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Ethnic archives in Canada: a case study of seven Japanese communities Tsuruta, Sayuri 1996

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ETHNIC ARCHIVES IN CANADA: A CASE STUDY OF SEVEN JAPANESE COMMUNITIES by SAYURI  TSURUTA  BA, Tokyo U n i v e r s i t y of F o r e i g n S t u d i e s , 1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and Information  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1996 ©Sayuri Tsuruta,  1996  Studies)  In  presenting  degree freely  at the  this  thesis  in  University  of  partial fulfilment  of  department publication  this thesis for or  by  his  and study. I further  or  her  /-<  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2788)  that the  agree  representatives.  It  of this thesis for financial gain shall not  ^Bepacteee-t of  requirements  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  Date  the  British Columbia, I agree  available for reference  copying  of  2 S~ Ja yuifl/iy. j  is  for  an  Library shall make  that permission for granted  by the  understood  be allowed  advanced  that  it  extensive  head of copying  my or  without my written  ABSTRACT In  the  Canadian  communities because  were  they  sustaining  not  were  archival encouraged  considered  professionally  system, to  in  the  establish  to.lack  the  acceptable  past,  their  own  resources  archives.  ethnic archives  required  In  recent-  for  years  p u b l i c a r c h i v e s have come t o e m p h a s i z e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r p a r e n t bodies'  archives,  available  for  archives.  to  is  the.efforts  archival  materials case  substantial  discovered that, rapidly  generation. archival  of  some  archival  to  the  method in  preserve  while to  the  as  communities  materials.  This  of  seven  archives  continuing information identified  can  materials.  integral  cultural  and  The  value. on in  They records  defining  also and  study  have their  acquisition  being  interests  part  of  the  revealed strengths  identify  the  community l e a d e r s h i p  informal  and easy  of  and  and a r e renewed b y e a c h  i n those communities.  easily  preserve  revealed  Closeness networks  locate access  creators. policies  sees  community  and w e a k n e s s e s to  records  within  c o m m u n i t i e s p r o v i d e s community a r c h i v e s w i t h d i s t i n c t These  thesis  interviews  cities  identity persist  formal  to  are  experiences.  focussed  larger society,  an  ethnic  C a n a d i a n s have b e e n a n d a r e  The c a s e s t u d y a l s o  through  including  been  ethnic  archival  Japanese  sense of  activities  have  Japanese-Canadian communities  using  activities  archival  creators  archives,  Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  activities.  resources  bearing-on t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l  assimilated  the need f o r the  that  communities  will  fewer  private  their  of  study  Japanese-Canadian  of  evidence  preserve  examines  A  consequently  preservation  There  concerned  and  advantages.  materials to  of  contextual  Weaknesses and  the  were  financial  resources.  Contrary  to  concerns  researchers,  most r e s p o n d e n t s  professional  standards,  materials Based  recommendations materials  should  the  and t h e y  findings  are offered. be c l e a r l y  some  are also  w i l l i n g . t o make  their  of  the  case  recognized  study,  several  of ethnic  archival  as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  and e t h n i c communities.  t o be  To c a r r y  out t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e f f e c t i v e l y , p l a n n i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n different  archives  and  and  public.  Preservation  assumed b y b o t h p u b l i c a r c h i v e s  archivists  a r e aware o f t h e n e e d t o a b i d e b y  a v a i l a b l e t o the general on  of  communities  are  essential.  among Ethnic  community-based a r c h i v e s , on t h e i r p a r t , should f o l l o w t h e a c c e p t e d p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e area o f a c q u i s i t i o n , so that  they f u n c t i o n as a l e g i t i m a t e p a r t  system.  Networking  recommended i n o r d e r  among  ethnic  of the Canadian a r c h i v a l  community  archives  t o r e v e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i r  is  also  holdings.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  •  T a b l e of Contents L i s t of T a b l e s  i i iv  '  vi  Acknowledgement  vii  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter One 1. 2. 3. 4.  PRESERVATION OF ETHNIC ARCHIVAL MATERIAL IN THE CANADIAN ARCHIVAL SYSTEM Canadian A r c h i v a l T r a d i t i o n s and A r c h i v a l Principles Public Institutions Research-oriented Preservation P r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h i n the E t h n i c Communities  DEVELOPMENT OF JAPANESE COMMUNITIES IN CANADA 1. B e f o r e World War I I 2. The Mass E v a c u a t i o n d u r i n g World War II 3. Post-war Japanese Communities  5 5 12 17 23  Chapter Two  33 33 41 43  Chapter Three DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE STUDY 1. Research Method 2. S e l e c t i o n of the Cases 3. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Communities S e l e c t e d 4. Procedures of the Study  49 49 51 52 54  Chapter Four RESULTS OF THE CASE STUDY 1. Kamioops 2. L e t h b r i d g e 3. Manitoba 4. Toronto 5. Hamilton 6. Montreal 7. Vancouver  57 57 63 68 73 80 85 92  Chapter F i v e CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Community Context and A r c h i v a l A c t i v i t i e s 2. O b j e c t i v e s and P o t e n t i a l of Japanese Canadian A r c h i v e s 3. Recommendations f o r Sound P r e s e r v a t i o n of Ethnic Archives 4. Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r S t u d i e s iv  101 101 105 108 112  Bibliography Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4  114 Interview Questions Sample Questions Toronto N i k k e i A r c h i v e and Resource Centre: Goals and O b j e c t i v e s Japanese Canadian N a t i o n a l Museum and A r c h i v e s : Mandate and C o l l e c t i o n Policy  v  119 123 125  126  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1  P o p u l a t i o n and g e o g r a p h i c a l areas of the seven communities  vi  53  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Many people a s s i s t e d me i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s p r o j e c t . First and foremost, respondents i n the seven Japanese-Canadian communities p r o v i d e d me w i t h v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e i r warm welcome t o me and t h e i r enthusiasm t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r h i s t o r y gave me a s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n t o work as best I c o u l d . Professors Terry Eastwood and Mary Sue Stephenson gave me s i g n i f i c a n t guidance and encouragement without which I c o u l d not have completed t h i s t h e s i s . Some people on the committee of the Japanese Canadian N a t i o n a l Museum and A r c h i v e s a s s i s t e d me making c o n t a c t s w i t h people i n v a r i o u s Japanese-Canadian communities a c r o s s the c o u n t r y . Many f r i e n d s , and f r i e n d s of f r i e n d s , a l l too numerous t o mention, g e n e r o u s l y o f f e r r e d me accommodation i n p l a c e s where I had never been. The U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal allowed me t o use i t s computer f a c i l i t i e s w h i l e I was i n Montreal. I would l i k e t o express my h e a r t f u l g r a t i t u d e t o a l l these people.  vii  INTRODUCTION  This  i s a case study o f seven Japanese-Canadian  e f f o r t s t o preserve t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l records. of  the project  is' t o explore  the role  1  communities'  The u l t i m a t e p u r p o s e  that  archival  programs  developed by e t h n i c communities can perform i n t h e o v e r a l l c o m m u n i t y i n Canada t o p r e s e r v e e t h n i c Archivists archival  have  material.  identified  gaps  I n t h e 1970s,  implemented a program t o a c q u i r e  archives. i n preservation  acquiring archives,  municipal, ethnic  ethnic  o f Canada  e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l a n d make  and u n i v e r s i t y  materials.,.  of  the Public Archives  e t h n i c g r o u p s aware o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r e s e r v i n g Provincial,  archival  Ethnic  however, a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t  archives .materials  their also held  records.  have by  been these  t o r e f l e c t .the . e x p e r i e n c e o f  v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s , w h i c h have a f a i r l y s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e economical, p o l i t i c a l , at  and s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s  of the society  large. Some p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p o o r r e c o r d  of preservation of  e t h n i c m a t e r i a l s b y m a i n s t r e a m a r c h i v e s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d . ethnic archives trends  are often given  i n governments but f a i l  First,  emphasis i n response t o p o l i t i c a l t o be r e c o g n i z e d  aspect o f t h e documentary h e r i t a g e  as an  essential  o f t h e s o c i e t y on a permanent  basis.  Second, e t h n i c a r c h i v e s a r e d i f f i c u l t  In t h i s  thesis,  the d e f i n i t i o n of ethnic  t o define by  archives  nature.  by J i a n L i u i s  adopted:  I n t h i s t h e s i s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e w o r d s Japanese and Canadian a r e h y p h e n a t e d when t h e y f o r m a compound a d j e c t i v e modifying a n o u n a s i n Japanese - Canadian communities. When Japanese i s m o d i f y i n g t h e n o u n Canadian, t h e two w o r d s a r e l e f t open. 1  1  archival fonds created by organizations or persons i d e n t i f y i n g or i d e n t i f i e d w i t h e t h n i c groups other than t h o s e o f E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , and native origin, and whose a c t i v i t i e s i n w h o l e o r i n p a r t r e f l e c t o v e r t a c t i o n s o f an e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r , r e g a r d l e s s o f where t h e s e fonds arepreserved . 2  T h i r d , a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e c l o s e w i t h e t h n i c c o m m u n i t i e s and, records  of enduring  organizations  in  value ethnic  e n t r u s t i n g t h e i r records  t h e r e f o r e , have d i f f i c u l t y  i n the communities. communities to "outsiders."  identifying  Fourth,  often  feel  Fifth,  people  languages used i n  o f e t h n i c communities sometimes cause p r o b l e m s :  may  left  unprocessed  for  a  long  time,  or  and  uncomfortable  records be  contact  accessions  repositories  h e s i t a t e t o a c q u i r e records because of the d i f f i c u l t y of  may  processing  them. Independent a r c h i v e s programs s p e c i f i c a l l y c r e a t e d f o r e t h n i c material, present  s u c h as  an  Multicultural  approach d i f f e r e n t  Those t h e m a t i c research  the  that  of  of  mainstream  Ontario, archives.  programs tend t o emphasize the v a l u e of a r c h i v e s  sources,  odds w i t h the  from  History Society  and  they are  s t r u c t u r e of the  sometimes c r i t i c i z e d Canadian a r c h i v a l  as  being  system.  as at  3  Yet another approach t o p r e s e r v a t i o n of e t h n i c a r c h i v e s i s the development  of  archives  communities themselves.  programs  under  Some e t h n i c  initiatives  groups,  s u c h as  of  ethnic  Jewish  and  J i a n L i u , " P o t e n t i a l f o r A c q u i s i t i o n of E t h n i c A r c h i v e s : A Case S t u d y of F i v e C h i n e s e O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h , C o l u m b i a " (MAS T h e s i s , . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 9 3 ) , 1920 . 2  F o r e x a m p l e , see " C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t s and Archivaria 11 ( w i n t e r 1 9 8 0 - 8 1 ) : 7. 3  2  Responses,"  F i n n i s h Canadians, Although  have l o n g t r a d i t i o n s o f k e e p i n g t h e i r a r c h i v e s .  community-based programs t o p r e s e r v e  ethnic archives  d e s i r a b l e i n the l i g h t of the p r i n c i p l e - o f t e r r i t o r i a l and  they  can  have g r e a t  advantages  in identifying  r e c o r d s i n t h e community, t h e y have been d i f f i c u l t a  long p e r i o d of  nature  of  time.  ethnic  This  i s mainly  communities  by  the  and  single  approach  would  be  acquiring  successful  amorphous  scarcity  resources a v a i l a b l e f o r archives without w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d No  on  C o o p e r a t i o n and b a l a n c e among d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s and  its  project. w i l l  examine  types . of . a r c h i v a l community-based  institutions  ethnic  and  t r y to  a r c h i v e s programs  can  c o n t e x t o f t h e a r c h i v a l c o m m u n i t y as a w h o l e .  This  of... d i f f e r e n t  determine play  own.  repositories  f o r adequate p r e s e r v a t i o n of e t h n i c a r c h i v e s . and - a c h i e v e m e n t s  of  sponsors.  are e s s e n t i a l  experiences  5  to s u s t a i n over  because of  definition  are  provenance,  and  4  -what - r o l e  i n the  broad  In order t o explore  p e r s p e c t i v e s and c a p a c i t i e s o f c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d e t h n i c a r c h i v e s , an i n t e r v i e w - b a s e d case was  conducted.  study of seven Japanese-Canadian  communities  Seven l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e  study  from the f o u r t e e n Japanese communities t h a t have a l o c a l c h a p t e r o f the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Japanese Canadians. L e t h b r i d g e , Manitoba,  Toronto,  They a r e Kamloops,  H a m i l t o n , M o n t r e a l , and  Vancouver.  E d w a r d W. L a i n e , " K a l l i s t a P e r i n t o a -- P r e c i o u s L e g a c y ! : F i n n i s h - C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , 1988-1985," Archivaria 22 (summer 1986) : 7 5 - 9 4 ; and A . J . A r n o l d , "The B i r t h and D e v e l o p m e n t o f a W e s t e r n J e w i s h A r c h i v e s P r o g r a m , " Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2, no. 3 ( 1 9 7 2 ) : 24-29. 4  T e r r i t o r i a l p r o v e n a n c e i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s way b y L e w i s J . B e l l a r d o and Lynn Lady B e l l a r d o , A Glossary for Archivist, Manuscript Curators, and .Records Managers (Chicago: S o c i e t y of A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , 1 9 9 2 ) , 35: "The o r i g i n o f a g r o u p o f d o c u m e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s . The c o n c e p t i s d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s h o u l d n o t be r e m o v e d f r o m t h e t e r r i t o r y i n w h i c h i t was c r e a t e d . " 5  3  I n C h a p t e r One, t h e a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o e t h n i c archives i n North America i s reviewed.  I n C h a p t e r Two, t h e h i s t o r y  o f t h e J a p a n e s e i n Canada i s s u m m a r i z e d . t o t h e development  o f communities and t h e p e r c e p t i o n  in order to f a c i l i t a t e t h i s research.  Special attention i s paid of ethnicity  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s u s e d i n  Chapter Three d e s c r i b e s t h e methodology o f t h e case  study, and Chapter Four r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h . thesis  concludes with  an e v a l u a t i o n  s t u d y , and recommendations Some  terms  "community"  used  refers  ^geographical encompassing C a n a d a . . The  to a  of the f i n d i n g s of the case  f o rpreservation of ethnic  i n this local  The  thesis ethnic  require  archives.  clarification:  community  in a  a  specific  l o c a l e a s ,.opposed..to„a .more - a b s t r a c t e t h n i c . c o m m u n i t y a l l t h e : p e o p l e . o f . ..a . . p a r t i c u l a r .-:ethnic "research"  i s the case  study  of  seven  o r i g i n ..in Japanese-  C a n a d i a n communities and t h e " p r o j e c t " r e f e r s t o t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s as a w h o l e .  4  Chapter One PRESERVATION OF ETHNIC ARCHIVAL MATERIAL IN THE CANADIAN ARCHIVAL SYSTEM O v e r t h e y e a r s , t h e r e h a v e b e e n some e f f o r t s i n N o r t h to  preserve  records  created by v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s and persons  connected w i t h e t h n i c groups.  .This .chapter  Canadian  and a r c h i v a l  archival  America  traditions  first  evaluates  principles  that  some have  b e a r i n g s .on e t h n i c a r c h i v e s . . . I t . t h e n r e v i e w s .attempts..to ..preserve e t h n i c a r c h i v e s i n Canada a n d t h e U n i t e d  States.  1. Canadian A r c h i v a l T r a d i t i o n s and A r c h i v a l  Principles  A„ . b a s i c , a r c h i v a l . . „pr,inciple..is....t hat. ..records.-..should-..be-.r.e.tained and p r e s e r v e d b y t h o s e that,  whenever  p o s s i b l e , organizations, should  develop  their  records  to their  through  records  creators  will  bodies,  transfer  i n an o r d e r l y  be m a i n t a i n e d , c a n make  and u s e r s ,  the best  i t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted  are unquestionably  sponsoring  I t follows  their  fashion  r e c o r d s management s y s t e m s , t h e f u n c t i o n a l  themselves,  Because  archives  6  -be - e n c o u r a g e d .to  I f organizations  institutional  of records  material. archives  own a r c h i v e s .  well-developed  integrity  r e s p o n s i b l e : f o r c r e a t i n g them.  entitled  the acquisition  of the archival  that  t o acquire  including  institutional  records  of institutional  of their  records i s  u s u a l l y f r e e from t h e problem o f c o m p e t i t i o n . Not willing  a l l organizations, t o say nothing and a b l e t o p r e s e r v e  t h e i r records.  of individuals, are As t h e r e p o r t by t h e  The C o n s u l t a t i v e G r o u p o n C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , Canadian Archives: Report to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada ( O t t a w a : S o c i a l S c i e n c e s a n d H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada, 1980), 15. T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n i s h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Canadian Archives. 6  5  C o n s u l t a t i v e Group on C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s report,  after  archives  must  p a r e n t body. an  t h e name o f depend  the c h a i r ,  for their  continuing  I f they  to  core  do manage t o s u s t a i n  t o pose o p e r a t i o n a l problems.  scarce  Ian Wilson)  states," a l l  funding  on  their  S m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y cannot a f f o r d t o have  1,7  archives.  likely  (commonly c a l l e d t h e W i l s o n  allow  for  The  professional  an  archives,  funding  staff  i t is  i s u s u a l l y too  members  and  proper  f a c i l i t i e s , and t h e programs a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o c h a n g i n g p r i o r i t i e s and  financial  conditions  of the organization.  a c c e s s i b i l i t y by t h e g e n e r a l  public.  Another concern i s  W h e n . o r g a n i z a t i o n s have i n -  house a r c h i v e s w i t h o u t r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c f u n d i n g , obliged, to provide archival  t h e y may n o t f e e l  s e r v i c e s , t o o u t s i d e r s . .Some o r g a n i z a t i o n s  .with  p r o g r a m s . v i e w them a s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . t o o l s , r a t h e r  than  publicly-valued  resources.  8  Given that i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o expect a l l a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s to  be  kept  by  creators  of  such  materials,  many  large  archival  i n s t i t u t i o n s a c q u i r e and p r e s e r v e r e c o r d s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e i r parent  organizations.  As  i n other  areas of s o c i a l  Canada, p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s have been b e a r i n g  functions  the greater  in  part of  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r e s e r v i n g the n a t i o n ' s documentary h e r i t a g e . This  tradition  different  from  societies  assume  archival  7  of that  material.  Ibid.,  Canadian in  the  significant  public United roles  The t r a d i t i o n  archives States,  is  significantly  where  i n preservation  historical of  private  i s a l s o d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n  62.  F o r some d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s b y t h e p u b l i c , s e e C h r i s t o p h e r L. H i v e s , "History, B u s i n e s s Records, and C o r p o r a t e A r c h i v e s i n North A m e r i c a , " Archivaria 22 (summer 1 9 8 6 ) : 40-57. 8  6  some c o u n t r i e s where p u b l i c a r c h i v e s  are p r i m a r i l y concerned  the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p u b l i c records.  The d i s t i n c t i v e t r a d i t i o n o f  Canadian p u b l i c archives Wilfred  Smith  cites  i s often  the four  discussed  elements  as " t o t a l  of the concept  with  archives." of  "total  archives"  i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the Canadian a r c h i v a l t r a d i t i o n . a s  developed  at the Public.Archives  National Archives .1  ...  o f Canada  (PAC; s i n c e  1987 t h e  o f Canada, N A C ) .  a l l sources of archival material appropriate to the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the a r c h i v e s a r e a c q u i r e d from both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o u r c e s ; 2 a l l types o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l may be a c q u i r e d i n c l u d i n g m a n u s c r i p t s , maps, p i c t u r e s , p h o t o g r a p h s , sound r e c o r d i n g s , motion p i c t u r e and o t h e r audio v i s u a l m a t e r i a l and machine r e a d a b l e r e c o r d s ; 3 a l l subjects o f human e n d e a v o u r s h o u l d be c o v e r e d b y a repository...... in.. ...accordance . . . . . w i t h . . . . . i t s — t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a s s i g n e d t o d i f ferent.... r e p o s i t o r i e s on t h e b a s i s o f s u b j e c t ; 4 l i f e cycle ... t h e a r c h i v a l a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d be concerned w i t h records from t h e time o f t h e i r c r e a t i o n at l e a s t t o the extent that i t r e q u i r e d t o ensure the r e c o r d s judged worthy o f p r e s e r v a t i o n a r e s e l e c t e d and transferred to the archives. 9  An has  a r c h i v a l system c o n s i s t i n g o f a few l a r g e  some c o g e n t a d v a n t a g e s .  utilize  limited  resources  economies o f s c a l e .  efficiently  environmental c o n t r o l f o r storage, other  facilities  Large archives  by  taking  advantage  can u s u a l l y provide  a r e a l s o more l i k e l y  of  better  multi-media access devices  that are not e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e t o small  with proper t r a i n i n g .  archives  The W i l s o n r e p o r t o b s e r v e s t h a t i t c a n  Large archives  1 0  total  and  archives.  t o develop s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f  F i n a l l y , users can b e n e f i t g r e a t l y i f they  R.S. Gordon,.. A c q u i s i t i o n Policy. Document (draft), . ( O t t a w a : P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, 1984) q u o t e d i n W i l f r e d S m i t h "'Total Archives': The Canadian Experience," Archives et Bibliotheques de Belgigue 57 ( 1 9 8 6 ) : 3 4 1 . 9  10  Canadian  Archives,  64. 7  can  consult  a l l kinds  of material  from  various  sources  a t one  repository. If  p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e i n an i d e a l f a s h i o n ,  system  should  worthy  of preservation  Canadian point  identify  society  and . p r e s e r v e created  i n a l l segments  including ethnic  decentralized  approach  archives  a l l the a r c h i v a l  archives.  o u t , however, t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e . The  a total  material  and a s p e c t s  of  A s many a r c h i v i s t s  1 1  discussed  i n -the W i l s o n  report  stems from an awareness o f t h e p o s s i b l e problems i n c u r r e d by t h e centralist only  t o t a l archives  b y what  material  approach.  i s of importance  First>  t o the c e n t r a l  t h a t . i s w o r t h y . x>f p r e s e r v a t i o n  may.be d i s r e g a r d e d .  jeopardizes  the  of the material  use and meaning  archives,  from a . l o c a l  the integrity,  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  as a whole.  Furthermore,  Another problem a s s o c i a t e d with t o t a l archives repositories.  criterion  In the. t o t a l  f o r determining  territorial  jurisdiction.  where  archives  model,  archival material  problematic.  considered  Often,  This  funding.  1 2  i s competition the primary should  go i s  When d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t s  o p e r a t e t h e i r a r c h i v e s , however, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s is  users,  p u b l i c i n t h e o r i g i n a t i n g community.  impede u s e a n d s u p p o r t f o r f u r t h e r a c q u i s i t i o n a n d  among  other  perspective  t o remote l o c a t i o n s p o s s i b l y a l i e n a t e s  donors, and t h e g e n e r a l can  a r e judged  Removing-.archival m a t e r i a l from -the..milieu.,in  w h i c h i t was c r e a t e d  sending materials  i frecords  an  criterion  individual or organization  o f l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  c a n be Added  F o r example, about t h e inadequacy o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s , s e e E l i z a b e t h B o g h o s s i a n , Ethnic Archives Workshop Report ( O t t a w a : M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m Canada, 1 9 8 5 ) . 1 1  12  Canadian  Archives,  65. 8  t o the u n c l e a r demarcation of scope of a c q u i s i t i o n , of  irrational acquisition.  correctly,  suggests,  As  the  acquisition  prestigious  The  acquisitions  s i t u a t i o n can  institutions, less  policies  are  Many  solve,  following  other repositories  t o t a l archives  archivists  a c q u i s i t i o n and  by  have  fashionable  j o i n the  One  by  well-publicized trends.  1 3  research  s c e n e , and  more  or  approach.  been  concerned  with  competition  h a v e d i s c u s s e d ways t o c o p e w i t h , i f n o t  the problem.  but  often distorted  e v e n be w o r s e n e d as u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s ,  and  adopt the  or  cases  Wilson report r e g r e t f u l l y ,  a t t e m p t s t o i m p r e s s b u d g e t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h some or  t h e r e are  in  completely  o f t h e most commonly a d v o c a t e d m e a s u r e s t o  .avoid...competition,among.-.archival.-,repositories . i s - t o e s t a b l i s h . w e l l defined acquisition of  policies.  A r c h i v e s promote the  basis  for  The  utility  guidelines of  cooperative acquisition  by-Canadian  acquisition  strategies  policies  and  as  t o o l i n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e s y s t e m a t i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and of  our  national  policies  would  collections  help  sporadic  allow  heritage.  acquisition from  plan.  t h a t p h r a s e s s u c h as n a t i o n a l  13  and  "as  to 1 5  would  alert He be  also  preservation such  another  suggested  much more  financial  Kathy H a l l  one  the  important  Kaye Lamb a r g u e d t h a t  fields.  policies  foundations  acquisitions  1,14  repositories  i n their respective  well-defined attract  archival  an  Council  that  likely  resources  than  s p e c i f i c a l l y points  (or p r o v i n c i a l o r l o c a l )  to  to a out  significance  I b i d . , 64 .  C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l - o f A r c h i v e s , Guidelines A c q u i s i t i o n Policy.(Ottawa:Canadian Association 1. 14  for Developing an of A r c h i v e s , 1 9 9 0 ) ,  " A c q u i s i t i o n P o l i c y : Competition or Cooperation?" A r c h i v i s t 2, n o . l ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 21. 15  9  Canadian  employed defined.  in  archival  should  be  more  precisely  1 6  Although useful  legislation  in  well-developed  clearing  some  a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s are grey  areas,  they  undoubtedly  cannot  completely  e l i m i n a t e , j u r i s d i c t i o n a l o v e r l a p p i n g and c o n f l i c t s o f i n t e r e s t .  A  c o n s e n s u s i s d e v e l o p i n g among a r c h i v i s t s t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n b a s e d  on  c o m m u n i c a t i o n and w e l l - i n t e n d e d r e a s o n i n g i s . e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o a v o i d the p o t e n t i a l competition to d i s t o r t o r d e r l y a c q u i s i t i o n . Much l e s s o f t e n d i s c u s s e d i n a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e i s t h e i s s u e of r e c o r d s t h a t escape the net of the e x i s t i n g a r c h i v a l system are l o s t  forever.  A r c h i v i s t s seem t o be p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d  and with  • r e d u c i n g t h e , c o m p e t i t i o n . i n - . . a c q u i s i t i o n - and . c o n f l i c t .of .-..interest. a  A c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s . a r e mainly advocated  as"ameans f o r i n d i v i d u a l  r e p o s i t o r i e s t o a v o i d c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r s and t o make b e s t  use  of  the  limited  resources.  They a r e  not  taken  as  a measure  for  w h o l e a r c h i v a l c o m m u n i t y t o d i v i d e and a s s i g n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s o c i e t y ' s documentary h e r i t a g e . be  recognized  is  that  the  multitude  of  What n e e d s t o  records  worthy  of  p r e s e r v a t i o n i n t h e modern s o c i e t y s u r p a s s e s b y f a r t h e c a p a c i t y o f all  archival  institutions  put  together.  Competition  a v o i d e d n o t o n l y b e c a u s e i t i s u n e t h i c a l and m i g h t v i o l a t e principles, chasing  but  records  also  because  of a prominent  while  multiple  individual  must  be  archival  repositories  are  or organization, other  r e c o r d s which are l e s s n o t i c e a b l e but nonetheless s i g n i f i c a n t might be  lost.  Kathy H a l l , M e t h o d s , " Archivaria 16  "Archival Acquisitions: 18 (summer 1 9 8 4 ) : 66. 10  Legal  Mandates  and  The  official  Archivists favouring broader  (ACA)., agreed-  preserved;  purse;  and or  with  Association  the  Wilson  apparently  The  the  archives  community."  archives  can  and  archives."  incompatible  important  The  17  better  The  with  the  should  be  limited, and  but  patterns  fall  be  d i r e c t l y on  the  part  of  overall  thematic  response  scholarly  interpreted new  use."  as  the  e f f o r t s should  of a c q u i s i t i o n .  17  "Canadian A r c h i v e s :  18  Ibid. ,  2 0  archives  is  to  the  Symons  subj.ect . a p p r o a c h  apparent  recognition  archival and  library-oriented  This  that  local,  a r e s e e n "as g r i s t f o r . s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h ,  for  their  argues  "institutional,  ACA's  "a much can  further the  i n c l u s i o n of  t o c o l l e c t i o n s development which i s the materials  ACA  arguments  materials  living  fulfil  encouraging  1 8  a  Canadian  judges that  i t , . . c r i t i c i z e s . . ; . f o r . , , a d o p t i n g :;a  - which  wherein-records,  of  ACA  remain  of  report's  f i n a n c i a l burden does not  supporting  even thematic  1 9  the  historically  local  publicly-funded mandate by  of  the f u l l  institutional  Report,  of  a d e c e n t r a l i z e d approach. spectrum  public  response  that  subject assembly  inconsistency resources  are  conform t o e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s  As  f a r as t h e number i s c o n c e r n e d ,  R e p o r t s and  Responses,"  15.  7.  The Symons R e p o r t was - i s s u e d b y the Association of U n i v e r s i t y and C o l l e g e s o f Canada (AUCC) i n 1975. I t viewed a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s as b e i n g s o l e l y r e s e a r c h s o u r c e s . Thus, the r e p o r t recommended a s u b j e c t a p p r o a c h t o " a r c h i v a l ' p r e s e r v a t i o n and the c e n t r a l r o l e s of u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s i n c o o r d i n a t i n g the a r c h i v a l system. T h e s e v i e w and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d b y t h e ACA. F o r t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h e Symons R e p o r t b y t h e ACA, s e e " C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t s and R e s p o n s e s , " 6-11, and a l s o see T e r r y Eastwood, "Attempts at .National P l a n n i n g for A r c h i v e s i n C a n a d a , 1975-1985," Public Historian 8, no. 3 (summer 1986): 74-91. 19  20  "Canadian A r c h i v e s :  R e p o r t s and 11  Responses,"  7.  the  ACA's  appeal  for a  decentralized  archival repositories increased Some  archivists,  however, . might  a r c h i v i s t s were  has been  met:  f r o m 294 i n 1977 t o 764 i n 1 9 9 0 .  performance o f those newly e s t a b l i s h e d professional  approach  question  the  archives.  concerned  level  21  of  Traditionally,  w i t h - t h e p o s s i b l e - harm  caused by inadequate c o l l e c t i n g agencies competing w i t h l e g i t i m a t e archival  repositories.  Historical  Association  Competition  o f t h e Canadian  "Acquisitions  one o f t h e m a j o r  was a c q u i s i t i o n b y i n a p p r o p r i a t e  collectors. ;  discussion  i n 1969, e n t i t l e d  o r Cooperation?,"  participants  ...archival  At a panel  Policy:  concerns  of the  organizations  or  Some p a n e l i s t s d i s c u s s e d p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r l e g i t i m a t e  r e p o s i t o r i e s . ..to .. e n s u r e  responsible  preservation  - of  a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . , complying.:..with. . a r c h i v a l . . . p r i n c i p l e s -and -.accepted practices. ability some  Kaye Lamb s t a t e d t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e  t o provide  assurance  of  reasonable  conditions  long-term  interest  physical  of access  facilities,  and use, and  are the prerequisites.  2 2  A n o t h e r p a n e l i s t , D o n a l d McQuat, a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e i s o n e e s s e n t i a l qualification  f o r archives,  specialized facilities  which  i s that  "they  and t r a i n e d s t a f f t o p r e s e r v e ,  make a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c t h e i r d o c u m e n t a r y  2. P u b l i c  must  have t h e  a n a l y z e and  holdings."  2 3  Institutions  When t h e C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a d o p t e d m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m  A s s o c i a t i o n o f ^ C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t s , . ..Directory of ..Canadian Archival Repositories (Ottawa: A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t s , 1977) a n d C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f A r c h i v e s , Directory of Canadian .Archives ( O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f A r c h i v e s , 1990) . 21  22  " C o m p e t i t i o n o r C o o p e r a t i o n ? " 22.  23  I b i d . , 25 . 12  as  a  national policy  "relatively  few  in  1971,  holdings  groups or t h e i r  i t recognized  relating  activities."  to  that  Canada's  the  various  Through the p o l i c y ,  2 4  PAC  had  cultural  the  funds  to  e s t a b l i s h the N a t i o n a l E t h n i c A r c h i v e s  (NEA)  to  t o "ensure the h o l d i n g s of  t h e PAC.  The  p u r p o s e o f t h e NEA  was  program were p r o v i d e d  t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s more f u l l y r e p r e s e n t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n h e r i t a g e i s d r a w n f r o m many c u l t u r e s . " Six  years  after  the  r e p o r t e d on t h e p r o g r e s s at  encouraging  in  and  2 5  i n c e p t i o n of  of the program.  the 2 5  NEA,  Walter  Although  t h e NEA  " a l l e t h n o - c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s t o t a k e an  responsibility  for preserving their  Neutel  archival  aimed  interest  h e r i t a g e " - as  p a r t , of.;-, i t s , : o b j e c t i v e . , J t h e ...greatest, - a t t e n t i o n - . . w a s . - g i v e n ...to 2  - c o l l e c t i n g a n d ...making.-avail a b l e . a t t h e . . . P A C . . a r c h i v a l - . m a t e r i a l /-of national Neutel  significance  p o i n t s out  both  c u l t u r a l communities. to  entrust  strangers.  personal,  p e r t a i n i n g to e t h n o - c u l t u r a l communities. negative  and  In h i s view, records .and  Communities of - East  positive  r e s p o n s e s by  2 8  ethno-  some c o m m u n i t i e s a r e r e l u c t a n t .organizational  European o r i g i n  are  records  .to  particularly  r e l u c t a n t , b e c a u s e . o f ..fear t h a t . . . a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l may  be  F e d e r a l Government, "Programs o f I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " G o v e r n m e n t ' s R e s p o n s e t o Book I V o f t h e Report of the Royal Commission on B i l i n g u a l ism and B i c u l t u r a l i s m ( T a b l e d i n t h e House o f Commons on O c t o b e r 8, 1 9 7 1 ) .  i n Federal  24  M u l t i c u l t u r a l ism and the- Government of Canada M i n i s t r y o f S t a t e f o r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , 1 9 7 1 ) , 26. 25  used, to  (Ottawa:  W a l t e r N e u t e l , " G e s c h i c h t e Wie ..Es E i g e n t l i c h Gewesen o r N e c e s s i t y o f H a v i n g E t h n i c A r c h i v e s Programmes," Archivaria ( w i n t e r 1 9 7 8 ) : 104-109. 26  P u b i c A r c h i v e s o f C a n a d a , Public Archives ( O t t a w a : P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f C a n a d a , 1 9 7 7 ) , 49. 27  28  Neutel,  107. 13  Report  The .7  1976-1977  their  detriment  i n the future.  2 9  P o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s were  b a s e d on t h e q u a l i t y and l o n g - t e r m r e l i a b i l i t y PAC.could provide the  PAC's  rivalries ethnic  .the c o m m u n i t y .  Another . advantage  complemented by t h e governmental r e c o r d s t h e NEA  preserve  ethnic  constraints. still  was  limited.  better  archives,  Neutel  and on  outside, t h e p o s s i b l e . disagreements  a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l a t t h e PAC, N e u t e l  If  of the service the  as an e s t a b l i s h e d permanent i n s t i t u t i o n ,  neutrality within  mainly-  funded  i t was  admitted  still  keeping  argues, i s that  k e p t a t t h e PAC.  than  that  of  and  many  other  not free  it'is  30  efforts to  from  resource  a c q u i s i t i o n s b y t h e NEA w e r e  He a l s o saw t h a t f u r t h e r a c q u i s i t i o n w o u l d be e v e n  more, r e s t r i e t e d .because. ..the...,maj.or„.proport i o n , o f . . t h e , resources...have t o - b e a l l o c a t e d . to...processing:and. c a r i n g - f o r m a t e r i a l s - . e n t rusted-' i n 4  order  t o maintain  annual  report  unprocessed material.  o f t h e PAC a l s o records  tends  o f t h e program t o donors.  reports  that  to restrict  the large backlog  the a c q u i s i t i o n of  An of new  3 1  Since National  the c r e d i b i l i t y  i t s inception, Archives  the ethnic  archives, program  (NAC) h a s u n d e r g o n e  some  changes.  at the The  NEA  c h a n g e d i t s name t o t h e M u l t i c u l t u r a l A r c h i v e s  p r o g r a m , w h i c h was  dissolved  at  i n 1994.  withdrawing archives  completely  There from  i s some the  acquisition  due t o g o v e r n m e n t f i n a n c i a l  29  Public  3 0  Neutel,  Archives  Report  debate  restraints.  1976-1977,  t h e NAC  about  of m u l t i c u l t u r a l 3 2  49.  108 .  .. P u b l i c . A r c h i v e s o f ..Canada, Public Archives ( O t t a w a : P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, 1 9 7 8 ) , 4 8 - 4 9 . 31  Report  1977-78  E - m a i l l e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r f r o m M y r o n Momryk, M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n , t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f Canada, 1 May 1 9 9 5 . 3 2  14  A l t h o u g h the ethnic  NEA  archives  significant  by  acquiring  material  i m p a c t o f t h e p r o g r a m may  the p r e s e r v a t i o n community. induced,  undoubtedly contributed for that  of e t h n i c m a t e r i a l to the  It to  be  drew  some  attention  extent,  to  in  itself,  the  most  i t officially  added  archival material  various  forms,  h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and  a r c h i v a l committees i n e t h n i c  and  programs  ethnic  archives  universities.  at  of  agenda o f the a r c h i v a l  ethnic  programs  to preservation  provincial  and  such  as  communities  archives  and  3 3  Acquisition significance"  of  by  the  ethnic NAC,  archival  however,  had  material some  of  "national  inherent  problems.  E x a m i n i n g , t h e ,..,.impact-;',of a ; t h e i : : m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . : p o l l c y . . . a n d ..the. . s t a t e v  of e t h n i c a r c h i v e s preservation,-Robert  F. vHarney, t h e n  president  o f t h e M u l t i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y o f O n t a r i o , q u e s t i o n e d how federal  archives  defines  "material  p e r t a i n i n g to e t h n i c communities.  of  national  significance"  I n h i s view, the n a t i o n a l frame  i s o f t e n r a t h e r i r r e l e v a n t f o r the l i f e of e t h n i c groups. on  to state  the  He  goes  that:  National lobbies, self-proclaimed ethnic spokesmen i n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s , and t h e n a t i o n a l c o m m i t t e e s f o r most e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e , more o f t e n t h a n n o t , t h e most e t h e r e a l and e p h e m e r a l p a r t o f any e t h n i c g r o u p . 3 4  Nevertheless, reasons,  the  Harney argues t h a t , f o r p o l i t i c a l federal  effort  framework l e a d i n g t o c o m p e t i t i o n  33  Neutel,  necessarily  and  imposes  among a r c h i v e s  institutional a  national  at v a r i o u s  levels  107.  R o b e r t F. H a r n e y , !'Ethnic A r c h i v a l and L i b r a r y M a t e r i a l s i n C a n a d a : P r o b l e m s o f B i b l i o g r a p h i c C o n t r o l and P r e s e r v a t i o n , " Ethnic Forum: Journal of Ethnic Studies and Ethnic Bibliography 2, no.2 ( f a l l 1982) : 24 . 34  15  of  government  and o t h e r  research centres.  institutions  such  as u n i v e r s i t i e s  and  The r e s u l t o f t h e c o m p e t i t i o n i s :  the i l l o g i c a l removal o f m a t e r i a l s from r e g i o n s i n which t h e y a r e r e l e v a n t a n d w o u l d be c o n s u l t e d r e g u l a r l y t o O t t a w a o r T o r o n t o - o r some - o t h e r d i s t a n t m e t r o p o l i s w h e r e t h e y a r e b a r e l y a c c e s s i b l e t o c o m m u n i t y members a n d t o t h o s e . y o u n g e r , l e s s ...well, f u n d e d , - a c a d e m i c s who- s h o u l d be  .  able t o g a i n easy f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h such The annual  issue of a c c e s s i b i l i t y  r e p o r t s o f t h e PAC.  sources.  i s also discussed  i n one o f t h e  The NEA made i t c l e a r t h a t i t f o c u s s e d  on p e r s o n s e n g a g e d i n r e s e a r c h a t t h e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y and  t h a t i t encouraged high school students  and  local  repositories.  rationalized  This  3 6  3 5  i f the c r i t e r i o n  school  level  t o r e l y on p r o v i n c i a l  distinction,  however,  f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n  cannot  be  b y t h e NEA i s  whether the m a t e r i a l i s of n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , which i s t o t a l l y irrelevant to the level of research or researchers. high  school  questions  students  a r e as l i k e l y  For instance,  t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h n a t i o n a l  as any o t h e r l e v e l o f s t u d e n t s i s .  On h i s p a r t , N e u t e l a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e NEA h a d " b u t skimmed t h e s u r f a c e o f some c o m m u n i t i e s a n d i n many h a s n o t y e t that  much."  I t c a n be  37  suspected  that  by  accomplished  skimming  t h e most  n o t i c e a b l e p a r t o f e a c h c o m m u n i t y , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n b y t h e NEA m i g h t have  resulted  heritage. ethnic  This  representation  i s particularly  archives  realized writing  in elitist  came  to light  i n t h e 1960s had been  that  biased  3 5  I b i d . , 23.  36  Public  3 7  N e u t e l , 108.  Archives  when  archives  towards  Report  ironic  ethnic  because  archivists  the great  documentary  the interest i n and  preservation  1977-78, 4 9 .  16  of  historians  and  and p o w e r f u l  history while  neglecting  l i v e s of ordinary  acquisitions transferring in  t h e NEA  resulted  Even worse,  t h e NEA  staff  i n some  i n the s p l i t  only part of i tthat looked  t h e eye o f  community.  3.  by  people.  who  of a  "nationally  paid  a  cases,  fonds  by  significant"  short  visit  t o the  38  Research-oriented Preservation Another  inadequate  problem judgement  Harney, p o i n t s concerning  example o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n g family coats  o f arms.  out about  what  t h e NEA  to preserve,  i s  citing  i t s the  and p a i n t i n g o f o v e r f i v e hundred e t h n i c  He s u g g e s t s  that:  some s o r t , o f . a d v i s o r y body.,,of s c h o l a r s ..in. t h e f i e l d o f . e t h n i c and i m m i g r a t i o n s t u d i e s might.provide a u s e f u l . g u i d e o r check t o the a r c h i v i s t s and - t h e i r uses of- t h e i r " budget. 3 9  As  a  Harney  corollary,  believes  immigration advisors nation."  i s t o have  "exist are  way  to preserve  "research  institutes  ethnic  archives  i n ethnic  and  s t u d i e s w i t h a r c h i v i s t s , l i b r a r i a n s and m u s e o l o g i s t s as  t o the academics i n charge, spaced w i s e l y throughout t h e This  4 0  i s a researcher's  many a r c h i v i s t s . archives  the best  exist  Archivists solely  view  disagree  t o serve  with  i s not accepted by  Harney's premise  academics o r s c h o l a r s .  t o p r e s e r v e documents w h i c h e x i s t  valuable  that  i n their  i n themselves whether.any academic  that  Archives  own r i g h t ,  and  has i n t e r e s t  in  F o r e x a m p l e , r e c o r d s o f T s u t a e S a t o , who was a p r o m i n e n t e d u c a t o r i n t h e J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y , h a v e b e e n p r e s e r v e d a t t h e NAC and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The m a t e r i a l h e l d a t UBC was r e c e n t l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l Museum and A r c h i v e s i n V a n c o u v e r . 3 8  3 9  4 0  H a r n e y , 24. Ibid. ,28. 17  them o r n o t . "  Furthermore,  4 1  i n a r c h i v a l theory,  users  a r e never  acknowledged as t h e adequate judge o f a p p r a i s a l and a c q u i s i t i o n . To v a l i d a t e t h i s ,  one w o u l d o n l y h a v e t o r e c a l l  that  the present  poor state, o f preservation of ethnic archives i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y a r e s u l t o f a r c h i v i s t s having and  followed the trend of h i s t o r y w r i t i n g s  responding t o researchers' In  the United  States,  demands.  however,  researchers'  central i n the-preservation of ethnic archives. the  concept o f ethnic archives  than  i n Canada,  preserved  42  and e t h n i c  views  a r e more  As J i a n L i u noted,  i s d i f f e r e n t i n the United archives  are mainly  States  c o l l e c t e d and  as sources f o r documentation o f immigrants'  experience.  ,:  .; From, i t s ..very e a r l y . . s t a g e , t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n , o f e t h n i c - a r c h i v e s  in  the United  States  was  i n t e r t w i n e d -with  demands - f o r s o u r c e  m a t e r i a l s b y h i s t o r i a n s . A f r o - A m e r i c a n h i s t o r i a n C a r t e r G. Woodson started  collecting  historical  documents and s o c i o l o g i c a l  d a t a on  c o n t e m p o r a r y A f r o - A m e r i c a n s a s e a r l y a s 1915 t h r o u g h t h e f o u n d a t i o n of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Study o f Negro L i f e and H i s t o r y .  He d i d  so b e c a u s e he r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s was an  e s s e n t i a l component  publish  a  experience." ahead  history 4 3  of h i sproject that  A l t h o u g h Woodson s h o u l d  of h i s contemporaries  preserve  accurately  t o "research, 1  reflected  w r i t e , and the  black  be c r e d i t e d f o r b e i n g f a r  i n recognizing  the necessity  to  source materials f o r Afro-American h i s t o r i e s , h i s  4 1  B o g h o s s i a n , 22.  4 2  L i u , 20.  J a c q u e l i n e G o g g i n , " C a r t e r G. Woodson a n d t h e C o l l e c t i o n o f S o u r c e M a t e r i a l s f o r A f r o - A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y , " American Archivist 48, no. 3 (summer 1 9 8 5 ) : 2 6 2 . 4 3  18  c o l l e c t i o n was with archival  an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f d o c u m e n t s , w h i c h d o e s n o t  comply  principles.  John Grabowski observes t h a t the burgeoning i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l history,  t h e h i s t o r y o f i m m i g r a t i o n , and  the nature of . e t h n i c i t y  "more t h a n a n y t h i n g , s p u r r e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t within mainline archival institutions" such prominent (IHRC),  of e t h n i c  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  program i s the Immigration H i s t o r y Research  formally established  i n 1965,  w h i c h had  1985,  4 4  Center  45  IHRC i s a g r a n d p r o g r a m t h a t c a n c l a i m some s u c c e s s .  however,  Susan G r i g g c r i t i c a l l y  examined  One  i t s genesis i n a  h i s t o r y p r o j e c t r e l a t i n g t o the Minnesota Iron Ranges. The  collections  In  i t s h o l d i n g s and  h i s t o r i c - c o l l e c t i n g . p o l i c y , . * ...The . . . c o l l e c t i n g . ^ . p o l i c y -of - t h e ,.IHRC 6  was- ;of the-, b r o a d e s t . . . k i n d , groups  that  a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e g r e a t wave o f m i g r a t i o n f r o m  t h e 1 8 8 0 s t o W o r l d War policy  were  I t encompassed- t h e ' t w e n t y - f o u r e t h n i c  that  I.  4 7  The  acquisitions  only e x p l i c i t must  be  l i m i t a t i o n s of  two-dimensional  the  records  r a t h e r t h a n t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s and t h a t t h e y must " d e a l w i t h the causes of e m i g r a t i o n  the a c t u a l processes of m i g r a t i o n , ' o r  J o h n J . G r a b o w s k i , " A r c h i v i s t s and I m m i g r a n t s , E m b a r k i n g f o r New D e s t i n a t i o n s T o g e t h e r , " i n Documenting D i v e r s i t y : A Report on the Conference on Documenting the Immigrant Experience in the United States of America, p r e p a r e d b y CDIE P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e (Saint Paul, Minnesota: Immigration H i s t o r y Research Centre, U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1 9 9 1 ) , 50. 44  Rudolph J . V e c o l i , . "The.Immigration S t u d i e s C o l l e c t i o n of t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , " American A r c h i v i s t 32, no. 2 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 9 ) : 142. 45  S u s a n G r i g g "A W o r l d o f R e p o s i t o r i e s , a W o r l d o f R e d e f i n i n g t h e Scope o f a N a t i o n a l S u b j e c t C o l l e c t i o n , " A r c h i v i s t 48, no.3 (summer 1 9 8 5 ) : 286-295. 46  47  Vecoli,  142-143 . 19  Records: American  the  experiences  of  the  immigrants  and t h e i r  descendants."  The  4 8  p o l i c y d i d n o t i n c l u d e any r e s t r i c t i o n b y g e o g r a p h y o r t i m e p e r i o d . The  geographic  activity  s c o p e was t h e e n t i r e U n i t e d S t a t e s a t e v e r y  from n a t i o n  •beginning of  the  to  great  household  and.the!time  m i g r a t i o n t o .the  level.of  span w a s f r o m  indefinite  future .  4 9  "  E x a m i n i n g t h e h o l d i n g s o f t h e IHRC, G r i g g a d m i t s t h a t t h e failed  to  fulfil  rather  small.  its  ambitious  Even . i n  cases  r e l a t i v e l y w e l l documented, and t h e s t r e n g t h s limits .  policy. of  The amount o f  some . e t h n i c  the  :  IHRC  records  groups  which  t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f h o l d i n g s was  was were  uneven  were o f t e n w i t h i n c e r t a i n t o p i c a l o r g e o g r a p h i c a l  5 0  , .. The more d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , a c q u i s i t i o n p l a n . t h a t . G r i g g . p r o p o s e s restricts church area.  and  scope by r e c o r d s ^ c r e a t o r  fraternal  aside  from the p o l i c y ' s  problem, of  as  well  such as a s . by  "ethnic h i s t o r y i s  the  press,  geographical  especially  being too broad,  collecting, .local materials  She o b s e r v e s t h a t and  organizations,,  types,  The r e s t r i c t i o n b y g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a i s  because, the  the  important  Grigg points  on ..a. n a t i o n - w i d e  overwhelmingly l o c a l  basis .  history,  t r u l y l o c a l m a t e r i a l s c a n b e s t be c h o s e n and made a c c e s s i b l e  a local  level. "  and  at  5 1  A research-oriented literature  out  practices  view in  of the  ethnic  archives  United  States.  prevails One  in of  the the  "Statement o f P o l i c y R e l a t i n g t o t h e C o l l e c t i n g o f M a t e r i a l s f o r t h e . I m m i g r a n t . A r c h i v e s " . [Mimeographed] ( S a i n t . P a u l , . . M i n n e s o t a : Immigration H i s t o r y Research Center, ' U n i v e r s i t y of ~ Minnesota, 1 9 7 4 ? ) ; q u o t e d i n G r i g g , 289. 4 8  4 9  Grigg,  287.  5 0  Ibid. ,  290 .  5 1  Ibid. ,  292 . 20  prominent approaches t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n f i r s t plan, and  of e t h n i c  archives  or conceive, a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t of h i s t o r y w r i t i n g ,  t h e n t r y t o i d e n t i f y u s e f u l r e c o r d s as s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s  project. Francis  An X.  example  the  .emphasizing  h i s t o r i a n s but  archives  f o r them.  data.for  the  Warner  and  source materials  for  by. R o b e r t  possible  migrations  c o l l e c t i o n - of  only  urge  useful  great  for  between  materials  M.  1820  overseas  and  as  essential  the  to  serve  Richard  study of  o t h e r a c a d e m i c s s u c h as s o c i o l o g i s t s t h e i r n e e d s by  Juliani  c o l l e c t i n g materials  argues the  i m m i g r a t i o n and  need of q u a l i t a t i v e  e t h n i c i t y . - He . s i n g l e s  o r a l h i s t o r y as t h e ,f i r s t r . s o u r c e - . t h a t . can:.be - c o l i e c t e d -by and be u s e f u l f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . i t i s p o s s i b l e t o g a t h e r and for  research  purposes  and  He  appears  that  Juliani  a g e n c i e s t o work a t the at odds w i t h  archival  -archives  i n t e r p r e t "data not o r i g i n a l l y through  this  considers  indirect  archives  demand o f s c h o l a r s  out  l a t e r q u e s t i o n s whether  and  as  created  technique  achieve fragments of a f u n c t i o n a l s u b s t i t u t e f o r the It  1920,  5 2  Not also  i s the, d i s c u s s i o n  B l o u i n Jr.. . t h a t . e x p l o r e s  documenting  sources.  i s to  to  interview.,"  data  t h a t he  5 3  collecting has  a view  theories.  R o b e r t M. W a r n e r and F r a n c i s X. B l o u i n J r . , " D o c u m e n t i n g t h e G r e a t M i g r a t i o n and a C e n t u r y o f E t h n i c i t y i n A m e r i c a , " American A r c h i v i s t 39 ( J u l y 197.9) : 319-328. S i m i l a r a p p r o a c h e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n M a r c Lee R a p h a e l , "The G e n e s i s - o f . a Communal - H i s t o r y : .The .Columbus J e w i s h H i s t o r y . . P r o j e c t , " ...American .Jewish Archives 29 ( A p r i l 1977) :53-69; and Thomas H. K r e n e c k , " D o c u m e n t i n g a M e x i c a n A m e r i c a n Community: The H o u s t o n Example". American A r c h i v i s t 48, no.3 (summer 1 9 8 5 ) : 2 7 2 - 2 8 5 . 52  R i c h a r d N. J u l i a n i , "The Use I m m i g r a t i o n and E t h n i c i t y , " American 1 9 7 6 ) : 4 7 4 , 476. 53  21  of A r c h i v e s i n the A r c h i v i s t 39, no.4  Study of (October  Even archives  when a of  r e p o s i t o r y i s engaged  a  specific  ethnic  i n the  group  preservation  with  programs  of  partly  o r i g i n a t i n g i n the e t h n i c community, r e s e a r c h e r s and r e s e a r c h needs are  often  States.  intertwined  The two  archives  i n the  Scandinavian  research  Studies  storage  Chicago  space from the  of North Park C o l l e g e .  The  Center  archives'  owner, the Swedish"American H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y cooperates centre  United  Swedish American Archives- of G r e a t e r  r e c e i v e s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n g and for  program  Westerberg both have s t r o n g t i e s w i t h  The  5 4  the  Swedish a r c h i v e s i n I l l i n o i s d e s c r i b e d by Timothy  Johnson and Kermit institutions.  with  w i t h the  i n c o l l e c t i o n development, f u n d - r a i s i n g , p l a n n i n g ,  policy  -formation., .and:, promotion „ of.--.the .'~ar.chiv.es.... .;.,...The-.Swenson Swedish !  Immigration - - Research . Center .: i s -  l o c a t e d .rin August ana  College  L i b r a r y , and i t had i t s major h o l d i n g s ..transferred from, the C o l l e g e Library.  The .centre  cataloguing universities repositories space,  published and  also  collaborates  materials.  .research  Although  institutions  i n p r o f e s s i o n a l treatment  archivists  must be  with  aware of  of  their  the  cooperation  can  affect  activities  that  they  and  storage  s c h o l a r s do  violate  the  with  archival  professional role  immediate r e s e a r c h needs of the such  help  material  ensure t h a t the archival  library .in  and not  archival  principles. In Canada, although standing  ethnic  archival  there i s some s t r o n g advocacy f o r f r e e institutions  whose o b j e c t i v e s are  the  study of e t h n i c i t y and immigration, - a r c h i v i s t s u n e q u i v o c a l l y oppose  Timothy J . Johnson, "The G r e a t e r Chicago, I l l i n o i s L i b r a r i e s 601"; and Kermit B. Westerberg, Research Center," I l l i n o i s L i b r a r i e s 606 . 54  22  Swedish American A r c h i v e s of 69, no. 7 (September 1987) :600"Swenson Swedish Immigration 69, no. 7 (September 1987) :601-  academics' view that a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l e x i s t s p r i m a r i l y as a s o u r c e f o r them.  I t i s argued that  data  "the l o y a l t y o f an a r c h i v i s t  l i e s p r o p e r l y w i t h t h e community t h a t c r e a t e d t h e s e documents, and t h e f i r s t p r i o r i t y l i e s . , i n s e r v i n g t h e needs, o f - t h o s e p e o p l e and . i n ensuring  a continuation of their h i s t o r i c a l  4. P r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h i n the E t h n i c  record.  1,55  Communities  A t t h e E t h n i c A r c h i v e s Workshop h e l d i n T o r o n t o , 1 9 8 3 , i t was argued that as  i n some c a s e s r e c o r d s  w e l l be l e f t , w i t h  o f community i n s t i t u t i o n s  might  those i n s t i t u t i o n s because they a r e u s u a l l y  s t a f f e d by p e o p l e o f t h e community i n w h i c h t h e y a r e b a s e d , and t h e records.; would . t h e r e f o r e Archivists, question  ,be„ ...assured  o f -/...careful  treatment.;.  h o w e v e r , .,do n o t .share, a - s i n g l e - p e r s p e c t i v e  o f whether records  are c a r e f u l l y preserved  c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t have c r e a t e d  56  on t h e  by t h e e t h n i c  them.  Some a r c h i v i s t s t h i n k t h a t e t h n i c g r o u p s a r e n o t a w a r e o f t h e value  of t h e i r  records  as a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l .  One o f t h e a i m s o f  t h e NEA was " t o a l e r t e t h n o - c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s t o t h e n a t u r e o f archival  m a t e r i a l and t h e importance o f i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n . "  Collection the  D e v e l o p m e n t Workshop a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e o n D o c u m e n t i n g  I m m i g r a n t E x p e r i e n c e h e l d i n M i n n e s o t a i n 1990 c o n c l u d e d  there  was  "the need  to  increase  awareness  immigrant/ethnic.communities of the value  5 5  B o g h o s s i a n , 22.  56  I b i d . , 23.  5 7  The  5 7  N e u t e l , 107. 23  on  the  that  part  of a r c h i v a l records,  of  personal  papers,  appropriate  measures f o r t h e i r  Other  archivists  differently. immigrant  and a r t i f a c t s  Harney  organization  and t o encourage preservation."  a n d .. a c a d e m i c s , asserts  that  officials  view  He  circumambient denounces  Anglocentric  and community  i n d i c a t i n g an "arrogant  of  of  misunderstanding."  Rudolph V e c o l i observes that preservation  part  immigrant  historians,  their  t h e NEA  value."  objective  In the United  took  place  have  depositories of  " p r i o r t o t h e 1 9 6 0 s , what records  issue  archivists  society dismissed  the aforementioned  take  this  amateur  fought t o save i m p e r i l e d m a t e r i a l f o r y e a r s w h i l e the  to  5 8  however,  "ethnic  them  was  5 9  as  States,  systematic  due  i n i t i a t i v e s . ...of . . . i m m i g r a n t / e t h n i c . . . . . h i s t o r i c a l . . . s o c i e t i e s . . "  to the 60  - —John  •Grabowski a g r e e s w i t h V e c o l i ' t h a t , u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s , ; t h e ' f ie'-ld of  ethnic  manuscript, c o l l e c t i n g  within  h i s t o r i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s was n o n e x i s t e n t themselves  preserved  records  academic  or  mainline  and t h a t o n l y e t h n i c groups  through  their  agencies  such  museums, a r c h i v e s , c o l l e g e s , a n d "a m y r i a d o f s m a l l r e a d i n g and  'national' Although  given also  credit true  resources  libraries." many  as  rooms  6 1  institutions  i n ethnic  communities  f o rpreservation of their h i s t o r i c a l  t h a t many e t h n i c g r o u p s s i m p l y t o manage t h e i r a r c h i v e s .  records,  d i d n o t have  As w e l l ,  should  as V e c o l i  be  i t is  sufficient suggests,  CDIE P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e , Documenting D i v e r s i t y : A Report on the Conference on Documenting the Immigrant Experience in the United States of America . ( S a i n t P a u l , ..Minnesota: . I m m i g r a t i o n H i s t o r y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1 9 9 1 ) , 9. 5 8  5 9  Harney, 25.  R u d o l p h J . V e c o l i , "Why a C o n f e r e n c e o n D o c u m e n t i n g t h e I m m i g r a n t E x p e r i e n c e ? " i n Documenting D i v e r s i t y , 42. 6 0  6 1  G r a b o w s k i , 50. 24  some g r o u p s w e r e s o m a r g i n a l i z e d b y o r t h o d o x h i s t o r y t h a t t h e y d i d not t h i n k t h e y had a m e a n i n g f u l p a s t and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e y f a i l e d t o value  t h e i r records  as h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  The. i n t e r v i e w s  6 2  of Chinese, o r g a n i z a t i o n s b y . J i a n L i u suggest t h a t . t h i s still  persists  response records "no,"  to a question  regarding  F o r example,  the p o s s i b i l i t y  i n a n a r c h i v e s , one o f h e r i n f o r m a n t s  in  of depositing  answered w i t h a f i r m  s t a t i n g t h a t h i s - o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s r e c o r d s w e r e o f no u s e t o a n y  other  people. The  support  6 3  apparent  neglect  of records  by e t h n i c  groups  t h e n o t i o n t h a t e t h n i c groups l a c k s i g n i f i c a n t  historical .the  i n . some,, ethnic-...communities.  perspective  does not bodies  of  r e c o r d s . . --...This ^.notion;./derives f r o m - " t h e . s t e r e o t y p e -of  i m m i g r a n t s .as. u n i f o r m l y , . i l l i t e r a t e .peasants-. " . 64  - A c c o r d i n g /to  V e c o l i , t h i s n o t i o n o f t e n has been used as an " e x p l a n a t i o n " o f p o o r archival holdings of ethnic materials.  P u b l i c a t i o n o f more t h a n a  thousand newspapers and p e r i o d i c a l s i n languages o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h in  the United  States  i n 1910, a n d t h e h u n d r e d s  of m i l l i o n s  of  l e t t e r s s e n t t o i m m i g r a n t s ' home c o u n t r i e s d i s c r e d i t t h e s t e r e o t y p e and  testify  to  the existence  of  records  of  immigrants  worth  preserving. Although ethnic  there are s i g n i f i c a n t bodies of h i s t o r i c a l records of  groups,  necessarily  archivists  at  e n t h u s i a s t i c about  6 2  Vecoli,  6 3  L i u , 73 .  mainstream ethnic  institutions  communities  are not  establishing  "Why a C o n f e r e n c e , " 4 2 .  Rudolph J . V e c o l i , " E t h n i c i t y : A Neglected Dimension of A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y , " i n The State of American History, ed. Herbert J . B a s s ( C h i c a g o : Q u a d r a n g l e , 1 9 7 0 ) , 74. In this a r t i c l e , Vecoli e x p l o r e s t h e r e a s o n s why e t h n i c i t y was l o n g n e g l e c t e d i n t h e American h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . 64  25  t h e i r own  archival repositories.  communities  to  have  u s u a l l y have a v e r y •collections, technical  their  little  communities...  for  for  for research  the vcare  opposition  Those a r c h i v e s  The  American  identified  two  major  and  to  themselves  full,  in and  their  into  part, of  revealed  boxes.  community  6 6  and no  of  "they  describing access•to  documents."  that  developed  are  not  founded  holdings two  ethnic  in  large  1947,  1983:  their  unprocessed survey  t h e . A J A ' s . . . c o l l e c t ion-....management  program  the  holdings  S i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s probably  -feet. -  in  such  The  many o f  .linear  by  had  been  exist  just  dumped  i n most  ethnic  archives.  A l t h o u g h t h e s e p r o b l e m s n e e d t o be r e c o g n i z e d  and o b j e c t i v e l y  e x a m i n e d , t h e y s h o u l d n o t be o v e r e m p h a s i z e d so much t h a t t h e y t o an  o u t r i g h t d i s m i s s a l o f e f f o r t s by  preserving problem powerful  their  archives  The  ethnic  of the  e t h n i c communities  restriction  of  resources  community a r c h i v e s .  country,  that  i s , the  lend  towards i s not  Even the  a  most  Public Archives  of  t o s l o w down i t s a c q u i s i t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s due  to  large backlog  65  records.  p a r t i c u l a r to  Canada, had the  65  the  unaware o f  (AJA),  t h e y had  . c o l l e c t i o n s ., t o t a l l i n g .,two , .thousand  further  ethnic  because  and  repair  archives  Jewish Archives  problems  f o u r - s t o r y b u i l d i n g was  as  encourage  and t h e l a c k o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e a r e  problems.  .conducted  d i d not  a r c h i v a l programs  accessibility  facilities  reasons  NEA  limited capacity for arranging  Inadequate resources main  own  The  of unprocessed records.  Pubic Archives  o f C a n a d a , Public  The  Archives  need t o d e a l  Report  with  1976-1977,  49 . Kevin P r o f f i t t , " C o l l e c t i o n Management a t t h e American J e w i s h A r c h i v e s , " American Archivist 49, no.2 ( s p r i n g 1 9 8 6 ) , 177178 . 66  26  "minority"  l a n g u a g e s s u c h as C h i n e s e and  impediments the  to  funding  relatively  the  for  processing public  s t a b l e , the  of  J a p a n e s e a l s o p o s e d some  acquired  archives  and  records.  other  And,  6 7  large  status of-ethnic- archives  archives  programs  s u c h s p e c i a l , program does not exit., a c q u i s i t i o n of e t h n i c in  the  institutions  revealed  i n the  may  mandate  archives  and  f a c t t h a t the f i r s t  ethnic  activities Archival  some  to  budget  Although  of  the  of  67  48;  and 68  a  low  priority  reality  ethnic  community  functional  organizations  of  - in  t o .be  the  time  one  of  ethnic  of  and  c o m m u n i t i e s do  archives creators.  integrity  of  i n d i v i d u a l s acquired  community  them.  Public Archives Public Archives  not  in of the  created  o f Canada, Public Report 1977-78,  69  Archives 48-49.  have record  Therefore, through  i s l i k e l y to take place.  collectively  that  are  fonds  complement e a c h o t h e r ,  Boghossian,  As  owes p a r t l y t o  Therefore,  68  c l o s e to the  t r a n s f e r of records  the  m i g h t hope.  go.  preservation  state  in  a r c h i v a l - a c q u i s i t i o n s tend  they are  will  archives  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s l i e s  se,  archives  result  This p r a c t i c a l  c r e a t o r s per  different  one  o r , i f  Workshop, e v e n t h o u g h p r o v i n c i a l  programs e s t a b l i s h e d by  advantages.  systematic  s e c u r e as  .<• governmental...; r e c o r d s . .  restraints, first  as  is  t h e v a l u e of. e t h n i c a r c h i v e s , r e s t r i c t i o n s  in practice.  preserving  be  Ethnic Archives  a r c h i v i s t s recognized their  not  while  by  the  Records of a  community  reflecting  Being  the  part  Report  of  the the  1975-76,  4-5.  F o r some d i s c u s s i o n how o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n an e t h n i c c o m m u n i t y i n t e r a c t w i t h c o n d i t i o n s o f the community, see, f o r example, Pyong Gap M i n , " C u l t u r a l and E c o n o m i c B o u n d a r i e s o f K o r e a n E t h n i c i t y : a C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s , " Ethnic and Racial Studies 14, no. 2 ( A p r i l 1 9 9 1 ) : 2 2 5 - 2 4 1 ; and M a u r i l i o V a g i l , "The E t h n i c O r g a n i z a t i o n as an I n s t r u m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Change; J A L D E F , a C a s e S t u d y , " 69  27  community,  a community  a r c h i v e s can e a s i l y  identify  and l o c a t e  c r e a t o r s o f records worthy of p r e s e r v a t i o n and have ready access t o i n f o r m a t i o n on the context of the r e c o r d s .  Donors a r e l i k e l y t o  p r e f e r r e p o s i t o r i e s w i t h i n the e t h n i c community, as found •Liu  i n . her - i n t e r v i e w s .  determinative provides a  factors  70  Because  donors'  will  out by  i s one o f the  i n a c q u i s i t i o n of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l ,  p r a c t i c a l • r e a s o n f o r the establishment  this  7 1  of an a r c h i v e s  w i t h i n the community. The Laine in  72  e v o l u t i o n of F i n n i s h a r c h i v e s c h r o n i c l e d by Edward  suggests  W.  some i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a r c h i v e s  e t h n i c communities.  Contrary  t o the s i m p l i s t i c  view of some  a r c h i v i s t s . and historians., the *F.inns came to. Canada with:-a:-"welldefined,, .awareness ..of a...native...-Finnish ..Archival'.-tradition"—that goes back w e l l i n t o the f i f t e e n century and they had a "remarkable degree  of  present."  historical The f i r s t  consciousness  concerning  their  past  and  conscious e f f o r t by the F i n n i s h community t o  p r e s e r v e t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l records i s observed i n the establishment of  "organic a r c h i v e s , " by.which Laine means r e p o s i t o r i e s c r e a t e d t o  p r e s e r v e r e c o r d s of the parent bodies. sort,  the A r c h i v e s  of the F i n n i s h  The f i r s t a r c h i v e s o f t h i s Society  o f Toronto,  Laine  observes, was an i n d i c a t i o n that the membership o f the S o c i e t y had developed a  "a shared sense of h i s t o r y that enabled them t o undertake  collective  Journal 70  7 1  72  approach  of Ethnic  Studies  t o safeguarding  18,  their  records  f o r future  n o . l (spring 1 9 9 0 ) : 15--31.  L i u , 99. "Competition Laine,  o r Cooperation,"  75-94. 28  2 1 - 2 2 ; and Boghossian,  9  generations," fundamental fonds.  and  7 3  the  archival  Resource  breakdown of  archives  was  p r i n c i p l e s as  restrictions,  Finnish organic  fully  aware  provenance  however,  archives.-  and  led  The  to  from the  Finnish  community's  important  Finnish  archives.  Two  scope . of  respectively.. right-wing  former Archives  and  "logical  the  eventual  a l i e n a t i o n of  Laine often records  was  to  establish centralized  the of  research  a r c h i v e s , the F i n n i s h Canadian H i s t o r i c a l  the F i n n i s h Canadian A r c h i v e s ,  preservation  with a  w e r e . e s t a b l i s h e d . . i n 1944  nation-  and  1947,  .-They r e f l e c t e d ..the,,schism...at-the--time-between...the  and  to  maintaining  the  l e f t - w i n g w i t h i n the  F i n n i s h community.  Archives  of  Ontario  and  Both  to public archives:  the  latter  to  the  the  Public  Canada. does  not  directly  account  t o the p u b l i c a r c h i v e s .  To  for  the  transfer  of  f r o m t h e i r o r i g i n a t i n g l o c a l e s , he  their  fend o f f the c r i t i c i s m of  c e n t r a l i z e d a p p r o a c h of l a r g e p u b l i c a r c h i v e s w h i c h removes argues t h a t the  a r c h i v e s o f the community i t s e l f s o l i c i t e d r e c o r d s country.  des  officials  solution" for  l a t e r transferred t h e i r holdings  Laine holdings  records  "research"  Society Archives  archives  respect  offices.  The  wide  such  major problem  s p e c i f i c a l l y notes i s , t h a t volunteer.organization i n e v i t a b l y w o r k e d at.home, r e s u l t i n g i n t h e  of  two  the  records  "national"  from across  the  He a l s o e m p h a s i z e s t h a t t h e s e F i n n i s h " n a t i o n a l " a r c h i v e s  secured valuable intervention.  records  t h a t would have been l o s t  7 4  73  I b i d . , 88 .  74  Ibid.,  93. 29  without  their  What  i s not found  i n the evolution  of Finnish  archives  programs i s t h e a r c h i v e s  c o l l e c t i v e l y supported by a l o c a l  community,  readily  which  community-based geographical  would  repositories  territoriality-  spectrum of records An  example  utilize  while  t h e advantages  observing  .taking  on  a  segment  Region Jewish Archives  establishment ,and  o f t h e whole  creators.  of this  Office  of the  the p r i n c i p l e of  type  o f endeavour  c a n be f o u n d  network o f a r c h i v a l programs d e v e l o p e d by t h e Jews.  Winnipeg  ethnic  Committee  o f Canadian  with  a  The W e s t e r n  (WRJAC) was f o r m e d i n 1967 b y t h e  Jewish  Congress,  followed  by t h e  o f a r c h i v e s p r o g r a m s i n C a l g a r y a n d V a n c o u v e r i n 1969  197 0 , . . r e s p e c t i v e l y . - ; .-.^The ..WRJAC .-..cultivated .<close- -cooperation 75  ,with..provincial . a r c h i v e s , — a l l ..major.-organizations-and-insti-tutions in  the  field  including  the University  Department, as w e l l as t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s Jewish  Congress  i n Montreal.  i n s t i t u t i o n s provide  The  .of ...Manitoba  History  Committee o f Canadian  close  ties  with  those  t h e WRJAC a c c e s s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e a n d  f a c i l i t i e s o f b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d a r c h i v e s , w h i l e t h e WRJAC i n t u r n can  a s s i s t them b y b r i n g i n g  to light  neglected  o r undiscovered  materials. The p r o b l e m s e x p e r i e n c e d b y e t h n i c c o m m u n i t y a r c h i v a l p r o g r a m s a r e more a m a t t e r o f p r a c t i c e s a n d f e a s i b i l i t y archival  theories  and p r i n c i p l e s .  are c e r t a i n l y a formidable community a r c h i v e s . preservation  The s e v e r e r e s o u r c e  shortages  issue, but i ti snot s p e c i f i c t o ethnic  Moreover,  of ethnic  rather of infringing  there  are other  a r c h i v a l . material..  obstacles Although  E v o l u t i o n o f t h e Western Region Jewish A r c h i v e s i s d e t a i l e d i n A r n o l d , 24-29. 7 5  30  i n the  Joel  Wurl  Committee  acknowledges  the great  progress  i n the preservation  of  ethnic  a r c h i v e s d u r i n g t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s , he i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l i s s u e s involved i n ethnic archives.  7 6  of  engaged  numerous  archives,  repositories  First,  t h e u n i v e r s e , now c o n s i s t i n g i n preservation  i s h a r d l y defined o r understood  by anyone.  of  ethnic  Information  a b o u t "who h a s what" a n d "what t h e y a r e d o i n g w i t h what t h e y is  essential  overall  f o r better  archival  difficulty  we  operation  community.  face  o f each  intellectual  t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  the  immigrant experience.'"  the  third  and t h e  Second, Wurl p o i n t s o u t " t h e g r e a t  i n getting a full  c a t e g o r i e s o f sources  institution  have"  grasp  of the  'documentation o f  A multitude o f languages i n v o l v e d i s  i s s u e . • I t i m p e d e s -not o n l y the ...processing ..of., a c q u i r e d  r e c o r d s but.,also ..acquisition-.because c u s t o d i a n s might. d i s c a r d o l d records  of  understand  their  ancestries  the contents.  or predecessors  when  they  cannot  The c u s t o d i a n s may f a i l t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e  v a l u e o f t h e r e c o r d s o r may be a f r a i d o f p o s s i b l e damage c a u s e d b y m a k i n g t h e r e c o r d s p u b l i c . . The l a s t o b s t a c l e t h a t W u r l o b s e r v e s i s the l a c k o f i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l  cooperation.  He q u e s t i o n s ,  "is i t  b e c a u s e we a r e s i m p l y t o o b u s y k e e p i n g o u r own s h i p s a f l o a t , o r a r e there  other  forces  competitive impulses,  at  work  such  ethnocentrism,  as  proprietary  or  overly  or basic lack of interest i n  the b i g g e r p i c t u r e ? " Cooperation too  often  among a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a c q u i s i t i o n i s a l l  emphasized  consequences.  What  i n archival i s as  literature  essential  without  i s to  draw  significant a  picture  e n c o m p a s s i n g t h e w h o l e a r c h i v a l community.. t o d e s i g n what s y s t e m i s  J o e l W u r l , "The A r c h i v a l G o l d e n D o o r ; T h o u g h t s o n I m p r o v i n g the S t a t e o f H i s t o r i c a l Documentation on t h e Immigrant E x p e r i e n c e , " i n Documenting Diversity, 66-68. 7 6  31  desirable  t o s e r v e t h e s o c i e t y a t l a r g e m a k i n g t h e maximum u s e o f  l i m i t e d resources. repositories ethnic  has  archives.  I n t h e p r e s e n t r e a l i t y , no c a t e g o r y o f a r c h i v a l enough  Therefore, ethnic  be v i e w e d a s v a l u a b l e should  be  resources  given  to  cover  t h e whole  community  field  repositories  of  should  r e s o u r c e s . o f t h e - a r c h i v a l community, and-they appropriate  roles  in  relation  to  other  institutions. Several  issues  p o t e n t i a l of ethnic  need, t o  be  addressed  in  evaluating  community-based a r c h i v a l programs.  First,  the to  s u s t a i n an a r c h i v a l p r o g r a m , t h e r e n e e d s t o be a s u b s t a n t i a l e n t i t y o f c o m m u n i t y a n d c o m m u n i t y members' s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y . function  as  a  legitimate  repository,  Second, t o  .an. ..archives . .must . . . f o l l o w  p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s a c k n o w l e d g e d and r e a l i z e d : i n : t h e a r c h i v a l community.  Acquisition  policy  should  t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l processing services. This  established  expertise  should  following  always guide  o f a c q u i s i t i o n s , c r e a t i o n o f f i n d i n g a i d s and r e f e r e n c e The  includes  holdings  be  and  third.issue open  i s the a c c e s s i b i l i t y  h o u r s and  reference  locations,  services.  as w e l l  Fourth,  a  the  public.  as t r e a t m e n t  community  l o n g - t e r m f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g and s u b s t a n t i a l b a s i s o r d e r t o s u s t a i n an e t h n i c  by  requires  f o r funding i n  community-based a r c h i v a l program.  32  of  Chapter Two DEVELOPMENT OF JAPANESE COMMUNITIES IN CANADA  • - i n  T h i s c h a p t e r r e v i e w s t h e development Canada.  T h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s -underwent  mass e v a c u a t i o n s d u r i n g W o r l d War I I .  o f Japanese-communities  drastic-changes-because-of  B e f o r e t h e war, t h e Japanese  w e r e s e c l u d e d i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s h a v i n g minimum c o n t a c t w i t h t h e larger society.  A f t e r t h e w a r , t h e J a p a n e s e came t o b e c o n s i d e r e d  one o f t h e most a s s i m i l a t e d m i n o r i t y g r o u p s i n C a n a d a , rate  of  inter-racial  marriages  and r e s i d e n t i a l  with a high dispersion.  7 7  Because development o f communities a n d t h e change i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f . c o m m u n i t i e s -are..-. i n e x t r i c a b l y  r e l a t e d w i t h Japanese  Canadians'  .,-..views., of.. t h e i r , . i d e n t i t y — a n d -;.history,...-.and - t h u s : - r e l a t e d ...to, . . t h e i r archival activities, facilitate  an  a review o f Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y  understanding  of  current  activities  should  i n those  communities.  1. Before World War I I Early  Immigrants The i m m i g r a t i o n f r o m J a p a n t o Canada s t a r t e d i n e a r n e s t a r o u n d  F o r i n s t a n c e , about t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s p e r s a l , s e e Ken A d a c h i , The Enemy That Never Was: A History of the Japanese Canadians (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart i n c . , 1991), 356; and K e i b o O i w a , "The S t r u c t u r e o f D i s p e r s a l : The J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n Community o f M o n t r e a l 1942-52," Canadian Ethnic Studies 1 8 , no.2 (1986) : 25-26. A d a c h i a l s o d i s c u s s e s t h e l o w l e v e l o f r e t e n t i o n o f t h e J a p a n e s e l a n g u a g e ( A d a c h i , 366) . I n t h e 1 9 8 0 s , i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n Japanese Canadians m a r r i e d non-Japanese t h r e e t i m e s o u t o f f o u r ( R o g e r D a n i e l s , " A f t e r w a r d : The S t r u g g l e f o r Redress," i n A d a c h i , 373. Furthermore, d i s c u s s i n g t h e t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s ' d e s i r e t o r e c o v e r some e l e m e n t s o f Japanese c u l t u r e , Adachi s t a t e s that "they a r e f i n d i n g that t h e i r own a c c u l t u r a t i o n h a s l i m i t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c o v e r y . " ( A d a c h i , 363) 7 7  33  the mid-1890s,  about a decade a f t e r the law t o p e r m i t e m i g r a t i o n o f  t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s was  e n a c t e d i n J a p a n i n 1984.  There were  less  t h a n one t h o u s a n d J a p a n e s e i n Canada i n 18 96, o f w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y were, f i s h e r m e n on  the coast of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  From 1896  7 8  to  1901, n e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h o u s a n d J a p a n e s e i m m i g r a n t s e n t e r e d C a n a d i a n ports,  but-, t h e m a j o r i t y - t r a v e l l e d  through to "the U n i t e d  O n l y 4,738 J a p a n e s e were r e c o r d e d i n t h e 1901  States.  census.  E a r l y J a p a n e s e - i m m i g r a n t s were u n m a r r i e d m a l e s o f t h e a v e r a g e age o f 22.8  at the time of t h e i r a r r i v a l .  They would t a k e whatever  jobs available,  w h i c h were o f t e n o f s e a s o n a l n a t u r e .  Thus,  they  tended to d r i f t  from j o b t o j o b i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e .  7 9  Development of Communities In Steveston, a v i l l a g e n e a r l y two. t h o u s a n d . J a p a n e s e  n e a r t h e mouth o f t h e F r a s e r were engaged i n t h e f i s h i n g  b y 1899.  The J a p a n e s e F i s h e r m e n ' s H o s p i t a l was  provided  a primitive  in  treating  1900s.  form of medicare.  the y e l l o w  When  the  fever  massive  and  typhus  reductions  fishing  and  instrumental  epidemics of  of  industry  f o u n d e d i n 1895  I t became  8 0  River,  the  early  licences  were  i m p o s e d o n J a p a n e s e f i s h e r m e n i n t h e 192 0 s , t h e y o r g a n i z e d a s y s t e m t o m i t i g a t e t h e damage.  M a r r i e d men  licences  thought  other  and  t h o s e who  employment v o l u n t a r i l y  78  Canadians 79  thesis, 80  Japanese  were g i v e n p r i o r i t y t o r e t a i n  they could  withdrew.  b e s t be  They a l s o  able to  find  o r g a n i z e d the  C h a r l e s H. . Y o u n g and H e l e n R. .Y. R e i d , The ..(Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o . - P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 ) , R i g e n t a S u m i d a , "The Japanese in B r i t i s h Columbia" U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 3 5 ) , 55.  6.  Japanese  (Master's  J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n C e n t e n n i a l P r o j e c t , A Dream of Riches: The Canadians 1877-1977 ( T o r o n t o : G i l c h r i s t W r i g h t , 1 9 7 7 ) , 24. 34  Fishermen's Benevolent S o c i e t y t o r a i s e funds f o r compensation f o r f a m i l y heads Company was  who  lost  licences.  o r g a n i z e d i n 1923  The  S t e v e s t o n Japanese  and bought  Farmers'  eighty acres of land  accommodate d i s p l a c e d f i s h e r m e n i n a g r i c u l t u r e .  The  to  company t h e n  organized a s e r i e s of classes to teach the rudiments of • farming'in Canada. I n V a n c o u v e r b y 1907, a s i z a b l e J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y with Saw  small businesses along Powell Street, Mill,  w h i c h employed  the century.  close  had grown  to the Hastings  f i v e hundred Japanese around the t u r n of  The J a p a n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e c i t y g r e w r a p i d l y f r o m  2,036. i n 1911  t o 4,246 i n 1921  and  8,328 i n 1 9 3 1 .  Within  81  the  . p i t y , t h e Japanese-were c o n c e n t r a t e d - i n p a r t i c u l a r .areas, with-more than h a l f  of the population  l i v i n g . i n the Powell  Street  area i n  1931. I n September. 1907, t h e g r o w i n g a n t a g o n i s m f e l t among t h e w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n towards the " O r i e n t a l s " culminated i n a Vancouver The  J a p a n e s e , o r g a n i z e d f i g h t i n g u n i t s .and met  t h e mob,  which--had  swept t h r o u g h C h i n a t o w n a n d c o n t i n u e d on i n t o " L i t t l e T o k y o " Powell Street.  By n i g h t f a l l  to protect the area. The resulted  fierce  riot.  the Japanese formed s e c u r i t y  along  patrols  8 2  anti-Japanese feelings  i n the Gentlemen's  Japanese governments.  Agreement  The a g r e e m e n t  expressed between  the  in  the  riot  Canadian  s e t an a n n u a l q u o t a o f 400  and on  Japanese i m m i g r a n t s , b u t r e t u r n i n g r e s i d e n t s and r e s i d e n t s ' w i v e s , c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s were exempted of  this  exemption,  81  Young,  82  A d a c h i , 74.  the  from t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n .  composition of  68-69.  35  the  Japanese  Because  immigrants  drastically system,  changed  Japanese  after men  1908.  Utilizing  started  importing  the "picture wives  bride"  -and,  until  r e s t r i c t i o n s w e r e p l a c e d o n t h e e n t r y o f women i n 1928,  t h e number  of  every year  females a r r i v i n g  i n Canada e x c e e d e d  that  o f males  except.two.  B e f o r e t h i s , i n f l u x o f women, t h e J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y i n  Canada  comprised  was  ;  overwhelmingly o f males.  p r o p o r t i o n o f females t o males  increased t o nearly  which l e d t o a high b i r t h rate..  By  1931, t h e  seven t o t e n ,  The c h a n g e . i n c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e  J a p a n e s e p o p u l a t i o n n a t u r a l l y meant a change i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r life  i n Canada  and  t h e community.  More  c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r l i v e s i n Canada p e r m a n e n t  a n d more  Japanese  as t h e y g o t s e t t l e d and  started .building.families. I n . December. 1915,. d u r i n g W o r l d . War. ..I., ...the J a p a n e s e , c o m m u n i t y in  Vancouver  organized volunteer  e f f o r t o f t h e i r adopted country.  corps t o c o n t r i b u t e . t o  t h e war  The e x p e n s e s o f t h e t r a i n i n g a n d  m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e v o l u n t e e r s were b o r n e b y t h e J a p a n e s e and t h e c o r p s t r a i n e d f o r t h r e e months.  community  83  From t h e e a r l y d a y s o f J a p a n e s e i m m i g r a n t s i n C a n a d a i n l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h r o u g h t h e 1930s, t h e J a p a n e s e r e l i e d on t h e i r ethnic  community  f o r economic  and s o c i a l  support.  They  formed  v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o cope w i t h t h e v a r i o u s i s s u e s o f community members.  I n 1934, t h e J a p a n e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r n u m b e r e d  approximately  eighty-four.  8 4  They  included  highly  specialized  The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , however, d i d not accept the e n l i s t m e n t o f t h e c o r p s a n d t h e g r o u p was d i s s o l v e d . Japanese v o l u n t e e r s f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l a t e r went t o A l b e r t a t o e n l i s t i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d e v e n t u a l l y a t o t a l o f 196 v o l u n t e e r s went t o w a r . 83  Y o u n g , 108. T h e r e w e r e a n a p p r o x i m a t e t o t a l o f 230 J a p a n e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canada i n 1934. 84  36  a s s o c i a t i o n s s u c h a s t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s , w h i c h w e r e n o t t o be f o u n d in  other  smaller  specialized  Japanese  according  organizations  Canadian  early.as  education,  i n -Vancouver  similar organizations The  to  communities.  assumed  i n other  Associations age,  a  role  so  on.  of p u l l i n g  also Many-  together  areas.  Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n  i n 1897.to  and  were  a i d ..immigrants  (CJA) was  established  i n ..finding jobs  adult .education programs,.especially  those  focusing  as  and develop on  Canadian  customs and t h e E n g l i s h language.  A l t h o u g h t h e Japanese needed t o  get  they also  accustomed  w i t h Japan.  t o Canadian  life,  The C J A e x e r t e d  retained  increasingly greater  strong  ties  c o n t r o l over the  J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y w i t h , ".a - r a t h e r , p r o n o u n c e d n a t i o n a l i s t i c . b i a s . . ' l It  derived  i t s „ a u t h o r i t y . : . f rom  Japanese consulate, administrative  i t s c l o s e ...relationship, w i t h  which acknowledged and u t i l i z e d  agency  o f t h e community  i s s u i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s and c o l l e c t i n g The  Japanese  community w e l l  consulate  i n t o t h e 1920s.  protesting  t o Ottawa  the  t h e CJA as-an  with . functions  s u c h .,as  statistics.  retained  great  influence  i n the  It.assumed the .role, of guardian  86  - f o r "the " J a p a n e s e , a c t i n g a s a s p o k e s p e r s o n t o w a r d s w h i t e and  or Victoria  concerning  society  anti-Japanese  legislation. The  a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e o f t h e CJA were c h a l l e n g e d  Camp a n d M i l l W o r k e r s ' U n i o n . and  advocated cooperation  5  I b i d . , 111.  6  I b i d . , 117.  8 5  The U n i o n t o o k a n o p p o s i t e  by the  position  w i t h t h e w h i t e s . a n d t r a d e - u n i o n i s m among  37  the  Japanese  i n Canada.  I t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1920 a n d h a d e i g h t  l o c a l s w i t h a t o t a l membership o f o v e r s i x hundred Two J a p a n e s e n e w s p a p e r s and. t h e U n i o n . Vancouver,  The  members o f t h e CJA.  87  r e f l e c t e d c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w s o f t h e CJA  first  t h e Tairiku  i n 1934.  Japanese-language  Nippo,  daily  newspaper i n  was owned b y one o f t h e p r o m i n e n t  E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1907, t h e n e w s p a p e r  generally  r e t a i n e d a n a t i o n a l i s t i c s t a n c e , t o w a r d s Japan.. I t p r o v i d e d r e p o r t s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of. i s s u e s a n d e v e n t s . t h a t w e r e o f i n t e r e s t - t o the  Japanese  The  newspaper had a r e p u t e d c i r c u l a t i o n o f o v e r t h r e e thousand i n  1934. 1924  i n a manner t h a t  The People's  88  Daily,  secured t h e i r  identity with  Japan.  on t h e . o t h e r , h a n d , was. e s t a b l i s h e d i n  t o . advocate .the cause  o f -the U n i o n . .  There  was  another  n e w s p a p e r , ...the Canada .Shimpo,... w h i c h ;took ...somewhat - of.. .a  middle  c o u r s e between t h e o t h e r two. Attitudes  of  generational lines. white  society  community  members  also  differed  along  The s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n was much more e x p o s e d , t o  and i t s v a l u e s t h r o u g h p u b l i c  acquired ...characteristics  of  Canadian,  schools,  society.  and  The  second  g e n e r a t i o n r e s e n t e d t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n ' s Japanese customs, were so d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e i n Western c u l t u r e . generation  lamented  the  t r a d i t i o n s among t h e s e c o n d The  Japanese  language  loss  of  virtues  thus  which  In turn the f i r s t  based  on  Japanese  generation. s c h o o l was a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l  d e v i c e by  w h i c h t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n p a r e n t s hoped t o p e r p e t u a t e t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese  values  i n the growing  Japanese  C i t i z e n s S c h o o l was i n e x i s t e n c e b y 1 9 0 6 o n  7  I b i d . , 112.  8  I b i d . , 111. 38  Canadian-born  generation.  The  Vancouver's  Alexander  Street.  For  several  years,  i t was  the  central  e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r Japanese c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver.  Only  a few s e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d r e g u l a r C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s . Eventually,  i t became  c l e a r .that.. J a p a n e s e  . c h i l d r e n , s h o u l d • be  e d u c a t e d . i n C a n a d i a n schools.. t o . b e t t e r f i t . i n t o C a n a d i a n unless  their  parents intended  to return  ... c h i l d r e n ..were e n r o l l e d . i n . p u b l i c  t o Japan.  schools,  1 9 3 5 , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40  functioning  i n British  ,3,283 p u p i l s .  9 0  Japanese  Columbia w i t h  , Whereas  language  a total  By 1922,  a l l  a n d t h e name o f t h e  J a p a n e s e s c h o o l was c h a n g e d . t o t h e J a p a n e s e L a n g u a g e By  society  School. schools  8 9  were  o f 80 t e a c h e r s a n d  the courses of i n s t r u c t i o n  were  usually  , . . l i m i t e d .to reading..and:..wr.iting._-.in-t he... J a p a n e s e ..language,, - t h e y - w e r e ... d e s i g n e d t o i n s t i l l  i n . t h e . c h i l d r e n . J a p a n e s e " v a l u e s .and a " s e n s e -of  p r i d e i n t h e i r background, by u s i n g t e x t b o o k s imported from Japan and d r a w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s Although language  from Japanese events and c o n c e p t s .  t h e Japanese  schools,  community  the efforts  struggled  of the schools  to sustain  the  to maintain  the  J a p a n e s e l a n g u a g e a n d t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n t h e new g e n e r a t i o n w e r e "an a d m i t t e d f a i l u r e . " O n l y a v e r y m i n i m a l f l u e n c y i n t h e J a p a n e s e l a n g u a g e was a c h i e v e d i n any case. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e N i s e i ( s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n ) , a f e w o f whom w e r e f u l l g r a d u a t e s o f t h e s c h o o l s , seldom r e a d Japanese l i t e r a t u r e and were u n a b l e t o r e a d even t h e s i m p l e p r o s e o f t h e v e r n a c u l a r p r e s s . 9 1  While  the d i v e r s i t y  c o m m u n i t y grew, t h e y s t i l l  among  t h e Japanese  tended t o stay  developed  i n t h e i r , own  as t h e secluded  Roy I t o , Stories of My People: A Japanese Canadian Journal ( H a m i l t o n : S-20 a n d N i s e i V e t e r a n s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 9 4 ) , 1 3 3 - 1 3 5 . 8 9  9 0  9 1  A d a c h i , 12 7. I b i d . , 129. 39  community.  The V a n c o u v e r P o w e l l S t r e e t a r e a was t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f  Japanese a c t i v i t i e s i n the province. as  w e l l as . p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y .  Japanese  traditional  food,  I t was s e g r e g a t e d p h y s i c a l l y  One c o u l d shopping  at  live  i n the area  Japanese-owned  s t a y i n g , i n . Japanese-operated .boarding - houses congregating  at street corners.  .wall ..defined . i t . and  rejection  behind and  1,92  and  "The a r e a was a p a r t a s i f a g h e t t o  by c r e a t i n g a m i n i a t u r e i n order  a s e n s e o f communal  stores,  hotels,  ..The...Japanese . . b u i l t . a. - w a l l - a g a i n s t  i n t h e i r home c o u n t r y  secure  or  eating  of the l i f e  prejudice  they  had  to establish their  left  identity  relation.  There were, o f c o u r s e , p r a c t i c a l . r e a s o n s f o r . t h e i r t e n d e n c y t o c l u s t e r . . . . I n t e n d i n g t o r e t u r n to.-Japan a s .soon ..as -..they.accumulated enough w e a l t h ,  early: immigrants-^naturally  p r e f e r r e d t o remain as  g e o g r a p h i c a l l y c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e i r homeland.  In fact,  o f them h a d b a r e l y e n o u g h money t o c r o s s t h e P a c i f i c left  w i t h any resources  ports  of V i c t o r i a  knowledge  t o move f u r t h e r when t h e y  o r Vancouver  o f the. E n g l i s h  Also,  language  and were n o t  a r r i v e d at the  b e c a u s e - of-... a  and customs  most  lack-.of  i n Canada,  i m m i g r a n t s h a d no c h o i c e , b u t t o work, under, ."bosses'! who  most  organized  t h e l a b o u r f o r c e and n e g o t i a t e d c o l l e c t i v e c o n t r a c t s o f work.  The  l a c k o f s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e no d o u b t impeded a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h language by t h e J a p a n e s e . survey  carried  studied This  declared  alone  was  o u t i n 1924-26, they  only  were a b l e  sufficient  92  Ibid.,131.  93  S u m i d a , 58.  t o read  reason  together.  40  2 6 . 2 % o f 3,480 and speak  In a  immigrants  i n English.  f o r the Japanese  to  9 3  dwell  2 . The Mass E v a c u a t i o n d u r i n g World War I I A f t e r Japan's 1941, Act  s u r p r i s e a t t a c k o n P e a r l H a r b o r o n December 7,  a s e r i e s o f o r d e r s - i n - c o u n c i l p a s s e d u n d e r t h e War  put a halt  t o t h e normal  life  o f t h e Japanese  Measures  and e v e n t u a l l y  u p - r o o t e d them, f r o m t h e . c o m m u n i t i e s . i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h e r e t h e y had l i v e d In  f o r nearly half a century.  m i d - J a n u a r y 1942, a p a r t i a l e v a c u a t i o n o f t h e J a p a n e s e was  authorized  by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l  P.C. 3 6 5 .  T h i s o r d e r , passed on  J a n u a r y 14, d e s i g n a t e d a n a r e a one hundred m i l e s i n l a n d  from t h e  west c o a s t as a p r o t e c t e d a r e a and a l l male Japanese n a t i o n a l s  aged  18 t o 45 w e r e t o be r e m o v e d f r o m t h e a r e a a n d s e n t t o r o a d camps. B e t w e e n -March - a n d J u n e , 1942 , . a. t o t a l .of .2 ,161 J a p a n e s e w e r e p l a c e d in  road construction  camps.  94  On F e b r u a r y 24 , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t p a s s e d . . O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l P.C.  1 4 8 6 , w h i c h empowered t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e  persons  o f Japanese  racial  origin  from  t o remove a l l  the protected  area.  By  November, a t o t a l o f 21,4 60 p e o p l e h a d b e e n e v a c u a t e d , c o m p l e t i n g the  operation.  A majority  o f 12,029 w e r e  camps i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h  Columbia.  located  Though t h e o p t i o n o f  g o i n g t o s u g a r b e e t f a r m s was n o t a p p e a l i n g a t f i r s t , moved  t o farms  together. In .policy  94  i n Alberta  and Manitoba  i n detention  t o keep  3,641 p e o p l e  their  families  9 5  December  1942, t h e f e d e r a l  thatrelocation'  government  t o . the ..Prairie  promulgated the  p r o v i n c e s and Eastern  A d a c h i , 425.  I b i d . Roy M i k i a n d C a s s a n d r a K o b a y a s h i , e d s . , Justice in Our Time: The Japanese Canadian Redress Settlement (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1991), 41. 95  41  Canada  would  be  'pushed'  except  f o r t h o s e who  farms,  a very  t h e war.  beginning  in  1943.  were sent t o i n t e r n m e n t  I n O n t a r i o , w h i c h was  The  97  in British  sugar beet the  end  t o h o l d t h e l a r g e s t number,  overwhelming m a j o r i t y stayed  o f 1943  i n the  and  of  there  3,742-by  detention  camps  Columbia.  Beside  being  removed from t h e i r  Japanese  suffered  Property,  a  evacuees  camps a n d  l i m i t e d number moved t o t h e e a s t b e f o r e  w e r e o n l y 2,424 p e r s o n s , r e s e t t l e d b y . t h e end 19 4 5 .  Nevertheless,  1,96  property  f e d e r a l agency,  "in trust,"  but  losses. initially  homes a n d The  communities,  Custodian  held  the  the O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l  of  property  P.C.  469  the  Enemy of  passed  the on  J a n u a r y .19 , .1943,; a u t h o r i z e d , the... s a l e of. t h e . . p r o p e r t y ...without -the owners' consent.  The  hasty process  of - evacuation  and  the s a l e of  p r o p e r t y .without,, t h e o w n e r s ' . c o n s e n t . r e s u l t e d .in - s i g n i f i c a n t ~ l o s s o f . . . i n d i v i d u a l and After protected  the  war  area  of  e f f e c t , and allowed  organizational records. had one  i t was  ended,  the  Order-in-Council  hundred m i l e s , from  coast  In the  announced a program r e q u i r i n g the  s p r i n g of  1945,  Japanese  r e m a i n i n C a n a d a , t h e y w e r e r e q u i r e d t o show t h e i r  cooperating dispersal.  96  97  with  the  remained .in  to  between r e p a t r i a t i o n t o Japan or r e s e t t l e m e n t east of the To  set  n o t u n t i l A p r i l 1, 194 9, t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e w e r e  t o r e t u r n t o the west c o a s t .  government  the  that  the  government  i n c a r r y i n g out  this  the  choose  Rockies.  loyalty  by  policy  of  9 8  Adachi,  253 .  I b i d . , 426 .  The g o v e r n m e n t , e v e n t u a l l y c a n c e l l e d t h e programme o f d e p o r t a t i o n on J a n u a r y 24, 1947, u n d e r t h e p r e s s u r e o f a p u b l i c w h i c h was b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f new i d e a s o f human r i g h t s 98  42  Japanese  themselves  thought  that  to scatter  themselves i n  p l a c e s w h e r e t h e y r e s e t t l e d was e s s e n t i a l t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t s . Japanese  Canadian  Committee  f o r Democracy  T o r o n t o i n 1943, a s s i s t e d t h e Japanese the  d e p o r t a t i o n , program.  against  returning  communities.  i n r e s e t t l i n g and combated  lifestyle  t o prevent  of  the  t h e Japanese  c o n c e n t r a t e d i n one s e c t i o n o f T o r o n t o a n d p r o m o t e d of  organized i n  ..The JCCD, .. .warned .Japanese ..Canadians  t o the secluded  I t sought  (JCCD),  The  pre-war  from  being  diversification  employment. Second-generation  assimilate  Japanese  a n d d i d n o t want  Canadians t o be  a  especially  conspicuous  sought group.  to In  . - M o n t r e a l , a p r o p o s a l f o r . f o r m i n g ..a . s e c o n d ^ g e n e r a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n was t u r n e d down i n 1944 o n t h e g r o u n d s . t h a t " i t w o u l d a t t r a c t undue and  unfavourable attention,  give  rise  t o misunderstanding, and  a c t u a l l y hinder theprocess of assimilation."  9 9  3. Post-war Japanese Communities Changes  i n the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f the Japanese Communities  Community Members' Sense o f E t h n i c In  the long  Identity  run, the evacuation  during  World  War I I  a c c e l e r a t e d t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e Japanese i n t o t h e l a r g e r by  destroying  dispersing  the  inward-looking  t h e Japanese  across  and  Japanese  western  society  communities  and c e n t r a l  P e t e r Ward a r g u e s , t h a t t h e e v a c u a t i o n a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g  and  provinces. dispersal  a n d human f r e e d o m . (Thomas R. B e r g e r , "The B a n i s h e d C a n a d i a n s : MacKenzie K i n g and t h e Japanese Canadians," F r a g i l e Freedoms [ T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n &-Company L t d . , 1 9 8 1 ] , 118) B y t h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , a l m o s t 4,000 p e o p l e , h a l f o f whom w e r e C a n a d i a n - b o r n , h a d l e f t f o r Japan. 99  New Canadian,  13 M a r c h 1 9 4 4 . 43  was  a  Canada.  crucial  turning  point  i n the h i s t o r y of  the  Japanese  in  100  After  the  concentrated  war  the  Japanese  consciously  avoided  e i t h e r occupationally or r e s i d e n t i a l l y .  By t h e 1 9 7 0 s ,  t h e r e w e r e few p r o n o u n c e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , o f -Japanese specific  occupational  Canadians  swiftly  sectors.  entered  The  second  such f i e l d s  virtually  as m e d i c i n e ,  c l o s e d t o the Japanese before  Although  most  Japanese  majority  i n Toronto  Japanese  families  Canadians  and  living  live  Vancouver, within  1 0 1  Canadians'-in  generation  d e n t i s t r y , •• a r c h i t e c t u r e , l a w . and e d u c a t i o n ,  being  Japanese  engineering,  s e v e r a l o f w h i c h were  and d u r i n g i n urban  W o r l d War I I .  areas,  i t i s rare  t h e - same  block.  to  with  the  find  two  -  1 0 2  Third-  g e n e r a t i o n . J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s h a v e f u r t h e r -merged- i n t o -the • l a r g e r society  through  marriages. 59%.  A  an  survey  increasingly i n 1975  high  showed  rate  that  of  this  inter-racial  rate  was  about  but t h e i r  roles  1 0 3  Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s  continued  to exist,  became a, r a t h e r p e r i p h e r a l one i n i n d i v i d u a l s ' . l i v e s .  The  Japanese  C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s A s s o c i a t i o n ( J C C A ) , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1932 a n d o n c e instrumental i n advocating collapsed  c i v i l r i g h t s f o r the Japanese, v i r t u a l l y  as a n a t i o n a l e n t i t y  by t h e 1970s.  This  mirrored  f a t e o f most J a p a n e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d .  W. P e t e r Ward, The Japanese H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 2 ) , 16. 100  in  Canada  (Ottawa:  the Even  Canadian  I n t h e c e n s u s i n 1991., 65,680 p e o p l e g a v e a r e s p o n s e a s being Japanese t o the q u e s t i o n of e t h n i c o r i g i n ( t h i s i n c l u d e s 17,085 who g a v e a m u l t i p l e r e s p o n s e i n c l u d i n g J a p a n e s e ) , o f w h i c h 17,065 l i v e d i n T o r o n t o and 19,845 i n V a n c o u v e r . 1 0 1  102  Adachi,  103  New  3 56.  Canadian,  18 F e b r u a r y 1975. 44  t h o u g h t h e JCCA's l o c a l c h a p t e r s s u r v i v e d , t h e r o l e s p e r f o r m e d were rather  insignificant.  The  "crisis"  of the Lethbridge chapter i n  1970 was i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n : i t l a c k e d s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s t o occupy i t s b u s i n e s s meetings.  1 0 4  I n t h e 1 9 7 0 s , Ken A d a c h i v i e w e d t h e - J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y t h a t had l o s t  s u b s t a n t i a l meaning  to individual  a s one  members.  Now s o c i a l c o h e s i o n and g r o u p s u r v i v a l no l o n g e r seem important. The J a p a n e s e now s e l d o m t h i n k i n t e r m s o f "we. - t h e y " but- t h r i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l b e t t e r m e n t , r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o improve the c o n d i t i o n of the e n t i r e g r o u p . 1 0 5  Adachi  further  predicted  that  the  Japanese  as  a  l i n g u i s t i c a n d s o c i a l m i n o r i t y w o u l d l i k e l y f a d e away. that,, while, .interest  i n . . " . e t h n i c i t y " , .had ..grown  distinct  He o b s e r v e d  i n -Canada,  the  J a p a n e s e .Canadians', i n t e r e s t . - i n m a i n t a i n i n g : t h e i r : "uniqueness"-'was decreasing. uniqueness  Indeed, was  at  .nothing  least but  a  Japanese Canadian i n Vancouver  f o r some J a p a n e s e nuisance.  As  a  Canadians,  the  third-generation  stated:  We w e r e n o t p r o u d o f i t ( t h e J a p a n e s e h e r i t a g e ) . The l a s t t h i n g I w a n t e d t o do was t o be i n a room w i t h a n o t h e r - Japanese. I t was l i k e l o o k i n g i n t o a m i r r o r . 1 0 6  This strongest  repugnance  against .t h e i r  among  second  the  racial  generation.  origin After  appears  the  the  war,  this  generation told i t s e l f ,  "Never a g a i n do we want t o be J a p a n e s e .  are Canadians."  second g e n e r a t i o n p a r e n t s ,  to  1 0 7  The  s h i e l d t h e i r c h i l d r e n by not e v o k i n g the p a s t .  104  105  Ibid., on  107  tried  M a r y k a Omatsu,  A d a c h i , 357  106  Notes p.10.  i n turn,  We  356.  "Why V a n c o u v e r L a c k s L i t t l e R a c e D i s p e r s a l , " Vancouver Ibid. 45  T o k y o : An A m e r i c a n Compares Sun, 19 M a r c h 1983, s e c . A ,  a  t h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n Japanese  Canadian,  suggests  that  perhaps the  p a r e n t s thought t h a t by not s h a r i n g t h e i r c u l t u r e and language w i t h their  children,  past." did  t h e new g e n e r a t i o n  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g ,  1 0 8  not organize  history  would  then,  preservation  n o t be  that  " t a r r e d by the  Japanese  activities  communities  during  those  years.  Redress Movement The  physical dispersal resulting  from  the evacuation,  attempt by evacuees t o c o n c e a l t h e trauma and suppress  the  t h e agony,  and t h e l a c k o f common i n t e r e s t l e d t o a d o r m a n t s t a t e o f J a p a n e s e • C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . - .The movement f o r r e d r e s s was .a c a t a l y s t , f o r reviving  a  sense. , of.. , c o m m u n i t y .and... u n i t i n g  communities nationwide  once  Japanese-Canadian  again.  I t was t h e i n q u i s i t i v e m i n d o f some t h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s t h a t t h r u s t t h e Japanese community t o w a r d s t h e r e d r e s s movement f o r t h e u n j u s t t r e a t m e n t The  o f t h e Japanese d u r i n g t h e war.  third.generation, while assimilated into the l a r g e r society.to  a much l a r g e r e x t e n t  than  previous, generations,  saw t h e n e e d t o  r e c o n c i l e w i t h t h e p a s t a n d t h e i r h e r i t a g e i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r know who t h e y w e r e .  One o f them s t a t e d :  What I'm m i s s i n g i s a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n what I l o o k l i k e and what I am. I want t o be a b l e t o l o o k i n t h e m i r r o r a n d recognize myself. What I m i s s a n d want t o r e c r e a t e i s t h e r i c h n e s s o f c o m m u n i t y t h a t was l o s t i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r acceptance. 1 0 9  1 0 8  Japanese 39 . 1 0 9  M a r y k a Omatsu, Bittersweet Passage: Redress and the Canadian, Experience ( T o r o n t o : B e t w e e n , t h e L i n e s , 1992) , J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n C e n t e n n i a l P r o j e c t , 157. 46  I n 1980, t h e N a t i o n a l Japanese C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n (NJCCA)  reorganized  110  itself  A s s o c i a t i o n o f Japanese centres  under  Canadians  t o c o m p r i s e 15 c e n t r e s  the  new  name  (NAJC) a n d a d d e d  across  Canada..  National  t w o new  local  The -NAJC s t a r t e d  what a m o u n t e d t o a n i n e y e a r p r o c e s s . f o r . r e d r e s s . The  l o n g f r a g m e n t e d c o m m u n i t i e s were n o t - e a s i l y u n i t e d .  The  a t t i t u d e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y members w e r e f a r f r o m u n a n i m o u s . of t h e evacuees wanted  t o f o r g e t the.trauma o f t h e 1940s.  were a f r a i d o f p o s s i b l e r a c i s t b a c k l a s h to  organize  a n d become m i l i t a n t .  p u b l i c support, itself  as  Others  i f J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s were  While  1 1 1  Many  s t r u g g l i n g t o secure  the'NAJC h a d t o d e v o t e much o f i t s e f f o r t s t o p r o v e  t h e , one.. a n d ..only- - o r g a n i z a t i o n  representing  the  communities. Through  consultative  meetings  with  opposing  p u b l i c a t i o n o f a newspaper t o b u i l d a n a t i o n a l network, activities,  t h e NAJC g a i n e d  the., g o v e r n m e n t  and o t h e r  the status of being the representative  o f .the J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s b y May 1985 . 1988,  groups,  announced  F i n a l l y on September  the redress  agreement  and  22,  Prime  M i n i s t e r M u l r o n e y a n d NAJC p r e s i d e n t A r t M i k i s i g n e d t h e a g r e e m e n t .  The Japanese Communities Before  and T h e i r  History  a n d d u r i n g W o r l d War I I , t h e J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s were  busy c o p i n g w i t h t h e d a i l y p r a c t i c a l needs and p r o b l e m s , and a f t e r t h e w a r most J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s p r e f e r r e d n o t t o r e c a l l  the past.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , p r e s e r v a t i o n , o f h i s t o r y and a r c h i v a l . m a t e r i a l s tended to  be  neglected.  After  redress,  many  Japanese. Canadians  1 1 0  The NJCCA was d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e JCCD i n 1 9 4 7 .  1 1 1  Omatsu, 99. 47  were  e m a n c i p a t e d from f e a r i n g r a c i a l b a c k l a s h and from c o n c e a l i n g experiences i n attempt t o a v o i d evoking past traumata. to  realize  that  their  s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d .  history  i s worth  preserving  their  T h e y came  and .that i t  On t h e o t h e r . h a n d , as. t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n  into  the l a r g e r s o c i e t y proceeds, Japanese communities a r e becoming l e s s a n d l e s s u n i t e d a n d more p e o p l e t e n d t o be i n d i f f e r e n t t o c o m m u n i t y activities. The c a s e s t u d y o f s e v e n J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s e x p l o r e s the  present  figures,  state  o f the communities  by  examining  e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d c o m m u n i t y members'  demographic attitudes.  I t . t h e n a d d r e s s e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h each community has d e v e l o p e d archival community  a c t i v i t i e s , a n d .-the-prospects-. .for t h e f u t u r e , . . a l l - i n - t h e context.  48  Chapter Three DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE STUDY 1. Research Method The  present  activities  research  comprehensively  i n Japanese-Canadian  emphasis on i l l u m i n a t i n g p r e s e n t  ..examines  communities.  I t places  c o n d i t i o n s as they  well  as f e a s i b l e  role  f o r community-based  w i t h i n t h e Canadian a r c h i v a l The Quinn  present  Patton  archival  programs  o f an a p p l i e d n a t u r e .  Michael  t h e purpose  of applied  research  c o n t r i b u t e , k n o w l e d g e t h a t w i 11...help., p e o p l e , , u n d e r s t a n d a p r o b l e m s o that•..human b e i n g s environment." basic  1 1 2  Applied  disciplinary  experiences. " The  knowledge  searches to  f o r ."applicationsof  real-world  problems  and  research entails  a qualitative  case  concerning  ethnic  a n d t h e r e a r e no e s t a b l i s h e d  communities'  behaviour  Methods 1 1 3  1 1 4  regarding  This s i t u a t i o n lent i t s e l f t o a q u a l i t a t i v e  case study, which "seeks t o d e s c r i b e " , u n i t s o f study  1 1 2  their  i n t e r v i e w s . • There'have been few s t u d i e s o f a r c h i v a l  archival preservation.  detail  t h e . n a t u r e ..of  1 1 3  programs w i t h i n e t h n i c communities, theories  as " t o  c a n more e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l  research  methodology o f t h i s  study through  a desirable  system.  r e s e a r c h i s thus  defines  the  a r e , so t h a t  the r e s e a r c h e r can s y n t h e s i z e t h e r e a l i t y , and suggest as  archival  i n context and h o l i s t i c a l l y . "  " i n depth and  114  M i c h a e l Q u i n n P a t t o n , Q u a l i t a t i v e Evaluation and Research (Newbury P a r k , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 9 0 ) , 1 5 2 . Ibid. I b i d , 54. 49  The d i f f i c u l t y o r i n a d e q u a c y o f g e n e r a l i z i n g r e s u l t s i s o f t e n pointed  out  as  a weaknesses  LeCompte a n d G o e t z m a i n t a i n , mostly  deal  with  unique  can  be  Therefore,  utilized  conclusions  the  c a s e - s t u d y method.  o r : phenomena  later  f o r other  studies.  studies  studies  o r .unique., phenomena,- t h e r e over  time  theyargue, conclusions  in  Borman,  however, t h a t even though c a s e  events  u s u a l l y . s i m i l a r events locations.  of  If  1 1 5  or  in different  from e a r l i e r the  i s in sufficient  are  studies  utility  of  i n order  to  the claim  e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y , Y i n f r a m e s t h e v a l i d i t y o f c a s e s t u d i e s i n more rigorous  terms.  generalization  He  argues  rather  that  than  case  studies  statistical  rely  on  analytical  generalization  on  which  s u r v e y , r e s e a r c h , r e l i e s . . . . . . A n a l y t i c a l . . . g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .-is . . t h e . p r o c e s s of. g e n e r a l i z i n g , "a theory."  While  1 1 6  distinctive  p a r t i c u l a r .set Yin's  o f . r e s u l t s .-..to . some.. b r o a d e r  perspective  i n the sense t h a t  on  case  .studies  i t assumes t h e e x i s t e n c e  of  .is  guiding  t h e o r i e s p r i o r t o a s t u d y , h i s n o t i o n o f how g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s may drawn from c a s e s t u d i e s project. analytical  i s commonly a p p l i c a b l e .  generalization w i l l  allow  be  For the present  the  researcher  to  examine f i n d i n g s i n the l i g h t of a r c h i v a l t h e o r i e s . D a t a were c o l l e c t e d u s i n g open-ended i n t e r v i e w s , . w h i c h for  unexpected  allow  f a c t o r s t o emerge i n t h e p r o c e s s .  For e f f e c t i v e  conduct o f t h e open-ended i n t e r v i e w s , the " g e n e r a l  i n t e r v i e w guide  a p p r o a c h " was "informal  deemed a p p r o p r i a t e .  conversational  The  interview,"  approach f a l l s which  relies  between the on  "the  K a t h r y n M. Borman, M a r g a r e t D. LeCompte, a n d Judith P r e l i s s l e G o e t z , " E t h n o g r a p h i c a n d Q u a l i t a t i v e R e s e a r c h D e s i g n and Why I t D o e s n ' t Work,",, .American Behavioral Scientist 30, n o . l ( S e p t e m b e r / O c t o b e r 1 9 8 6 ) : 48. 115  R o b e r t K. Y i n , Case Study Research: Design and Methods, ( T h o u s a n d Oaks, C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 9 4 ) , 36. 116  ed.  50  2nd  spontaneous  generation  interaction, "  of questions  and t h e " s t a n d a r d i z e d  117  which "interview questions  seven  flow  o f an  open-ended i n t e r v i e w , " f o r  a r e w r i t t e n o u t i n a d v a n c e exactly  way t h e y a r e t o be a s k e d . " .questions  i n the natural  For the present research,  1 1 8  a l i s t of  ( A p p e n d i x : 1 ) was p r e p a r e d a n d was f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e  interviews,  but  i t d i d not  questions  that the researcher  The , l i s t  .became l e n g t h y  preclude  asking  additional  found r e l e v a n t d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s .  because•• s e v e r a l  variables  were  u s e d -to  p r o b e a phenomenon t h a t was n o t e a s i l y m e a s u r e d o r o b s e r v e d . instance, questions retention  the  For  a b o u t t h e mass m e d i a i n t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d a b o u t  o f Japanese  customs were  asked  i n order  t o probe  how  c o m m u n i t y members, . r e t a i n e d , t h e i r .sense, o f . . e t h n i c i t y ...or ..community.  2.  S e l e c t i o n of the Cases At t h e outset  that  studying  Japanese  more i n f o r m a t i v e in  of the project's planning communities  than studying  t h e same c i t y .  stage,  i t was d e c i d e d  i n different cities  would  be  communities o f d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c i t y  E v e n t h o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s was  paramount t o comparing cases by s t a n d a r d i z i n g c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s , i t was j u d g e d t h a t c a s e s t h a t s h a r e d some b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w o u l d be  more l i k e l y  t o y i e l d u s e f u l data than cases which d i f f e r e d i n  many more a s p e c t s . from  the Annual  Furthermore,  General  Meeting  i t was known t o t h e of the National  researcher  Association  of  J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s (NAJC) i n O c t o b e r 1994 t h a t a l l t h e N A J C ' s l o c a l c h a p t e r s h a d some i n t e r e s t i n h a v i n g a r c h i v a l p r o g r a m s w i t h i n t h e i r communities.  Patton,  280.  I b i d . , 285. 51  A l t h o u g h Japanese Canadians l i v e a l l St.  John's  chapter  t o Vancouver  o f t h e NAJC  substantial the  study  Montreal,  organized  as  1 1 9  statistical  the  where  identified  study  a  local  as h a v i n g a  Lethbridge,  The number o f c a s e s f o r a m u l t i p l e - c a s e judgemental  t h e r e s e a r c h e r wants does  not  follow  choice"  t o have  which  about t h e  sampling  logic  of  r e s e a r c h which uses c e r t a i n formulas t o c a l c u l a t e t h e  n e c e s s a r y number o f s a m p l e s .  Communities t h a t v a r i e d i n p o p u l a t i o n  •and • - l o c a t i o n :.were . t a r g e t e d . _ f o r , . . s e l e c t i o n ...In..this . s t u d y .  3. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Communities The  from  S e v e n o f them w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r  "discretionary,  on t h e c e r t a i n t y  results  were  areas  Toronto, Hamilton," Manitoba,  and Vancouver.  i s d e c i d e d by  depends  was  fourteen  J a p a n e s e community.  research:  Kamloops  Island,  across the country  population  and  - ...........  Selected  the geographical  c o m m u n i t i e s s t u d i e d a r e shown i n t h e T a b l e l .  areas  of  Further  the  seven  information  on i n d i v i d u a l communities i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d y r e p o r t . A l l o f t h e J a p a n e s e - c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t h a v e NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r s share  a  common e x p e r i e n c e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  respective  regions:- Japanese  immigrants  themselves  and Japanese  in  their  Canadians  moved t o t h o s e a r e a s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e e v a c u a t i o n d u r i n g W o r l d War II. the  Thus,  1 2 0  a l l p r e s e n t - d a y Japanese  same h i s t o r i c a l  length.  communities  As n o t e d e a r l i e r ,  have  roughly  well-established  J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t . e x i s t e d o n . t h e West C o a s t b e f o r e t h e war  Y i n , 50. I n the : case another,determining.factor. 1 1 9  of this, study, . f e a s i b i l i t y  was  L e t h b r i d g e and t h e D i s t r i c t had a s m a l l J a p a n e s e community s i n c e a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , b u t t h e e v a c u a t i o n more t h a n t r i p l e d t h e Japanese p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e area. 1 2 0  52  a m O rH XJ  cn  0  CQ  rt rt  -H -H rH a  SH QJ 3 CL, PQ  — CO CQ  u  (d  rd tn CU rd SH - H  m £ cn (U  rt X!  • H XJ  T) rt TS 3 a O rd in  U 3  M QJ CQ CU QJ  u  m rH  m u  -H  X!  CU XJ  U u  m >, • H cu  T) rt (U  E £  -H  O J-I CO  CQ CQ  rd U  xJ rd - H T5  0  Tl 3  Cn cu Cn  a a p rd  rt  SH CU XJ XJ rH CQ - H rd  0  £ u rd rt  rt  rH rH  rd X!  rt  X  rt rd -H cu  cu  0  £  D  U XJ 3 rt  -H >  rrt SH  cn  o cu  CU  U 0 a CO rd  a  CQ  rd  CU J  rH rH  2  rd 4-1 0  a  xJ rH  rt CU Xl u CQ  -H  TS cu — CU M  rt U rd rd PQ J U  CQ  E  0 • H rd  0 U -H rH CU rH rd a •H  0  -H  5  a  3 B  o -H O  rt  ^ CU  xJ  rH  rH 0 cn < U O  TS  CU  2  rd >  >i XJ  X ! -H  IS  CL,  0  -H XJ  H  •3  o  CL,  0  ft  CQ i — i rH XJ  - o  rd  rH  o  Lfl r—.  1  CO  ^  -  O H O >— 1  «.  H  O  • a i  X CU  O  rH  r-,  O O -  o  1 1  -  H  OH CQ  rd —  rt c •H  rt rH >iJ-)CQ S — rd rt • • u CU O -H  0 TS •—' ro •— o rH 3 o OH 4-1 H  .—.  o 0 Tl oo o ft-H co o B CQ - CU CU H CN XJ U —  +  1  1  CU  cu  CU  cu  >  m u>  XJ — - > n O CQ rd rH CN  — cu •—'  Xl o B o cu m £  PH-H  >I  a  3  E E o  u  cn  a  CQ  TS  XJ  0 0  U  Xl 0  Xi  •H  0  rH -H  E  rd  ft rH  s  rd  •H X  XJ CU  rH  rd 0)  XJ  rt  —  rt  o o o  U  LD  rH  2  rd  rt u  0  0  0  2  53  0  XJ  E-i  TS XJ QJ QJ r r t XJ rt XJ U - H  rd  —, rt ,LD  O  U) CQ 4-> O  rd i cu rd  rt  o rd o PH o rd CN —  rt i> rH  1 >  o o o  3 rt Tl  •H  U) r - i rH LO  1  00  o cr» O  rH  o •—• LD rH  rt  0  -H XJ  rt  0 U  CO QJ SH  3  cn  CQ - H rd 4H  rd d  rH  QJ  3 >id ftXJ  0  XJ  -H  ft rt cu  3 SH •• £ 0  CU  r - , £ 4H O QJ U rH  0  o -rt ' - S tH  rH  U XJ  rt  CQ  rH  rd TS o rd ro cu - H  CU  4-) •H  ^-^  rt rt o rd rd o ID  m cu rd -H E -rt  XJ  H  CQ — CU CQ  •H  0 > Xl ft SH rd 0 3 XJ U Ul  rrt  EH  r-,  • H >i QJ rH QJ rH  U  O  QJ  CU  rd U rd  rd  O  > . QJ  XJ  cu  Xi  cn  OA -H  •  XJ  U  U  cu  cn cu  o o  XJ  rd  I—1  rt  u  rH  cu  XI rd CU U 3  rt  FH  IH  U -H XJ O  cu rt  rt  O  rd —  OH-H  U  rH  rH  QJ XJ O VH rt £ rd Q) O QJ C QJ U  0  0  CO CQ rd CQ Xi CU  rd rH M  > 3  XJ C  0  CO  ra  CU  0  CU XJ  T) 0 rt r4 Xi rd 0  U  rd  rH - H rH «:  0 cu U OH  CU CU - H  X!  u  cu  r) CQ  u  U rd  cu  a  0  rt "5  CU  rd  rd B CU 0  cu  rd rt rt XJ rd - H 0 SH B V  rt  •H  rd  cu  0  •H >  XJ  XJ CD  4H  rd rd IS 5!  O  o  T) rt  ^! X Xi  U OA  rd  XJ XJ  rl  cu  •H  2  CU  E 0  H 3 ft CTi rt CQ CTi CU H XJ rH U QJ rd QJ  XJ CU C! rH  rt  rH CU —  CU M O  CQ XJ C  rH cu  rt  CU - H  -H  XJ  rd U  rd rt  XJ  • U  «•  «• co  rd Xi 0  0  £ o  CU XJ  XJ  3  Xi u u X)  0 •n rd B  Xi - H  rd 4-H T) O rd  rt o  >i  a  XJ rH - H PQ  U •H  XJ  cu o jz;  cu  rd  -H rH  --H  QJ  U  N O  rH rH  o  -  rt cu £  U  XJ Q)  4-1  CQ XJ CQ M rd  4-1 • 4-1 cn • •H  ft o  P4  CQ  O CU CU  ft  o  -H  U  CQ  -  rH  CU PH  TS QJ • 3 CQ rH rH 0 rd  CU SH XJ  TS  0  N * Cn rH rH C rd rd • H 6 CL,  CU  —  CU - > CQ - H  3 cu 3 P4 rH ra p.  >i  PH  CU  rH  CQ PH CQ  0 -H  rd  -  3  > 4J  rH  X) CQ rH x! rd -H 4JUS  X ! XJ XJ - H  •H  cu  (H  TS rH -H -H rH CQ  • H XJ -H  c  rH  rH - H  rt -  -H  3 rt SH 0 rd 0 co U h  rH  0  XJ  •  rt  rd 0  XJ  XJ  -  XJ  cu cu u  -  rd CQ cu > 0 xi £  0 CQ "5 rd XJ Xi U  •H  0 o  a 3  !H  0  4H —~  > 3 U  rt  rd >  QJ  J  were c o m p l e t e l y u p - r o o t e d . Vancouver to  Present communities  i n Vancouver and on  I s l a n d w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d anew b y t h e p e o p l e who moved b a c k  those  locations  after  t h e war.  T h e r e f o r e , t h e y h a v e no more  t a n g i b l e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the pre-war communities in  o t h e r p r o v i n c e s do, e x c e p t . m e m o r i e s .  evacuees This  a l l Japanese  Canadians  ties  enables Japanese  Canadians  "everyone  across  o r h a v e p a r e n t s who were e v a c u e e s ,  fact  close  meaning  communities  .At t h e same t i m e , . a s i s  sometimes heard a t Japanese Canadians' meetings, Vancouver,"  than  i s from  Canada  were  f r o m t h e West C o a s t .  i n different  w i t h each o t h e r through networks  c i t i e s t o keep  of r e l a t i v e s  and o l d  friends.  4.  Procedures of the Study A f t e r s e l e c t i n g t h e c a s e s , a l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g t h e purpose and  the to the  c o n t e n t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h a n d r e q u e s t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n was s e n t the seven NAJC  local  communities; and  communities.  I t was a d d r e s s e d t o t h e p r e s i d e n t s o f  c h a p t e r s as prominent  members  of the  The l e t t e r a s k e d t h e p r e s i d e n t s t o f o r w a r d t h e l e t t e r  enclosures to a potential  person  and a c t i v e  i n t h e community  was  respondent, better  i f they  suited  to  felt  another  respond  t o the  interview. A select l i s t (Appendix  2) .  o f q u e s t i o n s was a t t a c h e d t o t h e r e q u e s t  I t informed r e c i p i e n t s  t h a t w e r e t o be a s k e d , whether  letter  of the kinds of questions  i n order to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r decision  o r not t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  The l i s t  was a l s o  respondents time t o prepare i n f o r m a t i o n which might i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r i o r to the interview.  54  of  t o allow the have  required  A l e t t e r o f r e f e r e n c e by  Mr.Frank  Kamiya,  Vancouver,  was  the c h a i r  of  the Japanese  Canadian  Archives i n  also enclosed.  I t c a n be a c o n c e r n t h a t b y i n t e r v i e w i n g o n l y one p e r s o n i n a c o m m u n i t y , some i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s unknown t o t h a t p e r s o n  would  be  other  missed.  possible  As  Yin  enumerates,  there  are  a  sources of evidence f o r case s t u d i e s  variety than  1 2 1  of  interviewing  as w e l l a s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e r v i e w i n g more t h a n one p e r s o n f o r each  case.  In t h i s  prominent  in  the  case,  i t was  community  and  judged was  that  a person  who  was  heavily  involved  in  the  c o m m u n i t y ' s a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s was an a c c e p t a b l e r e s p o n d e n t , whose p o s s i b l e l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o r b i a s e s c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be  expected  ,to.reflect.on.the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e - a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s i n which  he  o r she i s i n v o l v e d . E a c h o f t h e s e v e n NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r s a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n .the  s t u d y and. r e t u r n e d t h e  appointment interviews 19 9 5 .  for were  The  122  each  interview  conducted  length  consent  form  was  between  to the  made  researcher.  by  telephone.  February  of. i n t e r v i e w s . g r e a t l y  22  and  varied,  The  March from  An  17,  ninety  m i n u t e s t o t h r e e h o u r s , as r e s p o n s e s w e r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o d i r e c t answers  to  the  predetermined  q u e s t i o n s ; some  f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and a d d i t i o n a l necessary.  The  interviews  were  questions  led  q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d as r e c o r d e d on  cassette  to  deemed  tapes  and  later transcribed for analysis. Raya F i d e l s t a t e s t h a t c o l l e c t e d d a t a a r e a n a l y z e d t h r o u g h o u t the  duration  of  the  c a s e ..study  and  .".new d a t a . . a r e  constantly  R o b e r t K. Y i n , "The C a s e S t u d y a s a S e r i o u s S t r a t e g y , " Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 1 ) : 104. 121  Research 3, n o . l  122 rp-^g i n t e r v i e w s were c a r r i e d o u t s o l e l y i n E n g l i s h . 55  analyzed  and  investigation. q u e s t i o n s was analysis completed.  results In  1,123  of the  previous present  analyses  research,  direct  the  same  u s e d f o r a l l o f t h e seven i n t e r v i e w s and  process  was  T h i s was  started  mainly  after  a l l the  for.practical  future list  the  interviews  reasons.  of  formal were  .Nevertheless,  i t is.- a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n e a r l i e r i n t e r v i e w s a f f e c t e d l a t e r i n t e r v i e w s by s e n s i t i z i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o p o s s i b l y significant points.  R a y a F i d e l , "The C a s e S t u d y M e t h o d : A C a s e S t u d y , " Information Science Research 6 ( 1 9 8 4 ) : 274. 123  and  56  Library  Chapter Four RESULTS OF THE CASE STUDY T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d on each JapaneseCanadian  community  Community History  Context,  through  the.interview  Present  Organizations,  o f t h e Community  Archival  Activities.  and R e l a t e d  ... I n t h e s e  provided without interpretation Summaries  of  the  the  four headings.  headings:  Preservation  Cultural  sections,  four  of the  Activities,  and  the information i s  o r e v a l u a t i o n by t h e researcher.  interview,  c o n c e r n i n g development  under  with  some  o f community-based  reference  to  issues  ethnic archives,  follow  I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s e v e n c o m m u n i t i e s w i l l be  p r e s e n t e d in.• t h e .same_..order..'.as...-the...interviews_-.were...conducted.:-from west  t o east  concluding  Canadians s t a r t e d  with  Vancouver,  from  o u t a n d where t h e " n a t i o n a l "  where  Japanese  Japanese-Canadian  a r c h i v e s i s now. b e i n g d e v e l o p e d .  1. Kamioops Community Context Although  Kamloops  was o u t s i d e  of the "protected  area"  w h i c h J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e e v a c u a t e d d u r i n g W o r l d War I I ,  from very  few J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s l i v e d i n t h e K a m l o o p s a r e a b e f o r e a n d d u r i n g the  war.  interior  I t was n o t u n t i l British  Columbia  number o f J a p a n e s e 1940s,  the f i r s t  after  were  t h e w a r , when  closed  o f f , that  C a n a d i a n s moved i n t o  Japanesecommunity  camps a  the area.  i nthe  substantial In the late  o r g a n i z a t i o n .in Kamloops, t h e  .Japanese C a n a d i a n C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , was f o r m e d . At Japanese  present, descent,  .the J a p a n e s e their  community  spouse,  57  and t h e i r  includes family."  "anybody  of  Temporary  residents,  such  considered  members  included  as  interested  as c o l l e g e students of  community  i n Japanese  coming from Japan,  t h e community. members,  Although  non-Japanese  culture  are also  not  strictly  people  o r the Japanese  who  are  community . a r e  welcome t o j o i n c u l t u r a l . o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o r even-the l o c a l  chapter-of  NAJC.  the  A c c o r d i n g t o a survey conducted  about e i g h t y e a r s ago, u s i n g  telephone  estimated  directory,  i t  is  that  there  are  a p p r o x i m a t e l y e l e v e n hundred Japanese Canadians i n Kamloops and t h e o u t l y i n g areas. people  The p o p u l a t i o n i s d e c r e a s i n g s l i g h t l y w i t h y o u n g  moving o u t , but t h e r e a r e people  coming i n t o  the area f o r  w o r k ...... There.. a r e „.not .-..many,;, i m m i g r a n t s .coming -.from-.Japan..now.  :After  W o r l d War I I , t h e r e h a v e b e e n t w e n t y .to t w e n t y - f i v e ^ i m m i g r a n t s i n total. Community members' a t t i t u d e s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r a g e s a n d generations. language their  The  tend  needs  seniors  the  speak  Japanese  t o have c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s from  community  their  among t h e m s e l v e s ,  first and  relationships  second g e n e r a t i o n and younger g e n e r a t i o n s  do n o t r e t a i n  Japanese, l i f e s t y l e  activities  as  are social  a l o n g w i t h i d e n t i t y and The  who  language.  except  e a t i n g Japanese  food.  are l a r g e l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the Canadian c u l t u r e . b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e i s some s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y ,  Rather,  they  The r e s p o n d e n t  " b u t n o t t o o much."  W h e r e a s t h e y a r e n o t t o t a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d want t o be k e p t community.  informed,  I n g e n e r a l , t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r younger g e n e r a t i o n s t o  get. i n v o l v e d interest  most ..of . them, a r e .not: a c t i v e l y : , i n v o l v e d i n . t h e  than  i n .their of  community  ethnic  i s more  interest.  58  a  matter  Therefore  of  the  cultural  respondent  b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e community  a c t i v i t i e s not t o  be r e s t r i c t e d t o J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s s o t h a t J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s c a n p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h non-Japanese f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y . hoping  that  t h e new. b u i l d i n g  The r e s p o n d e n t i s  .of t h e c u l t u r a l  centre  will  s o m e t h i n g t h a t p e o p l e would i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e community  .be  and  will  C o n c e r n i n g t h e means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y ,  the  h e l p g e t p e o p l e more  monthly n e w s l e t t e r (KJCA)  involved.  o f t h e -Kamloops  i s t h e o n l y means.  geared  toward  Japanese  There  Japanese  Canadian  a r e no mass m e d i a  Canadians  i n the  d i r e c t o r y o f t h e J a p a n e s e community  Association specifically  area.  A  telephone  i s compiled, but so f a r o n l y  irregularly. The community  r e s p o n d e n t , e x p e c t s : t h a t ...towards the. . f u t u r e the-. J a p a n e s e w i l l go t h r o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s s u c h t h a t i t w i l l . b e  a group, o f ..people who a r e i n t e r e s t e d than people o f Japanese descent. example  one h u n d r e d  whether  t h e community  -future  i s beyond  rather  Concerning the f a r future, f o r  y e a r s f r o m now, will  i n Japanese c u l t u r e ,  exist  the respondent  i s not sure  a t a l l a n d a p p a r e n t l y .the. f a r  t h e scope o f t h e p r e s e n t p l a n n i n g  of  community  activities.  Present  Organizations  Kamloops organizations.  Japanese One  Canadian  community  i s t h e KJCA,  now  established  has  two  i n the  central Japanese  C a n a d i a n C e n t e n n i a l y e a r of.-1976 . ...It..has ~240 ..family ..members a n d . i t -is  e s t i m a t e d t h a t s i x o r seven  ..with..the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  hundred-individuals.are-affiliated  . The. o t h e r i s t h e K a m l o o p s  chapter of the  NAJC, w h i c h was f o r m e d i n 1988 a f t e r t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f r e d r e s s .  59  It  had  214 i n d i v i d u a l  fairly  members a s o f 1994, a n d t h i s  stable i n recent  number h a s b e e n  years.  , The K J C A i s m a i n l y a c u l t u r a l . o r g a n i z a t i o n w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e local  community and i t p u b l i s h e s  a monthly newsletter.  The NAJC  •-local-'-chapter i s u n d e r . t h e . . n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d m a i n l y with  issues outside  of the l o c a l  c o m m u n i t y s u c h a s human  The m e m b e r s h i p i s c l o s e l y o v e r l a p p i n g ; local  deals  rights.  a l l t h e members o f t h e NAJC  c h a p t e r b e l o n g t o t h e KJCA. Other  Japanese  community  organizations  language school,  Christian  a Buddhist  group, and s e v e r a l  sports  p u r l i n g , . c l u b and- .a.,- bonsai.- c l u b s t a r t i n g at the c u l t u r a l  include  a  church,  seniors'  group,  a  a Japanese-speaking  or .cultural. clubs  such.as a  ..As w e l l , ..a - J a p a n e s e . l i b r a r y . i s  centre.  P r e s e r v a t i o n of the H i s t o r y of the Community and R e l a t e d  Cultural  Activities T h e r e have been few a c t i v i t i e s t o p r e s e r v e t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e community. conducted office, nor  Some during  seventy  redress  interviews  with  by the s e c r e t a r y  older  hired  .people  f o r the redress  b u t t h e i n t e r v i e w s have n o t been t r a n s c r i b e d o r i n d e x e d ;  have  they  been  used  f o r research.  The  tapes  of  i n t e r v i e w s have been k e p t i n t h e basement o f t h e c u l t u r a l Public schools about  were  these centre.  h a v e i n v i t e d c o m m u n i t y members t o t a l k t o s t u d e n t s  the h i s t o r y  sometimes... c l a s s e s  of  the Japanese  Canadians and r e d r e s s ,  and  a r e . .held . a t . the... c u l t u r a l . . . c e n t r e — f o r . , t h e . same  purpose. The r e s p o n d e n t t h i n k s t h e c o m m u n i t y h a s n o t h a d , a n d d o e s n o t have  people  who  are both  k n o w l e d g a b l e and i n t e r e s t e d enough t o  60  actively reason,  carry  out  history preservation  activities.  t h e Kamloops J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n community  V a n c o u v e r f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and  Archival A  relies  this  h e a v i l y on  initiatives.  Activities  history preservation  committee  impetus t o s t a r t a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s  was  formed  a f t e r redress  and  t h e many b o o k s  C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y , i t i s now Because  i n 1994.  The  came f r o m d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e  n a t i o n a l . NAJC; a t t h e NAJC n a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s that,  For  i t h a d been- a r g u e d  w r i t t e n on  the  Japanese-  time t o s t a r t a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s .  archival activities  are j u s t . s t a r t i n g ,  the scope o f  a c q u i s i t i o n has n o t y e t been .decided...The committee i s . w i l l i n g . t o accept whatever i s o f f e r e d t o the a r c h i v e s o n ^ c o n d i t i o n m i g h t g i v e i t away o r d i s p o s e eventually, transfer  some  of  of i t l a t e r . their  C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l Museum a n d A r c h i v e s  that-they  The a r c h i v e s e x p e c t s t o  materials  to  the  (JCNMA) i n V a n c o u v e r .  r e c o r d s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e k e p t a t t h e c u l t u r a l with or  without  :  community  archival, a c t i v i t i e s ,  activities  take  because  place.  p r e s e r v a t i o n committee's task w i l l  Japanese  that  Most  centre,  i s where  Therefore,  the  most  history  be t o s o r t o u t m a t e r i a l s  worth  preserving. The c o m m i t t e e i s a l r e a d y k e e p i n g some m a t e r i a l s s u c h a s t a p e s of  the  interviews  organizations, the  mentioned  above,  " a l l kinds  of  records"  a few p h o t o g r a p h s , a n d a few n e w s p a p e r  of  clips,  but  a r c h i v e s ' p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s ..have..not ..yet. b e e n . . s e c u r e d .  Nor  have t h e y c r e a t e d  a n y f i n d i n g a i d s . . The a r c h i v e s , w i l l  i n the c u l t u r a l centre with approximately of space.  be  located  three hundred square f e e t  The a r c h i v e s ' o p e r a t i o n w i l l be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h a t o f  61  the c u l t u r a l centre.  The c u l t u r a l c e n t r e  i s now o p e n f r o m 10 a.m.  t o 2 p.m. Monday t h r o u g h S a t u r d a y , a n d w h o e v e r i s a t t h e c u l t u r a l centre  when t h e a r c h i v e s ' u s e r s  The c o m m i t t e e r e c e i v e d  come w i l l  them. they  will  use  t o s t a r t • t h e - a r c h i v e s . -To s u s t a i n t h e a r c h i v e s , t h e y w i l l  rely  on  fund  raising  in  a grant  serve  f r o m t h e NAJC t h a t  the  community  and  they  are a . small  grants  from  public  organizations. Recognizing  that  with  relationships with  a  other  limited  capacity,  they  archives.  T h e y a r e l e a r n i n g e x p e r t i s e f r o m t h e K a m l o o p s Museum a n d  Archives.  They a l s o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e  Vancouver.  are cultivating  entity  larger  f r o m t h e JCNMA i n  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a r c h i v e s w o r k s a s a p a r t - o f t h e JCNMA.  The c o m m i t t e e .members t h i n k - , i f t h e i r - a r c h i v e s c e a s e s t o e x i s t , i t s materials Archives  should  be s e n t  t o Vancouver.  T h e y a r e a member o f t h e  A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a s p a r t o f t h e JCNMA.  The  history  preservation  committee  has  contacts with other c u l t u r a l organizations. a  small  community  through personal  a n d many o r g a n i z a t i o n s  ties.  Therefore,  not  had  special  Kamloops i s , however, are already  the respondent  connected  believes  that  once t h e y g e t enough v o l u n t e e r s i t w i l l n o t be d i f f i c u l t t o d e v e l o p cooperative  a c t i v i t i e s with other organizations  i n the area,  such  The J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y - i n .Kamloops--has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  that  as o r g a n i z i n g e x h i b i t i o n s a t a c o l l e g e .  Summary  one  would  expect  organizations membership,  in  a  small  are interwoven and  they  work  ethnic  through  i n close  62  community.  Community  overlapping  staffing  cooperation.  This  and would  facilitate  archives'  coordinating  activities  fund-raising  in  events  many  and  respects,  implementing  management p r o g r a m f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . being  small,  t h e community  such a  record  On t h e o t h e r  h a s l i m i t e d human r e s o u r c e s .  as  To  hand, fill  t h e gap, i t r e q u i r e s a s s i s t a n c e f r o m V a n c o u v e r - b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s u c h a s t h e JCNMA. The  archives'  close  association  emphasized, throughout t h e i n t e r v i e w . c h a n g e w i t h i n t h e J a p a n e s e community  with  t h e JCNMA  Another  i s clearly  emphasis  was t h e  away f r o m a f o c u s o n e t h n i c i t y  t o w a r d a f o c u s on c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t . T h i s t r e n d w i l l  influence the  scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n , such t h a t records o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g Japanese  culture  rather • than  r e c o r d s -.of " J a p a n e s e  people"---will  l i k e l y be t h e f o c u s o f f u t u r e a c q u i s i t i o n s .  2. L e t h b r i d g e Community Context This Lethbridge  J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n community and t h i r t y  to forty  (known a s t h e D i s t r i c t ) . large geographical telephone, Lethbridge  fax  i s based w i t h i n the c i t y of  small  towns  i n Southern  Alberta  B e c a u s e t h e s e towns a r e s c a t t e r e d o v e r a  a r e a , community members c o m m u n i c a t e p r i m a r i l y b y and  mail  rather  and t h e D i s t r i c t  Japanese-Canadian  than  in  i s nevertheless  personal  contact.  considered  a single  community.  The J a p a n e s e came t o t h i s a r e a a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . Community  organizations  There were about evacuation  five  were  formed  as e a r l y  as i n t h e 1900s.  hundred t o s i x hundred Japanese before t h e  d u r i n g .World War . I I , a n d due t o t h e e v a c u a t i o n  Japanese p o p u l a t i o n  swelled  t o o v e r two t h o u s a n d .  63  the  The p r e s e n t c o m m u n i t y i n c l u d e s a s i t s members "anyone w i t h a n y c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e Japanese" or  anything."  Association  "regardless of length of stay or status  The L e t h b r i d g e a n d t h e D i s t r i c t  (LDJCA) - n o r m a l l y  tries  t o keep  Japanese track  Citizens'  of  temporary  r e s i d e n t s s u c h a s e x c h a n g e s t u d e n t s . -Those t e m p o r a r y r e s i d e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s because o f t h e i r knowledge o r s k i l l s of of  c u r r e n t Japanese new  Japanese  immigrants  culture. from  Although there i s s t i l l  Japan,, t h e number  some  i s.negligible.  inflow The  community's p o p u l a t i o n has been f a i r l y s t a b l e o v e r r e c e n t  years. There  a r e no J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n  community.  mass m e d i a a v a i l a b l e  to the  A l t h o u g h t h e LDJCA.newsletter, i s . the:.bnly.communication  m e d i a s o u r c e a d d r e s s i n g t h e w h o l e c o m m u n i t y , due t o a s h o r t a g e o f v o l u n t e e r s i t s p u b l i c a t i o n t e n d s t o be s p o r a d i c (one t o f o u r t i m e s per year) .  A t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y was p u b l i s h e d l o n g a g o , b u t a new  e d i t i o n i s not expected i n the near There  a r e two J a p a n e s e  future.  companies i n t h e a r e a .  have a g r a n t program f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s  i n t h e a r e a , t h e y do  not s p e c i f i c a l l y s i n g l e out the Japanese-Canadian beneficiary.  In fact,  the Japanese-Canadian  Although they  community as t h e  community  has not  r e c e i v e d any f u n d i n g . There  is a  sense  c o m m u n i t y members.  of i d e n t i t y  This  as Japanese  i s indicated  Canadians  among  b y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f many  s m a l l community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , each o f w h i c h i s s t r o n g and united... The  respondent  believes . that  people  participate  in  those  o r g a n i z a t i o n s . b e c a u s e " t h e y want t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e . c u l t u r e a n d t h e community." because  The c o m m u n i t y a s a w h o l e  i s , however,  not cohesive  t h e s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t e n d t o keep t o t h e m s e l v e s and t h e  64  "umbrella"  organization,  LDJCA,  has n o t been v e r y  i n t e g r a t i n g those v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . first  language  community  i s Japanese  successful i n  P o s t - w a r i m m i g r a n t s whose  tend t o separate  themselves  from t h e  mainstream.  Concerning  t h e community's  future,  whereas  the  respondent  b e l i e v e s i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e e t h n i c community t o c o n t i n u e , she doubts  whether  t h e community w i l l  i n fact  exist  in fifty  years  because t h e r a t e o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e i s extremely h i g h .  Present O r g a n i z a t i o n s The  LDJCA i s a l o c a l  members.  c h a p t e r o f t h e NAJC a n d h a s 150 t o 200  T h e r e a r e two o r . t h r e e . l a n g u a g e  (8 C h r i s t i a n a n d 2 B u d d h i s t ) .  T h e r e i s no c e n t r a l c u l t u r a l c e n t r e ,  but churches and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s A museum i s p l a n n e d for  "new"  mentioned  immigrants  a r e used f o r c u l t u r a l  with the archives. who  schools and ten.churches  came  activities.  There i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n  t o Canada  after  t h e 1960s.  As  a b o v e , t h e r e a r e many c u l t u r a l c l u b s a n d o t h e r t y p e s o f  small organizations.  P r e s e r v a t i o n of the H i s t o r y of the Community and R e l a t e d  Cultural  Activities Activities  t o preserve the Japanese-Canadian  have been l i m i t e d t o s o m e ' e x h i b i t i o n s . exhibition  rvisit  so f a r  The c o m m u n i t y o n c e h e l d a n  a t a m a l l and drew a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e  Sometimes s c h o o l , c l a s s e s ,  history  ...the.-LDJCA ..of f i c e  hundred  people.  w h e r e ..some museum  and a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s a r e k e p t , a n d t h e LDJCA s t a f f . s h o w s t u d e n t s .items a p p r o p r i a t e ..to t h e i r a g e s . .  65  The in  the  r e s p o n d e n t b e l i e v e s t h a t c o m m u n i t y members a r e i n t e r e s t e d history preservation,  but  that  the  interest i s often  s t r o n g e n o u g h t o make them a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . noted  that,  among t h e  non-Japanese  importance to preserve  Archival An  The  population  not  respondent a l s o  in  the  Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y i s  area,  the  recognized.  Activities  a r c h i v e s was  p r e s i d e n t who history,  s t a r t e d i n 1989  i n a loose  form.  s t r o n g l y f e l t the need t o p r e s e r v e  the  LDJCA  shifted  its  emphasis  Under a  new  Japanese-Canadian towards  archival  activities. The  LDJCA  southern  acquires  Alberta  "anything  from  the  related  beginning  h i s t o r y i n the area to the present,  of  to  the  the  Japanese"  in  Japanese-Canadian  including records  from  various  community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The fifty  present  to s i x t y videos,  collection five  holdings  photographs,  c o m m u n i t y i s now The  other and  F i n d i n g a i d s have not  keep t r a c k of m a t e r i a l s the  storage  of  h e l d by  a  reels  two  types  of  yet  of  Japanese  the  archives, at  which the  is  back of  an  of  textual to  organizations  in  approximately the  LDJCA The  66  one  office.  archives'  some c o m m u n i t y members' b a s e m e n t s o r  l o c a t i o n s f o r s t o r i n g materials i n order  art  A database  a r c h i v e s s h a r e s t h e o f f i c e s p a c e w i t h t h e LDJCA.  s t a f f a r e h o p i n g t o use  films,  a r t ) , under  volume  been c r e a t e d .  i n d i v i d u a l s and  planned.  Japanese  hundred items of  "negligible"  being  hundred square f e e t , i s secured The  150  approximately  ( c a l l i g r a p h y and  hundred  records.  include  to better organize  other the  s p a c e i n t h e LDJCA b u i l d i n g .  A new b u i l d i n g f o r t h e a r c h i v e s i s  hoped f o r b u t i s a d m i t t e d l y not f e a s i b l e i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . T h e r e a r e t h r e e o r f o u r v o l u n t e e r s who w o r k f o r t h e a r c h i v e s . It  i s open  through access  to the p u b l i c  everyday  September and o u t s i d e upon  when  of t h i s  t h e LDJCA  period  users  i s open are  May  provided  request.  The a r c h i v e s r e l i e s f i n a n c i a l l y o n g r a n t s f r o m b o t h p u b l i c a n d private "rich  organizations  and community  fund  raising.  a r e no  benefactors." The  archives  institutions.  h a s some c o n n e c t i o n s  with other  I t has e s p e c i a l l y c l o s e  ties  as w o r k s h o p s . to exist  the  archival Lethbridge  activities  I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i f t h e LDJCA a r c h i v e s  i t smaterials w i l l  LDJCA  local  with  C i t y A r c h i v e s , w i t h which i t conducts cooperative  The  There  archives  has  be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e c i t y  little  relationship with  such  ceases  archives.  other  cultural  institutions.  Summary So passion  f a r the  archival  o f a few p e o p l e ,  understanding  and t h e y  and c o o p e r a t i o n  population, Lethbridge among  activities  on  a broader  communities.  members a r e n o t i n d i f f e r e n t  t o be  are having  and t h e D i s t r i c t  Japanese-Canadian  seem  difficulty  basis.  issue  d o e s n o t l a c k i n human r e s o u r c e s ;  various organizations together  i s how  67  getting  small  seen i n  Therefore,  rather, to pull  of  community  a s c a n be  u n d e r t h e LDJCA.  the  I n terms  Furthermore,  t o t h e community  t o s u s t a i n a community a r c h i v e s  by  i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y  t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n various small organizations. community  driven  the  the  crucial  people  and  3.  Manitoba  Community Context The  geographical area  technically exceptions Winnipeg.  includes  the  the majority  of t h i s whole  of  Japanese-Canadian  of  Manitoba,  t h e community  but  community  with  members  now  a  few  live  in  T h i s , h o w e v e r , was n o t a l w a y s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e  p o p u l a t i o n i n Manitoba.  I n 1942, J a p a n e s e p e o p l e s t a r t e d c o m i n g t o  s u g a r b e e t f a r m s i n M a n i t o b a w h i c h w e r e s c a t t e r e d w i t h i n a two t o t h r e e h o u r r a d i u s o f W i n n i p e g , b u t t h e y were b a s i c a l l y from g o i n g i n t o t h e c i t y organization,  of Winnipeg.  t h e Manitoba Japanese  prohibited  The c o m m u n i t y ' s  Joint  Council,  political  was, h o w e v e r ,  f o r m e d a r o u n d 1942 b y p e o p l e who s e c r e t l y met i n W i n n i p e g .  I t was  o n l y i n 1949 t h a t t h e y w e r e o f f i c i a l l y a l l o w e d t o e n t e r W i n n i p e g , a n d a f t e r w a r d s more a n d more p e o p l e moved i n t o t h e c i t y . The around  present  Japanese-Canadian  f o u r t e e n hundred.  population  With temporary  i n the region i s  residents  included, the  p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y two t h o u s a n d . The  size of the population i s f a i r l y stable.  stated  that  anyone  who  was  interested  c o n s i d e r e d a c o m m u n i t y member.  The r e s p o n d e n t s  i n Japanese  culture  also was  N o t many new i m m i g r a n t s h a v e come  from Japan i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The r e s p o n d e n t s t h i n k t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n community i s c o h e s i v e . another,  The s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n a r e c l o s e w i t h one  and a l t h o u g h t h e t h i r d  and f o u r t h  generations are not  p a r t i c u l a r l y u n i t e d , t h e y do p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o m m u n i t y  activities.  One o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s e n s e o f o b l i g a t i o n among t h e J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s t o s u p p o r t t h e i r c o m m u n i t y . T h i s view i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e f a c t  68  that f o r a b i g event  they  h a v e "a l a r g e , l a r g e number o f v o l u n t e e r s c o m i n g . " are "the  Whereas t h e r e  b o t h J a p a n e s e - s p e a k i n g a n d E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o m m u n i t y members, language doesn't  seem t o be a p r o b l e m "  t h a t keeps  them  from  working together.  Furthermore, there i s a strong i n t e r e s t  Japanese language.  Many p e o p l e o f t h e s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n a r e t a k i n g  J a p a n e s e c o u r s e s a t t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e t o b r u s h up t h e i r Little members,  except  Japanese through  o f Japanese  lifestyle  eating  grocery store, the c u l t u r a l  Japanese  i s retained food.  among  Although  i n the  Japanese. community  there  i s no  p e o p l e have e a s y a c c e s s t o J a p a n e s e  centre,  which  purchases  Japanese  food  f o o d and  d i s t r i b u t e s i t i n t h e community. There  a r e no mass m e d i a f o r t h e J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n  except t h e n e w s l e t t e r o f t h e Manitoba Japanese  Canadian  Association  since  (MJCCA),  which has been p u b l i s h e d  community Citizens'  a r o u n d 1945.  A t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y o f t h e J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y was c r e a t e d i n 1989 a n d a new e d i t i o n i s b e i n g p l a n n e d . The  Japanese  Japanese-Canadian community because  companies  i n t h e a r e a h a v e no i n f l u e n c e o n t h e  community.  i s reluctant  One  reason  t o approach  they a r e Japanese  companies.  for this  companies  i s that  f o r support  the only  Community members f e e l i t  w o u l d h a v e t o be a f a i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h m u t u a l s u p p o r t . The r e s p o n d e n t s t h i n k t h a t members e x p e c t c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t i e s to  provide  activities,  a  sense  and  a  of means  Community members w o u l d political As  or social  identity, of  like  issues,  opportunities  developing  social  for  cultural  relationships.  t h e MJCCA t o be more o u t s p o k e n  s u c h a s human  on  rights.  f o r t h e f u t u r e o f t h e community, t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  believe  t h a t " t h e community w i l l s u r v i v e and w i l l c o n t i n u e , b u t n o t w i t h o u t  69  some w o r k . " getting  The c o m m u n i t y  non-Japanese  involved,  as w e l l  organizations  spouses  as b r o a d l y  and define  will  children  have  of  mixed  t h e community  p e o p l e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e .  t o work  on  marriages  as a group o f  B e s i d e t h e emphasis  on c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t to maintain  Present  a political  organization  f o r human r i g h t s  activities.  Organizations  At present, Cultural  Centre,  language c l a s s e s  t h e community has t h e M a n i t o b a J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n which runs v a r i o u s and a l i b r a r y ,  c h a p t e r o f t h e NAJC. hundred  of active  community.  programs  including  a n d t h e MJCCA w h i c h i s t h e l o c a l  The MJCCA h a s a s t a b l e m e m b e r s h i p  t o s i x hundred. A  consists  cultural  people  "seniors'" who  take  group,  strong  of  the Horizon  leading  roles  T h e r e a r e two r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s :  Group i n the  the Manitoba  B u d d h i s t A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e U n i t e d Church f o r t h e Japanese. organizations  are  run  separately  with  different  five  These  boards  but  memberships a r e s i m i l a r and t h e y work i n c o o p e r a t i o n .  P r e s e r v a t i o n of the H i s t o r y of the Community and R e l a t e d  Cultural  Activities The almost  respondents  no  exception centennial  organized  acknowledge t h a t activities  was i n t e r v i e w s  for history  c a r r i e d out during  redress  there  were  preservation.  An  the Japanese Canadian  c e l e b r a t i o n i n 1977, b u t t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o g r a m h a s n o t  been c o n t i n u e d  i n an o r g a n i z e d  Redress had a t w o f o l d it  before  fashion.  impact on h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n .  b r o u g h t out s t o r i e s t h a t had n o t been t o l d b e f o r e .  70  First,  Second, i t  pulled  the  local  community  members  together  and  stimulated  c o m m u n i c a t i o n among l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e necessity of history preservation. t o r e c o r d memories b e f o r e  People a l s o recognized  t h e need  t h e y were l o s t f o r e v e r w i t h o l d e r p e o p l e  p a s s i n g away. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e c o m m u n i t y s t a r t e d t o p r e p a r e a b o o k on  t h e h i s t o r y o f Japanese Canadians  published At  t h i s year  present,  interested  there  a r e few p e o p l e preservation,  optimistic  about  also that  f o r the general  interested Canadians. well.  but  it,  the  respondents  support.  They  are think  once i t ' s s e t i n m o t i o n , "  " p a r t o f t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f t h e MJCCA i s t o s e t t h i s  i n motion and t o preserve As  be  i n t h e c o m m u n i t y who a r e  community  c o m m u n i t y members " w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e and  which w i l l  ( i n 1995).  i n history  nevertheless  i n Manitoba,  i n Japanese There  the information public's  f o r others."  perspective,  they  a r e more  culture  than  i n the h i s t o r y o f Japanese  i s , however,  some  i n t e r e s t i n t h e h i s t o r y as  F o r i n s t a n c e , p u b l i c s c h o o l s have i n v i t e d s p e a k e r s f r o m t h e  J a p a n e s e community o r have had p l a y s p e r f o r m e d a t s c h o o l  concerning  Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y .  Archival No  Activities archives  i n t h e community  yet exists.  The  MJCCA i s  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e book m e n t i o n e d above. are,  however,  "definitely"  going  t o develop  They  an a r c h i v a l program  w i t h i n a couple of years. Because t h e program i s a t a p r e l i m i n a r y stage, acquisition  has n o t y e t been decided.  t h e scope of  The MJCCA s t a f f  are just  aware t h a t t h e y have t o d i s c u s s and p l a n t h e scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n  71  carefully,  because  the archives  will  n o t be  able  to  acquire  everything available. The  archives  building, MJCCA. be  will  and w i l l  be  located  be j o i n t l y  i n the  cultural  r u n by the c u l t u r a l  centre's  centre  and t h e  The f l o o r s i z e t o be a l l o c a t e d t o t h e a r c h i v e s h a s y e t t o  decided. Financial  support  f o rthe archives w i l l  include grants,  fund  r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , a n d t h e Community F u n d , w h i c h was  established  community Manitoba  after  members.  the redress The  Archives  MJCCA  they  on t h e d o n a t i o n s  i s considering  f o r grants,  Vancouver, although  based  as  suggested  from  approaching by  the  t h e JCNMA  do n o t know d e t a i l s o f M a n i t o b a ' s  in  grant  programs. The MJCCA i s m a i n t a i n i n g c l o s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h , a n d g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m , t h e JCNMA. members who Vancouver. the  have  expertise,  the archives  will  rely  on  The MJCCA h a s . n o t d e v e l o p e d a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  Provincial  equipment  archival  Because t h e community does n o t have  Archives.  However,  t h e community  f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g from t h e P r o v i n c i a l  MJCCA s t a f f  a r e sure  that  the archives w i l l  has  borrowed  Archives,  and t h e  be o p e n t o h e l p a n d  e d u c a t e them when t h e y e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own a r c h i v e s .  Summary Although community's community  an  archival  support  i s active  number  of  has  not  f o r i t seems p r o m i s i n g . and f a i r l y  happening a t the c u l t u r a l large  program  cohesive.  started  In general, There  c e n t r e everyday and every  community  members  72  are  y e t , the the  i s something evening  involved  and a  community  activities. quite  A l s o , the  high  (close to  r a t e of people a  half  of  the  belonging Japanese  t o the  MJCCA i s  Canadians) .  The  e x i s t e n c e o f t h e Community F u n d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y i s w e l l organized members  and  in  n a t u r a l l y be  4.  i s working  one  city  cooperatively.  facilitates  Concentration  community  activities  a strength for archival a c t i v i t i e s  as  of  the  and  will  well.  Toronto  Community Context The  geographical  large: approximately  area  of  this  Japanese  community  seventy miles i n diameter.  i s quite  Conceptually,  community i n c l u d e s t e m p o r a r y r e s i d e n t s f r o m J a p a n , s u c h as and  young people  living  i n t h e a r e a on  the working  the  students  holiday visa.  However, b e c a u s e t h e a r e a i s v a s t and t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f r e g i o n i s so l a r g e , members, and  i n the area.  coming t o Toronto people  individual  t e m p o r a r y r e s i d e n t s t e n d t o r e m a i n anonymous.  B e f o r e W o r l d War people  the community cannot keep t r a c k o f  the  I I , t h e r e were p r o b a b l y o n l y a d o z e n J a p a n e s e D u r i n g t h e war,  on t h e i r own,  t h e r e w e r e a number o f  b u t i t was  people  o n l y a f t e r t h e war,  when  w e r e made t o l e a v e t h e camps i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h a t  community i n Toronto  r e a l l y developed.  I n 1946  o r 1947  the  Japanese  Canadians s t a r t e d t o form o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The  respondent  thinks that  C a n a d i a n community i s p r o b a b l y Japanese  Canadians  and  cohesive."  respondent  p o p u l a t i o n of  growing  immigration  a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e h u n d r e d new The  the  stated  through from  immigrants that  the  n a t u r a l growth  Japan.  There  every year t o the  community  is  "anything  I t i s d i v i d e d b y g e o g r a p h y and b y d i f f e r e n t  73  Japaneseof are area. but  interests,  and  there  are  many  community  organizations  working  separately.  F u r t h e r m o r e , e v e n w i t h many community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r o b a b l y a b o u t two  thirds  ongoing  of  the Japanese  activities.  The  Canadians  respondent  are not thinks  s e n s e t h a t t h e r e i s n o t [a community] . " ethnicity,  but  organizations. somewhat  i t The  divided  does  not  lead  the  line  them  of  have  from Japan  their  own  a r e most  expecting  opportunity  from  of  community  cultural  to  join  that  community  t h e community  i m m i g r a n t s and  temporary  Whereas  the  Japanese  t h o s e who  activities  activities,  is  Japanese  c o m f o r t a b l e speaking Japanese  organizations.  a  Most  r e t a i n e d by Japanese Canadians i s "zero," are  any  " p e o p l e have  language.  C a n a d i a n s do n o t s p e a k J a p a n e s e , and new residents  that  with  P e o p l e a r e aware o f t h e i r  respondent a l s o t h i n k s along  involved  a  and  sense a  lifestyle  are  involved  of  means  and  identity, of  social  relationships. The c o m m u n i t y and  Japanese.  h a s mass m e d i a a i m e d a t b o t h J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s  There  are  four  newspapers  (three  weekly  monthly), which are d i s t r i b u t e d across the country.  and  one  T h e r e a r e two  t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s t h a t a i r o n c e a week p r i m a r i l y d e l i v e r i n g news about J a p a n w i t h community  announcements.  s o u r c e s a r e owned b y p r i v a t e Japanese  companies  enterprises.  represented  A l l o f t h e mass  media  1 2 4  i n the r e g i o n  are  numerous;  e v e r y m a j o r J a p a n e s e company h a s a s u b s i d i a r y o r o f f i c e i n T o r o n t o area.  The  respondent  d i d not  have  an  exact  number,  e s t i m a t e d t h a t one h u n d r e d t o two h u n d r e d c o m p a n i e s  exist.  but  he  Those  T h e r e i s a l s o a p r i v a t e company p u b l i s h i n g a t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y y e a r l y i n J a p a n e s e , w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t was n o t aware of. T h i s i s a f a i r l y r e c e n t u n d e r t a k i n g a n d i t i s g e a r e d t o new i m m i g r a n t s and t e m p o r a r y r e s i d e n t s from J a p a n . This i s probably why t h e r e s p o n d e n t h a d n o t h e a r d o f i t . 124  74  Japanese companies, however, have p r o v i d e d  little  support to  the  J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n community. As  f o r the f u t u r e , the respondent s t a t e d ,  community." continue  As y e a r s go by,  diminishing  d i v i s i v e elements w i t h i n the  community  t o grow: p e o p l e move f u r t h e r away f r o m t h e c e n t r e ,  r a t e of mixed marriages i s high. p e o p l e can be  "it's a  do  i n t h e c i t y any  There are  day  too  many t h i n g s  NAJC T o r o n t o c h a p t e r i s t r y i n g t o g e t new a  that  relatively  small  number o f  i n f i f t y years the  that  While  immigrants involved,  people.  community w i l l  number o f t h e p e o p l e who  the  o r n i g h t o f t h e week f o r them t o  i n t e r e s t e d i n a c t i v i t i e s of the Japanese community.  are  and  The  still  respondent  exist,  but  the they  thinks  that  a r e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i l l be v e r y  the  small.  Present O r g a n i z a t i o n s The  NAJC T o r o n t o C h a p t e r c u r r e n t l y has  hundred,  which  thousand  i n d i v i d u a l s because  number has  can  be  estimated  to  include  many a r e  been steady f o r the  last  a membership of  family  three  approximately  two  memberships.  The  years,  d r o p p e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e f i v e o r s i x y e a r s ago the p r i n c i p a l i s s u e . A  variety  Japanese  of  Canadian  Japanese schools  The  Chapter publishes  organizations Cultural  exist  Centre,  f o r c h i l d r e n of  although i t when r e d r e s s  a newsletter in  the  several  language  Japanese immigrants, senior citizens'  which  social  about  i m m i g r a n t s , two  250  people) ,  a  businessmen's a s s o c i a t i o n s  a  Shinto).  There are  for  of new  for b i g businesses United,  a l s o many r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s  75  the  seniors'  homes (one  and t h e o t h e r f o r s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s ) and c h u r c h e s ( B u d d h i s t , Anglican,  was  schools,  organization (one  has  bimonthly.  community:  g r o u p , a s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c y , two has  twelve  and  martial  a r t s programs  Japanese.  The  of  which  half  of  the  membership  is  East A s i a n Department at the U n i v e r s i t y of  non-  Toronto  i s , to some extent, c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of the community because i t has a  close cooperative  They are now  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  the NAJC Toronto  Chapter.  j o i n t l y running a r e s e a r c h program c o n c e r n i n g language  skills.  P r e s e r v a t i o n of the H i s t o r y of the Community and R e l a t e d  Cultural  Activities There have been few o r g a n i z e d h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n the community.  Some, books.,were p u b l i s h e d by  individuals,  some community members went to p u b l i c s c h o o l s t o t a l k about  and  their  h i s t o r i c a l experience, but the l a t t e r i n i t i a t i v e came from the s i d e of p u b l i c s c h o o l s .  The  respondent b e l i e v e s t h a t the l a c k of such  a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t not many community members are i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n , or t h a t i f they are, the i n t e r e s t i s not s t r o n g enough to l e a d to funding or m a t e r i a l  donations.  The respondent does not t h i n k t h a t the community has r e c e i v e d a  great  interest  because the articles  history  of  history  c u r i o s i t y was  and  originating  i n the  other from  satisfied  reports. outside  Japanese  from the  general  during  redress  by  the  Canadians.  community  that  newspaper  deal  There have been two  p l a y s performed by p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e a t r e groups.  The  with  cooperation  Chapter.  with  the  the  successful  Multicultural  (MHSO) i s p r e p a r i n g an e x h i b i t i o n at the  Royal O n t a r i o Museum (ROM), which w i l l run at l e a s t f o r one in  partly  There have been, however, p r o j e c t s  of  H i s t o r y S o c i e t y of O n t a r i o  public  archives  These a c t i v i t i e s  committee  originating  76  of  the  NAJC  from elsewhere,  year, Toronto  i n turn,  influence  the Japanese-Canadian  community b y u t i l i z i n g  i t s human  resources  a n d s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t among i t s members a s w e l l a s t h e  general p u b l i c .  Archival  activities  The  Toronto  Nikkei  Archives  and Resource  s t a r t e d i n e a r l y 1994, i s r u n b y a c o m m i t t e e the  NAJC T o r o n t o  Chapter.  One  Centre  of three people  o f t h e committee  a  specific  impetus  to  develop  an  under  members  p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t w o r k i n g f o r a p r o v i n c i a l agency. not  (TNARC),  archives;  is a  T h e r e was  rather,  the  l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e T o r o n t o C h a p t e r f e l t t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no a r c h i v e s i n T o r o n t o was a g r e a t The planned  archives  lack.  has been c o n c e n t r a t i n g  f o r t h e ROM  i n cooperation  on t h e e x h i b i t i o n b e i n g  with  started actively acquiring materials.  t h e MHSO a n d h a s n o t  I t has, however, a w r i t t e n  statement o f o b j e c t i v e s and g o a l s d e f i n i n g t h e scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n (Appendix  3) .  "historical,  I t defines  t h e scope  of acquisition  by  stating  e d u c a t i o n a l and contemporary m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o t h e  T o r o n t o r e g i o n Japanese C a n a d i a n community" and enumerates t y p e s o f materials pamphlets)  b y medium  (e.g.,  o r by contents  Although  t h e scope  photographs), by p h y s i c a l form (e.g.,  (e.g.,  surveys).  of acquisition  seems w i d e ,  the archives  w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y a c q u i r e records from a l l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the community. to  Rather, i t i s planning  t o encourage  organizations  k e e p t h e i r own a r c h i v e s , a n d t h e N i k k e i A r c h i v e s  Centre w i l l maintain community.  a database t o l o c a t e records  As f o r m a t e r i a l s kept by i n d i v i d u a l s ,  r a t h e r keep l i s t i n g s  and Resource  kept w i t h i n the t h e TNARC  t h a n h a s t i l y go o u t a n d g r a b m a t e r i a l s  77  would from  the  i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e s t i l l  good c a r e  o f them.  e n j o y i n g t h e i r t r e a s u r e s and t a k i n g  I n s h o r t , t h e TNARC p l a n s  a r c h i v a l i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e i n t h e community. to to  t o f u n c t i o n as an I t i salso planning  h a v e a n e d u c a t i o n a l component t o c o n d u c t s e m i n a r s a n d w o r k s h o p s generate  interest  i n the archives  o r g a n i z a t i o n s a b o u t how t o p r e s e r v e The  their  room  working  records.  two h u n d r e d s q u a r e f e e t ,  f o r the archives  on i n s t a l l i n g  t o expand  into.  a c l i m a t e c o n t r o l system.  p u b l i c f o r a few hours e v e r y S a t u r d a y . i n the process As  of purchasing  f o r financial  resources,  f r o m t h e n a t i o n a l NAJC. public  donations,  status.  f o r which  The r e s p o n d e n t  Presently,  open t o t h e  software.  t h e a r c h i v e s has r e c e i v e d  grants  they  are applying  f o r a charitable  i s confident that they w i l l  raise  They a r e n o t p l a n n i n g on f u n d  enough raising  b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t h a v e e n o u g h s t a f f a n d a l s o b e c a u s e  of g r a n t s from t h e Canadian C o u n c i l o f A r c h i v e s apply The  they  To c r e a t e f i n d i n g a i d s , i t  w o u l d be c o m p e t i n g w i t h t h e NAJC T o r o n t o C h a p t e r .  to  i s now  To s u s t a i n t h e a r c h i v e s , t h e y w i l l r e l y o n  money t o " a t l e a s t s u r v i v e . " events  INMAGIC  and there i s  The s t a f f  serve u s e r s by appointment, and i n t h e f u t u r e , i t w i l l  is  community  a r c h i v e s i s l o c a t e d i n t h e NAJC T o r o n t o C h a p t e r b u i l d i n g ,  w i t h space o f approximately some  and t o educate  they  They a r e aware  (CCA) , b u t h a v e y e t  f o r them. TNARC b e l o n g s t o t h r e e a r c h i v a l a s s o c i a t i o n s : t h e O n t a r i o  A r c h i v e s A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , and the  Japanese  American  Museum  Association.  I t has  a  close  cooperative relationship with the Multicultural History Society of Ontario.  I t keeps  Archives of Ontario.  a listing  of relevant materials held  at the  I t does n o t have c o n t a c t s y e t w i t h t h e c i t y  78  a r c h i v e s and t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s has  o f Canada.  G i v e n t h a t t h e TNARC  a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t on t h e committee, t h e y a r e n o t s e e k i n g  technical assistance  from o t h e r  institutions.  A l t h o u g h t h e TNARC h a s n o t d e v e l o p e d s u b s t a n t i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n with  t h e JCNMA i n V a n c o u v e r , o n c e s e t i n m o t i o n ,  cooperation a  strong  success  and share i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h Vancouver.  network  of the "national"  believes  that  recognize  archives  will  be  Japanese-Canadian  the "national"  archives  some  t o develop  the  I t also has t o  community's need t o have a  and i t has a p o t e n t i a l  with educational  for  archives.  The TNARC h a s some r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  organizations,  work i n  The TNARC t h i n k s  essential  Japanese-Canadian  t h e Toronto Japanese  archives.  contacts  of local  i t will  local  educational "very  broad  community."  Summary The  Toronto N i k k e i Archives  and Resource Centre b e n e f i t s  h a v i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t on t h e s t a f f . beginning  stage w i t h a few m a t e r i a l s a c q u i r e d ,  preceded  by o r d e r l y  professional  planning,  which  from  Although i t i sat a their a c t i v i t i e s are  suggests  underpinnings  of  knowledge.  As f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y i n g e n e r a l , e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s discontent  with  t h e low r a t e  community i s " a n y t h i n g community w i t h variety  of  but cohesive"  a fairly  large  o f human r e s o u r c e s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  says  the  and " d i m i n i s h i n g , " i t i s a b i g  potential.  1 2 5  are available,  F o r example,  a wide  as t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  W h i l e t h e r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i s l o w ( l e s s t h a n onet h i r d ) , s t i l l t h e e s t i m a t e d number o f f i v e t h o u s a n d p e o p l e i n v o l v e d w i t h community a c t i v i t i e s i s l a r g e r t h a n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f most J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . 125  79  a r c h i v i s t f o u n d w i t h i n t h e community.  A l a r g e community i m p l i e s a  s t r o n g f i n a n c i a l p o t e n t i a l , a s c a n be o b s e r v e d i n t h e c a s e o f Kobe R e l i e f Fund ( f o r t h e earthquake i n J a n u a r y 1995), w h i c h r a i s e d o v e r $100,000  5.  i n Toronto.  Hamilton  Community  Context  I n H a m i l t o n a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s , t h e r e w e r e no known b e f o r e W o r l d War after  the  war  when  interior  British  Rockies.  The f i r s t  II.  those  Japanese who  Columbia  were  were  Canadians i n the  ordered  Japanese  came t o t h e a r e a  detention  to  move  camps i n  east  of  community o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e Japanese  the  Canadian  C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1946 o r 1947. The p r e s e n t J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t y i n t h e a r e a b a s i c a l l y consists  of  permanent  resident  Japanese  Canadians.  Although  community o r g a n i z a t i o n memberships a r e not r e s t r i c t e d t o Japanese C a n a d i a n s , community l e a d e r s i n t h e p a s t have f o u n d i t " d i f f i c u l t to  t r y to  draw  community."  them  (Japanese  temporary  residents)  into  our  The r e s p o n d e n t t h i n k s t h a t t h i s m i g h t be b e c a u s e  they  a r e aware t h a t t h e y a r e i n t h e a r e a o n l y f o r a l i m i t e d t i m e p e r i o d . The  population  o f t h e community  i s one  thousand  to  hundred i n H a m i l t o n and t h e immediate s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . Hamilton  Chapter  approximately newsletter. recent years. from  serves a  three The  wider  thousand  population  area  i n Southern  people  has  remained  receive about  fifteen The NAJC  Ontario,  the  and  Chapter's  t h e same  during  T h e r e a r e f e w new J a p a n e s e i m m i g r a n t s i n t o t h e a r e a  Japan.  80  The c o m m u n i t y i s n o t v e r y c o h e s i v e . community  that  was  redress.  The NAJC l o c a l  reconciliation,  caused  and  A rift  by t h e d i f f e r e n c e  exists within the  of opinions  during  c h a p t e r and o t h e r s a r e t r y i n g t o seek a  the e f f o r t  i s slowly  working.  Generally  s p e a k i n g , o l d e r p e o p l e a r e more i n t e r e s t e d t h a n y o u n g e r p e o p l e i n t h e community.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n  post-war immigrants and  J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s d o e s n o t seem t o be c l o s e . Younger community  p e o p l e seem t o e x p e c t a s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y  and  i t s activities  because  from the  the a s s i m i l a t i o n  i s so  c o m p l e t e t h a t J a p a n e s e h i s t o r y a n d c u l t u r e a r e n o t l e a r n e d a t home. O l d e r p e o p l e , o n t h e o t h e r hand, p a r t i c i p a t e social seem  reasons.  Even  t o be more  culture,  English-speaking  c o m f o r t a b l e among  t h e need  foractivities  i n t h e community f o r  second  generation  themselves.  people  In addition  c o n c e r n i n g human r i g h t s  to  i s also  recognized. There  a r e no c o m m u n i t y news o r g a n s .  I m p o r t a n t news i n t h e  community i s r e p o r t e d i n Japanese-Canadian newspapers Toronto,  and t e l e v i s i o n  programs  produced  published i n  i n Toronto  can  also  viewed i n the area. H a m i l t o n h a s no J a p a n e s e c o m p a n i e s . Cambridge,  Ontario,  Chapter serves.  which  i s included  There i s a c a r f a c t o r y i n i n the area that  t h e NAJC  A l t h o u g h t h a t company g a v e some s u p p o r t t o t h e new  b u i l d i n g o f t h e Japanese Canadian c u l t u r a l c e n t r e , i t does n o t have strong  influence  impression  that  Japanese-Canadian  on  the  Japanese  community. companies  The do  not  respondent actively  has  an  support  communities.  As f o r t h e f u t u r e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e r e s p o n d e n t t h i n k s t h a t the younger people w i l l  r e t a i n a sense o f Japanese e t h n i c i t y , but  81  that  they  would not  s o c i a l reasons.  rely  on  the  s m a l l community f o r economic  T h e r e f o r e , the community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e  trying  t o c r e a t e programs geared toward the l i f e s t y l e of younger people o r d e r t o a t t r a c t them.  The  respondent  does  not  or  think that  in the  emphasis o f the community would n e c e s s a r i l y s h i f t o n t o c u l t u r e i n t h e f u t u r e , b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e a g r o u p o f y o u n g p e o p l e who NAJC l o c a l broader  c h a p t e r s h o u l d t a k e p a r t i n human r i g h t s  feel  i s s u e s i n the  society.  When a s k e d a b o u t t h e c o m m u n i t y i n f i f t y y e a r s , t h e  respondent  s a i d she d i d n o t know what t h e c o m m u n i t y w o u l d be l i k e t h e n . p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e community w i l l maintained  f o r reasons  however,  some  couples,  the  understanding  not e x i s t a t a l l ,  different  heartening  from  the  observations.  non-Japanese  person  present. Between  is  often  i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e community.  There  be  are,  intermarriage interested  in  Japanese  A n o t h e r good s i g n i s  t h a t , i n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e NAJC H a m i l t o n i n c r e a s i n g , w i t h younger people  It i s  or i t might  Japanese c u l t u r e or encourages h i s o r her  p a r t n e r to get  is  the  chapter  joining.  Present O r g a n i z a t i o n s P r e s e n t l y , t h e NAJC H a m i l t o n redress,  the  subsequently  membership dropped.  of  the  JCCA  260 members.  quickly  During  increased  I n t h e r e c e n t y e a r s , h o w e v e r , i t i s on  r i s e again w i t h younger people Chapter  c h a p t e r has  i s t r y i n g very hard  ( l a t e 20s and 30s)  to recruit  coming back.  young people  because  and the The they  a r e t h e f u t u r e o f any o r g a n i z a t i o n . O t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y i n c l u d e t h e c u l t u r e and community  centre,  religious  groups  82  (Buddhist,  United),  an  investment  club  o f second  c u l t u r a l groups.  generation  people,  social  groups  and  W h i l e t h e r e i s no l a n g u a g e s c h o o l , t h e c u l t u r a l  c e n t r e runs language c l a s s e s . The  c u l t u r e and community c e n t r e  publish newsletters The  a n d t h e NAJC l o c a l  chapter  a n d t h e two n e w s l e t t e r s w o r k i n c o o p e r a t i o n .  c u l t u r a l c e n t r e ' s n e w s l e t t e r i s m o n t h l y a n d t h e NAJC n e w s l e t t e r  i s q u a r t e r l y ; both are b i l i n g u a l .  P r e s e r v a t i o n of the H i s t o r y of the Community and R e l a t e d C u l t u r a l Activities In the past, activities  there  h a v e n o t b e e n many  i n t h e community.  There  photograph  e x h i b i t i o n h e l d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a community p i c n i c .  There have  the r e s u l t o f organized Enough  people  community  are  a  preservation  small  b e e n some b o o k s w r i t t e n b y H a m i l t o n  was  history  r e s i d e n t s , but they  were n o t  efforts.  interested  to  start  archives.  The  l e a d e r s h i p b e l i e v e s t h a t once an a r c h i v e s i s e s t a b l i s h e d , those w e r e p r e v i o u s l y n o t i n t e r e s t e d w o u l d become more i n t e r e s t e d . i s a l s o some i n t e r e s t w i t h i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s a n d p u b l i c Public  schools  a s k t h e community  Canadian experience,  and t h e H a m i l t o n  Japanese-Canadian photograph  Archival The  f o r speakers  on  who  There  libraries.  t h e Japanese  P u b l i c L i b r a r y once had a  exhibition.  Activities archival  activities  i n the Hamilton  preliminary  stage.  t h i s year.  T h e r e was n o t a s p e c i f i c i m p e t u s f o r t h e a r c h i v e s , b u t  they  "just  felt  The c o m m u n i t y i s h o p i n g  community a r e a t a  t h a t i t was p r o b a b l y  83  to start  a very important  an a r c h i v e s  part of the  existence  of  (their)  organizations  m a t e r i a l t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o , people,  but  to  the p u b l i c at  to  have  that  of  resource  not j u s t to the Japanese  Canadian  large."  P l a n n i n g f o r t h e a r c h i v e s has n o t y e t  begun.  be a p r o g r a m o f t h e NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r o r i t w i l l the  cultural  centre  and t h e  the  located  i n a new b u i l d i n g s h a r e d b y t h e  cultural  floor  size  centre.  The r e s p o n d e n t  the  will  of  funding  include  events,  grants  archives  the  general  from  The  present  photographs not yet  used  be j o i n t l y r u n b y  idea  the  how  or  other  consist  only  Chapter, funds,  will  c h a p t e r and  The p o s s i b l e  of  neither  The a r c h i v e s  NAJC l o c a l no  will  large  the  sources  of  fund  raising  no  concrete  but  been made.  holdings for  contacted  has  be.  income  governments  f u n d i n g p l a n has y e t  Whether i t  c h a p t e r has n o t b e e n d e c i d e d ;  has t h e s c o p e o f a c q u i s i t i o n been d i s c u s s e d y e t . be  kind  the  of  Public Library's  any o t h e r  archives  a  small  number  exhibition.  or c u l t u r a l  They  of  have  institutions.  Summary The H a m i l t o n J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n community i s s m a l l , b u t i t not  necessarily  information  mean i t  i n Toronto,  has  few r e s o u r c e s .  and i n a s e n s e ,  human r e s o u r c e s w i t h T o r o n t o . members itself  active  on  the  it  It  has  easy access  to  shares  a reservoir  of  T h e y c a n c a l l on p r o m i n e n t community  national  level  in  Toronto,  p r o v i d e d some p r o m i n e n t n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s .  community  members  are  indicated  in  active  wide view o f  their the  society  aware  at  does  of  national  interest large.  84  in  and H a m i l t o n  As a r e s u l t ,  developments  human r i g h t s ,  they  the  and, have  as a  As f o r t h e coming evaluated.  6.  archives,  i t i s n o t y e t a t t h e s t a g e t o be  Close cooperation w i t h Toronto w i l l  be  critical.  Montreal  Community  Context  T h i s J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n community t h e o r e t i c a l l y encompasses t h e p r o v i n c e o f Quebec.  The g r e a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s ,  however, i n M o n t r e a l , and community a c t i v i t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y g e a r e d to those i n Montreal. B e f o r e W o r l d War I I , t h e r e w e r e a b o u t f o r t y J a p a n e s e p e o p l e i n Montreal area.  I n 1942, some p e o p l e s t a r t e d  from Vancouver. camps  I n 1944, y o u n g p e o p l e s t a r t e d  i n interior  brothers, closed  British  and s i s t e r s  i t s doors  instead.  The  t o come  Columbia.  joined  them.  t o Japanese  community  Canadians,  started  t o come f r o m t h e  Gradually, Because  t o form  voluntarily  their  the c i t y  many  came  of Toronto to Montreal  organizations,  c h u r c h groups and a w e l f a r e group, d u r i n g t h e war.  parents,  such  as  When t h e camps  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e f i n a l l y c l o s e d o f f , a r e c e i v i n g camp f o r t h o s e who  were w i t h l a r g e  retention  camps was  f a m i l i e s a n d c o u l d n o t move o u t o f t h e  s e t up  i n Farnham,  Quebec,  from  where  many  people later.came to Montreal f o r jobs. Although  the census  i n 1991  shows  that  the population  of  J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n M o n t r e a l a r e a i s 2,365, t h e r e s p o n d e n t e s t i m a t e d t h e number o f p e o p l e a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the  community  activities  i s less  than  five  hundred.  Although  temporary r e s i d e n t s sometimes t a k e p a r t i n c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , o r even  contribute  and  language,  t o them w i t h t h e i r most  of  them  do  85  knowledge not  of Japanese  participate  culture  routinely  in  community a c t i v i t i e s . are  They have t h e i r own s p o r t s c l u b s , and they  busy s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s Japanese  School.  The s i z e o f  the community looks l i k e s h r i n k i n g w i t h o l d e r people p a s s i n g away and  moving  Ontario,  out t o l i v e  i n Japanese  o r t o be w i t h t h e i r  hand, younger people might noticed  senior  children  citizens'  elsewhere.  homes i n  On the o t h e r  be moving i n t o the area without b e i n g  by the community.  Therefore, whether the community i s  a c t u a l l y d e c r e a s i n g i n p o p u l a t i o n i s not c l e a r . The  present  Japanese  community  consists  of a  "traditional  community" that i n c l u d e s the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n and o l d e r p a r t of the second  generation,  community  members  surprising fifty  and younger are v e r y  g i v e n that  y e a r s , mainly  generations.  close  The  t o one another;  this  they have known one another  through  churches.  traditional i s not  f o r more than  Younger g e n e r a t i o n s need  s p e c i f i c purposes t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the community, u n l i k e who  come  Although  t o the d r o p - i n  some younger people  community, usually  at the c u l t u r a l  when  Furthermore,  t o assure  the community  every  say they are not i n t e r e s t e d  an o r g a n i z a t i o n  sufficient  centre  seniors  holds  that  an event,  the e f f o r t  leadership  identifies  week. i n the  attendance i s is  worthwhile.  some groups o f  younger people who are i n need of an i n d i v i d u a l sense o f b e l o n g i n g . Younger  third  sense of l o s s .  g e n e r a t i o n members  i n their  2 0 s sometimes  They miss the connection w i t h t h e i r  of  intercultural  marriages  p a r t i c u l a r need t o seek i d e n t i t y , immigrants,  also  sometimes  barrier. have  a  and so do c h i l d r e n o f post-war  who may have v e r y Japanese ways o f t h i n k i n g  on how t h e i r parents educated them.  86  a  grandparents,  w i t h whom they cannot communicate because o f the language Children  feel  depending  Recently, There  there  a r e , however,  are  few  Japanese  many J a p a n e s e p e o p l e  s t u d e n t s o r on w o r k i n g h o l i d a y v i s a s . close  relationships  immigrants, post-war that  between  and t h e community  i m m i g r a n t s and t h e i r  the  immigrants to  language  living  Montreal.  i n Montreal  as  T h e r e d o e s n o t seem t o be  Japanese  Canadians  and  post-war  r e c o g n i z e s the need of o u t r e a c h t o children.  difference  The r e s p o n d e n t b e l i e v e s  influences  the  community;  c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e q u i r e s e f f o r t , w h i c h p e o p l e m i g h t a v o i d i f t h e y do not  have  particular  however,  purposes t o  are interested  do  so.  Some  younger  i n t h e Japanese language as  a  people, cultural  issue. There a r e t h i r t y t o f o r t y Japanese companies i n t h e a r e a , but some a r e l e a v i n g . financial There  The r e s p o n d e n t t h i n k s t h a t  support t o the c u l t u r a l are  community.  no  television  Community  they are p r o v i d i n g  centre.  programs  organizations  or  newspapers  sometimes  put  f o r the  notices  or  announcements i n J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n newspapers p u b l i s h e d i n T o r o n t o . A t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y was c o m p i l e d i n 1992, b u t an u p d a t e d e d i t i o n has n o t been p l a n n e d . In in  r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n whether t h e community w i l l  fifty  or  one  hundred  years,  the  i m m i g r a t i o n coming i n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t ,  respondent s a i d ,  exist  "without  to certain extent."  She  t h i n k s t h a t even i n f i v e y e a r s t h e community w i l l have changed, b u t a n d s h e d o e s n o t know how  Present  i twill  change.  Organizations  The NAJC Quebec c h a p t e r , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1986, a t p r e s e n t 220 members.  T h i s number h a s n o t c h a n g e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  87  has  i n recent  years.  O t h e r e x i s t i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e C u l t u r a l  Centre,  the Montreal B u l l e t i n ,  a language school  f o r c h i l d r e n of  Japanese Canadians and i m m i g r a n t s , N i k k e i A r t i s t s ' Network,  Nikkei  Network f o r work o p p o r t u n i t i e s , c u l t u r a l g r o u p s , and s p o r t s g r o u p s . The C u l t u r a l C e n t r e i s "more t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y (than  t h e NAJC Quebec c h a p t e r i s ) , b e c a u s e  building  (where  years)."  I t has r u n s e n i o r s ' d r o p - i n programs  a library,  activities  have  been  council  t o the  c a r r i e d out f o r  s i n c e 1979.  a n d many g r o u p s u s e i t s b u i l d i n g f o r t h e i r  and e v e n t s . a  community  i t ' s attached  I t has  activities  The C u l t u r a l C e n t r e ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d b y  of representatives  o f groups  i n t h e community.  The  c o u n c i l a l s o i n c l u d e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Canada J a p a n S o c i e t y ; it  i s n o t a Japanese-Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s membership i s  mainly French-speaking. The M o n t r e a l B u l l e t i n i s a g r o u p t h a t p u b l i s h e s Bulletin, and  a m o n t h l y n e w s l e t t e r o f t h e community.  serves  as  organizations.  a  communication  medium  I t i s published  the  I t i s independent  f o r a l l the  i n both  Montreal  English  and  community Japanese.  C o n t e n t s i n t h e two l a n g u a g e s a r e n o t t h e same b e c a u s e t h e J a p a n e s e section tries  t o r e s p o n d t h e needs  o f t h e p e o p l e who do n o t r e a d  E n g l i s h o r F r e n c h newspapers. The visits,  community  a l s o has a s e n i o r s ' c a r e program t h a t  includes  meals on w h e e l s , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o h o s p i t a l s .  s u p p o r t e d b y p r o v i n c i a l government  Preservation  Iti s  funding.  of the H i s t o r y of the Community and R e l a t e d  Cultural  Activities T h e r e h a v e b e e n some a c t i v i t i e s a i m e d a t p r e s e r v i n g  88  Japanese-  Canadian  history.  carried  out.  Since  There  1982, i n t e r v i e w s o f o l d e r p e o p l e  have  been  three  or four  exhibitions  were at a  c o l l e g e a n d a m a r k e t p l a c e , b u t s i n c e r e d r e s s t h e r e h a s b e e n none. S p e a k e r s have o c c a s i o n a l l y been i n v i t e d t h e i r experiences.  t o schools t o t a l k  about  A b o o k l e t on t h e h i s t o r y o f Japanese Canadians  i n M o n t r e a l was p u b l i s h e d i n 1987 b y t h e C u l t u r a l C e n t r e .  The NAJC  Quebec c h a p t e r i s t h i n k i n g o f u p d a t i n g i t a n d t h e new e d i t i o n be  will  d i s t r i b u t e d t o h i g h s c h o o l s a n d CEGEPs. Concerning  did  not  t h e a t t i t u d e s o f c o m m u n i t y members, t h e r e s p o n d e n t  necessarily  preservation,  even  say  they  though  there  i n v o l v e d w i t h such a c t i v i t i e s . leadership  should a c t i v e l y  are  indifferent  a r e n o t many  to  history  people  getting  Rather, the respondent b e l i e v e s the  reach  out and encourage v o l u n t e e r s t o  participate. As  f o rthe interest of the general public,  "not aware o f i t . "  Archival A  She t h i n k s t h e c o m m u n i t y "has t o s e l l i t . "  Activities committee  community. Bulletin's activity  the respondent i s  A  of  five  substantial  managing  i s called  the archives).  interviews of seniors.  it;  rather  conversations.  amount  i s keeping  emerged  They thought  records  of m a t e r i a l s a r e kept  e d i t o r ' s house  with  i t  people  (hereafter this  naturally  from  at the  preservation  The a r c h i v e s s t a r t e d  T h e r e was no p a r t i c u l a r  of the  i n 1982  impetus f o r  community  members'  t h a t t h e a r c h i v e s was a g o o d t h i n g t o  h a v e b e c a u s e t h e r e h a d n o t b e e n many o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n activities.  According t o t h e respondent,  89  however, t h e a r c h i v e s " i s  not  m a i n t a i n e d , " and  m a t e r i a l s and The  the  resettlement the  of  acquisition  primary  i n Montreal.  committee  are  thinks  going  to  i s Quebec is  i n terms  on  through  of  the  geography,  Japanese  Canadians'  Recent records are w i t h i n the scope,  i t  has  to  acquire  records  from  and  current  t h e y a r e n o t a c q u i r i n g on a r e g u l a r b a s i s .  i s p a r t l y because the a r c h i v e s does not  central  look  file descriptions.  emphasis  organizations, although This  people  make s t a n d a r d i z e d  scope  although  two  h a v e a s t a t u s as t h e „  r e p o s i t o r y o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ; many o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g  the C u l t u r a l C e n t r e keep t h e i r r e c o r d s f o r t h e m s e l v e s .  Presently,  t h e a r c h i v e s r e c e i v e s r e c o r d s when an o r g a n i z a t i o n o r an  individual  p r e f e r s t o t r a n s f e r them. archives  does not  Even f o r the m a t e r i a l s kept t h e r e ,  have o w n e r s h i p but  i s only  u s e r wants t o quote from a m a t e r i a l o r use has  to obtain permission The  linear  sometimes  or  on  one  of  created hundred  a  she  i s 170  The or  or  by  newspaper Montreal.  three  i t .  be  either  i s the  There  i n t e r v i e w s , as c l i p p i n g s of The  and  volume  are  file also  well  as  Japanese these  As f o r f i n d i n g a i d s , t h e a r c h i v e s has l i s t i n g s o f f i l e s ,  which  has  concerning  can  organization that held  and  (approx.  organizations,  records  sound t a p e s of  slides,  files  of  holdings  newspapers  a p h o t o g r a p h , he o r  individuals,  names.  individual  photographs,  Canadian  will  the  records  approximately books,  names  geographical  information title,  under  If  f r o m t h e owner o r t h e o w n e r ' s d e s c e n d e n t .  major p a r t of t h e i r holdings metres)  a custodian.  the  not been measured.  be s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s . The  i s o p e n t o t h e p u b l i c and u s e r s a r e g i v e n a c c e s s appointment.  90  archives  to the holdings  by  The  room  square f e e t .  that  the archives  occupies  T h e y do n o t h a v e r e s o u r c e s  facilities.  156  to b u i l d or acquire  new  Because t h e C u l t u r a l Centre i s spending a s u b s t a n t i a l  amount o f money o n i n s u r a n c e  f o r the m a t e r i a l s , t h e committee i s  discussing photocopying materials repository  so  that  they  Whether t h e y s h o u l d and  i s approximately  which archives  been d e c i d e d .  do  a n d s e n d i n g one s e t t o a n o t h e r  n o t have  to insure  the  holdings.  keep t h e o r i g i n a l s o r send o u t t h e o r i g i n a l s , i s best  t o t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s t o , have n o t y e t  The a r c h i v e s  will  decide  those  issues  considering  users. To s u s t a i n t h e a r c h i v e s , t h e y h a v e r e c e i v e d g o v e r n m e n t f o r employment c r e a t i o n .  grants  Equipment and o v e r h e a d have n o t r e q u i r e d  a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f f u n d i n g , p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e a c c e s s t o the Montreal planned  B u l l e t i n ' s equipment.  so f a r , and g r a n t s  Fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e n o t  f o r archives,  such as t h o s e  from t h e  CCA, h a v e n o t b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d . The a r c h i v e s h a s l i t t l e archives  contact  have sometimes r e q u e s t e d  with other  archives.  Public  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e m a t e r i a l s  t h e y have, w h i l e t h e a r c h i v e s sent people t o Ottawa and Toronto t o make c o p i e s  of materials  kept  at other  however, does n o t have o r g a n i z e d other  archives.  The  archives,  d o c u m e n t a t i o n on m a t e r i a l s kept a t  archives.  Summary A s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n community i s i t s networking  functions.  Community  organizations  through the c o u n c i l of the c u l t u r a l centre, community  activities  themselves  connected  a n d some o f t h e m a j o r  are networking,  91  are  such  as  Nikkei  Artists'  Network  networking fairly  and  Nikkei  i s relatively  easy  Network. since  This  may  the Japanese  be  because  community  is  s m a l l i n p o p u l a t i o n , a n d a t t h e same t i m e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y  s i n c e t h e community  i s s i t u a t e d i n a b i g busy  The a r c h i v e s i s v e r y l o w k e y .  city.  I t uses whatever resources a r e  a v a i l a b l e , a n d t h e p e o p l e who r u n i t do n o t f e e l a n u r g e n t n e e d f o r long-term  planning.  impressive  amount,  volunteers. house  The h o l d i n g s , as  a  result  however,  consist  of a  of  earnest  efforts  the  The l o c a t i o n o f t h e a r c h i v e s w i t h i n  may be p r o b l e m a t i c  i n terms o f p u b l i c  an  fairly of  individual's  access and long-term  sustainability.  7. Vancouver Community Context The Vancouver  immediate and t h i s  Japanese-Canadian Vancouver  area  section  Japanese  mainly reports  community.  i s , however,  encompassing a l l  of this  community about  t h e Vancouver  The J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n  "national"  with  t h e scope  i s Greater  archives i n  of  activities  Canada.  A f t e r W o r l d War I I , J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e o f f i c i a l l y  allowed  t o come b a c k t o t h e w e s t c o a s t i n 1949, b u t n o t many p e o p l e moved back a l l community  a t once.  I t was o n l y d u r i n g t h e 1950s when t h e J a p a n e s e  got. s t a r t e d a g a i n i n V a n c o u v e r .  Citizens' Association  p r e s e n t community  person l i v i n g  Canadian  ( J C C A ) , w h i c h h a d e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e w a r , was  reestablished i n the early The  The J a p a n e s e  1950s. members  include  any  Japanese-related  i n the area, i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n of mixed marriages.  T e m p o r a r y r e s i d e n t s a r e a l w a y s welcome t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o m m u n i t y  92  activities  and  they  do  come  to  some  respondent  did  not  community.  J a p a n e s e s p e a k i n g p o s t - w a r i m m i g r a n t s seem t o h a v e some  reluctance  t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Japanese  particularly  a n d t e n d t o s t a y w i t h i n t h e i r own  of  the  identify  events,  their  roles  but  the  in  the  Canadians  groups.  The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r is  a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t e e n thousand  with  thousand Japanese speaking households. from Japan  i n the area are l e s s  four  thousand  J a p a n e s e company  t h a n one  thousand, and  a b o u t two t h o u s a n d J a p a n e s e on w o r k i n g h o l i d a y v i s a s . respondent  d i d not  have  precise  to  numbers,  he  five  employees there are  Although the  believes  that  the  p o p u l a t i o n i s growing because of Japanese Canadians moving i n from o t h e r a r e a s o f Canada. i m m i g r a n t s coming The  present  T h e r e a r e n o t , h o w e v e r , a g r e a t number o f  from Japan i n r e c e n t y e a r s . community  i s not  d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n on c e r t a i n  cohesive  things.  because  aware  of  their  ethnicity,  they  a s s o c i a t e w i t h Japanese o r non-Japanese the want  do  are  F u r t h e r m o r e , n o t many  young p e o p l e a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n community a c t i v i t i e s . are  there  not  care  Whereas t h e y whether  they  people.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n and e s p e c i a l l y t h e f i r s t  generation tend to  to associate  with  Japanese  Canadians.  Some p e o p l e  i n the  community a r e h o p i n g t h a t t h e N i k k e i H e r i t a g e C e n t r e b e i n g p l a n n e d i n Burnaby  will  change t h e . a t t i t u d e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s  of  younger  people. The  r e s p o n d e n t t h i n k s t h a t c o m m u n i t y members e x p e c t f r o m t h e  community a l l t h e t h r e e elements the r e s e a r c h e r s u g g e s t e d : a sense of  i d e n t i t y , a p l a c e f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , a n d a means o f s o c i a l  relationships.  He  also  noted that  93  a human r i g h t s  group  i s very  active  i n V a n c o u v e r w i t h a w o r l d - w i d e s c o p e , a l t h o u g h some p e o p l e  criticize  them f o r b e c o m i n g  i n v o l v e d w i t h many i s s u e s t h a t do n o t  seem r e l e v a n t t o t h e J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t y  per se.  T h e r e a r e mass m e d i a s o u r c e s g e a r e d t o w a r d J a p a n e s e s p e a k i n g people  i n t h e community.  broadcast, is,  newspapers  however,  no  These  include  and o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s  mass  media  source  E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Japanese Canadians. community  television  and  i n Japanese.  specifically  radio There  designed f o r  A telephone d i r e c t o r y of the  l i s t i n g Japanese b u s i n e s s e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and so on, i s  p u b l i s h e d a n n u a l l y by a p r i v a t e  company.  I t i s also  i n Japanese  a n d c o n t e n t s a r e g e a r e d t o new i m m i g r a n t s a n d t e m p o r a r y r e s i d e n t s . The r e s p o n d e n t t h i n k s t h e J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s i n t h e a r e a s t i l l r e t a i n some J a p a n e s e l i f e s t y l e .  Some s t i l l h o l d some a n n u a l f a m i l y  e v e n t s , w h i c h t h e i r g r a n d p a r e n t s d i d , s u c h a s t h e new y e a r ' s p a r t y . There  are quite  a few Japanese g r o c e r y  hundred Japanese Japanese supported  stores  a n d more t h a n one  restaurants.  companies  certain  that  community  have events  offices and  i n Vancouver  projects,  such  have  as t h e  Japanese gardens a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and a t t h e Pacific will  National  Exhibition.  The c o m m u n i t y  i s hoping that  they  also support the Nikkei Heritage Centre. In  response t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether t h e Japanese-Canadian  communities "There tries  across  isn't  are united,  one b i g community  to integrate  interests.  Canada  the respondent  as such," because  i t , there are d i f f e r e n t  while  groups w i t h  answered, t h e NAJC different  The l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s a r e , h o w e v e r , i n t e r c o n n e c t e d w i t h  one  another mainly through personal  the  o l d e r J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s moved o u t f r o m V a n c o u v e r , a n d i n t h e  94  ties.  Because  almost a l l of  past  t h e Japanese o f t e n got married  different  cities  have  relatives  respondent  believes this  respondent  thinks that  among t h e m s e l v e s ,  and f r i e n d s  i s where t h e i r wherever  g e n e r a t i o n and t h e second  they  people i n  nation-wide.  strength l i e s . currently  generation think very  The  Also, the  live,  the  first  similarly.  Present O r g a n i z a t i o n s There community.  i s no  umbrella  organization  overseeing  h a v e n o t b e e n s o s u c c e s s f u l i n o t h e r ways. i s twenty-three  recent  hundred  The m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e  a n d t h e number h a s b e e n  stable i n  c o m m u n i t y h a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 110 o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d g r o u p s  b o t h l a r g e and s m a l l .  They a r e m o s t l y c u l t u r a l  S e v e r a l l a n g u a g e s c h o o l s , some o f w h i c h students,  children  residents. including  o f Japanese  Buddhist,  projects.  to children of  T h e r e i s one J a p a n e s e  business  United, business  association  people  Another  Anglican people's  that  groups.  have two t o t h r e e h u n d r e d  and o t h e r  T h e r e a r e more t h a n t e n J a p a n e s e c h u r c h e s  a r e Japanese  gardeners'  or social  t e a c h t h e Japanese language and c u l t u r e  Japanese Canadians and immigrants.  There  i n some ways, t h e y  years.  The  for  whole  W h i l e t h e JCCA t r i e s t o i n t e g r a t e t h e c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s  a n d r e p r e s e n t t h e c o m m u n i t y , a n d t h e y do s u c c e e d  JCCA  the  often  and  other  associations, supports  school  temporary i n the area  denominations. and a s t r o n g  Japanese  type of o r g a n i z a t i o n i s K e n j i n k a i ,  garden  which  group o f people g e t t i n g t o g e t h e r by p r e f e c t u r e i n Japan from they o r t h e i r ancestors originated.  activities.  95  which  T h e r e a r e no c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s ,  l i b r a r i e s , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' homes o r museums. o f t e n used f o r c u l t u r a l  is a  The J C C A b u i l d i n g i s  The N i k k e i H e r i t a g e  Centre,  p l a n n e d t o open i n 1997, w i l l  include a c u l t u r a l centre,  a senior  c i t i z e n s ' home, a l i b r a r y , a c a r e home, a n d a museum i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the archives.  P r e s e r v a t i o n of the H i s t o r y of the Community and R e l a t e d C u l t u r a l Activities I n 1977, a p h o t o g r a p h e x h i b i t i o n on J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y was  produced  i n Vancouver  as  p r o j e c t , which t r a v e l l e d across published The  a  Japanese  Canada.  Canadian  The e x h i b i t i o n was l a t e r  a s a book. Japanese  established  Canadian  i n 1981 u n d e r  History  Preservation  the Vancouver  JCCA.  e m p h a s i s was o n i n t e r v i e w i n g o l d e r p e o p l e . main impetus f o r t h e establishment p e o p l e were p a s s i n g  Committee  This  was b e c a u s e t h e  o f t h e c o m m i t t e e was t h a t  i t was t o o l a t e .  walking  tours  historically significant The  i n the areas  older  t h e need t o  The c o m m i t t e e h a s  a l s o p u t d i s p l a y s a t t h e a n n u a l community f e s t i v a l , conducted  was  O r i g i n a l l y , the  away, a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y r e c o g n i z e d  record t h e i r experiences before  and  centennial  and produced  of the c i t y  that are  t o Japanese.  r e s p o n d e n t b e l i e v e s t h a t c o m m u n i t y members a r e g e n e r a l l y  interested i nthe history.  T h e y do n o t , h o w e v e r , a c t i v e l y s e e k o u t  information. Public  schools  have r e q u e s t e d  information  on t h e Japanese-  Canadian h i s t o r y , as w e l l as speakers f o r c l a s s e s . o f t e n gone o n w a l k i n g indications  that  tours.  the general  S t u d e n t s have  The r e s p o n d e n t t h i n k s t h a t t h e s e a r e p u b l i c has an i n t e r e s t i n Japanese-  Canadian h i s t o r y .  96  Archival The  Activities H i s t o r y P r e s e r v a t i o n C o m m i t t e e , f o r m e d i n 1981,  transformed  into  t h e Japanese Canadian A r c h i v e s .  was l a t e r  I t changed t h e  name t o J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l Museum a n d A r c h i v e s 1995  w i t h t h e p l a n t o be p a r t o f t h e N i k k e i H e r i t a g e The  archives  acquires  Canadian  history."  records  talking  geographical  Records  of  acquisition  They w o u l d  about  scope  welcome m a t e r i a l s  "anything  the  include  existing  with  Centre. the  Japanese  a non-Japanese  person's  Japanese-Canadian  of acquisition o f Japanese  t o do  (JCNMA) i n  history.  The  i s n a t i o n a l , but they  would  C a n a d i a n s who went b a c k  organizations  also  fall  t o Japan.  i n t h e scope  of  ( f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y o f t h e JCNMA, s e e A p p e n d i x  4) . As f o r t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f a c q u i s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o J a p a n e s e Canadian archives need  i n other  f o r computer  local  networking  m a t e r i a l s ) c a n be shared  communities,  so t h a t  they  emphasize t h e  information  (contents  among d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s .  of  Although the  r e s p o n d e n t b e l i e v e s t h a t o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be i d e a l l y k e p t in  a safe place with proper f a c i l i t i e s  and environmental  control,  he r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e a r c h i v e s s h o u l d n o t f o r c e s m a l l e r a r c h i v e s t o t r a n s f e r o r i g i n a l s because t h e i r thinks that  facilities  a r e n o t as good.  "the n a t i o n a l [Japanese-Canadian a r c h i v e s ]  He  should s e t  the p o l i c y and t r y t o g e t c o o p e r a t i o n from a l l t h e o t h e r groups, t o f i n d o u t what t h e b e s t The  archives'  t h i n g t o do i s . " current  holdings  include  three  hundred  i n t e r v i e w s , f i f t e e n hundred photographs and e i g h t meters o f t e x t u a l records.  Many o f t h e t e x t u a l r e c o r d s  because they a r e mostly  i n Japanese.  97  have  n o t been  processed  They a r e a l r e a d y c a r r y i n g o u t d i s p l a y s a t d i f f e r e n t such as annual activities.  community f e s t i v a l s ,  and they  plan  planning The  t o conduct e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , archives  i s open  Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y . appointment before For  finding  according  The  t o the public  Presently, users  aids,  they  create  INMAGIC.  150  fonds  p r e s e n t l y h a s one p a i d  level  staff  description  have b i n d e r s  of  images. member.  There  126  needs.  In the Nikkei Heritage  h a v e t h r e e t h o u s a n d s q u a r e f e e t t o be s h a r e d archives  requires funding  charitable  status  and once  they  i t will  w i t h t h e museum.  They a r e a p p l y i n g f o r  get i t , they  "aggressively look f o r other funding." some g r a n t s  Centre,  from t h e p u b l i c , governments,  c o r p o r a t i o n s and any o t h e r p o s s i b l e sources. a  5p.m.  a r c h i v e s i s now l o c a t e d i n t h e JCCA o f f i c e b u i l d i n g w i t h  square f e e t o f space.  The  to  u s u a l l y n e e d t o make a n  They a l s o  a r e v o l u n t e e r s who r e s p o n d t o s p e c i f i c The  seminars.  9 a.m.  of p r i n t s f o rsearching photographic  archives  will  They a r e a l s o  such as from  Centre  they can use m a t e r i a l s .  t o t h e RAD u s i n g  photocopies  t o expand t h e  The new b u i l d i n g i n t h e N i k k e i H e r i t a g e  i n c l u d e a d i s p l a y area o f f i v e hundred square f e e t .  occasions  are going  They have a l r e a d y  from t h e A r c h i v e s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h  to  received  Columbia.  As f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r a r c h i v e s , t h e a r c h i v e s h a v e joined and  t h e ACA a n d t h e A r c h i v e s  Association of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s Union  Although activities  the  archives  with  other  i s not archives,  yet  carrying  out  i t i s i n contact  List.  cooperative with  nearby  A s o f S e p t e m b e r 1995, t h e r e i s a n o t h e r p e r s o n w o r k i n g a s a p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r b o t h f o r t h e a r c h i v e s a n d t h e museum. 126  98  municipal  archives  history.  The  and  museums r e l a t e d t o  archives  British  C o l u m b i a and  t h e UBC  libraries.  has  connections  i n contact  with  the  Japanese-Canadian  with  the  University  l i b r a r i a n s and  of  a r c h i v i s t s of  Summary The an  Japanese-Canadian archives  independent  part  of  an  full-fledged archival organization,  existing organization.  p o l i c y of the a r c h i v e s to  follow  order  the  t o be  i n Vancouver i s planned to  The  mandate  professional  successful.  are  archives  theory  Strict  of  and  i s , however, s t i l l  a c q u i s i t i o n suggests  oriented  collector,  a  collection  practices  rather  of  archives  c r i t e r i a f o r the grants  a r e a s w h e r e more d i s c u s s i o n  scope  and  than  show t h a t t h e y r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l  have begun t o r e c e i v e have p r o b a b l y prompted t h i s The  rather  be  that  they  understanding.  a t a s t a r t i n g s t a g e and  and  planning  in  are  there  required.  that  they  are  a  subject-  t h a n one  that  systematically  receives  records  from a s p e c i f i c groups of records  studied  the  more o f  The  creators.  Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y along  with  If a historian other  subjects,  the a r c h i v e s might a c q u i r e o n l y p a r t of h i s fonds t h a t i s concerned w i t h the Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y . serve  as  criteria  of  mainly concerned with So This  is  archives present,  a c q u i s i t i o n or  most  British  appraisal.  of  t e x t u a l records them  are  Columbia  in  Rather, and  c o n s i s t i n g s o l e l y of photographs from the  Union  i t is  processing.  been processed.  Japanese  and  t o d e a l w i t h them.  Archives  99  have not  written  needs p e r s o n n e l from o u t s i d e the  c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c y does not  f e a s i b i l i t y of p r e s e r v a t i o n  f a r , most o f t h e because  The  List  archives'  lists  the  For  the  fonds  holdings.  In  order  to  function form  a  "national"  networks  Japanese  planning  and  activities  i n d i f f e r e n t Japanese-Canadian communities across  the  100  integrate  of  i t has  T h i s h a s y e t t o be s t a r t e d  and  archives  Canadians,  country.  to  as  i n earnest.  Chapter F i v e CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  This  case  communities  study revealed  studied  have  that  a l l o f t h e Japanese-Canadian  thewill  t o develop  archival  programs  aimed a t p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s .  F i v e communities have  started  form,  archival  communities chapter  the  are planning  first  activities  programs  examines  i n some to start  and t h e two r e m a i n i n g  one w i t h i n  and p o t e n t i a l s  w i t h recommendations related t o ethnic  of archival  Vancouver  I t then analyzes  activities  i n  the  The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s  f o r sound p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r c h i v a l  materials  groups.  1. Community Context and A r c h i v a l t e r m s -. o f  communities  This  t h e present stage and p l a n s o f a r c h i v a l  communities i n l i g h t o f a r c h i v a l t h e o r i e s .  In  a few years.  i n r e l a t i o n t o community c o n d i t i o n s .  objectives  already  population,  a r e grouped are large  Activities  into  with  the  large  more  seven  and small  than  fifteen  Japanese-Canadian ones;  Toronto and  thousand  Japanese  C a n a d i a n s , and o t h e r f i v e communities a r e s m a l l w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n r a n g i n g from one t o t h r e e t h o u s a n d . people temporarily l i v i n g  i n the area are considered p a r t o f t h e  community, a l t h o u g h t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e t e m p o r a r y are  " J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t y " was n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n  a n y o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s where i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d .  the  residents  i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e community v a r i e s from one c a s e t o a n o t h e r . The  of  Japanese  Two t y p e s  approaches t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n i c community a r e o b s e r v e d i n interviews:  One i s t o v i e w  101  t h e community  as a group o f  individuals This  whose e t h n i c i t y i s somehow r e l a t e d t o t h e  includes  Japanese  Canadians  who  were  born  Japanese.  in  Canada,  immigrants from Japan, Japanese t e m p o r a r i l y l i v i n g i n the area,  and  non-Japanese  and  who  are m a r r i e d t o Japanese o r Japanese Canadians  their children.  T h i s a p p r o a c h t e n d s t o be a c o n c e p t u a l  it  t o k e e p t r a c k o f a l l t h e c o m m u n i t y members b y  i s impossible  definition.  As  well,  f o r an  individual to  be  one  a  because this  member  of  a  J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t y b y t h i s a p p r o a c h i s one o f h i s o r h e r many  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; thus,  practical  use  i n defining  this  an  approach  archives'  can  rarely  a c q u i s i t i o n scope.  o t h e r a p p r o a c h i s t o c l o s e l y , i d e n t i f y t h e community w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s .  be  of The  community  In t h i s approach, a non-Japanese  who  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t i e s i s more o f a c o m m u n i t y member than  a  Japanese  Canadian  who  never  associates  with  community  organizations. Manitoba s t a t e d was cohesive  i s the  cohesive. because  only  community  that  a  respondent  O t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s a r e n o t t h o u g h t t o be  there  are  differences  of  opinion  organizations  cooperation and  to  however,  working  in  i n s m a l l communities except Lethbridge.  the D i s t r i c t ,  seems  are,  impede  organizations.  the geographical the  community  In the  large  dispersion  leaders'  of  such  activities.  fairly  their  working  as  individual  own a or  i n t e r e s t s and real  hub  of  organization  the by  goals.  No  community, itself  102  can  single and  close  Lethbridge  the  population  as  to  integrate  Toronto  V a n c o u v e r , numerous o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i r with  the  In  abilities  communities,  very  within  c o m m u n i t y , o r few p e o p l e a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n c o m m u n i t y Community  clearly  activities  organization  i t seems  comprehend  and  that  needs  is no and  c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e whole community. O r g a n i z a t i o n s necessarily cooperate.  disconnected  from  communities,  newspapers, and n e w s l e t t e r s cohesiveness  significantly  of  the extent  emerged  simply  o f major a  organizations.  community  from  identified  discussions  recognized  does  n o t seem  to affect  Nor i s a p a r t i c u l a r  by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .  o f community  a s an d e s i r a b l e  have  part  o f community  to the difference  earlier  i n the time  when  they  been  impetus Rather,  leadership,  o r were  activities.  The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d e g r e e o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r c h i v e s due  do  broadcasts,  t o which a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s  archival activities  they  o f them  such as t e l e v i s i o n  d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e community so f a r . for  a n d some  The l a r g e c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e more d e v e l o p e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n  means t h a n t h e s m a l l  The  one a n o t h e r ,  a r e , however, n o t  i s mainly  started  one ( t h e  a n a r c h i v e s was s t a r t e d , t h e b e t t e r i t i s d e v e l o p e d ) . When  a c o m m u n i t y s t a r t e d a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s was a p p a r e n t l y  determined  by p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e community.  i s because  in  recent  planning  years  t h e community  activities  leadership  This  take  initiative  in  and a t t r a c t people, r a t h e r t h a n r e s p o n d i n g t o  o b v i o u s needs o f t h e m a j o r i t y  o f t h e c o m m u n i t y members s i n c e f e w  c o m m u n i t y members h a v e t o r e l y o n t h e c o m m u n i t y f o r t h e i r e s s e n t i a l economic o r s o c i a l needs. majority  None o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e  o f t h e community  members  were  strongly  interested i n  archives  a t t h e moment, b u t most r e s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t o n c e a n  archives  i s s e t i n m o t i o n many p e o p l e w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d a n d w i l l  support  i t .  How  cohesive  t h e community  community g e n e r a l l y i s w i l l have b e a r i n g s of  the archives.  close  cooperation  Where c o m m u n i t y and g e t t i n g  many  103  i s o r how  active the  on t h e f u t u r e development  organizations volunteers,  are working i n the archives i s  l i k e l y t o be p a r t o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s a n d t o be s u p p o r t e d o n a broad basis. In that  initiating  archival  activities,  a community's  awareness  i t s h i s t o r y i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e l a r g e r  society  seems  activity  t o be more  significant  o f t h e community.  than  the cohesiveness or  A l t h o u g h r e d r e s s was n o t m e n t i o n e d b y  r e s p o n d e n t s as an impetus f o r d e v e l o p i n g a r c h i v a l apparently  had an impact  regarding their history.  on p e r s p e c t i v e s  archival  of Japanese  Canadians  C o n s e q u e n t l y i t h a d some i n d i r e c t  on h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n . organized  activities, i t  F o r example,  activities  before  impact  no J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y t h e movement  had  f o r redress  s t a r t e d , w h e r e a s p r e s e n t l y a l l t h e c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e p l a n s f o r them. Redress  helped  form  cultivate archival  foundations  i n communities  t o accept  activities.  The c u r r e n t s t a t e o f J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s induced a r c h i v a l  activities.  have u r g e n t needs organizations activities the  Now t h a t  need  a raison  financial  d'etre,  and community  members t o g e t h e r .  and s o c i a l  indirectly  J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s do n o t  f o r w h i c h t h e y r e l y on t h e community,  t o t i e community  current  and  community  leaders  seek  A t t h e same t i m e ,  s t a t e of the communities  allows  them t o c a r r y o u t c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s t h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a l u x u r y in  t h e 194 0s,  purchase  rice.  when  Japanese  Canadians  needed  a  committee  to  1 2 7  I t seems t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e size  of  the  community  and  archival  activities'  development.  T o r o n t o and Vancouver a r e t h e o n l y communities t h a t have a w r i t t e n mandate  7  and p o l i c y ,  a n d s o f a r t h e y a r e a i m i n g a t more  Montreal B u l l e t i n ,  B u l l e t i n 1, no.2 ( A p r i l 104  1946) 1.  formal  development  of archives  than the smaller  communities.  t o be b e c a u s e o f t h e two l a r g e c o m m u n i t i e s ' s t r o n g e r t h e i r resources. archival  differ.  archives  of  Vancouver Japanese  m a t e r i a l s on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . its  scope  to  communities Archives  the  do  Greater  to their  aims  at  Canadians  functioning  and  city.  area,  seek  a  acquire  hand,  limits  other  small  Toronto  Nikkei  to a c t i v e l y  acquire  just  not i n t e n d  as  to  Furthermore,  a n d R e s o u r c e C e n t r e does  in  communities'  T o r o n t o , on t h e o t h e r  Toronto  seems  confidence  However, t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e two  thrust  "national"  This  as  the  m a t e r i a l s , b u t r a t h e r i t e m p h a s i z e s on i d e n t i f y i n g w h e r e m a t e r i a l s p e r t a i n i n g t o the Japanese e x p e r i e n c e are l o c a t e d i n the area.  It  w i l l e d u c a t e c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o k e e p t h e i r own a r c h i v e s  and  maintain The  information  cause  of  the  on  t h e l o c a t i o n and  difference  communities i s not c l e a r . as  the  "home  town"  of  in  the  contents of approaches  materials.  of  the  I t may be b e c a u s e V a n c o u v e r v i e w s Japanese  Canadians,  while  two  itself  Toronto  only  happens t o have a l a r g e Japanese-Canadian p o p u l a t i o n because i t i s a  large  city.  difference  2.  i n the thoughts of the  Objectives As  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t may  discussed  own  delineated  simply  because  of  the  leadership.  and Potential of Japanese-Canadian Archives i n C h a p t e r One,  whenever p o s s i b l e , their  be  records  archives. i n terms  alternative., to  creators  Archives of  should  acquiring  territoriality  institutional  c o l l e c t i n g resource  archival theories be  archives.  encouraged  materials  are  assert  with  considered On  the  that,  to a  t o be other  keep scope the hand,  m a t e r i a l s on a c e r t a i n theme h a s b e e n l a r g e l y  105  criticized  i n t h e Canadian  archival  community.  Where  J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n community a r c h i v e s f i t i n t h e s e  do t h e  categories?  A c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s o f Japanese-Canadian community a r c h i v e s tend  t o be t h e m a t i c  ones.  Three communities  Hamilton) had not y e t decided communities of  (Kamloops,  Manitoba,  on t h e scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n .  Three  ( L e t h b r i d g e , M o n t r e a l , Vancouver) d e s c r i b e t h e i r  acquisition  using  more  or  less  thematic  terms,  scope  such  as  "Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y i n Southern A l b e r t a , " "resettlement i n Montreal,"  and " a r c h i v a l  m a t e r i a l s which i l l u s t r a t e  and h i s t o r y o f Japanese Canadians i n Canada." i s not o u t r i g h t thematic,  acquisition  matters,  scope by r e c o r d s  many o f t h o s e  centre, keeping materials.  between  professional  library  staffing  and  the  professional  archives  archivist  or  Complicating  a research  expertise,  museum  resource  the  materials  essential  and  archival  overlooked.  facilities,  r e l a t i v e l y more r e s o u r c e s . although  creators, either.  archives aim a t being  m a t e r i a l s seems t o b e o f t e n In  However, i t d o e s n o t d e f i n e  l i b r a r y a n d / o r museum m a t e r i a l s a l o n g w i t h a r c h i v a l Without  difference  Toronto's approach  s t a t i n g "materials r e l a t e d t o the Toronto  r e g i o n J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n community." the  the heritage  the larger  communities  have  Vancouver has f u l l - t i m e p a i d s t a f f , and i n Toronto  i s run  by  volunteers,  i s contributing to the efforts.  a  The two  c o m m u n i t i e s have d e f i n i t e p l a n s t o have e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d storage  f o rmaterials.  p r e s e n t l y beyond All  their  I n small communities, these p r o v i s i o n s are scope.  t h e c o m m u n i t i e s have t h e i r a r c h i v e s open t o t h e p u b l i c o r  p l a n t o do s o . T h i s i s a c o r o l l a r y o f t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g  106  motivation  f o r a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s : t o preserve of Japanese Canadians f o r f u t u r e Closeness records  to  records  t o be a c q u i r e d  based a r c h i v e s . archives  creators  community  i n small  locating  and  complementarity  among  a r e i d e n t i f i e d as a d v a n t a g e s o f community-  organizations  communities,  c o m m u n i t y members a l s o e x i s t . in  generations.  T h i s i s t h e case w i t h J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n community  because  especially  a n d make a v a i l a b l e t h e h i s t o r y  important  and  in  informal  cooperation,  networks  among  Community a r c h i v e s h a v e a d v a n t a g e s  records  a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e community.  work  and  advocating  for archival  A l t h o u g h t h o s e community a r c h i v e s a r e  n o t f r e e f r o m l a n g u a g e p r o b l e m s , g i v e n t h a t most J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s do n o t r e a d J a p a n e s e , a s one r e s p o n d e n t e x p r e s s e d , t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o h a v e e a s i e r a c c e s s t o t h e n e e d e d human As depends  Canadian  Archives  on i t s p a r e n t  Japanese-Canadian chapter also  resources.  argues, i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t an a r c h i v e s body  f o r i t s core  community a r c h i v e s  funding.  Most  a r e formed under  of the  the l o c a l  o f t h e NAJC, a n d i n some c o m m u n i t i e s t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e i s  involved  i n i t s operation.  While  none  of  the  archives  p r e s e n t l y have d e f i n i t e budget p l a n s ,  o n l y one e x p e c t s t h a t  funding  might  be p a r t  o f t h e NAJC l o c a l  Others  think  that  o f t h e budget  they  have  to  procure  funding  A l t h o u g h none o f them h a s a s t a b l e f i n a n c i a l too  concerned  communities.  with This  the  issue,  i s probably  chapter.  themselves.  basis, they are not  especially because  their  they  those would  in carry  small out  a c t i v i t i e s that t h e i r f i n a n c i a l conditions allow, r a t h e r than s t a r t w i t h a grand p l a n and then t r y t o p r o c u r e t h e r e q u i r e d  funding.  Whether o r n o t a community as a whole i s w i l l i n g and a b l e t o s u p p o r t an a r c h i v a l program i s a n o t h e r c o n c e r n .  107  Young  generations  are  largely  culture  assimilated  i s something  into  they  consciously  e n v i r o n m e n t t h e y grow up i n . as  a motive  the larger  society; learn,  and Japanese  rather  Thus, c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s a r e g r o w i n g  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a c t i v i t i e s ,  communities,  t h e need  than the  f o r a sense  a n d i n many  o f i d e n t i t y i s acknowledged.  A r c h i v a l p r o g r a m s a r e l i k e l y t o be w e l c o m e d a s o n e way t o r e s p o n d t o t h i s need. is  A n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t emerged f r o m t h e p r e s e n t  the v i s i b i l i t y  outstanding factor  o f programs.  presence o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  that  attracts  people's  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and support. support,  I n many  communities, t h e  b u i l d i n g i s considered  attention  and that  i t may be e f f e c t i v e t o e s t a b l i s h a f o r m a l  Recommendations  As  discussed  archival  f o r Sound P r e s e r v a t i o n o f  archival materials Nevertheless,  are not enthusiastic  organization facilities.  about  andthe Canadian preservation  r e l a t e d t o e t h n i c groups by e t h n i c  t h i s case study revealed  broad  Ethnic Archives  i n C h a p t e r One, p u b l i c a r c h i v e s  community  a  procures  F o r an a r c h i v a l program t o o b t a i n  (not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d e p e n d e n t ) a n d o p e r a t e w i t h v i s i b l e  3.  study  there  of  communities.  i s s u b s t a n t i a l amount  of e f f o r t t o p r e s e r v e r e c o r d s by Japanese-Canadian communities. I t also  showed  that,  although  those  community  based  archives can  r a r e l y a f f o r d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , i t d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h e y are  unaware o f a r c h i v a l t h e o r i e s  the  a r c h i v a l community a t l a r g e  communities,  several  and e s t a b l i s h e d toutilize  practices.  For  thee f f o r t s of ethnic  recommendations based on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e  present study are offered. First, recognized  preservation  of ethnic  archival  material  s h o u l d be  a s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o b e assumed b y p u b l i c a r c h i v e s and  108  e t h n i c communities. afford  U n l i k e i n t h e p a s t , when p u b l i c a r c h i v e s  relatively  extensive,  i f not systematic,  archival  materials,  they  private  emphasis on r e c o r d s constraints, other  of t h e i r  now  Acknowledging  this  holistic  approach  responsibility  Although  because  reality,  a r g u e s t h a t t h e a r c h i v a l community s h o u l d  Preservation  for  which  the  of ethnic  public  keeping  embodies  preservation  shift  large  also  financial  cannot  collective  of  private  ethnic  archival materials  should  acknowledge  or  to  shared  the  whole  the importance  of the society's  P u b l i c a r c h i v e s and t h e a r c h i v a l community  recognize  their  share o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  the p o t e n t i a l that  ethnic  contributing t o the preservation of t h e i r  communities  and  have i n  records.  Second, t h e a r c h i v a l community s h o u l d a c t i v e l y c o o p e r a t e ethnic archival provide Whereas  communities  understanding  Private Newsletter  Larger  and  archives'  identifying their  are w i l l i n g established  facilities,  closeness  records  context,  professional  specialized  1 2 8  the l a t t e r  to  public  expertise, and  so  on.  of  to  archives  records  continuing  archives storage  might space,  F o r example,  with  carry  whatever a s s i s t a n c e they can t o community-based  facilitates  provide  when  activities.  community  1 2 8  exception.  assume  as p a r t  t o "a  records."  i s n o t an  afford  Hives  t h e i r focus  a  archival materials  archives  documentary h e r i t a g e . at  of  their  Christopher  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e i r own, t h e y must n o t n e g l e c t of  place  needs t o respond t o freedom o f i n f o r m a t i o n a c t s , and  factors.  more  a c q u i s i t i o n of  explicitly  parent bodies  could  out  should  archives. creators  value be  and  able  access in a  to to  small  C h r i s t o p h e r H i v e s , " V i e w p o i n t -- A c q u i r i n g a n d P r e s e r v i n g Records: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally," AABC 4, no.2 ( s p r i n g 1 9 9 4 ) : 4. 109  community, archives  the  can  connections records  jointly within  creators  raising  i n the  within and  community  the  and  a  public  public archives recognize  Hives suggests that  archives  order  that  in British  archives  program  facilities  are  enjoying  contributions  community  equally  the  British  archives  responsible.  Columbia A r c h i v a l  even h a r m f u l c o m p e t i t i o n  Union  materials  the  planning  generations to  In  in acquisition,  and a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s o f  To p r e s e r v e a w e l l - r o u n d e d b o d y future  is  step towards the c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s  repositories.  proactive  archives  fund-  of e t h n i c a r c h i v e s p r e s e r v a t i o n  i t i s u s e f u l t o know t h e h o l d i n g s  gaps,  researching  physical  ethnic  close  Columbia to preserve p r i v a t e records.  t o a v o i d f u t i l e and  for  with  records,  w i l l view these  f o r which they are  List i s a significant first of  few  university  by  on  f o r the  provide  Though  Third, c o l l e c t i v e planning needed.  can  a  former,  information  latter  or  contribute  advocating  staffing.  activities  The  can  contextual  i f they  archives  program.  community,  community; the  reasonable  a  c o m m u n i t y , and  professional  c a r r y out  run  the  a f f l u e n t resources, as  and  utilize  without resources  other  of e t h n i c a r c h i v a l leaving and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to involved parties i s e s s e n t i a l .  haphazard  to  allocate  As o b s e r v e d i n  t h i s c a s e s t u d y , e t h n i c community a r c h i v e s t e n d t o adopt a t h e m a t i c approach to the should  help  that allows The  ethnic  archives  acquisition policy  programs.  The i t  plan  their  them t o f i t w i t h i n t h e  community-based  because  a c q u i s i t i o n of m a t e r i a l s .  archives  is  need  an to  The  a r c h i v a l community  activities  i n such a  Canadian a r c h i v a l system. essential address  in  issue  that  ethnic  developing  their  thematic approach to a c q u i s i t i o n should  leads  to  idiosyncratic  110  way  collections  of  be  avoided  materials;  p e r t i n e n c e can never be. a l e g i t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n o f a c q u i s i t i o n g i v e n that  i t changes depending on the use.  When an e t h n i c  e s t a b l i s h e s an a r c h i v e s , the u l t i m a t e goal of r e c o r d s  community-  preservation  i s best served i f the a r c h i v e s f u n c t i o n s as a c o l l e c t i v e r e p o s i t o r y of community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . role  In t h i s way, the a r c h i v e s  s i m i l a r t o an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  integrity Ideally,  of records an a r c h i v e s  archives,  and consequently should  assumes a  which can r e t a i n the  preserve  their  context.  be supported by a l l o f the community  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n terms o f funding and a c q u i r i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s , much as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s i s supported by i t s parent  body.  As  f o r r e c o r d s of i n d i v i d u a l s , the c r i t e r i a of a c q u i s i t i o n should be complementarity  t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  records.  A celebrity's  r e c o r d s should not be a c q u i r e d o n l y because he o r she happens t o be of a c e r t a i n e t h n i c Ethnic  origin.  community  difference  between  materials.  Ethnic  archives  archival community  should  materials  also and  understand  library  the  or  museum  a r c h i v a l programs a r e o f t e n  run i n  c o n j u n c t i o n with l i b r a r i e s , museums, c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s , o r r e s e a r c h centres.  One o r g a n i z a t i o n  principles  and p r a c t i c e s  can have d i s t i n c t underlying  confused with those o f the other. materials, theories  ethnic  community  and p r a c t i c e s  function  must  but the not be  For the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r c h i v a l  archives  accepted  one  functions,  should  adhere t o a r c h i v a l  and r e a l i z e d  i n the a r c h i v a l  community. E t h n i c community a r c h i v e s should a l s o develop a network among archives ethnic  of the same e t h n i c communities  collaboration  at  and share  group i n d i f f e r e n t  different  locations  i n t e r e s t s , and t h e i r  111  areas. often  records  Because work  in  are o f t e n  interrelated, preservation  networking of  their  applies  to  ethnic  ethnic  community  significance" illogical  is  necessary  records.  archives  as  should  from a c r o s s  removal  of  The  the  a  glean  from  and  of  efficient  territoriality  "national" archives  county.  records  sound  principle  well;  not  for  records This  the  of  would  a  "national  result  l o c a l e where  c r e a t e d , a s done i n t h e p a s t b y some p o w e r f u l  of  in  they  the were  public archives.  It  s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s a r e c r e a t e d i n a  context  that  i s d e f i n e d by  the  local  m i l i e u as  w e l l as  by  the  ethnicity.  4.  Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r S t u d i e s This case study  explored  the a t t i t u d e s of e t h n i c  towards  the  preservation  of  Because  the  present  study  case  their  records  dealt with  and  communities  their potentials.  only  one  ethnic  through i n t e r v i e w s w i t h people i n v o l v e d i n the developing  group  archival  a c t i v i t i e s , the i s s u e of p r e s e r v i n g e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y e x a m i n e d i n f u t u r e First,  research.  because the a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s r e v e a l e d  s t u d y were a l l a t the p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e , the a c t u a l of  such  programs  was  not  made  clear.  To  in this  case  sustainability  further explore  the  s u s t a i n a b i l i t y and p e r f o r m a n c e o f e t h n i c c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d a r c h i v e s , it  will  be  for longer  u s e f u l t o examine a r c h i v e s  t h a t have been f u n c t i o n i n g  durations.  This case study archival activities.  e x a m i n e d v i e w s o f p e o p l e who  involved i n  I t w i l l be a l s o i n f o r m a t i v e t o e x a m i n e  c o m m u n i t y members' p e r s p e c t i v e s and i s v i e w e d , and  are  supported,  s t u d y how  an a r c h i v a l  program  by the e t h n i c community a t l a r g e .  112  other  How p u b l i c a r c h i v e s a n d o t h e r a r c h i v e s a r e d e a l i n g w i t h e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d a l s o be r e e x a m i n e d . since  the Ethnic  changed  since  It  Workshop  was  of ethnic  and e x p l o r e  archives.  held,  and  1 2 9  much  has  then.  w o u l d be a l s o u s e f u l i n p l a n n i n g  programs groups  Archives  I t has been a decade  archival materials what  Perhaps  some  f a c t o r s prompt ethnic  preservation of t h e i r records  collective  t o study them  communities  preservation  different ethnic  to establish  their  are indifferent  to  as a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s under c e r t a i n  circumstances.  *  *  *  *  *  E t h n i c a r c h i v e s a r e i n t e g r a l p a r t o f documentary the  Canadian s o c i e t y .  Cooperative  efforts  heritage i n  among l a r g e r a r c h i v a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s and e t h n i c communities t o p r e s e r v e  ethnic archives can  enrich  and  the a r c h i v a l  themselves  system  on  t h e whole,  c a n become one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t  i d e n t i t y i n a country  of multiculturalism.  Boghossian. 113  those  pillars  of  efforts cultural  BIBLIOGRAPHY  "Acquisition Policy: A r c h i v i s t 2, no.1  Competition or ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 21-43.  Cooperation?"  Canadian  A d a c h i , Ken. The Enemy That Never Was: A History of the Canadians. T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t I n c . , 1991.  Japanese  A r n o l d , A . J . "The B i r t h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f a W e s t e r n J e w i s h A r c h i v e s P r o g r a m . " Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2, no.3 (1972) : 24-29. Association of Canadian Archival Repositories. A r c h i v i s t s , 1977.  Archivists. 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" MAS t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1993.  M c C r e e , M a r y L y n n . "Good S e n s e a n d Good J u d g e m e n t : Defining C o l l e c t i o n s a n d C o l l e c t i n g . " Drexel Library Quarterly 11 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 5 ) ; 21-33. Miki,  Roy a n d C a s s a n d r a K o b a y a s h i , e d s . J u s t i c e in Our Time: The Japanese Canadian Redress Settlement. Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1991.  Miller, Delbert Measurement. Min  C. New  Handbook of Research Design and Social Y o r k : D a v i d McKay Company, I n c . , 1970.  P y o n g Gap. "Cultural and Economic B o u n d a r i e s o f E t h n i c i t y : A C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s . " Ethnic and Racial 14, no.2 ( A p r i l 1991) : 2 2 5 - 2 4 1 .  M u l t i c u l t u r a l ism and the Government of Canada. S t a t e f o r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , 1971.  Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of  Neutel, Walter. 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" D o c u m e n t i n g t h e G r e a t M i g r a t i o n and a C e n t u r y o f E t h n i c i t y i n A m e r i c a . " American A r c h i v i s t 39 ( J u l y 1 9 7 9 ) : 319-328. Westerberg, K e r m i t B. "Swenson S w e d i s h I m m i g r a t i o n R e s e a r c h C e n t e r . " I l l i n o i s L i b r a r i e s 69, no.7 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 7 ) : 601606. "Why  V a n c o u v e r L a c k s L i t t l e T o k y o : An A m e r i c a n Compares N o t e s on R a c e D i s p e r s a l . " Vancouver Sun, 19 M a r c h 1983, s e c . A , p.10.  Wurl,  J o e l . "The A r c h i v a l G o l d e n D o o r ; T h o u g h t s o n I m p r o v i n g t h e State of Historical Documentation on the Immigrant E x p e r i e n c e . " I n Documenting D i v e r s i t y , 61-75.  117  Yin,  Robert K. "The Case Study as a S e r i o u s Research S t r a t e g y . " Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization 3, no.l (September 1981) :, 97-114 . . Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1994.  Young, C h a r l e s H. and Helen R. Y. Reid. The Japanese Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 193 8.  118  Canadians.  APPENDIX 1 Interview  Questions  D e f i n i t i o n o f the community What do you c o n s i d e r community?  t o be the g e o g r a p h i c a l  area  o f your  Who a r e members of t h e community? Do you u s u a l l y i n c l u d e temporary r e s i d e n t s (e.g. Japanesecompany employees and students) as community members? What are the r o l e s and p l a c e s of the temporary r e s i d e n t s i n the community? P o p u l a t i o n o f the community What i s the p o p u l a t i o n * of the community? Is the community growing o r s h r i n k i n g i n numbers? If i t i s growing, a r e newcomers coming mostly.from the r e s t o f Canada or from Japan? * The p o p u l a t i o n depends on who a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be members of the community, (e.g. whether i t i n c l u d e s temporary r e s i d e n t s . ) The numbers of the people of Japanese o r i g i n r e p o r t e d i n 1991 and 1981 census were obtained from the census r e p o r t s except those of Kamloops and L e t h b r i d g e .  Membership o f the NAJC l o c a l  chapter  What i s the number of the i n d i v i d u a l members? What i s the number of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members? Is the membership i n c r e a s i n g o r decreasing?  Why?  H i s t o r y o f the community When and how d i d the community start? What was the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the e v a c u a t i o n d u r i n g WWII and the community? When was the f i r s t community o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d ? (club, company o r any type of o r g a n i z a t i o n )  119  Future o f the community Do you t h i n k that people have a s t r o n g sense o f i d e n t i t y w i t h the community? Do you t h i n k they w i l l r e t a i n t h i s sense of i d e n t i t y i n the f u t u r e ? Will the community continue t o e x i s t because of i n f l o w of people from Japan? E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the NAJC l o c a l  chapter  When was the NAJC l o c a l chapter e s t a b l i s h e d ? D i d i t e x i s t b e f o r e the r e d r e s s movement? What was the impetus t o establish i t ? I f the l o c a l chapter was e s t a b l i s h e d because of the r e d r e s s movement, were there other g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which i n t e g r a t e d the community as a whole b e f o r e the l o c a l chapter was e s t a b l i s h e d ? Current s t a t e o f the community General G e n e r a l l y speaking, do you t h i n k the community i s f a i r l y cohesive? Are many people i n t e r e s t e d i n community a c t i v i t i e s ? Do community members tend t o have c l o s e r relationships w i t h each o t h e r than w i t h people o u t s i d e o f the Japanese community? Organizations What o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x i s t i n the community? e.g. language schools, c u l t u r a l c e n t r e , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' r e s i d e n c e s , museums, l i b r a r i e s , r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , business or p r o f e s s i o n a l associations, p o l i t i c a l organizations Needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s of members What do members expect from community o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? Do they want a sense of i d e n t i t y , a p l a c e f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , o r a means of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? Are there more p r a c t i c a l needs t h a t members expect the community t o address? Mass media Are there community?  broadcasts  of  television  or  radio  in/for  the  Is t h e r e Japanese press i n / f o r the community? Are telephone d i r e c t o r i e s of the community p u b l i s h e d ? Who o r g a n i z e s e x i s t i n g media? Which language does the media use? What i s the t a r g e t audience?  120  Lifestyle To what extent do the community members ( e s p e c i a l l y Japanese Canadians) r e t a i n the Japanese l i f e s t y l e ? Are t h e r e many s t o r e s s e l l i n g Japanese foods and goods? Are they aimed at Japanese Canadians and immigrants or temporary r e s i d e n t s ? Immigration Is there s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l o w of new immigrants from Japan now? What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o l d immigrants who have been i n Canada s i n c e b e f o r e WWII and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and recent immigrants? Is the community somewhat d i v i d e d along the l i n e of languages? Japanese companies and o r g a n i z a t i o n s Are there many s u b s i d i a r i e s or branches of Japanese companies and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the area? How do they a f f e c t the community? Do they p r o v i d e support to a c t i v i t i e s i n the Japanese commuity? Redress movement How many people i n the community have been approved e l i g i b l e f o r compensation? A c t i v i t i e s to p r e s e r v e  to  be  b e i n g planned community?  to  the h i s t o r y of the community  What a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d out, or are p r e s e r v e or disseminate the h i s t o r y of the  Are many people i n the community i n t e r e s t e d i n the h i s t o r y and i t s preservation? What is the perspective of the general public and o r g a n i z a t i o n s (e.g. schools and l i b r a r i e s ) of the area i n r e g a r d to the p r e s e r v a t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of the h i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians? Archives  programmes  Do you have an a r c h i v e s programme i n your community? are you p l a n n i n g one?  I f not,  I f the community i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n having an a r c h i v e s programme, why? Is i t because of l a c k of resources or l a c k of i n t e r e s t among community members, or matter of p r i o r i t y of the activities i n the community? Or do people t h i n k the p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i s t o r i e s i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p u b l i c archives? about the e x i s t i n g a r c h i v e s programme When was the programme s t a r t e d or when i s i t planned to started?  121  be  What was/is the impetus to develop  the a r c h i v e s ?  What i s the scope of the a c q u i s i t i o n ? Do you have a w r i t t e n a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y ? Do you l i m i t your a c q u i s i t i o n by r e c o r d s c r e a t o r ' s type, time p e r i o d , g e o g r a p h i c a l area o r type of media? Is the a r c h i v e s keeping recent records? For example, records of the r e d r e s s movement, records of the NAJC l o c a l chapter, and those of e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the community. What i s the volume of your h o l d i n g s ? photographs, etc.) Does the a r c h i v e s keeping m a t e r i a l s ?  (textual,  sound tapes,  programme i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s o t h e r than (e.g. e x h i b i t i o n s , p u b l i c a t i o n s , seminars)  How many people are working f o r the a r c h i v e s ? volunteers)  (paid s t a f f  and  Where i s the a r c h i v e s l o c a t e d ? Does i t have i t s own b u i l d i n g or s h a r i n g a b u i l d i n g with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? What i s the f l o o r s i z e of the a r c h i v e s ? What i s the source of funding f o r the What i s the prospect f o r the f u t u r e ?  archives  programme?  Do you r e c e i v e grants from governments? Do you the CCA and the p r o v i n c i a l c o u n c i l of a r c h i v e s ?  know about  What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the a r c h i v e s w i t h o t h e r a r c h i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y with the NAC and p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s ? (e.g. c o o p e r a t i o n i n a c q u i s i t i o n , d u p l i c a t i o n of h o l d i n g s , guides to h o l d i n g s , c o o p e r a t i v e e x h i b i t i o n s and seminars) What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as libraries, museums and universities? (e.g. c o o p e r a t i o n with a museum i n c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s )  122  APPENDIX 2 Sample q u e s t i o n s These are examples of the questions I will ask you. I would like to discuss issues that arise as the interview proceeds, and there will be additional questions. I hope that they will help you prepare for the interview. Please feel free to discuss them with other people or otherwise investigate to answer them, if you wish.  D e f i n i t i o n of the community Who a r e members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ? Do y o u u s u a l l y i n c l u d e t e m p o r a r y r e s i d e n t s ( e . g . J a p a n e s e company e m p l o y e e s a n d s t u d e n t s ) a s c o m m u n i t y members? What are t h e r o l e s and p l a c e s o f t h e temporary r e s i d e n t s i n t h e community? P o p u l a t i o n o f the community What i s t h e p o p u l a t i o n * o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ? I s t h e community g r o w i n g o r s h r i n k i n g i n numbers? If i t i s g r o w i n g , a r e newcomers c o m i n g m o s t l y f r o m t h e r e s t o f C a n a d a o r from Japan? * The p o p u l a t i o n d e p e n d s o n who a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , ( e . g . w h e t h e r i t i n c l u d e s temporary r e s i d e n t s . ) The numbers o f t h e p e o p l e o f J a p a n e s e o r i g i n r e p o r t e d i n 1991 a n d 1981 c e n s u s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e c e n s u s r e p o r t s e x c e p t t h o s e o f Kamloops and L e t h b r i d g e .  Membership of the NAJC l o c a l  chapter  What i s t h e number o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l members? What i s t h e number o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members? I s t h e membership i n c r e a s i n g o r d e c r e a s i n g ?  Why?  H i s t o r y of the community When was t h e f i r s t community o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d ? ( c l u b , company o r a n y t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n )  123  E s t a b l i s h m e n t of the NAJC l o c a l  chapter  When was the NAJC l o c a l chapter e s t a b l i s h e d ? Did i t exist b e f o r e the r e d r e s s movement? What was the impetus t o establish i t ? C u r r e n t s t a t e of the community Organizations What o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x i s t i n the community? e.g. language schools, c u l t u r a l centre, s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' r e s i d e n c e s , museums, l i b r a r i e s , r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , business or p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , p o l i t i c a l organizations Mass media Are there community?  broadcasts  of  television  or  radio  in/for  the  Is t h e r e Japanese press i n / f o r the community? Immigration Is there s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l o w of new immigrants from Japan now? Redress movement How many people i n the community e l i g i b l e f o r compensation?  have been approved  t o be  A c t i v i t i e s to p r e s e r v e the h i s t o r y of the community What a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d out, o r a r e b e i n g planned p r e s e r v e o r disseminate the h i s t o r y of the community? Archives  to  programmes  Do you have an a r c h i v e s programme i n your community? are you p l a n n i n g one? I f the community programme, why?  i s not i n t e r e s t e d  i n having  an  I f not, archives  about the e x i s t i n g a r c h i v e s programme When was the programme s t a r t e d or when i s i t planned started?  t o be  What i s the scope of the a c q u i s i t i o n ? Do you have a w r i t t e n a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y ? Do you l i m i t your a c q u i s i t i o n by records c r e a t o r ' s type, time p e r i o d , g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a o r type of media? What i s the volume of your h o l d i n g s ? photographs, etc.) 124  (textual,  sound tapes,  APPENDIX 3  Toronto N i k k e i A r c h i v e and Resource  Centre  Goals and O b j e c t i v e s The T o r o n t o N i k k e i A r c h i v e a n d R e s o u r c e C e n t r e s h a l l collect, conserve a n d make a v a i l a b l e f o r public study, historical, e d u c a t i o n a l and contemporary m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o t h e Toronto r e g i o n J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t y . The p a s t a n d t h e p r e s e n t w i l l be r e f l e c t e d . A r c h i v a l M a t e r i a l s and Resource Materials-. Books, Pamphlets, S t u d i e s , Academic Papers Newspapers, Magazines, P e r i o d i c a l s Records, Minutes of Meetings, N o t i c e s , P o s t e r s , Yearbooks O f f i c i a l Documents, P a s s p o r t s , I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Diaries, Letters Photographs Maps, P l a n s , S u r v e y s , D r a w i n g s L i s t s of Persons, A u d i o T a p e s , V i d e o T a p e s , F i l m , V i n y l R e c o r d s , Compact D i s k s C o n t e m p o r a r y J a p a n e s e m a t e r i a l s - m a g a z i n e s , manga c o m i c s , videos J a p a n e s e Language I n s t r u c t i o n Manuals  [Excerpt from an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r funding A s s o c i a t i o n o f Japanese Canadians]  125  from  the  National  APPENDIX 4 Japanese Canadian N a t i o n a l Museum and  Archives  A r c h i v e s Mandate The  Japanese Canadian A r c h i v e s e x i s t s t o :  1. C o l l e c t and preserve a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s which i l l u s t r a t e s h e r i t a g e and h i s t o r y of Japanese Canadians i n Canada.  the  2. Arrange and d e s c r i b e these m a t e r i a l s a c c o r d i n g to a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s and make them a c c e s s i b l e to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , u n l e s s access i s r e s t r i c t e d by l e g a l requirements or w r i t t e n agreements with the donor. 3 . Provide adequate and a p p r o p r i a t e c o n d i t i o n s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n , and p r e s e r v a t i o n of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l .  storage,  4. Provide regular reference services to individuals, o r g a n i z a t i o n s , or other groups i n t e r e s t e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s and h o l d i n g s of the J . C. A r c h i v e s . 5 . Provide e d u c a t i o n a l and outreach programming whenever p o s s i b l e to i n c r e a s e p u b l i c awareness and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the h i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadian community and i t s development.  Archives C o l l e c t i o n The 1.  Policy  Japanese Canadian A r c h i v e s  will:  C o l l e c t m a t e r i a l the A r c h i v e s can a f f o r d to keep and  2. C o l l e c t m a t e r i a l t h a t p r o c e s s i n g and c o s t .  shows a h i g h  ratio  of use  maintain. to  volume,  3. Store and m a i n t a i n m a t e r i a l as l o n g as i t i s deemed by the a r c h i v i s t and/or the A r c h i v e committee as meeting these above criteria. Until such time as t h i s material i s no longer deemed as relevant to the Archive, the given property may be deaccessioned. D e a c c e s s i o n i n g s h a l l not take p l a c e without the w r i t t e n a u t h o r i t y from e i t h e r a t r a i n e d a r c h i v i s t and the A r c h i v e s ' A c q u i s i t i o n s Committee. 4. Accept h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l of any medium, as i t corresponds to our mandate, i n c l u d i n g : t e x t u a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e records, photographs, books, maps, o r a l h i s t o r i e s and o t h e r a u d i o - v i s u a l documentation. The Archives' Currently c o l l e c t s a r t i f a c t s if they have archival value and if t h e i r s i z e and condition are s u i t a b l e for the 126  Archives' Archives'  premises. These objects w i l l need to be reviewed a c q u i s i t i o n s committee before being accepted.  by the  5. Accept m a t e r i a l on a permanent b a s i s , except when the A r c h i v e s borrows m a t e r i a l f o r short-term loans t o reproduce o r t o i n c l u d e i n displays or exhibits. 6. Accept m a t e r i a l o n l y as l o n g as the proper deed of g i f t o r l o a n agreements a r e signed by both the donor, lender, and an a r c h i v i s t or A r c h i v e s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . 7. R e t a i n the r i g h t t o reproduce m a t e r i a l s by mechanical means f o r s e c u r i t y , c o n s e r v a t i o n , o r r e s e a r c h purposes as s p e c i f i e d by the deed of g i f t and l o a n agreements.  127  

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