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Phonological representation of Spanish vibrants Valerga, Vanessa N. 1995

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PHONOLOGICAL  REPRESENTATION  OF SPANISH  VIBRANTS  by Vanessa B.A.  A  The  University  THESIS  SUBMITTED  THE  N. of  Valerga  B r i t i s h  IN  PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  Columbia,  FULFILLMENT OF  FOR T H E DEGREE OF  MASTER  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE  (Department  We  accept to  THE  this the  of  required  UNIVERSITY  ®Vanessa  as  N.  conforming  standard  OF BRITISH  July  STUDIES  Linguistics)  thesis  COLUMBIA  1995 Valerga,  1993  1995  In presenting degree  at the  this thesis  in partial fulfilment  of the  advanced  and study. I further agree that permission for extensive  copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes or  for an  University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference department  requirements  by  his  or  her  representatives.  may be granted It  is  by the  understood  that  head of my copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  LINGUISTICS  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  JULY  1995  ABSTRACT  Spanish  has  two  rhotics:  d i s t r i b u t i o n  is  contrast,  i n  complementary  depending  on  adjacent the  their  segments.  observed  phonological claimed  of  i n  facts the  same  here  distributions  and  nature.  that  describe  well-studied  language  cases  In  order  structure,  to  development.  constructed  within  1985,  Hayes  Autosegmental (Prince  and  the  Smolensky  the  of  (Goldsmith  1993).  account  for  It a  w i l l  be  t r i l l  is  of  r e l a t i n g  with  alternations  the  examine  data  frameworks  and  in  phenomena  put  Moraic  those  both  d i a l e c t a l  1976)  the  appropriate  and  of  in  on  r-sounds  I  analysis  Nuclear  an  p o s s i b i l i t y  this,  theoretical  Phonology  tap  account  assignment, The  1989),  a  the  to  be  v a r i a t i o n  and  sounds.  stop/fricative u n i f i e d  how  Their  to  free  syllable  propose  between  [r].  found  i n  explore  these  achieve  stress  h i s t o r i c a l  (Hyman  a  t r i l l  and  d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  a are  the  to  explore  the  and whether  possible. syllable  also  to  for  difference I  and  they  within  intend  the  [T]  d i s t r i b u t i o n  position I  tap  because  representation  that  prosodic the  interesting  a  from  v a r i a t i o n forth  of  Model  here  Moraic (Shaw  Optimality  is  and is  Theory 1992), Theory  1X1  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Abstract Table L i s t  of of  i i Contents  i i i  Tables  v  Acknowledgement CHAPTER  1:  v i  INTRODUCTION  1  1.0  Introduction  1  1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5  Phonetic Description Styles of Pronunciation The Data Excursus on V a r i a b i l i t y Summary  1 2 3 6 8  CHAPTER 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 CHAPTER  2:  PREVIOUS  ACCOUNTS  Introduction Harris (1969) Harris (1983a) Lipsky (1990a) Summary 3:  INTERVOCALIC  _  9 9 9 13 16 19  /r/  21  3.0 3.1 3.2  Introduction A Prosodic Difference Syllable Structure  21 21 22  3.3 3.4 3.5  Stress Assignment H i s t o r i c a l Data Summary  35 37 39  CHAPTER  4:  TRILL  I N CODA  Facts  POSITION  40  4.0  Introduction  40  4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4  Careful Speech Emphatic T r i l l R e s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n Summary  40 41 45 53  iv CHAPTER 5.0  5:  TAP IN  CODA  POSITION  54  Introduction  54  5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8  C a s t i l i a n Spanish Consonant Inventory Deletion Assimilation Gliding L a t e r a l i z a t i o n A s s i b i l a t i o n A s p i r a t i o n Intervocalic T r i l l : A special case of Coda P o s i t i o n 5.9 Tap i n Coda P o s i t i o n 5.10 Summary CHAPTER 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 CHAPTER  6:  / r /  IN  ONSET  7:  UNIFIED  Introduction Disjunction OT A n a l y s i s  7.3  Summary 8:  Summary  73 74 75 76 76 77 79 82 84 86 88 90 10 0  ACCOUNT  101 101  in  the  Environments  of  A p p l i c a t i o n  101 104 110  CONCLUSIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX  i n  POSITION  STRENGTHENING  7.1 7.2  8.0  / r /  Introduction T r i l l as / r / S t r e n g t h e n i n g Glide Strengthening Stop/Spirant Alternation Strengthening i n H i s t o r i c a l Records Duration of Consonants Word-Initial Strengthening: Phonological Representation T r i l l after a Closed Syllable Summary  7.0  CHAPTER  55 57 60 61 67 69 71  of  Thesis  111 111 113 120  V  LIST Table  1:  D i s t r i b u t i o n  Table  2:  S i n g u l a r - P l u r a l  Pairs  Table  3:  D i s t r i b u t i o n  of  / r /  Table  4:  Inventory  Spanish  Table  5:  Stop/Spirant  Table  6:  Strengthening and Vibrants  of  of  OF  Spanish  TABLES Tap  and  T r i l l  6 11  following  a  Diphthong  Consonants  55  Alternations Environments  34  82 of  Spanish  Obstruents 102  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I  would  Dr.  David  for  their  grateful  like  Ingram,  to  Dr.  in  guidance.  Many  and my  Nike  discussion. family  for  the  Douglas  comments  thesis,  thanks and  but  love  my a d v i s o r y and Dr.  his  constant  Blake,  Shahin c e r t a i n l y  for  Myles  for not  support.  their  committee,  P a t r i c i a  suggestions.  responsible  Susan  and  of  Pulleyblank  for  Kimary  Last  their  to  members  and  Pulleyblank,  this  Ola,  thank  Dr.  valuable  presented  King,  to  I  am  many  of  Shaw,  s p e c i a l l y the  ideas  encouragement Leitch,  Ping  helpful  least,  I  wish  and  Jiang-  c r i t i c i s m to  thank  1  CHAPTER  1.0  and  single two  INTRODUCTION  Introduction This  tap  1:  thesis  presents  t r i l l .  It  underlying  segments  moraic. phonetic  proposes  segment,  results  The  present  to  to  arguing  chapter of  their  the  analysis  derive that  from a prosodic  description  introduction  a phonological  both  the  cont rast  the  segments  the  Spanish  segments  difference:  begins  of  from  between  the  t r i l l  exposition  to  be  a the  being with  analysed  and  a an  d i s t r i b u t i o n .  Chapter  2  offers  an  Chapter  3  begins  the  overview  of  the  proposals  put  forth  so  proposal  to  far.  account Chapters the  for 4  the  Chapter exhibited  1.1  intervocalic  through  realizations  by  Phonetic  7  "alveolar exactly  the  laying  cases  proposal  i n a  by  onset  u n i f i e d Spanish  of  is  and  out  tap  the and  extended  i n  coda  analysis  to  In  account  for  position.  of  obstruents  t r i l l .  the  i n  alternations  onset  position.  Description  vibrante  automatically  / r /  and  vibrante  of  the  offers  Navarro-Tomas "alveolar  6,  of  / r /  analysis  one  (1950)  defines  simple" multiple" v i b r a t i o n ;  perceived  as  a  the  (p.115), (p.121). more t r i l l .  Spanish and  A tap than The  the  tap  as  an  t r i l l  as  an  therefore one  consists  v i b r a t i o n  a r t i c u l a t i o n  of  the  is  2 t r i l l  may  than  the  Tomas be  be  prolonged  one  needed  In  in  the  multiple  vibrant.  has  referred  been  (1984)  labels  it  a  another  passing"  a r t i c u l a t o r (1971)  c a l l e d  a  tap,  footnote, flap  is  denote the  a  (1982)  Spanish  flap" that  to  him  group.  single  his  I  to  A  book  is  d i s t i n c t i o n  and  thus  vibrant,  use  without  refer  while is  a  "what  terms  the  Maddieson defined  term  implying  have "tap" a  by  s t r i k i n g when  "one  Ladefoged In  while is  later noting  sometimes  (1984),  between  the  vibrant  tap.  flap,  to  to  single  Maddieson  the  w i l l  and  denote  the  seems  (p.46).  Spanish  (p.153).  (Navarro-  produced  t r i l l  to  to  flap  another"  a  tap  a r t i c u l a t o r  tap  a  tension  there  (1969) ,  "one a  the  Spanish  tap.  having  refers  a  clear  single  as  the  by  against  of  " t r i l l "  Harris  while  in  or  by  alveolar  used  indicates not  either  1.2  Spanish  is  flap  ( p . 46)  to  term  hand,  muscular  segments,  term  produced  thrown  Ladefoged this  as  these  the  other  a  [is]  refers  work,  of  voiced  (1971)  i n  as  greater  a r t i c u l a t i o n  labeling  use  to  requires  the  On t h e  Ladefoged  that  for  1950:123).  agreement  and  a  tap  been to  i n  a  and  a  used  to  refer  to  preference  for  term.  Styles  of  Harris  Pronunciation (1969)  identified  four  styles  of  pronunciation  i n  Spanish: (1)  Harris  Largo: very slow, deliberate, overprecise. Andante: moderately slow, careful, but natural. Allegretto: moderately fast, casual, c o l l o q u i a l . Presto: very fast, completely unguarded.  claims  that  these  distinctions  must  be  made  in  order  to  3 account are  for  many  governed  pronounced, This  by  of  the  factors  and  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  w i l l  prove  very  here,  especially  term  "careful  speech"  to  "emphatic" with  overprecise  As  his  style,  to  except  his  affected  in  with  and  i t  i t  need  not  be  words  the  cases I  of  / r / use  style,  the  is  and  almost  deliberate  very  i n  "casual  styles,  which a  are  analysis  w i l l  Presto  denotes  which  a r t i c u l a t e d .  in  language  that  that  useful  Andante  Allegretto  denote  Largo,  to  the  are  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  refer his  Spanish  which  sounds  dealing  Harris's  to  to  when  at  in  and  slow.  Data Harris  phonetic  (1983a)  realizations  f r i c a t i v e s  and  Nevertheless, exemplified (2)  on  correspond  synonymous  The  speed the  Based  1.3  the  which  position.  term  as  with  coda  the  such  observed  care  presented  speech"  alternations  pero caro  of  / r /  alveolar  there by  points  the -  torero  is  out, in  Spanish,  t r i l l s , only  numerous  one  pairs  there  of  to  is  a  ranging  from  s i b i l a n t  significant words  such  velar  as  as :  'but' "dog' 'expensive' -  'car'  -  'bullfighter'  -  1  'lighthouse keeper'  (Harris fiero - f i e r r o mira - mirra ahora - ahorra  of  sonorants. contrast  perro carro torrero  v a r i e t y  1969:46,50)  'fierce' 'iron' '(s)he sees' 'myrrh' 'now' '(s)he saves'  •"•Here, and i n subsequent examples, the forms presented are f o l l o w e d by the source from which they were t a k e n . Whenever there is no source indicated, the data is representative of Coastal Peruvian Spanish, as spoken by the a u t h o r of t h i s thesis.  4 In  i n t e r v o c a l i c  represented  position  there  is  o r t h o g r a p h i c a l l y by  a  contrast  <r>  and  a  between  t r i l l  a  [r],  [ r ] ,  tap  written  as  <rr>. This  contrast  i n t e r v o c a l i c coda  position  position, (3)  both  Casual a.  between is  the  not  tap  tap  observed  and  t r i l l  Speech  Careful  ma [ f ]  t i e [r] .no p e [f] . l a  in  can  any  be  c)  ma [f] cas.pio Ce.sa[r] fue  d)  Ce.sa[r]  speech (3), is  used  and  (Harris  forms  A  a  tap  that a  the  when  tap.  in  "."  (3)  where  signals  a  by  a  coda a  t r i l l  syllable  my  gloss)  'tender' "pearl'  1950:119;my  glosses) 'harp'  'Caspian Sea' 'Caesar went'  is  a.yu.da  'Caesar  e.ge.o  follows  and  in  "detalle position  / r /  highly comico"  is  vowel.  This  surfaces  in  boundary.  i t .  an  by  the  The i n  of  examples  in  p o s i t i o n  emphatic  speech  (Navarro-Tomas as  a  i l l u s t r a t e d  absolute  Sea'  style  coda  r e a l i z e d is  helps'  'JEgean  determined  speech,  careful  as  in  a  1945:342;  ma [ r ] cas.pio Ce.sa[r] fue  that  casual In  or  followed  'sea'  'tree' ' b i t t e r '  t r i l l  segment in  / r /  Gloss  .pa  *Ce.sa[r]  a  In  a [ r ] . b o l a.ma[r].go  *ma [r]  or  the  1983a:65)  1950:119), except  as  a.yu.da  e.ge.o  by  i l l u s t r a t e  r e a l i z e d  2  of  context.  in  2  and L i d a  a[r]  a[f].bol a.ma[r].go  emergence  other  seen  t i e [ r ] .no p e [r] . l a  a[r] .pa  The  t r i l l  found :  (Navarro-Toraas  ma[r]  the  and Emphatic Speech ma [ r ]  (Alonso b.  and  f i n a l  t r i l l by  the  p o s i t i o n  (3a)  ,  i f  across a  followed  a  word  by  a  consonant  boundary  morpheme-final  / r /  (3c).  within  The  followed  forms  by  a  the  i n  vowel  same  (3d)  may  word  (3b)  i l l u s t r a t e  never  or that  surface  as  a  t r i l l . In  tautosyllabic p[r]ado,  (4)  clusters,  b[r]avo,  only  the  tap  is  t[r]apo,  f [C] a s c o ,  allowed:  d[r]ama, (Harris  While  a  t r i l l  may  t a u t o s y l l a b i c w o r d - i n i t i a l where  only (5)  cluster,  t r i l l  .  surface  the  position  the (a)  never  the  situation  (5a)  and  is  after  a  second the  element  exact  closed  1983a:63)  opposite  s y l l a b l e  * [f] * [f]  eto uta  1  vibrant A l l as  i n  *la  [r]ata  'the rat' (Harris 1983a:64)  la  [r] o p a  *la  [f]opa  "the clothes' (Harris 1969:48)  *Costa [f]ica *una [J?]eina  "Costa Rica' 'a queen'  a l . [r]e.de.dor h o n . [r] a I s . [ r ] a . e l  other is  above)  the or,  that  are  segments case  the  i n i t i a l .  (5b)  (5b) ,  [r] a t a  i l l u s t r a t e s utterance  i n  dare' "• r o u t e '  "around' 'honour' * Israel' (Harris  not  a  l a  Costa [r]ica una [r] e i n a  (5a)  i n  occurs:  [r]eto tr] u t a  (b) .  as  c [ r ] a t e r  the  remain  i n  the  environment  The codas  of  only  permitted  either  with  relevant  ones  form  a  position  i n  onset  (e.g. but  word  syllables  complex  obstruents  coda  the  is  1969:49)  i n i t i a l  preceding  the  this  environment.  with  the  pra.do,  assimilate  vibrant  dra.ma i n  i n  place  (4) to  6 the  following  assimilation consonant The the  derives  such  as  above,  indicates  a  "*" signals  =  s y l l a b l e ;  speech; Table  1:  is  coronal  of  a it  is  V  the  when  is  and  the  in  nasals,  followed  where  by  N  S  in  a  the  coronal  open  o  V  chart.  cluster;  used "(c)"  by  A  position,  abbreviations  "V"  while  are: =  "a"  casual  speech.  Tap  and  T r i l l  E  T  R  H Y  M  E  MEDIAL • after closed • j a  j  V  exemplified  that  CLUSTER' after  as  following  allowed  careful  Spanish  t r i l l  the  Other  and  of  WORD  r  of  tautosyllabic  emphatic  0  *  case  nasal  tap  not.  =  D i s t r i b u t i o n  r  the  segment  "CLUSTER"  WORD INITIAL  the  i l l u s t r a t e d  that  =  i n  / r / .  that  "(e)"  as  a  d i s t r i b u t i o n  data  mark  consonant,  WORD MEDIAL  V  |  V  *  V  WORD FINAL  *  * (c) V (e)  (c) (e)  V  • •  V  •  1.4  Excursus There  of  Spanish  being  no  on  is  V a r i a b i l i t v  considerable  sounds  exception.  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y , e.g.  tronco  point, a  given  from  and  'log', very  dialect"  On  e.g.  v a r i a t i o n  one the  para  exhibits  l i t t l e  dialect one 'to',  1981,  the  to  or  in  in no  the a  r e a l i z a t i o n the  tap,  vibrants  whether  tautosyllabic  dialect  fine  Harris  phonetic  another,  hand,  "almost  v a r i a t i o n  (Canfield  i n  1983a).  cluster,  v a r i a t i o n  phonetic  d e t a i l  G i l i  found  on  this  within  (1921),  in  7 a  detailed  simple" as  the  tokens  i n  study  of  dialects  element  in  study,  l i t t l e ,  i f  The  any,  on  It  is  (Navarro-Tomas is  predominant  of  Colombia,  i n  central  highland  Mexico Puerto  t r i l l  r e a l i z e d  an  or in  carro  as  1981,  assibilated positions  "la  cases a  single  <<R>> of  t o t a l  / r /  of  v i b r a t i o n  exhibits an  the  94  with  Rica,  and  the  the  Caribbean  is  Therefore, / r / where  in a  Mexican t r i l l  Colombia,  [x]amon  the  vibrants  velar  is  f r i c a t i v e  i n  a  Ramon  may be  i n  existing  maintained  Spanish,  in  1994).  contrast  surfaces  and  Dominican  Lipsky  vibrant  and  1994).  of  e.g.  the  Peru  Chile,  1981,  that  a  of  the  coast  [x],  of  multiple  C o r d i l l e r a  Lipsky of  [r]  r e a l i z a t i o n  altiplano  peninsula  point a  This  Argentina,  (Canfield  sound:  eastern  1969,  r e a l i z a t i o n  d i a l e c t a l  a s s i b i l a t e d  f r i c a t i v e :  'car'  some  1971).  Harris  eastern  crucial  3  the  cluster, a  C a r r i l  Costa  in  phonetic  dialects .  those  and  velar  vibrant  Rican,  realized  the  a  single  hand,  Highland Ecuador,  the  a l l  other  Q u i l i s  dialect,  v i r t u a l l y  heard  the  with  of  of  v a r i a t i o n .  the  a  a l l  tautosyllabic  n o r t h e r n and western  as  ca[x]o  that  realized  increasingly  Whatever  between  were  Rico,  and  given  a  (Canfield  Republic  "Raymond',  of  realizations  finds  Guatemala,  Paraguay,  is  Spain,  often  1950,  B o l i v i a ,  In  phonetic  phonetic  t r i l l ,  v a r i a t i o n .  a  of  second his  the  i n  w i l l  in  Puerto only  be  Standard  T h e two e x c e p t i o n s to this generalization are: Sephardic (De G r a n d a 1 9 7 8 , L e v y 1952) and Papiamento (Navarro-Tomas 1953) where the contrast between a simple and a m u l t i p l e v i b r a n t has been l o s t i n favor of the simple one. Therefore, the constrast b e t w e e n w o r d s s u c h a s carro " c a r " a n d caro "expensive" has been eliminated i n these dialects, both forms being phonetically i d e n t i c a l : [kafo]. 3  8 C a s t i l i a n .  1.5  Summary  In  this  f i r s t  terminology  to  offered.  look  A  vibrants as in  in  tap  to  at  of  the  and  the  for  j u s t i f y  their the  phonological proposals  w i l l  this given as  the  of  be  segment,  yet  at  one rise  being to  in  yet  summarized  and  of i n  which  t r i l l  suggest  single  on  how  / r /  behave  to  represent  dealing  / r / ,  following  treating  phoneme  position.  analysis  Spanish the  multiple  These  intervocalic another  same  been  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y .  a  the  has  and  the  the  contrast  of  research  simple  on  time  proposals  allophones  focusing  discussed  the tap  representation be  to  the  contrast for  data  that  inspired  need  introduction  d i s t r i b u t i o n  same  t r i l l  have  and  an  suggests  the  have  consequently account  used,  position,  observations the  be  Spanish  allophones one  chapter,  the  chapter.  In  and and  order  with  the  existing  9  CHAPTER  2.0  ranging t h e i r  in  this  on  the  These  have  from  to  their  many  ACCOUNTS  are,  to  be  my  centered  r e a l i z a t i o n  development.  phonological w i l l  studies  phonetic  h i s t o r i c a l  knowledge,  in  and  The three  representation  reviewed  on  the of  vibrants,  d i a l e c t a l  v a r i a t i o n  proposals only  the  chronological  Spanish  summarized  studies  tap  and  order  focusing  the  t r i l l .  beginning  with  (1969) .  Harris  (1969)  Harris as  a  claiming / r /  been  chapter  Harris  tap  PREVIOUS  Introduction There  2.1  2:  is  (1969)  single that  proposes underlying  their  specified (6)  to  surface  represent  segment  both  / r /  r e a l i z a t i o n  is  in  the  t r i l l  a l l  and  the  environments,  e n t i r e l y  predictable.  as:  / r / +vocalic +consonantal -obstruent +voice +coronal +anterior -strident  In  the  only  contrast, the /TT/,  tap  environment  i.e.  is  which  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y ,  underlyingly  that  in  a  as  sequence  / r / of  tap  Harris  (see two  the  (6)  and  the  proposes above)  identical  and  feature  t r i l l to the  are  i n  represent t r i l l  matrices.  as  10 Harris "highly  convincing  / r r / .  The  paradigm.  are:  arguments, in  argument  future  and  pronounced  endings  example,  exhibits  habla[c]as, hand,  etc.  exhibits  interprets the  weakness together over  other vowel  in  i n  the  espera die' For  verbs  stems  future  second  pairs  of  nouns  Table  2  below.  and  end  forms  [C] e 'I  (Alemany the  is  derivatives  Spanish  whose  to  w i l l  from  in and  a  verbal  shows  is  preserve  surface  morir  'to  the  other Harris  arises  when  the  only -  a  in  a  i n f i n i t i v e tap:  die',  A  verb  -  l i s t  alternations.  the  with  habla[£]e,  /quer+ras/.  malquerer such  are talk'  etc.  stem:  guerer  'to  on  / r r / which  3rd,  forms  forms:  love',  verb  bienquerer,  wait',  as  indicative)  hablar  verb  'to  from  that  - r  t r i l l  the  These  gue[r]as,  the  that  (p.50)  a  future,  future  verb  deriving  added  taken  regular  gue[r]e,  argument  its  5000  as  is  this  with  verbs  wait', w i l l  ending  The  i r r e g u l a r  labels  -ran f o r t h e 1 s t , 2 n d ,  following  t r i l l :  facts  is  respectively.  tap.  the  The a  these  future  a  he  representing  (simple  -reis,  persons  with  of  presented  tense  p l u r a l  which  support  - r e , -ras, -ra, -remos,  always  of  two  ones",  f i r s t The  singular  for  presents  A l l ending 'to  esperar  mori[c]as  'you  1967). argument, adjectives  Harris such  as  considers the  ones  s i n g u l a r - p l u r a l presented  i n  11 Table  2:  Singular-Plural  Pairs  A  B  C  SINGULAR  red  pan  amor  carne  grande  torre  PLURAL  redes  panes  amores  carnes  grandes  torres  GLOSS  "net"  "bread"  "love"  "meat"  "big"  "tower"  Harris  assumes  singular when  is  (A  than the  forms  i t  pan  Table  of  the  the  than  one  t r i l l  p l u r a l s  has  views  as  to  however,  a  / r r / ,  a  feature seen  is  i n  rule  that  consonant  not  (6)  sensitive  is  to  be  is  as  that  the  specified  the  but  is  followed  proposes by  / r / .  i n  fact  t r i l l  case by  as  work  on  / r /  with observes  is  i n  that  Foley (1969)  The  main  considering reanalysis. a  [+tense].  rules  found.  the  that  Spanish  Harris  for  i n  retention  with  corresponding by  more  evidence  this  being  of  preceded  differentiates  inserted  which  the  that  by  claims,  be  epenthetic.  that  matrix  Harris  must  support  the  Therefore  dealt  -e  he the  2).  forms  the  a l l  preceded  trigger  affected  deals  i n  -e  also  provides  rather  environment  Harris  i n  as  Subsequent  that  that  deleted,  Table  1987,  the  the  and  when  to  feature  with i n  is  these  is  i t  -s  f i n a l  able  c r u c i a l l y  [tense],  above,  the  Harris  far  in  - r r - .  conclusion  not  (B  takes  fact  1970,  as  assumes  t r i l l  i n  -e  retained  (C a b o v e ) , to  is  consonant,  grande  underlyingly  argument,  Harris  is  Harris  the  present  a  i t  consonant  is  f i n a l  single  i n  torre  to[r]e  led  a  as  marker  This  but  ( S a l t a r e l l i  1967)  from  by  vowel.  i n  plural  -e.  2) ,  form  f i n a l  t r i l l  i n  consonant,  singular more  end  the  preceded  i n  one  by  that  to  This / r / ,  which The  sequences when  tap  an  as are  f i r s t of  / r /  a is  12 preceded  by  while  i t  i f  /s/, is  obtained,  e.g.  c[T]ater.  In  environment, [+tense]  / n /  preceded  / l / , by  order  to  Harris  i.e.  [s],  other  derive  / r /  [n],  may  only  the a  and  en[r]edo,  t r i l l  rule  follows  surface  consonant,  Is[r]ael,  proposes an  i t  any  a l [r] e d e d o r ,  whenever  segment,  or  that  which a  as  a  t r i l l ,  only  the  but  p[r]ado,  surfaces  inserts  [+coronal,  tap  i n  the  is  this  feature  +distributed]  [1]:  (7) / r /  Another  >  environment  w o r d - i n i t i a l l y .  The  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  the  the  cases  word, [y]  of  i n  glides  / y e l a /  a  f r i c a t i v e .  d e t a i l  i n  chapter  i n  rule case  'it  which  only  responsible of  is  The  the for  w o r d - i n i t i a l obstruents  freezing',  These  6.  +cor +distr  /  becoming  e.g.  is  [+tense]  cases  rule  is  t r i l l  providing / r /  at  also  the  r e a l i z e d  w i l l  is  be  a  beginning  as  as  [yela],  for of  a  where  i n  shown  is  [+tense]  accounts  discussed  formalized  allowed  greater i n  (8):  (8) a voc aeons -lat  F i n a l l y ,  Harris  >  proposes  i n t e r v o c a l i c  / r r / gets  shown  (9)  below  a  t r i l l :  a  i n  / r r / as (9) An  r r  >  is  •aobstr atense  a  rule  invariably responsible  /  that  #  would  r e a l i z e d as for  a  ensure  t r i l l .  phonetically  that The  an  rule  i n t e r p r e t i n g  [r]  / r / which does  not  satisfy  the  structural  d e s c r i p t i o n  of  13 any  of  the  changes  apply  In that  rules  his  there  is  s y l l a b l e  rules.  2.2  Harris  for  d i r e c t l y not  an  them  an  a  to  tap,  maintains  since  the  segment  geminate  into  turn  as  relate  the  the  f i r s t  segment  as  tap  of  no  Harris i n  review  his  analysis  of  p o s i t i o n  and  cluster.  account  intervocalic  The  [r] u b o r  is  a  that  The  analysis  (1969) ,  the  an  since  formulation  of  proposal.  than  out  t r i l l  from  i n  assignment.  In  three the  t r i l l  to  each that  among  the  chapter  generalization  that  of  to  whose but  e[C]upcion  -  The  synchronic  1983a:65). of  / r r / , f i r s t the  able  p o s i t i o n  "their  proposal  The  is  'blushing'.  (Harris  underlying  that  this  others,  'rupture'  that  data  was  w o r d - i n i t i a l  e [ f] ujbescente  t r i l l  support  but  Harris  -  obvious"  and  gather  other,  uptura  is  to  tap  synchronic  rub-  i n  areas.  f i r s t  order  [r]  that an  Spanish  find  t r i l l  rup-,  examples  less  to  examples  rec-,  'blush'  points  the  the  best  as  these  consequences  establishes  and  In  t r i e s  i n t e r n a l l y :  with  Harris  tap  surfaces  relatedness...  phones.  Harris  morphemes  word  an  related  task.  are  'eruption',  that  analysis,  easy  problem  now  Harris  version  taken  maintains  find,  a  from  a  (6) .  underlying  improved  us  i n  as  (1983a)  treat such  (1983a),  derives  is  r e a l i z e d  matrix  single  an  Let  Harris must  a  structure  the  gets  feature  work  t r i l l  b a s i c a l l y  (7-9)  the  l a t e r  i n t e r v o c a l i c is  to  i n  d e r i v i n g  has one  same  a t t r a c t i v e is  work,  antepenultimate  an  stress Harris  stress  is  14 not a  allowed  branching  i n S p a n i s h words  whose  tele.fo.no  * * * *  vs  so.sie.go  same  'jacket', never  time,  that  display (11)  is  i t  i s  were a  Penultimate [£•]  stress  *Sa.la.man.ca *Ma.ra.cai.bo *Ve.ne.zue.la (Harris  1983a:112)  words  a  t r i l l  stress [r]  Gena[f]o  g u i t a [r] a  structure, stress  the  there  occurs  are  of  i n  would  never  which  chamarra position,  * c i g a [r] o  g e n e [r] o  rhyme  automatically  assignment  this  c i t a [r ] a  representation  making  i n  as  Antepenultimate stress [J?] [r] c a m a [r] a *chama [r] a v i b o [r ] a * v i b o [r] a (Harris 1983a:50)  chama [r] a  the  such  stress:  c i g a [r] o  follow  that  contain  bole[r]o  i f  1983a:10-ll)  1983a:110)  camo [r] a  antepenultimate would  contains  (Harris  sehoLrla  [ca.mar.ra],  branching  fact  that  antepenultimate  Therefore,  ele.fos.no ele.fol.po ele.boi.na ele.cau.sa (Harris  observed  words  ava[r]a  t t t t  *so.sie.go *so.sei.go *so.sen.go  vs  Sa.la.man.ca Ma.ra.cai.bo Ve.ne.zue.la the  s y l l a b l e  rhyme:  (10)  At  penultimate  word  the  be i n  from  a  * g u i t a [r] a  l i k e  chama[r]a  penultimate  no  need  these the  to  cases  s y l l a b l e  explain  why  since  this  generalizations  independently  needed  i n  of the  language. The  second  i n f l e c t i o n a l adjective  area  forms  stems  of  which  affected nouns end i n  is  that  of  the  and adjectives. a  cluster  of  d e r i v a t i o n a l  and  Spanish  and  noun  "[-syllabic]"  (sic)  15 segments, e.g.  must  dulce  (*alumn)  be  followed  (*dulc)  'pupil'  a r e no cases  as  single  a  If  and  considers  the  absence  F i n a l l y ,  as  these the  a  words  third  already  carta  element  (*cart)  It  i s  hand,  of  o r  as  well  forms  segments,  i . e .  that  a  i s  H a r r i s ' s  -e,  alumno  one views  these  one accepts  cluster i s  of  -o,  ' l e t t e r ' ,  If  absence  - a ,  observed  amo[r]/*amo[r]es. the  t r i l l  terminal  1985a) .  on the other  a  of  querer  l i k e  segment,  accidental.  verb  "sweet',  (Harris  there  by a  t r i l l purely  proposal  - r r - ,  then  accounted f o r .  area  concerns  discussed  i n  the  the  future  review  of  tense  of  Harris  the  (1969)  above. The  rules  presented  that  Harris  (1983a)  proposes  to  derive  the  data  are:  (12)  (i)  / r / --->[r]  /  [+cons]  I R (ii)  / r /  > [r]  Ir/ ---> 0  (iii) (iv)  / r /  > [r]  /  x  /  R=rhyme  „[  x  „=word  i n i t i a l  [r] i n emphatic  speech  R (Harris Rule  (i)  closed  ensures  syllable,  [+consonantal] 'Henry' the  that  'clothes'  that  segment,  [en.ri.ke],  absence  every  of  [ropa].  a  i s i s  Israel tap Rule  i n  / r / i n  a  onset  syllable r e a l i z e d  whose as  [ i s . r a . e l ] . word  ( i i i )  a  rhyme  t r i l l ,  Rule  i n i t i a l  applies  p o s i t i o n  1983a:70)  following  a  contains  a  e.g.  (ii)  Enrique  accounts  position,  i n combination  e.g. with  f o r ropa rule  16 (i)  to  derive  t r i l l  results,  which  has  Rule  (i)  the  cases  in  of  form  which  - r [ r ] -  following (12) in  the  f i r s t  application  this  to  the  triggers  An  an  / r /  (i)  into  intermediate  the  of  between  and a  rule  t r i l l .  a  the  tap  the  .  The  rules  and  .  The  of  (iii)  of  / r r / (iii)  structure  application  contrast  intervocalic  underlying  rules  application  i l l u s t r a t e s the  of  second  an  the  t r i l l . from  application  yields  generate  intervocalic  analysis,  turning  rule  derivation  needed  intervocalic  H a r r i s ' s  undergone  applies  of  a  i n  t r i l l  position:  (13)  'dog'  perro UR S y l l a b i f i e d Rule (i) Rule (iii) Output Lastly,  rule  emphatic t r i l l ,  speech  e.g. These  improvement structure u n i f i e d a  closed  an  in  geminate  an  are, those  taken of  syllable  Lipsky  which  rules  analysis  Lipsky  posed  'Tuesday'  over is  is  Martes  intervocalic  2.3  a  (iv)  as  the  handle  / r /  in  Harris in  account,  rhyme  cases is  himself (1969). Harris  maintaining  is  a  the  of  highly  r e a l i z e d  as  a  [mar.tes].  intervocalic  while  t r i l l  /pero/ pe.ro n/a n/a [pero]  to  proposed  into  *but'  pero  /perro/ per.ro per[r]o pe[r]o [pero]  indeed  an  t r i l l his  points Given  is  the  o r i g i n a l  underlying  that  able  and  out,  to  an  syllable offer  t r i l l  a  after  proposal  that  / r r / .  (1990a) (1990a) / r r / .  c r i t i c i z e s  Even  though  an he  analysis begins  by  that  treats  t r i l l s  acknowledging  the  as  17 advantages gives  considered  the  following  phonological (a)  as  Harris which  may a  be  rhymes  an  skeletal  such two  in  a as  the  - r  rhyme this  Spanish A  be  would  p r e c i s e l y  as  than In  a  tap  t r i l l  As  Lipsky  a  single  i n  rhyme  established  three order  alternates the  by  rhyme  rule  elements,  e.g.  to  respect  su.pe[  as  this  C]s.ti.cion  with  a  number of  t r i l l  i n  elements  of  permitted  items.  In  emphatic  this  as  a  only  constraint  as  well.  in  / C r / as  onset  rule  be)  as  / r / .  (viz.  of a  a  on  to  this  is  then  below),  form  when  be  / r r /  C is  an  represented  Spanish  never  slot,  a  rhotics, linked  c l a r i f i e s  obtained  while  -Cs,  generalization.  skeletal he  speech  representation  only  representing  (although  (14)  i t  word-  Word-internally  the  onset  of  single  A t r i l l  of  were  v i o l a t i o n  consists  define  be  syllable  position,  a  t r i l l ,  generalization.  must  might a  is  l e x i c a l  realized  environment,  that  cluster  clusters  proposal  these  application  more  consonant  constitute  their  features  as  three-segment  increasing  is  allows  t r i l l  Lipsky's whatever  a  such  a  Spanish  f i n a l  violate  / r r / ,  t r i l l  emphasis.  *supuersto.  vs.  / r r / would v i o l a t e  obstruent. as  containing  cannot  native  word  (c)  approach,  the  realized  contains  two-element  consonant  would  an  t i e r .  No  f i n a l l y  such  consider  expressing  where  speech,  (b)  to  alternation  su.pe[r]s.ti.cion,  where  of  "supposed',  emphatic  for  optionally  Spanish  excludes  constraint,  the  reasons  means  (1983a),  supuesto  Harris  unit:  / r /  p o s i t i o n  by  tap  through is  to  what the  obtained  18 by  blocking  proposes slot  the  application  applies  to  the  after  l e f t  <j>  (14)  of >  the  same  rule.  s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n ,  the  C  of  feature  matrix  The  rule  adjoining  Lipsky  a  representing  skeletal  / r / :  a  /  0  I \ R  1  C [...] This  slot  is  [r]  automatically  Spanish  s y l l a b i c  template  element  is  namely  s y l l a b i c  / r / ,  template  tautosyllabic matrix  is  then and  structure  to  element The position l i k e  the  slot  is  be  a  is  by  Lipsky to  in  rules of the  realized  as  to  the  the  right  Spanish  of  through  in  (14), of  the  s y l l a b i c  c r i t i c i s m s  rule  that  the  case  The  adjoined  of  autosegmental  converts a l l  second  the  of  they  the in  a a  tap  to  rule the  of  the  / r / ' s are  dual  i n  the  t r i l l  a  t r i l l  onset second  slot  i n  segment. represent  C-slots"  (Lipsky  rhyme  adjunction,  modification  existing a  potential  that  rule  unless  with  generate  two  i n  etc.  rule  this  whose  the  cluster.  for  which  a  where  provided as  f r - ,  t r i l l s  reinforcement  claims the  t r - ,  through  According  i l l u s t r a t e d to  position, f i l l e d  1990a:162)  position  structure  interpretation  tautosyllabic  added  as  any  dual  already  such  accounted  one  u t i l i z a t i o n  subject  t r i l l .  in  a  onset  not  phonetic  optional  adjunction  allowed  a  allows  f i l l e d  a  w i l l of  is  assigned  in  clusters  spreading  position  (Lipsky  that Both  a  the slot  "maximal 1990a:160)  template.  outputs (a-c)  of  above,  these  rules  because  are  not  19 lengthening/gemination completely v i o l a t e the  is  unspecified  skeletal  s y l l a b l e - b u i l d i n g  empty  slot  matrix.  by  This  interfere  means  v i a  slot  rules.  of  spreading  with  effected  applies  co-occurrence  and  The  spreading at  adjunction therefore  features from  a  the  level  are  a  does  not  assigned  existing  where  r e s t r i c t i o n s  of  to  feature  i t  does  defined  at  not  deeper  levels. In is  order  found,  in  preattached  case  reference  to  the  the  to  to  the  which  obvious  r-sounds area offer  represent  precludes rule  an  i t  i n t e r v o c a l i c  as  an  / r /  the i n  (14),  which  which  slot.  application  tap  of  any  makes  is  It  is  rule,  c r i t i c a l  lines.  contributions  provided  by  the  of  data  presentation  a  very  clear  alternations  issues.  are  and  his  analysis  consequences  i n  the  areas  However,  obtained  a l l  to  the  i n  of  even  the  motivation  of  of  stress  though  these  the  the just  Harris  and  contexts  out  the  offers t r i l l  some  may  correct  is  i n  the  Lipsky which  i n s i g h t f u l  have  desirable  and  surface  mentioned,  i n  controversial  assignment  alternations  Spanish are  Both  point  of  above,  relevant  (1983a)  analyses  for  the  of  study  summarized  and  Harris  how  the  analysis.  observed  on  structure.  towards  analyses  exposition  Furthermore,  comments  as  where  corresponding skeletal  adjunction  association  cases  Summary The  the  with  proposes  preattachment  this  2.4  deal  Lipsky  l e x i c a l l y this  to  no  s y l l a b l e forms  are  explanation  offered.  They  20 appear is  to  the  provide  general  responsible a  t r i l l  s y l l a b l e  be  these  the  have  guarantees the  for  do  questions  in  in  geminates  I the  active  onset  common,  disallowed  addressed.  into  the  i n  alternations.  positions  in  that  t r i l l  insight  p r i n c i p l e s  preferred  anything,  is  l i t t l e  over  w o r d - i n i t i a l order  occur  i n  the  only  clusters?  w i l l  attempt  sections  that  to  to  the  and  forces,  grammar,  Questions  position  in  driving  that  such tap?;  as  the  others,  address  follow.  these  why  a  s t i l l  is i f  closed  tap?;  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y ? ; among  are  What,  following  exclude  that  What  or need  why to  outstanding  21  CHAPTER  3.0  INTERVOCALIC  / r /  Introduction The  presentation  begins  with  are  contrast,  to  3:  i n  present  obstacle  an  the  proposed  namely  in  intervocalic  cases  f i r s t  the  same  contrast  tap  observed  structure,  on  which w i l l  they  the  this  and I  It  thesis  the  t r i l l  have  opted  the  biggest  as  surface  t r i l l  surface  w i l l  be  argued  results  from  prosodic  i n  nature.  support  i n  the  find  stress  tap  constitute  segment.  the is  the  i n  position.  and  underlying  d i s t i n c t i o n  where  because  the  representations  syllable  case  developed  the  of  phonological  proposal  of  considering  realizations that  the  analysis  these i n  of  assignment,  and  a The  areas  of  h i s t o r i c a l  development.  3.1  A  Prosodic As  t r i l l this as  was  shown  contrast contrast  a  moraic  +consonantal, t r i l l  would  Difference  in  by  the  intervocalic  s t r u c t u r a l l y / r /  by  in  be  an  (2)  above,  position.  I  representing  underlyingly,  coronal, then  data  where  +continuant] ambisyllabic  the  propose an  / r / 4  segment,  to  and  the  represent  intervocalic is  segment .  tap  t r i l l  a  [+sonorant,  An  intervocalic  acting  as  coda  of  J u s t i f i c a t i o n for the use of these, and only these features, w i l l be offered in Chapter 5, where these features w i l l play a crucial role in the analysis of the interaction between / r / and other segments. 4  22 a  previous  syllable  carro  representation  of  details  the  about  and  as  onset  'car'  of  a  would  representation  following  then  of  be  one.  The  (leaving  vowels  aside  other  for  the  moment): (15)  p  UR  a  a  / n  nf (i  / | \ /I  i /karo/  I  I /I  k a r o where An a  / r / =  [+son,  intervocalic  t r i l l i f (16)  i t  is  +cons,  / r / would  found  in  ao  the  /  \  r This areas:  syllable  development.  3.2  Syllable Harris  s y l l a b l e by  (i)  (ii)  turn  be  +cont]  phonetically  following  r e a l i z e d  as  configuration:  [r]  is  supported  stress now  to  presents  a  by  evidence  assignment examine  and  the  from  three  h i s t o r i c a l  evidence.  Structure (1983a)  which  of  are  prevocalic of  Spanish  us  structure  Harris  The  structure,  Let  then  >  representation  COR,  [karo]  the  rhymes f i r s t  stress.  Spanish.  relevant  rhyme may  not  Two o f  to  glides,  i f  the  contain  a  generalization Harris  thorough  observes  the  the  description  generalizations  analysis  not  of  proposed  s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l ,  the made  here  are:  are  part  onset. maximum finds that  of  3  support  segments. in  the  antepenultimate  facts stress  of is  23 possible  i n  contains  a  complex  (17)  On  the  is  onset  b.  t e . l e . g r a . f o hand,  closed  the  (17b):  t e . l e . f o . n o  penult  by  a  open  (17a)  (Harris  consonant  i f  is  the  stress  (18a),  vowel  i n  or  the  is  1983a:10,  impossible  by  a  penult  glide is  i t  11)  i f  the  (18b),  and  preceded  a.  *te.le.fos.no,  *te.Ie.fol,po  b.  *te.Ie.boi.na,  *te.Ie.cau.sa  c.  *te.Ie.fio.no,  *te.Ie.fie.no,  by  a  *te.Ie.fua.no (Harris  Syllable since  i n i t i a l  they  >  1991).  By  part  [ma.jo]  the  antepultimate  stress  con.yu.ge  'spouse'  between  a  that  not,  denote  only  An  5  glide the a  This  is  of  relevant  the  part  of  that  the  is  syllable  not  pattern  syllables  syllable  shown  e.g.  (Hualde  onsets  should  we  and  allow is  find,  of e.g.  'onomatopoeic',  i n i t i a l  glide"  rhyme  s y l l a b l e  what  Given  exemplified  are  are  Spanish  onomatope.yi.co  i n  'mare'  glides  p r e c i s e l y  the  s y l l a b l e ,  penultimate  1967).  1983a:10-ll) of  [je.gua]  i n i t i a l  "prevocalic  which  >  whose  (Alemany  term  glide  account  The  words  is  onset  predict  nymph',  which  the  syllable  glide+vowel. 'water  considered  /iegua/  we  i n  not  become  that  rhyme,  na.ya.de  is  are  'May',  assuming of  form:  glides  automatically  /ma.io/  the  i f  (18c): (18)  not  or  5  antepenultimate  interestingly,  glide  i f  a.  other  penult more  Spanish words,  w i l l  this  difference  p o s i t i o n be  used  and here  one to  i n i t i a l . by  (17)  underlined.  and  (18)  is  24 possible form of  a  i f  one  u n i f i e d  the  assumes group.  rhyme,  that  By  the  underlined  considering  Harris  is  syllables  prevocalic  able  to  in  (18)  as  part  glides  make  the  following  generalization: (19)  "Antepenultimate contains  The  second  possible  a  branching  generalization  combinations  concludes (20)  that i .  i i .  vowel;  e.g.  segment  three  V=vowel;  7  A  sequence  of  make  up  rhymes  -  pa.to,  by  a  i f  penult  1983a:12)  working  Spanish  the  out  a l l  rhyme.  the  Harris  rhymes  formed  by  a  single  6  VL  sal,  VN  com.pra,  VO  seq.men.to,  GV  nue.vo,  segment  i.e.  ta.pa  au.tor,  l e i  mar.tes sar.ten red  a.pio,  ciudad,  b u i . t r e  7  rhymes  GVG  buei  GVL  fuer.te,  GVN  siem.pre,  GVO  diag_.no. s i s ,  f i e l Juan  VGs  claus.tro  VLs  pers.pi.caz  two  (Harris  reached  VG  G=glide;  impossible  allows:  segment  two  is  rhyme"  is  can  single  e.g.  6  that  Spanish  e.g.  i i i .  stress  L=liquid; high  G o . l i a t ,  N=nasal;  vowels  always  mues.tra  O=obstruent. generates  a  GV r h y m e .  25 VNs  t r a n s . p o r . t a r  VOs Systematically (20')  i .  disallowed three  i i .  abs.trac.to  Any  are:  segment  order  *aul.tor  *VGN  *seim.pre  *VGO  *daicr.no.  four  structure  and  here,  I  facts  within  1986,  Hayes  The  segment  offer the  by  a  a  GVLN,  the  and  in  GVGO,  the  the  (20i)  single  p  a  .  t  a  etc.  Spanish of  Nuclear  Moraic  would  mora  the  theory  of  r-sounds  syllable (McCarthy model  contain  syllable  a  pursued structure  and  (Shaw simple  Prince 1992). onset  iu):  o  (21)  GVOs,  of  Moraic  above  nuclear  8  generalizations  analysis  of  form:  sis  reinterpretation  framework  1989a)  syllables  to  the  rhyme:  incorporate  stress  w i l l  followed  to  of  *VGL  *VGLs, In  rhymes  a  t  a  .  p  a  T h e r e a r e a few e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s generalization. These are: v e i n . t e "twenty", t r e i n . t a "thirty" and aun.que "even though" which contain rhymes of the form VGN, and aujjc.s]ilio "aid", the only form found exhibiting a VGO r h y m e . These apparent counterexamples are regarded by H a r r i s as " l e x i c a l l y deviant forms" (Harris 1983a). 8  26 The  syllables  in  segments.  I  Motivation the  stress  possible  i f  (10)  exemplified  attract the  (2 0 i i ) . i n  by  moment  the  contains  be  be  of  n of  the  rule"  (Hayes  in  i  furnished  is  rhymes  . i n  n  by  stress  not  b r a n c h i n g rhyme  such  could  be  languages, and  given  between  of  mora  by  1989a).  by  mora  and  is  heavy  penultimate  two  moras as  i t  moraic,  a p p l i c a t i o n  Leaving  would  the  the  specified  glides,  (20ii)  that  the  those  syllables  l i g h t  the  as  heavy  of  is  explained  the then  aside  of  for  be:  a  o (20ii)  that  involve  a  s t r u c t u r a l  VN  g  moraic.  antepenultimate  a  d  two  (see  contain  rhymes  of  rhymes previous  means  a  up  are  heaviness  by  made  segments  underlyingly  that  the  .  be  are  sections  contrast  assigned  VL  types  the  would  rhymes  i  a  the  1994:562)  expressed  position  (22)  in  observation  1989a:254),  would  representation  bimoraic  above),  This  which  both  quantity-sensitive  Vowels  "Weight  that them  (Kenstowicz  would  codas  The  (18)  i n  (Hayes  contains. while  and  rhymes  discussed  representing  syllables s y l l a b l e  As  penult  stress  unit  here  the  that  contain  considering  facts.  in  fact  claim  for  examples  the  (20ii)  glides  are:  GV  27 and  VG.  order  We  to  know  account  difference  are  The  1983),  a  rhymes  stress  facts.  two:  VG rhymes they  do  acceptable  and  the  both  (i.e.  put  VG,  offered  within as  the  proposal  GV  alternative  that the  segment  cases,  rhymes,  for  perfectly  siem.pre. both  far  between  tautosyllabic rhymes  so  by  a  framework  mono-skeletal  cannot  not  allow  here  of  a  of  a  fuer.te,  moras.  to  The  represent  (Clements VG  by  representing  two  while  a  w h i l e GVC  e.g. in  i n  however  coda),  is  CV t h e o r y  is  followed  1991),  (1991)  structure,  bi-moraic  be  consists  sequence  Carreira  be  There  (Carreira  forth  as  must  and  rhymes  GV  Keyser are  b i -  skeletal: (23)  GV  [+high]  \  C  [ahigh]  V  VG  /  [+high]  \ /  I \ /  a  The  analysis  predicts segment  that  observed  for  an  a  rhymes  exclusion  stress,  of  of  those  bi-moraic.  by  the  forms  rhymes would  the  respect  to  of  these  There p i e  are  'foot'  they  form the  proposed pattern  VC), since  V G , GV and  R  \ / o  of  analysis  as  O  VG rhyme (i.e.  with where  these  IV  C V  GV.  sequences  (GV),  with are  But  together. that  possible and  lei  Carreira a l l  the  is  other  on  not  to what  Therefore,  structures, (VG):  two the is  proparoxytone  represents  'law'  (1991)  b i - s k e l e t a l ,  this  r e s t r i c t i o n s  VC p a t t e r n  four  too  by  both  of  I  opt them  exemplified  (24)  The  structures  between  the  vowels.  This  allow  long  t h e i r  nuclear  is  make  a or  (24c')  Except Chapter 4. 9  two  moras, an  in  a')  and  non-nuclear the  affected  b')  for  result  structures  d i s t i n c t i o n  for  (24b,  allowing  undesirable The  9  do  and  (24a,  vowels .  hand,  (24d)  i n  in  between  the  (c)  speech  and  the  d i s t i n c t i o n  (d) ,  two opt  reasons:  (i)  w i l l  of  Spanish  I  which  no  existence  because  status.  following  make  on  for  not  other  based  on  structures  stress  be  does the  moras,  long  always  discussed  in  29 f a l l s that is  on the  one of  sonorous nucleus  is  which  of  mora  the of  this  to  that  pairs  at  of  the  vowel,  according  least  representation from  being The  here  that  postulated  nuclear (26)  a  also  to  have  high  as  GV rhymes,  since  the  be  chosen  cases.  as  the and  However,  mora  Let  more  cycle  1990). the  i t  nuclear the  sonority  of  us  must  be  consider  me.dia m e . l o . d i . a  'sheath' 'ethnic group  would  the  r e a l i z e d  i f  v a i . n a t a . i . n o  (25b)  mora  specified,  the  some  i n d i c a t i o n  words:  sau.ce sa.u.co  in  (ii)  status  in  an  nuclear  (Clements  Puerto cases  is  would  to  nuclear  'willow' 'alder tree'  The  the  underlyingly  case  the  This  syllable;  s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n  specified  a. b.  glide.  the  not  syllable, core  following  the  associated  was  i n  evidence  (25)  be  on  projects  segment,  underlyingly the  never  should  the  p r i n c i p l e s there  vowel,  vowel  this  status  the  vowel  glide: called  consist  of  Rico' to  is  specify nuclear,  *sau.co, r i s i n g a  'sock' 'melody'  of  i n so  as  underlying to  avoid  i t  *me.lo.dia.  or  "light"  prenuclear  mora  diphthongs followed  are by  a  mora: nue.vo  a  .  v  o  a  .  p  I  o  (data from H a r r i s while turn  VG rhymes, are  formed  by  also a  called  nuclear  f a l l i n g  mora  or  followed  "heavy" by  a  1 9 8 3 a : 14)  diphthongs  non-nuclear  in one:  30 (27)  au.tor  l e i  K a  o  II  a u . t o r  l  e  i  (data from H a r r i s The  absence  accounted Spanish a  of  for.  The  places  sequence.  constraint  a  of  the  relevant  r e s t r i c t i o n  This on  rhymes  form  maximum  s t i l l  generalization on  the  generalization  the  *VGC  number  types may  of  of  be  needs  seems moras  1 9 8 3 a : 14)  to  that  to  be  be  that  may  form  captured  by  p l a c i n g  allowed  i n  a  moras  a  Spanish  syllable: (28)  This the  Maximal  mora  Spanish nuclear  allows at most one n u c l e a r m o r a , mora and one p o s t - n u c l e a r mora.  generalization Nuclear  not  Moraic  impossible,  making  the  since  the  (*[uup].„) s y l l a b l e  is  to  not  the  in  It  the  would  and  against the  be  one  pre-  framework  of  d i f f i c u l t ,  i f  in  (28)  without  non-nuclear  trimoraic  grammaticality  'always'  siem.pre  within  nuclear  r e s t r i c t i o n  word  syllable  generalization  between  for  Spanish  1992).  the  account  a  captured  (Shaw  capture  common  of  easily  Model  d i s t i n c t i o n  does  content  i l l u s t r a t e d  moras,  syllables  of i n  the  f i r s t  (29.a.4)  below. A (29a)  result are  of  (28)  permitted  would  while  be  the  that ones  only in  the  (29b)  syllable are  types  disallowed:  i n  31 b . l N  / \ u- u  \ I a  .  l a  b.2  vo  a a  vo  tor tor  u c  1  a a a  i n  a.4  . An  apparent  (29b.3)  are  t r a n s . p o r . t a r , condition be  an  i n  /s/.  These  pronunciation (Hualde  1991,  disfavored, styles  of  generating  such  where  these  to  pre  counterexample  cases  two  cases  as  is  clusters  that are  clusters  them.  The  and  special  the  ungrammaticality  abs.trac.to,  [as].trac.to,  conversation  to  post-nuclear  Navarro-Tomas these  tor tor tor  u c c  the  e [ks]  segments second  are our  Even  status  of  /s/  allowed.  The  are  and  though  nevertheless grammar  and  s i m p l i f i e d  [es].te.rior  1950).  . t e . r i o r ,  post-nuclear  frequently  has  segment  i n  normal  [tras].por.tar they  heard  must  of  be been  in  might  be  careful  capable treated  of i n  32 various  ways:  1983a),  by  by  positing it  of  violate  the  of  the  special an  a  to of  VNs,  VGs,  the  "special  the  *GVGs,  here  status"  (Hualde  syllable  the  (Harris  1991),  or  (Halle  this  must  and  mora  attaches is  is  i t  /s/  mora), allows the  the  by  a /s/  to  f i r s t moras  moraic  s y l l a b l e .  i n If  representing i t  to  may  mora  maximally  of  the  attach  total  (i.e.  by  defining  to  "special  post-nuclear  to  i t  permitted  considered  case:  three  any  is  encoded  thus  therefore  disallows  be  be  the  post-nuclear  Spanish  to  the  i f  considers The  i t  two  appendix  expect not  that  i l l u s t r a t e d  syllable,  is  that  where  /s/ an  one  position.  fact as  were  would  is  coda  (28)  /s/  the  i t  but  by  simply  of  one  a  in  that  syllable  and  VOs,  adopted  in  not  to  which  mora  (30)  and  unit,  s y l l a b l e .  as any  a  type  only  i f  cannot  syllables following  of  the  pre-nuclear  the t o t a l  mora,  surface of  of  surface  count  two;  non-  the  a in  form  combinations  *GVOs:  VNs VGs  mons.truo claus.tro  VOs  subs.tan.cia  observation is  to  trans.por.te,  behaviour  that  * GVNs,  having  "s-adjunction"  when  post-nuclear  count  nuclear  /s/  contend  However,  s y l l a b l e  This  word  appendix  s y l l a b l e .  mora  of  evidenced  I  mora-bearing  after  of  constraint  contexts,  as  as  appendix  segment is  allowed.  these  i t  /s/  the  s y l l a b l e are  rule  an  treatment  mora-bearing  status"  a  i t  1980).  The  /s/  defining  considering  Vergnaud  a  by  may be  contributing  to  'monster' 'cloister' 'substance'  interpreted the  *GVNs *GVGs  weight  to  of  *GVOs  mean the  *muons.truo * c l i a u s . t r o  that  * s i u b s . t a n . c i a the  syllable  presence (i.e.  /s/  of  33 contributes  a  v i o l a t e d  only  contains  the  of  /s/  where In  the  any  mora) in  maximum o f i t  structure]  are  1988)  is  /s/  It  as  Let  the  "the  to  following  is  not  most  moras, a  the  look  Spanish  now  at  core  diphthongs. of  tap  syllable  that  and  r e s u l t i n g  that  /s/  'violators'  [of  them  consider (28)  and  syllables  a  in  since core  cases  moras. to  be  crosss y l l a b l e  (Vennemann involving that  this  r-sounds  with  only.  following  t r i l l  s y l l a b l e  four  assume  d i s t r i b u t i o n The  be  association  [s]"  the  to  happens  (28)  among  contains  an  in  to  (28)  containing  constraint  of  the  the  syllable  chief  then  allows  disallowing  surprising  violations of  language which  frequent  reasonable  Spanish  a  in  three  f r i c a t i v e s ,  d i s t r i b u t i o n  the  cases  violates  holds  us  that  generate  i t  marginal  constraint  respect  would  that  l i n g u i s t i c a l l y  .  those  case,  segment  and  of  chart  onset  diphthong:  i l l u s t r a t e s  position,  when  1 0  These diphthongs are the ones l i s t e d by Seco (1986) as permissible Spanish diphthongs. However, as Roca (1991) points out, " p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the f a c t s of s y l l a b i c i t y between adjacent vocoids in Spanish are heavily dialect-dependent" (606) . For example Roca's s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n of the word "riachuelo" a c c o r d i n g to his own d i a l e c t is r i a . c h u e . l o (610), w h i l e my j u d g e m e n t of the s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n of the same w o r d w o u l d be r i . a . c h u e . l o . 1 0  34 Table  3:  D i s t r i b u t i o n  Diphthongs  of  / r /  following  Other  a  Diphthong  [c]  tap  trill  [r]  (7) (4) (2)  - - - - - - -  (0) (0) (0)  - - - - - - -  (0) (0) (0)  consonants A  ai ei oi  b a i . l e a . c e i . t e o i . go  ai. re f r e i . r a b o i . r a  au eu ou  cau.sa deu.da bou  j a u . r i . a Eu.ro.pa  (15)  B  ie ue  f i e . r a nue.ra  (12)  cue.va  D  io uo  dio.sa cuo.ta  d e . t e . r i o . r a r  E  ia ua  an.cia.no sua.ve  d i a . r i o cua.res.ma  F  ui iu  cui.da.do ciu.dad  giii. ra Piu.ra  C  s i e . t e  (9) (0)  t i e . r r a pue.rro  (11) (7) (0)  (6) (1)  pio.rre.a(1) (0)  (10) (16)  dia.rre.a(3) gua.rra (13)  (2) (8)  - - - - -  (0) (0)  N.B. F i g u r e s i n p a r e n t h e s e s show t h e total number o f underived words found in the Spanish lexicon that exhibit these configurations (Corominas 1954, Alemany 1967, Sociedad General E s p a f i o l a de L i b r e r i a 1985)  As  established  allow  a  coda  Model,  ((27)  nuclear  mora  therefore, s y l l a b l e above  do  that  the  apparent here  with  in  (29)  consonant above),  not  allow  t r i l l gap no  by  the  have,  a  be  further  Under  diphthongs  are  non-nuclear  one.  maximum  coda  diphthongs  Spanish.  explaining  never  would  in  the  these  followed  contain may  above,  number why  consonants. occurs  after  accounted  for  stipulations:  of  the In  i n the  A  These  these  as  a  i n  moras A  and  a B  also  observe  diphthongs.  This  the the  we  not  sequences  post-nuclear  3,  do  Moraic  represented  Table  since  B  Nuclear  diphthongs  under  and  analysis t r i l l  is  proposed  35 underlyingly be  moraic,  ambisyllabic.  after  a  heavy  the  preceding  its  maximal  to  shows  diphthong  is  section,  an us  with  allowing  us  to  diphthong  Stress  in  assignment analyses  (Hayes  Den  Os  it  1981)  and  of  question,  unable  to  is  that  in  intervocalic  preceding  syllable.  tierra  'earth',  with  f i l l e d  (31a)  where  to is  associate  already  i l l u s t r a t e d the  position,  by  to the  t r i l l  is  (31b)  i n  a  light  t r i l l :  been  t r i l l  for  the  argued  as  i n  and  a  b.  has  an  the  the  proposal  underlyingly  area  absence  that  a  of  of  systematic  moraic  syllable  a  t r i l l  to  / r / ,  structure,  after  a  heavy  way.  facts b u i l t have  Spanish  Kager  in  one  o  p r i n c i p l e d  generalizations 1983,  a  advantages  account  a  Several Theory  by  is  which  the  intervocalic  provides  is  in  a  this  represent  This  to  followed  intervocalic  this  well-formed  a.  In  t r i l l  because  *aurra,  the  in  configuration the  capacity. form  forced,  the  syllable,  contrast,  3.3  In  associate  (31)  is  diphthong,  hypothetical unable  it  1986,  within been  stress Roca  the  framework  proposed (Harris 1988,  to  account  1983a,  Roca  of  1991,  Metrical for  the  G a r c i a - B e l l i d o to  name  only  36 a  few)  .  These  whether  various  extrametricality  whether  feet  regarded  as  are a  left  to  which  are  be  generated  be are  considered the  a)  b) c)  d) e)  by  considered  that  the  l e x i c a l l y  d i f f e r  right-headed,  patterns  following  (32)  or  is  quantity-sensitive  extent to  approaches  stress  whether  from  assigning  marked exceptions.  generalizations:  1  one  active  language  diverge  from  or  another i n  the  is  that  in  i n  be the  pattern  or  remain  are  to  constant  1  Stress c a n o n l y be o x y t o n e , paroxytone, or proparoxytone, never removed f a r t h e r to the e.g. organo 'organ', but organico 'organic' *6rganico. The l e a s t - m a r k e d s t r e s s is paroxytone; e.g. 'bed', ventana 'window'. Proparoxytone stress is impossible i f the penultimate syllable is heavy; e.g. *anciano *acento, *incauto, but a n . c i a . n o , a.cen.to, in.cau.to.  left, not cama  ,  Or i f the last s y l l a b l e contains a diphthong; e.g. *canario, but c a . n a . r i o . Proparoxytone stress is h e a v i l y marked i f the last syllable is closed, e.g. regimen 'regime', J u p i t e r 'Jupiter', o m i c r o n 'name o f G r e e k l e t t e r ' . N.B. these are the only three e x i s t i n g forms. Paroxytone stress is impossible i f the last syllable contains a r i s i n g diphthong, e.g. convoy 'convoy', carey 'tortoise s h e l l ' .  g)  Oxytone closed,  (1983a)  and  above,  to  f)  Harris  2.2  and  algorithm What  is  general  s t r e s s is unmarked i f e.g. cancion 'song',  the l a s t s y l l a b l e s u t i l 'subtle'. (Roca  segments  Spanish,  Spanish not,  in  stress  where  a  placement"  his  Spanish  observed  analysis  there  are  "dependency  which is  no  was  reviewed. words  with  The  1988:398)  between  i l l u s t r a t e d  is  i n  r-type section  generalization  antepenultimate  These g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s h o l d of a l l l e x i c a l words except i n the case of verbs where stress is morphologically conditioned ( H a r r i s 1987, Roca 1992). 1 : l  37 stress the  whose  last  syllable  generalization  disallowed analysis the  i f  put  the  forth  being  what  here,  we  would  always  this  syllable  a  t r i l l .  syllable the  stress expect  According  stress  is  assignment that  a  coda  and  thus  i n  Under  t r i l l  made  by  is  the  moraic,  Harris  the  i n t e r v o c a l i c  the  preceding  blocking  to  is  heavy.  i n t e r v o c a l i c  given  generates heavy  with  antepenultimate  where  about  moraic,  making  (32c),  penultimate  observations  p r e c i s e l y  i n  begins  are t r i l l  s y l l a b l e  antepenultimate  stress.  3.4  H i s t o r i c a l The  h i s t o r i c a l  provides moraic  further / r /  1934)  ,  1  Latin  had geminate  the  corresponding the  i t  Lapesa  segments  preserved  In  for has  of  representing been  geminate 1981,  the  i n t e r v o c a l i c i t  as  shown  / r /  to  (Alarcos  Malmberg  1965,  an  t r i l l  underlyingly  have  developed  Llorach  1965,  Menendez  De  Pidal  2  Latin simple  from  1966a,  development  support  since  h i s t o r i c a l l y Granda  data  case  of  i n  segments  intervocalic  d i s t i n c t i o n simple the  which were  existing  consonants,  Latin  geminate  i n  position. between while  contrast C a s t i l i a n  the  other  sonorants,  geminates dialects either  (i)  with  the  Spanish and d i d  the not.  the  This section is not i n t e n d e d t o be a t h o r o u g h r e v i e w of the h i s t o r i c a l development of Spanish. A few i s s u e s w h i c h a r e relevant to the claims made i n the present work w i l l be discussed. For a closer look at the history of the Spanish language, the reader is r e f e r r e d to the above-mentioned sources. 1 2  38 geminates  were  intervocalic were  the  position  preserved  point  of  simplified  with  western  i n  -1-  and  C a s t i l i a n  Spanish  of  Latin  (ii): and  -nn-  palatals these  (Alarcos  >  on  -1-  (Catalan  while  other  and  -n-  point  of  of  1954).  1965) (i)  simple  3  -1-  changing  .  An the  and  developed  preserved  - n -  LATIN  -nn-11-n-1-  and  are  the Latin lost.  d i r e c t i o n  Latin  geminate  r e a l i z e d  examples  GALICIAN PORTUGUESE  as  i l l u s t r a t e  -n-1-  anno caballu manus colore  -0-0-  CASTILIAN  ano cabalu mao cor  -n-X-n-  In  the  case  of  - r r - ,  of  a r t i c u l a t i o n ,  not  change  place  but  rather  the  contrast .  "flojo/tenso" Under  contrast opposition  1 3  opposition  the  between  -1-  within  the  intervocalic  was  tap  modern  The only exception merged with -m-.  Llorach  proposed and  to  unlike  maintained  (Alarcos  analysis a  the  a  C a s t i l i a n  these  it  Lapesa  making  is  developments  d i d  sonorants, use  also  of  i n  claimed  constitutes Spanish  1981]  geminate  other  1965:83,  here,  t r i l l  Latin  the by  'year' 'horse' 'hand' 'color'  ano caba[X]o mano color  ( F o l e y 1977,  which  of  were  the  of  developments: (33)  1969)  t h e i r  example  case  i n  while  following  in  segments  intervocalic  a r t i c u l a t i o n  The  1  is  where  Latin  hand,  are  the  segments  subsequently  dialect,  - n - ,  simple  (ii)  Llorach  direction  the  change  or  geminates  the  -nn-  the  deleted;  Galician-Portuguese  >  -11-  the  a r t i c u l a t i o n  development  -11-  were  while  an  the  Harris  that  the  isolated  phonological  was  Latin  -mm-  39  system  due  preserved  3.5  to its  the  fact  that  underlying  / - r r - / ,  unlike  the  other  geminates,  mora.  Summary In  this  represent  an  moraic,  is  obtained  section,  i t  has  intervocalic  t r i l l  consistent  i n  three  structure,  stress  following  section,  p o s i t i o n  and  advanced  so  s y l l a b l e  p o s i t i o n .  to  of  assignment  explore far  with  areas  we  been  that  an  l e x i c a l l y  for  the  generalizations Spanish  the  the  of  t r i l l  proposal  as  independently s y l l a b l e  development. of  extending which  to  specified  phonology:  behaviour  p o s s i b i l i t y  account  / r /  and h i s t o r i c a l  analyze  the  as  argued  In  the  / r /  i n  the  analysis  surfaces  i n  coda  this  40  CHAPTER  4.0  TRILL  analysis  underlyingly  presented moraic  i t  w i l l  be  of  being  i n  coda  position,  1,  i t  in  careful  w i l l  was  be  speech  as  must  followed  by  t r i l l ,  a  that  CODA  POSITION  (34) a.  realized  coda  emphatic  the  which  is  as  speech.  representation from  of  a  the  t r i l l word  a  position  by  this  virtue  t r i l l .  In  chapter  surfaced  as  a  this  a  t r i l l  in  be  that  In  moraic  t r i l l  chapter, i n  speech.  position  accounted  i t  careful  emphatic  word-final  w i l l  argued  t r i l l .  In of  one  i n  when  for.  Speech speech, i t  word. cases  is  an  / r /  in  word-final  This  was  repeated  in  coda  here  as  Careful and Emphatic Speech ma[r]  tie[r].no p e [r] . l a  position position,  i l l u s t a t e d  (Alonso b.  a  surfaces  in  / r /  chapter  as  also  v o w e l - i n i t i a l  unless  relevant  was  previous  an  / r / i n  the  that  d i s t i n c t  careful  v o w e l - i n i t i a l the  as  absence  Careful In  an  well  be  the  argued  that  argued  F i n a l l y ,  a  noted  in  / r /  chapter,  4.1  IN  Introduction The  an  4:  (34)  in  the  is  r e a l i z e d  followed examples  as  by  i n  a  (3) ,  :  Gloss 'sea' and Lida  1945:342;  my  gloss)  'tender' 'pearl' (Navarro-Tomas  1950:119;my  glosses)  41  c)  a [r] . p a a [ r ] . b o l a.ma[r].go  4  ma[r] cas.pio Ce.sa[r] fue  'Caspian Sea' Caesar went'  d)  *Ce.sa[r] *ma[r]  Leaving be  dealt  in  coda  harp' tree' "bitter' 4  the  cases  with  in  in  a.yu.da  (34d)  is  The  emergence  in  the  the  4.2  I  but  or  o  t r i l l  is  has  sounds careful  of  decided  below,  moment,  the  since  structure  of  they a  w i l l  vibrant  [Sr.Sol]  i  precisely  what  predicts,  position being  to  arises  arise  the  since  and  a  analysis  a  proposed  morpheme-internal  t r i l l  i n  coda  a  t r i l l  position  moraic.  (i)  are  careful  emphasis  emphasis uttered,  speech;  the  emphasis.  consequences (ii)  treat  in  under  following:  position; the  the  T r i l l  which  that  the  b  chapter  property  have  position  are  a  r  intervocalic  Emphatic  cases  of  previous  share  for  a  a  in  aside  following:  (35)  t r i l l  4  4.3  the  Caesar helps' iEgean Sea'  4  e.ge.o  section  position  4  (iii)  for  i.e.  speech The  does  other  applies  cases  as  not  only  for  affect  segments  emphasis  d i s t i n c t  reasons  regardless  emphasis  of  may  this  the  i n  coda  from  the  approach  t r i l l  alone,  i n  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l  of  the  speed  be  present  affects  the  at i n  which casual  s y l l a b l e  that  42 receives  main  The  r e a l i z a t i o n  careful Therefore the  stress.  speech  has  this  section  representation  under that  emphasis the  of been  a  of  account  though  a  t r i l l  in  coda  casual  speech,  as  T e r r e l l  a  result  of  In  l a  position  in  intensity that  duracion  account  the  and  "la  intensidad marca  coincides  with  the  one  that  four  perceptual  yet  the  is,  and  segmental  primary  emphasis  is  the  T e r r e l l reports that s y l l a b l e f i n a l 1  4  clue  indeed  differences  p r e c i s e l y  the  1  t r i l l  4.1  in  above.  coda  section as  is  extends  well.  Even  common  occurrence  ,  analysis  4  our  presence  of  of  p o s i t i o n  assumption  speech  a  a  discussion  i n  this  reports  Spanish  in  case.  to  el  por  s i  sola  acento"  offered  by  clues,  quality,  duration  being  no  a  in  must  t r i l l  as  Dogil  are  Kuhlmann  marca e l This  in  should  be being  (1976) , in his study of emphatic reinforcement position.  and  (1987) Es  considers duration,  emphatic  I  with  d e s c r i p t i o n  who  duration.  the  acento.  modulation,  encoded,  syllable  emphasized  (1979),  present  is  a r t i c u l a t e  and  (p.68).  p i t c h  emphasis  the  is  Canellada  phonologically  If  speakers  that  duration.  que  intensity  in  not  for  word  lo  a l l  is  the  i m p l i c i t  careful  (1976)  contexts,  syllable  conclude  in  to  surfaces  obtained  emphasis  to  section  r e s t r i c t e d  The  as  emphasis.  emphatic  stressed greater  able  position in  which  emphasis  to  be  coda  speech.  i t s e l f  nevertheless  for  be  t r i l l  casual  analysis  in  discussed  w i l l  of  i n  / r /  stress,  Therefore,  i f  argue  i t  observed. emphasized  that This  is  is  open,  / r / in Cuban Spanish, is almost unknown in  43 the  vowel  is  perceived  Navarro-Tomas except  in  can  long  be  closed  (1950)  the  by  cases  of  a  of  coda  (Navarro-Tomas  speech  explains,  mora  s y l l a b l e  be in  a.  the  vowels o  are  being  emphasis  "alargamiento  [ l i : S P o ] . always  enfatico"  syllable  the  as  is  de  where  moraic  case to  above),  difference  explained the  by  the  Casual  observed  in  interpreting  phonology.  to  s y l l a b l e (37)  of  begin  the  vowel  The  the  perceived  as  consonantes"  making  cases  emphasis  addition i t  speech  of  a  as  of  emphatic  the  addition  mora  in  with  the  Casual  a  an  open  long,  b.  Emphatic  speech  o  closed  added  because a.  they is  [li:.Sro] the  short  emphasized  las  a  In  As  1946:50).  links  (36)  l i b r o  afectado  consonant,  durational  can  If  e.g.  Spanish  "lenguaje  lengthening,  The  long,  (pp.200-201). a  consonant  as  syllables, (see  stress  "emphatic" l a t t e r Speech  a  is  and  since  facts  mora  in  can  f i l l e d  to b.  coda  consonants  section  not its  'book'  2.2  and  3.3  to  the  associate maximum  Emphatic  a  [xen:.te]  are  capacity,  Speech  a  'people'  44 In  those  of  an  cases  where  emphatic (38)  a.  the  mora  coda  consonant  generates  Casual  the  an  following  Speech  b.  o  m  is  Emphatic  :  a  t r i l l ,  also cases  of  (38a)  examined  in  An regard  i n  m  as  a  propose  more  which  not  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l view  coda  In  this  argued  that  emphasis.  If  under  a  as  i n so  a  case  of  This  I  (38b)  is  far.  tap  The  w i l l  to  as  emphasis  a  the  / r / ,  a  would  be  I  t r i l l  are  change  i n  one  i n  an  / r /  to  the  (1969),  the  but  cases  opt  of  for  the  process.  behaviour speech.  r e a l i z e d  surfaces.  could sounds  according  phonological  casual  to  render  therefore  the  is  the  and H a r r i s  observed  segments  no  option,  t r i l l  (1950)  examined in  emphasis  a r t i c u l a t i n g  consonants.  have  of  this  tension  lengthening and  with  assuming  assumes  result  normal.  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l the  one  emphasis  section  In  'sea'  emphasis  surfaces  reflex,  Navarro-Tomas  vowels  considering  position  r  advanced  dealing  phonetic  the  of  / r /  to  corresponds  by  derive  under  analysis  moraic  is  than  phonetically  would  the  approach  emphasis  given  a  5.  purely  tension  definitions  a  structure.  that  surfaces  with  where  Chapter  phonological  with  that  alternative i t  Speech  [mar]  accord ,  addition  a  r  therefore,  moraic  the  ;  structure:  [mar]  The  / r /  It as  of  / r /  has long  However,  in  been under this  45 is  only  observed  consonant. followed  4.3  In  by  a  i f  the  the  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l  following  v o w e l - i n i t i a l  section,  word  are  / r /  is  cases  of  followed word-final  a  / r /  examined.  R e s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n In  casual  coincide  with  Kuhlmann  1987,  word  ending  the  f i n a l  speech, word  i n  syllable  boundaries  a  consonant is  is  boundaries  (Harris  Fernandez-Ramirez  consonant  following  1983a,  1985).  followed  do  In  by  r e s y l l a b i f ied  a as  not  always  Canellada  fact,  vowel  whenever  i n i t i a l  the  onset  a.  "estos  b.  "un  c.  afios"  u . n a r . b o l  Los  otros  estaban  \ / a  en  \/  el  1985:74)  avion  \/ \/ o o o (Harris  When  a  s y l l a b i f i e d  is  as  word as a  f i n a l  onset tap,  i l l u s t r a t e d  (40)  a.  b.  - r of  never by  "mar  azul"  the as  the  "mar v e r d e "  followed  a  by  vowel  following t r i l l ,  following  syllable,  even  in  1983a:43)  i n i t i a l  (40b)  as  two  emphatic  speech.  examples,  verde  alternates  ma [ r ]  verde  i n  ma[f]  azul  f u l l y  is  always  azul  in is  with  emphatic casual  speech,  and  emphatic,  impossible. (Harris  view  word  i t  ma[J?]  *ma[r]  we  the  es.to.sa.fios  arbol"  \/ o  This  a  word,  of  (Fernandez-Ramirez  surfaces  and  syllable,  (3 9)  If  by  s y l l a b i f i e d  words  which,  1983a:70) when  46 concatenated, analysis that  induce  arises.  the  f i n a l  This  / - r /  r e s y l l a b i f i e d  as  here,  (41)  This  is  with.  way  r e s y l l a b i f i e d never  as  (1987) that  a  be  expected  of  undesirable  as  an  a  to  of  result  for  the  always  by  adopting  point  i n  our  assumption which  i t  syllable.  generate  a  the  is  This  moraic  under  that fact  "rhyme  is  the  of  of its  schematized  the  in  i n  of  word  following  o r i g i n a l below  that as  D'Introno,  result  consonant  our  surfaces  r e s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n  position  is  the  onsetless  surface,  onset is  delinking  process  from  for  doubly analysis  CONCATENATION  accounting  t r i l l ,  onset  consequent This  TO  an  the  problem  t r i l l :  r e s y l l a b i f ication  spreading empty  a  at  next  would  of  analysis  moraic  might which  INPUT  One  is  mar  the  as  c l e a r l y  i n  a  originates  of  structure  proposed  problem  onset  r e s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n linked  r e s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n ,  for  theory a  f i n a l  a  tap,  Ortiz  Spanish: a  rule  f i n a l  / - r /  when  c r u c i a l l y and  Soza's  they of  word"  case  deal  propose  rightward  position  association the  must  of  to  (p.97) to  the  "mar  the with  rhyme. azul"  47 with  some  theory  of  adjustments syllable  to  the  structure  representation,  adopted  imposed  by  the  here:  (42)  SPREADING >  DELINKING >  STRAY  m  The  a  r  a  analysis  encounters  a  motivating  and  delinking.  formedness  of  u  Spanish  serious  l  problem  the  namely could  that rule  the be  the of  t r i l l , posited  [ma.Ta.sul]  r e s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n  constraining  Given  application segment,  of  z  ERASURE >  which the  centers  application  configuration spreading, what to  is  a  general  motivate  the  proposed on of  the  of  rule  of  after  well-formed p r i n c i p l e  (42)  issue  the  obtained  i n  Spanish  of  application  the  wellof  the  48 rule  of  delinking?  rule  from  solution  applying to  1993,  is  the  an  OT  given  which  are  based  on  constraints  the  The  candidate these  i n  but  serious  is  of  are  which  of  "mar  the  are  the  highly  the  and  optimal smallest  azul"  not  to  ones  general  and  the  i t  v i o l a t i o n s . evaluate but  the  below.  been  violate  because  word,  (43)  each  Because  would  how  (UG) ,  to  may n o t  by  these  Grammar  of  are  optimal  A l l  respect  number  have  two  candidates  candidate  in  only  basis.  i l l u s t r a t e l i s t e d  Within  forms  may o r  word  the  candidate  Universal with  the  For  constraints.  form  as  output.  These  r e s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n  needed  the  (i.e.  are  determines  ranked  output  the  a  henceforth OT,  there  and  GEN.  such  output).  possible  various  are  as and  constraints  constraints  of  part  Spanish  words  obtained  the  that by  output  the  language-particular  emerges  of  be  they  a  set  EVAL  given  that  input  of  the  (McCarthy  approach,  (i.e.  function  to  a  the a  function  violable,  least  sequence  the  which  OT a n a l y s i s  whole.  claimed  interaction  in  are  constraint  by  of  is  is  argue  furnished  Optimality theory,  form  there  I  Theory  derivational  final  i t  is  constrain  1993).  "history"  the  would  t r i l l ?  Optimality  above,  claimed  set  the  of  the  the  the  order  constraints  An  by  are  is  incurs  with  generated  form  a  with  what  cases  Smolensky  (42)  input,  evaluated  other  these  representations:  then  the  and  time,  intervocalic  for  approach,  phonological  yet  in  but  based  every  an  approach  concerned  derivation)  same  step-by-step  exemplified not  to  Prince  Unlike one  the  account  constraint-based Prince  At  as  a  optimal A l l  proposed  of by  49 Prince  and  (43)  Smolensky ONS NO  These  Every CODA  (44)  syllable  Syllables  must  has  an  onset.  not  have  codas.  PARSE  Any material present in r e a l i z e d i n the output.  the  FILL  Syllable positions must segmental material.  be  constraints  following  (1993:25,85):  are  ranked  with  respect  to  input  f i l l e d  each  must  be  with  other  i n  the  way: a.  PARSE  b.  FILL  >>  >>  NO CODA  ONS  The f a c t t h a t we o b t a i n a f o r m "mar" a n d n o t "ma<r>" (where < > mark an unparsed segment) shows t h a t Spanish w o u l d r a t h e r v i o l a t e NO CODA than f a i l to parse material present i n the input. Since  Spanish  allows  onsetless syllables, e.g. "a.zul", ONS m u s t b e a violable constraint. F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e no d e f a u l t onset is epenthesized to s a t i s f y ONS, one may c o n c l u d e that a FILL v i o l a t i o n is worse than a v i o l a t i o n of ONS. c.  d.  PARSE  >>  ONS  The output form obtained is "a.zul" and c r u c i a l l y not "<a>.zul" w h i c h shows t h a t i t i s more i m p o r t a n t t o PARSE than to s a t i s f y t h e ONS constraint.  Final Ranking of Constraints: PARSE, F I L L >> O N S >> N O C O D A PARSE a n d F I L L are u n d o m i n a t e d . ONS a n d NO CODA are v i o l a b l e . ONS i s ranked a b o v e NO CODA a c c o r d i n g to Prince and Smolensky's (1993:94) s y l l a b l e structure typology.  50 (44d)  is  such  by  as  (44d)  /klub  would  PARSE,  of  fact  onset  i n  a  the  no  to  to  in  of  has a  no  fact  taken  Compare  where  only  two  one  well  (Harris  place formed x  to  despite s y l l a b l e  bend'.  1993:87)  clusters.  and  in  ungrammatical.  and Smolensky  deletion,  obtained.  incurring  d o . b l a r  tautosyllabic  input  proposed  [klub.lin.do]  'white',  (Prince  an  [klu.blin.do]  while is  given  ranking  be  constitutes  blan.co  *COMPLEX  are  output  the  invariably  sequence  ensure  results  club',  output  is  example,  r e s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n  e.g.  as  For  unviolated, This  emergence  PARSE,  desired  are  / b l /  such  optimal  obtained  Spanish,  prevent  the  CODA.  where  constraint  below  NO  that  'beautiful  ONS  form  1983a:43),  exhaustive.  l i n d o /  and  actual  the  means  predict  FILL  v i o l a t i o n The  no  above  If NO  possible  A  would ranked  CODA,  the  outputs:  (45)  INPUT  »  /klub  l i n d o /  PARSE  FILL  ONS  *COMPLEX  The  f i r s t  CODA,  only  PARSE, while  incurs  v i o l a t e s ranking clusters,  a  one  FILL,  the  [klub.lin.do], ONS,  second  of  ranking  ensure  explaining  that why  and  is  optimal  *COMPLEX w i t h  candidate,  v i o l a t i o n  higher  would  *  *!  candidate,  s a t i s f i e s  CODA  **  k l u b . l i n . d o  k l u . b l i n . d o  NO  NO  NO C O D A ,  two  * [klu.blin.do] is  constraint,  because  i t  violations although  i t  dispreferred because  i t  namely  r e s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n  r e s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n  is  ,  of  *COMPLEX.  does only  not  This  generate  observed  when  51 the  second The  word  tableau  optimal  in  I  turn  not  since  they  consonants  forces  a  a  (46a)  The c o n s t r a i n t coda  with  by  a  included play  WEIGHT are  vowel.  i l l u s t r a t e s  signaled  have  SEGMENT,  case. that  i n  candidate,  determined. FILL  begins  no  of  crucial  assigned  the  way  i n  mark  to  i t s  constraints  BY POSITION  always  v i o l a t i o n  the  the  role is a  i n  which  the  left,  is  *COMPLEX  and  this  p a r t i c u l a r  postulated  to  mora.  i n s e r t i o n  constraint  This  FILL  ensure  MORA.  (46a)  INPUT  ii  n  a  1  1  1  mar  o  IW  hi  "  a  o  h  o  a  a  1  / i \  a  z  a  m  a  \  r  a  o  1 /  r  u  a  1  u  o  1  /  z  0  1  u  a  /'  Ii  / i m a  *  *  * * i  **  *  *  1  1  0  * !  /I a  **  / I I z  Ii fi ii  11  **  ii ]i  1  a  0  m  *!  ii u  ii  li ii ii 1  FILL MORA  hi u.  /'V A\  1  NO CODA  /I / i \  Ii a  ONS  1 1 /1 1  r  /I m  WEIGHT BY POS  azul  li li  11  m  PARSE  / I  1 / 1  r  ii  a  z  a  u<l>  a  /' /' ii  / i r a  ii  / i , z  u<l>  *!  52 The  candidate  f i n a l  / r /  that  i n  /mar/  linked.  The  structure  as  In mora is  a  tap  associated i n  invariably candidate  is  and  the  the  i n  these  as  as  never  onset  is  the  and  as  a  such  PARSE  a  cases  t r i l l .  cases  is  i n  a  which  not  the  doubly-  phonological  t r i l l . forces  morpheme-internal in  one  c r u c i a l l y  interpret  ranked  input  surface  optimal  would  highly  to  as  parsed  phonetics  contrast,  present  emerges  such The  the  parsing  intervocalic  carro,  as  i l l u s t r a t e d  in  the  / r /  causing  selection  of  the  tableau  of  the  which i t  to  optimal i n  (46b):  (46b)  \i fi ix  INPUT  1  1  PARSE  1  WEIGHT BY POS  ONS  NO CODA  * !  *  FILL MORA  k a r o  o  a  I \x  \x \x  IW i  /III k a r o  a  '  / i \ /I /  1  k  1  1/  a  r  o  o hi  /l k The  <\x>/ /  r  second  this  a  1  a  c r u c i a l l y (in  *  a  * !  ix 1  o candidate  does case  emerges  not  incur  PARSE  MORA)  a  as  the  v i o l a t i o n  and  ONSET.  optimal of  the  one  since  constraints  i t  PARSE  53 4.4  Summary In  t r i l l  this  is  account  chapter,  I  phonetic  r e a l i z a t i o n  the for  the  emphatic  speech.  surfaces  as  speech, In casual  a  It  tap  presents the  cases  no  chapter  speech  w i l l  have  of has  when  be  that  of  a  the  been  shown  r e s y l l a b i fied to  follows,  examined.  the  that as  of  / r /  / r /  i n  is  that able  careful  a  f i n a l  / r /  an  onset  i n  proposal  cases  proposal  moraic  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l  problems that  argued  put  forth  a to  and which  casual here.  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l  / r /  i n  54  CHAPTER  5.0  "weak  1976, to  of  also  find  in  CODA  far,  a  a  also  moraic,  tap.  POSITION  in  is  this  play  chapter,  should  a I  I  variation, which  the  which  l i q u i d s  that,  as  it  w i l l  be  show are  to  followed  coda  and  assimilation,  g l i d i n g ,  l a t e r a l i z a t i o n .  A special  moraic  p o s i t i o n  / r /  i n  in  and  as  cases  this  other  is  casual  r e a l i z e d these  forth  / r / .  a  may  thesis. segments  proposed  i n  the  feature  specifications  and  by  six  analysis to  / r /  sections, of  be  data  an  subject  in  laying  this  out  being  of  that  advanced  to  aspiration, case  is  are  section  position  unstable,  a  then  t r i l l  / r /  coda  analyses  f i r s t  the  of  position  put  (Guitart  However,  argued  the  description  and  in  with  s u r p r i s i n g  Spanish  / r /  between  regards is  not  t r i l l .  proposal  the  with This  a  coda  devoted  of  since  • i n  general"  tap  labeled  associated  r e a l i z a t i o n  in  role  is  the  / r /  main  "is i n  It  analysis  interaction  make  representations. with  the  surface  the  central  have  Spanish  phonetic  chapter,  that'the  assumptions  dealing  to  the  with  which  environment,  predicts  i t  reconciled  w i l l  this  t r a d i t i o n a l l y been  one  1990).  non-emphatic  Given  1975),  Harris-Northall  proposal  In  has  in  t r i l l  a  (Hooper  According  Such  speech,  position  neutralization  that  neutralized. so  final  position"  phenomena  be  TAP IN  Introduction Syllable  a  5:  each on  dialect  environment to  position,  in  deletion,  a s s i b i l a t i o n , coda  one  and namely  55 the  intervocalic  application The  last  which  5.1  is  of  t r i l l ,  the  section  processes takes  phonetically  C a s t i l i a n The  Spanish  following  consonants  a  also  discussed i n  realized  a  the  at  tap  respect  previous  / r /  i n  the  features i n  with  i n  the  sections.  coda  casual  to  p o s i t i o n  speech.  Inventory  shows  the  The segments  look  as  Consonant  by  examined  closer  table  followed  underlyingly.  is  inventory that  parentheses,  I do  of  Spanish  assume not  present  occur  i n  a l l  d i a l e c t s : Table  4.  Inventory  of  Spanish  Consonants  p  +cons,  LAB, -cont  r  +son,+cons,COR,+cont  b  +cons,  L A B , +vce  1  +son,  COR,  t  +cons,  COR,  -cont  m  +son,  +cons, L A B ,  d  +cons,  COR,  +vce  c  +cons,  COR, - a n t ,  -cont  (J)  +cons,  COR, - a n t ,  +vce  k  +cons,  DORS,  -cont  g  +cons,  DORS,  +vce  f  +cons,  L A B , +cont  (9)  +cons, +distr  COR,  +cont,  s  +cons, + s t r i  COR,  +cont,  (z)  +cons, -ant,  COR, +vce  +cont,  X  +cons,  DORS,  +cont  ant=anterior; nas=nasal;  +nas  DORS=dorsal;  son=sonorant;  n  +cons,  COR,  +son,  +son,  +cons,  COR,  +nas,  -ant  (h)  -son,  +cons  (X)  +son, +lat,  +nas fi  cons=consonantal;  distr=distributed;  +lat  +cons, COR, -ant  cont=continuant; LAB=labial;  s t r i = s t r i d e n t ;  vce=voice.  COR=coronal; l a t = l a t e r a l ;  56 I  would  l i k e  to  [continuant] voiced  that  I  obstruents  alternation  be  by  are  the  dealt  underlyingly  since  i n  Table  unspecified  in  for  voiced in  and  can  I  by  that  the the  f r i c a t i v e s  7.  has  feature  since  occur.  and  assigned  the  assume  and  they  6  of  continuancy  laterals  be  4.  stops  which  Chapters  nasals i t  specifications  included  context  with  for  the  Spanish  the  continuancy  on  have  between  determined w i l l  comment  These  The  not  cases  value  been  complement  is  for  specified  rules  of  the  form: (47)  The  [+nas]  then  [-cont]  If  [+lat]  then  [-cont]  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  in  the  voiced  nasals  underlyingly  as  6.  The  the  feature  [-cont] also  have  [sonorant] dependent  status  For of  a  and  a [1]  the  is  for  In  these  the  root  this  cases  of  w i l l [1]  needed, cases  [consonantal] (Sagey  a  in  as  is as  in  the  feature as  'broth',  be  as  in  Tato  stop  dealt  not  be an  in  i n  seen  of  support  Chapter however;  i n  section  shares  that  features,  (1981).  such  place  alrededor.  geometry  opposed  a  the  forms  with  / l /  case  where  with  sufficient  w i l l  c r u c i a l  continuancy,  patterns a  terminal  1986),  see  of  become  for  [1]  which  argumentation cases,  ca [Id]o  emergence  / r /  w i l l  unspecified  cases  adopted  detailed in  also  [-cont]  as  such  the  following  also  of  .  as  such  specification  [+lat]  with  forms  trigger  account  features  1 5  Again,  [-cont]  to  1 5  laterals  obstruent  which  I  the  of  ca fnd]ela.  6.7,  of  derivation  surfaces  as  If  to  of  regards d i r e c t l y  defining  the  [-cont]  57 these  two  features  as  1 9 8 8) .  The preference  in  analysis  the  of  constituting of  one  / r /  over  the  the  root  other  a s s i b i l a t i o n  i t s e l f  w i l l  (McCarthy  become  offered  i n  evident  section  5.7  below. I  also  (1994:468) Place  assume  where  the  the  feature  feature  [continuant]  is  a  by  Padgett  dependent  of  the  ROOT  [cont] This  modification  capture  the  such  the  as  f r i c a t i v e s  is  one  [cont]  suggested  interaction  i n  between  observed  in  the  [cont]  by  Padgett  place cases  (1994)  features of  i n  and  stops  order  to  continuancy  alternating  with  Spanish.  Deletion Cases  position Republic Sharp  of  deletion  are and  common Panama,  of  Andalucia, Mexico, [umo]  syllable Chile,  Panama, (Cotton  of  syllable  in  areas  e.g.  cabal  miel  1988:60),  Deletion  as  proposed  node: (48)  5.2  geometry  as f i n a l  Colombia,  Puerto and  Rico,  Sharp  of  the and  / - l / in  Andalusia,  realized  [mie] / - r /  f i n a l  as  (Alonso is  a  Dominican Venezuela,  1988:60),  soltarle  the  [kaiSa]  and  common  phrase  process Republic,  as  Dominican (Cotton  Lida  e.g.  f i n a l  and  1945:337). i n  areas  of  Louisiana,  humor  r e a l i z e d  [soltale]  58 (Cotton Lida  and  Sharp  1945:337), The  case,  open  syllables  of  might  be  [tTaSaxa]  coda  and  rule:  the  Hooper  analysed  Deletion  by  1  as  an  (Alonso  / - l / or  of  an  / - r /  preference  Vennemann  delinking  and  1990b:28).  universal  1978,  the  [konfesa]  (Lipsky  consonant,  motivated  (Bell  could  (49)  be  a  as  confesar  as  trabajar  deletion  this  deletion  1988:223),  for  1988).  the  i n  This  mora:  6  cr  I  N  I  root  t i e r  | o  | o  DELETION  u  u  I  I  >  / I\ + s o n COR + c o n s  o  o  / I \ +son  Given  the  set  of  not  only  deletion  would  sonorant  coronal  not  licensed  in  the  by  the  position  is  sufficient dialects, always  is  often to i n  position  in  and  Even  / l /  and  .  for in  and  therefore the  Closer  look  that  This  I  but  w i l l  and  [n]  since  not  [p]  i n  rule  any  nasal at  [n]  also  never  an  data,  the  would  be  [n]  i n  least  coda  pursue  the  be  where  word-final  however, at  are  found  would  dialects  of  other  [X]  the  observation,  Louisiana,  though  (49),  palatals  However,  the  in  / r / ,  The  reveals  velarized.  Chile  alveolar.  (49)  found,  account  specified  position.  context. rule  deletion  target  coda  coda  relevant  targeted this  in  i n  conditions  COR + c o n s  is  not  i n  two  p o s i t i o n matter  is any  In this and i n subsequent representations involving the feature geometry proposed by Padgett, I have o m i t t e d the PLACE node f o r reasons of space. 1 6  59 further the  here,  rule  in  I  would  (49)  Optimality  Theory.  constraint  that  the  one  which  coronal  nasal  constraint while  on  like  from  is  an  the  parsing deletion  present  deletion  satisfying  a  of  a  that  in  the  coronal  higher  a  nasal  alternative  the  handles  suggest  deleting  Such  forces  to  way  is  the  within  c r u c i a l l y  feature  cases.  The  output  would  sonorants  ranking  preventing  possible  would  of  of  nasal  cases  in  rank  above  where  violate  coda  constraint,  a  a the  position,  i . e .  PARSE  [nasal]. The in  the  application derivation  represent (50)  the  of of  the  "caba"  corresponding  a. J  deletion and  root  rule  i n  "humo",  (49)  is  i l l u s t r a t e d  where  [1]  and  [r]  nodes:  a  a  N \  / N  I I  DELETION ca.  b  a  1  [kaba]  DELETION >  I  assume  f a i l s (Ito  to  that be  1989).  any  material  phonetically  which  realized  is  (h)u.  not  being  m  linked subject  o  to to  r  the Stray  [umo]  syllable Erasure  60 5.3  Assimilation In  some  cases,  assimilates  to  observed  Chile,  in  the  i n  Spanish  [en.ni.no]  root to  i t .  for with  curva  the (51)  1  8  leftward  stranded a.  Root  to  1 7  .  / - l / o r  This  / - r /  phenomenon  Dominican  is  Republic,  and  e.g.  puerta  as  1994:232),  / e l  nifio/  as  came  as  [kanne]  tal droga  "cu[bb]a",  (Cotton  as  and  "ta[dd]roga"  . analyzed  leaves the  a  (Hayes  of  as  mora w i t h  following  spreading  mora  l i q u i d  and Murcia,  (Lipsky  may be  subsequently  the  Andalucia  1991),  as  133)  Assimilation  by the  Cuba,  [aggo]  assimilation  which  of  (Martinez-Gil  1983b:129,  This  consonant  Colombia,  as  1988:206),  (Harris  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l  following  regions  algo  [puetta] ,  Sharp  the  a  the  the  delinking  no melody  segment  following  may be root  to  of  the  associated accounted associate  1986a):  delinking:  0  IN  N 1  root  | ROOT o > / | \ DELINKING +son COR +cons +son  t i e r  | o  COR +cons  The l i q u i d s a r e not the o n l y segments which a s s i m i l a t e to the following consonant i n this environment. Although there is wide v a r i a t i o n among dialects, i t appears that any coda consonant may u n d e r g o t h e r u l e . E . g . s y l l a b l e f i n a l / s / , caspa as [kap.pa], mismo a s [ m i m . m o ] , isla as [ i l . l a ] ; obstruents i n coda position, acto as [at.to], opcional as [06.8io.nal], submarino as [sum.ma.ri.no] (Martinez-Gil 1991:558). 1 7  The a s s i m i l a t i o n data from Havana Spanish i s complicated by a rule of retrof lection active i n this dialect. For a detailed analysis of these cases, see H a r r i s (1983b). 1 8  61 (51)  b.  Root  spreading:  ROOT  | o  > SPREADING  The  application  derivation  of  of  the  rules  in  (51)  is  \  ;  o  o  i l l u s t r a t e d  i n  the  Cuba  and  [kanne]:  (52)  ROOT  / > k DELINKING  5.4  + r h  e  Gliding Liquid  Puerto  g l i d i n g  Rico,  yet or  [seipenton],  golpe  other  g l i d i n g liquids,  hand, is e.g.  the  is  is  assimilation,  the  I a  found  not  as  in  common  l a t e r a l i z a t i o n ,  i n  as  most  porque  [goipe]  the  Cibao common  areas a  region process  Andalusia,  process  e.g.  (Alonso  pronounced  of  serpenton and  of  the  Lida  aspiration, r e a l i z e d  1945:339).  Dominican  affecting  [poike],  as  algo  as  as On  Republic,  syllable [aiyo],  f i n a l  mejor  62 as  [mexoi]  Lipsky  (Alonso  and L i d a  1945:339,  Cotton and Sharp  1988:206,  1994:239) .  The  generalization  l i q u i d ,  i.e.  certain  dialects.  (53)  - r  a.  b.  or  seems  -1,  is  to  be  r e a l i z e d  that  as  a  a  s y l l a b l e  high  front  carta  [kay.ta]  'letter'  algo parque  [ay.70] [pay.ke]  'something' 'park'  [pa.re] [pa.ye]  'stop'  pare *  f i n a l  vowel  i n  (Guitart1981:223,226) The  forms  glides  in  i n  coda  alternation position. this  is The  that  (1981)  (53a)  I  was  assures  i l l u s t r a t e  that  position. not  in  able  find  us  (53b)  observed  example to  that  l i q u i d s  when  (53b) in  g l i d i n g  was  the  l i q u i d s only  applies  this  i n  onset  i l l u s t r a t i n g  although  to  as  that  are  form  l i t e r a t u r e ,  never  r e a l i z e d  i l l u s t r a t e s the  the  are  l i q u i d s  Guitart i n  onset  position. There rule  as  are  the  (54)  a  few  following  complications examples  a.  el avisa e [i] avisa  "he  b.  el e[1]  "the  aviso aviso  in  the  formalization  for  (1981)  l i q u i d  different  maintains  g l i d i n g  is  outputs  prepositions,  such  in as  el,  the  the  i l l u s t r a t e : advises" advice"  (Harris Guitart  of  position  syllable (54) por,  that  final  by etc.,  the  and  relevant accounts  considering as  1983a:48)  c l i t i c s  context for  a r t i c l e s and  the and  therefore  63 not  prosodic  independent a r t i c l e rule  words.  prosodic in  el  since  In  (54b)  i t  word  ,  does  (54a)  on  not  is  subject  the  other  forms  one  in  conjunction  with  the  f i n a l  / l /  is  s y l l a b i f i e d  as  description  (55)  [el  aviso]  o  e For the  the  g l i d i n g , (51a)  ,  I  by  same given mid  a a  is  that  the  word  not  on  i n  to  its  the own,  which  case  satisfying  the  advice"  proposed in  Guitart  delinking  vowel  but is  the  instead  languages  have by  in  the  various of  of  inserted.  inserted  [e]  thus  analysis  word given  case  subject  The  o  supported  the  g l i d i n g .  aviso  noun  onset,  is  In  prosodic  the  This  vowel of  s  behind,  default  (1988)  language.  sequence  mora  i  not  an  o  the  involves  inventory.  front  of  is  "the  v  claim,  root,  vowel  a  l i q u i d  being  el  rule:  o  prosodic  Archangeli  t h e i r  1  to  a  P r W d  of  leaving  following  the  o  purposes  d e f i n i t i o n  of  pronoun  hand,  constitute  but  structural  the  the  This  vowel  consonants  which  cannot  It  the  root  assume Liquid  node  (rule  spreading has  been  i n  that  processes  default  vowel  when  s y l l a b i f i e d :  the  argued  vowel  observation  surfaces be  I  (1981) .  default  epenthesis  Spanish  .  a  of  here,  there  the in  is  a  the is  a  64 (56)  a.  I n i t i a l  Epenthesis:  hemi-sferio e-sfera b.  Final  c.  'hemisphere' 'sphere'  Epenthesis:  padr-e padr-ino  'father' 'Godfather'  adelant-e adelant-ar  'ahead' ' t o go ahead'  Plural  Epenthesis:  barco enchilada tren tamal  barcos 'boat(s)' enchiladas cf. trenes 'train(s)' tamales ( H a r r i s 1985a,  I  propose  f i l l  the  d i a l e c t  here slot  that left  s p e c i f i c  (57)  Vowel  the by  Spanish  the  vowel  l i q u i d  insertion  Insertion  default through  [-round] insertion  are  would  I  | o  would  y i e l d  M M  VOWEL > INSERTION  surface  assigned  at  a  N  I\  [e]  of  n  MM  vowel  a p p l i c a t i o n  to  a  i\  The  inserted  rule:  N \  t i e r  the  is  r u l e .  a  root  vowel  1985b)  the  after end  the of  ungrammatical  | o  / +son  default the  | o  \ -cons  values  derivation.  results:  [-back], Yet  this  65 (58) golpe VOWEL > INSERTION  *  [goepe]  *  [aeYo]  *  [mexoe]  DEFAULT algo mejor In  order  to  obtain  structure  of  Spanish  A  prerequisite  either  the  two  of  a  not  already  be  the  s y l l a b i f i e d . the  i.e.  application  non-nuclear  mora  of  .  o  (59)  m  e  in  front following  be  case  in  at  order  vowel  of  3,  the  be  on  the p.  segments, or  to  must  the  be be  derivation  put A  analyzed  preservation, hand,  34.  [+high].  always  words  as this are  phonetically r e a l i z e d  i l l u s t r a t e s  as the  g l i d i n g :  o  x  r e c a l l  [+high]  must is  us  Table  one  structure  the  Therefore,  The  l i q u i d  segments  prosodic  in  that must  inserted  [i]  is  second,  since  let  i l l u s t r a t e d  vocalic  option,  results,  diphthong  Assuming  an  interpreted [+high] ,  or  [-high]  syllables.  would  a  vocalic  two  desired  diphthongs  being  f i r s t  d i f f e r e n t l y , sequence  to  the  o  o  V  > INSERTION  m  e  x  o  o  V |  > VALUES  [+high]  66  a  [m  o  e  U /|\  [+high] [ -back] [ - round]  I  claim  that  insertion desired  e.g of  not  force  / i e / , the  surface  [si.Se],  on  p. 24),  a  a  rhyme.  GV  nuclear. in  (59)  are  default  necessary  a  case  would  [+high]  be  to  vowel  generate  vowel  Ms)he s e r v e s ' .  presented  followed  generate  which  being  well-formed  Spanish  [+high].  These  insertion  of  * [a.sue]  In a  a  this  the  Therefore rendering  it  was and  the  case, would  high  the  in  arise  vowel  insertion  [a.sui]  vowels  never  is  of  and  Spanish  in  the  applies  account  would  however, [a.suy]  insertion sheds 3.2  always  prosodic  * [ s i i . S e ] . would  sequences  section  already  high  the  as  vowel  assuming  l i q u i d ,  insertion  data  in  forms  the  forms  structure  non-high  a  diphthongs,  [+high]  discussed a  cases  but  that  syllable  high  GV rhyme  because  long  As  these  *[sie.Se],  confirming that  issue. of  and  in  by  by  Presumably  would  sequence  p r o h i b i t i n g  delinking,  vowel  this  preservation, [ie]  contain  believe  light  and  problematic  sirve  as  I  root  insertion  respectively,  applied.  of  forms.  'blue',  default  and  not  [+high]  underlyingly  the  rules  apparently  azul  /ue/  and  surface  An which  the  for  has some (see  structure  s y l l a b i f i e d  A  and  renders  sequences  as  do  in  the  [ue] as case  constraint *[sii.JSe]  67 surfacing  5.5  with  / - r /  of  is  the  [1]  Dominican  Trinidad  and  [si.Se].  a  in  which  as  the  assignment  be the  where may  r e a l i z e d is  of  the  (Alonso  and  Louisiana,  the  [1]  r e a l i z e d  interesting  i n  coda  position, is  of  an  the  / r /  delinking with  l\  \\ N  . I  always  1945:342).  N \  +cont  that  [o.lol],  / r / ,  o  M M | | continuant o o > / | \ delinking + s o n COR + c o n s  as  olor  syllable,  Lida  Spain,  1945:318-319),  i n  longer  of  [-cont]:  I \ ROOT  is  as  as  the  Lida  It  f i n a l  Cuba,  mujer  associated  a  (60)  and  f i n a l  analyzed  specification of  no  of  regions  e.g.  l a t e r a l i z a t i o n be  s y l l a b l e  areas  Rico,  (Alonso  / r /  a  Colombia,  1990b:28).  onset  [olores]  observed [+cont]  may  of  Venezuela,  (Lipsky  dialects is  of  of  in  Puerto  [el.ma.no]  / - r /  exception  underlying the  as  f i n a l  s y l l a b i f i e d  p o s i t i o n  areas  found  areas  Panama,  rural  form,  The  realizations  coastal  [puel.ta]  p l u r a l  without  common  of  hermano  as  although  by  vowel:  (lateralization),  coast  [mu.hel],  puerta  most  Republic,  Caribbean  but  short  L a t e r a l i z a t i o n One  the  a  I . M M | | o o / | \ + s o n COR + c o n s  *  +cont  i n of  coda the  followed  68  ix u  ix ix  | o  | o  | [-cont] o > / | \ insertion + s o n C O R -i-cons  ROOT  | o / | \ + s o n COR + c o n s  I -cont  The  application  derivation  of  (61)  of  l a t e r a l i z a t i o n  is  i l l u s t r a t e d  i n  the  "mujel":  m u root  j  e  r continuant o ; / | \ delinking + s o n COR + c o n s  m u j  e  +son  /  j  I \  COR + c o n s  *  I  [+cont]  [+cont]  m u root  r o  e  . [-cont] o ; / | \ insertion + s o n COR + c o n s  m  u  j  e  l 0  +son  / I \  COR + c o n s 1  [-cont]  The  representation  segment to  [1] ,  Table  sonorant, I  assume  may  4,  that  output  the is  offer  the  feature  on  p . 55,  the  the  into  a  only  l a t e r a l  phonetic of  sonorant:  is  non-nasal of  component  Spanish  specification  Spanish  underspecification the  f u l l  [lateral]  non-continuant,  inventory a  not  since  coronal,  persist  given  does  missing. segment is  (Keating  sonorants,  the  the  According that  [1].  [lateral]  of  is  a  Therefore, i n  1988) only  this and  case that  possible  69 5.6  A s s i b i l a t i o n An  /n/  or  data and  / r /  in  / l /  as  coda  Lida  perla  1945,  regarded which  in  Mexico,  [bus.la],  surfaces  by  the  following  examples  Andalusia,  the  A n t i l l e s ,  Colombia,  Guatemala  [kas.ne],  burla  e.g. as  the  a  sonorant,  rule  which  prohibits  the  same  place  Obligatory  these  which  [n]  sequence  of  P r i n c i p l e  [1]  i t  taken  .  Such  and  [+son,  could  be  as and be  roots  PLACE:  / r / by  a  phonological  +cons]  roots  motivated  1973,  from  may  followed a  by  (Alonso  adjacent  is  two  (Leben  followed  dialects  [sonorant] i f  or  specification,  Contour  for  i f  [pies.na]  dissimilates  dialects  namely a  as  a s s i b i l a t i n g  specifications  in  as  pierna  and The  rule  assibilated  realized  1994).  same [s]  came  [pes.la]  having  as  homorganic  be  Lipsky  as  have  may  i l l u s t r a t e d  collected New  position  McCarthy  with  by  the  1986,  Yip  1988). An dialects  autosegmental may  be  dissimilation"  account  obtained formulated  by in  of  a s s i b i l a t i o n  proposing (62),  a  rule  followed  by  of  in  Spanish  "root  the  assignment  [-son]: (62) root  o  +son  / I \  COR + c o n s  o  +son  / I \  COR + c o n s  root  > d i s s i m i l a t i o n  +cont  of  70  I  root  *  o  I \  /  •fson COR +cons  o  I \  +son COR +cons  C-son]  >  insertion +cont  root  o  -son  o  / I \  / I \  COR +cons  +son COR +cons  I  +cont The  following  derivation  illustrates  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the  d i s s i m i l a t i o n r u l e i n o b t a i n i n g the form (63)  k root  a  r o / | \ +son COR +cons  I  [kasne]:  n e o root / | \ +nas > +son COR +cons dissimilation  +cont root  k  a  r o ^ | \ + son COR +cons  n e o / | \ +nas +son COR +cons  k  >  insertion  +cont  root  [-son]  a  s o / I \ -son COR +cons  I  n e o / | \ +nas +son COR +cons  +cont Some d i a l e c t s of Spanish  have  two segments  +cont] c o r o n a l s , namely [s] and [6] . unmarked f o r the f e a t u r e s case o f the f r i c a t i v e s ,  that  I assume that c o r o n a l s are  [ - d i s t r i b u t e d ] , [+anterior]  [+strident].  a r e [-son,  and i n the  Based on c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c  71 studies, to  where  [9]  as  derivation The  with  5.7  as  I  i t  and  and  simple  for  provide as  [s]  in  i n  is  a  comparison  underlyingly  case,  i.e.  such  [s],  as  the  surfaces.  support  for  considering  constituting  the  root,  of  a s s i b i l a t i o n .  / r /  as  [+cont]  the  a s s i b i l a t i n g  specifying  namely  [9]  segment,  account  in  that  therefore  not  alternates  segment,  unmarked segment  assume  a s s i b i l a t i o n  a  support  the  [+strident]  feature  for  which  a  of a  since  They  since  the  also  segment  dialects  is  a  .  Aspiration Syllable  of  1984),  (63),  cases  allows  [+cont]  as  [+distributed]  in  [sonorant]  provide  emerges  (Maddieson  specified  this  [s]  Chile,  (Cotton  Louisiana and  1945:339), of  f i n a l  Sharp  / - r / may be  aspirated  and  e.g.  Panama,  assimilation  as  and  g l i d i n g  of  the  by  of  debuccalization  rule  delinked between the  these  place  content, case  root.  (McCarthy  node, which  leaves  phonetics  two  is  a  I  that  claim node to  (Lipsky analysed  cases  of  which  delinking the is  former  not  with  observed  i n  regions  p r o n o u n c e d as  [kahne]  [buhla]  1990b:28). above  causes  of  the  a  case  root  interpret.  place  may  The vs.  leaves  and The  Lida cases  involved  place  1981).  interpretable, no  (Alonso  aspiration  Goldsmith  cases,  root able  The  1988,  is  as  [goSiehno]  delinking a  burla  1988:223),  gojbierno  came  as  a  be  the  handled  node  to  be  difference  delinking  of  mora  no  while  specification  the  with  l a t t e r  which  the  72 The related since  cases to  the  of cases  of  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l  l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , would  aspiration  be  f i r s t  is  /s/,  (64)  i n  The  the  the  this in  of  (see  | o  -son  root  the  Debuccalization >  COR + c o n s  t i e r  surfaces,  are  of  would  | o  | o  COR + c o n s  I  (64)  and  a  neither  the  placeless  mora  t i e r  sonorant  a  nor  I \  k  li  | a  | s  -son  7 1. /  .ne  / I \  debuccalization >  COR + c o n s  I  +cont  / k  ii  ii  | a  | s  -son  .  / * \  ne  COR + c o n s  I  the  segment  a  li  be  / + \  [h]:  (65)  root  then  +cont  rule  affected  namely  / r /  .  ii  -son  I  application  above),  ii  +cont  With  of  rule:  I  / I \  cross-  way:  N  | o  be  processes:  debuccalization  N \  u  two  (62)  a |N  I \  but  A s p i r a t i o n of  can  environment,  Spanish  a  [L  / r /  same  [h] .  l\  ROOT  f i n a l  application  rule  Debuccalization  as  apply  following  i n  only  realized  would  debuccalization. formulated  not  through  a s s i b i l a t i o n  syllable  a s s i b i l a t i o n  often  obtained  of  +cont  73  root  k  a  h  / -son  5.8  Intervocalic A l l  an  / r /  the  in  i n t e r v o c a l i c (66)  T r i l l :  A  Special  discussed  position.  t r i l l  [kah.ne]  \ +cons  processes  coda  .ne  has  The the  Case  in  of  this  proposal  structure  / r / . i n  Coda  chapter put  in  have  forth (15)  Position applied  here,  to  where  an  here  as  repeated  : (66)  fi  UR  I  /karo/ a seems  to  undergo in  make the  coda  subject this,  the  prediction  processes  position. to  I  any  invoke  i n a l t e r a b i l i t y association (67)  of  discussed However,  these  Hayes's which  lines  in  "both  the  lines  i n  the  melodic its  and  above, an  on  structural  Linking the  structural  t r i l l  are  in  this  since  In  the  o  [karo]  p o s i t i o n  the  intervocalic  (1986b:331)  "LINKING CONSTRAINT.  to  a  processes.  relies  descriptions According  that  r  / r /  t r i l l  order  to  indeed  is  never  account  formulation  exhaustive  is  could  of  for  geminate  interpretation  of  descriptions: Association  interpreted  Constraint, CV t i e r s ,  and  a  lines  as rule thus  d e s c r i p t i o n , . . . w i l l  i n  s t r u c t u r a l  exhaustive." that include not  must  specify  association  apply  to  74 configurations specifies" the  containing  (Hayes  previous  structural position,  formulation  5.9  Tap  w i l l  in  is  of  the  Coda to  given  argue  the  An expected moraic as not  an  to  an  which  coda  of  is  rule  proposed  in  lines  i n  their  / r /  i n  coda  only  intervocalic  of  the /r/  a  a  t r i l l  lines  tension coda  a  tap are  this  show  far  as  moraic  the  in  since  its  than  position  the  style  of  for  in a  Spanish.  I  related  to  i n is  of  this  p o s i t i o n are  is  an  concerned.  position,  should  in  speech,  casual  weakening  may  a r t i c u l a t i o n casual  t r i l l ,  moraic is  pronunciation,  the  position  coda  a  p o s i t i o n  sections  liquids  However,  which  coda  moraic  coda  This  of  i n  i n  that  tap.  needed  structure tap:  to  here,  previous  t r i l l .  to  a  in  the  as  relaxed  in  tap  in  a  find  consonants  always as  a  to  least  weakened  of  target  proposed  intended  at  surface  phonological  r e a l i z a t i o n  t r i l l ,  were  a r t i f a c t  generate  rules  the  requires.  described  /r/ is  Therefore the  a  position, / r /  than  association  to an  the  association  analysis  that  These  unstable  to  more  emergence  processes  chapter.  the  as  unexpected  the  apply  rules  that  include  order  lines  Position  r e a l i z e d  that  in  not  Given  to  contains  According / r /  need  description  configuration  association  1986b:344).  sections  they  more  of  the  a  viewed  which  speech yet  be  be  a  would  does  t r i l l . have  phonetic  5.10  Summary It  has  p o s i t i o n through  been  is  argued  rather  the  analysis  p o s i t i o n  i f  coda  p o s i t i o n  makes  the  tap  position, moraic in  / r /  casual  that  as  far  whose speech  pronunciation.  this  unstable.  coda  for  i n  of  an  / r /  the  phonetic is  has  that  been  processes  linked.  surfaces as  This  various  singly  chapter,  The  claim  shown that  is  i n  speech.  phonology  is  correlate  proposed  to  be  c r u c i a l  a  a  coda  be  the  case i n the  accounting / r /  i n  coda  constitutes The  of  / r /  occupying  An  t r i l l .  result  i n  i n  concerned,  is  to  / r /  affect  that  unstable, casual  an  the  tap  a  heard  style  of  76 CHAPTER  6.0  6:  / r /  IN  ONSET  POSITION  Introduction / r /  is  found  w o r d - i n i t i a l l y , (iii)  (ii)  segment  have  contrast  from  a  as  (i)  between  an  .  (b) .  An  / r /  as  a  i n  i n  3,  where  (5)  here  *la  [f]ata  la  *la  [r]  [r]opa  and  (iv)  Cases  of  and  as  a  as  a  on  the  as  context  tap An  be  argued  contexts  (i) ,  a  syllable,  closed  shown  that  f[r]asco,  consistent  i n  this  w o r d - i n i t i a l l y ,  the with  are  never  (Harris  hand,  as  i n a  1983a:64)  (Harris  1969:48)  (Harris  1969:49)  invariably  surfaces  t[T]apo,  chapter  and  instances  phonological the  / r /  t r i l l :  p[r]ado, b[r]avo,  w i l l  that  resulted  d[r]ama,  c [f] a t e r  (Harris It  the  (69):  opa  other  a  as  argued  t r i l l ,  a l . [r]e.de.dor h o n . [r] a I s . [ r ] a . e l  (iv),  was  (i)  s y l l a b l e ,  d i s t i n c t i o n .  surfaces  repeated  open  i t  t r i l l  prosodic  always  i n  cluster.  Chapter  contexts:  an  syllable,  intervocalic  (iii)  various  after  [r] e t o [r] u t a la [r]ata  never  (70)  i n  closed  specified  context  tap,  a  tautosyllabic with  and  (a)  after  dealt  i l l u s t r a t e d  (69)  position  word-medially,  a  l e x i c a l l y  contexts tap  i n  been  onset  (ii)  word-medially,  second  the  i n  proposal  ( i i i ) , of  that i n  onset  consider  a  of  t r i l l  of  / r /  p o s i t i o n  strengthening.  representations to  cases  1983a:63)  It  these as  the  after  w i l l  cases  i n  be are  phonetic  77 r e a l i z a t i o n  6.1.  T r i l l An  as  p o s i t i o n  Clements  tap.  positions  the  1975,  and  undergo  positions the  may  / r /  relevant  (Hooper  position  One  to  been  B e l l  according  undergo  be  to  is  r e a l i z e d is  Foley  only  i t as  as  about a  a  t r i l l ?  (1977)  strengthening,  while  weakening.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  1988,  i n  strong  elements  Foley  of  strong  Vennemann  elements  I  Onset  " s y l l a b i c a l l y 1978,  a  this  strengthening.  Hooper  p r e f e r e n t i a l  following  surface  what  labeled  and  p r e f e r e n t i a l  may  ask,  process  t r a d i t i o n a l l y  1990)  offers  a  the  has  position"  Strengthening  forces  that  / r / .  w o r d - i n i t i a l  as  that  propose  moraic  in  never  p o s i t i o n  a  / r /  / r /  t r i l l ,  weak  of  i n  (1977:109)  strong  and  weak  environments: (71)  STRONG  W o r d - i n i t i a l may is  take  n  f i n a l / # i n t e r v o c a l i c /  posttonic/  V  post  position  place.  i n  the  The  The  treated  also  (1988)  the  form  that A . B  an  which a  formulation  strategies  then  a  position  hypothesis  of  t r i l l as  is  (fortition)  case  t r i l l .  of  i n i t i a l / # postnasal/  strengthening  that  WEAK  of  / r / ,  that  this  of  of  after  employ  (where  syllable  =  to  forth  strengthening is  w o r d - i n i t i a l  a i f  contact  languages .  put  is  closed one  boundary),  there  onsets  s y l l a b l e  adopts  a  that  r e a l i z e d  changes.  improve  V  V  which  f o r t i t i o n  f o r t i t i o n  syllable  atonic/ in  Spanish  surfaces  case  I  V  and as  may  a be  Vennemann's Among  s y l l a b l e Vennemann  the  contact (1988)  78 mentions  c a l i b r a t i o n .  c a l i b r a t i o n (72)  may  come  There  are  two  possible  ways  i n  which  about:  Calibration (a)  Coda  weakening: A . B > C B , where C i s weaker Spanish c a p . t i . v u > c a u . t i .  E.g. (b)  Head  than A. vo 'captive'  strengthening: A. B. > A. German var f a r Italian v a l  E.g.  C, where C i s .ue > Far.be . i o > Fer.ge . i o > val.go  ten.io  >  stronger than 'color' 'ferryman' ' I am v a l i d '  ten.go  'I  B.  hold'  (Vennemann1988:44, The  t r i l l  that  o b l i g a t o r i l y  be  interpreted  as  strengthening. an  / r /  is  l i t e r a t u r e 1988,  not  I  following  is  to  be  1952).  a  cursory  In  s y l l a b l e  means  "strong"  1965,  to  also  is  to  represent to  variant  generate  this other  by then  f o r t i t i o n  these  Hock  that  the  of the  1977,  demonstrated,  address  of  affected  this  may head  maintain  demonstrating are  of  review  Foley  order  this  to  by  the  If  able  attempt  closed  as  Llorach  position  how  a  i n  the the the  strengthened issues  i n  the  pages.  and a  as  evidence  this  underlying / r / ,  p o s i t i o n  there  Martinet  w i l l  t r i l l  idea,  provided.  as  a  after  c a l i b r a t i o n  (Alarcos  arises  so  variants.  to  be  that  phonology  r i s e  novel  occupying  question  An  a  independent  must  of  interpret  1981,  hypothesis,  process  case  indicates  Lapesa  segments  To  a  surfaces  52)  i n  t r i l l .  should  be  onset If some  I  claim,  position other  is  strengthened  after  a  consonants  observable  reflexes  closed  i n w o r d - i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e ,  undergo of  this  this  g i v i n g  f o r t i t i o n ,  process.  In  79 the  sections  that  follow,  s i m i l a r  cases  of  f o r t i t i o n  are  examined.  6.2.  Glide  Strengthening  Spanish glides which  are  derived  from  diphthongizes  stressed,  (73a  dream',  while  specified  and  and i n  b) ,  [w]  following (73) a.  to  the  [o] [sohamos] [moSl] [o] [olemos] [ospedar]  c.  yugo cayado  1 9  .  I n some  the  C a s t i l i a n  vowel  i s  vowel when 'I  underlyingly glides  and l a b i o - v e l a r  are  f r i c a t i v e s  p o s i t i o n  as  the  i l l u s t r a t e :  was c l o s i n g ' 'we t h i n k '  [ye] [sye.ro] [pyenso]  'I 'I  am c l o s i n g ' think'  [yela] [•"feral  'he 'he  freezes' i s shoeing'  ' he dreams' ' I move'  [ye] 'we freeze' 'we a r e s h o e i n g ' (a horse)  'I  moved'  [we] [sweha] [mweiSo]  'we 'to  smell' lodge'  [we] [wele] 'he smells' [wesped] 'lodger'  'we  dream'  'yoke' 'cane'  [yu.-yo] [ka.ya.do] (Lozano  These a r e the phonetic symbols used by Lozano c o r r e s p o n d i n g I P A symbols a r e : [j] a n d [w]. 1 9  mid  [swefio]  these  s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l  these  conditions  dream',  Spanish,  palatal i n  'to  high  cases  specified  morphological  /sonar/  cases  voiced  [e] [seraEa] 'I [pensamos] [e] [elamos] [eramos]  b.  certain  respectively,  examples  a n d [w]  underlyingly  e.g.  other In  [y]  an  under  (73c).  strengthened [y]  has two g l i d e s ,  1979:17-18)  (1979) .  The  80 The  fricatives  exhibit  further  a f f r i c a t e surfaces  [ y]  derived  strengthening: and  d  [w]  following  optionally  in  (74)  a  a.  (74)  b.  [y]  «  data  Porteho the  after  [w] [weteos]  in  (74a)  characteristic  Spanish  occurrence and  Republic, In  Puerto  comparing  f r i c a t i v e s , i n i t i a l  contrast  only  in  is  of  Rico  and  (74a) [y]  between  is  w  [g ] [kogg e£os]  according also  'with  in  them  eggs'  w  'an orphan' N a v a r r o - T o m a s 1 9 5 0 : 64)  to  of  Mexican  Navarro-Tomas in  (74b)  on  the  (1971)  other  a l l  hand,  (Navarro-Tomas  also  in  reports  (74a)  present  and  (1950)  p r a c t i c a l l y  dialects  alternations  reports  in  i n  the  the Cuban  Dominican  Venezuela.  and  (74b),  absence  and  ice' cast'  [urjg erf ano]  observed  non-standard  by  C a s t i l i a n [g ]  and  nasal:  representative  undergoes  The  'without 'the  d  'eggs'  the  attributed  most  [sifi yelo] [el yeso]  Lopez-Morales  (1994)  position.  environment tendency  Lipsky  d  w  are  of  [ y]  l a t e r a l  w  alternations  1965).  p a l a t a l  .  w  d  homorganic  Lozano  The  [g ]  [w] ,  position:  w  are  frequent  stop  the  homorganic  [g erfano] 'orphan' ( L o z a n o 1979 : 1 9 - 2 1 ,  of  Malmberg  a  However,  Spain.  or  w  dialects  1950,  nasal  'ice' 'a cast'  w  dialects.  more  labio-velar  with  and  d  [g ] [g eSos]  by  alternations  alternates  [y]  [ y]  d  offered  i.e.  d  [ yelo] [ yeso1  only  glides,  [ y] d  [^erfano]  The  the  u t t e r a n c e - i n i t i a l  surfaces  w  with  the  [y]  homorganic  [yjllo] [yeso] [g ]  from  one  strengthening of  Lozano  [w]  Forms  that  of  i n  to  dialects such  as  an to  ever  the  in  this  increasing  eliminate  guante  two  utterance-  strengthening  (1979)  Spanish  [w] .  observes  'glove'  the and  81 guapo  'handsome'  position, except of  are  in  which  pronounced  hypercareful  [w]  to  a  an  as  underlying  [wante]  speech.  strengthening  attributed  have  i n  [g ]  and  Lozano  i n  w  [wapo]  suggests  u t t e r a n c e - i n i t i a l  tendency  to  w o r d - i n i t i a l  weaken  respectively,  that  the  f a i l u r e  position  [g ]  to  w  can  [w]  i n  be a l l  environments. Just further Puerto  as  the  fricatives  strengthen Rican  treated  as  case  of  Spanish,  found  i n  a  took  and  preaspiration  of  f i r s t  <jr>  "to  tear  away"  f r i c a t i v e island  as  [x]  that  f r i c a t i v e seen of  i n  involving  but  1974)  A  In a  it  there is  is  into  are  have  velar  for  in  where  the  velar of  the  preserved  the  this  areas  the  arrancar  areas  exhibits  T e r r e l l  a  Spanish  there  Rico  change  recorded  evolved  the  velar  d i r e c t i o n  such the  as  is  regions  preaspirated  1982).  has  position  be  w o r d - i n i t i a l l y ,  others  that  of  Puerto  t r i l l  was  Domingo,  i n i t i a l  also  f i r s t  speaking  Spanish  could  This  change  1966b,  case  / r / .  Standard  then  .  Santo  i n  for  the  wherever  1887  Puerto  Spanish  in  in  t r i l l ;  1981)  of  glides,  syllable.  Nowadays,  of  Granda  alternation  strengthening  .  the  most  other  (De  which  1966b);  Colombia and  observed  Another  Granda  stop,  i.e.  stages:  from  process,  surfaces  closed  "ajrancal"  (Lapesa in  a  rhotic,  in  a  strengthening  two  preserved  / r / ,  progress  is  i n  (Zlotchew  variant  Venezuela,  rhotic  (De  have  preaspirated  the  and  C a s t i l i a n , after  place  derived  diachronic  f r i c a t i v e  standard  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y  a  further  velar  were  affricate  although  Rican  time  an  / r / ,  a  apparently  to  which  is  been the  analyzed case  of  as  82 voiced  stops.  These  cases  are  examined  in  the  following  section.  6.3.  Stop/Spirant Spanish  stops for  and  Alternation  exhibits  spirants:  this  process  others,  Malmberg  Mascaro  1984).  following:  are  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t i v e Table  5.  1969,  observed or  examples  are  Stop-Spirant  any  shown  in  AFTER NASAL  botella  naSo  ambos  dato  ha6a  candela  got a  maxo  engreido  argues  the  application  and  spirantization.  alternations are  assigned  derivation  by  of  are a  and  1979,  is  the  following  a  surface  consonant.  Some  5.  HOMORGANIC: OR L A T E R A L  analysis  /  caldo  an  two  complementary claims  value  for  of  that  these  of  data  which  processes: the  feature  for  in  phonological  r e l i e s  on  stop-formation  segments  unspecified  this  application  ar6e al^o  for  She  A F T E R OTHER CONSONANTS caljSo  underlyingly  the  sounds  f r i c a t i v e s  Table  (among  Goldsmith  these  other  account  Alternations  INTERVOCALIC  1979  1979,  while  to  voiced  l i t e r a t u r e  p h r a s e - i n i t i a l l y  following  between  attempts  the  of  l a t e r a l ,  and  in  Lozano  d i s t r i b u t i o n  PHRASEINITIAL  Lozano  Several  proposed  Harris  The  alternation  d « 5 , g=Y.  been  1965,  nasal  systematic  b=S,  have  stops  homorganic  a  the  exhibiting  the  continuancy  and  course  rules  of  which  the are  83 sensitive Lozano  to  (1979)  formation) in  (73)  rule  the  environment  gathers  analysis  above.  that  G,  are  homorganic  nasal  environment  the  The surface that at  are  is,  the  very  edge  stop/spirant / r / .  An utterance  pauses"  least  a  lowest  In  the  as  is  on  utterance-,  in and  environment,  the  two  the  A  glides,  a  seems  generalization  appears  not  consonant,  following  a  word" I and  to  be be  i n  D,  and a  other  in  word  and  case  the  of case  category,  is  defined  as  always  at  is  1989b:207). that  rhotics,  obstruents -be  In  of  s t r u c t u r a l  i t  a  syllable.  a  found,  the  and  [g]  l a t e r a l  prosodic  argued  broad.  and is  phonetic,  i n i t i a l l y  homorganic  [d]  the  word  voiced  after  a the  after  t r i l l  (Hayes  have  too  B,  any  homorganic  Hierarchy  closed to  the  phonological  sections,  of  to  or  [b] ,  largest  between  Prosodic  after  or  phonological as  proposal  In  utterance  environments:  however,  but  an  shown  specification.  which  nasal  grammatical  from  in  stop-  glides  position  obstruents  sequence  three  derived  strengthening  a  the  l a t e r a l .  those  defined  the  last  f r i c a t i v e s  to  1989b:219).  level  large  the  domain,  maximal  (Hayes  as  a  is  (or  archisegments  [+cont]  homorganic  of  Spanish  occur.  specification  labels  a  which  alternation,  "comprising  "the  a  feature  segments  f o r t i t i o n  p h r a s e - i n i t i a l  inserts  similar  of  analysis  she  the  her  homorganic  i n  following l e f t  in  or  contexts  her  which  rule  for  [-cont]  found  which  behaviour  to  a  segments,  they  the  Crucial  unspecified i f  support  from  assigns  in  word or  The fact  syllable  the  closed  heterosyllabic  undergo an  second actual by  any  consonant.  84 In  the  case  precede the  i t  case  of  of  issues  and  a  t r i l l  positions a  single  way  to  is in  change a  of  i n  great two  p o s i t i o n  the i n  is  This, the  (1964)  for  tap  t r i l l ,  chapter,  where  of  H i s t o r i c a l that  when  preceded  a  i n  the  t r i l l  was  not  the  i t  would i n  the  These contexts  below.  that  is  the  is  observed  i n  orthography: as  not  the  <r>.  This  extended  to  the  w o r d - i n i t i a l l y  is  represented  always  the  and  by  a  case  as  there  is  Records  i n  the  Xth century,  Old Spanish.  double  w o r d - i n i t i a l l y by  i f  that  i n  7  namely  around  inconsistency,  environments:  only  section.  orthography observed deal  t r i l l  however,  In  strengthening.  Chapter a  [s].  condition  except  represented  however,  reports  i n  may  [1],  here  differences  and  tap  for  / r / ,  that  heterosyllabic  This  this  the  with  following  i n  argued  represented  the  [n], this  l a t e r a l .  triggers  this  i.e.  involving  a  consonants  obstruents,  a  dealt  syllable,  i n  or  cases  between  <rr>,  Strengthening A l l e n  a  be  position  <r>.  and  account  w i l l  closed  homorganic,  strengthening  also  discussed  i l l u s t r a t e d  6.4.  the  /s/  representation  heterosyllabic  a l l  nasal  an  written  after  a  contrast  i n t e r v o c a l i c  be  the  for  a p p l i c a t i o n  the  f r i c a t i v e  i.e.  / r /  The  to  triggers  account  case  of  the  [-cont],  s t i l l  / r / ,  happen  consonant is  of  syllable  Although  l e t t e r s  and closed  i n by  begin  to  there appear  s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l a  consonant:  85 (75)  LTN f i l i u > OSp. f i j LTN rege > OSp. r e i OSp. A l f o n s o > OSp. LTN honorare > OSp.  o > OSp. f f i j o 'son' > OSp. r r e i 'king' Alffonso ' p r o p e r name' onrar > OSp. o n r r a r 'to (Allen  Lapesa  (1985)  century  also  reports  the  use  of  double  l e t t e r s  i n  a  Double  OSp.  ssol  OSp. OSp. OSp.  ffechas > ModSp. fechas 'dates' enffermedades > ModSp. enfermedades r r e g n o > ModSp. reino 'kingdom'  l e t t e r s  (77)  > ModSp.  were  etymologically  long  at  sol  the  'sun'  same  time  ' i l l n e s s e s '  used  to  indicate  consonants:  LTN  OSp.  ModSp.  peccatum > peccado > pecado 'sin' oravissent > orassen > orasen 'they prayed terra > t i e r r a > t i e r r a 'earth' suffero > ssuffrio > sufrio 'he suffered' (Lapesa 1985, A l l e n  considers  representing  the of  the  language,  Spanish out  the  C a s t i l i a n this (i)  these  that  the  double  / f - /  >  condemnation  around  / h / , of  the  position  other  treatise  dealing  offered de  (ii)  A l l e n  the  XVth  with  of  by  of  McLeod  on  f i r s t  1957)  r r / r the  grammarian  (1442-1522). the  i n  scribes  which  Modern  the  abandonment  century  two  sound  with  /s/,  of  to  /ss/  writing  double  made  orthography.  by  of  changes: and  l e t t e r s De  of  A l l e n  medieval  contexts  as 1517  attributes  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y , rules  the  (subj.)'  and  based  which  the  fusion  practice  than  in  precisely  the  ss/s,  Nebrija  environments are  ff/f,  tense/lax  Antonio  surfaces.  orthography  pairs  sounds  <rr>  t r i l l  the  opposition  descriptions  used  X l l l t h  document:  (76)  points  honour'  1964:296)  i n  Nebrija  to  a  any i n  a  86 Martinet account / r /  of  in  (1952)  the  Spanish  w o r d - i n i t i a l  variant  of  has  the  If  indeed  then  this  by  this  is  i t  reflected  Even p o s i t i o n to  do  not  systematic that  f o r t i t i o n and  the  terms the  offers among  a  to  /f/  in  that  and  was  observed  at  /s/  language  illuminate  hand  would  then,  and  data  this  is  underwent  arises  phonetic  an  "strong"  records  that  the  that  the  process  written  question  claim  Spanish featural  i f  is so,  offered  issue.  of  process.  also a  In  cases,  there  is  duration.  I  consonants. that  in  duration  the  case  is  manifested  strong/weak of  The  the data  of  not  through  pair.  may a f f e c t  w o r d - i n i t i a l can  f o r t i t i o n  description  factors  in  difference  this  in that  strengthening  this  but  consonants alternations  difference  active  thorough  consideration  I  claims  with  the  least  active  helps  other  is  member  Spanish  that  at  The  He  strengthening  Consonants  length,  strong  but  a  contrast  medieval  s t i l l  c l a s s i c a l  an  whose  accepts the  of  i d e n t i f i e d  / r r / ,  today.  obstruents,  of  is  phonetic  as  -  was  well.  exhibit  i t  t r i l l .  / r /  (1918)  though  constitute  argue  as  process  Duration of  w o r d - i n i t i a l  one  only  Navarro-Tomas  6.5.  a  not  strengthening  whether how  that  favor  / r /  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y .  indicate  i n  position  pair  f o r t i t i o n ,  argued  the  l i k e  which / r / ,  only the  taken  however,  would  to  signals  the  glides  reflected  i n  surfacing  of  Navarro-Tomas  differences he  be  presents duration of  in  (1918)  duration  takes  into  consonants  87 such  as  t h e i r  stressed  or  position  unstressed  representative C a s t i l i a n . are  a l l  each  by  is  s i m i l a r (1916, With  the  doce gasa _lazo rosa sapo faja  85 m s e c 8 0 msec 110 m s e c 82 m s e c 14 0 m s e c 12 0 m s e c  yeso  126  i n  1917)  in  the of  a  are  i n  a  are  2 0  speaker  the  of  Standard  following  examples  figures the  msec  to  the  underlined  right  of  segment  as  that  vendido  carreta  the  duration  is  to  no  posicion  menos,  la  que  1917:375). vowels,  se The  where  same  the  60 m s e c angosto pelota 98 m s e c peseta refajo  exhibited duration  vowels,  i n i c i a l  h a l l a  he  caldero 56 msec 65 msec / j i r a f a 82 msec 98 msec  same  is  56  no  author  within  by  states  de  es  a  25  msec  word.  This In  two  Navarro-Tomas  i n  these  that tan  msec  r e l a t i v e l y  consonants.  vowels,  35  msec  are  duration  absoluta,  precedida  situation the  in  of  msec  /  consonants  consonants  difference  unstressed  en  i n i t i a l  only  involving  observes  53  inyecta  word  than  Medial  embozo  msec  inacentuada  stressed  of  they  recorded  Word  97  respect  Tomas  and  duration  base  studies  como  data  i n i t i a l  duration  difference  The  whether  Navarro-Tomas. Word  i n  or  segments  syllables  indicate  word,  conversation  underlined  observed  longer  a  syllable.  casual  stressed  example  (78)  It  of  The  in  measured  within  "[1]a  corta,  consonante"  different  i n  observes  that  cases. vocal por  lo  (Navarro-  the "la  case  of  vocal  Navarro-Tomas at no p o i n t gives a total number of forms recorded. I have counted over 500 tokens published i n three different a r t i c l e s ( N a v a r r o - T o m a s 1916, 1917, 1918) based on the same d a t a , d e a l i n g with the d u r a t i o n of Spanish consonants and vowels. 2 0  88 i n i c i a l que  va  absoluta precedida  The than of  i n  representing  far.  order  It  or  us  has  been  / r / ,  f o r t i t i o n  /s/  of  f r i c a t i v e s ,  and  Data  from  scribes phonetic also  by  as  analysis  a l t e r n a t i o n  a  has  these  with  strengthening  this  i n  is  subject  strong  by  t r i l l  2  the 1  .  A  a  arguments  means  of  made  consonants  l a t e r a l s ,  and  i n  the  f r i c a t i v e s an  glides with  attempt the  t r i l l  by  the with  stops). medieval  orthography  duration  case  The  i l l u s t r a t i n g (i.e.  of in  so and  strengthening.  segment  in  and  the  Representation  data  in  In  representation  to  indicated  in  representation  offered.  the  nasals,  differences  a  of  affricates;  that  l a  w o r d - i n i t i a l  explored  w o r d - i n i t i a l  alternation  to  noted  results  some  supported  records  pointed  been  are  a  is  phonological  that  i n  environment.  Phonological  homorganic  and  possible  phonology  summarize  been  weak  reflect  data  the  a  well,  h i s t o r i c a l  to  in  claimed  preceded  a  alternative  offer f i r s t  longer  this  Strengthening:  to  let  consonants case  f o r t i t i o n  d u r a c i o n que  are  suggests in  an  igual  (Navarro-Tomas:1916:402).  consonants  position  such  W o r d - i n i t i a l  f o r t i t i o n ,  that  consonants  section,  In  aproximadamente  consonante"  word-medial  strengthened  6.6.  has  de  observation  following of  presenta  and  observed. /TO/ ,  turn  has  such  It a  been  That this strengthening is an active process i n the language is supported by data from word games. Harris (1983a:144) reports of a language p l a y i n the d i a l e c t of Lima, Peru, which involves metathesis of syllables; e.g. [r]aya ' l i n e ' , becomes ya[r]a, where a w o r d - i n i t i a l t r i l l is r e a l i z e d 2 1  89 defined  as  then  represent  to  the  phonetic a  correlate  t r i l l  i n  of  a  moraic  w o r d - i n i t i a l  / r / .  p o s i t i o n  I as  propose a  moraic  / r / : (79)  \ r By  generalizing  Spanish,  representation  w o r d - i n i t i a l  addition This  this  of  a  mora  addition  strengthening  at  of  a  i n  strengthened  consonants  one  duration  exempified  left  mora  differences  the  the  i n  i n  f  a l l  could  edge  could  of  other  then a  then  observed.  be  consonants viewed  as  phonological  correlate  The  w o r d - i n i t i a l  the  word.  with  the  representation  p o s i t i o n  would  i n  of  then  be  place  we  (80):  a  (80)  to  N  a  a  /N  / N  \l\ y  e 1 a lyela] 'he freezes'  This are  proposal able  to  phonetics whether or  i n  as  a  offer is  i t  coda  tap  offers  i n  a  thus  is  found  position  the  several u n i f i e d  able  to  advantages: analysis  of  interpret  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y , (in  careful  metathesized  i n the  a i n  speech):  word.  the  f i r s t  Spanish  moraic  / r /  t r i l l . as  w o r d - i n i t i a l  a  The t r i l l  p o s i t i o n  90 (81)  word-in emphatic  a  a.  a  d.  />  \l I r o [rosa] "rose'  A  second  advantage  addition  of  durational unit  of  Hayes  is  last  T r i l l  / n / ,  in  three  f o r t i t i o n  position,  since  within  is  after  a  far  the  mora  Moraic  of  offers  the  in  with  the  explains  the  constitutes  Theory  was  a  four  coda  closed  is  Closed  (Hyman  position  The  fourth  syllable.  the 1985,  developed  in  the  t r a d i t i o n a l l y as  a  i f  i t  was  preceded  by  any  position,  which  careful  context  following  established  surfaced  (1983a) was  i n  i n  of  i n  and which  of  / r /  section.  Syllable  / r /  Harris  account  An analysis  an  /s/;  u n i f i e d  environments  that  generalization  onset  out  a  generalization  or  so  vowels,  environment  surfaced.  actual in  observed,  and w o r d - i n i t i a l l y .  after  grammarians  tap  identifying  w o r d - i n i t i a l  length  between  speech  The  / l / ,  in  advanced  t r i l l  surfaces  this  6.7.  and  analysis  found:  t r i l l  in  mora  that  1989a).  emphatic a  is  differences  Spanish  i t  a  weight  The the  s  that  following  a  recognized an  / r /  closed  t r i l l  i f  other the  surfaced syllable.  by  preceded  It  by  consonant,  fact as  Spanish  a  that t r i l l  so  a the  when  happens  that  the  only  followed  by  forming / f r - / ,  / r / ,  to  are  Let  gain  us  some  that  / l / ,  tautosyllabic  etc).  order of  a  consonants  could  / n / ,  and  cluster  take  a  insight  /s/,  with  closer  close a l l  / r /  look  into  the  way  analyzing  the  case  a  other  (e.g.  at of  s y l l a b l e  consonants  / p r - / ,  this  / d r - / ,  environment  formalizing this  i n type  strengthening. Let  well to  us  begin  documented  the  1982,  next  by  that  nasals  segment  in  coda  of  [n.r].  position  (Navarro-Tomas  F e r n a n d e z - R a m i r e z 1985) (82)  1950,  It  has  assimilate Harris  i n  nasal  Harris  :  Orthography  place  followed  by  Place  / r / ,  assimilation,  delinking  of  the  subsequent  leftward  consonant,  is  able  to  but  does  not  the  nasal  It  is  to  the  possible  of  a r t i c u l a t i o n  sequences,  homorganic  node  explain  segments.  that  of  / r /  namely If  of  the  for  of  place in  both  / r /  the  /s/  never  and  and / ! /  [n].  This the  the  and  the  nasal  of  of  the  following  a r t i c u l a t i o n  surfaces might  environment,  [nr] ,  1985:70)  as  node  place  nasal  analyzes  assimilation  this  [lr],  alveolar  with  place  the  why  as  (1982)  associated  account  however,  surfaces  Harris  spreading  strengthening  relevant  always  which  place  been place  1969,  ambicion b i l a b i a l infimo labiodental onza (where z=[6]) interdental diente, conde dental honra alveolar ancho, conyuge, conllevar p a l a t a l angel, cinco velar (Fernandez-Ramirez  A  when  [sr]  as be  given ,  exhibit  a l l  a  of  tap.  related that  involve  place  the  92 assimilation somehow  and  / l /  the  i n i t i a l  assimilation  the  "los  offered  by  2  2  be  .  se  yet  In  which  order  and  / l /  summarizes  examples,  Navarro-Tomas  to  hallan to as  not  is  to  the  (1985) points  the is  in out  place  i n  en  i l l u s t r a t e cases  of  syllable  situados  una this  where  the  Fernandez-Ramirez's  complemented  (1950)  which  pursued.  consonants,  assimilate  /s/  (83) and  coda  dos  cites  evident.  could  consonant,  (p.67)  author  strengthening  Fernandez-Ramirez  position  distante"  is  / r /  assimilation,  Spanish  i f  generalizations  examples  of  following  only  the  place  nasal.  this  the  no  assimilation,  (1985)  in  of  assimilation  behaviour  of  y  analysis  exhibit  by  position,  comun  an  place  do  consonants  a r t i c u l a t i o n  zona  to  displayed  describing that  well,  related  /s/ extent  as  who  by  also  further  notices  the  assimilation: (83)  " / l / and / s / have a d e n t a l a dental sound, e.g. alto,  a r t i c u l a t i o n i f pasto, caldero.  preceding  • / I / and / s / have an i n t e r d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n i f p r e c e d i n g an i n t e r d e n t a l sound, e.g. alzar, ascender. • / I /  is  articulated  palatal  sound,  as  e.g.  palatal  Elche,  i f  followed  by  (Fernandez-Ramirez Navarro-Tomas  In  the  cases  of  strengthening  and  obstruent  strengthening,  the  preceding  consonant  for  the  2 2 , 1  area".  strengthening  If  both  sounds  had  to  are  presented  there to  be  occur  as  was a  a  colcha.  a  above,  i l l u s t r a t e d  articulated  in  namely  recurrent  homorganic  a  glide  r e s t r i c t i o n :  nasal in  1985:67; 1950:114)  or  (74)  common,  not  l a t e r a l  and  i n  distant  93 Table  5  above.  observation involves  just  examine  Let relevant  are [s.r] the  above,  that  consonants, involves  the  an  take  a  analysis  combined  / r /  points  with  the  strengthening  towards  sharing  representations  such  us  of  an  analysis  place.  involved  and  also  We  to  turn  explore  of now the  makes.  representative  example  of  each  of  the  environments:  (84)  There  that  the  implications  generalization  made  homorganic  strengthening to  This  are  [n.r] [l.r] [s.r] only  found,  a  handful  Israel  (Harris feature  geometry  assimilation  o  'honour' 'around'  examples  the  only  presented  by  where  i n  i n  Table  Harris  (48) 4,  and  ( 1 9 8 2 ) ,.  of of  sequences  honra  the  is  which the  (84)  assumes  underlying  analysis  of  i l l u s t r a t e d  o  / N  i n  morpheme-internal  above,  a  N \  the  example  A representation  specified  offered  UR  of  being  1969:47).  representations  (85)  honra alrededor Israel  i n  nasal (85)  :  a  N \  / N  fL jX PLACE (h)  o  ROOT + son PLACE  n o  > DELINKING son  (h)  | o  +son  | n o  |  PLACE  r  a  o  SPREADING  / \  \ =f n a s + son COR COR +cont  >  94  (h)  o  n  ROOT  o / +son  nas  PLACE  An  immediate  (85)  is  (1994)  consequence  that  continuant  proposes  assimilation. predicts the  that  His  that  i n  this  Padgett geometry [+cont]  a  is  place  version language a  examples  p r e c i s e l y  the  been  of  the  where  feature nasals  continuant Kpelle  geometry  therefore,  nasal  ca[mp]o triu[mf]o ma[nt]o ma[ns]o ma[rjk]o aje[rjx]o  'country' 'triumph' 'cloak' 'gentle' 'one-handed' "wormwood"  segment),  absolutely  since  place  to  to  surface. i l l u s t r a t e  case:  Spanish  proposes  i n  could  Spanish  [mbolu] [ndia] [mvela]  these  Padgett continuant  assimilate  and  i n  entails  /N+polu/ /N+tia/ /N+fela/  that  representation  generated.  assimilation  from  the  have  from  Kpelle  claims he  follows  nasals  segment,  provides  (86)  not  that  following  Padgett  that  examples  back' taboo' wages' (Padgett  1994:491)  (Padgett  1994:493)  support  is  be  able  to  be  a  feature  although dispreferred c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , must  to  the  (a  and  assimilation  to  f r i c a t i v e  disallowed  nasal  render  'my 'my 'my  generated  by  95 the  theory. Further  Spanish nasals  i s do  support  f o r  provided not  f r i c a t i v e .  by  have  a  the  existence  Navarro-Tomas complete  i n  the  following  continuant  (1950)  closure  Fernandez-Ramirez  observation  of  who  when  (1985:40-41)  nasals  notices  followed  i n that  by  describes  a  this  way:  "La a r t i c u l a c i o n bucal (de l a s n a s a l e s ) , a s u v e z , n o e s necesariamente una oclusion completa. Se p r o d u c e n n a s a l e s con a r t i c u l a c i o n f r i c a t i v a , ante [9] [s] [f] [x] , por ejemplo: danza, ansia, confiar, injuria. E l c e r r a m i e n t o de los organos bucales no es entonces complete" The the  case  for  the  of  representation of  alrededor,  representation  considering (87)  [lateral]  of  a  sequence  making of  the  honra  as  [l.r]  same  with  i l l u s t r a t e d  assumptions  the  a dependent  i s  of  made  additional the root  a ROOT  ix  (Shaw  r  o  o  COR  + son + son COR  lat PLACE  PLACE  1  I  +cont  e  d  e  d  o  r  > DELINKING  above  assumption  UR  IX  i n  1991) :  96  PLACE f o  ROOT  e  d  e  d  o  r  > SPREADING  \ lat PLACE  + son 4= + s o n COR COR  I  +cont  a  a  \  i\  /  \  1  1 1 a  1  1  1 o  ROOT  /  1  r o  e  \  v  lat  +soir  PLACE  d  e  d  o  r  be  a  dependent  i f  i t  + son  COR  I  +cont It  is  c r u c i a l  of  the  that  coronal  sharing  took  The  be  case  of  place  be  lost  be  i f  that  out. the  best  of  The  from  points  place and  In  of  viewed  as  and  the  the  applies  / l /  applied,  to of  (and  consonant  every  motivated  l a t e r a l  coronal  roots  *arrededor. coda  a r t i c u l a t i o n  of  the  /s/)  assimilation as  Fernandez-  assimilation  also a  place  i n  cases,  by  not  nasal  also  is  and  the  form  assimilation  l a t t e r  root  proposed  [+continuant],  place  of  of  ungrammatical  nasal  the  following  two  the  the  case  were,  delinking  assimilation  segment.  only may  as  generating  nasal  different  Ramirez  because  regardless  following  case  would  obtained,  position,  is  node, place,  s p e c i f i c a t i o n would  [lateral]  rule  a  coronal.  p r o h i b i t i n g  takes This a  97 sequence  of  delinking  of  leftward Israel  two  coronal  the  f i r s t  spreading  of  a r t i c u l a t i o n s ,  place the  which  specification  second  one  as  and  the  0 \\  PLACE 1  e  ROOT  >  i  a  ,l\  )  DELINKING  o  PLACE  COR COR  -son  I +Ic o n t  == |  ix ii r o  a  e  ix | s o  insertion  does  as i f  possible not  get  at  [+strident], has  r e a l i z e d  is  ,  in  +son  clear  what  is  not  in  the  root  \ +cont  unmarked  being that  so  the  root.  i t  to  a  f i r s t  root  how  this  is  There  s p e c i f i c a t i o n because  value  attached  clear  second  [+strident]  second  the  i t  is  the the  in  is  It  realized (a)  which  resulted  [r].  [+s t r i d e n t ]  outcomes:  e  \  / +stri  namely  a l l ,  a  COR  f r i c a t i v e ,  segment,  r e a l i z e d  of  ix  r o  / COR  coronal  I  -son  +cont  stridency,  +son  | i  > INSERTION  +son  PLACE  sonorant  x  |  / -son  The  SPREADING  ix STRIDENT  s o  1  COR COR +cont +cont  +cont  ROOT  PLACE e  o  ' 1 I  + son  two  of  i\  1 sI 1r a1  \  is  subsequent  representation  1\  a  the  the  i l l u s t r a t e s : (88)  for  motivates  is  are  either  98 incompatible root  with  surfaces  p a r t i c u l a r  Mexican  let t r i l l  us  as  form,  rhotic,  order  to  compare surfaces  specification,  [+strident].  Spanish,  [+strident] In  [+sonorant]  configuration,  monomorphemic in  a  which  the  in he  a  is  representations above),  the  that  this i n  reports  is  one that  r e a l i z e d  as  a  [r].  of  / r /  presented  with  second  found  (1969)  as  account  the  r e c a l l  environment  transcribes  (b)  only  Harris  this  u n i f i e d  (81)  us  [s.r],  Israel.  / r /  offer  (see  i.e.  namely an  Let  or  ones  strengthening, so  far  where  developed  i n  a  this  section: (89)  w o r d - i n i t i a l  intervocalic careful b.  a.  a  /l\ N \  a  /I  c.  /N  cr  coda emphatic d. o  / N  r o s • [rosa] 'rose'  after  0  a  closed f.  syllable  a  !\ 'N  N  1 (h)  o  ROOT  n  r  o  0  r e o  \  / +son  a  nas  +son COR  PLACE  1 +cont [onra] ' honour'  [alre<5e<5or] 'around'  d  e  d  o  r  [israel] ROOT  PLACE  COR /  \ +cont  +stri  According  to  the  analysis  configurations,  and  result  being  a  i n  an  / r /  property:  (89a-d) ,  / r /  the after  acquired  by  which The  explains  a  is  always is  of  a  associated  syllable  sharing  that  / r /  strengthening position  occurs,  only  as  d i r e c t l y  so  far,  these  t r i l l . to  a  linked  place  A l l  to  a  its  node  of  a.  these  them  In  In  moraic  with  share  cases  mora.  onset  status  the  or  since  in  a  a  of such  be of  moraic a  an  for  the  l e x i c a l l y  / r /  in  a  t r i l l  is  preceding  tautosyllabic  environments  [karo] "expensive'  b.  to  / r /  a  surface  non-moraic  could  moraic: (90)  of  configurations,  mora.  (89e-g),  the  a l l  moraic.  requirement why  realized  closed  virtue  intervocalic never  furthermore,  segment  position  root  is  advanced  a  [fresa] "strawberry'  / r /  in  cluster never  be  100 6.8  Summary In  this  r e a l i z e d a  as  chapter,  a  closed  t r i l l ,  thesis,  I  to  cases.  has  It  for  shows  a  the  case  of  obstruents. maintained,  a  If we  been  must  behind i t  argued t r i l l  be  is  its  that  strengthening address  the  this  this  following disjunction  within  an  that the  the  a  the  main  to  difference chapter, be  of  in  approach.  an  for  the  / r /  argue when  of  is  to  contexts  explore outline  what a  of  these  I  that  proposed  and  / r /  a p p l i c a t i o n with  I  after  of  strengthening of  is  proposal  account  hypothesis  Optimality  which  case  r e a l i z a t i o n  compared  might  / r /  as  environment is  an  w o r d - i n i t i a l l y and  maintained  noted in  that  viewed  strengthening  the  In  a  can  disjunction  application.  formalizing  also  be  also  that  argued  position  could  mora,  / r /  have  onset  have  namely  associated  reasons  in  syllable,  strengthening. this  I  way  the be of the of  101 CHAPTER  7.0  7:  UNIFIED  STRENGTHENING  ANALYSIS  Introduction Harris  the  (1969)  voiced  exhibited u n i f i e d  recognizes  obstruents by  the  that  share  some  vibrants.  analysis  pointing  the  alternations  characteristics  However  out  exhibited  he  is  with  unable  to  by  those  offer  a  that  " . . .i t seems that b, d, g, and r undergo some sort of 'strengthening of a r t i c u l a t i o n ' in some p a r t i a l l y shared environments... Attempts to write rules that capture these ideas, however have p r o v e d c o m p l e t e l y u n i l l u m i n a t i n g . The conclusion that I draw is that some c r u c i a l insight is missing either i n the f a c t s of Spanish or i n the nature of phonological processes i n general" (Harris 1969:55). I  believe  within  that  an  outline  a  u n i f i e d  Optimality a  analysis  Theory  possible  way  of  both  approach.  of  In  cases  this  accounting  for  is  possible  chapter, the  I  w i l l  disjunction  observed.  7.1  Disjunction When  the  only  i t  i n  a  while  position.  [-continuant]  Environments  the  of i n  stops also  consonant, i f  the  data  observed  both  / r /  heterosyllabic strengthening  is  subset  strengthens  position,  the  strengthening  obstruents,  applies / r /  the  in  / r /  that  the  Application is  the  proposed  w o r d - i n i t i a l are  only  while  the  nasal  i n  or  a  of  strengthening  the  l a t t e r  case,  u t t e r a n c e - i n i t i a l any  obstruents is  that  u t t e r a n c e - i n i t i a l  after  consonant a  in  and  found  strengthens  i.e.  compared with  environments  preceding  consonant,  of  of  a  homorganic only  undergo  homorganic,  l a t e r a l .  102 The  following  environments to  be  i n  read  i l l u s t r a t i n g Table  6.  i t  take  does  the  the  strengthening  "strengthens  does  that  i l l u s t r a t e s  which  as  strengthening indicates  table  not.  Strengthening  in  Each  grammatical  takes  to".  place  differences place.  A  a  "V»  given  mark  The  "  the >"  indicates  context,  is  i n  that  while  followed  by  an  is  a  "*"  example  output.  Environments  of  Spanish  Obstruents  and  Vibrants  S--->b [r]  --->[r]  a--->d 7--->g  WORD-INITIAL  V-una V:un  AFTER [+cont] CONSONANT  HOMORGANIC  V: V-.  AFTER [-cont] CONSONANT  HOMORGANIC  V•.  UTTERANCE-INITIAL  [r]osa [r]aton  [r]  osa  I s [r]  al  *:  V:  ael  with  contexts  that  of  in  the  which  a  which  strengthening  is  not,  are  consonant The  or  worda  with  segment  noncontinuant  or  is  observed  am [b] o s c a l [d] o  1969,  of  Lozano  / r /  1979)  coincides  u t t e r a n c e - i n i t i a l l y consonant.  and  The  obstruent  s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l l y  and  contexts  i n  strengthening  following  a  [+cont]  vowel.  relevant  alternating [+cont]  homorganic  are:  o t e l l a  a r [6]e d e s [<5] e  V:  en[r]edo [r]ededor  strengthening  obstruents  following / r /  the  [b]  *:  (Harris  The  una [ £ ] o t e l l a un [d] e d o  V:  feature stops  (i.e.  a  is  at  play  in  continuancy.  fricative)  the It  surfaces  case is i n  of  f r i c a t i v e s  observed the  that  environments  a  103 where  the  value  output  for  It  unspecified  for  1979,  would  rightward  to  would  to  l i k e  attempting is  where phrase,  the  are  It the  same  requires  The  to  for i n  as  the  a  segment  that  generate  continuancy. sense  strengthening  that  in  or is  a a  to  on  two  sequences  of  to  in  the  one  on  not  allows  language  is  continuancy the  case  p o s i t i o n  with In  but  cases  of  as  a  l a t e r a l , within  a  the  other  which must them  s a t i s f i e d  the  have  be to  the  which word. that  language hand, the  i t same  regarded be  when  a  stop  requirements hand,  the  within  segment  or  of  utterance-  above.  segment,  the  spreads  accordance  nasal  a  but  i n  f i n a l  or  (Goldsmith  the  be  6.6  requirements  is  stop  approach  In  also  segments  language  requirement  which  competing  strengthening;  obstruent  unspecified  the  obstruents  on  a  an  segment.  homorganic  satisfy:  the  in  continuant  are  Both  what  w o r d - i n i t i a l i f  the  the  such  same  continuant  argued  for  section  imposed  there  t r y i n g  in  the  [continuant]  surfaces  f r i c a t i v e  vowel  w o r d - i n i t i a l  "prefers"  weak  is  stop  proposed  been  for  perhaps  happen  after  whether  value  strings  with  preceding  has  argue  which  r e s t r i c t i o n s  appears  language  value  a  i t  preceding  occurs  surfaces is  to  a  and  feature  that  well,  account  word  the  the  segments  determines  generate  with  as  segment  fact,  going  of  vowels  continuancy  obstruents  preceding  the  a  to  obstruent  i t  preceding i f  is  position  the  In  suggest  do  strengthening  the  that  not  "shared"  w o r d - i n i t i a l i n i t i a l  am  to  that  surface.  supply I  sequence  continuancy,  1984)  obstruent.  a  between  appears  Mascaro  value  in  continuancy:  consonants.  f r i c a t i v e  results  as  violated.  104 strengthening a  [+cont]  f a i l s  segment,  absolute  since  opposite  values  is  [+cont] This  p r e c i s e l y turn  to  Optimality  7.2  is  i f  these  r e s t r i c t i o n allows  on  are  preceded  continuancy  sequences  e.g.  of  fiesta  by  is  segments  not with  'feast',where  [s]  [-cont].  competition  which  what  stops  continuancy,  apparent in  the  language  for [t]  generate  while  the  and  constraints,  now  to  one  seems  Optimality develop  a  between to  Theory  "win  allows  two over" us  r e s t r i c t i o n s ,  or  the  is  to  other  one,  capture.  Let  strengthening  analysis  i n  terms  alternations  observed,  I  propose  us of  Theory.  OT A n a l y s i s To  series  account of  (91)  for  the  constraints STRENGTH:  which  are  strengthen  unviolated a  [+cons]  i n at  the  a  language:  the  left  edge  of a p h o n o l o g i c a l word through the a d d i t i o n of a mora. Ensures that a t r i l l is generated wordi n i t i a l l y . NAS  ASSIM  *aplace  *apl \  Spl /  Scont  (Nasal Place assimilation) : coda p o s i t i o n assimilates i n the following [+cons] root.  a nasal i n place to  cvplace: the language does not a l l o w s e q u e n c e o f two i d e n t i c a l place specifications in adjacent roots.  :  a two  continuant different  value  can  not  PLACE  nodes.  be  a  linked  to  This  enables our analysis to account for the observation that continuancy is not shared by n o n - h o m o r g a n i c segments, e . g . caldo but c a l S o , where the [-cont] v a l u e i s shared i n the former but not i n the l a t t e r .  105 I  also  propose  which  are  order  i n  highest lowest  the  c r u c i a l l y which  they  ranked ranked  (92)  constraints ranked are  violable  i n  with  (92)  as  respect  presented, constraint,  with and  violable to  each  PARSE FILL  constraints other  i n  the  [acont]  as  the  [+cont]  as  the  one.  PARSE  acont: a continuancy must be parsed.  ALIGN  L ,  value  present  i n  the  input  [-cont], a (Align [-cont] w i t h the l e f t edge of a syllable): T h i s c o n s t r a i n t may be motivated by the c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c preference for [-cont] segments i n onset position. That [-cont] is dispreferred in coda p o s i t i o n is supported by the observation that [-cont] segments do not surface i n coda p o s i t i o n , e.g. cluS, *club. The r a n k i n g o f PARSE a c o n t >> A L I G N L , [-cont], a , accounts for those cases i n which a [-cont] segment s u r f a c e s i n coda position i f i t is underlyingly specified as [-cont], e.g. ap_to 'suitable'.  NAS  [-cont] (a n a s a l is [-cont]): forces insertion of [-cont] where t h e r e is a nasal. This constraint i n combination with X [-cont], forces the insertion of [-cont] to associate with a nasal only i n environments in which the f e a t u r e w o u l d be licensed, i.e. i n onset position, or i n coda position as l o n g as i t shares place with a segment in onset p o s i t i o n which can f u n c t i o n as a licensor for [-cont], e.g. candela, ambos.  LAT  [-cont] (a l a t e r a l i s [-cont]): forces insertion of [-cont] to associate with a l a t e r a l . J u s t as i n t h e c a s e o f NAS [ - c o n t ] , this constraint interacts with X [-cont] accounting for the dual behaviour of / l / w h i c h sometimes behaves as a continuant, e.g. callSo, and o t h e r t i m e s as a [-cont], e.g. caldo.  ALIGN  L,  [-cont], UTT (Align a [-cont] w i t h the l e f t edge of an u t t e r a n c e ) : accounts for stops surfacing u t t e r a n c e - i n i t i a l l y and not always w o r d - i n i t i a l l y . The ' * ' i n a tableau indicates the number of roots  106 between the feature [-cont] left edge of the utterance. PARSE  PLACE:  A place  input GEM  Let  us  at  the  of  the  / r / ,  (not  always  where  i t  disjunction  arises,  in  of  order  / r /  to let  Table i n  the  given  input  / l i a  rie/  cases  the  by  us  as  a  constitutes  the  constraints  in  representative  begin  by  on  t r i l l  [r],  obstruents  however,  the  the  e.g.  [r]osa.  i n  tableaux,  the  other  ' L i a laughs',  (93)  three  the  w o r d - i n i t i a l  surfaces  two  in  una  strengthening  understanding  tableau  proposed i n  some  The  the  p o s i t i o n  obstruent  compare  examining  p.102,  voiced  gain  of  position.  w o r d - i n i t i a l  voiced  the  us  6,  strengthening,  strengthening.  these  w o r d - i n i t i a l  surfaces  and  of the  Let  applies  obstruent the  in  utterance-initial) apply  case  in  involving  In  a  output  environments.  f r i c a t i v e .  with  i n  output.  et a geminate structure as This constraint is motivated l i n g u i s t i c preference for t o be [-cont] ( P a r a d i s 1988) .  interaction  optimal  always  cases  p o s i t i o n not  the  i l l u s t r a t e d  strengthening case  the  [+cont] : A n i n s e r t i o n o f [+cont] least serious v i o l a t i o n .  strengthening  As  present  i n  FILL  look  of  r e a l i z e d  [-cont]: This constraint is v i o l a t e d every time a [-cont] feature is inserted. It is c r u c i a l l y ranked lower than a l l the constraints which force the i n s e r t i o n of [ - c o n t ] , n a m e l y NAS [ - c o n t ] , L A T [ - c o n t ] , and GEM [ - c o n t ] .  disjunctive  cases  In  [-cont]: Interpr [-cont]. the c r o s s geminates  be  the  FILL  determining the  specification  must  and  into  with  does as  how  one a  this  dealing case  i l l u s t r a t e s possible  a  of how  outputs  107 are  evaluated  to  determine  the  optimal  candidate  2 3  .  (93)  INPUT  Cand  1  0 0  N  MM MM  II II r i e / 1 lat COR l i a  | +cont  /MM  /MM  2  oo  e-Cand  oo  /II /N N  3  o o  /II / N N  /II /N  M / M M M /MM  N  o o  /II / N N.  M / M M M /MM \/ 1 1 \ / 1 1\/ 1 1 \ / 1 1 / 1 1 / 1 1l i a r i e l i a r i e 1 i a r i e \ 1 \ 1 \l a t 1 lat COR lat COR COR COR  COR  | +cont  | +cont  COR | -cont  | +cont  *i*  STRENGTH NAS  o 0  /I 1 //IN N 1 /N N  N  I 1  COR  Cand  ASSIM  *aPL aPL *aPL  iSPL  \  / cont  6  PARSE ALIGN  acont L ,  [-cont],  a  NAS  [-cont]  LAT  [-cont]  *!  ALIGN L , [-cont], UTT PARSE  PLACE  GEM:  [-cont]  FILL  [-cont]  FILL  [+cont]  Candidate  3  emerges  lllllllll^  1!!!!!!^  llllllll^^  as  optimal,  since  i t  incurs  the  fewest  The representations of both the input and the candidates are lacking some feature specifications, such as [+son] and [+vce], which have been o m i t t e d due t o space l i m i t a t i o n s . 2 3  108 number now by  of  violations,  compare the  this  as  case  utterance  Lia  well  with ve  as  that  "Lia  the  least  of  the  serious  ones.  obstruents,  Let  us  exemplified  sees'.  (94)  INPUT  Cand  o o  N  I  fifi  II B1e / L1A B lat  1 fi  /I IN ix  fx ix  COR  i  a  S  \l a t L1A B  COR  »Cand  0  1  fx fl ix fi  e  \l a t  | +cont  /I  IN fi  IN  hi fl fX fX  \l 1 1 \/ 1  1 LAB  COR | -cont  o  /IIN  /I IN  N  3  0 0  \ll i 1 1 \b /e 1 a  1 1 1/ 1  1  2  0 0  a  /N  U  l i a  \l a t  fie 1 COR  l i a  | -cont  COR | -cont  | +cont  * i*  STRENGTH ASSIM  *cePL  aPL  *aPL  SPL  \  / cont  5  PARSE  acont  ALIGN L , [-cont],  o  NAS  [-cont]  LAT  [-cont]  ALIGN  PARSE GEM  * ;**  L ,  [-cont],  UTT  PLACE  lilies  [-cont]  FILL  [-cont]  FILL  [+cont]  The  Cand  /I N1 IN /I  1  NAS  1  tableau  i n s e r t i o n  of  **  lllllllp^  i n  (94)  iiiiiiiiiii^^  i l l u s t r a t e s  [-cont],  such  as  a  that nasal  i f or  nothing a  else  l a t e r a l ,  forces the  the  109 constraint the  left  requiring edge  of  that  emerges  candidate instance  of  The while  other  strengthening  has  closed  been  argued  that  due  the  to  i n i t i a l l y  found  the  was  by  i n  stops,  i t  or  here. a  the  of  the  onset  the  w i l l is  feature  always the  [-cont]  ensure  one  with  that a  of  cases  of here  surfaces  a  closed  with  that  the  the  leftmost  in  able  which to  find  the  of  i t the to  that  which  6,  i t  was  is  not  surfaces  word-  / r /  associated  preceding a  mora  to coda  does  interpreted  f r i c a t i v e s  is  not as  surface  segments.  w i l l  thesis,  i l l u s t r a t e  determine  s y l l a b l e  is  strengthening  this  these  that  phonetically  to  when  rather  environments  Appendix  a  observed  environment  because  continuant  other  is  which  with  is  chapter  this  associated  being  exemplifying  In  but  / r /  not,  t r i l l  place  being  by  the  t r i l l  of  following  in  be,  surprising  the  as  to as  is  consonant.  sharing  tableaux is  position  mora,  that  not  strengthening  obstruents  [+cont]  obstruents  However,  proposed  t r i l l  Given  thereof,  series  a  which  proposed  syllables  lack  by  means  is  Other  of  optimal  in  interpreted  consonant. result  as  of in  addition  phonetically mora  utterance  context  are  after  the  alignment  [-cont].  segments  a  the  the  of not  on  how  optimal  p.  the  obstruents, be 120, OT  forms.  examined offers analysis  110 7.3  Summary In  the  this  chapter  strengthening  obstruents.  It  I  have  facts  has  been  possible  within  the  by  of  relative  means  the  degree It  of  of  has  been  other  with  play  / r /  argued  results  the  feature  a  to  role  in  of  of  those such  a  this  from  the  [-cont], the cases  of  that  the  analysis  which  is  Theory  evaluate  of  environments  the  constraints  c r u c i a l l y  strengthening involving  by  output.  disjunction  which  r e l a t i n g  Optimality  constraints  fact  of  exhibited u n i f i e d  potential  that  the  p o s s i b i l i t y  framework  ranking  ensure  the  to  that  theoretical  claimed  constraints not  of  well-formedness  a p p l i c a t i o n  dealing  does  the  explored  / r / .  of  interact  with  obstruents,  Ill CHAPTER  8.0  Summary o f This  has  been  concerned  representation  of  the  between  the  position,  may  contrast  / r /  in  the  following  CONCLUSIONS  Thesis  thesis  i n t e r v o c a l i c  8:  Spanish  i n t e r v o c a l i c  vibrants. tap be  position  underlying  (95)  with  the  It  and  has  the  accounted  which  proper  phonological  been  claimed  t r i l l  for  surfaces  by  as  that  observed  in  considering  a  t r i l l  as  an  having  representation:  /i I r  The a  notion  t r i l l ,  where  has  a  and  closed t r i l l  surfaces:  emerged  Position";  by  the  onset  immediately  preceding  is  a  coda  absence  found,  coda  p o s i t i o n  case  of  was  mora  of  and  which  weakening  to  i t of  by  virtue  the  rule  closed  of  sharing  as  / r /  a is  tap,  is  subject  in  moraic a  assigned  a  "Weight / r /  by was  with  the  moraic.  argued to  a  of  place  environments was  a  syllable,  other  It  always  of  (in  after  left  always  was  discussed.  which  a  is  that the  which  in  surfaces  of  p o s i t i o n  argued to  of  positions  p o s i t i o n  mora / r /  correlate  other  coda  onset  a  after  a l l  in  was  application  t r i l l  also  for  in  position,  segment  a  phonological  w o r d - i n i t i a l l y ,  position  to  tap  the  account  addition  i n  associated  The  to  speech)  independent in  as  W o r d - i n i t i a l l y ,  word;  the  / r /  extended  s y l l a b l e .  by  moraic  emphatic  phonological mora  a  been  t r i l l  careful  of  where that  be this  only an  the  / r /  regarded  as  i n a  environment.  112 It  was  also  claimed  that  tautosyllabic  cluster,  be  to  associated  disallowed It t r i l l in  has  as  a  other  stress  and  also  of  Nuclear by  [+continuant]  and  feature [lateral]  second  element  structure,  e x p l a i n i n g why a  that / r /  h i s t o r i c a l account of a  t r i l l  is  i n  could  a  never  c a t e g o r i c a l l y  / l /  as  which  d i r e c t l y  offers  views  a  definite  advantages  s y l l a b l e  structure,  for  i n the  Chapters  6  and  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  7, / r /  way.  (Shaw  here  1992),  the  represents of  provides the  support  feature  representation  [-continuant]  dependent  as  which  development.  developed  (1994),  analysis  proposed  related  Model  an  such  accounting  analysis  Padgett  geometry as  i n  Moraic  and  the  prosodic  concluded  p o s s i b i l i t y  the  as  Spanish phonology,  obstruents  proposed  its  phonologically moraic  F i n a l l y , the  been  strengthening  the  / r /  position.  assignment,  the  given  mora,  this  areas  The offers  i n  a  an  (Tato  [sonorant] the  root  (Sagey (Shaw  geometry  of  1981)  for  / r /  ,  and 1986)  1991)  .  as the and  113 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Alarcos Llorach, Madrid. Alemany, J . Espanola,  Emilio.  (1965) .  Fonologia  Espanola,  (1967). Nuevo Diccionario Ilustrado E d i t o r i a l Sopena, Barcelona.  Allen, J.H.D. (1964) . 20, 295-321.  "Tense/Lax  i n C a s t i l i a n  de  Gredos,  la  Spanish,"  Lengua  i n  Word  A l o n s o , Amado a n d Raimundo L i d a . (1945) . 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"The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e M u l t i p l e Vibrant to the F r i c a t i v e Velar i n the Spanish of Puerto Rico," i n Orbis 23, 81-84.  120 APPENDIX A These  series  of  intend  proposed  to  i n  The  presented  i n  determining Each the  tableau word,  7,  is  presented  how  the  able  representations, Chapter  l i m i t a t i o n s . have  are  i l l u s t r a t e  Chapter  outputs.  [voice]  tableaux  7,  Features been the is  have such  optimal preceded  followed  by  its  by  account  as  was  been  the  following Theory  for  the  the  case  crucial  however,  orthographic  phonetic  due  analysis  the to  ones space  [sonorant]  features  have  pages.  grammatical  with  s i m p l i f i e d  [consonantal],  The  forms,  the  Optimality  to  as  omitted.  i n  a l l  involved  been  and  i n  included.  representation  r e a l i z a t i o n  and  gloss.  of  121 (96)  desde  'from'  INPUT  [des.Se]  Candidate  o  ix  1 D  e  s  /N  1  hx  D  e  1 COR COR | COR +cont  jX / 6  l e  COR COR |<COR> | +cont +cont  IX  /I / N  ix ix  ix  N  \l 1 1 d  o  l\ 1  /N  e  s  "^Candidate  d  1 1  / l e  COR C O R COR | | +cont -cont -cont  a o  l\ /I  /N  ix  1  aPL  *aPL  6PL  \  / cont  5  PARSE  /N  a a  ix  e  COR | -cont  s  a  NAS  [-cont]  LAT  [-cont]  ALIGN  [-cont], PARSE GEM  * j**  L , UTT  PLACE [-cont]  FILL  [-cont]  FILL  [+cont]  **  5  / l e  \ / COR | <COR> +cont  Qfcont  ALIGN L , [-cont],  /I  N  ASSIM  *aPL  a  \l 1 1 d  3  /I  1  * i *  STRENGTH NAS  l\  fx  2  a o  / N  /II e s 1/  §  Candidate  a  l\  u  1  iiiiiiiiiii^  122 (97)  ambos  'both'  INPUT  [am.bos]  Candidate  a N  1  \  1  a  a  / N \  N  1 a m B o s 1 1 /1 1 / 1 1 a m fi o s NAS L A B COR / 11 LAB | NAS L A B COR fX  +cont  fX  LAB  Candidate  fX fX  |  | +cont -cont +cont  \  IX  2  a  0  / N \  N  IX  fL fl  1 1 / 1 1 a  m  S  o  s  NAS [/<LAB> LAB COR  1  +cont  ^Candidate  1  +cont  0 \  fX  3  / N \  fX  fX fX  1 1 / 1 1 a  m  b o s  NAS / < L A B > LAB COR  1  -cont  1  +cont  STRENGTH NAS  * !  ASSIM  *aPL  cvPL  *aPL  fiPL  \ / <5 c o n t PARSE  cecont  ALIGN L , [-cont],  IIIIIIIIS o  NAS  [-cont]  LAT  [-cont]  * !  ALIGN L , [-cont], UTT PARSE  PLACE  GEM  [-cont]  FILL  [-cont]  FILL  [+cont]  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ l i i i i B  123 (98)  caldo  INPUT  'broth'  [kal.do]  Candidate  1  0 p k  1 1 D1o / C1O R LAT a  COR  0  IW  p  U  ^Candidate  l\  / N \ / p p  / N p  1  / l 6 o  \/k a1  / 1  LAT COR DORS COR |  DORS  1  |  +cont  -cont -cont  -cont  a  IW  \l 1 k  DORS  a  / l 1  1 -cont -cont  o  d o  / N \ p p  p  \/ 1 k  a  1  1 -cont H-cont  QfPL  \  / cont  PARSE ALIGN  cvcont  * !  L ,  [-cont],  o  NAS  [-cont]  LAT  [-cont]  ALIGN L , [-cont], UTT PARSE  PLACE  GEM  [-cont]  FILL  [-cont]  FILL  [+cont]  * ! **  liilllllll^^  / N p  / l 5 o  i /  *aPL SPL 6  l\  LAT /<COR> DORS COR  ASSIM  *aPL  3  a  l\\  l\  / N p  LAT /<COR> COR  STRENGTH NAS  Candidate  a  / N \ p p  p  2  124 (99)  alba  INPUT  -dawn'  ^Cand  1  o ix  /x  1  a  1  B  1a  / L1A B lat COR  Cand  a  \\  /I  N \  ix  IX  a  1  1  [al.Sa]  2  a  \\  / N  N  \ p.  ix  Cand  a  l\  / N  \  IX  fx  / 1 1 /1 a l b a / L1A B / 1 lat lat LAB. JS a  COR | |+cont +cont  COR | |-cont +cont  3  Cand  a  a  \\  N  l\  IN  \  u  li  ii  1  / 1 a / 1 lat LAB  a  4  a  a  l\  /I  N \  u  / N  U  li  1  / 1 / L1A B lat  1  S  a  COR  /  COR | |+cont -cont  V +cont  1  iS a  STRENGTH NAS  ASSIM  *aPL aPL *aPL  iSPL  \  / cont  b  *!  PARSEacont ALIGN L , [-cont],  * ! o  NAS  [-cont]  LAT  [-cont]  ALIGN  *  * *|*  L ,  [-cont], UTT PARSE  PLACE  GEM  [-cont]  FILL  [-cont]  FILL  [+cont]  **  llllllllll^ !!!!ll§§^^  * *  125 (100)  arde  INPUT  *(it)  »Cand  a  \X  ix  1  a  1e 1  r  D  COR COR  1  burns'  1  Cand  a  l \ N \  ix  IX  //IN u  1 1 / 1 a  r  1/  COR  6  e  <COR>  •i-cont  -i-cont  [ar.de]  2  a  a  \\  l\  N \  /N  u i a  Cand  a r  fx  3  a  o  l\  /I / N  N \  IX  Cand  u  u  4  a  a  \\  //IN  N \  ix  a  a  1 / 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 /1 d e a r d e a r 5 e 1 1 \l  COR COR | |-cont 4-cont  COR <COR> | -cont <+cont>  COR COR | | -i-cont -i-cont  STRENGTH NAS  ASSIM  *!  *aPL aPL *aPL SPL \ 5  / cont  *!  PARSEacont ALIGN L , [-cont],  o  NAS  [-cont]  LAT  [-cont]  *i*  ALIGN L , [-cont] ,UTT PARSE GEM  PLACE  *  lllllllllllllllliillilllilillllll  [-cont]  FILL  [-cont]  FILL  [-i-cont ]  llilllilllllllliilllliillillllli  *  126 (101)  Israel  INPUT  ^Candidate  a  \\  M  M M  1  'Israel'  N \  1  o a  l\ \\  / NN  r  \  a  COR  COR  +cont -f-cont  Candidate  a  M M / M M M 1e 1 1 11 / 1 1 1 / i s r a e 1 COR l a t  i s  [is.ra.el]  \ / / COR lat |<COR> COR +cont <+cont> -i-cont  \\  N \ M M  2  o a  l\ l\ \  Candidate  a  N \  / M M M  M M  II / I I r a e 1 1 1 / COR C O R l a t  i s  \ / COR -f-cont <+cont> +cont  a a  l\  / N N  /I l \ \  / N N /  M  aPL  *aPL  6PL  \  / cont  6  | COR +cont <+cont> -cont +cont  * !  PARSEcecont ALIGN L , [-cont],  *  *  *  *  a  NAS  [-cont]  LAT  [-cont]  * i*  ALIGN L , [-cont],UTT PARSE GEM  PLACE  111111  [-cont]  FILL  [-cont]  FILL  [+cont]  M  11 / 1 1 r a e 1 1 1 / COR C O R l a t  ASSIM  *aPL  M  i s  STRENGTH NAS  3  llllllll^^  127 (102)  enredo  INPUT  'entanglement'  ^Candidate 1 a  /x 1 en / nas  M M  1 1 r e D o 1 1 COR COR  COR  a  l\  N \  MM  Candidate 2 o  /I //IN  N \  /M / M  MM  / N  II / 1 / 1 r e 6 o / \ 1 1 nas COR COR en  <C0R>  +cont  a  -t-cont  | +cont  [en.re.6o]  \\  a  a  / N  / N  l\ l\  /M / M  II / 1 / 1 r e <5 o / 1 1 nas COR COR en  COR | | +cont -cont +cont  Candidate 3 o  l\ N \  MM  a  a  /I /I /N  /M  / N  / M  II /r 1 / 1 e d o / \ 1 1  en  nas COR COR <C0R> | -cont -t-cont  STRENGTH NAS ASSIM  * !  *cvPL aPL *cvPL iSPL \ / 6 cont PARSEacont ALIGN L, [-cont], a NAS [-cont] LAT  *  *  [-cont]  ALIGN L, [-cont],UTT  * 1  llllillllllB  PARSE PLACE GEM  [-cont]  FILL  [-cont]  FILL  [+cont]  Iflllllllfc  ic * *  128 (103)  alrededor [al. re .  'around'  5e . 66r]  INPUT  Candidate  a  n  /x  ix  ii  N \  a  a  /N  /N  1  a /N \  Candidate  a N  o \  a  / N  / N  //X  //X  2  a /N \  ii ii a p. ii ^ I I I r e D e D o r / 1 /1 1 \C O R C O1R C O1R a1l r /e 16 e /6 1o r / 1 a11 I /r 1 e S e S o r / C\O R C O1R MC O R 1 1 COR l a t COR COR COR COR |lat COR | COR 1 lat COR | -cont -i-cont |  1 a l  /X  +cont  +cont  <COR>  +cont  +cont  +cont  /X  H-cont  -i-cont  -i-cont  +cont STRENGTH NAS  ASSIM  *aPL  CKPL  *aPL  6PL  \  / cont  5  PARSEacont ALIGN  *!  L ,  [-cont],  o  NAS  [-cont]  LAT  [-cont]  ALIGN  llllllllll^^  L ,  [-cont],UTT PARSE GEM  PLACE [-cont]  FILL  [-cont]  FILL  [+cont]  //XLX  l l l l l l l ^ ^  **  

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