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Ethnic archives in Canada: a case study of seven Japanese communities 1996

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ETHNIC ARCHIVES IN CANADA: A CASE STUDY OF SEVEN JAPANESE COMMUNITIES by SAYURI TSURUTA BA, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Library, Archival and Information Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1996 ©Sayuri Tsuruta, 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. ^Bepacteee-t of /-< The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 2 S~ Ja yuifl/iy. j DE-6 (2788) ABSTRACT In the Canadian a r c h i v a l system, i n the p a s t , e t h n i c communit ies were not encouraged to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own a r c h i v e s because they were c o n s i d e r e d t o . l a c k the r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d f o r s u s t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e a r c h i v e s . In recent - y e a r s p u b l i c a r c h i v e s have come to emphasize p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r p a r e n t b o d i e s ' a r c h i v e s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y fewer r e s o u r c e s have been a v a i l a b l e f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p r i v a t e a r c h i v e s , i n c l u d i n g e t h n i c a r c h i v e s . There i s ev idence t h a t some e t h n i c communit ies are c o n c e r n e d to p r e s e r v e t h e i r a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e . e f f o r t s o f J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n communit ies to p r e s e r v e a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s b e a r i n g - o n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . A case s tudy u s i n g the method of f o c u s s e d i n t e r v i e w s o f J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n communit ies i n seven c i t i e s r e v e a l e d the s u b s t a n t i a l w i l l to p r e s e r v e a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . The s t u d y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t , w h i l e Japanese Canadians have been and are b e i n g r a p i d l y a s s i m i l a t e d to the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s and the need f o r the sense o f i d e n t i t y p e r s i s t and are renewed by each g e n e r a t i o n . Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , community l e a d e r s h i p sees a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the community a c t i v i t i e s . The case s tudy a l s o r e v e a l e d s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s i n those communit ies . C l o s e n e s s t o r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s through f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l networks w i t h i n the communit ies p r o v i d e s community a r c h i v e s w i t h d i s t i n c t advantages . These a r c h i v e s can e a s i l y i d e n t i f y and l o c a t e m a t e r i a l s o f c o n t i n u i n g v a l u e . They a l s o have easy acces s to c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on r e c o r d s and t h e i r c r e a t o r s . Weaknesses were i d e n t i f i e d i n d e f i n i n g a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . C o n t r a r y t o co n c e r n s o f some a r c h i v i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s , most re s p o n d e n t s a re aware o f t h e need t o a b i d e by p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , and t h e y a re a l s o w i l l i n g . t o make t h e i r m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . Based on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e case s t u d y , s e v e r a l recommendations a r e o f f e r e d . P r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o be assumed by b o t h p u b l i c a r c h i v e s and e t h n i c communities. To c a r r y out t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e f f e c t i v e l y , p l a n n i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n among d i f f e r e n t a r c h i v e s and communities a r e e s s e n t i a l . E t h n i c community-based a r c h i v e s , on t h e i r p a r t , s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e a c c e p t e d p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a r e a o f a c q u i s i t i o n , so t h a t t h e y f u n c t i o n as a l e g i t i m a t e p a r t o f t h e Canadian a r c h i v a l system. N e t w o r k i n g among e t h n i c community a r c h i v e s i s a l s o recommended i n o r d e r t o r e v e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i r h o l d i n g s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract • i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables ' v i Acknowledgement v i i INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter One PRESERVATION OF ETHNIC ARCHIVAL MATERIAL IN THE CANADIAN ARCHIVAL SYSTEM 5 1. Canadian Archival Traditions and Archival P r i n c i p l e s 5 2. Public Institutions 12 3. Research-oriented Preservation 17 4. Preservation within the Ethnic Communities 23 Chapter Two DEVELOPMENT OF JAPANESE COMMUNITIES IN CANADA 33 1. Before World War II 33 2. The Mass Evacuation during World War II 41 3. Post-war Japanese Communities 43 Chapter Three DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE STUDY 49 1. Research Method 49 2. Selection of the Cases 51 3. Description of the Communities Selected 52 4. Procedures of the Study 54 Chapter Four RESULTS OF THE CASE STUDY 57 1. Kamioops 57 2. Lethbridge 63 3. Manitoba 68 4. Toronto 73 5. Hamilton 80 6. Montreal 85 7. Vancouver 92 Chapter Five CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 101 1. Community Context and Archival A c t i v i t i e s 101 2. Objectives and Potential of Japanese Canadian Archives 105 3. Recommendations for Sound Preservation of Ethnic Archives 108 4. Suggestions for Further Studies 112 i v Bibliography 114 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Interview Questions Sample Questions Toronto Nikkei Archive and Resource Centre: Goals and Objectives Japanese Canadian National Museum and Archives: Mandate and C o l l e c t i o n Policy 119 123 125 126 v LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Population and geographical areas of the seven communities 53 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Many people assisted me i n carrying out t h i s project. F i r s t and foremost, respondents i n the seven Japanese-Canadian communities provided me with valuable information. Their warm welcome to me and t h e i r enthusiasm to preserve t h e i r h i s t o r y gave me a strong motivation to work as best I could. Professors Terry Eastwood and Mary Sue Stephenson gave me s i g n i f i c a n t guidance and encouragement without which I could not have completed t h i s thesis. Some people on the committee of the Japanese Canadian National Museum and Archives assisted me making contacts with people i n various Japanese-Canadian communities across the country. Many friends, and friends of friends, a l l too numerous to mention, generously offerred me accommodation i n places where I had never been. The University of Montreal allowed me to use i t s computer f a c i l i t i e s while I was i n Montreal. I would l i k e to express my heart f u l gratitude to a l l these people. v i i INTRODUCTION T h i s i s a case s t u d y o f seven Japanese-Canadian 1 communities' e f f o r t s t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s . The u l t i m a t e purpose of t h e p r o j e c t i s ' t o e x p l o r e the r o l e t h a t a r c h i v a l programs d e v e l o p e d by e t h n i c communities can p e r f o r m i n t h e o v e r a l l a r c h i v a l community i n Canada t o p r e s e r v e e t h n i c a r c h i v e s . A r c h i v i s t s have i d e n t i f i e d gaps i n p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . I n the 1970s, t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada implemented a program t o a c q u i r e e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l and make e t h n i c groups aware o f t h e importance o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s . P r o v i n c i a l , m u n i c i p a l , and u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s a l s o have been a c q u i r i n g e t h n i c m a t e r i a l s . , . E t h n i c . m a t e r i a l s h e l d by t h e s e a r c h i v e s , however, a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o r e f l e c t .the . e x p e r i e n c e o f v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups, w h i c h have a f a i r l y s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e e c o n o m i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . Some p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r the poor r e c o r d o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c m a t e r i a l s by mainstream a r c h i v e s can be i d e n t i f i e d . F i r s t , e t h n i c a r c h i v e s a r e o f t e n g i v e n emphasis i n response t o p o l i t i c a l t r e n d s i n governments but f a i l t o be r e c o g n i z e d as an e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t o f t h e documentary h e r i t a g e o f the s o c i e t y on a permanent b a s i s . Second, e t h n i c a r c h i v e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e by n a t u r e . I n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s by J i a n L i u i s adopted: 1 I n t h i s t h e s i s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e words Japanese and Canadian a r e hyphenated when t h e y form a compound a d j e c t i v e m o d i f y i n g a noun as i n Japanese - Canadian communities. When Japanese i s m o d i f y i n g t h e noun Canadian, t h e two words a r e l e f t open. 1 a r c h i v a l fonds c r e a t e d by o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r p e r s o n s i d e n t i f y i n g o r i d e n t i f i e d w i t h e t h n i c groups o t h e r t h a n t h o s e o f E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , and n a t i v e o r i g i n , and whose a c t i v i t i e s i n whole o r i n p a r t r e f l e c t o v e r t a c t i o n s o f an e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r , r e g a r d l e s s o f where t h e s e fonds a r e - p r e s e r v e d . 2 T h i r d , a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s do not n e c e s s a r i l y have c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h e t h n i c communities and, t h e r e f o r e , have d i f f i c u l t y i d e n t i f y i n g r e c o r d s o f e n d u r i n g v a l u e i n t h e communities. F o u r t h , p e o p l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n e t h n i c communities o f t e n f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e e n t r u s t i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s t o " o u t s i d e r s . " F i f t h , languages used i n r e c o r d s o f e t h n i c communities sometimes cause problems: a c c e s s i o n s may be l e f t u n p r o c e s s e d f o r a l o n g t i m e , o r r e p o s i t o r i e s may h e s i t a t e t o a c q u i r e r e c o r d s because of the d i f f i c u l t y o f p r o c e s s i n g them. Independent a r c h i v e s programs s p e c i f i c a l l y c r e a t e d f o r e t h n i c m a t e r i a l , such as the M u l t i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y o f O n t a r i o , p r e s e n t an approach d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f mainstream a r c h i v e s . Those t h e m a t i c programs t e n d t o emphasize th e v a l u e o f a r c h i v e s as r e s e a r c h s o u r c e s , and t h e y a r e sometimes c r i t i c i z e d as b e i n g a t odds w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the Canadian a r c h i v a l system. 3 Yet a n o t h e r approach t o p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s i s t h e development o f a r c h i v e s programs under i n i t i a t i v e s o f e t h n i c communities t h e m s e l v e s . Some e t h n i c groups, such as J e w i s h and 2 J i a n L i u , " P o t e n t i a l f o r A c q u i s i t i o n o f E t h n i c A r c h i v e s : A Case Study of F i v e Chinese O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h , C olumbia" (MAS T h e s i s , . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1993), 19- 20 . 3 F o r example, see "Canadian A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t s and Responses," Archivaria 11 ( w i n t e r 1980-81): 7. 2 F i n n i s h Canadians, have l o n g t r a d i t i o n s o f k e e p i n g t h e i r a r c h i v e s . 4 A l t h o u g h community-based programs t o p r e s e r v e e t h n i c a r c h i v e s a r e d e s i r a b l e i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p r i n c i p l e - o f t e r r i t o r i a l p r o v e n a n c e , 5 and t h e y can have g r e a t advantages i n i d e n t i f y i n g and a c q u i r i n g r e c o r d s i n t h e community, t h e y have been d i f f i c u l t t o s u s t a i n o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h i s i s m a i n l y because of t h e amorphous n a t u r e o f e t h n i c communities by d e f i n i t i o n and s c a r c i t y o f r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a r c h i v e s w i t h o u t w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d s p o n s o r s . No s i n g l e approach would be s u c c e s s f u l on i t s own. C o o p e r a t i o n and b a l a n c e among d i f f e r e n t approaches and r e p o s i t o r i e s a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r adequate p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s . T h i s p r o j e c t . w i l l examine e x p e r i e n c e s and - achievements of... d i f f e r e n t t y p e s . o f . a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t r y t o d e t e r m i n e -what - r o l e community-based e t h n i c a r c h i v e s programs can p l a y i n t h e b r o a d c o n t e x t o f t h e a r c h i v a l community as a whole. I n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e p e r s p e c t i v e s and c a p a c i t i e s o f community-based e t h n i c a r c h i v e s , an i n t e r v i e w - b a s e d case s t u d y o f seven Japanese-Canadian communities was conducted. Seven l o c a l communities were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y from t h e f o u r t e e n Japanese communities t h a t have a l o c a l c h a p t e r o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Japanese Canadians. They a r e Kamloops, L e t h b r i d g e , Manitoba, T o r o n t o , H a m i l t o n , M o n t r e a l , and Vancouver. 4 Edward W. L a i n e , " K a l l i s t a P e r i n t o a -- P r e c i o u s Legacy!: F i n n i s h - C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , 1988-1985," Archivaria 22 (summer 1986) : 75-94; and A . J . A r n o l d , "The B i r t h and Development o f a Western J e w i s h A r c h i v e s Program," Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2, no. 3 (1972): 24-29. 5 T e r r i t o r i a l provenance i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s way by L e w i s J . B e l l a r d o and Lynn Lady B e l l a r d o , A Glossary for A r c h i v i s t , Manuscript Curators, and .Records Managers (Chicago: S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , 1992), 35: "The o r i g i n o f a group of documents w i t h r e s p e c t t o g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s . The concept i s d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s h o u l d not be removed from th e t e r r i t o r y i n w h i c h i t was c r e a t e d . " 3 I n C h apter One, t h e a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o e t h n i c a r c h i v e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i s r e v i e w e d . I n Chapter Two, t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Japanese i n Canada i s summarized. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h e development o f communities and the p e r c e p t i o n o f e t h n i c i t y i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i n t e r v i e w s used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . C h apter Three d e s c r i b e s the methodology o f t h e case s t u d y , and Chapter Four r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h . The t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s w i t h an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e case s t u d y , and recommendations f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s . Some terms used i n t h i s t h e s i s r e q u i r e c l a r i f i c a t i o n : a "community" r e f e r s t o a l o c a l e t h n i c community i n a s p e c i f i c ^ g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a l e as ,.opposed..to„a .more - a b s t r a c t ethnic.community encompassing a l l t h e : p e o p l e .of. ..a . . p a r t i c u l a r .-:ethnic o r i g i n . . i n Canada. . The " r e s e a r c h " i s the case s t u d y o f seven Japanese- Canadian communities and t h e " p r o j e c t " r e f e r s t o t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s as a whole. 4 Chapter One PRESERVATION OF ETHNIC ARCHIVAL MATERIAL IN THE CANADIAN ARCHIVAL SYSTEM Over t h e y e a r s , t h e r e have been some e f f o r t s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a t o p r e s e r v e r e c o r d s c r e a t e d by v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s and pe r s o n s c o n n e c t e d w i t h e t h n i c groups. . T h i s .chapter f i r s t e v a l u a t e s some Canadian a r c h i v a l t r a d i t i o n s and a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t have b e a r i n g s .on e t h n i c archives... I t . t h e n r e v i e w s .attempts..to ..preserve e t h n i c a r c h i v e s i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 1. Canadian Archival Traditions and Archival P r i n c i p l e s A„ .basic, a r c h i v a l . . „pr,inciple..is....t hat. ..records.-..should-..be-.r.e.tained and p r e s e r v e d by thos e r e s p o n s i b l e : f o r c r e a t i n g them. 6 I t f o l l o w s t h a t , whenever p o s s i b l e , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s h o u l d -be -encouraged .to d e v e l o p t h e i r own a r c h i v e s . I f o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r a n s f e r t h e i r r e c o r d s t o t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n t h r o u g h w e l l - d e v e l o p e d r e c o r d s management systems, t h e f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r i t y o f r e c o r d s w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d , and u s e r s , i n c l u d i n g r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s t h e m s e l v e s , can make t h e b e s t o f t h e a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . Because i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s a r e u n q u e s t i o n a b l y e n t i t l e d t o a c q u i r e r e c o r d s o f t h e i r s p o n s o r i n g b o d i e s , the a c q u i s i t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o r d s i s u s u a l l y f r e e from t h e problem of c o m p e t i t i o n . Not a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t o say n o t h i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s , a r e w i l l i n g and a b l e t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r r e c o r d s . As t h e r e p o r t by the 6 The C o n s u l t a t i v e Group on Canadian A r c h i v e s , Canadian Archives: Report to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (Ottawa: S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada, 1980), 15. T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n i s h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Canadian Archives. 5 C o n s u l t a t i v e Group on Canadian A r c h i v e s (commonly c a l l e d t h e W i l s o n r e p o r t , a f t e r t h e name of the c h a i r , I a n W i l s o n ) s t a t e s , " a l l a r c h i v e s must depend f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g c o r e f u n d i n g on t h e i r p a r e n t body. 1 , 7 S m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y cannot a f f o r d t o have an a r c h i v e s . I f t h e y do manage t o s u s t a i n an a r c h i v e s , i t i s l i k e l y t o pose o p e r a t i o n a l problems. The f u n d i n g i s u s u a l l y t o o s c a r c e t o a l l o w f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f members and p r o p e r f a c i l i t i e s , and t h e programs a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o c h a n g i n g p r i o r i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A n o t h e r c o n c e r n i s a c c e s s i b i l i t y by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . W h e n . o r g a n i z a t i o n s have i n - house a r c h i v e s w i t h o u t r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c f u n d i n g , t h e y may not f e e l o b l i g e d , t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s , t o o u t s i d e r s . .Some o r g a n i z a t i o n s .with a r c h i v a l programs.view them as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . t o o l s , r a t h e r t h a n p u b l i c l y - v a l u e d r e s o u r c e s . 8 G i v e n t h a t i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o expect a l l a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s t o be k e p t by c r e a t o r s o f such m a t e r i a l s , many l a r g e a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a c q u i r e and p r e s e r v e r e c o r d s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e i r p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . As i n o t h e r a r e a s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s i n Canada, p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s have been b e a r i n g t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e n a t i o n ' s documentary h e r i t a g e . T h i s t r a d i t i o n o f Canadian p u b l i c a r c h i v e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , where h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s assume s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p r i v a t e a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . The t r a d i t i o n i s a l s o d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n 7 I b i d . , 62. 8 F o r some d i s c u s s i o n about t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s by the p u b l i c , see C h r i s t o p h e r L. H i v e s , " H i s t o r y , B u s i n e s s Records, and C o r p o r a t e A r c h i v e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , " Archivaria 22 (summer 1986): 40-57. 6 some c o u n t r i e s where p u b l i c a r c h i v e s a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p u b l i c r e c o r d s . The d i s t i n c t i v e t r a d i t i o n o f Canadian p u b l i c a r c h i v e s i s o f t e n d i s c u s s e d as " t o t a l a r c h i v e s . " W i l f r e d S m i t h c i t e s t h e f o u r elements o f t h e concept o f " t o t a l a r c h i v e s " i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the Canadian a r c h i v a l t r a d i t i o n . a s d e v e l o p e d a t the P u b l i c . A r c h i v e s o f Canada (PAC; s i n c e 1987 t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f Canada, NAC). . 1 a l l sources o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the a r c h i v e s a re a c q u i r e d from b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o u r c e s ; 2 a l l types o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l may be a c q u i r e d i n c l u d i n g m a n u s c r i p t s , maps, p i c t u r e s , p h o t o g r a p h s , sound r e c o r d i n g s , motion p i c t u r e and o t h e r a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l and machine r e a d a b l e r e c o r d s ; 3 a l l subjects o f human endeavour s h o u l d be c o v e r e d by a ... repository...... in.. ...accordance . . . . . w i t h . . . . . i t s — t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a s s i g n e d t o d i f ferent.... r e p o s i t o r i e s on the b a s i s o f s u b j e c t ; 4 l i f e cycle ... the a r c h i v a l a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d be concerned w i t h r e c o r d s from the time o f t h e i r c r e a t i o n a t l e a s t t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t r e q u i r e d t o ensure the r e c o r d s judged worthy o f p r e s e r v a t i o n a r e s e l e c t e d and t r a n s f e r r e d t o the a r c h i v e s . 9 An a r c h i v a l system c o n s i s t i n g o f a few l a r g e t o t a l a r c h i v e s has some cogent advantages. The W i l s o n r e p o r t o b s e r v e s t h a t i t can u t i l i z e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s e f f i c i e n t l y by t a k i n g advantage o f economies o f s c a l e . 1 0 Large a r c h i v e s can u s u a l l y p r o v i d e b e t t e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l f o r s t o r a g e , m u l t i - m e d i a a c c e s s d e v i c e s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s t h a t a r e not e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e t o s m a l l a r c h i v e s . L a r g e a r c h i v e s a r e a l s o more l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f w i t h p r o p e r t r a i n i n g . F i n a l l y , u s e r s can b e n e f i t g r e a t l y i f t h e y 9 R.S. Gordon,.. A c q u i s i t i o n Policy. Document ( d r a f t ) , . ( O t t a w a : P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, 1984) quoted i n W i l f r e d Smith " ' T o t a l A r c h i v e s ' : The Canadian E x p e r i e n c e , " Archives et Bibliotheques de Belgigue 57 (1986): 341. 10 Canadian Archives, 64. 7 can c o n s u l t a l l k i n d s o f m a t e r i a l from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s a t one r e p o s i t o r y . I f p ut i n t o p r a c t i c e i n an i d e a l f a s h i o n , a t o t a l a r c h i v e s system s h o u l d i d e n t i f y and . p r e s e r v e a l l t h e a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l w o r t h y o f p r e s e r v a t i o n c r e a t e d i n a l l segments and a s p e c t s o f Canadian s o c i e t y i n c l u d i n g e t h n i c a r c h i v e s . As many a r c h i v i s t s p o i n t o u t , however, t h i s i s not the c a s e . 1 1 The d e c e n t r a l i z e d approach d i s c u s s e d i n -the W i l s o n r e p o r t stems from an awareness o f the p o s s i b l e problems i n c u r r e d by t h e c e n t r a l i s t t o t a l a r c h i v e s approach. F i r s t > i f r e c o r d s a r e judged o n l y by what i s o f importance t o the c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s , o t h e r m a t e r i a l t h a t . i s worthy. x>f p r e s e r v a t i o n from a . l o c a l p e r s p e c t i v e may.be d i s r e g a r d e d . Removing-.archival m a t e r i a l from -the..milieu.,in w h i c h i t was c r e a t e d j e o p a r d i z e s t h e i n t e g r i t y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y the use and meaning o f t h e m a t e r i a l as a whole. F u r t h e r m o r e , s e n d i n g m a t e r i a l s t o remote l o c a t i o n s p o s s i b l y a l i e n a t e s u s e r s , d onors, and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n t h e o r i g i n a t i n g community. T h i s can impede use and su p p o r t f o r f u r t h e r a c q u i s i t i o n and f u n d i n g . 1 2 A n o t h e r problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t o t a l a r c h i v e s i s c o m p e t i t i o n among r e p o s i t o r i e s . I n t h e . t o t a l a r c h i v e s model, t h e p r i m a r y c r i t e r i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g where a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s h o u l d go i s t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . When d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f governments o p e r a t e t h e i r a r c h i v e s , however, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s c r i t e r i o n i s p r o b l e m a t i c . O f t e n , an i n d i v i d u a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d o f l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Added 1 1 F o r example, about the inadequacy o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s , see E l i z a b e t h B o g h o s s i a n , Ethnic Archives Workshop Report (Ottawa: M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m Canada, 1985). 12 Canadian Archives, 65. 8 t o t h e u n c l e a r d e m a r c a t i o n of scope of a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e r e a r e c a s e s o f i r r a t i o n a l a c q u i s i t i o n . As the W i l s o n r e p o r t r e g r e t f u l l y , but c o r r e c t l y , s u g g e s t s , a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s a r e o f t e n d i s t o r t e d by a t t e m p t s t o i mpress b u d g e t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h some w e l l - p u b l i c i z e d o r p r e s t i g i o u s a c q u i s i t i o n s o r by f o l l o w i n g f a s h i o n a b l e t r e n d s . 1 3 The s i t u a t i o n can even be worsened as u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s , r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s , and o t h e r r e p o s i t o r i e s j o i n t h e scene, and more o r l e s s adopt the t o t a l a r c h i v e s approach. Many a r c h i v i s t s have been concerned w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n i n a c q u i s i t i o n and have d i s c u s s e d ways t o cope w i t h , i f n o t c o m p l e t e l y s o l v e , t h e problem. One of the most commonly a d v o c a t e d measures t o .avoid...competition,among.-.archival.-,repositories . i s - t o e s t a b l i s h . w e l l - d e f i n e d a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s . The g u i d e l i n e s b y-Canadian C o u n c i l o f A r c h i v e s promote t h e u t i l i t y o f a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s "as t h e b a s i s f o r c o o p e r a t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and as an i m p o r t a n t t o o l i n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e s y s t e m a t i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of our n a t i o n a l a r c h i v a l h e r i t a g e . 1 , 1 4 Kaye Lamb argued t h a t such p o l i c i e s would a l l o w r e p o s i t o r i e s t o a l e r t one a n o t h e r t o c o l l e c t i o n s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s . 1 5 He a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t w e l l - d e f i n e d a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s would be much more l i k e l y t o a t t r a c t h e l p from f o u n d a t i o n s and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t h a n a s p o r a d i c a c q u i s i t i o n s p l a n . Kathy H a l l s p e c i f i c a l l y p o i n t s out t h a t p h r a s e s such as n a t i o n a l (or p r o v i n c i a l o r l o c a l ) s i g n i f i c a n c e 1 3 I b i d . , 64 . 1 4 Canadian Coun c i l - o f A r c h i v e s , Guidelines for Developing an A c q u i s i t i o n Policy.(Ottawa:Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f A r c h i v e s , 1 9 9 0 ) , 1. 1 5 " A c q u i s i t i o n P o l i c y : C o m p e t i t i o n o r C o o p e r a t i o n ? " Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2, n o . l (1970): 21. 9 employed i n a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d be more p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d . 1 6 A l t h o u g h w e l l - d e v e l o p e d a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s a r e u n d o u b t e d l y u s e f u l i n c l e a r i n g some g r e y a r e a s , t h e y cannot c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e , j u r i s d i c t i o n a l o v e r l a p p i n g and c o n f l i c t s o f i n t e r e s t . A consensus i s d e v e l o p i n g among a r c h i v i s t s t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n based on communication and w e l l - i n t e n d e d r e a s o n i n g i s . e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e p o t e n t i a l c o m p e t i t i o n t o d i s t o r t o r d e r l y a c q u i s i t i o n . Much l e s s o f t e n d i s c u s s e d i n a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e i s t h e i s s u e o f r e c o r d s t h a t escape th e net of the e x i s t i n g a r c h i v a l system and a r e l o s t f o r e v e r . A r c h i v i s t s seem t o be p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h • r e d u c i n g t h e , c o m p e t i t i o n . a i n - . . a c q u i s i t i o n - and . c o n f l i c t .of .-..interest. A c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s . a r e m a i n l y a d v o c a t e d as"ameans f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e p o s i t o r i e s t o a v o i d c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r s and t o make b e s t use o f l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . They a r e not t a k e n as a measure f o r t h e whole a r c h i v a l community t o d i v i d e and a s s i g n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s o c i e t y ' s documentary h e r i t a g e . What needs t o be r e c o g n i z e d i s t h a t the m u l t i t u d e o f r e c o r d s w o r t h y of p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the modern s o c i e t y s u r p a s s e s by f a r t h e c a p a c i t y o f a l l a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s put t o g e t h e r . C o m p e t i t i o n must be a v o i d e d not o n l y because i t i s u n e t h i c a l and might v i o l a t e a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s , but a l s o because w h i l e m u l t i p l e r e p o s i t o r i e s a r e c h a s i n g r e c o r d s o f a prominent i n d i v i d u a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , o t h e r r e c o r d s w h i c h a r e l e s s n o t i c e a b l e but n o n e t h e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t might be l o s t . 1 6 Kathy H a l l , " A r c h i v a l A c q u i s i t i o n s : L e g a l Mandates and Methods," Archivaria 18 (summer 1984): 66. 10 The o f f i c i a l response of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canadian A r c h i v i s t s (ACA)., agreed- w i t h the W i l s o n r e p o r t ' s arguments f a v o u r i n g a d e c e n t r a l i z e d approach. The ACA j u d g e s t h a t "a much b r o a d e r spectrum of h i s t o r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t m a t e r i a l s can be p r e s e r v e d ; t h e f u l l f i n a n c i a l burden does not f a l l d i r e c t l y on t h e p u b l i c p u r s e ; and t h e a r c h i v e s remain a l i v i n g p a r t o f t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r l o c a l community." 1 7 The ACA f u r t h e r argues t h a t p u b l i c l y - f u n d e d a r c h i v e s can b e t t e r f u l f i l t h e o v e r a l l a r c h i v a l mandate by s u p p o r t i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g " i n s t i t u t i o n a l , l o c a l , and even t h e m a t i c a r c h i v e s . " 1 8 The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e m a t i c a r c h i v e s i s a p p a r e n t l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the ACA's response t o t h e Symons R e p o r t , 1 9 - w h i c h i t , . . c r i t i c i z e s . . ; . f o r . , , a d o p t i n g :;a subj.ect . approach w h e r e i n - r e c o r d s , are seen "as g r i s t f o r . s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h , s u b j e c t t o c o l l e c t i o n s development which i s the l i b r a r y - o r i e n t e d assembly of m a t e r i a l s f o r s c h o l a r l y u s e . " 2 0 T h i s a p parent i n c o n s i s t e n c y s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t r e s o u r c e s a r e l i m i t e d , but new e f f o r t s s h o u l d conform t o e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s and p a t t e r n s o f a c q u i s i t i o n . As f a r as t h e number i s concerned, 1 7 "Canadian A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t s and Responses," 15. 1 8 I b i d . , 7. 1 9 The Symons Report was - i s s u e d by t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y and C o l l e g e s o f Canada (AUCC) i n 1975. I t viewed a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s as b e i n g s o l e l y r e s e a r c h s o u r c e s . Thus, the r e p o r t recommended a subj e c t approach t o " a r c h i v a l ' p r e s e r v a t i o n and t h e c e n t r a l r o l e s o f u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s i n c o o r d i n a t i n g the a r c h i v a l system. These v i e w and recommendations were s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d by t h e ACA. For the response t o t h e Symons Rep o r t by t h e ACA, see "Canadian A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t s and Responses," 6-11, and a l s o see T e r r y Eastwood, "Attempts a t . N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g f o r A r c h i v e s i n Canada, 1975-1985," Public Historian 8, no. 3 (summer 1986): 74-91. 2 0 "Canadian A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t s and Responses," 7. 11 t h e ACA's a p p e a l f o r a d e c e n t r a l i z e d approach has been met: a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s i n c r e a s e d from 294 i n 1977 t o 764 i n 1990. 2 1 Some a r c h i v i s t s , however, . might q u e s t i o n t h e l e v e l o f performance o f tho s e newly e s t a b l i s h e d a r c h i v e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t s were concerned w i t h - t h e p o s s i b l e - harm caused by in a d e q u a t e c o l l e c t i n g a g e n c i e s competing w i t h l e g i t i m a t e a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . A t a p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1969, e n t i t l e d " A c q u i s i t i o n s P o l i c y : C o m p e t i t i o n o r C o o p e r a t i o n ? , " one o f the major c o n c e r n s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s was a c q u i s i t i o n by i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r c o l l e c t o r s . Some p a n e l i s t s d i s c u s s e d p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r l e g i t i m a t e ...archival ; r e p o s i t o r i e s . ..to .. ensure r e s p o n s i b l e p r e s e r v a t i o n - o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . , complying.:..with. . a r c h i v a l ...principles -and -.accepted p r a c t i c e s . Kaye Lamb s t a t e d t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e r e a s o n a b l e c o n d i t i o n s o f a c c e s s and use, and some a s s u r a n c e o f l o n g - t e r m i n t e r e s t a r e t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s . 2 2 A n o t h e r p a n e l i s t , Donald McQuat, argued t h a t t h e r e i s one e s s e n t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a r c h i v e s , w h i c h i s t h a t "they must have t h e s p e c i a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s and t r a i n e d s t a f f t o p r e s e r v e , a n a l y z e and make a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c t h e i r documentary h o l d i n g s . " 2 3 2. Public I n s t i t u t i o n s When t h e Canadian f e d e r a l government adopted m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m 2 1 A s s o c i a t i o n o f ̂ Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , . ..Directory of ..Canadian Archival Repositories (Ottawa: A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1977) and Canadian C o u n c i l o f A r c h i v e s , Directory of Canadian .Archives (Ottawa: Canadian C o u n c i l o f A r c h i v e s , 1990) . 2 2 " C o m p e t i t i o n o r C o o p e r a t i o n ? " 22. 2 3 I b i d . , 25 . 12 as a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y i n 1971, i t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e PAC had " r e l a t i v e l y few h o l d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o Canada's v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l groups o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . " 2 4 Through th e p o l i c y , t h e funds t o e s t a b l i s h t h e N a t i o n a l E t h n i c A r c h i v e s (NEA) program were p r o v i d e d t o t h e PAC. The purpose o f the NEA was t o "ensure th e h o l d i n g s o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s more f u l l y r e p r e s e n t the f a c t t h a t t h e Canadian h e r i t a g e i s drawn from many c u l t u r e s . " 2 5 S i x y e a r s a f t e r t h e i n c e p t i o n o f the NEA, W a l t e r N e u t e l r e p o r t e d on the p r o g r e s s o f the program. 2 5 A l t h o u g h t h e NEA aimed at e n c o u r a g i n g " a l l e t h n o - c u l t u r a l communities t o t a k e an i n t e r e s t i n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r a r c h i v a l h e r i t a g e " - as p a r t , of.;-, i t s , : o b j e c t i v e . , 2 J t h e ...greatest, -attention-..was. - g i v e n ...to - c o l l e c t i n g a n d ...making.-avail a b l e . a t t h e . . . P A C . . a r c h i v a l - . m a t e r i a l /-of n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e p e r t a i n i n g t o e t h n o - c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . 2 8 N e u t e l p o i n t s out b o t h n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s by ethno- c u l t u r a l communities. I n h i s view, some communities a r e r e l u c t a n t t o e n t r u s t p e r s o n a l , r e c o r d s .and . o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e c o r d s .to s t r a n g e r s . Communities of - E a s t European o r i g i n a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l u c t a n t , because . o f ..fear t h a t . . . a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l may be u s e d , t o 2 4 F e d e r a l Government, "Programs of I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " i n F e d e r a l Government's Response t o Book IV of t h e Report of the Royal Commission on B i l i n g u a l ism and B i c u l t u r a l i s m ( T a b l e d i n t h e House of Commons on October 8, 1971). 25 M u l t i c u l t u r a l ism and the- Government of Canada (Ottawa: M i n i s t r y o f S t a t e f o r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , 1971), 26. 2 6 W a l t e r N e u t e l , " G e s c h i c h t e Wie ..Es E i g e n t l i c h Gewesen o r The N e c e s s i t y o f H a v i n g E t h n i c A r c h i v e s Programmes," Archivaria .7 ( w i n t e r 1978): 104-109. 2 7 P u b i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, Public Archives Report 1976-1977 (Ottawa: P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, 1977), 49. 2 8 N e u t e l , 107. 13 t h e i r d e t r i m e n t i n t h e f u t u r e . 2 9 P o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s were mainly- based on t h e q u a l i t y and l o n g - t e r m r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e r v i c e t h e PAC.could p r o v i d e as an e s t a b l i s h e d permanent i n s t i t u t i o n , and on th e PAC's n e u t r a l i t y o u t s i d e , t h e p o s s i b l e . d i s a g r e e m e n t s and r i v a l r i e s w i t h i n .the community. A n o t h e r . advantage o f k e e p i n g e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l a t t h e PAC, N e u t e l argues, i s t h a t i t ' i s complemented by the governmental r e c o r d s kept a t t h e PAC. 3 0 I f t h e NEA was b e t t e r funded t h a n many o t h e r e f f o r t s t o p r e s e r v e e t h n i c a r c h i v e s , i t was s t i l l not f r e e from r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s . N e u t e l a d m i t t e d t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n s by t h e NEA were s t i l l l i m i t e d . He a l s o saw t h a t f u r t h e r a c q u i s i t i o n would be even more, r e s t r i e t e d .because. ..the...,maj.or„.proport i o n , of..the, resources...have to-be a l l o c a t e d . 4to...processing:and. c a r i n g - f o r m a t e r i a l s - . e n t rusted-' i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the program t o donor s . An an n u a l r e p o r t o f the PAC a l s o r e p o r t s t h a t t h e l a r g e b a c k l o g o f u n p r o c e s s e d r e c o r d s tends t o r e s t r i c t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f new m a t e r i a l . 3 1 S i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n , t h e e t h n i c a r c h i v e s , program a t the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s (NAC) has undergone some changes. The NEA changed i t s name t o t h e M u l t i c u l t u r a l A r c h i v e s program, w h i c h was d i s s o l v e d i n 1994. There i s some debate a t t h e NAC about w i t h d r a w i n g c o m p l e t e l y from t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r c h i v e s due t o government f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t s . 3 2 29 Public Archives Report 1976-1977, 49. 3 0 N e u t e l , 108 . 31.. P u b l i c .Archives o f ..Canada, Public Archives Report 1977-78 (Ottawa: P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, 1978), 48-49. 3 2 E - m a i l l e t t e r t o the a u t h o r from Myron Momryk, M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n , t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f Canada, 1 May 1995. 14 A l t h o u g h th e NEA u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s by a c q u i r i n g m a t e r i a l f o r i t s e l f , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t impact of the program may be t h a t i t o f f i c i a l l y added t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c m a t e r i a l t o t h e agenda o f t h e a r c h i v a l community. I t drew a t t e n t i o n t o e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l and i n d u c e d , t o some e x t e n t , programs i n v a r i o u s forms, such as h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and a r c h i v a l committees i n e t h n i c communities and e t h n i c a r c h i v e s programs a t p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . 3 3 A c q u i s i t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l o f " n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e " by the NAC, however, had some i n h e r e n t problems. Examining, vthe ,..,.impact-;',of a;thei::multiculturalism.:pollcy...and ..the. . s t a t e o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s p r e s e r v a t i o n , - R o b e r t F. vHarney, t h e n p r e s i d e n t o f t h e M u l t i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y o f O n t a r i o , q u e s t i o n e d how the f e d e r a l a r c h i v e s d e f i n e s " m a t e r i a l o f n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e " p e r t a i n i n g t o e t h n i c communities. I n h i s view, th e n a t i o n a l frame i s o f t e n r a t h e r i r r e l e v a n t f o r t h e l i f e o f e t h n i c g roups. He goes on t o s t a t e t h a t : N a t i o n a l l o b b i e s , s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d e t h n i c spokesmen i n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s , and the n a t i o n a l committees f o r most e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e , more o f t e n t h a n n o t , t h e most e t h e r e a l and ephemeral p a r t o f any e t h n i c g r o u p . 3 4 N e v e r t h e l e s s , Harney argues t h a t , f o r p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e a s o n s , th e f e d e r a l e f f o r t n e c e s s a r i l y imposes a n a t i o n a l framework l e a d i n g t o c o m p e t i t i o n among a r c h i v e s a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s 3 3 N e u t e l , 107. 3 4 Robert F. Harney, !'Ethnic A r c h i v a l and L i b r a r y M a t e r i a l s i n Canada: Problems of B i b l i o g r a p h i c C o n t r o l and P r e s e r v a t i o n , " Ethnic Forum: Journal of Ethnic Studies and Ethnic Bibliography 2, no.2 ( f a l l 1982) : 24 . 15 o f government and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s such as u n i v e r s i t i e s and r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s . The r e s u l t o f the c o m p e t i t i o n i s : t h e i l l o g i c a l removal o f m a t e r i a l s from r e g i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e r e l e v a n t and would be c o n s u l t e d r e g u l a r l y t o Ottawa o r T o r o n t o - o r some - o t h e r d i s t a n t m e t r o p o l i s where t h e y a r e b a r e l y a c c e s s i b l e t o community members and t o . t h o s e . y o u n g e r , l e s s ...well, funded, - academics who- s h o u l d be a b l e t o g a i n easy f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h such s o u r c e s . 3 5 The i s s u e of a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n one o f t h e an n u a l r e p o r t s o f t h e PAC. The NEA made i t c l e a r t h a t i t f o c u s s e d on p e r s o n s engaged i n r e s e a r c h a t the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l and t h a t i t encouraged h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t o r e l y on p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . 3 6 T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , however, cannot be r a t i o n a l i z e d i f the c r i t e r i o n f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n by t h e NEA i s whether t h e m a t e r i a l i s o f n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , w h i c h i s t o t a l l y i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e l e v e l o f r e s e a r c h o r r e s e a r c h e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e , h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a r e as l i k e l y t o be concerned w i t h n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s as any o t h e r l e v e l o f s t u d e n t s i s . On h i s p a r t , N e u t e l a d m i t t e d t h a t the NEA had "but skimmed t h e s u r f a c e o f some communities and i n many has not y e t a c c o m p l i s h e d t h a t much." 3 7 I t can be s u s p e c t e d t h a t by skimming t h e most n o t i c e a b l e p a r t o f each community, the a c q u i s i t i o n by t h e NEA might have r e s u l t e d i n e l i t i s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e t h n i c documentary h e r i t a g e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i r o n i c because t h e i n t e r e s t i n e t h n i c a r c h i v e s came t o l i g h t when a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s r e a l i z e d i n t h e 1960s t h a t a r c h i v e s p r e s e r v a t i o n and h i s t o r y w r i t i n g had been b i a s e d towards t h e g r e a t and p o w e r f u l w h i l e 3 5 I b i d . , 23. 36 Public Archives Report 1977-78, 49. 3 7 N e u t e l , 108. 16 n e g l e c t i n g l i v e s o f o r d i n a r y p e o p l e . Even worse, i n some c a s e s , a c q u i s i t i o n s by t h e NEA r e s u l t e d i n t h e s p l i t o f a fonds by t r a n s f e r r i n g o n l y p a r t o f i t t h a t l o o k e d " n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t " i n t h e eye o f t h e NEA s t a f f who p a i d a s h o r t v i s i t t o t h e community. 3 8 3. Research-oriented Preservation A n o t h e r problem Harney, p o i n t s out about t h e NEA i s i t s i n a d e q u a t e judgement c o n c e r n i n g what t o p r e s e r v e , c i t i n g t h e example o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n g and p a i n t i n g o f o v e r f i v e hundred e t h n i c f a m i l y c o a t s o f arms. He s u g g e s t s t h a t : some s o r t , o f .a d v i s o r y body.,,of s c h o l a r s ..in. t h e f i e l d o f . e t h n i c and i m m i g r a t i o n s t u d i e s m i g h t . p r o v i d e a u s e f u l . g u i d e o r check t o the a r c h i v i s t s and - t h e i r uses of- t h e i r " b u d g e t . 3 9 As a c o r o l l a r y , t he b e s t way t o p r e s e r v e e t h n i c a r c h i v e s Harney b e l i e v e s i s t o have " r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s i n e t h n i c and i m m i g r a t i o n s t u d i e s w i t h a r c h i v i s t s , l i b r a r i a n s and m u s e o l o g i s t s as a d v i s o r s t o the academics i n charge, spaced w i s e l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a t i o n . " 4 0 T h i s i s a r e s e a r c h e r ' s v i e w t h a t i s not a c c e p t e d by many a r c h i v i s t s . A r c h i v i s t s d i s a g r e e w i t h Harney's p r e m i s e t h a t a r c h i v e s e x i s t s o l e l y t o s e r v e academics o r s c h o l a r s . A r c h i v e s " e x i s t t o p r e s e r v e documents which e x i s t i n t h e i r own r i g h t , and are v a l u a b l e i n themselves whether.any academic has i n t e r e s t i n 3 8 F o r example, r e c o r d s o f Tsutae S a t o , who was a prominent e d u c a t o r i n t h e Japanese community, have been p r e s e r v e d a t t h e NAC and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The m a t e r i a l h e l d a t UBC was r e c e n t l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e Japanese Canadian N a t i o n a l Museum and A r c h i v e s i n Vancouver. 3 9 Harney, 24. 4 0 I b i d . , 2 8 . 17 them o r n o t . " 4 1 Furthermore, i n a r c h i v a l t h e o r y , u s e r s a r e never acknowledged as t h e adequate judge o f a p p r a i s a l and a c q u i s i t i o n . To v a l i d a t e t h i s , one would o n l y have t o r e c a l l t h a t t h e p r e s e n t p o o r s t a t e , o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y a r e s u l t o f a r c h i v i s t s h a v i n g f o l l o w e d the t r e n d o f h i s t o r y w r i t i n g s and r e s p o n d i n g t o r e s e a r c h e r s ' demands. I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , however, r e s e a r c h e r s ' v i e w s a r e more c e n t r a l i n t h e - p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s . As J i a n L i u n o t e d , the c oncept o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s i s d i f f e r e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a n i n Canada, 4 2 and e t h n i c a r c h i v e s a r e m a i n l y c o l l e c t e d and p r e s e r v e d as s o u r c e s f o r documentation o f i m m i g r a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e . ,: .; From, i t s ..very early..stage, the p r e s e r v a t i o n , o f e t h n i c - a r c h i v e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was i n t e r t w i n e d - w i t h demands - f o r sou r c e m a t e r i a l s by h i s t o r i a n s . A f r o - A m e r i c a n h i s t o r i a n C a r t e r G. Woodson s t a r t e d c o l l e c t i n g h i s t o r i c a l documents and s o c i o l o g i c a l d a t a on contemporary A f r o - A m e r i c a n s as e a r l y as 1915 t h r o u g h t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Study o f Negro L i f e and H i s t o r y . He d i d so because he r e a l i z e d t h a t the c o l l e c t i o n o f s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s was an e s s e n t i a l component o f h i s p r o j e c t t o 1 " r e s e a r c h , w r i t e , and p u b l i s h a h i s t o r y t h a t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d t h e b l a c k e x p e r i e n c e . " 4 3 A l t h o u g h Woodson s h o u l d be c r e d i t e d f o r b e i n g f a r ahead o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y t o p r e s e r v e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s f o r A f r o - A m e r i c a n h i s t o r i e s , h i s 4 1 B o g h o s s i a n , 22. 4 2 L i u , 20. 4 3 J a c q u e l i n e Goggin, " C a r t e r G. Woodson and th e C o l l e c t i o n o f Source M a t e r i a l s f o r A f r o - A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y , " American Archivist 48, no. 3 (summer 1985): 262. 18 c o l l e c t i o n was an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f documents, w h i c h does not comply w i t h a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s . John Grabowski o b s e r v e s t h a t the b u r g e o n i n g i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l h i s t o r y , t h e h i s t o r y o f i m m i g r a t i o n , and t h e n a t u r e o f . e t h n i c i t y "more t h a n a n y t h i n g , s p u r r e d the development o f e t h n i c c o l l e c t i o n s w i t h i n m a i n l i n e a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 4 4 One such prominent program i s the I m m i g r a t i o n H i s t o r y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r (IHRC), f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1965, w h i c h had i t s g e n e s i s i n a h i s t o r y p r o j e c t r e l a t i n g t o the M i n n e s o t a I r o n Ranges. 4 5 The IHRC i s a grand program t h a t can c l a i m some s u c c e s s . I n 1985, however, Susan G r i g g c r i t i c a l l y examined i t s h o l d i n g s and h i s t o r i c - c o l l e c t i n g . p o l i c y , . *6...The ...collecting.^.policy -of - t h e ,.IHRC was- ;of the-, broadest...kind, I t encompassed- th e ' t w e n t y - f o u r e t h n i c groups t h a t a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the g r e a t wave o f m i g r a t i o n from t h e 1880s t o World War I . 4 7 The o n l y e x p l i c i t l i m i t a t i o n s o f the p o l i c y were t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n s must be t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l r e c o r d s r a t h e r t h a n t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s and t h a t t h e y must " d e a l w i t h t h e causes o f e m i g r a t i o n the a c t u a l p r o c e s s e s o f m i g r a t i o n , ' o r 4 4 John J . Grabowski, " A r c h i v i s t s and Immigrants, Embarking f o r New D e s t i n a t i o n s Together," i n Documenting D i v e r s i t y : A Report on the Conference on Documenting the Immigrant Experience in the United States of America, p r e p a r e d by CDIE P l a n n i n g Committee ( S a i n t P a u l , M i n n e s o t a : I m m i g r a t i o n H i s t o r y R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1991), 50. 4 5 Rudolph J . V e c o l i , . "The.Immigration S t u d i e s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , " American A r c h i v i s t 32, no. 2 ( A p r i l 1969): 142. 4 6 Susan G r i g g "A World o f R e p o s i t o r i e s , a W o r l d o f Records: R e d e f i n i n g t h e Scope of a N a t i o n a l S u b j e c t C o l l e c t i o n , " American A r c h i v i s t 48, no.3 (summer 1985): 286-295. 4 7 V e c o l i , 142-143 . 19 the e x p e r i e n c e s o f the immigrants and t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s . " 4 8 The p o l i c y d i d not i n c l u d e any r e s t r i c t i o n by geography o r t ime p e r i o d . The g e o g r a p h i c scope was the e n t i r e U n i t e d S t a t e s at e v e r y l e v e l . o f a c t i v i t y from n a t i o n to househo ld a n d . t h e ! t i m e span w a s : f r o m the •beg inning o f the g r e a t m i g r a t i o n t o .the i n d e f i n i t e f u t u r e . 4 9 " Examin ing the h o l d i n g s o f the IHRC, G r i g g admits t h a t the IHRC f a i l e d to f u l f i l i t s a m b i t i o u s p o l i c y . The amount o f r e c o r d s was r a t h e r s m a l l . Even . i n cases o f some . e thn ic groups which were r e l a t i v e l y w e l l documented, the c o m p o s i t i o n o f h o l d i n g s was uneven and the s t r e n g t h s were o f t e n w i t h i n c e r t a i n t o p i c a l o r g e o g r a p h i c a l l i m i t s . 5 0 , .. The more d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , a c q u i s i t i o n p l a n . t h a t . G r i g g .proposes r e s t r i c t s the scope by r e c o r d s ^ c r e a t o r t y p e s , such as the p r e s s , c h u r c h and f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , , as w e l l a s . by g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a . The r e s t r i c t i o n by g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a i s e s p e c i a l l y impor tant because , a s i d e from the p o l i c y ' s b e i n g too b r o a d , G r i g g p o i n t s out the prob lem, o f c o l l e c t i n g , . l o c a l m a t e r i a l s on ..a. n a t i o n - w i d e b a s i s . She observes t h a t "e thnic h i s t o r y i s overwhe lming ly l o c a l h i s t o r y , and t r u l y l o c a l m a t e r i a l s can bes t be chosen and made a c c e s s i b l e a t a l o c a l l e v e l . " 5 1 A r e s e a r c h - o r i e n t e d view of e t h n i c a r c h i v e s p r e v a i l s i n the l i t e r a t u r e and p r a c t i c e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . One of the 4 8 "Statement o f P o l i c y R e l a t i n g to the C o l l e c t i n g o f M a t e r i a l s f o r the. Immigrant. A r c h i v e s " . [Mimeographed] (Saint . Paul , . . M i n n e s o t a : Immigra t ion H i s t o r y Research C e n t e r , ' U n i v e r s i t y o f ~ M i n n e s o t a , 1974?); quoted i n G r i g g , 289. 4 9 G r i g g , 287. 5 0 I b i d . , 290 . 5 1 I b i d . , 292 . 20 prominent approaches t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s i s t o f i r s t p l a n , o r c o n c e i v e , a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t o f h i s t o r y w r i t i n g , and t h e n t r y t o i d e n t i f y u s e f u l r e c o r d s as s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e p r o j e c t . An example i s the, d i s c u s s i o n by. Robert M. Warner and F r a n c i s X. B l o u i n Jr.. . t h a t . e x p l o r e s p o s s i b l e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s f o r documenting the g r e a t m i g r a t i o n s between 1820 and 1920, .emphasizing c o l l e c t i o n - of m a t e r i a l s o v e r s e a s as e s s e n t i a l s o u r c e s . 5 2 Not o n l y h i s t o r i a n s but o t h e r academics such as s o c i o l o g i s t s a l s o urge a r c h i v e s t o s e r v e t h e i r needs by c o l l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s u s e f u l f o r them. R i c h a r d J u l i a n i argues th e need o f q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a . f o r t h e s t u d y o f i m m i g r a t i o n and e t h n i c i t y . - He . s i n g l e s out o r a l h i s t o r y as the ,f irstr.source-.that. can:.be - c o l i e c t e d -by - a r c h i v e s and be u s e f u l f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . He l a t e r q u e s t i o n s whether i t i s p o s s i b l e t o g a t h e r and i n t e r p r e t "data not o r i g i n a l l y c r e a t e d f o r r e s e a r c h purposes and t h r o u g h t h i s i n d i r e c t t e c h n i q u e t o a c h i e v e fragments of a f u n c t i o n a l s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w . , " 5 3 I t appears t h a t J u l i a n i c o n s i d e r s a r c h i v e s as d a t a c o l l e c t i n g a g e n c i e s t o work a t the demand of s c h o l a r s and t h a t he has a v i e w a t odds w i t h a r c h i v a l t h e o r i e s . 5 2 Robert M. Warner and F r a n c i s X. B l o u i n J r . , "Documenting the G r e a t M i g r a t i o n and a C e n t u r y of E t h n i c i t y i n A m e r i c a , " American A r c h i v i s t 39 ( J u l y 197.9) : 319-328. S i m i l a r approaches a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Marc Lee Raphael, "The G e n e s i s - of . a Communal - H i s t o r y : .The .Columbus J e w i s h History.. P r o j e c t , " ...American .Jewish Archives 29 ( A p r i l 1977) :53-69; and Thomas H. Kreneck, "Documenting a Mexican A m e r i c a n Community: The Houston Example". American A r c h i v i s t 48, no.3 (summer 1985):272-285. 5 3 R i c h a r d N. J u l i a n i , "The Use o f A r c h i v e s i n t h e S t u dy of I m m i g r a t i o n and E t h n i c i t y , " American A r c h i v i s t 39, no.4 (October 1976):474, 476. 21 Even when a repository i s engaged i n the preservation of archives of a s p e c i f i c ethnic group with programs p a r t l y o r i g i n a t i n g i n the ethnic community, researchers and research needs are often intertwined with the archives program i n the United States. The two Swedish archives i n I l l i n o i s described by Timothy Johnson and Kermit Westerberg both have strong t i e s with research i n s t i t u t i o n s . 5 4 The Swedish American Archives- of Greater Chicago receives professional s t a f f i n g and storage space from the Center for Scandinavian Studies of North Park College. The archives' owner, the Swedish"American H i s t o r i c a l Society cooperates with the centre i n c o l l e c t i o n development, fund-raising, planning, p o l i c y -formation., .and:, promotion „ of.--.the .'~ar.chiv.es.... .!;.,...The-.Swenson Swedish Immigration - - Research . Center .: is- located .rin August ana College Library, and i t had i t s major holdings ..transferred from, the College Library. The .centre also collaborates with the l i b r a r y . i n cataloguing published materials. Although cooperation with u n i v e r s i t i e s and .research i n s t i t u t i o n s can help archival r e p o s i t o r i e s i n professional treatment of material and storage space, a r c h i v i s t s must be aware of t h e i r professional role and ensure that the immediate research needs of the scholars do not a f f e c t a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s such that they v i o l a t e the archival p r i n c i p l e s . In Canada, although there i s some strong advocacy f o r free- standing ethnic archival i n s t i t u t i o n s whose objectives are the study of e t h n i c i t y and immigration, -archivists unequivocally oppose 5 4 Timothy J. Johnson, "The Swedish American Archives of Greater Chicago, I l l i n o i s L i b r a r i e s 69, no. 7 (September 1987) :600- 601"; and Kermit B. Westerberg, "Swenson Swedish Immigration Research Center," I l l i n o i s L i b r a r i e s 69, no. 7 (September 1987) :601- 606 . 22 academics' v i e w t h a t a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l e x i s t s p r i m a r i l y as a d a t a s o u r c e f o r them. I t i s argued t h a t "the l o y a l t y o f an a r c h i v i s t l i e s p r o p e r l y w i t h t h e community t h a t c r e a t e d t h e s e documents, and the f i r s t p r i o r i t y l i e s . , i n s e r v i n g t h e needs, o f - t h o s e p e o p l e and . i n e n s u r i n g a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d . 1 , 5 5 4. Preservation within the Ethnic Communities At t h e E t h n i c A r c h i v e s Workshop h e l d i n T o r o n t o , 1983, i t was argued t h a t i n some cases r e c o r d s o f community i n s t i t u t i o n s might as w e l l be l e f t , w i t h t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s because t h e y a r e u s u a l l y s t a f f e d by p e o p l e o f t h e community i n wh i c h t h e y a r e based, and t h e records.; would . t h e r e f o r e ,be„ ...assured o f -/...careful treatment.;. 5 6 A r c h i v i s t s , however, .,do not .share, a - s i n g l e - p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether r e c o r d s a r e c a r e f u l l y p r e s e r v e d by t h e e t h n i c communities t h a t have c r e a t e d them. Some a r c h i v i s t s t h i n k t h a t e t h n i c groups a r e not aware o f the v a l u e o f t h e i r r e c o r d s as a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . One o f t h e aims o f the NEA was " t o a l e r t e t h n o - c u l t u r a l communities t o t h e n a t u r e o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l and the importance o f i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n . " 5 7 The C o l l e c t i o n Development Workshop a t the Conference on Documenting the Immigrant E x p e r i e n c e h e l d i n M i n n e s o t a i n 1990 c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was "the need t o i n c r e a s e awareness on t h e p a r t o f i m m i g r a n t / e t h n i c . c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e v a l u e o f a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s , 5 5 B o g h o s s i a n , 22. 5 6 I b i d . , 23. 5 7 N e u t e l , 107. 23 p e r s o n a l p a p e r s , and a r t i f a c t s and t o encourage them t o t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e measures f o r t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n . " 5 8 O t h e r a r c h i v i s t s and .. academics, however, v i e w t h i s i s s u e d i f f e r e n t l y . Harney a s s e r t s t h a t " e t h n i c amateur h i s t o r i a n s , immigrant o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f i c i a l s and community a r c h i v i s t s have f o u g h t t o save i m p e r i l e d m a t e r i a l f o r y e a r s w h i l e d e p o s i t o r i e s o f the c ircumambient A n g l o c e n t r i c s o c i e t y d i s m i s s e d t h e i r v a l u e . " 5 9 He denounces t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d p a r t of the NEA o b j e c t i v e as i n d i c a t i n g an " a r r o g a n t m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . " I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , R udolph V e c o l i o b s e r v e s t h a t " p r i o r t o t h e 1960s, what s y s t e m a t i c p r e s e r v a t i o n o f immigrant r e c o r d s took p l a c e was due t o t h e i n i t i a t i v e s . ...of ...immigrant/ethnic.....historical. ..societies.. " 6 0 - — J o h n •Grabowski agr e e s w i t h V e c o l i ' t h a t , u n t i l t he e a r l y 1960s, ;the'f ie'-ld o f e t h n i c m a n u s c r i p t , c o l l e c t i n g w i t h i n academic o r m a i n l i n e h i s t o r i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s was n o n e x i s t e n t and t h a t o n l y e t h n i c groups t h e m s e l v e s p r e s e r v e d r e c o r d s t h r o u g h t h e i r a g e n c i e s such as museums, a r c h i v e s , c o l l e g e s , and "a m y r i a d o f s m a l l r e a d i n g rooms and ' n a t i o n a l ' l i b r a r i e s . " 6 1 A l t h o u g h many i n s t i t u t i o n s i n e t h n i c communities s h o u l d be g i v e n c r e d i t f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t many e t h n i c groups s i m p l y d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s t o manage t h e i r a r c h i v e s . As w e l l , as V e c o l i s u g g e s t s , 5 8 CDIE P l a n n i n g Committee, Documenting D i v e r s i t y : A Report on the Conference on Documenting the Immigrant Experience in the United States of America . ( S a i n t P a u l , ..Minnesota: .Immigration H i s t o r y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1991), 9. 5 9 Harney, 25. 6 0 Rudolph J . V e c o l i , "Why a Conference on Documenting the Immigrant E x p e r i e n c e ? " i n Documenting D i v e r s i t y , 42. 6 1 Grabowski, 50. 24 some groups were so m a r g i n a l i z e d by o r t h o d o x h i s t o r y t h a t t h e y d i d not t h i n k t h e y had a m e a n i n g f u l p a s t and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e y f a i l e d t o v a l u e t h e i r r e c o r d s as h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 6 2 The. i n t e r v i e w s o f Chinese, o r g a n i z a t i o n s b y . J i a n L i u suggest t h a t . t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e s t i l l p e r s i s t s i n . some,, ethnic-...communities. F o r example, i n re s p o n s e t o a q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e p o s i t i n g r e c o r d s i n an a r c h i v e s , one o f her i n f o r m a n t s answered w i t h a f i r m "no," s t a t i n g t h a t h i s - o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s r e c o r d s were o f no use t o any o t h e r p e o p l e . 6 3 The a p parent n e g l e c t o f r e c o r d s by e t h n i c groups does not s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n t h a t e t h n i c groups l a c k s i g n i f i c a n t b o d i e s o f h i s t o r i c a l records.. --...This ̂ .notion;./derives f r o m - " t h e . s t e r e o t y p e -of .the i m m i g r a n t s .as. u n i f o r m l y , . i l l i t e r a t e .peasants-. "64. - A c c o r d i n g /to V e c o l i , t h i s n o t i o n o f t e n has been used as an " e x p l a n a t i o n " o f poor a r c h i v a l h o l d i n g s o f e t h n i c m a t e r i a l s . P u b l i c a t i o n o f more t h a n a thousand newspapers and p e r i o d i c a l s i n languages o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1910, and the hundreds o f m i l l i o n s o f l e t t e r s s e n t t o im m i g r a n t s ' home c o u n t r i e s d i s c r e d i t t h e s t e r e o t y p e and t e s t i f y t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f r e c o r d s o f i m m i g r a n t s w o r t h p r e s e r v i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t b o d i e s o f h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s o f e t h n i c groups, a r c h i v i s t s a t mainstream i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y e n t h u s i a s t i c about e t h n i c communities e s t a b l i s h i n g 6 2 V e c o l i , "Why a Conference," 42. 6 3 L i u , 73 . 6 4 Rudolph J . V e c o l i , " E t h n i c i t y : A N e g l e c t e d D i mension of Ame r i c a n H i s t o r y , " i n The State of American History, ed. H e r b e r t J . Bass (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1970), 74. I n t h i s a r t i c l e , V e c o l i e x p l o r e s t h e reas o n s why e t h n i c i t y was l o n g n e g l e c t e d i n the American h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . 25 t h e i r own a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . The NEA d i d not encourage e t h n i c communities t o have t h e i r own a r c h i v a l programs because "they u s u a l l y have a v e r y l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y f o r a r r a n g i n g and d e s c r i b i n g • c o l l e c t i o n s , l i t t l e a c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r r e s e a r c h and no a c c e s s • t o t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e v c a r e and r e p a i r o f documents." 6 5 Inadequate r e s o u r c e s and t h e l a c k o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e a r e t h e main r e a s o n s f o r o p p o s i t i o n t o a r c h i v e s d e v e l o p e d by e t h n i c communities... Those a r c h i v e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e not unaware o f such problems. The American J e w i s h A r c h i v e s (AJA), founded i n 1947, i d e n t i f i e d two major problems i n t h e i r h o l d i n g s i n 1983: t h e i r f o u r - s t o r y b u i l d i n g was f u l l , and t h e y had two l a r g e u n p r o c e s s e d . c o l l e c t i o n s ., t o t a l l i n g .,two , .thousand . l i n e a r - f e e t . - The s u r v e y .conducted as p a r t , o f the. AJA's. . . c o l l e c t ion-....management program f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d t h a t many of t h e h o l d i n g s had been j u s t dumped i n t o b o x e s . 6 6 S i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s p r o b a b l y e x i s t i n most e t h n i c community a r c h i v e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e problems need t o be r e c o g n i z e d and o b j e c t i v e l y examined, t h e y s h o u l d not be overemphasized so much t h a t t h e y l e n d t o an o u t r i g h t d i s m i s s a l o f e f f o r t s by e t h n i c communities towards p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s . The r e s t r i c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s i s not a p r o b lem p a r t i c u l a r t o e t h n i c community a r c h i v e s . Even the most p o w e r f u l a r c h i v e s o f the c o u n t r y , t h a t i s , the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, had t o s low down i t s a c q u i s i t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s due t o t h e l a r g e b a c k l o g o f u n p r o c e s s e d r e c o r d s . The need t o d e a l w i t h 6 5 P u b i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, Public Archives Report 1976-1977, 49 . 6 6 K e v i n P r o f f i t t , " C o l l e c t i o n Management a t t h e American J e w i s h A r c h i v e s , " American Archivist 49, no.2 ( s p r i n g 1986), 177- 178 . 26 " m i n o r i t y " languages such as Chinese and Japanese a l s o posed some impediments t o t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f a c q u i r e d r e c o r d s . 6 7 And, w h i l e t h e f u n d i n g f o r p u b l i c a r c h i v e s and o t h e r l a r g e a r c h i v e s i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , the s t a t u s o f - e t h n i c - a r c h i v e s programs o r , i f s u c h s p e c i a l , program does not exit. , a c q u i s i t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s may not be as s e c u r e as one might hope. As r e v e a l e d i n t h e E t h n i c A r c h i v e s Workshop, even though p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t s r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e of. e t h n i c a r c h i v e s , r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e i r mandate and budget r e s u l t i n a low p r i o r i t y o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s i n p r a c t i c e . T h i s p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y owes p a r t l y t o the f a c t t h a t t h e f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s l i e s i n p r e s e r v i n g .<• governmental...; records.. 6 8 T h e r e f o r e , - i n t ime o f r e s t r a i n t s , e t h n i c a r c h i v a l - a c q u i s i t i o n s t e n d t o .be one o f t h e f i r s t a c t i v i t i e s t o go. A r c h i v a l programs e s t a b l i s h e d by e t h n i c communities do have some advantages. A l t h o u g h community a r c h i v e s a r e not r e c o r d c r e a t o r s p e r se, t h e y a r e c l o s e t o the c r e a t o r s . T h e r e f o r e , the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r i t y o f fonds t h r o u g h th e s y s t e m a t i c t r a n s f e r o f r e c o r d s i s l i k e l y t o t a k e p l a c e . Records of d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s a c q u i r e d by a community a r c h i v e s w i l l complement each o t h e r , c o l l e c t i v e l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e s t a t e o f t h e community t h a t c r e a t e d them. 6 9 B e i n g p a r t o f the 6 7 P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, Public Archives Report 1975-76, 48; and Public Archives Report 1977-78, 48-49. 6 8 B o g h o s s i a n , 4-5. 6 9 F o r some d i s c u s s i o n how o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n an e t h n i c community i n t e r a c t w i t h c o n d i t i o n s o f the community, see, f o r example, Pyong Gap Min, " C u l t u r a l and Economic B o u n d a r i e s of Korean E t h n i c i t y : a C omparative A n a l y s i s , " Ethnic and Racial Studies 14, no. 2 ( A p r i l 1991): 225-241; and M a u r i l i o V a g i l , "The E t h n i c O r g a n i z a t i o n as an I n s t r u m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Change; JALDEF, a Case Study," 27 community, a community archives can e a s i l y i d e n t i f y and locate creators of records worthy of preservation and have ready access to information on the context of the records. Donors are l i k e l y to prefer repositories within the ethnic community, as found out by •Liu in. her - interviews. 7 0 Because donors' w i l l i s one of the determinative factors i n acq u i s i t i o n of archival m aterial, 7 1 t h i s provides a practical•reason for the establishment of an archives within the community. The evolution of Finnish archives chronicled by Edward W. Laine 7 2 suggests some implications of the preservation of archives i n ethnic communities. Contrary to the s i m p l i s t i c view of some a r c h i v i s t s . and historians., the *F.inns came to. Canada with:-a:-"well- defined,, .awareness ..of a...native...-Finnish ..Archival'.-tradition"—that goes back well into the f i f t e e n century and they had a "remarkable degree of h i s t o r i c a l consciousness concerning t h e i r past and present." The f i r s t conscious e f f o r t by the Finnish community to preserve t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l records i s observed i n the establishment of "organic archives," by.which Laine means repo s i t o r i e s created to preserve records of the parent bodies. The f i r s t archives of t h i s sort, the Archives of the Finnish Society of Toronto, Laine observes, was an ind i c a t i o n that the membership of the Society had developed "a shared sense of history that enabled them to undertake a c o l l e c t i v e approach to safeguarding t h e i r records f o r future Journal of Ethnic Studies 18, no.l (spring 1990) : 15--31. 7 0 Liu, 99. 7 1 "Competition or Cooperation," 21-22; and Boghossian, 9 7 2 Laine, 75-94. 28 g e n e r a t i o n s , " 7 3 and the a r c h i v e s was f u l l y aware o f such fundamental a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s as provenance and r e s p e c t des f o n d s . Resource r e s t r i c t i o n s , however, l e d t o t h e e v e n t u a l breakdown of F i n n i s h o r g a n i c a r c h i v e s . - The major p r o b l e m L a i n e s p e c i f i c a l l y n o t e s i s , t h a t v o l u n t e e r . o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f i c i a l s o f t e n i n e v i t a b l y worked at.home, r e s u l t i n g i n the a l i e n a t i o n o f r e c o r d s from th e o f f i c e s . The F i n n i s h community's " l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n " f o r m a i n t a i n i n g i m p o r t a n t F i n n i s h r e c o r d s was t o e s t a b l i s h c e n t r a l i z e d r e s e a r c h a r c h i v e s . Two " r e s e a r c h " a r c h i v e s , t h e F i n n i s h Canadian H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y A r c h i v e s and the F i n n i s h Canadian A r c h i v e s , w i t h a n a t i o n - wide scope . o f p r e s e r v a t i o n were . e s t a b l i s h e d ..in 1944 and 1947, r e s p e c t i v e l y . . .-They r e f l e c t e d ..the,,schism...at-the--time-between...the r i g h t - w i n g and t h e l e f t - w i n g w i t h i n t h e F i n n i s h community. B o t h a r c h i v e s l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r h o l d i n g s t o p u b l i c a r c h i v e s : the f o r m e r t o t h e A r c h i v e s o f O n t a r i o and t h e l a t t e r t o t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. L a i n e does not d i r e c t l y account f o r t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e i r h o l d i n g s t o t h e p u b l i c a r c h i v e s . To f e n d o f f t h e c r i t i c i s m o f the c e n t r a l i z e d approach o f l a r g e p u b l i c a r c h i v e s w h i c h removes r e c o r d s from t h e i r o r i g i n a t i n g l o c a l e s , he argues t h a t t h e two " n a t i o n a l " a r c h i v e s o f t h e community i t s e l f s o l i c i t e d r e c o r d s from a c r o s s the c o u n t r y . He a l s o emphasizes t h a t t h e s e F i n n i s h " n a t i o n a l " a r c h i v e s s e c u r e d v a l u a b l e r e c o r d s t h a t would have been l o s t w i t h o u t t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n . 7 4 7 3 I b i d . , 88 . 7 4 I b i d . , 93. 29 What i s not found i n the e v o l u t i o n o f F i n n i s h a r c h i v e s programs i s t h e a r c h i v e s c o l l e c t i v e l y s u p p o r t e d by a l o c a l e t h n i c community, w h i c h would r e a d i l y u t i l i z e t h e advantages o f the community-based r e p o s i t o r i e s w h i l e o b s e r v i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e o f g e o g r a p h i c a l t e r r i t o r i a l i t y - . t a k i n g on a segment o f t h e whole spectrum o f r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s . An example o f t h i s t y pe o f endeavour can be found w i t h a network o f a r c h i v a l programs d e v e l o p e d by t h e Jews. The Western R e g i o n J e w i s h A r c h i v e s Committee (WRJAC) was formed i n 1967 by t h e Winnipeg O f f i c e o f Canadian J e w i s h Congress, f o l l o w e d by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r c h i v e s programs i n C a l g a r y and Vancouver i n 1969 ,and 197 0,..respectively.- 7 5; .-.̂ The ..WRJAC .-..cultivated .<close- -cooperation , w i t h . . p r o v i n c i a l . a r c h i v e s , — a l l . . m a j o r . - o r g a n i z a t i o n s - a n d - i n s t i - t u t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d i n c l u d i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y .of ...Manitoba H i s t o r y Department, as w e l l as t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s Committee o f Canadian J e w i s h Congress i n M o n t r e a l . The c l o s e t i e s w i t h t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e t h e WRJAC a c c e s s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e and f a c i l i t i e s o f b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d a r c h i v e s , w h i l e t h e WRJAC i n t u r n can a s s i s t them by b r i n g i n g t o l i g h t n e g l e c t e d o r u n d i s c o v e r e d m a t e r i a l s . The problems e x p e r i e n c e d by e t h n i c community a r c h i v a l programs ar e more a m a t t e r o f p r a c t i c e s and f e a s i b i l i t y r a t h e r o f i n f r i n g i n g a r c h i v a l t h e o r i e s and p r i n c i p l e s . The s e v e r e r e s o u r c e s h o r t a g e s a r e c e r t a i n l y a f o r m i d a b l e i s s u e , but i t i s not s p e c i f i c t o e t h n i c community a r c h i v e s . Moreover, t h e r e a r e o t h e r o b s t a c l e s i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v a l . m a t e r i a l . . A l t h o u g h J o e l Wurl 7 5 E v o l u t i o n o f the Western Region J e w i s h A r c h i v e s Committee i s d e t a i l e d i n A r n o l d , 24-29. 30 acknowledges the g r e a t p r o g r e s s i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s d u r i n g t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s , he i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n e t h n i c a r c h i v e s . 7 6 F i r s t , t he u n i v e r s e , now c o n s i s t i n g o f numerous r e p o s i t o r i e s engaged i n p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s , i s h a r d l y d e f i n e d o r u n d e r s t o o d by anyone. I n f o r m a t i o n about "who has what" and "what t h e y a r e d o i n g w i t h what t h e y have" i s e s s e n t i a l f o r b e t t e r o p e r a t i o n o f each i n s t i t u t i o n and the o v e r a l l a r c h i v a l community. Second, Wurl p o i n t s out "the g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y we f a c e i n g e t t i n g a f u l l i n t e l l e c t u a l g r a s p o f the c a t e g o r i e s o f s o u r c e s t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d 'documentation o f th e immigrant e x p e r i e n c e . ' " A m u l t i t u d e o f languages i n v o l v e d i s the t h i r d i s s u e . • I t impedes -not o n l y the ...processing ..of., a c q u i r e d r e c o r d s but.,also ..acquisition-.because c u s t o d i a n s might. d i s c a r d o l d r e c o r d s o f t h e i r a n c e s t r i e s o r p r e d e c e s s o r s when t h e y cannot u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n t e n t s . The c u s t o d i a n s may f a i l t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e v a l u e o f t h e r e c o r d s o r may be a f r a i d o f p o s s i b l e damage caused by making t h e r e c o r d s p u b l i c . . The l a s t o b s t a c l e t h a t Wurl o b s e r v e s i s the l a c k o f i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . He q u e s t i o n s , " i s i t because we a r e s i m p l y t o o busy k e e p i n g o ur own s h i p s a f l o a t , o r a r e t h e r e o t h e r f o r c e s a t work such as p r o p r i e t a r y o r o v e r l y c o m p e t i t i v e i m p u l s e s , e t h n o c e n t r i s m , o r b a s i c l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n the b i g g e r p i c t u r e ? " C o o p e r a t i o n among a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a c q u i s i t i o n i s a l l t o o o f t e n emphasized i n a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n t consequences. What i s as e s s e n t i a l i s t o draw a p i c t u r e encompassing t h e whole a r c h i v a l community.. t o d e s i g n what system i s 7 6 J o e l Wurl, "The A r c h i v a l Golden Door; Thoughts on Improving th e S t a t e o f H i s t o r i c a l Documentation on t h e Immigrant E x p e r i e n c e , " i n Documenting D i v e r s i t y , 6 6 - 6 8 . 31 d e s i r a b l e t o s e r v e the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e making t h e maximum use of l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . I n t h e p r e s e n t r e a l i t y , no c a t e g o r y o f a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s has enough r e s o u r c e s t o c o v e r t h e whole f i e l d o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s . T h e r e f o r e , e t h n i c community r e p o s i t o r i e s s h o u l d be v i e w e d as v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s . o f t h e - a r c h i v a l community, and-they s h o u l d be g i v e n a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . S e v e r a l i s s u e s need, t o be a d d r e s s e d i n e v a l u a t i n g the p o t e n t i a l o f e t h n i c community-based a r c h i v a l programs. F i r s t , t o s u s t a i n an a r c h i v a l program, t h e r e needs t o be a s u b s t a n t i a l e n t i t y o f community and community members' sense o f i d e n t i t y . Second, t o f u n c t i o n as a l e g i t i m a t e r e p o s i t o r y , .an. ..archives . .must ...follow p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s acknowledged and r e a l i z e d : i n : t h e a r c h i v a l community. A c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f o l l o w i n g t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e s h o u l d always g u i d e p r o c e s s i n g o f a c q u i s i t i o n s , c r e a t i o n o f f i n d i n g a i d s and r e f e r e n c e s e r v i c e s . The t h i r d . i s s u e i s the a c c e s s i b i l i t y by t h e p u b l i c . T h i s i n c l u d e s open hours and l o c a t i o n s , as w e l l as t r e a t m e n t o f h o l d i n g s and r e f e r e n c e s e r v i c e s . F o u r t h , a community r e q u i r e s l o n g - t e r m f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g and s u b s t a n t i a l b a s i s f o r f u n d i n g i n o r d e r t o s u s t a i n an e t h n i c community-based a r c h i v a l program. 32 Chapter Two DEVELOPMENT OF JAPANESE COMMUNITIES IN CANADA • T h i s c h a p t e r r e v i e w s the development o f Japanese-communities - i n Canada. These communities -underwent d r a s t i c - c h a n g e s - b e c a u s e - o f mass e v a c u a t i o n s d u r i n g World War I I . B e f o r e the war, t h e Japanese were s e c l u d e d i n t h e i r communities h a v i n g minimum c o n t a c t w i t h t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . A f t e r the war, t h e Japanese came t o be c o n s i d e r e d one o f th e most a s s i m i l a t e d m i n o r i t y groups i n Canada, w i t h a h i g h r a t e o f i n t e r - r a c i a l m a r r i a g e s and r e s i d e n t i a l d i s p e r s i o n . 7 7 Because development o f communities and th e change i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f .communities -are..-. i n e x t r i c a b l y r e l a t e d w i t h Japanese Canadians' .,-..views., of.. t h e i r , . i d e n t i t y — a n d -;.history,...-.and -thus:-related ...to, ..their a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s , a r e v i e w o f Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u r r e n t a c t i v i t i e s i n thos e communities. 1. Before World War II Early Immigrants The i m m i g r a t i o n from Japan t o Canada s t a r t e d i n e a r n e s t around 7 7 F o r i n s t a n c e , about the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s p e r s a l , see Ken A d a c h i , The Enemy That Never Was: A History of the Japanese Canadians (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & St e w a r t i n c . , 1991), 356; and Ke i b o Oiwa, "The S t r u c t u r e o f D i s p e r s a l : The Japanese-Canadian Community o f M o n t r e a l 1942-52," Canadian Ethnic Studies 18, no.2 (1986) : 25-26. A d a c h i a l s o d i s c u s s e s the low l e v e l o f r e t e n t i o n o f the Japanese language ( A d a c h i , 366) . I n the 1980s, i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n Japanese Canadians m a r r i e d non-Japanese t h r e e t i m e s out o f f o u r (Roger D a n i e l s , " A f t e r w a r d : The S t r u g g l e f o r Red r e s s , " i n A d a c h i , 373. Furthermore, d i s c u s s i n g t h e t h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n Japanese Canadians' d e s i r e t o r e c o v e r some elements o f Japanese c u l t u r e , A d a c h i s t a t e s t h a t "they a r e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e i r own a c c u l t u r a t i o n has l i m i t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c o v e r y . " ( A d a c h i , 363) 33 t h e mid-1890s, about a decade a f t e r the law t o p e r m i t e m i g r a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s was e n a c t e d i n Japan i n 1984. There were l e s s t h a n one thousand Japanese i n Canada i n 18 96, o f w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y were, f i s h e r m e n on the c o a s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 7 8 From 1896 t o 1901, n e a r l y f o u r t e e n thousand Japanese immigrants e n t e r e d Canadian p o r t s , but-, t h e m a j o r i t y - t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h t o " t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . O n l y 4,738 Japanese were r e c o r d e d i n the 1901 census. E a r l y Japanese - immigrants were u n m a r r i e d males o f t h e average age o f 22.8 a t the time o f t h e i r a r r i v a l . They would t a k e whatever j o b s a v a i l a b l e , w h i c h were o f t e n o f s e a s o n a l n a t u r e . Thus, t h e y t e n d e d t o d r i f t from j o b t o j o b i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . 7 9 Development of Communities I n S t e v e s t o n , a v i l l a g e near the mouth of t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , n e a r l y two. thousand.Japanese were engaged i n t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y by 1899. The Japanese Fishermen's H o s p i t a l was founded i n 1895 and p r o v i d e d a p r i m i t i v e form of m e d i c a r e . 8 0 I t became i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t r e a t i n g the y e l l o w f e v e r and typhus e p i d e m i c s o f t h e e a r l y 1900s. When the massive r e d u c t i o n s o f f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s were imposed on Japanese f i s h e r m e n i n t h e 192 0s, t h e y o r g a n i z e d a system t o m i t i g a t e t h e damage. M a r r i e d men were g i v e n p r i o r i t y t o r e t a i n l i c e n c e s and t h o s e who thought t h e y c o u l d b e s t be a b l e t o f i n d o t h e r employment v o l u n t a r i l y withdrew. They a l s o o r g a n i z e d the 7 8 C h a r l e s H. . Young and H e l e n R. .Y. R e i d , The Japanese Canadians ..(Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto.-Press, 1938), 6. 7 9 R i g e n t a Sumida, "The Japanese in B r i t i s h Columbia" (Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1935), 55. 8 0 Japanese Canadian C e n t e n n i a l P r o j e c t , A Dream of Riches: The Japanese Canadians 1877-1977 (Toronto: G i l c h r i s t W r i g h t , 1977), 24. 34 Fishermen's B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t y t o r a i s e funds f o r compensation f o r f a m i l y heads who l o s t l i c e n c e s . The S t e v e s t o n Japanese Farmers' Company was o r g a n i z e d i n 1923 and bought e i g h t y a c r e s o f l a n d t o accommodate d i s p l a c e d f i s h e r m e n i n a g r i c u l t u r e . The company t h e n o r g a n i z e d a s e r i e s o f c l a s s e s t o t e a c h t h e r u d i m e n t s o f • f a r m i n g ' i n Canada. I n Vancouver by 1907, a s i z a b l e Japanese community had grown w i t h s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s a l o n g P o w e l l S t r e e t , c l o s e t o t h e H a s t i n g s Saw M i l l , w h i c h employed f i v e hundred Japanese around t h e t u r n o f th e c e n t u r y . The Japanese p o p u l a t i o n i n the c i t y grew r a p i d l y from 2,036. i n 1911 t o 4,246 i n 1921 and 8,328 i n 1931. 8 1 W i t h i n the . p i t y , t h e Japanese-were c o n c e n t r a t e d - i n p a r t i c u l a r .areas, with-more t h a n h a l f o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g . i n t h e P o w e l l S t r e e t a r e a i n 1931. I n September. 1907, t h e growing antagonism f e l t among the w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n towards the " O r i e n t a l s " c u l m i n a t e d i n a Vancouver r i o t . The J a p a n e s e , o r g a n i z e d f i g h t i n g u n i t s .and met t h e mob, which--had swept t h r o u g h Chinatown and c o n t i n u e d on i n t o " L i t t l e Tokyo" a l o n g P o w e l l S t r e e t . By n i g h t f a l l the Japanese formed s e c u r i t y p a t r o l s t o p r o t e c t t h e a r e a . 8 2 The f i e r c e a n t i - J a p a n e s e f e e l i n g s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e r i o t r e s u l t e d i n the Gentlemen's Agreement between t h e Canadian and Japanese governments. The agreement s e t an a n n u a l q u o t a o f 400 on Japanese i m m i g r a n t s , but r e t u r n i n g r e s i d e n t s and r e s i d e n t s ' w i v e s , c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s were exempted from t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n . Because of t h i s exemption, the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the Japanese immigrants 8 1 Young, 68-69. 8 2 A d a c h i , 74. 35 d r a s t i c a l l y changed a f t e r 1908. U t i l i z i n g t h e " p i c t u r e b r i d e " system, Japanese men s t a r t e d i m p o r t i n g w i v e s -and, u n t i l r e s t r i c t i o n s were p l a c e d on the e n t r y o f women i n 1928, t h e number of females a r r i v i n g i n Canada exceeded t h a t o f males e v e r y y e a r except.two. B e f o r e t h i s , i n f l u x ;of women, t h e Japanese community i n Canada was co m p r i s e d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y o f males. By 1931, the p r o p o r t i o n o f females t o males i n c r e a s e d t o n e a r l y seven t o t e n , wh i c h l e d t o a h i g h b i r t h r a t e . . The c h a n g e . i n c o m p o s i t i o n o f the Japanese p o p u l a t i o n n a t u r a l l y meant a change i n the n a t u r e o f t h e i r l i f e i n Canada and t h e community. More and more Japanese c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r l i v e s i n Canada permanent as t h e y got s e t t l e d and s t a r t e d . b u i l d i n g . f a m i l i e s . In. December. 1915,. d u r i n g World. War. ..I., ...the Japanese, community i n Vancouver o r g a n i z e d v o l u n t e e r c o r p s t o c o n t r i b u t e . t o t h e war e f f o r t o f t h e i r adopted c o u n t r y . The expenses o f t h e t r a i n i n g and maintenance o f t h e v o l u n t e e r s were borne by t h e Japanese community and t h e c o r p s t r a i n e d f o r t h r e e months. 8 3 From t h e e a r l y days o f Japanese i m m i g r a n t s i n Canada i n l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h r o u g h the 1930s, t h e Japanese r e l i e d on t h e i r e t h n i c community f o r economic and s o c i a l s u p p o r t . They formed v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o cope w i t h the v a r i o u s i s s u e s o f community members. I n 1934, the Japanese o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Vancouver numbered a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y - f o u r . 8 4 They i n c l u d e d h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d 8 3 The f e d e r a l government, however, d i d not a c c e p t the e n l i s t m e n t o f t h e c o r p s and t h e group was d i s s o l v e d . Japanese v o l u n t e e r s from B r i t i s h Columbia l a t e r went t o A l b e r t a t o e n l i s t i n d i v i d u a l l y and e v e n t u a l l y a t o t a l o f 196 v o l u n t e e r s went t o war. 8 4 Young, 108. There were an approximate t o t a l o f 230 Japanese o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canada i n 1934. 36 a s s o c i a t i o n s such as t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s , w h i c h were not t o be found i n o t h e r s m a l l e r Japanese communities. A s s o c i a t i o n s were a l s o s p e c i a l i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o e d u c a t i o n , age, and so on. Many- o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n -Vancouver assumed a r o l e o f p u l l i n g t o g e t h e r s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n o t h e r a r e a s . The Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n (CJA) was e s t a b l i s h e d as e a r l y . a s i n 1897.to a i d ..immigrants i n . . f i n d i n g j o b s and d e v e l o p a d u l t . e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , . e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e f o c u s i n g on Canadian customs and t h e E n g l i s h language. A l t h o u g h t h e Japanese needed t o get accustomed t o Canadian l i f e , t h e y a l s o r e t a i n e d s t r o n g t i e s w i t h Japan. The CJA e x e r t e d i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e Japanese community wi t h , ".a -rather, pronounced n a t i o n a l i s t i c .bias . . ' l 8 5 I t d e r i v e d i t s „ a u t h o r i t y . : . f rom i t s c l o s e . . . r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h the Japanese c o n s u l a t e , w h i c h acknowledged and u t i l i z e d t h e CJA as-an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency o f t h e community w i t h . f u n c t i o n s such .,as i s s u i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s and c o l l e c t i n g s t a t i s t i c s . The Japanese c o n s u l a t e r e t a i n e d g r e a t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e community w e l l i n t o t h e 1920s. 8 6 It.assumed t h e . r o l e , o f g u a r d i a n - f o r "the "Japanese, a c t i n g as a spokesperson towards w h i t e s o c i e t y and p r o t e s t i n g t o Ottawa o r V i c t o r i a c o n c e r n i n g a n t i - J a p a n e s e l e g i s l a t i o n . The a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e o f the CJA were c h a l l e n g e d by the Camp and M i l l Workers' Union. The Union took an o p p o s i t e p o s i t i o n and a d v o c a t e d c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e white s . a n d t r a d e - u n i o n i s m among 5 I b i d . , 111. 6 I b i d . , 117. 37 t h e Japanese i n Canada. I t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1920 and had e i g h t l o c a l s w i t h a t o t a l membership o f o v e r s i x hundred i n 1934. 8 7 Two Japanese newspapers r e f l e c t e d c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w s o f t h e CJA and. t h e Unio n . The f i r s t Japanese-language d a i l y newspaper i n Vancouver, the Tairiku Nippo, was owned by one o f t h e prominent members o f the CJA. E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1907, the newspaper g e n e r a l l y r e t a i n e d a n a t i o n a l i s t i c stance, towards Japan.. I t p r o v i d e d r e p o r t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of. i s s u e s and events. t h a t were o f i n t e r e s t - t o the Japanese i n a manner t h a t s e c u r e d t h e i r i d e n t i t y w i t h Japan. The newspaper had a r e p u t e d c i r c u l a t i o n o f o v e r t h r e e thousand i n 1934. 8 8 The People's Daily, on the. o t h e r , hand, was. e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1924 t o . a d v o c a t e .the cause o f -the Union.. There was a n o t h e r newspaper, ...the Canada .Shimpo,... which ;took ...somewhat - of.. .a m i d d l e c o u r s e between t h e o t h e r two. A t t i t u d e s o f community members a l s o d i f f e r e d a l o n g g e n e r a t i o n a l l i n e s . The second g e n e r a t i o n was much more exposed, t o w h i t e s o c i e t y and i t s v a l u e s t h r o u g h p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and thus a c q u i r e d . . . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Canadian, s o c i e t y . The second g e n e r a t i o n r e s e n t e d the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n ' s Japanese customs, w h i c h were so d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e i n Western c u l t u r e . I n t u r n t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n lamented the l o s s o f v i r t u e s based on Japanese t r a d i t i o n s among t h e second g e n e r a t i o n . The Japanese language s c h o o l was an i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e v i c e by w h i c h t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n p a r e n t s hoped t o p e r p e t u a t e t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese v a l u e s i n t h e growing Canadian-born g e n e r a t i o n . The Japanese C i t i z e n s S c h o o l was i n e x i s t e n c e by 1 9 0 6 o n Vancouver's 7 I b i d . , 112. 8 I b i d . , 111. 38 A l e x a n d e r S t r e e t . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , i t was t h e c e n t r a l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r Japanese c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver. Only a few s e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d r e g u l a r Canadian s c h o o l s . E v e n t u a l l y , i t became c l e a r .that.. Japanese . c h i l d r e n , s h o u l d • be ed u c a t e d .in Canadian schools.. t o . b e t t e r f i t . i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y u n l e s s t h e i r p a r e n t s i n t e n d e d t o r e t u r n t o Japan. By 1922, a l l ... c h i l d r e n ..were e n r o l l e d . i n . p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and t h e name o f the Japanese s c h o o l was changed.to t h e Japanese Language S c h o o l . 8 9 By 1935, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 Japanese language s c h o o l s were f u n c t i o n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h a t o t a l o f 80 t e a c h e r s and ,3,283 p u p i l s . 9 0 , Whereas the c o u r s e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n were u s u a l l y , . . l i m i t e d .to reading..and:..wr.iting._-.in-t he... Japanese ..language,, -they-were ... d e s i g n e d t o i n s t i l l i n . t he . c h i l d r e n . Japanese " v a l u e s .and a "sense -of p r i d e i n t h e i r background, by u s i n g t e x t b o o k s i m p o r t e d from Japan and d r a w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s from Japanese e v e n t s and c o n c e p t s . A l t h o u g h t h e Japanese community s t r u g g l e d t o s u s t a i n the language s c h o o l s , t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e s c h o o l s t o m a i n t a i n t h e Japanese language and t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n t h e new g e n e r a t i o n were "an a d m i t t e d f a i l u r e . " O n l y a v e r y m i n i m a l f l u e n c y i n t h e Japanese language was a c h i e v e d i n any case. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e N i s e i (second g e n e r a t i o n ) , a few o f whom were f u l l g r a d u a t e s o f the s c h o o l s , seldom r e a d Japanese l i t e r a t u r e and were u n a b l e t o r e a d even t h e s i m p l e p r o s e o f the v e r n a c u l a r p r e s s . 9 1 W h i l e t h e d i v e r s i t y among the Japanese d e v e l o p e d as the community grew, t h e y s t i l l t ended t o s t a y i n t h e i r , own s e c l u d e d 8 9 Roy I t o , Stories of My People: A Japanese Canadian Journal ( H a m i l t o n : S-20 and N i s e i V e t e r a n s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1994), 133-135. 9 0 A d a c h i , 12 7. 9 1 I b i d . , 129. 39 community. The Vancouver P o w e l l S t r e e t a r e a was t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f Japanese a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I t was s e g r e g a t e d p h y s i c a l l y as w e l l as . p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . One c o u l d l i v e i n t h e a r e a e a t i n g Japanese t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d , s h o p p i n g a t Japanese-owned s t o r e s , s t a y i n g , i n . J a p a n e s e - o p e r a t e d . b o a r d i n g - houses o r h o t e l s , and c o n g r e g a t i n g a t s t r e e t c o r n e r s . "The a r e a was a p a r t as i f a g h e t t o . w a l l ..defined . i t . 1 , 9 2 ..The...Japanese . . b u i l t . a. -wall- a g a i n s t p r e j u d i c e and r e j e c t i o n by c r e a t i n g a m i n i a t u r e o f the l i f e t h e y had l e f t b e h i n d i n t h e i r home c o u n t r y i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r i d e n t i t y and s e c u r e a sense of communal r e l a t i o n . There were, o f c o u r s e , p r a c t i c a l . r e a s o n s f o r . t h e i r t e n dency t o c l u s t e r . . . .Intending t o r e t u r n to.-Japan as .soon ..as -..they.accumulated enough w e a l t h , e a r l y : i m m i g r a n t s - ^ n a t u r a l l y p r e f e r r e d t o remain as g e o g r a p h i c a l l y c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e i r homeland. I n f a c t , most of them had b a r e l y enough money t o c r o s s t h e P a c i f i c and were not l e f t w i t h any r e s o u r c e s t o move f u r t h e r when t h e y a r r i v e d a t t h e p o r t s o f V i c t o r i a o r Vancouver A l s o , because - of-... a l a c k - . o f knowledge o f the. E n g l i s h language and customs i n Canada, most im m i g r a n t s had no cho i c e , but t o work, under, ."bosses'! who o r g a n i z e d t h e l a b o u r f o r c e and n e g o t i a t e d c o l l e c t i v e c o n t r a c t s o f work. The l a c k o f s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e no doubt impeded a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h language by t h e Japanese. I n a s u r v e y c a r r i e d out i n 1924-26, o n l y 26.2% o f 3,480 immigrants s t u d i e d d e c l a r e d t h e y were a b l e t o r e a d and speak i n E n g l i s h . 9 3 T h i s a l o n e was s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n f o r the Japanese t o d w e l l t o g e t h e r . 9 2 I b i d . , 1 3 1 . 9 3 Sumida, 58. 40 2. The Mass Evacuation during World War II A f t e r Japan's s u r p r i s e a t t a c k on P e a r l Harbor on December 7, 1941, a s e r i e s o f o r d e r s - i n - c o u n c i l p a s s e d under t h e War Measures Ac t p ut a h a l t t o the normal l i f e o f the Japanese and e v e n t u a l l y u p - r o o t e d them, from t h e . c o m m u n i t i e s . i n B r i t i s h Columbia where t h e y had l i v e d f o r n e a r l y h a l f a c e n t u r y . In m i d-January 1942, a p a r t i a l e v a c u a t i o n o f t h e Japanese was a u t h o r i z e d by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l P.C. 365. T h i s o r d e r , p a s s e d on J a n u a r y 14, d e s i g n a t e d an a r e a one hundred m i l e s i n l a n d from t h e west c o a s t as a p r o t e c t e d a r e a and a l l male Japanese n a t i o n a l s aged 18 t o 45 were t o be removed from t h e a r e a and s e n t t o r o a d camps. Between -March - and June, 1942 , . a. t o t a l .of .2 ,161 Japanese were p l a c e d i n r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n camps. 9 4 On F e b r u a r y 24 , t he f e d e r a l government pa s s e d . . O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l P.C. 1486, whi c h empowered t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e t o remove a l l p e r s o n s o f Japanese r a c i a l o r i g i n from t h e p r o t e c t e d a r e a . By November, a t o t a l o f 21,4 60 p e o p l e had been e v a c u a t e d , c o m p l e t i n g the o p e r a t i o n . A m a j o r i t y o f 12,029 were l o c a t e d i n d e t e n t i o n camps i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Though t h e o p t i o n o f g o i n g t o sugar beet farms was not a p p e a l i n g a t f i r s t , 3,641 p e o p l e moved t o farms i n A l b e r t a and Manitoba t o keep t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o g e t h e r . 9 5 I n December 1942, the f e d e r a l government p r o m u l g a t e d the . p o l i c y t h a t r e l o c a t i o n ' t o . the . . P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s and E a s t e r n 9 4 A d a c h i , 425. 9 5 I b i d . Roy M i k i and Cassandra K o b a y a s h i , eds. , Justice in Our Time: The Japanese Canadian Redress Settlement (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1991), 41. 41 Canada would be 'pushed' b e g i n n i n g i n 1943. 1 , 9 6 N e v e r t h e l e s s , e x c e p t f o r t h o s e who were sent t o i n t e r n m e n t camps and s u g a r beet farms, a v e r y l i m i t e d number moved t o the e a s t b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e war. I n O n t a r i o , w h i c h was t o h o l d t h e l a r g e s t number, t h e r e were o n l y 2,424 persons, r e s e t t l e d b y .the end o f 1943 and 3,742-by 19 4 5 . 9 7 The overwhelming m a j o r i t y s t a y e d i n t h e d e t e n t i o n camps i n B r i t i s h Columbia. B e s i d e b e i n g removed from t h e i r homes and communities, t h e Japanese s u f f e r e d p r o p e r t y l o s s e s . The C u s t o d i a n o f Enemy P r o p e r t y , a f e d e r a l agency, i n i t i a l l y h e l d t h e p r o p e r t y o f the evacuees " i n t r u s t , " but the O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l P.C. 469 p a s s e d on J a n u a r y .19 , .1943,; a u t h o r i z e d , the... s a l e of. the ..property ...without -the owners' c o n s e n t . The h a s t y p r o c e s s o f - e v a c u a t i o n and t h e s a l e o f p r o p e r t y .without,, t h e owners' .consent . r e s u l t e d .in - s i g n i f i c a n t ~ l o s s o f . . . i n d i v i d u a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e c o r d s . A f t e r t h e war had ended, th e O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l t h a t s e t t h e p r o t e c t e d a r e a o f one hundred m i l e s , from th e c o a s t remained . i n e f f e c t , and i t was not u n t i l A p r i l 1, 194 9, t h a t t h e Japanese were a l l o w e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e west c o a s t . I n the s p r i n g o f 1945, t h e government announced a program r e q u i r i n g t h e Japanese t o choose between r e p a t r i a t i o n t o Japan o r r e s e t t l e m e n t e a s t o f t h e R o c k i e s . To remain i n Canada, t h e y were r e q u i r e d t o show t h e i r l o y a l t y by c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h the government i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s p o l i c y o f d i s p e r s a l . 9 8 9 6 A d a c h i , 253 . 9 7 I b i d . , 426 . 9 8 The government, e v e n t u a l l y c a n c e l l e d t h e programme of d e p o r t a t i o n on J a n u a r y 24, 1947, under th e p r e s s u r e o f a p u b l i c w h i c h was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of new i d e a s o f human r i g h t s 42 Japanese themselves thought t h a t t o s c a t t e r t h e m s e l v e s i n p l a c e s where t h e y r e s e t t l e d was e s s e n t i a l t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t s . The Japanese Canadian Committee f o r Democracy (JCCD), o r g a n i z e d i n To r o n t o i n 1943, a s s i s t e d t he Japanese i n r e s e t t l i n g and combated the d e p o r t a t i o n , program. ..The JCCD, .. .warned .Japanese ..Canadians a g a i n s t r e t u r n i n g t o t h e s e c l u d e d l i f e s t y l e o f t h e pre-war communities. I t sought t o p r e v e n t the Japanese from b e i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d i n one s e c t i o n o f Tor o n t o and promoted d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f employment. S e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n Japanese Canadians e s p e c i a l l y sought t o a s s i m i l a t e and d i d not want t o be a c o n s p i c u o u s group. I n .-Montreal, a p r o p o s a l f o r . f o r m i n g ..a . s e c o n d ^ g e n e r a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n was t u r n e d down i n 1944 on the grounds .that " i t would a t t r a c t undue and u n f a v o u r a b l e a t t e n t i o n , g i v e r i s e t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and a c t u a l l y h i n d e r t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n . " 9 9 3. Post-war Japanese Communities Changes i n the Characteristics of the Japanese Communities and Community Members' Sense of Ethnic Identity I n t h e l o n g r u n , the e v a c u a t i o n d u r i n g World War I I a c c e l e r a t e d t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e Japanese i n t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y by d e s t r o y i n g t h e i n w a r d - l o o k i n g Japanese communities and d i s p e r s i n g t h e Japanese a c r o s s w e s t e r n and c e n t r a l p r o v i n c e s . P e t e r Ward a r g u e s , t h a t t h e e v a c u a t i o n and t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s p e r s a l and human freedom. (Thomas R. B e r g e r , "The B a n i s h e d Canadians: MacKenzie K i n g and t h e Japanese Canadians," F r a g i l e Freedoms [Toronto: C l a r k e , I r w i n &-Company L t d . , 1981], 118) By t h i s t i m e , however, almost 4,000 p e o p l e , h a l f o f whom were Canadian-born, had l e f t f o r Japan. 99 New Canadian, 13 March 1944. 43 was a c r u c i a l t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the h i s t o r y o f t h e Japanese i n Canada. 1 0 0 A f t e r t h e war t h e Japanese c o n s c i o u s l y a v o i d e d b e i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d e i t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l l y o r r e s i d e n t i a l l y . By t h e 1970s, t h e r e were few pronounced c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , o f -Japanese Canadians'-in s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l s e c t o r s . The second g e n e r a t i o n Japanese Canadians s w i f t l y e n t e r e d such f i e l d s as m e d i c i n e , e n g i n e e r i n g , d e n t i s t r y , •• a r c h i t e c t u r e , law. and e d u c a t i o n , s e v e r a l o f w h i c h were v i r t u a l l y c l o s e d t o the Japanese b e f o r e and d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . A l t h o u g h most Japanese Canadians l i v e i n u rban a r e a s , w i t h the m a j o r i t y i n T o r o n t o and V a n c o u v e r , 1 0 1 i t i s r a r e t o f i n d two Japanese f a m i l i e s l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e - same b l o c k . 1 0 2 - T h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n . Japanese Canadians have f u r t h e r -merged- i n t o -the • l a r g e r s o c i e t y t h r o u g h an i n c r e a s i n g l y h i g h r a t e o f i n t e r - r a c i a l m a r r i a g e s . A s u r v e y i n 1975 showed t h a t t h i s r a t e was about 59%. 1 0 3 Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d t o e x i s t , but t h e i r r o l e s became a, r a t h e r p e r i p h e r a l one i n i n d i v i d u a l s ' . l i v e s . The Japanese Canadian C i t i z e n s A s s o c i a t i o n (JCCA), e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1932 and once i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a d v o c a t i n g c i v i l r i g h t s f o r t h e Japanese, v i r t u a l l y c o l l a p s e d as a n a t i o n a l e n t i t y by t h e 1970s. T h i s m i r r o r e d t h e f a t e o f most Japanese o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e post-war p e r i o d . Even 1 0 0 W. P e t e r Ward, The Japanese in Canada (Ottawa: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1982), 16. 1 0 1 I n t h e census i n 1991., 65,680 p e o p l e gave a r e s p o n s e as b e i n g Japanese t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f e t h n i c o r i g i n ( t h i s i n c l u d e s 17,085 who gave a m u l t i p l e response i n c l u d i n g J a p a n e s e ) , o f which 17,065 l i v e d i n T o r o n t o and 19,845 i n Vancouver. 1 0 2 A d a c h i , 3 56. 103 New Canadian, 18 F e b r u a r y 1975. 44 though t h e JCCA's l o c a l c h a p t e r s s u r v i v e d , t h e r o l e s p e r f o r m e d were r a t h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The " c r i s i s " o f t h e L e t h b r i d g e c h a p t e r i n 1970 was i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n : i t l a c k e d s e r i o u s problems t o occupy i t s b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g s . 1 0 4 I n t h e 1970s, Ken A d a c h i viewed the-Japanese community as one t h a t had l o s t s u b s t a n t i a l meaning t o i n d i v i d u a l members. Now s o c i a l c o h e s i o n and group s u r v i v a l no l o n g e r seem i m p o r t a n t . The Japanese now seldom t h i n k i n terms o f "we- . - t h e y " but- t h r i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l b e t t e r m e n t , r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o improve the c o n d i t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e g r o u p . 1 0 5 A d a c h i f u r t h e r p r e d i c t e d t h a t the Japanese as a d i s t i n c t l i n g u i s t i c and s o c i a l m i n o r i t y would l i k e l y f ade away. He o b s e r v e d t h a t , , w h i l e , . i n t e r e s t i n ..".ethnicity", .had ..grown i n -Canada, t h e Japanese .Canadians', i n t e r e s t . - i n m a i n t a i n i n g : t h e i r : "uniqueness"-'was d e c r e a s i n g . Indeed, a t l e a s t f o r some Japanese C a n a d i a n s , t h e u n i q u e n e s s was .nothing but a n u i s a n c e . As a t h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n Japanese Canadian i n Vancouver s t a t e d : We were not proud o f i t (the Japanese h e r i t a g e ) . The l a s t t h i n g I wanted t o do was t o be i n a room w i t h a n o t h e r - Japanese. I t was l i k e l o o k i n g i n t o a m i r r o r . 1 0 6 T h i s repugnance a g a i n s t . t h e i r r a c i a l o r i g i n appears the s t r o n g e s t among the second g e n e r a t i o n . A f t e r t h e war, t h i s g e n e r a t i o n t o l d i t s e l f , "Never a g a i n do we want t o be Japanese. We a r e C a n a d i a n s . " 1 0 7 The second g e n e r a t i o n p a r e n t s , i n t u r n , t r i e d t o s h i e l d t h e i r c h i l d r e n by not e v o k i n g the p a s t . Maryka Omatsu, 1 0 4 A d a c h i , 357 1 0 5 I b i d . , 356. 1 0 6 "Why Vancouver Lacks L i t t l e Tokyo: An A m e r i c a n Compares Notes on Race D i s p e r s a l , " Vancouver Sun, 19 March 1983, sec.A, p.10. 1 0 7 I b i d . 45 a t h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n Japanese Canadian, s u g g e s t s t h a t perhaps the p a r e n t s thought t h a t by not s h a r i n g t h e i r c u l t u r e and language w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h e new g e n e r a t i o n would not be " t a r r e d by the p a s t . " 1 0 8 I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , t h a t Japanese communities d i d not o r g a n i z e h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h o s e y e a r s . Redress Movement The p h y s i c a l d i s p e r s a l r e s u l t i n g from t h e e v a c u a t i o n , t h e attempt by evacuees t o c o n c e a l t h e trauma and s u p p r e s s t h e agony, and t h e l a c k o f common i n t e r e s t l e d t o a dormant s t a t e o f Japanese- • Canadian communities. - .The movement f o r r e d r e s s was .a c a t a l y s t , f o r r e v i v i n g a sense. , of.. , community .and... u n i t i n g Japanese-Canadian communities n a t i o n w i d e once a g a i n . I t was t h e i n q u i s i t i v e mind o f some t h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n Japanese Canadians t h a t t h r u s t t h e Japanese community towards t h e r e d r e s s movement f o r t h e u n j u s t t r e a t m e n t o f the Japanese d u r i n g t h e war. The t h i r d . g e n e r a t i o n , w h i l e a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . t o a much l a r g e r e x t e n t t h a n p r e v i o u s , g e n e r a t i o n s , saw t h e need t o r e c o n c i l e w i t h t h e p a s t and t h e i r h e r i t a g e i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r know who t h e y were. One o f them s t a t e d : What I'm m i s s i n g i s a c o n n e c t i o n between what I l o o k l i k e and what I am. I want t o be a b l e t o l o o k i n t h e m i r r o r and r e c o g n i z e m y s e l f . What I miss and want t o r e c r e a t e i s t h e r i c h n e s s o f community t h a t was l o s t i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r a c c e p t a n c e . 1 0 9 1 0 8 Maryka Omatsu, Bittersweet Passage: Redress and the Japanese Canadian, Experience (Toronto: Between, th e L i n e s , 1992) , 39 . 1 0 9 Japanese Canadian C e n t e n n i a l P r o j e c t , 157. 4 6 I n 1980, t h e N a t i o n a l Japanese Canadian C i t i z e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n (NJCCA) 1 1 0 r e o r g a n i z e d i t s e l f under t h e new name N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Japanese Canadians (NAJC) and added two new l o c a l c e n t r e s t o comprise 15 c e n t r e s a c r o s s Canada.. The -NAJC s t a r t e d what amounted t o a n i n e y e a r p r o c e s s . f o r . r e d r e s s . The l o n g fragmented communities were n o t - e a s i l y u n i t e d . The a t t i t u d e s o f t h e community members were f a r from unanimous. Many of t h e evacuees wanted t o f o r g e t the.trauma o f t h e 1940s. O t h e r s were a f r a i d o f p o s s i b l e r a c i s t b a c k l a s h i f Japanese Canadians were t o o r g a n i z e and become m i l i t a n t . 1 1 1 W h i l e s t r u g g l i n g t o s e c u r e p u b l i c s u p p o r t , the'NAJC had t o devote much o f i t s e f f o r t s t o prove i t s e l f as the, one.. and ..only- - o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e communities. Through c o n s u l t a t i v e meetings w i t h o p p o s i n g groups, p u b l i c a t i o n o f a newspaper t o b u i l d a n a t i o n a l network, and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , t h e NAJC g a i n e d t h e s t a t u s o f b e i n g t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f .the Japanese communities by May 1985 . F i n a l l y on September 22, 1988, the., government announced the r e d r e s s agreement and Prime M i n i s t e r Mulroney and NAJC p r e s i d e n t A r t M i k i s i g n e d t h e agreement. The Japanese Communities and Their History B e f o r e and d u r i n g W orld War I I , the Japanese communities were busy c o p i n g w i t h t h e d a i l y p r a c t i c a l needs and problems, and a f t e r t h e war most Japanese Canadians p r e f e r r e d not t o r e c a l l t h e p a s t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , p r e s e r v a t i o n , o f h i s t o r y and a r c h i v a l . m a t e r i a l s tended t o be n e g l e c t e d . A f t e r r e d r e s s , many Japanese. Canadians were 1 1 0 The NJCCA was d e v e l o p e d from the JCCD i n 1947. 1 1 1 Omatsu, 99. 47 emancipated from f e a r i n g r a c i a l b a c k l a s h and from c o n c e a l i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n attempt t o a v o i d e v o k i n g p a s t t r a u m a t a . They came t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r h i s t o r y i s worth p r e s e r v i n g and . t h a t i t s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d . On the oth e r . h a n d , as. t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y p r o c e e d s , Japanese communities a r e becoming l e s s and l e s s u n i t e d and more p e o p l e t e n d t o be i n d i f f e r e n t t o community a c t i v i t i e s . The case s t u d y o f seven Japanese-Canadian communities e x p l o r e s t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f the communities by e x a m i n i n g demographic f i g u r e s , e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and community members' a t t i t u d e s . I t . t h e n a d d r e s s e s t h e e x t e n t t o which each community has d e v e l o p e d a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s , and .-the-prospects-. .for t h e f u t u r e , . . a l l - i n - t h e community c o n t e x t . 48 Chapter Three DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE STUDY 1. Research Method The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y ..examines a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Japanese-Canadian communities. I t p l a c e s t h e emphasis on i l l u m i n a t i n g p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s as t h e y a r e , so t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r can s y n t h e s i z e the r e a l i t y , and suggest a d e s i r a b l e as w e l l as f e a s i b l e r o l e f o r community-based a r c h i v a l programs w i t h i n t h e Canadian a r c h i v a l system. The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s thus of an a p p l i e d n a t u r e . M i c h a e l Quinn P a t t o n d e f i n e s t h e purpose o f a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h as " t o c o n t r i b u t e , knowledge t h a t wi 11...help., people,,understand t h e .nature ..of a p r oblem so that•..human b e i n g s can more e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . " 1 1 2 A p p l i e d r e s e a r c h s e a r c h e s f o r . " a p p l i c a t i o n s o f b a s i c d i s c i p l i n a r y knowledge t o r e a l - w o r l d problems and e x p e r i e n c e s . " 1 1 3 The methodology o f t h i s r e s e a r c h e n t a i l s a q u a l i t a t i v e case s t u d y t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s . • There'have been few s t u d i e s o f a r c h i v a l programs w i t h i n e t h n i c communities, and t h e r e a r e no e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g e t h n i c communities' b e h a v i o u r r e g a r d i n g a r c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n l e n t i t s e l f t o a q u a l i t a t i v e case s t u d y , w h i c h "seeks t o d e s c r i b e " , u n i t s o f s t u d y " i n d e p t h and d e t a i l i n c o n t e x t and h o l i s t i c a l l y . " 1 1 4 1 1 2 M i c h a e l Quinn P a t t o n , Q u a l i t a t i v e Evaluation and Research Methods (Newbury Park, C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1990), 152. 1 1 3 I b i d . 1 1 4 I b i d , 54. 49 The d i f f i c u l t y o r inadequacy o f g e n e r a l i z i n g r e s u l t s i s o f t e n p o i n t e d out as a weaknesses of the c a s e - s t u d y method. Borman, LeCompte and Goetz m a i n t a i n , however, t h a t even though case s t u d i e s m o s t l y d e a l w i t h unique e v e n t s o r .unique., phenomena,- t h e r e a r e u s u a l l y . s i m i l a r e v e n t s or: phenomena o v e r time o r i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y a r g u e , c o n c l u s i o n s from e a r l i e r s t u d i e s can be u t i l i z e d i n l a t e r s t u d i e s . 1 1 5 I f t h e u t i l i t y o f the c o n c l u s i o n s f o r o t h e r s t u d i e s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n o r d e r t o c l a i m e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y , Y i n frames the v a l i d i t y o f case s t u d i e s i n more r i g o r o u s terms. He argues t h a t case s t u d i e s r e l y on a n a l y t i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n s t a t i s t i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n on which s u r v e y , r e s e a r c h , r e l i e s . . . . . . A n a l y t i c a l . . . g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .-is ..the.process of. g e n e r a l i z i n g , "a p a r t i c u l a r .set o f . r e s u l t s .-..to . some.. b r o a d e r t h e o r y . " 1 1 6 W h i l e Y i n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on case . s t u d i e s . i s d i s t i n c t i v e i n the sense t h a t i t assumes the e x i s t e n c e o f g u i d i n g t h e o r i e s p r i o r t o a s t u d y , h i s n o t i o n o f how g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s may be drawn from case s t u d i e s i s commonly a p p l i c a b l e . F o r t h e p r e s e n t p r o j e c t . a n a l y t i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n w i l l a l l o w t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o examine f i n d i n g s i n the l i g h t o f a r c h i v a l t h e o r i e s . Data were c o l l e c t e d u s i n g open-ended i n t e r v i e w s , . w h i c h a l l o w f o r u n e x p e c t e d f a c t o r s t o emerge i n the p r o c e s s . F o r e f f e c t i v e conduct o f t h e open-ended i n t e r v i e w s , the " g e n e r a l i n t e r v i e w g u i d e approach" was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e . The approach f a l l s between the " i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w , " w h i c h r e l i e s on "the 1 1 5 K a t h r y n M. Borman, Margaret D. LeCompte, and J u d i t h P r e l i s s l e Goetz, " E t h n o g r a p h i c and Q u a l i t a t i v e R e s e a r c h D e s i g n and Why I t Doesn't Work,",, .American Behavioral Scientist 30, n o . l (September/October 1986): 48. 1 1 6 R o b e r t K. Y i n , Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1994), 36. 50 spontaneous g e n e r a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s i n t h e n a t u r a l f l o w o f an i n t e r a c t i o n , " 1 1 7 and the " s t a n d a r d i z e d open-ended i n t e r v i e w , " f o r w h i c h " i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s a re w r i t t e n out i n advance exactly the way t h e y a r e t o be a s k e d . " 1 1 8 For t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , a l i s t o f . q u e s t i o n s (Appendix:1) was p r e p a r e d and was f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e seven i n t e r v i e w s , but i t d i d not p r e c l u d e a s k i n g a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r found r e l e v a n t d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s . The , l i s t .became l e n g t h y because•• s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s were used -to probe a phenomenon t h a t was not e a s i l y measured o r o b s e r v e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , q u e s t i o n s about the mass media i n the community and about r e t e n t i o n o f Japanese customs were asked i n o r d e r t o probe how community members, . r e t a i n e d , t h e i r .sense, o f . . e t h n i c i t y ...or ..community. 2. Selection of the Cases At t h e o u t s e t o f the p r o j e c t ' s p l a n n i n g s t a g e , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t s t u d y i n g Japanese communities i n d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s would be more i n f o r m a t i v e t h a n s t u d y i n g communities o f d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c i t y i n t h e same c i t y . Even though u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s was paramount t o comparing cases by s t a n d a r d i z i n g c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s , i t was ju d g e d t h a t c ases t h a t s h a r e d some b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would be more l i k e l y t o y i e l d u s e f u l d a t a t h a n c a s e s w h i c h d i f f e r e d i n many more a s p e c t s . Furthermore, i t was known t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r from t h e Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g o f the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Japanese Canadians (NAJC) i n October 1994 t h a t a l l t h e NAJC's l o c a l c h a p t e r s had some i n t e r e s t i n h a v i n g a r c h i v a l programs w i t h i n t h e i r c ommunities. P a t t o n , 280. I b i d . , 285. 51 A l t h o u g h Japanese Canadians l i v e a l l a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y from S t . John's t o Vancouver I s l a n d , f o u r t e e n a r e a s where a l o c a l c h a p t e r o f the NAJC was o r g a n i z e d were i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l Japanese community. Seven o f them were s e l e c t e d f o r the r e s e a r c h : M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , Hamilton," M a n i t o b a , L e t h b r i d g e , Kamloops and Vancouver. The number o f cases f o r a m u l t i p l e - c a s e s t u d y i s d e c i d e d by " d i s c r e t i o n a r y , j udgemental c h o i c e " w h i c h depends on t h e c e r t a i n t y the r e s e a r c h e r wants t o have about t h e r e s u l t s 1 1 9 as t h e s t u d y does not f o l l o w s a m p l i n g l o g i c o f s t a t i s t i c a l r e s e a r c h which uses c e r t a i n f o r m u l a s t o c a l c u l a t e t h e n e c e s s a r y number o f samples. Communities t h a t v a r i e d i n p o p u l a t i o n •and • - l o c a t i o n :.were .targeted._for,..selection ...In..this .study. - ........... 3. Description of the Communities Selected The p o p u l a t i o n and the g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s o f t h e seven communities s t u d i e d a r e shown i n the T a b l e l . F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l communities i s i n c l u d e d i n the case s t u d y r e p o r t . A l l o f t h e Japanese -communities t h a t have NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r s s h a r e a common e x p e r i e n c e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n s : - Japanese immigrants and Japanese Canadians moved t o t h o s e a r e a s as a r e s u l t o f t h e e v a c u a t i o n d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . 1 2 0 Thus, a l l p r e s e n t - d a y Japanese communities have r o u g h l y t h e same h i s t o r i c a l l e n g t h . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d Japanese communities t h a t . e x i s t e d on.the West Coast b e f o r e t h e war 1 1 9 Y i n , 50. I n the : case o f t h i s , s t u d y , . f e a s i b i l i t y was a n o t h e r , d e t e r m i n i n g . f a c t o r . 1 2 0 L e t h b r i d g e and the D i s t r i c t had a s m a l l Japanese community s i n c e around the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , but t h e e v a c u a t i o n more t h a n t r i p l e d t h e Japanese p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e a r e a . 52 rt rH 0 rH 4H —~ • H • a m rd 0 o XJ rt O rH X! XJ rd 0 XJ 0 rt X - cu cu rH - H cn CQ rt rd a 3 XJ u 3 CQ rt rt - H !H rd CQ rt - PH CQ - H - H cu cu > 0 c • H >i CQ 3 cu rH a 0 CQ xi £ - H > 4J 3 P4 rH SH QJ "5 rd XJ - cu 0 -H ra p. 3 CL, XJ Xi 3 rt SH cu rH U rt cu £ PQ rH U 0 rd 0 rH PH QJ Xi - H — CO co U h rd O U XJ u 0 rH CU CU CQ (d 0 D £ - CU rd 4-H CQ rd tn U XJ - H > (H rH XJ Q) T) O XJ CU rd 3 rt CU ft 3 rd C SH - H o cu CU - > 0 N O rt rH cu m £ rrt SH U cn CQ - H TS rH P4 CU PH rH rH «• rd CU T) U rt cn (U a 0 - H - H rd CU E 0 rt X! rd CO rH CQ 4-1 U M H 3 ft • H XJ X) CQ rH o • H O CTi rt CQ T) a x! rd -H rt o CTi CU rt TS • H XJ 4 J U S >i Xi u H XJ rH 3 a X ! XJ CU XJ u X ) U O rd XJ - H J - - - H CU r l QJ rd QJ in - H rH N * rH XJ cu ^! X Xi U M rH Cn rH rH 0 XJ CU XJ 3 QJ CU C rd rd •n «• co CQ CU CQ 2 • H 6 CL, rd rt CO CQ U rd TS QJ B rd rt • H rd CQ CU u CU • 3 CQ rH CU - H rd Xi CU QJ XJ SH XJ rH 0 rd •H CU rt rH u m >, rd 4-1 rd XJ CU rd U "5 T) m • H cu 0 a o Xi C! rH cu rd 0 rt r4 T) rt xJ rH - H - - H 0 o a u Xi rd 0 rH (U O rt U CQ XJ XJ 2 0 rd U ra m E J-I CU Xl CQ M rd - H cu CU > . QJ u £ CO u CQ cu o jz; rt U OA 0 > rd rH M - H - H cu - H 0 rd cu XJ 3 QJ XJ O X! 4-1 • XJ rH a XJ CD C 0 VH rt £ CQ CQ 4-1 cn - H PQ 0 rd B 0 U rd Q) rd xJ rd • H • a XJ 4H CU 0 rH rt O QJ U - H T5 TS cu — 3 • U 0 r) CQ 0 rd C QJ U Cn a — CU B rH CU — O IH > rd U rd 0 Tl 3 TS M £ o XJ XJ cu XJ cu a p rt U rd O rd rd u >i XJ u rH • H >i QJ Cn rd rd PQ J o - H IS 5! rt • H rH - H rH «: cu XJ cu XJ rH QJ rH 0 > Xl rt SH CQ U CQ O ^ CU > CO rd — rd rd ft SH rd 0 CU ft o E rd rt rt 0 cu U CU cu 0 3 XJ XJ XJ 0 • H rd XJ rd - H U OH - H U U U U Ul rH CQ 0 U - H 0 SH B V OH-H XJ cu O O XJ m - H rd rH CU rH xJ CU CU - H rt O XI cu rd -H £ u X! rH TS cu rt rd CU CU cu E -rt rd rt rd a - H O rH 0 CU X ! - H U 3 Xi rrt TS XJ • H 5 cn < U 2 FH IS CL, c n EH H QJ QJ r r t XJ rt I—1 QJ XJ U - H cn CQ — ^-^ o 3 cu CU CQ CQ o rt Tl CO rt o OA rt rt o rH o • H rt QJ 0 o • - H rd rd o rd 0 SH - H Lfl r—. o rH rt CU r - , P H - H O rt , — , U) r-i rt U 3 XJ - o O CQ i — i O r - , o . — . c > m rd TS - o LD rH LO 0 cn rd H CO rH XJ O rt >i CQ • H • H u> ID rd ro cu - H U) - H CQ - H rH 1 ^ • a i O 1 - H rH J-) S XJ -—> n — rt CQ 4-> O 1 00 XJ rd 4H •3 o - X CU - — rd rt • • O CQ - rd i cu rd rd d CL, O H 0 TS •—' ro •—1 u CU O rd rH CN o U rt rt i> o cr» rH QJ 0 O >—1 o rH 3 o 0 Tl oo — cu •—' o o rd rH O rH 3 >id ft «. o OH 4-1 o ft-H co Xl o o PH 1 > o •—• ftXJ XJ H H OH CQ o B CQ o B o rd 0 - H - rd — - CU CU H o cu LD LD ft rt cu H + CN XJ U 1 — 1 m £ rH CN — rH 3 SH •• £ 0 CU r - , £ 4H >I cn rH O QJ 4-) a CQ TS rH CU U rH • H 0 ft • H Xl rd 0 > QJ a XJ 0 U 0 0) XJ 3 o -rt 3 rH 0 X XJ U rt 0 ' - J S tH E - H rH Xi • H XJ 0 U E E s XJ rt rt u rt o rd rd CU rd 0 0 rd u 2 2 E-i > 53 were c o m p l e t e l y u p - r o o t e d . P r e s e n t communities i n Vancouver and on Vancouver I s l a n d were e s t a b l i s h e d anew by the p e o p l e who moved back t o t h o s e l o c a t i o n s a f t e r the war. T h e r e f o r e , t h e y have no more t a n g i b l e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the pre-war communities t h a n communities i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s do, except. memories. .At t h e same t i m e , . a s i s sometimes h e a r d a t Japanese Canadians' meetings, "everyone i s from Vancouver," meaning a l l Japanese Canadians a c r o s s Canada were evacuees o r have p a r e n t s who were evacuees, from t h e West Coa s t . T h i s f a c t e n a b l e s Japanese Canadians i n d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s t o keep c l o s e t i e s w i t h each o t h e r t h r o u g h networks o f r e l a t i v e s and o l d f r i e n d s . 4. Procedures of the Study A f t e r s e l e c t i n g the c a s e s , a l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g t h e purpose and th e c o n t e n t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h and r e q u e s t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n was sen t t o t h e seven communities. I t was a d d r e s s e d t o t h e p r e s i d e n t s o f the NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r s as prominent and a c t i v e members o f t h e communities; The l e t t e r asked the p r e s i d e n t s t o f o r w a r d t h e l e t t e r and e n c l o s u r e s t o a p o t e n t i a l respondent, i f t h e y f e l t a n o t h e r p e r s o n i n t h e community was b e t t e r s u i t e d t o r e s p o n d t o the i n t e r v i e w . A s e l e c t l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s was a t t a c h e d t o the r e q u e s t l e t t e r (Appendix 2) . I t i n f o r m e d r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t were t o be asked, i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r d e c i s i o n o f whether o r not t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The l i s t was a l s o t o a l l o w the r e s p o n d e n t s time t o p r e p a r e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h might have r e q u i r e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r i o r t o t h e i n t e r v i e w . A l e t t e r o f r e f e r e n c e by 54 Mr.Frank Kamiya, t h e c h a i r o f the Japanese Canadian A r c h i v e s i n Vancouver, was a l s o e n c l o s e d . I t can be a c o n c e r n t h a t by i n t e r v i e w i n g o n l y one p e r s o n i n a community, some i n f o r m a t i o n which i s unknown t o t h a t p e r s o n would be m i s s e d . As Y i n enumerates, t h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f e v i d e n c e f o r case s t u d i e s 1 2 1 t h a n i n t e r v i e w i n g as w e l l as t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e r v i e w i n g more t h a n one p e r s o n f o r each c a s e . I n t h i s case, i t was judged t h a t a p e r s o n who was prominent i n the community and was h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d i n the community's a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s was an a c c e p t a b l e r e s p o n d e n t , whose p o s s i b l e l a c k o f knowledge o r b i a s e s c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d , t o . r e f l e c t . o n . t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e - a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h he o r she i s i n v o l v e d . Each of the seven NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r s agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n .the s t u d y and. r e t u r n e d t h e consent form t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . An appointment f o r each i n t e r v i e w was made by t e l e p h o n e . The i n t e r v i e w s were conducted between F e b r u a r y 22 and March 17, 19 9 5. 1 2 2 The l e n g t h of. i n t e r v i e w s . g r e a t l y v a r i e d , from n i n e t y m i n u t es t o t h r e e hours, as responses were not r e s t r i c t e d t o d i r e c t answers t o t h e p r e d e t e r m i n e d q u e s t i o n s ; some q u e s t i o n s l e d t o f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s were asked as deemed n e c e s s a r y . The i n t e r v i e w s were r e c o r d e d on c a s s e t t e t a p e s and l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d f o r a n a l y s i s . Raya F i d e l s t a t e s t h a t c o l l e c t e d d a t a a r e a n a l y z e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e d u r a t i o n o f the case ..study and .".new data..are c o n s t a n t l y 1 2 1 R o b e r t K. Y i n , "The Case Study as a S e r i o u s R e s e a r c h S t r a t e g y , " Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization 3, n o . l (September 1981): 104. 122 rp-^g i n t e r v i e w s were c a r r i e d out s o l e l y i n E n g l i s h . 55 a n a l y z e d and r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s d i r e c t f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 1 , 1 2 3 I n the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , t h e same l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s was used f o r a l l o f the seven i n t e r v i e w s and t h e f o r m a l a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s was s t a r t e d a f t e r a l l t h e i n t e r v i e w s were completed. T h i s was m a i n l y f o r . p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s . . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t is.- acknowledged t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n e a r l i e r i n t e r v i e w s a f f e c t e d l a t e r i n t e r v i e w s by s e n s i t i z i n g the r e s e a r c h e r t o p o s s i b l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s . 1 2 3 Raya F i d e l , "The Case Study Method: A Case Study," Library and Information Science Research 6 (1984): 274. 56 Chapter Four RESULTS OF THE CASE STUDY T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d on each Japanese- Canadian community t h r o u g h t h e . i n t e r v i e w under f o u r h e a d i n g s : Community C o n t e x t , P r e s e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n s , P r e s e r v a t i o n o f the H i s t o r y o f the Community and R e l a t e d C u l t u r a l A c t i v i t i e s , and A r c h i v a l A c t i v i t i e s . ... I n t h e s e s e c t i o n s , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d w i t h o u t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r e v a l u a t i o n by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . Summaries o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , w i t h some r e f e r e n c e t o i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g development o f community-based e t h n i c a r c h i v e s , f o l l o w the f o u r h e a d i n g s . I n f o r m a t i o n about the seven communities w i l l be p r e s e n t e d in.• t he .same_..order..'.as...-the...interviews_-.were...conducted.:-from west t o e a s t c o n c l u d i n g w i t h Vancouver, from where Japanese Canadians s t a r t e d out and where the " n a t i o n a l " Japanese-Canadian a r c h i v e s i s now. b e i n g d e v e l o p e d . 1. Kamioops Community Context A l t h o u g h Kamloops was o u t s i d e o f the " p r o t e c t e d a r e a " from w h i c h Japanese Canadians were e v a c u a t e d d u r i n g W orld War I I , v e r y few Japanese Canadians l i v e d i n t h e Kamloops a r e a b e f o r e and d u r i n g the war. I t was not u n t i l a f t e r t he war, when camps i n the i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia were c l o s e d o f f , t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f Japanese Canadians moved i n t o t h e a r e a . I n t h e l a t e 1940s, t h e f i r s t J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n .in Kamloops, the .Japanese Canadian C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , was formed. At p r e s e n t , .the Japanese community i n c l u d e s "anybody o f Japanese d e s c e n t , t h e i r spouse, and t h e i r f a m i l y . " Temporary 57 r e s i d e n t s , such as c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s coming from Japan, a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d members o f t h e community. A l t h o u g h not s t r i c t l y i n c l u d e d as community members, non-Japanese p e o p l e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n Japanese c u l t u r e o r the Japanese community . a r e welcome t o j o i n c u l t u r a l . o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o r even-the l o c a l c h a p t e r - o f NAJC. A c c o r d i n g t o a s u r v e y conducted about e i g h t y e a r s ago, u s i n g t h e t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y , i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y e l e v e n hundred Japanese Canadians i n Kamloops and t h e o u t l y i n g a r e a s . The p o p u l a t i o n i s d e c r e a s i n g s l i g h t l y w i t h young p e o p l e moving o u t , but t h e r e a r e p e o p l e coming i n t o t h e a r e a f o r work ...... There.. a r e „.not .-..many,;, immigrants .coming -.from-.Japan..now. : A f t e r W o r l d War I I , t h e r e have been twenty .to t w e n t y - f i v e ^ i m m i g r a n t s i n t o t a l . Community members' a t t i t u d e s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r ages and g e n e r a t i o n s . The s e n i o r s who speak Japanese as t h e i r f i r s t l anguage t e n d t o have c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e m s e l v e s , and t h e i r needs from community a c t i v i t i e s a r e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l o n g w i t h i d e n t i t y and language. The second g e n e r a t i o n and younger g e n e r a t i o n s do not r e t a i n t h e Japanese, l i f e s t y l e e x c ept e a t i n g Japanese f o o d . R a t h e r , t h e y a r e l a r g e l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e Canadian c u l t u r e . The respondent b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e i s some sense o f i d e n t i t y , "but not t o o much." Whereas t h e y a r e not t o t a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e community and want t o be kept i n f o r m e d , most ..of . them, a r e .not: a c t i v e l y : , i n v o l v e d i n . the community. I n g e n e r a l , t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r younger g e n e r a t i o n s t o get. i n v o l v e d i n . t h e i r community i s more a m a t t e r o f c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t t h a n o f e t h n i c i n t e r e s t . T h e r e f o r e t h e respondent 58 b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r the community a c t i v i t i e s not t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o Japanese Canadians so t h a t Japanese Canadians can p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h non-Japanese f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y . The respondent i s h o p i n g t h a t t h e new. b u i l d i n g .of t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e w i l l .be something t h a t p e o p l e would i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e community and w i l l h e l p g e t p e o p l e more i n v o l v e d . C o n c e r n i n g the means o f communications i n t h e community, t h e monthly n e w s l e t t e r o f the -Kamloops Japanese Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n (KJCA) i s t h e o n l y means. There a r e no mass media s p e c i f i c a l l y g e a r e d toward Japanese Canadians i n t h e a r e a . A t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y o f t h e Japanese community i s c o m p i l e d , but so f a r o n l y i r r e g u l a r l y . The respondent, e x p e c t s : t h a t ...towards the. . f u t u re the-. Japanese community w i l l go t h r o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t changes such t h a t i t w i l l . b e a group, o f ..people who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n Japanese c u l t u r e , r a t h e r t h a n p e o p l e o f Japanese d e s c e n t . C o n c e r n i n g t h e f a r f u t u r e , f o r example one hundred y e a r s from now, t h e respondent i s not s u r e whether t h e community w i l l e x i s t a t a l l and a p p a r e n t l y .the. f a r - f u t u r e i s beyond t h e scope o f the p r e s e n t p l a n n i n g o f community a c t i v i t i e s . Present Organizations Kamloops Japanese Canadian community now has two c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . One i s t h e KJCA, e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e Japanese Canadian C e n t e n n i a l y e a r of.-1976 . ...It..has ~240 ..family ..members a n d . i t - i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t s i x o r seven h u n d r e d - i n d i v i d u a l s . a r e - a f f i l i a t e d ..with..the o r g a n i z a t i o n . . The. o t h e r i s t h e Kamloops c h a p t e r o f the NAJC, w h i c h was formed i n 1988 a f t e r t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f r e d r e s s . I t 59 had 214 i n d i v i d u a l members as o f 1994, and t h i s number has been f a i r l y s t a b l e i n r e c e n t y e a r s . , The KJCA i s m a i n l y a c u l t u r a l . o r g a n i z a t i o n w o r k i n g w i t h i n the l o c a l community and i t p u b l i s h e s a monthly n e w s l e t t e r . The NAJC •-local-'-chapter i s under .the..national o r g a n i z a t i o n and m a i n l y d e a l s w i t h i s s u e s o u t s i d e o f t h e l o c a l community such as human r i g h t s . The membership i s c l o s e l y o v e r l a p p i n g ; a l l t h e members o f t h e NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r b e l o n g t o the KJCA. O t h e r community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d e a s e n i o r s ' group, a Japanese language s c h o o l , a B u d d h i s t c h u r c h , a J a p a n e s e - s p e a k i n g C h r i s t i a n group, and s e v e r a l s p o r t s o r . c u l t u r a l . c l u b s s u c h . a s a p u r l i n g , .club and- .a.,- bonsai.- c l u b ..As w e l l , ..a -Japanese . l i b r a r y . i s s t a r t i n g a t t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e . Preservation of the History of the Community and Related Cultural A c t i v i t i e s There have been few a c t i v i t i e s t o p r e s e r v e t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e community. Some s e v e n t y i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o l d e r .people were c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g r e d r e s s by the s e c r e t a r y h i r e d f o r t h e r e d r e s s o f f i c e , but t h e i n t e r v i e w s have not been t r a n s c r i b e d o r i n d e x e d ; n o r have t h e y been used f o r r e s e a r c h . The t a p e s o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s have been kept i n the basement o f t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e . P u b l i c s c h o o l s have i n v i t e d community members t o t a l k t o s t u d e n t s about t h e h i s t o r y o f the Japanese Canadians and r e d r e s s , and sometimes... c l a s s e s a r e . .held .at . the... c u l t u r a l . . . c e n t r e — f o r . , t h e . same purpose. The respondent t h i n k s t h e community has not had, and does not have p e o p l e who a r e b o t h knowledgable and i n t e r e s t e d enough t o 60 a c t i v e l y c a r r y out h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e Kamloops Japanese-Canadian community r e l i e s h e a v i l y on Vancouver f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and i n i t i a t i v e s . Archival A c t i v i t i e s A h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n committee was formed i n 1994. The impetus t o s t a r t a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s came from d i s c u s s i o n s o f the n a t i o n a l . NAJC; a t t h e NAJC n a t i o n a l meetings i t had been- argued t h a t , a f t e r r e d r e s s and the many books w r i t t e n on t h e Japanese- Canadian h i s t o r y , i t i s now time t o s t a r t a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s . Because a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e j u s t . s t a r t i n g , t h e scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n has not y e t been .decided...The committee i s . w i l l i n g . t o a c c e p t whatever i s o f f e r e d t o t h e a r c h i v e s o n ^ c o n d i t i o n t h a t - t h e y might g i v e i t away o r d i s p o s e o f i t l a t e r . The a r c h i v e s e x p e c t s t o e v e n t u a l l y , t r a n s f e r some of t h e i r m a t e r i a l s t o t h e Japanese Canadian N a t i o n a l Museum and A r c h i v e s (JCNMA) i n Vancouver. Most r e c o r d s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e kept a t t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e , w i t h : o r w i t h o u t a r c h i v a l , a c t i v i t i e s , because t h a t i s where most community a c t i v i t i e s t a k e p l a c e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n committee's t a s k w i l l be t o s o r t out m a t e r i a l s w o r t h p r e s e r v i n g . The committee i s a l r e a d y k e e p i n g some m a t e r i a l s s uch as tapes o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s mentioned above, " a l l k i n d s o f r e c o r d s " o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a few photographs, and a few newspaper c l i p s , but the a r c h i v e s ' p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s ..have..not ..yet. been..secured. Nor have t h e y c r e a t e d any f i n d i n g a i d s . . The a r c h i v e s , w i l l be l o c a t e d i n t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e hundred square f e e t o f space. The a r c h i v e s ' o p e r a t i o n w i l l be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h a t o f 61 t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e . The c u l t u r a l c e n t r e i s now open from 10 a.m. t o 2 p.m. Monday t h r o u g h S a t u r d a y , and whoever i s a t t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e when the a r c h i v e s ' u s e r s come w i l l s e r v e them. The committee r e c e i v e d a g r a n t from t h e NAJC t h a t t h e y w i l l use t o s t a r t • t h e - a r c h i v e s . -To s u s t a i n the a r c h i v e s , t h e y w i l l r e l y on f u n d r a i s i n g i n the community and g r a n t s from p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e y a r e a . s m a l l e n t i t y w i t h a l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y , t h e y a r e c u l t i v a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r l a r g e r a r c h i v e s . They are l e a r n i n g e x p e r t i s e from the Kamloops Museum and A r c h i v e s . They a l s o get i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e from t h e JCNMA i n Vancouver. Furthermore, the a r c h i v e s works as a p a r t - o f t h e JCNMA. The committee .members t h i n k - , i f t h e i r - a r c h i v e s ceases t o e x i s t , i t s m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be sent t o Vancouver. They a r e a member o f t h e A r c h i v e s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia as p a r t o f t h e JCNMA. The h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n committee has not had s p e c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Kamloops i s , however, a s m a l l community and many o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e a l r e a d y c o n n e c t e d t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e respondent b e l i e v e s t h a t once t h e y g e t enough v o l u n t e e r s i t w i l l n o t be d i f f i c u l t t o d e v e l o p c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a , such as o r g a n i z i n g e x h i b i t i o n s a t a c o l l e g e . Summary The Japanese community - i n .Kamloops--has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t one would expect i n a s m a l l e t h n i c community. Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e i n t e r w o v e n t h r o u g h o v e r l a p p i n g s t a f f i n g and membership, and t h e y work i n c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n . T h i s would 62 f a c i l i t a t e a r c h i v e s ' a c t i v i t i e s i n many r e s p e c t s , s uch as c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n d - r a i s i n g e v e n t s and i m p l e m e n t i n g a r e c o r d management program f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . On t h e o t h e r hand, b e i n g s m a l l , t h e community has l i m i t e d human r e s o u r c e s . To f i l l t h e gap, i t r e q u i r e s a s s i s t a n c e from Vancouver-based o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as t h e JCNMA. The a r c h i v e s ' c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e JCNMA i s c l e a r l y emphasized, throughout the i n t e r v i e w . A n o t h e r emphasis was the change w i t h i n the Japanese community away from a f o c u s on e t h n i c i t y t o w ard a f o c u s on c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t . T h i s t r e n d w i l l i n f l u e n c e the scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n , such t h a t r e c o r d s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g Japanese c u l t u r e r a t h e r • t h a n r e c o r d s -.of " Japanese p e o p l e " - - - w i l l l i k e l y be t h e f o c u s o f f u t u r e a c q u i s i t i o n s . 2. Lethbridge Community Context T h i s Japanese-Canadian community i s based w i t h i n t h e c i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e and t h i r t y t o f o r t y s m a l l towns i n S o u t h e r n A l b e r t a (known as t h e D i s t r i c t ) . Because t h e s e towns a r e s c a t t e r e d o v e r a l a r g e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , community members communicate p r i m a r i l y by t e l e p h o n e , f a x and m a i l r a t h e r t h a n i n p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . L e t h b r i d g e and the D i s t r i c t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n s i d e r e d a s i n g l e J apanese-Canadian community. The Japanese came t o t h i s a r e a around t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s were formed as e a r l y as i n t h e 1900s. There were about f i v e hundred t o s i x hundred Japanese b e f o r e the e v a c u a t i o n d u r i n g .World War .II, and due t o t h e e v a c u a t i o n the Japanese p o p u l a t i o n s w e l l e d t o o v e r two thousand. 6 3 The p r e s e n t community i n c l u d e s as i t s members "anyone w i t h any c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e Japanese" " r e g a r d l e s s o f l e n g t h o f s t a y o r s t a t u s o r a n y t h i n g . " The L e t h b r i d g e and the D i s t r i c t Japanese C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n (LDJCA) - n o r m a l l y t r i e s t o keep t r a c k o f temporary r e s i d e n t s s u c h as exchange s t u d e n t s . -Those temporary r e s i d e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s because o f t h e i r knowledge o r s k i l l s o f c u r r e n t Japanese c u l t u r e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s s t i l l some i n f l o w o f new immig r a n t s from Japan,, the number i s . n e g l i g i b l e . The Japanese community's p o p u l a t i o n has been f a i r l y s t a b l e o v e r r e c e n t y e a r s . There a r e no Japanese-Canadian mass media a v a i l a b l e t o t h e community. A l t h o u g h t h e LDJCA.newsletter, i s . the:.bnly.communication media s o u r c e a d d r e s s i n g t h e whole community, due t o a s h o r t a g e o f v o l u n t e e r s i t s p u b l i c a t i o n tends t o be s p o r a d i c (one t o f o u r t i m e s p e r y e a r ) . A t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y was p u b l i s h e d l o n g ago, but a new e d i t i o n i s not e x p e c t e d i n the near f u t u r e . There a r e two Japanese companies i n t h e a r e a . A l t h o u g h t h e y have a g r a n t program f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e a r e a , t h e y do not s p e c i f i c a l l y s i n g l e out the Japanese-Canadian community as the b e n e f i c i a r y . I n f a c t , t h e Japanese-Canadian community has not r e c e i v e d any f u n d i n g . There i s a sense o f i d e n t i t y as Japanese Canadians among community members. T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by the e x i s t e n c e o f many s m a l l community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , each o f whi c h i s s t r o n g and united... The respondent b e l i e v e s . t h a t p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e i n tho s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . b e c a u s e "they want t o p e r p e t u a t e the. c u l t u r e and the community." The community as a whole i s , however, not c o h e s i v e because t h e s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t e n d t o keep t o t h e m s e l v e s and the 64 " u m b r e l l a " o r g a n i z a t i o n , LDJCA, has not been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n i n t e g r a t i n g t h o s e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Post-war i m m i g r a n t s whose f i r s t language i s Japanese t e n d t o s e p a r a t e t h e m s e l v e s from the community mainstream. C o n c e r n i n g t h e community's f u t u r e , whereas t h e respondent b e l i e v e s i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e e t h n i c community t o c o n t i n u e , she doubts whether the community w i l l i n f a c t e x i s t i n f i f t y y e a r s because t h e r a t e o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e i s e x t r e m e l y h i g h . Present Organizations The LDJCA i s a l o c a l c h a p t e r o f the NAJC and has 150 t o 200 members. There a r e two o r .three.language s c h o o l s and t e n . c h u r c h e s (8 C h r i s t i a n and 2 B u d d h i s t ) . There i s no c e n t r a l c u l t u r a l c e n t r e , but c h u r c h e s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s a r e used f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . A museum i s p l a n n e d w i t h the a r c h i v e s . There i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r "new" immig r a n t s who came t o Canada a f t e r t h e 1960s. As mentioned above, t h e r e a r e many c u l t u r a l c l u b s and o t h e r t y p e s o f s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Preservation of the History of the Community and Related Cultural A c t i v i t i e s A c t i v i t i e s t o p r e s e r v e the Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y so f a r have been l i m i t e d t o s o m e ' e x h i b i t i o n s . The community once h e l d an e x h i b i t i o n a t a m a l l and drew a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e hundred p e o p l e . Sometimes s c h o o l , c l a s s e s , r v i s i t ...the.-LDJCA ..of f i c e where ..some museum and a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s a r e k e p t , and t h e LDJCA s t a f f . s h o w s t u d e n t s .items a p p r o p r i a t e ..to t h e i r ages. . 65 The respondent b e l i e v e s t h a t community members a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n , but t h a t the i n t e r e s t i s o f t e n not s t r o n g enough t o make them a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . The respondent a l s o n o t e d t h a t , among the non-Japanese p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e a r e a , the i m p o r t a n c e t o p r e s e r v e Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y i s r e c o g n i z e d . A r c h i v a l A c t i v i t i e s An a r c h i v e s was s t a r t e d i n 1989 i n a l o o s e form. Under a new p r e s i d e n t who s t r o n g l y f e l t t h e need t o p r e s e r v e Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y , t h e LDJCA s h i f t e d i t s emphasis towards a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s . The LDJCA a c q u i r e s " a n y t h i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e Japanese" i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a from th e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y i n t h e a r e a t o t h e p r e s e n t , i n c l u d i n g r e c o r d s from v a r i o u s community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The p r e s e n t h o l d i n g s i n c l u d e 150 r e e l s o f Japanese f i l m s , f i f t y t o s i x t y v i d e o s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hundred i t e m s o f an a r t c o l l e c t i o n ( c a l l i g r a p h y and o t h e r t y p e s of Japanese a r t ) , under f i v e hundred photographs, and a " n e g l i g i b l e " volume o f t e x t u a l r e c o r d s . F i n d i n g a i d s have not y e t been c r e a t e d . A database t o keep t r a c k o f m a t e r i a l s h e l d by i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e community i s now b e i n g p l a n n e d . The s t o r a g e o f t h e a r c h i v e s , which i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hundred square f e e t , i s s e c u r e d a t the back of t h e LDJCA o f f i c e . The a r c h i v e s s h a r e s the o f f i c e space w i t h the LDJCA. The a r c h i v e s ' s t a f f a r e h o p i n g t o use some community members' basements o r o t h e r l o c a t i o n s f o r s t o r i n g m a t e r i a l s i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r o r g a n i z e the 66 space i n t h e LDJCA b u i l d i n g . A new b u i l d i n g f o r t h e a r c h i v e s i s hoped f o r but i s a d m i t t e d l y not f e a s i b l e i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . There a r e t h r e e o r f o u r v o l u n t e e r s who work f o r t h e a r c h i v e s . I t i s open t o t h e p u b l i c e veryday when th e LDJCA i s open May t h r o u g h September and o u t s i d e o f t h i s p e r i o d u s e r s a r e p r o v i d e d a c c e s s upon r e q u e s t . The a r c h i v e s r e l i e s f i n a n c i a l l y on g r a n t s from b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and community fu n d r a i s i n g . There a r e no " r i c h b e n e f a c t o r s . " The a r c h i v e s has some c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r l o c a l a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t has e s p e c i a l l y c l o s e t i e s w i t h t h e L e t h b r i d g e C i t y A r c h i v e s , w i t h which i t conducts c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s such as workshops. I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i f t h e LDJCA a r c h i v e s ceases t o e x i s t i t s m a t e r i a l s w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e c i t y a r c h i v e s . The LDJCA a r c h i v e s has l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Summary So f a r t h e a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s seem t o be d r i v e n by t h e p a s s i o n o f a few p e o p l e , and t h e y a r e h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n on a b r o a d e r b a s i s . I n terms o f p o p u l a t i o n , L e t h b r i d g e and t h e D i s t r i c t i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y s m a l l among Japanese-Canadian communities. F u r t h e r m o r e , community members a r e not i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e community as can be seen i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , the community does not l a c k i n human r e s o u r c e s ; r a t h e r , t h e c r u c i a l i s s u e t o s u s t a i n a community a r c h i v e s i s how t o p u l l p e o p l e and v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o g e t h e r under t h e LDJCA. 67 3. Manitoba Community Context The g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a o f t h i s Japanese-Canadian community t e c h n i c a l l y i n c l u d e s the whole o f Manitoba, but w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s t h e m a j o r i t y o f the community members now l i v e i n Winnipeg. T h i s , however, was not always the case w i t h t h e Japanese p o p u l a t i o n i n Manit o b a . I n 1942, Japanese p e o p l e s t a r t e d coming t o sugar beet farms i n Manitoba which were s c a t t e r e d w i t h i n a two t o t h r e e hour r a d i u s o f Winnipeg, but t h e y were b a s i c a l l y p r o h i b i t e d from g o i n g i n t o t h e c i t y o f Winnipeg. The community's p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e Manitoba Japanese J o i n t C o u n c i l , was, however, formed around 1942 by p e o p l e who s e c r e t l y met i n Winnipeg. I t was o n l y i n 1949 t h a t t h e y were o f f i c i a l l y a l l o w e d t o e n t e r Winnipeg, and a f t e r w a r d s more and more p e o p l e moved i n t o t h e c i t y . The p r e s e n t Japanese-Canadian p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n i s around f o u r t e e n hundred. W i t h temporary r e s i d e n t s i n c l u d e d , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f the Japanese community i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y two thousand. The s i z e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s f a i r l y s t a b l e . The r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o s t a t e d t h a t anyone who was i n t e r e s t e d i n Japanese c u l t u r e was c o n s i d e r e d a community member. Not many new im m i g r a n t s have come from Japan i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The r e s p o n d e n t s t h i n k t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e Japanese-Canadian community i s c o h e s i v e . The second g e n e r a t i o n a r e c l o s e w i t h one a n o t h e r , and a l t h o u g h the t h i r d and f o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n s a r e not p a r t i c u l a r l y u n i t e d , t h e y do p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a c t i v i t i e s . One o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e i s a sense o f o b l i g a t i o n among the Japanese Canadians t o s u p p o r t t h e i r community. T h i s v i e w i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t f o r a b i g event t h e y 68 have "a l a r g e , l a r g e number o f v o l u n t e e r s coming." Whereas t h e r e are b o t h J a p a n e s e - s p e a k i n g and E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g community members, "the language doesn't seem t o be a problem" t h a t keeps them from w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r . Furthermore, t h e r e i s a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e Japanese language. Many p e o p l e o f t h e second g e n e r a t i o n a r e t a k i n g Japanese c o u r s e s a t the c u l t u r a l c e n t r e t o b r u s h up t h e i r Japanese. L i t t l e o f Japanese l i f e s t y l e i s r e t a i n e d among community members, ex c e p t e a t i n g Japanese f o o d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no Japanese g r o c e r y s t o r e , p e o p l e have easy a c c e s s t o Japanese f o o d t h r o u g h t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e , w h i c h p u r c h a s e s Japanese f o o d and d i s t r i b u t e s i t i n t h e community. There a r e no mass media f o r t h e Japanese-Canadian community e x c e p t t h e n e w s l e t t e r o f the Manitoba Japanese Canadian C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n (MJCCA), which has been p u b l i s h e d s i n c e around 1945. A t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y o f the Japanese community was c r e a t e d i n 1989 and a new e d i t i o n i s b e i n g p l a n n e d . The Japanese companies i n the a r e a have no i n f l u e n c e on t h e Japanese-Canadian community. One r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t t h e community i s r e l u c t a n t t o approach companies f o r s u p p o r t o n l y because t h e y a r e Japanese companies. Community members f e e l i t would have t o be a f a i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h mutual s u p p o r t . The r e s p o n d e n t s t h i n k t h a t members ex p e c t community a c t i v i t i e s t o p r o v i d e a sense o f i d e n t i t y , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and a means o f d e v e l o p i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Community members would l i k e t h e MJCCA t o be more out s p o k e n on p o l i t i c a l o r s o c i a l i s s u e s , such as human r i g h t s . As f o r t h e f u t u r e o f t h e community, t h e r e s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e t h a t "the community w i l l s u r v i v e and w i l l c o n t i n u e , but not w i t h o u t 69 some work." The community o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l have t o work on g e t t i n g non-Japanese spouses and c h i l d r e n o f mixed m a r r i a g e s i n v o l v e d , as w e l l as b r o a d l y d e f i n e the community as a group o f p e o p l e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n Japanese c u l t u r e . B e s i d e t h e emphasis on c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t , the re s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o m a i n t a i n a p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r human r i g h t s a c t i v i t i e s . Present Organizations A t p r e s e n t , the community has the Ma n i t o b a Japanese Canadian C u l t u r a l C e n t r e , w h i c h runs v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l programs i n c l u d i n g language c l a s s e s and a l i b r a r y , and t h e MJCCA w h i c h i s t h e l o c a l c h a p t e r o f t h e NAJC. The MJCCA has a s t a b l e membership o f f i v e hundred t o s i x hundred. A " s e n i o r s ' " group, t h e H o r i z o n Group c o n s i s t s o f a c t i v e p e o p l e who t a k e s t r o n g l e a d i n g r o l e s i n the community. There are two r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s : t h e M a n i t o b a B u d d h i s t A s s o c i a t i o n and the U n i t e d Church f o r t h e Japanese. These o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re r u n s e p a r a t e l y w i t h d i f f e r e n t boards but memberships a r e s i m i l a r and t h e y work i n c o o p e r a t i o n . Preservation of the History of the Community and Related Cultural A c t i v i t i e s The r e s p o n d e n t s acknowledge t h a t b e f o r e r e d r e s s t h e r e were almost no o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s f o r h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n . An e x c e p t i o n was i n t e r v i e w s c a r r i e d out d u r i n g t h e Japanese Canadian c e n t e n n i a l c e l e b r a t i o n i n 1977, but the i n t e r v i e w program has not been c o n t i n u e d i n an o r g a n i z e d f a s h i o n . R edress had a t w o f o l d impact on h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n . F i r s t , i t b r o u g h t out s t o r i e s t h a t had not been t o l d b e f o r e . Second, i t 70 p u l l e d t h e l o c a l community members t o g e t h e r and s t i m u l a t e d communication among l o c a l communities, i n c l u d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s o f the n e c e s s i t y o f h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n . People a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e need t o r e c o r d memories b e f o r e t h e y were l o s t f o r e v e r w i t h o l d e r p e o p l e p a s s i n g away. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e community s t a r t e d t o p r e p a r e a book on t h e h i s t o r y o f Japanese Canadians i n Ma n i t o b a , w h i c h w i l l be p u b l i s h e d t h i s y e a r ( i n 1995). A t p r e s e n t , t h e r e a r e few p e o p l e i n t h e community who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n , but t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s o p t i m i s t i c about community s u p p o r t . They t h i n k community members "would a p p r e c i a t e i t , once i t ' s s e t i n motion," and a l s o t h a t " p a r t o f the o b l i g a t i o n o f the MJCCA i s t o s e t t h i s i n m o t i o n and t o p r e s e r v e the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o t h e r s . " As f o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e y a r e more i n t e r e s t e d i n Japanese c u l t u r e t h a n i n the h i s t o r y o f Japanese Canadians. There i s , however, some i n t e r e s t i n t h e h i s t o r y as w e l l . F o r i n s t a n c e , p u b l i c s c h o o l s have i n v i t e d s p e a k e r s from t h e Japanese community o r have had p l a y s p e r f ormed a t s c h o o l c o n c e r n i n g J apanese-Canadian h i s t o r y . Archival A c t i v i t i e s No a r c h i v e s i n the community y e t e x i s t s . The MJCCA i s c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e book mentioned above. They a r e , however, " d e f i n i t e l y " g o i n g t o d e v e l o p an a r c h i v a l program w i t h i n a c o u p l e o f y e a r s . Because t h e program i s a t a p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e , t h e scope of a c q u i s i t i o n has not y e t been d e c i d e d . The MJCCA s t a f f a r e j u s t aware t h a t t h e y have t o d i s c u s s and p l a n t h e scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n 71 c a r e f u l l y , because the a r c h i v e s w i l l not be a b l e t o a c q u i r e e v e r y t h i n g a v a i l a b l e . The a r c h i v e s w i l l be l o c a t e d i n t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e ' s b u i l d i n g , and w i l l be j o i n t l y r u n by the c u l t u r a l c e n t r e and t h e MJCCA. The f l o o r s i z e t o be a l l o c a t e d t o the a r c h i v e s has y e t t o be d e c i d e d . F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r the a r c h i v e s w i l l i n c l u d e g r a n t s , f u n d r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e community, and the Community Fund, w h i c h was e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r the r e d r e s s based on t h e d o n a t i o n s from community members. The MJCCA i s c o n s i d e r i n g a p p r o a c h i n g t h e M a n i t o b a A r c h i v e s f o r g r a n t s , as su g g e s t e d by t h e JCNMA i n Vancouver, a l t h o u g h t h e y do not know d e t a i l s o f M a n i t o b a ' s g r a n t programs. The MJCCA i s m a i n t a i n i n g c l o s e communication w i t h , and g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from, t h e JCNMA. Because t h e community does not have members who have a r c h i v a l e x p e r t i s e , the a r c h i v e s w i l l r e l y on Vancouver. The MJCCA has.not d e v e l o p e d a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . However, the community has borrowed equipment f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g from t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , and the MJCCA s t a f f a r e s u r e t h a t the a r c h i v e s w i l l be open t o h e l p and educate them when t h e y e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own a r c h i v e s . Summary A l t h o u g h an a r c h i v a l program has not s t a r t e d y e t , the community's su p p o r t f o r i t seems p r o m i s i n g . I n g e n e r a l , the community i s a c t i v e and f a i r l y c o h e s i v e . There i s something happening a t the c u l t u r a l c e n t r e e veryday and e v e r y e v e n i n g and a l a r g e number o f community members a r e i n v o l v e d community 72 a c t i v i t i e s . A l s o , the r a t e o f p e o p l e b e l o n g i n g t o t h e MJCCA i s q u i t e h i g h ( c l o s e t o a h a l f o f the Japanese Canadians) . The e x i s t e n c e o f the Community Fund s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e community i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d and i s w o r k i n g c o o p e r a t i v e l y . C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the members i n one c i t y f a c i l i t a t e s community a c t i v i t i e s and w i l l n a t u r a l l y be a s t r e n g t h f o r a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l . 4. Toronto Community Context The g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a o f t h i s Japanese community i s q u i t e l a r g e : a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n t y m i l e s i n d i a m e t e r . C o n c e p t u a l l y , the community i n c l u d e s temporary r e s i d e n t s from Japan, such as s t u d e n t s and young p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e a r e a on the w o r k i n g h o l i d a y v i s a . However, because the a r e a i s v a s t and the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n i s so l a r g e , the community cannot keep t r a c k o f i n d i v i d u a l members, and temporary r e s i d e n t s t e n d t o remain anonymous. B e f o r e World War I I , t h e r e were p r o b a b l y o n l y a dozen Japanese p e o p l e i n t h e a r e a . D u r i n g t h e war, t h e r e were a number o f p e o p l e coming t o T o r o n t o on t h e i r own, but i t was o n l y a f t e r t h e war, when p e o p l e were made t o l e a v e t h e camps i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h a t t h e community i n T o r o n t o r e a l l y d e v e l o p e d . I n 1946 o r 1947 Japanese Canadians s t a r t e d t o form o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The respondent t h i n k s t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e Japanese- Canadian community i s p r o b a b l y growing t h r o u g h n a t u r a l growth of Japanese Canadians and i m m i g r a t i o n from Japan. There a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e hundred new immigrants e v e r y y e a r t o t h e a r e a . The respondent s t a t e d t h a t community i s " a n y t h i n g but c o h e s i v e . " I t i s d i v i d e d by geography and by d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s , 73 and t h e r e a r e many community o r g a n i z a t i o n s w o r k i n g s e p a r a t e l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , even w i t h many community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r o b a b l y about two t h i r d s o f t h e Japanese Canadians a r e not i n v o l v e d w i t h any o n g o i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The respondent t h i n k s t h a t "people have a sense t h a t t h e r e i s not [a community] . " People a r e aware of t h e i r e t h n i c i t y , but i t does not l e a d them t o j o i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The respondent a l s o t h i n k s t h a t t h e community i s somewhat d i v i d e d a l o n g the l i n e o f language. Most Japanese Canadians do not speak Japanese, and new i m m i g r a n t s and temporary r e s i d e n t s from Japan a r e most c o m f o r t a b l e s p e a k i n g Japanese and have t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Whereas the Japanese l i f e s t y l e r e t a i n e d by Japanese Canadians i s " z e r o , " t h o s e who a r e i n v o l v e d a r e e x p e c t i n g from community a c t i v i t i e s a sense o f i d e n t i t y , o p p o r t u n i t y o f c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and a means of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The community has mass media aimed a t b o t h Japanese Canadians and Japanese. There a r e f o u r newspapers ( t h r e e w e e k l y and one m o n t h l y ) , w h i c h a r e d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . There a r e two t e l e v i s i o n programs t h a t a i r once a week p r i m a r i l y d e l i v e r i n g news about Japan w i t h community announcements. A l l o f t h e mass media s o u r c e s a r e owned by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s . 1 2 4 Japanese companies r e p r e s e n t e d i n the r e g i o n a r e numerous; e v e r y major Japanese company has a s u b s i d i a r y o r o f f i c e i n T o r o n t o a r e a . The respondent d i d not have an e x a c t number, but he e s t i m a t e d t h a t one hundred t o two hundred companies e x i s t . Those 1 2 4 There i s a l s o a p r i v a t e company p u b l i s h i n g a t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y y e a r l y i n Japanese, w h i c h t h e respondent was not aware o f . T h i s i s a f a i r l y r e c e n t u n d e r t a k i n g and i t i s g e a r e d t o new i m m i g r a n t s and temporary r e s i d e n t s from Japan. T h i s i s p r o b a b l y why t h e respondent had not h e a r d o f i t . 7 4 Japanese companies, however, have p r o v i d e d l i t t l e s u p p o r t t o the J a panese-Canadian community. As f o r the f u t u r e , the respondent s t a t e d , " i t ' s a d i m i n i s h i n g community." As y e a r s go by, d i v i s i v e elements w i t h i n t h e community c o n t i n u e t o grow: p e o p l e move f u r t h e r away from th e c e n t r e , and t h e r a t e o f mixed m a r r i a g e s i s h i g h . There a r e t o o many t h i n g s t h a t p e o p l e can do i n the c i t y any day o r n i g h t o f t h e week f o r them t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e Japanese community. W h i l e th e NAJC T o r o n t o c h a p t e r i s t r y i n g t o get new i m m i g r a n t s i n v o l v e d , t h e y a r e a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of p e o p l e . The respondent t h i n k s t h a t i n f i f t y y e a r s th e community w i l l s t i l l e x i s t , but t h a t t h e number o f t h e p e o p l e who a r e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i l l be v e r y s m a l l . Present Organizations The NAJC Tor o n t o Chapter c u r r e n t l y has a membership of t w e l v e hundred, w h i c h can be e s t i m a t e d t o i n c l u d e a p p r o x i m a t e l y two t housand i n d i v i d u a l s because many ar e f a m i l y memberships. The number has been s t e a d y f o r t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s , a l t h o u g h i t has dropped s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e f i v e o r s i x y e a r s ago when r e d r e s s was t h e p r i n c i p a l i s s u e . The C h apter p u b l i s h e s a n e w s l e t t e r b i m o n t h l y . A v a r i e t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x i s t i n t h e community: the Japanese Canadian C u l t u r a l C e n t r e , s e v e r a l language s c h o o l s , Japanese s c h o o l s f o r c h i l d r e n o f Japanese i m m i g r a n t s , a s e n i o r s ' group, a s o c i a l s e r v i c e agency, two s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' homes (one of w h i c h has about 250 people) , a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r new i m m i g r a n t s , two businessmen's a s s o c i a t i o n s (one f o r b i g b u s i n e s s e s and t h e o t h e r f o r s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s ) and churches ( B u d d h i s t , U n i t e d , A n g l i c a n , S h i n t o ) . There a r e a l s o many r e c r e a t i o n a l programs and 75 martial arts programs of which half of the membership i s non- Japanese. The East Asian Department at the University of Toronto i s , to some extent, considered part of the community because i t has a close cooperative relationship with the NAJC Toronto Chapter. They are now j o i n t l y running a research program concerning language s k i l l s . Preservation of the History of the Community and Related C u l t u r a l A c t i v i t i e s There have been few organized history preservation a c t i v i t i e s i n the community. Some, books.,were published by i n d i v i d u a l s , and some community members went to public schools to t a l k about t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l experience, but the l a t t e r i n i t i a t i v e came from the side of public schools. The respondent believes that the lack of such a c t i v i t i e s indicates that not many community members are interested i n h i s t o r y preservation, or that i f they are, the inte r e s t i s not strong enough to lead to funding or material donations. The respondent does not think that the community has received a great inte r e s t i n the history from the general public p a r t l y because the c u r i o s i t y was s a t i s f i e d during redress by newspaper a r t i c l e s and other reports. There have been, however, projects o r i g i n a t i n g from outside of the community that deal with the h i s t o r y of Japanese Canadians. There have been two successful plays performed by professional theatre groups. The M u l t i c u l t u r a l History Society of Ontario (MHSO) i s preparing an e x h i b i t i o n at the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM), which w i l l run at least f o r one year, i n cooperation with the archives committee of the NAJC Toronto Chapter. These a c t i v i t i e s o r i g i n a t i n g from elsewhere, i n turn, 76 i n f l u e n c e t h e Japanese-Canadian community by u t i l i z i n g i t s human r e s o u r c e s and s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t among i t s members as w e l l as t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . A r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s The T o r o n t o N i k k e i A r c h i v e s and Resource C e n t r e (TNARC), s t a r t e d i n e a r l y 1994, i s r u n by a committee o f t h r e e p e o p l e under th e NAJC T o r o n t o Chapter. One o f the committee members i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t w o r k i n g f o r a p r o v i n c i a l agency. There was not a s p e c i f i c impetus t o d e v e l o p an a r c h i v e s ; r a t h e r , the l e a d e r s h i p o f the Tor o n t o Chapter f e l t t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no a r c h i v e s i n T o r o n t o was a g r e a t l a c k . The a r c h i v e s has been c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e e x h i b i t i o n b e i n g p l a n n e d f o r t h e ROM i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e MHSO and has not s t a r t e d a c t i v e l y a c q u i r i n g m a t e r i a l s . I t has, however, a w r i t t e n s t atement o f o b j e c t i v e s and g o a l s d e f i n i n g the scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n (Appendix 3) . I t d e f i n e s t h e scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n by s t a t i n g " h i s t o r i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and contemporary m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o t h e To r o n t o r e g i o n Japanese Canadian community" and enumerates t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s by medium (e.g., p h o t o g r a p h s ) , by p h y s i c a l form (e.g., pamphlets) o r by c o n t e n t s (e.g., s u r v e y s ) . A l t h o u g h t h e scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n seems wide, t h e a r c h i v e s w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y a c q u i r e r e c o r d s from a l l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the community. R a t h e r , i t i s p l a n n i n g t o encourage o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o keep t h e i r own a r c h i v e s , and the N i k k e i A r c h i v e s and Resource C e n t r e w i l l m a i n t a i n a database t o l o c a t e r e c o r d s k e p t w i t h i n the community. As f o r m a t e r i a l s kept by i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e TNARC would r a t h e r keep l i s t i n g s t h a n h a s t i l y go out and gr a b m a t e r i a l s from 77 t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e s t i l l e n j o y i n g t h e i r t r e a s u r e s and t a k i n g good c a r e o f them. I n s h o r t , t h e TNARC p l a n s t o f u n c t i o n as an a r c h i v a l i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e i n t h e community. I t i s a l s o p l a n n i n g t o have an e d u c a t i o n a l component t o conduct seminars and workshops t o g e n e r a t e i n t e r e s t i n the a r c h i v e s and t o educate community o r g a n i z a t i o n s about how t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r r e c o r d s . The a r c h i v e s i s l o c a t e d i n t h e NAJC T o r o n t o C h a p t e r b u i l d i n g , w i t h space o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hundred square f e e t , and t h e r e i s some room f o r t h e a r c h i v e s t o expand i n t o . The s t a f f i s now w o r k i n g on i n s t a l l i n g a c l i m a t e c o n t r o l system. P r e s e n t l y , t h e y s e r v e u s e r s by appointment, and i n t h e f u t u r e , i t w i l l open t o t h e p u b l i c f o r a few hours e v e r y S a t u r d a y . To c r e a t e f i n d i n g a i d s , i t i s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p u r c h a s i n g INMAGIC s o f t w a r e . As f o r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e a r c h i v e s has r e c e i v e d g r a n t s from t h e n a t i o n a l NAJC. To s u s t a i n t h e a r c h i v e s , t h e y w i l l r e l y on p u b l i c d o n a t i o n s , f o r whi c h t h e y a r e a p p l y i n g f o r a c h a r i t a b l e s t a t u s . The respondent i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e y w i l l r a i s e enough money t o "at l e a s t s u r v i v e . " They a r e not p l a n n i n g on f u n d r a i s i n g e v e n t s because t h e y do not have enough s t a f f and a l s o because t h e y would be competing w i t h t h e NAJC Tor o n t o Ch a p t e r . They a r e aware o f g r a n t s from the Canadian C o u n c i l o f A r c h i v e s (CCA) , but have y e t t o a p p l y f o r them. The TNARC b e l o n g s t o t h r e e a r c h i v a l a s s o c i a t i o n s : t h e O n t a r i o A r c h i v e s A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , and th e Japanese American Museum A s s o c i a t i o n . I t has a c l o s e c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e M u l t i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y o f O n t a r i o . I t keeps a l i s t i n g o f r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s h e l d a t the A r c h i v e s o f O n t a r i o . I t does not have c o n t a c t s y e t w i t h t h e c i t y 78 a r c h i v e s and the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f Canada. G i v e n t h a t t h e TNARC has a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t on t h e committee, t h e y a r e not s e e k i n g t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . A l t h o u g h th e TNARC has not d e v e l o p e d s u b s t a n t i a l communication w i t h t h e JCNMA i n Vancouver, once s e t i n motion, i t w i l l work i n c o o p e r a t i o n and share i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h Vancouver. The TNARC t h i n k s a s t r o n g network o f l o c a l a r c h i v e s w i l l be e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e " n a t i o n a l " Japanese-Canadian a r c h i v e s . I t a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e " n a t i o n a l " Japanese-Canadian a r c h i v e s has t o r e c o g n i z e t h e Tor o n t o Japanese community's need t o have a l o c a l a r c h i v e s . The TNARC has some r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h some e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i t has a p o t e n t i a l t o d e v e l o p " v e r y b r o a d c o n t a c t s w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l community." Summary The T o r o n t o N i k k e i A r c h i v e s and Resource C e n t r e b e n e f i t s from h a v i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t on t h e s t a f f . A l t h o u g h i t i s a t a b e g i n n i n g s t a g e w i t h a few m a t e r i a l s a c q u i r e d , t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a r e pr e c e d e d by o r d e r l y p l a n n i n g , which s u g g e s t s u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge. As f o r t h e community i n g e n e r a l , even though t h e respondent i s d i s c o n t e n t w i t h t h e low r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and says the community i s " a n y t h i n g but c o h e s i v e " and " d i m i n i s h i n g , " i t i s a b i g community w i t h a f a i r l y l a r g e p o t e n t i a l . 1 2 5 F o r example, a wide v a r i e t y o f human r e s o u r c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , as t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l 1 2 5 W h i l e the r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i s low ( l e s s t h a n one- t h i r d ) , s t i l l t he e s t i m a t e d number o f f i v e t housand p e o p l e i n v o l v e d w i t h community a c t i v i t i e s i s l a r g e r t h a n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f most Japanese-Canadian communities. 79 a r c h i v i s t found w i t h i n the community. A l a r g e community i m p l i e s a s t r o n g f i n a n c i a l p o t e n t i a l , as can be o b s e r v e d i n t h e case o f Kobe R e l i e f Fund ( f o r t h e earthquake i n J a n u a r y 1995), w h i c h r a i s e d o v e r $100,000 i n T o r o n t o . 5 . Hamilton Community Context I n H a m i l t o n and the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s , t h e r e were no Japanese known b e f o r e World War I I . Japanese Canadians came t o t h e a r e a a f t e r t h e war when t h o s e who were i n t h e d e t e n t i o n camps i n i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia were o r d e r e d t o move e a s t o f t h e R o c k i e s . The f i r s t community o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e Japanese Canadian C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1946 o r 1947. The p r e s e n t Japanese-Canadian community i n t h e a r e a b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t s o f permanent r e s i d e n t Japanese Canadians. A l t h o u g h community o r g a n i z a t i o n memberships are not r e s t r i c t e d t o Japanese Canadians, community l e a d e r s i n t h e p a s t have found i t " d i f f i c u l t t o t r y t o draw them (Japanese temporary r e s i d e n t s ) i n t o o ur community." The respondent t h i n k s t h a t t h i s might be because t h e y a r e aware t h a t t h e y a r e i n the a r e a o n l y f o r a l i m i t e d t i me p e r i o d . The p o p u l a t i o n o f the community i s one thousand t o f i f t e e n hundred i n H a m i l t o n and the immediate s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . The NAJC H a m i l t o n C h a p t e r s e r v e s a w i d e r a r e a i n S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o , and a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e thousand p e o p l e r e c e i v e t h e C h a p t e r ' s n e w s l e t t e r . The p o p u l a t i o n has remained about t h e same d u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s . There a r e few new Japanese i m m i g r a n t s i n t o t h e a r e a from Japan. 80 The community i s not v e r y c o h e s i v e . A r i f t e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e community t h a t was caused by t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n s d u r i n g r e d r e s s . The NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r and o t h e r s a r e t r y i n g t o seek a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , and the e f f o r t i s s l o w l y w o r k i n g . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , o l d e r p e o p l e a r e more i n t e r e s t e d t h a n younger p e o p l e i n the community. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between post-war i m m i g r a n t s and Japanese Canadians does not seem t o be c l o s e . Younger p e o p l e seem t o expect a sense o f i d e n t i t y from the community and i t s a c t i v i t i e s because t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n i s so complete t h a t Japanese h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e a r e not l e a r n e d a t home. O l d e r p e o p l e , on t h e o t h e r hand, p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e community f o r s o c i a l r e a s o n s . Even E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g second g e n e r a t i o n p e o p l e seem t o be more c o m f o r t a b l e among t h e m s e l v e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o c u l t u r e , t h e need f o r a c t i v i t i e s c o n c e r n i n g human r i g h t s i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d . There a r e no community news organs. Important news i n t h e community i s r e p o r t e d i n Japanese-Canadian newspapers p u b l i s h e d i n To r o n t o , and t e l e v i s i o n programs produced i n T o r o n t o can a l s o v i e w e d i n t h e a r e a . H a m i l t o n has no Japanese companies. There i s a c a r f a c t o r y i n Cambridge, O n t a r i o , w h i c h i s i n c l u d e d i n the a r e a t h a t t h e NAJC Cha p t e r s e r v e s . A l t h o u g h t h a t company gave some s u p p o r t t o t h e new b u i l d i n g o f t h e Japanese Canadian c u l t u r a l c e n t r e , i t does not have s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e community. The respondent has an i m p r e s s i o n t h a t Japanese companies do not a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t Japanese-Canadian communities. As f o r t h e f u t u r e o f t h e community, t h e respondent t h i n k s t h a t t h e younger p e o p l e w i l l r e t a i n a sense o f Japanese e t h n i c i t y , but 81 t h a t t h e y would not r e l y on t h e s m a l l community f o r economic o r s o c i a l r e a s o n s . T h e r e f o r e , the community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e t r y i n g t o c r e a t e programs geared toward the l i f e s t y l e o f younger p e o p l e i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t them. The respondent does not t h i n k t h a t the emphasis of the community would n e c e s s a r i l y s h i f t o n t o c u l t u r e i n t h e f u t u r e , because t h e r e a r e a group o f young p e o p l e who f e e l t h e NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r s h o u l d t a k e p a r t i n human r i g h t s i s s u e s i n t h e b r o a d e r s o c i e t y . When asked about the community i n f i f t y y e a r s , t h e respondent s a i d she d i d not know what the community would be l i k e t h e n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e community w i l l not e x i s t a t a l l , o r i t might be m a i n t a i n e d f o r r e a s o n s d i f f e r e n t from the p r e s e n t . There a r e , however, some h e a r t e n i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s . Between i n t e r m a r r i a g e c o u p l e s , t h e non-Japanese p e r s o n i s o f t e n i n t e r e s t e d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g Japanese c u l t u r e o r encourages h i s o r h e r Japanese p a r t n e r t o g e t i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e community. A n o t h e r good s i g n i s t h a t , i n r e c e n t y e a r s , the membership of the NAJC H a m i l t o n c h a p t e r i s i n c r e a s i n g , w i t h younger p e o p l e j o i n i n g . Present Organizations P r e s e n t l y , t h e NAJC H a m i l t o n c h a p t e r has 260 members. D u r i n g r e d r e s s , t h e membership of t h e JCCA q u i c k l y i n c r e a s e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y dropped. I n t h e r e c e n t y e a r s , however, i t i s on t h e r i s e a g a i n w i t h younger p e o p l e ( l a t e 20s and 30s) coming back. The C h a p t e r i s t r y i n g v e r y h a r d t o r e c r u i t young p e o p l e because t h e y a r e t h e f u t u r e o f any o r g a n i z a t i o n . O ther o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the community i n c l u d e t h e c u l t u r e and community c e n t r e , r e l i g i o u s groups ( B u d d h i s t , U n i t e d ) , an 82 i n v e s t m e n t c l u b o f second g e n e r a t i o n p e o p l e , s o c i a l groups and c u l t u r a l groups. W h i l e t h e r e i s no language s c h o o l , t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e r u n s language c l a s s e s . The c u l t u r e and community c e n t r e and t h e NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r p u b l i s h n e w s l e t t e r s and the two n e w s l e t t e r s work i n c o o p e r a t i o n . The c u l t u r a l c e n t r e ' s n e w s l e t t e r i s monthly and t h e NAJC n e w s l e t t e r i s q u a r t e r l y ; b o t h a r e b i l i n g u a l . Preservation of the History of the Community and Related C u l t u r a l A c t i v i t i e s I n t h e p a s t , t h e r e have not been many h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e community. There was a s m a l l p h o t o g r a p h e x h i b i t i o n h e l d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a community p i c n i c . There have been some books w r i t t e n by H a m i l t o n r e s i d e n t s , but t h e y were not the r e s u l t o f o r g a n i z e d community e f f o r t s . Enough p e o p l e a r e i n t e r e s t e d t o s t a r t a r c h i v e s . The l e a d e r s h i p b e l i e v e s t h a t once an a r c h i v e s i s e s t a b l i s h e d , t h o s e who were p r e v i o u s l y not i n t e r e s t e d would become more i n t e r e s t e d . There i s a l s o some i n t e r e s t w i t h i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s and p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . P u b l i c s c h o o l s ask t h e community f o r s p e a k e r s on t h e Japanese Canadian e x p e r i e n c e , and the H a m i l t o n P u b l i c L i b r a r y once had a Japanese-Canadian photograph e x h i b i t i o n . Archival A c t i v i t i e s The a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the H a m i l t o n community a r e a t a p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e . The community i s h o p i n g t o s t a r t an a r c h i v e s t h i s y e a r . There was not a s p e c i f i c impetus f o r t h e a r c h i v e s , but t h e y " j u s t f e l t t h a t i t was p r o b a b l y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f the 83 e x i s t e n c e o f ( t h e i r ) o r g a n i z a t i o n s to have t h a t k i n d o f r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o , not j u s t to the Japanese Canadian p e o p l e , but to the p u b l i c at l a r g e . " P l a n n i n g f o r the a r c h i v e s has not ye t begun. Whether i t w i l l be a program of the NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r o r i t w i l l be j o i n t l y r u n by the c u l t u r a l c e n t r e and the c h a p t e r has not been d e c i d e d ; n e i t h e r has the scope of a c q u i s i t i o n been d i s c u s s e d y e t . The a r c h i v e s w i l l be l o c a t e d i n a new b u i l d i n g shared by the NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r and the c u l t u r a l c e n t r e . The respondent has no i d e a how l a r g e the f l o o r s i z e o f the a r c h i v e s w i l l be . The p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f f u n d i n g i n c l u d e the g e n e r a l income of the C h a p t e r , fund r a i s i n g e v e n t s , g r a n t s from governments o r o t h e r funds , but no c o n c r e t e f u n d i n g p l a n has ye t been made. The p r e s e n t h o l d i n g s c o n s i s t o n l y o f a s m a l l number o f photographs used f o r the P u b l i c L i b r a r y ' s e x h i b i t i o n . They have not y e t c o n t a c t e d any o t h e r a r c h i v e s o r c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Summary The H a m i l t o n Japanese -Canad ian community i s s m a l l , but i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean i t has few r e s o u r c e s . I t has easy access to i n f o r m a t i o n i n T o r o n t o , and i n a sense , i t shares a r e s e r v o i r o f human r e s o u r c e s w i t h T o r o n t o . They can c a l l on prominent community members a c t i v e on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l i n T o r o n t o , and H a m i l t o n i t s e l f p r o v i d e d some prominent n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s . As a r e s u l t , the community members are aware o f n a t i o n a l developments and, as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n human r i g h t s , they have a wide v iew o f the s o c i e t y at l a r g e . 84 As f o r t h e coming a r c h i v e s , i t i s not y e t a t t h e s t a g e t o be e v a l u a t e d . C l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h Toronto w i l l be c r i t i c a l . 6. Montreal Community Context T h i s Japanese-Canadian community t h e o r e t i c a l l y encompasses t h e p r o v i n c e o f Quebec. The g r e a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s , however, i n M o n t r e a l , and community a c t i v i t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y g e a r e d t o t h o s e i n M o n t r e a l . B e f o r e World War I I , t h e r e were about f o r t y Japanese p e o p l e i n M o n t r e a l a r e a . I n 1942, some p e o p l e s t a r t e d t o come v o l u n t a r i l y from Vancouver. I n 1944, young p e o p l e s t a r t e d t o come from t h e camps i n i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia. G r a d u a l l y , t h e i r p a r e n t s , b r o t h e r s , and s i s t e r s j o i n e d them. Because t h e c i t y o f T o r o n t o c l o s e d i t s doors t o Japanese Canadians, many came t o M o n t r e a l i n s t e a d . The community s t a r t e d t o form o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as c h u r c h groups and a w e l f a r e group, d u r i n g the war. When th e camps i n B r i t i s h Columbia were f i n a l l y c l o s e d o f f , a r e c e i v i n g camp f o r t h o s e who were w i t h l a r g e f a m i l i e s and c o u l d not move out o f t h e r e t e n t i o n camps was s e t up i n Farnham, Quebec, from where many p e o p l e l a t e r . c a m e t o M o n t r e a l f o r j o b s . A l t h o u g h the census i n 1991 shows t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Japanese Canadians i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n M o n t r e a l a r e a i s 2,365, the respondent e s t i m a t e d t h e number of p e o p l e a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the community a c t i v i t i e s i s l e s s t h a n f i v e hundred. A l t h o u g h temporary r e s i d e n t s sometimes t a k e p a r t i n c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , o r even c o n t r i b u t e t o them w i t h t h e i r knowledge o f Japanese c u l t u r e and language, most o f them do not p a r t i c i p a t e r o u t i n e l y i n 85 community a c t i v i t i e s . They have t h e i r own sports clubs, and they are busy supporting t h e i r children's Japanese School. The size of the community looks l i k e shrinking with older people passing away and moving out to l i v e i n Japanese senior c i t i z e n s ' homes i n Ontario, or to be with t h e i r children elsewhere. On the other hand, younger people might be moving into the area without being noticed by the community. Therefore, whether the community i s ac t u a l l y decreasing i n population i s not clear. The present Japanese community consists of a " t r a d i t i o n a l community" that includes the f i r s t generation and older part of the second generation, and younger generations. The t r a d i t i o n a l community members are very close to one another; t h i s i s not sur p r i s i n g given that they have known one another for more than f i f t y years, mainly through churches. Younger generations need s p e c i f i c purposes to par t i c i p a t e i n the community, unlike seniors who come to the drop-in at the c u l t u r a l centre every week. Although some younger people say they are not interested i n the community, when an organization holds an event, attendance i s usually s u f f i c i e n t to assure that the e f f o r t i s worthwhile. Furthermore, the community leadership i d e n t i f i e s some groups of younger people who are i n need of an individual sense of belonging. Younger t h i r d generation members i n t h e i r 2 0 s sometimes f e e l a sense of loss . They miss the connection with t h e i r grandparents, with whom they cannot communicate because of the language b a r r i e r . Children of i n t e r c u l t u r a l marriages also sometimes have a p a r t i c u l a r need to seek iden t i t y , and so do children of post-war immigrants, who may have very Japanese ways of thinking depending on how t h e i r parents educated them. 86 R e c e n t l y , t h e r e are few Japanese i m m i g r a n t s t o M o n t r e a l . There a r e , however, many Japanese p e o p l e l i v i n g i n M o n t r e a l as s t u d e n t s o r on w o r k i n g h o l i d a y v i s a s . There does not seem t o be c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Japanese Canadians and post-war i m m i g r a n t s , and the community r e c o g n i z e s t h e need o f o u t r e a c h t o p o s t - w a r i m m i g r a n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The respondent b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e language d i f f e r e n c e i n f l u e n c e s t h e community; communication r e q u i r e s e f f o r t , w hich p e o p l e might a v o i d i f t h e y do not have p a r t i c u l a r purposes t o do so. Some younger p e o p l e , however, a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the Japanese language as a c u l t u r a l i s s u e . There a r e t h i r t y t o f o r t y Japanese companies i n t h e a r e a , but some a r e l e a v i n g . The respondent t h i n k s t h a t t h e y a r e p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e . There a r e no t e l e v i s i o n programs o r newspapers f o r t h e community. Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s sometimes put n o t i c e s o r announcements i n Japanese-Canadian newspapers p u b l i s h e d i n T o r o n t o . A t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y was c o m p i l e d i n 1992, but an updated e d i t i o n has not been p l a n n e d . In r e s p onse t o the q u e s t i o n whether t h e community w i l l e x i s t i n f i f t y o r one hundred y e a r s , the respondent s a i d , " w i t h o u t i m m i g r a t i o n coming i n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t , t o c e r t a i n e x t e n t . " She t h i n k s t h a t even i n f i v e y e a r s the community w i l l have changed, but and she does not know how i t w i l l change. Present Organizations The NAJC Quebec c h a p t e r , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1986, a t p r e s e n t has 220 members. T h i s number has not changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n r e c e n t 87 y e a r s . O ther e x i s t i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e C u l t u r a l C e n t r e , t h e M o n t r e a l B u l l e t i n , a language s c h o o l f o r c h i l d r e n o f Japanese Canadians and immigrants, N i k k e i A r t i s t s ' Network, N i k k e i Network f o r work o p p o r t u n i t i e s , c u l t u r a l groups, and s p o r t s g roups. The C u l t u r a l C e n t r e i s "more the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e community (than t h e NAJC Quebec c h a p t e r i s ) , because i t ' s a t t a c h e d t o the b u i l d i n g (where community a c t i v i t i e s have been c a r r i e d out f o r y e a r s ) . " I t has r u n s e n i o r s ' d r o p - i n programs s i n c e 1979. I t has a l i b r a r y , and many groups use i t s b u i l d i n g f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and e v e n t s . The C u l t u r a l C e n t r e ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by a c o u n c i l o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f groups i n t h e community. The c o u n c i l a l s o i n c l u d e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Canada Japan S o c i e t y ; i t i s not a Japanese-Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s membership i s m a i n l y F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g . The M o n t r e a l B u l l e t i n i s a group t h a t p u b l i s h e s t h e Montreal B u l l e t i n , a monthly n e w s l e t t e r o f the community. I t i s independent and s e r v e s as a communication medium f o r a l l t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t i s p u b l i s h e d i n b o t h E n g l i s h and Japanese. C o n t e n t s i n t h e two languages a r e not the same because t h e Japanese s e c t i o n t r i e s t o respond the needs o f the p e o p l e who do not r e a d E n g l i s h o r F r e n c h newspapers. The community a l s o has a s e n i o r s ' c a r e program t h a t i n c l u d e s v i s i t s , meals on wheels, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o h o s p i t a l s . I t i s s u p p o r t e d by p r o v i n c i a l government f u n d i n g . Preservation of the History of the Community and Related Cultural A c t i v i t i e s There have been some a c t i v i t i e s aimed a t p r e s e r v i n g Japanese- 88 Canadian h i s t o r y . S i n c e 1982, i n t e r v i e w s o f o l d e r p e o p l e were c a r r i e d o u t . There have been t h r e e o r f o u r e x h i b i t i o n s a t a c o l l e g e and a market p l a c e , but s i n c e r e d r e s s t h e r e has been none. Speakers have o c c a s i o n a l l y been i n v i t e d t o s c h o o l s t o t a l k about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . A b o o k l e t on the h i s t o r y o f Japanese Canadians i n M o n t r e a l was p u b l i s h e d i n 1987 by t h e C u l t u r a l C e n t r e . The NAJC Quebec c h a p t e r i s t h i n k i n g o f u p d a t i n g i t and t h e new e d i t i o n w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d t o h i g h s c h o o l s and CEGEPs. C o n c e r n i n g the a t t i t u d e s o f community members, t h e respondent d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y say t h e y a r e i n d i f f e r e n t t o h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n , even though t h e r e a r e not many p e o p l e g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h such a c t i v i t i e s . R a t h e r , t h e respondent b e l i e v e s the l e a d e r s h i p s h o u l d a c t i v e l y r e a c h out and encourage v o l u n t e e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . As f o r t h e i n t e r e s t o f the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , t h e respondent i s "not aware o f i t . " She t h i n k s t h e community "has t o s e l l i t . " Archival A c t i v i t i e s A committee o f f i v e p e o p l e i s k e e p i n g r e c o r d s o f t h e community. A s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f m a t e r i a l s a r e kep t a t the B u l l e t i n ' s managing e d i t o r ' s house ( h e r e a f t e r t h i s p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s c a l l e d t h e a r c h i v e s ) . The a r c h i v e s s t a r t e d i n 1982 w i t h i n t e r v i e w s o f s e n i o r s . There was no p a r t i c u l a r impetus f o r i t ; r a t h e r i t emerged n a t u r a l l y from community members' c o n v e r s a t i o n s . They thought t h a t t h e a r c h i v e s was a good t h i n g t o have because t h e r e had not been many o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e respondent, however, t h e a r c h i v e s " i s 89 not m a i n t a i n e d , " and two p e o p l e a r e g o i n g t o l o o k t h r o u g h t h e m a t e r i a l s and make s t a n d a r d i z e d f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n s . The scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n i s Quebec i n terms o f geography, a l t h o u g h t h e p r i m a r y emphasis i s on Japanese Canadians' r e s e t t l e m e n t i n M o n t r e a l . Recent r e c o r d s a r e w i t h i n t h e scope, and the committee t h i n k s i t has t o a c q u i r e r e c o r d s from c u r r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e not a c q u i r i n g on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . T h i s i s p a r t l y because th e a r c h i v e s does not have a s t a t u s as the „ c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y o f the community; many o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g t h e C u l t u r a l C e n t r e keep t h e i r r e c o r d s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . P r e s e n t l y , t h e a r c h i v e s r e c e i v e s r e c o r d s when an o r g a n i z a t i o n o r an i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r s t o t r a n s f e r them. Even f o r t h e m a t e r i a l s k e p t t h e r e , t h e a r c h i v e s does not have ownership but i s o n l y a c u s t o d i a n . I f a u s e r wants t o quote from a m a t e r i a l o r use a p h o t o g r a p h , he o r she has t o o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n from th e owner o r t h e owner's descendent. The major p a r t o f t h e i r h o l d i n g s i s 170 f i l e s (approx. t h r e e l i n e a r metres) under names of i n d i v i d u a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and sometimes g e o g r a p h i c a l names. The r e c o r d s can be e i t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the i n d i v i d u a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s t h e f i l e t i t l e , o r r e c o r d s c r e a t e d o r h e l d by i t . There a r e a l s o a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hundred sound t a p e s o f i n t e r v i e w s , as w e l l as books, p h o t o g r a p h s , s l i d e s , and newspaper c l i p p i n g s o f Japanese Canadian newspapers c o n c e r n i n g M o n t r e a l . The volume o f t h e s e h o l d i n g s has not been measured. As f o r f i n d i n g a i d s , t h e a r c h i v e s has l i s t i n g s o f f i l e s , w h ich w i l l be supplemented w i t h more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s . The a r c h i v e s i s open t o t h e p u b l i c and u s e r s a r e g i v e n a c c e s s t o t h e h o l d i n g s by appointment. 90 The room t h a t the a r c h i v e s o c c u p i e s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 156 square f e e t . They do not have r e s o u r c e s t o b u i l d o r a c q u i r e new f a c i l i t i e s . Because t h e C u l t u r a l C e n t r e i s s p e n d i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f money on i n s u r a n c e f o r the m a t e r i a l s , t h e committee i s d i s c u s s i n g p h o t o c o p y i n g m a t e r i a l s and s e n d i n g one s e t t o a n o t h e r r e p o s i t o r y so t h a t t h e y do not have t o i n s u r e t h e h o l d i n g s . Whether t h e y s h o u l d keep t h e o r i g i n a l s o r send out t h e o r i g i n a l s , and w h i c h a r c h i v e s i s b e s t t o t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s t o , have not y e t been d e c i d e d . The a r c h i v e s w i l l d e c i d e t h o s e i s s u e s c o n s i d e r i n g u s e r s . To s u s t a i n t h e a r c h i v e s , t h e y have r e c e i v e d government g r a n t s f o r employment c r e a t i o n . Equipment and overhead have not r e q u i r e d a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f f u n d i n g , p a r t l y because t h e y have a c c e s s t o the M o n t r e a l B u l l e t i n ' s equipment. Fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e not p l a n n e d so f a r , and g r a n t s f o r a r c h i v e s , such as t h o s e from t h e CCA, have not been i n v e s t i g a t e d . The a r c h i v e s has l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r a r c h i v e s . P u b l i c a r c h i v e s have sometimes r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e m a t e r i a l s t h e y have, w h i l e the a r c h i v e s s e n t p e o p l e t o Ottawa and T o r o n t o t o make c o p i e s o f m a t e r i a l s kept a t o t h e r a r c h i v e s . The a r c h i v e s , however, does not have o r g a n i z e d documentation on m a t e r i a l s kept a t o t h e r a r c h i v e s . Summary A s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s Japanese-Canadian community i s i t s n e t w o r k i n g f u n c t i o n s . Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e con n e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e c o u n c i l o f the c u l t u r a l c e n t r e , and some o f t h e major community a c t i v i t i e s t h emselves a r e n e t w o r k i n g , such as N i k k e i 91 A r t i s t s ' Network and N i k k e i Network. T h i s may be because n e t w o r k i n g i s r e l a t i v e l y easy s i n c e the Japanese community i s f a i r l y s m a l l i n p o p u l a t i o n , and a t the same t i m e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y s i n c e t h e community i s s i t u a t e d i n a b i g busy c i t y . The a r c h i v e s i s v e r y low key. I t uses whatever r e s o u r c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , and t h e p e o p l e who r u n i t do not f e e l an u r g e n t need f o r l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g . The h o l d i n g s , however, c o n s i s t o f a f a i r l y i m p r e s s i v e amount, as a r e s u l t o f the e a r n e s t e f f o r t s o f v o l u n t e e r s . The l o c a t i o n o f the a r c h i v e s w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s house may be p r o b l e m a t i c i n terms o f p u b l i c a c c e s s and l o n g - t e r m s u s t a i n a b i l i t y . 7. Vancouver Community Context The immediate a r e a o f t h i s Japanese community i s G r e a t e r Vancouver and t h i s s e c t i o n m a i n l y r e p o r t s about t h e Vancouver Japanese-Canadian community. The Japanese-Canadian a r c h i v e s i n Vancouver i s , however, " n a t i o n a l " w i t h t h e scope o f a c t i v i t i e s encompassing a l l Canada. A f t e r W orld War I I , Japanese Canadians were o f f i c i a l l y a l l o w e d t o come back t o t h e west c o a s t i n 1949, but not many p e o p l e moved back a l l a t once. I t was o n l y d u r i n g t h e 1950s when t h e Japanese community got. s t a r t e d a g a i n i n Vancouver. The Japanese Canadian C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n (JCCA), which had e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e war, was r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n the e a r l y 1950s. The p r e s e n t community members i n c l u d e any J a p a n e s e - r e l a t e d p e r s o n l i v i n g i n t h e a r e a , i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n o f mixed m a r r i a g e s . Temporary r e s i d e n t s a r e always welcome t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community 92 a c t i v i t i e s and t h e y do come t o some o f t h e e v e n t s , but t h e respondent d i d not p a r t i c u l a r l y i d e n t i f y t h e i r r o l e s i n t h e community. Japanese s p e a k i n g post-war immigrants seem t o have some r e l u c t a n c e t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Japanese Canadians and t e n d t o s t a y w i t h i n t h e i r own groups. The p o p u l a t i o n o f the Japanese Canadians i n G r e a t e r Vancouver i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t e e n thousand w i t h f o u r t h o u sand t o f i v e t h o u s a nd Japanese s p e a k i n g h o u s e h o l d s . Japanese company employees from Japan i n t h e a r e a are l e s s t h a n one thousand, and t h e r e a r e about two thousand Japanese on w o r k i n g h o l i d a y v i s a s . A l t h o u g h the respondent d i d not have p r e c i s e numbers, he b e l i e v e s t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n i s g r o w i n g because o f Japanese Canadians moving i n from o t h e r a r e a s o f Canada. There a r e n o t , however, a g r e a t number of i m m i g r a n t s coming from Japan i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The p r e s e n t community i s not c o h e s i v e because t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n on c e r t a i n t h i n g s . F u r t h e r m o r e , not many young p e o p l e a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n community a c t i v i t i e s . Whereas t h e y are aware of t h e i r e t h n i c i t y , t h e y do not c a r e whether t h e y a s s o c i a t e w i t h Japanese o r non-Japanese p e o p l e . On t h e o t h e r hand, the second g e n e r a t i o n and e s p e c i a l l y t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n t e n d t o want t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h Japanese Canadians. Some p e o p l e i n the community a r e h o p i n g t h a t t h e N i k k e i H e r i t a g e C e n t r e b e i n g p l a n n e d i n Burnaby w i l l change the . a t t i t u d e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s o f younger p e o p l e . The respondent t h i n k s t h a t community members e x p e c t from t h e community a l l t h e t h r e e elements the r e s e a r c h e r s u g g e s t e d : a sense of i d e n t i t y , a p l a c e f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and a means o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He a l s o n o t e d t h a t a human r i g h t s group i s v e r y 93 a c t i v e i n Vancouver w i t h a world-wide scope, a l t h o u g h some p e o p l e c r i t i c i z e them f o r becoming i n v o l v e d w i t h many i s s u e s t h a t do not seem r e l e v a n t t o t h e Japanese-Canadian community p e r se. There a r e mass media s o u r c e s geared toward Japanese s p e a k i n g p e o p l e i n the community. These i n c l u d e t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o b r o a d c a s t , newspapers and o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s i n Japanese. There i s , however, no mass media s o u r c e s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Japanese Canadians. A t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y o f t h e community l i s t i n g Japanese b u s i n e s s e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and so on, i s p u b l i s h e d a n n u a l l y by a p r i v a t e company. I t i s a l s o i n Japanese and c o n t e n t s a r e ge a r e d t o new immigrants and temporary r e s i d e n t s . The respondent t h i n k s t h e Japanese Canadians i n t h e a r e a s t i l l r e t a i n some Japanese l i f e s t y l e . Some s t i l l h o l d some a n n u a l f a m i l y e v e n t s , w h i c h t h e i r g r a n d p a r e n t s d i d , such as t h e new y e a r ' s p a r t y . There a r e q u i t e a few Japanese g r o c e r y s t o r e s and more t h a n one hundred Japanese r e s t a u r a n t s . Japanese companies t h a t have o f f i c e s i n Vancouver have s u p p o r t e d c e r t a i n community e v e n t s and p r o j e c t s , s uch as t h e Japanese gardens a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and a t t h e P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n . The community i s h o p i n g t h a t t h e y w i l l a l s o s u p p o r t t h e N i k k e i H e r i t a g e C e n t r e . I n r e s p onse t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether t h e Japanese-Canadian communities a c r o s s Canada are u n i t e d , t h e respondent answered, "There i s n ' t one b i g community as such," because w h i l e t h e NAJC t r i e s t o i n t e g r a t e i t , t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s . The l o c a l communities a r e , however, i n t e r c o n n e c t e d w i t h one a n o t h e r m a i n l y t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l t i e s . Because a l m o s t a l l o f the o l d e r Japanese Canadians moved out from Vancouver, and i n the 94 p a s t t h e Japanese o f t e n got m a r r i e d among t h e m s e l v e s , p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s have r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s n a t i o n - w i d e . The respondent b e l i e v e s t h i s i s where t h e i r s t r e n g t h l i e s . A l s o , the respondent t h i n k s t h a t wherever t h e y c u r r e n t l y l i v e , t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n and t h e second g e n e r a t i o n t h i n k v e r y s i m i l a r l y . Present Organizations There i s no u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n o v e r s e e i n g t h e whole community. W h i l e the JCCA t r i e s t o i n t e g r a t e t h e community groups and r e p r e s e n t t h e community, and t h e y do succeed i n some ways, t h e y have not been so s u c c e s s f u l i n o t h e r ways. The membership o f the JCCA i s t w e n t y - t h r e e hundred and the number has been s t a b l e i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The community has a p p r o x i m a t e l y 110 o r g a n i z a t i o n s and groups b o t h l a r g e and s m a l l . They a r e m o s t l y c u l t u r a l o r s o c i a l groups. S e v e r a l language s c h o o l s , some o f which have two t o t h r e e hundred s t u d e n t s , t e a c h the Japanese language and c u l t u r e t o c h i l d r e n o f Japanese Canadians and imm i g r a n t s . There i s one Japanese s c h o o l f o r c h i l d r e n o f Japanese b u s i n e s s p e o p l e and o t h e r temporary r e s i d e n t s . There a r e more t h a n t e n Japanese churches i n t h e a r e a i n c l u d i n g B u d d h i s t , U n i t e d , A n g l i c a n and o t h e r d e n o m i n a t i o n s . There a r e Japanese b u s i n e s s p e o p l e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s , and a s t r o n g g a r d e n e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t o f t e n s u p p o r t s Japanese garden p r o j e c t s . A n o t h e r type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s K e n j i n k a i , w h i c h i s a group o f p e o p l e g e t t i n g t o g e t h e r by p r e f e c t u r e i n Japan from which t h e y o r t h e i r a n c e s t o r s o r i g i n a t e d . There a r e no c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s , l i b r a r i e s , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' homes o r museums. The JCCA b u i l d i n g i s o f t e n used f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . The N i k k e i H e r i t a g e C e n t r e , 95 p l a n n e d t o open i n 1997, w i l l i n c l u d e a c u l t u r a l c e n t r e , a s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' home, a l i b r a r y , a c a r e home, and a museum i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e a r c h i v e s . Preservation of the History of the Community and Related C u l t u r a l A c t i v i t i e s I n 1977, a photograph e x h i b i t i o n on Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y was p r o d u c e d i n Vancouver as a Japanese Canadian c e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t , w h i c h t r a v e l l e d a c r o s s Canada. The e x h i b i t i o n was l a t e r p u b l i s h e d as a book. The Japanese Canadian H i s t o r y P r e s e r v a t i o n Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1981 under the Vancouver JCCA. O r i g i n a l l y , t h e emphasis was on i n t e r v i e w i n g o l d e r p e o p l e . T h i s was because the main impetus f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e committee was t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e were p a s s i n g away, and t h e community r e c o g n i z e d t h e need t o r e c o r d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s b e f o r e i t was t o o l a t e . The committee has a l s o put d i s p l a y s a t the annual community f e s t i v a l , and produced and c o n d u c t e d w a l k i n g t o u r s i n the a r e a s o f t h e c i t y t h a t a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o Japanese. The respondent b e l i e v e s t h a t community members a r e g e n e r a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e h i s t o r y . They do not, however, a c t i v e l y seek out i n f o r m a t i o n . P u b l i c s c h o o l s have r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Japanese- Canadian h i s t o r y , as w e l l as sp e a k e r s f o r c l a s s e s . S t u d e n t s have o f t e n gone on w a l k i n g t o u r s . The respondent t h i n k s t h a t t h e s e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c has an i n t e r e s t i n Japanese- Canadian h i s t o r y . 96 A r c h i v a l A c t i v i t i e s The H i s t o r y P r e s e r v a t i o n Committee, formed i n 1981, was l a t e r t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o the Japanese Canadian A r c h i v e s . I t changed t h e name t o Japanese Canadian N a t i o n a l Museum and A r c h i v e s (JCNMA) i n 1995 w i t h t h e p l a n t o be p a r t o f the N i k k e i H e r i t a g e C e n t r e . The a r c h i v e s a c q u i r e s " a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e Japanese C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y . " They would i n c l u d e a non-Japanese p e r s o n ' s r e c o r d s t a l k i n g about t h e Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y . The g e o g r a p h i c a l scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n i s n a t i o n a l , but t h e y would welcome m a t e r i a l s o f Japanese Canadians who went back t o Japan. Records o f e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o f a l l i n t h e scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n ( f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y o f t h e JCNMA, see Appendix 4) . As f o r t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f a c q u i s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o Japanese- Canadian a r c h i v e s i n o t h e r l o c a l communities, t h e y emphasize t h e need f o r computer n e t w o r k i n g so t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n ( c o n t e n t s o f m a t e r i a l s ) can be s h a r e d among d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e respondent b e l i e v e s t h a t o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be i d e a l l y k ept i n a s a f e p l a c e w i t h p r o p e r f a c i l i t i e s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l , he r e a l i z e s t h a t the a r c h i v e s s h o u l d not f o r c e s m a l l e r a r c h i v e s t o t r a n s f e r o r i g i n a l s because t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s a r e not as good. He t h i n k s t h a t "the n a t i o n a l [Japanese-Canadian a r c h i v e s ] s h o u l d s e t the p o l i c y and t r y t o get c o o p e r a t i o n from a l l t h e o t h e r groups, t o f i n d out what t h e b e s t t h i n g t o do i s . " The a r c h i v e s ' c u r r e n t h o l d i n g s i n c l u d e t h r e e hundred i n t e r v i e w s , f i f t e e n hundred photographs and e i g h t meters o f t e x t u a l r e c o r d s . Many o f the t e x t u a l r e c o r d s have not been p r o c e s s e d because t h e y a r e m o s t l y i n Japanese. 97 They a r e a l r e a d y c a r r y i n g out d i s p l a y s a t d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s s uch as an n u a l community f e s t i v a l s , and t h e y p l a n t o expand t h e a c t i v i t i e s . The new b u i l d i n g i n the N i k k e i H e r i t a g e C e n t r e w i l l i n c l u d e a d i s p l a y a r e a o f f i v e hundred square f e e t . They a r e a l s o p l a n n i n g t o conduct e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , such as s e m i n a r s . The a r c h i v e s i s open t o the p u b l i c from 9 a.m. t o 5p.m. Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y . P r e s e n t l y , u s e r s u s u a l l y need t o make an appointment b e f o r e t h e y can use m a t e r i a l s . F o r f i n d i n g a i d s , t h e y c r e a t e fonds l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e RAD u s i n g INMAGIC. They a l s o have b i n d e r s o f p h o t o c o p i e s o f p r i n t s f o r s e a r c h i n g p h o t o g r a p h i c images. The a r c h i v e s p r e s e n t l y has one p a i d s t a f f member. 1 2 6 There a r e v o l u n t e e r s who respond t o s p e c i f i c needs. The a r c h i v e s i s now l o c a t e d i n t h e JCCA o f f i c e b u i l d i n g w i t h 150 square f e e t o f space. I n the N i k k e i H e r i t a g e C e n t r e , i t w i l l have t h r e e thousand square f e e t t o be s h a r e d w i t h t h e museum. The a r c h i v e s r e q u i r e s f u n d i n g from t h e p u b l i c , governments, c o r p o r a t i o n s and any o t h e r p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s . They a r e a p p l y i n g f o r a c h a r i t a b l e s t a t u s and once t h e y get i t , t h e y a r e g o i n g t o " a g g r e s s i v e l y l o o k f o r o t h e r f u n d i n g . " They have a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d some g r a n t s from the A r c h i v e s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia. As f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r a r c h i v e s , t h e a r c h i v e s have j o i n e d t h e ACA and the A r c h i v e s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s U n i o n L i s t . A l t h o u g h t h e a r c h i v e s i s not y e t c a r r y i n g out c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o t h e r a r c h i v e s , i t i s i n c o n t a c t w i t h nearby 1 2 6 As o f September 1995, t h e r e i s a n o t h e r p e r s o n w o r k i n g as a p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r b o t h f o r t h e a r c h i v e s and t h e museum. 98 m u n i c i p a l a r c h i v e s and museums r e l a t e d t o t h e Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y . The a r c h i v e s has c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and i n c o n t a c t w i t h l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s o f t h e UBC l i b r a r i e s . Summary The Japanese-Canadian a r c h i v e s i n Vancouver i s p l a n n e d t o be an independent f u l l - f l e d g e d a r c h i v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n a p a r t o f an e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . The mandate and c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c y o f t h e a r c h i v e s show t h a t t h e y r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o f o l l o w t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e s o f a r c h i v e s i n o r d e r t o be s u c c e s s f u l . S t r i c t c r i t e r i a f o r t h e g r a n t s t h a t t h e y have begun t o r e c e i v e have p r o b a b l y prompted t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The a r c h i v e s i s , however, s t i l l a t a s t a r t i n g s t a g e and t h e r e a r e a r e a s where more d i s c u s s i o n and p l a n n i n g a r e r e q u i r e d . The scope of a c q u i s i t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y a r e more of a s u b j e c t - o r i e n t e d c o l l e c t o r , r a t h e r t h a n one t h a t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e c e i v e s r e c o r d s from a s p e c i f i c groups of r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s . I f a h i s t o r i a n s t u d i e d t h e Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s , the a r c h i v e s might a c q u i r e o n l y p a r t o f h i s fonds t h a t i s c o n cerned w i t h t h e Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y . The c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c y does not s e r v e as c r i t e r i a o f a c q u i s i t i o n o r a p p r a i s a l . R a t h e r , i t i s m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h f e a s i b i l i t y o f p r e s e r v a t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g . So f a r , most of the t e x t u a l r e c o r d s have not been p r o c e s s e d . T h i s i s because most of them a r e w r i t t e n i n Japanese and the a r c h i v e s needs p e r s o n n e l from o u t s i d e t o d e a l w i t h them. F o r the p r e s e n t , t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s U n i o n L i s t l i s t s fonds c o n s i s t i n g s o l e l y o f photographs from th e a r c h i v e s ' h o l d i n g s . 99 I n o r d e r t o f u n c t i o n as a " n a t i o n a l " a r c h i v e s o f Japanese Canadians, i t has t o form networks and i n t e g r a t e p l a n n i n g and a c t i v i t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t Japanese-Canadian communities a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . T h i s has y e t t o be s t a r t e d i n e a r n e s t . 100 Chapter Five CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s case s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l o f t h e Japanese-Canadian communities s t u d i e d have t h e w i l l t o d e v e l o p a r c h i v a l programs aimed a t p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s . F i v e communities have a l r e a d y s t a r t e d a r c h i v a l programs i n some form, and t h e two r e m a i n i n g communities a r e p l a n n i n g t o s t a r t one w i t h i n a few y e a r s . T h i s c h a p t e r f i r s t examines the p r e s e n t s t a g e and p l a n s o f a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o community c o n d i t i o n s . I t t h e n a n a l y z e s the o b j e c t i v e s and p o t e n t i a l s o f a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e communities i n l i g h t o f a r c h i v a l t h e o r i e s . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h recommendations f o r sound p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o e t h n i c groups. 1. Community Context and Archival A c t i v i t i e s I n terms -. o f p o p u l a t i o n , t h e seven Japanese-Canadian communities a r e grouped i n t o l a r g e and s m a l l ones; T o r o n t o and Vancouver a r e l a r g e w i t h more t h a n f i f t e e n t housand Japanese Canadians, and o t h e r f i v e communities a r e s m a l l w i t h t h e Japanese- Canadian p o p u l a t i o n r a n g i n g from one t o t h r e e thousand. Japanese p e o p l e t e m p o r a r i l y l i v i n g i n the a r e a a r e c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f the community, a l t h o u g h t h e e x t e n t t o whi c h t h e s e temporary r e s i d e n t s are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e community v a r i e s from one case t o an o t h e r . The "Japanese-Canadian community" was not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n any o f the communities where i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d . Two typ e s of approaches t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n i c community a r e o b s e r v e d i n the i n t e r v i e w s : One i s t o vie w the community as a group o f 101 i n d i v i d u a l s whose e t h n i c i t y i s somehow r e l a t e d t o t h e Japanese. T h i s i n c l u d e s Japanese Canadians who were b o r n i n Canada, i m m i g r a n t s from Japan, Japanese t e m p o r a r i l y l i v i n g i n t h e a r e a , and non-Japanese who a r e m a r r i e d t o Japanese o r Japanese Canadians and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s approach tends t o be a c o n c e p t u a l one because i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o keep t r a c k o f a l l the community members by t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . As w e l l , f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o be a member of a Japanese-Canadian community by t h i s approach i s one o f h i s o r h e r many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; t h u s , t h i s approach can r a r e l y be o f p r a c t i c a l use i n d e f i n i n g an a r c h i v e s ' a c q u i s i t i o n scope. The o t h e r approach i s t o c l o s e l y , i d e n t i f y the community w i t h community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s . I n t h i s approach, a non-Japanese who p a r t i c i p a t e s i n community a c t i v i t i e s i s more o f a community member th a n a Japanese Canadian who never a s s o c i a t e s w i t h community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . M a n i t o b a i s t h e o n l y community t h a t a r espondent c l e a r l y s t a t e d was c o h e s i v e . Other communities a r e not thought t o be v e r y c o h e s i v e because t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n w i t h i n t h e community, o r few p e o p l e a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n community a c t i v i t i e s . Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e , however, w o r k i n g i n f a i r l y c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n i n s m a l l communities e x c e p t L e t h b r i d g e . I n L e t h b r i d g e and t h e D i s t r i c t , t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s p e r s i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n seems t o impede th e community l e a d e r s ' a b i l i t i e s t o i n t e g r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n t h e l a r g e communities, such as T o r o n t o and Vancouver, numerous o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e c a r r y i n g out t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s and g o a l s . No s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s w o r k i n g as a r e a l hub o f t h e community, and i t seems t h a t no i n d i v i d u a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n by i t s e l f can comprehend needs and 1 0 2 c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e whole community. O r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e , however, not n e c e s s a r i l y d i s c o n n e c t e d from one a n o t h e r , and some o f them do c o o p e r a t e . The l a r g e communities have more d e v e l o p e d communication means t h a n the s m a l l communities, such as t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t s , newspapers, and n e w s l e t t e r s o f major o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The c o h e s i v e n e s s o f a community does not seem t o a f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y t he e x t e n t t o wh i c h a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s have been d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the community so f a r . Nor i s a p a r t i c u l a r impetus f o r a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d by the r e s p o n d e n t s . R a t h e r , t h e y emerged from d i s c u s s i o n s o f community l e a d e r s h i p , o r were s i m p l y r e c o g n i z e d as an d e s i r a b l e p a r t o f community a c t i v i t i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the degree o f development o f a r c h i v e s i s m a i n l y due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e time when t h e y s t a r t e d one (the e a r l i e r an a r c h i v e s was s t a r t e d , the b e t t e r i t i s developed) . When a community s t a r t e d a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s was a p p a r e n t l y d e t e r m i n e d by p r i o r i t i e s o f the l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e community. T h i s i s because i n r e c e n t y e a r s the community l e a d e r s h i p t a k e i n i t i a t i v e i n p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and a t t r a c t p e o p l e , r a t h e r t h a n r e s p o n d i n g t o o b v i o u s needs o f the m a j o r i t y o f the community members s i n c e few community members have t o r e l y on the community f o r t h e i r e s s e n t i a l economic o r s o c i a l needs. None o f the r e s p o n d e n t s thought t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e community members were s t r o n g l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a r c h i v e s a t the moment, but most re s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t once an a r c h i v e s i s s e t i n motion many p e o p l e w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d and w i l l s u p p o r t i t . How c o h e s i v e the community i s o r how a c t i v e t h e community g e n e r a l l y i s w i l l have b e a r i n g s on the f u t u r e development of t h e a r c h i v e s . Where community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e w o r k i n g i n c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n and g e t t i n g many v o l u n t e e r s , t h e a r c h i v e s i s 103 l i k e l y t o be p a r t o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s and t o be s u p p o r t e d on a b r o a d b a s i s . I n i n i t i a t i n g a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s , a community's awareness t h a t i t s h i s t o r y i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y seems t o be more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h e c o h e s i v e n e s s o r a c t i v i t y o f t h e community. A l t h o u g h r e d r e s s was not mentioned by r e s p o n d e n t s as an impetus f o r d e v e l o p i n g a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s , i t a p p a r e n t l y had an impact on p e r s p e c t i v e s o f Japanese Canadians r e g a r d i n g t h e i r h i s t o r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t had some i n d i r e c t impact on h i s t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n . F o r example, no Japanese community had o r g a n i z e d a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e the movement f o r r e d r e s s s t a r t e d , whereas p r e s e n t l y a l l t he communities have p l a n s f o r them. Redress h e l p e d form f o u n d a t i o n s i n communities t o a c c e p t and c u l t i v a t e a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s . The c u r r e n t s t a t e o f Japanese-Canadian communities i n d i r e c t l y i n d u c e d a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s . Now t h a t Japanese Canadians do not have u r g e n t needs f o r which t h e y r e l y on the community, community o r g a n i z a t i o n s need a raison d'etre, and community l e a d e r s seek a c t i v i t i e s t o t i e community members t o g e t h e r . A t t h e same t i m e , the c u r r e n t f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l s t a t e o f t h e communities a l l o w s them t o c a r r y out c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s t h a t would have been a l u x u r y i n t h e 194 0s, when Japanese Canadians needed a committee t o pur c h a s e r i c e . 1 2 7 I t seems t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i z e o f t h e community and a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s ' development. T o r o n t o and Vancouver a r e t h e o n l y communities t h a t have a w r i t t e n mandate and p o l i c y , and so f a r t h e y a r e a i m i n g a t more f o r m a l 7 M o n t r e a l B u l l e t i n , B u l l e t i n 1, no.2 ( A p r i l 1946) 1. 104 development o f a r c h i v e s t h a n the s m a l l e r communities. T h i s seems t o be because o f the two l a r g e communities' s t r o n g e r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r r e s o u r c e s . However, the o b j e c t i v e s o f the two communities' a r c h i v a l t h r u s t d i f f e r . Vancouver aims a t f u n c t i o n i n g as a " n a t i o n a l " a r c h i v e s o f Japanese Canadians and seek t o a c q u i r e m a t e r i a l s on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . T o r o n t o , on t h e o t h e r hand, l i m i t s i t s scope t o t h e G r e a t e r T oronto a r e a , j u s t as o t h e r s m a l l communities do t o t h e i r c i t y . F u r thermore, t h e T o r o n t o N i k k e i A r c h i v e s and Resource C e n t r e does not i n t e n d t o a c t i v e l y a c q u i r e m a t e r i a l s , but r a t h e r i t emphasizes on i d e n t i f y i n g where m a t e r i a l s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e Japanese e x p e r i e n c e a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e a r e a . I t w i l l e ducate community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o keep t h e i r own a r c h i v e s and m a i n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the l o c a t i o n and c o n t e n t s o f m a t e r i a l s . The cause o f the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e approaches o f t h e two communities i s not c l e a r . I t may be because Vancouver v i e w s i t s e l f as t h e "home town" o f Japanese Canadians, w h i l e T o r o n t o o n l y happens t o have a l a r g e Japanese-Canadian p o p u l a t i o n because i t i s a l a r g e c i t y . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t may be s i m p l y because o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t h o u g h t s o f the l e a d e r s h i p . 2. Objectives and Potential of Japanese-Canadian Archives As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter One, a r c h i v a l t h e o r i e s a s s e r t t h a t , whenever p o s s i b l e , r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s s h o u l d be encouraged t o keep t h e i r own a r c h i v e s . A r c h i v e s a c q u i r i n g m a t e r i a l s w i t h a scope d e l i n e a t e d i n terms o f t e r r i t o r i a l i t y a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be the a l t e r n a t i v e . , t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, c o l l e c t i n g r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s on a c e r t a i n theme has been l a r g e l y 105 c r i t i c i z e d i n t h e Canadian a r c h i v a l community. Where do t h e Japanese-Canadian community a r c h i v e s f i t i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s ? A c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s o f Japanese-Canadian community a r c h i v e s t e n d t o be t h e m a t i c ones. Three communities (Kamloops, M a n i t o b a , Hamilton) had not y e t d e c i d e d on the scope o f a c q u i s i t i o n . Three communities ( L e t h b r i d g e , M o n t r e a l , Vancouver) d e s c r i b e t h e i r scope of a c q u i s i t i o n u s i n g more o r l e s s t h e m a t i c terms, such as "Japanese-Canadian h i s t o r y i n So u t h e r n A l b e r t a , " " r e s e t t l e m e n t i n M o n t r e a l , " and " a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s which i l l u s t r a t e t h e h e r i t a g e and h i s t o r y o f Japanese Canadians i n Canada." T o r o n t o ' s approach i s n o t o u t r i g h t t h e m a t i c , s t a t i n g " m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o t h e T o r o n t o r e g i o n Japanese Canadian community." However, i t does not d e f i n e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n scope by r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s , e i t h e r . C o m p l i c a t i n g m a t t e r s , many o f t h o s e a r c h i v e s aim a t b e i n g a r e s e a r c h r e s o u r c e c e n t r e , k e e p i n g l i b r a r y and/or museum m a t e r i a l s a l o n g w i t h a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . Without p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e , t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between l i b r a r y o r museum m a t e r i a l s and a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s seems t o be o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d . I n s t a f f i n g and f a c i l i t i e s , t he l a r g e r communities have r e l a t i v e l y more r e s o u r c e s . Vancouver has f u l l - t i m e p a i d s t a f f , and a l t h o u g h t h e a r c h i v e s i n Tor o n t o i s r u n by v o l u n t e e r s , a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t i s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e e f f o r t s . The two communities have d e f i n i t e p l a n s t o have e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d s t o r a g e f o r m a t e r i a l s . I n s m a l l communities, t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s a re p r e s e n t l y beyond t h e i r scope. A l l t h e communities have t h e i r a r c h i v e s open t o t h e p u b l i c o r p l a n t o do so. T h i s i s a c o r o l l a r y o f t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g m o t i v a t i o n 106 f o r a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s : t o p r e s e r v e and make a v a i l a b l e t h e h i s t o r y o f Japanese Canadians f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . C l o s e n e s s t o r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s and c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y among r e c o r d s t o be a c q u i r e d a r e i d e n t i f i e d as advantages o f community- based a r c h i v e s . T h i s i s the case w i t h Japanese-Canadian community a r c h i v e s because community o r g a n i z a t i o n s work i n c o o p e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n s m a l l communities, and i n f o r m a l networks among community members a l s o e x i s t . Community a r c h i v e s have advantages i n l o c a t i n g i m p o r t a n t r e c o r d s and a d v o c a t i n g f o r a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e community. A l t h o u g h t h o s e community a r c h i v e s a r e not f r e e from language problems, g i v e n t h a t most Japanese Canadians do n o t r e a d Japanese, as one respondent e x p r e s s e d , t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o have e a s i e r a c c e s s t o the needed human r e s o u r c e s . As Canadian Archives argues, i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t an a r c h i v e s depends on i t s p a r e n t body f o r i t s c o r e f u n d i n g . Most o f t h e Japanese-Canadian community a r c h i v e s a r e formed under t h e l o c a l c h a p t e r o f t h e NAJC, and i n some communities t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n i t s o p e r a t i o n . W h i l e none o f t h e a r c h i v e s p r e s e n t l y have d e f i n i t e budget p l a n s , o n l y one e x p e c t s t h a t t h e i r f u n d i n g might be p a r t o f the budget o f t h e NAJC l o c a l c h a p t e r . O t h e r s t h i n k t h a t t h e y have t o p r o c u r e f u n d i n g t h e m s e l v e s . A l t h o u g h none o f them has a s t a b l e f i n a n c i a l b a s i s , t h e y a r e not to o c o n c e r n e d w i t h the i s s u e , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n s m a l l communities. T h i s i s p r o b a b l y because t h e y would c a r r y out a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a l l o w , r a t h e r t h a n s t a r t w i t h a g r a n d p l a n and th e n t r y t o p r o c u r e t h e r e q u i r e d f u n d i n g . Whether o r not a community as a whole i s w i l l i n g and a b l e t o s u p p o r t an a r c h i v a l program i s a n o t h e r c o n c e r n . Young g e n e r a t i o n s 107 a r e l a r g e l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t he l a r g e r s o c i e t y ; and Japanese c u l t u r e i s something t h e y c o n s c i o u s l y l e a r n , r a t h e r t h a n the environment t h e y grow up i n . Thus, c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s a r e gr o w i n g as a m o t i v e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a c t i v i t i e s , and i n many communities, the need f o r a sense o f i d e n t i t y i s acknowledged. A r c h i v a l programs a r e l i k e l y t o be welcomed as one way t o respond t o t h i s need. A n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t emerged from the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t h e v i s i b i l i t y o f programs. I n many communities, t h e o u t s t a n d i n g p r e s e n c e o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s b u i l d i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d a f a c t o r t h a t a t t r a c t s p e o p l e ' s a t t e n t i o n and t h a t p r o c u r e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s u p p o r t . F o r an a r c h i v a l program t o o b t a i n b r o a d s u p p o r t , i t may be e f f e c t i v e t o e s t a b l i s h a f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (not n e c e s s a r i l y independent) and o p e r a t e w i t h v i s i b l e f a c i l i t i e s . 3. Recommendations f o r Sound P r e s e r v a t i o n o f E t h n i c A r c h i v e s As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter One, p u b l i c a r c h i v e s and th e Canadian a r c h i v a l community a r e not e n t h u s i a s t i c about p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o e t h n i c groups by e t h n i c communities. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s case s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l amount of e f f o r t t o p r e s e r v e r e c o r d s by Japanese-Canadian communities. I t a l s o showed t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h o s e community based a r c h i v e s can r a r e l y a f f o r d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h e y a r e unaware o f a r c h i v a l t h e o r i e s and e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e s . F o r the a r c h i v a l community a t l a r g e t o u t i l i z e t he e f f o r t s o f e t h n i c communities, s e v e r a l recommendations based on th e r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e o f f e r e d . F i r s t , p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o be assumed by p u b l i c a r c h i v e s and 108 e t h n i c communities. U n l i k e i n t h e p a s t , when p u b l i c a r c h i v e s c o u l d a f f o r d r e l a t i v e l y e x t e n s i v e , i f not s y s t e m a t i c , a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r i v a t e a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s , t h e y now e x p l i c i t l y p l a c e t h e i r emphasis on r e c o r d s o f t h e i r p a r e n t b o d i e s because o f f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s , needs t o respond t o freedom o f i n f o r m a t i o n a c t s , and o t h e r f a c t o r s . A cknowledging t h i s r e a l i t y , C h r i s t o p h e r H i v e s argues t h a t t h e a r c h i v a l community s h o u l d s h i f t t h e i r f o c u s t o "a more h o l i s t i c approach which embodies a c o l l e c t i v e o r s h a r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p r i v a t e r e c o r d s . " 1 2 8 P r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s i s not an e x c e p t i o n . A l t h o u g h p u b l i c a r c h i v e s cannot a f f o r d t o assume t h e whole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e i r own, t h e y must not n e g l e c t t h e im p o r t a n c e of k e e p i n g e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s as p a r t o f t h e s o c i e t y ' s documentary h e r i t a g e . P u b l i c a r c h i v e s and the a r c h i v a l community a t l a r g e s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e i r s h are o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and a l s o acknowledge t h e p o t e n t i a l t h a t e t h n i c communities have i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r r e c o r d s . Second, the a r c h i v a l community s h o u l d a c t i v e l y c o o p e r a t e w i t h e t h n i c communities when the l a t t e r a r e w i l l i n g t o c a r r y out a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s . L a r g e r and e s t a b l i s h e d a r c h i v e s s h o u l d p r o v i d e whatever a s s i s t a n c e t h e y can t o community-based a r c h i v e s . Whereas community a r c h i v e s ' c l o s e n e s s t o r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s f a c i l i t a t e s i d e n t i f y i n g r e c o r d s o f c o n t i n u i n g v a l u e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r c o n t e x t , p u b l i c a r c h i v e s might be a b l e t o p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e , s t o r a g e space, a c c e s s t o s p e c i a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s , and so on. F o r example, i n a s m a l l 1 2 8 C h r i s t o p h e r H i v e s , " V i e w p o i n t -- A c q u i r i n g and P r e s e r v i n g P r i v a t e R e c ords: T h i n k i n g G l o b a l l y , A c t i n g L o c a l l y , " AABC Newsletter 4, no.2 ( s p r i n g 1994): 4. 109 community, the community and a p u b l i c a r c h i v e s o r a u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s can j o i n t l y r u n a program. The f o rmer, w i t h c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e community, can c o n t r i b u t e by r e s e a r c h i n g r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s and c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on r e c o r d s , f u n d - r a i s i n g i n t h e community, and a d v o c a t i n g f o r t h e a r c h i v e s program w i t h i n t h e community; the l a t t e r can p r o v i d e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n g . Though few a r c h i v e s a r e e n j o y i n g a f f l u e n t r e s o u r c e s , p u b l i c a r c h i v e s w i l l v i e w t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s as r e a s o n a b l e i f t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h a t e t h n i c community a r c h i v e s c a r r y out a c t i v i t i e s f o r which t h e y are e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e . T h i r d , c o l l e c t i v e p l a n n i n g o f e t h n i c a r c h i v e s p r e s e r v a t i o n i s needed. H i v e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v a l U n i o n L i s t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f i r s t s t e p towards the c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s o f a r c h i v e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o p r e s e r v e p r i v a t e r e c o r d s . I n o r d e r t o a v o i d f u t i l e and even h a r m f u l c o m p e t i t i o n i n a c q u i s i t i o n , i t i s u s e f u l t o know the h o l d i n g s and a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s o f o t h e r r e p o s i t o r i e s . To p r e s e r v e a w e l l - r o u n d e d body of e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s w i t h o u t l e a v i n g h a phazard gaps, p r o a c t i v e p l a n n i n g t o u t i l i z e r e s o u r c e s and t o a l l o c a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o i n v o l v e d p a r t i e s i s e s s e n t i a l . As o b s e r v e d i n t h i s case s t u d y , e t h n i c community a r c h i v e s t e n d t o adopt a t h e m a t i c approach t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s . The a r c h i v a l community s h o u l d h e l p e t h n i c a r c h i v e s p l a n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n s u c h a way t h a t a l l o w s them t o f i t w i t h i n t h e Canadian a r c h i v a l system. The a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y i s an e s s e n t i a l i s s u e t h a t e t h n i c community-based a r c h i v e s need t o a d dress i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r programs. The t h e m a t i c approach t o a c q u i s i t i o n s h o u l d be a v o i d e d because i t l e a d s t o i d i o s y n c r a t i c c o l l e c t i o n s o f m a t e r i a l s ; 110 pertinence can never be. a legitimate c r i t e r i o n of a c q u i s i t i o n given that i t changes depending on the use. When an ethnic community- establishes an archives, the ultimate goal of records preservation i s best served i f the archives functions as a c o l l e c t i v e repository of community organizations. In t h i s way, the archives assumes a role s i m i l a r to an i n s t i t u t i o n a l archives, which can r e t a i n the i n t e g r i t y of records and consequently preserve t h e i r context. Ideally, an archives should be supported by a l l of the community organizations i n terms of funding and acquiring t h e i r records, much as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l archives i s supported by i t s parent body. As for records of individuals, the c r i t e r i a of a c q u i s i t i o n should be complementarity to the organizational records. A c e l e b r i t y ' s records should not be acquired only because he or she happens to be of a c e r t a i n ethnic o r i g i n . Ethnic community archives should also understand the difference between archival materials and l i b r a r y or museum materials. Ethnic community archival programs are often run i n conjunction with l i b r a r i e s , museums, c u l t u r a l centres, or research centres. One organization can have d i s t i n c t functions, but the p r i n c i p l e s and practices underlying one function must not be confused with those of the other. For the preservation of archival materials, ethnic community archives should adhere to archival theories and practices accepted and r e a l i z e d i n the archival community. Ethnic community archives should also develop a network among archives of the same ethnic group i n d i f f e r e n t areas. Because ethnic communities at di f f e r e n t locations often work i n collaboration and share interests, and t h e i r records are often 111 i n t e r r e l a t e d , n e t w o r k i n g i s n e c e s s a r y f o r sound and e f f i c i e n t p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r r e c o r d s . The p r i n c i p l e o f t e r r i t o r i a l i t y a p p l i e s t o e t h n i c a r c h i v e s as w e l l ; a " n a t i o n a l " a r c h i v e s o f a e t h n i c community s h o u l d not g l e a n r e c o r d s o f " n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e " from a c r o s s t h e county. T h i s would r e s u l t i n t h e i l l o g i c a l removal of r e c o r d s from th e l o c a l e where t h e y were c r e a t e d , as done i n t h e p a s t by some p o w e r f u l p u b l i c a r c h i v e s . I t s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s a r e c r e a t e d i n a c o n t e x t t h a t i s d e f i n e d by the l o c a l m i l i e u as w e l l as by t h e e t h n i c i t y . 4. Suggestions for Further Studies T h i s case s t u d y e x p l o r e d the a t t i t u d e s o f e t h n i c communities towards th e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r r e c o r d s and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s . Because th e p r e s e n t case s t u d y d e a l t w i t h o n l y one e t h n i c group t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i s s u e o f p r e s e r v i n g e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y examined i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . F i r s t , because the a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s r e v e a l e d i n t h i s case s t u d y were a l l a t the p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e , the a c t u a l s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f s uch programs was not made c l e a r . To f u r t h e r e x p l o r e the s u s t a i n a b i l i t y and performance of e t h n i c community-based a r c h i v e s , i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o examine a r c h i v e s t h a t have been f u n c t i o n i n g f o r l o n g e r d u r a t i o n s . T h i s case s t u d y examined v i e w s o f p e o p l e who a r e i n v o l v e d i n a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s . I t w i l l be a l s o i n f o r m a t i v e t o examine o t h e r community members' p e r s p e c t i v e s and s t u d y how an a r c h i v a l program i s v i ewed, and s u p p o r t e d , by the e t h n i c community a t l a r g e . 112 How p u b l i c a r c h i v e s and o t h e r a r c h i v e s a r e d e a l i n g w i t h e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d a l s o be reexamined. I t has been a decade s i n c e t h e E t h n i c A r c h i v e s Workshop was h e l d , 1 2 9 and much has changed s i n c e t h e n . I t would be a l s o u s e f u l i n p l a n n i n g c o l l e c t i v e p r e s e r v a t i o n programs o f e t h n i c a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s t o s t u d y d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups and e x p l o r e what f a c t o r s prompt them t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r a r c h i v e s . Perhaps some e t h n i c communities a r e i n d i f f e r e n t t o p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r r e c o r d s as a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . * * * * * E t h n i c a r c h i v e s a r e i n t e g r a l p a r t o f documentary h e r i t a g e i n the Canadian s o c i e t y . C o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s among l a r g e r a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and e t h n i c communities t o p r e s e r v e e t h n i c a r c h i v e s can e n r i c h t h e a r c h i v a l system on t h e whole, and t h o s e e f f o r t s t h e m s e l v e s can become one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t p i l l a r s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i n a c o u n t r y o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . B o g h o s s i a n . 113 B I B L I O G R A P H Y " A c q u i s i t i o n P o l i c y : C o m p e t i t i o n o r C o o p e r a t i o n ? " Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2, no.1 (1970): 21-43. A d a c h i , Ken. 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"The E t h n i c O r g a n i z a t i o n as an I n s t r u m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Change; JALDEF, a Case Study." Journal of Ethnic Studies 18, n o . l ( s p r i n g 1990): 15-31. V e c o l i , Rudolph J . " E t h n i c i t y : A N e g l e c t e d Dimension o f American H i s t o r y . " I n The State of American History, ed. H e r b e r t J . Bass, 71-88. C h i c a g o : Quadrangle, 1970. . "The I m m i g r a t i o n S t u d i e s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a . " American A r c h i v i s t 32, no.2 ( A p r i l 1969): 1 3 9 - 145 . . "Why a Conference on Documenting t h e Immigrant E x p e r i e n c e ? " I n Documenting D i v e r s i t y , 3 9-47. Ward, W. P e t e r . The Japanese in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1982. Warner, R o b e r t M. and F r a n c i s X. B l o u i n J r . "Documenting the G r e a t M i g r a t i o n and a C e n t u r y o f E t h n i c i t y i n A m e r i c a . " American A r c h i v i s t 39 ( J u l y 1979): 319-328. We s t e r b e r g , K e r m i t B. "Swenson Swedish I m m i g r a t i o n R e s e a r c h C e n t e r . " I l l i n o i s L i b r a r i e s 69, no.7 (September 1987): 601- 606. "Why Vancouver L a c k s L i t t l e Tokyo: An American Compares Notes on Race D i s p e r s a l . " Vancouver Sun, 19 March 1983, sec.A, p.10. Wurl, J o e l . "The A r c h i v a l Golden Door; Thoughts on I m p r o v i n g the S t a t e o f H i s t o r i c a l Documentation on t h e Immigrant E x p e r i e n c e . " I n Documenting D i v e r s i t y , 61-75. 117 Yin, Robert K. "The Case Study as a Serious Research Strategy." Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization 3, no.l (September 1981) :, 97-114 . . Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, C a l i f o r n i a : Sage Publications, 1994. Young, Charles H. and Helen R. Y. Reid. The Japanese Canadians. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 193 8. 118 APPENDIX 1 Interview Questions D e f i n i t i o n of the community What do you consider to be the geographical area of your community? Who are members of the community? Do you usually include temporary residents (e.g. Japanese- company employees and students) as community members? What are the roles and places of the temporary residents i n the community? Population of the community What i s the population* of the community? Is the community growing or shrinking i n numbers? If i t i s growing, are newcomers coming mostly.from the rest of Canada or from Japan? * The population depends on who are considered to be members of the community, (e.g. whether i t includes temporary residents.) The numbers of the people of Japanese o r i g i n reported i n 1991 and 1981 census were obtained from the census reports except those of Kamloops and Lethbridge. Membership of the NAJC l o c a l chapter What i s the number of the indi v i d u a l members? What i s the number of the organizational members? Is the membership increasing or decreasing? Why? History of the community When and how did the community start? What was the relationships between the evacuation during WWII and the community? When was the f i r s t community organization established? (club, company or any type of organization) 119 Future of the community Do you think that people have a strong sense of i d e n t i t y with the community? Do you think they w i l l r e t a i n t h i s sense of i d e n t i t y i n the future? W i l l the community continue to exist because of inflow of people from Japan? Establishment of the NAJC l o c a l chapter When was the NAJC l o c a l chapter established? Did i t exis t before the redress movement? What was the impetus to est a b l i s h i t ? If the l o c a l chapter was established because of the redress movement, were there other general organizations which integrated the community as a whole before the l o c a l chapter was established? Current state of the community General Generally speaking, do you think the community i s f a i r l y cohesive? Are many people interested i n community a c t i v i t i e s ? Do community members tend to have closer relationships with each other than with people outside of the Japanese community? Organizations What organizations exist i n the community? e.g. language schools, c u l t u r a l centre, senior c i t i z e n s ' residences, museums, l i b r a r i e s , r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , business or professional associations, p o l i t i c a l organizations Needs and expectations of members What do members expect from community organizations? Do they want a sense of identity, a place for c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , or a means of s o c i a l relationships? Are there more p r a c t i c a l needs that members expect the community to address? Mass media Are there broadcasts of t e l e v i s i o n or radio i n / f o r the community? Is there Japanese press i n / f o r the community? Are telephone d i r e c t o r i e s of the community published? Who organizes e x i s t i n g media? Which language does the media use? What i s the target audience? 120 L i f e s t y l e To what extent do the community members (especially Japanese Canadians) r e t a i n the Japanese l i f e s t y l e ? Are there many stores s e l l i n g Japanese foods and goods? Are they aimed at Japanese Canadians and immigrants or temporary residents? Immigration Is there substantial inflow of new immigrants from Japan now? What i s the relationship between old immigrants who have been i n Canada since before WWII and t h e i r children, and recent immigrants? Is the community somewhat divided along the l i n e of languages? Japanese companies and organizations Are there many subsidiaries or branches of Japanese companies and organizations i n the area? How do they a f f e c t the community? Do they provide support to a c t i v i t i e s i n the Japanese commuity? Redress movement How many people i n the community have been approved to be e l i g i b l e for compensation? A c t i v i t i e s to preserve the history of the community What a c t i v i t i e s were carried out, or are being planned to preserve or disseminate the history of the community? Are many people i n the community interested i n the h i s t o r y and i t s preservation? What i s the perspective of the general public and organizations (e.g. schools and l i b r a r i e s ) of the area i n regard to the preservation and dissemination of the h i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians? Archives programmes Do you have an archives programme i n your community? If not, are you planning one? If the community i s not interested i n having an archives programme, why? Is i t because of lack of resources or lack of i n t e r e s t among community members, or matter of p r i o r i t y of the a c t i v i t i e s i n the community? Or do people think the preservation of h i s t o r i e s i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of public archives? about the e x i s t i n g archives programme When was the programme started or when i s i t planned to be started? 121 What was/is the impetus to develop the archives? What i s the scope of the acquisition? Do you have a written a c q u i s i t i o n policy? Do you l i m i t your a c q u i s i t i o n by records creator's type, time period, geographical area or type of media? Is the archives keeping recent records? For example, records of the redress movement, records of the NAJC l o c a l chapter, and those of e x i s t i n g organizations of the community. What i s the volume of your holdings? (textual, sound tapes, photographs, etc.) Does the archives programme include a c t i v i t i e s other than keeping materials? (e.g. exhibitions, publications, seminars) How many people are working for the archives? (paid s t a f f and volunteers) Where i s the archives located? Does i t have i t s own b u i l d i n g or sharing a building with other organizations? What i s the f l o o r size of the archives? What i s the source of funding for the archives programme? What i s the prospect for the future? Do you receive grants from governments? Do you know about the CCA and the p r o v i n c i a l council of archives? What i s the relationships of the archives with other archives, e s p e c i a l l y with the NAC and p r o v i n c i a l archives? (e.g. cooperation i n acquisition, duplication of holdings, guides to holdings, cooperative exhibitions and seminars) What i s the relationships with other c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as l i b r a r i e s , museums and u n i v e r s i t i e s ? (e.g. cooperation with a museum i n conservation a c t i v i t i e s ) 122 APPENDIX 2 Sample q u e s t i o n s These are examples of the questions I will ask you. I would like to discuss issues that arise as the interview proceeds, and there will be additional questions. I hope that they will help you prepare for the interview. Please feel free to discuss them with other people or otherwise investigate to answer them, if you wish. D e f i n i t i o n of the community Who a r e members o f t h e community? Do you u s u a l l y i n c l u d e temporary r e s i d e n t s (e.g. Japanese- company employees and s t u d e n t s ) as community members? W h a t a r e t h e r o l e s and p l a c e s o f t h e temporary r e s i d e n t s i n the community? Population of the community What i s t h e p o p u l a t i o n * of t h e community? I s t h e community growing o r s h r i n k i n g i n numbers? I f i t i s growing, a r e newcomers coming m o s t l y from t h e r e s t o f Canada o r from Japan? * The p o p u l a t i o n depends on who a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be members of t h e community, (e.g. whether i t i n c l u d e s temporary r e s i d e n t s . ) The numbers of the p e o p l e o f Japanese o r i g i n r e p o r t e d i n 1991 and 1981 census were o b t a i n e d from t h e census r e p o r t s e xcept t h o s e o f Kamloops and L e t h b r i d g e . Membership of the NAJC l o c a l chapter What i s t h e number of the i n d i v i d u a l members? What i s t h e number o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members? I s t h e membership i n c r e a s i n g o r d e c r e a s i n g ? Why? History of the community When was the f i r s t community o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d ? ( c l u b , company o r any ty p e of o r g a n i z a t i o n ) 123 Establishment of the NAJC l o c a l chapter When was the NAJC l o c a l chapter established? Did i t exist before the redress movement? What was the impetus to es t a b l i s h i t ? Current state of the community Organizations What organizations exist i n the community? e.g. language schools, c u l t u r a l centre, senior c i t i z e n s ' residences, museums, l i b r a r i e s , r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , business or professional associations, p o l i t i c a l organizations Mass media Are there broadcasts of t e l e v i s i o n or radio i n / f o r the community? Is there Japanese press i n / f o r the community? Immigration Is there substantial inflow of new immigrants from Japan now? Redress movement How many people i n the community have been approved to be e l i g i b l e for compensation? A c t i v i t i e s to preserve the history of the community What a c t i v i t i e s were carried out, or are being planned to preserve or disseminate the history of the community? Archives programmes Do you have an archives programme i n your community? If not, are you planning one? If the community i s not interested i n having an archives programme, why? about the e x i s t i n g archives programme When was the programme started or when i s i t planned to be started? What i s the scope of the acquisition? Do you have a written a c q u i s i t i o n policy? Do you l i m i t your a c q u i s i t i o n by records creator's type, time period, geographical area or type of media? What i s the volume of your holdings? (textual, sound tapes, photographs, etc.) 124 APPENDIX 3 T o r o n t o N i k k e i A r c h i v e and Resource C e n t r e G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s The T o r o n t o N i k k e i A r c h i v e and Resource C e n t r e s h a l l c o l l e c t , c o n s e r v e and make a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c s t u d y , h i s t o r i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and contemporary m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o t h e T o r o n t o r e g i o n Japanese Canadian community. The p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t w i l l be r e f l e c t e d . A r c h i v a l M a t e r i a l s and Resource M a t e r i a l s - . Books, Pamphlets, S t u d i e s , Academic Papers Newspapers, Magazines, P e r i o d i c a l s R e c o rds, M i n u t e s of Me e t i n g s , N o t i c e s , P o s t e r s , Yearbooks O f f i c i a l Documents, P a s s p o r t s , I d e n t i f i c a t i o n D i a r i e s , L e t t e r s P hotographs Maps, P l a n s , Surveys, Drawings L i s t s o f Persons, A u d i o Tapes, V i d e o Tapes, F i l m , V i n y l Records, Compact D i s k s Contemporary Japanese m a t e r i a l s - magazines, manga comics, v i d e o s Japanese Language I n s t r u c t i o n Manuals [ E x c e r p t from an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r f u n d i n g from t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Japanese Canadians] 125 APPENDIX 4 Japanese Canadian National Museum and Archives Archives Mandate The Japanese Canadian Archives exists to: 1. C o l l e c t and preserve archival materials which i l l u s t r a t e s the heritage and history of Japanese Canadians i n Canada. 2. Arrange and describe these materials according to archival p r i n c i p l e s and make them accessible to the general public on a regular basis, unless access i s r e s t r i c t e d by l e g a l requirements or written agreements with the donor. 3 . Provide adequate and appropriate conditions f o r the storage, protection, and preservation of archival material. 4. Provide regular reference services to individuals, organizations, or other groups interested i n the a c t i v i t i e s and holdings of the J. C. Archives. 5. Provide educational and outreach programming whenever possible to increase public awareness and appreciation of the h i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadian community and i t s development. Archives C o l l e c t i o n Policy The Japanese Canadian Archives w i l l : 1. C o l l e c t material the Archives can afford to keep and maintain. 2. C o l l e c t material that shows a high r a t i o of use to volume, processing and cost. 3. Store and maintain material as long as i t i s deemed by the a r c h i v i s t and/or the Archive committee as meeting these above c r i t e r i a . Until such time as t h i s material i s no longer deemed as relevant to the Archive, the given property may be deaccessioned. Deaccessioning s h a l l not take place without the written authority from eith e r a trained a r c h i v i s t and the Archives' Acquisitions Committee. 4. Accept h i s t o r i c a l material of any medium, as i t corresponds to our mandate, including: textual and administrative records, public and private records, photographs, books, maps, or a l h i s t o r i e s and other audio-visual documentation. The Archives' Currently c o l l e c t s a r t i f a c t s if they have archival value and if t h e i r s i z e and condition are s u i t a b l e for the 126 Archives' premises. These objects w i l l need to be reviewed by the Archives' a c q u i s i t i o n s committee before being accepted. 5. Accept material on a permanent basis, except when the Archives borrows material for short-term loans to reproduce or to include i n displays or exhibits. 6. Accept material only as long as the proper deed of g i f t or loan agreements are signed by both the donor, lender, and an a r c h i v i s t or Archives' representative. 7. Retain the right to reproduce materials by mechanical means for security, conservation, or research purposes as s p e c i f i e d by the deed of g i f t and loan agreements. 127

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