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The integration of culture and language learning by using cross-cultural stories in Japanese language… Mito, Kazuko 1996

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T H E I N T E G R A T I O N O F C U L T U R E A N D L A N G U A G E L E A R N I N G B Y U S I N G C R O S S - C U L T U R A L S T O R I E S I N J A P A N E S E L A N G U A G E C L A S S R O O M S by K A Z U K O M I T O B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1992 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S M o d e r n Languages E d u c a t i o n W e accept this thesis as c o n f o r m i n g to the requ i red standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A p r i l 1996 © K a z u k o M i t o , 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of /j^p*** tZ^UTApm The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) Integration of Culture and Language Learning i i Abstract H u m a n language and c o m m u n i c a t i o n o c c u r in context , and that context is cu l tu ra l ly bound . M a n y recogn ize the impor tance o f l ea rn ing cu l ture when learn ing languages. Y e t , when it comes to a pedagogy o f teaching cu l ture in language c lass rooms, there is a l ack o f es tabl ished methods. V a r i o u s Japanese l i ngu i s t i c features s t rong ly reflect pa r t i cu la r Japanese cu l tu ra l aspects, therefore, it shou ld be re l a t ive ly easy to integrate cu l ture and language. A c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tory approach is the method exp lo red in this study. T h i s c ro s s - cu l tu r a l s tory approach was deve loped f o l l o w i n g Egan ' s (1986) c u r r i c u l u m f ramework w i t h the f o l l o w i n g emphasis , whether a s tory-frame idea can be incorpora ted into i n t roduc to ry Japanese language teaching in order to deal w i t h cu l tu ra l issues in language c lass rooms. Therefore , this study is exp lo ra to ry . In add i t i on , this study examines whether or not c ro s s - cu l tu r a l s tor ies can a id students reflect upon features o f their o w n cul ture and compare and contrast them w i t h co r r e spond ing features o f Japanese. Fu r the rmore , this study explores whether or not a c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tory approach can guide students ' ref lec t ions in the context o f l ea rn ing the appropr ia te usage o f the Japanese language. F i n a l l y , this study tr ies to implement w r i t t e n examinat ions to evaluate students ' unders tanding o f appropr ia te language use w i t h i n the context o f the presented c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tories . Integration of Culture and Language Learning i i i The p roposed approach i n v o l v e s three stages; first, to present c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tor ies wr i t t en in E n g l i s h except for cer ta in express ions in Japanese that c o u l d cause a c o m m u n i c a t i o n b r e a k d o w n in a g i v e n s i tua t ion . A c ros s - cu l tu r a l s tory approach shou ld be inco rpora t ed w i t h the course syl labus , w h i c h means that cer ta in express ions , s t ructures , or vocabu la ry expressed in Japanese i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tor ies shou ld be fami l ia r to the student p r i o r to the presenta t ion o f the s tory. Second , after hav ing read a s tory, the ins t ruc to r leads a d i scuss ion to find causes o f misunders tandings expressed in the s tory. T h r o u g h the d i scuss ion , students w i l l find the reasons as to why such misunders tanding occured in a s tory w h i l e expe r i enc ing their o w n cu l tu ra l and i n d i v i d u a l differences or s imi la r i t i e s . T h i r d , the ins t ruc to r w i l l teach students the appropr ia te use o f language in s i tuat ions such as those presented in the s tor ies . The results showed that the c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tory approach was successfu l ly in tegrated in to ex i s t ing i n t roduc to ry Japanese language courses at pos t - secondary ins t i tu t ions . R e g a r d i n g the awareness o f students ' o w n cul ture , the results were not pos i t i ve . O n l y a round 5 0 % o f students thought that c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tor ies helped them become aware o f their o w n cu l ture . Th i s study, however , suggests d i r ec t ions that the ins t ruc to r c o u l d take wh i l e l ead ing the d i s cus s ion in order to a id students unders tand cu l tu ra l differences or s imi l a r i t i e s . A s for the th i rd and four th research quest ions , the resul ts ind ica ted a h igh rate o f student comprehens ion and w r i t t e n Integration of Culture and Language Learning iv tests such as mid- terms and f inals were successful ly inco rpora t ed in to student evaluat ions . Integration of Culture and Language Learning v T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A b s t r a c t i i Tab le o f Conten ts v L i s t o f Tables v i i i L i s t o f F igu re s x A c k n o w l e d g m e n t x i Chap te r One I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 - Genera l Statement 1 - Resea rch Ques t ions — 4 - S ign i f i cance o f the Study 7 - De f in i t i ons - 8 - O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Thes is 10 Chap te r T w o L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W 12 - C u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t a l Theo ry - 12 - C u l t u r a l T e a c h i n g 16 - Japanese C u l t u r e and Language 24 - Summary 43 Chap te r Three M E T H O D O L O G Y 46 - Resea rch Ques t ions 46 - Resea r ch D e s i g n - - - 47 Site S e l e c t i o n 47 Pa r t i c ipan t s 47 Students ' Response to Ques t ionna i re - - 48 C o m p a r a b i l i t y o f the T w o Ins t i tu t iona l Set t ings 51 C o i c e o f Cour se s 53 - P rocedures - 54 P r e - D a t a C o l l e c t i o n Sess ion 54 Presen ta t ion o f C r o s s - C u l t u r a l S tor ies 54 D i s c u s s i o n 55 Integration of Culture and Language Learni W r i t t e n E v a l u a t i o n 56 P o s t - D a t a C o l l e c t i o n Sess ion 56 - P i l o t S tudy - 56 - D a t a A n a l y s i s 62 Chap te r F o u r R E S U L T S 70 - In t e rac t ion Pat terns 70 - Resu l t o f the W r i t t e n E v a l u a t i o n 79 - Student E v a l u a t i o n o f C r o s s - C u l t u r a l S tor ies 84 - Ins t ructor ' s Response to Q u e s t i o n n a i r e — 87 - Summary 88 Chap te r F i v e D I S C U S S I O N 92 - In tegra t ion 92 - Improvement o f D i s c u s s i o n T e c h n i q u e - - - 102 - W r i t t e n E v a l u a t i o n 116 - C o n c l u d i n g Comment 119 Chap te r S i x I M P L I C A T I O N S A N D S U G G E S T I O N S — 123 - L i m i t a t i o n - 123 - Impl i ca t ions 126 - Sugges t ions for Fu tu re Resea rch 127 B i b l i o g r a p h y 130 A p p e n d i x A B a c k g r o u n d Ques t ionna i re 137 A p p e n d i x B Consent F o r m - 139 A p p e n d i x C W r i t t e n E v a l u a t i o n Samples 142 A p p e n d i x D Pos t Ques t ionna i res 151 A p p e n d i x E 1. Anata ( Y o u ) 153 2. Is it O K or not? 154 3. M y mother sent a package! 155 4. A n y t i m e w i l l do. 156 Integration of Culture and Language Learning v i i 5. I was pra ised 157 6. Gree t ings 158 7. Pe r sona l Ques t ions 159 8. Where are y o u going? 160 9. D o y o u want to . . . ? 161 10. Pe r sona l N a m e s 162 Integration of Culture and Language Learning v i i i L I S T O F T A B L E S T a b l e 1 S tuden t s ' C u l t u r a l B a c k g r o u n d 49 T a b l e 2 S tuden t s ' P r i o r K n o w l e d g e o f Japanese 50 T a b l e 3 S tuden t s ' K n o w l e d g e o f Japanese C u l t u r e 50 T a b l e 4 Japanese C u l t u r e 51 T a b l e 5 S u b c a t e g o r y o f T e a c h e r U t t e r a n c e s 66 T a b l e 6 S u b c a t e g o r y o f S tuden t s ' U t t e r a n c e s 67 T a b l e 7 R e s p o n d i n g : T e a c h e r U t t e r a n c e s ( C a p i l a n o ) - - 71 T a b l e 8 R e a c t i n g : S tuden t s ' U t t e r a n c e s ( C a p i l a n o ) - - - 72 T a b l e 9 S o l i c i t i n g : S tuden t s ' U t t e r a n c e s ( C a p i l a n o ) - - 74 T a b l e 10 R e s p o n d i n g : T e a c h e r U t t e r a n c e s ( U B C ) - 75 T a b l e 11 R e a c t i n g : S tuden t s ' U t t e r a n c e s ( U B C ) 76 T a b l e 12 S o l i c i t i n g : S tuden t s ' U t t e r a n c e s ( U B C ) 78 T a b l e 13 W r i t t e n E v a l u a t i o n ( C a p i l a n o ) 80 T a b l e 14 W r i t t e n E v a l u a t i o n ( U B C ) 82 T a b l e 15 D i d C r o s s - C u l t u r a l S t o r i e s H e l p Y o u L e a r n Japanese? 84 T a b l e 16 H o w S t o r i e s H e l p e d ? - - 84 T a b l e 17 O w n c u l t u r a l A w a r e n e s s 85 T a b l e 18 E x a m p l e s o f O w n C u l t u r a l A w a r e n e s s 85 T a b l e 19 E x a m p l e s o f " N O " O w n C u l t u r a l A w a r e n e s s - - 86 T a b l e 20 C o m m e n t s or S u g g e s t i o n s 87 T a b l e 21 T o t a l N u m b e r o f R e s p o n d i n g - - - 88 Integration of Culture and Language Learning ix T a b l e 22 T o t a l N u m b e r o f R e a c t i n g 89 T a b l e 23 T o t a l N u m b e r o f S o l i c i t i n g 90 T a b l e 24 S t o r i e s w i t h H i g h C C R e n / I C R e n 94 T a b l e 25 L o w C C R e n / I C R e n S t o r i e s - 102 T a b l e 26 P e r c e n t a g e o f " R e s p o n d i n g " 105 T a b l e 27 P e r c e n t a g e o f R e c o g n i t i o n / A n s w e r 117 Integration of Culture and Language Learning x L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i g u r e 1 Ha rada ' s C a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f Japanese H o n o r i f i c s - 25 F i g u r e 2 D i a g r a m o f the S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p 26 F i g u r e 3 B a l a n c e be tween Shitamachi and Yamanote 29 F i g u r e 4 B a s i c C a t e g o r y o f L e a r n e r F e e d b a c k 64 Integration of Culture and Language Learning x i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S F i r s t o f a l l , I w o u l d l i k e to express my g ra t i t ude to my a d v i s o r , D r . S tephen C a r e y , and my thes is c o m m i t t e e members , D r . R i c h a r d B e r w i c k and D r . K i e r a n E g a n , for the i r c o n s t r u c t i v e sugges t i ons , and c r i t i c a l commen t s on the m a n u s c r i p t . S p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e to D r . E g a n , an ex t e rna l c o m m i t t e e member f r o m S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , w h o i n s p i r e d me to e x p l o r e th is c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s to ry a p p r o a c h to Japanese l anguage t e a c h i n g . H i s ideas as w e l l as sugges t ions e n c o u r a g e d me t h r o u g h o u t the p ro jec t . I w o u l d a lso l i k e to thank M r . M a s a h i k o N a k a t a w h o k i n d l y agreed to imp lemen t a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s to ry a p p r o a c h in his cou r se at U B C and m o d i f i e d his cou r se sy l l abus a c c o r d i n g l y . W i t h o u t his u n l i m i t e d suppor t , th is thes is c o u l d not have been c o m p l e t e d . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e to thank my f a m i l y : my mothe r , T o k i k o , i n Japan for t e l l i n g me to " (3f o X ", my c h i l d r e n , D a y l a n , L i a , and F a r o n , for the i r pa t i ence and encouragemen t , and my husband , F r a n k , for his s o l i d suppor t and l o v e t h r o u g h o u t the c o m p l e t i o n o f th i s thes i s . W i t h o u t the i r gene rous suppo r t , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and l o v e , I c o u l d not have f i n i shed th is thes i s . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 1 CHAPTER 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N General Statement When communicative competence became a priori ty for foreign language learning and teaching, culture became a central element o f formal foreign language learning. The development o f fluency in the target language requires the understanding o f the cultural values and beliefs o f the target language speakers. Expl ic i t ways to evoke awareness o f effective and appropriate means o f communication in various social settings and circumstances, thereby, have become one o f the important elements in foreign language teaching. The development o f the notional syllabus (Wilkins , 1976) supported a shift in the focus o f foreign language teaching from grammatical structures to the functional use o f languages. Language should be contextualized; studied not only in the linguistic context but in its environmental context (Firth, 1964). Communicat ion occurs in context, and context is culturally bound. H a l l (1959) states that one should be able to teach culture since culture is learned. Indeed, many agree that culture and language are not separate spheres, and have addressed the importance o f the teaching o f culture in language classrooms (Lafayette and Schulz, 1976; Lafayette, 1978; Seelye, 1984; Buttjes and Byram, 1991; and Kramsch, 1993). Seeyle (1984) sets up a framework for teaching culture claiming an interdisciplinary problem-solving approach is more effective than approaching culture from Integration of Culture and Language Learning 2 the narrow perspective o f one genre or another, such as art or music. Lafayette(1976) claims that cross-cultural learning is a foreign language course objective, yet he (1978) admits the difficulty o f integrating culture into a language-based course and encourages teachers who do to consider culture as an important goal when striving to achieve their objectives. Byram(1991) says that teaching language without culture is fundamentally wrong because language is an integral part o f cultural reality. Despite this recognition, the practical application o f how to integrate cultural learning and language learning has been left to individual teachers. Theorists have not provided comprehensive proposals on the best way to proceed. Var ious Japanese linguistic systems strongly reflect particular Japanese cultural aspects. A s a post-secondary Japanese instructor in Br i t i sh Columbia , I have been wondering as to what might be the best way to present cultural aspects successfully integrated into language teaching right from the beginning level. M o s t recent Japanese language textbooks such as Yookoso (Tohsaku, 1994) contain sections on culture, yet such sections are treated separately from the linguistic sphere; therefore, they are often perceived as somewhat subordinate to linguistic learning and are dealt wi th in the classroom only when there is some time left, otherwise the section w i l l be left to the student as part o f their reading assignment. I f instructors are not keen about integrating cultural learning together wi th language learning, then the possibility o f neglecting the cultural section altogether becomes very high. Even i f instructors recognize the importance o f cultural learning, the teaching o f linguistic knowledge itself can be an Integration of Culture and Language Learning 3 overwhelming task which requires most o f the teaching time; consequently, any extra activities such as cultural learning can be neglected. This is why a meaningful method which can successfully integrate language and culture becomes necessary. In teaching a language such as Japanese which strongly reflects its cultural aspects in its usage, it should be relatively easy to integrate culture and language instead o f treating them as rather separate spheres. M a n y students in language classes tend to struggle to acquire linguistic competency itself, trying to acquire it in a functional way seems to be an almost impossible task. In many cases, this kind o f attitude is a reflection o f those o f their instructors. Instructors themselves, consciously or unconsciously, put a priority on linguistic competency over socio-cultural competency. Acquis i t ion o f socio-cultural competency becomes secondary, consequently separating language from culture. The acquisit ion o f l inguistic competency alone is now regarded as "not good enough". Kramsch (1993) promotes the importance o f the recognition o f the individual students' cultural backgrounds in foreign language classrooms. She says the final decision on individuals' behaviour, including the choice o f language, should be left to themselves, because all o f them have different values and mores based on their different cultural backgrounds. She, however, does not promote exclusive individualities that ignore different cultures; but rather, the recognition o f the individuals' cultural differences in which people make their best sense o f the wor ld . Communicat ion without an understanding o f people and their society and culture becomes a source o f miscommunication Integration of Culture and Language Learning 4 and misunderstanding. I f linguistic knowledge is not combined wi th some cultural understanding o f a society, it becomes meaningless even when using the target language in communication. M a n y language teachers who recognize the importance o f acquiring more than linguistic competence in language classrooms continuously attempt to adopt various approaches to their own classes to suit their objectives. When we think about the effectiveness o f such various approaches as the natural approach (Krashen, 1981), the notional functional approach (Wilkins , 1976) and the communicative approach (Hymes, 1972; L i t t l ewood , 1981), how many o f us, I wonder, can give a positive answer to questions such as "Are methods we use to teach cultural aspects in the classroom successfully integrated in our language teaching; and therefore, really effective and meaningful to students?" or "Can students apply knowledge they have learned in the classroom meaningfully in the wor ld outside o f the classroom?" Egan's approach, described below, seems to provides an avenue that leads to positive answer to these questions. Research Questions This study is an exploratory attempt to see whether story-frame ideas that w i l l facilitate cultural leaning can be incorporated into introductory Japanese language teaching and to explore and compare forms o f achieving this end. The study also focuses on practical application techniques o f the "cross-cultural story approach". The proposed application is to use cross-cultural stories as the medium o f developing socio-cultural competency in Integration of Culture and Language Learning 5 Japanese language learning. This approach was designed fol lowing Egan's (1986) curriculum framework which was developed based on his new educational developmental theory. The research questions that are addressed in this study are as fol lows: 1. Can a cross-cultural story approach be integrated successfully into an existing introductory Japanese language course? Each course has its own objectives and uses different textbooks, materials and approaches. The purpose o f the presentation o f cross-cultural stories is to see i f the content o f stories can be adopted successfully without interfering wi th the course objectives. 2. Can cross-cultural stories aid students to reflect upon features of their own culture and compare and contrast them with corresponding features of a target culture, Japanese? Each cross-cultural story presents some kind o f misunderstanding that occur between a Japanese and a Japanese language learner because o f inappropriate language use in a particular situation. Each story is fairly short and contains one or two questions to aid and direct students in a discussion. The instructor o f a course w i l l lead them in a discussion al lowing them to express their feeling as freely as possible. The purpose o f the discussion is to evoke students' feeling and make them realize the presented cross-cultural Integration of Culture and Language Learning 6 story is a part o f their reality; thereby, aiding them to realize the existence o f a different cultural sphere. 3. Can a cross-cultural story approach guide students' reflections in the context of learning the appropriate usage of the Japanese language? The presentation o f cross-cultural stories should be applied in conjunction wi th course content after the introduction o f linguistic knowledge on a similar topic, so the students are able to reflect upon something they have already studied. I f they cannot come up wi th more appropriate use o f language within the context presented in a story, then the actual language teaching in relation to a given context can proceed. 4. Can a cross-cultural story approach be adopted as a part of written evaluation formats to examine students' understanding of appropriate language use within the context of presented cross-cultural stories? The purpose o f this evaluation is to measure students' cultural understanding within a given context rather than linguistic knowledge alone. Some evaluation is necessary since the courses are offered as credit courses. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 7 Significance of the Study The awareness o f the importance o f cultural teaching in the language classroom has increased as the communicative approach to learning language has become popular, yet there is no singular practical approach to teach culture in the language classes. This study challenges this tendency by introducing a cross-cultural story approach in language classes in order to promote language learning in a socio-culturally appropriate way that takes advantage o f the students' own cultural or individual experiences. A cross-cultural story approach tries to give the students sense-making tools to deal wi th and understand new socio-cultural concepts along wi th the appropriate use o f language within a given situation. Language learning occurs as students understand new socio-cultural concepts through their own experiences, and i f the students can reach this understanding as part o f their own reality, as i f they themselves are experiencing a concept presented in cross-cultural stories, then the cross-cultural story approach would achieve this end. I am not aware o f previous research reporting on the integration o f a cross-cultural story approach with language learning in language classrooms. The presented approach is not completely new, Mizu tan i and Mizu tan i (1977-1983) and Kataoka (1991) introduce many culturally based stories in conjunction with language learning, yet the use o f such stories are not presented within integrated approach to language teaching, rather they are to aid and promote cultural or social awareness or to add something extra to language teaching. Culturally-based stories, especially in Kataoka's Integration of Culture and Language Learning 8 (1991) book, all provide explanations as answers to presented problems, which are not entirely wrong, yet give a false impression that a fixed answer always exists or that the explanation given in the book is the sample answer. These explanations could be very misleading especially when dealing wi th cultural concepts, yet it is true that giving the explanation is the simplest and most economical way to present socio-cultural aspects, because the approach focuses on transmission o f information alone and ignores the different levels o f understanding each student possesses.. This study attempted to implement a cross-cultural story approach to existing beginner-level Japanese language courses in post-secondary institutions in order for students to learn socio-culturally appropriate language use in certain situations. A n exploratory study such as this one may contribute to future directions that language teaching can take and attempts to widen the perspective o f socio-cultural learning as an integral part o f language learning. Furthermore, this approach would provide instructors o f Japanese with a practical application that can be used right away in their classes. On these accounts, even though the research needs to be repeated more widely and extensively, this study has potential significance as an introduction to a new approach in language learning. Definitions Various people have tried to define culture from different points o f view, I use the term "culture" in this paper a relatively narrow sense. The term "culture" in this study is confined to specific information which works Integration of Culture and Language Learning 9 as a background explanation or a determining concept for particular Japanese words or phrases in particular situations. Such information can reflect Japanese values from historical as wel l as contemporary points o f view. The term "Cross-Cultural Story Approach" applies to the proposed approach for this study. Each cross-cultural story presents some kind o f miscommunication because o f some inappropriate use o f linguistic forms in a particular situation. The cross-cultural story approach involves three stages; presentation o f a story, discussion, and language teaching. The term "socio-cultural" is the combined term for "society" and "culture", which includes values, standards, norms, and mores o f a certain society and o f a certain culture. In this study, the term often refers to Japanese language social appropriateness as well as Japanese cultural appropriateness. The term 'communicative competence' for the purpose o f this study is the amalgamation o f the views o f various scholars (Hymes, 1972; Hal l iday, 1978; and Canale and Swain, 1980), which concern mostly how language is used in a socially and functionally appropriate ways when communicating with Japanese speakers within Japanese culture. Wi th in this view linguistic accuracy is not ignored but the emphasis is put more onto appropriate communication skills that do not cause cultural misunderstandings. Assumptions regarding language acquisition processes when learning Japanese as a Foreign Language ( JFL) may create difficulties. M o s t Integration of Culture and Language Learning 10 literature takes second language acquisition theory as its starting point, assuming that foreign language learning would fol low a similar path as that o f second language learning. I feel there are many different factors which influence learners' language learning. Fo r example, Japanese language learners in Br i t i sh Columbia would have less exposure to an authentic environment than their fellow students who study Engl ish as a second language. M a n y theories and studies are constructed and based on a second language learning environment; therefore, they may not be as applicable to Japanese learners in Br i t i sh Columbia. Organization of the Thesis This thesis consists o f six chapters. The fol lowing chapter, Chapter two, reviews literature related to this research. First , Egan's developmental theory is reviewed, explaining how this cross-cultural story approach is adopted to integrate culture and language learning in a Japanese language class. Then, the points to be noted when discussing culture learning in language classes w i l l be examined from the point o f view o f cultural developmental theory. Finally, from the curriculum point o f view, the objective o f language teaching as transformation through transition, rather than transmission o f knowledge alone is discussed based on various theories regarding this matter. Chapter three deals with research methodology, describing the design and data collection methodology o f this study. The procedure o f a cross-Integration of Culture and Language Learning 11 cultural story approach is presented and the pilot study and its findings are described briefly. Chapter four reveals the results o f this study. Student as wel l as teacher utterances are presented, fo l lowing Gaies's (1983) subcategorizations wi th some modifications. Next , written evaluation are examined. Then, students' and instructor's response to questionnaires are illustrated. Final ly, the summary o f results is presented. Chapter five w i l l present the discussion, analyzing the findings o f this study and the conclusions in terms o f the integration o f a cross-cultural story approach to existing Japanese beginners' courses, the improvement o f discussion techniques, and written testing. Chapter six presents implications and suggestions regarding a cross-cultural story approach to language teaching. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 12 CHAPTER II L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W In this chapter, cultural developmental theory, fol lowed by various ideas o f cultural teaching are presented. Next , the relation between Japanese culture and language from historical, social, and linguistical perspectives is illustrated. Whi le not strictly a cultural developmental theory, Egan (1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994) proposed a new developmental theory in education. This theory initially motivated my thinking around using a cross-cultural story approach as a means o f developing cultural awareness in language classrooms. This study adopted two components from Egan's theory; (1) narrative (story) constructs, and (2) the necessity o f an affective component. Stories are elements or tools that stimulate and generate peoples's emotional state. A cross-cultural story approach should be strongly connected to emotions since affective elements are crucial to intellectual development. Cultural Developmental Theory Meyer (1991) and Kordes (1991) describe three basic developmental stages which students go through when they learn culture in foreign language classes. The first stage is a monocultural level in which people rely on assimilation strategies, thus, basically acting in ways that make sense for themselves in interactions while regarding the other as under-developed. The second stage is an intercultural level in which people rely on contrasting Integration of Culture and Language Learning 13 strategies; being able to see and explain differences between their own and another's culture. People at this level stand between the cultures. The third stage is a transcultural level in which people rely on identification strategies; being able to give each culture its proper due through cross-cultural experiences and understandings. People in this level stand above their own and the foreign culture without denying their own culture. Kordes sub-classifies each level in two ways; one is directed 'outwards' towards the understanding o f foreign culture, and the other is directed ' inward' to cope wi th one's own feelings and identifications. Meyer states that cultural developmental processes can be understood wi th reference to Kohlberg 's stages o f moral consciousness, because they involve "the principles o f behaviour and understanding and the norms o f interaction and justice (143)." The transcultural level that both Meyer and Kordes describe seems to limit the potential growth o f human existence for the fol lowing reasons. First ly, because their aim o f cultural teaching in language classrooms stops at the acquisition o f intercultural competence, Meyer defines this competence as a "part o f a broader foreign speaker competence, (which) identifies the ability o f a person to behave adequately and in a flexible manner when confronted wi th actions, attitudes and expectations o f representatives o f foreign cultures (137)." This is apparently aiming at the level o f social competency only. Secondly, i f we borrow Wilber 's (1979) term, people in the transcultural level are still trapped within the false reality o f boundaries, because both Meyer and Kordes emphasize the importance o f identity. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 14 Thirdly, the cultural developmental model makes sense when it al lows students to discover their potential at higher levels, rather than stopping at the cognitive level o f cultural understanding only. Especial ly when Kordes states at the end o f his article that "no matter how difficult and hopeless it may appear, the capacity o f developing perspectives and identity is, finally, the most important condition to ensure that big or small Auschwitzes are not repeated, ever again (305)," he viewed people in the transcultural level as capable o f changing the condition o f the wor ld . The reason Kordes can not be assertive about the self-discovery in higher potential levels nor strongly promote a social change oriented goal is because he himself is trapped within the identity o f boundaries, therefore his false boundary limits himself from going beyond and from discovering the state beyond false reality, even though he himself unconsciously realizes the possibility o f such an existence. Furthermore, i f the cultural developmental model had the possibili ty to change social conditions, it would become closer to the social change oriented goal o f Paulo Freire (1972) who describes three developmental stages o f raising social awareness. People in the first stage, the "magical conforming" stage, are passive and do not see their situation as oppressive. People in the monocultural level share the same level o f understanding wi th Freire's "magical conforming" people in this stage. The second is the "naive reforming" stage. People in this stage assume that problems can be solved without reference to the larger social structure. The third is the "cri t ical transforming" stage. People in this stage begin to analyze their culture, then become active participants in changing their own status through social Integration of Culture and Language Learning 15 action. Freire's model was developed to teach basic literacy skills to Braz i l i an students, yet it can describe the possibility o f people, especially in the transcultural level, o f becoming activists in changing social conditions. People in this level are capable o f analyzing their culture as wel l as different cultures. These people in the third stage are no longer the same people who are in the first stage, even though they are physically the same. Their mind has developed as new knowledge has accumulated; thereby, they possess the ability as wel l as the strong intrinsic motivation to seek and to obtain their new ideal worlds. So far I have discussed the importance o f having clear transpersonal objectives for both students and teachers when learning culture in foreign language classes mainly from a theoretical and philosophical transformational point o f view. H o w , then, can we as teachers o f Japanese language practice in the classroom pursue "self-transcultural" objectives? We cannot use the transormation-oriented method simply because its objectives are associated with transformation goals. Transformation-oriented methods are often not practical nor realistic in contemporary societal circumstances nor in the classroom environment. Moreover , cultural teaching in language classrooms within the multi-cultural environment in Canada involves rather delicate issues; which must be considered at the same time as the capacity o f students' perceptions as wel l as their different developmental stages. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 16 Cultural Teaching The importance o f integrating cultural learning wi th language learning is repeatedly mentioned in the relevant literature (Buttjes and Byram, 1991; Byram, 1989; Seelye, 1984, and Lafayette, 1978, 1976). Whor f (1965) studied the H o p i language and came to hypothesize that language is connected wi th a system o f thought. For Whorf, language patterns and cultural norms grow up together, while constantly influencing each other. Ye t , language is a system which represents the mass mind; therefore the process o f language development is rather slow while many cultural innovations can be developed rather quickly. Al though such cultural innovations affect language slowly and in small degrees, language can affect people immediately and wi th great impact. Many scholars dispute W h o r f s theory. However , I would like to focus on W h o r f s point that the connection between cultural norms and language exist, although he stated that a direct correlation between cultural norms and language had not been proved when he was wri t ing. Takahara (1991) discusses such current linguistic changes in morpho-lexical , semantic and syntactic areas o f Japanese as the influence o f foreign loan words to express new objects, ideas, behaviours, or thoughts and how these changes have affected communicative behaviour o f the Japanese by creating new social terms and concepts. She concludes that "various linguistic changes have little effect on Japanese as a linguistic system, but they have an important effect on the verbal, communicative behaviour o f Japanese speakers, thereore, the on-going linguistic changes are more o f Integration of Culture and Language Learning 17 sociolinguistic rather than linguistic concern (211)". This is a good example o f the notion that language patterns and cultural norms grow up together, while constantly influencing each other. Hanne rz (1992) presents cu l tu re as a c o l l e c t i v e phenomenon, ana logous to a language w h i c h has to be shared. C u l t u r a l f l o w consis ts o f the ex te rna l iza t ions o f meaning and occu r s in t ime and has d i r ec t i on , w h i c h in turn i nd iv idua l s re interpret , and a c c o r d i n g l y the ex te rna l iza t ions o c c u r again. The process , as a w h o l e , is endless. Sap i r (1974) descr ibes " soc i a l consc iousness" as patterns o f s o c i a l behav ior w h i c h are de r ived f rom the p s y c h o l o g y o f i n d i v i d u a l behav io r . V a r i o u s forms o f c u l t u r a l behav ior such as language behav iour become the mechanism o f unconsc ious soc ia l pa t te rn ing . H e expla ins that language is preserved and t ransmit ted w i t h m i n i m a l consc iousness . S u c h unconsc ious l i ngu i s t i c behav ior can be d i s cove red easi ly i n such phenomena as phonet ic systems. The average person unconsc ious ly interprets the phonet ic sounds o f other languages the way he is cond i t i oned by the habits o f his o w n language. The pa t te rn ing exists comple te ly outs ide o f the inher i ted b i o l o g i c a l tendencies o f the species and can be exp la ined only in soc i a l terms. Vygotsky (1978) states that all human phenomena should be studied as processes in motion and in change. The adaptive capabilities which have been historically created and culturally elaborated account for distinctive human dimensions which differentiate animals from humans. In the internalization o f the processes o f knowing, the particulars o f human social Integration of Culture and Language Learning 18 existence are reflected in human cognition: individuals have the capacity to externalize and share with other members o f their social group. Their understanding becomes part o f the shared experience o f their group. In actual foreign language pedagogy, many language teachers who realize the importance o f acquiring more than linguistic competence in language classrooms have tried to apply various different approaches, wi th usually unsatisfactory results. Lafayette (1976) claims that cross-cultural learning is a foreign language course objective, yet he (1978) recognizes the difficulty o f integrating culture into a language based course because o f the fact that only a limited number o f language-based texts successfully integrate cultural components. H e encourages teachers who do consider culture as an important goal o f language instruction to strive to achieve their objectives. His tor ical ly , the grammar-translation approach attempted the teaching o f culture through the reading o f literature (Grittner, 1990), for example, when dealing wi th vocabulary, and historical illustrations. Culture here is categorized as big " C " , but students instructed in this approach are usually so busy memorizing vocabulary and grammatical items that they do not have time to learn the culture o f a target language. In direct methods, culture o f daily life and underlying values and norms, usually categorized as small "c" culture, are incorporated into the teaching process. Teaching culture was promoted through the use o f authentic materials (Sauze, 1959). The audio-lingual approach seemed to move culture closer to language learning, by providing detailed cultural notes in texts. Ye t cultural learning was never an integral part o f their goals for foreign language learning. Cultural notes Integration of Culture and Language Learning 19 supplied explicit explanation o f the culture because such notes were believed to facilitate understanding o f linguistic knowledge. In the natural approach (Krashen & Terrel l , 1983), cultural learning became part o f the goals o f foreign language learning for the first time, implicit ly, not explicit ly as in previous approaches. This approach emphasizes functional skills which would imply the necessity o f socio-culturally defined situations. The notional-functional approach does not clearly note culturally authentic situations. Some recommend the use o f literature in teaching culture (Valdes, 1986; M c k a y , 1982). Folk lore is another common medium for culture teaching. Some suggest folklore as an excellent source for the study o f culture, superior to literature in representing social attitudes, and "an indication o f the validity it has for a given people (Seelye, 1984, p.20)". Others use newspaper articles such as A n n Landers, classified ads and cartoons (Blatchford, 1986; Fowles, 1970). Some who advocate culture more strongly in language learning promote bilingual education such as immersion programs for younger children (Lambert, 1972). A m o n g those who advocate communicative competence, vthere seems to be differences in opinions regarding actual methods o f how to achieve communicative competence; therefore, the integration o f culture and language in foreign language classrooms in order to achieve communicative competence has never achieved a convincing consensus (Byram, 1989; Grittner, 1990). Integration of Culture and Language Learning 20 John Dewey (1897) states that language is a social instrument; used as an instrument o f everyday communication, not simply to express thought. D e l l Hymes (1972) used the term "communicative competence" contrasting it to N o a m Chomsky's theory o f transformational-generative grammar which focused on underlying grammatical competence. Hymes concerned himself wi th the integration o f linguistic theory wi th a more general theory o f communication and culture, thus including grammatical, psycho-linguistic, sociocultural , and probablistic systems o f competence. Hal l iday (1978) was also concerned wi th language in a social setting and introduced the functional approach in the study o f language. Canale and Swain (1980) did not view the inclusion o f a psycho-linguistic component as necessary. In a model o f communicative competence, they included grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, and communicative strategies. Ye t , sociolinguistic competence involves sociocultural rules and rules o f speech communication which involve a psycho-linguistic component. The communicative approach o f language teaching, which aims at students acquiring socio-cultural competency in the target language rather than linguistic competency alone, is definitely a more productive and suitable method to teach culture in foreign language classrooms. Ye t , many students in language classrooms struggle to acquire linguistic competency, at first, it is very hard for them to consider acquiring it in a functional way. This does not mean, however, students are not interested in cultural learning in language classrooms. On the contrary, most students are interested in learning cultural aspects o f a target language. Therefore, teaching socio-Integration of Culture and Language Learning 21 cultural competency becomes one o f the most challenging goals for instructors in language classrooms; whereupon, acquiring socio-cultural competency becomes naturally one o f the most importanat goals for students as wel l . In fact, the acquisition o f linguistic competency alone is now regarded as 'not good enough'. L o n g (1985) suggests that a meaningful and viable task-oriented approach, not solely a linguistically oriented task approach, is necessary in order to achieve communicative competence. He proposes developing steps for a task syllabus: "(1) Conduct a needs analysis to obtain an inventory o f target tasks. (2) classify the target tasks into task types. (3) F r o m the task types, derive pedagogical tasks. (4) Select and sequence the pedagogical tasks to form a task syllabus ( p . 9 0 . " When Seelye (1984) discusses how to teach culture wi th practical examples and stresses the importance o f the acquisition o f intercultural communication skills by students, the approach he suggested is an interdisciplinary problem-solving approach which is more effective than approaching culture from the narrow perspective o f one genre or another, such as art or music. He states that the teacher does not have to be a full information center, rather the teacher should be concerned wi th helping students develop whatever skil ls are necessary to understand facts in an intercultural environment. He explains that the main goal o f language teaching is the state that "all students w i l l develop the cultural understanding attitudes and performance skills needed to function appropriately wi th in a Integration of Culture and Language Learning 22 society o f the target language and to communicate with the culture bearer (Seeyle, 1984, p.49)." Var ious techniques and models to teach culture such as culture capsules (Taylor and Sorenson, 1961) have been developed. It is considered possible to teach culture from a social anthropological point o f v iew through the learners' own language. Byram (1989) raises awareness o f social psychology in order to understand the psychological processes that learners w i l l experience in the course o f exposure to a different culture. "Cultural Studies," according to Byram, "is taught and learned both overtly and implici t ly, both consciously and incidentally, in much the same way as other components o f the overt and hidden curriculum (p.3)." Therefore, it should be discussed as a significant part o f the curriculum, but, at the same time, he suggests the necessity o f developing non-judgmental attitudes toward different cultures because o f the danger o f superficial cultural contrast through "Cultural Studies." B y r a m (1991) claims that teaching language without culture is fundamentally wrong because culture is an integral part o f language reality. I f language and culture are taught separately, learners w i l l more l ikely identify and integrate the foreign language wi th their own language within their own cultural reality. This is not foreign language learning. H e stresses the importance o f experimental learning through which the learner must o f necessity understand and experience the culture beyond his own culture. H e cautions that cultural learning should not involve any judgmental attitude toward different cultures. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 23 Kramsch (1993) promotes the importance o f the recognition o f the individual student's cultural backgrounds in foreign language classrooms and the final decision o f individuals' behaviour including the choice o f language should be left to themselves; because all o f them have different values and mores based on their different cultural backgrounds. She, however, does not promote exclusive individualities ignoring different cultures, rather the recognition o f the individuals' cultural differences in which people make their best sense o f the wor ld . Communicat ion without understanding o f people and their society and culture becomes a source o f miscommunication and misunderstanding, and also becomes meaningless and useless. In order to achieve such goals, Kramsch proposes the necessity o f developing cross-cultural understanding through the "third place (p.238)" in which "border-crossed" people who have experienced the differences "between one's personal and one's social self (p.234)" belong. She puts emphasis on the importance o f cross-cultural stories that people who have crossed the border and experienced the existence o f the "third place". She states that such border-crossing stories would help others understand their experiences, "they enjoy and make sense o f the pain the crossing has occasioned (p.234)." She concludes that such dialogues would indeed give people power and control as they try to feel comfortable in a "third culture". Integration of Culture and Language Learning 24 Japanese Culture and Language In this sec t ion , the re la t ion be tween Japanese cu l ture and language is examined in order to show how i m p l i c i t l y and e x p l i c i t l y these two are in te r twined . One example is the system o f honor i f i c s . H a r a d a ex tens ive ly expla ins the system o f honor i f i c s in Japanese as a g rammat i ca l system. Japanese is not the on ly language that has deve loped a g rammat ica l system o f honor i f i c s ; T ibe tan and K o r e a n have also deve loped such systems. One prominent c o n t r i b u t i o n H a r a d a made in his ar t ic le , w h i c h , I be l ieve , helped make his exp lana t ion o f honor i f i c s as a g rammat ica l system more c lear , was to propose new t e rmino logy w i t h respect to the most w i d e l y accepted three ca tegor ies o f honor i f i c s , sonkei-go (respect w o r d s ) , kenjoo-go ( condescend ing w o r d s ) , and teinei-go (po l i te w o r d s ) . H i s three ca tegor ies are, respec t ive ly , 'subject honor i f i c s , ' 'object honor i f i c s , ' and 'per format ive honor i f i c s . ' The first two be long to a s ingle ca tegory o f ' p r o p o s i t i o n a l honor i f i c s . ' The d i s t i n c t i o n between subject honor i f i c s and object hono r i f i c s is based on the difference in the g rammat ica l r e la t ion o f the noun phrase ( N P ) refer r ing to a person w h o is soc i a l l y super ior to the speaker ( S S S ) a n d w h i c h cond i t i ons the occur rence o f an h o n o r i f i c . Subject honor i f i c s are used when the subject refers to the S S S . and object honor i f i c s are used when the ind i rec t or direct object refers to the S S S . Therefore , cer ta in hono r i f i c forms occu r on ly when the subject denotes a person to w h o m the speaker wants to show his Integration of Culture and Language Learning 25 deference, cer ta in others on ly when the object denotes such a person , and so on . A l t h o u g h H a r a d a ment ions that the d i f f i cu l ty o f h o n o r i f i c a t i o n l ies in the fo rma t ion o f an appropr ia te c o n c e p t i o n o f the in te r -human re la t ions that under l ie the employment o f honor i f i c s rather than in the g rammat ica l system itself , his interests l ie on ly in a g rammat i ca l i nves t iga t ion o f the honor i f i c system. O n that account he is very successful , yet the cor rec t usage o f such g rammat i ca l systems can not be achieved wi thou t cons ide ra t ion o f their soc ia l context . F i g u r e 1. Harada ' s C a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f Japanese H o n o r i f i c s H o n o r i f i c s P r o p o s i t i o n a l H o n o r i f i c s P e r f o r m a t i v e H o n o r i f i c s Subject H o n o r i f i c s Object H o n o r i f i c s o-hanashi ni naru (p re f ix -speak) o-hanashi suru hanashi-masu Integration of Culture and Language Learning 26 S o c i a l context refers p rec i se ly to the soc ia l status o f people who are i n v o l v e d in a speech act; L e w i n (1968) descr ibes them as the doer o f an ut terance (a), the addressee o f an ut terance (b), and the persona l objects o f an ut terance (c ,d) . The subject -person (c) and the ob jec t -person (d) o f the ac t ion must be cons idered as the persona l objects o f ut terance. The doer and address o f an ut terance can be iden t i ca l w i t h the personal object o f an ut terance (a=c or d, b=c or d) . The soc ia t ive mode d isc loses the in te rpersona l re la t ionsh ip ( A ) be tween the doer and the address o f an ut terance and ( B ) be tween the doer and personal objects o f an ut terance. The f o l l o w i n g d iagram shows the re la t ionsh ip . F i g u r e 2. D i a g r a m o f the S o c i a l Re l a t i onsh ip no ident i ty poss ib le : A addressee o f ut terance: b ident i ty poss ib le a: doer o f ut terance B : ident i ty poss ib le c: subject-person o f u t terance d: object person The doer o f an ut terance is the one who must be i n v o l v e d in the in te rpersona l re la t ionsh ip th rough l i ngu i s t i c means. A l t h o u g h some scholars have c lass i f ied the re la t ionsh ip between A and B di f ferent ly , Integration of Culture and Language Learning 27 g i v i n g them speci f ic terms, most o f the conce rn a round honor i f i c usage and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f w o r d i n g is centered on re la t ionsh ip B . It is the re la t ionsh ip o f h igh and l o w . L e w i n expla ins h o w such re la t ionsh ips were ref lec ted in c l a s s i ca l Japanese l i te ra ture f rom the e ighth century to the eleventh century. L i n g u i s t i c treatment o f other modes o f addressage is ca l l ed taiguuhoo, w h i c h is L e w i n ' s s tandpoint for unders tanding o f Japanese honor i f i c s . L e w i n s k i l l f u l l y i l lus t ra tes soc ia t ive re la t ionships and h o w such re la t ionships are ref lec ted in the l i n g u i s t i c forms. H e takes examples f rom the c lass ica l l i te ra ture o f the H e i a n pe r iod (794-1191) , c l a i m i n g that the author, Murasaki-shikibu, o f the famous c o u r t - n o v e l Genji Monogatari had mastered the l i t e ra ry style o f the t ime comple te ly ; thereby shaping the language o f the Genji Monogatari in w h i c h the honor i f i c components o f Japanese language achieved their most refined effects. One might , therefore, point out that L e w i n has on ly expla ined the honor i f i c s o f the H e i a n p e r i o d . H i s h i s t o r i ca l exp lana t ion , however , has shed l igh t on at least two areas. The first is the r ea l i za t ion o f l i n g u i s t i c usage o f honor i f i c s as not stat ic, but rather changing as t ime progresses , and the second is the r ea l i z a t i on o f a t r i ad re la t ionsh ip as the basis o f the soc ia t ive func t ion w h i c h determine the l i ngu i s t i c forms o f hono r i f i c s . T h i s is also the basis o f unders tand ing modern Japanese usage o f honor i f i c s . In his a r t i c le , L e w i n ment ions va r ious foreigners w h o no t i ced a pecu l i a r i t y o f Japanese. The first person was a Por tuguese Jesui t , Integration of Culture and Language Learning 28 Joao R o d o r i g u e z , who gave a deta i led treatment o f these pecu l i a r phenomena c a l l i n g it the honor i f i c s tyle o f Japanese (honra, honrado), based on the late M u r o m a c h i (the fourteenth century) Japanese language. H i s book Arteda lingoa de Japam ( 1604-1608) was used for the language studies o f C h r i s t i a n miss ionar ies in ear ly T o k u g a w a Japan (the nineteenth century) . L a t e r , a R u s s i a n N a v a l of f icer , G o l o v n i n , descr ibed the honor i f i c speech o f the Japanese, w h i c h he had learned dur ing his arrest between 1811 to 1813, in his Memoirs of a Captivity in Japan as f o l l o w s : " — M a n y things and ac t ions have two names; one is used when they speak to thei r super iors , or their equals, and desire to be po l i t e ; the other on ly w i t h c o m m o n people , and in o rd inary conver sa t ion . It may, therefore, a lmost be said , that the Japanese have two languages , - - - (109) . " W h e n the three hundred years o f T o k u g a w a era had ended, and as the new government o f M e i j i era (1868-1912) p romoted W e s t e r n i z a t i o n in Japan, among the many chal lenges it faced, the government had to deal w i t h the p rob lem o f language. M a n y people who l i v e d in E d o (now T o k y o ) left as the T o k u g a w a Shogun co l l apsed w h i l e many people migra ted f rom va r ious parts o f Japan. P e o p l e w h o served the M e i j i government were f rom var ious parts o f Japan. They felt the necessi ty o f s t andard iz ing the Japanese language ins tead o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g in the va r ious d ia lec ts o f Japanese. The spoken fo rm E d o people used su rv ived as shitamachi ( d o w n t o w n ) c o l l o q u i a l , w h i c h con t r ibu ted to fo rm the c o m m o n language o f the government . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 29 The te rm ' T o k y o dia lec t ' in ear ly M e i j i p e r iod was an ex tens ion o f the E d o d ia lec t w h i c h inc luded both shitamachi and yamanote (up town) c o l l o q u i a l s . L a t e r , yamanote c o l l o q u i a l became the major con t r i bu to r to s tandard Japanese. The f o l l o w i n g f igure show the balance be tween shitamachi and yamanote c o l l o q u i a l in E d o and M e i j i per iods . F i g u r e 3. B a l a n c e between Shitamachi and Yamanote [Edo Period] [Meiji Period] Yamanote kOther / Shita­machi M o d e r n s tandard Japanese is , in genera l , regarded as the va r i e ty o f the T o k y o dia lec t t y p i c a l l y used by educated, midd le -c lass nat ives o f the yamanote r eg ion , rough ly the wes te rn ha l f o f T o k y o and the wes te rn suburbs. Th i s var ie ty is more p res t ig ious than that o f the o lder , eastern part o f the c i ty k n o w n as shitamachi. The normat ive s tandard language is based on the yamanote va r ie ty . M o d e r n Japanese, w i d e l y taught ins ide Japan as w e l l as in fo re ign count r ies , is this fo rm o f Japanese. Th i s process o f s t andard iz ing language d id not have m u c h effect on the usage o f honor i f i c s . B e i n g the pres t ig ious var ie ty , the yamanote va r ie ty had probably con t r ibu ted more deeply to r e c o n f i r m Integration of Culture and Language Learning 30 the n o t i o n o f h igh and l o w re la t ionships and to d i s t ingu i sh such re la t ionsh ip by u s ing different l i n g u i s t i c forms o f honor i f i c s . A f t e r the war , Japan exper ienced a second mode rn i za t i on . H o w e v e r , because Japan had lost the war , this mode rn i za t i on was enforced by external pressure o f the w i n n i n g nat ions, mos t ly f rom the U n i t e d States. A m e r i c a n s t r i ed to p romote a democra t i c system, by r eo rgan i z ing the Japanese soc ia l s t ructure . A t the surface l e v e l , Japan seemed to have changed great ly . N a k a n e (1987) , however , pro tes ted that the s tereotyped v i e w o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n or u rban iza t i on w h i c h is very s imi la r to the fo rmal s t ructure found in modern wes tern socie t ies does not necessar i ly acco rd w i t h changes in the in fo rma l s t ructure , t h rough w h i c h the t r ad i t i ona l s t ructure , in large part, cont inues to persist . N a k a n e says that this is also the case in Japan. The bas ic soc i a l s t ructure cont inues in spite o f great changes in soc ia l o r g a n i z a t i o n . N a k a n e ca l l s this persistent soc ia l s t ructure the ' ve r t i ca l p r i n c i p l e ' in Japanese soc ie ty . It can support the basic aspects w h i c h determine the different honor i f i c usages in Japanese language as ex tens ive ly d iscussed in L e w i n ' s a r t i c le . Nakane ' s interest l ies in h o w values deve lop as defini te forms du r ing the process o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n and her approach to the issue is not cu l tu ra l nor h i s t o r i c a l , but rather s t ruc tu ra l . Y e t , her v i e w can shed l ight when we th ink about the re la t ionsh ip between language and cu l ture in a general sense. The v e r t i c a l r e l a t ion , a c c o r d i n g to N a k a n e , exis ts everywhere , even among a set o f i nd iv idua l s w h o share iden t i ca l qua l i f i ca t ions . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 31 The c rea t ion o f a difference among any groups , w h i c h N a k a n e c a l l r ank ing , is o v e r w h e l m i n g l y impor tan t in f i x i n g the soc i a l order measur ing i n d i v i d u a l soc ia l values . Th i s r ank ing consc iousness has a s t rong impact on the Japanese mind . One example N a k a n e has g iven i l lus t ra tes this very c lear ly . " A w e l l - k n o w n nove l i s t , on being g i v e n one o f the annual l i t e ra ry p r izes , sa id , 'It is indeed a great honor for me, I am rather embarrassed to rece ive the award w h i l e some o f my senpai (predecessors or elders) have not yet got i t (27 ) . " A group such as nove l i s t s are supposed to be engaged in w o r k based on i n d i v i d u a l ab i l i ty , therefore, they shou ld not be bound by any ins t i t u t i ona l system. Senpai for this nove l i s t meant those whose careers began and who achieved fame and popu la r i t y some t ime before h im. A Japanese usua l ly uses three d i s t inc t ive ca tegor ies regard ing r a n k i n g ; sempai ( seniors) , koohai ( juniors) , and dooryoo ( co l l eagues ) . Th i s c a t ego r i za t i on is demonstra ted in the three methods o f address ing a second or th i rd person espec ia l ly among men w h o are more l i k e l y to be exposed to the in s t i t u t i ona l system. F o r example , M r . T a n a k a may be addressed as Tanaka-san, Tanaka-kun, o r Tanaka (w i thou t suf f ix ) . The suffix san is used for sempai, kun for koohai and the name wi thou t suffix is reserved for dooryoo. Once the usage o f address ing terms l i ke the above is determined by re la t ionsh ips in the ear l ie r stages o f a man's l ife or career, it usua l ly remains unchanged for the rest o f his l i fe . Therefore , since r ank ing is ve ry c lea r ly d i s c lo sed in language, anybody who hears the difference in Integration of Culture and Language Learning 32 address ing terms can very easi ly ident i fy the soc ia l r e la t ionsh ip be tween the addresser and the addressee. The system o f r ank ing by sen ior i ty is very r i g i d and is not affected by the var ie ty o f s i tuat ions people may find themselves in . N o i nd iv idua l s , not even the man w i t h the highest rank, can make even the s l ightest change. Because o f this r i g i d i t y and s tab i l i ty , the r ank ing system w h i c h is ref lec ted in language usage, espec ia l ly honor i f i c s , funct ions as the p r i n c i p a l c o n t r o l l i n g factor o f soc ia l re la t ions in Japan. In everyday l i fe people have to be aware o f re la t ive r ank ing , o the rwise they can not l i v e smooth ly i n Japan. W h e n speaking , they have to differentiate the rank order be tween themselves and the person they address by manipu la t ing de l ica te ly as w e l l as appropr ia t e ly the honor i f i c express ions . E x p r e s s i o n s w h i c h are appropr ia te to a super ior should not be used to an in fe r ior . E v e n among co l leagues the honor i f i c express ions have to be app l i ed unless bo th part ies are very int imate fr iends. B e h a v i o r and language are in t imate ly i n t e rwoven in Japan because the r ank ing system is the s o c i a l n o r m on w h i c h Japanese l i fe is based. D o i (1956) approaches the issue o f language and cu l ture more d i r ec t ly than N a k a n e . D o i , be ing a psychia t r i s t , exp la ined that his interest i n the Japanese language started when he wonde red whether or not the p sychopa tho logy o f Japanese patients differed s ign i f i can t ly f rom that o f A m e r i c a n pat ients . H e stated that most psych ia t r i s t s assumed a difference because o f the different cu l tu ra l backgrounds . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 33 D o i , however , approached the issue based on an idea o f his that any differences between the psychopa tho log ies o f the two na t iona l i t i es reside in the different charac te r i s t ics o f the two languages. H e admit ted that he was quite d i scouraged when he d i scove red E d w a r d Sapir ' s s tandpoint w h i c h c la ims the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i n g a connec t i on between language and na t iona l temperament. D o i , however , c o u l d not g ive up his idea o f the exis tence o f a connec t i on be tween language and temperament, because his psych ia t r i c w o r k was based on such an assumpt ion . Thereby he ana lyzed four in t rans i t ive verbs and one negat ive form o f the pa r t i cu la r in t rans i t ive verb sumu, w h i c h are c o m m o n l y used to express feel ing and represent emot ive behav ior . They express subject ive feel ings and act ions when used. The four in t rans i t ive verbs are amaeru, suneru, higamu, and kodawaru. The first three w o r d s are genera l ly used to express a ch i ld ' s behavior . S ince it is very hard to find E n g l i s h equiva lent w o r d s o f these Japanese w o r d s , D o i expla ins the feel ing and e m o t i o n these Japanese w o r d s convey w h i l e , at the same t ime, c o m p a r i n g them to E n g l i s h terms w h i c h can express these fee l ing or emot ion . The first in t rans i t ive verb is amaeru w h i c h shares the same root as an adject ive amai w h i c h means 'sweet ' . Thus amaeru has a d is t inc t fee l ing o f sweetness. The taste o f sweet dependency as a c h i l d , a c c o r d i n g to D o i , remains th roughout adu l thood t i l l the end o f one's l i fe c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsc ious ly . A c lose r E n g l i s h w o r d equiva lent to amaeru can be conveyed by " s p o i l " , w h i c h , however , is a t rans i t ive Integration of Culture and Language Learning 34 verb and has a bad conno ta t ion whereas amaeru in general does not . The second and the th i rd w o r d s , suneru and higamu, are counterpar ts to the sweetness o f amaeru. W h e n the parents do not let thei r c h i l d r e n amaeru enough, ch i ld ren pout and sulk, suneru. The external express ion o f suneru is not, however , an open demand for ac t ion such as a temper tant rum; rather, a subtle s o l i c i t i n g o f another 's l ove , w h i c h a c h i l d wants to possess by h i m s e l f a lone. The re f l ec t ion o f s ib l ing r i v a l r y or a hint o f j ea lousy are conveyed in higamu. D o i expla ins that ch i l d r en do higamu when they feel themselves unfa i r ly t reated i n c o m p a r i s o n to others and often suspect or ant ic ipate that they are or w i l l be ref lected, w h i c h is the b u d d i n g o f a pa rano id fee l ing . The last in t rans i t ive verb is kodawaru. It i s ve ry d i f f i cu l t to exp la in , D o i states, since kodawaru means a ve ry subtle d is turbance that takes place ins ide the minds o f the Japanese people and people w i l l never express it in the presence o f strangers. The nearest E n g l i s h i d ioma t i c express ion w o u l d be something l i k e "to be subject to the no t ion of;" and "to be sc rupulous about ," or "to be sensi t ive about ." It, however , does not have a mora l p r o b l e m l i k e s c rupu lous i ty ; D o i expla ins it as rather l i k e a general obsess ion . H o w Japanese behave to each other when they have a subtle d is turbance w i t h i n themselves or sense such dis turbance in others, D o i c la ims is the essence o f Japanese pol i teness w h i c h serves the purpose o f p ro t ec t i ng p r ivacy . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 35 The negat ive fo rm o f the in t rans i t ive verb sumii, that i s , sumanai, has va r ious nuances besides i ts l i t e ra l meaning o f "do not end". It can be d i rec t ly t ransla ted in E n g l i s h as "I feel g u i l t y . " In Japanese, un l ike E n g l i s h it does not convey the sense o f gu i l t rather sumanai conveys the sense o f fa i lure w i t h an air o f apo logy . W h e n sumanai is used to express the equivalent o f the E n g l i s h express ion "I am sor ry , " it does not have a conno ta t i on o f sympathy or p i ty . W h e n sumanai is used to express the equivalent o f "thank y o u " in E n g l i s h , it again conveys the feel ing o f fa i lure in the sense that "I shouldn ' t have let y o u do th is , " instead o f "you shouldn ' t have done th is . " Japanese people use sumanai in a lmost a l l cases where they want to thank others. D o i conc ludes that, because the w o r d s he uses as examples are c o m m o n w o r d s and descr ibe c o m m o n behav ior , they ind ica te something o f the p s y c h o l o g y c o m m o n to the Japanese people . H i s t o r i c a l as w e l l as soc ia l approaches te l l us that, in the Japanese language, the soc ia l h i e ra rch ica l system seems to ve ry much inf luence the usage o f honor i f i c s . Fur the rmore , i f we accept D o i ' s n o t i o n (1956) that c o m m o n w o r d s w h i c h are often used among Japanese people may express something o f Japanese people 's c o m m o n p s y c h o l o g y , then the fact that the system o f honor i f i c s in Japan is a c o m m o n phenomena h i s t o r i c a l l y as w e l l as s o c i a l l y can also lead us to the c o n c l u s i o n that such a l i n g u i s t i c system can represent someth ing o f the Japanese p sycho logy . Then , the prospec t o f l ea rn ing cu l tu re t h rough language becomes very rea l i s t i c . I w o u l d l i k e to d iscuss the Integration of Culture and Language Learning 36 i m p l i c a t i o n o f such cu l tu ra l l ea rn ing in a language c l a s s r o o m main ly f rom a teacher 's point o f v i e w . Wha t w o u l d be the i m p l i c a t i o n when t ry ing to teach something o f Japanese cu l ture when i n t r o d u c i n g the l i n g u i s t i c system o f honor i f i c s? M i z u t a n i (1986) discusses h o w to teach in te rpersona l re la t ions w h i c h s t rongly reflect the concept o f honor i f i c s th rough the l i n g u i s t i c forms. She emphasized the impor tance o f unders tanding Japanese values such as what the socie ty cons iders po l i t e or impo l i t e . The main purpose o f learn ing honor i f i c s is to establ ish or to main ta in g o o d human re la t ions . Is be ing po l i t e a lone adequate to es tabl ish such re la t ions or does it require s incer i ty as we l l ? M i z u t a n i approaches the issue f rom t w o s tar t ing poin ts ; po l i t e express ions and the express ions o f f ami l i a r i ty . The express ion o f s incer i ty o f f ami l i a r i ty is a t t r ibu ted to the concept o f ingroup and ou tg roup w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g to M i z u t a n i , is the express ion o f shared exis tence . The acknowledgmen t o f be ing in a same g roup , and o f hav ing the same unders tanding , op in ions , or fee l ing , therefore, becomes very impor tant . S u c h acknowledgmen t for Japanese is expressed th rough w o r d s c o n v e y i n g s incer i ty or f ami l i a r i ty . E n g l i s h speakers often express their c losest r e la t ionsh ips th rough w o r d s or express ions o f endearment. The n o t i o n o f shared exis tence, M i z u t a n i caut ions , makes sense on ly when it is bu i l t u p o n the concept o f ingroup and ou tg roup because the cho ice o f language var ies depending on i f the speaker feels the hearer is in the same group . She g ives va r ious examples f rom Japanese fami ly address Integration of Culture and Language Learning 37 terms w h i c h c lea r ly show two dis t inc t forms, one for the ingroup and the other for the ou tg roup , and va r ious c o m m o n express ions and greet ings w h i c h also c lea r ly convey concepts o f ingroup and ou tg roup . She stresses the impor tance o f t each ing va r ious values accepted by the Japanese soc ie ty f rom the bas ic beginners l eve l w i t h , o f course , as much cons ide ra t ion as poss ib le for students ' language usage capac i ty . S u c h values can exp la in why a pa r t i cu la r Japanese express ion is sui table for a cer ta in s i tua t ion , but not for other occas ions . She emphasizes this approach rather than just teaching a cor rec t l i n g u i s t i c f o r m for po l i t e express ions . In fact many ar t ic les descr ibe the d i f f i cu l ty o f us ing l i n g u i s t i c forms appropr ia te ly in Japan. One personal s tory w r i t t e n by H i n a t a (1989) , a B r a z i l i a n , points out the d i f f i cu l ty in gree t ing someone, w h o is o lder and who is s tanding on the street b e l o w her phys i ca l l y (she was hanging washed clothes on her upsta i rs ' verandah at that moment) . In general one is not supposed to greet someone w h o is o lder f rom a higher p lace . One shou ld wai t t i l l one can stand on the same l e v e l , in her case, she should wai t t i l l she got downs ta i r s , then appropr ia t e ly greet that o lder person . Because , H i n a t a expla ins , such a h i e ra rch ica l concept does not exist in the B r a z i l i a n mind , she had a hard t ime grasp ing when to greet and when not to greet, it even went to the poin t o f pre tending not to see a person t i l l f ind ing an appropr ia te occas ion . She feels that s imply t ransmi t t ing the c o m m o n behav io r o f bo th l i ngu i s t i c and non - l i ngu i s t i c forms to Japanese Integration of Culture and Language Learning 38 language learners as i f exp la in ing h o w to use some k i n d o f machine is not adequate, since such methods ent i re ly ignore the cu l tu ra l va lues w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l learners possess. She conc ludes that the d e c i s i o n on adapt ing such "target" behavior may be left to the i n d i v i d u a l learners after the exp lana t ion o f the behav ior is g iven to them. A n o t h e r s tory g iven by M i y a m o t o (1989) , a T h a i , descr ibes the d i f fe r ing l i ngu i s t i c express ion be tween Japanese and T h a i languages w h i c h reflect some aspects o f different cu l tu ra l va lues . F o r example , Japanese seem to prefer us ing the term uchi (my house; T ) and otaku (your house; 'you ' ) to d i s t ingu i sh between the represent ing group each i n d i v i d u a l belongs to . Such a d i s t i n c t i o n seems to be very impor tan t for Japanese, w h i l e d i s t inc t ions by age and soc ia l status w h i c h determine the cho ice o f appropr ia te pronouns are more impor tan t in T h a i l a n d . The difference can be seen in the fact that there are no equivalent w o r d s in T h a i to represent the concept o f ing roup and ou tg roup , thus M i y a m o t o feels that uchi and otaku are not res t r i c ted by age nor soc ia l status at a l l . The usage o f language or behav io r i n human re la t ionships in Japan is de termined by va r ious s i tua t ions in w h i c h the human re la t ions as a g roup are created, w h i l e , i n T h a i l a n d , the re la t ionsh ip o f i n d i v i d u a l par t ic ipants determines the proper cho ice o f language. She feels that Japanese l i ngu i s t i c behav io r is ve ry c o n t r o l l e d by a set o f norms, w h i c h exis ts as an es tabl ished system. Wha t can these personal exper iences t e l l us when teach ing language? F i r s t o f a l l , there seems to be c o m m o n Japanese behav io r Integration of Culture and Language Learning 39 when us ing pa r t i cu la r po l i t e express ions . Second ly , i n d i v i d u a l learners possess their o w n values and unders tandings o f their o w n cu l tu re w h i c h then becomes the basis o f their unders tanding o f new behav iours . It does not mean that everyone can smooth ly accept a new behav iour nor can they a lways unders tand it very c lea r ly . W e language teachers, as H i n a t a conc ludes , may have to leave the i n d i v i d u a l language learners to decide on the usage o f language appropr i a t e ly based on the i n fo rma t ion g iven to them, w h i c h is what K r a m s c h (1993) proposes . Pas s ing on in fo rma t ion , thus, may become one o f our impor tant goals . The in fo rma t ion to pass on is the c o l l e c t i v e values w h i c h are c o m m o n l y accepted as appropr ia te in Japanese soc ie ty , not the values i n d i v i d u a l Japanese have w i t h i n themselves . In the case o f honor i f i c express ions , the concept o f a h i e ra rch ica l system and that o f ing roup and ou tg roup can be iden t i f i ed as t w o impor tant c o l l e c t i v e va lues , the apprec ia t ion o f w h i c h can lead to a more authentic learn ing o f Japanese. E v e r y language has some means for mak ing ut terances sound po l i t e and not offensive to the addressee (Harada , 1976:499) . L a k o f f l is ts pol i teness as one o f two unde r ly ing rules o f pragmat ic competence ( B o n o v i l l a i n , 1993:131) . Wardhaugh (1993 :280 ) states that 'pol i teness ' seems to be a very impor tant p r inc ip l e in language use; and that we must cons ider the fee l ing o f others. B r o w n and L e v i n s o n at tempted to d i scove r un ive r sa l p r inc ip les o f pol i teness Integration of Culture and Language Learning 40 w h i c h they a t t r ibuted as be ing the result o f dea l ing w i t h 'face-threatening acts' ( B o n v i l l a i n , 1993 :132-133) . It seems that the no t ion o f pol i teness exists in every cu l ture . It, however , begins to be different ia ted when pol i teness is expressed t h rough forms o f language in different cu l tu ra l set t ings. Because each cu l ture possesses different va lues , pa r t i cu la r po l i t e express ions appropr ia te in a par t i cu la r context deve lop . Japanese expresses pol i teness th rough its very c o m p l i c a t e d system o f honor i f i c s . The usage o f such a c o m p l i c a t e d system is de termined by Japanese soc i a l rea l i ty . The order o f determinants w h i c h c o n t r o l the appropr ia te usage o f honor i f i c express ions differ f rom s i tua t ion to s i tua t ion . H o w e v e r , as I exp la ined p rev ious ly , two main concepts , w h i c h are h ie rarchy and i ng roup -ou tg roup , seem to have the greatest effect in a lmost every case where hono r i f i c express ions have to be d i rec ted . The h i e ra rch ica l system does not on ly mean the soc i a l differences in status, but also inc ludes age or sen ior i ty differences. In Japan there exis ts a c o m m o n n o t i o n that people in the same age group shou ld advance and progress at the same rate th rough the soc i a l sys tem. Othe r determinants such as gender differences also inf luence the usage o f honor i f i c s . I d id not exp lo re the ques t ion f rom this aspect s imply because it w o u l d compl i ca t e the issue more than necessary for the purpose o f this paper. The re la t ionships among the par t ic ipants in a speech act are s o c i a l l y and cu l tu ra l ly determinable . Th i s can be s imply exp la ined to Integration of Culture and Language Learning 41 the learner o f Japanese. It, however , causes d i f f i cu l ty when t r y i n g to determine h o w i n d i v i d u a l Japanese accept or feel in te rna l ly or p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y about such s o c i a l l y and cu l tu r a l l y determined re la t ionsh ips . The usage o f language, then, changes depending on the pe rcep t ion or in te rpre ta t ion o f such establ ished soc ia l norms by i n d i v i d u a l s . F o r example , when we l o o k at the t r i ad re la t ionsh ip chart o f L e w i n (page 31 in this paper) , the re la t ionship B represents that o f h igh and l o w . The appropr ia te l i n g u i s t i c usage should be app l i ed to c lea r ly show such re la t ionsh ips . There , however , are not s t r ic t rules de te rmin ing that 'a ' has to use appropr ia te honor i f i c fo rm w h i c h accura te ly shows the re la t ionship between 'a' and 'c ' o r ' d ' . E s p e c i a l l y when 'a ' is t a l k i n g to 'b' and 'a' feels 'b' is ingroup to 'a ' . W h o is the one to decide w h i c h honor i f i c fo rm to use to show an appropr ia te soc i a l re la t ionship between 'a' and 'c ' or 'd'? N o b o d y , but 'a '! U n d e r o rd ina ry c i rcumstances 'a"s consc ious r ea l i za t i on o f his in te r re la t ionsh ip to V or ' d " is de termined by a c o m m o n soc i a l ru le ( in this case it is main ly soc ia l status) w h i c h is na tura l ly or u n c o n s c i o u s l y expressed in a l i ngu i s t i c mode, an appropr ia te cho ice o f hono r i f i c forms. Y e t what w o u l d happen i f ' a ' chose not to use an appropr ia te fo rm o f honor i f i c in this case, c o n s c i o u s l y , dec id ing on b reak ing such c o m m o n l y accepted soc ia l s tandings? It w o u l d te l l 'b' exac t ly h o w 'a' regards 'c ' o r ' d ' , not soc i a l l y but p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . ' A ' may not d i sc lose his real fee l ing to 'c ' or ' d " d i rec t ly , because 'a ' has to l i ve in soc ie ty a c c o r d i n g to c o m m o n rules ; to pay respect to a person w h o is Integration of Culture and Language Learning 42 s o c i a l l y super ior , and to mainta in g o o d re la t ionships . Then p s y c h o l o g i c a l rea l i ty for an i n d i v i d u a l may not appear at the surface at a l l , but remain suppressed somewhere w i t h i n thei r p r iva te w o r l d . Th i s n o t i o n is very u n l i k e l y , espec ia l ly when we cons ider Sapir ' s ' s o c i a l unconsc iousness ' exp lana t ion w h i c h regards the p s y c h o l o g y o f i n d i v i d u a l behav ior as a pat tern o f soc i a l behavior . The state descr ibed before, w h i c h can be regarded as a qui te c o m m o n phenomena for Japanese in genera l , is not speci f ic to spec i f ic i n d i v i d u a l s . The language w h i c h can express such in terna l feel ings , as in D o i ' s examples , can be cons idered to or ig ina te in an i nd iv idua l ' s p s y c h o l o g y . Then such language can somehow compensate for an i nd iv idua l ' s f rus t ra t ion . W h y ? Because the soc ia l or cu l t u r a l n o r m is not stat ic but reflects i nd iv idua l s ' behav ior or p s y c h o l o g y . The movement is rather c y c l i c a l and at the same t ime f l o w i n g cons tan t ly , r e f l ec t ing i nd iv idua l s ' p s y c h o l o g y w h i c h inf luences the soc i a l no rm, ex t e rna l i z ing it as a soc ia l phenomena, w h i c h in tu rn creates a new soc i a l no rm and w h i c h changes i n d i v i d u a l s ' unders tandings o f ce r ta in aspects. Hanne rz (1992) descr ibes such re la t ions in deta i l s ta t ing the nature o f cu l ture as analogous to that o f language; it has to be shared. B a s e d on Hennerz ' s v i e w p o i n t , I feel s t rongly that an i nd iv idua l ' s f rus t ra t ion can be compensated for . H o w can we , as language teachers, apply these concepts when teach ing cu l ture in language c lass rooms? W e should be aware o f the nature o f cu l ture as Henne rz descr ibes i t , and should rea l ize the Integration of Culture and Language Learning 43 l i m i t a t i o n or unreasonable expec ta t ion o f teaching about Japanese cu l tu re th rough language. I t r i ed to demonstrate how the Japanese honor i f i c system can reflect c o m m o n soc ia l norms o f Japanese, h ie ra rchy and ingroup-ou tg foupness , w h i c h seem to exist pers i s ten t ly regardless o f many m o d e r n i z a t i o n attempts. W h e n we l o o k at the fo rm o f honor i f i c s c lose ly , they have undergone many changes, espec ia l ly in the pos twar pe r iod . Spec i a l po l i t e terms used for re fe r r ing to the emperor and his fami ly members have been abo l i shed . R e s p e c t i n g terms have been s imp l i f i ed and language w h i c h ref lec ted different soc i a l classes or gender have been m i n i m i z e d . S u c h changes grea t ly inf luence people 's pe rcep t ion or behavior , yet cer ta in aspects regard ing the usage o f honor i f i c s s t i l l cont inue to exist as c o m m o n not ions that bother or confuse many learners o f Japanese. W e shou ld t ry to teach students not on ly to use cor rec t forms o f honor i f i c s i n cer ta in s i tua t ions , but also to make an effort to p r o v i d e i n fo rma t ion on why such speci f ic l i ngu i s t i c terms are cons idered appropr ia te i n a cer ta in soc i a l context , a process w i t h w h i c h can be regarded as cu l t u r a l t eaching . Summary In this sec t ion , h o w cul ture in fo re ign language c lass rooms can be treated was r ev i ewed f rom va r ious points o f v i e w . A s K r a m s c h (1993) suggests, it is necessary for language teachers to become aware o f the trap o f "dubious d icho tomies and decept ive symmetr ies Integration of Culture and Language Learning 44 (p .2)" in w h i c h they themselves were entrapped, for examples , "grammat ica l vs func t iona l syl labuses , teacher-centered vs student-centered c lass rooms , cogn i t i ve vs exper ien t ia l l ea rn ing styles , learn ing-based vs acqu i s i t ion-based pedagogues (p .2) . " She encourages teachers to h o l d a v i e w o f language as soc i a l semio t i c ( H a l l i d a y , 1978) rather than an e i ther -or d i cho tomy , whe reupon , teachers can teach "language as cu l tu re (p .9) . " . Th i s k i n d o f v i e w is impor tant for teachers because it w o u l d enlarge the context o f language teaching . It is also impor tant for teachers to grasp thei r students ' a t t i tude t o w a r d language lea rn ing . Students ' a t t i tude t o w a r d language lea rn ing c o u l d be the r e f l ec t ion o f their teachers. Then what we as language teachers can do to help students ' change thei r a t t i tude, i f necessary, is to f o l l o w K r a m s c h ' s sugges t ion ; we should change our awareness o f language lea rn ing . A s Seeyle ( 1984) states, the teacher does not have to be a full information center, rather the teacher should be concerned wi th helping students develop whatever skills are necessary to understand facts in an intercultural environment. B y r a m (1989) raises awareness o f social psychology in order to understand the psychological processes that learners w i l l experience in the courses o f exposure to a different culture; whereupon, he stresses the importance o f experimental learning through which the learner must o f necessity understand and experience the culture beyond his own culture. Kramsch (1993) puts emphasis on the importance o f cross-cultural stories about people who have crossed the border and experienced the existence o f a "third place". Integration of Culture and Language Learning 45 Therefore, the s tory approach that E g a n promotes as a pedagogy to deal w i t h cu l ture seems to be a most p r o m i s i n g one to use in Japanese language c lass rooms. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 46 CHAPTER THREE M E T H O D O L O G Y Research Questions This is an exploratory study to see whether story-frame ideas can be incorporated into introductory Japanese language teaching. The proposed application is to use cross-cultural stories as a medium o f developing socio-cultural competency in Japanese language learning. This approach was designed fol lowing Egan's (1986) curriculum framework which was developed based on his new educational developmental theory. The research questions that were addressed in this study are as fol lows: 1. Can a cross-cultural story approach be integrated successfully into an existing introductory Japanese language course? 2. Can a cross-cultural story approach aid students in reflecting upon features o f their own culture and compare and contrast them wi th corresponding features o f the target Japanese culture? 3. Can a cross-cultural story approach guide students' reflections in the context o f learning the appropriate usage o f the Japanese language? 4. Can a cross-cultural story approach be adopted as a part o f a writ ten evaluation format o f a course to examine students' understanding o f appropriate language use within the context o f the presented cross-cultural stories? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 47 Research Design The main purpose o f this study is the successful incorporation o f cross-cultural stories into existing language courses that have different approaches to language teaching based on different syllabuses. © Site Selection: Considering the main purpose o f this study, most existing Japanese language courses would be appropriate regardless o f the students' ages, except for children in primary schools. Beginner Japanese courses in post-secondary institutions or secondary schools are more potentially productive for this application, since the level o f students' ability to make sense o f their wor ld can be safely regarded to have reached the Romantic Layer as Egan claims. The beginner Japanese course at Capilano College and Universi ty o f Br i t i sh Columbia ( U B C ) were chosen as the sites for the purpose o f this study, since the researcher is affiliated wi th both institutions, which gave her easy access to the sites as wel l as freedom o f application as to how to integrate the cross-cultural story approach to the existing curricula. ® Participants: The students who were registered in Japanese 100 for the 1995 Fa l l Semester at Capilano College and Japanese 180 for the 1995 Summer Session at U B C were exposed to the cross-cultural story approach, in conjunction wi th the course curriculum. Students in these courses are supposed to be beginners. It is, however, becoming more apparent that a Integration of Culture and Language Learning 48 number o f students have studied Japanese in high schools or in other kinds o f institutions or have been to Japan, all o f which has motivated them to continue studying Japanese in a post-secondary institutional setting. This wou ld not, however, affect the findings o f this study, since most o f the students involved in the study have not been exposed to the cross-cultural story approach to learning language. The significant difference between the two institutions is the approach they take to language teaching. Courses at U B C are strictly designed based on a grammatical syllabus while Capilano Col lege takes a more communicatively oriented approach to language teaching. <3> Students' Response to Questionnaire The fol lowing tables illustrate the result o f students' background questionnaires. Table 1 shows students' cultural backgrounds at Capilano Col lege and U B C based on their birth places and languages spoken at home. The result o f students' previous knowledge regarding Japanese language prior to these Japanese courses is shown below as Table 2. Table 3 shows how much students think they knew about Japanese culture. Table 4 exhibits examples o f Japanese cultural concepts given by students. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 49 Table 1. Students' Cultural Background Cultural Background Capilano College M F 01 02 01 02 T(%) UBC M F T(%) Languages Canadian 5 5 4 1 15 (26) 3 1 4 (20) English Chinese: HK Taiwan China Vietnam Laos Brazil Malaysia 36 (63) 3 8 3 6 20 3 2 1 2 8 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 13 (65) 3 3 6 2 4 6 1 1 Cantonese Mandarin Mandarin/Cantonese Mandarin/Cantonese Mandarin Mandarin Mandarin/Cantonese Korean: Korea Brazil 6(10) 2 3 1 6 3(15) 2 2 1 1 Korean Korean/English Japanese 1 1 (1) English/Japanese Note. M = male; F= female; T = Total (M+F); 01 = section 1; 02 = section 2; H K = Hong Kong; Students who enrolled in both Capilano College and U B C share similar ratio o f students' cultural backgrounds. B o t h institutions showed that the largest number o f students enrolled in Japanese courses are from Chinese cultural backgrounds, 63% at Capilano College and 65 % at U B C , fol lowed by students wi th a Canadian cultural background, 26% at Capilano Col lege and 20% at U B C . Students with Korean cultural background came next, 10% at Capilano College and 15% at U B C . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 50 Table 2, Students' prior knowledge o f Japanese Prior knowledge None Yes Institution Total (%) High School Others Total (%) Capilano College 35 (59) 18 7 24 (41) UBC 11 (55) 3 6 9(45) Pr io r Japanese knowledge o f these students at both institutions also showed a similar tendency. The percentage o f students without any knowledge o f Japanese was 59 at Capilano Col lege and 55 at U B C while that o f students wi th prior knowledge was 41 at Capilano College and 45 at U B C . Table 3. Students' Knowledge o f Japanese Culture Nothing ~ 1 2 3 ~ Very Much 4 5 Capilano College 11 (19%) 17 (29%) 13 (22%) 4 (7%) 1 (2%) U B C 6 (30%) 5 (25%) 5 (25%) -Students' knowledge regarding Japanese culture at the time o f the course commencement was not rated very high. M o r e than half o f both groups o f students knew very little (or nothing) about Japanese culture. Some students did not answer the question; therefore, the total percentage did not add up to 100% at both Capilano College and U B C . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 51 Table 4. Japanese Culture Capilano U B C Family importance 3 1 Politeness 5 4 Hierarchy (boss, senior-junior) 2 2 Inside - Outside 1 Customs(obligation, bowing, life style, etc.) 5 3 Men -Women 1 1 Group Consciousness / Conformity 1 2 History 1 2 Similar to Chinese Culture 1 Honour 2 Religion (Zen, Shintoism) 6 Honesty 1 Work ethic, cooperative mentality 2 Technology 1 The number indicates how many students responded for the indicated cultural concepts. Cultural concepts such as hierarcy, and inside and outside which greatly influence the use o f language are mentioned by a few students, even though no students specifically mentioned the connection between such cultural concepts and the language use. © Comparabil ty o f the T w o Institutional Settings: The application o f the cross-cultural story approach was conducted by the instructor o f the courses at both institutions; therefore, the role o f the researcher at Capilano College was as a participant-observer. Since the researcher teaches beginning Japanese courses there, she participated as a language instructor and as a cultural instructor. The role o f the researcher at U B C was, however, as an observer-participant. This means that the Integration of Culture and Language Learning 52 researcher did not show up in the classes at U B C unless the cross-cultural story approach was being applied. Al though the role o f the researcher at both institutions differed, the treatment o f cross-cultural instructions is the same in terms o f method and organization. The role o f the researcher at both institutions during the analysis o f questionnaires and evaluation sheets was as an observer. Dur ing the informal interview with the instructor, the role o f the researcher was that o f an interviewer, which was conducted in Japanese, since the instructor at U B C is a native speaker o f Japanese. The total number o f stories presented at U B C exceeded those at Capilano Col lege due to different course content. Seven stories presented in Capilano College were also presented at U B C . Al though both Japanese courses at U B C and Capilano College are beginners' courses starting from the same level and teaching similar content, they are not exactly the same due to different curricula, approaches, and instructors. Therefore, some stories such as "Is it O K or No t?" were modified to suit the course content in order for students to better understand the stories. Fo r example, a modified version (Appendix E-2) attempts to present the story as cross-cultural problem rather than linguistic problem as students at U B C perceived. In this study, the stories presented at U B C were modified when presented at Capilano College. The format and the content o f written evaluation was co-operatively designed by both the instructor o f the course and the researcher based on the presented stories. The main focus o f the written evaluation was placed on Integration of Culture and Language Learning 53 the understanding o f appropriate uses o f language in certain situations which are determined by Japanese social and cultural concepts such as the relation o f ingroup and outgroup, and hierarchy. © Choice o f Courses: Courses that were used for this study were selected on the basis o f the researchers's affiliation to both Capilano College and U B C . Japanese courses at both institutions are offered as credit courses, though the courses at Capilano College run on a term system while those o f U B C run on a yearly system. Therefore, the second-term course at Capilano College which is titled Japanese 101 is roughly equivalent to the latter part o f the beginning Japanese courses at U B C which are titled as Japanese 100 or Japanese 102. Even though the early content o f language courses at both institutions requires absorbing a relatively high level o f language content and a high level o f student commitment, the application o f cross-cultural stories was presented from the beginning o f each course. The actual application at U B C was tried during Japanese 180, a summer intensive course which is equivalent to Japanese 100/101 or 102/103 while Japanese 100 was used at Capilano College. Al though U B C , as a four-year university which offers a major in Japanese, does not always articulate wel l wi th Japanese credit courses offered in various colleges and high schools, the tendency o f other institutions to attempt to meet the requirements for U B C courses is clearly part o f institutional and course planning. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 54 Procedures © Pre-data-collection Sessions: Background questionnaires were distributed to the students on the first day o f the course as a part o f students' orientation for the course and were collected immediately. The questionnaires were studied carefully by the instructor and the researcher to assess student understanding o f Japanese language and culture. Cross-cultural stories were prepared or gathered based on our assessment o f the learner's language level. ® Presentation o f a Cross-Cul tural Story The instructor o f the course decided at what point during a class period to present a cross-cultural story, which is written in Engl i sh including a few expressions in Japanese that cause miscommunication. In order to execute the presentation o f cross-cultural stories successfully, the instructor introduced or taught similar concepts to those in the stories or certain expressions that have to be used in order to avoid the communication breakdown which is set out in each cross-cultural story. Students should be able to reflect that what they have learned prior to the presentation o f cross-cultural stories can solve the presented communication breakdown easily without requiring new grammatical concepts. Presenting unfamiliar Japanese expressions which require knowledge beyond what students have learned was thought to be unfair and ineffective. Each cross-cultural story is very short wi th one or two questions at the end in order to aid students in a Integration of Culture and Language Learning 55 focused fashion. They are written in Engl ish with certain expressions in Japanese and given to the students as hand-outs. . <3> Discussion: The instructor read each cross-cultural story in order to check the students understanding. After that, the instructor opened a discussion either by asking a question at the end o f a story or based on students' opinions offered during the readings. The role o f instructors here was to ensure that students express their first reactions to a presented story and to express their opinions in Engl i sh as honestly as possible without being embarrassed or feeling confronted. Furthermore, the instructor tried to elicit various opinions from different students who share the same kind o f backgrounds, because some students wi th certain cultural backgrounds can more easily be active participants in a discussion. The instructor was alert to different opinions and understandings and led students to compare and contrast Japanese and the students' own cultural backgrounds. The misunderstandings in all cross-cultural stories can be solved i f different expressions are used instead o f those presented. The teaching o f appropriate expressions in a certain situation ended the cross-cultural story approach. The process in class required between fifteen minutes to half an hour. The duration o f each cross-cultural story was not fixed, depending rather on the topic or the type o f students in a particular class. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 56 © Wri t ten Evaluat ion: Several written evaluations on cross-cultural stories were incorporated into the course evaluation such as mid-terms and finals. The length o f the each written test was limited to one page in order to avoid adding to students' study load. The content o f written examinations was determined depending on numbers as wel l as types o f cross-cultural stories presented in class at both institutions. The format closely fol lowed the cross-cultural stories which means that the tests presented a particular situation and asked students to identify the wrong use o f language and to provide appropriate answers. © Post-data-collection Sessions." A t the end o f the course, post-questionnaires were distributed to the students. The questionnaires were summarized by the researcher in order to determine students' appreciation o f the presented cross-cultural story approach in class. Pilot Study A cross-cultural stories approach was applied as a pilot study during a Japanese 101 class at Capilano Col lege in the 1995 Spring Semester and a Japanese 104 class at U B C during the last half o f the 1995 Winter Session (January- March) . Japanese 101 at Capilano College is a continuation o f Japanese 100 which started in September, 1994. Natural ly, most students who enrolled in this course were the same students who took Japanese 100. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 57 The total number o f students was 22 at Capilano College and 25 at U B C . Japanese 104 at U B C was a new course which was set up in 1994 to accommodate students who wished to register for Japanese 100-level courses for high school Japanese credits. The purpose o f this pilot study was mainly to examine students' reaction to the cross-cultural story approach to language teaching. It was hoped that the examination and subsequent refinement o f the presentation o f the technique as wel l as discussion procedures o f this approach would help instructors in the future. Var ious approaches to presenting the cross-cultural stories were tried: (1) The instructor read stories and students listened without any handout. (2) The instructor read stories that were shown overhead so that students had visual access to them. (3) The instructor let one student read a story and students listened without a handout. (4) The instructor distributed stories as a handout and students silently read the stories. (5) The instructor distributed stories as a handout and read the stories. (6) The instructor distributed stories as a handout and let one student read the stories. Based on the observation o f students' understanding o f and reaction to stories and to different styles o f presenting them, more appropriate Integration of Culture and Language Learning 58 application styles were selected. First o f al l , students expressed their need to obtain their own copy o f the story. Secondly, students did not know the intention o f cross-cultural stories, so when the instructor let one student read a story, she or he usually read it very quickly since it is written in Engl ish , except the part written in Japanese. The tone was usually flat wi th no emotion involved. Students who were listening seemed to understand the story line, yet it was hard to grasp how much they exactly understood it. Therefore, approach (5), the instructor distributing a story as a handout and reading the story, was adopted as the standard technique o f presenting the cross-cultural stories. Different formats o f cross-cultural stories were also tried: (1) Cross-cultural stories are wi th one question at the end o f each story and four possible answers to the question, as in Kataoka (1991). I tried one o f her stories in my class and after asking students their opinions, I asked a Japanese guest who happened to be in my class that day how she felt about the story and the possible answers for a question. She could not agree with any o f four possible answers provided, which raised doubts about the format that Kataoka presented. When we try to teach some aspects o f Japanese culture in a language classroom, transmission-oriented methods such as presented in Durkheim (1956) become quite practical and easily applied because such methods have time saving ways to present different concepts to students. Durkheim's approach does not, however, consider what cultural knowledge students have within themselves, which can influence their Integration of Culture and Language Learning 59 understanding o f new concepts. (2) Cross-cultural stories alone, without questions or possible answers at the end o f each story, are presented. Students seemed to be at a loss about the presented story as to what to think or how to react even though the instructor tried to lead a discussion placing a focus on one or two points in the story. Students seem to need more solid guidance when discussing a presented story. (3) Cross-cultural stories wi th one or two questions only at the end o f each story, without any possible hints or answers, are presented. This format was tried after the unsatisfactory results o f the two prior approaches. Students seemed to be more focused when discussing a presented story since they had a visual aid o f written questions at the end o f each story. It was also easier for the instructor to conduct discussion. Discuss ion techniques were the most difficult to improve since there are no ways o f knowing how students wou ld react to a presented cross-cultural story. E a c h student's experiences and background is unique so it makes it very difficult for instructors to plan a course o f discussion beforehand. Therefore, how to handle different responses from students and how to direct the discussions towards the actual language teaching gave extra difficulties to the instructor. Background questionnaires prior to the course commencement, however, helped to assess the general ethnographic grouping o f students. Students wi th similar cultural experiences may have similar reactions to a presented cross-cultural story and i f so, then, it helped Integration of Culture and Language Learning 60 instructors to assess i f a presented problem may derive from culture-based differences or individual differences. Basical ly the work ing assumption was that the more a student experiences a cross-cultural story approach to language teaching, the better the students got at it by noticing various cues to problems and understandings. T w o different evaluation formats were tried using the Japanese 101 class at Capilano College. (1) Ora l examination: T w o oral examinations were scheduled as a part o f the course. The format o f one o f the oral examinations was to try to integrate the content o f presented cross-cultural problems into interviews conducted wi th the students, to see i f they had learned the appropriate use o f language in a certain situation. N o specific information regarding the content o f the oral examination was given to students prior to the examination since there were many items from the course content to be covered. The instructor's intention was to see without any warning how much students remembered o f what they had learned. The result was not very encouraging. Appropria te ways to greet somebody whose social status is higher than students such as to greet their instructor was the only criteria o f evaluation, yet when they entered the room, many students did not greet the instructor properly in Japanese. M a n y students considered greetings as not part o f their oral examination even though the instruction that the interview would start right from the moment when they entered the room t i l l they left the room was given before hand. Moreover , many students did not express proper leave-Integration of Culture and Language Learning 61 taking expressions in Japanese before they left the room. M a n y greeted the researcher in Engl i sh instead o f Japanese. Some students even asked some questions in Engl i sh before the commencement o f the "actual" oral examination. Students were in general very nervous during the examination, so as soon as I signaled "the end", they immediately relaxed and started saying something in English. Students' "nervousness" because o f an oral examination setting might have helped cause such undesirable results. It is not impossible to integrate this cross-cultural approach into oral examinations, yet more detailed planning had to be done in order to better evaluate the cross-cultural story approach to language learning. Because o f a l imited target language environment as wel l as course syllabuses, it is very hard to expose students to an authentic atmosphere which can help them execute what they have learned in more natural and meaningful ways. The researcher, therefore, decided to evaluate using an written evaluation format. (2) Wri t ten examination: A s part o f the final examination o f the course^ one section was used to evaluate appropriateness based on the cross-cultural story approach to language learning. The format was "finding errors" in a dialogue and "providing more appropriate answers for them." Pure linguistic mistakes were included along wi th the inappropriate use o f language in social contexts which had been presented in cross-cultural stories. The results were not as promising as I expected socio-culuturally because o f the Integration of Culture and Language Learning 62 inclusion o f purely linguistic problems wi th the socio-culturally inappropriate use o f language. Five-page-long background questionnaires were distributed to students o f Japanese 101 asking about their cross-cultural experiences in detail. Students filled out the questionnaires on the very first day o f a class and it took them about half an hour. It was, however, decided not to continue to use such detailed and long questionnaires because o f negative student reaction. Background questionnaires were, therefore, revised and reduced to only one page. Post questionnaire results were obtained informally as part o f course evaluation. Students were asked to write their opinions about the cross-cultural stories as part o f their language learning. Data Analysis In this study data was obtained from questionnaires, field observation, interviews, and written examinations primarily within three different analytical areas: (1) Interaction patterns (teacher utterances and student utterances) in class during the presentation o f cross-cultural stories; (2) Wri t ten evaluation results based on identifying the inappropriate use o f language and providing appropriate answers for them; and (3) Questionnaires from students and instructors. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 63 The data collected by field observation and tape-recorded discussions, were transcribed by the researcher and were analyzed by examining dyadic (teacher, student) and whole-class (teacher, students) interaction patterns. Students' background questionnaires were used as information to support the analysis o f students' utterances. Wri t ten examinations were analyzed by examining students' answers, (whether or not within a given situation they could recognize the inappropriateness o f expressions, and provide appropriate answers to them). Post-questionnaires were used to determine the students' and instructor's reactions to this cross-cultural story approach. The classification framework used in the analysis o f interactional patterns in this study is, wi th some modifications, based on the system Gaies (1983) applied to his pilot study on "learner feedback." Gaies applied to his work the study o f classroom verbal interaction patterns done by Bel lack et al. (1966) in which they defined the four types o f "pedagogical moves". Pedagogical moves, or utterance types, are labeled "structuring," "solici t ing," "responding," and "reacting." Learner utterances are elicited by teacher questions (teacher solicit ing moves) which are viewed as feedback essentially different from "unelicited" feedback (see Figure 4) Integration of Culture and Language Learning 64 Figure 4. Bas ic categories o f learner feedback (Gaies, 1983: p. 198) ELICITED- RESPONDING UNELICITED-t-SOLICITING REACTING STRUCTURING "El ic i ted" feedback is the instructor's attempt to monitor the rate and f low o f "content" (input) in the classroom while "unelicited" feedback is the learners' attempt to shape classroom discourse, according to their ability and needs. There are three subtypes in "unelicited" feedback: "solici t ing" feedback is the learners' attempt to obtain information which they feel is necessary for comprehension; "reacting" feedback reflects the learners' comprehension or non-comprehension o f content; and "structuring" feedback is the learners' attempt to reorient or redefine the basis for subsequent interaction. In Gaies' (1983) study reaction moves were the most frequent forms o f feedback in both dyads and triads while structuring moves were the least frequent ones. In this study, students' responses, while discussing in class, were elicited by the instructor in order to evoke their emotional reactions and help them realize something similar to or different from the presented cultural concepts in each cross-cultural story. Some student responses were elicited Integration of Culture and Language Learning 65 by their fel low students' responses. Ei ther way students' utterances were regarded basically as "responding" moves; therefore, it is not feasible for this study to analyze responses by separating "elicited" from "unelicited" as in Gaies' study. "Reacting" moves which show the comprehension or non-comprehension o f the content wou ld be more appropriate to analyze in order to answer the first research question, whether or not a cross-cultural story approach can be successfully integrated into an introductory Japanese language course. The teacher's utterances were also analyzed to examine the second research question because the issue o f discussion techniques becomes very important. It is a constant challenge for the instructor to execute more appropriate discussion techniques in order to elicit the students' honest opinions and feelings in order to aid students to reflect upon features o f their own culture and compare and contrast them wi th Japanese culture, and thereby, to enhance language learning. In this study the Gaies* category o f "responding" was adopted for teacher responses rather than for students' responses, and subcategorized as below (Table 5). Explanations o f each subcategory can be found fol lowing Table 5. Gaies' basic categories within "unelicited" feedback wi th a modification adopting students' utterances are subcategorized in Table 6. In this study Gaies' basic category "structuring" feedback was not used because the nature o f the discussion fol lowing each cross-cultural story aimed at language teaching. Students were not expected to reorient themselves or take initiative in the subsequent interaction. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 66 Table 5. Subcategory o f Teacher Utterances Teacher Utterances Subcategory Responding Verbat im Repeti t ion (VR) Expanded Repeti t ion (ER) Restructuring Repeti t ion (ReS) Question (Q) Answer ( A ) Instructional Explanation (IE) Responding: 1. Verbat im Repeti t ion (VR): exact (or virtually exact) repetitions o f the descriptions which led, directly or indirectly, to learner feedback. In this study it corresponds to instructor repeating or clarifying students' utterances. 2. Expanded Repeti t ion (ER): the reference phrase used by the teacher in the pre-feedback utterance is explained in some way (for example, by focusing on a particular word and defining it). In this study it refers to instructor utterances about the story which can be questions or examples related to the story in order to promote the discussion. 3. Restructuring (ReS): the pre-feedback description is abandoned and replaced by a new reference phrase. "Restructuring" reflects the belief on the part o f the teacher that the original symbol used to designate a particular reference cannot be used successfully in the immediate setting. In this study it corresponds to the Integration of Culture and Language Learning 67 instructor's attempt to expand students' responses. 4. Question (Q): an alternative to a repeated, modified, or new description; this way, the teacher sought to elicit additional feedback which may be used in further description. In this study this refers to questions which are directed to specific language groups. 5. Answer ( A ) : Instructor's answers to students'questions, mainly linguistic ones or cultural ones which can be explained right away without hindering students' natural or evoked feelings. 6. Instructional Explanation (IE): Language instruction or cultural explanation on the appropriate use o f language within the given social and cultural situation. Table 6. Subcategory o f Students' Utterances Students' Utterances Subcategory Reacting Cultural ly Enforced Comprehension (CCRen) Individually Different Comprehension (ICRen) Pre-learnt or output Comprehension (PLRen) L a c k o f Linguis t ic Non-Comprehension (LLRen) W r o n g or Non-Comprehension (WNRen) Sol ic i t ing Challenging Questions (CS) Direct Questions (DS) Information Search (IS) Reacting: 1. Cultural ly Enforced Comprehension (CCRen): Students' Integration of Culture and Language Learning 68 responses which show their comprehension derived from their o w n cultural values and mores or their experiences wi thin their culture. 2. Individually Different Comprehension (ICRen): Students' responses which show their comprehension derived from their different experiences as individuals rather than being influenced by their culture. 3. Pre-learnt or Output Comprehension (PLRen): Students' responses which show their comprehension derived from previously learned or experienced knowledge in Japanese classes, or other students' responses which triggered their previous knowledge during the discussion. It w i l l not, however, exclude other language environments such as Engl ish and their first languages. 4. L a c k o f Linguis t ic Comprehension (LLRen): Students' responses which show their non-comprehension because o f a lack o f linguistic knowledge. 5. Wrong or Non-Comprehension (WWRen): Students'responses which show that students are not understanding, misunderstand, or misperceived the topic o f discussion or presented cultural concept. Soliciting: 1. Challenging Questions (CS): the focus o f the question is directly Integration of Culture and Language Learning 69 associated wi th previous utterances, which reflects students' frustrations due to not getting or knowing answers to the presented topic. 2. Direct Questions (DS): Due to their lack o f linguistic knowledge, the focus o f the question is linguistic in order to help students make better sense o f presented stories. 3. Information Search (IS): Questions which are necessary to clarify immediate discussion topics or which may be relevant to the topic in the presented story. A s for evaluations, the researcher developed the writ ten evaluation format based on the presented cross-cultural stories in order to measure the students' comprehension. The number o f evaluations varied depending o f the course format. In the case o f Capilano Col lege, the writ ten evaluation was done twice, at the mid-term and final examination time. A t U B C , there were four written evaluations altogether, three mid-term examinations and one final examination. The content and the format o f the evaluation at U B C was discussed wi th the instructor o f the course while the written examination was created by the researcher alone at Capilano College. The basic format was similar, but there were slight differences due to the number o f presented stories at each institution. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 70 CHAPTER FOUR Results This chapter presents the results o f analyses o f data collected in this study. There are five sections; the first section deals wi th interactional patterns between the teacher and students, both dyads (teacher, student) and whole-class (teacher, students) in order to seek answers to three presented research questions: (1) Can a cross-cultural story approach be successfully integrated into an introductory Japanese course? (2) Can cross-cultural stories aid students in reflecting upon features o f their own culture and comparing and contrasting them wi th corresponding features o f the target culture, Japanese? (3) Can a cross-cultural story approach guide students' reflections in the context o f learning the appropriate usage o f the Japanese language? The second section w i l l present written evaluation results as a measure o f students' comprehension. In the third and fourth sections, students' and instructor's responses to questionnaires w i l l be examined in relation to the adaptability o f a cross-cultural story approach. Final ly, all o f the results w i l l be summarized briefly. Interaction Pattern Tables 7, 8, and 9 display teacher and students' utterances for each cross-cultural story presented in two sections o f Japanese 100 at Capilano College during the 1995 Fa l l Term. The total number o f students in the first section was twenty-five and thirty-three in the second section. Tables 10, Integration of Culture and Language Learning 71 11, and 12 show the corresponding results at U B C in Japanese 180 during the 1995 Summer Session. The total number o f students who enrolled in this course was nineteen. One utterance can be recognized in more than one subcategory within its category due to the lack o f enough clear evidence to decide the origin o f utterances, for example, whether they are culturally oriented responses or individually differentiated responses. Therefore, the totals o f utterances for each story is not in itself meaningful except that the larger the numbers, the longer the discussion took place. Table 7. Responding: Teacher Utterances (Capilano College) Title of Story V R T. (01, 02) E R T. (01, 02) ReS T. (01, 02) Q T. (01, 02) A T. (01, 02) IE T. (01,02) Greetings 22 ( 8,14) 10 (3 ,7) 24 (12,12) 1 (1 ,0 ) 4 (3 , 1) 3 ( 1,2) Is it O K or Not? 18 (10, 8) 7 (5 ,2) 15 (10, 5) 1 (0 , 1) 3 (1 ,2 ) 2 ( 1, 1) Request 7 (3 ,4) 5 ( 2, 3) 7 ( 5, 2) 1 (0 , 1) 3 (1 .2 ) 3 ( L 2) Anata (You) 25 (8,17) 8 (6 ,2) 16 ( 7, 9) 0 (0 ,0) 12 ( 5, 7) 3 ( 1, 2) Where are you going? 18 ( 9, 9) 13 ( 8, 5) 21 (12, 9) 8 ( 3 , 5 ) 2 ( 0, 2) 3 ( 1, 2) Personal Questions 32 (21,11) 10 (6, 4) 27 (13,14) 5 (4, 1) 8 ( 1 , 7 ) 6 (3 , 3) Checking In 11 (7 ,4) 4 ( 2, 2) 8 ( 6, 2) 4 ( 2, 2) 1 (1 ,0 ) 2 ( 1, 1) Total 133 57 118 20 33 22 Note. T . = Total [01+02] of teacher utterances; 01 = section 1 of J A P N 100; 02 = section 2 of J A P N 100; VR = Verbatim Repetition; ER = Expanded Repetition; ReS = Restructuring; Q = Questions; A = Answers; IE = Instructional Explanation. (A detailed explanation of each subcategory wi l l be found in the pages 66-67 of this paper.) Integration of Culture and Language Learning 72 Table 7 shows that Verbat im Repeti t ion was the most frequently used utterance and Restructuring (ReS) is the second highest utterance used by the instructor at Capilano College. Therefore, student responses were the main source o f discussion directing utterances for the Capilano class. O n the other hand, questions directed to students who share the same language was the least used utterance since the Q-score was the lowest during the discussion period. Table 8. Reacting: Students' Utterances (Capilano College) Title of Story C C R e n T. (01, 02) ICRen T. (01, 02) PLRen T. (01, 02) L L R e n T. (01, 02) W W R e n T. (01, 02) Greetings 7 (4 ,3) 3 (3 ,0) 22 ( 8,14) 4 (3 , 1) 6 (2 ,4 ) Is it O K or No t? 0 (0 ,0) 0 (0 ,0 ) 19 (12, 7 ) , 2 ( 2, 0) 2 (2 ,0 ) Request 8 (5 ,3) 1 (1 ,0 ) 8 (5 ,3) 1 (0 , 1) 3 (1 .2 ) Anata ( Y o u ) 3 ( 2, 1) 5 (2 ,3) 25 (10,15) 3 (1 ,2) 3 ( 1, 2) Where are you going? 23 (11,12) 4 (3 ,1) 11 (5 ,6) 0 ( 0, 0) 4 (2 ,2 ) Personal Questions 18 (13, 5) 39 (26,13) 12 (5 ,7) 0 (0 ,0) 2 ( 1, 1) Checking In 15(12, 3) 2 ( 2, 0) 12 (6, 6) 0 (0 ,0) 0 (0 ,0 ) Total 74 54 109 11 20 Note. T. = Total [01+02] of students' utterances; 01 = section 1 of J A P N 100; 02 = section 2 of J A P N 100; CCRen = Culturally Enforced Comprehension; ICRen = Individually Different Comprehension; PLRen =Pre-learnt or Output Comprehension; LLRen = Lack of Linguistic Comprehension; WWren = Wrong or Non-Comprehension. (A detailed explanation of each subcategory wi l l be found in the pages 67-68 of this paper.) Integration of Culture and Language Learning 73 A s recorded in Table 8, the Pre-learnt or Output comprehension (PLRen) score is the highest which means the student comprehension o f cross-cultural stories was based on knowledge that was most l ikely obtained in previous classes. O n the other hand the lowest is the L a c k o f Linguis t ic Comprehension ( L L R e n ) score which indicates cross-cultural stories presented to students did not require as much linguistic knowledge beyond what they knew at the time o f prsentation. When individual stories are examined more closely, the PLRen-score is not necessarily the highest, in fact, stories such as "Where are you going?" and "Personal Questions" indicate the Cultural ly Enforced Comprehension (CCRen) score is higher than PLRen-score . "Is it O K or No t? , " on the other hand, shows a zero CCRen-score . These results suggest that each cross-cultural story seems to have its own characteristics which requires or determines the type o f comprehension necessary for students to understand the story corresponding to its characteristics such as cultural or linguistic. "Personal Questions," for example, required more from students' own individual experiences than cultural experiences or previously learnt knowldege since the Individually Different Comprehension (ICRen) score is the highest among the five. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 74 Table 9. Sol ic i t ing: Students' Utterances (Capilano College) Title of Story CS T. (01,02) DS T. (01, 02) IS T. (01,02) Greetings 1 (1 ,0) 1 (0 ,1) 4 (3 ,1) Is it O K or No t? 4 (3 ,1) 2 ( 1, 1) 3 (0 ,3) Request 1 ( 0, 1) 1 ( 0, 1) 2 ( 0, 2) Anata ( Y o u ) 2 ( 2, 0) 5 ( 5, 0) 7 (4 ,3) Where are you going? 0 ( 0, 0) 2 (1 ,1) 5 (3 ,2) Personal Questions 0 (0 ,0) 1 (0 ,1) 11 (1,10) Checking In 0 ( 0, 0) 0 ( 0, 0) 2 ( 2, 0) Total 8 12 34 Note. T . = Total [01+02] of students' utterances; 01 = section 1 of J A P N 100; 02 = section 2 of J A P N 100; C S = Challenging Questions; DS = Direct Questions; IS = Information Search. (A detailed explanation of each subcategory wi l l be found in the page 68-69 of this paper.) The results o f Table 9 show that the Information Search (IS) score is the highest among the three types o f questions asked by students during discussion. The highest score in the story "Is it O K or N o t ? " is the Challenging Questions (CS) score which reflects the students' frustration due to not understanding the reason why the presented miscommunication occurred in the story. The fol lowing three tables (Table 10, 11, and 12) show the result o f interactional patterns at U B C . Tota l numbers o f cross-cultural stories presented at U B C greatly exceed those at Capilano College due to different Integration of Culture and Language Learning 75 course content; the Japanese intensive course at U B C issues twelve credits while a Japanese course at Capilano College issues three credits. Table 10. Responding: Teacher Utterances ( U B C ) Title of Story V R E R ReS Q A I E Is it O K or Not? 1 3 0 0 1 0 Checking In 0 10 2 0 2 0 Greetings 10 6 10 1 1 6 M y Mother sent a ~ 9 3 6 0 1 6 Where are you going? 6 1 3 0 0 0 Personal Names 9 2 8 0 0 1 Do You Want To ~? 15 10 12 1 2 0 Personal Questions 8 2 5 0 0 1 I'm Sorry 1 1 1 0 2 1 Compliment 11 4 7 0 0 2 Request 6 5 9 0 7 11 Carrying a Suitcase 2 4 3 1 2 0 Please Eat More 7 3 10 1 2 0 Have a Nice ~ 6 3 9 3 3 2 Anytime wi l l do 2 0 2 0 0 1 I was Praised 3 2 1 0 0 3 Giving 2 2 2 0 1 1 Apology 3 2 3 0 0 2 Total 101 63 93 7 24 37 Note. V R = Verbatim Repetition; E R = Expanded Repetition; ReS = Restructuring; Q = Questions; A = Answers; I E = Instructional Explanation. (A detailed explanation of each subcategory wi l l be found in the pages 66-67 of this paper.) The U B C instructor used Verbat im Repeti t ion ( V R ) the most often and Restructuring (ReS) the second-most when directing the discussion, but Integration of Culture and Language Learning 76 Questions (Q), which were directed to a certain cultural group, were the least used utterances. Therefore, student responses were the main source o f discussion for the U B C class as they were at Capilano College. The Table 11. Reacting: Students 'Utterances ( U B C ) Title of Story C C R e n I C R e n P L R e n L L R e n W W R e n Is it O K or Not? 0 0 1 0 0 Checking In 5 1 6 0 2 Greetings 4 6 12 0 0 M y Mother sent a ~ 1 0 16 0 2 Where are you going? 5 2 4 0 0 Personal Names 5 9 10 0 1 Do You Want To ~? 5 16 10 0 1 Personal Questions 3 10 3 0 0 I'm Sorry 2 0 2 0 0 Compliment 10 3 4 0 0 Request 5 8 27 1 3 Carrying a Suitcase 3 5 2 0 0 Please Eat More 2 13 3 0 0 Have a Nice ~ 2 2 12 1 0 Anytime wi l l do 0 4 2 0 0 I was Praised 0 3 5 0 0 Giving 3 2 2 0 1 Apology 2 6 5 •0 0 Total 67 90 126 2 10 Note. CCRen = Culturally Enforced Comprehension; ICRen = Individually Different Comprehension; PLRen = Pre-learnt or Output Comprehension; LLRen = Lack of Linguistic Comprehension; WWren = Wrong or Non-Comprehension. (A detailed explanation of each subcategory wi l l be found in the pages 67-68 of this paper.) Integration of Culture and Language Learning 77 Table 11 shows that the score o f Pre-learnt or Output Comprehension (PLRen) is the highest which indicates that the U B C students comprehended the presented cross-cultural stories based on their previous knowledge which was most l ikely learnt in their previous classes. The L a c k o f Linguis t ic Comprehension ( L L R e n ) score is the lowest, in fact the ratio o f L L R e n score is very minimal when compared to that o f Capilano College, which suggests that U B C students did not have any difficulties understanding linguistic problems about the presented cross-cultural stories except the story "Request" and "Have a N i c e - ". This result alone suggests the successful integration o f the cross-cultural approach in the course at U B C . The score o f Cul tural ly Enforced Comprehension ( C C R e n ) o f "Compliment" is higher than any other comprehension subcategories which suggests that the content o f "Compliment" is culturally oriented which therefore required students' testing their own cultural experiences as tools to understand the presented story. O n the other hand stories such as "Do Y o u Want To - ? , " "Personal Questions," and "Please Eat M o r e " required more from students' own personal experiences than cultural experiences since the score o f Individually Different Comprehension (ICRen) showed the highest. Therefore, each cross-cultural story has its own characteristics such as cultural or l inguistic, which requires a certain type o f comprehension corresponding to its characteristics. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 78 Table 12. Sol ic i t ing: Students' Utterances ( U B C ) C S D S IS Title of Story Is it OK or Not? 0 0 1 Checking In 0 0 2 Greetings 0 1 0 My Mother sent a ~ 1 1 3 Where are you going? 0 0 0 Personal Names 0 0 0 Do You Want To ~? 0 3 2 Personal Questions 0 0 0 I'm Sorry 0 0 2 Compliment 0 0 0 Request 0 0 15 Carrying a Suitcase 0 2 1 Please Eat More 0 1 1 Have a Nice ~ 0 0 4 Anytime will do 0 0 0 , I was Praised 0 0 1 Giving 0 0 1 Apology 0 0 0 Total 1 8 33 Note. C S = Challenging Questions; DS = Direct Questions; IS = Information Search. (A detailed explanation of each subcategory wi l l be found in the page 68-69 of this paper.) The total number o f solicit ing subcategoris indicates the same ranking order as that o f Capilano College. Table 12 shows that the Information Search (IS) score is the highest and the Challenging Questions (CS) is the lowest. The difference between U B C and Capilano College is the ratio o f C S , 2% at Integration of Culture and Language Learning 79 U B C and 15% at Capilano College. " M y Mother sent a ~" is the only story about which U B C students expressed their frustration. Result of the Written Evaluation Table 13 shows the result o f the written examination, one mid-term and one final at Capilano Col lege; Table 14 is that o f U B C , including three mid-terms and one final. Writ ten evaluations were marked based on two categories. The first category is the recognition (R) in which three subcategories were considered: (1) correctness (C) , therefore, the correct recognition is marked as C R , (2) wrongness (W), therefore, the wrong recognition is marked as W R , and (3) nothing, therefore, the lack o f recognition is marked as N R , all o f which are displayed in the horizontal columns. The second category is the answers ( A ) in which three subcategories were also considered; (1) appropriateness (Ap) and appropriate answers are marked as A p A , (2) inappropriateness (Ip) and inappropriate answers are marked as I p A , and (3) nothing (N) and no answers are marked as N A , all o f which are displayed in the vertical rows. The explanation o f each abbreviation is given under the tables again. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 80 Table 13. Wri t ten Evaluat ion (Capilano College) Appropriateness (A) Recognition (R) C R Total W R Total NR Total A p A : Greetings Is it O K or Not? Where are you going? Personal Questions Request Checking in 269 56 46 33 49 51 34 IpA: Greetings Is it O K or Not? Where are you going? Personal Questions Request Checking in 40 25 4 7 1 3 0 5 4 1 N A : Greetings Is it O K or Not? Where are you going? Personal Questions Request Checking in 8 2 1 4 0 1 0 79 32 5 12 6 2 22 Total (%) 317 (79%) 5 (1%) 79 (20%) Note. A p A = Appropriate Answer; I pA = Inappropriate Answer; N A = No Answer; C R = Correct Recognition; W R = Wrong Recognition; N R = No Recognition Table 13 shows that 79% o f student answeres at Capilano College recognized the wrong use o f language which was expressed in the writ ten tests and 20% failed to recognize. A m o n g the 317 answers that demonstrate Integration of Culture and Language Learning 81 correct recognition, 85% o f them (269) were appropriate answers for the recognized wrong language use, and 13% (40) were inappropriate while 3% (8) showed no responses. In the case o f story "Checking in" , all the students who recognized the problem correctly provided the appropriate answers. "Personal Questions," on the other hand, resulted in one inappropiate answer for the correctly recognized language used in the test, which came from a student who recognized wrongly. Only 1 % o f the answers recognized the wrong use o f language overall . 20% o f student answers failed to recognize the wrong use o f language and, therefore, failed to provide any anwers for them. Stories in this section (no recognition and no answers; N R - N A ) might indicate high difficulty levels for students in understanding the content o f cross-cultural stories. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 82 Table 14. Writ ten Evaluat ion ( U B C ) Appropriateness (A) Recognition (R) CR Total WR Total NR Total ApA: Greetings Is it OK or Not? Where are you going? My mother sent a package Do you want to ~ Please eat more Compliment Have a ~ I was praised Anytime will do Giving Apology Request Carrying a suitcase 241 30 25* 7* 15* 24 13 36 13 32 4 13 12 10 7 IpA: Greetings Is it OK or Not? Where are you going? My mother sent a package Do you want to ~ Please eat more Compliment Have a ~ I was praised Anytime will do Giving Apology Request Carrying a suitcase 58 5 15* 10* 2* 5 3 6 3 4 2 0 2 1 0 4 1 1 2 Integration of Culture and Language Learning 83 Table 14 continued: Appropriateness (A) Recognition (R) C R T. W R T. NR T. N A : 7 56 Greetings 6 Is it OK or Not? 0 9 Where are you going? 1 My mother sent a package 1 Do you want to ~ 1 7 Please eat more 1 3 Compliment 1 11 Have a ~ 1 2 I was praised 1 12 Anytime will do 0 11 Giving 0 2 Apology 0 1 Request 0 4 Carrying a suitcase 0 2 Total (%) 306 (84%) 4 (1%) 56 (15%) Note, A A = Appropriate Answer; I A = Inappropriate Answer; N A = No Answer; C R = Correct Recognition; W R = Wrong Recognition; N R = No Recognition: * F i l l in the blanks format, the recognition of inappropriate use of language is not tested in these sections. Table 14 shows that 84% o f U B C student answers recognized the wrong use o f language correctly and 15% failed to recognize. A m o n g answers who recognized correctly, 79% were appropriate answers (241), 19% were the inappropriate answers ( 5 8 ) , and 2% lacked answers (7). Each wrong recognition in "Greetings" and "Do Y o u Want To ~" contributed to providing inappropriate answers, while one o f the 2-wrong recognition ( W R ) in "Compliment" contributed to the Inappropriate Answer ( IpA) and the other to the N o Answer ( N A ) categories. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 84 Student Evaluation of Cross-Cultural Stories A t the end o f the course, the students were asked to give their opinions or to evaluate the cross-cultural story approach. The results o f students' post questionnaires are listed below. First , Table 15 illustrates how students thought o f cross-cultural stories, whether or not stories helped them learn Japanese. Table 16 shows examples students gave about how they helped. Table 15. D i d Cross-Cul tural Stories He lp Y o u learn Japanese? Y E S N O No Answer Capilano College 39 (91%) 4 (9%) 0 U B C 13 (87%) 1 (6.5%) 1 (6.5%) Table 16. H o w Stories Helped? Capilano U B C Becoming sensitive to Japanese culture/people 7 3 Cultural study 11 Hierarchy 2 1 Formal/Informal 3 Indirectness 1 Appropriateness 1 Practical/daily life expressions 13 (33%) 5 (31%) Better understanding of language 2 2 Awareness of communication breakdown 2 Stories are interesting, easy to learn 1 1 The highest recognition given by the students at both Capilano Col lege and U B C is as "practical daily life expressions," 13 (33%) at Capilano Col lege Integration of Culture and Language Learning 85 and 5 (31%) at U B C . The students who were exposed to this cross-cultural story approach seemed to perceive the approach as practical. Second, Table 17 shows whether or not cross-cultural stories helped students become aware o f their own culture. Table 18 presents examples students gave for this question, on developing their own cultural awareness. Table 17. O w n Cultural Awareness Y E S N O No Answer Yes & No Capilano College 24 (56%) 18 (42%) - 1 (2%) U B C 8 (53%) 6 (40%) 1 (7%) -Table 18. Examples o f O w n Cultural Awareness Capilano UBC Awareness to cultural differences/similarities 14 (58%) 7 (88%) Level of politeness 4 Inside/ Outside 2 Greetings 2 Compliment 2 Different status/different language 1 Hospitable manner 1 Checking-in 1 58% o f Capilano students and 88% o f U B C students answered that the presented cross-cultural stories helped their awareness o f their own culture. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 86 A m o n g those who answered "NO" at Capilano College, some gave examples as wel l . The results are listed below (Table 19). None o f the U B C students who answered " N O " provided any examples. Table 19. Examples o f "NO" to developing cultural awareness Awareness of the differences Awareness of the similarities No Answer Others: Never thought about it Need to know more about my culture I'm already a culturally aware person. 5 (28%) 3 (17%) 7 1 1 (6%) 1 Total 18 (100%) It is interesting to note that the 5 1 % ( 28%+17%+6%) o f students who answered " N O " at Capilano College relate their examples in terms o f the awareness o f their own culture. Thi rd , Table 20 presents the comments or suggestions students gave about the cross-cultural story approach, which can be used to develop better cross-cultural stories or improve the technique o f presenting the cross-cultural story appoach. The result shows an interesting attitude o f students regarding cultural learning. 9 at Capilano College (30% o f total responses) and 3 at U B C (15% o f total responses) indicated the necessity o f knowing correct responses. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 87 Table 20. Comments or Suggestions Capilano U B C Lead to conversation practice based on the story. 4 0 More stories/situations/examples 3 3 Correct responses/explanations 9 3 Stories are ambiguous/inconclusive/confusing 1 1 Too much time spent on discussion 3 Good/useful way to learn language 8 7 Helps to learn cultural differences 1 Needs more similar examples to English-speaking culture 1 Needs visual aid/illustration 2 1 1 Make into a book 1 More integration to the course content 1 It is hard to determine what exactly they mean by "correct responses". There w i l l be several appropriate ways to use language in a certain situation, which are certainly presented during the last stage o f the cross-cultural story approach. It might be due to the fact that students were required to take written examinations. Table 20 shows that 8 at Capilano College (27%) and 7 at U B C (35%) acknowledged that this cross-cultural story approach is a good and useful way to learn language as wel l as learning culture. Instructor's Response to Questionnaire The student evaluation o f the cross-cultural story approach was illustrated above. Next , the instructors's responses w i l l be examined. The instructor at U B C found the application o f the cross-cultural story approach quite difficult, indicating 2.5 on the scale provided (see Appendix D-2) . The examples the instructor gave regarding the difficulties Integration of Culture and Language Learning 88 were (1) to make students aware o f their own experiences, (2) to bring students into discussing their opinions and impressions, and (3) to judge how much to tel l the students during the discussion. For the second question, the instructor rated the success o f the integration o f the cross-cultural story approach as very successful (3). The reason behind the rating was based on the observation o f students in class: students looked very happy after each story. Fo r the third and fourth questions, the instructor stated that the cross-cultural story approach is a "necessary" approach to language teaching; therefore, the instructor addressed adopting the cross-cultural story approach as part o f the language teaching. The instructor also mentioned that the cross-cultural story approach would be effective when combined in role-plays. Summary The total number o f "Responding - Teacher Utterances" at both Capilano College and U B C is presented as Table 21 below (summarized version o f Table 7 and Table 10) which indicate that the both instructors used Verbat im Repeti t ion much more than the other utterances. I f one considers Restructuring as an expansion o f Verbat im Repeti t ion, then the number o f teacher utterances are largely the result o f responding to what students have said, which means Verbat im Repet i t ion and Restructuring were the main techniques o f interacting wi th students taken by the both instructors. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 89 Table 21. Tota l Number o f Responding (Capilano College and U B C ) V R ReS T . E R A I E Q Capilano College 133 118 251 57 33 22 20 U B C 101 93 194 63 24 37 7 Note. T = V R + ReS; V R = Verbatim Repetition; E R = Expanded Repetition; ReS = Restructuring; Q = Questions; A = Answers; I E = Instructional Explanation. (A detailed explanation of each subcategory wil l be found in the pages 66-67 of this paper.) A s for Questions, the results in Table 21 indicate that both instructors did use questions as much as the other utterances, which are directed to different groups o f students who share the same language. This tendency suggests that the direction o f discussion can be improved especially when the results o f student post-questionnaire indicated that only around the half o f the students at both institutions recognized that cross-cultural stories helped them become aware o f their own culture (Table 17). Next , the results o f student utterances, Reacting, w i l l be examined. Table 22 below summarizes the results o f "Reacting - Student Utterances." The total number o f Pre-learnt or output Comprehension ( P L R e n ) shows relatively high scores at both Capilano College and U B C when compared to other subcategories. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 90 Table 22. Total Number o f Reacting PLRen CCRen ICRen WWRen LLRen Capilano College 109 74 54 20 11 U B C 125 67 90 10 2 Note. CCRen = Culturally Enforced Comprehension; ICRen = Individually Different Comprehension; PLRen = Pre-learnt or Output Comprehension; LLRen = Lack of Linguistic Comprehension; WWren = Wrong or Non-Comprehension. (A detailed explanation of each subcategory wi l l be found in the pages 67-68 of this paper.) The high score o f P L R e n in Table 22 indicates that students understood the presented cross-cultural stories based on their previously learnt knowledge mostly from previous classes, rather than knowledge that was obtained through their cultural or individual experiences. A l s o the fact that the L a c k o f Linguis t ic Comprehension ( L L R e n ) score is the lowest in the React ing category at both instituions strongly supports the result o f the P L R e n score being the highest. The students did not struggle as much to comprehend the sources o f miscommunicaton o f presented cross-cultural stories without additional linguistic knowlege. This tendency is stronger at U B C than at Capilano College, which may require the instructor at Capilano Col lege to consider better integration wi th the existing textbook as one student at Capilano College indicated in the post-questionnaire (Table 20). Last ly , the results o f "Sol ic i t ing - Students' Utterances" are summarized in Table 23. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 91 Table 23. Total Number o f Sol ic i t ing IS D S C S Capilano College 34 12 8 U B C 32 8 1 Note. C S = Challenging Questions; DS = Direct Questions; IS = Information Search. (A detailed explanation of each subcategory wi l l be found in the page 68-69 of this paper.) Information Search (IS) shows higher than the other two subcategories, Challenging Questions (CS) and Direct Questions (DS) , at both institutions. The ranking order is actually the same at both Capilano College and U B C . The ratio o f both Direct Questions and Challenging Questions at Capilano Col lege is higher than those o f U B C . The results might suggest that the students at Capilano College had more difficulties understanding the presented cross-cultural stories due to their lack o f linguistic knowledge. When the nature o f course content is considered closely, this suggestion might make sense since the course at Capilano College covers only one quarter o f U B C ' s content. These suggestive results, however, do not interfere wi th the conclusion that the successful integration into existing Japanese courses at post-secondary beginning levels is a promising possibility since the results o f student comprehension strongly indicate the Pre-learnt or Output Comprehension score as the highest among the five subcategories. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 92 CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION In this chapter, the results o f analyses w i l l be examined and discussed according to four aspects: a successful integration o f the cross-cultural story approach to an existing introductory Japanese language course, an improvement o f discussion techniques in order to aid student reflection upon features o f their own culture and to compare and contrast them wi th corresponding features o f Japanese culture, a learning o f the appropriate usage o f the Japanese language, and a written evaluation format. Integration The first research question was "Can the cross-cultural story approach be integrated successfully into an existing introductory Japanese language course? The ranking o f Pre-learnt or output Comprehension ( P L R e n ) score is a good response indicator to this question because P L R e n is comprehension derived from previously learned knowledge, mostly from previous Japanese classes, therefore the larger the P L R e n score, the better the integration o f cross-cultural stories to an existing course. Table 22 shows that the total ranking o f P L R e n is the highest amongst the "Reacting" subcategories which means that the P L R e n is the most frequently used comprehension method by students at both Capilano College and U B C . Table 22 also shows that L a c k o f Linguis t ic Comprehension ( L L R e n ) is lowest-ranked at both institutions. This is also reasonable evidence to Integration of Culture and Language Learning 93 provide a positive answer to the first research question, since L L R e n represents students' non-comprehension due to a lack o f linguistic knowledge. Another positive piece o f evidence is the low score o f Direct Questions (DS) in the "Sol ic i t ing" category. These are mostly linguistic questions about the presented story. Students at both institutions used more Information Search (IS) than Direct Questions (DS) (Table 23), that is, not direct questions about the presented story but questions to clarify their understanding on immediate or relevant discussion topics or the topic in the presented story. When the score o f each story is examined in detail, however, the statements above do not necessarily apply for al l stories. Table 4 and Table 7 show that Cultural ly Enforced Comprehension ( C C R e n ) for some stories scored higher than Pre-learnt or output Comprehension (PLRen) . A t Capilano College this applies to stories such as "Where are you going?," "Personal Questions," and "Checking In." U B C "Where are you going?," "Compliment," and "Giv ing" are the examples. "Personal Questions" at Capilano Col lege and "Do you want to -? , " "Personal Questions," "Please Eat M o r e , " "Anytime w i l l do," "Carrying a Suitcase," and "Apology" at U B C elicited higher scores o f Individually different Comprehension ( ICRen) than P L R e n . B o t h L a c k o f Linguis t ic Comprehension ( L L R e n ) and W r o n g or Non-Comprehension ( W W R e n ) at Capilano College and U B C occurred less frequently than P L R e n . Table 24 shows a summarized version o f the above statement. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 94 Table 24. Stories wi th H i g h C C R e n & I C R e n than P L R e n (Capilano Col lege and U B C ) High CCRen Stories CC UBC High ICRen Stories CC UBC Where are you going? Checking In Compliment Giving 23 5 15 5 10 3 Personal Questions Do you want to ~ ? Carrying a Suitcase Please Eat More Apology Anytime wi l l do 39 10 16 5 13 6 4 Note. CCRen=Culturally Enforced Comprehension; ICRen=Individually Different Comprehension; CC=Capilano College What the results o f Table 24 tell us is that students' comprehension o f presented cross-cultural stories were not entirely dependent on their prior learnt knowledge from previous Japanese classes. Some comprehension was derived rather from their own experiences; (1) sometimes culturally-oriented, which are commonly shared by students' wi th the same cultural background for examples stories wi th the high Cultural ly Enforced Comprehension ( C C R e n ) scores; while in other cases, (2) individually-oriented, which are different even among students wi th the same cultural backgrounds for examples stories wi th the high Individually Different Comprehension (ICRen) scores. A l l stories were written in Engl ish except for key expressions in Japanese, which were the source o f communication breakdown. Therefore, key expressions in the story such as structures, words, or idioms have to be familiar to students by the time the story was presented to them. The high Integration of Culture and Language Learning 95 score o f Pre-learnt or Output Comprehension (PLRen) at both institutions demonstrates that it has been successfully implemented. In addition to this, high Cultural ly Enforced Comprehension (CCRen) and Individually different Comprehension (ICRen) scores suggest that the comprehension o f stories can not be limited only to P L R e n . These results encourage wider possibilities and varieties being added to the content o f cross-cultural stories when developing them, for example creating stories that appeal to certain groups o f students who share the same cultural non-North American background. A l l cross-cultural stories were based on the comparison between N o r t h American culture and Japanese culture since Engl ish is the common language spoken in class. Table 23 (or Table 9 and 12), the results o f Sol ici t ing, also contribute the positive answer to the first research question since questions regarding the presented cross-cultural stories, Direct Questions (DS) , were not frequently asked by the students at both institutions. The questions students asked the most are intended to clarify immediate discussion topics rather than directly connected to the problem presented in a story. When each institution is examined closer, the percentage o f Direct Questions (DS) and Challenging Questions (CS) at Capilano College, 22% and 15% respectively, show higher than that o f U B C , 8% and 2%. Stories such as "Where are you going?" and "Personal Questions" are compared in terms o f student utterances, since these two stories were the same stories without any modifications and were presented at approximately the same point in the course, near the beginning o f the course period. The students at U B C did Integration of Culture and Language Learning 96 not ask any questions about these two stories while the students o f Capilano College asked many questions in order to help them understand the immediate topic o f discussion or something about the presented story. The reasons for a descrepancy o f ratio regarding these two stories could be due to the fol lowing two assumptions; one is, as mentioned in a previous chapter, due to the different linguistic level o f students at each institution, and the other, due to the course o f discussion that took place in each institution. When considering the results recorded in the Responding category o f both stories at both institutions (Table 8 and 11), the ranking order as we l l as the ratio o f subcategories are very similar. Therefore, the first assumption that the students' language level is different idoes not apply since the types o f comprehension that were required from the students at both institutions in order to understand the stories did not show any difference. Then, the second assumption has to be examined more closely using the transcribed class observation notes. Indeed, it provided evidence o f the different course o f discussion in which the students at each institution took part. Fo r example, the students in the second section at Capilano Col lege asked many questions about the different roles and rights o f females and males in Japan in general which increased the score o f Information Search (IS) greatly. Another point I should note here is the problem accompanied wi th subcategorization o f each category. The task o f subcategorization was not always simple and not all the utterances were subcategorized. The omission Integration of Culture and Language Learning 97 o f Gaies ' "Structuring" category in this study was due to the decision that the "Structuring" category was not beneficial to the purpose o f this study, yet it did not mean such attempts by students never occurred. It occurred clearly, but only once, at Capilano College. The frequency o f occurrence at U B C was also rare. "Structuring", according to Gaies, is a redirecting question that attempts to relate discourse to a different (but related) topic. Examples: Dur ing a discussion o f "Is it O K or not?" at Capilano College: S l ( m ) : " i i desu" in this case means "It's fine, (no) thank you." [Student 1 became t imid and tried to cancel his statement. Teacher tried to encourage Student 1 and asked....] T: H o w many o f you agree with S I ? [S2 indicated agreement] S l ( m ) : Only one!!? [ looking surprised and disappointed] T: S2, what are the reasons o f your agreement wi th S I ? S2(m): .... wel l , . O J Simpson is innocent and ... [Indeed, that day was O J Simpson's judgment day, some, including me, who did not know the verdict as wel l as others got very excited about it and it caused a commotion and laughter] Integration of Culture and Language Learning 98 Student 2 successfully diverted everybody's attention instead o f answering the question directed to him. It turned out that he did not have any positive things to say to support Student 1 after a l l , but it did not matter. The discussion continued. In the case o f the "Responding" category, I sometimes assigned two subcategories for the same utterance due to the fact that the intention o f teacher utterances were often based on student utterances ( V R ) and intended to promote students' understanding. This subcategorization contributes to a more accurate assessment o f the "Responding" category; thereby, answering the second research question in a more accurate manner. In the case o f the "Reacting" category, students' utterances became a little more complicated than in the "Responding" category, teacher utterances, because there is often no clear evidence to point to one specific subcategory. I found myself, sometimes, forced to commit one utterance to one subcategory only in order to avoid vagueness and give as clear an analysis as possible, rather than giving two subcategories, as I did in the "Responding" category,. F o r example, in the subcategorization o f knowledge related to students' first language; is it purely linguistic knowledge which the student has learned in order to communicate successfully wi th others (PLRen) or is it in part cultural knowledge which helped the student formulate a correct l inguist ic knowledge (CCRen)? The use o f "you" in Engl ish illustrates this point clearly. When the story " Anata ( Y O U ) " was presented at Capilano College, a discussion, which was l ively but somewhat frustrating to some students occurred. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 99 Examples: " Anata ( Y O U ) " (Appendix E - l ) S l ( f ) : (Is) something wrong wi th "anata no .... eigo" ...? S2(f): That means "your Engl ish" T: Yes,..."anata" means "you", and by adding a particle "no", "anata no" is "your", "eigo" is "English", so "anata no eigo" is "your Engl ish" . S3(m): (It) is good! Noth ing wrong with that! The student's comprehension was based on their knowledge o f the Engl i sh use o f "you" is o f course not wrong in Engl i sh , both linguistically and socioculturally, in the situation presented in the story. It, however, becomes problematic when the students transfer their knowledge gained from their first language environment directly to Japanese and try to use it in the same way or to judge whether or not such an application is justifiable. The question here is not, however, to ask whether such a transfer is appropriate or not, but rather whether we acknowledge this kind o f purely linguistic knowledge as simple linguistically-learned knowledge (PLRen) or as part o f culturally-learned knowledge (CCRen)? In this research, fortunately, this kind o f problem did not frequently occurred to the point where it might have affected the result since I assigned these utterances as P L R e n , purely linguistical knowledge which is learnt sometimes in the course o f growing up, not C C R e n , culturally learnt knowledge. I am not sure whether or not this decision was the right one, because student frustration was evident because o f the high score o f "Sol ic i t ing" (Table 5), Challenging Questions Integration of Culture and Language Learning 100 (CS)=25%, Direct Questions (DS)=42%, Information Search (IS)=21%, though students' non-comprehension ( W W R e n ) did not rate highly (Table 4). The high percentage o f D S indicates the students' enthusiastic effort to solve the communication breakdown by examining linguistic problems. Considering the direction o f the discussion students took when solving the cross-cultural problem presented in this story, the decision to assign such utterances as Pre-learned or Output Comprehension (PLRen) was not entirely wrong because the direction o f discussion was definitely linguistic, not cultural . The C S questions such as "What's wrong wi th it?" were expressed by students (CS=25%) also indicates the frustration came from a linguistic problem, due to the fact that simple transfer from Engl i sh grammar to Japanese did not work. A dilemma, however, arises from the fact that the presented miscommunication problem in the story could not be solved easily by compensating for their lack o f Japanese linguistic knowledge only. The students, at the end, had to realize the use o f "anata (you)" in Japanese is very different from Engl ish use o f "you" as a socio-cultural mistake, not solely a linguistic mistake. Especial ly when considering one o f the purposes o f presenting cross-cultural stories, which is to help students reflect upon features o f their own culture and compare and contrast them wi th corresponding features o f Japanese culture in order to promote their understanding, I had to ask myself how successful this story was to them. Examples o f students' utterances in Challenging Questions ( C S ) such as "Really?" is the main source o f my doubt. The presented story was not Integration of Culture and Language Learning 101 successful enough for students to appreciate that their use o f "anata (you)" in Japanese was indeed inappropriate. H o w , then, can stories that are inclined heavily towards linguistic problems be developed? This became a challenging issue when developing more cross-cultural stories. Stories dealing wi th an adjective "ii (good)" titled "Is it O K or N o t ? " at both institutions or " M y mother sent a~," "Anytime w i l l do," "I was Praised" (Appendix E-2,3,4,5) at U B C show the Cultural ly Enforced Comprehension ( C C R e n ) score as zero or closer to zero when compared to the score o f Pre-learned or Output Comprehension (PLRen) . The Individually different Comprehension (ICRen) score o f "Is it O K or No t?" at both institutions and " M y mother sent a ~" at U B C also showed zero. These stories were also linguistic in nature. They do not require students to rely on culturally or individually based experiences at al l . Interestingly, the Challenging Questions (CS) score o f "Is it O K or No t?" at Capilano Col lege shows 50% and " M y Mother sent a ~," at U B C shows the only Challenging Questions (CS) score, therefore, shows 100%. These stories also need further development in order to help students appreciate the presented problem as part o f their experiences. Table 25 below summarizes the above statements. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 102 Table 25. Low CCRen/ICRen Stories Stories CCRen Capilano UBC ICRen Capilano UBC PLRen Capilano UBC Is it O K or Not? M y mother sent a ~ Anytime wi l l do. I was Praised. 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 19 1 16 2 5 Note. CCRen=Culturally Enforced Comprehension; ICRen=Individually Different Comprehension; PLRen=Pre-learned or Output Comprehension "Anytime w i l l do" at U B C shows a larger Individually Different Comprehension (ICRen) score than the Pre-learned or Output Comprehension (PLRen) score even though this story also deals wi th an adjective "II (good)." The reason for this h igh score o f I C R e n is due to the course o f d i scuss ion w h i c h requi red ind iv idua l s to express their different op in ions . Student 's ut terances, when t ry ing to make sense o f w h y the misunders tanding o c c u r r e d in the s tory, such as "I do that a l l the t ime. I forget an appointment and . . . . " w i l l i l lus t ra te this i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c course very w e l l and na tura l ly thoses ut terances were counted as I C R e n , not P L R e n . Improvement of Discussion Technique The second research ques t ion was " C a n c ross -cu l tu re s tor ies a id students re f l ec t ion upon features o f thei r o w n cul ture and compare and contrast them w i t h co r r e spond ing features o f the target Japanese Integration of Culture and Language Learning 103 cu l tu re?" Tab le 17, w h i c h d isp lays the resul t o f students ' post ques t ionnai re , shows on ly about ha l f o f the students at bo th ins t i tu t ions (56% at C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e and 5 3 % at U B C ) a c k n o w l e d g e d that c ross -cu l tu re s tor ies helped them become more aware o f thei r o w n cul tures . The awareness o f cu l t u r a l differences and s imi la r i t i e s resu l ted in the highest scores shown by students (58% at C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e and 8 8 % at U B C ) w h i c h can con f i rm that the d i r e c t i o n that this research aims in is on the r ight t rack . The result o f students' background questionnaires indicates that 63% o f students at Capilano Col lege and 65% o f students at U B C have Chinese backgrounds. If, since their culture has also been greatly influenced by China, we add the number o f Korean students, the percentage o f the students whose culture may share some similar values and customs as Japanese culture increases to 74% at Capilano College and 80% at U B C . The tendency o f students wi th east As ian backgrounds such as Chinese and Korean enrolling in Japanese courses is very high, becoming a majority o f the course registrants. M i g h t this high percentage o f students whose cultures are similar to Japanese be a cause o f the low rate o f their own cultural awareness? The answer might be "yes". Culture is not static, constantly changing l ike the water constantly f lowing in a river (Hanners, 1992). The physical environment in which each country is located and its social environment developed by having gone through various historical incidents which are all different, therefore, cultures established in a different environment cannot be the same even though they exhibit some similarities. Such cultural Integration of Culture and Language Learning 104 similarities might cloud people's understanding rather than helping them see the differences in a clear way. I f the assumption that people wi th similar cultural backgrounds can understand each other wel l but block their true understanding, then, the way to help such people to break through false assumption must be discovered. This study, unfortunately, did not reveal any definitive answers as to how to do it, yet the result o f this study suggests the direction the cross-cultural story approach can take place in order to aid students understand culture and language in a better way. The discussion technique is key to this problem. A c c o r d i n g to the result o f " R e s p o n d i n g " ca tegory (Table 3 and Tab le 6) , the V e r b a t i m R e p e t i t i o n ( V R ) score showed the highest at bo th ins t i tu t ions ; 133 (35%) at C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e and 101 (31%) at U B C . Th i s is very predic tab le since the d i scuss ion is in tended to p romote students ' awareness towards cu l ture and language based on their exper iences . N a t u r a l l y , the score o f R e s t r u c t u r i n g ( R e S ) f o l l o w s next. The r ank ing order in general at bo th in s t i t u t ion shows the s imi la r tendency, except the Ins t ruc t iona l E x p l a n a t i o n ( I E ) score w h i c h is higher than the A n s w e r s ( A ) score at U B C . Those t w o scores are reversed at C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e . Tab le 26 b e l o w shows the percentage o f the "Respond ing" ca tegory at bo th ins t i tu t ions . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 105 Tab le 26, Percentage o f " R e s p o n d i n g " V R (%) ReS(%) ER (%) A (%) IE (%) Q (%) Capi lano College 35 30 15 9 6 5 U B C 31 29 19 7 11 2 Note, V R = Verbatim Repetition; E R = Expanded Repetition; ReS = Restructuring; Q = Questions; A = Answers; I E = Instructional Explanation. (A detailed explanation of each subcategory wi l l be found in the pages 66-67 of this paper.) The s imi la r result regard ing the r ank ing order o f R e s p o n d i n g subcategor ies indicates that each ins t ruc to r r e l i ed on s imi la r techniques when lead ing the d i s c u s s i o n , w h i c h is to repeat what the students had sa id . B o t h ins t ruc to rs t r i ed to expand the content o f the s tor ies based on the students ' ut terances more than the presented s tory l ine and t r ied to l ink the d i s cus s ion to language teach ing . The only difference each ins t ruc to r exh ib i t ed is the score o f A n s w e r s ( A ) and Ins t ruc t iona l E x p l a n a t i o n s ( I E ) : The U B C ins t ruc to r exp la ined more than the ins t ruc to r at C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e when teach ing the appropr ia te uses o f language in a g iven s i tua t ion . A s for the Ques t ions (Q) score , it is the lowes t at bo th ins t i tu t ions , 5% at C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e and 3% at U B C . C o n s i d e r i n g the objec t ives o f this c ro s s - cu l t u r a l approach , it is natura l to imagine that the quest ions d i rec ted to cer ta in cu l tu ra l groups , the score o f Q , c o u l d be higher than the obta ined resul t . "Where are y o u g o i n g ? " at Integration of Culture and Language Learning 106 C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e is the only s tory that obta ined the h igh score o f bo th Q and C u l t u r a l l y E n f o r c e d C o m p r e h e n s i o n ( C C R e n ) . S tor ies such as " C o m p l i m e n t " at U B C shows the h igh score o f C C R e n , yet the Q score is ze ro . The l o w score o f Q suggests that improvement can be at tempted a long this aspect when lead ing the d i scuss ion . I f the at tempt was successful , it might , then, help students apprecia te the differences or s imi la r i t i e s as part o f thei r o w n exper iences , thus p r o m o t i n g language learn ing . It seems to be a lways a b i g p rob l em for the ins t ruc to r to find an answer to the ques t ion such as "What is the best way to lead the s tudent?" N o deta i led explanat ions as to how the d i scuss ion shou ld be conduc ted or language be taught were g i v e n to the in s t ruc to r at U B C p r i o r to the presenta t ion o f the s tory. P r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n was more or less left to the ins t ruc to r ; therefore, it was very unce r t a in and confus ing at the beg inn ing for the ins t ruc to r and it t o o k some t ime for the ins t ruc to r to feel comfor tab le to deal w i t h the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tory approach in class . It was ve ry evident as the days went by that the in s t ruc to r became more s k i l l f u l and confident handl ing the c ross -cu l tu ra l s tor ies and lead ing students in to more l i v e l y d i scuss ions . In fo rmal conver sa t iona l i n t e rv i ew was the only t ime for the in s t ruc to r at U B C to exchange the op in ions w i t h the researcher on the presenta t ion and d i scuss ion p rocedure or students ' r eac t ion for the day in order to improve the technique . The f o l l o w i n g synops is , (a) Integration of Culture and Language Learning 107 the ins t ruc tor ' s comment and (b) the researcher 's comment , shows changes that occu r r ed dur ing the course . 1. Ju ly 10 (a) : "It was the first t ime, so it was hard to grasp h o w to do it or what to expect out o f i t . " (b) : I d id feel the ins t ruc tor ' s uncer ta in ty and rea l i zed that I should t e l l the ins t ruc to r the object ives o f this app l i c a t i on again. 2. Ju ly 11 (b): I d id not unders tand why the ins t ruc to r d id not do the ac tua l language teaching . A l l the input f rom the students seemed to be frui t less . (a): I was p r e o c c u p i e d not to in terrupt students ' honest op in ions and ge t t ing students ' first r eac t ion was enough . W e had a g o o d l ong ta lk that day. It turned out that the i n s t ruc to r forgot about the second objec t ive o f the c ro s s - cu l t u r a l approach , w h i c h is to l i nk the d i scuss ion to language teaching , s ince the ins t ruc to r t r i ed very hard not to express his o w n o p i n i o n too much . O n the p rev ious day I reminded the ins t ruc to r o f the two objec t ives o f this approach ; one was to observe students ' r eac t ion to the s tory and lead the d i scuss ion , and the other was to teach appropr ia te use o f Integration of Culture and Language Learning 108 language in a g i v e n s i tua t ion . I also reminded h im that, r egard ing language teaching for the course , it was not my in ten t ion to change the teach ing approach the ins t ruc to r prefers. The ins t ruc to r shou ld choose or use the most sui table approach to the t o p i c o f the day when it comes to teaching language. The c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tory w o u l d usua l ly be an ex t r a - cu r r i cu l a r mater ia l when teaching language f rom a different approach . The ins t ruc to r shou ld , when dea l ing w i t h the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tory, t ry to d i rec t the students ' awareness us ing the s tory towards the appropr ia te use o f language in order to a v o i d m i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . It was easier for me to g ive more objec t ive o v e r v i e w o f the p roceed ings since I was t r ansc r ib ing the tape and w r i t i n g summary notes each day. [(a)=the ins t ruc tor ' s comment ; (b)=the researcher 's comment) ] 3. Ju ly 12 (b): The process went ve ry w e l l . The ins t ruc to r seemed re laxed and s k i l l f u l l y d i rec ted the class to focus on the t op i c "Gree t ings . " The students were l i v e l y , c o n t r i b u t i n g their op in ions as much as poss ib le . (a): I prepared my o w n teach ing mater ials based on the t o p i c in the s tory, so I was comfor tab le and conf ident as to h o w to direct students. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 109 I felt that students p robab ly unders tood better this t ime because o f the s tory . Th i s approach d id not take more than my normal approach to this t op i c " - w a n t to" . I wasn' t prepared enough for today, so I wasn' t comfor tab le enough. I usua l ly ant ic ipate the answers f rom the students s ince I k n o w bo th cul tures (Japanese and N o r t h A m e r i c a n ) w e l l and am prepared for my react ions to them beforehand, so that it wou ldn ' t surpr ise me too much in class . I t o l d the ins t ruc to r that day that it was very hard to an t ic ipa te h o w the d i s cus s ion w o u l d go , so it w o u l d be d i f f i cu l t to prepare. It is , however , poss ib le that I might have o v e r l o o k e d the ins igh t fu l o p i n i o n o f the ins t ruc tor . G a i e s ( 1 9 8 3 : 193) stated, "In c o m m u n i c a t i o n , it is the r e spons ib i l i t y o f speakers to evaluate i n advance the effect o f an ut terance on their l is teners , t a k i n g in to cons ide ra t i on bo th the immedia te context and every th ing w i t h w h i c h the referent is l i k e l y to be confused. In other w o r d s , speakers need to put themselves in their l i s teners ' shoes;" therefore, an t i c ipa t i on o f the students ' r eac t ion to the presented s tory by the in s t ruc to r might be an impor tant way to prepare for this approach in class . 4. Ju ly 18 (a): 5. Ju ly 19 (a) Integration of Culture and Language Learning 110 5. Ju ly 25 (b): I thought the ins t ruc to r d id very w e l l d i r ec t i ng the students, yet I 'm not s t i l l sure as to the idea l way for the d i scuss ion . 6. Ju ly 27 (b) The ins t ruc tor is hand l ing every th ing ext remely w e l l . 7. A u g u s t 9 (b) The ins t ruc tor c o u l d have exp lo red more o f the differences between different cul tures . [(a)=the ins t ruc tor ' s comment ; (b)=the researcher 's comment) ] The c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tory approach was not implemented du r ing the last few days o f class . One student asked the ins t ruc tor i f the s tor ies were a l l f in ished because he thought the approach was very g o o d . It was a very encourag ing comment . 8. A u g u s t 10 (b): I admire the a p p l i c a t i o n technique o f the ins t ruc to r . 9. A u g u s t 11 (a) : I th ink every th ing went very w e l l today. Students were very l i v e l y and seemed to unders tand the t o p i c ve ry w e l l . (b) : The d i scuss ion was ve ry l i v e l y . I wonde red i f it is Integration of Culture and Language Learning 111 because o f the content o f the s tory; different cus toms or mannerisms behind cu l tu re w h i c h is expressed th rough language. C o n s i d e r i n g the course o f d i scuss ion , students seemed to be more interested in cu l t u r a l behav iour than in language. The c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tory approach is one o f many ac t iv i t i e s w h i c h take place in language classes. The t ime requ i red to present a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tory var ies f rom story to s tory, yet it shou ld not take too much o f the class t ime, not more than usual for one ac t i v i t y i n class , o therwise , the students w i l l loose interest and, consequent ly , they w i l l not learn as much as they can. The amount this c ross -c u l t u r a l s tory approach tr ies to cove r w i t h i n a l i m i t e d t ime seems to be ambi t ious enough that the ins t ruc to r w i l l be pressured more than ever to be alert to a l l the things happening dur ing the class i n order to handle the d i s cus s ion w e l l s ince every th ing happens s imul taneous ly . A s K r a m s c h (1993) stated, it i s , indeed, very impor tan t for the ins t ruc to r to be very , very alert and to r ecogn ize the po ten t i a l l y expandable ut terances o f students, w h i c h w o u l d def in i te ly increase the score o f quest ions (Q) d i rec ted to a cer ta in cu l tu ra l g roup . It is easier to say than do, yet it is someth ing a l l ins t ruc tors shou ld t ry very hard to do no matter what . I, myself , missed many g o o d oppor tun i t i e s du r ing the d i scuss ion . The f o l l o w i n g examples i l lus t ra te examples o f my unawareness in c lass . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 112 W h e n we were d i scuss ing the s tory "Gree t ings" , one male student f rom a Chinese b a c k g r o u n d ( S l - m c h ) said that the reason for the c o m m u n i c a t i o n b r e a k d o w n was that the language John used to his host mother was too fo rma l . Then one male student f rom a Canad i an b a c k g r o u n d (S2-mca) said , E x a m p l e s : "Gree t ings" ( A p p e n d i x E - 6 ) 5 1 - mch: T o o fo rma l ! 5 2 - mca : T o o fo rmal to you r M o m ? ..."Konnichi-wa ( H e l l o ! ) " ? N o , I don't th ink so. S 2 - m c a : I thought it was not fo rmal enough. T: . . .not fo rmal enough to you r o w n mother? [ laughter] .. . so y o u shou ld speak more fo rma l ly to y o u r mother . . . [more laughter] S 2 - m c a : Y e a h , what 's w r o n g w i t h it? T: Y e s ! What ' s w r o n g w i t h be ing po l i t e to y o u r o w n mother? I l i k e that!! [more laughter} Note. mch=male student with Chinese background; mca=male student with Canadian background I c o u l d have asked S2 i f us ing more po l i t e language was h o w he usua l ly spoke to his mother . I c o u l d have exp lo red more on this po in t Integration of Culture and Language Learning 113 by a sk ing other students f rom different cu l tu ra l backgrounds . The resul t may turn up as more i n d i v i d u a l l y or ien ted than c u l t u r a l , yet I c o u l d have at least approached the t op i c , different levels o f language, based on the students ' rea l i ty w h i c h might have been better for students to feel more c loser to the t o p i c , but I fa i led to grasp the oppor tun i ty and t o o k a different course . A n o t h e r t ime, when "Pe r sona l Ques t ions" were d i scussed , E x a m p l e s : "Persona l Ques t ions" ( A p p e n d i x E - 7 ) 5 1 - fca: . . . y o u th ink they are ask ing y o u on a date, a sk ing (you) pe rsona l ly . . . they are interested in y o u persona l ly . . . 5 2 - mch : N o , they are jus t f r i end ly . . . I th ink they're jus t t r y i n g to be f r i end ly . . . S l - f c a : O h , yeah. . . . [ laughter ] r~ ight !?!! [Other S-fca suppor ted S I ] Note. fca=female student with Canadian background; mch=male student with Chinese background Th i s is a cu l ture c lash . I c o u l d have asked S2 i f it was the way he w o u l d act in such a s i tua t ion . Instead, I started to exp l a in that seemingly personal quest ions i n Canada are not necessar i ly pe r sona l Integration of Culture and Language Learning 114 ques t ions in Japan and w h i l e d i scuss ing as to why Japanese people ask such personal quest ions , E x a m p l e s : 5 3 - fca: . . . jus t to k n o w the status l e v e l , where she, . . . k i n d o f . . . fits in the b igger p ic tu re . . . 54 - mca : Y e a h , they have to k n o w what type o f language to use, but ( i t 's) i r o n i c , . . . they are us ing E n g l i s h . . . [ laughter] Note. fca=female student with Canadian background; mca=male student with Canadian background I c o u l d have expanded his comment one step further as part o f my exp lana t ion , instead I approached it d i f ferent ly . Wha t he said was r ight , the mind o f those Japanese in the s tory were w o r k i n g under the Japanese s o c i o - c u l t u r a l code even though they were us ing E n g l i s h as means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Y e t , what about the assumpt ion S4 made, is it not doub ly i ron i c? What S4 said assumes that one shou ld f o l l o w E n g l i s h , N o r t h A m e r i c a n , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l codes when speak ing in E n g l i s h , w h i c h is the exact assumpt ion made by K a t e i n the s tory . H e r pe rcep t ion was bounded by her o w n cu l tu ra l code and her r eac t ion was t y p i c a l and understandable under her cu l tu ra l code , as some Integration of Culture and Language Learning 115 female students w i t h Canad i an backgrounds responded . Y e t , K a t e , jus t l i ke those Japanese in the s tory, forgot to see the other side because they assumed their o w n cu l t u r a l codes were s tandard and t r i ed to judge others based on thei r false assumpt ions , w h i c h caused anger and i r r i t a t i o n for K a t e . S u c h assumpt ions , a c c o r d i n g to M a y e r (1991) , be long to the m o n o - c u l t u r a l l e v e l , yet it may not be the case here since such assumptions are often made u n c o n s c i o u s l y . It, therefore , requires spec ia l " s k i l l s " e spec ia l ly as the ins t ruc to r to be c u l t u r a l l y ve ry consc ious and alert when d i scus s ing c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tor ies as K r a m s c h (1993) promotes . The teacher shou ld be able to j u m p freely f rom one cu l t u r a l boundary to another instead o f be ing t rapped in one cu l tu ra l boundary . M a n y t imes dur ing the d i scuss ion , I felt f rustrated because the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tory was not successful enough to evoke students ' emo t iona l aspects so that students c o u l d feel the presented s tory as part o f thei r o w n exper iences as much as E g a n (1986) p romotes . S to r ies such as "Where are y o u go ing?" and " D o y o u want to ~ ? " ( A p p e n d i x E - 8 , 9) are g o o d examples . H o w many students, I wonde red , d id ident i fy themselves w i t h the character in the s tory and h o w c o u l d they find a s imi la r emot iona l impact presented i n a s tory w i t h i n thei r o w n cu l tu ra l or i n d i v i d u a l spheres? It is ve ry impor tan t , a c c o r d i n g to E g a n , to cu l t iva te these points . They suggest the d i r e c t i o n o f our future research, when deve lop ing c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tor ies , concen t ra t ing on h o w to appeal to more s imi la r emo t iona l Integration of Culture and Language Learning 116 spheres. Indeed, students ' post ques t ionnai re shows that on ly 56% o f students at C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e and 5 3 % o f students at U B C a c k n o w l e d g e d that c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tor ies helped them increase their awareness o f their o w n cu l ture . The weakness o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tor ies , and their fa i lure to appeal to students ' emot iona l sphere, might be the cause o f such l o w rates. Written Evaluation The fourth research question was "Can a cross-cultural story approach be adopted as a part o f writ ten evaluation format o f a course to examine students' understanding o f appropriate language use wi thin the context o f presented cross-cultural stories?" Japanese courses at both institutions are university credit courses, therefore, some kinds o f evaluation procedures were necessary. Wri t ten evaluations were, consequently, developed in order to assess students' understanding. A l l written evaluations regarding cross-cultural stories were incorporated as part o f the mid-term and final examinations which are scheduled for the course. The emphasis o f the evaluation was placed on students correct recognition o f inappropriate use o f language in a given situation and whether or not they could come up wi th an appropriate answer. The result o f written evaluations showed that the majority o f students at both institutions recognized inappropriate use o f language correctly; 79% at Capilano College and 84% at U B C . A m o n g those who recognized the inappropriate use o f language correctly, 85% o f students at Capilano Integration of Culture and Language Learning 117 Col lege and 79% o f students at U B C gave appropriate answers. Table 27 below shows the percentage o f the writ ten evaluation at both institutions. Table 27. Percentage o f Recogn i t i on /Answer Capilano ( %) UBC (%) Correct Recognition (CR) 79 (100) 84 (100) - Appropriate Answer ( A A ) 85 79 - Inappropriate Answer (IA) 13 19 - No Answer (NA) 2 2 No Recognition (NR) 20 15 Wrong Recognition (WR) 1 1 In general, written evaluations achieved the intention o f these tests, the measurement o f correct recognition's o f inappropriate use o f language and providing appropriate answers. In the case o f U B C , both researcher and the instructor, native speakers o f Japanese, agreed upon the inappropriateness o f the language use presented in the writ ten format; therefore, the tests at U B C could be slightly more val id than that at Capilano College since there the instructor alone made the tests without discussing them wi th native speakers o f Japanese. A l l written tests were developed based on the cross-cultural stories presented in a class; consequently, the dialogue that shows inappropriate use o f language in the test as wel l as asking for appropriate answers in a given situation that students had to write were all familiar to students and they Integration of Culture and Language Learning 118 were not asked to exhibit anything beyond their comprehension obtained in previous classes. In this way the written tests tried to assure content validity. The samples o f written evaluations are given as Appendix C . The content o f the examination was not exactly the same at both institutions since each course uses a different textbook and the materials covered in the textbook varies; consequently, cross-cultural stories presented in each course varied in numbers as wel l as in the type o f stories. A l l written tests were incorporated into mid-terms or finals o f the course, therefore, all students were assembled in the same room and given the exactly same instructions. When it came to marking the tests, each instructor was responsible for marking the students' paper, but at U B C the researcher helped the instructor mark the papers and agreed upon standards when marking. Hughes (1989: 36) states that " i f the scoring o f a test is not reliable, then the test results cannot be reliable either." H e explains that "as a general rule, and certainly where testing is subjective, all scripts should be scored by at least two independent scorers. (42)" Here, again, tests at Capilano College may have less scoring reliability when compared to those at U B C . The measurement o f the tests themselves such as the validity and reliability was not the primary purpose o f this study, subsequently various questions on these points about the written tests o f cross-cultural stories have to be left for future studies. The format o f the written examinations is also open to question since no research has been reported in evaluating the appropriate use o f language in the cross-cultural story approach. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 119 In conclusion, the written evaluation on cross-cultural stories to evaluate students' understanding o f appropriate use o f language in a certain situation should be done as part o f the course content since these courses are credit courses, and the result shows it can be done and, indeed, the writ ten tests were incorporated as part o f mid-terms or finals for the course. Concluding Comment This exploratory study, the application o f a cross-cultural story approach, was very promising in terms o f integrating these stories into existing various Japanese language courses at beginning levels in post-secondary education. Var ious results support this conclusion. The first evidence was the results o f Responding category. The Pre-learnt or Output Comprehension (PLRen) score showed the highest and the L a c k o f Linguis t ic Comprehension ( L L R e n ) score is the lowest, which suggest that students' comprehension regarding the presented cross-cultural stories at both Capilano College and U B C was highly derived from the previously learnt knowledge from previous Japanese classes, even though Japanese courses at each institution use different methods to teach language, and different textbooks. The second evidence was the results o f Sol ic i t ing category, in which questions students asked are mostly Information Search (IS) not to seek answers for the problem presented in cross-cultural stories. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 120 The third evidence was the encouraging result on the written examinations which were developed based on the presented various cross-cultural stories and integrated as part o f standard, written examinations such as mid-terms or finals for the course. The fourth evidence was the result o f the students' post questionnaire; 9 1 % o f students at Capilano College and 87% o f students at U B C acknowledged that cross-cultural stories helped them learn Japanese. The fifth evidence was positive comments from the instructor at U B C , approving the cross-cultural story approach as necessary to language learning and promising to continue using it in the course in future. Regarding the second research question, results were not as encouraging as for the first question. The second question o f students' post questionnaire indicates the necessity o f improvement in using their own experiences more in order to enhance their understanding. Al though some stories such as "Where are you going?" at Capilano College and "Compliment" at U B C indicated the high Cultural ly Enforced Comprehension ( C C R e n ) , which suggest some stories are culturally oriented and which require culturally oriented comprehension, in general the number o f culturally oriented cross-cultural stories were not enough to help the students rediscover their own cultural awareness. Therefore, it is essential that the improvement o f the discussion technique has to be closely examined in order to help students rediscover their own culture. The result on teacher utterances indicates the Questions (Q) score is the lowest which strongly suggest the direction in which this cross-cultural story approach can move in Integration of Culture and Language Learning 121 order to improve the discussion technique and to enhance students' learning by using their own cultural or individual experiences in the context o f the presented stories. Questions (Q) which are directed to different cultural groups may contribute to enhancing students' awareness towards their own cultures, thereby, discovering the differences or similarities o f Japanese culture which, in turn, contribute the better learning. The answer to the third research question, "Can a cross-cultural story approach guide students' reflections in the context o f learning the appropriate usage o f the Japanese language?", was " Y E S " over a l l , because Table 22 shows the Pre-learnt or output Comprehension ( P L R e N ) score the highest and L a c k o f Linguis t ic Comprehension ( L L R e n ) the lowest. These are good indicators for the successful presentation o f cross-cultural stories in conjunction wi th course content. The result o f the written evaluation on cross-cultural stories which evaluate students' understanding o f appropriate use o f language in a certain situation shows around 80% o f students successfully recognized the inappropriateness o f language in a given situation at both institutions, 85% at Capilano College and 79% at U B C gave appropriate answers as wel l . A s for writ ten tests, the answer to the research question, "Can a cross-cultural story approach be adopted as a part o f written evaluation format o f a course to examine students' understanding o f appropriate language use wi thin the context o f presented cross-cultural stories?", is "Yes , it can be done." B o t h instructors successfully incorporated writ ten tests on cross-cultural stories to mid-terms and finals o f the course. It Integration of Culture and Language Learning 122 requires, however, more study on testing i f validity and reliability o f the test i tself becomes the main concern as discussed in the previous chapter. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 123 CHAPTER SIX I M P L I C A T I O N S A N D S U G G E S T I O N S In this chapter, the limitation o f this study, implications, and suggestions for future research w i l l be discussed briefly. Limitation This study, exploratory in nature, may show some weaknesses in terms o f validity and reliability. Y i n (1984) tries to find the case study strategy which might distinguish case studies from other strategies because he believes that the existing definitions for case studies are not sufficient. Thus, he defines case studies in "technical" sense as fol lows: A case study is an empicrical inquiry that: -investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context: when -the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident; and in which -multiple sources o f evidence are used. (p-23) The most appropriate research strategies for this study was the case study. Y i n states that four tests are relevant to judge the quality o f any case studies. The four tests are construct validity, internal validity, external validity and reliability. Construct Validity: establishing correct operational measures for the being studied; Integration of Culture and Language Learning 124 Internal validity: (for explanatory or causal studies only, and not for descriptive or exploratory studies): establishing a causal relationship, whereby certain conditions are shown to lead to other conditions, as distinguished from spurious telationships; External validity: establishing the domain to which a study's findings can be generalized; and Reliability: demonstrating that the operations o f a study - such as the data collect ion procedures - can be repeated, wi th the same results. (p. 36) Internal validity is only for explanatory or causal studies; subsequently, it is not relevant to this study. Construct validity is to establish sufficient operational measures for the concepts being studied; therefore, it might become problematic in case-study research including this study since the researcher is the main too l for data col lect ion which leads to a cr i t ic ism as "subjective" judgments to collect the data. Y i n suggests three tactics in order to increase construct validity; (i) the use o f multiple sources o f evidence, (ii) to establish a chain o f evidence, and (ii i) to have key informants review draft case study report. In this study three sources were used: observations, interviews, and questionnaires. External validity concerns determine whether or not the findings o f a study can be generalized to different populations. In qualitative research, it is not, however, a main purpose to finding statistical genralization as quantitative research seeks. It is not fair, therefore, to cri t icize this study solely from this point o f view. Y i n claims that "analogy to samples and Integration of Culture and Language Learning 125 universes is incorrect when dealing wi th case studies," because "survey research relies on statistical generalization, whereas case studies (as wi th experiments) rely on analytical generalization (p.39)." H e concludes that the generalization in a case study should be linked to some broader theory. He , however, cautions that a theory must be tested through replications on different populations. Y i n defines reliablility as the possibility o f repeating the same case over again, fol lowing the same procedures and achieving the same findings and conclusions, not "replicating" the results o f one case by doing another case study. H e suggests "the general way o f approaching the reliability problem as to make as many steps as possible as operational as possible (p.40)" and to conduct research very carefully and meticulously. This study requires four main steps and one o f which, the presentation o f cross-cultural stories involve three steps. A l l o f which are operational and possible. Ye t , unless this study is repeated again as exactly in the same way, it is not possible to comment on anything about reliability o f this study. A s mentioned before I was not aware o f previous research reporting on the integration o f a cross-cultural story approach with language learning in J S L (Japanese as second language) language classrooms, consequently, more studies have to be explored, which would increase reliability as we l l as validity. The method o f testing, as mentioned previously, also requires refinement. Since the measurement o f the tests themselves was not the Integration of Culture and Language Learning 126 primary concern o f this study, the written examinations that were devloped for the courses may need strengthening in terms o f validity and reliability. Implications This is an exploratory study-experiment which examined the effectiveness o f using cross-cultural stories to deal wi th culture as an integral part o f Japanese second language learning. The awareness o f culture in second language classroom has seemed to exist somehow separated from language itself. A s the students' background questionnaires revealed (Table 14), none o f them specifically mentioned language as culture. This kind o f attitude, separating culture from language, is not typical only to students. A s Kramsch (1993) states, even teachers themselves are trapped within "the dichotomy o f language and culture" which is "part o f the linguistic heritage o f the profession; language teaching consists o f teaching the four skills 'plus culture' (p.8)." B y r a m (1989) also expresses a similar sentiment. The major concern for language teachers is "with language, they see the rest as 'background' or 'context' which has a low priori ty in their concrens (p.2)." The lack o f awareness that language is culture by both students and teachers is indeed hindering and preventing them from learning the true nature o f language effectively. Cross-cultural stories presented in this study were writ ten from a N o r t h American point o f view which was contrasted and compared wi th Japanese culture since students in Japanese courses in the province o f Br i t i sh Columbia , Canada, all speak Engl ish to some degree. Therefore, Engl i sh Integration of Culture and Language Learning 127 becomes a common medium o f instruction. Ye t , the result o f students' background questionnaires (Table 11) shows that more than 70 percent o f students in Japanese courses at both institutions have East As ian cultural backgrounds. Engl ish is not their first language. Cross-cultural stories themselves need to be reexamined in order to evoke the emotional spheres o f such As ian students. The development o f various cross-cultural stories is the key to this approach. A s Kramsch (1993) suggests, we, as language teachers, should explore more cross-cultural stories and collect as many stories as possible from various people who have experienced such border crossings. In addition to the fact that students wi th East As ian cultural backgrounds enroll in large numbers in Japanese courses, J S L and J F L teachers also have to learn to be alert and sensitive to different cultural backgrounds that students have in order to lead effective discussions. This w i l l lead to the necessity o f some kind o f cultural training for teachers. Suggestions for Future Research Over a l l , this study contributed greatly to the integration o f learning socio-culturally appropriate language codes as culture in language classes. It is, however, highly recommended that the cross-cultural story approach be implemented more widely in different Japanese language courses in order to increase the generalizability even though the result at Capilano Col lege and U B C indicate high success. It wou ld be very beneficial i f the relationship between students' cultural backgrounds and their responses were investigated in detail. This Integration of Culture and Language Learning 128 wou ld determine or anticipate the possible responses by students. I noticed many times during the discussion that the first to give an appropriate answer was a Chinese student. In order to prepare for an effective discussion, it w o u l d be very beneficial i f the instructors know what kind o f responses to anticipate from students wi th various cultural backgrounds, and based on their responses, the instructors could find an effective way to make students realize the cultural differences through their own experiences and at the same time to lead them to learn the appropriate use o f language in a given situation. It wou ld also be beneficial i f the cross-cultural story approach was studied comparatively and quantitatively. The development o f various cross-cultural stories are essential in this approach to language teaching. A s Egan (1986) suggests, stories should appeal to students' emotions and these can help to evoke and increase their understanding . Each cross-cultural story can be comparatively studied in order to determine what kind o f stories are the most effective to enhance students' learning and understanding. Var ious stories can be presented in a similar situation, using the same expressions in Japanese. It would be most challenging and beneficial i f the whole curriculum for the course would be developed based on the cross-cultural story approach in order to determine whether or not this approach can be compatible wi th an existing curriculum. Testing o f cross-cultural story approaches is another area in which more research needs to be done since the measurement o f validity and reliability o f the written tests was not the primary objective o f this study. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 129 Var ious things which were not done in this study need to be done in order to improve the validity o f tests, for example, the validation by Japanese speakers on various cross-cultural questions and appropriate answers. Another aspect is the format o f any examination. 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Appl i ed social Research Methods Series Volume 5. Sage Publications. Integration of Culture and Language Learning 137 A P P E N D I X A Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The purpose o f this ques t ionnai re is to gather i n fo rma t ion about you r l i ngu i s t i c and cu l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e o f Japan i n order to enhance learn ing . Responses w i l l be kept conf iden t i a l . 1. 3. 4. N a m e : C o u n t r y o f B i r t h : 2. A g e : Sex: M / F Wha t is you r first language? E n g l i s h K o r e a n Chinese ( M a n d a r i n , Cantonese , Others Others ( ) P lease c i r c l e y o u r l eve l o f s k i l l i n y o u r first language. Speak ing L i s t e n i n g W r i t i n g R e a d i n g Poor 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 F a i r 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 E x c e l l e n t 5 5 5 5 / No t at a l l 0 0 0 0 Wha t language or languages do y o u usua l ly use to communica te w i t h fami ly members? Please be spec i f i c . H a v e y o u s tudied Japanese before? Y E S / N O I f yes, please fill out the table be o w . Where? (High Sch. When? H o w long? M a s t e r y l eve l countries, etc.) l [ p o o r ] - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 rexce l len t ] Speaking: Listening: Writ ing: Reading: Integration of Culture and Language Learning 138 7. H o w much do y o u k n o w about bas ic Japanese cu l t u r a l concepts? N a m e one or t w o d i s t i ngu i sh ing Japanese cu l tu ra l concepts . N a m e one or t w o d i s t i ngu i sh ing i tems that are associa ted w i t h Japan? N a m e one or t w o d i s t i ngu i sh ing ac t iv i t i e s that are assoc ia ted w i t h Japan? 2 3 4 8. H a v e y o u been to Japan or other count r ies? W h e r e and h o w long? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 139 A P P E N D I X B C O N S E N T F O R M The Integration of Culture and Language Learning by using Cross -Cul tura l Stories in Japanese Language Classrooms P r i n c i p a l Researcher : D r . Stephen C a r e y Depar tment o f M o d e r n Language E d u c a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a O f f i c e : 822-6954 Researcher : K a z u k o M i t o Depar tment o f M o d e r n Language E d u c a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a O f f i c e : 984 -4957 ( L . 2 4 2 3 ) D e a r Students : In con junc t ion to the normal language lea rn ing ac t iv i t i e s o f the Japanese 100 course , y o u w i l l be i n t roduced to va r ious Japanese cu l t u r a l concepts w h i c h d i r ec t ly determine the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l y appropr ia te use o f language in cer ta in soc i a l s i tua t ions . V a r i o u s Japanese l i n g u i s t i c features o f grammar and v o c a b u l a r y s t rong ly reflect pa r t i cu la r Japanese cu l t u r a l aspects, yet when it comes to the pedagogy o f in tegra t ing language and c u l t u r a l l ea rn ing together , there is a lack o f es tabl ished methods. A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tory approach is the method that y o u w i l l be expe r i enc ing du r ing the course . A c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tory approach invo lves three stages; p resen ta t ion o f the s tory, d i s cus s ion , and language l ea rn ing . The d i s cus s ion dur ing the class w i l l be t ape- recorded for research purposes . Y o u w i l l be asked to f i l l out ques t ionnai res and to par t i c ipa te a w r i t t e n eva lua t ion as part o f a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tory approach . I f y o u decide not to par t ic ipa te or w i t h d r a w , y o u r ques t ionnai re and eva lua t ion result w o u l d not be used as part o f the Integration of Culture and Language Learning 140 research data. Y o u r d e c i s i o n o f refusal or w i t h d r a w a l to par t i c ipa te w i l l not j eopa rd i ze y o u in any way. A l l i n fo rma t ion w i l l be kept conf iden t i a l . Y o u r name w i l l not be used in any repor t , p u b l i c a t i o n or i n fo rma t ion connec ted w i t h the research wi thou t y o u r express consent . S ince re ly yours , S tephen C a r e y D i r e c t o r o f M o d e r n Language E d u c a t i o n K a z u k o M i t o M . A . C a n d i a t e in M L E D Integration of Culture and Language Learning 141 S T A T E M E N T O F I N F O R M E D C O N S E N T The In tegra t ion o f C u l t u r e and Language by us ing C r o s s - C u l t u r a l S tor ies in Japanese Language C l a s s r o o m s I consent / do not consent [ c i r c l e one] to par t ic ipa te i n the research ou t l i ned above( In tegra t ion o f C u l t u r e and Language by us ing C r o s s -C u l t u r a l S tor ies in Japanese L a n g u a g e C l a s s r o o m s ) and a c k n o w l e d g e that I have rece ived a copy o f this consent fo rm and at tachments. N a m e (please pr in t ) : S igna ture : D a t e : Integration of Culture and Language Learning 142 A P P E N D I X C W R I T T E N E V A L U A T I O N S A M P L E S U B C M I D - T R E M © X . T o m is an exchange student and s tudying Japanese very hard . H i s host fami ly is very nice and he has many Japanese F r i ends now. C o m p l e t e the b lanks appropr ia te ly a c c o r d i n g to the g i v e n scene and hints in parentheses. F i n d and c i r l c l e the errors and wr i t e the appropr ia te answers beside them. [In the m o r n i n g , before g o i n g to schoo l ] H o s t M o t h e r : h A £ / L . is f i X "? ! T o m : £> -~> „ is J ; r> 0 H o s t M o t h e r : ^ 0 It , * - X j&* < X *a • • • . • T o m : < dec l ines m i l k , decides on coffee > [ T o m finishes the breakfast and leaves for school ] T o m : § & . H o s t M o t h e r : v> -o X o L ^ <<^  ! [On the way to a s ta t ion, he runs in to one o f his ne ighbours , Y a m a d a -san.] T o m : & ( i J : 9 r §r V> £ 1" „ Integration of Culture and Language Learning 143 T o m : [Af te r class , T o m goes to see M s . Tanaka , his Japanese teacher, to g ive her a box o f fancy tea he got f rom his mother yes terday.] T o m : d ft , £ CD •? i j < & < to send > m*P :. t * , J f n S > 9 ^ J : 9 o [ M s . T a n a k a inv i tes T o m to go to a nearby coffee-shop. O n the way there, M s . T a n a k a invi tes Junko , T o m ' s classmate. A t the coffee shop. . . ] T o m : « r < {± , T ^ X - n — b — * * v > v > - C i " i a . t <9> / v £ : i ? f c L I + , — J E . — tfc frfc^h o T o m : , M * * « C ^ J t ^ " C t * » Integration of Culture and Language Learning 144 U B C M I D - T E R M © V I . C i r c l e any errors and wr i t e appropr ia te phrases /express ions beside them a c c o r d i n g to the g iven scene. Tom is an exchange students in Japan. Kyoko , one of Tom's classmates, invited Tom to join her family picnic at Hakone, a famous mountain resort. [ T o m helped K y o k o ' s father un load a heavy barbeque set. T o m ca r r i ed it f rom the pa rk ing lot to the lake side.] ZkfcVX : U U , i J ^ o f e - C L i •? . r < .5 •? § £ „ [ K y o u k o ' s father ca r r ied Tom ' s b ig heavy gui ta r case.] ^ CO 3£ : £ ft (2 > h A £ CO - C z> „ h A : J i V> o - f ^ £ -tir , -e ft , fcifrofctLj: • ? „ [The food was great and T o m had so much that he was abso lu te ly stuffed.] t o t - f r ^ T < $ v> o $ * . i f -9 ^ . b A : ^ t ^ ^ < ^ v ^ t * t . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 145 [Af te r the barbeque, T o m played the gui ta r for them.] [ K y o k o ' s fami ly t o o k T o m home. A s T o m gets out o f the car i n front o f his p lace . . . ] M <5D 5 £ : h A § / , , 4 * H l i . * ^ -9 KfccD L h A : b° ^ — * 9 it , v> v> - c -T o - C . J i . J : v> K * ! Integration of Culture and Language Learning 146 U B C M I D - T E R M O ( p . 4 o u t o f ) V . P A R T I : C I R C L E the errors . P A R T 2: Give appropriate words/phrases/expressions beside them. [Yes t e rday , T o m v i s i t e d his Japanese teacher, M s . N a k a n e , at home. ] 7 7 ^ ; ^ ^ — t — X « 2f -9 «€*. (• "f — V ; K 7 ? l E _ L ^ A ^ < v a s e > ) : h , * -9 o ZtllZ , *>fe L * * f £ o fccD «t o h A : i o , i " 9 V > - 9 £ c7) & d 3&*T # -2> (?) * h A : 5 f c M > S " J H ^ 4 ^ r X h - C , 1 0 0 j & J & f t f c ^ - C , t T I ) 7 t L L ^ o ^ " C t , h A : J i ^ „ <— tc-o v ^ t = wi t h r e a p e c t t o - / % ^ - t " . & = t o make a p r e s e n t a t i o n > Integration of Culture and Language Learning 147 < i r = to steal > U : • ^ -9 - C i - * » . & , 3 t e 3 a < 7 > & B I H (2 > K 9 " C L i : * o , 0 J± , ? 4 Xifihh <DX°, J: o ... . b A : t * * , ^ I B W ^ H C L J t . <W^> = other than~> Integration of Culture and Language Learning 148 U B C Final Exam. II. P A R T I : C I R C L E the errors. P A R T 2: Give appropriate words/phrases/expressions beside them. [Tom went to K y o t o last wwkend. H e bought YATSUHASHI (famous delicacy o f K y o t o ) for his Japanee teacher, M s . Tanaka. A t her office ...] ft*.: r A - y « j * 5pA(2, ^ : ^ § ^ ^ - c - r c t o h A : T ^ ^ I ^ J if*. tXi> ^ f t v > - C , L f c . ffo-CAit. t ^ & , £ . [At Ooshita-sensei's office] [Ms. Ooshita shows T o m his paper and points out his mistakes.] h - A : k-o . ZtHZ. fat* % < X . lhm$ Asfr Integration of Culture and Language Learning 149 [Tom is upset and goes back to Ms.Tanak 's office to seek her opinions.] r A : , jzyft&tl* % £ L * » 9 * L f c o < L * » 4 = t o s c o l d > < & ^ £ .5 = to apologize> h A : ( i v> , hi)- 9 * L . h 9 ** d r ffv* * L A : . Integration of Culture and Language Learning 150 C A P I L A N O C O L L E G E M I D - T E R M (p.5 out o f 8) I V . C i r c l e any o f F rank ' s inappropr ia te express ions and wr i t e appropr ia te ones beside them a c c o r d i n g to the g iven scene in parentheses. (35) F r a n k is an exchange student and studying Japanese very hard. His host family is very nice and he has many friends now. [In the morning, before going to school] Host Mother: ~7 7 > ? ^ As . $5 \± £ ^ \ Frank: $> -o , (2 X 9 » Host Mother: ^ ± ? l i , * — X j&* $> 9 £ ^ . 3 - t - " P V U > ? Frank: ( i V* „ 3 — fc. — { i , V » V - » - C £ ~ 0 [Frank finishes the breakfast and leaves for school] Frank: § J ; -? t£ . Host Mother: o "C o L V> ! [On the way to a station, he runs into one of his neighbours, Suzuki-san.] Frank: *5 {* J ; 9 r 5? i " . Suzuki: & N 7 7 ^ ^ H , £5 l i ± "9 o ^ <fc 7 IZ> i f % h ^ ? Frank: (2 V> , j&* o C 9 U ^ ^ { / ^ l i t 0 [Frank goes to Ms.Ishii 's office, his Japanese teacher, before the class] Frank: V» L V* $ H \£ & 7 Zf & ^ $. "S" • Ms. I s h i i : * 7 7 > - ^ $ / ^ i f c l i j : ? ! [During the talk, he did not understand the word Ms. Ishii used, so he asks] Frank: $> -o , ~t £ ~& As * ^ 7 t* Integration of Culture and Language Learning 151 A P P E N D I X D - 1 Post Questionnaire (Student) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1. D i d the c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tor ies help y o u learn Japanese? Y E S / N O * H o w d id they help or not help you? 2. D i d the c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tor ies help y o u become more aware o f y o u r o w n cul ture? Y E S / N O *Please wr i t e one or two examples . 3. A n y comments or suggest ions about the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tory approach to language learning? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 152 A P P E N D I X D - 2 Post Questionnair (Instructor) Quest ionnaire (Instructor) 1. H o w d id y o u find the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tory approach? Very Difficult Very Easy 3 - 2 1 *Please g ive one or two e x a m p l e s o f what was d i f f i cu l t or easy. 2. H o w do y o u rate the success o f the in tegra t ion o f the c ross -cu l tua l s tory approach to y o u r class? Very Successful Unsuccessful 3 - 2 - 1 * Wha t are some factors behind your rat ing? 3. Wha t are y o u r op in ions about the c ro s s - cu l t u r a l s tory approach to language teaching? 4. W o u l d y o u adopt the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s tory approach as part o f y o u r language teaching f rom n o w on? Y E S / N O * I f yes, h o w w o u l d y o u l i k e to adopt i t? * I f no, why not? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 153 A P P E N D I X E E X A M P L E S O F C R O S S - C U L T U R A L S T O R I E S E-1: Frank has been studying Japanese for a year. Last summer he got a scholarship to go to Japan. He is now staying i n Japan and studying Japanese very hard. H i s host fami ly seems very nice and helpful . Yesterday his host mother took h i m to a neighbor, M r . S u z u k i , who used to l ive i n Canada for f ive years. W h e n Frank was introduced to h i m , he greeted Suzuki-san i n Japanese pol i te ly . O n the other hand, Suzuki-san talked to h i m i n E n g l i s h . Frank was very impressed w i t h his E n g l i s h , so Frank said to Suzuki-san, r fz<D x. v> f f o J i <. tX k j b ' b j : 1 -? X:i~fao J ( " Y o u r E n g l i s h is ve ry good!" ) Suzuki-san looked uncomfortable w i t h this and d i d not say anything. Frank sensed something was wrong but he d i d not understand why? * Why do you think Suzuki-san suddenly behaved uncomfortably? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 154 E - 2 : Is it O K or not? James and his fami ly went to a Japanese restaurant together one night. James is studying Japanese at school very hard and his Japanese is getting much better. H i s fami ly is proud o f James tak ing Japanese and doing so w e l l at school because none o f them understand Japanese. A t the restaurant they took their shoes off and seated on cushions in a cosy and charming booth. They enjoyed the atmoshere very much w h i c h was very different from what they were used to. A waitress wearing K i m o n o came to take their orders. James asked her to speak only i n Japanese so he could practice. She asked, [ is co & <7)lt ? J ( " A n y d r i n k s ? " ) James immediate ly translated it into E n g l i s h and asked everybody. Since nobody in his f a m i l y drank any a lcohol , they wondered what they c o u l d try instead of osake (Japanese r i ce w i n e ) . The waitress Suggested, T & f e .• " C J ("How a b o u t J a p a n e s e t ea?" ) W h e n James translated it , everybody l i k e d the idea. James said to the waitress, r & i^^> % v ^ v > - e - f 0 J ( l i t . "As f o r t e a , i t i s good." ) meaning "We'd l i k e some tea." The waitress said, ^ " P t ^ - . J and went away. They waited fo their tea, but it never came. *Why do you think the tea never came? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 155 E -3: My mother sent a package! Dean is an exchange student and is staying in Japan for nearly s i x months. H i s host f a m i l y is very nice and helpful . H i s Japanese is getting much better and he feels comfortable speaking in Japanese every day even though he often makes mistakes. Yesterday, he received a smal l package from his mother. Dean wanted to te l l K y o k o , one o f his Japanese fr iends, about it. W h e n he met her in school , he said, |~ C. O ' O £ & < 9 ^ L f c o J ( " M y mother sent [me] a smal l p a c k a g e " ) Dean intent ional ly avoided the phrase L ^ ( t o m e / m e ) , " hoping to sound more natural in Japanese than it w o u l d sound l ike a direct translat ion from E n g l i s h . B u t K y o k o asked Dean, [ £ o . tftilz ? J ( "Huh? T o w h o m ? " ) H e had made an another mistake again. *What was the mistake? *What should Dean have said to Kyoko? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 156 E - 4 : Anytime will do. [ v> ©] M r . B r o w n and M r . Tanaka discussed some business w i t h M r . Saito for about an hour. W h e n they were about to leave, M r . Tanaka asked M r . Saito when they c o u l d meet again. M r . Saito said, r ^ o t t v*v*-c -$-„ J ( " A n y t i m e w i l l do .") B u t when M r . Tanaka asked i f F r i d a y w o u l d be a l l r ight, he said, r ^ i ^ H J i . ^ i o t — J ( "F r iday won ' t do.<l i t . A s for F r i d a y , i t 's a l i t t l e — > " ) M r . B r o w n wanted to remind h i m that he had said any day w o u l d do, but M r . Tanaka q u i c k l y said, r * , X ? H l i , i f 9 t L i T . J ("Then, h o w about Thur sday?" ) M r . B r o w n d i d not quite understand this exchange. I f F r i d a y was inconvenient for M r . Saito, why didn't he say so from the beginning 0 x •? FJ v>a*v*i± , v ^ - e - r » J ( " A n y day w i l l do except F r i d a y . " ) ? H e was either being inaccurate or indec is ive , wasn't he? ( M i z u t a n i & M i z u t a n i , 1977) *What do you think? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 157 E - 5 : I was praised F u m i y o inv i ted B i l l to her house after school yesterday. H e was h a v i n g tea w i t h her fami ly when her younger brother, Takeshi , came home from school and started t e l l i n g them what had happened at school that day. H e said , r ^ H * ft&lz fetsb titLtzA.fi 2 * J ( " T o d a y , I was rea l ly pra ised by the t e a c h e r " ) and explained what he had done. Fumiyo's mother said, § <?) 9 ( 2 , isz\t?ti tz <D tz , 4 - 0 ( 2 > *b ti X , J : o *> i a ! J ( " M y , y o u were s co lded yesterday, but, today, y o u were pra i sed , good ! " ) B i l l was interested in this expression: he wondered why Takeshi d i d not say - i i f t f c " or - « ft X < ti tz " instead o f - $fc£fc fctbhtifc" • A r e there any differences between these expressions? W h a t about the expression the mother used " &z\htitz(?) iz " i n stead o f *• & c\ o tz <r> \z ~ ? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 158 E - 6 : Greetings After studying Japanese for several months, John came to Japan for the f irst t ime as a part ic ipant i n the home-stay program. W h e n John arr ived in the town to w h i c h he was assigned, his host fami ly welcomed h i m . N e x t m o r n i n g , when John was about to leave for his language class, he said, r £ j ; -? £ r „ J to the fami ly ; they looked p u z z l e d and asked h i m i f he w o u l d come home that day. John said yes, but he didn't understand why they asked such a question. W h e n the class was over and John was on his way home, he came across his host mother on the street near their house. He greeted her, saying, [cA^Kibito J ; again she looked puzz led and gave h i m no reply. John felt disappointed because he couldn't get across s imple messages such as "good-bye" and "hel lo" in Japanese. (Kataoka, 1991) *Why do you think John failed to communicate successfully? *What could John have said instead of £ J; -9 +£ & £ ^ % {* ? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 159 E - 7 : Personal Questions Kate was invited to a meeting of the ESS(English-Speaking Society) at a nearby company. Since she always appreciated Japanese visitors to her Japanese class in her country, she was happy for the opportunity to help Japnese people. There were about ten people, mostly young men, in the room. At first they were all quiet, but as they became relaxed, they started asking Kate questions. They asked her where she was from, how many brothers and sisters she had, what her job was, why she came to Japan, and how she liked the country. After a while, the questions became more personal: they asked how old Kate was, and whether she was married. When Kate answered no to the latter question, the Japanese asked whether she was engaged to be married, when she wanted to be married, and whether her job paid well. Kate started becoming angry and wondered what had become of the politeness and thoughtfulness she had thought were characteristic of Japanese people. (Kataoka, 1991) *Why do you think the ESS members asked such personal questions? *What do you think the appropriate answeres are to very personal questions which you don't want to answer? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 160 E - 8 : Where are you going? O n his way to v i s i t a female Japanese student he had met the week before Dave saw his next door neighbour, M r s . Y a m a d a . He greeted her by saying, r ^ ./^izibit <, & 5 > C ^ C " C " f fa o J ( " H e l l o , i t 's a nice day, isn't i t ! " ) M r s . Y a m a d a greeted h i m too, then asked, [ if * b ? J ( "Where are y o u go ing?" ) A l t h o u g h Dave thought that it real ly wasn't her business, he answered that he was going to U e n o Park. M r s . Y a m a d a became real ly interested, and started asking h i m i f he were going to the zoo to see the panda, who he was going out w i t h , and so on. Dave started getting irr i tated, t h i n k i n g his neighbour expected h i m to t e l l her a l l about his private l i fe . (Kataoka, 1991) *Why do you think Ymada-san started asking Dave many personal questions? *What could Dave have said to Yamada-san in order to avoid getting into this situation? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 161 E - 9 : Do you want to . . . ? © M r . S h i m i z u dropped i n at Sandy's apartment to say hel lo to her. She led h i m into the l i v i n g room and asked, r fa # t v-> *CT o J ("Do you want something to drink?") M r . S h i m i z u seemed to be at a loss how to reply. Sandy cont inued, T fc=j-t.-a**>9 &-tif if . if t> & f c ^ ^ v ^ t ' t ^ o J ("I have tea and coffee. Which do you want to drink?") M r . S h i m i z u at last opened his mouth, r if % t, X' h v> X"f . J ("Either will be fine.") Sandy decided to make two cups o f coffee. She asked h i m i f he wanted sugar and m i l k . H e paused for a moment and said yes, hesitantly. B e c o m i n g irr i tated at his indec is ive manner, Sandy served the coffee. W h i l e Sandy and M r . S h i m i z u were t a l k i n g , Sandy wondered i f he wanted to go to a party that night. She asked, r . T 4 - & $> h A.X-t if if . w -^o l i ff l i t V ' t t ^ o J ("There is a party tonight. Do you want to go with me?") M r . S h i m i z u said no, w i t h an unpleasant look. Sandy was getting upset at his attitude. He didn't seem to have a pleasant t ime w i t h Sandy despite her kindness in offering h i m a beverage and i n v i t i n g h i m to a party. (Kataoka, 1991) *Why do you think Shimizu-san behaved in such a way? * What could Sandy have done to better convey her good intention? Integration of Culture and Language Learning 162 E - 1 0 : Personal names Jane is teaching E n g l i s h i n Japan. Her students are mostly young Japanese students, but occas inal ly she gets Japanese business men. M r . S u z u k i , a business man, is one o f her best students. He studies very hard and seems to learn everything Jane teaches h i m very q u i c k l y . One t h i n g about h i m , however, makes Jane very upset. H e never calls her by her first name. Jane expla ined to her students that c a l l i n g each other by their first names is the s ign o f fr iendliness and very appropriate in Canada, the U n i t e d States as w e l l as many other E n g l i s h speaking countries. M r . S u z u k i said that he understood it very w e l l . H e , however, keeps c a l l i n g her by her surname, M s . W h i t e , a l l the t ime. Jane does not feel comfortable at a l l being cal led ' M s . W h i t e ' , though she does not k n o w what to do about M r . Suzuki 's insistence. *Why do you think Mr. Suzuki insists on calling Jane by her surname despite her wishes? *What could Jane do? 

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