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Sustainable tourism planning with multiple objective decision analysis: a case study of the Guimaras… Trousdale, William James 1996

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM PLANNING WITH MULTIPLE OBJECTIVE DECISION ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY OF THE GUIMARAS FARM TOURISM PILOT PROJECT WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES by William James Trousdale B.A., The Colorado College A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH 1996 © William James Trousdale, 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. -Department of fjj^^ik tffJMJ Plc^^j The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT There is widespread recognition that tourism, one of one of the world's largest and fastest growing industries, must move towards sustainability by embracing a more balanced planning approach. This is especially true in developing countries where tourism is being aggressively promoted, often with limited attention given to the overarching socioeconomic, institutional and biophysical parameters. This thesis uses an innovative and promising approach for sustainable tourism planning based on multiple objective decision analysis (MODA). After reviewing contemporary challenges in tourism planning and identifying MODA's potential contributions, practical application of MOD A is tested in a case study of The Philippine Cooperative Farm Tourism Project: The Guimaras Pilot Project. MODA is a planning and decision method that draws from many disciplines including economics, psychology, operations research, negotiation theory and statistical decision theory. It is based on six fundamental steps: (1) defining the decision problem effectively; (2) establishing the planning context; (3) identifying relevant stakeholders; (4) eliciting and structuring a comprehensive set of objectives; (5) creating alternatives to achieve the stated objectives; and, (6) evaluating the alternatives against the objectives. This 'people based' approach seeks to clarify inherent value tradeoffs while promoting the development of alternatives that are more likely to appeal to stakeholder interests. The insight gained from the MODA process allows decision makers to make better informed and more defensible choices — choices that can responsibly address the difficult issues of sustainable tourism and are more likely to result in successful project implementation. Sub-methods are easily couched in the conceptual structure provided by MODA. One technique used extensively during field research in the Philippines was the elicitation and organization of objectives into a hierarchy, ranging from national policy to local values. By focusing on objectives, the analysis was able to identify, and begin to address, critical gaps in available information (i.e., local market conditions were established using market research techniques and capture rate theory). Field work was also supported by interviews (semi-structured, open and informal) and participatory observation. These efforts laid the foundation for a 'farm tourism' planning workshop. The workshop participants, representing key stakeholder groups, infused critical local knowledge into the process and helped establish realistic planning constraints. Using the objectives hierarchy, the participants also undertook a qualitative and quantitative examination of objectives that provided a chance to reflect on community values and direct the focus of the Guimaras Farm Tourism Pilot Project (fortified later by statistical analysis). The insights gained were then used by the workshop participants to create and clarify a range of alternatives that culminated in a grassroots vision of 'farm tourism'. MODA systematically promoted an open, participatory process and established a framework for multi-sectoral integration; The resulting group-efforts overcame entrenched positions (e.g., the farm estate concept) while nurturing a sense of commitment necessary for effective project implementation. A five year period would allow for a staggered phasing of three alternatives: (1) Excursion Farm Tourism; (2) Barangay (Village) Farm Tourism; and, (2) Estate Farm Tourism. These alternatives would all be based on education, interpretation and host/guest interaction. All of the alternatives would benefit from the creation of exhibits, events, tours and festivals. These activities would be immediately initiated and evolve over the life of the project. Close monitoring and ongoing evaluation would be needed to adjust the project to changing needs of local communities. Although some of MODA's more technical aspects (e.g., statistical analysis of objectives) will probably not become a planning standard on Guimaras, many of MODA's core principals (e.g., relevant stakeholder inclusion) will continue to be an important part of the Guimaras Farm Tourism planning process. The success of this planning and decision making method on the rural island of Guimaras suggests that it is widely applicable, and therefore capable of contributing to sustainable tourism initiates in many planning contexts. TABLE OF CONTENTS A B S T R A C T ii T A B L E S . M A P S . F I G U R E S , B O X E S , P H O T O G R A P H S A N D A P P E N D I C E S viii FOREWORD ix L A N G U A G E A N D C U L T U R A L I N F L U E N C E S O N T H E S I S R E S E A R C H ix V A L U E S , O B J E C T I V E S , G O A L S , I N T E R E S T S - A M A T T E R O F S E M A N T I C S x THE DECISION ANALYSIS DEFINITION x THE GENERAL CONFUSION OVER FUNDAMENTAL TERMS x i C H A P T E R I: I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 1.0 O V E R V I E W 1 2.0 R A T I O N A L E 3 3.0 M E T H O D S , O B J E C T I V E S , QUESTIONS A N D O R G A N I Z A T I O N 4 4.0 T H E V A L U E O F S T U D Y I N G T O U R I S M IN T H E PHILIPPINES 5 C H A P T E R II: C O N T E M P O R A R Y C H A L L E N G E S IN T O U R I S M P L A N N I N G 9 1.0 T H E S T A T E O F T O U R I S M P L A N N I N G 9 1.1 POLmCAL-ECONOTHLNK: THE DATA APPARITION 9 1.2 THE UNSETTLED INDUSTRY 11 1.3 STAKEHOLDER INCLUSION: COMMUNITY, PROCESS, VALUES AND PROBLEMS 11 1.4 TOP DOWN OR BOTTOM UP? 12 1.5 THE VALUE GAP 15 1.6 INTEGRATING ANOTHER AGENT OF CHANGE 15 1.7 TOURISM PLANNING OUTLOOK 16 2.0 S U S T A I N A B L E D E V E L O P M E N T A N D S U S T A I N A B L E T O U R I S M 17 2.1 THE SUSTALNABLLITY DEBATE 17 2.2 HOW TO PROCEED? 18 3.3 SUSTALNABLLITY, CARRYING CAPACITY AND TOURISM 19 3.4 TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 21 3.5 POTENTIAL PROCESSES 23 3.6 DEFICIENCIES 24 3.7 M O D A AS A CONTRIBUTOR TO SUSTAINABLE TOURISM PLANNING 26 v C H A P T E R in : T H E PHILIPPINE P L A N N I N G C O N T E X T 28 1.0 P L A N N I N G C O N T E X T O V E R V I E W 28 1.1 G E O G R A P H I C D E F I N I T I O N S 2 8 1 .2 J U R I S D I C T I O N A L I N T E R P L A Y 2 9 2.0 N A T I O N A L C O N T E X T : P O L I T I C S A N D P R O B L E M S 30 2 .1 N A T I O N A L P O L I C Y 3 2 2 . 2 T H E L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T C O D E O F 1 9 9 1 3 3 2 . 3 T O U R I S M A N D T H E L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T C O D E 3 4 3.0 R E G I O N A L P L A N S : T O U R I S M P L A N N I N G AS T O U R I S M P R O M O T I O N 35 4.0 P R O V I N C I A L C O N T E X T 37 4 .1 T H E S P I R A L O F N E G L E C T A N D H O P E 3 7 4 . 2 T H E P A S T I N P E R S P E C T I V E 4 0 4 . 4 E C H O E S O F T H E P A S T 4 1 4 . 5 T H E " M A N I L A F A C T O R " 4 5 4 . 6 O P T I M I S M A N D U R G E N C Y : A Y E A R N I N G F O R E C O N O M I C D E V E L O P M E N T 4 6 5.0 P R O V I N C I A L T O U R I S M : A N U N Q U A N T I F I E D F A I T H IN T O U R I S M 47 5.1 I N C O N S E Q U E N T I A L E X T E R N A L I M P R E S S I O N S 4 8 5 . 2 L O C A L T O U R I S M E X P E C T A T I O N S : D E V E L O P M E N T C O R N E R S T O N E O R R E S P E C T F O R A M Y T H ? 4 9 5 . 3 T H E S W O T A N A L Y S I S 5 5 C H A P T E R IV: T H E F A R M T O U R I S M C A S E S T U D Y 60 1.0 T H E F A R M T O U R I S M P R O J E C T 60 1.1 P R O J E C T H I S T O R Y 60 1.2 P A R T I C I P A T O R Y P L A N N I N G A S B U R E A U C R A T I C Q U A G M I R E 61 1.3 I L L O G I C A L L O G I S T I C S 62 1.4 PAS PAS F A R M T O U R I S M 63 2.0 M O D A A N D G U I M A R A S 68 3.0 W O R K S H O P O V E R V I E W 70 4.0 W O R K S H O P P R E P A R A T I O N 70 4.1 D E F I N I N G T H E P R O B L E M Q U E S T I O N 71 4.2 I D E N T I F Y I N G S T A K E H O L D E R S 71 4.3 E S T A B L I S H I N G T H E P L A N N I N G C O N T E X T 74 4.4 I D E N T I F Y I N G A N D O R G A N I Z I N G O B J E C T I V E S 74 4.5 T H E D E F I N I N G R O L E O F T H E O B J E C T I V E S H I E R A R C H Y 77 5.0 T H E W O R K S H O P 81 5.1 W O R K S H O P O R G A N I Z A T I O N 81 5.2 T H E G U I M A R A S T O U R I S M M A R K E T 81 5.3 O B J E C T I V E S - F O C U S E D P L A N N I N G 84 5.4 C R E A T I N G A N D C L A R I F Y I N G A L T E R N A T I V E S 91 5.5 D E F I N I N G F A R M T O U R I S M 92 5.6 F A R M T O U R I S M A L T E R N A T I V E S 93 5.6.1 An Activity Based and Education Oriented Foundation 93 5.6.2 Control - Spontaneity 94 5.6.3 Alternative I: Excursion Farm Tourism 96 5.8.2 Alternative 2: Barangay Farm Tourism 96 5.8.3 Alternative 3: Farm Estate 98 5.9 A D D I T I O N A L C O N C E R N S 101 5.9.1 S E A S O N A L I T Y 101 vi 5 . 9 . 2 M I S C E L L A N E O U S 1 0 1 6.0 P H A S I N G 102 C H A P T E R V : C O N C L U S I O N S A N D C L O S I N G DISCUSSION 104 1.0 DISCUSSION ON FIELD RESEARCH 104 1.1 G E N E R A L C O N C L U S I O N S 1 0 4 1 .2 R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S A N D F U T U R E R E S E A R C H 1 0 6 1.3 P O T E N T I A L C O N T R I B U T I O N S T O P R O V I N C I A L P L A N N I N G 1 0 7 2.0 DISCUSSION ON M O D A 107 2 .1 M O D A I N R E S P E C T T O T H E L A R G E R C O N C E P T U A L F R A M E W O R K 1 0 8 2 . 2 P R A C T I C A L A P P L I C A T I O N S O F M O D A 1 0 8 2 . 3 M O D A A N D T H E I M P O R T A N C E O F V E R B A L C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 0 9 2 . 4 M O D A A N D T H E I M P O R T A N C E O F W R I T T E N C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 1 0 2 . 5 T H E U S E O F O B J E C T I V E S ' A N D O B J E C T I V E S R A N K I N G 1 1 0 2 . 6 T H E P R O B L E M O F ' E X P E R T A S F A C I L I T A T O R ' 1 1 2 2 . 7 A F I N A L W O R D O N M O D A A N D S U S T A I N A B L E T O U R I S M P L A N N I N G 1 1 3 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 115 A P P E N D I C E S 122 vii T A B L E S , MAPS, FIGURES, BOXES, P H O T O G R A P H S A N D A P P E N D I C E S T A B L E S Table 1: Alternative Tourism Planning Processes 24 Table 2: Overview of Guimaras 1994 41 Table 3: SWOT Analysis 55 Table 4: Guimaras Tourism Stakeholder Matrix „; 73 Table 5: Objectives Hierarchy 78 Table 6: Profile of the Guimaras Tourism Market 83 Table 7: Averaged Ranking and Normalized Weighting of Objectives by the Workshop Participants 88 Table 8: Suggested Phasing for Farm Tourism Alternatives 103 Table 9: Information Requirements For Farm Tourism Decision Process / / / MAPS Map 1: The Philippines and the Island of Guimaras 2 Map 2: Geopolitical Delineation in the Philippines 28 Map 3: Location of Guimaras' Tourist Highlights 52 FIGURES Figure 1: Sustainable Tourism Criteria 21 Figure 2: The Three Major Questions of Tourism Planning 23 Figure 3: Initial Farm Tourism Concept Papers 66 Figure 4: Farm Tourism Alternatives and Market Potentials 100 BOXES Box 1: Letter to the Farm Tourism Workshop Participants 75 Box 2: Farm Tourism Definition Based on Workshop Discussions 93 Box 3: Farm Tourism Opportunities from the Workshop 95 PHOTOGRAPHS Photo I: Typical Landscape of Guimaras 38 Photo 2: View of Typical Fishing Villageon.Guimaras _ 38 Photo 3: A Jeepney, The Main Source Of Transportation 39 Photo 4: Pump Boat: The Main Source of Sea Transportation 39 Photo 5: Governor Lopez Attracts American Ambassador to Guimaras 44 Photo 6: Barangay Captain in Typical Fishing Village 44 Photo 7: Guimarasnons Working the Rice Fields . 54 Photo 8: Basic Farm Tourism Concepts 65 Photo 9: Initial Farm Estate Concept 65 APPENDIX Appendix A: List of Individuals Interviewed 122 Appendix B: Participants of the Farm Tourism Workshop ^_ 124 Appendix C: Market Overview of Guimaras 126 viii FOREWORD This thesis is prepared for the University of British Columbia School of Community and Regional Planning. Research was made possible in part by grants from the Canadian International Development Agency through the Centre for Human Settlements, and from the Ford Foundation through the Northwest Regional Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies. Research also received the support of the Canadian Urban Institute (CUI) through their Canada-Philippines Cooperative Program in Economic Development and Environmental Protection. LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON THESIS RESEARCH In Guimaras, a heightened sensitivity to culture and its key component, language, was an important factor in the promotion of effective and responsible tourism planning. The primary language in Guimaras is Hiligaynon. Many Guimarasnons also speak the national language (basically Tagalog) and English. The primary medium for communication for this thesis research was English. Experience revealed that different individuals have different levels of sophistication in their ability to communicate through English, and strong cultural undertones affected mutual understanding and meaning of words posing a potentially serious hurdle.1 New or involved ideas usually incorporate subtle inferences that require clarification. Here, probing dialogue, iterative discussions and helpful translations (Hiligaynon-English) were required for a meaningful two-way exchange of ideas. Much time was spent establishing a common understanding over meaning. This was considered of paramount importance in Guimaras, due to an extensive dependence on verbal 1 This point was realized when I was attempting to learn Hiligaynon and learned that Guimarasnons use the word 'seguro' to mean 'maybe' when in Spanish this exact same word means 'definitely.' ix communications (reasons discussed in Chapter IV, section 4.3). Individual interviews and the use of value elicitation techniques, (referred to in section 4.4), were useful to help pierce communication incongruities and identify potential areas of misunderstanding. Awareness of another important cultural characteristic, the hospitable nature of Guimarasnons, was important in conducting research. In working environments, this hospitality manifested itself as an eagerness to not offend the guest, (i.e., the international consultant or the graduate student.) When working with the government officials, this aspect was exaggerated by the fact that all international consultants were guests of the influential Governor Emily Lopez. A failure to recognize this situation would impact planning effectiveness and interpretation of research results. VALUES, OBJECTIVES, GOALS, INTERESTS - A MATTER OF SEMANTICS Throughout this thesis several important planning terms will be used that, without prior definition, might obfuscate understanding. Often they are defined in the main body of the thesis. In other cases, still widely debated terms like "sustainability," are the subject of more rounded discussions. However, the importance of values, objectives, goals and interests are critical to planning and deserve a brief preliminary discussion. The Decision Analysis Definition The literature on decision analysis does not draw a clear distinction between "values" and "objectives." Values are a direction of preference for states or things [Keeney 1988]. An objective is a statement of something that one wants to achieve within a specified time period 2 This aspect of working in Guimaras made the task of internalization and education, rather than simply making recommendations, of critical importance for effective planning, interestingly, some of the international consultants working in Guimaras were extremely quick to identify the faults in local systems and generously poured out recommendations - few of which made it past a conciliatory meeting or the back pages of a planning report. and can be characterized by three features: a decision context, an object, and a direction of preference. [Keeney and McDaniels 1992]. Goals, according to prominent thinking in decision analysis, differ greatly from values and objectives. Goals identify a discrete level (I will earn $50,000 this year), rather than a direction of relative preference (I want to increase my income). Setting a definite goal is often unwise for decision making as it may severely reduce gains in other objectives (i.e., spending time with family). Also, the effort or resources required to move from $49,000 to $50,000 might be immense, whereas moving to. $49,000 would be quite achievable. Trade-offs and relative importance between objectives, rather than setting goals, is an important consideration in planning and decision making. Failure to recognize this could result in an inappropriate value structure, inhibiting creation or appraisal of alternatives [Keeney 1988]. The General Confusion Over Fundamental Terms Within the field of decision analysis, values, objectives and goals have a specific and clear meaning. This is also true of the prominent American Planning Association. However, the meanings are opposite. In an American Institute for Certified Planners certification lecture (Toronto, 4/95), the audience was told that objectives are discrete and goals are general. Furthermore, in field research and in much of the literature, rarely is a distinction made between goals, objectives and values. In this thesis, due to its breadth, confusion in actual usage and the developing world context, no clear distinctions are made. However, because the overarching framework for the thesis is decision analysis, efforts are made to refer to objectives and values, rather than goals. And these signify a direction of preference, not a target. CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION Leaving aside, then, the old system of respecting myths in order not to face the feared reality, instead offleeing, we shall look at it face to face, and with determined, if inexpert, hand we shall raise the veil to uncover before the multitude the mechanism of its skeleton. Jose Rizal, Philippine National Hero From: El Filibusterismo, 1891 1.0 OVERVIEW The words of Rizal resonate as clearly and as passionately today, in modern Philippine society, as when he wrote more than a century ago. The 1986 "People Power Revolution" that ended the reign of President Ferdinand Marcos, was clearly an attempt to raise the veil and expose the myth of the old system. What was exposed was the frightening reality of economic, socio-cultural, institutional and environmental crises ~ crises Filipinos are determined to confront with economic growth, hinged on principles of sustainable development and people empowerment. A poignant example of this Filipino approach is revealed through an examination of the Republic's second largest economic sector: Tourism. The major themes drawn out in this thesis attempt to shed light on old systems and explore new ways to uncover the mechanisms of tourism planning in the Philippines in general, and on theisland of Guimaras in particular (see Map 1). 1 Map 1: The Philippines and the Island of Guimaras 2.0 RATIONALE Tourism is recognized as the world's largest industry and it is expected to double by the year 2000 [Savignac 1994]. Many sectors are attracted to this rapidly expanding industry. National and local governments have embraced tourism as a politically palatable economic development alternative [Richter 1989]. The private sector faces fewer constraints in the form of market protectionism (than, say manufacturing) and often excellent earning potential [Hichcock, King and Parnwell 1993]. Even non-governmental organizations (NGO's) are attracted to tourism as a way to provide economic justification for non-economic pursuits (i.e., natural area protection) [Boo 1990]. However, as global competition increases, the desire to establish market niches often overwhelm important front-end costs (e.g., planning). The recurring consequences are self-destructive and unsustainable tourism development: tourism growth achieved at the expense of the socio-cultural and biophysical environments on which it depends [Mathieson and Wall 1982]. The excesses of tourism development, often taking the form of 'mass tourism,'4 have provided a powerful reactionary point of departure for critics and analysts of the industry. Unfortunately this has been done without simultaneously furnishing a unified sense of direction!1 ^Tourism is the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal place of work or residence, the activities undertaken duringtheir stay in those destinations and the facilities created to cater to their needs [Mathieson and Wall 1982]. In economic terms, tourism is an immense contributor to the international economy generating $3.5 trillion in output (6% of worldwide GNP) in 1993 and employing one in fifteen workers in the global work-force [Ceballos-Lascurain 1993]. 4ln Butler [1989] there is an excellent portrayal of "mass tourism" which can be briefly described as poorly planned and operated, project led development managed by outside interest with economic objectives dominating all other considerations. 5A confusing array of labels have emerged in the literature to describe an appropriate new direction for tourism. The most popular, and perhaps overused, is ecotourism [see Boo 1990]. Others are green, nature, rural, progressive, soft [Krippendorf 1982], indigenous, New, alternative [Dernoi 1981], integrated [Jenkins and Henry 1982] as well as many other forms of special interest tourism [see Weiler and Michael 1992; Butler 1990, Wheeler 1992], Generally these concepts contrast mass tourism by stressing small scale, local ownership and non-economic objectives. Most concepts behind the labels embody subtle but important distinctions. The Ecotourism Society and the World Tourism Organization (among others) have attempted to unify divergent thought and give conceptual meaning to these 3 Conclusions reached by a variety of disciplines -especially anthropology, economics, sociology and geography- agree that much of the failure of tourism development is due to a dearth of responsible planning [e.g., Smith 1992; Butler 1992]. Ironically, the discipline of planning has traditionally been notoriously derelict in contributing rigorous analysis [Ioannides 1995]. Fortunately, this situation is improving [see Theobald 1994; Gunn 1994; WTO 1993; Inskeep 1991] and it is now generally agreed that across a wide array of tourism development alternatives, tourism planning should be.balanced.and.incorporate of issues sustainability [Ioannides 1995; Hawkes and Williams 1993]. 3.0 METHODS, OBJECTIVES, QUESTIONS AND ORGANIZATION One promising method for addressing sustainable tourism planning issues is with multi-attribute utility theory or multiple objective decision analysis (MODA) [McDaniels 1992; Edwards and von Winterfeldt 1987]. MODA provides a flexible and inclusive planning and decision framework capable of helping to combat what Butler [1992] calls the "virtual anarchy in coordination and planning of tourism." The MODA approach has been successful in contributing to decisions where tourism played an important role. For example, McDaniels [1992] was able to incorporate important tourist/recreation values in a complex sustainable development decision involving wilderness preservation in Northern British Columbia. Tourism was also an influential consideration when Gregory and Keeney [1992] used MODA for initial recognizance of an environmental impact assessment in Sabah, Malaysia. Giaoutzi and Nijkamp [1993] drew from aspects of decision analysis to structure a decision support model for sustainable development planning in the tourist-based Greek Sporades Islands. important new ideas. To date, there is still widespread confusion, misinterpretation and misuse of the concept these labels represent [Wight 1993]. 4 This thesis tests the practical application of multiple objective decision analysis in promoting sustainable tourism planning by using its conceptual framework to explore planning and decision making on the island of Guimaras. The primary focus of this thesis is to provide insight into the question: How can MODA contribute to sustainable tourism planning and decision making? First, this thesis establishes a broad context for analyzing tourism planning, including the role of sustainable development in tourism. Leading planning processes are briefly compared using tourism planning criteria and objectives derived from the literature. MODA is then introduced as a potential contributor to sustainable tourism planning. Finally, through the Philippine case study of The Philippine Cooperative Farm Tourism Project: The Guimaras Pilot Project, MODA's contributions are explored in depth. Efforts focus on the effectiveness of a MODA approach for creating and clarifying alternatives in a multiple stakeholder workshop designed to answer the decision question: What is the most appropriate "farm tourism" conceptfor Guimaras? Underpinning this thesis is John Dewey's [see Friedmann 1987] notion that ideas are the tools to effect positive change and the truth or error of these ideas is determined by their results in actual practice. In this thesis, "learning by doing" is achieved by two distinct sub-methods: literature review/analysis and case study. Under the overarching guidance of MODA, an amalgam of additional methods, such as interviews, workshops, and participatory observation, were also utilized to ferret out requisite information. 4.0 THE VALUE OF STUDYING TOURISM IN THE PHILIPPINES Driven by a more sensitive and concerned tourism consumer base and an awareness of past exploitation in tourism development, many governments are beginning to revisit national tourism 5 policy. The Philippines provides a timely and robust contemporary backdrop for examining planning opportunities in sustainable tourism context. It is timely because much of the rapid growth in tourism is taking place in the developing world (over 26% market capture rate in 1991 [WTO 1993a]). The Association of South East Asia Nations (ASEAN) reports that the number of foreign visitors to the region has doubled and receipts from tourism have tripled in the last decade [Hichcock, King and Parnwelll993]. Finally the relative magnitude of tourism's contributions can be seen in-places like-Thailand were it is the leading earner of foreign exchange. Some of the most pressing problems of the developing world include limited resource bases, large debt burdens, pronounced poverty, and massive rural to urban migration. Typically, the goals of development in under-industrialized nations include economic development, efficiency, equity and environmental sustainability [Laquian 1992]..Tourism is seen as an industry capable of immediately addressing these problems and achieving these goals. So powerful is the lure of tourism in the region that Cambodia is taking seriously a proposal to turn the entire country into a "theme park" [ The Economist 1995a]. Studying tourism in the Philippines is robust because the Philippines has suffered through many of the abuses common to tourism development and is attempting to rectify them. Typically, tourism policy does not enter substantive political debate until late in the implementation process, after major costs to the society have become apparent [Richter 1989]. This observation is illuminated by events in the Philippines where, under President Marcos, the country endured many unfortunate excesses associated with tourism development. Through corruption and mismanagement, the Philippine tourism sector became the target of dissidents and violence helping to define the 'People Power Revolution' that threw Marcos from power. Where tourism 6 was once seen as a harmless industry, it has become the focus of intense national dialogue [ibid.]. In the developing world, more mature tourism policy debates are often associated with: exploitation of local workers by foreign-owned hotel chains; an artificial rise in the price of land; repatriation of profits by foreign firms; resentment against luxurious lifestyles of wealthy foreigners; an increase in prostitution and begging; limited links with local economies; crowding out of agricultural land; high import propensities; and costs, resulting in inflationary pressures; and, of course, environmental and cultural degradation [Bascombe 1994]. The Philippines is now revisiting tourism planning against this backdrop of deficiencies and opportunities — and towards a vision of sustainability. After the Marcos years, Richter [1989] observed that President Corazon Aquino "revived tourism policy from its disastrous and expensive excess and recast it according to the needs of the impoverished nation." A more sustainable approach to tourism continues to be pursued today under President Ramos and is being played out at the local level in places like Guimaras. As the most "democratic" nation in Asia, the Philippines has a unique chance to be a model for regional participatory sustainable tourism development. The new (since Marcos) national policy of "people empowerment" is markedly contrasted with other Asian nations chasing the tourist dollar. Tourism policies in Myanmar (Burma), for example, are reminiscent of the Marcos years. The Myanmar government recently forced an entire village to move (to protect it from the ideas of foreigners) and used forced labor to "spruce up" the country in preparation for "Visit Myanmar Year 1996" [The Economist 1995b]. A success in sustainable tourism in the Philippines could send a strong signal to, and provide a realistic alternative for, other countries in Asia and the developing world. 7 In terms of process, and in terms of creating a symbiotic relationship between agriculture and tourism at a 'grass-roots' level, the successes and failures of the project should be closely monitored. There is an obvious attraction to agricultural-based tourism, most notably for countries like Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, that "seek to promote economic growth against a backdrop of severe constraints on investment and capital formation, and in the face of woefully inadequate infrastructure provision, technical and managerial expertise and moribund economic structures" [Hichcock, King and Parnwelll993]. Here, the Guimaras Pilot Project is a fundamentally important initiative, first for the larger Philippine Cooperative Farm Tourism Project and then for the rest of the developing world. 8 CHAPTER II: CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES IN TOURISM PLANNING 1.0 THE STATE OF TOURISM PLANNING Over the past twenty-five years, at least since de Kadt's [1979] seminal work Tourism: Passport to Development!, tourism research has been more inquisitive and resolute. The results have availed greater uncertainty and confusion. In a reflective and baleful tone, Butler [1992] concludes that: "We still know relatively little about how to control and manage tourism, we have no universally accepted definition of sustainable development, sustainable tourism or a healthy tourism product, and we have no indicators of the sustainability or acceptability of tourism product or the capacity of destination areas." A recognition of the challenges inherent in tourism planning suggests that it is wise to learn from, rather than unwittingly repeat, the mistakes of tourism's past. 1.1 Political-Econothink: The Data Apparition Political influence on tourism development is immense. Richter [1989] concluded that "where tourism succeeds or fails is largely a function of political and administrative action," difficult to incorporate in planning because "the political goals are usually covert and un-articulated." To be effective then, planning must attempt to understand and address the goals or objectives that influence the accountable decision makers. Unfortunately, the politics of tourism is generally dominated by limited socio-economic statistics resulting in methods that inanely portend optimism. For planning, lack of reliable quantitative data is a central, constraint. 9 Comprehensive and comparable data do not exist because there are no reliable means of data collection at the national or local level [Theobald 1994]. In the developing world, requisite resources necessary to establish a strong statistical base are nonexistent, creating major deficiencies in tourism research that hinder sustainable planning. In South East Asia Hichcock, King and Parnwell [1993] recognized: "Studies to date do not provide us with anything approaching a comprehensive view of the social, economic, cultural, environmental and political issues, processes and problems involved in.the rapid expansion of both international and domestic tourism in South East Asia" (except to some extent in Bali, Indonesia). Therefore, the data that are widely used by planners, policy analysts and politicians tend to be easily measurable and fundamentally economic units, such as tourist arrivals, hotel occupancy rates, sales revenue, wages and employment. Other common statistics used are crime or tourist complaints. Although useful indicators, they alone lead to tunnel vision and reactionary management, not broad and proactive planning. Tyrrell [1990] lamented the limitations of such statistics in his detailed statistical analysis of tourism in Thailand, concluding that they relate only to the size of a transaction in the system and give no indication of their importance to the economic, social or environmental qualities of life. Furthermore,,most tourism studies focus on efficiency not effectiveness and on gross economic revenue, not economic value [Richter 1989]. Despite their limited capacities, these largely economic statistics enjoy great popularity in tourism planning and evaluation. This is not surprising, considering that the fundamental motivating force behind developing tourism is to garner economic benefits [Archer and Fletcher 1990]. Understanding this often cited economic imperative helps to explain why the central planning question often focuses on how quickly tourism can be developed, rather than asking if it 10 wise to develop it at all [Richer 1989]. It also helps explain why the mistakes in tourism development, especially in the developing world, are repeated over and over again [Richter 1989; Ioannides 1995]. 1.2 The Unsettled Industry Another fundamental problem with analyzing tourism is establishing a nomenclature and common understanding. Tourism lacks a well defined terminology while it struggles to become established in standard classifications, compounding the problem of deficient data discussed above [Theobald 1994]. Academic discourse now struggles with the conceptual problem of approaching tourism as a "phenomenon" rather than an "industry" [Davidson 1994; Butler 1994; also see Eadington and Smith 1992]. In many respects, tourism is a social and economic phenomenon, an experience or a process, which acts more like a 'sector' impacting a wide range of industries.6 The indistinct nature of tourism exacerbates the challenge of identifying and including relevant stakeholders. 1.3 Stakeholder Inclusion: Community, Process, Values and Problems A disparate array of individuals and groups (stakeholders) contribute to, or are affected by, tourism. Historically,-the failure to include and address the needs of relevant stakeholders in tourism development exposed inequities between exogenous organizations (i.e. the World Bank, United Nations, national governments and large corporations) and host communities. By the 1970s, a chorus of criticism citing inequitable distribution of costs and benefits caused the World 6While tourism is referred to as an industry in this thesis, there is an understanding that to plan for tourism requires that it encompasses important distinctions from traditional industrial classifications: 7 Basically, 'community' is defined "non only in location terms, but also [as]... a community of interests, or a group of people bound together by a common fate" [Wismer and Pell 1983 as quoted in Boothroyd and Davis 1991]. 11 Bank and the UNDP to withdraw from funding tourism projects and instead support tourism research on socio-cultural and environmental impacts [de Kadt 1979; Ioannides 1995]. Yet even today, in industrialized nations with significant levels of resources and information, these conflicts are not easily reconcilable. They result from differing actual experiences and perceptions among stakeholders resulting in a fundamental conflict of objectives, as Butler's [1992] experience with Banff National Park in Canada clearly indicates: "At a national level a product may be very healthy if it is consistently attracting visitors, e.g. Banff National Park, but at a local level it may be viewed as overused, overdeveloped, unsustainable and incompatible with park objectives." As tourism knowledge increases so does the demand to include host communities in the decision making process [see Loukissas 1983; Sundara 1990; Innskeep 1991; Long 1991; Pearce 1994]. A typical appeal for local involvement is made by Hitchcock, King and Parnwell [1993] who claim that "tourism should be built upon a dialogue with local people, who must be made aware of the likely effects of a tourism project, who must be centrally involved in the decision making process, development and management of the project, and whose voice must carry genuine political weight." Although this is a reasonable articulation based on experience, meaningful public participation exposes a great tourism planning challenge: there are powerful differences in preferences and interests between stakeholders within the host community itself (e.g., the Royal Samoa Hotel in Western Samoa [Sofield 1990]). Communities rarely have a single unified viewpoint about tourism. Difficult decisions must be made based on trade-offs between stakeholder values. 12 1.4 Top Down or Bottom Up? With complex interests and values among stakeholders characterizing social and institutional systems, both within a host community and between local, regional and national entities, tourism planning is plagued by the dilemma of incorporating and integrating these values and interests. In other words, how should tourism planning be approached - from the bottom-up or top-down? Top-down approaches;; those initiated by.-policy makers and experts, have been criticized as too far removed from the values of the host community. The tragic case of Anuha Island Resort, which was burnt to the ground in the Solomon Islands by alienated villagers, punctuates the need for bottom-up involvement in planning [Roughan 1990]. However, host communities are often hampered by limited knowledge, apathy, misinformation and resistance to change [Pigram 1989]. Compounding these static observations is the assertion that people's nascent perception of tourism is poorly conceived and changes over time. This has been observed among both the local residents who receive tourists and the decision makers who create policy [Butler 1992]. Perceptions and expectations are derived from two interacting sources: (1) metaphors and concepts created to provide order and understanding, and (2) from the events perceived and remembered [Holling 1994]. Often the tourism metaphor presented by the promotional planning approach, that of economic prosperity with limited adverse impacts, suffers from a sharp "surprise" when the reality of development plays out. The larger the size and faster the rate of tourism development, the more severe the surprise is bound to be. Some surprise is inevitable. While a general knowledge of tourism exists, it is very difficult to make people aware of the 'likely effects of a tourism project.' The effects are difficult to translate because tourism research is often conducted in isolation ignoring the many variables, 13 such as the attitude and philosophy of the tourist operator, the local power structure, fickle and highly elastic markets and corruption. Ignoring tourism's interrelated and dynamic nature divorces it from the context and obscures multifactoral site specific considerations. Site specific influences have been dramatically exposed by case studies in Asia that detail radically different experiences' with tourism, even among neighboring villages [Hichcock, King and Parnwelll993]. As Wall [1993] suggests: "Perhaps many researchers have over-generalized their findings on the assumption that their conclusions are widely applicable." These results lead to a seemingly endless chronology of paradoxes in.the tourism literature. For example, Sofield [1990] and Roughan [1990] detail adverse social effects corporate tourism resorts have on local residents in the Solomon Islands, while de Kadt [1979] lauds the small locally owned village tourism in lower Casamance Region of Senegal. Smith [1994], on the other hand, suggests that small, locally owned forms of tourism can place higher burdens and have more deleterious impacts on local residents than the often derided traditional destination, luxury-resort tourism. In addition to being the creation of an over-generalization of site specific experiences - they are paradoxes by perspective, created by an avoidance or ignorance of inherent complexities. This tends to promote polarized dialogue: economic development(tourism creates jobs) vs. adverse socio-cultural and biophysical impacts (tourism destroys culture). But are these paradoxes better addressed by top down approaches? Top down approaches can be desirable, in general, because policy makers and experts claim professional knowledge and a relative detachment or objectivity in analysis! These method are also more efficient and do not get 'bogged down in process.' Top-down approaches are often successful when combined with limited host community involvement (i.e. the use of 14 "knowledgeables" [Gunn and Worms 1973]) and respects to perceived local needs (i.e. as in Fairmont Resort at Leura and Ocean Blue Resort at Fingal [Cameron 1990]). Therefore, a well informed top down approach could infuse the process with knowledge that leads to successful tourism planning, but that is not always the case. 1.5 The Value Gap Recent research by Williams and Gill [1994] confirms that problems often emerge between detached experts and host communities. They identify inappropriate value judgments as one of the principal causes of limited success in tourism planning (in this case, carrying capacity management). Their conclusion asserts that tourism experts often fail to recognize that in addition to tourism related knowledge, their own values and biases enter the planning and management process. Stankey [1990] calls this a "major gap." The gap is commonly expressed among industry professionals as a predisposition geared towards maximizing economic benefits, and among academics as an overwhelming concern over adverse social and environmental externalities. Without explicit awareness, authoritative values of tourism professionals distort already complex value systems, hindering responsible planning. Clearly, if tourism planning is to be successful, there needs to be a balance between top down and bottom up approaches where the dynamic influences of knowledge, expertise and values can be distinguished. 1.6 Integrating Another Agent of Change Tourism should be recognized as only one of many societal "agents of change" [Pearce 1994; Butler 1990], making it difficult to differentiate tourism from other processes of change like In the words of Dennison Nash, they (academics, especially anthropologists) "reveal a kind of'knee jerk' response to the imposition of tourism in their favorite societies" [quoted in Richter 1989]. 15 industrialization, urbanization, enhanced physical mobility, the improvements in communication, and the influence of mass media [Hichcd'ck 1993]. Tourism planning must be integrated and consider tourism as only one option in the broader question of optimizing resource allocation [Archer and Cooper 1994]. Alternatives need to be crea^ provide a framework for analyzing the opportunities and constraints against trade-offs among conflicting values. Alternatives are critical for making value trade-offs. Psychological research indicates that the creation and comparison-of clear and. comprehensive alternatives, will. -dramatically contribute to a better planning and decisionmaking process:[Zube 1980,.from Pearce 1994]. 1.7 Tourism Planning Outlook In summary, tourism planning is faced with the following challenges: (1) an environment dominated by myopic political-economic promotional ism; (2) lack of comprehensive or comparable data; (3) lack of universal terminology; (4) many poorly identified stakeholders with a multitude of interests, objectives and conflicting values; (5) common perceptions of tourism planning are ill-conceived; (6) impacts and effects are dynamic and poorly understood; and, (7) impacts are often studied in isolation which are subject to complex site specific considerations. Therefore, as tourism planning struggles with problems specific to the industry, it distinctly reflects traditional planning challenges. Over thirty five years ago, Simon and March [1958] describe these "bounded" conditions as: • ambiguous and poorly defined problems;. • incompleteinibmiaUon,about-alternatives;*-;'-'r-:,'-'->-': •••.<••••- ^  • incomplete information about the consequences of supposed alternatives; • incomplete information about the range and content of values, preferences and interests; and, • limited time, limited skills and limited resources [from Forester 1989]. 16 Compounding the highly constrained traditional planning environment is the need to consider tourism in terms of sustainability. 2.0 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 2.1 The Sustainability Debate Tourism is often heralded as an excellent opportunity to promote sustainable development because it provides an economic component for cultural and environmental conservation [Boo 1990]. This high profile obliges it to be framed in terms of 'sustainable development.' Sustainable development recognizes the need to change human conduct in light of massive global environmental degradation and socio-economic inequities.9 The widely referenced World Commission on Environment and Development [WCED 1987] gave global credence to the assertion that disaster (social and environmental collapse) is looming if the activities of contemporary society do not change. The report basically calls for social and environmental justice through ethical consideration of impoverished people (especially those in the developing world), future generations, and the biophysical environment that supports them. While the report is, in a sense, a strong indictment of modern society, it attempts to avoid alienating powerful vested political-economic interests by identifying an increase in economic growth (as opposed to a decrease in consumption) as the crucial means to alleviate global poverty and resolve environmental threats. 9 The question here is: How can tourism planning contribute to greater socio-economic fairness and a better overall quality of life in a world threatened by too many people, consuming too many resources, too fast? If tourism does not help address the problem of a sustainable future, it will certainly be contributing to a crisis where human survival becomes the central question, not equity and quality of life. 17 The WCED report has been widely criticized. Daly [1990] argues that it is notably optimistic in our ability to use human resources, knowledge and capabilities to achieve sustainable development. Boothroyd [1990] and Rees [1990] agree that given the limited resource base, an equitable redistribution of current standards of living is not possible today, precluding equitable consideration for future generations. Indeed, scientific evidence suggests that the world is "effectively full," whereby increases in consumption can only result in a serious disruption of essential global life support functions. [Rees 1994a]. Frustrated.at the cautious examination described in the WCED report, Rees [1989] suggests that a radical "profound shift in societal values and attitudes and the major restructuring of national global economies" is required to achieve sustainable development. Part of this profound shift would certainly be a condemnation of tourism. Tourism as it is known today is an unsustainable industry, contributing to the looming worldwide ecological collapse (international tourism in particular) One clear example is tourism's dependence on fossil fuels. Since World War II, global air travel has grown seventy/old, reaching over two trillion passenger-kilometers today. To make matters worse, airplanes are the most energy intensive means of carrying people and cargo [Kane 1993].10 Sustainable development depends on reducing energy and material throughput of the global economy [Rees 1994a]. Energy, at least among the industrialized countries, has been identified as the largest component in the "ecological footprint," a measure to determine the amount of land needed to sustain a population at given consumption levels (e.g. a typical Canadian needs the productive capacity of 4.2 hectares to support their lifestyle) [Rees 1994c]. Furthermore, pollution from air travel, exaggerated by the altitude at which it is released, contributes to the potential 'greenhouse effect' and ozone depletion [Kanel993]. 1 0 Carrying one passenger one kilometer in a plane takes 3,100 Btu compared with automobiles-2,200 Btu; inter-city rail-1,500 Btu; and inter-city buses-600 Btu [Kane 1993]. 18 Clearly, if a paradigm shift in societal consciousness were to occur, most forms of tourism would be unacceptable. 2.2 How to Proceed? For many reasons [see Rees 1994a; and McDaniels 1993] no massive societal shift is imminent. But the problems of inequality, poverty and environmental destruction persist. The world economy in general, and the tourism industry in particular, continue to grow. The reality of the situation dictates two options for sustainable tourism planners: (1) devote all energies to achieving the societal paradigm shift demanded by Rees (basically requiring a world-wide revolution); or (2) work within the existing structures to move tourism towards sustainability: towards development that can provide greater equality and less environmental and socio-cultural degradation - in hope that human resourcefulness will prevail. Most analytical approaches are entirely inadequate to incite revolution, and are therefore beyond the scope of this academic thesis. This does not discount Marx's contention that the systems of power were established by the powerful and therefore inherently foster inequality. However, there is tremendous room for movement within existing systems, especially in the near term.11 3.3 Sustainability* Carrying Capacity and Tourism With the world 'effectively full,' sustainability is often cast in terms of carrying capacity [Rees 1994c]. Carrying capacity is an environment's "maximum persistently supportable load" [Catton 1986 from Rees 1994c]. In an ecological sense, carrying capacity constrains economic activity within the necessary biological parameters needed to support life (maintaining the minimum necessary supply of natural capital). 1 1 This point was dramatically revealed in field work in the Philippines were small gains in institutional efficiency could engender potentially large gains in poverty alleviation and environmental stability. 19 However, as Friend [1995] argues: "While the latter [environmental carrying capacity] may have a distinct meaning in ecology (e.g., optimum predator-prey relationships) it is conceptually confusing when applied to human altered systems and widely ranging notions of what constitutes 'capacity', influenced by assumption [sic] about future technologies as well as culture-bound values." Therefore, carrying capacity constraints are a question of how to 'bound' the problem and incorporate values. McDaniels [1993] notes that a number of criteria could be established as sustainability constraints.(e.g;, protect the: complete physical stock of natural capital for future generations, protect human health, maintain current environmental quality). Sustainablility constraints, therefore, are numerous and reflect values as well as technical judgment and risk. Experience with carrying capacity constraints in tourist settings emphasizes the importance of values. After analysis of tourism impacts in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, Goody and Mattix [1990] concluded that "effective resource allocation is not based on arbitrary administrative limits but on definitions of carrying capacity based on the incorporation of community values to determine measures of environmental and social impact that are acceptable." Williams and Gill [1994] concur that "the resource base does not determine carrying capacity. Rather it is a function of the management goals and objectives established by the community" (italics added):.-These goals"and objectives provide the basis for establishing constraints and setting limits of acceptable change [Stankey 1990]. Where values create the essence of the problem, as is clearly the case in establishing methods for sustainable tourism planning, there must be consideration of value trade-offs between competing objectives [McDaniels 1993]. 20 3.4 Towards Sustainable Tourism Like discussions on sustainable development in general, sustainable tourism development suffers from ambiguous aggregated usage. And like the predominate growth paradigm reflected in the WCED report, most definitions of sustainable tourism submit to a rapidly growing tourism industry motivated by economic development. The best example of this comes from the World Tourism Organization [WTO 1993b]. Sustainability is advocated as a positive economic development tool but, at the same, time tourism should: (1) improve the quality of life of the host community; (2) provide a high quality experience for the visitor; and (3) maintain the quality of the environment on which both the host community and the visitor depend. Most academics suggest criteria stressing a holistic planning framework (e.g., see Figure 1). One of the best definition of sustainable tourism is by v Butler [1993] and is based on an approach that hints at a criteria of Paretio optimality ~ Sustainable tourism development is: "tourism which is developed and maintained in an area in such a manner and at such a scale that it remains viable over an indefinite period of time and does not degrade or alter the environment (human and physical) in which it exists to such a degree that 12 it prohibits the successful development and well-being of other activities". Figure 1: Sustainable Tourism Criteria Development as Realization of Potential Equity Cultural Integrity Ecological Integrity Efficiently ustainable Development Assessment Criteria • Integration Balance Harmony Community Source: Wall; Adapted from: Bascombe [1994] 21 Inskeep [1991] highlights general sustainable tourism planning objectives. First, planning should be continuous, incremental andflexible. Based on the objectives of an adopted policy and plan, tourism planning needs monitoring and feedback to assure successful implementation. Second, it should be systems oriented and integrated within the tourist system itself as well as general policies and plans that reflect development patterns of the area. In order for tourism to be sustainable in the future it must maintain the resource base it depends on. By being integrated within the interrelated biophysical,' institutional and socioeconomic systems sustainable tourism development is more achievable. Finally, Inskeep, stresses the importance of participation in the planning and decision making process by the residents receiving the tourists. They should also have maximum participation in the actual development and management of tourism and its socioeconomic benefits. Recent conferences (e.g. Tourism Stream of the Globe '90 Conference - 42 representatives from tourism industiy, government, academia and NGOs) and leading organizations (see WTO 1993b) offer further clarifications of sustainable tourism planning. These include: a cross-sectoral involvement and building of partnerships between different government organizations, private operations, citizen groups and individuals; ethical principles respecting the host culture, behavior, ^ environment, traditional leadership and political patterns; consideration of equity with fair distribution of benefits and costs; establishment of quality information, research and communication; and, careful assessment, monitoring and mediation to allow stakeholders to respond to challenges and take advantage of opportunities. Besides an increased focus on improving the quality of the host environment, sustainable tourism emphasizes the provision of a quality experience for.the visitor. 1 2 Butler [1993] makes the distinction between sustainable development and tourism and sustainable tourism which is "tourism which is in a form which can maintain its viability in an area for an indefinite period of time." 22 3.5 Potential Processes By simple overview, sustainable tourism planning seeks answers to three fundamental questions: (1) What is the tourism resource base? (2) how can the benefits be maximized? (3) How is performance to be evaluated? (see Figure 2) [Lea 1988]. Figure 2: The Three Major Questions of Tourism Planning Policy Planning and Strategy Exchange Control Local Control Statistics (Second Generation)! 1) What Is Tourism's Resource Potential?,/ Statistics and Forecasting (First Generation) Community Participation Land Zoning 2) How Can The ,Benefits Be Maximized? Training Incentives Foreign Travel Trade 3) How Is Performance To Be Evaluated? Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (Other?) 23 So, what process can help facilitate answers to these questions? Several alternative sustainable tourism planning processes have been developed and are highlighted below. Table 1: Alternative Tourism Planning Processes Tourism: A Sustainable Tourism Socially Sustainable Limits of Acceptable Comprehensive Development Tourism Approach Change Approach Approach [Long 1992] [Stankey 1990] [ICMA 1991] [WTO 1993] 1. Inventory and 1. Study preparation 1. Preliminary 1. Define Issues and describe the (select multi- Assessment. Concerns. social, political, disciplinary team). physical and 2. Community 2. Define and Describe economic 2. Determination of .• Participation. Opportunity Classes environment. objectives (in close (identification of special coordination with 3. Open zones). 2. Forecast or project residents and Communication. trends for future government). 3. Select Indicators of development. 4. Use of Existing Resource and Social 3. Surveys (basically Groups and Conditions. 3. Set goals and a situation Networks. objectives. analysis). 4. Inventory Existing 5. Community Resource and Social 4. Study alternative 4. Analysis and Education. Conditions. plans of action to synthesis (market reach goals and analysis and initial 6 Incremental 5. Specify Standards for objectives. impact evaluation). Development. Each Opportunity Class. 5. Select preferred 5. Policy and plan 7 Marketing. 6. Identify Alternative alternative(s) to formulation opportunity Class serve as a guide (include 8 Economic Allocations. for recommending environmental Diversification action strategy. impact (integrating 7. Identify Management assessment tourism with other Actions. 6. Develop an language and/or industries). implementation action -then must 8. Evaluation and Selection strategy. be implemented 9 Infrastructure of Alternative. and monitored) (special attention 7. Implement the should be paid to 9. Implement and Monitor plan. infrastructure). 8. Evaluate the plan. 10. Tourist Education 3.6 Deficiencies While each of these processes has the potential to incorporate the objectives of sustainable tourism planning, they all are lacking in certain regards. First, with the exception of the Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) model, they fail to explicitly define the problem question; The most onerous result of this omission is that some form of tourism development is a foregone conclusion. 24 Second, these models do not express a sensitivity to the difficulty or importance of identifying a full range of stakeholders, something Gunn [1988] emphasizes. While the WTO model alludes to stakeholders (limited to governments and residents) and the Social Sustainability model emphasizes local community participation, the other models simply assume stakeholder identification and inclusion. Some process perils could result from not giving adequate attention to selection of stakeholders. There is a danger of ignoring marginalized stakeholders who lack adequate resources. The process must go beyond representation of vocal minority groups [Boothroyd 1980] or stakeholders with inequitably concentrated power [Forester 1989]. Lack of participation and a failure to generate "buy-in" by relevant stakeholders could contribute to long term conflict. Third, explicit reference to objectives and values is not present in all the models. Where there is a reference to objectives, there is no mechanism for explicitly structuring them. Stankey [1990], for example, agrees that there must be "explicit consideration of the various values involved," but his LAC model is only prepared to accommodate emotive expressions of values, rather than provide a well conceived method to structure and constructively utilize those values. It is apparent that these prominent models offer logical planning processes, often developed for specific planning problems (i.e.,.LAC process and the substantive spin-off 'Recreational Opportunity Spectrum' (ROS) were developed for zoning tourism and recreation). They also emphasize requisite aspects of a sustainable approach to tourism development (i.e., Socially Sustainable Tourism: incorporation of community participation and education in the planning process). However, certain critical planning questions are vague or left unanswered such as: how should the planning question be defined and "bound" for analysis?; what is the relevant context?; who are the stakeholders and what are their interests, roles and responsibilities?; how are 25 values and objectives identified and structured?; how are alternatives developed and evaluated in an integrated manner? By providing a model and methods to help to answer these questions, MODA contributes to sustainable tourism planning. 3.7 MODA as a Contributor to Sustainable Tourism Planning To avoid the shortcomings mentioned above, this thesis uses the MODA approach. MODA is a decision support tool: The purpose of MODA is to inform processes, not supplant them. This characteristic allows MODA to be incorporated into an existing planning or management process (like those described above), or to provide insight into a specific decision. While planning transcends decision making, decisions are inherent in planning. Indeed, formulating plans or policy means, by definition, that decisions must be made. Therefore, without a strong "decision support framework," planning and policy making can become marginalized. MODA is based on six fundamental steps: (1) defining the decision problem effectively; (2) establishing the planning context; (3) identifying relevant stakeholders; (4) eliciting and structuring a comprehensive set of objectives; (5) creating alternatives to achieve objectives; (6) evaluating the alternatives against the objectives and choosing an alternative. Depending on how broadly the decision question is cast;:MODA could' even provide an overarching framework for plan formulation (e.g., a provincial land use plan). Additional steps could be explicitly added to ensure a more complete planning and management process such as implementation, mechanism's for conflict resolution, monitoring, (re)evaluation, enforcement, etc. The insight gained from the MODA process allows decision makers to make better informed and more defensible choices — choices that can responsibly address the difficult issues of sustainable tourism. 26 General conceptual applications of MODA have been very successful in multi-stakeholder decision contexts. For example, McDaniels [1993] uses a MODA foundation to incorporate the difficult issues of sustainability, value trade-offss in electric utility planning. Specifically, special attention should be paid to "(1) what is likely to be gained and lost in different courses of action and (2) what is preferred from different perspectives, including the perspective of future generations..." He concludes by stressing that progress must consider trade-offs among conflicting objectives "as-seen from the viewpoint of relevant stakeholder groups, and the ability to achieve implementation within existing institutional structures." While the conceptual framework is sounds, difficulties arise when attempts are made to quantify value trade-offs in large multi-stakeholder decision problems. While some success has been achieved in this area (see Edwards and von Winterfeldt [1987]), it can be difficult, time consuming and expensive to explain the intricacies of the MODA process to a large multi-stakeholder forum. Hamalainen, Salo and Poysti [1992] conclude that statistical analysis is inappropriate for multi-stakeholder groups. However, use of the MODA framework inclusive of quantification of values can provide substantial insight in a timely manner. For example, Gregory and Keeney [1992] ran a successful three day workshop using quantitative and qualitative aspect's: of MODA-and the following case study draws liberally from their success. 27 CHAPTER III: THE PHILIPPINE PLANNING CONTEXT 1.0 PLANNING CONTEXT OVERVIEW 1.1 Geographic Definitions The Philippines is an archipelago with over seven thousand-islands. These are divided into three specific geopolitical areas: national, regional and local. National refers to the Republic of the Philippines. The Philippines has been further defined by specific regional areas. Guimaras is located in Region VI, with main offices in the city of Iloilo on the Island of Panay. The use of the term local is more involved. Local refers to a hierarchy of political areas, or local government units (LGUs), including provinces, municipalities, barangays (villages) and sitios (sub-village or neighborhood) (see Map 2). Where meaning cannot be readily inferred by the context, local refers to sub-regional. 28 Map 2: Geopolitical Delineation in the Philippines 1.2 Jurisdictional Interplay The Philippines and Guimaras provide a challenging context for tourism planning. Of particular importance is the interplay between national imperatives, policies/plans and regulations with local contributions and responsibilities. National imperatives include the urgent need to marshal the remaining resources of. the diverse democratic nation in order to meet the requirements of sustainable development and poverty alleviation. The Philippines today, under President Fidel Ramos; promotes:a.policy^of people empowerment to achieve these ends. National imperatives shape national policies and plans, most important for tourism are the Tourism Master Plan [1991], The Medium-Term Philippines Development Plan. 1993-1998 [1992] and the National Physical Framework Plan [1992]. An important regulatory mechanism to effect change inspired by national planning efforts is the Local Government Code of 1991 . The Local Government Code 'devolves' power from national to local government units and mandates integrated planning. Yet it is evident that the progressive restructuring at the national level becomes frayed and disjointed at the local level. Here, uncertainty and unfamiliarity with the new processes and requirements of the Local Government Code are coupled with a lack of technical skills and expertise. The planning context on Guimaras ingeneral, and tourism planning in particular, are characterized by a collision of objectives, opportunities, constraints, risks and perceptions. Another related and prominent planning consideration, beyond the explicit exercises of governance, is the power of what Rizal would have called the 'old system' dubbed by a recent observer as the "Manila factor." The "Manila factor" is the traditional deep-rooted sense that decisions affecting Guimaras will be made with little local input by the removed political elite in 29 Manila. The "Manila factor" clearly contrasts with the progressive discourse of local empowerment and accurately identifies the bastions of power that "devolution" endeavors to destroy. During the ongoing attempts at political and economic restructuring, the "Manila factor" constitutes both a source of anxiety and direction for Guimaras. Rizal also commented on 'respecting myths,' a powerful consideration when analyzing tourism in Guimaras where myths have developed over a long period and have rich traditions. It is unfair to conclude that these hope-based myths will not become reality, but history suggests that provincial policy on Guimaras should look beyond the local perceptions that Guimaras will soon be a premier international tourist destination. Certainly, local tourism planning must be couched within the larger national, regional and provincial contexts. 2.0 NATIONAL CONTEXT: POLITICS AND PROBLEMS Recent Philippine history profoundly influences current national challenges, existing socio-political structures and contemporary thought. Before 1972, when Ferdinand Marcos came to power, the Philippines was suffering from a breakdown in law enforcement and general social deterioration, earning it the moniker: 'The Wild East.' The unruly situation was used to justify President Marcos' decision to declare martial law, initiating over a decade of well documented 1 ^ abuses. Tourism played a prominent role during the Marcos presidency. Marcos used tourism to lavishly promote his political objectives, including the showcasing of his success (spending heavily on a well kept 'tourist zone' in Manila) as a leader to an international audience [Richter 1 3 By way of illustration, in 1992 over ten thousand Filipinos won a US$2 billion law suit against the Marcos estate citing that Marcos was liable for summary executions, torture and disappearances during his rule [Vancouver Sun 22/11/95]. 30 1989]. At the same time, tourism became established as a powerful contributor to national economic development. The excesses of Marcos' tourism strategy were far removed from local control or equitable distribution of benefits. Tourism became a symbol of the growing distortions between rich and poor, between corruption and democracy, and between elitist power and widespread alienation. "Tourism," noted Richter [1989], "was at once a highly visible, salient example of 'crony capitalism', and of the grandiose pretension, of the Marcos regime." Therefore, it is not surprising that militant activists bombed the American Society of Travel Agents convention in Manila in 1980, signaling the beginning of the end of martial law and the birth of the "People Power Revolution." The "People Power Revolution" gave control of the country to Corazon Aquino in 1986 by demanding enforcement of electoral results. She promptly restored democratic institutions in the bankrupt nation she inherited from Marcos. However, she hardly touched the country's political elite or the structures of power. 'Crony capitalism' still persists today. (In fact, achieving action at most levels of Filipino society depends on personal relationships and informal agreements. This was very apparent on Guimaras and was critical to the success of the Farm Tourism case study). Within this socio-political structure the importance of tourism endured, as both an international symbol of Filipino progress and an economic contributor. In those chaotic post-Marcos years, tourism provided an attractive arena where Aquino could begin to address the urgent needs of the nation's poor without radically upsetting vested interests. Today, under President Ramos, tourism is still regarded as a vital development alternative, helping to address the many fundamental problems facing the Philippines. These include: insurgency, graft and corruption; the eighth most populated land mass in Asia (68 31 million people); the highest population growth rate in Asia (2.2% per annum); rapid rural to urban migration (loss of 40,000 hectares of agricultural land surrounding cities is lost every year); massive deforestation (at present rates the entire country will lose its forest cover in seven years); devastation of the oceans marine habitac (20% of the original mangrove forests remain and only 5% of the coral remain unaltered, due largely to illegal dynamite and cyanide fishing); widespread water and energy shortages; and, poor economic performance (a hopeful 5% growth was achieved last-year as the Philippines tried, to escape the label of "the sick man of Asia").1 4 Ramos has declared he will use the concepts of local community empowerment, sustainability, cooperation and equity to democratically address these urgent issues. The creation of the Philippine Sustainable Development Council and continued efforts for a smooth devolution of powers to the LGUs indicate that the Philippines is moving in this direction. National and regional tourism plans and policies play an important role in achieving national objectives. 2.1 National Policy National policy continues to encourage tourism while relying on the broad mandate of "people empowerment" to enact programs and minimize impacts. The Tourism Master Plan for the Philippines (1991) recognizes that tourism should be developed "on an environmentally sustainable basis" and should "contribute to social cohesion and cultural preservation." The difficulty and awareness required to achieve these objectives are evident in the report's assertion that "the capacity of the economic, social and ecological environment to handle growth is still considerable despite the fact that there is a crisis in each sphere " (italics added). The Tourism 1 4 Figures were obtained from background papers given at the Gathering on Human and Ecological Security: A Conference on Population, Environment and Peace, Manila 15-17 June 1995 and a 1993 speech by Ramos. 32 Masterplan is consistent with national objectives, but remains vague as to how these objectives could be achieved with proposed programs. The 1992, Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (1993-19981 and the National Physical Framework Plan (1993-2022) are proactive attempts to integrate tourism with other development strategies on a national level. Capacious as they are, these plans provide direction and promote the concept of sustainability. They also identify tourism's diverse economic linkages and inherent compatibility;withs theaiatural and agricultural aspects of the Philippines. Mention is made of the potential for tourism toxontribute to regional economic development and income redistribution. Finally, key issues and concerns, basic policy options and guidelines are briefly articulated and some adverse impacts are noted. These national plans provide a sound basis for regional and local planning and implementation, much of which is mandated in the Local Government Code. 2.2 The Local Government Code pf 1991 The Local Government Code of 1991 is a far reaching act intended to restructure the Philippine governance system. At its heart is the devolution of power, authority, and responsibility to provinces, cities and municipalities. Devolution is similar to political decentralization but differs in.that power and resources are transferred to a different jurisdictions, the LGU. It is not simply a transfer of power from head offices to branch offices within the same organization (administrative decentralization). The intent of the code is to promote policy that allows LGUs to "enjoy genuine and meaningful local autonomy to enable them to attain their fullest development of self reliant communities and make them more effective partners in the attainment of national goals" [Local 33 Government Code 1991]. Although the mandated implementation period for transfer of basic services was six months, many observers and participants in the government of Guimaras report that the process has been slow and/or stagnant. As elsewhere, the critical issues and concerns in Guimaras have been the mismatch between devolved functions/responsibilities and powers, capabilities and absorptive capacities of the LGUs. personnel concerns and phasing and implementation [Brillantes 1993]. Tourism planning is no exception. 2.3 Tourism and the Local Government Code Some of the most important devolved responsibilities related specifically to tourism planning and development are: From the Department of Tourism: • promotion of tourism is now the responsibility of the province; and • licensing and regulation (of tourism related activities) is now the responsibility of the municipalities. From the Department of Environment and Natural Resource - Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau: • Establishment, protection and maintenance of ....tourist attractions in areas identified and delineated by DENR and the collection of fees for their services and the use of facilities established there in have been devolved to LGUs. According,tOvDDT.Region.¥I.Director;E..Trompeta, these issues have created many new challenges. Most significant of these was the fact that the creation of a tourism office at the provincial level was not made compulsory and few have done this, although the responsibilities were devolved. The DOT encourages LGUs to create tourism offices. New demands have been placed on DOT as the department must train inexperienced personnel or elected officials in the area of tourism after each election. Those in charge of tourism at the local level generally have 34 little or no experience in the industry. The demands of training have put increased burdens on DOT staff and coordinating the devolved functions has become more difficult. Despite the unprepared local communities and warnings of tourism's negative impact potential, tourism promotion continues. 3.0 REGIONAL PLANS: TOURISM PLANNING AS TOURISM PROMOTION Promotion of tourism is a key component in the well organized Western Visayas Regional Development Plan, rl993-98 [WVRDP 1992]. The Regional Plan was mandated by the Local Government Code and is to serve as "an effective linkage between the specific needs and aspirations of the population at the local level and the priorities and thrusts at the national level." In this plan, tourism is placed under Sustainable Agri-industrial Development, yet the goal is simply to "increase the inflow of both domestic and foreign tourists in the region". There is no explanation of how the increase of the inflow of both domestic and foreign tourists in the region will contribute to sustainability, or even to overall quality of life. It is assumed that the increased level of tourism will "optimize the utilization of indigenous resources" and at the same time "protect the natural environment and preserve the region's ecological balance." The increase is to be accomplished through a "massive and vigorous" domestic.and foreign tourism marketing program. The optimistic plan depends on marketing efforts to achieve results, estimating the regional receipts from tourism to double over the next three years. In this plan, "Guimaras shall be given high priority" and is to be developed as a resort destination. The plan reveals little understanding of the current tourism on Guimaras and is obviously based on a tourism investment strategy completed by the Danish consulting firm, COWIConsult [1992]. Few Guimarasons even knew the COWIConsuit team had visited 35 the island, and none had been asked for any input. In terms of tourism, local participation from Guimaras is unclear. Furthermore, there are no provisions for incorporating local values or weighing expected costs or benefits to local people from an increase in tourism. The trend away from a clear definition of sustainability, or the role of tourism, is increasingly evident as policy moves away from the national level to the regional and provincial levels. Understandably, the imperative of poverty alleviation commands immediate attention, and as President Ramos urged regional governments, "the ultimate goal of poverty alleviation shall be placed above everything else'^  [WVRDP 1992]. The most apparent cure is expanding the economic pie, helping to explain v/hy tourism 'growth' is the focus of the regional plan, and why it is being massively and vigorously promoted. However, it is debatable that tourism will be successful at alleviating poverty, regional inequality and unemployment. Clearly, the Filipino concept of sustainable development embraces the philosophy of the WCED which is "economic growth and diversification ...will help developing countries mitigate the strains on rural environment, raise productivity and consumption standards, and allow nations to move beyond dependence on one or two primary products for their export earnings" [WCED 1987, quoted in Rees 1989]. Unfortunately, the axiomatic necessity of sustained economic growth begins to overshadow considerations that would make economic growth more sustainable as policy and planning move from national to regional." • There is an obvious need to clarify linkages in the integration of differing levels of governance, particularly at the local level where NGOs, private sector and LGUs must take the lead in implementing national and regional policy objectives/Here, the overriding factor, as Smith [1973] stated over two decades ago, "it is the [local] context within which such policies are to be implemented" [quoted in Pigram 1989]. 36 4.0 PROVINCIAL CONTEXT 4.1 The Spiral of Neglect and Hope Guimaras used to be a part of the province of Iloilo. In 1992 it was declared a full province. It can be characterized as a long neglected island suddenly inundated by increased responsibility. Institutional disregard, magnified by the Local Government Code, has exacerbated characteristic rural organizational and efficiency constraints to planning: a lack of formal planning process or planning framework; an opportunistic and ad hoc system of land development; a. dearth of (or difficult access to) materials, information and technical expertise; and, limited communication capabilities.15 These conditions have resulted project by project development decision making based on: opportunities to access national or international funds (i.e., the new airport, foreign consultants and aid); access to donated land made • -available through national land reform (i.e. the isolated new college and hospital in Buenavista); and votes at election time (i.e., roads are often constructed by politicians in barangays where votes are dubious). Parallel to these planning obstacles is the highly charged administration of Governor Emily Lopez. Like other levels of government, she stresses rapid economic development as the answer to the overwhelming concern of poverty alleviation. However,>unlike otherjurisdictionsv.rapiddevelopment is hampered by a long history of neglect. 1 5 For example, there are two cellular phones on the island, the road system is poor, the transportation system is overburdened and inconvenient, there are very few computers, no photo copiers, or other business machines. To highlight these constraints by way of example, when preparing for the workshop that is the focus of this case study, a room of typists was required to hand typed over forty original invitations which were then hand delivered by messenger. Then, the workshop participants were required to commit a great deal of time to come to the workshop, due largely to the distances traveled and poor transportation. It was not surprising that the workshop, scheduled to begin at 9:00am did not have enough participants to start until 10:30. 37 38 Photo 3: A Jeepney, The Main Source of Transportation1 Photo 4: Pump Boat: The Main Source of Sea Transportation17 1 6 Very few private vehicles exist on Guiamras. People are dependant tricycles and jeepney for long distance transportation on the few rough, and often muddy, roads. 1 7 Pump Boats and small ferries are the only form of transport on/off Guimaras and to the urban centers of Iloilo and Bacolod where most services are located 39 4.2 The Past in Perspective The struggles of Guimaras are better understood given its marginalized role as provider of raw materials. In 1966 Guimaras was noted for its rich natural resources and ability to supply Iloilo with "practically all its firewood and charcoal. ..and a big percentage of its seafood" [Dizon 1966]. As an island rich in natural resources, Guimaras clutched on to the hope that exploitation of these resources would facilitate island-wide wealth and an improved quality of life. When Guimaras became a subprovince, Dizon [1966] observed that the "new political status of the island is expected to usher in an era of greater economic, educational and cultural prosperity." As late as 1975, Guimaras was still described as a "bastion of the countries [sic] rich but untapped natural resources" including "thick forests, wildlife, ...and rich fishing grounds" [Beltran 1975]. However, little attention was given to the island in terms of planning, investment or development. Still, hope was not extinguished. In 1975 Beltran wrote, "The people of Guimaras island, however, look forward to the time when their sub-province is fully developed." He went on to describe the poor road system, lack of medical facilities and overall low standard of welfare that continue to plague the island. 40 4.4 Echoes of the Past Anticipated prosperity re-emerged in 1992 when Guimaras was declared a full province. Echoes of the past haunt popular hope. Like 1966, the new political status was expected to initiate positive change on Guimaras. Like 1966, that change was expected to address similar problems. Today Guimaras still.has no urbanization and very little service support. The only linkages with the modern world are by a short boat ride to the prospering cities of Iloilo or Bacolod. The Island has an employment participation rate of 55%, an unemployment rate of 15.4%, and polarization of indigence and wealth with 5% of the population controlling 20% of the income [Cloes 1992; MDPG 1992]. There are still massive.leakages of:..... resources and wealth. Astonishing statistics reveal that the region, including the rapidly developing city of Iloilo, saved P6 billion (pesos) in 1990 but only Table 2: Overview of Guimaras 1994 Size 60,465 hectares Population 1980 92,300 1990 118,000 2002 158,000 (projected) Employment 1980 24,800 1990 32,300 2002 51,900 (projection based on population) Topography 35% is level to undulating (0-8% slope), 34% is moderate to rolling (8-18%slope), 31% is strongly sloping to very steep. An estimated 64% of the island is moderately to severely eroded. Elevations range from 0-300 meters above sea level. Climate Two seasons: Wet - May to October and Dry - November to April. Average temperature ranges from 24C to 30C. Ave. rainfall is 2,456 mm/yr. Governance Structure Three municipalities: Buenavista( Jordan and Nueva Valencia. Number of sub-municipalities or barangays: 96. Two more municipalities have been added. Land Use Agriculture - 32,836 Fishponds - 1,353 Mangroves - 702 Grassland - 27,629 Shrubland - 11,222 Forests - 0 Built-up - 598 Mineral Resources Iron-1,800 MT Gold - prospected Copper -reported occurrence Limestone -over 132,000 MT Silica sand - reported Clay - prospected Dolomite - reported occurrence Nearest Major City Iloilo City, pop. 310,000 on Island of Panay. Source: PPFP 1995 loaned P2.2 billion in the region. Contributing to the problem of leakages is that much of the 41 land on Guimaras is owned by absentee land owners. Many of these are speculators waiting for land prices to increase [MDPG 1992]. Meanwhile, Guimaras remains embroiled in poverty. Unlike 1966, Guimaras now has a severely depleted natural resource base contributing to poverty. As the Master Development Plan describes it: "the over all environment has been wantonly exploited, resulting in 75% of the people living in poverty." On the positive side, the rapidly deteriorating social conditions have been recognized by the national government. Guimaras was recently identified ;as one of the nineteen poorest provinces in the Philippines qualifying it for national funding under the Catch-Up Program ('catch up' with the rest of the country). Another catalyst for hope was the 1992 governorship appointment (and in 1995 the election) of the dynamic Emily Lopez, whose energies are magnified by her social position as a member of the powerful Lopez family (her husband is the Congressman for the district). As a nation, the Philippines greatly depends on the willingness of the political and economic elite, the clan to which Governor Lopez belongs, to respond to the desires and needs 18 of the poor. In this regard, Governor Lopez is personally capable of effecting significant change on Guimaras, providing a solid microcosm of Richter's [1989] observation that Filipino political decisions often take precedent over other influences. The governor's elite political and economic connections to "both powerful politicians and leading businessmen in Metro Manila" has been explicitly highlighted as one of the most encouraging avenues for improving the standard of living of Guimarasnons [Gumabong, 1993]. Many have put faith in her ability to attract scarce capital to exploit what resources remain on the island. This point is substantiated in a government propaganda brochure called Primer - Philippines 2000 where one of the top three conditions to achieving a "God-centered, people empowered and prosperous national community" is through "opening up the economy and the commitment of the economic and political elite to the common good" (bold added). 42 Fortunately, Governor Lopez's charisma and connections are coupled with a genuine concern for the poor (previously she worked for the respected NGO, Taos Puso - which literally translated means "from the heart"). Governor Lopez excels at exciting interest in Guimaras and she has defined her role as governor to be that of salesperson. Although her marketing efforts diminish her ability for daily administrative responsibilities at the local level (she is usually in Manila, Iloilo or abroad, promoting Guimaras), she has been very successful in attracting resources to the province.(see Photo 5).-More than one.observer has commented.that she has attracted so many'foreign consultants that they are "tripping over each other." Lopez has also attracted major projects such as the planned roll-on roll-off port facility and the new airport. However, there is a big gap between the vibrant expectations ushered in with the Lopez administration and the slow paced, rural island lifestyle in Guimaras (see Photo 6). Her popular political slogan "Pas Pas Guimaras'''' ("Fast Forward" or "Go Go Guimaras") accurately captures the emotive, often chaotic, planning atmosphere - where economic development is expected to expel the residuum left from decades of neglect and institutional inexperience. The magnitude of "catching-up" under the constrained and callow conditions found on Guimaras all but eliminates responsible planning. This situation has frustrated foreign consultants charged with planning (e.g., visioning exercises, instituting GIS) and conscientious Filipino entrepreneurs (e.g., they complain of an inability to obtain required permits and being forced to begin business operations "illegally"). The very serious problems of poverty and environmental degradation faced daily on Guimaras are unable to wait for a sophisticated planning process to be established and rely on the integrity and well-meaning decisions of a few key people in the province. Meanwhile the pressure of the economically motivated pay pas policies threaten to trade-off many local values (e.g., tranquil and close-knit communities). 43 Photo 5: Governor Lopez Attracts American Ambassador to Guimaras 44 For now, Guimaras depends on the good intentions of people like Governor Lopez who vows: "We will move forward, but all will be planned. We will make sure that every project will not upset not only the social equilibrium but also the ecological balance" [Red 1994]. Energizing local planning is the emergence of people empowerment. For example, a recently proposed cement factory by Dorilag on the island has been severely contested in public and through official local communiques. The cement factory threatens vested agricultural and tourism interests on the Island and they were able to coordinate a strong response to the project which has stalled activity. Still, the magnitude of planning constraints and the many internal contradictions facing Guimaras must be appreciated. 4.5 The "Manila Factor" For many reasons, (e.g., lack of an effective planning process; control of land by absentee owners), development activity has often been initiated off the island. In many ways this has provided some direction for Guimaras, (i.e., road projects). However, large scale projects are being undertaken (i.e., the new airport) or initiated (i.e. the large Dorilag cement factory) that will have tremendous influence on every aspect of life in Guimaras. This activity has heightened awareness for effective planning and a created anxiety over one prominent aspect of local decision making: The Manila Factor. The "Manila factor" is evident in planning decisions throughout the province. For example, the new airport, being constructed on prime agricultural land, has been heralded as an economic boon to the province. The Governor claims that, it will someday be the new regional airport. Others question the logic behind the development, considering regional development patterns and existing transportation capacities and relationships. In any case, information 45 regarding the planning of the airport is either non-existent or inaccessible (i.e., there was no EIA completed on the project despite legal requirements19) and very little, if any, pubic consultation was conducted. The potential of the airport's economic success could have profound social and environmental impacts - altering the character of the island forever. The power of the "Manila factor" can transcend the uncoordinated local planning process but it ignores critical trade-offs and exposes unquestioned optimism in economic development. 4.6 Optimism and Urgency: A Yearning for Economic Development The opportunity to move forward with the airport was based on a political faith in economic development that is widespread and historically entrenched, making the observations (gender excluded) of George Sorel as true today as when he wrote them in 1916: "The leaders of the contemporary world are pushed towards optimism by economic forces..." leading to the conclusion... "[t]he optimist in politics is an inconsistent and even dangerous man [woman], because he [she] takes no account of the great difficulties presented by his [her] projects; these projects seem to him [her] to possess a force of their own, which tends to bring about their realization all the more easily as they are, in his [her] opinion, destine to produce the happiest results." Despite the best intentions, lack of planning, control and measured trade-offs amidst rapid economic development could result in large:"surprises" as expectations discover reality. A review of tourism planning on Guimaras forewarns of surprise in this sector. 1 9 Pers. comm. Virgilio F. Fabronero, Director of Environmental Impact Assessment, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region IV, Iloilo City. 46 5.0 PROVINCIAL TOURISM: AN UNQUANTIFIED FAITH IN TOURISM Fragments of both the national plan and the regional plan were incorporated at the LGU level in the Master Development Plan for Guimaras [MDPG 1993]. The MDPG took from the national plan the notion that in two years local people would be empowered enough to "resist the disadvantages of tourism." From the regional plan, the MDPG reflects a vibrant optimism in tourism, stating that in three years Guimaras would be "ready for the influx of tourists who are ecologically and culturally conscious." In this plan, only two paragraphs are devoted to the section on tourism called "Eco-Tourism." The oversimplification of the potentials and pitfalls of tourism (e.g., how are they going to only attract ecologically and culturally conscious tourists?) reflects a common naivete found in Guimaras. In contrast with regional projections, the brevity of the 'Eco-tourism' section and lack of corresponding data suggests that tourism has not really been thought through as a major part of Guimaras' future plans. Similarly, the non-existent tourism related information or references in the data rich Provincial Physical Framework Plan 1993 - 2002 [PPFP 1995] suggests that tourism would not be a major contributor to the future of Guimaras. The only mention of tourism in the background analysis is the declaration that one of the eleven "strengths" of Guimaras is a "[h]igh tourism potential with its pristine beauty, white sand beaches, islets, caves, natural roack [sic] formations, historical landmarks and several tourism activities" [PPFP, 1995]. Finally, there was no analysis or reference to any previous tourism studies. Therefore it is surprising and ironic that the undefined industry of "eco-tourism " was identified to be a cornerstones of provincial economic development!20 Within the industry, a common definition of 'ecotourism' is "tourism to protected areas of outstanding natural beauty, extraordinary ecological interest, and pristine wilderness with the specific objective of studying, admiring and enjoying the scenery and its wild plans and animals found in these areas" [Young 1991, from Hichcock, King 47 5.1 Inconsequential External Impressions The dependence on tourism as stated by the PPFP is even more puzzling considering two external tourism studies on Guimaras that both questioned the level of tourism Guimaras could attract and sustain. Warren [1994] observed "I do not believe that Guimaras has the potential to become a great international resort destination" and COWIconsult [1992] called the interior of Guimaras "unspectacular," and alluded to the potential for only one new tourism resort in the entirety of Region ;VI, just possibly, in the southern part of the Guimaras. To be fair, these studies are more opinion and impression than analysis. Neither of the reports displays an understanding of market constraints on Guimaras and are clearly from an "outsider's" perspective. The Warren report (Canada) is a running narrative touching on many issues and offering a great deal of insight. The report also generates an enormous amount of information, lists, opportunities and actions while sounding warnings about the negative effects of tourism. But the Warren report lacks a clear purpose, focus or audience. The COWIconsult report (Denmark), while tightly focused on investment opportunities, covers the entirety of Region VI and includes only a first impression of Guimaras. Perhaps these factors contribute to the lack of use by planners and tourism officials on Guimaras. Most importantly, these studies do little to reorient local expectations of tourism by explicitly delineating realistic economic forces and environmental or social constraints. Meanwhile, the overwhelming faith in tourism potential on Guimaras embraces a frightening and familiar scenario: that of "massive and vigorous" tourism promotion with little understanding of, or planning for, tourism. and Parnwell 1993]. This definition, or a close facsimile of this, precludes Guimaras from this common definition of ecotourism. 48 5.2 Local Tourism Expectations: Development Cornerstone or Respect for a Myth? An anchoring in local tourism history provides a great deal of insight into the prominent role of tourism in Guimaras. Almost thirty years ago in an article entitled "Guimaras Island: Haven in the Sea," columnist Edith Dizon called Guimaras a "promising tourist isle." In 1974, Guimaras was pegged to be a "flourishing tourist center" (Mapile, 1974), in 1982 Guimaras was featured in British Airway Magazine (Camarista, 1982), in 1985 a regional headline read "Guimaras Island - More tourists expected.this year," (Bulletin Today. 3/23/85). More recently the national daily, The Manila Bulletin (5/27/94), headlined "Guimaras beckons tourists to its 5-star resorts." Professional opinions within the Philippines tend to side with the newspaper commentary, disregarding negative assessment. The astute and sophisticated Regional Tourism Director, Edwin Tompeda, who is very familiar with international tourism success (the world renown Boracay Island is in his region), considers Guimaras to be a very promising market and is encouraging Guimaras to concentrate on its tourism sector - granted, in a responsible and well thought-out fashion. Buoyed by local interviews, two thesis on Guimaras, written by students of the Asian Institute of Tourism, concluded that "Guimaras is at the threshold of metamorphosing into the ideal ecortouristic destination of the region in the entire country" [Chan and Puckett 1994]. And, Guimaras "will flourish and one day would be one of the island resorts much sought after by people all over the world" [Tumimbang 1993]. Finally, the breadth of development, proposed by the Manila based Project (Preparation) Consultants Group (PPCG) and described in The Tourism Framework Plan for Guimaras [1994] (funded by UNDP and the DOT) is as staggering and unsubstantiated as it is enthusiastic -49 21 outlining five elaborate tourism sites around Guimaras. The report included no local participation. Provincial Planning Director, Cecil Ortiz, commented that PPCG did not make any attempt to hold meetings or workshops with any Guimarasnons: "How can they make a plan without talking to any of us," Ortiz lamented. The unsubstantiated report was justifiably rejected by the Governor and is still being revised. Meanwhile, astute local tourism operators played upon the inherent dichotomy of perception and reality by. manipulating local power, programs and policy. For example, Martin Stummer, the German.owner of the Nargarao Island Resort wrote to President Ramos, attempting to get "permanent detachment of a law enforcement agency..." or else... "[a]ny dreams of revenue from tourismus [sic] are scattered as well because illegal dynamiting has already destroyed the beautiful corral [sic] reefs at Guimaras. Destruction has reached 80%-100%. Divers who ever tried to dive around Guimaras will never come back and this tourist potential is lost forever" [pers. comm. 7/10/94]. Despite this gloomy assessment, Stummer has been very successful at exploiting Guimaras' self image as a potential booming tourist center. Through letters and activism, Strummer was able to get the province to build him a pier in the nearby sitio of Cupo (although inadequate construction makes it unserviceable) and he played a key role in the apparent rejection of the Dorilag cement factory. 2 1 Aside from excluding local participation [pers. comm. C. Ortiz], the questionable use of GIS technology, and over-reliance on biophysical data, this report lacks a well defined vision, well structured objectives and meaningful alternatives. The mapping exercise provides a sense of geography but there is no understanding of temporal elements or sense of scale in Guimaras. It is difficult to imagine a rational investor risking capital to develop a "duty-free shopping center with malls, club houses and hotels" while neighboring islets are "retirement villages" or entertainment/gambling centers on the southern section of Guimaras. These kind of projections are not bounded by market realities in the foreseeable future (a 20 year time horizon) nor are they consistent with any of the provincial planning vision. Finally, the suggestion to anchor tourism on a "trimaran super ferry" boat building business is entirely inconsistent with the theme of the study and threatens to impeach the credibility of the entire report. 2 2 Although obviously meant for effect, this assessment is unqualified. A detailed study of coral reef condition is now being conducted by the University of the Philippines in the Western Visayas. 50 The existing tourist industry has a distorted influence on provincial policy, certainly contributing to the strong role tourism is to play in the province (through the MDPG and the PPFP) and dramatically outdistancing its socio-economic impact. A better understanding of tourism would give the province a focused basis for channeling the pressure of the local tourist industry and develop a more effective plan for building a successful and sustainable tourism industry (as opposed to emotional policy decisions, random infrastructure spending and untargeted promotional spending). The distorted tourism influence is based on heavy weighting of future potential, not historical reality. Despite the fact that Guimaras has been waiting for a tourism boom for thirty years, and the doubts expressed by international consultants, little has been done to initiate a confrontation or clarification of the underlying assumptions about tourism. Amidst omnipresent optimism, the marketplace has not lived up to expectations, as only a modest tourism industry now exists on Guimaras. This includes four higher end resorts (charging US$20-100+ per night), numerous small scale, inexpensive beach-side developments and one inland, four-room project next to the interesting Dilaran Cave. (A more detailed description of existing supply conditions is not listed here because an excellent description is available in the DOT Region VI Guimaras 1996 Tourism Situation Report. Map 3 shows general regional locations of existing resorts and tourist attractions on Guimaras). 51 52 The promise of tourism generated wealth has been subject to local self-referencing positive feedback loops, which have resulted in provincial planning (like regional planning) energies that focus almost exclusively on promotion. This is not surprising for an underdeveloped, agriculturally dependent, small island province with few natural resources and a compelling need for economic development to alleviate poverty (see Photos 7 and 8). Indeed, tourism does provide one of the few opportunities to diversify the economic base and is consistent with Lopez's pas pas policies. As Hichcock, King and Parnwell [1993] explain: "...tourism faces fewer constraints in general than is the case with manufacturing, for instance. Furthermore, the technological and human resource requirements of tourism are in general much lower, and more easily accessible, than for manufacturing and extractive industry. Tourism also faces fewer of the environmental and infrastructure constraints which have restricted the pace of agricultural development in the region [South East Asia]." Still, tourism development on Guimaras must be subject to measured deliberation. A good start is by assessing the provinces strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). 53 54 5.3 The SWOT Analysis Clearly, tourism should be considered as a legitimate industry for Guimaras to pursue. However, before provincial strategies are planned and important resources expended, tourism should be considered against a backdrop of opportunities andxonstraints. The following SWOT analysis captures the essence of tourism on Guimaras and begins to systematically question the prevailing myth of Guimaras becoming, as Governor Lopez envisions, a "Boracay without all the problems." Table 3: SWOT Analysis STRENGTHS • Strategic location between lloilo City, lloilo Province and Bacolod City; Negros Occidental Province; • Peaceful, cooperative and hardworking people, intelligent school children; • Strong development-oriented administration and political leadership; • Presence of active NGO's and Cooperatives; • Very good and close coordination among NGOs, Government Organizations (GOs), Peoples Organizations (POs) and the private sector; • High level of support for tourism initiatives from the barangay level to the provincial level; • Good air access through domesticairports in lloilo city and Bacolod and in the future through the feeder airport in Guimaras; • Guimaras is in the same region as internationally renown tourist destination of Boracay Island. Nice beaches (although not fine sand) and renown for its good fruits, especially mangos. • Good tourism statistics exist for Region VI. WEAKNESSES • Little understanding of the provincial tourism market, its needs or contributions. • "Negative attitudes of people and resistance to change as shown by their adherence to negative traditional values and inefficient/less productive farming practices" [PPFP 1995]; 55 "Inadequate education - technical, entrepreneurial, managerial and organizational skills and capabilities" [ibid.] Inadequate infrastructure (e.g., telecommunications, roads, education and health, medical); High cost of unreliable power, where accessible; Environmental degradation - forest denudation, soil erosion, siltation, coastal resource exploitation and pollution; Poor soil, poor access to markets, absentee land owners; Attractions and lodging are not conveniently located to foster much spatial or temporal synergy, this is exaggerated by the poor roads and inconvenient public transport. Some visitors, especially women, complain of feeling "uncomfortable" by the gazes and comments of local men. OPPORTUNITIES • The climate is tropical (although it can be suffocatingly hot and humid during the summer months); • Good access to large domestic markets in lloilo City and Bacolod; • Low labor utilization; • Guimaras is peaceful and safe (especially relieving is the absence of omnipresent armed guards which are found in the larger cities); • Despite over thirty years of tourist promotion, Guimaras could still be considered a "new" or undiscovered destination especially in terms of the international market; • While the beaches are not the fine white sand of Boracay that stretch invitingly far into the ocean, they are adequate especially in the southern part of the island; • There are some worthwhile diversions (e.g., Deliran Cave, Roca Encantada); • Guimaras has established a small festival image with Pagtaltal (other here) and this could be further exploited with perhaps a festival-market day and other festivals; • A more diverse product type using agrarian lifestyle and small cottage industries will hopefully be turned into tourist attractions through the nationally funded Farm Tourism project; • The newly created Resort Association could help focus marketing and work together to enhance Guimaras as a tourist destination and perhaps adopt guidelines for all operators; • A portion of the annual increase in international and national tourists arrivals in lloilo could be captured by Guimaras; • CUI's barangay planning process has established that some barangays would like to promote tourism, as well as critical linkages to local communities to facilitate community process in tourism development; 56 THREATS • Transport is either sporadic (time consuming) or relatively expensive (special trips and tricycles) unless traveling in groups; • Lack of efficient communications (e.g. a telephone system); • Limited product types of the seaside resort, while it has a broad and growing market base, is vulnerable to because it is easily substitutable within the Philippines and Asia; • Seasonality due to climate and school holiday schedules; • Low level of understanding of tourism systems, planning and policy at the municipal and provincial level - magnified by the devolved functions under the Local Government Code; • Lack of interest or priority in.tourism.at the provincial level (difficulty was encountered while trying to find a chair for the provincial tourism committee); • Lack of a clear vision of tourism for Guimaras (i.e. there is no definition of what "ecotourism" means and this is hampered by the industries inability to define what it is and the overuse of the term throughout the industry); • Even with a viable framework, problems with monitoring and enforcement are foreseen due to a lack of provincial staff, • Limited developable and available quality and/or contiguous beach areas (those which are unhindered by CARP/DAR (government agricultural reform agencies) restrictions or multiple land ownership; • Limited seasonal access to water resources and equitable distribution with local communities; • Lack of and difficulties with organizational coordination and communication (at all levels both private and public); • False and misleading promotional brochures may build false expectations for visitors and lead to tourist disappointment and long term distortion of island image; • The provincial tourism office lacks personnel and expertise (provincial tourism office now has three personnel at Jordan wharf and one in San Miguel); • Guimarasnons who have had,little exposure to tourism could be disillusioned by negative impacts of tourism development - could create a backlash to plans and strategies; • Promotional approach to tourism development in Guimaras that does not adequately consider negative impacts and management responses; • Lack of a strong and viable tourism framework which integrates tourism with the community needs and larger planning frameworks (this is now being hindered by. the unacceptable plan created by a Manila consultant which is still under review and revision); • Potential internal political turmoil (although the violent recent elections had almost no effect on tourism arrivals); • Hurricanes, typhoons and sea level rise from global warming. • 57 These more interrogative observations suggests that there is some potential for tourism to continue to contribute to the economic base and promote a higher quality of life in Guimaras and tourism should be pursued. Reports from resort owners indicate a slow but steady increased flow of tourists. For now, the slow rate of development is desirable as it allows the province to learn more about local tourism and begin to address many of weakness and threats identified above. Unprepared for tourism, success in.attracting tourists and tourism-related investments might lead to over-exploitation of remaining resources (human and physical), which would deteriorate the tourism experience for visitors and hosts alike [Eadington and Smith 1992]. Conclusions by Butler [1993] fortify the belief that "[fjhe very speed of change may well be the cause of severe impacts, if change outstrips mitigation and remedial measures." More should be done to orient Guimaras in the regional market. In the following case study on the Farm Tourism Pilot Project, a detailed market profile is presented. But in general, Guimaras now has a very thin capture of the regional market, with existing resorts operating at an unimpressive average annual occupancy rate of 30%. Furthermore, the local tourism market is aggravated by increasing competition, with new resorts opening across Panay and Negros Oriental. To capture a larger market share in this competitive climate will require a coordinated approach to marketing and an understanding of consumer preferences. Hichcock King and Parnell [1993] concluded that consumers today "search for something 'different,' with new natural and cultural environments placed high on tourists' list of priorities - provided they can also find the requisite sun, sea and sand." Here, Guimaras could easily become well positioned in the marketplace. 58 Observations by Pearce [1989] further bolster tourism possibilities for Guimaras': "In general terms, culture and social characteristics were found to rank second behind natural beauty and climate but ahead of other factors such as accessibility and attitudes towards tourists" (italics added). Within this context and optimistic but hesitant grasp of local tourism, planning assistance for the Guimaras Cooperative Farm Tourism Pilot Project began. 59 CHAPTER IV: THE FARM TOURISM CASE STUDY 1.0 THE FARM TOURISM PROJECT 1.1 Project History The Philippine Cooperative Farm Tourism Project is an attempt to galvanize the ideals of "people power" in rural areas using popular political rhetoric as the fulcrum for action. The essence of the Farm Tourism Project is "to render maximum socio-economic benefit to the local community through the collective and entrepreneurial effort of cooperatives" and achieve "rural development sustainable in three levels: physical environment, socio-cultural base and collective economic benefits through cooperative entrepreneurship development" [MOA 1994]. The Philippines Cooperative Farm Tourism Project is the brainchild of Manila based consultant Nitz Nartea. Nartea was well attuned to the traditional Filipino top-down style of governance, to the institutional 'growing pains' initiated by devolution, and challenges confronting local empowerment. A concentrated effort was made to balance institutional powers and control. Besides dressing the project in the progressive ideals and language of the Ramos administration, and in an attempt to circumvent expected institutional power conflicts, Nartea structured the project to receive its mandate directly from the Office of the President through the Cooperative Development Agency (CD A). By identifying the lead implementing agency as the CD A, the Philippines Cooperative Farm Tourism Project was ensured that cooperatives would have substantive involvement in project planning and be targeted for the flow of benefits. 60 Cooperatives are entrepreneurial, economically motivated, 'grass-roots' organizations. Many cooperatives are agricultural based but also include organizations of small businesses (e.g. basket makers, pump boat operators). Cooperatives would become the "mechanism - the viable structure which shall support and sustain a planned strategy for an agri-tourism merger." Indeed, the CDA mandate to "promote the viability and growth of cooperatives as an instrument of equity, social justice and economic development" [MOA 1994] reflects the ideals of people power. Necessary substantive.sectoral involvement came from two other lead agencies - the Department of Tourism (DOT) and the Department of Agriculture (DA). The proposed Farm Tourism Project held great potential for avoiding typical mistakes of past tourism projects. Specific opportunities for the Farm Tourism Project, as suggested by Richter [1989], include: the channeling of political posturing into a less showy but more cost effective project; intentionally developing the project at a pace and scale commensurate with local needs; and, planing the project with greater sensitivity to international reaction. However, new mistakes and surprises would certainly emerge as the project moved from knowledge to action - from ideals to reality. 1.2 Participatory Planning as Bureaucratic Quagmire Not surprising for a novel participatory inter-sectoral process, progress was slow. The concept papers were submitted in November 1993 and it took one year for the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), outlining agency obligations and responsibilities, to be signed at the central government level by the CDA, DOT and DA. During this period, the project received the enthusiastic support from Governor Lopez. In Manila, the Governor used her political 61 connections to lobby for the project. Guimaras was eventually chosen as pilot site. A similar Memorandum of Agreement was drawn-up in Guimaras. Nartea cited difficulties in coordinating the integrated approach, specifically at the national level. For example, changes in different agency personnel and directors required a reintroduction of the project and new directors often reprioritized the Farm Tourism Project. Furthermore, an unfamiliarity with the approach and institutional/political dynamics encroached on progress (i.e. if an agency is-not in charge of the project and/or they are not receiving mandated funds, they are less likely to pursue the project). Finally, the regional DOT director in Manila admitted that it was very difficult to move forward with the project because the DOT did not have a clear idea of which direction the project was taking. These difficulties created 23 institutional lethargy and lack of financing. 1.3 Illogical Logistics Fortunately, the national MOA had been signed and, with input from Guimaras, the pilot project could be initiated. Unfortunately, lack of communication, focus and coordination in Guimaras created local uncertainty and confusion augmenting the delay of funding.24 Before Nartea's initial presentation in Guimaras, few Guimarasnons had heard of "farm tourism." Her presentation introduced'a wealth of ideas including the need for advisory boards, studies, appraisals, development of products, construction of farm estate prototypes, marketing, operation seminars and workshops. Project delays in Manila arrested opportunities for Despite these hurtle, pursuing intergovernmental coordination is imperative. For example, Gaffney [1990] cited "gaps in coordination" as one of the greatest contributors to the aesthetic destruction of Molokai on Hawaii. 2 4 For example, when a copy of the local MOA was requested in July 1995, it was in one of the municipalities waiting to be signed - almost seven months after it was drawn-up. 6 2 subsequent workshops and well thought-out interplay between process and substance was never established. The unclear process dilated the confusion and signaled potential conflict. Discrepancies between individual professional experience were exaggerated, personal and organizational interests were marginalized or entrenched, differing objectives were not openly discussed, and the specific area/site characteristics remained poorly understood. Experts on tourism and planning were either removed from the project or were ineffectual. The knowledgeable and.effective people in the Regional Department of Tourism in Iloilo could do little as they awaited direction from Manila (although Director Trompeda did put in a special Farm Tourism related request for assistance under the Catch-Up Program). In 25 Guimaras, cursory efforts were made by the CUI strategic planning project manager. He independently stressed the need to focus on complementary development opportunities (e.g., the new marketplace near the proposed 'farm tourism' site) and the development of 'events' before building construction [CUI 1995]. For many reasons, his recommendations were made in isolation from the people who were to implement them. Furthermore, his vision of 'farm tourism' starkly contrasted with the local 'farm house' or 'farm estate' vision drafted by the provincial engineering department. Not surprisingly, his efforts were met with conciliatory gestures and comments with no substantive follow-through. 1.4 Pas Pas Farm Tourism Fueled by local pas pas policies, officials in Guimaras did not wait for official action. A donated site, named Macopo Falls after a small waterfall, was chosen as the official 'site' for the Farm Tourism Project on Guimaras. The site had the disadvantage of being a largely 2 5 CUI was invited to Guimaras by Governor Lopez to help plan development on the island. They work with all levels of local government on Guimaras. 6 3 denuded and steep site with no ocean frontage. On the other hand, the site did have a stream with falls and a pool, some older trees, a nice view and was near the capital of San Miguel. After Guimaras was declared a pilot project site, the Macopo Falls site was initiated with a tree planting ceremony. Soon after the ceremony, and despite the fact that the project had not been funded or planned, the resourceful Provincial Cooperative Officer found extra funding in the provincial budget and began construction of a road. His vision of 'farm tourism' was an attempt to mirror the .unclear desires of the. Governor, who endorsed a luxury farm estate tourism model that included air conditioned rooms where visitors accustomed to modern comforts could be lodged. Aside from casual comments (e.g. the provincial planner discussed a possible homestay program), most local Farm Tourism personnel had fixated efforts on developing the donated site and on constructing a farm estate for tourists (see Photos 4 and 5). The focus on a farm estate concept was understandable. Farm Tourism personnel in Guimaras resorted to something readily imaginable and familiar amidst the unknown general notion of 'farm tourism.' The cognitive bias favoring the 'farm estate' concept might be attributed to the "information overload" of the Nartea 'farm tourism' presentation (see Figure 3) which was augmented by her inability to follow-up in a timely manner, the novelty of the • • 27 project, and overall inexperience with tourism on Guimaras. The governors vision of farm tourism is clearly diverts from the vision expressed in the national M O A . However, her desires are not unwarranted as there is no place for visitors (few in number) to stay near the capital of San Miguel. The donated site is very close to the capital. Currently only the outlying resorts have rooms for rent and most visitors end up staying in air conditioned motels in lloilo. 2 7 Cognitive bias is the "unintentional distortions of true preferences which result from limitations in an individual's ability to perceive, process and evaluate uncertain or unfamiliar information" [Gregory 1982]. 64 65 The powerful force of the cognitive bias in Guimaras also helps explain why, over interactive bias,28 the vision and many suggestions by the Canadian consultant were rejected. Figure 3: Initial Farm Tourism Concept Papers -A-iJi bo £ mini-rricrkci place --vherc fry rroc-.icir-— bclh egricy':U;r^ .; c;>d jTiiincfacLarcO product-Shop^  v.-Jii sisc sell proceed- ;icct- c ":rcrJ:^'h.Tsod :cfd^'^ <i:-.s .-ri::--;/•">-27 One form of interactive bias is that people are easily influenced by the attitudes of "experts" (i.e. the international consultant) without critical analysis [Harris, Driver and McLaughlin 1989]. 66 Furthermore, standard procedure for 'bureaucratic survival' contributed to the entrenched 'farm estate' position held by Farm Tourism personnel on Guimaras. All understood the importance of tourism promotion, and this aspect was well ingrained in the pas pas bureaucratic culture. What they lacked was a politically acceptable concept to promote. Very little effort was given to identifying alternative development scenarios and the Governor, among others, quickly focused on the farm estate concept. In turn, government administrators, seeking to carry out the unarticulated,unanalyzed'vision, used established mechanisms (e.g. commissioning the engineering department to provide detailed blueprints of the 'farm house'). Although no 'hard' quantifiable data existed, the farm house blueprints and local faith in any tourism on Guimaras sufficed. The situation could be described as a standard bureaucratic context as described below. A central intention of bureaucratic functionaries in any modern social or economic system is to achieve personal career stability. One rule of bureaucratic survival is to minimize risk by employing standard and accepted methods of administration, problem solving, and decision making. The dangers of being responsible for judgments can frequently be reduced by having what appear to be 'hard' quantitative data to apply to a statistical set of decision criteria [from Richter 1989]. The situation encouraged a jeopardizing and powerful decision context based on the sequential nature of decisions. Keeney [1982] commented that "[c]hoices today affect both the alternatives available in the future and the desirability of those alternatives." For the reasons cited above, the decision sequence for the Farm Tourism Project was threatened by what psychologists call a "commitment decision" or a decision that "grows its own legs" [Cialdini 67 1985]. Once a commitment decision has been initiated, people (in this case key Farm Tourism personnel) "often add new reasons and justifications to support the wisdom of commitments already made..." consequently "...some commitments remain in effect long after the conditions that spurred them have changed" [ibid.]. There were two identifiable opportunities to overcome potential bureaucratic and decision making pitfalls. First, although the provincial government had been actively pursuing the farm estate concept, Nartea had specifically identified the Federation of Cooperatives as the lead implementing agency and there was established NGO involvement. This uncovered an opportunity for group decision making, allowing the government to fall back into a supportive role and eliminating some of the 'danger of being responsible for judgments.' Second, the possibility to introduce a 'new method of problem solving and decision making' was possible because an external 'expert' (the author) could shoulder the responsibility for the method itself and the results. If the critical stakeholder groups could develop new alternatives and create momentum from within a larger decision making body, problems with commitment decisions and bureaucratic rigidity could be averted. 2.0 MODA AND GUIMARAS A project, strategy, using MODA was developed in coordination with project personnel in Guimaras, Iloilo and Manila. The MODA approach would simultaneously provide an 'actor oriented approach' [Hichcock et. al 1993] and avenue for stakeholder contribution or "buy-in" ~ in terms of both the process and the results. The stakeholders could then constructively question the project direction, address the potential danger of mis-allocation of resources, and utilize a 'new' framework for identifying stakeholders preferences. 68 MODA was an attractive analytical approach for Farm Tourism on Guimaras because no formal decision making or planning process had yet been established in the young province (provincial status received in 1992). By applying MODA, decisions could be structured to promote more comprehensive and creative thinking in an overarching framework that is continuous, incremental and flexible. Integration of programs, plans and projects was possible through the use of multiple objective/stakeholder participation. Furthermore, MODA is objective based, future oriented and explicitly focuses stakeholder values and interests. Creative alternatives for the Guimaras Cooperative Farm Tourism Pilot Project were desperately needed. By focusing on interests, values and objectives (e.g., promote economic opportunities) stakeholders could dissociate themselves from positions (e.g. the farm estate concept) creating an atmosphere for the invention of options for mutual gain [Fisher and Ury 1983]. MODA has proven to be effective at 'creative option invention and in option packaging' [Edwards and von Winterfeldt 1989] due to the fact that more well-defined objectives are effective in creating new and better alternatives [Gregory and Keeney 1992]. Perhaps the most important reason MODA was utilized on Guimaras was that, as McDaniels [1994] explains, "the approach can be tailored to strategic comparisons across a wide range of alternatives, when less-detailed information is all that is available" (italics added). As discussed, tourism in general is beleaguered with poor information, this situation was magnified on Guimaras. Furthermore, few Guimarasnons had any sophisticated expertise or experience with tourism indicating that group learning would be an important aspect of the process. 69 3.0 WORKSHOP OVERVIEW To introduce the MODA approach, a workshop was held in Guimaras. The specific purpose of the workshop was to create and clarify alternatives. The results of the workshop would help satisfy the common obligation of the lead agencies to: "Develop a farm tourism development plan (manual) defining an overall agri- tourism product strategy most viable for the 29 project area/site" [MOA 1994]. Due to the devolution of power and desires to promote local empowerment, Guimarasnons (through area/site specific knowledge and local values) would need to define 'farm tourism' in Guimaras. The general purpose was to provide a framework for future project planning, decision making and evaluation. The framework would allow the Farm Tourism Project to be intentionally nested within the evolving provincial framework and take advantage of complementary projects and activities while avoiding unnecessary conflict. Because of rapidly increasing amount of access to information (e.g., introduction of a provincial computer data base by the German consultants) the process needed to be flexible and adaptable. MODA would help address these needs. 4.0 WORKSHOP PREPARATION To use the workshop time.as efficiently as possible, preparations began far in advance. Document review and interviews with key project personnel provided a solid information base to expedite steps one through four of the MODA process (see Appendix A for list of individuals interviewed). Reviewing documents provided much of the necessary background data. Aside from preparing for the substantive elements of the workshop, interviews —especially those The workshop was held in the capital of San Miguel, Jordan, Guimaras on July 18, 1995. 70 requiring iterative sessions ~ established important personal relationships and uncovered informal dynamics that proved to be very helpful in the success of the workshop. 4.1 Defining the Problem Question The obvious problem question, What is the most appropriate farm tourism concept for Guimaras? was inappropriate for immediate consideration in the workshop due to the overall poor understanding of farm tourism. Therefore, the first question asked was What is Farm Tourism? Answers from this question provided insight into the most appropriate form of 'farm tourism' for Guimaras while providing a foundation for the discussion. 4.2 Identifying Stakeholders Most of the local stakeholders were clearly identifiable from the earlier workshops. Indeed, many of these groups are signatories to the second memorandum of agreement which include province wide members of cooperatives, members from the NGO caucus, and LGU representatives. However, other groups, organizations and individuals will be impacted by, or can contribute to, the Farm Tourism Project and therefore needed to be offered a chance to participate.30 Initially, the suggestion of expanding the representative stakeholder groups was resisted. The underlying friction behind the unwillingness to accept additional groups included anxiety over a loss of control by established groups and apprehension that too many participants would slow the project implementation. However, compelling reasons for an inclusive process were offered. First, inclusion would foster greater cooperation and acceptance of the project because ' Gregory and Keeney [1992] go as far as to say stakeholders "have a right to be involved in the decision process, because they will be among those affected by the ultimate policy choice" (italics added). 71 there would be no hidden agenda. Second, concerns over equity (who pays and who benefits) could be immediately and openly discussed. Finally, thoughtful foresight about potential stakeholders and their early inclusion is an important way to minimize future conflict, integrate the Farm Tourism Project with other projects and activities, and, for the purpose of the workshop, provide new perspectives and insight into creating alternatives A systematic process using a tourism stakeholder matrix was developed for identifying stakeholders and summarizing, existing and potential responsibilities {Table 4). A review of the matrix with local officials revealed that two groups of paramount importance were not included in the upcoming process: the existing tourism industry of Guimaras and the local barangays (other than local cooperative members who were targeted to receive the benefits). Subsequently, four members of the Guimaras Resort Owners Association represented the existing resorts and the barangays were represented by two members of CUI's barangay participatory process, who recently engaged in three day planning workshops with all ninety-six barangays. 72 INFO| jajuaQ CM 1CM | t 4.1 PROMOTION | |BU0!iBUJ9)U| CM i - -PROMOTION | leuojiBN 9 IP P I w x X X PROMOTION | ieuoi6ay CM CM x 1 X X X X uojinpsay PJUUOQ _. l _ -X X X Ii 1 -S9A!JU90U| | — " . -OPERATION | U0!)edp!)JBd 99UJLULUO0 - CM - CM I CM ! X CM i X - _ . - -CM - CM X X X OPERATION | UOjJBnjBAg X X - X 1—tJ. 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Res. 1 |Provl Dept. of Justice-IDept. of Agriculture 1 "5 i := si s t im LGU-Baranguay-Guimaras Resort Individual Resorts 1 J 1 iTransport (pump boat, jeepney, 1 Itricycle, (and, in future, taxi) IResturantsI 1 IShopping/handicrafts' 1 | |*Refers specifically to UPV's involvement in the Taklog Island Marine Preserve. |1=Primary Role/Respon. 2 = Secondary Role/Respon. x=Potential Role/Respon.| STAKEHOLDER j |Taos Puso I iRotary Club I Isave The Children • KABOKODj IPROCESS [GUARD I jjEmilio Javier STrappist Monistary BDept. of Env. and Nat. Res. jDept. of Trans. & Commun. (Dept.of Pub. Works & Hyws. 1 iDept. of Ed. Culture and Sports 1 "Dept. of Local Gov. i j |Dept. of Trade and Ind. (DTI) JDTI-Board Of Invi jProv. Planning Dept. Office iProv. Engineering Office | IProv. Dept. of Env. & Nat. Res. 1 |Provl Dept. of Justice-IDept. of Agriculture 1 LGU-Baranguay-Guimaras Resort Individual Resorts 1 J 1 iTransport (pump boat, jeepney, 1 Itricycle, (and, in future, taxi) IResturantsI 1 IShopping/handicrafts' 1 | |*Refers specifically to UPV's involvement in the Taklog Island Marine Preserve. |1=Primary Role/Respon. 2 = Secondary Role/Respon. x=Potential Role/Respon.| |Taos Puso I iRotary Club I Isave The Children • KABOKODj IPROCESS [GUARD I jjEmilio Javier STrappist Monistary BDept. of Env. and Nat. Res. jDept. of Trans. & Commun. (Dept.of Pub. Works & Hyws. 1 iDept. of Ed. Culture and Sports 1 "Dept. of Local Gov. i j |Dept. of Trade and Ind. (DTI) JDTI-Board Of Invi jProv. Planning Dept. Office iProv. Engineering Office | IProv. Dept. of Env. & Nat. Res. 1 |Provl Dept. of Justice-IDept. of Agriculture 1 LGU-Baranguay-Guimaras Resort Individual Resorts 1 J 1 iTransport (pump boat, jeepney, 1 Itricycle, (and, in future, taxi) IResturantsI 1 IShopping/handicrafts' 1 | |*Refers specifically to UPV's involvement in the Taklog Island Marine Preserve. 4.3 Establishing the Planning Context As expected, the participants were all sensitive to the charged pas pas atmosphere of Guimaras. However, none were aware of the limitations posed by the constraints of the marketplace (see section 5.2). Therefore, in addition to eliciting objectives, most preparatory interviews attempted to draw out essential personal and professional judgment about the Guimaras tourism market. Judgment, along with available statistics, provided a reasonable basis for constructing atourism market profile. Near term and long term market potentials were projected prior to the workshop. The market profile was considered to be essential new information to the overall tourism context, reducing important economic uncertainties critical in creating and clarifying alternatives. 4.4 Identifying and Organizing Objectives From the numerous governmental plans and policies, development objectives were quite easy to identify. Furthermore, specific Farm Tourism goals and objectives were scattered among many project specific documents. Some were general (improve the standard of living) while others were unique to the Farm Tourism Program (strengthen cooperatives). To confound matters further, the objectives elicited from.stakeholders did not necessarily mirror the 31 objectives in planning documents. Some objectives elicited from relevant personnel further defined fundamental objectives while others were entirely unique. The planning situation could be accurately described by what Toffler [1970] called a "goal cluttered" environment, in danger of "pursuing a welter of self-canceling purposes." Because of tins situation, the participants 31Objectives were drawn from individual interviev/s using established value elicitation techniques [Keeney 1988; Edwards and von Winterfeldt 1989]. Over fifty interviews were conducted with Guimarasnons and key farm tourism personnel in lloilo and Manila. 74 were asked to read the following letter on objectives focused planning before the workshop began. Box 1: Letter to the Farm Tourism Workshop Participants Rationale To help avoid a project that moves forward only by moving away from problems (crisis planning) it is important to have clear direction and understanding of what you are trying to achieve. Objectives help provide that direction. A comprehensive set of objectives can also provide a framework for evaluation and assist in conceptualizing a better project, that being one that will intentionally pursue a wide range of objectives. In terms of the Farm Tourism project, many specific objectives have been expressed through project documents or interviews;1 Some of these objectives are fundamental objectives (or end objectives, called this because they are desirable for their own sake). Others are means objectives (desirable because they help to reach an end). When preparing for this meeting, a consensus emerged regarding four fundamental objectives: (1) maximizing positive economic benefits, (2) promoting environmental conservation, (3) promoting an improved standard of living and quality of life, and (4) promoting equitable institutional development. These are consistent with the objectives national, regional and provincial plans. In addition, four specific means objectives emerged from a previous workshop held in Guimaras. These are: (1) the development of cooperative managerial skills, (2) strengthening of cooperatives, (3) showcasing farming, and (4) creating an awareness of environmental conservation. Other objectives were also expressed in individual interviews. Al l of these objectives should be considered (although some will matter to you more than others). However, they should be thought about in a comprehensive way. A few reasons why are discussed below. Importance of a Comprehensive Set of Objectives Two important planningelements are evident-The first is that the Farm Tourism project does not exist independent of larger institutional; biophysical and'socio-economic systems. Coincidentally, it has the opportunity to complement or adversely impact other provincial activities. Therefore, it should be planned with respect to larger plans (i.e., The Provincial Framework Plan) while at the same time being sensitive to the local and project priorities. Clearly, as alluded to above, all the stated objectives are not necessarily complementary and trade-offs between them will have to be made. For example, reaping maximum economic benefit (having 100,000 tourists a year on Guimaras) may adversely impact some social objectives (maintaining the peace and tranquil character of the island). In light of these issues, it is proposed that this meeting use objectives to focus the discussion. 75 Taken alone, and based on the documents which transpired from previous workshops, the Farm Tourism Project appeared to be well focused based on the four specific objectives listed above. However, interviews revealed that different individuals were pursuing different objectives under the guise of the Farm Tourism Project threatening to cause self canceling purposes, or at least uncoordinated action. Ironically the context actually benefited from the 'goal cluttered" environment because it helped to establish a far-reaching range of objectives. To clarify, "one should not tailor the objectives to the alternatives being considered if one of the purposes of structuring values is to suggest alternatives that might be particularly useful" [Keeney 1988]. The many objectives were then structured using an objectives hierarchy [Clemen 1991]. The fundamental purpose of organizing values in this way was to reach a consensus among all stakeholders as to a single hierarchy of values [Gregory, Lichtenstein and Slovic 1993]. In constructing a hierarchy, the planner's role is clear: "ensure completeness and avoid redundancies in structuring the objectives" and "clarify the distinction between ends and means" [McDaniels 1994]. The discrete role of the planner and the iterative process of establishing an objectives hierarchy minimizes the problem of an excessive infusion of expert values in the tourism planning and management process [see Williams and Gil l 1994; Stankey 1990]. On the other hand, it is not possible to eliminate expert bias and responsible "biasing" should be encouraged as part of the role of the expert. Responsible biasing includes "suggestions that cause the group to think deeper about their problem and reach what they consider a better understanding" [Keeney 1988]. 76 4.5 The Defining Role of the Objectives Hierarchy An interesting pattern developed when collecting, eliciting and analyzing objectives. Broad objectives, like achieving sustainability, appeared regularly in national planning documents and in interviews with individuals in Manila. These sources also gave broad definitions of sustainability. In regional documents and interviews in.lloilo, sustainability was occasionally mentioned, but never well defined. At the provincial and municipal level, where sustainability must be accomplished, ifcwas very rarely mentioned and never defined. Through the use of an objectives hierarchy, this apparent 'filtering' of critical objectives, like sustainability, revealed that values were not being displaced at the local level, rather objectives were becoming better defined. For example, the end-objective of'maximizing sustainable economic benefits' and the sub-objective of'promoting equitable distribution of economic benefits' were often expressed at local, regional and.national levels. At the provincial level, an additional sub-objective 'maximizing the real income of Guimarasnons' was cited. At the barangay level this sub-objective was defined by other sub-objectives such as 'promoting employment opportunities' and 'promoting access to capital/funds.' The process of moving from the general or end objectives down the hierarchy is a process of objective clarification. End objectives at one level are means objectives at another level, ultimately providing specific criteria [Edwards and von Winterfeldt 1989]. National objectives are given meaning at the local level where they must be implemented. The objectives hierarchy simply establishes relative position of local action within the general framework (see Table 5 for complete objectives hierarchy). With most of the preparatory work regarding steps one through four of the MODAprocess completed, the workshop, began. 77 Table 5: Objectives Hierarchy Vision Statements And Objectives Hierarchy For Guimaras VISION STATEMENTS Provincial: We envision Guimaras as a progressive agrMndustrial economy anchored on a people centered, ecologically sound and sufficient infrastructure and socio-econoniic;system.K Master Development Plan for Guimaras [1993]. Regional: A transformed Western Visayas as a highly productive integrated agri-industrial area within the context of human development, desired value systems, equity, justice, peace and order, public/private sector partnership, inter-regional linkage, sustainable development and ecological soundness leading to an empowered citizenry and an enhanced quality of life for all. Western Visayas Regional Development Plan, 1993-1998 [1992]. OBJECTIVES FOR GUIMARAS Maximize Sustainable Economic Benefits Strengthen Cooperatives Promote individual entrepreunureship Improve effectiveness - access to markets Foster greater cohesiveness Promote equitable distribution of economic benefits Maximize real income to the individual/household Promote employment opportunities Maximize participation of disadvantaged Maximize participation of women Promote employment of underemployed Promote employment of unemployed Promote employment of disadvantaged Landless farmers Sugarcane workers Sustenance fisherfolk Promote access to funds/capital Maximize revenue to private interests (non-residents of Guimaras) Maximize revenue to barangay governments Maximize revenue to municipal governments Maximize revenue to provincial governments Maximize revenue to federal government Minimize economic leakages Promote local area investment Promote local ownership Promote local purchasing Promote labor intensive activities Promote favorable investment climate Minimize inflation Promote political stability 78 Promote balanced economic development Promote agricultural activities Promote food self-sufficiency Promote field research Promote intensification of high value crops Promote man-power development Promote improved production technology Improve post harvest handling Promote food self-sufficiency Promote tourism Promote "ecotourism" Authentic Learning experience Value for money Unique Promote local area* pride (show case province) Promote "sensitive" resort-tourism Promote "excursionist tourism" (day visitors) Promote cottage industries Promote small scale industrial activities Promote efficient transportation Upgrade terrestrial transport systems (e.g. roads) Improve port facilities (sea, air) Minimize opportunity costs Avoid unplanned, project specific, irreversible development Promote stronger land use/zoning ordinances Promote stronger monitoring and enforcement Promote efficient use of resources (materials and energy) Promote recycling Minimize waste Promote an Improved Standard of Living and Quality of Life Improve delivery of basic services Promote reliable and affordable energy Promote energized households Promote potable water availability Promote improved sanitation Promote improved solid waste management Promote access to tertiary education opportunities Promote safety and security Promote health services v r Promote a manageable and stable population Lower population growth Reduce rural to urban migration Promote local cultural heritage Maintain peace and tranquil character of island Maintain strong family cohesion Promote strong community morals Minimize excessive alcohol consumption Minimize gambling Minimize prostitution Promote educational opportunities Promote human resource training Develop innovative/nontraditional approaches Maximize Environmental Quality Promote environmental preservation Promote protection/identification of outstanding/remarkable natural areas Promote protection of biologically important or vulnerable areas Habitat for endangered species (plants and animals) Second growth forests Mangroves/Coral Reefs/ Marine life Bufferstrips/public easements Freshwater swamps/marshes Unproclaimed watersheds environmentally constrained/high risk areas 50% or more slope Hydrologic (i.e. flooding) Weather exposed Promote environmental rehabilitation Forests (e.g. mangroves) , Critical watersheds . Coral reefs Minimize visual degradation of landscape Conserve agricultural and agri-forestry land (specifically irrigated land) Minimize pollution To atmosphere Air quality (e.g., noise, particles) Ozone depletion Climate change To water Fresh water quality Surface water Ground water Marine water quality To land Subsurface (e.g., pesticides) Surface (e.g., litter) Promote Equitable Institutional Development Promote people empowerment Promote community organizations Increase individual participation Improve effectiveness - access to decision makers Foster greater cohesiveness ' •> Promote leaderships >: Promote integration of local organizations in planing process Promote an efficient and coordinated provincial government Promote technical organizational capacities/training Source of objectives: Interviews; CU1 Barangay Process; Master Development Plan for Guimaras; Provincial Physical Framework Plan 1993-2002; Western Visayas Regional Development Plan, 1993-1998 (1992); Tourism Master Plan, Republic of the Philippines, 1991; Misc. local planning documents. 80 5.0 THE WORKSHOP 5.1 Workshop Organization The workshop was attended by, thirty-five participants (see Appendix B), The workshop began with a prayer, the singing of the national anthem and introductory comments. The current state of the project was then reviewed. The, agenda for the meeting was discussed including: (1) Understand market conditions - present and future and discuss target markets for 'farm tourism'; (2) Review objectives; (3) Create and clarify alternatives; (4) Organize 'farm tourism' committee. Below is a summary of the presentations and discussions. 5.2 The Guimaras Tourism Market The Guimaras tourism market was the least understood and one of the most crucial area for planning 'farm tourism'. For without tourists, there is no tourism project. Therefore, a profile of market conditions and opportunities was presented. Two things were stressed specifically in terms of the Farm Tourism Project. First, a successful Farm Tourism Project would diversify the overall tourism product offered on Guimaras. Second, it would provide a diversion for the popular, but easily substitutable, "sea, sand, sun" resort tourism proliferating throughout the Philippines and, indeed, the world. Thus the project was highlighted as an opportunity for Guimaras to create a unique product and maintain viability in an increasingly competitive tourism industry. A brief review of the available data was then presented. It was noted that reliable statistics allowing for an insightful tourism profile of Guimaras did not exist. There are data 81 indirectly related to tourism on Guimaras through its geographical location in Region VI. However, almost all of this data are grossly distorted by the single destination Boracay segment and very little non-aggregated Region VI data exists. Only recent visitor arrival data from the provincial tourism department and extensive inventory work displayed in the DOT's 1995 Guimaras Tourism Situation Report offered any direct insight into the Guimaras market. Nevertheless, enough data existed that, when combined with judgments from those in the industry, a useful; delineation of the market was constructed. Table 6 is a statistical profile of tourism on Guimaras. Perhaps the most revealing finding about the Guimaras market is the shallow overnight and foreigner market. Based on the assumptions cited in Table 6, only 1,750 of the high spending overnight and foreign visitors came to Guimaras of a total 11,220 visitors. This represents an average of only five per day. In June an estimated average of just one foreign or overnight tourist per day arrived in. Guimaras! Another significant finding was the importance of seasonality on Guimaras. January is the peak month for foreigners and the months of August, September, and October are the peak months for local tourists. The one departure from this on-season and off-season cycle is the large inflow of local visitors to see the Pagtaltal sa Guimaras festival in April. Basically, the existing tourist market is weak. Extensive promotion has been a critical aspect to the success of some of the exclusive resorts. For example, the workshop was not attended by two of the most active tourism operators who were in Europe promoting their products. However, because there is an existing market, marketing and promotion can have an important impact on the near term market conditions. This is due to the fact that marketing is often successful at: 1) enticing visitors to stay longer; 2) luring people to spend more money; and 3) level out seasonality. 82 O — <o S « Q > t o> < Q. f s f l o •o re E +3 U) LU 5* O c re Q. 3 O U O T3 m o re a ra O IH e9 s o H 09 ! -C9 s a •** «+-o s o i. OH \© C9 H a, .52 re = 2 .i ,2 LU z o (0 > re •*-» o t re c re T3 c s U O - J CO CD CM CD CD in 00 CN CO CO CM CO CM CM CO 'XI ID co CO c o. o CO > t CO c CO T3 CU sz -*—' c o T3 CU CO i _ co CU -Q C ' cu >. O a3 i _ > o '*= •ti CJ CO cu > to t- cu >< o c co Q_ O o o • 22 c >> > E co _ co co o <u o cn — e 2 o o cu C CO CO > "E e o cn -> cu E o CO «•-cu | CM £ -2> co •2> c co C CM 0) CD ^ £ "a c =5 ^ « O O O " D I CU S Q 3 — a. CO CO 0 o 1 ° » o jE w CO ai § i o w |W ^ _ t; c co .2? co a. > co 3 o a> 3 _ cn fi < L _ TO " "to ro Z3 c « j2 8 ^ o g §> CO C (|) CO CM "D co co -2 cu 0 9 E E cu w w .22 co io _c < < I-CN co ^ in 00 The participants were asked to think about a 'farm tourism' concept that considered these market conditions. A brief characterization of existing, potential near-term (two to five years) and potential long-term (more than five years) markets were presented. (Appendix C describes these markets in full). The existing market was broken down into three sectors: the exclusive resort market - consisting of 15% of all arrivals to Guimaras with 4-30 day visits; the international travel market ~r consisting of 10% of all arrivals with 2-3 day visits; and the local market - consisting of 75% of all arrivals with one day guest visits. The near-term market was determined to need a two to five year time horizon. The prime target market for this segment would be the growing Iloilo tourism market (especially the foreign travellers), the residents of Iloilo and Bacolod, and the Region VI colleges and universities. Finally, the long term market, those which would require more than five years to develop, were identified as the existing Western Visayas tourism market, the large Manila market including the expatriate community, and the international market (especially colleges and universities). 5.3 Objectives-Focused Planning A review of objectives, their importance and how they were to be used during the workshop followedthe presentatiotrofthe market conditions. Participants were again urged to add any objectives they felt were missing or discuss any existing objectives. One participant noted the importance of international relations and recognition. Apparently provinces can establish relationships directly with other countries. All participants agreed that this was desirable for Guimaras in terms of image, prestige and marketability. It was also agreed that this represented a 84 fundamental objective. While it could not be included in the prioritisation session that followed, participants were asked to consider it when discussing alternatives. Participants were then asked to prioritize the list of objectives using a 0-100 scale to weight preferences. Ties were allowed. The primary purpose of the ranking exercise was to give the participants a chance to reflect on what they were trying to achieve with the Farm Tourism project. Prioritization was initiated with end-objectives first, followed by sub-objectives. In other words, all fundamental objectivesi;were weighted against each other, then under each fundamental objective, the first-tier sub-objectives were weighted, and so on. This approach was selected because it emphasises the overall decision setting, more appropriate in cases when participants are unfamiliar with the problem in question [Hamalainen, Salo and Poysti 1995]. Furthermore, it was hoped that by organizing the objectives in the means-end relationship, a positional familiarity with a broad range of objectives would foster more creative thinking about potential Farm Tourism alternatives. The ranking also pressed them to begin to conceptualize about difficult trade-offs between objectives and reflect on their own value systems. Finally, the ranking results could be used to help evaluate proposed alternatives. Any ranking exercise requires that a range of possible consequences be made explicit. The ranking then indicates the relative importance of changing an objective from its least desirable state to its most desirable consequence. To establish ranges for the objectives, participants were asked to think about the differences in achieving objectives that might arise when considering the choice between not developing 'farm tourism' at all (maintaining the status quo) and developing 'farm tourism' as they now understood it on Guimaras. They were told that the importance of an objective should increase as the range of achievement increases [Gregory and Keeney 1992]. It 85 was stressed that Prioritization should reflect the value differences related to the alternatives and not their general values in life [Hamalainen, Salo and Poysti 1995]. The participants were then asked to keep their ranking sheets and, as alternatives were clarified or created, they should adjust their ranking accordingly. They were given opportunities to do this throughout the day and time was established for this specific purpose at the end of the workshop. Some participants made extensive changes while other made none. This iterative process was intended to make the participants; mom comfortable and familiar with the objectives and the trade-offs they were making. The primary purpose of the ranking exercise was to incite a qualitative understanding of relationships among objectives through the quantitative exercise. Additional analysis shed light on strategic project directions based on the prioritized objectives. It should be noted that any ranking, particularly averaged rankings, cannot be interpreted directly as indicating the importance of different objectives. However, they do indicate that across a broad range of possible outcomes the more desired direction of preference may be discerned [Gregory and Keeney 1992]. For example, using an average of the normalized individual rankings, the fundamental objective of'promoting an improved standard of living and quality of life' was ranked first with a normalized weight of .280. 'Maximizing environmental quality' ranked second with a normalized weight of .273. This indicates that under the range of respective outcomes, improving the standard of living and quality of life is judged to be more important than maximizing environmental quality to most participants. Due to time constraints in preparing this work, a complete review of the rankings was not possible. The average rank for the fundamental objectives and first-tier means objectives are listed in Table 7. The difficulty in using numerical weighting exercises, especially averages, to draw conclusions is highlighted by the seemingly contrary results displayed in Table 8. Here, the range 86 of individual rankings and the percentage of individuals that ranked the corresponding objective as most important is displayed (as mentioned, ties were allowed explaining the redundancies and why the percentages do not add up to 100%). As shown, thirty six percent of the participants ranked 'promoting sustainable economic benefits' as the second most important objective, although its weighted average placed it fourth. Similarly, no participant ranked promotion of sustainable economic benefits last, indicating (directly opposite to the average weighting) that among all the participants, none, felt it was the least important;objective 87 Table 7: Averaged Ranking and Normalized Weighting of Objectives by the Workshop Participants Fundamental Weight Rank Means Weight Rank Maximize Sustainable Economic Benefits 0.266 4 Strengthen Cooperatives 0.089 1 Promote employment opportunities 0.089 2 Promote access to funds/capital 0.081 8 Promote equitable distribution of economic 0.084 5 benefits Minimize economic leakages 0.083 7 Promote labor intensive 0.081 10 activities Promote favorable investment climate 0.078 12 Promote food self-sufficiency 0.084 6 Promote balanced economic development 0.086 3 Promote efficient transportation 0.084 4 Minimize opportunity costs 0.081 9 Promote efficient use of resources 0.080 11 (materials and energy) Promote an Improved Standard of Living and 0.280 1 Quality of Life Improve delivery of basic 0.208 2 services Promote a manageable and stable 0.187 5 population Promote local cultural heritage 0.195 4 Promote strong community 0.201 3 morals Promote educational 0.209 1 opportunities Maximize Environmental Quality, 0.273 2 Promote environmental preservation •- <• ••••• 0.211 1 Promote Rehabilitation (fbrests,~critical ' ; v 0.208 2 watersheds, coral reefs) Minimize visual degradation of landscape 0.193 4 Conserve agricultural and agri-forestry land 0.198 3 (specifically irrigated land) Minimize pollution 0.191 5 Promote Equitable Institutional Development 0.269 3 Promote people empowerment Promote an efficient and coordinated provincial government 0.506 0.494 1 2 88 Table 8: Range of Rankings by the Workshop Participants Highest Lowest % Who Ranked HOW TO READ TABLE 7 Rank Rank it #1 Promote employment opportunities 1 11 45% Maximize Sustainable Economic Benefits 1 3 36% Strengthen Cooperatives 1 12 64% Promote employment opportunities 1 11 45% Maximize participation of disadvantaged and impoverished 1 4 33% Maximize participation of women 1 3 50% Promote employment of underemployed 1 3 50% Promote employment of unemployed 1 4 50% Promote access to funds/capital 1 10 18% Promote equitable distribution of economic benefits 1 27% Maximize real income to the individual/household 1 6 50% Maximize revenue to private interests (non-residents of Guimaras) 1 6 33% Maximize revenue to barangay governments 1 6 33% Maximize revenue to municipal governments 1 6 33% Maximize revenue to provincial governments 1 4 33% Maximize revenue to federal government 1 5 33% Minimize economic leakages 1 11 9% Promote local area investment 1 2 67% Promote local ownership 1 3 67% Promote local purchasing 1 3 33% Promote labor intensive activities 4 12 0% Promote favorable investment climate 1 12 9% Minimize inflation 1 2 83% Promote political stability 1 2 33% Promote food self-sufficiency 1 27% Promote balanced economic development 1 10 45% Promote agricultural activities 1 2 67% Promote tourism 1 4 50% Promote cottage industries 1 4 50% Promote small scale industrial activities 1 3 83% Promote efficient transportation 1 12 27% Upgrade terrestrial transport systems (e.g. roads) 1 2 83% Improve port facilities (sea, air) 1 2 67% Minimize opportunity costs 1 11 9% Avoid unplanned, project specific, irreversible development 1 3 50% Promote stronger land use/zoning ordinances 1 1 100% Promote stronger monitoring and enforcement 1 2 50% Promote efficient use of resources (materials and energy) 1 9% Promote recycling 1 2 83% Minimize waste 1 2 83% Promote an Improved Standard of Living and Quality 1 3 64% of Life Improve delivery of basic services 1 4 64% Promote reliable and affordable energy 1 8 50% Promote energized households 1 7 33% Promote potable water availability 1 7 83% Promote improved sanitation 1 8 33% Promote improved solid waste management 1 6 33% Promote access to tertiary education opportunities 1 6 17% Promote safety and security 1 5 33% Promote health services 1 4 67% Promote a manageable and stable population 1 9% Lower population growth 1 2 50% Reduce rural to urban migration 1 2 50% Promote local cultural heritage 1 18% Maintain peace and tranquil character of island 1 2 50% Maintain strong family cohesion 1 2 67% Promote strong community morals, 1 18% Minimize excessive alcohol consumption 1 3 67% Minimize gambling 1 2 50% Minimize prostitution 1 3 67% Promote educational opportunities 1 45% Promote human resource training 1 1 100% Develop innovative/non-traditional approaches 1 2 60% Maximize Environmental Quality 1 4 18% Promote environmental preservation 1 55% Promote protection/identification of outstanding natural areas 1 4 67% Promote protection of biologically important public lands 1 3 67% Promote protection of vulnerable areas 1 4 50% Maintain integrity of environmentally constrained/high risk areas 1 4 67% Promote Rehabilitation (forests, critical watersheds, coral 1 5 36% reefs) Minimize visual degradation of landscape 1 4 18% Conserve agricultural and agri-forestry land (specifically 1 5 27% irrigated land) Minimize pollution 1 5 36% Promote Equitable Institutional Development 1 4 18% Promote people empowerment 1 2 82% Promote community organizations 1 2 67% Promote integration of local organizations in planing process 1 2 67% Promote an efficient and coordinated provincial 1 2 55% government Promote technical organizational capacities/training 1 2 50% Promote organizational communication 1 2 83% Clearly, as many of the participants expressed, all the objectives listed were important. Most also commented on the difficulty of making trade-offs. However, trade-offs are critical to policy development and project design, and the objectives ranking does highlight objectives that clearly should be pursued in project design. Furthermore, the exercise demonstrated that individuals will make different choices, indicating truer direction of preference, when given a more comprehensive range of objectives. For example, several of the sub-objectives dominated both the averaged weighting analysis and the primary choice analysis, specifying that they should greatly impact the Farm Tourism Project. These objectives are: (a) strengthening cooperative, (b) promoting employment opportunities, (c) promoting balanced economic development, (d) improving basic services, (e) promoting environmental preservation and (f) promoting people empowerment. This list of the critical means-objectives occasionally mirror and significantly expand upon the original set of objectives listed in the local MOA, which, as you may recall: (1) the development of cooperative managerial skills, (2) strengthening of cooperatives, (3) showcasing farming, and (4) creating an awareness of environmental conservation. In this way, the ranking exercise provides very important insights into the problem as well as being an invaluable 'self-reflection' learning device for planners and decision makers. Finally, the exercise recommended priorities and provided a basis for developing alternatives. 5.4 Creating And Clarifying Alternatives By design, the majority of the day was spent in a group discussion of Farm Tourism alternatives. Before lunch, the participants were once again reminded to think about 'farm tourism' in terms of the market conditions and to use the objectives to think creatively about new 91 alternatives that might better meet these objectives. Finally, if any specific constraints were discussed they were to be written down and brought up later in the afternoon. 5.5 Defining Farm Tourism Before specific alternatives were offered for group discussion, each participant was asked to discuss the subject with those near him or her and then to write down whatever they felt was important to 'farm tourism'. This process lasted through our "working lunch." In a brainstorming session after lunch, each participant offered an answer to the question: What is 'farm tourism'? In an attempt to create an environment which fosters creativity and innovation, all ideas were to be expressed and no judgements or comments were to be made until everyone had exhausted their list of ideas [Fisher and Ury 1981]. Furthermore, any individuals who felt constrained by English were encouraged to use Hiligaynon. Amparo Bunctad, the Provincial Tourism director, then translated these comments for the benefit of participants who understood only English. Some participants felt constrained by the term 'farm' and felt that it inhibited their vision of the project. The term 'farm' seemed to preclude opportunities such as 'history' and 'religion,' which could be shared with the visitors and instil a sense of place similar to the touted agrarian options. These expanded opportunities seemed to complement each other, bonding a common cultural past and were difficult to, separate. Still other participants easily discussed issues unrelated to the topics (e.g., incorporating scuba diving into the 'farm tourism' concept). Regarded by many as simply a name, the "Farm Tourism" label could be the source for disagreement and limiting opportunity. As Gregory and Keeney [1992] observed: "Disagreements tend to occur when the initial statement of the decision context explicitly or implicitly rules out either objectives or alternatives that certain stakeholders consider important. To reach consensus, 92 one needs to remove the constraint on excluded objectives or alternatives." The group immediately supported any expression of 'farm tourism' and the limiting context proved to have little immediate consequence. The participants agreed that it was only a "metaphorical" term. Using participants words and images, the following definition was offered: Box 2: Farm Tourism Definition Based on Workshop Discussions Farm Tourism is a metaphorical term which means to provide visitors with a place for quiet meditation and give them the opportunity to actively learn about Guimaras' rural heritage.32 5.6 Farm Tourism Alternatives Although many participants claimed little understanding of 'farm tourism', many thoughtful and viable ideas were articulated. All the participants felt that 'farm tourism' should be activity based and a learning experience. Issues of authenticity; scale, spatial distribution, temporal influences, and the importance of place promoted a rich dialogue, answering the fundamental question: what is the most appropriate form of farm tourism' for Guimaras? 5.6.1 An Activity Based and Education Oriented Foundation The issues of education and learning were woven throughout the dialogue. Having interpretative tours and well trained guides were considered essential. A continuous sensitivity would be needed as to who the tourist is, what they might know or not know, and, hence, what they may want to learn about. For example, Filipinos, Americans or Japanese may be more This definition was reviewed at a follow-up meeting. There, the need for re-evaluation was stressed. Also, acting as facilitator, I suggested that they might include the host population more directly. Because the term farm tourism has limiting connotations and might impact image, marketing and appropriate product labels, the author suggested heritage tourism as a better descriptor for Guimarasnon's vision of farm tourism. Still, it provided a starting point for Guimarasnons to self-define the farm tourism project on Guimaras. 93 interested in battle sites and history. On the other hand, a European tourist might be more excited to know the difference between a jack-fruit tree and a casoy (cashew) tree. Learning opportunities should not be limited to tourists. Alluding to the market potential, participants commented on the chance to develop educational facilities and incorporate national and international students into the "Pas Pas Guimaras" development program. Through the 'farm tourism' scheme, opportunities were cited for student study sites and field trips. Finally, one participant noted that education andlearning should be extended to local and regional farmers who either live in Guimaras, or who are on vacation and would want to learn about new farming innovations and technology. Once again, opportunities to work with universities and the Office of Provincial Agriculture (OPA) could be established by creating a synergistic program where visitors-students-scientists-professionals commingle. 5.6.2 Control - Spontaneity A part of the workshop was spent discussing activities which are controlled or contrived as compared to those which are spontaneous or authentic. Management and the specific event would influence the experience. Controlled situations (e.g., festivals, plays, shows, exhibitions) could include a guide or a group. Of course, these situations can become authentic over time (e.g., Pagtaltal sa Guimaras) and: in today's "global village" this distinction becomes less and less important. The participants were enthusiastic about the possibility of enticing residents of lloilo and Bacolod to Guimaras through festivals and events. Often, if the tourists understand that the experience is for their benefit, it can ease any feelings of angst they might have experienced otherwise. Still, the authentic and/or spontaneous experience can have a lasting effect and be more 3 3 In early 1977 the Philippines launched the "Reunion for Peace" program to attract former American, Japanese and Australian soldiers [Richter 1989]. Guimaras could promote or participate in this kind of program. 94 rewarding to the visitor and host. Regardless of its authenticity, participants were in general agreement that reviving old festivals, like planting and harvesting celebrations, would be popular with local residents and help instil a sense of place as well as be a tourist attraction. The following is a list of activity oriented ideas that could be used with guides or interpretative material/signs that came out of the workshop: Box 3: Farm Tourism Opportunities from the Workshop Festivals and Events Reviving planting and harvesting festivals; Native food festivals A "market day" festival (weekly?) Regattas fiestas Carabao racing Christmas Tree Festival Exhibitions Cottage Industries34 One product for one area Reforestation and SALT technology at Macopo Falls Unique wines exhibits SEAFDEC Tatlong Marine Sanctuary Fish Ponds, Oyster Farms Mango Research Center General Activities & Tours Allow tourist to plow fields, milk cow, feed milk fish etc. Allow tourists to go out with fisherfolk. Well trained guides were considered an essential component to the 'farm tourism' product and one that could be established prior to, and independent of, the more involved alternatives discussed. In fact, this was considered by many to be a priority issue that should be addressed at the municipal level where a "community" guide services could be offered. Before the municipalities aggressively pursue tourism, a tourism office should be created to regulate as well as promote tourism. A complete list of handicrafts and other industries with touristic potential is listed in the 1995 Guimaras Situation Report. 95 5.6.3 Alternative 1: Excursion Farm Tourism An excursionist is a day visitor. In the context of developing 'farm tourism', excursions would take place from either the resorts or from lloilo or Bacolod. Excursion Farm Tourism would take advantage of the existing tourism market (local and foreign) on the island by designing specific 'tours' to events, exhibitions, and activities. Also the development of festivals ("everybody loves a party" said one participant) would appeal initially to this large excursion market. The tours could be led by a trained guide or guide-brochure. Close coordination with the resorts of Guimaras and promotion in the Iloilo/Bacolod would be required. The location of the events, exhibitions, activities, or places to be interpreted would be spatially dispersed. All participants agreed that this concept was solid and could be implemented quickly. It would not require any large investments in infrastructure and would serve as an essential starting point to expand the 'farm tourism' concept. 5.8.2 Alternative 2: Barangay Farm Tourism Barangay Farm Tourism is spatially expansive and calls for tourism development in selected barangays throughout the island. Of course, the primary recipients would be the members of the Federation of Cooperatives. Most participants felt that to learn about farm-life is to learn about barangay-life.Thisalternative included three possible sub-concepts:-1) a barangay lodge; 2) a guesthouse (a separate house but associated with a family); and, 3) a homestay or bed-and-breakfast program. Of all the alternatives discussed, the idea of Barangay Farm Tourism received the most discussion. There were many comments from participants about why it was an appealing alternative. First, it would allow for an unconstrained amount of time with locals which would allow for 96 friendships to be formed which in turn would foster return visits. Second, it would put money directly into the local barangays and reduce economic leakages. Third, it would allow for an authentic experience and give visitors a real chance to be involved with community and farming life. Fourth, each barangay could be considered unique and help with the diversifying of the tourism product. This concept should be developed on both the coast and in the hills. On the other hand, adverse impacts from this kind of concept could also be significant. Having direct contact with people from other cultures and socio-economic groups with differing value systems could cause disruption within the community. It was suggested that this concept would require extensive training and education for both the barangay and the tourist. Training and education could be fast-tracked through the DOT and their "National Homestay Program." It was felt that guidelines or a brochure would be insufficient for the tourists and a verbal orientation would be necessary before they enter the barangay (i.e., do not give candy or pesos to children as this can rot teeth and/or foster a generation of casual beggars). Also, something should be done to address the side comment of one foreign female participant. She drew attention to "an uncomfortable feeling" or a feeling on the street that foreigners are not completely welcome in part due to the gazes and unsolicited comments received as a stranger (i.e., "Hey Joe!"). The point was also raised that the barangays should seek to become involved with this type of program and that the most touristically attractive areas should be developed first. This might be a barangay on the sea with there are fishing activities, farming activities, swimming/snorkelling activities. There are two sources which could assist in identifying potential barangays. First, the provincial CDA has mapped out interested cooperatives around the island. Second, the Canadian Urban Institute has conducted an extensive consultation with barangays and included a tourism component which would further assist in identifying potential barangays. However, it was duly 97 noted that these barangays have no experience with tourists, adding to the uncertainty and limiting the barangay's ability to contribute substantive input. An incremental approach with a well monitored pilot project was suggested to account for foreseen problems. Finally, the issue of privacy was discussed. Each of the concepts implies a different level of privacy for both the family and the guest. Privacy was discussed as both a daily living issue and a seasonal issue. For example, if the site is a seasonally popular place, then having visitors sporadically and only during certain months-would be far different than having visitors consistently occupying a back room. The level of impact could be directly associated with duration of contact and number of visitors. Good management could alleviate these problems. Nothing more was resolved at the workshop but the issue was raised and should be investigated further. A brief discussion of who benefits and who pays was initiated. Obviously the cooperatives are the beneficiaries, but if the project is in a barangay then the entire community bears some cost and should benefit. Then there was a question of ownership, would a lodge be owned by cooperative members as would be the case in a bed-and-breakfast home stay or would a small barangay lodge be developed and commonly managed by the local cooperative? No conclusions were drawn but clearly there are many issues to be worked out with this alternative. 5.8.3 Alternative 3: Farm Estate As discussed, the farm estate alternative was the most familiar to many of the participants. The concept is spatially specific to the site near the capital of San Miguel at Macopo Falls where road and tree nursery construction have been initiated. The concept calls for construction of an entire farm (crops, livestock, fishponds, etc.) and a lodge/farm estate on a site. The model identified was Villa Escudero near Manila. Villa Escudero is a plantation retreat frequented by 98 wealthy urbanites from Manila. Villa Escudero is an old and stylish place with a long tradition. Old trees, procreant vegetation and antique furnishing create an atmosphere rich in the authentic heritage. Offered for discussion was a farm estate concept that could incorporate into it a sub-component for the national and international college/university market. This would probably be a hostel type building and could be modelled after the Tatlong Marine Research Center.. Of course, this would be an agricultural research center and experimental farm. Involving students would give vibrancy to the farm-and perhaps help level-out the, seasonality now prevalent in Guimaras. It was also suggested that a possible university and scientific research center could also be located at another site, but this would mean a loss of the efficiencies that would come with an integrated project. Several concerns were raised in response to this alternative. First, the site is relatively isolated with no direct public transport. Second, the slope of the site will limit the variety of crops that can be produced there. Third, nobody could confirm or deny reports that Macopo Falls, when it is running, is polluted from the drainage off the market area located only a short distance up-stream. Although it appeared clean when visited, this has the potential of being a health hazard. Fourth, the raw newness of the site would pose a great challenge to effort to mimic Villa Escudero. Finally, the most significantplanning.constraint on this site is the fact that it will take at least five years before the OPA could develop a working and interesting farm. The OP A representative identified agriculture procurement procedures that take from three to six months as an additional problem to be considered when planning for tourism development in tandem with agricultural development. There was general agreement that the site would provide a good exhibition for a reforestation program (with the plant-a-tree.program)... 99 Figure 4: Farm Tourism Alternatives and Market Potentials FOUNDATION Activity Based Education Oriented DISTINCTIONS Controlled - Contrived Spontaneous - Authentic 1 it ALTERNATIVES Estate Farm Tourism Exhibit - Event - Festival Farm Tourism Barangay Farm Tourism Exclusive Resort Intl. Traveler Local Tourism & Future Education & Future Education GUIMARAS MARKET SEGMENTS lloilo Tourism , Resident lloilo and Bacolod Local Colleges and Universities West Visayas Tourism, Manila, . International Market NEAR TERM POTENTIAL MARKET (2-5 YEARS) LONG TERM POTENTIAL MARKETS (5+ YEARS) 100 5.9 ADDITIONAL CONCERNS 5.9.1 Seasonality The importance of seasonality was brought up as a key consideration. This would be especially important when promoting and developing either Event Farm Tourism or the Barangay Farm Tourism. For example, an event about rice growing would be interesting when there is an activity associated with it such as planting, harvesting or plowing. Similarly, tourists wishing to stay in a barangay would want to visit during a season when there is much activity, like harvesting or when the mangoes are ripe. Clearly, if a specific barangay would reawaken rituals or festivals associated with this activity, it would be even more attractive. The drawback here is that the family would be very busy (hence the touristic interest) and having visitors could prove to be an excessive strain. For the farm estate concept, seasonality should also be considered. Because of the limited crop opportunities on the site, the touristic interest of.the estate would be limited to only a few seasons. This means the estate visitors would, in essence, become excursionists similar to those from the resorts. 5.9.2 Miscellaneous In all the alternatives, participants reiterated the need to have it be natural and fit into the environmental and human landscape. This implied a sense of scale and appropriate design. The idea of developing a "one product-one place" identity (e.g., pineapple fibre weaving or cashew wine) for barangays was suggested as a way of focusing interest. The promotion of organic farming was also suggested as a worthy direction for 'farm tourism'.to take. Local products should 101 always be for sale at point of tour, event or exhibit and all participants should buy locally produced goods. 6.0 PHASING None of the alternatives identified were deemed to be mutually exclusive. Trade-offs among alternatives and between objectives would be made over the issue of timing. Participants devoted particular attention to phasing in order to resolve these trade-offs. Influencing the dialogue was new information presented during the course of the workshop. Foremost, the small level of tourism demand would constrain any short term concept. The DOT emphatically stated that they could not simply produce demand for whatever product was developed. Well focused marketing and sufficient time would be needed to martial in demand for a pioneer project like 'farm tourism'. According to the regional tourism office, planners should not expect to establish a viable market niche for a product like estate tourism "for at least five years" [pers. comm. H: Camarista 7/95]. The DOT projection compounded the OP A input that at least five years were needed to develop the Macopo Falls site. Therefore, while developing events, exhibitions and tours, participant felt that the Excursion Farm Tourism market and the barangay tourism market should be developed first. A preliminary phasing program is suggested in Table 9. The proposed phasing has a number of advantages. First, it reduces the financial exposure of the project and helps avoid an expensive fiasco. Second, because this is a pioneering effort, the opportunity for an incremental approach (which fortunately Guimaras has with these well defined alternatives) allows basic knowledge to be discovered and perhaps most importantly, it allows key project personnel to gain valuable project specific experience. Third, a more complete understanding of how different alternatives impact desired objectives will be developed. Fourth, the Farm Tourism Project can mesh with provincial and municipal plans now being developed. 102 cn o so cu S s-3 o H E « U c2 be ,g « O H t 3 cu b£ bl) S (Z> oo « H U J to Q. |u> n >-re cu >-l LU re >-UJ V) 0. re OJ >-re I * 3 O o 0 1 c o "•3 re ••-» c 0> T3 C re o> co re CO > '•+-» CO 0) LL c o ' o cu TO "CU " J 0) S I L U C ^ I •= CO 5 o X "O L U L U o CO a> a. sz •4-* E .2 £ 3 § o = E k_ re u. c o 'to k-3 o X LU o o O <u CO CO CD 0 2 sz to 1 s E SJ co a> o CD re LL >» re ra c re L . re m c CO 0) Q _= cu E a. o cu > CD a cn c; O pi c O I: CD CO o X co "55 Q_ D) O T3 W E E c CO CO CO LL LL a. GL o o .2 £ i_ .cn 0 aj 3 CO > > o cu cu cu r- O Q Q a LL 0) ra (0 LU T3 CU E CO CO co o cn ZJ o cn c U-J co _g co > cu "a c co cn c o o E cn c c c: ro CL cn c s= cu .. -»-» c .22 cu i= E 1 & -s c? ro C CO co E X3 cu Z3 c c o O c cu E cu cn ra tz co CHAPTER V; CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING DISCUSSION 1.0 Discussion on Field Research 1.1 General Conclusions The Farm Tourism workshop successfully established important local area values, positioning them within the national and regional framework. Additionally, local knowledge, including competingjor complementaryfprograms; as well as site specific considerations, were integrated into the planning process. Finally, the positional embrace of the 'farm estate' concept by many key Farm Tourism personnel was expanded, while being harmonized with the unarticulated and dissonant undercurrent of random ideas in the community. Simply put, a broad range of alternatives were created and clarified. The workshop signalled the need for planners and stakeholders to recognize the novelty of introducing 'farm tourism' into a province that is aggressively trying to "catch up" with the nation and the world. Although difficult, responsible and effective sustainable tourism planning will require a commitment of both effort and time among all stakeholders. Indeed, an incremental advancement of the project will help develop a much needed local understanding of 'farm tourism' implications and successful project.implementation. Special consideration needs to be given to the impacts of tourism. Lessons, such as the German pedophiles who were deported from Guimaras and the cumulative impacts of coral and shell collection by local tourists, are examples of lessons Guimaras is learning from - and should prepare for by installing proper regulation and education programs to avoid similar incidents.35 3 5 The people on Guimaras must be very aware of these impacts. Even one international consultant was touting resource exploitation such as butterfly collection, something that without foresight could destroy the existing resource base as it has done in places in South America. 104 One issue that should receive more attention is the actual community participation in tourism planning, as opposed to representative community participation. The participatory consultation process of all ninety-six barangays, completed by the Canadian Urban Institute in 1995, educated and empowered Guimarasnons in terms of accessing the public planning processes. This in turn has established the foundation for substantive community participation. Community participation, sensitive expert involvement, and a process that, very early on, establishes regulatory controls that are in line with local objectives,, will help to ensure sustainable tourism development. Sustainable tourism planning needs active patience to weave ongoing consultation with incremental development and social learning. Tourism is a fickle industry and should not be over-relied upon. Planners should also be aware that tourism tends to promote social inequities, and without proper safeguards, even the progressive Farm Tourism Project is susceptible. The project should not be thought of a quick cure or rapid way to catch-up, but an investment for the future. When considering the Farm Tourism Project on Guimaras, it is worthwhile to reflect on general aspects that have been common in other small-scale tourism enterprises. These are listed below and aspects that are particularly relevant to Guimaras have been emboldened. 1. The infrastructure is more than adequate for local needs, and can absorbed additional visitors - at least seasonal.or ,temporary:guests without disruption to the local economy. [This could be a serious constraint as most transport on Guimaras is now overcrowded]. 2. The government is able to bring in or provide supplemental services, including health and/or disaster relief, for both the home population and the visitors, should need arise. [Tourism development could foster more rapid provision of services]. 3. The indigenous population welcomes visitors because they provide a new interest and a break in the monotony of routine living. 4. The presence of visitors may stimulate handicraft markets and become an outlet for sale of locally made goods. 105 5. The visitors form an appreciative audience for cultural performances that help preserve ethnic/national heritage [e.g., Pagtaltal sa Guimaras Festival]. 6. Hosts and guests have a common language so that a discourse is truly meaningful. 7. Hosts and gusts share some mutual basis for identity - i.e. they are members o the same religious faith/sect; they share common job skills, as farmer-to-farmer, or they have mutual friends or relatives. 8. The visitors and the visited work together on a project deemed locally important - e.g. construction or a needed community center. Shared experiences become enduring and bonds. 9. The age groups are somewhat parallel, thereby reflecting peer group interests. 10. The behavior of the guests conforms to the local mores, in dress and life style. By the end of the workshop, it was clear that contributions from the participants had been exhausted. The alternatives generated during the workshop and articulated in the subsequent final report must to ferment in the minds of the participants and readers, hopefully distilling ever more concepts, opportunities and constraints relative to the Guimaras Farm Tourism Pilot Project. The results of the workshop should be seen as just one of many steps required in the dynamic evolution the Farm Tourism Project. 1.2 Recommendations And Future Research Listed below, are the more prominent recommendations and specific opportunities for future research regarding the Guimaras Cooperative Farm Tourism Pilot Project. • Alternatives should be more fully developed and modified based on deeper thinking about the project, additional research and on-going project experience. • More and better statistics relating to all aspects of tourism on Guimaras are needed, in particular information from tourist feed-back and resort owner input as well as identification for opportunities to draw in tourists from the quickly overcrowding Boracay market; 106 • More education and training at all levels of provincial tourism and education of tourists, including domestic tourists; • Need to establish a clear direction for tourism, including 'farm tourism', to give some policy basis for grounded dialogue in future resource conflicts (e.g., the Dorilag cement factory conflict); • More research on successful local initiatives, outside of Boracay, should be compiled and combined with an involved objectives by alternatives matrix analysis; • The Farm Tourism Project should pursue the strategic objectives unveiled in the workshop and be responsive the desires of the community, create a product that attractive to tourists and.promote^ sustainable tourism development. • Once initiated, the specific project successes and deficiencies should be evaluated using the criteria established in the objectives hierarchy and appropriate program changes could be made. • Perhaps most importantly, research should be done involving evaluation and monitoring of the project to promote mitigation and project design alterations and sharing results with the international tourism community. 1.3 Potential Contributions to Provincial Planning More work should be done to refine the objectives hierarchy. A well constructed and detailed hierarchy could provide an effective comparative analytical and evaluative tool for program and policy analysis throughout the province. A specific and timely application of the hierarchy could provide a basis for the "scaling up" or integration of barangay plans and provincial plans at the municipal level (a.process currently underway). Use of the objectives hierarchy could help to establish stronger linkages between all forms of industry. 2.0 Discussion on MODA MODA proved to be an effective method to help structure and provide insight into Farm Tourism Project decision making. With limited time and resources, MODA established a logical process that was intuitively grasp by stakeholders on Guimaras, perhaps because it genuinely 107 embraces what proponents of the method call "a formalization of common sense" [Keeney 1982]. In terms of this thesis, MODA substantially contributed to background research on tourism, initial field research, specific workshop preparation, the workshop itself and follow-up analysis. 2.1 MODA in Respect to the Larger Conceptual Framework In the most general sense, MODA methodology centered thesis research efforts. In the complex tourism industry,; where highly fragmented information and many unclear interest groups dominate, MODA provided a lucid approach for establishing context, identifying deficiencies in the literature and drawing-out fundamental objectives essential for sustainable tourism planning. MODA supported a brief 'objectives by alternatives' analysis of prominent sustainable tourism planning processes. The literature review of tourism planning alternatives would have benefited from a more in-depth analysis including explicit structure of objectives and an objectives by alternatives matrix analysis, butt for the purpose of this thesis, the descriptive overview sufficed. Finally, constrained by sustainable tourism planning objectives, MODA provided an alternative method for applied tourism planning. 2.2 Practical Applications of MODA Field research in the Philippines benefited from the systematic MODA process, quickly identifying critical gaps in the data, providing an opportunity for the contribution of all stakeholders and expert judgment and easily incorporating 'new' information (i.e. market constraints) into the decision process. This was of paramount importance in data scarce Guimaras. MODA proved effective because it distinguished between values and technical information. This discriminating factor allowed stakeholders with no tourism experience to 108 substantively contribute to the decision process through their value contributions. In turn, a friendly environment of participation was engendered while opening avenues for internalization and responsibility among the participating group. Value elicitation interview techniques inherent in the MODA approach were a fundamental to structuring the problem and directing future research efforts. MODA was particularly effective in the workshop setting where the semi-structured forum promoted face to face stakeholders participation. By incorporating brainstorming techniques with a multiple objective focus, group dialogue advanced many clear alternatives, moved many participants away from pre-established positions, promoted group learning and resulted in a general consensus about the future direction of the project. 2.3 MODA and the Importance of Verbal Communication Planning and decision making on Guimaras depends on a very powerful verbal component. Reliance on verbal communication could be, in part, attributed to tradition and the lack of report making technology (i.e., computers and word processors). Interviews reaffirmed local reliance on verbal communication as most interviewees had not read relevant reports • • 36 • * (especially reports produced by international consultants). Awareness of this important local planning nuance allowed for a more effective use of MODA. Group dialogue and follow-up meetings reiterated the results of the Farm Tourism workshop in an effort to substantiate, internalize and legitimize them. Often, international consultants paid little attention to process and achieving 'buy-in' but rather they concentrated on substance (i.e., their report). When the report did not skip immediately to the funding agency, a presentation was given to a local decision making body. The presentation, basically, was a sales pitch for their plan. Without substantial money and continued 'sales promotion' by the consultant, the report was set on a shelf and forgotten. 109 2.4 MODA and the Importance of Written Communication Nevertheless, the written material has been significant to the planning process. For example, the report describing the Farm Tourism workshop [Trousdale 1995] was used by 37 officials in Manila to secure the release of funds to Guimaras. Furthermore, Nartea would use the document as a basis for future planning, workshops and seminars. Finally, Farm Tourism personnel in Guimaras would have a reference for future dialogue. MODA provides a logical organizational flow for report presentation. 2.5 The Use Of Objectives and Objectives Ranking The participants felt that the objectives ranking exercise was worthwhile and insightful. It helped facilitate dialogue that contributed to the extremely important group learning aspect of the workshop. Using the objectives hierarchy to focus the discussion produced even more objectives (promote provincial relations with foreign countries). Providing an opportunity for project personnel to think about a wide range of objectives fortified the rational behind the project and identified specific strategic objectives. A familiarity with structured objectives noticeably contributed to the development of alternatives. Finally, the objectives hierarchy offers meaningful criteria and continuity for future project development evaluations. Using an objectives by alternatives matrix, information requirements can be identified and directly compared. Table 10 is a general example of this matrix. It has identified fundamental alternatives and objectives, with the most important sub-objectives listed. By filling out the boxes in the matrix, a more comprehensive understanding of the decision problem can be achieved. 3 7 Specifically, following a presentation to Nartea and General Lozada at the C D A in Manila, I was assured that the written results of the Farm Tourism workshop would secure the release of funds from the Office of the President. 110 Table 9: Information Requirements For Farm Tourism Decision Process ALTERNATIVES OBJECTIVES EXCURSION BARANGAY (Home Stay, Guest House, Lodge) FARM ESTATE ECONOMIC • Strengthening Cooperatives • Employment Opportunities • Balanced Development SOCIAL • Basic services • Educational Activities ENVIRONMENTAL • Environmental Preservation • Environmental Rehabilitation • Pollution INSTITUTIONAL • People Empowerment During the workshop, site specific constraints (i.e., market conditions, local agriculture procurement procedures) posed strong limitations on alternatives. Specific comparative analysis considering effects of the alternatives on important objectives was not necessary because consensus over the project direction was achieved. However, as the project develops, inevitable conflicts will arise. Conflicts are expected when more intricate phasing priorities are established, 38 * sub-alternatives are examined development, and the rate of phasing is discussed. A reflection on important objectives will be critical to making fundamental trade-offs that pursue important project objectives. 38For example, the Barangay Farm Tourism alternative must compare the homestay, guest house and barangay lodge options. I l l 2.6 The Problem of 'Expert as Facilitator' In the case study of Guimaras, a potential problem arose concerning the expert as facilitator. There was potential for excessive expert/facilitator influence (expert bias regarding both values and ideas) in the workshop and decision process. However, the context dictated this situation. While difficult to eliminate, this problem was minimized. First, there was a recognition and sensitivity to this potential pitfall by the expert. Group awareness of expert bias was initiated by explicitlynoting theiinherent conflict in front of the group before the workshop proceeds. Second, MODA strives to separate expertise and experience from values and objectives. In this way, the focus is on the objectives being pursued and the creation of alternatives, not what the expert believes. By using a broad decision context and establishing a comfortable environment for creative alternative development in a group setting, the possibility of stakeholders making better choices (achieving a wide range of objectives) was enhanced. The open the process promoted inquisitive questioning of the expert by the group, making the bias of the expert transparent while allowing the expert to introduce challenging ideas that fostered deeper thinking. In this way, an outside expert, acting as an 'agent of change,' provides the opportunity for the group to attempt new methods and explore new ideas without shouldering the responsibility of failure (i.e. Father Jamuyot, President of the Federation of Cooperatives, referred to the 'expert' to help validate the idea of a broad inclusion of stakeholders). Therefore, change, or serious discussion of change, can be more easily initiated from within the group (where it must be made to have any lasting effects) without radically disrupting existing networks, relationships and structures. This effort to 'keep the process in the comfort zone' by 112 using existing institutional structures and established relationships should promote more rapid institution of substantive change. 2.7 A Final Word on MODA and Sustainable Tourism Planning While the results from applying MODA to the problem of 'farm tourism' on Guimaras were robust, it is doubtful that the method, in its entirety, will be embraced by Guimarasnons in the future - particularly without the presents of analyst familiar with the method. However, some of the more important aspects of MODA were being incorporated into the local planning and decision making process after exposure to MODA. These included: efforts towards an inclusive process, discussions concerning creative alternatives, consideration of other programs through an understanding of multiple objectives and consideration of trade-offs, particularly who benefits and who bears the burden of tourism development. Two specific comments highlight the success of the MODA methodology in the workshop setting, and reflect the internalization of important aspects of process. First, at the follow-up meeting to the workshop Father Jamoyot, the President of the Federation of Cooperatives, articulated the need to expand the Farm Tourism Taskforce in order to include as many stakeholders as possible. Second, Father Jamoyot among others, reiterated the novel concept that the "site" should be the "Island of Guimaras" not simply the Macopo Falls site. While the conceptual approach used in this thesis might have potential for broad implementation, more advanced and quantitatively powerful extensions of this method (i.e., testing probability with Monte Carlo Simulation) would be more limited due to: limited expertise; general unfamiliarity with techniques; lack of high tech equipment to facilitate analysis (i.e. a computer); and lack of time and interest among key decision makers. 113 Furthermore, enormous advances were achieved by using the approach simply to structure, organize and open dialogue surrounding important issues. This supports the conclusion of Hamalainen, Salo and Pbysti [1992] that statistical analysis is "inadequate in the analysis of strategic or political group decisions..." but their specific reason "...because truly comparable groups cannot be formed," is beyond the findings of this thesis. Finally, the quantitative objectives ranking exercise would be useful in the appraisal of objectives. But, the workshop achieved the more important objective of value focused thinking - which is, according to Keeney [1988], "to better understand the decision situation, which could lead to identification of better alternatives, better communication, better use of data, and hopefully better decision making." Specific refinements of the methodology should be explored to make it more compatible with the local context. First, a more explicit analysis of the existing political and economic power structures and decision making processes on the island would allow MODA to more effectively address the needs of decision makers and could expressly promote the commonly stated goal of achieving stronger democracy through local empowerment. 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Provincial Physical Framework Plan of the Province of Guimaras, 1995-2002. (Jan. 1995). Guimaras Land Use Committee. Province of Guimaras. Tourism Master Plan for the Philippines. (1991). Department of Tourism. Manila. (WVRDP) Western Visayas Regional Development Plan, 1993-1998. (1992). NEDA. lloilo. 121 APPENDICES Appendix A: List of Individuals Interviewed While I spoke with many more people than are listed here, especially locals in informal settings, these are the people with whom I conducted at least one a semi-structured interview. Because personal relationships are very important in the Philippines, information is much easier to get through an iterative process, and in order to fill gaps in my data, most of the people on this list were interviewed more than once. 1. Andrew Malchevski, CUI Project Manager, Guimaras 2. Cristy Guzman-Ututlam, CUI Director, Guimaras 3. Tim Murphy, CUI Strategic Planning-and.EIA Consultant .; 4. Cecilia Ortiz, Provincial Director of Planning, Guimaras ; 5. Evan Arias, Planning Department, Guimaras 6. Florence Genovana, Planning Department, Guimaras 7. Cesar Segovia, Provincial Engineer at the Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, and Natural Resources, Guimaras 8. Donna Mae Suberano, Director of Provincial Department of Tourism, Guimaras 9. Elena Baylon, Director of Provincial Social Welfare and Development, Guimaras 10. Ernesto Gedalanga, Director of Provincial Cooperatives and Director of Farm Tourism Project, Guimaras 11. Amparo Buncad, Director of Guimaras Farm Tourism Project, Guimaras 12. Ramer Tuando, Baranguay Process Assistant, Guimaras 13. Stineli Chavez, Taos Puso Foundation, Iloilo City 14. Edwin Trompet, Regional Director, Department of Tourism, Region VI, Iloilo City 15. Atty. Helen.Camarista, Tourism Officer, Department of Tourism, Region VI, Iloilo 16. Rodelin Malones, Department of Trade and Industry Officer, Iloilo City 17. Josefa Palmares, Board of Investment, Iloilo City 18. Rene Ledesma, National Economic and Development Authority, Iloilo City 19. Virgilio F. Fabronero, Director of Environmental Impact Assessment, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region IV, Iloilo City 20. Emily Descalzo, Department of Tourism, Director Visayas Division, Manila 21. Rica Buena, Department of Tourism, Visayas Division, Manila 22. Liliosa Libosada, Department of Tourism, Visayas Division, Manila 122 23. Annie Cuevas, Philippine Department of Tourism in Las Angles California 24. Salvacion Gentiszon, Manager, Raymond Beach Resort, Guimaras 25. Angelena Gentizon, Owner, Shan Beach Resort, Guimaras 26. Mary Ann Alanadani.Owner, Alobihod Beach Resort, Guimaras 27. Sheba Canja, Assistant Manager, Puerto Del Mar Resort, Guimaras 28. Marie Frances Nievales, Station Director, UPV Research Station 29. Bernardo Mergello, Manager, Rumagangrang Beach, Guimaras 30. Victor Organ, Eco-tourism Developer, Palawan 31. Andy Pownall, Eco and Farm Tourism Operator, Palawan 32. Evelyn Alcaraz Macayayong, Department of Tourism, Investments Division, Manila 33. Juline Dulnuan, Asian Institute of Tourism, Quezon City 34. Teresa San Buenaventura, HRD Advisor, Philippines-Canada Cooperative Office, Manila 35. Butch De La Cruz, Commercal Officer, Embassy of Canada, Manila 36. Nitz Nartea, Farm Tourism Project Consultant, Manila 37. Judith Kotanim, Officer in Charge, Department of Tourism, Boracay 38. Capt. Danilo Balaysoche, Chief of Police, Boracay Appendix B: Participants of the Farm Tourism Workshop Workshop On Creating And Clarifying Alternatives 1. William Trousdale University of British Columbia, School of Community and Regional Planning in collaboration with Canadian Urban Institute 2. Julius Camacho Chairman, Committee on Tourism, Municipality of Nueva Valencia 3. Mary Ann G. Al-Madany Alobihod Resort-Manager, Nueva Valencia 4. Erma Senolev , Alobihod Resort-Staff, Nueva Valencia 5. Amparo D. Buncad Supervising Cooperative Development Officer, Provincial Cooperative Officer, Tourism Officer In-Charge 6. Mercy Gabasa Cooperative Development Authority 7. Ruben Garganera Chairman, Committee on Tourism, Municipality of Jordan 8. Romilo Tasic Cooperative Development Authority 9. Januario Sevilla Cooperative Development Authority 10. Superabce Sheba Puerto Del Mar Resort - Manager 11. Centizon Angelina Raymon Beach Resort - Resort Owner 12. Oscar Remoilata Office of Provincial Agriculture 13. Donna Mae T. Soberano Provincial Tourism Staff 14. Luciana Lim Provincial Tourism Staff 15. Mary Joan Milanueva Provincial Tourism Staff 16. Joselito Peu Rosalio Department of the Environment and Natural Resources - PENR Guimaras 17. Julio Tamayor Jordan Farmers Multi Purpose Cooperative 18. Rodolfo Cadizx Office of Provincial Agriculture 19. Gerardo Gaitan Kabakud -Non-Governmental Organization 20. Dr. Ang Chairman, Committee on Tourism, Municipality of Buenavista 21. Ramer Tondo Cooperative Development Authority 22. Donnabella Talaban Representative, Sangguniang Panlalawigan of Guimaras 124 23. Cristy Ututalum CUI-International NGO 24. Donna Sully CUI 25. John Sally CUI 26. Avelino Gonzaga Chairman, Committee on Tourism, Province of Guimaras 27. Cecilia Ortiz Dir. Provincial Planning and Development Office 28. Pilodo Hiponia Guimaras Federation of Cooperatives 29. Reverend Father Sergio Guimaras Federation of Cooperatives Jamoyot 30. Joneline Patnubay Provincial Tourism Staff 31. Ernestor Gedalanga Provincial Cooperative Officer, Concurrent Provincial Administrator 32. Gregorio Talaman Provincial Cooperative Officer 33. Elleta Davis General Serevice Officer, Staff 34. Rudy Ferrer General Service Officer, Staff 35. Jean Huyatid Governor's Office Staff 125 Appendix C: Market Overview of Guimaras THE EXISTING MARKET 1) EXCLUSIVE RESORT MARKET • Includes 15% of all tourist visits to Guimaras; • Primary travel motivation is to relax with sea, sand and sun; • Typical length of stay is 4 to 30 nights; • Travel alone, as couples or family; • Want high quality tourism product (accommodations/food) and are willing to pay for it; • Single destination traveller; • Decision to come to Guimaras is made in advance; • Enjoy nature/culture but wantto retreat to resort afterwards. 2) THE INTERNATIONAL TRAVELLER MARKET • Includes 10% of all tourist visits to Guimaras; • Travel motivation is pleasure of travel and experience new people/places; • Typical length of stay is two nights; • Travel alone, as couples or in small groups; • Generally very price conscious and are looking for a "deal" or at least "value for money;" • Quality needs to correlate to price but they are willing to "rough it;" • Generally do not have pre-arranged itinerary and decision to come to Guimaras was made by word of mouth and guide books information; • Many seek off-the-beaten path authentic experiences. • 3) THE LOCAL MARKET • Includes 75% of all tourist visits to Guimaras; • Travel motivation is generally for a "day at the beach;" • Typical length of stay is one day; • Travel in groups/family; • Travel occurs on weekends and summer holiday. POTENTIAL MARKET - NEAR TERM (two to five years) 1) THE GROWING ILOILO TOURISM MARKET (especially the foreign travellers) o In 1993 125,060 travellers passed through Iloilo. • Many of the domestic travellers were on business but they still represent an existing market that should be tapped into. • Guimaras captured only 23% of the foreigners that passed through Iloilo. • This is a close and accessible market that should be developed. 2) THE RESIDENCE OF ILOILO AND BACOLOD • The statistics show that Guimaras has established a loyal Iloilo market segment. • However, this could be further developed. • The existing market could be staying longer in Guimaras (at least overnight), spending more pesos, and visiting more in the off-season. 126 • Furthermore, according to Regional Tourism Director Trompeda, there are an estimated 7,000 households in lloilo with enough disposable income to significantly contribute to the tourism market of Guimaras. • This includes not only vacation visits, but also second home development. • The Bocolod market and the entire eastern side of Guimaras has been largely ignored. • Except for Sunrise Beach, the new adjacent resort development and Costa Aguada, there have been no efforts to develop this market. • Much of this is due to the historical relationship between lloilo and Guimaras, but the Bocolod market represents over 10,000 households with disposable income available for leisure time activities. 3) THE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES OF ILOILO AND BACOLOD • This is an important potential market and should be considered for development. • This market is important because it establishes an orientation and familiarity with Guimaras that could be maintained after graduation when students become professionals. • Students usually do:not.have a great deal of disposable income, thus' day trips and special deals would be necessary to establish Guimaras as their primary vacation choice. • Even more desirable is establishing a relationship with the universities to allow students to come to • Guimaras to study environmental protection, agriculture and agri-forestry, or other field trips (with Tatlong Marine Center there is already an established model). POTENTIAL MARKETS - LONG TERM (more than five years) 1) THE EXISTING WESTERN VISAYAS TOURISM MARKET • Currently, less than 2 percent of those visiting Western Visayas come to Guimaras. • There is a very large existing market in the region. In 1994, over 91,000 foreigners and 281,000 visited the region. • Many of these were single destination tourists to Boracay. • However, many of these fit the "traveller" description and have an open itinerary. • Offering a new product from the Boracay beach vacation, like the Farm Tourism Project, could allow Guimaras to tap into this large and growing market segment. 2) THE MANILA MARKET • Manila has a large population with significant disposable income for vacation activities. • This market could easily access Guimaras by air through lloilo or the new Guimaras feeder airport, o A sub-sector of the Manila market that should be given special attention is the expatriate market. • This close community could be targeted and with only minor promotion, Guimaras could establish itself as a destination for this segment. • Only minor promotion would be necessary because of the rapid word-of-mouth communication within the expatriate circles. 3) THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET • Obviously, the international market is far too broad to be discussed as a whole. • However, Guimaras could develop specific niches, as many of the resorts have already done. • For example, Guimaras could target universities overseas that might want to use Guimaras as a field site to conduct research (as this author has done) as mentioned:above in the local university section. • The Farm Tourism Project could provide the framework and infrastructure (i.e. lodging) for incoming international students and professors. • Experimental crops and agricultural techniques could be established and benefit both Guimaras and the students/professors. 127 

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