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The role enactment questionnaire : reliability and validity testing Sleigh, Kenna Marie 1995

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/fi-^C/f 2  THE ROLE ENACTMENT QUESTIONNAIRE: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY TESTING by KENNA MARIE SLEIGH B.S.N., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1990 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Nursing We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 199 5 ® Kenna Marie S l e i g h ,  1995  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by his or  her  representatives.  It  is understood that copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Scuao  Department of  l  C  F  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  flue^us  r  z-< ,  /'its  /J^^si^JC.  11 Abstract In d u a l - e a r n e r r e s e a r c h , t h e r e i s a d e a r t h of p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound instruments t h a t measure r o l e q u a l i t y . The author examined the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of a new  instrument, the Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  The REQ  measures two r o l e s t r e s s o r s :  role disparity,  role intensity  i n the paid-work, spouse, parent,  individual roles.  R e l i a b i l i t y was  assessed by  the REQ s i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and t e s t - r e t e s t 1  C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was analysis  (CFA)  The REQ with c h i l d r e n  s i x years or younger.  indicated  t h a t the REQ  were developed  very  income  s u b s c a l e s t h a t captured individual  Test-retest was  stable.  Ten  from demographic p r e d i c t o r s of  r o l e i n t e n s i t y and r o l e d i s p a r i t y .  Seven of the  hypotheses  were confirmed by s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . was  factor  parents  The sample was  i n the paid-work and  r o l e s , Cronbach's alphas were h i g h .  hypotheses  reliability.  education, and  With the e x c e p t i o n of two  calculations  calculating  a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 165 d u a l - e a r n e r  the i n t e n s i t y dimension  and  testing.  homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t t o age, levels.  and  e v a l u a t e d through c o n f i r m a t o r y  and h y p o t h e s i s  was  (REQ).  somewhat s u p p o r t i v e of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y but  CFA  also  demonstrated some l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y i n c a p t u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t being measured by the  instrument.  Hypothesis t e s t i n g i d e n t i f i e d the c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u e n c e  Ill of gender r o l e norms on t h e d u a l - e a r n e r l i f e s t y l e , sample.  in this  A t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f labour dominated t h e  a l l o c a t i o n o f domestic  d u t i e s and work-role  involvement.  Nurses who work with d u a l - e a r n e r parents can use demographic p r e d i c t o r s t o i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s v u l n e r a b l e t o role stress  as measured by r o l e i n t e n s i t y and r o l e  disparity.  Similarly,  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and nurse  can use these p r e d i c t o r s t o address p e r s o n n e l and students,  educators  issues a f f e c t i n g  respectively.  Although t h e study recommends some refinement o f t h e REQ based on r e l i a b i l i t y  and v a l i d i t y r e s u l t s , t h e  instrument shows promise f o r use i n the f i e l d o f d u a l - e a r n e r research.  iv Table o f Contents Page Abstract  11  T a b l e o f Contents  iv  L i s t of Tables  vii  L i s t of Figures Acknowledgements CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION  viii ix 1  Background Problem Statement Purpose Research Questions D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Conceptual Framework Hypotheses Role I n t e n s i t y Role D i s p a r i t y Conclusion Chapter Summary  1 7 7 7 8 9 10 10 12 13 13  CHAPTER TWO:  15  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  The Nature and Impact of Roles Aspects o f Role Q u a l i t y Role Issues A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Dual-earner F a m i l i e s w i t h Young C h i l d r e n Demands o f the Parent Role Demands o f the Spouse Role Demands o f the Paid-work Role Demands of t h e I n d i v i d u a l Role The I n t e r a c t i o n o f Role Demands and A t t i t u d e s Control Acceptability The Importance of C o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n i n Dual-earner Research Instrumentation D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e REQ Psychometric P r o p e r t i e s o f t h e REQ Reliability Validity C r i t i q u e o f the REQ  16 20 24 24 26 28 30 32 33 35 38 41 44 44 45 46 47  V Methods o f Supporting Construct Conclusion Chapter Summary CHAPTER THREE:  Validity  49 51 52  METHOD  53  Sample Sample Recruitment Sample C r i t e r i a Inclusion C r i t e r i a Exclusion C r i t e r i a Study Procedures R e l i a b i l i t y Testing V a l i d i t y Testing Hypothesis T e s t i n g Confirmatory F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Data A n a l y s i s Assumptions Limitations E t h i c a l Considerations Benefits of P a r t i c i p a t i o n R i s k s from P a r t i c i p a t i o n Conclusion Chapter Summary  53 53 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 58 59 60 61 61 61 62  CHAPTER FOUR:  63  PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS  Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Reliability I n t e r n a l Consistency Test-retest R e l i a b i l i t y Construct V a l i d i t y Hypothesis T e s t i n g Role I n t e n s i t y Role D i s p a r i t y Confirmatory F a c t o r A n a l y s i s A n a l y s i s one ( i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y ) A n a l y s i s two ( i n t e n s i t y i n f o u r r o l e s ) Analysis three ( d i s p a r i t y i n four roles) Chapter Summary  63 68 68 73 77 77 78 93 102 102 106 110 113  vi CHAPTER FIVE:  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  115  C o n c l u s i o n s from T o o l T e s t i n g R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of t h e REQ I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T o o l Development Tool Revision The Paid-work Role The Spouse Role The Parent Role The I n d i v i d u a l Role Future Psychometric T e s t i n g o f t h e REQ U t i l i t y o f t h e REQ f o r Nursing C o n c l u s i o n s from Hypothesis T e s t i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Nursing C l i n i c a l Practice Nursing Education Nursing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Nursing Research Chapter Summary Concluding Comments T h e s i s Summary  115 115 118 118 118 12 0 121 121 122 12 3 124 125 127 127 128 13 0 131 131 132  REFERENCES  134  APPENDIX A: APPENDIX B:  The Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Cover L e t t e r  156 165  vii L i s t of T a b l e s Table  Page  T a b l e 1.  Number and ages of c h i l d r e n  64  T a b l e 2.  Dual-earners' hours of work  66  Table 3 .  I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y : Comparison o f f i n d i n g s f o r r o l e dimensions  69  I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y : Comparison o f f i n d i n g s f o r r o l e components  70  T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y : Comparison of f i n d i n g s f o r r o l e dimensions  74  T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y : Comparison of f i n d i n g s f o r r o l e components  75  Table 7.  T e s t s c o r e s f o r d u a l - e a r n e r men and women  78  Table 8.  I n t e n s i t y s c o r e s f o r d u a l - e a r n e r women  84  Table 9.  I n t e n s i t y scores f o r dual-earners  85  T a b l e 4. Table 5. Table 6.  Table 10. T e s t s c o r e s i n t h e paid-work r o l e f o r dual-earners  89  T a b l e 11. Number o f working hours f o r men and women  92  T a b l e 12 . D i s p a r i t y s c o r e s f o r d u a l - e a r n e r s  93  vm L i s t of F i g u r e s Figure F i g u r e l . The antecedents of r o l e s t r a i n  Page 10  ix Acknowledgements I wish t o p r a i s e my t h e s i s c h a i r , Wendy H a l l , f o r h e r uncanny a b i l i t y t o know when t o push, when t o p u l l , and when t o l e t go. I am a l s o indebted t o t h e o t h e r members o f my t h e s i s committee, Marion Clauson and Ray Thompson, f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e , support, and encouragement. I must a l s o thank my employers, Dr. Anthony Chow and Dr. Grant S t i v e r , f o r g i v i n g me t h e time and space I needed to f i n i s h t h i s project. F i n a l l y , a huge debt o f g r a t i t u d e i s owed t o my f r i e n d s and f a m i l y . Many thanks t o L i n d a and Gary; Anna, Cyndi, and L i n d a ; my s i s t e r , Chick; and my nephew, M i c h a e l .  1 CHAPTER ONE Background One o f t h e most dramatic  s o c i a l changes t h a t has  o c c u r r e d i s t h e i n f l u x of women i n t o t h e labour f o r c e (Ghalam, 1993).  S t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l t h a t i n 1991, 45% o f t h e  labour f o r c e c o n s i s t e d o f women, compared w i t h 36% i n 1975 (Ghalam, 1993).  A s i g n i f i c a n t feature of t h i s trend i s the  i n c r e a s e d number of married women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p a i d employment.  In 1991, 56% o f married  Canadian women were  employed o u t s i d e t h e home (Ghalam, 1993).  By v i r t u e o f t h i s  labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e number o f d u a l - e a r n e r f a m i l i e s has i n c r e a s e d t o 62%, making t h i s model o f Canadian l i f e t h e norm (Ghalam,  1993).  Of note i s t h e number of married women who a r e remaining years.  i n paid-work p o s i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e a r i n g  W i t h i n t h i s group, women with p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n  have shown t h e g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e (Cowan & Cowan, 1992; Googins & Burden, 1987; L e v a n t h a l - B e l f e r , Matthews, 1989; P r e s s e r , 1988).  & Rodin,  Since 1981 t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f employed  Canadian mothers with p r e s c h o o l e r s rose from 42% t o 57% (Ghalam,  1993).  The d u a l - e a r n e r spouse, parent,  occupies t h e s o c i a l r o l e s o f worker,  and i n d i v i d u a l  ( H a l l , 1987).  This multiple  r o l e p a t t e r n leads t o a complex l i f e s t y l e i n v o l v i n g numerous obligations  (Anderson-Kulman  & P a l u d i , 1986).  A concern  2 t h a t the o b l i g a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m u l t i p l e r o l e s  may  prove c h a l l e n g i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l s has i n c r e a s i n g l y permeated the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e Wethington,  1989;  (Bolger, D e l o n g i s , K e s s l e r , &  H i r s c h & Rapkin, 1986;  Verbrugge,  1986).  Researchers examining m u l t i p l e r o l e s have been guided by one of two t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s :  the s c a r c i t y  h y p o t h e s i s or the expansion h y p o t h e s i s (Froberg, G j e r d i n g e n , & P r e s t o n , 1986;  Marks, 1977).  Both p e r s p e c t i v e s are based  on the concept of human energy.  However, the outcomes of  m u l t i p l e r o l e involvement p r e d i c t e d by the two are d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed.  hypotheses  The s c a r c i t y h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t s  r o l e s t r a i n f o r m u l t i p l e r o l e incumbents,  w h i l e the  expansion h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t s r o l e g r a t i f i c a t i o n 1960;  Marks, 1977).  (Goode,  The presence of f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t i v e of  both p e r s p e c t i v e s suggests m u l t i p l e r o l e s can r e s u l t i n both harmful and b e n e f i c i a l outcomes ( H a l l , 1993; Barnett,  Marshall &  1993).  Of the two hypotheses,  the expansion h y p o t h e s i s has  r e c e i v e d the most e m p i r i c a l support (Barnett, B i e n e r , & Baruch,  1987;  Froberg e t a l . ,  Waldron, 1989).  1986;  R e p e t t i , Matthews, &  However, both the expansion h y p o t h e s i s and  the s c a r c i t y h y p o t h e s i s are l i m i t e d because they f o c u s on the number of r o l e s an i n d i v i d u a l performs 1992;  Pietromonaco,  Manis,  (Piechowski,  & Frohardt-Lane, 1986).  e t a l . (1986) argue t h a t "the consequence of r o l e  Froberg  3 accumulation should depend not o n l y on the number o f r o l e s occupied but on types o f r o l e s and t h e i r (p. 84). V a r i a t i o n s  characteristics"  i n t h e q u a l i t y of r o l e s a l l o w f o r  considerable individual differences  i n t h e outcomes  associated with r o l e s . Study f i n d i n g s  that  a f f i r m the benign e f f e c t o f  m u l t i p l e r o l e s but f a i l t o c o n s i d e r r o l e q u a l i t y may mask the  r i s k s of r o l e s t r a i n  (Froberg e t a l . , 1986; H i r s c h &  Rapkin, 1986; M a r s h a l l & B a r n e t t , 1993). couple w i t h young c h i l d r e n that  The d u a l - e a r n e r  r e p r e s e n t s a p o p u l a t i o n subgroup  e x p e r i e n c e s i n t e n s e and f r e q u e n t l y non-negotiable r o l e  demands.  Such r o l e demands may a t t e n u a t e t h e b e n e f i c i a l  e f f e c t s o f m u l t i p l e r o l e s and r e s u l t i n r o l e s t r a i n  (Kessler  & McRae, 1982; Waldron & Jacobs, 1989). To  address these i s s u e s ,  H i r s c h and Rapkin  (198 6)  suggest r e s e a r c h e r s i d e n t i f y the c o n d i t i o n s which account f o r such d i v e r g e n t outcomes as r o l e s t r a i n and r o l e gratification.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s l i n e o f r e s e a r c h has not  been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y Guelzow, B i r d ,  investigated  & Koball,  model i s c o n s i s t e n t l y  1991).  (Burke & McKeen, 1988; C u r r e n t l y , no  used t o e x p l a i n  r o l e antecedents t o r o l e outcomes. considerable d i f f i c u l t y study  findings.  interpreting  empirical  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  This results i n and s y n t h e s i z i n g extant  4 In order t o determine the e f f e c t s of r o l e  antecedents  on r o l e outcomes i t i s important t o develop and comprehensive  models.  Pearlin  test  (1989) suggests r e s e a r c h e r s  use a s o c i o l o g i c a l model of the s t r e s s p r o c e s s t o investigate  r o l e phenomena.  Ward (1986) has developed a  t h e o r e t i c a l framework which d e s c r i b e s the antecedents consequences  of r o l e s t r e s s .  Ward's (1986) framework  proposes r o l e s t r e s s antecedents which "do not always t o r o l e s t r a i n , but i n f a c t may desirable" 44).  and  lead  produce the o p p o s i t e ,  outcome of r o l e g r a t i f i c a t i o n  (Ward, 1986,  p.  M e d i a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s determine the r o l e outcome. Integral  to operationalizing  and t e s t i n g the antecedent  components of Ward's (1986) model i s r e l i a b l e and instrumentation.  In order t o be u s e f u l  valid  an instrument must  be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Ward's (1986) framework, r e l a t e t o t h e o r e t i c a l l y c l e a r c o n s t r u c t s , and be capable of s i m u l t a n e o u s l y measuring  r o l e s t r e s s antecedents which a r i s e  from the work and f a m i l y domains (Frone, R u s s e l l 1991;  P a r r y & Warr, 1980).  s u i t a b l e f o r both  Furthermore,  & Cooper,  the t o o l should be  genders.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c u r r e n t p u b l i s h e d instruments f a i l meet these c r i t e r i a .  to  Some t o o l s are not s t r u c t u r e d t o  capture antecedents of r o l e s t r a i n without the assumption i n h e r e n t n e g a t i v e outcomes.  The P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s S c a l e  (Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983)  p r e c l u d e s the  of  5 p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p o s i t i v e r o l e outcome f o r respondents w i t h high scores.  The P e r c e i v e d Work-Family C o n f l i c t S c a l e  (Loerch, R u s s e l l , & Rush, 1989) a l s o i m p l i e s r o l e s t r a i n i s an i n e v i t a b l e outcome o f r o l e s t r e s s .  The S t r e s s Index  (Reifman, B i e r n a t , & Lang, 1991) muddies t h e c o n c e p t u a l waters by combining  items t h a t measure r o l e s t r e s s o r s w i t h  items t h a t measure r o l e  strain.  Other instruments have been developed  atheoretically  and a r e t a i l o r - m a d e f o r use i n a s i n g l e study  (Amatea &  Fong, 1991; Hibbard & Pope, 1985; Kandel, Davies, & Raveis, 1985;  Sears & Galambos, 1992; Voydanoff,  1988).  Such t o o l s  do not a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t r o l e s t r a i n antecedents. Moreover, c r i t i c s lament t h e use o f "one-shot" i n v e s t i g a t o r - d e s i g n e d instruments because e v a l u a t i o n i s seldom a v a i l a b l e et a l . ,  psychometric  (Johnson, 1989; Pietromonaco  1986).  Many instruments f a i l t o measure the combined e f f e c t s of f a m i l y and work r o l e s . (Ivancevich & Matteson,  The S t r e s s D i a g n o s t i c Survey  1980) and Burke's  (1988) Work  S t r e s s o r s t o o l measure work s t r e s s , o n l y .  S i m i l a r l y , the  P a r e n t i n g S t r e s s Index (Abidin, 1980) and t h e P a r e n t i n g D a i l y H a s s l e s S c a l e used by C r n i c and Booth  (1991) both t a p  s o l e y i n t o t h e f a m i l y r o l e domain. Other instruments a r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r men.  P a r r y and  Warr (1980) developed t h e HERS a t t i t u d e s c a l e s f o r working  6 c l a s s women w i t h young c h i l d r e n . Inventory  (Lengacher,  nursing students. used e x c l u s i v e l y  1993)  Hall's  The Lengacher  Role  Strain  measures r o l e s t r a i n i n female  Everyday S t r e s s o r s Index (1990) i s  i n r e s e a r c h t h a t s t u d i e s mothers.  Baruch and B a r n e t t ' s (1986) rewards and concerns are  scales  t h e o r y d r i v e n and assess the p a r e n t a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , and  m a r i t a l r o l e s f o r both genders. not i s o l a t e and q u a n t i f y d i s c r e t e impact on r o l e outcomes.  However, the instruments do r o l e antecedents t h a t  Moreover, rewarding  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each r o l e are s u b t r a c t e d from  distressing  r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which produces a balance s c o r e & B a r n e t t , 1986).  may  (Baruch  T h i s method of s c o r i n g masks the r o l e  a s p e c t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o outcomes. Hall's  (1993) Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (REQ)  instrument t h a t may  not be s u b j e c t t o the  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h other t o o l s .  The REQ  two r o l e s t r e s s antecedents proposed  i s an  limitations  (Appendix A) measures i n Ward's (1986)  framework, r o l e i n t e n s i t y and r o l e d i s p a r i t y . capable of measuring work and non-work s t r e s s genders.  P r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g suggests the REQ  and v a l i d  ( H a l l , 1993).  The t o o l i s i n both is reliable  But, b e f o r e t h i s t o o l can be used  by r e s e a r c h e r s or c l i n i c i a n s t o measure r o l e  stress  antecedents i n h e r e n t i n the d u a l - e a r n e r l i f e s t y l e , psychometric t e s t i n g must be  conducted.  in-depth  7 Problem  Statement  Progress towards understanding r o l e s t r a i n i n t h e d u a l - e a r n e r p o p u l a t i o n i s hampered because c u r r e n t instruments do not focus on r o l e s t r e s s or antecedents t o strain.  The r e c e n t l y developed REQ ( H a l l , 1993) i s a t o o l  t h a t measures r o l e i n t e n s i t y and r o l e d i s p a r i t y i n t h e p a i d work, spouse, parent, and i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s .  Furthermore,  r o l e i n t e n s i t y and r o l e d i s p a r i t y a r e concepts t h a t a r e not u b i q u i t o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d with r o l e s t r a i n . a l s o have t h e p o t e n t i a l  These concepts  to result i n role gratification.  Thus t h e REQ may be u t i l i z e d  i n r e s e a r c h examining t h e  p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e outcomes o f r o l e q u a l i t y . p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g supports the r e l i a b i l i t y  and v a l i d i t y o f  the t o o l , more e x t e n s i v e psychometric t e s t i n g T h e r e f o r e , the r e l i a b i l i t y  Although  i s warranted.  and v a l i d i t y o f t h e REQ r e q u i r e  assessment. Purpose The purpose o f t h i s study i s t o assess t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f the REQ which measures two antecedents o f role strain:  r o l e i n t e n s i t y and r o l e Research  disparity.  Questions  1. What i s t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ? 2. What i s t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ?  of t h e Role  8 3. What i s the  c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the  Role Enactment  Questionnaire? D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 1.  Internal  consistency:  Internal  e v a l u a t e s the homogeneity of an the  instrument and  " c o n s i s t e n c y of performance of a group of  a c r o s s the p.  consistency  items on a s i n g l e t e s t "  i s defined  as  individuals  (Waltz & B a u s e l l ,  1981,  62) . 2. T e s t - r e t e s t  measures the "the  reliability:  s t a b i l i t y of an  Test-retest  instrument and  c o n s i s t e n c y of performance one  group of s u b j e c t s on two (Waltz, S t r i c k l a n d , 3.  & Lenz, 1984,  extent t h a t  c o n s t r u c t or t r a i t "  i s defined  as  measure e l i c i t s from  one  separate measurement o c c a s i o n s "  Construct v a l i d i t y :  based on the  reliability  p.  135).  A "tool's construct v a l i d i t y i s  a t e s t measures a  theoretical  (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 1986,  p.  187).  Conceptual Framework Hall's  (1993) r o l e antecedent framework i s used t o  support hypotheses t h a t REQ.  The  t e s t the  framework proposes t h a t  c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of s t r a i n and  gratification  r e s u l t from r o l e s t r e s s antecedents f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n the  paid-work, spouse, parent, and  antecedents are disparity. e f f o r t an  engaged  individual roles.  i d e n t i f i e d , r o l e i n t e n s i t y and  Role i n t e n s i t y d e s c r i b e s the i n d i v i d u a l devotes to the  the  Two  role  amount of time  and  f o u r r o l e components.  9 Role d i s p a r i t y r e p r e s e n t s the d i s c r e p a n c y an i n d i v i d u a l experiences between r o l e " e x p e c t a t i o n s , e x i s t i n g and a c t u a l  behaviours"  ( H a l l , 1993, p. 59).  Because t h e l i t e r a t u r e demonstrates t h a t antecedents  attitudes,  role  stress  and demographic r e s o u r c e s a r e c o r r e l a t e d ,  (1993) suggests r e s e a r c h e r s may p r e d i c t  r o l e i n t e n s i t y and  r o l e d i s p a r i t y by a s s e s s i n g demographic r e s o u r c e s . the c o n c e p t u a l framework, demographic v a r i a b l e s number o f c h i l d r e n ,  Hall  number of paid-work hours,  Thus, i n  such as education,  income, gender, and age a r e d e p i c t e d as a f f e c t i n g t h e degree of r o l e i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y t h a t (see F i g u r e 1 ) .  individuals  experience  10 F i g u r e 1. The antecedents  of role s t r a i n  Role Intensity  Hi Demographic Resources  rtiilttiiiiil « # children*; *s# w o r k hrs*; ^Education s sslncome ' , , ; sGender Age  | Work r o l e s in | Spouse r o l e jParent role i n d i v i d u a l roles  Intervening Conditions  f=>^ C o p i n g (=jf>^ R o l e Strain  Hi: mm Role Gratification Role Disparity  Note. From "Development and e a r l y t e s t i n g o f the Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " by W. A. H a l l , 1993. J o u r n a l o f Nursing Research. 25(4), p. 65.  Canadian  Adapted by  permission. Hypotheses The  following  hypotheses  between demographic v a r i a b l e s stress:  predict  and the i n d i c a t o r s  r o l e i n t e n s i t y and r o l e Role  1. Women a r e p r i m a r i l y  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of role  disparity.  Intensity responsible f o r c h i l d  care  (Crompton, 1991; M a r s h a l l & Barnett, 1993).  Thus, d u a l -  earner mothers w i l l score h i g h e r on the r o l e  intensity  dimension  o f the p a r e n t i n g r o l e than d u a l - e a r n e r  fathers.  11 2. Both genders tend t o overperform role:  i n one primary  Women focus on t h e f a m i l y r o l e and men focus on t h e  work r o l e  (Barnett e t a l . , 1987; Froberg e t a l . , 1986).  T h e r e f o r e , d u a l - e a r n e r f a t h e r s w i l l have h i g h e r i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s i n t h e paid-work r o l e than  role  dual-earner  mothers. 3. G r e a t e r numbers o f c h i l d r e n w i l l r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r women ( C l e a r y & Mechanic, 1983; S c h n i t t g e r & B i r d ,  1990; Verbrugge, 1986).  I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t d u a l - e a r n e r mothers w i t h more than one c h i l d w i l l have h i g h e r s c o r e s on the r o l e  intensity  dimension o f t h e parent and spouse r o l e s than  dual-earner  mothers w i t h one c h i l d . 4. I n d i v i d u a l s who earn h i g h incomes p r o b a b l y experience g r e a t e r o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e demands and responsibilities.  T h e r e f o r e , d u a l - e a r n e r s w i t h h i g h incomes  w i l l have h i g h e r r o l e i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s i n the paid-work r o l e than d u a l - e a r n e r s with low incomes. 5. An i n c r e a s e i n the number o f paid-work hours i n c r e a s e s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s work r o l e demands.  Thus, d u a l -  earners who work f u l l - t i m e w i l l have h i g h e r r o l e  intensity  s c o r e s i n t h e paid-work r o l e than d u a l - e a r n e r s who work part-time.  12 Role  Disparity  6. Dual-earners w i t h more than one c h i l d w i l l experience g r e a t e r d i s p a r i t y  i n t h e spouse and i n d i v i d u a l  r o l e s than d u a l - e a r n e r s with one c h i l d . 7.  Dual-earners who work f u l l - t i m e  week) w i l l experience g r e a t e r d i s p a r i t y  (over 30 hours a i n t h e paid-work  r o l e than d u a l - e a r n e r s who work p a r t - t i m e  (30 hours a week  or l e s s ) . 8. Some men experience d i f f i c u l t y c r e a t i n g a s a t i s f y i n g fatherhood r o l e 1987;  (Barnett e t a l . , 1987; Hanson & B o z e t t ,  Rotundo, 1985; S c o t t & Alwin, 1989).  parenting f o r fathers include:  Barriers to  heavy work demands,  ambiguous r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , and t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f mothers to y i e l d c h i l d care t u r f  (Baruch & B a r n e t t , 1986; Cowan &  Cowan, 1988; Hanson, 1985).  I t i s expected t h a t d u a l - e a r n e r  f a t h e r s w i l l have h i g h e r r o l e d i s p a r i t y s c o r e s i n t h e parent r o l e than d u a l - e a r n e r women. 9. Women a r e l e s s l i k e l y than men t o engage i n a c t i v i t i e s that are s e l f - r e l a t e d Bird,  1990).  ( H a l l , 1992; S c h n i t t g e r &  Thus, d u a l - e a r n e r mothers w i l l have h i g h e r  r o l e d i s p a r i t y s c o r e s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l r o l e than d u a l earner  fathers.  10. The l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t s t h a t women w i t h more e d u c a t i o n experience g r e a t e r congruence between t h e i r employment s t a t u s and t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e female  13 behaviour  (Kessler  & McRae, 1982).  mothers working f u l l - t i m e who preparation w i l l  Therefore, dual-earner  have c o l l e g e  or  professional  have lower r o l e d i s p a r i t y s c o r e s i n the  paid-work r o l e than dual-earner mothers working who  have a h i g h s c h o o l diploma  full-time  or l e s s .  Conclusion Dual-earner parents of p r e s c h o o l e r s experience r o l e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t may gratification. determine  how  (1993) REQ challenge.  lead t o r o l e s t r a i n or  The c h a l l e n g e f o r r e s e a r c h e r s i s t o role conditions influence  may  outcomes.  i s suitable  indicators  f o r both genders and  quantifies  two  disparity,  i n the paid-work, spouse, parent, and  of r o l e s t r e s s :  roles.  P r e l i m i n a r y psychometric  yielded  promising r e s u l t s .  clinical  Hall's  be an instrument i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o meet t h i s  The REQ  be performed  unique  b e f o r e the REQ  practitioners.  intensity  individual  t e s t i n g of the REQ  However, a d d i t i o n a l  and  has  t e s t i n g must  can be used by r e s e a r c h e r s or  T h i s study proposes  problem by t e s t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y Chapter  t o address  and v a l i d i t y of the  this REQ.  Summary  In the f i r s t chapter, the background i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d u a l - e a r n e r r e s e a r c h were i n t r o d u c e d . statement,  purpose,  In a d d i t i o n ,  problem  and r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d .  the reader was  the terms used  The  i n the study.  p r o v i d e d w i t h a d e f i n i t i o n of F i n a l l y , the c o n c e p t u a l  14 framework and t h e hypotheses d e r i v e d from i t were d e t a i l e d . In order t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e knowledge base, t h e study "must be p l a c e d i n t h e context of what s c i e n t i f i c work has gone b e f o r e "  (Wilson, 1987, p. 95).  Therefore, i n the  second chapter, t h e reader i s o f f e r e d a comprehensive and c r i t i c a l review of t h e l i t e r a t u r e .  15 CHAPTER TWO Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e Due  t o i n c r e a s e s i n job o p p o r t u n i t i e s , changes i n  s e x - r o l e a t t i t u d e s , and a steady d e c l i n e i n f a m i l i e s ' spending power, women have i n c r e a s e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e (Smith, 1979).  The most s t a r t l i n g  aspect  of t h i s t r e n d i s t h e number o f mothers who work d u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s preschool years.  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e f i n a n c i a l  n e c e s s i t y t o continue working w h i l e c h i l d r e n a r e v e r y young, mothers a r e u n w i l l i n g t o i n t e r r u p t t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n s & Parke,  (Power  1984).  Women's labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f d u a l - e a r n e r w i t h young c h i l d r e n .  families  Unfortunately, the l i t e r a t u r e  reflects,  a d i s t u r b i n g l a c k o f consensus r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f combining roles  t h e paid-work, spouse, parent, and i n d i v i d u a l  ( H a l l , 1993; Johnson & Johnson, 1980).  The f o l l o w i n g  review o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e addresses a number o f areas associated with t h i s issue i n c l u d i n g : impact  of roles,  (a) t h e nature and  (b) aspects o f r o l e q u a l i t y ,  (c) r o l e  i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d with dual-earner f a m i l i e s w i t h young children,  (d) t h e importance  earner r e s e a r c h and,  of c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n i n d u a l -  (e) i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n .  16 The Two  Nature and  Impact of Roles  dominant t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n the  literature  propose c o n f l i c t i n g outcomes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m u l t i p l e involvement: hypothesis posits drain  the  s c a r c i t y h y p o t h e s i s and  (Froberg et a l . , 1986).  The  the  role  expansion  s c a r c i t y hypothesis  t h a t m u l t i p l e r o l e s are harmful because they a c t as on the  individual's  energy r e s o u r c e s  a  (Goode, 1960).  Energy i s u t i l i z e d when i n d i v i d u a l s meet r o l e demands; as r o l e s accumulate, demands i n c r e a s e , and  obligations  mount.  Attempts t o f u l f i l t o t a l r o l e o b l i g a t i o n s  rapidly  the  Energy s u p p l i e s  individual's  f i n i t e energy r e s e r v e s .  become exhausted and  the  individual  r e s u l t i s r o l e s t r a i n , "the role obligations"  i s overwhelmed.  felt difficulty  (Goode, 1960,  p.  in  prove d e l e t e r i o u s  (Goode, 1960).  i n d i v i d u a l attempts to reduce the experienced.  The  The  fulfilling  483) .  Although some r o l e s t r a i n i s i n e v i t a b l e , may  deplete  high  Therefore,  l e v e l of  levels  the  strain  i n d i v i d u a l makes r o l e d e c i s i o n s  and  b a r g a i n s which are designed to d i m i n i s h r o l e demands (Barnett et a l . , 1987; 1986). the  I f r o l e s t r a i n i s not  i n d i v i d u a l may  distress  Goode, 1960;  Pietromonaco e t a l . ,  reduced to manageable l e v e l s  experience mental and/or  (Goode, 1960;  S c o t t & Alwin, 1989).  Researchers have used a v a r i e t y measure r o l e s t r a i n .  physical  Strain  of outcome v a r i a b l e s  is reflected  i n negative  to  17 a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s and may m a n i f e s t as:  f a t i g u e , exhaustion,  embarrassment,  somatization,  worry, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  d i s c o m f o r t , d e p r e s s i o n , a n x i e t y , o b s e s s i v e compulsiveness, and a n g e r / h o s t i l i t y  (McBride, 1990; Ward, 1986).  Indices of  job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , such as absenteeism and t u r n o v e r , a r e a l s o used t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e r o l e s t r a i n (1991) i d e n t i f i e s m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t ,  (Ward, 1986).  family  and i l l n e s s as e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s o f r o l e  Hall  dissatisfaction, strain.  In c o n t r a s t t o t h e s c a r c i t y h y p o t h e s i s , proponents o f the expansion h y p o t h e s i s argue t h a t s o c i a l involvements v i t a l i z e individuals  (Marks, 1977).  Marks (1977) proposes  a c t i v i t y s t i m u l a t e s the body t o produce energy and t h a t human beings have p e r p e t u a l l y renewing energy r e s o u r c e s . C o n d i t i o n s determine whether role activities  or not energy i s a v a i l a b l e f o r  (Marks, 1977).  "Persons c o n s t r u c t  response t o t h e demands o f o t h e r s "  their  (Marks, 1977, p. 927).  Thus, energy can be "found f o r a n y t h i n g t o which we a r e h i g h l y committed"  (Marks, 1977, p. 927).  i n d i v i d u a l i s committed  Roles i n which an  "may even c r e a t e energy f o r use i n  t h a t r o l e or i n other r o l e performances" (Marks, 1977, p. 926) . M u l t i p l e r o l e l i f e s t y l e s can a l s o be extremely gratifying.  S o c i e t y p r o v i d e s "both monetary and  non-monetary rewards f o r r o l e performance" 1986, p. 1237).  ( H i r s c h & Rapkin,  P r i v i l e g e s , status, security,  self-esteem,  18 personality  enrichment, and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m u l t i p l e r o l e enactment (Froberg e t a l . , 1986;  P u g l i e s i , 1989; T h o i t s ,  1983).  In a d d i t i o n ,  multiple  r o l e incumbents who experience g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n one r o l e may be p r o t e c t e d from n e g a t i v e experiences i n o t h e r  roles  (Barnett, M a r s h a l l , & Sayer, 1992). The  expansion h y p o t h e s i s a l s o acknowledges t h e  e x i s t e n c e o f r o l e s t r a i n , but s t r a i n i s a t t r i b u t e d  t o an  imbalance i n commitment l e v e l s among v a r i o u s r o l e s  i n the  set  (Marks, 1977).  When one r o l e i s p r e f e r r e d  the  i n d i v i d u a l spends more time performing  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t (Marks, 1977).  over o t h e r s ,  activities  Over time, t h e p r e f e r r e d  r o l e usurps time and energy p r e v i o u s l y a l l o t t e d t o o t h e r roles.  When t h e i n d i v i d u a l n e g l e c t s r o l e  activities  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e undercommitted r o l e s , r o l e  strain  occurs. F i n d i n g s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e support both t h e s c a r c i t y and  t h e expansion hypotheses.  consistently  shown t h a t  However, s t u d i e s have  individuals  occupying t h e g r e a t e s t  number o f r o l e s r e p o r t t h e lowest l e v e l s o f s t r a i n  (Amatea &  Fong, 1991; B a r n e t t , M a r s h a l l , & Singer, 1992; Hibbard & Pope, 1985; Pietromonaco e t a l . , 1986; T h o i t s ,  1983; Waldron  & Jacobs, 1989). The  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a simple  relationship  between r o l e q u a n t i t y and r o l e s t r a i n has not been supported  19 i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  T h e o r i s t s surmise t h a t r o l e s t r a i n and  r o l e g r a t i f i c a t i o n may stressors  associated with multiple r o l e  (McBride, 1990; 1992).  r e s u l t from the m e d i a t i o n of  Piechowski, 1992;  involvement  R i c e , Frone, & M c F a r l i n ,  However, c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s awaits the  t e s t i n g of comprehensive  models which i n c l u d e the  antecedents and consequences  of r o l e s t r e s s  (Burke,  1988).  Ward (1986) p r o v i d e s a c l e a r c o n c e p t u a l framework l i n k s antecedent s t r e s s o r s  t o consequences  ( r o l e s t r a i n or  r o l e g r a t i f i c a t i o n ) through mediating c o n d i t i o n s . framework, the f o l l o w i n g  stressors  In t h i s  precede r o l e outcomes:  r o l e c o n f l i c t , r o l e accumulation, r o l e r i g i d i t i e s , ambiguity, r o l e incompetence,  role  role overqualification,  incongruity, role uncertainty, role incompatibility, tedium, r o l e d i s p a r i t y ,  and r o l e i n t e n s i t y .  are w e l l  result in role  none of the antecedent  defined.  T h e o r i s t s emphasize the importance of c l e a r l y and c o n t e x t u a l i z i n g (1992) b e l i e v e to solutions  role  The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h Ward's  (1986) c o n c e p t u a l framework i s t h a t stressors  role  Intervening  c o n d i t i o n s determine whether these s t r e s s o r s s t r a i n or r o l e g r a t i f i c a t i o n .  that  antecedent s t r e s s o r s .  Campbell  t h a t understanding these s t r e s s o r s  to role strain.  Moreover, P e a r l i n  i n s i s t s the antecedents t o s t r a i n :  defining and Moen  may (1989)  lead  20 need t o be understood  i n terms o f p r o c e s s , whereby  broad s t r u c t u r e d and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o r c e s [and] constellations well-being.  ... converge ... t o a f f e c t  peoples*  We must guide our e f f o r t s not simply by  i d e n t i f y i n g and adding t o g e t h e r a l l f a c t o r s t h a t might c o n t r i b u t e t o the v a r i a n c e o f an outcome but a l s o by a s k i n g how and why these c o n t r i b u t i o n s came about (p. 249) . F a i l u r e t o understand  t h i s process l i m i t s r e s e a r c h e r s '  a b i l i t i e s t o i m p l i c a t e s p e c i f i c r o l e a t t r i b u t e s as a s p e c t s of r o l e s t r e s s which p o t e n t i a l l y l e a d t o r o l e Furthermore,  without a c l e a r understanding  of t h e  i n t e r a c t i o n among r o l e s t r e s s and mediators, hampered from d e v e l o p i n g research-based prevent o r reduce r o l e s t r a i n  strain.  c l i n i c i a n s are  s t r a t e g i e s t h a t may  (Wethington  & K e s s l e r , 1986).  Aspects o f Role Q u a l i t y Most r e s e a r c h e r s have s h i f t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n from quantity to role quality.  Froberg e t a l . ,  role  (1986) suggest  r o l e q u a l i t y be c o n s i d e r e d because "the same r o l e can be experienced d i f f e r e n t l y depending on t h e person and t h e circumstances"  (p. 87).  "Both g e n d e r - s o c i a l i z e d i n d i v i d u a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e broader s o c i o c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t may p l a y a r o l e " i n determining i n d i v i d u a l s '  responses  (Piechowski, 1992, p. 134). Thus, "the p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y o f the r o l e appears  t o be a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r of w e l l - b e i n g than  21 the mere occupancy of t h a t p o s i t i o n " p.  (Hirsch  & Rapkin, 1986,  1238) . P a r t o f t h e examination of r o l e q u a l i t y i n c l u d e s  closer  look a t r o l e c o n d i t i o n s .  The f o l l o w i n g  have been i d e n t i f i e d as sources o f s t r a i n : incongruity,  role incompatibility,  ambiguity, and r o l e o v e r l o a d  a  conditions  role  role conflict,  role  (Burr, 1976; Goode, 1960; Ward,  1986).  However, o n l y a few of these c o n s t r u c t s have been  tested  empirically.  Researchers have examined t h e e f f e c t s t h a t  role  ambiguity, r o l e c o n f l i c t , and r o l e o v e r l o a d e x e r t on outcomes (Avant, 1988; Elman & G i l b e r t , 1984; P l e c k , 1985; Rudd & McKenry, 1986; Shehan, 1984).  Some  investigators  f i n d t h a t these c o n s t r u c t s have n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s .  For  i n s t a n c e , Bacharach and Bamberger (1992) demonstrate r o l e ambiguity, c o n f l i c t , and o v e r l o a d a r e r e l a t e d t o burn-out and  turn-over intentions.  B a r l i n g and Macewen (1992)  r o l e c o n f l i c t and ambiguity a r e a s s o c i a t e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n and d e p r e s s i o n . low  l e v e l s of marital  with  report  impaired  Role c o n f l i c t i s l i n k e d t o  adjustment  (Greenhaus, Bedeian, &  Mossholder, 1987) and d e p r e s s i o n , a n x i e t y , and s o m a t i z a t i o n i n men and women (Greenglass, Pantony, & Burke, 1988). In c o n t r a s t ,  other r e s e a r c h e r s conclude r o l e ambiguity,  r o l e o v e r l o a d , and r o l e c o n f l i c t have no e f f e c t on outcomes (Coverman, 1989; Voydanoff, 1988).  Voydanoff  (1988) r e p o r t s  22 r o l e ambiguity conflict—a  and c o n f l i c t are not r e l a t e d t o  work/family  c o n s t r u c t the author d e s c r i b e s as being  t o , but narrower than, r o l e s t r a i n " (p. 749). Amatea and  "similar  Similarly,  Fong (1991) f i n d " n e i t h e r r e p o r t e d r o l e demand  l e v e l nor i n t e r n a l r o l e c o n f l i c t are p o s i t i v e l y w i t h s t r a i n a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l " (p. 427). (1986) notes r o l e o v e r l o a d not c o r r e l a t e d  (denoted  correlated Verbrugge  by long work hours) i s  with poor h e a l t h .  Role c o n f l i c t and r o l e o v e r l o a d have a l s o been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o s i t i v e outcomes. (1986) conclude  Baruch and  Barnett  minimal l e v e l s of r o l e c o n f l i c t are a  s t i m u l u s t o performance.  In an ethnography, Jones (1993)  r e p o r t s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s experienced  an " e n e r g i z i n g e f f e c t  r e s u l t i n g from the ongoing c h a l l e n g e of d e a l i n g w i t h conflict"  (p. 136).  Kandel e t a l . (1985) f i n d s u b j e c t s with  h i g h workload l e v e l s r e p o r t l e s s r o l e - r e l a t e d Methodological  shortcomings may  contradictory findings. c o n f l i c t and ambiguity,  stress.  account f o r  In t h e i r meta-analysis F i s h e r and G i t e l s o n  of r o l e  (1983)  conclude  some v a r i a b i l i t y i n c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s u l t s a c r o s s samples be due  t o s t a t i s t i c a l a r t i f a c t s and the confounding  of moderators.  ambiguity,  effect  Coverman (1989) i n s i s t s d i s c r e p a n c i e s  a l s o be r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h e r s ' tendency t o use  though each c o n s t r u c t r e p r e s e n t s a d i s t i n c t  may  role  c o n f l i c t , and o v e r l o a d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y ,  may  even  conceptual  23 domain.  Moreover i n c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s may  v a r i a t i o n s i n the d e f i n i t i o n s and constructs  (Johnson, 1989).  u t i l i z e d t o measure the key  o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s of  the  Furthermore many instruments c o n s t r u c t s possess o n l y moderate  degrees of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y F i n a l l y , researchers  r e s u l t from  (Johnson, 1989).  d i s a g r e e on how  t o model the  c o n s t r u c t s ' t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with r o l e s t r a i n . Anderson-Kulman and  Paludi  f u n c t i o n s as a p r e c u r s o r  (1986) hypothesize  to r o l e s t r a i n .  P e a r l i n (1989) and  R e p e t t i e t a l . (1989) t r e a t r o l e c o n f l i c t and two  role conflict  overload  types of r o l e s t r a i n , r a t h e r than p r e c u r s o r s  to r o l e  strain.  Several t h e o r i s t s conceptualize r o l e c o n f l i c t  overload  as the primary i n g r e d i e n t s of r o l e s t r a i n  e t a l . , 1991;  as  and  (Guelzow,  Ross & Mirowsky, 1988).  Researchers must c l e a r l y d e f i n e and stress constructs.  "The  operationalize role  manner i n which [man]  concepts i n f l u e n c e s h i s understanding ... and  formulates becomes a  source of d i f f i c u l t y when the meanings of concepts are d i v e r s e and p. 406).  the r e f e r e n t s p o o r l y s p e c i f i e d " ( B e r t h o l d ,  The  l a c k of c l a r i t y i n the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of r o l e c o n s t r u c t s l i m i t s the of extant  1964, and  usefulness  study f i n d i n g s .  In order t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e c o n s t r u c t s s a l i e n t t o r o l e outcomes, t h e o r i s t s must f i r s t develop more r i g o r o u s ways of conceptualizing role qualities  (Amatea & Fong, 1991).  24 Voydanoff  (1988) suggests l o o k i n g a t r o l e demands, the  s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r o l e s . Role Demands A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Dual-earner F a m i l i e s w i t h Young C h i l d r e n The  l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s dual-earner parents  experience  i n t e n s e r o l e demands d u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p r e s c h o o l years.  These demands are numerous and f r e q u e n t l y  non-negotiable. accumulation  Dual-earners  are c h a l l e n g e d by the  of r o l e demands a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the parent,  paid-work, spouse, and i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s K e l l y & Voydanoff,  1988;  1986).  Demands of the Parent Researchers  (Greenhaus,  Role  have long suspected t h a t younger c h i l d r e n  are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r p a r e n t a l r o l e demands (Gove & Geerkin, 1977;  Umberson & Gove, 1989).  P e a r l i n and  Schooler  (1978) i n s i s t t h a t "as c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r time demands d e c l i n e i n a jagged curve from the near continuous demands of newborn c h i l d r e n t o the r e l a t i v e l y complete autonomy of young a d u l t s " (p. 110).  Moen and Dempster-McClain  (1987)  r e p o r t "parents spend more time w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n i f the youngest  c h i l d i s under s i x than i f the youngest  s c h o o l age"  (p. 585).  i n d i c a t e women who  Scarr, P h i l l i p s ,  i s of  and McCartney  (1989)  are mothers of babies and young c h i l d r e n  spend more hours on t h e i r f a m i l y r o l e s than do mothers w i t h older  children.  25 Due t o t h e i r h i g h dependency l e v e l , young c h i l d r e n c r e a t e g r e a t e r workloads (Walker  & Best, 1991).  Moreover  young c h i l d r e n a r e l e s s a b l e than o l d e r c h i l d r e n t o a s s i s t w i t h household Bird,  chores  (Gove & Geerkin, 1977; S c h n i t t g e r &  1990). Parents w i t h l a r g e f a m i l i e s experience even g r e a t e r  r o l e demands (Greenhaus & B e u t e l l , 1985; Moen & DempsterMcClain,  1987).  The number of c h i l d r e n i s p o s i t i v e l y  r e l a t e d t o t h e number o f hours parents spend performing c h i l d c a r e and housekeeping  t a s k s (Voydanoff,  1988).  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p a r e n t i n g a l s o f u n c t i o n s as a heavy r o l e demand ( P e a r l i n & Schooler, 1978).  Numerous s t u d i e s  suggest primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d c a r e c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e p r o v i n c e o f women (Hibbard & Pope, 1985; Kach & McGhee, 1982; M a r s h a l l & B a r n e t t , 1993; Michelson, 1985; P e a r l i n & Schooler, 1978; S c a r r e t a l . , 1989;  S u i t o r , 1991; Verbrugge, 1983).  1989; S c o t t & Alwin, Although men a r e  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , they a r e "not a c t u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c h i l d c a r e i n t h e way t h a t t h e i r wives" a r e (Olds, Schwartz, E i s e n , Betcher, Niel,  1993, p. 11).  & Van  Even when parents share c h i l d c a r e " i t  i s t h e women who most o f t e n implement t h e s h a r i n g — r e m e m b e r i n g when t a s k s need t o be done, a s s i g n i n g t a s k s , and checking on t a s k p r o g r e s s " ( S c h n i t t g e r & B i r d , 1990,  p. 201).  26 Mothers are a l s o p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s h e a l t h and happiness ( M a r s h a l l & B a r n e t t , 1993;  McBride, 1990;  1978).  Michelson,  1985;  P e a r l i n & Schooler,  Changes i n i d e o l o g y concerning human nature add t o  parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  In c o n t r a s t with an e a r l i e r view  i n which the c h i l d was c o n s i d e r e d a bundle o f impulses r e q u i r i n g p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l , t h e c u r r e n t view i s t h a t t h e r e i s r i c h p o t e n t i a l i n every c h i l d .  Mothers are r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r d e v e l o p i n g the p o t e n t i a l i n t o a w e l l - a d j u s t e d a d u l t (Johnson & Johnson, 198 0). Demands o f t h e Spouse Role A s i g n i f i c a n t demand f o r the d u a l - c a r e e r couple i s c r e a t i n g and s u s t a i n i n g a harmonious spousal  relationship  (Crouter, P e r r y - J e n k i n s , Huston, & McHale, 1987; Philliber, mutually  1992).  Vannoy &  Towards t h i s end couples must d e v i s e a  s a t i s f y i n g d i v i s i o n o f household labour.  Hall's  (1987) sample o f working mothers f e l t t h a t n e g o t i a t i n g domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s with t h e i r husbands was "a way o f maintaining t h e i r marital r e l a t i o n s h i p s " The  l i t e r a t u r e suggests  (p.  192).  household chores are n o t evenly  d i v i d e d between men and women (Benin & A g o s t i n e l l i , 1988; Crouter e t a l . , 1987;  F i s h , New, & Van Cleave,  1992).  Women  accept g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r domestic chores than men ( D a r l i n g - F i s h e r & T i e d j e , 1990; Women i n d u a l - e a r n e r  Geerken & Gove, 1983) .  f a m i l i e s are more l i k e l y t o r e t a i n s o l e  27 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g r o c e r y shopping and cooking F i n l a y , 1984).  Gunter  and Gunter  m o t i v a t i o n f o r the performance  (Marat &  (1991) remark "women's  of household t a s k s  ...  l i k e l y r e p r e s e n t s the b e l i e f t h a t i t [ i s ] t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w h i l e men  [are] more l i k e l y t o f e e l  that  these t a s k s [are] not t h e i r job, and when they do them, i t [ i s ] merely t o h e l p out"  (p. 562).  An a d d i t i o n a l r o l e demand f o r d u a l - e a r n e r s i s f i n d i n g time t o spend t o g e t h e r .  The p r e s s i n g nature of c o u p l e s '  work schedules can mean a l o s s i n togetherness  (Hall,  The presence of young c h i l d r e n a l s o l i m i t s the time can spend t o g e t h e r , except, perhaps (Kingston & Nock, 1987).  1992).  spouses  in child-care roles  Furthermore,  by the time couples  have f i n i s h e d work, t i d i e d the house, and put the c h i l d r e n t o bed, they are exhausted. or p h y s i c a l energy spouse"  There may  be " l i t t l e  emotional  l e f t t o r e l a t e i n a meaningful way  (Googins, 1991,  p.  to a  166).  K i n g s t o n and Nock (1987) r e p o r t d u a l - e a r n e r couples t r y hard t o share time.  Compared t o s i n g l e - e a r n e r s ,  d u a l - e a r n e r s spend o n l y 30 minutes a day l e s s w i t h t h e i r spouses.  However, although the amount of time t o g e t h e r i s  r e l a t e d t o m a r i t a l q u a l i t y , Kingston and Nock (1987) conclude "the k i n d of time t o g e t h e r a l s o matters.  The more  time t o g e t h e r i n a c t i v i t i e s such as e a t i n g , p l a y i n g , c o n v e r s i n g the more s a t i s f y i n g the marriage"  and  (p. 399).  28 M e l e i s and Stevens  (1992) s t a t e t h a t the most f r e q u e n t l y  c i t e d sources of m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r c l e r i c a l women are companionship and r e c i p r o c i t y of a f f e c t i o n . Some r e s e a r c h suggests c e r t a i n s p o u s a l r o l e demands  may  be n e g l e c t e d by d u a l - e a r n e r parents w i t h young c h i l d r e n (Chassin, Z e i s s , Cooper, & Reaven, 1985; M o r r i s , 1992). a decrease al.,  1993).  Hughes, G a l i n s k y , &  Some couples w i t h c h i l d r e n under f i v e r e p o r t  i n i n t i m a c y and an i n c r e a s e i n c o n f l i c t  (Olds e t  A f t e r a n a l y z i n g 27 s t u d i e s , Smith (1985)  concludes t h a t , compared t o s i n g l e - e a r n e r couples, d u a l - e a r n e r s have a l e s s rewarding  sex l i f e and o b t a i n lower  s c o r e s on communication measures. Demands of the Paid-work Role Combining the parent r o l e w i t h the paid-work r o l e i n c r e a s e s o v e r a l l r o l e demands. e s t a b l i s h i n g a c a r e e r which may  Often young p a r e n t s are r e q u i r e a s i g n i f i c a n t degree  of commitment t o w o r k - r e l a t e d t a s k s ( S c h n i t t g e r & B i r d , 1990).  Performing w e l l i n the work r o l e can demand more  time and e f f o r t than i n d i v i d u a l s expect 1987).  (Greenhaus e t a l . ,  Moen and Dempster-McClain (1987) r e p o r t t h a t , f o r  t h e i r sample of d u a l - e a r n e r s , the demands of the job were g r e a t e r than e i t h e r spouse p r e f e r r e d . An i n c r e a s e i n the number of paid-work hours i n c r e a s e s work-role demands ( R o s e n f i e l d , 1989).  Employment  29 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as j o b - r e l a t e d t r a v e l and commuting c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e amount o f time parents spend i n t h e paid-work r o l e  (Burke & McKeen, 1988).  Moreover, working  overtime and m o o n l i g h t i n g c r e a t e time shortages among employed parents  (Voydanoff,  1988)•  For one sample o f  employed p a r e n t s , "overtime worked and t h e degree o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h work hours and s c h e d u l i n g " a c t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f job t e n s i o n ( K e l l y & Voydanoff, 1985,  p.  373).  The  l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s men experience h e a v i e r  paid-work demands than women. i n t e r e s t s superseded  Sekaran (1985) r e p o r t s f a m i l y  c a r e e r concerns  f o r some p r o f e s s i o n a l  women who p e r c e i v e d t h e i r c a r e e r s as being h i g h l y s a l i e n t . Men  o f a l l m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s g e n e r a l l y  work more hours a week than women (Googins, Canada, women devote  "an average  1991).  In  of 6.0 hours p e r day t o  p a i d work and e d u c a t i o n compared w i t h 7.2 hours f o r men" (Ghalam, 1993).  Evidence suggests t h a t i n order t o cope  with the dual-earner l i f e s t y l e , involvement  families l i m i t the job  o f mothers (Froberg e t a l . ,  1986).  T h e o r i s t s a t t r i b u t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n paid-work commitments t o both genders' t h e i r core r o l e s :  t o overperform i n  Men focus on t h e work r o l e and women  focus on t h e f a m i l y r o l e Mechanic, 1983).  tendency  (Barnett e t a l . ,  1987; C l e a r y &  B i e l b y (1992) b e l i e v e s women a r e l e s s  30 committed t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t h e workplace.  The m a j o r i t y  jobs t r a d i t i o n a l l y assigned  o f employed women "occupy  t o females and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  low power, p r e s t i g e , and pay" 227).  r o l e due t o gender d i f f e r e n c e s  (Pittman & Orthner, 1988, p.  Women's l i m i t e d access t o o c c u p a t i o n a l  rewards and  o p p o r t u n i t i e s may reduce t h e i r attachment t o t h e work r o l e (Bielby,  1992).  Demands o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l Role Both experts  and t h e g e n e r a l  p u b l i c a r e becoming  i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f t h e important b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d self-nurturance.  I t i s no longer c o n s i d e r e d  with  selfish for  a d u l t s t o devote time t o e x e r c i s e , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , and hobbies (Googins, 1991).  However, parent, paid-work, and  spouse r o l e demands l i m i t t h e amount o f time a d u a l - e a r n e r can spend i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l r o l e (Geerken & Gove, 1983; M i c h e l s o n , 1985; S c h n i t t g e r  & B i r d , 1990).  Women a r e a t r i s k o f n e g l e c t i n g activities. confronted own  self-related  Researchers b e l i e v e t h a t when women a r e w i t h m u l t i p l e r o l e demands they o f t e n p l a c e  needs l a s t on t h e l i s t o f p r i o r i t i e s  Cormier, & Cormier, 1988;  their  (McLaughlin,  Walker & Best, 1991).  Time f o r  s e l f i s viewed "as one more t h i n g t o schedule i n t o an already h e c t i c routine" Walker and Best manage p a r e n t i n g  (McLaughlin e t a l . , 1988, p.  192).  (1991) suggest one way employed mothers  w i t h i n t h e context  o f time c o n s t r a i n t s i s  31 by adapting  t h e i r l i f e s t y l e t o these c o n s t r a i n t s .  diminish t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o personal actualization, exercise, nutrition, and  s t r e s s management  health,  Women  self-  i n t e r p e r s o n a l support,  (Walker & B e s t ) .  The authors conclude  f u l l - t i m e employed mothers o f i n f a n t s manage  parenting  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n ways t h a t "do not damage t h e i r image o f themselves as mothers, but ... they may do so i n p a r t a t t h e expense o f t h e i r own w e l l - b e i n g "  (p. 85).  Other s t u d i e s lend credence t o t h i s a n a l y s i s . Anderson-Kulman and P a l u d i  (1986) s t a t e the m a j o r i t y o f  working mothers i n t h e i r sample experienced a shortage o f time f o r n e a r l y e v e r y t h i n g  and t h a t t h i s time shortage was  most accentuated i n s e l f - r e l a t e d areas (e.g., a c t i v i t i e s , hobbies, reading,  and p h y s i c a l  community  fitness).  Reifman e t a l . (1991) suggest f u l l - t i m e employed women spend l e s s time engaged i n s e l f - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s such as personal  care,  s l e e p , and l e i s u r e than p a r t - t i m e and  nonemployed women.  Verhoef, Love, and Rose  (1992) note  young mothers a r e the l e a s t l i k e l y t o engage i n r e g u l a r exercise. Women a r e more l i k e l y than men t o ignore  demands  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l r o l e (Meleis & Stevens, 1992; Schnittger  & B i r d , 1990).  H a l l (1992) confirms these  findings.  U n l i k e t h e i r wives who put a l l other needs f i r s t ,  d u a l - e a r n e r husbands i n d i c a t e d t h a t they r e f u s e t o "put  32 t h e i r needs l a s t "  ( H a l l , 1992,  (1992) r e p o r t s t h a t mothers who  p. 36).  Furthermore,  pursue "involvement  f a m i l y work t o the detriment of t h e i r own  Hall in  needs" experience  f e e l i n g s of exhaustion, resentment, and anger (p. 37). In summary, i t i s c l e a r the p a r e n t a l , paid-work, s p o u s a l , and i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s generate  i n t e n s e demands f o r  d u a l - e a r n e r parents w i t h young c h i l d r e n  (McBride,  Demographic f i n d i n g s suggest each r o l e domain has  1990). different  s a l i e n c e f o r , and e x e r t s d i f f e r e n t r o l e p r e s s u r e s on men women.  Men  experience heavy work-role demands, whereas  women experience heavy f a m i l y r o l e demands. Voydanoff  and  (1988) i n s i s t s the combination  However,  of work and f a m i l y  s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " c o n t r i b u t e independently a d d i t i v e l y " t o p a r e n t s ' r o l e demands.  and  Thus the s t r e s s o r s i n  the work and f a m i l y domains can e a s i l y accumulate and  may  r e s u l t i n n e g a t i v e r o l e outcomes (Greenhaus & Parasuraman, 1987) . The  I n t e r a c t i o n of Role Demands and A t t i t u d e s  Notwithstanding  the c o n s i d e r a b l e demands made on d u a l -  earner parents w i t h young c h i l d r e n , i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  still  e x i s t i n the l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of r o l e demands t o outcomes ( R o s e n f i e l d , 1989;  Voydanoff,  1988).  Knowledge of r o l e demands, i n i s o l a t i o n , does not p r e d i c t role strain 1987;  (Amatea & Fong, 1991;  Hibbard & Pope, 1985;  Greenhaus & Parasuraman,  Voydanoff,  1988).  To  predict  33 s t r a i n , r e s e a r c h e r s must understand t h e r o l e cognitive  interpretations  Bamberger, 1992; C r n i c  incumbent's  o f r o l e demands (Bacharach &  & Booth, 1991; Jacobson, 1989;  Verbrugge, 1986). Verbrugge (1986) i n s i s t s r o l e "burdens a r e not i n h e r e n t in the objective ...  a c t i v i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a d u l t s have  Instead, burdens r e s i d e  i n subjective  r e a c t i o n s t o one's  activities"  (Verbrugge, 1986, p. 74). A t p r e s e n t , t h e  interaction  between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  acceptability strain  feelings  o f c o n t r o l and  o f r o l e demands i s thought t o determine r o l e  (Biener e t a l . , 1987; McBride, 1990; P u g l i e s i , 1988;  R o s e n f i e l d , 1989; Verbrugge, 1986). Control C o n t r o l i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f r o l e q u a l i t y . to t r a n s a c t i o n a l and  According  models of s t r e s s , p e r c e p t i o n s o f o v e r l o a d  u n c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y a r e t h e key components o f a s t r e s s f u l  experience  (Reifman e t a l . , 1991).  "psychologically  I f one's r o l e s  combine  demanding t a s k s w i t h a low l e v e l o f c o n t r o l  over t h e t a s k s , t h i s combination exacts a major t o l l by simultaneously creating al.,  1987, p.  a r o u s a l and f r u s t r a t i o n "  (Barnett e t  131).  S t u d i e s examining t h e e f f e c t s o f r o l e demands on women support t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . the  In Piechowski's (1992) review o f  l i t e r a t u r e on m u l t i p l e r o l e women, t h e author r e p o r t s  "variables  o f both r o l e demands and c o n t r o l  emerge as  34 s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s p r e d i c t i n g mental h e a l t h outcome" (p. 137).  R o s e n f i e l d (1989) concludes t h a t f u l l - t i m e employed  women w i t h c h i l d r e n experience more a n x i e t y and d e p r e s s i o n because t h e h i g h demands of t h e i r combined r o l e s l e a d t o p e r c e p t i o n s o f low p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l . However, t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f women may a f f e c t t h e i r perceptions of control.  K e l l y and Voydanoff  s p e c u l a t e women w i t h some c o l l e g e education  (1986)  experience  g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over work r o l e demands because they have "jobs w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s of f l e x i b i l i t y and autonomy" (p. 372).  Similarly, Hall  (1990) suggests "the  g r e a t e r knowledge and s k i l l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n may i n c r e a s e ... [women's] f e e l i n g s o f competence, mastery, and c o n t r o l "  (p. 76).  L i k e women, men experience fewer n e g a t i v e outcomes i n the paid-work and parent r o l e s when they c o n t r o l demands. In an a l l - m a l e sample, Karasek (1979) r e p o r t s "the most s t r e s s f u l s e t o f j o b c o n d i t i o n s combines having  little  c o n t r o l over p a c i n g o f t a s k s o r t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f resources—and tasks"  having h i g h l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y demanding  (Barnett e t a l . , 1987, p. 131). P l e c k  i d e n t i f i e s c o n t r o l as an important man's a d a p t a t i o n t o fatherhood.  (1985)  factor influencing a  Remarking on t h e p o s i t i v e  e f f e c t o f c h i l d care on dual-earner f a t h e r s , P l e c k  (1985)  w r i t e s , " i n t h e context of t h e time demands f a c e d by t h e  35 d u a l - e a r n e r f a m i l y , a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n f a m i l y work may p r o v i d e t h e husband with a sense of c o n t r o l , a f e e l i n g t h e r e i s something he can do t o respond t o these p r e s s u r e s " (p. 116) . C o n t r o l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h improved adjustment  of the  d u a l - e a r n e r couple t o t h e paid-work and s p o u s a l r o l e s . Parents, as w e l l as married couples who work  non-standard  hours, experience g r e a t e r j o b and f a m i l y s a t i s f a c t i o n when they c o n t r o l t h e i r work schedules Hughes e t a l . ,  (Burke & McKeen, 1988;  1992; S t a i n e s & Pleck, 1986).  As t h e study o f m u l t i p l e r o l e s i s r e f i n e d ,  Piechowski  (1992) p r e d i c t s "making d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h e demands and s t r e s s e s o f r o l e s and t h e l e v e l o f c o n t r o l over demands may prove  important  .... Research  those  should be designed  t o examine t h e p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s o f these factors"  (p. 137).  A valuable asset t o future research with  the d u a l - e a r n e r p o p u l a t i o n would be a t o o l t h a t measures respondents*  p e r c e p t i o n o f c o n t r o l over some r o l e demands.  Acceptability The a c c e p t a b i l i t y of r o l e demands a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o role quality.  Many r e s e a r c h e r s have observed t h a t  i n d i v i d u a l s develop s u b j e c t i v e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s towards r o l e demands ( B r e t t & Yogev, 1988; Chassin e t a l . ,  1985).  A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f a r o l e demand c o n t r i b u t e s t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o s i t i v e evaluation of a r o l e  (Campbell  & Moen,  36 1992;  Cowan & Cowan, 1988).  In t u r n , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s / h e r r o l e a f f e c t s t h e r o l e outcome  (Baruch  & B a r n e t t , 1986; Crouter e t a l . , 1987; Guelzow e t a l . ,  1991;  K e s s l e r & McRae, 1982; S u i t o r , 1991). However, t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y of r o l e demands i s l i k e l y t o vary i n t h e dual-earner p o p u l a t i o n . realities  o f t h e dual-earner  Even though t h e d a i l y  l i f e s t y l e o b l i g a t e men and  women t o share f a m i l y and work r o l e demands, p r e v a i l i n g s o c i e t a l norms and f a m i l i e s o f o r i g i n may i n f l u e n c e how a c c e p t a b l e a demand i s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l 1988).  (Cowan & Cowan,  T h i s i s due t o t h e p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n o f gender  r o l e expectations  (Burr, 1976; Woods, 1985).  Gender r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e "a s e t of p r e f e r e n c e s , rewards, t a s t e s , and g o a l s t h a t a person  l e a r n s because he  or she happens t o be male o r female" (Scanzoni,  1978, p. 6 ) .  Gender r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s p r e s c r i b e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l of  division  labour; household t a s k s are women's work w h i l e  employment-related t a s k s are men's work (Gunter 1991).  Segregation  & Gunter,  of t a s k s by gender a l s o operates  the context o f housework.  Gender a p p r o p r i a t e chores  women i n c l u d e meal p r e p a r a t i o n and c l e a n i n g .  within for  Men's chores  i n c l u d e outdoor t a s k s , m a i n t a i n i n g t h e c a r , and paying  bills  ( B l a i r & Johnson, 1992). T r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , as determined by gender norms, seem extremely  tenacious  (Schroeder,  Blood,  & Maluso, 1992).  37 Although  "women have become r e l a t i v e l y l i b e r a t e d  with  r e s p e c t t o demanding equal r i g h t s a t work, ... they f i n d i t harder t o r e l i n q u i s h deeply h e l d b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g t h e woman's proper r o l e i n t h e home" (Scott 498).  & Alwin, 1989, p.  An employed w i f e may request h e r husband's a s s i s t a n c e  i n performing ambivalence  "female" t a s k s but she may do so amid  over changing h e r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e .  Similarly,  men may express d i s c o m f o r t a t being asked t o do women's work and r e s i s t adopting feminine chores l i k e changing d i a p e r s o r c l e a n i n g t h e bathroom (Googins Researchers acceptability dual-earners  & Burden, 1987).  note i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s  i n role  among v a r i o u s demographic groups o f (Smith, 1985).  For example, women w i t h  advanced e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n a r e l i k e l y t o f i n d e x t e n s i v e paid-work r o l e demands more a c c e p t a b l e than women w i t h l e s s e x t e n s i v e formal t r a i n i n g .  Theorists offer a  cogent e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s f i n d i n g .  Education i s  positively correlated orientation orientations  w i t h an androgynous sex r o l e  ( K e s s l e r & McRae, 1982).  Women w i t h androgynous  may express them through congruence between  t h e i r employment demands and t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e female behaviour  ( R e p e t t i e t a l . , 1989).  38 The  Importance o f C o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n i n Dual-earner Research  In a d d i t i o n t o examining t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f r o l e demands and a t t i t u d e s , Johnson (1989) suggests d u a l - e a r n e r s be  studied  domains.  as they f u n c t i o n Several  i n t h e work and non-work  s t u d i e s document t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l e f f e c t s  of m a r i t a l , p a r e n t a l ,  and o c c u p a t i o n a l  r o l e outcomes (Barnett  & Marshall,  & Sayer, 1992; M a r s h a l l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on  1992; B a r n e t t ,  & B a r n e t t , 1991).  Marshall,  Theorists  encourage i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o use a broad e c o l o g i c a l perspective  that includes  t h e work and f a m i l y domains i n  a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e two domains (Frone e t al.,  1991; Parasuraman, Greenhaus, & Granrose, 1992). As w e l l , r e s e a r c h  domains.  should study both genders i n both  "Most s t u d i e s o f j o b s t r e s s have focused on male  samples, w h i l e most s t u d i e s o f f a m i l y s t r e s s have focused on female samples"  (Hughes e t a l . , 1992, p. 32).  However, t h e  r o l e s o f d u a l - e a r n e r men and women a r e becoming more u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and both genders a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y being exposed t o s i m i l a r r o l e demands (Higgins, 1994;  Spitze,  Duxbury, & Lee,  1988).  Researchers should monitor t h i s t r e n d because i t has s i g n i f i c a n t implications patterns  f o r d u a l - e a r n e r men.  As r o l e  o f men and women converge, a d d i t i o n a l burdens may  be v i s i t e d upon men (Googins & Burden, 1987).  They may be  39 expected  t o p a r t i c i p a t e more a c t i v e l y i n c h i l d r e a r i n g and  housework.  Men may f i n d i t t a x i n g t o f u l f i l  t h e demands o f  the f a m i l y r o l e i n a d d i t i o n t o the demands of t h e work r o l e (Hanson & B o z e t t , Pleck  1987).  (1976) p r e d i c t s t h a t i f men expand t h e scope o f  t h e i r f a m i l y r o l e s but f a i l  t o reduce t h e i r commitment t o  the o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e they w i l l l i k e l y d i f f i c u l t i e s meeting the cumulative  experience  r o l e demands.  Some  s t u d i e s support P l e c k ' s c l a i m (Crouter e t a l . , 1987; Greenberger & O ' N e i l , 1993; P r e s s e r , 1988).  Men a r e  i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r f a m i l y work which may be c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r experience Presser  of s t r e s s .  (1988) i d e n t i f i e s a preponderance o f f a t h e r  care i n young dual-earner households when mothers work evening  and n i g h t s h i f t s .  dual-earner  Other r e s e a r c h e r s note f a t h e r s i n  f a m i l i e s perform  twice as many c h i l d  care  a c t i v i t i e s alone as t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n s i n g l e - e a r n e r families  (Crouter e t a l . , 1987).  Baruch and B a r n e t t  (1986)  r e p o r t f a t h e r s i n t h e i r study p e r c e i v e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c h i l d care i n t e r f e r e s with t h e i r c a r e e r s .  Ventura  (1987)  confirms t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n and s t a t e s f a t h e r s who a r e engaged in  c h i l d care and household t a s k s experience  the f a m i l y ' s f i n a n c i a l needs. Greenberger and O'Neil's  s t r e s s meeting  For men p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  (1993) study,  absorption i n  40 work-related  a c t i v i t i e s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n f l i c t among  work, p a r e n t a l , and m a r i t a l r o l e s . In a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r m o n i t o r i n g men's responses t o i n c r e a s e d  family r o l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , studies  which i n c l u d e both spouses permit g r e a t e r of t h e d u a l - e a r n e r experience. convincing  contextualization  Grossman (1988) contends "a  study o f a parent or of a c h i l d cannot be made i n  i s o l a t i o n , but must be examined i n t h e context the immediate f a m i l y "  of a t l e a s t  (p. 100). P e a r l i n (1989) e x p l a i n s  c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e s t u d i e s a r e important because "one does not a c t alone as an incumbent of a r o l e .  Instead,  one r o l e  i s p a r t o f a l a r g e r r o l e s e t or o f a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f complementary r o l e s around which important r e l a t i o n s are structured" (1992) c a u t i o n  interpersonal  (p. 242). M e l e i s and Stevens  i n v e s t i g a t o r s that unless the q u a l i t y of the  e x p e r i e n c e s i n each r o l e a r e c o n t e x t u a l l y understood "the development o f resources [ w i l l ] proceed s l o w l y " appropriate  t o d e a l w i t h these e x p e r i e n c e s (p. 24). Instrumentation t h a t i s  f o r both genders would make c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e  studies methodologically  feasible.  As t h i s d i s c u s s i o n demonstrates, t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f d u a l - e a r n e r f a m i l i e s i n contemporary s o c i e t y makes i t imperative  that researchers  g a i n a c l e a r e r understanding o f  the r o l e dynamics c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h i s l i f e s t y l e 1988).  (Greenhaus,  Although r o l e s t r a i n has been i d e n t i f i e d as a  41 s i g n i f i c a n t problem, r e s e a r c h e r s have y e t t o i d e n t i f y t h e determinants  o f s t r a i n f o r d u a l - e a r n e r s w i t h young c h i l d r e n  ( K e l l y & Voydanoff,  1985).  Mounting evidence suggests t h e  i n t e r a c t i o n o f r o l e demands and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a d d i t i o n to  t h e r o l e incumbent's p e r c e p t i o n s of c o n t r o l and  a c c e p t a b i l i t y may c o n t r i b u t e t o e i t h e r r o l e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o r role strain.  T h e o r i s t s urge r e s e a r c h e r s t o assess both  genders as they f u n c t i o n i n the work and non-work domains, e s p e c i a l l y i n the context o f t h e h i g h demands a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e a r i n g young c h i l d r e n . Instrumentation In  order t o extend d u a l - e a r n e r r e s e a r c h more a t t e n t i o n  must be g i v e n t o t h e development o f o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s and e m p i r i c a l measures (Campbell  & Moen, 1992).  McBride  (1990) suggests t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s " o p e r a t i o n a l i z e concepts w i t h f u l l r e g a r d f o r how complicated t h e phenomena a r e [and] ... develop instruments t h a t address t h e problems o f existing scales"  (p. 382).  Many r e s e a r c h e r s have r e l i e d upon q u a l i t a t i v e of  evidence  s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e o r u n v a l i d a t e d measures w i t h unknown  psychometric p r o p e r t i e s (Parry & Warr, 1985).  Moreover  r e s e a r c h e r s have u t i l i z e d open-ended q u e s t i o n s and one- o r two-item s c a l e s which a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h problems (Greenhaus & B e u t e l l , 1985).  reliability  Greenhaus (1988)  urges r e s e a r c h e r s t o pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e measures  42 used t o assess key concepts. by t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  Empirical research  i s limited  and v a l i d i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  measures. A v a i l a b l e instruments a r e not s u i t a b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the i n f l u e n c e t h a t r o l e demands and a t t i t u d e s e x e r t on s t r a i n and g r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r m u l t i p l e r o l e incumbents. t o o l s p r e d i c t r o l e s t r a i n , only et  a l . , 1989).  Some  (Cohen e t a l . , 1983; Loerch  Other instruments t a p i n t o s i n g l e r o l e  domains and a r e incapable  of a s s e s s i n g t h e combined e f f e c t s  of f a m i l y and paid-work r o l e demands ( A b i d i n , 1980; Burke, 1988;  C r n i c & Booth, 1991; Johnson, 1989).  exception  o f Baruch and B a r n e t t ' s  With t h e  (1986) rewards and  concerns s c a l e s , no instrument q u a n t i f i e s men's e x p e r i e n c e s in the family r o l e .  Unfortunately,  the scoring of the  rewards and concerns s c a l e s does not permit t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d i s c r e t e r o l e antecedents t h a t may l e a d t o s t r a i n or g r a t i f i c a t i o n . The  REQ i s an instrument t h a t may not be s u b j e c t t o t h e  l i m i t a t i o n s associated with current t o o l s . item q u e s t i o n n a i r e multidimensional  The REQ i s a 12 6  t h a t o b j e c t i v e l y measures a  construct.  recommended f o r use,  However, before  researchers  t h e REQ can be  must have a c l e a r  understanding o f t h e t o o l ' s purpose, t a r g e t  population,  v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t , format, and psychometric p r o p e r t i e s (Waltz e t a l . , 1984).  43 The  REQ  was  developed i n order t o q u a n t i f y the  q u a l i t y of d u a l - e a r n e r p a r e n t s w i t h young c h i l d r e n .  The  i s a norm-referenced t o o l t h a t taps i n t o f o u r major including:  paid-work, spouse, parent, and  (1993) contends the these r o l e s  q u a l i t y of the  i s a c r i t i c a l factor  Role enactment c o n s i s t s i n t e n s i t y and the  influencing  role disparity.  r o l e outcomes. role  Role i n t e n s i t y i s " d e f i n e d effort  of p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s of the  time, e f f o r t , and  responsibility  f o u r major r o l e s "  ( H a l l , 1993,  ...  p.  Role d i s p a r i t y i s d e f i n e d  behaviours.  as:  I t captures the  attitudes,  individuals' their  i n t e n s i t i e s as p a i d worker, i n d i v i d u a l , and about the  experience i n the  the  59).  p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s to c o n t r o l  their attitudes  [This  amount of  associated with  d i s c r e p a n c y between e x p e c t a t i o n s , e x i s t i n g actual  as  (organismic  involvement) devoted to s p e c i f i c r o l e components ...  and  Hall  enactment of  dimensions,  amount of time (preemptiveness) and  dimension c o n s i s t s ]  REQ  roles  individual.  individual's  of two  role  role  spouse  l e v e l of i n t e n s i t y they  four r o l e s  ( H a l l , 1993,  p.  59).  and  44 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The REQ  i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s which examine the  paid-work, spouse, parent, and  individual roles.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e s a t o t a l of 42 statements demands. first  Each statement  i s comprised  The about r o l e  of t h r e e items.  The  item d e s c r i b e s a r o l e demand and measures the  respondent's demand.  time or energy  The second  expenditure i n meeting t h i s  item assesses the  respondent's  p e r c e p t i o n of the r o l e demand's a c c e p t a b i l i t y .  The  item c a p t u r e s e i t h e r the degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or the respondent quantified  a s s o c i a t e s w i t h the demand.  u s i n g a f i v e step L i k e r t s c a l e . None  For example: A great deal  12  3 4 5  A. How  a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you?  12  3 4 5  B. How  much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you  12  3 4 5  Psychometric Wilson  (Hall,  1993)  P r o p e r t i e s of the  REQ  (1987) i n s i s t s b e f o r e an instrument can be  i n r e s e a r c h , minimal be e s t a b l i s h e d .  l e v e l s of r e l i a b i l i t y  The r e l i a b i l i t y  (Wilson, 1987,  p. 192).  used  and v a l i d i t y must  of measurement " r e f e r s  the c o n s i s t e n c y , accuracy, and p r e c i s i o n taken"  control  Responses are  The amount you d r e s s your c h i l d r e n  take f o r t h i s ?  third  to  of the measures  Waltz e t a l . (1984)  recommend e s t i m a t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y  of the  norm-referenced  instrument by determining i t s i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and  45 test-retest  reliability.  R e l i a b i l i t y i s a necessary but not a s u f f i c i e n t condition for v a l i d i t y  (Waltz e t a l . ,  1984).  To be v a l i d  an  instrument must r e l i a b l y measure "what i t i s supposed t o measure" (Wilson, 1987, demonstrate  p. 184).  An instrument should  content v a l i d i t y which " i s the e x t e n t t o which  the items i n c l u d e d on a t e s t are a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the important and r e l e v a n t elements  of a w e l l - s p e c i f i e d  content or b e h a v i o r a l u n i v e r s e " (Brown, 1970, To date, H a l l has presented the REQ  p.  155).  t o two groups.  The  author p i l o t t e s t e d the instrument on a t e n couple sample. The v o l u n t e e r s were asked t o i n d i c a t e the l e n g t h of time i t took t o complete  the REQ.  They a l s o e v a l u a t e d the  instrument's format and c l a r i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n s .  "After  p i l o t t e s t i n g , r e v i s i o n s were made t o c o r r e c t any  items  c o n s i d e r e d ambiguous, i r r e l e v a n t , or unacceptable" 1993,  p. 61).  R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y t e s t i n g were then  conducted u s i n g a 55 couple sample ( H a l l , Reliability^ Hall  (Hall,  1993).  From the 55 couple convenience  sample,  (1993) gathered data t o t e s t the REQ s r e l i a b i l i t y . 1  O b t a i n i n g a 71% response r a t e , H a l l  (1993) c a l c u l a t e d  i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y dimensions  of the REQ  Cronbach's alpha, H a l l  f o r the  and the f o u r r o l e c a t e g o r i e s .  two  Using  (1993) c a l c u l a t e d h i g h i n t e r n a l  c o n s i s t e n c i e s on the two r o l e d i m e n s i o n s — 0 . 8 9 f o r i n t e n s i t y  46 and 0.90 f o r d i s p a r i t y .  However, f o r the r o l e  categories,  alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from 0.39 t o 0.93. For t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y  Hall  (1993) determined t h e  Pearson's r a t 0.73 f o r the d i s p a r i t y dimension and 0.80 f o r the  i n t e n s i t y dimension.  Pearson's r ranged from 0.62 t o  0.87 f o r each o f t h e f o u r r o l e Validity.  categories.  The process of e v a l u a t i n g c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y  i s " r a t i o n a l and judgmental, and attempts t o r a t e t h e adequacy of sampling" (Brown, 1970, p. 155). S i n c e "content v a l i d i t y i s l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n of how an instrument i s developed," r e s e a r c h e r s can i n f e r the REQ's content v a l i d i t y from t h e s y s t e m a t i c method H a l l used t o develop t h e t o o l (Waltz e t a l . , 1984, p. 142). To d e r i v e t h e i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y dimensions H a l l c o n s i d e r e d c l a s s i c a l theorists  (Burr, 1976; S a r b i n & A l l e n ,  Ward's (1986) model o f r o l e s t r a i n .  role  1968) i n a d d i t i o n t o  Furthermore, t h e REQ's  item p o o l was generated from p a r e n t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s o f r e l e v a n t r o l e components, o b t a i n e d by H a l l q u a l i t a t i v e studies investigating experience.  (1987, 1991) from  the dual-earner  F i n a l l y , H a l l supplemented  these f i n d i n g s w i t h  i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d from an e x t e n s i v e review of t h e literature. H a l l a l s o supports content v a l i d i t y by r e s p e c t i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sampling which r e q u i r e s items t o be chosen from the u n i v e r s e of p o s s i b l e content " i n due  47 p r o p o r t i o n or frequency"  (Brown, 1970,  p. 136).  Hall  (1993)  r e p o r t s t h a t "parents w i t h p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n emphasized p a r e n t i n g and s p o u s a l r o l e s t o a g r e a t e r extent than work and i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s "  (p. 60).  T h e r e f o r e , H a l l chose a  g r e a t e r number of items t o measure the parent and  spouse  roles. A review of the instrument by e x p e r t s i n f a m i l y n u r s i n g and work and f a m i l y r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l support f o r the content v a l i d i t y of the REQ  ( P o l i t & Hungler,  1991).  The e x p e r t s were asked t o assess whether the items on the instrument s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e p r e s e n t the behaviours s p e c i f i e d domains.  In accordance  recommendations, H a l l  i n the  w i t h the e x p e r t s '  (1993) r e v i s e d the item p o o l .  C r i t i q u e of the Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The REQ  i s a newly developed  instrument t h a t shows  g r e a t promise f o r measuring the antecedents i n d u a l - e a r n e r s w i t h young c h i l d r e n .  The  of r o l e  strain  literature  supports the n o t i o n t h a t the c o n s t r u c t , r o l e enactment, p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n the r o l e s t r a i n p r o c e s s . t e s t i n g of the REQ  suggests t h a t the t o o l i s o b j e c t i v e ,  e f f i c i e n t , and a c c e p t a b l e t o r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s ( H a l l , High i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and t e s t - r e t e s t e s t i m a t e s were obtained i n a convenience couples  (Hall,  Pilot  1993).  Hall  reliability sample of 55  (1993) a l s o demonstrates  s u b s t a n t i a l content v a l i d i t y f o r the  instrument.  1993).  48 Additional  psychometric t e s t i n g i s r e q u i r e d .  r e t e s t estimates may  be suspect.  The  test-  H a l l r e p o r t s a d e l a y of  one month b e f o r e respondents r e t u r n e d the second s e t of questionnaires.  Thus, the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e  "may  have  been completed from 3 t o 6 weeks a f t e r the f i r s t one" 1993,  p. 62).  Wilson  (1987) suggests t h a t i t i s  important  t o c o n s i d e r the time i n t e r v a l s between the f i r s t and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  (Hall,  second  I d e a l l y the time i n t e r v a l  should be "long enough t o a v o i d c a r r y o v e r e f f e c t s and  short  enough t o a v o i d changes i n the c o n s t r u c t being measured" (Wilson,  1987,  p. 193).  Since the s t a b i l i t y of  c o n s t r u c t i s unknown, v a r i a t i o n s s u b j e c t s may Hall's  i n the time i n t e r v a l s among  have confounded the t e s t - r e t e s t s m a l l sample s i z e may  Hall  calculations.  account f o r i n t e r n a l  c o n s i s t e n c y measurements t h a t vary w i d e l y roles.  the  f o r the  four  (1993) contends t h a t "because alpha i s  dependent on the t o t a l t e s t v a r i a n c e and the l e n g t h of the test,  i t i s not unusual t o have lower alphas w i t h a s h o r t  t e s t and a s m a l l sample s i z e "  (p. 62).  However, i t would be  i n s t r u c t i v e t o i d e n t i f y r o l e s which demonstrate low alphas.  The REQ  may  unacceptably  r e q u i r e r e v i s i o n i n order t o ensure  t h a t a l l the items w i t h i n the instrument  are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  each o t h e r . More comprehensive t e s t i n g of the REQ's v a l i d i t y must be conducted b e f o r e the t o o l can be recommended f o r use.  49 Wilson  (1987) notes t h a t "content v a l i d i t y ,  although  necessary, i s not a s u f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the instrument measures what i t i s intended t o measure, because it  i s based on s u b j e c t i v e judgment" (p. 194).  demonstrate  the v a l i d i t y of the REQ,  t o o l ' s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y must be  In o r d e r t o  an examination of the  undertaken.  Methods of Supporting C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y Crocker and A l g i n a (1986) s t a t e t h a t c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y may  be supported by e s t a b l i s h i n g c o r r e l a t i o n a l evidence of a  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a new c r i t e r i o n may  instrument and a c r i t e r i o n .  The  be a mature instrument which i s known t o  a c c u r a t e l y measure a s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t .  However,  criterion-related validation i s unsuitable for t h i s  study  because no instrument measures a c o n s t r u c t s i m i l a r t o r o l e enactment. An a l t e r n a t i v e method recommended by Crocker and A l g i n a (1986) i s h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g . researchers hypotheses  The authors  suggest  (a) d e r i v e from an e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h e o r y about how  those who  d i f f e r on the c o n s t r u c t are  expected t o d i f f e r on demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  (b)  gather e m p i r i c a l data t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and w i t h the  (c) determine  i f the data are c o n s i s t e n t  hypotheses.  Factor analysis  (FA) i s a s t a t i s t i c a l  technique  commonly used t o e s t a b l i s h c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y  (Brown, 1970).  50 FA "aims t o summarize the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s i n a c o n c i s e but a c c u r a t e manner" (Gorsuch,  1974,  p. 2 ) .  The g o a l i s t o " i d e n t i f y those v a r i a b l e s which are r e l a t e d enough t o be p l a c e d under the same l a b e l "  (Gorsuch,  1974,  p.  7) • Two  types of FA are mentioned i n the  e x p l o r a t o r y and c o n f i r m a t o r y . (CFA)  literature:  Confirmatory f a c t o r  analysis  i s w i d e l y acknowledged as the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  technique CFA  (Tabachnick  & Fidell,  1989).  Furthermore,  i s s u p e r i o r t o e x p l o r a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s because  i t a l l o w s the r e s e a r c h e r t o s p e c i f y the s t r u c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s i n the model on s u b s t a n t i v e grounds. Another advantage of CFA  i s t h a t i t can h e l p t o r e s o l v e  the problem of measurement e r r o r , because i t i n d i c a t e s the degree t o which m u l t i p l e i n d i c a t o r s of a  concept  r e f l e c t the u n d e r l y i n g concept; the degree t o which they r e f l e c t anything e l s e i s c o n s i d e r e d measurement error  (Coverman, 1989,  p.  972).  As the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n on i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a t t e s t s , t h e r e i s a need i n d u a l - e a r n e r r e s e a r c h f o r r e l i a b l e and v a l i d t o o l s t h a t measure s a l i e n t characteristics. q u a n t i f i e s two  The REQ  dimensions  and r o l e d i s p a r i t y .  i s a newly developed of r o l e enactment:  role tool that role  intensity  Developed from two q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s  t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e d the experiences of d u a l - e a r n e r s w i t h young  51 children  ( H a l l , 1987;  H a l l , 1991), the REQ  h i g h degree of content v a l i d i t y .  demonstrates  Furthermore,  a  psychometric  t e s t i n g suggests the instrument i s i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t has good t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . limitations additional  i n Hall's  and  However, m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  (1993) study d e s i g n  indicate  r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y t e s t i n g i s a d v i s a b l e . Conclusion  Concerns  about the w e l l - b e i n g of d u a l - e a r n e r s w i t h  p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n make the i n v e s t i g a t i o n a research imperative. e a r l i e r assumption  Recently, t h e o r i s t s  r o l e g r a t i f i c a t i o n , depending  either that  t o c r e a t e r o l e s t r a i n or on mediating i n f l u e n c e s .  of r o l e demands and the r o l e  may  an  Instead, i t appears  r o l e q u a l i t y has the p o t e n t i a l  attitudes  revised  t h a t r o l e accumulation l e a d s t o  n e g a t i v e or p o s i t i v e outcomes.  interaction  of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n  The  incumbent's  determine which r o l e outcome o c c u r s .  The development of r e l i a b l e and v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n has lagged behind other t h e o r e t i c a l advances. e x c e p t i o n of the REQ,  available  With the  t o o l s are not designed t o  measure r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s thought t o impact on s t r a i n and g r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r both genders a t the work/family nexus. However, f u r t h e r the REQ  psychometric t e s t i n g must be conducted  on  b e f o r e t h i s t o o l can be used i n c l i n i c a l or r e s e a r c h  settings.  52 Chapter Summary Chapter two presented a c r i t i c a l review of t h e literature.  Shortcomings  of extant s t u d i e s were d e s c r i b e d .  The c r i t i q u e h i g h l i g h t e d the r e l e v a n c e of t h e REQ f o r researchers investigating r o l e quality. demonstrated  However, i t was  t h a t the instrument i s r e l a t i v e l y  untried,  p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y , and psychometric standards a r e not negotiable. In  chapter t h r e e , t h e methods used t o examine t h e  r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the REQ a r e d e t a i l e d .  The  chapter d e s c r i b e s t h e r e c r u i t m e n t s t r a t e g i e s and study procedures.  L a s t l y , a b r i e f examination of t h e e t h i c a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the study a r e presented.  53 CHAPTER THREE Method In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n the sample s e l e c t i o n , r e c r u i t m e n t s t r a t e g i e s , and methods f o r t e s t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the REQ are d e s c r i b e d . Sample Nunnally to  (1978) suggests r e s e a r c h e r s use a l a r g e sample  p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y t e s t new instruments.  i n item a n a l y s i s i s f i v e persons  "A bare minimum  f o r each item ...  [although] a s a f e r number i s t e n persons  per item"  (p. 298).  Since the REQ c o n s i s t s of 12 6 items, the sample should i n c l u d e between 630 and 1260 i n d i v i d u a l s .  However, the  r e c r u i t m e n t of such a l a r g e sample i s not f e a s i b l e ,  given  t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t i s a M a g i s t r a l t h e s i s and the i n t e n t i s t o g a i n an understanding  of the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s .  Thus,  although the l i m i t a t i o n s of the sample s i z e are r e c o g n i z e d , the convenience  sample only c o n s i s t s of 165 Sample  individuals.  Recruitment  In order t o r e c r u i t s u b j e c t s , advertisements  were  p l a c e d i n the n e w s l e t t e r s of the f o l l o w i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s : BC Hydro, VanCity C r e d i t Union, the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the Vancouver H o s p i t a l and H e a l t h Centre.  Sciences  E-mail messages were t r a n s m i t t e d t o a l l BC T e l  54 employees who used o f f i c e computers.  B u l l e t i n s requesting  r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s were mass-mailed t o 650 s e c r e t a r i e s and 320 managers employed by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia.  P o s t e r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e study were d i s p l a y e d i n community c e n t r e s , day c a r e c e n t r e s , and churches i n t h e Vancouver area.  Dual-earner p a r e n t s o f young c h i l d r e n known t o t h e  i n v e s t i g a t o r were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Dual-earners were requested t o c o n t a c t t h e investigator.  When contacted, t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r screened t h e  i n d i v i d u a l , and i f e l i g i b l e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s / h e r spouse were e n r o l l e d i n t h e study.  A cover l e t t e r  (Appendix  B) and t h e f i r s t copy o f t h e REQ were then sent t o each spouse. Sample C r i t e r i a To be e l i g i b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e study, p r o s p e c t i v e respondents were screened f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a . Inclusion  Criteria  1. Couples have l i v e d t o g e t h e r f o r a t l e a s t one year. 2. Men and women a r e over 19 years o f age. 3. Study p a r t i c i p a n t s understand w r i t t e n E n g l i s h . 4. F a m i l i e s may be blended or t r a d i t i o n a l but must i n c l u d e a t l e a s t one c h i l d under t h e age of s i x .  55 5. Both p a r t n e r s  are employed and  each i s employed a t  l e a s t 20 hours a week. 6.  I n d i v i d u a l s have been employed i n the same job f o r  over t h r e e months. Exclusion  Criteria  1. Chronic Chronic  i l l n e s s of e i t h e r spouse or c h i l d ( r e n ) .  i l l n e s s i s d e f i n e d as any p h y s i c a l or  condition preventing care,  any  psychological  f a m i l y member from a t t e n d i n g  s c h o o l , or work more than f i v e days between J u l y  and November  day 1993  1994.  2. Couples and  t h e i r c h i l d ( r e n ) who  l i v e w i t h extended  family. Study Procedures The evaluate  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the procedures used t o the r e l i a b i l i t y  and v a l i d i t y of the  Reliability  REQ.  Testing  In order t o c o l l e c t data which would permit assessments of the REQ's i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y reliability,  and t e s t - r e t e s t  study respondents were m a i l e d two  questionnaires.  The  f o l l o w i n g procedure was  1. F i r s t m a i l i n g :  Copy #1  of the REQ  and  s e t s of followed: the  demographic data c o l l e c t i o n sheet were m a i l e d t o , completed by,  the d u a l - e a r n e r  couple.  and  56 2. Second m a i l i n g : r e c e i v e d copy #1, completed by,  Two  copy #2  the  weeks a f t e r the  of the REQ  was  questionnaire  mailed to,  Couples who  weeks t o respond t o  d i d not r e t u r n a completed  were contacted  by telephone and,  necessary, mailed a d u p l i c a t e copy of the 4. Respondents who contacted  and  couple.  3. Respondents were a l l o t t e d two each m a i l i n g .  co-investigator  when  questionnaire.  f a i l e d to return questionnaires  by telephone every two  were  weeks.  Validity  Testing  To support c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g and confirmatory  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s (CFA)  were performed.  Hypothesis T e s t i n g In order t o generate and  t e s t the hypotheses t h a t  examine the v a l i d i t y of r o l e i n t e n s i t y and Hall's  role disparity,  (1993) m o d i f i c a t i o n of Ward's (1986) t h e o r e t i c a l  framework was  used.  From the e m p i r i c a l  literature,  demographic groups were i d e n t i f i e d which were most l i k e l y experience h i g h or low dimensions. confirm  The  to  scores on the i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y  demographic data c o l l e c t e d were used t o  or r e j e c t study hypotheses.  measured the c o n s t r u c t d e s c r i b e d  I f the REQ  accurately  by H a l l , then the s c o r e s  of  57 d u a l - e a r n e r s may  be p r e d i c t e d from t h e i r demographic  characteristics. Confirmatory F a c t o r A n a l y s i s The purpose of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s t o i d e n t i f y of  v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o r r e l a t e w i t h the same f a c t o r .  groupings Ideally,  the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the v a r i a b l e s and the f a c t o r are h i g h w h i l e the c o r r e l a t i o n s between these v a r i a b l e s and a l t e r n a t i v e f a c t o r ( s ) are low In  the  (Nunnally, 1978).  CFA the dominant f a c t o r s are h y p o t h e s i z e d p r i o r t o  analysis.  For the p r e s e n t study, t h r e e a n a l y s e s of the t e s t  items were performed.  The g o a l of the f i r s t a n a l y s i s was  e x t r a c t two  f a c t o r s corresponding t o r o l e i n t e n s i t y and  disparity.  A second  a n a l y s i s was  performed  to  role  t o c o n f i r m the  e x i s t e n c e of i n t e n s i t y i n each of the f o u r r o l e components. The t h i r d a n a l y s i s sought t o c o n f i r m the e x i s t e n c e of d i s p a r i t y i n each of the f o u r r o l e components. t h a t these f a c t o r s e x i s t , as hypothesized, the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the  Evidence  lends support f o r  REQ.  Data A n a l y s i s 1. To determine  i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , o n l y data  the f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the REQ Cronbach's alpha was  from  were analyzed.  c a l c u l a t e d f o r each r o l e component and  58 f o r i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y i n each of t h e f o u r  role  components. 2. To determine t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , the  f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e REQ were c o r r e l a t e d  s c o r e s from t h e second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . to c a l c u l a t e and  s c o r e s from  test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y  f o r i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y  with  Pearson's r was used  f o r each r o l e component  i n each of t h e f o u r  role  components. 3. Hypothesis t e s t i n g was performed u s i n g e i t h e r a t - t e s t o r a one-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e significance  (ANOVA). The  l e v e l was s e t a t .05.  4. To determine t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of t h e REQ, t h e t e s t items were s u b j e c t e d t o CFA u s i n g the P r i n c i p a l Components method of a n a l y s i s ,  with varimax r o t a t i o n and  Kaiser normalization. Assumptions 1. I n d i v i d u a l s role  a r e capable of e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r d a i l y  activities. 2. I n d i v i d u a l s  describing  their  feelings.  3. I n d i v i d u a l s attitudes  are s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e and capable o f  vary i n t h e i r performance o f , and  towards, r o l e  activities.  59 4. I n d i v i d u a l s can communicate t h e i r experiences  to  others. Limitations 1. The study r e l i e d on a convenience sample. i n t r o d u c e s p o s s i b l e s e l e c t i o n b i a s which may  This  l i m i t the  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of f i n d i n g s . 2. The sample i s b i a s e d i n favour of the w e l l educated.  Caution must be e x e r c i s e d i n g e n e r a l i z i n g the  f i n d i n g s of t h i s study t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t populations. 3. The s m a l l sample s i z e and r e l a t i v e homogeneity of sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i m i t s the v a r i a n c e of s c o r e s r e s u l t i n g i n lower r e l i a b i l i t y  thereby  estimates.  4. Due t o the s m a l l sample s i z e , c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y work i n t h i s study must be c o n s i d e r e d p r e l i m i n a r y and tenuous. 5. The demographic subsamples are very s m a l l . reader  The  i s c a u t i o n e d not t o p l a c e undue c o n f i d e n c e i n  s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s based on s m a l l subsamples. 6. R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y measures are situation specific.  G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these c a l c u l a t i o n s  i s l i m i t e d t o the study  sample.  60 7. Repeated  exposure t o the REQ may l e a d t o d i f f e r e n t  degrees of memory r e c a l l among respondents.  I n d i v i d u a l s who  remember q u e s t i o n n a i r e items may d u p l i c a t e t h e i r responses.  P o l i t and Hungler  earlier  (1991) suggest t h a t  this  phenomenon may r e s u l t i n s p u r i o u s l y h i g h t e s t - r e t e s t reliability  coefficients.  8. T h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of respondents d e l a y e d r e t u r n i n g t h e second q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r one t o t h r e e months. These respondents may have completed  t h e second  q u e s t i o n n a i r e anywhere from 3 t o 14 weeks a f t e r t h e f i r s t questionnaire.  Changes may have o c c u r r e d i n the nature of  the c o n s t r u c t over such a p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d of time.  Thus,  measurement may r e f l e c t c o n s t r u c t s t a b i l i t y r a t h e r than instrument  stability. E t h i c a l Considerations  A cover l e t t e r was sent t o p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s i n f o r m i n g them of t h e purpose of t h e study of  (Appendix B ) .  Completion  t h e REQ served as an i n d i c a t i o n of informed consent.  study p r o t o c o l , measures, and c o n t a c t l e t t e r s were  The  approved  by t h e UBC B e h a v i o r a l Screening Committee f o r Research and Other S t u d i e s I n v o l v i n g Human S u b j e c t s .  To p r o t e c t  respondents' c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were numbered. Only t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r had access t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' names.  61 B e n e f i t s of P a r t i c i p a t i o n 1. Increased understanding of o n e s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o role  activities. 2. The o p p o r t u n i t y t o express p e r s o n a l views  regarding r o l e  activities.  3. The o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a worthwhile project  t h a t may  h e l p o t h e r s adapt t o the d u a l - e a r n e r  lifestyle. R i s k s from 1. Respondents may activities.  T h i s may  Participation  gain insights into  role-related  a l t e r p r e v i o u s p e r c e p t i o n s and  cause  psychological distress. 2. Completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e may  take respondents'  time away from other a c t i v i t i e s and i n c r e a s e respondents' p e r c e p t i o n of time p r e s s u r e . Conclusion Research i n t o the d u a l - e a r n e r l i f e s t y l e i s hampered by a l a c k of instruments t h a t measure the antecedents of r o l e strain.  P r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g of the REQ  suggests t h a t t h i s  q u e s t i o n n a i r e has promise and r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement over c u r r e n t l y  available tools.  The  procedures  f o l l o w e d t o address psychometric r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y  62 c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e understanding and v a l u e o f t h i s instrument. Chapter In  Summary  chapter t h r e e , the methods used t o e v a l u a t e t h e  psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of t h e REQ were d e s c r i b e d .  The  chapter presented r e c r u i t m e n t s t r a t e g i e s and sampling c r i t e r i a used by t h e study i n v e s t i g a t o r .  Procedures used t o  t e s t t h e REQ's r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y were examined. a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s were i d e n t i f i e d . c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , assumptions,  Finally,  Data  ethical  and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e study  were d i s c u s s e d . Chapter f o u r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f data a n a l y s i s . F i n d i n g s from t h e psychometric t e s t i n g of t h e REQ a r e d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e l i t e r a t u r e .  63 CHAPTER FOUR P r e s e n t a t i o n and D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s The  f o l l o w i n g chapter  reliability  summarizes t h e r e s u l t s from t h e  and v a l i d i t y t e s t i n g o f t h e REQ.  describes:  (a) t h e sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  reliability,  The chapter  (b) support f o r  s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and  test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y  and, (c) support  v a l i d i t y using hypothesis  f o r construct  t e s t i n g and f a c t o r a n a l y s i s .  In  each s e c t i o n , t h e f i n d i n g s a r e d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d i n the context o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A convenience sample o f 104 dual-earner recruited.  Of t h e 2 08 parents  couples was  e n r o l l e d , 165 completed and  r e t u r n e d t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , y i e l d i n g a response r a t e of 79%.  However, o n l y 134 i n d i v i d u a l s completed and  r e t u r n e d both t h e f i r s t and second q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Chi-square  a n a l y s i s , (2, N = 165) = 9.78, p = .007, r e v e a l e d  t h a t t h e two groups were comparable  demographically,  d i f f e r i n g o n l y on t h e number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e home; p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h fewer c h i l d r e n had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r tendency t o complete both q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Due t o t h e success  of a campus mass-mailing  strategy, the majority of dual-earners  recruitment  e n r o l l e d were  64 employed by the U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l  p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e a r i n g a t l e a s t one c h i l d under t h e age of s i x .  Most of the c h i l d r e n were under the age of t h r e e .  Almost o n e - h a l f of the sample had a t l e a s t one c h i l d  18  months or younger (see Table 1). Table 1 Number and ages of c h i l d r e n  (N = 165)  Number of Children  Ages of Children  1  2  3  6 yrs & less  Percent  49%  46%  5%  100%  85%  48%  Number  80  76  9  165  140  80  The sample r e f l e c t s the t r e n d  3 yrs & less  18 mo. & less  f o r mothers t o r e t u r n t o  work b e f o r e t h e i r c h i l d r e n reach school-age (Googins & Burden, 1987; Schroeder e t a l . , 1992; Walker & Best, 1991). Since 1970, the g r e a t e s t  increase  i n labour  force  p a r t i c i p a t i o n has o c c u r r e d f o r mothers w i t h p r e s c h o o l children  (Mathews  & Rodin, 1989).  Interestingly,  a  "husband's p o t e n t i a l t o become a good income earner does not  65 make i t more l i k e l y f o r mothers o f young c h i l d r e n t o be out of t h e labour f o r c e "  (Matthews & Rodin,  1989, p. 1391).  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e men and women were w e l l - e d u c a t e d . Seventy-three p e r c e n t had e i t h e r o b t a i n e d a diploma, f i n i s h e d c o l l e g e , o r earned a u n i v e r s i t y  degree.  Twenty-five p e r c e n t o f these p a r t i c i p a n t s were prepared a t the masters o r d o c t o r a l  level.  Only 1% had not graduated  from h i g h s c h o o l . Most o f t h e d u a l - e a r n e r s were q u i t e mature (M = 34.9, SD = 5.2).  Only 14% of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were under 30 which  r e f l e c t s t h e t r e n d towards delayed c h i l d b e a r i n g 1992).  (Bielby,  H i g g i n s e t a l . (1994) suggested women d e l a y  c h i l d b i r t h i n order t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r c a r e e r s .  Ghalam  (1993) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e mean age when managerial and p r o f e s s i o n a l women i n Canada have t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d i s 31. C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and age, of d u a l - e a r n e r s were f i n a n c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l .  the majority Chi-square  a n a l y s i s showed t h a t men earned more money than women (2, N = 160) = 22.55, p_<.001.  For p e r s o n a l income, 25% o f  the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d e a r n i n g between $40,000 and $49,999 a year, w h i l e 28% made $50,000 o r more a year. 4% of t h e sample earned  Only  l e s s than $2 0,000 a year.  Study p a r t i c i p a n t s worked from 18 t o 80 hours a week, w i t h a mean of 3 6.7  (SD = 9.2) paid-work hours.  Chi-square  a n a l y s i s demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number  66 of p a i d hours men and women worked E<.001.  (1, N = 165) = 22.52,  Over o n e - t h i r d o f t h e women worked t h i r t y hours a  week o r l e s s , w h i l e 94% o f t h e men worked more than 30 hours a week (see T a b l e 2 ) . Table 2 Dual-earners' hours o f work (N = 165)  Work hours  Gender  Men  Women  N  %  N  %  Under 2 0 h r s  0  0  3  4%  2 0 t o 30 h r s  5  6%  27  32%  77  94%  53  64%  Over 30 h r s  Ghalam  (1993) r e p o r t e d t h a t i n 1991, 26% o f a l l  employed Canadian women worked p a r t - t i m e , compared w i t h o n l y 9% o f employed men.  F o r t y p e r c e n t o f women aged 25 t o 44  p r e f e r p a r t - t i m e work and more than h a l f o f these women c i t e p e r s o n a l o r f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as t h e i r reason f o r working p a r t - t i m e . F l e x - t i m e was assessed f o r respondents.  Burke and  McKeen (1988) d e f i n e d f l e x - t i m e as employment which a l l o w s  67 employees a " c e r t a i n freedom i n choosing t h e i r times o f a r r i v a l and d e p a r t u r e "  (p. 34). Chi-square a n a l y s i s  r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of f l e x - t i m e was independent of gender (1, N = 163) = 2.15, p = .34.  For 50% o f d u a l -  e a r n e r s , f l e x - t i m e was a v a i l a b l e ; however, 48% r e p o r t e d n o t being a b l e t o access f l e x - t i m e , and p a r t i a l f l e x - t i m e was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e remaining  2% o f t h e sample.  About o n e - t h i r d (34%) o f sample p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not have h e l p a t home.  As demonstrated by c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s  d u a l - e a r n e r s who worked over 3 0 hours a week were no more l i k e l y t o have h e l p than d u a l - e a r n e r s who worked under 3 0 hours a week (1, N = 163) = 2.33, p_ = .12.  For t h e 66% o f  d u a l - e a r n e r s who r e p o r t e d having a s s i s t a n c e , the most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d sources o f h e l p were nannies f a m i l y b a b y s i t t e r s (35%).  (39%) and  Thus, c h i l d care was t h e most  p r e v a l e n t form o f home a s s i s t a n c e . Ghalam (1993) i d e n t i f i e d b a b y s i t t e r s , r a t h e r than nannies,  as t h e most important  source of c h i l d  a s s i s t a n c e f o r Canadian d u a l - e a r n e r s .  care  Babysitters provide  care f o r 37% o f c h i l d r e n under t h r e e and 31% o f c h i l d r e n aged t h r e e t o f i v e .  Parents a l s o r e l y on r e l a t i v e s f o r  c h i l d c a r e ; 24% of c h i l d r e n under t h r e e and 16% aged t h r e e t o f i v e a r e cared f o r by a r e l a t i v e . cases, t h e grandparent (Crompton, 1991).  In t h e m a j o r i t y o f  i s t h e r e l a t i v e g i v i n g care  68 Googins (1991) r e p o r t e d a s m a l l percentage o f d u a l - e a r n e r parents e n l i s t i n g h e l p . of  In h i s sample, o n l y 10%  h o u r l y workers and 12% o f managers employed o t h e r s t o  a s s i s t w i t h home chores. McLaughlin  In a sample o f p r o f e s s i o n a l women,  e t a l . (1988) observed t h a t 4 5% o f respondents  used o u t s i d e h e l p .  Moreover, 67% o f t h e women requested  h e l p from a f a m i l y member on a d a i l y  basis.  Reliability The next s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t h e REQ's i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y f i n d i n g s a r e compared w i t h r e l i a b i l i t y Hall  estimates.  The  e s t i m a t e s o b t a i n e d by  (1993).  Internal Consistency I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y measures t h e homogeneity o f t h e REQ,  t h e extent t o which items measure t h e same  characteristic.  "Unless t e s t s c o r e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t , they  cannot be r e l a t e d t o other v a r i a b l e s w i t h any degree o f c o n f i d e n c e " (Brown, 1970, p. 76). Using Cronbach's alpha, i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e REQ.  The d i s p a r i t y  dimension  demonstrated h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y  with an alpha of .91 f o r t h e  overall scale  Alphas were a l s o o b t a i n e d f o r  (see Table 3).  d i s p a r i t y i n each o f t h e f o u r r o l e components and ranged from  .78 t o .91.  69 T a b l e 3. I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y : Comparison o f f i n d i n g s f o r r o l e dimensions  Number o f items  Sleigh (n=165)  Hall (n=110)  7  33  39  Spouse  26  75  78  Parent  28  92  93  6  ,53  52  67  88  90  Paid-work  14  77  76  Spouse  19  84  83  Parent  14  86  89  Individual  12  85  ,82  Total  59  ,91  ,90  Dimension  1. I n t e n s i t y : Paid-work  Individual Total 2. D i s p a r i t y :  I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y a l s o proved t o be s u b s t a n t i a l f o r the i n t e n s i t y dimension. .88 (see Table 3 ) .  The alpha f o r the e n t i r e s c a l e was  However, alphas were low f o r t h e  70 paid-work r o l e s u b s c a l e (.33) r o l e subscale  (.53).  and  modest f o r the  individual  Both alphas were l e s s than .70,  minimal l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y  recommended by Nunnally  the (1978)  for exploratory research. 4.  Table  Internal  c o n s i s t e n c y : Comparison of f i n d i n g s  for  role  components  Cronbach's alpha  Number of items  Role  Sleigh (n=165)  Hall (n=110)  Paid-work  21  . 66  . 69  Spouse  45  .82  .85  Parent  42  .93  .94  Individual  18  .86  .83  Comparison of t h i s author's sample and sample i n d i c a t e s dimensions and the  REQ  similar r e l i a b i l i t y  persistent  (1993)  measurements f o r  components (see T a b l e s 3 & 4).  demonstrates e x c e l l e n t  However, the  Hall's  internal  f a i l u r e of the  In  role  general,  consistency. individual  and  paid-work i n t e n s i t y s u b s c a l e s to achieve minimal l e v e l s reliability  warrants f u r t h e r  scrutiny.  of  71 Low i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y may be due t o a l a c k o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n the scores.  For t h e i n d i v i d u a l r o l e  standard d e v i a t i o n s ranged from .86 t o 1.14.  items,  Standard  d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e paid-work r o l e ranged from .86 t o 1.15. L i m i t e d s c o r e d i s p e r s i o n may be due t o the homogeneous sample t e s t e d . Nunnally  (1978) emphasized the importance o f s c o r e  dispersion to r e l i a b i l i t y .  "The s i z e o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the standard d e v i a t i o n o f o b t a i n e d s c o r e s f o r any sample of s u b j e c t s " (p. 241). Furthermore, "the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t w i l l be l a r g e r f o r samples o f s u b j e c t s t h a t vary more w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t r a i t being i n v e s t i g a t e d " (Nunnally, 1978, p. 241). C l e a r item wording and e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e elements t h a t impact  on r e l i a b i l i t y  (Nunnally,  1978).  Measurement e r r o r i s i n t r o d u c e d when respondents understand author's  t h e wording o f items.  Respondents i n t h i s  sample were confused by the phrase,  t h a t you ..."  They suggested  do not  "the amount  i n t h e i r w r i t t e n comments t h a t  "amount" should be d e f i n e d , f o r example, amount o f time, amount o f energy, o r frequency In a d d i t i o n , respondents  of a c t i v i t y . r e c e i v e d no i n s t r u c t i o n s on  how t o d e a l w i t h n o n - a p p l i c a b l e items.  Dual-earners  v a r i e t y o f ways t o score n o n - a p p l i c a b l e items. which do not r e f l e c t v a l i d p e r c e p t i o n s i n t r o d u c e  chose a  Responses unnecessary  72 e r r o r i n t o the s c o r e s . items may  I n c o n s i s t e n c y i n answering  have compromised  these  reliability.  In the author's sample, the format of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e confused respondents.  On the p r i n t e d forms, no spaces were  i n s e r t e d between items 13, 14, and 15.  The  items  appeared  as; A great deal  None 13. The amount you do d i s h e s . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? 14. The amount you vacuum/sweep/mop. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? 15. The amount you do laundry. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 2 1 2 1 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  1 2 1 2 1 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  1 2 1 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1 2  3  4  5  Respondents found i t d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c k statements a c r o s s the page t o the c o r r e c t l i n e of numerical  responses.  I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t t h i s v i s u a l l y t r y i n g format l e d t o a c e r t a i n degree of f a t i g u e , impatience, and c a r e l e s s n e s s i n respondents. Substandard "The  alphas a l s o occur when s c a l e s are s h o r t .  s i z e of the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s based on both  the average c o r r e l a t i o n among items and the number of items"  (internal consistency)  (Nunnally, 1978,  p. 230).  For  i n t e n s i t y , both the i n d i v i d u a l and paid-work r o l e s u b s c a l e s  73 are v e r y s h o r t , c o n t a i n i n g o n l y s i x and seven  items,  respectively. The b r e v i t y impact  of the s u b s c a l e s probably had a s i g n i f i c a n t  on r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s .  As a r o l e component the  i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s u b s c a l e c o n s i s t s of 18 items, w h i l e the paid-work r o l e s u b s c a l e c o n t a i n s 21 items.  Cronbach's  alphas f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and paid-work s u b s c a l e s f o r the r o l e components (see Table 4) were much h i g h e r than  those  o b t a i n e d f o r these s u b s c a l e s i n the i n t e n s i t y dimension Table 3).  Alphas f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and paid-work s u b s c a l e s  f o r the r o l e components ranged .83,  (see  from  .66 t o .69. and  .86  to  respectively.  Test-retest  Reliability  J u s t as i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y measures the c o n s i s t e n c y of performance over items, t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y measures the c o n s i s t e n c y or s t a b i l i t y Researchers  calculate  of performance over  the s t a b i l i t y  time.  of an instrument  t e s t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l twice and c o r r e l a t i n g the two  by s e t s of  scores. For the REQ, r r a n g i n g from Table 5 ) . dimension  i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y produced  Pearson's  .69 t o .80 f o r the f o u r r o l e components  With a c o e f f i c i e n t of .80, the  intensity  demonstrated m i n i m a l l y g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y  d i s p a r i t y dimension  (r =  .76).  (see  than  the  74 Table 5 Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y :  Comparison  of f i n d i n g s f o r r o l e  dimensions  Pearson s r 1  Sleigh  Role  Hall  Intensity  Disparity  Intensity  Disparity  Paid-work  . 69  .73  .79  . 62  Spouse  .73  .72  .77  . 68  Parent  .82  . 64  . 87  . 68  Individual  .70  . 64  . 62  . 65  Overall  .80  .76  .80  .73  Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y components. the r o l e s  was  c a l c u l a t e d on the f o u r r o l e  Pearson's r ranged from .69 t o .74 f o r each of  (see T a b l e 6).  Pearson's r measured  .72.  For the t o t a l r o l e s c a l e ,  75 Table 6 Test-retest  r e l i a b i l i t y : Comoarison of f i n d i n g s f o r r o l e  components  Pearson's r  Role  Sleigh  Hall  Paid-work  .73  . 60  Spouse  . 69  .71  Parent  . 74  . 85  Individual  .72  . 66  Compared  to Hall  (1993), s t a b i l i t y was s l i g h t l y  f o r t h i s author's sample (see T a b l e s 5 & 6 ) . o b t a i n e d Pearson's r r a n g i n g from components.  However, H a l l  Hall  lower  (1993)  .62 t o .87 f o r t h e r o l e  (1993) r e p o r t e d a p o s s i b l e l a g  time of t h r e e t o s i x weeks between the f i r s t and second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In the author's sample, study respondents were even more t a r d y .  For 33% of the i n d i v i d u a l s , the p o s s i b l e  i n t e r v a l between q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ranged t h r e e t o 14 weeks.  from  "In g e n e r a l ... the magnitude of the  c o r r e l a t i o n decreases over time"  (Brown, 1970, p. 62).  76 S i g n i f i c a n t changes may have o c c u r r e d i n t h e respondents' r o l e e x p e r i e n c e s over such a p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d o f time. In  o r d e r t o determine t h e a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f  reliability  f o r a new instrument, Brown (1970) suggested  comparing t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t of t h e new t o o l w i t h  an e s t a b l i s h e d t o o l t h a t measures t h e same c o n s t r u c t . Although H a l l ' s instrument o p e r a t i o n a l i z e s a n o v e l construct, r e l i a b i l i t y Baruch's  may be compared w i t h B a r n e t t and  (1986) rewards and concerns  scales.  B a r n e t t e t a l . (1992) measured t h e t e s t - r e t e s t reliability  o f t h e i r instruments u s i n g randomly sampled  s c o r e s from 10% of women (n = 40) who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l study. for  The authors o b t a i n e d Pearson's  t h e j o b rewards and concerns s c a l e s ,  .82 f o r t h e parent  rewards s c a l e , and .70 f o r t h e parent concerns In  r .88  scale.  a l a t e r study of d u a l - e a r n e r s , B a r n e t t , Brennan, and  Marshall  (1994) c a l c u l a t e d t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y .  p e r c e n t o f study p a r t i c i p a n t s  Ten  (n = 64) were randomly sampled  and i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r t h e o r i g i n a l c o n t a c t .  The authors  r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r t h e parent concerns and rewards s c a l e s Pearson's  r was .83 f o r men and .81 f o r women.  B a r n e t t e t a l . (1994) conducted months a f t e r t h e o r i g i n a l t e s t .  However,  some r e t e s t s up t o t h r e e Thus, t h e authors p r o b a b l y  measured c o n s t r u c t s t a b i l i t y r a t h e r than t o o l  stability.  77 Comparisons between Baruch and instruments and  the REQ  concerns s c a l e s  are  "reliability  p.  c o e f f i c i e n t s are  74).  e s t i m a t e s may  The  reliability  the  e v a l u a t i o n of the s u p p o r t i n g the  rewards  differences  by H a l l  REQ. REQ,  between the  test,  the  (Brown,  reliability  t o the homogeneous, non-random (1993) and  To the  and  However,  s p e c i f i c t o the  preceding section, of the  the  (1986)  sample being t e s t e d "  be p a r t l y due  samples r e c r u i t e d In the  suggest t h a t  s l i g h t l y more s t a b l e .  t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , and 1970,  Barnett's  the  Sleigh.  discussion  complete the next s e c t i o n  instrument's c o n s t r u c t  focused on  the  psychometric reviews  findings  validity.  Construct V a l i d i t y The  following  r e s u l t s of the  section  p r e s e n t s the  h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g , and  hypotheses, a discussion  the of  the  results. Hypothesis T e s t i n g In order t o examine the  c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the  t e n hypotheses were generated f o r the i n t e n s i t y and the  test  role disparity.  scores.  r o l e dimensions:  REQ, role  Table 7 p r e s e n t s a summary of  78 Table 7 T e s t s c o r e s f o r d u a l - e a r n e r men and women (N = 165)  Men  Women  Range o f p o s s i b l e scores  Mean  SD  7-35  18.0  3.2  15.9  2.9  Spouse  30 - 130  88.9  11.8  90.8  11.1  Parent  28 - 140  99.9  15.8  119.2  11.6  5-30  17.0  3.7  17.0  2.9  Work  14 - 70  34.6  8.0  34.0  10.6  Spouse  19-95  46.4  9.0  49.4  11.0  Parent  14-70  28.3  8.1  27.4  8.4  Individual  12-60  31.1  8.7  35.5  8.5  Variable  Mean  SD  Intensity Work  Individual Disparity  Role i n t e n s i t y .  HI. Dual-earner mothers w i l l o b t a i n  h i g h e r i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s i n t h e parent r o l e than  dual-earner  fathers. The h y p o t h e s i s was confirmed by a o n e - t a i l e d t - t e s t t(163) = 8.96, p_<.001.  Since 85% o f t h e sample c o n s i s t e d o f  d u a l - e a r n e r couples r e a r i n g one o r more c h i l d r e n under t h e  age o f t h r e e (see Table 1 ) , t h e f i n d i n g suggests t h a t mothers o f v e r y young c h i l d r e n i n v e s t more time, e f f o r t , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e p a r e n t i n g r o l e than The  f i n d i n g i s w e l l supported  & B o z e t t , 1987).  fathers.  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  (Hanson  Researchers have documented t h a t employed  women spend more hours i n c h i l d c a r e than employed men ( D a r l i n g - F i s h e r & T i e d j e , 1990; H o c h s c h i l d , 1989; S c a r r e t al.,  1989).  Baruch and B a r n e t t (1986) r e p o r t e d t h e t o t a l  i n t e r a c t i o n time between parents and c h i l d r e n was 44.5 hours a week f o r women and 29.5 hours a week f o r men.  Googins  (1991) noted t h a t employed female parents spent 24.2 hours on c h i l d c a r e a week w h i l e employed male parents spent 14.9 hours. Gender s e g r e g a t i o n of t a s k s may account d i s c r e p a n c y between men's and women's c h i l d contributions.  f o r some o f t h e care  Women g e n e r a l l y assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  c h i l d r e n ' s p h y s i c a l c a r e and perform d u t i e s such as b a t h i n g , d r e s s i n g , f e e d i n g , and s e t t l i n g c h i l d r e n :  t a s k s which a r e  r o u t i n e , n o n - d i s c r e t i o n a r y , and time-consuming F i s h e r & T i e d j e , 1990).  (Darling-  Men, on t h e other hand, tend t o  a s s i s t by b a b y s i t t i n g and p l a y i n g w i t h t h e i r  children:  a c t i v i t i e s which occur l e s s f r e q u e n t l y and may be scheduled at one's convenience  (Power & Parke,  In a d d i t i o n t o expending  1984).  more time and e f f o r t than men  i n t h e parent r o l e , mothers r e t a i n primary  responsibility  80 for their children 1980).  (Barnett e t a l . ,  1987; Johnson & Johnson,  Many husbands r e l e g a t e c h i l d c a r e t o t h e i r wives and  p r o v i d e h e l p o n l y when s p e c i f i c a l l y asked.  Thus, when  f a t h e r s engage i n c h i l d c a r e , they f r e q u e n t l y assume t h e r o l e o f " h e l p e r " (Gunter & Gunter,  1991).  In order t o assess r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , some r e s e a r c h e r s measured t h e amount of time men and women spent i n s o l e charge o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  Studies revealed that fathers  spent l e s s time alone w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n than mothers (Baruch & B a r n e t t , 1986; Olds e t a l . , Barnett  1993).  Baruch and  (1986) s t a t e " f a t h e r s spend an average  of 5.5 hours  a week i n t e r a c t i n g alone w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n " w h i l e "mothers spend an average  o f 19.6 hours"  (p. 987). Olds e t a l .  (1993) a l s o found gender p r e d i c t e d s o l o involvement  in child  c a r e ; " l e s s than one q u a r t e r (of husbands) c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n more than f o u r hours a week without t h e i r wives present"  (p. 8 ) .  The REQ s c o r e s a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t one o f t h e most commonly r e p o r t e d phenomena i n the l i t e r a t u r e , mothers* dominance o f t h e parent r o l e . p a r e n t s ' involvement  The REQ a l s o  captures  i n a v a r i e t y of c h i l d care  activities.  Items t a p i n t o p h y s i c a l c a r e (bathing, d i a p e r i n g , feeding) as w e l l as a u x i l i a r y c a r e ( b a b y s i t t i n g , p l a y i n g ) .  With t h e  REQ, a r i c h data base i s generated which may be used by  81 i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o t r a c k e v o l v i n g t r e n d s i n t h e gender d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h i l d care tasks. Moreover, t h e REQ permits t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o d i r e c t l y measure p a r e n t s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d c a r e .  Parents a r e  asked t o q u a n t i f y t h e i r l e v e l o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r each c h i l d care task.  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement  over i n d i r e c t methods of a s s e s s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . H2.  Dual-earner  fathers w i l l obtain higher r o l e  i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s i n t h e paid-work r o l e than  dual-earner  mothers. The h y p o t h e s i s was confirmed by a o n e - t a i l e d t(163) = 4.56, p<.001. time, energy,  Fathers appeared  t-test  t o i n v e s t more  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e paid-work r o l e  mothers (see Table 7 ) .  Indeed, c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s  than  (1, N =  165 = 22.52, p<.001) r e v e a l e d t h a t men were more l i k e l y t o work i n excess of 30 hours a week then women. Dual-earner  f a t h e r s averaged  40.7 (SD = 8.6) hours a  week i n paid-work as compared t o d u a l - e a r n e r mothers who averaged  32.7 (SD = 7.9) hours a week.  correlation,  r(134) = -.33,  A negative  p<.001, was found between hours  spent i n p a i d work and t h e i n t e n s i t y of t h e parent r o l e f o r both men and women.  The men i n t h e sample spent more time  doing p a i d work but experienced l e s s i n t e n s i t y i n t h e parent r o l e w h i l e t h e women experienced t h e o p p o s i t e time commitments.  82 Differences  i n paid-work hours f o r men and women have  been a c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e 1994).  (Higgins e t a l . ,  Googins (1991) compared t h e paid-work hours o f  p a r e n t s employed by a l a r g e American c o r p o r a t i o n ,  and found  t h a t f a t h e r s worked an average o f 44.7 hours a week w h i l e mothers worked 3 9.7  hours a week.  In t h e i r study o f  Canadian p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r employees, H i g g i n s  et a l .  (1994) found t h a t f a t h e r s w i t h young c h i l d r e n spent 44.0 hours a week engaged i n p a i d work, w h i l e mothers spent 41.8 hours a week. Fathers'  h i g h paid-work i n t e n s i t y scores  w i t h a negative parenting  i n conjunction  c o r r e l a t i o n between paid-work hours and  i n t e n s i t y may r e f l e c t couples'  t h e i r r o l e commitments.  attempts t o balance  Men and women may be l i m i t i n g t h e  time, e f f o r t , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n v o l v e d i n one r o l e so they can f u n c t i o n more p r o d u c t i v e l y i n another r o l e .  Thus,  each spouse may d e a l w i t h m u l t i p l e - r o l e demands by a s s i g n i n g p r i o r i t y t o those r o l e s t h a t h o l d more meaning and r e l e v a n c e f o r them. Cowan and Cowan (1988) suggested t h a t parenthood a conservative regardless  i n f l u e n c e on r o l e s .  exerts  The authors s t a t e d t h a t ,  of where a couple begins on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l - t o -  e g a l i t a r i a n continuum, "men's and women's f a m i l y r o l e arrangements become i n c r e a s i n g l y t r a d i t i o n a l " a f t e r t h e b i r t h of t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d  (p. 106).  Furthermore, "as  83 p s y c h o l o g i c a l involvement  i n parenthood  increases, i t i s  accompanied by a sense of d e c r e a s i n g involvement of spouse and  l o v e r f o r both mothers and f a t h e r s ,  c o n t r a s t i n g changes i n work involvement wives"  i n the r o l e  (p. 118).  and  f o r husbands and  Thus, the a d a p t a t i o n t o parenthood,  o t h e r major l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s ,  like  "create[s] functional  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t were not p r e s e n t b e f o r e , and  ...  unhook[s] f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t e d b e f o r e the l i f e change o c c u r r e d " (p. 126). S u r p r i s i n g l y , the i n t e n s i t y scores i n the paid-work component were q u i t e low f o r such a w e l l - e d u c a t e d h i g h l y - p a i d sample.  and  However, H a l l maintains the REQ  i s not  designed t o measure p r e s s u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the paid-work role  ( p e r s o n a l communication, June 19, 1995).  hopes t o capture respondents  1  Instead, H a l l  p e r c e p t i o n s of w o r k - r e l a t e d  demands t h a t might i n t r u d e on the f a m i l y domain. H3.  Dual-earner mothers w i t h more than one c h i l d w i l l  have h i g h e r s c o r e s on the r o l e i n t e n s i t y dimension  of the  parent and spouse r o l e s than d u a l - e a r n e r mothers w i t h  one  child. The h y p o t h e s i s was  not confirmed. O n e - t a i l e d t t e s t s  r e v e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s between the groups (see T a b l e 8) f o r the parent, t(81) = 0.32, and spouse r o l e s , t(81) = 0.31,  p =  p = .37. However, the  two .40,  84 subsamples were s m a l l , n = 40 f o r women w i t h one c h i l d , and n = 43 f o r women w i t h more than one c h i l d . Table 8 I n t e n s i t y s c o r e s f o r d u a l - e a r n e r women (N = 83)  1 child Range o f p o s s i b l e scores  Role  Mean  > 1 child  SD  Mean  SD  Spouse  30 - 130  91.2  9.6  90.4  12.4  Parent  28 - 140  118.6  11.4  119.8  11.9  Secondary a n a l y s i s examined t h e e f f e c t t h e number o f c h i l d r e n had on i n t e n s i t y scores f o r men and women (see Table 9). A o n e - t a i l e d t t e s t i n d i c a t e d that, while there was no d i f f e r e n c e between groups i n t h e parent r o l e ,  t(163)  = 0.25, p_ =.40, d u a l - e a r n e r s w i t h one c h i l d s c o r e d h i g h e r on the i n t e n s i t y dimension  of t h e spouse r o l e than  w i t h more than one c h i l d t(163) = 1.68, p_ = .04.  dual-earners  85 Table 9 I n t e n s i t y scores f o r dual-earners  (N =  165)  1 child  > 1 child  Range of p o s s i b l e scores  Mean  SD  Mean  SD  Spouse  30 - 130  91.4  10.1  88.4  12.5  Parent  28 - 140  109.4  15.3  109.3  18.3  Role  I t was for  c u r i o u s no d i f f e r e n c e was  found between groups  i n t e n s i t y i n the parent r o l e even though 38% of the  sample were r a i s i n g two three.  or more c h i l d r e n under the age  of  Common sense d i c t a t e s c h i l d care t a s k s must i n c r e a s e  when t h e r e are more young c h i l d r e n i n the home. mothers would be expected  Moreover,  t o bear the brunt of the burden.  Lennon, Wasserman, & A l l e n ,  (1991) r e p o r t e d f a t h e r s of  i n f a n t s and t o d d l e r s were not as i n v o l v e d i n c h i l d c a r e as f a t h e r s of o l d e r c h i l d r e n . However, i t must be kept i n mind t h a t the  subscale  q u a n t i f i e s p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of r o l e i n t e n s i t y .  The  s u b s c a l e i s not an o b j e c t i v e measurement of the number of hours respondents  invest i n role a c t i v i t i e s .  Possibly,  86 p a r e n t s w i t h l a r g e f a m i l i e s perform more c h i l d c a r e t a s k s but they do not p e r c e i v e t h e experience t o be unduly time-consuming o r strenuous. Perhaps a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e parents w i t h g r e a t e r rewards, as w e l l as g r e a t e r demands (Pleck, 1985). Marks (1977) argued t h a t rewarding r a t h e r than d r a i n energy.  r o l e s tend t o generate  Such an e f f e c t would e x p l a i n why  d u a l - e a r n e r s w i t h more than one c h i l d do not p e r c e i v e more parent r o l e i n t e n s i t y than d u a l - e a r n e r s w i t h one c h i l d . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , parents w i t h one c h i l d may have h i g h e r standards than parents w i t h more than one c h i l d ; w i t h l a r g e r f a m i l i e s may be b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d .  parents  Parents w i t h  a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n may perform one c h i l d c a r e t a s k f o r a l l the c h i l d r e n a t the same time, f o r example, b a t h i n g o r playing. For t h e spouse r o l e , the data suggested  that parents  w i t h one c h i l d i n v e s t e d more time, e f f o r t , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n housework and/or s p o u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n s parents w i t h two o r more c h i l d r e n .  This finding i s  d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t because o f H a l l ' s of t h e s u b s c a l e .  than  (1993) c o n s t r u c t i o n  Four items address aspects o f the s p o u s a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p and 11 items assess the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of t h e amount of housework (s)he performs.  Unfortunately,  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e does not a l l o w t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o separate t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and housework components so as t o  87 determine  each component's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e o v e r a l l  score. Two e x p l a n a t i o n s may account f o r the h i g h i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s found i n p a r e n t s with one c h i l d .  High s c o r e s may  r e f l e c t respondents' p e r c e p t i o n of a more i n t e n s e s p o u s a l relationship.  Subscale items assess t h e amount o f time and  a t t e n t i o n spouses devote t o each o t h e r .  Couples w i t h one  c h i l d p r o b a b l y have more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h  each  other than couples w i t h two o r more c h i l d r e n . An a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t respondents w i t h one c h i l d perform more housework than respondents w i t h two o r more c h i l d r e n .  Even though r e s e a r c h e r s suggest  that  a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n c r e a t e more housework (Coverman, 1989; P e a r l i n , 1975), i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t couples w i t h f a m i l i e s lower t h e i r housekeeping  larger  standards and a c t u a l l y  perform l e s s housework than couples w i t h s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s . Unless t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s a b l e t o separate s p o u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n s c o r e s from housekeeping  s c o r e s , i t i s not  p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y which o f t h e p r e c e d i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s might account f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e groups. C a l c u l a t i o n of t h e s c o r e s f o r each component would r e q u i r e the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o i d e n t i f y respondents groups and r e s c o r e the s u b s c a l e . l a b o r i o u s and time-consuming.  i n t h e comparison  The process would be  Furthermore,  d i v i d i n g the  88 spouse r o l e i n t o two s u b s c a l e s compromises t h e accuracy o f the r e l i a b i l i t y  estimates.  H4. I n d i v i d u a l s e a r n i n g h i g h incomes w i l l g r e a t e r r o l e i n t e n s i t y i n t h e paid-work r o l e  experience  than  i n d i v i d u a l s e a r n i n g low incomes. The h y p o t h e s i s was confirmed F(2, 157) = 33.24, p_ = .03.  by one-way ANOVA,  I n d i v i d u a l s e a r n i n g $40,000 o r  more scored h i g h e r on the i n t e n s i t y dimension than i n d i v i d u a l s e a r n i n g $30,000 - $39,999 o r i n d i v i d u a l s  earning  $10,000 - $29,999. T h i s f i n d i n g makes i n t u i t i v e sense. p a i d h i g h s a l a r i e s t o compensate f o r heavy demands.  Although  t o experience mid-range.  Individuals are work-role  h i g h l y p a i d i n d i v i d u a l s would be  expected  i n t e n s e r o l e demands, t h e s c o r e s were  The median score f o r i n d i v i d u a l s e a r n i n g $40,000  or more a year was 17.4.  The h i g h e s t score t h a t c o u l d be  achieved i n t h i s s u b s c a l e i s 35 (see Table 10).  89 Table 10 T e s t s c o r e s i n the paid-work  r o l e f o r d u a l - e a r n e r s (N = 160)  T e s t Scores  Range o f possible scores  Mean  SD  $10,000 - $29,999  7-35  15.8  2.9  $30,000 - $39,999  7-35  17.0  3.8  $40,000 and over  7-35  17.4  3.0  Income  I t must be remembered i t was not H a l l ' s  intention to  assess t h e p r e s s u r e s i n t r i n s i c t o t h e paid-work  role.  Rather, H a l l composed s u b s c a l e items i n order t o a s c e r t a i n the  degree t o which paid-work  f a m i l y domain. ascertain  r o l e demands i n t r u d e d on t h e  While H a l l must be commended f o r t r y i n g t o  respondents' a b i l i t y t o compartmentalize  her approach i n t r o d u c e s l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s r o l e s , v i s - a - v i s the i n t e n s i t y For  roles,  between  dimension.  t h e parent, spouse, and i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s , t h e REQ  a s s e s s e s respondents * p e r c e p t i o n of the amount o f time and e f f o r t they i n v e s t role,  i n role activities.  U n l i k e t h e paid-work  items do not measure t h e degree t o which these  roles  90 i n t r u d e on other r o l e s .  Thus, t h e o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f  i n t e n s i t y i s not c o n s i s t e n t among t h e f o u r r o l e s u b s c a l e s . H5. Dual-earners who work f u l l - t i m e w i l l have h i g h e r r o l e i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s i n t h e paid-work r o l e than d u a l e a r n e r s who work p a r t - t i m e . The h y p o t h e s i s was confirmed by a o n e - t a i l e d t(163) = 2.77, p_<.001.  t-test  Comparison groups i n c l u d e d p a r t - t i m e  employees working under 3 0 hours a week and f u l l - t i m e employees working 3 0 o r more hours a week. T h i s f i n d i n g may r e f l e c t t h e confounding paid-work hours.  o f gender w i t h  I t has a l r e a d y been shown t h a t men work  more hours than women and t h i s phenomenon c o n t r i b u t e s t o men's p e r c e p t i o n o f i n t e n s i t y i n t h e paid-work r o l e .  In the  p r e s e n t sample, f u l l - t i m e employees c o n s i s t e d mostly o f men, w h i l e t h e p a r t - t i m e employees c o n s i s t e d mostly o f women (see Table 11).  Chi-square a n a l y s i s ,  (1, N = 165) = 15.40,  p_<«001, confirmed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n paid-work hours between  genders.  91 Table 11 Number o f working hours f o r men and women (N = 165)  T o t a l hours  Men  Under 30 hours 3 0 o r more hours  Women  3  28  79  55  Future s t u d i e s should i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e number o f paid-work hours has on women. l i t e r a t u r e are equivocal.  Some r e s e a r c h e r s m a i n t a i n many  married women p r e f e r p a r t - t i m e employment McCain, 1987; Olds e t a l . ,  Findings i n the  1993).  (Moen & Dempster-  R o s e n f i e l d (1989)  suggested p a r t - t i m e employment reduces o v e r a l l r o l e demands f o r women who have heavy f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . G i l b e r t , and Dale  Arber,  (1985) i n d i c a t e d p a r t - t i m e work has more  b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s f o r women under 40 than f u l l - t i m e work. However, Anderson-Kulman and P a l u d i (198 6) r e p o r t e d mothers f e e l p r e s s u r e d and " t o r n among t h e demands o f being a worker, mother, and/or w i f e , " r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r employment s t a t u s (p. 250).  Greenhaus and B e u t a l l  (1985)  have suggested mothers w i t h p a r t - t i m e jobs may be spread t h i n l y because they tend t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l c h i l d c a r e and housekeeping Tiedje  tasks.  D a r l i n g - F i s h e r and  (1990) concurred, n o t i n g women employed p a r t - t i m e  92 r e c e i v e even l e s s h e l p from t h e i r spouses than homemakers.  full-time  The authors concluded women l i m i t t h e i r work  hours and attempt  t o "do i t a l l " w i t h t h e i r  children.  In t h e p r e s e n t study, paid-work hours a r e n e g a t i v e l y correlated  w i t h parent r o l e i n t e n s i t y , r(134) = -.33,  p_<.001, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t d u a l - e a r n e r s channel energy paid-work r o l e i n t o t h e parent r o l e .  from t h e  The c o r r e l a t i o n i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y s a l i e n t f o r women because they a r e more  likely  than men t o work fewer hours. B a r n e t t e t a l . (1987) b e l i e v e d parent r o l e are more potent than paid-work r o l e s t r e s s o r s .  stressors Parental  work occurs i n a context o f h i g h demands and low c o n t r o l ( R o s e n f i e l d , 1989).  Karasek (1979) a s s o c i a t e d these  conditions with s t r e s s . determine exchanging  Thus, i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o  whether o r not women a c t u a l l y b e n e f i t  from  paid-work r o l e demands f o r p a r e n t - r o l e demands.  The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n i l l u s t r a t e s t h e importance o f o b s e r v i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among r o l e s .  Failure to  examine work and f a m i l y r o l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d e p r i v e s investigators  o f an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e t h e complementary  nature o f r o l e s .  The REQ i s t o be lauded f o r c a p t u r i n g a  r o l e dynamic t h a t may have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact outcomes f o r mothers i n d u a l - e a r n e r  families.  on r o l e  93 Role d i s p a r i t y .  H6.  Dual-earners w i t h more than  c h i l d w i l l experience g r e a t e r d i s p a r i t y  i n the spouse and  i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s than d u a l - e a r n e r s w i t h one The h y p o t h e s i s was  confirmed.  revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t difference the spouse, t(163) = 2.31, t(163) = 2.19, difference  One-tailed t-tests between the two  p = .02. The groups showed a  groups f o r roles  clear-cut  Parents w i t h one  r e p o r t e d low l e v e l s of r o l e d i s p a r i t y of t h e i r r o l e demands was  child.  p = .01, and i n d i v i d u a l  i n role perceptions:  one  child  (meaning the  intensity  a c c e p t a b l e ) . Parents w i t h more  than one c h i l d r e p o r t e d h i g h e r l e v e l s of r o l e d i s p a r i t y Table  12).  Table  12  Disparity  scores f o r dual-earners  (N =  165)  1 child Range of p o s s i b l e scores  Role  (see  > 1 child  Mean  SD  Mean  SD  Spouse  19-95  46.0  9.0  49.7  10.9  Parent  14-70  26.0  7.3  28.8  9.0  Some s t u d i e s have suggested g r e a t e r numbers of adversely a f f e c t parents' m a r i t a l q u a l i t y Mechanic, 1983;  Coverman, 1989;  children  (Cleary &  Vannoy & P h i l l i b e r ,  1992;  94 Verbrugge,  1986).  Guelzow e t a l . (1991) r e p o r t e d an  i n d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n between the number of c h i l d r e n i n the home and m a r i t a l s t r e s s .  Nock and Kingston  (1982) concluded  t h a t the decreased a v a i l a b i l i t y of time, and c o m p e t i t i o n f o r time, accounts f o r the e f f e c t .  These authors f i n d the  "presence of c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y young c h i l d r e n , seems t o reduce the time spouses  spend t o g e t h e r except, perhaps,  c h i l d c a r e r o l e s " (p. 392).  in  C h a s s i n e t a l . (1985) opined  t h a t when couples experience time p r e s s u r e s they  prioritize  the parent and worker r o l e s a t the expense of the s p o u s a l role.  Voyandoff  (1988) maintained t h a t c h i l d r e n  housework and housework i s g e n e r a l l y performed Pearlin wives*  increase  by the w i f e .  (1975) suspected t h a t a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n l e a d t o disenchantment  w i t h homemaking.  agreed i m p l i c a t i n g i n c r e a s e d  Coverman (1989)  housework as the reason  wives' m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i s n e g a t i v e l y  that  a f f e c t e d by the  number of c h i l d r e n i n the home. However, husbands may  a l s o experience a d e c l i n e i n  m a r i t a l q u a l i t y when t h e r e are more c h i l d r e n i n the home (Vannoy & P h i l l i b e r ,  1992).  r e f l e c t s the d e l e g a t i o n  Suitor  (1991) b e l i e v e d  this  of housework from wives t o husbands.  M a r i t a l q u a l i t y s u f f e r s i f men's " c o n t r i b u t i o n t o household labour i s more e x t e n s i v e than they d e s i r e " On the other hand, H a l l  (p. 227).  (1993) suggested t h a t  men  simply l a c k time t o m a i n t a i n the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .  95 E a r l i e r work by Chassin e t a l . (1985) lends credence Hall's contention.  to  The authors r e p o r t e d when f a t h e r s have  d i f f i c u l t y f u l f i l l i n g the husband and f a t h e r r o l e s , husband r o l e i s l e f t  the  wanting.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the REQ  does not permit a c l e a r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the study f i n d i n g s .  The t o o l f a i l s  s e p a r a t e housework from the spousal r e l a t i o n s h i p . i s unknown which aspect of the spouse r o l e may  to  Thus, i t  be  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i f f e r i n g d i s p a r i t y s c o r e s between the groups. The of  l i t e r a t u r e does not address the e f f e c t s the number  c h i l d r e n have on p a r e n t s ' i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s .  However, i t  i s l o g i c a l t o assume d i s p a r i t y i n the i n d i v i d u a l r o l e i s l i n k e d t o p a r e n t s ' l a c k of time.  Studies i n d i c a t e ,  although  d u a l - e a r n e r parents experience p r e s s u r e due t o time shortages, parents w i t h more than one c h i l d experience even g r e a t e r time p r e s s u r e s Bird  (Verbrugge,  1986).  S c h n i t t g e r and  (1990) suggested parents p r i o r i t i z e i n order t o cope.  A p o p u l a r coping method i s t o l i m i t parents* a v o c a t i o n a l activities. T h i s study's f i n d i n g s may of  the c h i l d r e n .  a l s o be r e l a t e d t o the ages  Younger c h i l d r e n have h i g h e r dependency  needs than o l d e r c h i l d r e n and may emotional c a r e .  r e q u i r e more p h y s i c a l  Thus, young c h i l d r e n c r e a t e a p a r e n t i n g  and  96 r o l e t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e (Walker  & Best,  1991) . Parents of i n f a n t s and t o d d l e r s may of the i n d i v i d u a l r o l e .  i g n o r e the demands  Studies that report dual-earners*  l a c k of time f o r e x e r c i s e , community a c t i v i t i e s , and support t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  hobbies  However, r e s e a r c h e r s have  o f t e n r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r samples t o p a r e n t s w i t h v e r y young children 199 0).  (Anderson-Kulman & P a l u d i , 1986;  Walker & Best,  Thus, the p o p u l a t i o n sampled i n these s t u d i e s may  account f o r the c o n s i s t e n c y of the f i n d i n g s . H7.  Dual-earners who  work f u l l - t i m e  (30 or more hours a  week) w i l l experience g r e a t e r d i s p a r i t y i n the paid-work r o l e than d u a l - e a r n e r s who  work p a r t - t i m e (under 30 hours a  week). A o n e - t a i l e d t - t e s t confirmed the d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups t(163) = 1.98, p a r t - t i m e workers was  p_ = .03.  The mean s c o r e f o r  mid-range, i n d i c a t i n g they p e r c e i v e d  paid-work r o l e i n t e n s i t y t o be n e i t h e r a c c e p t a b l e / unacceptable nor c o n t r o l l a b l e / u n c o n t r o l l a b l e . workers'  s c o r e s were moderately  Full-time  h i g h s u g g e s t i n g they  work i n t e n s i t y somewhat unacceptable and  found  uncontrollable.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the s m a l l sample s i z e p r e c l u d e d e n t e r i n g gender as a c o n t r o l .  A n a l y s i s of the demographic data  r e v e a l e d t h a t women accounted workers (see Table 11).  f o r 90% of the p a r t - t i m e  Lower d i s p a r i t y s c o r e s f o r p a r t -  97 time workers may r e f l e c t women's p r e f e r e n c e f o r l e s s i n t e n s i t y i n t h e paid-work r o l e .  Thus, a comparison o f  hours o f work was somewhat m i s l e a d i n g because t h e gender i s s u e may have confounded comparisons. H8.  Dual-earner  f a t h e r s w i l l experience  d i s p a r i t y i n t h e parent r o l e than dual-earner  greater mothers.  The h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d u s i n g a o n e - t a i l e d t - t e s t , t(163) = 0.67, p = .25. Men's d i s p a r i t y s c o r e s were h i g h e r than women's (see Table 7), but t h e d i f f e r e n c e was not statistically  significant.  Since power i s .72, i t i s  u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e f i n d i n g r e s u l t e d from a beta e r r o r . Although  t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n  i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s between t h e two genders t(163) = 8.96, p<.001, t h e men and women shared  similar  perceptions  r e g a r d i n g t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y of t h e i r r o l e demands.  The low  d i s p a r i t y s c o r e s f o r men and women i n d i c a t e both genders p e r c e i v e d t h e amount o f time,  e f f o r t , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  they i n v e s t e d i n t h e parent r o l e as a c c e p t a b l e . to  The f a i l u r e  f i n d h i g h d i s p a r i t y scores f o r men does l i t t l e t o support  the n o t i o n t h a t today's g e n e r a t i o n o f f a t h e r s d e s i r e s g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c h i l d r e a r i n g and a r e f r u s t r a t e d by exclusion. Rotundo (1985) b e l i e v e d t h e adoption o f a more n u r t u r a n t model of fatherhood would be p r o b l e m a t i c a l because it  " i n v o l v e s a s u b s t a n t i a l r e c a s t i n g o f ... manhood,  98 womanhood, and f a m i l y l i f e .  I t demands new emotional  styles  [and]  i t e n t a i l s d i f f e r e n t n o t i o n s of male and female" (p.  16).  Moreover, Rotundo suggested men may have d i f f i c u l t y  r e l i n q u i s h i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e o f fatherhood. be "too t h o r o u g h l y i n g r a i n e d w i t h  'male' v a l u e s o f ambition  and achievement t o devote much time t o s u b s t a n t i a l care"  Men may  daily  (Rotundo, 1985, p. 20). The data a l s o suggest t h a t t h e women i n t h i s sample do  not want o r expect more involvement spouses.  their  These women seem content w i t h t h e i n t e n s i t y o f  t h e i r parent r o l e . this finding.  The l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s some support f o r  Many women a r e not d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h being  primary p r o v i d e r s of c h i l d care 1990;  i n c h i l d c a r e from  Lennon e t a l . ,  1991).  (Darling-Fisher & Tiedje,  Indeed, some women c o v e r t l y  exclude men from d i r e c t c h i l d care G l e n d i n n i n g and M i l l a r  (Hanson e t a l . ,  1985).  (1992) o f f e r e d one e x p l a n a t i o n  as t o why women a r e u n w i l l i n g t o r e l i n q u i s h c h i l d c a r e t u r f . The authors t h i n k women's l a c k of power i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l domain d r i v e s them t o e s t a b l i s h a power base i n t h e home. Thus, some women p e r c e i v e men's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c h i l d  care  as a t h r e a t t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n o f power i n t h e f a m i l y . That t h e p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of t h e parent r o l e i s s i m i l a r f o r men and women i s not a new f i n d i n g . al.  Barnett e t  (1994) s t u d i e d 180 dual-earner couples, t h e m a j o r i t y o f  whom were employed i n management and p r o f e s s i o n a l  99 occupations.  E i g h t y - t h r e e percent of the couples were  rearing preschoolers.  The authors r e p o r t e d mothers and  f a t h e r s o b t a i n e d almost rewards and concerns  i d e n t i c a l s c o r e s i n the p a r e n t a l  scale.  Moreover, reward s c o r e s were  c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than concern s c o r e s , s u g g e s t i n g d u a l - e a r n e r s enjoyed q u a l i t y p a r e n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The REQ  i s highly e f f e c t i v e i n capturing dual-earners'  e x p e r i e n c e s i n the parent r o l e .  The  items i n c l u d e an  e x h a u s t i v e s e l e c t i o n of c h i l d care a c t i v i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d  by  the l i t e r a t u r e as being i n t e g r a l t o the p a r e n t i n g experience.  I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y a major component of the  parent r o l e has been overlooked. However, H a l l ' s  (1993) d e t a i l e d coverage of c h i l d  t a s k s l i m i t s the u t i l i t y of the REQ  care  with older c h i l d r e n .  Tasks such as f e e d i n g , bathing, d r e s s i n g , and d i a p e r i n g are r e l e v a n t t o parents with i n f a n t s and t o d d l e r s . REQ  Thus, the  i s l i m i t e d t o t e s t i n g d u a l - e a r n e r parents w i t h young  children. H9.  Dual-earner mothers w i l l o b t a i n h i g h e r d i s p a r i t y  s c o r e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l r o l e than d u a l - e a r n e r  fathers.  A o n e - t a i l e d t - t e s t confirmed the h y p o t h e s i s , t(163) 3.23,  p_<.001. Scores suggested mothers found the  of the i n d i v i d u a l r o l e somewhat unacceptable uncontrollable  intensity  and/or  (see Table 7) as opposed t o f a t h e r s who  =  100 p e r c e i v e d t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l r o l e as b e i n g a c c e p t a b l e and/or  controllable.  The l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i s t e n t l y  demonstrates  employed  mothers spend l e s s time i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s than men ( L e s l i e & Anderson, 1988; S c h n i t t g e r & B i r d ,  1990).  Women  spend more hours a week on combined work and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and have l e s s f r e e time than men (Duxbury, H i g g i n s , & Lee, 1994).  Googins  (1991) e s t i m a t e d an employed  mother's t o t a l work week as 83.7 hours w h i l e an employed f a t h e r ' s was 72.1 hours. Gilligan  (1982) b e l i e v e d s o c i e t y  expects women t o  s u b o r d i n a t e t h e i r p e r s o n a l needs i n order t o meet t h e needs of t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  Many women f i n d " i t ... more s o c i a l l y  a c c e p t a b l e t o c u t back on community a c t i v i t i e s o r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s than t o reduce time i n c h i l d care o r f o r spousal support"  (Schnittger & Bird,  1990, p. 202).  However, H a l l  (1992) suggested women who s a c r i f i c e t h e i r own needs i n order t o meet t h e needs o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s e x p e r i e n c e f e e l i n g s o f e x h a u s t i o n , resentment, and anger  ( H a l l , 1992).  Thus, t h e r e i s support f o r t h e n o t i o n t h a t women's l a c k o f involvement i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l r o l e may be a source o f discontentment. Men,  on t h e other hand, a r e not as s o c i a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d  t o deny t h e i r needs. not  Men i n one study i n d i c a t e d  and would not put t h e i r needs l a s t "  "they d i d  ( H a l l , 1992, p.  36).  101 Male d u a l - e a r n e r s  i n S c h n i t t g e r and B i r d ' s (1990) study  l i m i t e d t h e i r a v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s l e s s than women. H10.  Dual-earner  mothers working f u l l - t i m e who have  c o l l e g e o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n w i l l have lower d i s p a r i t y s c o r e s i n t h e paid-work r o l e than  dual-earner  mothers working f u l l - t i m e who have a h i g h s c h o o l diploma o r less. The h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d u s i n g a o n e - t a i l e d t - t e s t , t(51) = .83, p = .20. However, t h i s f i n d i n g r e p r e s e n t s a beta e r r o r .  probably  The power c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e  e n t i r e sample (N = 165) f o r comparisons u s i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n v a r i a b l e was only .20. Hypothesis  10 used a subsample o f  o n l y 55, so t h e power i s c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than .20. A f i n d i n g o f e q u i v a l e n c y between groups i s not supported  by t h e l i t e r a t u r e .  Researchers  consistently find  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between women's e d u c a t i o n a l  attainment  and t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r work r o l e s (Hibbard & Pope, 1985; K e s s l e r & McRae, 1982).  U l b r i c h (1988) concluded  women a r e  more l i k e l y t o p r e f e r t h e i r p a i d work i f they a r e h i g h l y educated and employed f u l l - t i m e . the work r o l e e x e r t s a powerful  Moreover, t h e q u a l i t y o f e f f e c t on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  attitude  (Barnett e t a l . , 1992; Grimm-Thomas & P e r r y -  Jenkins,  1994).  Research f u r t h e r demonstrates h i g h l y educated women experience  g r e a t e r congruence between t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t s  102 and t h e r o l e demands of paid-work.  Woods (1985) suggested  women w i t h advanced education a r e l i k e l y t o have modern gender r o l e norms.  Women w i t h n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  orientations  may p e r c e i v e t h e paid-work r o l e t o be more a c c e p t a b l e than women who espouse t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . al.  (1989) maintained  Moreover, R e p e t t i e t  employment i s b e n e f i c i a l when t h e r e i s  " c o n g r u i t y between women's a t t i t u d e s toward ... employment and t h e i r a c t u a l r o l e s t a t u s " (p. 1397). The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n reviewed hypothesis t e s t i n g .  t h e f i n d i n g s from t h e  To f u r t h e r e x p l o r e t h e c o n s t r u c t  v a l i d i t y o f t h e REQ, c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s  (CFA) was  conducted. Confirmatory F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Three CFAs were performed.  F a c t o r s were e x t r a c t e d  u s i n g t h e P r i n c i p a l Components method w i t h varimax r o t a t i o n and K a i s e r n o r m a l i z a t i o n . A n a l y s i s one ( i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y ) . s o l u t i o n was proposed.  A two-factor  I n t e n s i t y items were expected t o  c o r r e l a t e w i t h f a c t o r one and d i s p a r i t y items were t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h f a c t o r two. necessary.  expected  Three i t e r a t i o n s were  The f a c t o r s c o r r e l a t e d moderately  other, s u g g e s t i n g n o n - o r t h o g o n a l i t y  (r =.60).  w i t h each Since  i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y a r e two aspects o f t h e same c o n s t r u c t , one would expect some degree of c o r r e l a t i o n . t o t a l v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by t h e two f a c t o r s was 22.4%.  The  103 Out of 67 items, 46 loaded on f a c t o r one. magnitude of t h e l o a d i n g s was modest. items achieved c o r r e l a t i o n s  p e r c e n t of item c o r r e l a t i o n s  Only two p a r e n t r o l e  g r e a t e r than .71.  p e r c e n t of t h e items ranged from  However, t h e  .45 t o .68.  ranged from  Forty-three Twenty-three  .31 t o .45.  Another 23% of t h e items f a i l e d t o c o r r e l a t e adequately w i t h e i t h e r f a c t o r and were dropped  from t h e a n a l y s i s  (r<.30).  The non-loading items i n c l u d e d : f o u r parent r o l e items; t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l r o l e items; two spouse r o l e items, and two paid-work r o l e items. Three parent r o l e items and one spouse r o l e item loaded on both f a c t o r s .  Correlations  r e l a t i v e l y low, r a n g i n g from load on f a c t o r one. displaying  w i t h f a c t o r two were .30 t o .36.  Nine items d i d not  Instead they loaded on f a c t o r two,  correlations  r a n g i n g from  .30 t o .49.  These  items i n c l u d e d t h r e e items each f o r the spouse and i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s and one paid-work r o l e item. For  f a c t o r two, 43 out of 59 items loaded.  were modest. than  .55.  to  .44.  For 8% of the items, c o r r e l a t i o n s were g r e a t e r  T h i r t y - s e v e n percent achieved  r a n g i n g from  Loadings  correlations  .45 t o .55 and 45% of t h e items loaded from  .30  Twenty-two p e r c e n t of the items d i d not a c h i e v e t h e  minimal c o r r e l a t i o n of .30 f o r e i t h e r f a c t o r and were dropped  from a n a l y s i s .  They i n c l u d e d ; 11 paid-work r o l e  items; one spouse r o l e item; and one i n d i v i d u a l r o l e item.  104 One  parent r o l e item loaded o n l y on f a c t o r  one  (r = .43)  and another parent r o l e item loaded on  factors.  Correlations  item were .30 and The  .54,  w i t h f a c t o r s one and two  both for this  respectively.  l i t e r a t u r e does not p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t i v e  f o r j u d g i n g the q u a l i t y of a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . Wichern (1992) suggested criterion.  technique  Johnson and  i n v e s t i g a t o r s use the  WOW  " I f w h i l e s c r u t i n i z i n g the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ,  i n v e s t i g a t o r can shout,  'wow,  I understand  the a p p l i c a t i o n i s deemed s u c c e s s f u l " Visual inspection  of the r o t a t e d  these  the  factors,'  (p. 444). f a c t o r matrix,  r e v e a l e d t h a t the items had a c l e a r - c u t a f f i n i t y f o r one the o t h e r f a c t o r . Two  Items loaded i n the h y p o t h e s i z e d manner.  d i s t i n c t columns emerged, each of which c o n t a i n e d , f o r  the most p a r t ,  e i t h e r i n t e n s i t y or d i s p a r i t y items.  F u r t h e r examination  of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s  concern.  Only 22.4%  accounted  f o r by the t w o - f a c t o r  item l o a d i n g s .  of the f a c t o r " t o determine  be r e l a t e d t o the magnitude of the  the more the v a r i a b l e  (Tabachnik  was  solution.  High l o a d i n g s are d e s i r a b l e  g r e a t e r the l o a d i n g ,  prompted  of the v a r i a n c e among t e s t s c o r e s  L i m i t e d v a r i a n c e may  & Fidell,  1989,  because "the i s a pure measure  p. 640).  the q u a l i t y of l o a d i n g s , Tabachnik  (1989) recommended Comfrey's s c a l e . .71  or  "Loadings  and  In order Fidell  i n excess of  (50% o v e r l a p p i n g v a r i a n c e ) are c o n s i d e r e d e x c e l l e n t ,  .63  105 (40% o v e r l a p p i n g v a r i a n c e ) very good, .55 variance)  good, .45  Comfrey's c r i t e r i a  For f a c t o r one  (Tabachnik & F i d e l l ,  .32  1989)  the f o l l o w i n g  ( i n t e n s i t y ) , 46%  e i t h e r loaded p o o r l y or not at a l l . (disparity),  f a i r , and  640).  t o the r o t a t e d f a c t o r matrix rendered evaluation.  overlapping  (20% o v e r l a p p i n g v a r i a n c e )  (10% o v e r l a p p i n g v a r i a n c e ) poor" (p. Applying  (30%  of the  items  For f a c t o r two  68% of the items loaded p o o r l y or not a t a l l .  Thus, a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the t e s t items  provided  l i t t l e or no i n f o r m a t i o n about the f a c t o r . Although the two  f a c t o r s were not potent  the v a r i a b l e s , the f a i l u r e may h y p o t h e s i z i n g too simple remembered the REQ the instrument  was  l i e with the i n v e s t i g a t o r f o r  a factor solution.  I t must be  generated from q u a l i t a t i v e  research;  operationalizes a multidimensional  I n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y are but two enactment.  e x p l a i n e r s of  construct.  dimensions of r o l e  Four r o l e components t h a t are o f t e n s p e c i f i c t o  males or females are a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the operationalization.  A two-factor  comprehensive enough t o capture  s o l u t i o n may  not  be  a c o n s t r u c t as complex as  r o l e enactment. Sample homogeneity may  a l s o account f o r the  magnitude of the c o r r e l a t i o n s .  low  Brown (1970) s t a t e d  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s "are i n f l u e n c e d by the  distribution  of s c o r e s w i t h i n the sample used t o c a l c u l a t e the  106 coefficient"  (p. 69).  R e c a l l the s i m i l a r i t y i n demographic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among d u a l - e a r n e r s e n r o l l e d i n the study. Couples were predominantly white and shared the same l i f e - c y c l e stage, geographic l o c a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n a l background.  A sample of t h i s composition cannot be  t o produce a broad range of s c o r e s . "as the v a r i a b i l i t y  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , though,  ... of the s c o r e f s ] decrease, the  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t g e n e r a l l y decreases ..." 1970,  expected  (Brown,  p. 69). The s m a l l sample s i z e i s another m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  shortcoming t h a t might account f o r the f i n d i n g s . (1978) recommended a minimum sample of 650 f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of 126  items.  Nunnally  individuals for a  When fewer respondents  t e s t e d the range of s c o r e s i s l i m i t e d , f u r t h e r  are  constraining  variability. A n a l y s i s two s o l u t i o n was variance.  (intensity i n four r o l e s ) .  A four-factor  proposed which accounted f o r 37.4%  of the  S i x t y - o n e out of 67 items loaded over .30  were r e t a i n e d f o r a n a l y s i s .  S i x t y - s i x p e r c e n t of the items  achieved c o r r e l a t i o n s g r e a t e r than .45. r o t a t i o n converged  and  i n eight i t e r a t i o n s ,  Although  varimax  items d i d not  c l u s t e r under the f o u r f a c t o r s as h y p o t h e s i z e d .  Due  t o the  tendency of the parent and spouse r o l e items t o double  and  t r i p l e load, these items were o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the f a c t o r matrix.  107 F a c t o r one c o n t a i n e d 14 spouse r o l e items and 14 parent r o l e items.  The spouse r o l e items showed t h e h i g h e s t  c o r r e l a t i o n with the f a c t o r . of  .45.  A l l 14 items loaded i n excess  Parent r o l e item l o a d i n g s ranged  from  .32 t o .51.  F a c t o r two i n c l u d e d 13 parent r o l e items, 4 spouse r o l e items to  (r = .34 t o .47), and 2 i n d i v i d u a l r o l e items  (r = .32  .42). The parent r o l e items p r o v i d e d t h e h e a v i e s t  loading, with 9 c o r r e l a t i o n s  over .45.  F a c t o r t h r e e c o n t a i n e d 12 parent r o l e items, 4 spouse items .41).  (r =.33 t o .47), and 3 paid-work items  The parent r o l e items c l e a r l y d e f i n e d the f a c t o r and  provided 6 c o r r e l a t i o n s Correlations items  (r = .32 t o  over .45.  f o r f a c t o r f o u r i n c l u d e d ; 11 spouse r o l e  (r =.32 t o .66), 4 parent r o l e items  (r = .31 t o .44),  and 1 i n d i v i d u a l r o l e item (r = .32). The spouse items dominated w i t h 8 c o r r e l a t i o n s  over  .45.  S i x t e e n items  loaded on 2 f a c t o r s and i n c l u d e d 10 parent r o l e items and 6 spouse r o l e items. Triple-loaders three  Four parent r o l e items  demonstrated  triple-loaded.  similar correlations  across  factors. The f o u r - f a c t o r  s o l u t i o n accounted  than t h e t w o - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n .  f o r more v a r i a n c e  The t w o - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n  have f a i l e d t o adequately r e p r e s e n t t h e balance d u a l - e a r n e r s m a i n t a i n among t h e i r r o l e demands.  that In t h e  may  108 t w o - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n h i g h s c o r e s i n one cancelled  out by  low  r o l e may  s c o r e s i n another r o l e .  have been  With  f o u r - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n , the ranges i n s c o r e s may b e t t e r p r e s e r v e d , thus c a p t u r i n g  greater  the  have been  variance.  On the other hand, the f o u r - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n may p r o v i d e d more "homes" f o r items. from the t w o - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n may  Low  loading  items dropped  have been more  r o l e - s p e c i f i c than i n t e n s i t y - s p e c i f i c . With the s o l u t i o n , items had factors. The  four-factor  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c l u s t e r under r o l e  Thus, more items were r e t a i n e d  i n the  analysis.  f o u r - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n c o n t a i n e d more i n f o r m a t i o n  allowing  the  variance  i n the  have  f a c t o r s t o account f o r a g r e a t e r  thereby  proportion  of  scores.  However, the  f o u r - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n f a i l e d t o produce  hypothesized structure. items from the parent and  Each of the  four columns c o n t a i n e d  spouse r o l e s .  of c l u s t e r i n g t o g e t h e r , the  the  Moreover,  instead  i n d i v i d u a l items were randomly  d i s t r i b u t e d over t h r e e f a c t o r s . The  dominance of the parent and  spouse r o l e items i n  the a n a l y s i s i s undoubtedly a f u n c t i o n of the REQs construction.  The  author's q u a l i t a t i v e work informed  d e c i s i o n t o oversample items i n the  f a m i l y domain.  her  Hall's  (1993) sample of d u a l - e a r n e r parents w i t h i n f a n t s p l a c e d lower p r i o r i t y on the  i n d i v i d u a l and  paid-work r o l e s .  a  109 D e s p i t e the c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p p i n g of r o l e items, r o t a t e d m a t r i x suggested  f a c t o r s one and  spouse r o l e w h i l e f a c t o r s two parent r o l e .  f o u r r e l a t e d t o the  and t h r e e r e p r e s e n t e d  the  Examination of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e statements  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the items supported For the spouse r o l e suggested  the  this  interpretation.  ( f a c t o r s one and  four), analysis  items c l u s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o the  gender s e g r e g a t i o n of t a s k s .  F a c t o r one  traditional  contained  c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as  items  feminine  domestic t a s k s , such as meal p r e p a r a t i o n , vacuuming, buying g r o c e r i e s ( B l a i r & Johnson, 1992,  and  Marat & F i n l a y ,  1984) . F a c t o r f o u r c o n t a i n e d items d e s c r i b i n g t a s k s performed by men,  typically  f o r i n s t a n c e , house r e p a i r s , garbage  d i s p o s a l , and c a r maintenance ( B l a i r & Johnson, 1992; & F i n l a y , 1984).  Items t h a t loaded on both f a c t o r s may  r e p r e s e n t t a s k s t h a t genders share, house and  laundry  Marat  (Marat  f o r example, t i d y i n g  & F i n l a y , 1984).  Non-loading  the  items  d e s c r i b e d r o l e demands t h a t were u n r e l a t e d t o the f a m i l y domain and  included, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ,  work-related  education, and  For the parent r o l e p a t t e r n of c l u s t e r i n g may of t a s k s . two  and  Male-oriented  suggested  hobbies,  commuting.  ( f a c t o r s two  and t h r e e ) , the  a l s o r e p r e s e n t gender s e g r e g a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s c l u s t e r e d under f a c t o r  a p l a n n i n g or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l theme.  Items  110 r e f e r r e d t o long-term p l a n n i n g  f o r c h i l d ( r e n ) , the  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ( r e n ) * s h e a l t h care, and t h e handling  o f s a f e t y concerns.  However, f a c t o r t h r e e d e s c r i b e d d i r e c t c h i l d a c t i v i t i e s , u s u a l l y performed by mothers. i n c l u d e d bathing,  feeding,  care  Activities  and d i a p e r i n g c h i l d r e n .  D o u b l e - l o a d i n g items suggested t a s k s t h a t might be shared by men and women, such as f e e d i n g ,  d r e s s i n g , and p l a y i n g w i t h  children. Three paid-work r o l e items a l s o loaded Items d e s c r i b e d  on f a c t o r t h r e e .  overtime, p a i d work beyond r e g u l a r  employment, and amount o f t r a v e l .  P o s s i b l y , these items  share i n t r u s i v e n e s s on t h e parent r o l e as a common attribute. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r m a t r i x suggests when i t comes t o i n t e n s i t y , f a c t o r s a r e not e n t i r e l y The  role-specific.  f a c t o r s a r e a l s o d e f i n e d by t h e gender s p e c i f i c i t y o f  household and c h i l d care t a s k s .  This f i n d i n g i s consistent  w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e which demonstrates t h e t e n a c i t y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f labour Berardo, Shehan, & L e s l i e , Analysis three  (Benin  & A g o n s t i n e l l i , 1988;  1987).  ( d i s p a r i t y i n four r o l e s ) .  Analysis  t h r e e r e p l i c a t e d a n a l y s i s two but examined t h e d i s p a r i t y dimension.  The t o t a l v a r i a n c e  was  Varimax r o t a t i o n converged i n 11 i t e r a t i o n s .  3 6.2%.  explained  by t h e f o u r f a c t o r s A  Ill moderate degree of c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d  between f a c t o r s  r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l r o l e and t h e other r o l e s .47 t o .69). orthogonal  (r =  The parent and paid-work r o l e f a c t o r s were  (r = .26).  role factors correlated  However, the spouse and paid-work s u b s t a n t i a l l y w i t h each o t h e r  (r =  .90) . Such a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n suggests a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n c e p t u a l o v e r l a p between the s u b s c a l e s .  However, items i n  the paid-work r o l e examine demands such as commuting, w o r k - r e l a t e d education, and overtime. a t housekeeping d u t i e s  The spouse r o l e  and the spousal i n t e r a c t i o n .  difficult  t o understand how such d i v e r s e  correlate  so h i g h l y .  All  59 items i n the d i s p a r i t y s c a l e  correlations analysis.  the  Itis could  achieved  g r e a t e r than .30 and were i n c l u d e d  Item l o a d i n g s were r e l a t i v e l y  Sixty-eight  activities  looks  i n the  satisfactory.  p e r c e n t of t h e items c o r r e l a t e d  over .45 w i t h  factors. F a c t o r one was shared by the parent and spouse r o l e s  which c o n t r i b u t e d  13 items (r = .42 t o .66) and 10 items  (r =.41 t o .60), r e s p e c t i v e l y . d i s t i n c t and c o n s i s t e d to  .78).  F a c t o r two was  fairly  of 10 i n d i v i d u a l r o l e items ( r = .36  Four spouse r o l e items and one paid-work r o l e  were a l s o i n c l u d e d ,  but the l o a d i n g s were l e s s than .43.  item  112 In f a c t o r t h r e e t h e spouse r o l e dominated w i t h items  (r = .33 t o .73).  However, the parent and i n d i v i d u a l  r o l e s were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d . (r =.31 t o .49) and four  eight  Four parent items  i n d i v i d u a l r o l e items  loaded loaded  (r =.34 t o .57). The most c l e a r - c u t p a t t e r n emerged f o r f a c t o r Twelve paid-work r o l e items loaded on t h e f a c t o r .68). item  four.  ( r = .30 t o  Only one non-paid-work r o l e item loaded, a spouse (r = .3 0). Ten items loaded on two f a c t o r s ,  simultaneously.  However, l o a d i n g s f o r t h e a l t e r n a t i v e f a c t o r s were low, r a n g i n g from  .31 t o .41.  Double-loading  items  included  t h r e e items each from t h e parent, spouse, and i n d i v i d u a l roles.  One spouse r o l e item loaded on t h r e e  factors  (r = .30 t o .43). V i s u a l l y , the rotated  f a c t o r m a t r i x looked  fairly  orderly,  w i t h items c l u s t e r i n g t o g e t h e r and a l i g n i n g under  the f o u r  factors.  F a c t o r s two and f o u r were q u i t e  distinct  and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between i n d i v i d u a l and paid-work r o l e items w e l l .  However, f a c t o r one c o n t a i n e d a mixture of  parent and spouse r o l e items. chaotic  and a l s o d i s p l a y e d  F a c t o r t h r e e was somewhat  a mixture of parent and spouse  items. Notable  i s t h e f a i l u r e of the a n a l y s i s  parent and s p o u s a l r o l e items.  t o separate  Undoubtedly both r o l e s  share  113 common a t t r i b u t e s , s i n c e they account f o r t h e h e a v i e s t l o a d i n g s on f a c t o r s one and t h r e e .  F a c t o r one i s b i a s e d i n  favour o f parent r o l e items, w h i l e f a c t o r t h r e e i s b i a s e d towards spouse r o l e  items.  Examination o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e statements i n t h e parent and spouse r o l e s u b s c a l e s r e v e a l s an i n t e r e s t i n g pattern.  F a c t o r one almost e x c l u s i v e l y  contains  t a s k - o r i e n t e d items such as f e e d i n g , s e t t l i n g  child(ren),  d r e s s i n g c h i l d ( r e n ) , doing t h e d i s h e s , and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e yard.  On t h e other hand, f a c t o r t h r e e c o n t a i n s a l l t h e  relationship-oriented  items.  T h i s p a t t e r n suggests  t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and  housework components o f t h e spouse r o l e may r e p r e s e n t two different factors.  Furthermore, t h e parent r o l e items and  the housework component of t h e spouse r o l e seem t o combine and d e f i n e a common f a c t o r which may d e s c r i b e d a i l y f a m i l y maintenance t a s k s . Chapter Summary In t h e p r e c e d i n g chapter, from t h e r e l i a b i l i t y presented. literature.  derived  and v a l i d i t y t e s t i n g of t h e REQ were  The r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d i n t h e context o f t h e A c r i t i q u e of t h e instrument  i n s o f a r as r e l i a b i l i t y concerned.  s i g n i f i c a n t findings  was o f f e r e d ,  and v a l i d i t y performance was  114 In chapter  f i v e , the c o n c l u s i o n s r e l a t e d t o the study  f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d .  The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e c o n c l u s i o n s  f o r n u r s i n g are then developed.  The chapter a l s o i n c l u d e s  recommendations f o r the r e v i s i o n of the REQ.  115 CHAPTER FIVE Conclusions  and  Implications  Chapter f i v e focuses on the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from the psychometric t e s t i n g of the REQ.  Implications for t o o l  development and recommendations f o r r e v i s i o n of the REQ included.  are  The REQ's u t i l i t y f o r n u r s i n g i s d i s c u s s e d .  Conclusions  r e l a t e d t o hypothesis  t e s t i n g are a l s o d e s c r i b e d  and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these c o n c l u s i o n s f o r n u r s i n g  are  offered. Conclusions  from T o o l T e s t i n g  In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g reliability  and v a l i d i t y of the REQ  R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the The  REQ  are  presented.  REQ  behaved w e l l p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y .  t e s t i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t the REQ  the  has  Reliability  excellent internal  c o n s i s t e n c y , with the e x c e p t i o n of i n t e n s i t y i n the paid-work and two  individual roles.  r o l e components may  Substandard alphas  be a f u n c t i o n of the homogeneous  sample and the l i m i t e d score v a r i a n c e . of the s u b s c a l e s may estimates. time.  have p r e c l u d e d  The REQ  f o r the  However, the b r e v i t y  adequate  reliability  appeared t o be f a i r l y  s t a b l e over  Because a h i g h percentage of the respondents i n t h i s  author's  study delayed r e t u r n i n g the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  t e s t - r e t e s t estimates were lower than those o b t a i n e d by  Hall  116 (1993).  The  REQ  compared f a v o u r a b l y w i t h more mature  which a l s o measure r o l e  quality.  Strong support f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was hypothesis t e s t i n g .  Although the  s i g n i f i c a n t findings  characterized  ten hypotheses.  scales  sample was  shown i n small,  t e s t i n g of e i g h t  of  Seven hypotheses were accepted and  the  one  was  rejected. The  parent and  paid-work r o l e s u b s c a l e s best  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between demographic groups f o r w h i l e the paid-work, spouse, and  intensity,  individual role  subscales  most e f f e c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between groups f o r disparity.  D i f f e r e n c e s found among the  concurred w i t h f i n d i n g s  i n the  REQ  demonstrated an  and  parent r o l e s which was  demographic groups  literature.  Moreover,  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the also consistent  with  the  paid-work the  literature. C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y f o r the REQ by c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s analysis,  the  rotated  (CFA).  partially In the  r o l e i n t e n s i t y and  A n a l y s i s a l s o showed some support f o r  presence of f o u r r o l e components i n the  supported  first  f a c t o r matrix demonstrated  h y p o t h e s i z e d r o l e dimensions: disparity.  was  disparity  the role the dimension.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r the  solutions  was  relatively  low.  by  117 I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , however, t h a t the simple two- and four-factor  solutions  f a i l e d t o adequately account f o r a  reasonable p r o p o r t i o n operationalizes  o f v a r i a n c e among REQ s c o r e s .  a construct  multidimensional.  that  The REQ  i s complex and  More f a c t o r s may have t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n  order t o capture t h e c o n s t r u c t  o f r o l e enactment.  C o n t r a r y t o t h e author's p r e d i c t i o n ,  a f o u r - f a c t o r CFA  f a i l e d t o support t h e e x i s t e n c e of the paid-work and i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s i n t h e i n t e n s i t y dimension.  Analysis  also  f a i l e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the parent and spouse r o l e s . The  rotated  matrix demonstrated t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d  factors consisted r o l e items. factors.  almost e x c l u s i v e l y o f parent and spouse  Each r o l e s u b s c a l e separated and d e f i n e d  The f a c t o r s seemed t o r e f l e c t  of domestic  gender s e g r e g a t i o n  solution f o r disparity  r e l a t i o n s h i p and housework items from t h e spouse  r o l e s u b s c a l e d i d not d e f i n e  t h e same f a c t o r .  m a t r i x demonstrated t h e spouse r o l e d i v i d e d factors.  two  tasks.  Furthermore, t h e f o u r - f a c t o r revealed  four  Relationship  The f a c t o r  i n t o two  items c l u s t e r e d under one f a c t o r and  housework items j o i n e d w i t h parent r o l e items t o d e f i n e another f a c t o r . These f i n d i n g s tend t o m i t i g a t e construct  validity.  against  t h e REQ's  Items should hang t o g e t h e r and c l u s t e r  under t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d f a c t o r s .  I t may be necessary t o  118 r e v i s e the instrument  i n order t o address  problems i d e n t i f i e d by the  conceptual  CFA.  The unexpected f i n d i n g t h a t i n t e n s i t y f a c t o r s were s p l i t along gender l i n e s l e n t i n d i r e c t support f o r the The  REQ.  instrument captured s t r o n g gender p r e f e r e n c e s towards  role activities. demonstrating  The  f i n d i n g i s consistent with research  the tendency of parents w i t h young c h i l d r e n t o  assume a t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T o o l Development Psychometric done on the REQ.  t e s t i n g r e v e a l e d t h a t f u r t h e r work must be In the next s e c t i o n recommendations f o r  t o o l r e v i s i o n and f u t u r e psychometric  t e s t i n g are presented.  Tool Revision The  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a c r i t i q u e of the f o u r  subscales.  Suggestions  The paid-work r o l e .  f o r r e v i s i o n of the REQ  are o f f e r e d .  In order t o r e f i n e the REQ's  o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of i n t e n s i t y , the paid-work r o l e s u b s c a l e must be r e v i s e d .  As w r i t t e n , the s u b s c a l e i n t r o d u c e s  l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t o the REQ.  Instead of measuring  the i n t e n s i t y of demands a s s o c i a t e d w i t h job performance, the s u b s c a l e focuses o n l y on job demands which have the p o t e n t i a l t o i n t r u d e on the f a m i l y r o l e . The o t h e r s u b s c a l e s do not share t h i s f u n c t i o n . measure the time and e f f o r t i n d i v i d u a l s i n v e s t i n r o l e  They  119 demands. for  Thus, i n t e n s i t y has a somewhat d i f f e r e n t meaning  t h e paid-work r o l e than f o r t h e other r o l e s . Items t h a t t a p i n t o demands r e l a t e d t o t h e performance  of  p a i d work should be added t o t h e s u b s c a l e .  of  more items would a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u b s c a l e ' s  reliability. short. to  The a d d i t i o n  With only seven items, the s u b s c a l e i s t o o  Using Nunnally's  formula  (1978) 25 items would have  be added, i n order t o render an alpha o f .70. However, the a d d i t i o n o f 2 5 items i n c r e a s e s t h e REQ  from 126 t o 151 items.  Some r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s might  f i n d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f t h i s l e n g t h somewhat  daunting.  Instead o f adding more items, one might a l s o c o n s i d e r i n c o r p o r a t i n g two more steps i n t o t h e L i k e r t r a t i n g Nunnally  scale.  (1978) s t a t e s t h a t , " i f t h e r e are o n l y h a l f a dozen  items i n t h e s c a l e , t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  ... may be markedly  i n c r e a s e d by an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f s c a l e s t e p s " (p. 597).  Instead o f f i v e response  be o f f e r e d seven.  c h o i c e s , respondents  would  For example, None  A great deal  The amount you do d i s h e s .  1 2  3  4  5  6  7  (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you?  1 2  3  4  5  6  7  (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you  1 2  3  4  5  6  7  take f o r t h i s ?  120 Some paid-work items i n the REQ number two,  c o u l d be d e l e t e d .  Item  "the amount of time you miss work" i s not  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e n s i t y .  Strictly  speaking, m i s s i n g work decreases the time and  effort  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the paid-work r o l e .  Moreover, absence from  work, does not have the p o t e n t i a l t o i n t r u d e on f a m i l y roles.  R e l i a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s d e l e t i o n of t h i s  i n c r e a s e s Cronbach's alpha from I t i s a l s o u n c l e a r how  .35 t o  .41.  income adequacy i s r e l a t e d t o  i n t e n s i t y i n the paid-work r o l e .  A h i g h income may  r e l a t e d to i n t e n s i t y f o r dual-earners. income may  item  be  However, an adequate  simply r e f l e c t the f a m i l y ' s f r u g a l i t y or  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a low-paying  job.  i n c r e a s e s Cronbach's alpha t o  .38.  The spouse r o l e .  Removal of the item  As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , the spouse  r o l e s u b s c a l e c o n t a i n s items o r i e n t e d t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p and housework.  However, combining  u t i l i t y of the s u b s c a l e . difficulty six.  these items l i m i t s  For example, the author  i n t e r p r e t i n g f i n d i n g s i n hypotheses  the  had  t h r e e and  ( R e c a l l t h a t h y p o t h e s i s t h r e e confirmed t h a t p a r e n t s  w i t h one c h i l d experienced g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y i n the spouse r o l e than parents w i t h two  c h i l d r e n . Hypothesis s i x  demonstrated t h a t parents w i t h more than one  child  experienced g r e a t e r d i s p a r i t y i n the spouse r o l e p a r e n t s w i t h one c h i l d ) .  Moreover, CFA  than  suggests t h a t the  121 r e l a t i o n s h i p and housework items d e f i n e two  different  factors. On an i n t u i t i v e l e v e l , the two s u i t e d t o share a s u b s c a l e .  components seem p o o r l y  The concept  q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the concept  of r e l a t i o n s h i p i s of housework.  Furthermore, the spousal r e l a t i o n s h i p and housework have almost o p p o s i t e e f f e c t s on d u a l - e a r n e r s .  Engaging i n  p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s with t h e i r p a r t n e r i s l i k e l y by most spouses as a s u p p o r t i v e , r e g e n e r a t i v e  housework items probably  perceived  experience.  However, the performance of domestic chores might c o n s i d e r e d somewhat burdensome.  probably  be  Thus, r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  should not be combined i n the same  subscale. The parent r o l e .  C u r i o u s l y , the items  i n c l u d e d i n the  parent r o l e r e s u l t i n a s o l i d s u b s c a l e but l i m i t u s e f u l n e s s of the REQ.  the  The comprehensiveness of c h i l d care  items a t t e s t s t o the s u b s c a l e ' s v a l i d i t y . items apply t o i n f a n t s and t o d d l e r s , o n l y .  However, the Use  must be r e s t r i c t e d t o dual-parents with young  of the  REQ  children.  Perhaps f u t u r e REQs might address p a r e n t a l demands a s s o c i a t e d with s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and The  individual role.  The  adolescents.  f a i l u r e of the  four-factor  s o l u t i o n f o r i n t e n s i t y to i d e n t i f y a f a c t o r corresponding the i n d i v i d u a l r o l e i s probably p a r t i a l l y due subscale's b r e v i t y .  to  t o the  There were not enough items t o d e f i n e a  122 distinct factor.  Lengthening  the s u b s c a l e w i l l h e l p t o  improve v a l i d i t y and i n c r e a s e r e l i a b i l i t y .  I f the subscale  i s i n c r e a s e d from 6 t o 12 items, Cronbach's alpha r i s e s  from  .53 t o .70 (Nunnally, 1978). To determine Nunnally  the k i n d o f items t h a t should be i n c l u d e d ,  (1978) recommends t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r  review  i t e m - t o t a l s t a t i s t i c s and i d e n t i f y items w i t h h i g h correlations.  The themes o f these items should form t h e  nucleus f o r newly c o n s t r u c t e d items. role,  For t h e i n d i v i d u a l  items r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s achieved t h e  highest correlations.  Thus, p o t e n t i a l new items should t a p  i n t o t h e amount o f time d u a l - e a r n e r s spend engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s of a s o c i a l  nature.  R e l i a b i l i t y may a l s o be i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e d e l e t i o n o f item 42:  t h e amount d u a l - e a r n e r s spend p l a n n i n g and  a t t e n d i n g h e a l t h care appointments.  Analysis revealed that  d e l e t i o n would i n c r e a s e r e l i a b i l i t y t o .58. the item may r e f l e c t a parent's tendency  Hall  suggested  t o arrange  appointments f o r t h e whole f a m i l y , not j u s t f o r h i m / h e r s e l f (personal communication, June 19, 1995). Future Psychometric  Testing; of the REQ  F u r t h e r t e s t i n g of the REQ would be a d v i s a b l e . w i t h t h e accumulation  of evidence from m u l t i p l e s t u d i e s t h a t  an instrument's u s e f u l n e s s i s confirmed 1990).  Researchers  It is  (Weinert & T i l d e n ,  contemplating psychometric  t e s t i n g of  123 the REQ  are a d v i s e d t o pay c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n  procedures. recruited.  A large  occupation,  i s r e s t r i c t e d t o parents  investigators  d u a l - e a r n e r s who  with  vary w i t h regards t o f a m i l y s i z e ,  Sample respondents  location.  should be o f f e r e d  an REQ  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e should be  The anchor statements  that i s  double-spaced.  and corresponding numerical  must be easy t o t r a c k a c r o s s the page. instructions  be  must endeavour t o sample  income l e v e l , and geographic  user-friendly.  sampling  and heterogeneous sample should  Since the REQ  young c h i l d r e n ,  to  responses  Comprehensive  would p r o v i d e c l e a r g u i d e l i n e s f o r completing  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  improve the accuracy of p a r t i c i p a n t s *  responses. Data a n a l y s i s factor solutions.  might i n c l u d e CFAs t h a t propose 8 or For i n s t a n c e , an 8 f a c t o r s o l u t i o n  examine the presence  of i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y  s u b s c a l e s f o r both genders. i d e n t i f y how  items f u n c t i o n  i n t e n s i t y and r o l e d i s p a r i t y U t i l i t y of the REQ The REQ  may  the community. understanding role stress,  A 16 f a c t o r  would  i n the 4  solution  might  f o r each gender v i s - a - v i s  role  i n the f o u r r o l e components.  f o r Nursing  be c o n f i d e n t l y  used t o t e s t d u a l - e a r n e r s i n  Such i n f o r m a t i o n would p r o v i d e a of some demographic v a r i a b l e s  that  as r e f l e c t e d i n h i g h l e v e l s of r o l e  and r o l e d i s p a r i t y .  16  clearer predict intensity  Information of t h i s nature would g i v e  124 p r a c t i t i o n e r s a b e t t e r i d e a of d u a l - e a r n e r p a r e n t s who be a t r i s k f o r some forms of r o l e  stress.  However, u n l e s s r e v i s e d , the REQ used f o r c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h .  may  probably should not  be  R e l i a b i l i t y estimates f o r  i n t e n s i t y i n the paid-work and i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s are suboptimal.  I n v e s t i g a t o r s who  use the REQ  may  not be  able  t o r e l a t e t e s t s c o r e s t o other v a r i a b l e s w i t h any degree of confidence. C o n c l u s i o n s from Hypothesis  Testing  D e s p i t e t h e o r i s t s ' p r e d i c t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g r o l e convergence, the f i n d i n g s from t h i s study support dominating  i n the work r o l e and women dominating  parent r o l e .  men i n the  Moreover, gender s e g r e g a t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o  inform d u a l - e a r n e r s ' domestic  t a s k assignments.  The  c o n t i n u a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of labour must be regarded  as a testament  t o the t e n a c i t y of gender r o l e  norms. Gender s t r o n g l y p r e d i c t s parents• contentment w i t h individual role activities.  Mothers f i n d the i n t e n s i t y of  the i n d i v i d u a l r o l e unacceptable.  Gender s o c i a l i z a t i o n  p a t t e r n s t h a t s t r e s s the precedence of the f a m i l y may r e s p o n s i b l e f o r mothers' t e n d e n c i e s t o p l a c e a low on r o l e demands a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l The REQ  of r o l e s .  Dual-earners  priority  role.  p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o  the interdependence  be  observe  engage i n  125 t r a d e - o f f s among t h e i r r o l e commitments i n order t o accommodate competing r o l e demands.  One s t r a t e g y i n v o l v e s  l i m i t i n g mothers' p a i d work so t h a t they may i n v e s t g r e a t e r time and e f f o r t i n t h e parent r o l e . how  However, i t i s u n c l e a r  t h i s a f f e c t s r o l e outcomes f o r women. Men  and women i n t h i s study seem content w i t h  involvement  i n c h i l d care.  Perhaps,  fathers  1  men's d e s i r e s f o r an  androgynous model of fatherhood a r e no longer as s t r o n g as they once were.  Or, these d u a l - e a r n e r s may f i n d t h e  b a r r i e r s t o e g a l i t a r i a n i s m more f o r m i d a b l e than  expected.  C e r t a i n l y , t h e c u r r e n t economic c l i m a t e cannot be regarded as an i d e a l time f o r d u a l - e a r n e r parents t o experiment the paid-work r o l e . Regardless, these r e s u l t s  with  suggest  e g a l i t a r i a n s h a r i n g o f c h i l d care t a s k s has y e t t o occur. F i n d i n g s suggest t h a t d u a l - e a r n e r s w i t h more than one c h i l d may j e o p a r d i z e m a r i t a l q u a l i t y i n order t o meet a d d i t i o n a l parent r o l e demands.  This finding hints that  t h e r e may be an upper l i m i t t o t h e number o f r o l e demands t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l can e f f e c t i v e l y accommodate.  Beyond t h a t  l i m i t d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n r o l e q u a l i t y may occur. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Nursing C o n c l u s i o n s drawn from h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g have implications f o r nursing practice, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and r e s e a r c h .  education,  126 C l i n i c a l Practice P r e n a t a l c l a s s e s p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t forum f o r nurses t o share i n f o r m a t i o n with parents.  A t o p i c t h a t might be  p l a c e d on the agenda i s the impact o f parenthood on dual-earners'  roles.  expectant couples  Nurses c o u l d a d v i s e  first-time  t h a t r o l e s may become more t r a d i t i o n a l  following childbirth.  Couples may wish t o e x p l o r e t h e t o p i c  with each spouse i d e n t i f y i n g h i s / h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r task-sharing  i n the postnatal period.  Nurses a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o encourage expectant t o f i n d balance among t h e i r r o l e s .  couples  Dual-earners should be  informed t h a t n e g l e c t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l or spouse r o l e s i n favour o f t h e paid-work and/or parent negative quality.  r o l e s may have  e f f e c t s on p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g  and/or m a r i t a l  Group d i s c u s s i o n might f a c i l i t a t e e x p l o r a t i o n o f  t h i s i s s u e . P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d d i s c u s s why women tend t o a s s i g n a low p r i o r i t y t o t h e i r own needs. i d e n t i f y ways t o i n c r e a s e time spent  Couples c o u l d  together.  In t h e p o s t n a t a l p e r i o d , nurses must r e s p e c t earners'  a l l o c a t i o n of r o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  dual-  Couples may  choose a t r a d i t i o n a l r a t h e r than e g a l i t a r i a n d i v i s i o n o f labour.  Although the t r a d i t i o n a l model i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  p r e v a i l i n g f e m i n i s t ideology,  evidence suggests  dual-earners  are r e l a t i v e l y content with a t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o t h e a l l o c a t i o n of r o l e a c t i v i t i e s .  Nurses need t o r e i n f o r c e t h e  127 importance  o f couples making d e c i s i o n s t h a t f e e l r i g h t f o r  them. Notwithstanding  d u a l - e a r n e r s ' apparent  satisfaction  w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of labour, nurses c o n t i n u e t o promote " i n v o l v e d " fatherhood.  should  Nurses can  encourage f a t h e r s t o become more i n v e s t e d i n c h i l d c a r e by i n v i t i n g them t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r e n a t a l c l a s s e s and d u r i n g labour and d e l i v e r y .  Nurses can a l s o enhance men's  p a r e n t i n g behaviours by t e a c h i n g f a t h e r s about i n f a n t c a r e . Nursing  Education  Due  t o changes i n p r a c t i c e requirements  number o f women seeking graduate degrees  and t h e growing  i n n u r s i n g , more  and more m u l t i p l e - r o l e women a r e e n r o l i n g i n n u r s i n g programs.  Educators must be c o g n i z a n t o f t h e i n t e n s e  demands made on mothers who a r e a l s o n u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . R e s u l t s from t h i s study can be used by educators t o i d e n t i f y d u a l - e a r n e r s who may be c h a l l e n g e d by t h e student role.  The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h e ages o f t h e c h i l d r e n and  the f a m i l y s i z e have an impact on r o l e i n t e n s i t y and r o l e d i s p a r i t y f o r parents.  Since women o f t e n assume primary  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e care of i n f a n t s and t o d d l e r s , mothers of very young c h i l d r e n may experience i n t e n s e r o l e demands. Educators should not assume t h e presence o f a spouse i n t h e home means mothers w i l l be r e l i e v e d of c h i l d responsibilities.  care  128 Parents w i t h more than one c h i l d may be overtaxed by r o l e demands.  F i n d i n g s from t h i s study suggest p a r e n t s w i t h  l a r g e f a m i l i e s p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e spouse r o l e i s unacceptable and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e .  By t a k i n g on t h e  student r o l e , i n d i v i d u a l s may be even more hard p r e s s e d t o maintain the q u a l i t y of t h e i r  roles.  Nursing f a c u l t y must be prepared t o a s s i s t n u r s i n g students who a r e p a r e n t s . the tendency  C o u n s e l l o r s should be aware o f  o f mothers t o put t h e i r own needs l a s t .  As  p a r t o f a comprehensive assessment, c o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d determine  whether t h e mother has s u f f i c i e n t time and energy  t o meet r o l e demands a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l Mothers who f a i l t o take time f o r themselves  role.  may be a t r i s k  for role strain. Students should be taught t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e complexity inherent i n m u l t i p l e - r o l e l i f e s t y l e s .  Moreover,  understanding t h e demographic p r e d i c t o r s of r o l e  intensity  and r o l e d i s p a r i t y may a s s i s t students t o i d e n t i f y couples who p o t e n t i a l l y parenthood  those  f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o combine  w i t h p a i d work.  Nursing Administration Nursing a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p l a y an important p a r t i n e n s u r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s respond t o employees' needs. the m a j o r i t y o f h e a l t h care workers a r e women, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s can f a c i l i t a t e women's i n t e g r a t i o n of  Since  129 paid-work and motherhood by l o b b y i n g f o r f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d personnel  policies.  Administrators  c o u l d use t h e demographic p r e d i c t o r s t o  i d e n t i f y groups of employees l i k e l y t o experience l e v e l s o f r o l e i n t e n s i t y and r o l e d i s p a r i t y .  high  Programs may  be developed t h a t address the needs o f employees who a r e most v u l n e r a b l e t o r o l e s t r e s s . The  study  experience  suggests mothers o f very young c h i l d r e n  i n t e n s e parent r o l e s and may r e c e i v e r e l a t i v e l y  l i t t l e c h i l d care a s s i s t a n c e from t h e i r husbands.  Managers  must be c o g n i z a n t many o f these women "put i n a second s h i f t " when they  leave work (Hochschild,  1989).  Often  mothers a r r i v e home and spend t h e remainder o f t h e day a t t e n d i n g t o domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  I t would behoove  managers t o adopt a s e n s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards mothers o f young c h i l d r e n and understand the demands motherhood makes on time and energy r e s e r v e s . Administrators  should be aware d i s p a r i t y i n t h e  i n d i v i d u a l and spouse r o l e s i s a s s o c i a t e d with couples are r e a r i n g two o r more c h i l d r e n .  who  These couples may be t o o  busy t o meet t h e demands of the i n d i v i d u a l  role.  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s may a s s i s t couples by p r o v i d i n g o n - s i t e f i t n e s s and n u t r i t i o n c l a s s e s .  In a d d i t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  c o u l d ensure m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g programs are a v a i l a b l e t o employees.  130 Administrators  can be i n s t r u m e n t a l  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c h i l d care.  i n i n c r e a s i n g men's  H a l l (1992) suggested t h a t  " f a t h e r s need t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r i n f a n t ' s care a t t h e e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e time" (p. 37). f o r new f a t h e r s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s allowed an o p p o r t u n i t y  By p r o v i d i n g p a i d  leave  can ensure f a t h e r s a r e  t o become more i n v o l v e d  i n the parent  role. Nursing Research The  study e m p i r i c a l l y v a l i d a t e s t h e o r y .  may f e e l c o n f i d e n t  about g e n e r a t i n g  (1993) m o d i f i c a t i o n The  Researchers  hypotheses from H a l l ' s  of Ward's (1986) t h e o r e t i c a l framework.  use o f v e r i f i e d i n t e g r a t i v e frameworks i s h e r a l d e d  as an  important p r e r e q u i s i t e t o understanding t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o l e s t r e s s and r o l e outcomes. T h i s study examined a h i g h l y educated and w e l l - p a i d segment o f t h e d u a l - e a r n e r p o p u l a t i o n .  I t would be  i n t e r e s t i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e the f u n c t i o n of i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y i n a sample o f t h e working poor o r i n o t h e r c u l t u r a l groups.  S u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e enactment  may be found among o c c u p a t i o n a l  strata.  Researchers should i d e n t i f y s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f society that a f f e c t i n d i v i d u a l s ' perceptions i n t e n s i t y and d i s p a r i t y .  As p o s t u l a t e d  human energy i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f u n c t i o n o f time and e f f o r t .  of r o l e  by Marks (1977),  and may not be j u s t a  Human energy i s a l s o d i r e c t e d  131 towards r o l e demands i n the context o f employment and p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l  policies.  R e s u l t s from t h i s study suggest the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f labour i s f i r m l y entrenched.  Although t h e  d u a l - e a r n e r l i f e s t y l e has been a f a c t o f s o c i e t a l l i f e f o r over twenty y e a r s , gender s e g r e g a t i o n o f r o l e s and t a s k s c o n t i n u e s unabated f o r t h i s sample. determine  Research  could  why gender r o l e norms continue t o dominate i n some  dual-earner f a m i l i e s .  I t would be i l l u m i n a t i n g t o f i n d out  why gender r o l e s do not change more r a p i d l y . Chapter The  fifth  Summary  chapter d e s c r i b e d c o n c l u s i o n s d e r i v e d from  the psychometric  t e s t i n g o f t h e REQ.  The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  t o o l development and f u t u r e t e s t i n g of t h e REQ were detailed. utility  In a d d i t i o n , the chapter d i s c u s s e d t h e REQ's  f o r nursing.  Conclusions r e l a t e d t o hypothesis  t e s t i n g were presented and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these c o n c l u s i o n s f o r n u r s i n g were d e s c r i b e d . Concluding Comments The g o a l o f t h i s study was t o e v a l u a t e t h e psychometric p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e REQ.  The d e a r t h o f r e l i a b l e and v a l i d  instruments capable of measuring d i s c r e t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r o l e s n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e REQ's development.  Although t h e  study recommended r e v i s i o n s t o the instrument, t h e REQ  132 promises  t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t advancement i n t h e f i e l d o f  dual-earner research. Gone a r e t h e days when r o l e occupancy served as a proxy for role quality.  Today's i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e q u i r e an  instrument t h a t can q u a n t i f y r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s deemed s a l i e n t t o t h e r o l e outcomes of d u a l - e a r n e r men and women. A n a l y s i s o f r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l enable r e s e a r c h e r s t o b e t t e r understand  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o l e s and r o l e  outcomes. The need f o r sound measuring d e v i c e s i s g r e a t e r than ever.  As t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f d u a l - e a r n e r f a m i l i e s  rises,  employers and governments w i l l l i k e l y experience p r e s s u r e t o r e s o l v e work-family  issues.  P u b l i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s must be  based on r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s obtained from p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound  instruments. T h e s i s Summary In t h i s study, t h e author d i s c u s s e d t h e importance  of a  p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y t r i e d instrument capable o f measuring r o l e q u a l i t y associated with dual-earners. i d e n t i f i e d as a promising new t o o l .  The REQ was However, i t r e q u i r e d  f u r t h e r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y t e s t i n g .  After a  comprehensive review o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , a method f o r t e s t i n g the REQ was d e v i s e d .  Procedures  and e t h i c a l concerns were  i d e n t i f i e d and a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e sample p r o v i d e d . f i n d i n g s generated  from t h e psychometric  The  e v a l u a t i o n were  133 discussed  i n the context  of the l i t e r a t u r e .  conclusions, nursing implications, f u r t h e r t o o l development were  Pertinent  and recommendations f o r  presented.  134 References A b i d i n , R. (1980). handbook.  Parent e d u c a t i o n and i n t e r v e n t i o n  S p r i n g f i e l d : Thomas.  Amatea, E., & Fong, M. (1991).  The impact o f r o l e  s t r e s s o r s and p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s on t h e s t r e s s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l women.  Psychology o f Women Q u a r t e r l y .  15(3), 419-430. Anderson-Kulman, R., & P a l u d i , M. (1986). and t h e f a m i l y c o n t e x t :  Working mothers  P r e d i c t i n g p o s i t i v e coping.  J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l Behaviour, 28, 241-253. 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Employment, f a m i l y r o l e s , and  h e a l t h i n young married women.  34(1),  4-10.  mental  N u r s i n g Research,  156 APPENDIX A The Role Enactment  Questionnaire  Instructions T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of statements r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s behaviours which may or may not be a p a r t of your r o l e as a parent, a worker, a spouse, or an i n d i v i d u a l . F o l l o w i n g each statement are t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . To answer each q u e s t i o n , p l e a s e c i r c l e the number which best r e p r e s e n t s what i s happening a t t h i s p o i n t i n your l i f e . For example: 1 2 3 4 5  = = = = =  none a little somewhat a f a i r amount a great deal  a great deal 4 5  none 1 The amount of time you spend answering research questionnaires. 1 a) How  acceptable  i s t h i s t o you?  b) How  much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  4  1  2  4  1  2  4  These responses would i n d i c a t e t h a t you answer r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n f r e q u e n t l y ; t h a t answering them i s somewhat a c c e p t a b l e t o you; and t h a t you are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e c i d i n g whether or not you w i l l answer them.  157 1 2 3 4 5  = = = = =  none a little somewhat a f a i r amount a great d e a l  YOUR ROLE AS A PAID WORKER In t h i s s e c t i o n , you are r e q u i r e d t o answer q u e s t i o n s r o l e as a p a i d worker. None 1. The amount o f overtime you work. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  about your A great deal  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  2. The amount o f time you miss p a i d work. 1 (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? 1 (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ? 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  3. The amount o f time you a r e r e q u i r e d t o spend i n w o r k - r e l a t e d education. 1 (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? 1 (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ? 1  2  4. The you (a) (b)  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  5. The amount o f commuting r e q u i r e d f o r your p a i d work. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  6. The p a i d work you do beyond your r e g u l a r employment. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  7. The adequacy of your combined incomes t o meet your f a m i l y needs. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  amount your p a i d work r e q u i r e s t o t r a v e l away from home. How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  2  2  158 1 2 3 4 5  = = = = =  none a little somewhat a f a i r amount a great deal  YOUR ROLE AS A PARTNER In t h i s s e c t i o n , you a r e r e q u i r e d t o answer q u e s t i o n s t h a t d e a l w i t h your r o l e as a spouse. A great deal None The amount o f time you spend t a l k i n g w i t h your spouse. 1 2 3 4 5 (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? 1 2 3 4 5 (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ? 1 2 3 4 5 9. The amount o f a t t e n t i o n you r e c e i v e from your spouse. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ? 10.  11.  The c o n f l i c t you experience w i t h your spouse. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ? The amount t h a t you a r e alone with your spouse f o r f u n a c t i v i t i e s . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ? FOR EXAMPLE: The amount you r e f i n i s h  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  1 1 1  2 2 2  furniture.  (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? 1 2 3 4 (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? 1 2 3 4 These responses would i n d i c a t e t h a t you never r e f i n i s h your own f u r n i t u r e , t h a t not r e f i n i s h i n g your f u r n i t u r e i s a c c e p t a b l e t o you, and t h a t you make t h e arrangements f o r a f i r m t o p i c k up your f u r n i t u r e and r e f i n i s h i t . 12.  The amount you prepare meals. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1  2  3  4  5  159 1 — none 2 — a little 3 — somewhat 4 — a f a i r amount 5 — a great deal 13.  The amount you do d i s h e s . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  None 1  2 2  3 3  A great deal 4 5 4 5 4  5  4 4  5 5  14.  The amount you vacuum/sweep/mop. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2 2  15.  The amount you do laundry. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  16.  The amount you t i d y the house. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  17.  The amount you c l e a n t h e bathroom. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  18.  The amount you handle the d i s p o s a l of garbage. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1 1  2 2  4 4  5 5  19.  The amount you do y a r d maintenance. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  20.  The amount you do house r e p a i r s and renovations. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  160 1 2 3 4 5  = = = = =  none a little somewhat a f a i r amount a great deal  21. The amount you p a r t i c i p a t e i n c a r maintenance. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  A great deal  None  22. The amount you shop f o r g r o c e r i e s o r household items. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1  2  3  4  5  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1  2  3  4  5  YOUR ROLE AS A PARENT T h i s s e c t i o n examines your r o l e as parent. 23. The amount you bathe your c h i l d ( r e n ) . 1 2 3 4 5 (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? 1 2 3 4 5 (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? 1 2 3 4 5 24. The amount you p a r t i c i p a t e i n f e e d i n g your c h i l d ( r e n ) . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? 25. The amount you change your child(ren)'s diapers. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? 26. The amount you d r e s s your c h i l d ( r e n ) . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1  2  3  4  5  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1  2  3  4  5  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1  2  3  4  5  161 1 2 3 4 5  = = = = =  none a little somewhat a f a i r amount a great deal  27. The amount o f time you spend p l a y i n g w i t h your c h i l d ( r e n ) . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  A great deal  None 1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  28. The amount t h a t you s e t t l e your c h i l d ( r e n ) i n bed a t n i g h t . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  29. The amount t h a t you p a r t i c i p a t e i n o r g a n i z i n g c h i l d care (daycare, nannies, b a b y s i t t i n g ) . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1  2  3  4  5  30. The amount o f time t h a t you spend t r a n s p o r t i n g your c h i l d ( r e n ) t o childcare or school. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1  2  3  4  5  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  31. The amount o f s i c k care you g i v e your child(ren). (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? 32. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z i n g your c h i l d ( r e n ) ' s health care. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ?  1 1  2  1 1 1 1  162 1 2 3 4 5  = = = = =  none a little somewhat a f a i r amount a great deal  33. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i s c i p l i n i n g your c h i l d ( r e n ) . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? 34. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n long-term p l a n n i n g f o r your c h i l d ( r e n ) . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? 35. The amount you p l a n f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s , (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? 36. The amount you handle the s a f e t y concerns f o r your c h i l d ( r e n ) ( c h i l d - p r o o f i n g your home and c a r ) . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y do you take f o r t h i s ? YOUR ROLE AS AN  A great deal  None 1 l  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1 1  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  INDIVIDUAL  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l examine a c t i v i t i e s t h a t may be p a r t of your r o l e as an i n d i v i d u a l . 37, Your involvement i n p e r s o n a l friendships. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  Your involvement w i t h r e l a t i v e s . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  39, The amount you p a r t i c i p a t e i n e x e r c i s e activities. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  38  163 1 2 3 4 5  = = = = =  none a little somewhat a f a i r amount a great deal  40. Your involvement i n p e r s o n a l p r o j e c t s (e.g., hobbies, n i g h t c l a s s e s ) . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  A great deal  None l 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  41. Your p e r s o n a l l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s (reading, watching t e l e v i s i o n ) . (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  l 1 l  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  42. The amount you spend p l a n n i n g and a t t e n d i n g h e a l t h c a r e appointments. (a) How a c c e p t a b l e i s t h i s t o you? (b) How much do you c o n t r o l t h i s ?  1 1 1  2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4  5 5 5  DEMOGRAPHIC DATA 1. What i s your age? 2. What i s your sex? Male  (1)  Female  (2)  3. How many c h i l d r e n do you have l i v i n g f u l l - t i m e i n your household? 4. How many c h i l d r e n do you have l i v i n g w i t h you p a r t - t i m e ? 5. What ages a r e t h e s e c h i l d r e n ? F i r s t born c h i l d : Second born c h i l d : T h i r d born c h i l d : Fourth born c h i l d : F i f t h born c h i l d : S i x t h born c h i l d : 6. What i s you h i g h e s t l e v e l of education? ( 1. Some h i g h s c h o o l 6, Some u n i v e r s i t y course 2. High s c h o o l completed 7, Completed u n i v e r s i t y w i t h ; 3. Some c o l l e g e , B a c h e l o r ' s degree ( 4. C o l l e g e completed Master's degree 5. Diploma course completed Ph.D M e d i c a l degree 7. Number o f hours of p a i d work per week.  164 8. I s f l e x - t i m e  a v a i l a b l e t o you? Yes  9. What i s your p e r s o n a l income l e v e l ? income). 1. $10,000 - $19,999 2. $20,000 - $29,000 3. $30,000 - $39,000 10.  ( ) ( ) ( )  (1) No  (2)  (Does not i n c l u d e  spouse's  4. $40,000 - $49,000 ( ) 5. more than $50,000 ( )  P l e a s e l i s t t h e a d d i t i o n a l h e l p you have a t home ( i . e . , nannies, r e g u l a r b a b y s i t t i n g , c l e a n i n g and housekeepers, gardeners, r e l a t i v e s who a s s i s t you). 1. 2. 3.  4. 5. 6.  165 APPENDIX B Cover L e t t e r The Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y testing. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wendy H a l l , RN, MSN, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of Nursing. CO-INVESTIGATOR: Kenna S l e i g h , RN, Master o f Science o f Nursing candidate. Dear d u a l - e a r n e r parent, My name i s Kenna S l e i g h . I am a R e g i s t e r e d Nurse who i s c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC) i n t h e Master o f Nursing program. As p a r t o f my e d u c a t i o n a l requirements I am conducting a r e s e a r c h study. The purpose o f t h e study i s t o see whether o r not a new q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , can a c c u r a t e l y measure t h e s t r e s s t h a t d u a l - e a r n e r couples e x p e r i e n c e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed by my study s u p e r v i s o r Wendy H a l l , who i s an A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r a t t h e UBC School o f Nursing. As you a r e undoubtedly aware, r a i s i n g a f a m i l y and working o u t s i d e t h e home i s a c h a l l e n g i n g experience. Many d u a l - e a r n e r couples w i t h c h i l d r e n r e p o r t f e e l i n g s t r e s s e d out sometimes. However, i n order t o f i n d ways t o prevent o r reduce s t r e s s , r e s e a r c h e r s need t o be a b l e t o s c i e n t i f i c a l l y measure t h e amount of s t r e s s people experience. We a l s o need t o make sure t h a t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s l i k e t h e Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e accurate. In order t o e v a l u a t e t h e Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , I need your a s s i s t a n c e . You would f i l l out t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on two separate o c c a s i o n s approximately 2 weeks a p a r t . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s 6 pages long and w i l l take 1 5 - 2 0 minutes o f your time t o complete. Thus, t h e t o t a l time necessary t o p a r t i c i p a t e i s 40 minutes over a number o f weeks. I f you f e e l you would l i k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study, p l e a s e do t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. Both you and your p a r t n e r should f i l l out copy #1 o f The Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e accompanying demographic data sheet. P l e a s e answer t h e q u e s t i o n s w i t h your a c t i v i t i e s i n mind. Don't compare your responses w i t h those o f your p a r t n e r .  166 2. P l a c e the two completed c o p i e s of the Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the demographic sheets i n the s e l f - a d d r e s s e d stamped envelope and m a i l t o me. 3. Two weeks l a t e r you w i l l r e c e i v e copy #2 of the Role Questionnaire.  Enactment  4. Both you and your p a r t n e r should f i l l out copy #2 of the Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and m a i l both forms back t o me i n the s e l f - a d d r e s s e d , stamped, envelope. 5. When I have r e c e i v e d both completed c o p i e s of the Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the demographic data sheet I w i l l m a i l you a check f o r $5.00. Benefits to p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1.  Increased understanding activities.  of y o u r s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o r o l e  2.  The o p p o r t u n i t y t o express your p e r s o n a l views r e g a r d i n g role activities.  3.  The o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a worthwhile p r o j e c t t h a t may h e l p o t h e r s adapt t o the dual-earner l i f e s t y l e .  Your anonymity w i l l be preserved because a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d o n l y by a code number. A l i s t , i d e n t i f y i n g s u b j e c t s * names and code numbers, w i l l be h e l d i n c o n f i d e n c e by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . I w i l l assume t h a t you have consented t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study i f you complete copy #1 of the Role Enactment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, you have the r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e or withdraw at any time. I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e do not h e s i t a t e t o c a l l me. Thank-you i n advance f o r your a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s matter. Kenna S l e i g h , RN,  BSN  

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