdie's  only  "[aimed]  with  merits  not  the  businessman  Lahab,  to  his  questions  for  d i s r e s p e c t f u l , and  suggest  is  Arab  the  by  Muhammad's r e v e l a t i o n  Qur'an--how  proportion.  reguires  necessary  Abu  (149).  tenable.  sequences  the  many M u s l i m s .  attack  The  think,  Universe  and  vicious  is  of  carrier"  irreverent  I  curses  out  the  of  century  new.  which  i s filled  (363).  content  seventh  as  Qur'an  thing"  the a  the  by  resurrects  c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n of  influenced  CXI  upsetting  only  and  Sura  firewood  not  i s recorded  rejected  self-induced  to  its  credible  nothing  Sustainer  Rushdie  been  that  of  God--are  has  suggestion  about  word  but  incident  his  every  raises  This  of  suggest  about  (d.923)  corner-stone  been  to  the  a  revelation.  of  faith Verses that  i t  the  contextual  read  the  Rushdie  is  novel far  as  more e v e n - h a n d e d  and  critics  credit  give  perceptive underlies  him  enough the  to  for.  point  desire to  the  more  simplistic  has  been  "offensive to  desecrate  demands  wrenching  loyalty,  expressed  only  a  he  Ruthven's  Salman  Rushdie  understanding  It  to  and  faith  i s one  towards  and  read  than  his  critic  Islam  that  as  a  with  of a  metaphors  reading  of  Islam who  can  belief.  to  Rushdie  text of  curious  i n order  the  those  not  blasphemy  a post-colonial  of  or  gesture  that  compass  disloyalty  d i s s o c i a t e d from  whether  performs  Rage of  that  be  i n s t e a d , the  suggesting  to  the  of  Islam"; be  compelling  may  be  argued  novelist  Islam  and  what  exorcism he  was  Ruthven's Islam  of  a  a  form  the  bought  reading  that  that  not  Portrait  Catholicism:  be  Given  act  of  dramatize tha't  the  novel  provides read  the  a  his  Islam  sensibility.  of  i s noted  (223)  in A  Satanic  bridge  novel  as  Affair:  between a  Suleri's  polemical  attack  the by  and  courageous  disbelief  his  that  i n the  an form  (Akhtar,  target  of  spiritual  "a 6)  Artist  takes and  parodies  many b e l i e v i n g  same t h i n g a s  Muhammad"  the  Suleri  irreverance  acknowledged  of  novel  novel  to  Satanic  Verses  His  Rushdie  novel  i s to  i s  is  to  Roman  autobiography, faith  in  an which  (160)  The  offensive  i n The  propagandist.  repressive, punishing  up.  sequences.  on  the  Islam:  a  the  of  however,  ambiguity  here  question  obsession  available  Malise  must  Rushdie  chooses  continuing makes  Suleri,  this  w i t h i n the  paradox,  faith:  Sara  out  The  such  in his critique  text:  perversely  on  charitable  a  [believing  life  account  apparent of  of  one's  cathartic  the  intention  53  at  ambiguity  i n the  Prophet  the  doubt  to of  (Sardar  the  with  and  a  ribald  be  even o u t r i g h t  and  slander  "inflict[ing] Wyn  and  i t must  desacralization  vilify  and  dream  painful  same t i m e ,  or  towards  Ayesha  i s undoubtedly  satire  attempt  Muslims]"  the  that  Muslims--yet,  calculated with  i s so  iconoclasm  expression of  the  into  Davies,  the  i s  not  [sic] most  151).  pain It is  taking  n o t h i n g away  greatest  from  the  lessons i n heresy  Althusser's  phrase  paper  that  does,  Islam.  To  defame  the  read  the The  Prophet,  constitutes  on  the novel  status  the  to  and,  most  criticism  of  Rushdie's  argument.  Islam  The  has  philosophy of  savage of  Satanic Verses  ever  and  however,  the  seen"  Spinoza)  i s a playful,  a misunderstanding  critique,  world  Satanic Verses, and  of  not as  both  the  tone  i n the  54  form  and  "one  (to borrow contend,  of  an  attempt  as  the  and fact  not  this  vilify  on and  Qur'an,  angle that  the  to  the  Louis  a polemical attack,  teachings of  i m p o r t a n t l y , overlooks the i s offered  to  as  of  Rushdie's  the  principal  content  of  CONCLUSION  Salman the  Rushdie's  unsayable.  constructed satirized  the  taboo  Islam  by s u g g e s t i o n ) .  any one o f these  that  i soffered  i n Islamic reason  resurrected verses,  " r u l e s about  criticism  suggestion),  point that  that  The medium  The S a t a n i c i s asking  entirely Rushdie  off-limits  with  asks  the teachings  that  the  these  unsayable,  h a s become  of h i sattack.  I t i s  t h e Prophet and  o f t h e Qur'an the point.  of h i scriticism  i s t h e message.  the Prophet?  Prophet,  a  criticism of  he has s a t i r i z e d  i s not i n h i ss u g g e s t i o n s — i t  Rushdie  i s sacred Verses  asks  the question:  and precious  t o an i m a g i n a t i v e  and Rushdie's  satire  and he i s g u i l t y  t o Muslims,  butthe  so wrong?  why, i n 1 9 8 8 , c a n o n e n o t t o Rushdie  With  Muhammad!  one be c a r e f u l w i t h writer?  Muhammad  misses h i s The  question  Muhammad?  i s , after  o f h i m c a n be r e a d ,  55  Rushdie's  o f blasphemy (by  i s : why i s t h i s  Be C a r e f u l  i s : why s h o u l d  calling  ( s a t i r e and  i sguilty  One o f t h e r e s p o n s e s  i t s title  by  i s i n t h e form o f  of s a t i r i z i n g the Prophet,  d e s a c r a l i z i n g much t h a t  satirize  that  exists  has trangressed  i s the angle  as  of the  there  By s a y i n g  damn t h i n g " a r e b e s i d e  he i s g u i l t y  Rushdie  a  and r i d i c u l e d  every  suggestions.  question  Verses.  icons(!)  the historically unreliable incident of the satanic  desacralization)  he  accusations  sacred  world  of the unsayable  This  consider "the  i s the principal  i n The S a t a n i c  been  Rushdie has  the teachings  Rushdie  This  thought.  that  o r mocked  principal  of  acts.  have  Muhammad; h e h a s  In the Islamic  i s a t t a c k i n g the concept  he h a s s a i d  today.  whom M u s l i m s  and r i d i c u l e d  and s a i d t h e unsayable.  this  the  as i te x i s t s  of the Prophet,  and he h a s mocked  against  enshrined  it  orthodoxy  o f t h e f a i t h f u l " ; he has d e s a c r a l i z e d such  Rushdie  for  Verses  the prohibitions that  d e s a c r a l i z e d the Prophet  the wives  ( i f only  taboos  i n The S a t a n i c  He h a s o v e r - s t e p p e d  and thus  Ka'aba;  Qur'an  i s that  by t h e I s l a m i c  desacralized mothers  "heresy"  i n part,  Why i s  a l l , only as h i s  questioning afforded  of the extremely un-Islamic veneration  Muhammad  by  the Islamic  to  call  v i l i f y  into  by h i sf o l l o w e r s .  orthodoxy--and  question this  and defame  scepticism Islamic  him.  and even  thinking  trangress  t h e taboo  precisely  what  reformist  Muslim  of  Islam--but  Islam.  cultural  within  Rushdie  he does  tradition  (256).  dissident"  Rushdie,"  reformist Raziq,  Husain,  Abd A l l a h  Bashir,  be expanded In  [ a n d ] Hammad almost  h i sessay  Aravamudan  God's  cultural easily,  satire "other"  decontextualized function  Abd A l l a h Abd A l l a h  al-Udi",  Postman  context  the point  "Muslim Earnest  such  " A l iAbda r -  Khalid,  Muhammad  al-Qusaymi,  Nadim  al-Alayli, that  "the l i s t  i s appropriated  "critique"  serve  and can very  by t h e West  as a  theapotropaic  and f r i g h t e n i n g  56  Srinivas  of Islam:  as Islam,  About  of recent  i s No F u n , Y a a r "  satirizing  o f t h e West,  of insulting  as a  commenting  of a longstanding historical  i fthe satire  rationalist  of Being  Muhammad  The  (278).  problematizes Rushdie's  Defending  Muslim.  i sprecisely  Rushdie  of  tothe  This  Khalid  al-Azm,  Salih  at will"  "Being  tradition  and w r i t e r s :  an-Najjar,  the religion  i s the correct  an i m p r e s s i v e l i s t  Mahfouz,  and  this  "The I m p o r t a n c e  Ibrahim Khlas, Sadiq J a l a l  Sulaiman can  Naguib  this i s  within  countless  thinkers  way t o  o f an o u t s i d e r  who u n d e r s t a n d s  Islamic  from  of a non-believing  Verses.  produces  there exist i n  The b e s t  the cultural  heretics—and  The S a t a n i c  and h e r e t i c a l  Taha  within  i s t h e work  does  to  with  i s a rationalist  not write  of Islam has produced  al-Azm  a l l ,  attempt  an attempt  i s to say it--and  i s n o t t h e work  al-Azm  than  i s an  t h e Qur'an  above  Rushdie  from  I n h i sessay  Ahmad K h a l a f A l l a h , Bitar,  Verses  t o view  made b y S a d i q J a l a l  Salman  write  a l lbut deified  satire  of the unsayable?  He d o e s  and f r e e - t h i n k i n g  which  Why,  has done.  thinker.  rather  c a n we n o t t r e a t  concept  of I s l a m — i t  reformers  Why  has been  playful  deification,  of the unsayable  The S a t a n i c  tradition  Rushdie's  irreverence?  this  Muhammad  and d e v o t i o n  the adversary,  ultimately  doing  imperialism. the  a  defence  illegitimately  Western  viewing-position  which  i s attacked.  seems unaware  without  position." Gulag  of  as  to  the  and  the  cultural  and  historical  distance  viewing-position Islam  been  used  and by  tradition historical read study  our  above  Islamic  orthodox  for  over  and  a  implications  of  least  as  Orientalism. Islam  and  This  the  realize  to  to  silence  what  do  of  the  Said  West.  fails  to  i n reverse;  cultural perhaps  least for  the  i s p r e c i s e l y the  be  been  mention the  wish  longstanding  in his  point  world,  made by  as  and  foreign  understand  word  the  Gharb (gharib).  for  the  West,  classic  that  those  Fatima  i s also  incomprehensible, i s the  territory  Everything  is frightening. 57  of  that  the  we  "Foreignness"  place  strange,  don't in  Arabic  are  has  a the at  of  Mernissi  always the  sure)  i s also  and  have  rationalist  c a l l e d "Occidentalism"  Islamic  to  arguments  a l l ( I am  Islam,  of  familiarity  a  West  critics  Islamic  Islam's  have  of  over  conscious  enough  has  We  be  their  they  identical  that  "other"  read  which  shackle  with  acutely  have  Islam  defend  i t could  orthodox  that  to  problem  are  the  not  and  Certainly  "other"  Arabic  darkness  frightening. the  The  (from  elevating  defend  longstanding  undoubtedly  Islam  of  viewing-position  (another  politics  should at  Western  part  viewing-  Democracy:  Gharb, of  what  dangerous,  of  Western  that  West).  be  easily  grounds  have  against  cost  and  the  a t t e n t i v e l y , and  same i s t r u e  historical  the  quite  the  they  but  can  can  unable  the  they  millenia.  longstanding  on  satire  equally  a l l others)  cultural  the  of  while  Islam  Orientalism.  i s that  "other"  the  over  be  authorities  animus  at  one  would  assert  Islam  that  s u p e r i o r i t y of  Solzhenitsyn  Covering Western  such,  Aravamudan  i s that  themselves  with  the  communist  Aravamudan  Orientalism  As  illegitimately  Soviet  possibility  Islam.  by  asserts  (189)  the  "assert[ing]  Archipelago  historical such  of  of  Undoubtedly,  appropriated that  cultural  a  internal critique  The  of  Such  Aravamudan  satire  i d e o l o g i c a l work  s u p e r i o r i t y of  that  an  the  in  a  strong  where is  spatial  the sun sets  i n t h e West  swallows there  (15)  been  due  Islam  individual  the It  for  we  the Islamic i n Islam  includes i s on  both  ra'y  "ancestral  fear  was  of the  to discredit  West"  naturally  and d e c o l o n i z a t i o n )  has  rationalist  i t out i n the chador  I t must  be  "[that]  from  and  of  and h e r e t i c a l of personal  burned  which  the  than  rationalist  and because of  incarnate).  systematically who  who  patrimony of Islam  (atheists)  them  "polluting"  of ancient  as  century  were  of foreigners  the  the  castigated  and  such  they  were  who  were  perverting  58  the  with  From  the  repudiated the  as the century  Mernissi  falasifa  Islam  Greece.  the Mu'tazila  i n the service As  condemned  were  such  Mu'tazila  i n the f i r s t  combated by  often  opinion.  i n the 11th  A.D.):  were  that  of  a matter  back t o the  arose  two  t h i n k i n g because the  i n Baghdad  truth  thought  and t h a t  that  the  issues  including heretics  alive  ( I am  raised  opinion),  more  tradition,  humanist  t h e West,  remembered  i s l i t t l e  of thought  ideas.  thought  and  t a ' a [obedience]  al-hagg"  o f power,  centuries  enemy  of  i n Islamic  century  humanistic  mulhidun  that  was  "ana  (philosophers)  of  up i t s  (and which  are imports  reformist  who  school  Mu'tazila  holders  Islamic  the Sufi  tradition  (seventh  being  I t  and  I t i s  of the r a t i o n a l i s t  (the freedom  Hallaj,  (Rationalist)  The  world  "decking  b e t w e e n t h e two  his declaration  Islam  by  told  (21).  includes  mystic,  this  awaits.  t h e sun  taken  this  orthodoxy  the roots  resolved:  freedom"  therefore  traces  has  how  the Islamic  are today  difference  Sufi  to explore  exists within  has never  emphasis  by  traces  which  that  tradition  (strangeness)  place  (15).  Mernissi tradition  s n a p s up  to the h i s t o r y of c o l o n i a l i s m  thinking  foreignness"  issues  gharaba  continues  manipulated  reformist  the darkness  the night  a l l terrors are possible.  exists within  intensified  i s the  (13)  then  that  f o r gharb  and where  that  i t ; then  that  abode.  Mernissi  connotation,  first as  propagators as faith.  of  This  condemnation  they  were  of the Mu'tazila  importing  throughout  foreign  the centuries  on t h e p r e t e x t  ideas,  that  has p e r s i s t e d  and continues  s t i l l  today.  (26)  For  a century,  openness A.D.)  the Abbasid  (approximately  before  intrigues"  cult  of private  seeking  initiative  (36-37) .  t o make  Orientalist With  the  Mu'tazila  harassed, during their  condemned,  only  of  the traitors intellectuals  Twentieth  century  flowering  of the individual,  In  The S a t a n i c  thought  Verses  to bring  has been  the philosophy  the tenth  as  century.  The  as i n f i d e l s  and  f o r anyone  Verses  as an  to explain  followed, with  who  were  Bans  despite  imported  Greek  servants  t o us on t h e i s proposed  has attempted  thought  resistant to rationalist  And any a t t e m p t  (40-41)  to call  i s a courageous  of the Mu'tazila  of  and t h e  and one t o d e f e n d .  Enlightenment  the  celebrated  i s forbidden  The n o v e l  on  one d i f f e r e n c e .  are called  humanism,  Rushdie  59  Like  blasphemers  centuries.  of c r e a t i v i t y  of the future,  of the unsayable.  o n e o f many)  and the  would  intellectuals  that' i t i s f o r e i g n . Obscurantism  the ideal  since  tried  and t w e n t i e t h  as t h e triumph  Islamic ever  were  as  opinion,  o f The S a t a n i c  leaders  and denounced  elsewhere  concept  personal  as " f o r e i g n " e n t e r p r i s e .  who  these  and imprisonment  t h e modern  West.  was d i s c r e d i t e d :  of the Enlightenment.  of independance--but  Mu'tazila  pretext  the  intellectuals  of the past,  writings  century  "palace  h i s t o r y i s necessary  the Muslim  the philosophy  declarations  the  of this  impunity,  the nineteenth  ideas;  condemned  of  Islam:  the Muslim  spread  t o reason,  philosophy  tenth  calls  of openness  of the condemnation  on  and  and e a r l y  Mernissi  philosophy  were  the Mu'tazila  down a n d t h e f r e e t h i n k e r s c o n d e m n e d  sense  complete  battle  i n t o what  Knowledge  attack  adopted the ninth  the opening  were hunted  The  fell  and t h e M u ' t a z i l a  r e s u l t was t h a t  heretics"  speaking,  the dynasty  "The  falasifa  dynasty  into  question  attempt (and  t o Islam.  Orthodox  and r e f o r m i s t  thinking  was d i s c r e d i t e d , i n t h e m i d d l e  to rationalize,  modernize,  secularize, has  been  chador  denounced  of  historic and  Western  reform.  by,  a  neither  (15).  quiver  the of  the  the  can  be  Orientalist  is critically  on  Islam  part his  of  can  actual  has  dismissal thus  orthodox  infamous it  the  Rushdie  be  i n the  seen  in  past)  of  The as and  Islam.  be  of  in  comes  from  the  I hope  sahib)  nor  The  that  with the  the  as  an  This  to  deadly e f f e c t i v e .  60  proved  can  be  dissident  with  demonstrated  (the  of  the  Rushdie  d i s c r e d i t Rushdie  has  against  novel as  as  brown  O r i e n t a l i s t attack  rhetorical strategy  thought--and  new  from  effective rhetorical strategy  writers  a  dissent  West  p o s i t i o n i n g of Verses  West  I have  reading  the  into  and  then  the  i t s fight  i d e n t i f y i n g the  Rushdie  Satanic  an  Islam  in  and  transformed  Orientalist prejudice,  tenable.  Islamic to  that  since  i t out  Orientalism  been  orthodox  thinking  "decking  of  has  thinking.  brown  of  thinkers  critique  history  as  concept  d i s c r e d i t e d by  identification  Islamic  words,  Islam of  of  modes o f  of  and  reform  religion  manifestation  positioning  sahib  The  in  Western  way  in Mernissi's  against  culture  and  i n any  animus  critique  as  the  West  that  arrow  Any  dismissed  the  or  foreignness"  potent  within  feminize,  on  has this  and a  on  the  obscure long  occasion  and (as  WORKS CITED AND CONSULTED  Adonis.  Even  t h e Sun. i n F o r R u s h d i e :  Writers  i n Defense  E s s a y s by Arab  o f Free Speech.  New Y o r k :  and Muslim  George  Braziller,  1 994 .  Akhtar,  S h a b b i r . Be C a r e f u l  Sadiq  Jalal.  Rushdie,"  "The I m p o r t a n c e  i n Reading  Affair.  Rushdie:  o f B e i n g E a r n e s t About Perspectives  Salman  on t h e F i c t i o n o f  e d . M.D.  Fletcher.  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