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Kanji no satori 1995

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KANJI NO SATORI by BRUCE DAVID RUSSELL B.A., The University of New Brunswick, 1986 B.Ed., Saint Thomas University, 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Modern Language Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1995 QBruce David Russell, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of fVlo dL-er n Uui^ ^dj^^<y^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) Abstract: Kanji No Sator i A t r a n s l a t i o n of the t i t l e would read the "wisdom of Chinese-Japanese characters". The growth of Asian language i n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia public schools has witnessed an unprecedented number of students enrolled i n Japanese as a second language classes. For students with no p r i o r experience with Chinese s c r i p t the Chinese-Japanese characters, or ka n j i , can prove to be a b a r r i e r that l i m i t s progress i n the written i n s t r u c t i o n and learning of Japanese. Current teaching methods such as those from Japan may continue to be i n popular usage, but educators i n B r i t i s h Columbia need to acknowledge that given the differences between the Japanese teaching environment and our own, classrooms attempting to e s t a b l i s h i n t e r e s t i n Japanese as a language of study require techniques that allow f o r the student to invest i n t h e i r own learning process, p a r t i c u l a r l y given the distance from the target culture. While the kan j i have been long perceived as extremely d i f f i c u l t to learn and appreciate, I propose through a personal narrative that the characters can be appreciated by more students when i t i s recognized that the s e t t i n g of the Canadian classroom and the students i n i t , can become par t i c i p a n t s i n the intermingling of two languages generally considered to be v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t , yet as revealed by the etymology of the kanji have very much i n common. As human constructs, these characters may be deconstructed by students who then reconsider the inherent meanings of the int e r t e x t , the in t e r n a l structure, of the k a n j i . With an appreciation of the multilayered context of the symbol explored i n a f a m i l i a r language, students may then apply t h e i r acquired knowledge and s k i l l into newer i n t e r c u l t u r a l contexts of Japanese and English. My conviction i s that the kanji are central to a personal exploration of Japan. The very nature of the characters as moving, timeless symbols of human int e r p r e t a t i o n was considered i n t h i s study, as was the inherent pedagogical q u a l i t y of t h e i r etymological structure. This personalized research was concerned with the re-writing and re-learning of written Japanese for the North American learner. The question was one of equipping the Japanese as a second language J l e a r n e r with a new perspective that w i l l enable them to use the innately human view of language revealed by the ka n j i . Commentators on l i n g u i s t i c s and semiology such as Roland Barthes and J u l i a Kristeva were c i t e d i n probing the symbolic foundations of language, and our a b i l i t y to play with meanings we so often take for granted i n communicating our ideas. Exposing the hidden and unused meanings within the characters i s described as a valuable contextual experience, and a method, i n combination with other classroom approaches, of i n s t i l l i n g motivation to learn the target language. 41 \ Kanji no Sator i Table of Contents 7iAbstract i i Introduction - Opening Up to the Realm of Strokes . 1 Stroke One - The Landscape of the Stroke: Moving Beyond the Myth of Unlearnablity.. ...12 Stroke Two - The Productive Corpus of Kanji i n the Space of Ambivalence 26 Stroke Three - Languaging and Intertext: E x p l o i t i n g Resis- tances i n Written Symbols 40 Stroke Four - A r t i f a c t s (?) that S h i f t i n a Li v i n g Land- scape: Finding and Constituting Meaning i n Uncovered Etymology 54 Stroke Five - Demystifying C l a s s i f i c a t i o n or a Personalized R e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Kanji 66 Stroke Six - The Doubling of Kanji and a New Appeal to the Senses 81 Meditation of the Symbol - The Sator i of Kanji ....97 L i s t of Sources 108 i i i INTRODUCTION: OPENING UP TO THE REALM OF STROKES The S i t u a t i o n a l Context and the Emergence of the Research Question At one time observers " of language education i n North America found themselves i n a peculiar s i t u a t i o n . They were able to study a target audience sharing a native language as they attempted to learn a new form of communication. Increasingly, the l i k e l i h o o d of finding a community i n B r i t i s h Columbia where a l l learners share a common language i s diminishing, and there i s l i t t l e doubt that paradoxically, t h i s diminishing increases the amount of i n t e r c u l t u r a l contact on many l e v e l s and i n varying degrees. Established languages i n our province have begun a co- existence with emerging languages, and s i m i l a r l y , once dominant languages of the' foreign language classroom have s h i f t e d to provide space for languages only recently heard i n many schools. During the 1980's B r i t i s h Columbia's secondary schools r e f l e c t e d a wave of r a p i d l y growing i n t e r e s t i n Asian languages i n education that saw record growth i n the enrollment of students i n Japanese language classes. Responding to Japan's well-documented economic success, communities across North America began discussing the p o s s i b i l i t y of o f f e r i n g a language that was previously r a r e l y considered for study, perhaps seen as too challenging fo r the average learner, or simply l i m i t e d i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y and not worth the e f f o r t . In the 1990's the evidence i s c l e a r . Teachers of Japanese have become a more common sight i n many school d i s t r i c t s , more students are experiencing i Page 1 study of a language t h e i r families may have never considered and as represented by community in t e r e s t , there i s room f o r further growth. Fresh perspectives on the process of learning Japanese are timely. The partners i n the process i n North America undoubtedly f i n d that p r e v a i l i n g attitudes cast Japanese as a very d i f f i c u l t language to use fun c t i o n a l l y , l e t alone "master". T r a d i t i o n a l teaching methods, i n p a r t i c u l a r those imported from Japan, once seemed the obvious choice for the teacher searching for proven methods, yet educators also know that such importation assumes we are teaching i n school environments s i m i l a r to Japan, the very culture said to be profoundly homogeneous and v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from the increasingly heterogeneous contexts of B r i t i s h Columbia where these f l e d g l i n g classrooms are attempting to e s t a b l i s h themselves. I f one ̂ considers the teaching of the Japanese wr i t i n g system as an example, North American teachers have already gone to sources outside of the target culture f o r learning methodology. In fact, any method that allows f o r an open, exploratory usage of the Japanese syllabary, with a b u i l t i n reinforcement of t h e i r form and stroke order, would prove popular with teachers. From my experience, both hiragana and katakana (the two syllabary systems) continue to be learned and used i n the classroom at a generally comfortable and successful rate. The stumbling blocks, at the same time as they are c r u c i a l communicative b u i l d i n g blocks, are the characters of Chinese o r i g i n (kanji), borrowed centuries Page 2 ago from the c u l t u r a l l y dominant empire of East Asia at that time. My enrollment i n the Asia P a c i f i c Educational Graduate Studies Program offered by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia coincided with ray hope as a teacher to explore some of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f or common ground between cultures on the P a c i f i c Rim. As a teacher I have experienced , a constantly moving landscape of language i n t e r a c t i o n surrounding me on any given day. The languages I hear, write, speak and read with greatly varying degrees of comprehension were brought to North America on the oceans of the world and continue to gain f l u i d i t y along-side the closeness of the largest body of water on our planet. These languages know only the boundaries put upon - them by t h e i r conduits, the bearers of symbols e i t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l or of l a s t i n g meaning, latent or manifest. To the over stimulated eye, the written word does not appear to have the power to penetrate a given se t t i n g , nor to a deeper memory, but i n l i n g u i s t i c a l l y non-obvious ways i t s influence i s a po t e n t i a l t o o l f o r the language learner. I see i n the k a n j i symbols, at once so i n t r i c a t e and formidable, c h a r c t e r i s t i c s both impenetrable while f u l l of po t e n t i a l to create f a m i l i a r spaces f o r those who seek hidden meanings. Educators are known to exhort students to look for the sub-text when examining writing, and while t h i s i s no easy task i n one's native language, i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y unexplored s k i l l f or the student of a non-native w r i t i n g system. Page 3 Etymology, t r a d i t i o n a l l y conceived, i s usually thought of as better l e f t i n the hands of trained academics or anachronistic amateurs. The k a n j i were a powerful v i s u a l force during my f i r s t v i s i t to Japan, an ever present reminder of the importance of the l i t e r a r y i n a society that borrows and adapts, but also i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e s the symbol. When overwhelmed by unfamiliar characters, i t i s tempting to commit them to a sort of backstage of the mind, t r e a t i n g them with the peripheral glance one accords the advertisements and restaurant fronts of any North American stree t where Chinese characters are perceived to predominate. Yet, as I apprehend t h i s i n t e r c u l t u r a l space, here l i e s a p o t e n t i a l l y v i t a l opportunity f o r students to begin a personal approach to learning written Japanese: Begin your appreciation for the multilayered context of the symbol i n f a m i l i a r surroundings, and take your newly- developed s k i l l with you to d i f f e r e n t contexts that become, henceforth, less 'unknown' and 'foreign'. Once I sensed that I was on a promising road to an i n d i v i d u a l appreciation of w r i t i n g i n Japan, I uncovered a growing conviction that k a n j i are central to a personal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n exploring and c o n s t i t u t i n g culture. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the very nature of the characters as moving, timeless symbols of human int e r p r e t a t i o n has led me to surmise that they hold within them the very context or i n t e r t e x t that learners can use to gain a foothold i n the process of learning to write i n Japanese. Page 4 This study, thus, was concerned with the re-writing and i n some cases, re-learning of written Japanese f o r the North American learner. I t hoped to address questions that w i l l lead to further probing of the sub-texts that l i e within fragmented written symbols. E s s e n t i a l l y , the question dealt with equipping the Japanese language learners with a new perspective that w i l l enable them to inhabit and use the i n t e r c u l t u r a l spaces overlapping and separating English and Japanese. The process depends on a valuing of i n t e r c u l t u r a l learning and not simply a studying of the target language i n i s o l a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e study's question became, "How can we encourage student appreciation of the use of kanj i i n the Japanese language through a personalized re-writing of t h e i r inherently symbolic foundations?". The process of s e l f - l e a r n i n g can teach the student to dwell i n the space shared by the d i f f e r e n t languages there to f i n d both commonalities and differences. So in-dwelling, the kanji speak to me as a neglected pedagogical t o o l , though recognized as a c r i t i c a l v a r i a b le i n writing Japanese. By decomposing a character into discernable elements, one can create a meaningful context f o r re-composing the space between English and Japanese, enacting meanings productively i n difference. This productivity w i l l lead to the motivation to delve into the many characters awaiting the learner with growing eyes for t h e i r a b i l i t y to teach. The study w i l l discuss the many forms of di s s e c t i n g Japanese- Chinese characters, and suggest how j o u r n a l i z i n g about these Page 5 practices at etymological deconstruction can help students gain an expanding perspective on a d i f f e r e n t culture and i t s wr i t i n g system. * The Conceptual Context As t h i s study constituted a personal account of a view of teaching and learning an in t e g r a l part of the Japanese wri t i n g system, i t leaned heavily on a writer whose ideas on the subject of Japan have had a more l a s t i n g e f f e c t on East- West c u l t u r a l contact than many r e a l i z e . In fact, i t i s f i t t i n g that Roland Barthes had a profound influence on t h i s study through h i s thoughts on the c e n t r a l i t y of the in t e r t e x t i n language. I t i s appropriate that Barthes' musings help students to embark on a personalized journey i n the context of fundamental elements of the Japanese language. The review of related l i t e r a t u r e that supports the strength of the in t e r t e x t and the po t e n t i a l f o r play i n language appear as a very e c c l e c t i c c o l l e c t i o n of writings of researchers and commentators who deal with an array of issues ranging from the Japanese language to the Canadian classroom. Their i n c l u s i o n i n the study may seem at once a complex, distant message simultaneously linked to our world of i n s t r u c t i o n (such as a sketch of learning approaches to kanji) and as "foreign" as many of the languages dwelling i n our midst (in the sense of our need as teachers to search for new meaning i n the classroom). Renowned semiologists such as Roland Barthes and Mikhail Page 6 Bahktin add weight to the discussion of the i n t e r t e x t and i t s r o l e i n language, but the stress i s on a proposal of a p o t e n t i a l l y useful way of compositioning and i n s c r i b i n g the ka n j i into our classrooms rather than an i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n of the characters. In summarizing ideas of Barthes, Jerome Klinkowitz wrote: "the i d e a l work i s i n f i n i t e , with the measure of i t s success no longer i n i t s f i n a l i t y but i n the labour i t ex h i b i t s , the production i t engenders i n our readers... 1 1 (Klinkowitz, 1988, p.54). The aim i n t h i s study has been to show how we can i n s t i l l i n students the desire to become part of the production of a seemingly complex s c r i p t , and to be motivated to continue i n t e r a c t i n g with the i n t e r t e x t of the languages. This may prove to be an important method of personalizing t h e i r learning, and restoring energy to the languages i n context. The c i t i n g s i n the t h e s i s originate from contexts and continents a l l over the world, but t h e i r merging on the P a c i f i c w i l l provide evidence of the i n t e r c u l t u r a l exploration now under way. Writers so seemingly f a r removed as Bakhtin and Dorinne Kondo expose entranceways into the world of " c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c constructs" Kondo i s enamored with (Kondo, 1990, p.34). Languages are l i v i n g , and even the h i s t o r i c a l symbols we base them on s h i f t i n t h e i r meaning, so that they i n s t i l l a pleasure f o r experiencing the past and present. The contact creates the i n s c r i b i n g of new meaning, a window for learners into a new culture. The i n t e r t e x t opens windows to Page 7 our upbringing and p a r a l l e l experiences on the P a c i f i c , as well as to completely new t e r r i t o r y intertwining language and culture. The framework of my writing rests on an autobiographical approach to uncovering the multilayers of meaning within k a n j i . Kristeva and Barthes speak to "holes i n symbolization" (Clark and Hulley, 1991, p.163) that may a s s i s t us i n creating a new language of thought. There i s a source of l i g h t i n using Japanese-Chinese characters - f i r s t as the basis for tools (they are, a f t e r a l l , a hybrid product of two cultures) such as mnemonic phrases i n English that lead us to meaningful story or narrative concerning personal h i s t o r y and the i n t e r a c t i o n of two cultures. By demonstrating to students that "structure contains a c t i v i t y " (Klinkowitz, 1988, p.44), the teacher can r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t source of knowledge and i n i t i a t e a p l a y f u l , worthwhile learning process. Ultimately, the proposal w i l l suggest an approach that w i l l allow the learner to take part i n the process of appreciating and a n t i c i p a t i n g the s l i p p e r y personality of the language symbols of both East and West, and consider what i t has to teach us about the i n t e r a c t i o n of language and culture. The main approach, a pedagogical t o o l of worth, b o i l s down to a non-definitive evaluation of the multiple meanings i n the i n t e r s t i c e s of the k a n j i . Re- stated, as a question: "What can an etymological d i s s e c t i o n of the Japanese-Chinese character teach the learner about Page 8 the i n t e r p l a y of language and culture i n both English and Japanese?" Approach to the study The study highlighted each section of discussion by using the t i t l e "stroke". I have come to f e e l that t h i s designation represents an important element of the study, that i s , i t alludes to the characters i n t h e i r most basic form. The strokes that comprise any of the' thousands of characters are respected components i n many aesthetic c i r c l e s of East Asia, and beyond t h i s appreciation of the f i n a l product, there i s also the ordering of strokes, equated with writing l i t e r a c y wherever characters of Chinese o r i g i n are used. More important for my approach, however, i s the fac t that the non-native learner of Japanese i s most l i k e l y thrown into a l i t e r a r y world of handwriting and meaning of which they have had no previous p a r a l l e l experience. For example, the premise of Stroke One i s founded on the need for a consideration of the challenges facing the learner of ka n j i , and the need to advertise some of the hidden advantages i n kanji for unlocking c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c doors to Japan and the West. My ordering of the si x strokes i s not meant to be l i n e a r , so while they may be read independently or as a whole, they also constitute an approach to considering the c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c aspects of written symbols. The kanji personify a v a r i e t y of Page 9 / etymological p o s s i b i l i t i e s that open up a space of exploration and meaningful intention for the learner. Stroke One i s c l e a r l y my own impression of the i n t e r c u l t u r a l contact of two languages that have been popularized (almost r i t u a l i z e d ) as e x i s t i n g on opposite communicative poles. In t h i s sense, the P a c i f i c has been portrayed as impassable. In a c t u a l i t y , i t i s becoming evident that the shores are closer than before, and that educators need to f i n d ways to improve the awareness for a deeper learning about the other side of the P a c i f i c . We should avoid playing into the hands of the ever present myth of u n l e a r n a b i l i t y and portrayal of East Asian language learning as a process of the "s u r v i v a l of the f i t t e s t " . With recent appeals f o r teaching approaches that combine more c u l t u r a l content with language, teachers confront a paradoxically challenging i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t h e i r classrooms. That i s , which al t e r n a t i v e s to choose i n bringing relevance to the learning of both language and culture i n the second language classroom without a l i e n a t i n g beginning students with methodology that could be considered more appropriate for the target culture. The strokes of the study attempt to reveal the k a n j i as characters f u l l of p o t e n t i a l f o r a re- learning of our own language and the beginning of a journey into a new language. The pedagogical spaces of the P a c i f i c seem simultaneously near and distant as we approach the next century, an i n d i c a t i o n that they are s h i f t i n g as the very tectonic plates that support t h i s huge expanse of water. Page 10 \ The search for universals or p a r a l l e l s i n language i s a never-ending one, and the, premise of t h i s study has been that students may come to r e a l i z e that the search i s les s for absolutes, than a valuable opportunity to re-learn established symbols and concepts i n a dynamic, i n t e r c u l t u r a l context. What follows are thematic writings of s i x strokes which I have t i t l e d as follows. Stroke One - The Landscape of the Stroke: Moving Beyond the Myth of Unl e a r n a b i l i t y Stroke Two - The Productive Corpus of Kanji i n the Space of Ambilvalence Stroke Three - Languaging and Intertext: E x p l o i t i n g Resistances i n Written Symbols Stroke Four 7 A r t i f a c t s (?) that S h i f t i n a Li v i n g Landscape: Finding and Constituting Meaning i n Uncovered Etymology Stroke Five - Demystifying C l a s s i f i c a t i o n or a Personalized R e - C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Kanji Stroke Six - The Doubling of Kanji and a New Appeal to the Senses Page 11 I began t h i s study immersed i n the c a l l of Kanji no S a t o r i (Wisdom i n Kanji) and found a written world of strokes that involves a f a s c i n a t i n g mix of East-West language and culture. I have 'concluded' t h i s study with a short r e v i s i t a t i o n of the s i x strokes. I have c a l l e d t h i s a Meditation, a t r a i t e s s e n t i a l to an appreciation of the stroke and subsequently an important component i n developing an eye for the S a t o r i of Kanji. Stroke One - The Landscape of the Stroke: Moving Beyond the Myth of Unlearnability Recent and current trends i n modern language teaching often point out that culture and language are inseparable i n the successful learning environment. Yet, where does the educator begin? Whether the i n s t r u c t o r focussing on a sin g l e target language or the teacher attempting to delve into the realm of the P a c i f i c Rim and i t s v a r i e t y of languages and nations, i t i s indeed a challenge to r e s i s t the "museum approach" to culture that verges on becoming a classroom c l i c h e . How do we j u s t i f y the intermingling of culture and language i n the v o l a t i l e s e t t i n g of North America where there i s a need to be concerned about how such important variables are manipulated i n the classroom? The forthcoming discussion proposes a look at a strong l i n k between our culture and others long seen by the West as Page 12 foreign. As such there w i l l be a great deal of focus on the Chinese characters East Asia has become famous for i producing. Roland Barthes has said that culture i n a l l of i t s aspects i s a language. I t is, , i n fact, t h i s kind of language understanding we' can learn to use for communication across seemingly vast separations and differences. I f a new understanding of language and culture can enable us to transport the classroom to new lands, to new doorsteps, then for t h i s study the fundamental symbolic b u i l d i n g blocks of the Japanese language are the keys to many previously closed doors. Mysterious, i n t r i c a t e and complex - there i s an e x i s t i n g myth supported by both Japanese and non-Japanese that Japanese i s d i f f i c u l t to learn. Granted, f o r the western learner of Japanese, the grammar d i f f e r s greatly from, say, that of English grammar. As well, a Canadian student does not have the advantage of cognates i n studying Japanese (Rogers, 1991, p.447). Fortunately, an increasing number of Western learners are acquiring spoken language c a p a b i l i t y i n Japanese, showing j u s t how consistent the pronunciation i s , how the grammar i s highly systematic, and a l l i n a l l , how i t throws f a r fewer exceptions at the newcomer than does English (Harz-Jorden, 1987, p.140). I f i t i s not a formidable language to learn, then why the long- held myth of unlearnability? Understandably, many equate time and commitment with degree of d i f f i c u l t y , and i t i s true that what d i f f e r s most Page 13 from European languages i s the Japanese wr i t i n g system. The writ i n g system i s made up of three kinds of l e t t e r symbols: kanji (often c a l l e d Chinese ideographs or characters, hereafter referred to as 'Sinographs'), hiragana and katakana. Kanji are symbols with sounds and meaning, and function much l i k e the symbols "%" and "$" appearing i n written English. The hiragana and katakana are phonetic symbols, each representing eit h e r vowel sounds or a consonant-vowel s y l l a b i c " c l u s t e r " (a s y l l a b a r y ) . Hiragana are predominantly used i n combination with ka n j i i n a Japanese sentence. Katakana i s used to i n s c r i b e loan words from foreign languages, such as "keeki" for "cake". Without a doubt, i t i s the kanji that provide the most formidable task f o r the learner of Japanese. Rather than becoming a source of dreaded rote learning, f r u s t r a t i o n and a l l - o u t fear i n the classroom,, i t i s my thesis that they hold a po t e n t i a l f o r teaching that may have the a b i l i t y to i n s t i l l confidence i n the student of Japanese and motivate them to continue t h e i r study of East Asia and the P a c i f i c . Consider the landscape on which the reverence of the stroke meets the sacredness of the word. On two shores of a vast ocean we are able to i s o l a t e elements of our language and appreciate them as individ u a l s would a p a r t i c u l a r scene of natural beauty. The Japanese hold the handprinted word i n high esteem, and t h i s may well be the fundamental reason for the writing of t h i s study. To t h i s day I encounter Westerners determined to learn Japanese who are leaving Page 14 t h e i r knowledge of the written word, as i t i s used i n Japan, fa r behind t h e i r motivation i n p r a c t i c i n g the spoken word. Where does t h i s mentality spring from? Is i t an oversight by only a portion of foreigners interested i n Japanese, or does i t r e f l e c t back on the West, revealing something of our nature as learners and borrowers of things foreign? Is our emphasis i n the classroom focussed on the o r a l t r a d i t i o n even more than we r e a l i z e ? There may be much to learn from the study of a writing system that w i l l help us to r e f l e c t upon and re-experience our own approach to Roman s c r i p t . Foreign language learning i s often said to improve personal knowledge of our native language, but the focus need not always be on o r a l and grammatical s k i l l s . We sometimes p r i n t and write in] an i n d i v i d u a l vacuum a f t e r the f i r s t years of schooling, soon l e f t to flounder or f l y while developing handwriting idiosyncracies e i t h e r excepted or exposed by teachers. The landscape then, i s the arena i n which our students confront the new culture. This i s an area that may be constantly re-defined by both teacher and student through t h e i r use of the i n t e r t e x t (absorption of another text into our own) and the i n t e r c u l t u r a l (the mingling and fusing of c u l t u r e s ) . In t h i s atmosphere of ambivalence the search i s not for d e f i n i t i o n s to n a i l down these concepts, but the creation of a new domain of i n s p i r a t i o n and s e l f - l e a r n i n g which I w i l l r e f e r to as a new space: the learning our students have yet to discover Page 15 through an in d i v i d u a l blending of languages, cultures, and symbols. In East Asia, and Japan s p e c i f i c a l l y , the high respect accorded to calligraphy and those practiced i n the a r t of handwritten characters i s , at the very l e a s t , impressive (Yang Ling, 1986). As calligraphy f l o u r i s h e d i n China, spreading to Japan, the a r t came to have s i g n i f i c a n c e i n how i t showed the in d i v i d u a l f l a i r of the a r t i s t , and to t h i s day seals or signatures of famous ca l l i g r a p h e r s fetch b i g sums. There i s said to be much to learn from the handwriting of a person who i s conscientious enough to provide a handwritten note i n the busy l i f e of present day urban Japan - to the point where a well-timed personally written memo can be a very adept s k i l l i n human r e l a t i o n s and business dealings. The c a l l i g r a p h i c s t y l e of a writer i s also said to denote such t r a i t s as moral b e l i e f s , mood or character. Western educators taking a clo s e r look at the handwritten word i n the classroom might well notice s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e i r students during a school year. It,may seem f a c i l e to discuss the Japanese approach to handwriting i n such terms as respect,; s k i l l and deter- mination. A f t e r a l l , such terms are thrown about i n the popular debate surrounding the Western envy of the economic success enjoyed by Japan. For a l l of the debate, j u s t how much cl o s e r are we to appreciating the culture of our P a c i f i c neighbours, and dropping the l i s t of c l i c h e s and hearsay that so often frame our opinion of the Japanese? Page 16 Just as the writing characters of Japan hold s i g n i f i c a n c e when taken out of t h e i r more known context, so too do the doors that await to be opened with further probing. The a l l important f i r s t step, however, i s the i n v i t a t i o n of the blank paper to the waiting brush and the meeting of these two elements so revered i n Japanese written f o l k l o r e . A Japanese c h i l d ' s f i r s t contact with t h i s c r u c i a l notion i s often an uncertain one. A l i n e , at once so simple, soon develops into the fundamental t o o l shaping the written world of k a n j i : the stroke. hand brush f i e l d KAKU: The combination of hand, holding brush above a f i e l d s i g n i f i e s a p a r t i t i o n i n g of the land through ink, as on a map (Henshall, 1988, p.24). The f a c t that t h i s character has come to mean stroke, diagram or picture i n a language where image and written symbol are so c l o s e l y intertwined i s f i t t i n g , and of great etymological value. A rel a t e d symbol for the c a l l i g r a p h e r : FUDE. one "* bamboo hand brush Page 17 The above l i t e r a l l y means one brush (or writing instrument), and r e a l l y that i s a l l that the P a c i f i c writer has ever needed: one stroke of the pen aware of i t s w r i t i n g surface. The landscape of the stroke i s provided for, and at times, inescapable. Handwriting i n our schools today, f o r instance, takes place on as many landscapes as there are hands holding the pen. The appreciation of language and i t s metaphorical boundaries varies widely among students. What i s perhaps unfortunate i s that we have l o s t sight of where our pen or p e n c i l touches paper. One might surmise that i n today's information society our thoughts are too rapid, our i n t e l l e c t s too subdivided, to take a step back (in time - a negative action?) and re-focus on the merits of thoughtful handwriting. My suspicions are that the focus on handwriting i n our schools has become i n general a remnant of a time when there was more attention and respect (diligence? s k i l l ? ) paid to personalized handwriting on paper. There were even attempts at systemization ( i t a l i c , e t c . ) , as evidenced by those alphabetic w r i t i n g charts remembered as a staple i n the North American elementary classroom. While modern technology and changing values leave us approaching the printed word d i f f e r e n t l y with each decade, we are missing much by assuming the same has taken place on the other shore of the P a c i f i c . A b r i e f look at Page 18, the evolution of the Chinese characters now c a l l e d k a n j i by the Japanese i s very i n s i g h t f u l . person p i l e up Much to the chagrin of the learner of Japanese, the number of Chinese characters borrowed over the centuries for permanent use has r e a l l y " p i l e d up". Yet, beneath the surface uses of such a s c r i p t l i e the hidden meanings and symbols awaiting re-exploration; a teacher i n i t i a t e d , student experienced re-invention of a foreign system f u l l of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f or the f a m i l i a r . The question to explore i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of re- writing characters and cutting through to an area common to a l l of the languages on the P a c i f i c . Can we i n s t i l l our students with the motivation to re-explore symbols by a personal route? Like questioning explorers we need to probe for sub-texts within the topics of the classroom; t h i s w i l l take a new adjustment of the eyes trained to see an expected dimension of meaning. The context i s one of understanding - a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r creating openings between Roman-English s c r i p t and Chinese-Japanese characters. We can learn more about a foreign writing system by thoughtfully comparing i t to our own, but how do we take a further leap and provide space i n which they might co-exist? Where might the two Page 19 systems meet on the P a c i f i c Rim, and what may we learn from the intermingling of our written languages? F i n a l l y , how w i l l the spaces within such foreign words, characters or symbols, be described, ultimately re-scribed, to and by our students? Public school students on both sides of the P a c i f i c are sublimely oblivious to the debate surrounding the appropriate l a b e l to give Chinese characters: pictogram/graphs, ideograms/graphs, simple, compound, phonetic loans - students of kan j i can be a pessimistic l o t , whose apprehension Lawrence Rogers summarizes: . . . t h e i r a ttitude toward kanji a c t u a l l y spans a wider spectrum of negative emotion, on the usually unexamined assumption that the wri t i n g system i s archaic and i r r a t i o n a l , a tiresome r e l i c they resent having to deal with. This misconception has been around for some time and has been entertained by the Japanese themselves, not to mention the Chinese and Koreans. (Rogers, 1991, p.447) Those who seem to be most intimidated by kanji are often the very people who have been studying spoken Japanese f o r some time but have not been able to bring themselves to take on the written language. Obviously, many must see the learning and possibly the usage of kanji as a very depersonalized experience; a paint-by-number nightmare, minus the printed stroke order as 'an assuring guide. On a wider spectrum, many i n the West have the perception that the Japanese educational system i s also a dehumanized process. Page 20 woman strength DORYOKU. E f f o r t . Japanese elementary school students often labour under these characters prominently posted on t h e i r classroom walls (Inagaki, 1989, p.23), a constant and tangible reminder of the e f f o r t required to learn the characters borrowed from the Chinese centuries ago. After a few years of b a s i c s s t u d e n t s are inundated with strokes that magically take on meaning i n d i v i d u a l l y and i n r e l a t i o n to others. The compos i t ioning of the r a d i c a l s - the interp l a y of the character- can be a powerful learning and expe r i e n t i a l t o o l f or the newcomer to East Asia. Three r a d i c a l s comprise the f i r s t character above, "DO", and the student opts for one of several methods of remembering the ent i r e symbol: stroke order, r a d i c a l , Chinese reading, Japanese reading - so much opportunity f o r meanings to s l i d e about. There may be something i n the fact that when you ask a native user of kanji (Japanese/Chinese characters) for a concise " t r a n s l a t i o n " of one symbol, i t seems more d i f f i c u l t f o r them than when you ask the same question of two or more characters i n combination. I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s ambiguity of the s o l i t a r y symbol that needs exploration. I have great sympathy f o r students s t i l l required to learn several thousand of these characters from rote. Fortunately, they Page 21 are surrounded by these l i v i n g signs i n d a i l y l i f e . S t i l l , t h i s type of study takes DORYOKU to new heights. One English mnemonic fo r "DO" (the f i r s t character above) i s to "Try with s l a v e - l i k e e f f o r t " , as the r a d i c a l s are a combination of "slave" and "strength" (Henshall, 1988, p. 171). This may well be one Japanese secret to learning. Though t h i s system of writing i s perhaps forboding early on, Canadian students could be guided into a l e s s intimidating, more personalized context for studying the k a n j i . At times I c y n i c a l l y surmise that many Japanese educators are g r a t e f u l f o r the existence of kanj i i n t h e i r w r i t i n g system. Their d i f f i c u l t y makes the road to knowledge longer, and s u i t s the competitive examination system. Regardless, we must accept the beauty and complexity of kanji at one time, to twist Kristeva's words s l i g h t l y , somehow f i n d the meaning i n the "simultaneously f a m i l i a r and r a d i c a l l y a l i e n " (Moi, 1986, p.36). By f a m i l i a r i s meant the fundamental l o g i c and appeal of a pictographic character such as KI (^y : tree ), i n which one can immediately sense the etymology. From grades one to s i x i n Japan, however, there are 42 characters that incorporate t h i s r a d i c a l . Consider the enigma of the following: west • f l o a t show Page 22 HYO. A slip p e r y but revealing symbol i n i s o l a t i o n - the l e f t hand side has the f a m i l i a r "tree", but the r i g h t combines "show" with "west" to create " f l o a t " . When we express ourselves i n even the seemingly most basic terms we are s t i l l f l o a t i n g amidst meanings. This character could represent "mark; sign; write down; or express". Why not mask? When we commit ink to paper we may have any of these i n mind, a l l e x i s t i n g behind (within?) a single composition. Many foreign students of kan j i approach t h e i r work as though they are breaking a code - another perspective i s to "breach 11 the inherent meanings (Barthes, 1982, p. 69). By giving new perspective to the characters, they may no longer loom large as the b a r r i e r s they continue to be between East and West. Their b u i l d i n g blocks could be the basis for a bridge (a hybrid span, constructed by two seemingly distant cultures) on the P a c i f i c Rim. Uncertain where the bridge w i l l lead? The challenge i s to acknowledge the breach of meaning between cultures that i s symbolized and r e a l i z e d within the neglected context of the k a n j i . Thumbing through my elementary school k a n j i dictionary, I f i n d some fading examples of my attempts to "break the code": stop inner: r i c e outer: mouth m Page 23 / HA="Teeth ensure r i c e stops i n mouth" (Henshall, 1988, p.86). I wonder i f mnemonics are the key to remembering so many characters? Native readers would hardly want such " i n t e r t e x t " i n t e r f e r i n g with t h e i r reading (or might many?). Another example: . IRU="Every western has a v i t a l need of a woman" (Henshall, 1988, p. 182). Students often enjoy devising t h e i r own \ memory tricks. 1 Such j i n g l e s may decontextualize characters i n a way that i s amusing, but may not help us to create a new language of thought. What kind of knowledge can t h i s search help us to find? Kristeva speaks to "holes i n symbolization", and there may be a source of l i g h t i n using characters as the basis f o r a meaningful story such as a narrative concerning personal h i s t o r y or two cultures. This could lead to an enlightening doubling of k a n j i . The next step i s to discover how to tap into the hidden knowledge of a wri t i n g system unfamiliar to the holder of the instrument west need woman waiting to brush paper.' Page 24 speak sign In SHIKI we f i n d "sign, mark, recognition, knowledge". This sing l e combination leads i n so many di r e c t i o n s , o f f e r i n g up signposts to follow to areas of more weight and s i g n i f i - cance. I t f i r s t reads l i k e a Western construct, where making your "mark" i s having your "say". Knowledge on the opposite side of the P a c i f i c may be better thought of as knowing when to speak, show a sign or leave a subtle mark. Where are the p a r a l l e l s ? We can begin with the f a m i l i a r , lead to the " a l i e n " and come to see that the compositioning i s often "simultaneously f a m i l i a r and r a d i c a l l y a l i e n " (Moi, 1986, p. 76) Students may come to form t h e i r own concept of the known, related to the inter-character and i n t r a - character spaces as well as the abundant inter-character s i m i l a r i t i e s . We have experienced s t o r i e s that create openings, and here we have symbols with the p o t e n t i a l of accomplishing the same. Thus fa r the discussion has spoken to the reading of a given character and i t s possible meanings and how we may in t e r p r e t k a n j i and t h e i r respective components i n our search f o r " l i v i n g " experiences between cultures. There i s another form of l i v i n g through a word, and that i s i n the process of putting p e n c i l or ink to paper. For many people Page 25 a c a l l i g r a p h i c representation of already complex characters renders them indecipherable. Re-considered, there i s a process i n writing kanji that can help us stre t c h the boundaries of meaning; i t could be thought of as spreading i t s etymological base. On t h i s base we can lay the meanings that lead to a "recasting" of the symbol (Kondo, 1990, p. 17) . This recasting i s i n i t s e l f a source of experimentation and empowerment. At once a newly formed road to another c u l t u r a l landscape, and a way of creating a personal view of the character. Echoing Sheila Moore's notion of empowerment, I want to show the teaching p o t e n t i a l of k a n j i : the space where with j u s t one symbol we can o f f e r a g i f t of p o s s i b i l i t i e s (Aoki, 1993, p.26). My profound b e l i e f i n t h i s introductory stroke i s that once the e s s e n t i a l meeting of instrument and paper occurs, the learner w i l l begin the journey of breaking down b a r r i e r s . There i s value i n pursuing written knowledge i n and of i t s e l f , and the added benefit with kanji i s that the journey can be as enlightening as the destination ( i f we ever reach i t ) . Here Roland Barthes has much to add: "structure contains a c t i v i t y ; truth i s no longer...a nut to crack, but an onion to peel" (quoted i n Klinkowitz, 1988, p. 47) . I f we are able to lead students towards these l i m i t l e s s layers and encourage a fresh approach to the learning of a formerly unlearnable written language (Rogers, 1991, p. 446), we have i n i t i a t e d the a l l important engagement i n the play of the in t e r t e x t . Moving beyond the Page 26 l a b e l of u n l e a r n a b i l i t y w i l l take the classroom into a more confident arena of connecting shadows (Barthes, 1975, 32) . These shadows have long passed over the P a c i f i c , i n many shapes and siz e s , as numerous as the clouds that hover over them. An environment with a vehicle for sending messages, deciphering codes, i s needed by languages c l o s e r i n meaning than they appear. A working through (Lyotard, 1991, p. 26) of the kan j i may energize the s t a r t of the i n t e r c u l t u r a l process of dwelling i n a new space of learning. The text produced by the kan j i can be shadows that reveal meaning f o r a new,language on both shores of the world's largest ocean. Stroke Two - The Productive Corpus of Kanji i n the Space of Ambivalence A singl e consciousness, a single voice, i s never s u f f i c i e n t . The l i f e of the word consists i n passing from mouth to mouth, from context to context, from c o l l e c t i v e to c o l l e c t i v e , from generation to generation. Every member of a speech c o l l e c t i v e receives the word from an a l i e n voice, i s f i l l e d up with a l i e n voice. The word comes from another context, saturated with a l i e n voice". (Barthes, 1986, p. 124) There are those of us who inhabit t h i s world of signs and are able to transform the Barthes' words by dwelling on the medium of the written word, emphasizing the space we occupy by moving from character to character. A single written word or pic t u r e can hold s u b s t a n t i a l / s i g n i f i c a n t meaning, much more than "native" writers of the symbol often r e a l i z e . Along with speech, we often pass along our wri t i n g systems Page 27 to future generations. Many put importance i n the c l a r i t y of hand written text, and though we may be l o s i n g aesthetic values to the onset of technology, we cannot disregard the respect given to the properly chosen symbol. Human i n s c r i p t i o n seems to go beyond the spoken word, but what of the written one? Despite the d i f f e r e n t languages on the P a c i f i c , where might an i n t e r t e x t be created f o r common experiences? In e l u c i d a t i n g Mikhail Bakhtin's ground breaking ideas on the structure of language, J u l i a Kristeva writes that Bakhtin pointed the way to the notion of the i n t e r t e x t . The l i t e r a r y word for Bakhtin i s conceived of as an i n t e r s e c t i o n of textual surfaces rather, than a point of f i x e d meaning (Moi, 1986, p. 36). With writing, a dialogue i s unavoidably created t r i a d i c a l l y among the writer, the addressee and the c u l t u r a l content. I t appears that i n our teaching of k a n j i , symbols loaded with i n t e r t e x t u a l and i n t e r c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l , we are missing the opportunity to involve the student i n a p a r t i c i p a t o r y journey through time and culture. Armed with knowledge of the i n t e r t e x t of k a n j i , the student can experience a greater awareness of the dialogue Bakhtin describes. Students who place themselves and t h e i r subjects within an i n t e r c u l t u r a l d i a l o g i c a l space, where more and more educators are searching f o r commonalities on the P a c i f i c , have much to gain from t h i s view of writing. To quote J u l i a Kristeva, "Bakhtin situates the text within hi s t o r y and society which are then Page 28 seen as texts read by the writer, and into which he i n s e r t s himself by rewriting them" (Moi, 1986, p.36). The promise of t h i s approach l i e s i n the fact that the writer i s i n the midst of a seeming fundamental unit of culture that i s not only manageable for the learner, but also replete with learning p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Where do we place the focus of our w r i t i n g i f not on the very b u i l d i n g blocks of the w r i t i n g system under study? Does not our f a i t h (confidence) increase as our own native language narratives bring us c l o s e r to a new, at one time intimidating, language? a l t a r earth Re-writing the above character (YASHIRO/SHA) w i l l serve to h i g h l i g h t two of Bakhtin's important contributions to the language of t h i s study: the "doubling" of dialogue and the " c a r n i v a l " i n discourse. The use of doubling i n the classroom i s merely an emphasis on an often forgotten s k i l l present i n our everyday discourse. From an early age c h i l d r e n enjoy double meanings, commonly known or p r i v a t e l y held i n t h e i r native (subconscious?) language. This appreciation for the f l e x i b i l i t y of language, usually avoided i n second language classrooms, can be exploited by Page 29 the learner i n t r a n s f e r r i n g t h i s s k i l l to a new language pr o f i c i e n c y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , students or budding Japanophiles, may use t h e i r native language to personalize the doubling of Japanese characters. I f t h i s doubling i s combined i n an outlook that sees the ongoing c a r n i v a l i n language, learners w i l l have a new perspective from which to approach the target charac- t e r s . Appreciating the carnivalesque i s e s s e n t i a l l y seeing with widened eyes. In Barthes 7 words, "awakening to the f a c t " . To Barthes' mind the s a t o r i of w r i t i n g occurs when we awaken to understanding the symbol as an event that we personally interpret rather than as a c u l t u r a l l y fixed point beyond our view i n complexity and u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y (Barthes, 1982, p. 78). In r e a l i t y , both of these words, complex and unpredictable, of most always negative connotation can be turned into main att r a c t i o n s on the fairground of the c a r n i v a l . The very complexity so at t r i b u t e d to a kanji's character becomes a prerequisite for the i n t e r t e x t of the stroke's landscape : components come a l i v e the more they p l a y f u l l y i n t e r a c t with one another. U n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , therefore, i s also a weapon i n the arsenal of novices, whereby they a f f i x t h e i r own l a b e l to a character's composition. This u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y may prove both t r y i n g for the teacher, and as well a further t o o l of f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n for the learner. The c a r n i v a l i n language may be exemplified i n something as simple as creating fun with shared meaning, or finding i n the i n t e r s t i c e of Page 30 etymology an intertwining of various latent meanings and r e l a t e d images. Through the narrative, f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n may breed confidence i n the characters. The l e f t and r i g h t hand components of YASHIRO/SHA may stand alone on the communicative t e r r a i n of the P a c i f i c , but i t i s when they are combined that an uncanny doubling occurs. Here, a l t a r and earth, thought to symbolize "earth god" ( ) or " l o c a l deity" ( ) , have become i n combination a representation of shrine. I t also forms part of the word fo r "company" > a n d "society" / presumably through i t s association with "parish", that i s , a "group of people with a common i n t e r e s t " . A glimpse into the i n t e r t e x t u a l play within t h i s one character shows the type of dialogue Bakhtin seems to espouse i n h i s revo- lutionary writing. Had Bakhtin experienced contact with Chinese characters, he would l i k e l y have seen the p o t e n t i a l for the c a r n i v a l , desribed by Kristeva: As composed of distances, relationships, analogies and non-exclusive oppositions, i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y d i a l o g i c a l . I t i s a spectacle, but without a stage; a game, but also a d a i l y undertaking, a s i g n i f i e r , but also a s i g n i f i e d . That i s , two texts meet, contradict and r e l a t i v i z e each other. A c a r n i v a l p a r t i c i p a n t i s both actor and spectator; he loses h i s sense of i n d i v i d u a l i t y . . . (Moi, 1986, p. 49) There i s no need to indulge i n complex semiotics with Bakhtin because he o f f e r s a freedom of movement, described by J u l i a Kristeva, allowing the writer to i n s e r t himself into the text by re-writing, and creating, i f you w i l l , a Page 31 personal i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y . The "double meaning" inherent i n any dialogue, any word, i s the very opening students of k a n j i can use as a foothold on the stroke landscape; they can p a r t i c i p a t e i n creating a stage on the P a c i f i c Rim from which to intertwine languages - a space where two texts meet, one f a m i l i a r and the other at once d i f f e r e n t but somehow not unfamiliar. Certainly, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to see how " a l t a r " became "shrine" and ultimately represents "society". One of the central questions of t h i s stroke surrounds t h i s simple etymological s k i l l : by entering the past when breeching the i n t e r t e x t , do we not learn more about the progression of our c u l t u r a l w riting habits of another nation, and through them appreciate more our own? History and morality are re-read and rewritten d a i l y within the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the i n t e r t e x t . Bakhtin dwelled i n a world far removed from our own time, yet h i s thoughts on discourse help us to see that a l i v i n g example of a distant culture, considered anachronistic by some, can a c t u a l l y serve as a guide into the present and future of the eastern P a c i f i c Rim. There are also writers who bring the kernel of Bakhtin's thought clo s e r to our present discourse on the ever expanding i n t e r c u l t u r a l i n t e r t e x t . Fortunately, much has been translated and elaborated by J u l i a Kristeva, whose wri t i n g has placed the i n t e r t e x t within the contemporary world of the i n t e r c u l t u r a l writer. Fundamentally, i t would seem, Kristeva wants the writer of the P a c i f i c or elsewhere, to Page 32 bear i n mind that a l l forms of discourse are constructed i n and by the s o c i a l space i n which they are spoken (Moi, 1986, p. 65). In her experience with d i f f e r e n t languages, she has come to see the rel a t i o n s h i p between dialogue and ambivalence that Bakhtin described. Any text, therefore, i s the "absorption" -of another and i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y replaces i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y (Moi, 1986, p. 39) . Here Kristeva develops a new notion of "i n t e r t e x t " , one f i l l e d with great p o t e n t i a l f or the student of written Japanese symbols. On the subject of carnivalism, Kristeva sees "a space where texts meet, contradict and r e l a t i v i z e " each other (Moi, 1986, p. 49). Re-reading, re-writing, r e p e t i t i o n and i l l o g i c a l constructions a l l have t h e i r place i n the ca r n i v a l , so why not on the landscape between languages and cultures where they give shape and meaning to an ocean void of d e f i n i t i o n for many inhabitants along i t s shores? Yet, i f the way i n which the s i g n i f i e r i s rel a t e d to the s i g n i f i e d i s a r b i t r a r i l y decided, how do we i n s t i l l our students with the confidence to undertake the study of kanji? For example, what sense can be made of the following intertext? Page 33 IU - "to say", i s considered to be an independent symbol, and a c a r r i e s with i t a very Japanese pronunciation. I t also means "speak; word; speech; c a l l " . Can we derive any of these from "edged t o o l " and "mouth"? By searching through the kanji v a r i a t i o n s u t i l i z i n g "IU" as a b u i l d i n g block, i t can be seen how much p o t e n t i a l there i s f o r expanding our knowledge by i n t e r t e x t u a l comparison, r e - t e l l i n g the adage " i n the beginning was the word. F i r s t , there i s "language" i t s e l f ( ^ § ) . A student might then compare t h i s to "story" ( §2 ) '< " b e l i e f " ( /f ^ ) or perhaps the more l e g a l i s t i c "evidence" ( ) , a l l in-corporating a v i t a l element of the word. There are also the more academic "speech'' cf$t), " l e c t u r e " ( ) and "lesson" ( ^ft-. ) . In searching for other methods to reach students i n the Japanese c l a s s - room there i s always the introduction of the narrative of the "poem" ( ) , aptly summed up by Ted Aoki as " a dwelling place of mortals where one may hear the i n s p i r i t e d beat of earth's desire". Whether i n a sing l e character or i n a s e r i e s , the kanji teach us to dwell p o e t i c a l l y and continue searching among the multitude of topics as with the "speech patterns" of the P a c i f i c . Increasingly, for better or worse, the sharper tongue i s the respected and v i c t o r i o u s t o o l i n the o r a l t r a d i t i o n of the West. By emphasizing the power of the handwritten word on the opposite side of the P a c i f i c , we may be able to educate our students to consider the seemingly r a p i d l y disappearing a r t of the well-written, Page 34 c l e a r l y hand-written statement. I f there i s a lesson to be learned from a discussion on the omnipotence of stroke order, i t might well be that i n some cultures the written word c a r r i e s f a r more weight than the spoken, and that speaking too much, even eloquently, may be taken as l e s s than sincere. A focus on the importance of handwriting during a k a n j i lesson opens the door to learning p o s s i b i l i t i e s , which, simultaneously, sheds l i g h t on shadowy characters. Ultimately, we are revealing the hidden advantages of the i n t e r t e x t u a l character - e x p l o i t i n g the play of etymological structure so that i t loses i t s intimidating: r i g i d i t y and becomes f l e x i b l e before the (new) eyes of the learner. Perhaps, a f t e r some thought and musing, a student could surmise that u n i v e r s a l l y over time words have developed by cutt i n g our speech into units ( as i n IU: ) In f a c t "one word" reads l i k e so: There i s a r e a l rhythm to such semantics; the strength of the c a r n i v a l l i e s I i n the freedom for i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Rather than present k a n j i as a h i s t o r i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c coincidence, the teacher can i n s t i l l an Page 3 5 appreciation for t h e i r doubling, that i s , f o r the very richness found i n the d i v e r s i t y of a single character; the ca r n i v a l can be found at play i n the i n t e r t e x t of characters surfacing a l l around the eastern, and i n t h i s century, western, P a c i f i c Rim. They continue to beckon those who have balked at t h e i r tempting, irevelationary shadows to date. And what of those successful explorers into the world of k a n j i , who would not stop at rumours of unsurpassable challenges? By what methods did they (no doubt i n d i v i d u a l l y ) gain writing confidence and proficiency? The car n i v a l i s out there, tents pitched i n many private studies and public l i b r a r i e s . Whether the writers of a distant continent r e a l i z e , they have constructed the very " d i a l o g i c spaces" needed f o r exploration into the shared i n t e r t e x t among languages which, i n i t i a l l y , seem to have so very l i t t l e i n common. The car n i v a l i s inherent to language and written communication. The play with the previous character does somehow indicate, across distance and time, that we require the s k i l l s to uncover and produce previously unseen language, i n a l l of i t s playfulness and value. A divided corpus (Barthes, 1975, p. 34) aptly describes the kanj i . They have been transported between v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t cultures and have been the harbingers of a dominant r e l i g i o n , writing system and subsequent l i t e r a r y world from China, through Korea and Vietnam, to ultimately f i n d a home centuries ago i n a land i n search of a written t r a d i t i o n . The Japanese have arguably become the strongest Page 3 6 proponent of Chinese characters, being meticulously c a r e f u l to transform them into t h e i r own. The ka n j i dwell and t h r i v e i n the space of an archetypal modern society, almost i n defiance of the l a t e s t gadgets they i n e v i t a b l y become etched upon. They appear so archaic, so f a r removed from what i s perceived as the l a t e twentieth century f a s t lane of sophisticated international communication, an encumbrance to the computer age yet an indispensable set of symbols that dance as they lead us through doors of knowledge that w i l l otherwise remain shut. Whether they be seen as l i v i n g anachronisms, textbook tormentors, b a r r i e r s to communication, or keys to unlocking long misunderstood cultures, the kanji are a challenge - the learner chooses to make them a source of motivation or a hindrance the experience of learning Japanese. The corpus of a ka n j i hearkens back to the past, but i t s i n t e r t e x t u a l p o t e n t i a l can be a powerful t o o l i n the present and future of communication on the P a c i f i c . The recommendation i n t h i s writing i s to i n s e r t a p a r t i c u l a r personality into each kanj i , to delve into a new world of wr i t i n g using elements of d i f f e r e n t languages, and i n i t i a t e a continual play of i n t e r c u l t u r a l meaning. We can leave the world of the classroom and embark on a s e l f - discovery that winds through etymology, history, language, s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s and the ever elusive "foreign" culture. These d i s c i p l i n e s , at once, are too much to ask of a language student to synthesize into one character. While Page 37 re-thinking the capacity of a u n i v e r s a l i t y of meaning (as captured i n the i n t e r t e x t of a new word i n a language under study), however, a teacher might e s t a b l i s h a f i e l d of play - a carnivalesques framework - that may distance the teacher- learner r e l a t i o n s h i p and send the student o f f into a p r i v a t e c a r n i v a l of strokes. The writer of primal influence on t h i s proposed approach to seeing the written symbols of the Japanese language i s undoubtedly Roland Barthes. Throughout Empire of Signs, Barthes illuminates signs and r i t u a l s i n Japan that, by h i s own admission, cannot be approached from a Western frame of reference. I t may be that Barthes' writing i s d i f f i c u l t to appreciate for those who have not experienced the aesthetic (not the technology) of Japan; Barthes' sentences can be approached i n so many ways that i t i s best to s t a r t with h i s influence on the very t i t l e of t h i s t h e s i s . Japan caused a number of "flashes" within Barthes, and early i n the work he describes h i s experience. This s i t u a t i o n i s the very one i n which a c e r t a i n disturbance of the person occurs, a subversion of e a r l i e r readings, a shock of meaning lacerated, extenuated to the point of i t s irreplaceable void, without the object's ever ceasing to be desirable. Writing i s a f t e r a l l , i n i t s way, a s a t o r i . . . (Barthes, 1982, p. 4) Barthes, i n part, used s a t o r i as a way of showing the need to create an emptiness i n language. He seems to have f e l t that i n order to f u l l y appreciate a d i f f e r e n t culture, we need to approach the subject from a new (empty) perspective, Page 38 leaving behind our own ideology (tinged with narcissism i n the West, fo r example). Sato r i i s a powerful d i v i d i n g t o o l as seen by Barthes, "a seism which causes knowledge", and t h i s can be understood as any disturbance interpreted by the student i n the here and now ( Once again, the importance of "awakening to the f a c t " ) . The very page on which the above quote i s taken from stands opposite a page what appears as v a s t l y more space, immensely more imposing, f i l l e d only by the sing l e character for nothingness (BU/MU): wheat sheaf f i r e Again, nothingness for the learner can be transporting t h e i r thoughts out of the classroom to a l o c a t i o n c l o s e r to the target language. To "undo our own r e a l i t y " i s to create a f i s s u r e or i n t e r s t i c e for the characters to be learned. Barthes points out that i n Japan "the empire of s i g n i f i e r s i s so immense, so i n excess of speech, that the exchange of signs remains of a fasci n a t i n g richness, mobility, and subtlety..." - trapped i n the instrumental language and t o o l s of curriculum as described by Ted Aoki, we need to explore the p o s s i b i l i t y that the development of an i n t e r s t i c e can a s s i s t students of a very d i f f e r e n t and Page 39 challenging written language deal with the i n e v i t a b l e ambiguities they w i l l encounter i n i t s usage. Trinh Minh-Ha s k i l l f u l l y brings the often underrated ideas of Barthes closer to a focus on the importance of an East-West i n t e r c u l t u r a l understanding. In her narrative on Empire of Signs, she hints at how Barthes' major "flashes" can be re-read to equip and encourage the t r a v e l l e r on the e v e r - s h i f t i n g Asian landscape. How do we s a f e l y divide the body of meaning i n a d i f f e r e n t language? A language that seems placed so f a r from our l e v e l of consciousness when i t uses a word l i k e " s a t o r i " . With the conclusion of t h i s stroke, Barthes provides a clue: ... i t i s not a question of being concise ( i . e . , shortening the s i g n i f i e r without diminishing the density of the s i g n i f i e d ) but on the contrary of acting on the very root of the meaning, so that t h i s meaning w i l l not melt, run, i n t e r n a l i z e , become i m p l i c i t , disconnect, divagate into the i n f i n i t y of metaphors, into the spheres of the symbol. (Barthes, 1982, p. 75) Student and teacher need less mysticism, l e s s d i c t a t o r s h i p of stroke ordering and more self-experience and knowledge, summed up so frequently now i n the popularized "empower- ment". More than power, Barthes foresaw the need to gain knowledge through re-writing. I f s a t o r i i s a "powerful seism which causes knowledge" (Barthes, 1982, P. 4) - t h i s v a c i l l a t i o n of the subject, of established meaning, can then be transformed into a useful learning t o o l . I f emptiness forces a re-writing, what does the divided symbol and Page 40 subsequent clash of c u l t u r a l meaning e n t a i l f o r the learner on the P a c i f i c ? Stroke Three - Language and Intertext: E x p l o i t i n g Resistances i n Written Symbols Language has an appeal to the senses. Not a concept f a r removed from our education: the or a l piece, of pie, the poem cut l i k e a cake, even the font that fancies i t s subject. French - whether f a l l i n g on unappreciative ears or not - has a reputation of beauty, and as more and more languages of the P a c i f i c intermingle, tastes are undoubtedly forming of the languages receiving greater exposure. Students enrol i n language classes for reasons of form, finance and other i d i o s y n c r a t i c factors that often centre on, the spoken challenge at hand. In fact, i t i s reasonable to conclude that the very thought of learning a d i f f e r e n t s c r i p t i n addition to a new spoken t r a d i t i o n keeps many i n the West from even considering a course of any East Asian language. Part of the t r a d i t i o n a l s o l u t i o n has been to follow the practices of the target language's teaching pra c t i c e s , but how can educators expect to incorporate the classroom approach of Japan, for example, i n a country with such a d i f f e r e n t school environment as Canada's? The more f a m i l i a r a character i s , the more e a s i l y remembered i t w i l l be. Rote learning of kanj i , as favored by the Japanese, i s u n l i k e l y to break down the b a r r i e r of u n f a m i l i a r i t y f o r Canadian students. Teachers of Japanese i n Canadian schools Page 41 need to encourage students to appreciate how a character i s made up, how i t acquired i t s shape and how i t came into existence. This may go a long way towards making the Japanese language classroom more i n v i t i n g and l e s s daunting. Just as students have a d i s t i n c t i v e personality of t h e i r own, so does each k a n j i . The challenge i s not only to i n s t i l l an appreciation for the properly struck character, but to foster an attitude whereby the student can independently work through what once seemed merely a l i f e l e s s and anonymous jumble of l i n e s and dots. A valuable learning process occurs when we give any character a chance to be seen and understood i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . I f we. can create an appeal to the senses, the students w i l l continue the process of b u i l d i n g bridges across the P a c i f i c . Less commonly known are the ancient spans of the P a c i f i c , at times hidden i n the h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g of East Asia, a large body of knowledge locked behind a longstanding b a r r i e r of Chinese s c r i p t . At the beginning of the eighth century A.D., when Beowulf was written, Japan had no writing system of i t s own. Japan's f i r s t h i s t o r y book, the K o j i k i ( l i t e r a l l y , Records of Ancient Matters), was compiled under the emperor's orders at t h i s time. Introduced to the Japanese 200 years e a r l i e r , the "kanji culture" (Saito, 1981, p. 38) had come by way of the ancient Korean kingdom of Paekche. Paekche existed i n the southwestern part of the Korean peninsula from the fourth century A.D. through the seventh century A.D. During the s i x t h century A^D. the king Page 42 of Paekche i s purported to have sent scholars and two books to a Japanese emperor. One of the books described the teachings of Confucius, and the other was an introduction to ka n j i . This i n i t i a l bridge across a r e l a t i v e l y small corner of the P a c i f i c benefitted Japan immensely, serving as a l i n k not only to Korea, who i t i s believed was the k a n j i intermediary f o r the Japanese, but also opening the archipelago to the influence of China. Thus, a bridge of communication and contact that has stood f o r centuries was b u i l t on the desire for a new, formidable language. tree HASHI: t h i s character incorporates some of the concepts associated with a s o l i d structure. F i t t i n g l y f or those who see the future p o t e n t i a l for language exchange on the P a c i f i c , there are also two mouths ( ) prominently placed on t h i s bridge. Many Koreans , and Chinese came to ancient Japan, and t h e i r l a s t i n g heritage created families of i n t e l l e c t u a l s and s p e c i a l i s t s (Saito, 1981, P. 38) . The Japanese may have transformed the characters into t h e i r very own, but they remain indebted to originators of the k a n j i . More importantly, the Japanese have adopted and assimilated a "foreign" culture since ancient times, i n large part with Page 43 structure the a i d of symbols that s t i l l contain the power and f l e x i - b i l i t y to be the foundation for modern bridges on the P a c i f i c . Strength i n ambiguity. Western businesses s t i l l attempting to forge a niche i n Asia might give frustrated, half-hearted chuckles at t h i s concept. I suspect the ambiguity of k a n j i comes from the very nature of t h e i r o r i g i n : at times pictographic, symbolic, ideographic or phonetic i n o r i g i n and usage, they seem to be f l o a t i n g enigmas that dance on paper. They seem well suited to t h e i r environment, instruments of a reputedly enigmatic and multi- layered language. More a r t than writing to the Western eye, they take on a new personality when necessary and show a remarkable f l e x i b i l i t y of meaning. Perhaps they are as precise, mobile and ultimately empty as Barthes describes many of the other functionalized, r i t u a l i z e d objects of the Japan he int e r p r e t s . Of these ever-present concepts i n Empire of Signs, mobility has the most p o t e n t i a l for the classroom, a carnivalesque usage of k a n j i that seeks not pr e c i s i o n , but an opening of the character to i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Much can be said about "nothing". Page 44 This character (MU), also highlighted i n the previous stroke, flashes across the page i n Empire of Signs, a s t r i k i n g contrast to the roman s c r i p t f i l l e d page opposite. Which has more e f f e c t on the reader: a page of c a r e f u l l y ar- ranged and spelled ideas or a single character? Even a ka n j i of somewhat confused and obscure etymology such as "MU" lends i t s e l f to a wonderfully exaggerated personalization on the part of the student: "Dancing f i r e leaves nothing" i s one p o s s i b i l i t y that could send students o f f on a journey that works through t h i s symbol. The i n t e r t e x t of kanji i s a space for learning, and i n a myriad of ways the surface structure of these characters create openings to spaces behind the mystical wall - an area of play. I n i t i a l l y , a t y p i c a l Western reaction to the predetermined stroke order of k a n j i might be "why?". Top to bottom; l e f t to r i g h t ; horizontal strokes usually preceding v e r t i c a l strokes when crossing...the d i r e c t i v e s go on, but once ink has dried on paper or chalk dust cleared on the blackboard, who would ever know? The Western student, swimming i n a rough sea of stroke formation, might understandably have d i f f i c u l t y determining which stroke was written f i r s t . Why not allow for i n d i v i d u a l stroke i n t e r p r e t a t i o n so long as the f i n a l product i s achieved? These are questions a teacher might best be prepared to address i n a diplomatic tone, rather than an ominous one. Among a l l of the possible responses, one seems as good as Page 45 any: " i t j u s t won't look the same". Of course, a teacher of kanj i could also speak to the judgemental glances or the sometimes open disapproval shown by native writers i f you stray from the intended stroke order and subsequently lead the c l a s s through a window into aspects of a conformist society. Considering the already tentative nature of the beginners' pen, i t would be better to o f f e r up a simple character to i l l i c i t some play: person tree "Person r e s t i n g against a tree i s on vacation" (Henshall, 1988, p. 5): YASUMI. What could be better than to bring some res t and relaxation into c l a s s , or even mention a forthcoming holiday. A teacher may even prefer to provide the two root derivatives and have students guess at a possible usage before revealing the commonly known meaning. At any l e v e l , f a m i l i a r i t y breeds confidence, and an understanding of how a symbol came to be may create an appreciation f o r the very culture that i n s i s t s on the correct movements (at times a single, subtle sweep of the brush) to complete a character; here person and tree form the meaning f o r "rest " or "holiday". Page 46 Reverence for handwriting and stroke order seem so removed from the technological appreciation we bestow upon Japanese products. Insinuating that stroke order and an eye fo r d e t a i l i n handwriting are the foundation of the much heralded p r e c i s i o n of the Japanese worker may be a s t a r t i n bringing t h i s d istant world of brush and paper c l o s e r to our side of the P a c i f i c . This i s a hand/written (aesthetic and sentiment being so i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d together) t r a d i t i o n of Asia that we are missing, so close to us on the P a c i f i c . A handy mnemonic: "Waves form the skin of the water" (Henshall, 1988, p. 110), but too often we wait f o r the breaking water to h i t us before r e a l i z i n g t h e i r hidden p o t e n t i a l - I f we meet d i f f e r e n t languages h a l f way, simultaneously diving beneath an unfam-iliar surface, we can reach areas of learning and remembrance. The undulating wave motion of the P a c i f i c has c a r r i e d t r a v e l l e r s to many unknown destinations. Waves i n fact symbolize a l i t t l e understood source of energy that dwells on the vast space of the P a c i f i c . While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine the i n f i n i t e number of water droplets p r o p e l l i n g vessels around the water skin Page 47 "skin" of the world's largest ocean, i t i s also not easy to envisage the communicative power of the characters of Chinese o r i g i n that f l o a t around the P a c i f i c Rim before one has a c t u a l l y started the personal journey through time and stroke appreciation To e x p l o i t i s to make use of a known advantage, a p o s i t i v e image when used i n the sense of the ka n j i r e v e a l - ing s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Japanese approach to communication and culture and the student's. Once again, the learner can u t i l i z e the very a r b i t r a r y way i n which the s i g n i f i e r i s related to the s i g n i f i e d as a personal t o o l . Possession of t h i s s k i l l creates a true chance at continuous s e l f - l e a r n i n g . To ex p l o i t i s also to see the hidden p o s s i b i l i t i e s within a single character, and to devise personal approaches to appreciation of the etymological and so c i o l i n g u a l background that has created the symbol. Perhaps some see the wave as a water movement rather than i t s skin, but i n explaining and comparing the obvious and non-obvious ways of seeing a symbol, the process of breeching the i n t e r t e x t begins. Jean-Francois Lyotard borrows the phrase "working through" from Freud i n order to suggest a type of inquiry that w i l l 'have us continually remembering, repeating, and re-writing our journey to modernity. This modernity i s most importantly an unceasing working through a subject without end. While i t i s in c r e d i b l y daunting for the student of kan j i to embark on a course of learning through thousands of Page 48 symbols so d i f f i c u l t to r e c a l l with the a g i l i t y one would l i k e , Lyotard o f f e r s some solace for the learner bombarded by a world f u l l of fragments that come together as a sentence, a scrap of information, or a word: By proceeding i n t h i s way, one slowly approaches a scene, the scene of something. One describes i t . One does not know what i t i s . One i s sure only that i t refer s to some past, both furthest and nearest past, both one's own past, and others' past. This l o s t time i s not represented l i k e i n picture, i t i s not even presented. I t i s what presents the elements of a picture, an impossible picture. Re-writing means re g i s t e r i n g these elements. (Lyotard, 1991, p. 70) The scene i s the established symbol that needs f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n . By exp l o i t i n g the resistances i n ka n j i , that i s , occupying the int e r t e x t , we open up a new world of learning p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Lyotard i s explaining that sentiment from the past i s a l l we know. A growing f a s c i n a t i o n with s c r i p t such as kan j i includes recognizing i t s past and present. The sentiments of past are represented i n symbols that continue to hold value of meaning i n the present. Lyotard's lesson i s that the journey i s a continuing one. For the student comfortable with expressing personal narrative, but unfamiliar with a previously unknown system of writing, there i s a reassuring, l e g i t i m i z i n g opportunity for the past to weld with future knowledge i n a world of established native language symbols and newly found communicative opportunities i n a d i f f e r e n t language. Page 49 I n t e r c u l t u r a l s o c i o - l i n g u i s t i c sentiment may teach to us through recognizable themes. The classroom needs to provide the demystification of a d i f f e r e n t language, while encouraging students to continue to uncover and discover new themes fo r e x p l o i t i n g the resistances i n the perceived "wall" of misinformation on k a n j i . D i f f i c u l t i e s tend to be exaggerated by beginners as, or the seeming i n t r i c a c i e s magnified by those who have become p r o f i c i e n t at using Japanese as a second language but embellish the d i f f i c u l t y of t h e i r accomplishment (Rogers, 1991, 446). Worse yet are the very enigmatic successful learners who appear to covet t h e i r characters and keep novices with a growing i n t e r e s t i n Japan at arm's length, storing kanji l i k e the miser with a secret cache of gold. By learning to appreciate the s k i l l s that uncover the i n t e r t e x t of the k a n j i , both breeching and s p l i c i n g of r a d i c a l s , students w i l l hopefully b u i l d the motivation and confidence to take a step towards a new type of personalized l i t e r a c y . The kanji do represent l i f e and death - they are a r t i f a c t s that continue to s h i f t with the frequency of the neon sign. Seeing with new eyes i s to experience a new l i t e r a c y that f i r s t i s o l a t e s kanji as singl e units standing singly as indisposable instruments or fundamental expressions of meaning, and then continues to carry the learner to higher l e v e l s of contact and experience with the Japanese culture. Minh-ha Trinh also shows how Barthes portrays h i s notion of the void i n Empire of Signs. I f writing i s Page 50 s a t o r i , that elusive word, then the seism causing the loss of meaning, or a suspension of b e l i e f i n meaning, i s the very spark needed to re-evaluate our own culture and learn about a d i f f e r e n t one. On Barthes preoccupation, with the void and Asia, Trinh writes: ^ These statements present the two inseparable faces of a single e n t i t y . They open, as would a dice throw, a text i n which the (named) Void moves beneath multiple forms, showing us at each pause i n i t s displacement, a new face. This philosophy, t h i s doctrine, ...belongs to a network of c l o s e l y connected s i g n i f i e r s and s i g n i f i e d ... (Trinh, 1991, p. 209) Barthes obviously f e l t a vibrancy by s i t u a t i n g himself i n the Void. S p l i t t i n g a kanji and creating the desire for a non-definitive working through of a new language by re- writ i n g and re-learning of meaning i s a step towards developing a new appeal to the senses. Finding pleasure i n the f l o a t i n g symbol of the P a c i f i c , even r e l i s h i n g the stroke count, can begin with an intermingling of the concepts embedded i n a k a n j i . r i c e woman KAZU: "Woman counts number of r i c e grains by hand" i s the mnemonic suggested by one text (Henshall, 1988, p. 43). hold Page 51 Student attempts at such bridging of meaning can reveal gender attitudes that may p e r s i s t to t h i s day. The point i s to ; i n i t i a t e the inter-play that w i l l f i n d students uncovering the i n t e r t e x t of k a n j i . One might say, as Ted Aoki has suggested, that the texture of the character i s revealed through t h i s process - beyond devising a possibly handy j i n g l e , the r e a l mnemonics are the l a s t i n g f a m i l i a r i t y and appreciation of the writing system of a d i f f e r e n t culture. Who did the r i c e counting i n Japan? For that matter, j u s t who i s responsible for the dreaded system of ordering strokes! On the surface i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine how languages as d i f f e r e n t as Japanese and English can co-exist i n the Chinese characters developed centuries ago. Yet, they do come into contact (fuse?) i n the many loan words of modern Japanese. Beyond the making of a language game, i t i s not always apparent what can be learned by demystifying a Japanese character - Barthes points out how "the d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l not be the source of absolute c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , the paradigms w i l l f a l t e r . . . " (Barthes, 1975, p. 4) . This i s important to r e t a i n when using one's language and background to i n t e r p r e t the ideas or symbols of another. We cannot be absolutely c e r t a i n of our reading, but we may experience more meaningful layers through our w r i t i n g and probing. This experience may be seen purely a e s t h e t i c a l l y (calligraphy) but inescapably, through di s s e c t i o n and (personal) interpretation, the experience Page 52 takes on aspects of the elemental: the need, form and s i g n i f i c a n c e of communication. The t r u l y revelationary space of Barthes' void as proposed by t h i s thesis may well be the cohabitation of two languages working side by side: "the meaning w i l l be precarious, revocable, r e v e r s i b l e , the discourse incom- plet e " (Barthes, 1975, p. 4), so that f o r the student of a new language the s k i l l s learned with elements of the meaning can be transferred to c u l t u r a l experiences that are simply l i v i n g , not absolute. Rather naively, the P a c i f i c i s often portrayed as possessing two shores, distant and oppositional. An image of greater s i g n i f i c a n c e for future learning on t h i s ocean might be that of a constantly s h i f t i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l and i n t e r t e x t u a l space under pressure from forces surrounding and even occupying i t . Of p a r t i c u l a r importance from a geographic point of view are the tectonic plates, or edges, that d i c t a t e so much of t h i s region's d i r e c t i o n on our planet. In a s i m i l a r way, as related by Ted Aoki, we see and hear evidence of a language/word tectonics within a commonly accepted symbol. The architectonics (Aoki) of language and symbol constantly s h i f t and move i n and around us with more power and frequency than we r e a l i z e . As with the wave, educators need to explore the tectonic p o s s i b i l i t i e s for both the geographic and communicative worlds of the P a c i f i c , playing with h i s t o r i c a l events, contemporary positions, and future predictions of movement. Page 53 For the Japanese classroom, t h i s e n t a i l s a re-examination of kanj i learning: re-thinking and re-writing u n t i l forboding characters transform into i n t e r e s t i n g and indispensible symbols. weight strength UGOKU: Combining "strength" with "weight" to perhaps symbolize the exertion of a force, or more su c c i n c t l y "strength moves heavy object". Exposing two edges i n meaning i s the l a s t i n g r e s u l t of breeching the k a n j i . The obedient edge (Barthes, 1975, p. 6) i s exposed, with a l l of i t s pre-conceived uses, and the more enigmatic, le s s decipherable edge that seems to o f f e r so much p o s s i b i l i t y f o r learning remains to^ be revealed and interpreted by the s p l i c i n g of the text. In the context of the les s defined edge, we f i n d a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of language, as evidenced by the e x p l o i t a t i o n of ka n j i , that reveals j u s t how we reach a compromise i n our understanding of other languages and culture. Too often, t h i s compromise ends on a resigned note, rather than i g n i t i n g an exploratory theme i n language learning. The kanji are untapped image reservoirs awaiting Page 54 our attempts, no les s nor more compromised, to in t e r p r e t the ongoing meeting of edges on the P a c i f i c . Stroke Four - A r t i f a c t s (?) that S h i f t i n a L i v i n g Landscape: Finding and Constituting Meaning i n Uncovered Etymology The i n t e r t e x t of the Chinese-Japanese character i s a context where past, present and future continue to co-exist whether we have an appreciation f o r t h e i r construction or not. For the ca l l i g r a p h e r who values the aesthetic pleasure of each i n d i v i d u a l character, there i s a richness of content and association i n the fini s h e d symbol that could well evoke an emotional response i n the viewer. Resembling an abstract work of a r t , the structure of strokes, the layout of characters and t h e i r rhythmic changes show j u s t how the strokes can involve intimidating forms for the learner, but also hold a wealth of language learning. For the teacher who approaches the kanji as a s h i f t i n g set of symbols, rather than as a stagnant mass of ordered strokes, there i s great p o t e n t i a l to i n s t i l l the learner with some of the enthusiasm of the Chinese ca l l i g r a p h e r . The characters involve a great v a r i e t y of changes, representing form and idea, abstraction and r e a l i t y , grace and strength, and from the very introduction of t h e i r usage, i t i s possible to reveal these q u a l i t i e s . A character possesses a structure containing a composition waiting to be written. The wri t i n g Page 55 need not be as l i n e a r as the very strokes on which i t i s based, but a rendering of the symbols' etymology into a realm of f a m i l i a r i t y . With t h i s stroke i t w i l l be seen,, i n fact, that experiencing the c o l l i s i o n of past and present i n the Chinese-Japanese character w i l l help the learner to break from the bonds of the sequential to develop an in d i v i d u a l non-linear space. The compositioning of t h i s space, be i t i n the practice of the newly learned symbol or a narrative, w i l l be the force that generates meaning. Just as Chinese ca l l i g r a p h e r s are exploring new realms of t h e i r a r t , determined to respect the approach of the i n d i v i d u a l i n order to blend the t r a d i t i o n s of the past with new ideas (Ling, 1986, p. 67), i t i s time to reapproach our methods of teaching kanji i n Japanese classes while remembering the ) foundations of the symbols. Keeping i n mind that any system of communication s t a r t s with interconnected patterns of shared knowledge, i t i s possible to draw some i n s i g h t f u l conclusions by tr a c i n g a very basic symbol to associated meanings that incorporate "a thread" of the o r i g i n a l character. A straying from the l i n e a r approach to teaching the Chinese-Japanese characters e n t a i l s a move away from the view of the symbol as a str a i g h t , predictable progression of strokes form the blackboard i n the notebook. This one-dimensional stance has dominated the school i n many d i s c i p l i n e s , seen at once as an advantageous sequence to follow for both the teacher and student. With one of her introductions i n The Kristeva Page 56 Reader, T o r i l Moi considers l i n e a r time i n language as "the enunciation of a sequence of words" (p. 187), that i n i t s predetermined p o s i t i o n attempts to be unreasonably a l l encompassing and exclusionary. By casting the k a n j i i n t h i s stroke infused l i g h t , the teacher robs the classroom of the opportunity to t i l t the character i n various d i r e c t i o n s and consider i t s non-linear nature. Without l o s i n g an appreciation for the importance of stroke order, students can indulge i n a valuable learning process that emphasizes space as well as sequence, while allowing to assign t h e i r own c l a s s i f i e r to the sign, making for a m u l t i p l i c i t y of interpretations for one symbol. In t h i s more tangible form of uncovering the etymology of the k a n j i , i t i s possible to show the p a r t i c i p a n t i n what amounts to a l i n g u i s t i c archaeological dig that they can indeed take part i n the pleasure of discovering meaning i n a new writing system. ITO: Representing a skein of yarn, o r i g i n a l l y doubled ) (Henshall, 1988, p. 9). When we t a l k of appreciating a new language and i n s t i l l i n g students with the motivation to carry on t h e i r study of the target language, we r e a l l y are Page 57 i n i t i a t i n g a doubling, an interweaving of two languages. In Japanese and English we have the contact of cultures (no matter where the l a t t e r may be spoken) of two threads that share many habits of comprehending knowledge and meaning. As with the very nature of Chinese-Japanese character, we need to free ourselves of the notion of the l i n e a r so that more of the universal breaks through i n our understanding of a culture as supposedly "foreign" as Japanese. Stretched to i t s f u l l length/ a thread has the appearance of a l i m i t e d material of one d i r e c t i o n and few alternate uses. Woven through other f a b r i c or s i m i l a r threads of varying s i z e and length, the single thread takes on many shapes. Thus, the meeting of the threads i n English and Japanese, creating a patchwork of ongoing structure and meaning, promoting meaning i n structure: a structure that allows the learner to develop a personal picture of how the language of the symbol e x i s t s i n the in t e r t e x t . An embroidered picture, a meeting of threads no l e s s , has come to mean more generally "picture" (E) . Threads meet i n an embroidered picture, giving meaning beyond the l i n e a r . thread meet Page 58 In t r e a t i n g the kanji as a picture awaiting i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the Japanese second language (JSL) classroom i s helping p a r t i c i p a n t s to take the enigmatic meaning of the character and free i t from the complex combination of constructed meaning and connotation. The re-stroking of a completely new code for a kanj i does not mean that true meaning i s l o s t for the learner when they come to see that a rewriting of the text i s possible - there i s no omnipotent force burdening the imagination, but the chance to move beyond the surface and s t i l l r e t a i n the spontaneity of people making the world i n t e l l i g i b l e to themselves, as the founders of Chinese-Japanese characters once did. Why hide our students from the very foundation of the system they want so much to learn to view i n t h e i r own way? Understandably, the kan j i seem dis t a n t for learners unfamiliar with the s c r i p t . Klinkowitz, elaborating on ideas of Barthes, sums up the sentiment by arguing that i n disguising the code by which a construction has been b u i l t , we , d i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e the message by estab l i s h i n g i n nature the a r b i t r a r y constraints of a culture (Klinkowitz, 1988, p. 47) . When we f i n d our own s i g n i f i c a n c e for objects, we give them a personal authenticity. Through the proper practice of s p l i c i n g the kanj i and il l u m i n a t i n g the threads that give them meaning, we bring ourselves a l i t t l e closer to the East, a world that arguably has done f a r more to meet other languages on the P a c i f i c . I t i s time for North American learning habits to Page 59 delve into the loaded image, and i n i t i a t e a new kind of pedagogical strategy. thread east REN: Practice. The thread meets the east and the new i n t e r t e x t created i s a study i n i t s e l f . I f the text i s a ti s s u e , something woven (Klinkowitz, p.49), then t h i s s i g n i f y i n g p r a c t i c e i s i n i t s e l f the energy that motivates the fusion of text, language, and writer. The l i n g u i s t i c or s o c i a l action that r e s u l t s from the play of two cultures i s a new approach to learning a d i f f e r e n t w r i t i n g system than we are used to. In fact, i t i s not inconceivable nor u n r e a l i s t i c to consider the learner as simultaneously a student of l i n g u i s t i c s as they carve through the k a n j i . For those i n want of a l a b e l , t h i s i s the creation of a work used i n appreciating a previously unknown s c r i p t , perhaps a post- modern creation, ...a weaving which d e l i b e r a t e l y unravels i n i t s reading - and the f a b r i c of t h i s texture comes from the i n t e r l a c i n g of codes which the semiologist separates into i t s component parts. (Klinkowitz, 1988, p. 49) Page 60 The unearthing of these c o d i f i e d a r t i f a c t s makes i t possible for the student to begin a re-defining of texture and the landscape language i n t e r s e c t . This crossroad has the a b i l i t y to teach meaning as well as d i r e c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , language and meaning continue to intertwine on the P a c i f i c , often so d e f t l y that t h e i r contact i s taken as a given, meaning cloaked i n the threads of more than one language. The learner of kanji needs to begin searching f o r strokes and symbols that l i e j u s t below the surface of the world of meaning they are used to inhabiting. While necessitating a step back i n l i n g u i s t i c time, the experience also e n t a i l s , perhaps more importantly, a journey to new space. The teaching of etymology i n many classrooms has been rare or often, as one-dimensional as the very stroke order so vaunted by many kanj i educators. Rather than continuing to v i v i f y stroke order and simultaneously cut out other options for learning the characters, the atmosphere of the classroom should accept t h i s l i n e a r i t y of the symbol while moving on to a more powerful re-writing of k a n j i . Students enjoy the opportunity of exploring shape and meaning within a symbol. During the process of learning the (admittedly l e s s challenging) kana syllabary, students have benefitted from a c t i v i t i e s that allow for a p l a y f u l approach to the symbol's structure. Mnemonics for hiragana arid katakana do not completely do away with structure, as students must stay within the guidelines of the symbols used by the target language, but the opening of the f i e l d of play Page 61 means that there i s a chance to r e l i s h the experimentation with l i n e and shape. These types of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d mnemonics have merit i n the exercise they encourage, the creation of openings for the learners' mind, instead of the c l o s i n g of any gaps that might see symbols i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . I t i s t h i s very s k i l l , the creation of personal images within the structure of a character, that can also be used i n experiencing the h i s t o r i c a l and semantic pleasure of the k a n j i . Finding meaning i n previously uncovered etymology involves the willingness to i n s c r i b e new meaning i n long established forms. Here another concept of Barthes i s h e l p f u l i n describing the fundamental strength of the text as a vessel f u l l of more symbolic l i q u i d than we r e a l i z e , i n turn giving power to the idea of the kanji as a conveyor of a wealth of hidden learning experiences. Iri the following passage from The Pleasure of the Text there i s also a hint of the p o t e n t i a l f o r using d i f f e r e n t languages for moving beyond the dominant b e l i e f s and expectations that surround them: There are those who want a text (an a r t , a painting) without a shadow, without the "dominant ideology"; but t h i s i s to want a text without fecundity, without productivity, a s t e r i l e text.... The text needs i t s shadow: t h i s shadow i s a b i t of ideology, a b i t of representation, a b i t of subject: ghosts, pockets, traces, necessary clouds... (Barthes, 1975, p. 32) To my mind, wrapped i n the desire to bring the v a r i e t y and play of the kanji closer to students who f e e l so f a r removed Page 62 from i t s o r i g i n s , we have here a legitimation of t h e i r attempts to break down and decipher the l i n g u i s t i c importance of the Chinese-Japanese character on a personal l e v e l . "To i d e n t i f y accurately language's image-reservoirs" (Barthes, 1975, p. 33) i s a powerful metaphor f o r those who are w i l l i n g to follow through on the very r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y of deconstructing the symbol. In the case of the Chinese- Japanese character, the symbol already holds so much semantic information that our task i s made a pleasurable one. Uncovering the multilayers of meaning that compose a kanj i i s a route to new experiences on the P a c i f i c , as well as p a r a l l e l contexts that help us to get behind c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c • c o n s t r u c t s and value them as important markers of the target language - markers that seldom lose t h e i r a b i l i t y to dance on the page for us once we have i d e n t i f i e d and tagged them i n our own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way. An image reservoir also implies that readers of the sign may enter t h i s etymological space i n a way that s u i t s t h e i r need to create meaning that w i l l help them to better appreciate the source of the character and i t s use on the P a c i f i c . What better learning experience can there be than a self-guided journey from the past to the present usage of the character to be learned? The term " a r t i f a c t " i s therefore a sli p p e r y one when applied to a ka n j i , because i t s personality s l i p s i n and out of h i s t o r i c a l context, depending on how i t i s at once structured and perceived. From the aesthetic point of view the ex q u i s i t e l y stroked Page 63 k a n j i i s " a r t " . The " f a c t " comes i n to play when we take Barthes' advice and avoid a reverence of meaning, l i m i t i n g the symbol to a locked p o s i t i o n . For him the stereotype i s to rob the word of i t s magic and enthusiasm, as though i t i s natural to accept a recurring word as adequate to express "each occasion for d i f f e r e n t reasons, as though to imitate could no longer be sensed as an imitation: an unconstrained word that claims consistency and i s unaware of i t s own insistence" (Barthes, 1975, p. 42). simple yet enigmatic character, o f f e r i n g the learner a confusing array of meanings. IKASU, can mean "bring into f u l l play", "keep a l i v e " , "revive" or " l e t l i v e " . I t i s also part of the construction for "teacher", IKIRU: " l i v e " . The kanji of t h i s basic verb i s a seemingly previous l i f e Page 64 and " p u p i l " , l i f e follower who play the c r u c i a l i n t e r p r e t i v e roles i n the v JSL classroom.". In the context of t h i s classroom, two players (emphasis on "play") so well-endowed with l i f e ( j j - ^ ) - the very character inscribed i n t h e i r names - seem properly placed f o r continuing the process of languaging between cultures. Keeping a language a l i v e i s f a r too large a burden to be considered s o l e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a secondary classroom, but there i s nevertheless the opportunity to keep the language i n t e r a c t i o n " a l i v e " with the interplay of kanji at times contextualized by English. The uncovering of the h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r t e x t i s a beginning i n the creation of a new motivation for the student of k a n j i . In the musings of Barthes i s found a passage that hints at the space the kanji archaeologist might occupy. I t would be good to imagine a new l i n g u i s t i c science that would no longer study the o r i g i n of words, or etymology, or even t h e i r d i f f u s i o n , but the progress of t h e i r s o l i d i f i c a t i o n , t h e i r d e n s i f i c a t i o n throughout h i s t o r i c a l discourse, t h i s science would doubtless be subversive, manifesting much more than the h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n of t r u t h : i t s r h e t o r i c a l , languaging nature. (Barthes, 1975, p. 43) Page 65 And so, etymology i s only one aspect, one stroke towards completing the character that breathes l i f e back into the language. Bringing the meaning of a language into " f u l l play" involves preparing for s h i f t s i n meaning that can be unpredictable and indecipherable for the learner. S h i f t s i n meaning, however, give the a r t i f a c t c r e d i b i l i t y on a landscape where multiple meanings for one word/character, i t s changing usage i n r e l a t i o n to other characters and cultures, we can say that an appreciation of language contact has taken place. Can we r e a l l y expect to appreciate- an a r t i f a c t , given the omnipotence of the here and now i n our d a i l y l i v e s ? Important to remember i s that an a r t i f a c t , while commonly thought of as a pr i m i t i v e t o o l , i s also an object of human work; here again we have a concept b e f i t t i n g the k a n j i . Coming across an a c t i v i t y i n a teaching manual based on the use of a r t i f a c t s , I f i n d that one main objective i s to explain that our impressions of people, places and things are the r e s u l t of what we observe and what we know. Certainly a r t i f a c t s are well-suited for t e s t i n g the observation powers of a cl a s s . The h i s t o r i c a l aspects of many c u l t u r a l objects often go unnoticed or too r a r e l y explored. The meeting of kanji and English w i l l continue to generate new d e f i n i t i o n s f or communication on the P a c i f i c . Re-defining an a r t i f a c t i n a l i v i n g language, between l i v i n g languages, i s a further key i n exposing the non-linear nature of the Chinese-Japanese character. Page 66 Stroke Five - Demystifying C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : A Personalized R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Kanji Writing about the i n t e r t e x t u a l construction of the k a n j i takes the students into a space where i t i s possible for them to understand how people give meanings to the signs and symbols of our writing systems, more than do the words we are so used to communicating with. The use of the narrative i n examining the kanji can help to de-emphasize the power of the word, re-contextualize the sign (through a h i s t o r i c a l reading), and ultimately create a meaning that was not present i n the words before. Elaboration of meaning i s not a s k i l l that one comes by e a s i l y , but as one finds enjoyment i n uncovering the i n t e r t e x t , i t must be asked j u s t how to approach a system of at l e a s t 2,000 characters, each with i t s own structure. The Japanese educational system has techniques for c l a s s i f y i n g k a n j i , which w i l l be considered alongside a recommendation for a new outlook on learning the Chinese-Japanese,characters. We begin with a discussion of the stroke, and i t s use as a metaphor i n t h i s writing. The properly placed stroke can mean everything i n a society l i k e Japan where the Chinese character has taken on a l i t e r a r y mystique and power not yet understood by most Westerners, and i s perhaps taken for granted by many i n the East. The well-timed hand-written note to a superior, complemented by a smattering of appropriate characters, can be a very shrewd business s k i l l . The Japanese seemingly Page 67 I adopted the notion of pride i n a long l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n along with the characters that arrived from China. The people continue to possess aspects of what might be c a l l e d a reverence for k a n j i , a respect that i s best revealed through the brush. There are hours of calligraphy p r a c t i c e during the average school l i f e of a Japanese student, even more i f they choose to seriously pursue the "way of w r i t i n g " (The l i t e r a l reading of the characters representing ' c a l l i g r a p h y 7 i n Japanese). Calligraphy teachers host a healthy population of p u p i l s who often begin t h e i r p r a c t i c e from an early age. I have often wondered i f t h i s s i t u a t i o n might ever occur i n a North American context, with such handwriting a c t i v i t y based on a respected approach to the Roman alphabet. Perhaps t h i s i s not r e a l i s t i c a l l y imaginable. There i s something poetic i n the Chinese character that has thus f a r escaped our appreciation on t h i s side of the P a c i f i c . Generally, the practice of w r i t i n g symbols with t r a d i t i o n a l ink and paper becomes more abstract and a e s t h e t i c a l l y based as a pup i l progresses, but one f a c t i s c e r t a i n : a l l aspects of the stroke are s c r u t i n i z e d . The shape, angle and thickness of the stroke w i l l a l l r e f l e c t back on the writer once the teacher has evaluated the f i n a l product. In fact, to use a tone of f i n a l i t y i n describing the act of w r i t i n g a character under these conditions i s to forget that the process of mastering each i n d i v i d u a l component of the character i s the greater task f o r the Page 68 c a l l i g r a p h e r . An otherwise s k i l l f u l l y drawn character might be ruined (in the eyes of some) by a h a s t i l y l i f t e d brush for c i n g the f i n a l stroke i n an improper d i r e c t i o n . Aside from the desired shape of the character under study, there i s the acquired t a l e n t of knowing when to take the brush o f f the paper at the r i g h t moment, or knowing at which point to l e t the remaining ink rest i n place as a f i n a l emphasis on the o v e r a l l work. The numerous positions of the stroke are a l l v a r iables i n the desired balance of the writer, and i n t h i s sense the ambiguity of the stroke i s a foreshadowing of the enigmatic, p l a y f u l nature of a l l k a n j i . Whether the f i r s t stroke or the l a s t stroke i s the. challenge, the continuing importance a t t r i b u t e d to a i meaningful rendering of the Chinese-Japanese character, and i n p a r t i c u l a r the proper balance of strokes, i s preeminent i n the mind of the Eastern writer. My usage of the stroke as a demarcation of each of the sections of t h i s t h e s i s represents how I hope to reveal that a re-focus on the compositioning of the character allows for a new discourse i i n the JSL classroom. This s h i f t i n learning p r a c t i c e i s made possible through the knowledge that we can create our own meaning f o r a character by r e - l i v i n g the poetics of t h i s c u l t u r a l work. The stroke i s the means by which we begin our appreciation for the poetry contained within the symbol. Poetry i t s e l f has multiple meanings, and t h i s kind of acknowledgement i s a step towards allowing for a s i t e where the symbols of the Japanese language can also have various Page 69 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The disembodied character i s s t i l l held together by the strength of the stroke - the focus of i t s p o s i t i o n i s s h i f t e d to where the order i n which we write them takes secondary importance to the way i n which the student chooses to re-compose the order of the r a d i c a l s within one character. This c o l l a b o r a t i v e re-writing, between student and target culture (as well as two languages), leads to an accumulation of images for the student that i s the beginning of a new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n "system" for the k a n j i . Central to t h i s premise are the various ways i n which the Japanese attempt to systematize the many thousand k a n j i a v a i l a b l e f o r everyday written communication. I t w i l l also become c l e a r that the discourse from within which I write i s one that attempts to deconstruct some of the t r a d i t i o n a l perceptual b a r r i e r s that confront students of Japanese so that they might be encouraged to begin a process of re- b u i l d i n g the characters on t h e i r own terms and continue on with meaningful s e l f - l e a r n i n g . The conditions that prompted t h i s w riting can be s u c c i n c t l y described. A f t e r teaching JSL f o r three years, I asked myself how I could r e a l i s t i c a l l y expect to motivate students to begin a commitment to a written language that requires the learner to become f a m i l i a r with an intimidating number of characters and an i n t r i c a c y of the symbol they might previously have had no contact with. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the approaches to learning the characters one commonly finds i n place i n the Japanese educational system do not take into Page 70 account the student of ka n j i who i s for a l l intents and purposes removed from the mil i e u of the symbol. The North American teacher of kanji must consider ways to take advantage of the meeting of P a c i f i c languages i n the classroom. There i s no denying the importance of placing the Chinese-Japanese character within i t s c u l t u r a l context as soon as one may be exposed to i t , and at the conclusion of t h i s stroke i t w i l l be suggested how North American educators might approach the ka n j i with t h i s i n mind. What follows i s a discussion of various methods of c l a s s i f y i n g the characters, including how the s a t o r i of k a n j i incorporates elements of a l l of these before turning to the inherent image and meaning-generating f a c u l t i e s of the student that are an i n t e g r a l part of the premise behind t h i s t h e s i s . A t y p i c a l kanji dictionary for the Japanese learner i n e v i t a b l y r e f e r s to the source of the characters and often provides a few examples that suggest how the Chinese people of centuries ago began creating the symbols of a written system. ' A ' Page 71 I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to see how two trees ( ,?fs^^ ) became woods and three of the same symbol l o g i c a l l y represents forest ( f̂s?|> ) . Character d i c t i o n a r i e s w i l l also t e l l the curious-minded that such characters as 'evening' ( ) and 'mouth' ( X3 ) came together i n 'name' ( ) because the evening i s j u s t the time when i t becomes necessary to c a l l a person by name, as t h e i r face i s no longer v i s i b l e . Examples such as these provide the background f o r what are considered more serious systemizations of the characters. F i r s t , an emphasis on the various bushi or r a d i c a l s of which the characters are comprised. There are at l e a s t nine positions i n which these r a d i c a l s appear throughout the many ka n j i , as shown by the blank areas of the squares below. a @ This approach recommends that the student focus not only on these areas as a way by which to understand the compositioning of the ka n j i , but also become f a m i l i a r with Page 72 the more common r a d i c a l s that occupy these positions for l e f t side p o s i t i o n as i n the symbol for worker or servant. The advantages of depending on t h i s type of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would be i n the knowledge of the workings of the k a n j i , and an i n s i g h t into the i n t e r r e l a t e d nature of the sign. By r e l y i n g on t h i s view of the symbol the student develops an a b i l i t y to codify where r a d i c a l s should f i t into a given character, and a sense of balance for the f i n i s h e d product as one i n v a r i a b l y f i t s i t into a predetermined space of writing. This square may be powerfully s p a t i a l , but need not necessarily l i m i t the imagination of the learner. P r o f i c i e n t users of kanji use t h i s system for everything from checking t h e i r knowledge of a character to learning the p o s i t i o n i n g of a new symbol. One might even argue that i t i s an indispensable t o o l used by most Japanese, and as such cannot be ignored by anyone who wishes to s e r i o u s l y attempt a learning of k a n j i . Regardless, i t i s no easy task to comfortably confront the novice with t h i s approach, not at l e a s t u n t i l they have learned a few hundred characters, a store of symbols to serve as a foundation upon which to example, the symbol for person ) often occupies the person earth Page 73 b u i l d a greater aptitude f o r the written symbols of Japanese. Next, the ever-present emphasis on stroke order. Without an ordering of the strokes that comprise a character, many argue, the Chinese-Japanese characters would lose an important component i n the system of c l a s s i f y i n g the characters. The stroke i s an ordering within the system because i t allows the user to f a l l back on the 'proper' method of writing i n times of doubt. 'Small' must be written as below: F i r e , comprised of only one more stroke, i s written as so. I t then follows that there are further exceptions for the learner to master, but not before the e s s e n t i a l stroke rules that ensure a properly balanced character. Here too, we have a r i g i d process deemed es s e n t i a l f o r the writer of Page 74 k a n j i and proven h e l p f u l i n developing an appreciation of the placement of strokes i n r e l a t i o n to each other. To expect North American learners of Japanese to adopt t h i s system as a foundation of kan j i knowledge, however, would be expecting too much of only one facet of the handwriting process of the Chinese-Japanese character. A greater f l e x i b i l i t y i s possible when the learner has no background i n k a n j i . The defabrication of the sign system to show how people construct a useable r e a l i t y of symbols can be achieved by a less exhaustive s t r i p p i n g of the stroke from i t s context. Certainly the student may trace back the stroke order or take a stroke count for such purposes as searching out the pronunciation or meaning of the character. This i s a long established practice i n Japan. For the purpose of finding the in t e r t e x t u a l within the text, however, the classroom requires a movement that searches beyond the l i n e a r i t y of these systems of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The k a n j i have been consistently presented to students on a f l a t , tabular space rather than as a stereophony (Klinkowitz, 1988, p. 49). Study of a closed, accountable structure i s not what founds the text according to Barthes, but rather "the study of the outlet of the text on to other texts, other codes, other signs; what makes the text i s the int e r t e x t u a l (Klinkowitz, 1988, p. 49). Even the breakdown of the characters into t h e i r ONYOMI (Chinese etymological pronunciation) and t h e i r KUNYOMI (Japanese etymological pronunciation)serves the learner valuably for ordering the Page 75 various symbols into useable categories. We again come across a system that i s already predetermined for the student, a f i e l d of play where sounds and strokes occupy c u l t u r a l l y conceived,boxes. These are e s s e n t i a l i n amassing a knowledge of ka n j i , but my theme has constantly been one of appreciation of an i n t r i c a t e language and a motivation to continue a study of t h e i r compositioning. Here we have a key concept f o r the learner of k a n j i . To invest i n the compositioning of a symbol i s to recognize i t s l i n e a r i t y and bear i n mind the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n habits of the target culture, but also to develop the s k i l l of constructing a new system of non-linear doubling. Roland Barthes practised a l i f e l o n g enjoyment i n narrative that situated him i n an a c t i v i s t mode. Not only i s the content and structure of the symbol under scrutiny then, but abrasions made upon the surface transform into a text of pleasure, coming from culture and not breaking from i t . This i s linked to a comfortable p r a c t i c e of reading, a v i s i o n that may help the Japanese language classroom re-focus on the target culture.. Text of b l i s s (jouissance): the text that imposes a state of loss, the text that discomforts (perhaps to the point of a ce r t a i n boredom), unsettles the reader's h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l , psychological assumptions, the consistency of his tastes, values, memories, brings to a c r i s i s h i s r e l a t i o n with language. (Barthes, 1975, p. 14) This kind of a c t i v i t y produces a desire for the text within the reader, or at the very l e a s t a memorable reading. Now Page 76 then f o r a placing of the kanji within the pleasurable or carnivalesque discourse. "By remembering that the text i s a productivity, the reader can meet i t i n the very theatre of production" (Klinkowitz, 1988, p. 55). The space learners can dwell i n i s one of double meaning f o r the k a n j i . Poetic language i s inherently double, according to J u l i a Kristeva. Within the space of texts, and the i n t e r i o r of the text, dialogue and ambivalence produce a poetic doubling of meaning (Moi, 1986, p. 38) . In revealing Bakhtinian dialogism as both s u b j e c t i v i t y and communication, Kristeva further c l a r i f i e s the importance of i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y and the sign. In poetic language every word i s double and the doubling of meaning means that a new world of d i a l o g i c a l exchange between languages. With the kanji as a t o o l , we can construct a d i a l o g i c space that incorporates the signs of both East and West. The semiotic arguments of Kristeva are important because they legitimate the notion that student e f f o r t s s i t u a t i n g the k a n j i by personally decompqsitioning t h e i r text creates an ambivalent coexistence of languages that represents a double of l i v e d experience (realism and the n a r r a t i v e ) . This e n t a i l s that the study of k a n j i through wri t i n g leads to a study of language that o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e approach to monological discourse, one long dominated by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the stroke. In d i a l o g i c a l discourse, then, the stroke becomes both subject and object, a writing that exploits excesses and emphasizes Page 77 the c a r n i v a l of language. For Kristeva, d i a l o g i c discourse includes the polyphonic as well. Writing, then, becomes a reading of the structure, which i r o n i c a l l y "reads i t s e l f and constructs i t s e l f through a process of destructive genesis". (Moi, 1986, p. 42). Perhaps the s p l i t t i n g and re-writing of a Chinese-Japanese character can be thought of as an i n - s c r i p t i o n of the sign. The d u p l i c i t y of language i s revealed i n the k a n j i . In an address to an Alberta Teachers' Association M u l t i c u l t u r a l Council, Ted Aoki chooses to e x p l o i t resistances i n a character frequently seen i n Chinese restaurants. "Double happiness" reveals the innate nature of the k a n j i as instruments of learning and symbolism. A Japanese Canadian l i k e myself who speaks no Chinese, but who can read some Chinese characters because the Japanese, renowned borrowers that they are, borrowed the Chinese language holus bolus, might t r y to o f f e r a reading i n English of t h i s Chinese character. Here i s an attempt: well-being mouth plants "Double happiness i s a dwelling i n the midst of l i f e where people engathered partake i n the nourishing g i f t s of the earth". (Aoki, 1991, p. 35) Page 78 Metaphor and the s h i f t i n g contexts of meaning within k a n j i \ I somehow aptly s u i t one another. A poetic doubling i s also e a s i l y attained by estab l i s h i n g a personal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of any character that confronts the c u r i o s i t y of the learner of Japanese. I t i s not possible to forget the metaphoric advantages of Chinese-Japanese characters once one embarks on t h i s type of language a c q u i s i t i o n through the i n t e r t e x t . I t s etymology i s constantly v i s i b l e . I t retains the creative impulse and process, v i s i b l e and at work. After thousands of years the l i n e s of metaphoric advance are s t i l l shown, and i n many cases a c t u a l l y retained i n the meaning... The memory can hold them and use them...With us the poet i s the only one for whom the accumulated treasures of the race-words are re a l and activ e . Poetic language i s always vibrant with f o l d on f o l d of overtones and • with natural a f f i n i t i e s , but (with kanji) the v i s i b i l i t y of the metaphor tends to r a i s e the q u a l i t y to i t s intensest power. (Fenollosa, 1968, p.25); I t i s enough for philosophers to play with meaning i n language when i t i s there for our students. Perhaps as Edward Fenollosa suggests, the Chinese character sheds l i g h t on our forgotten mental processes (p.21). Undoubtedly, kan j i are indispensable f o r understanding the p o e t i c a l raw material afforded not only by Japanese as the target language, but the range of i n t e r l i n g u a l contact that opens up f o r the student of the kanji as independent units i s a new f i e l d of play where meaning for the characters flashes through the monologic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the past, producing a meaning t y p i f i e d by personal derivation. Page 79 The Chinese-Japanese character defies l i n e a r i t y i n terms of i t s poetics and etymological structure. I f e e l that Roland Barthes would appreciate a re-writing of the characters, and ultimately a r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r k a n j i i n our classroom. I f t h i s i s a new theory of reading the k a n j i , there may be some clues already provided. ...a theory of reading...is absolutely dependent on a theory of writing: to read a text i s to discover - on a corporeal, not a conscious l e v e l - how i t was written, to invest oneself i n the production, not the product. This movement of coincidence can be i n i t i a t e d e i t h e r i n the usual fashion, by pleasurably r e l i v i n g the poetics of the work, or i n a more modern way, by removing from oneself a l l forms of censorship to allow the text the freedom of a l l of i t s semantic and symbolic excesses; at t h i s point, to read i s t r u l y to write... In re-reading each kanji that comes under study, the student i n i t i a t e s a re-writing that becomes a poetic placing of signs i n motions - symbols of Japanese and English that dwell on the P a c i f i c . Ted Aoki provides a further example of a character that speaks to the polyphony of meaning within the sign. place on the P a c i f i c . My task has been one of r e i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s writing i n l i g h t of the p o t e n t i a l f o r (Barthes, 1985, p. 189) speech temple mouth Page 80 To dwell p o e t i c a l l y i s to be i n the dwelling place of mortals where one may hear the i n s p i r i t e d beat of earth's measure. So inspired, \ i n the sounding forth, may echoes of geo-metron sound and resound. (Aoki, 1991, p. 32) There i s a pleasureable doubling i n the above passage and a meaningful story that i l l u s t r a t e s the power capable of a reading produced of an Eastern (Oriental) by a Western (Occidental) source. "Word", "object", "symbol"; these nouns do not describe the process of transforming the characters into a source f o r a story or narrative. Both Kristeva and Barthes speak of "holes i n symbolization" that may help us to create a new language of thought. There i s a source of l i g h t for such a hole when we use the k a n j i as the basis of mnemonic phrases or personal descriptions that lead to a meaningful narrative that bridges two cultures. I t has been described how "structure contains a c t i v i t y " and now we f i n d the l i n e a r leading to the poetic, the stroke multiplying and accommodating shades of meaning. The personalized r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the k a n j i begins with the recognition of these characters as c u l t u r a l products loaded with symbolism. I t continues to create spaces f o r learning the more we consider i t s double nature. ...unlike physical and b i o l o g i c a l facts, c u l t u r a l f acts are twofold...they r e f e r to something else: as Beneviniste has observed, i t i s the discovery of language's " d u p l i c i t y " which gives Saussure's r e f l e c t i o n a l l i t s value...there i s a unity i n the symbolic f i e l d , and culture i n a l l i t s aspects, i s Page 81 a language. (Barthes, 1986, p. 13) The i n t e r t e x t of the kanji provides a p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - suited playing f i e l d for discovering the dual aspect of language and culture, as well as an i n t e r t e x t that continuously reveals new meaning to the learner. Stroke Six - The Doubling of Kanji and a New Appeal to the Senses Globally, the written word i s transmitted i n a dizzying myriad of ways, a l l cultures paying i t heed i n one form or another. Often the form of t h i s transmittance i s taken for granted as i t speeds from sender to receiver, so that the message has almost e n t i r e l y outstripped the method i n terms of importance. In many s o c i e t i e s an increasing r e l i a n c e on technology and the pace of l i f e d i c t a tes that we demand clea r , standardized printed writing, but i n the rush to streamline communication, we have possibly l e f t behind - or i i are l o s i n g - an important aesthetic by which we used to i n t e r p r e t ourselves and others. Teachers continue to admonish students for what i s considered to be poor handwriting, but I would bet few classes are encouraged to be expressive with the handwritten word. Understandably, we can't always be expected to appreciate the h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the symbols we use or the etymology of the words that communicate our ideas. People do not want to Page 82 l i v e i n the past, p a r t i c u l a r l y with a cumbersome mode of expression slowing down t h e i r thought and actions. Yet, i t i s accepted by many that the a b i l i t y to see (appreciate, interpret) the many aspects of one concept can lead to knowledge. Recognition of the signs of language, and how they influence us, i s a powerful source of "place"; f o r those of us dwelling i n both the East and West, on the rim of a vast P a c i f i c , I have thus f a r been portraying the kan j i as constructs holding more for us than we r e a l i z e , or at lea s t u t i l i z e . With t h i s stroke the emphasis w i l l continue to be one of revealing the unused meanings of the k a n j i , and also considering the process of doubling that involves the re-writing and re-learning of the characters through the recompositioning of t h e i r i n t e r t e x t u a l personality. This consideration of Chinese-Japanese characters and the intermingling of concepts both East and West on the P a c i f i c , would benefit from a discussion of the importance of space as used throughout the strokes. Setting unavoidably involves s p a t i a l i t y . I f we are to consider the kan j i i n a l i g h t that outshines t h e i r perception as b a r r i e r s to understanding, we must situ a t e them i n the East-West space of the P a c i f i c . This space, though s h i f t i n g and watery, can also be imagined as a new landscape or ground of difference within which to compose an intermingling of concepts from diverse languages. The learner i s equipped with reaching t h i s space of i n t e r c u l t u r a l contact when the in t e r t e x t of the kan j i i s Page 83 used as a source for appealing to a sense of l i n g u i s t i c discovering and inventing. The characters teach aspects of aesthetics and c u l t u r a l insights that guide the student to a new view of Chinese-Japanese characters. During the process of describing the innately representative i n t e r t e x t of a k a n j i , the experience of readjusting our perspective on the Japanese language might be best thought of as i n - s c r i b i n g meaning. The doubling of the characters, that i s , the re- w r i t i n g and re-learning which become a product of deconstructing the i n t e r t e x t , opens doors to a space where the learner gains an enlightening view of the s e t t i n g where Japanese and English meet oh the P a c i f i c . The concept of space and opening are i n f a c t c l o s e l y related when revealed by the i n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r t e x t of one k a n j i . In 'kan' we f i n d door or gate ( ) combined with 'sun'( 0 ) to form a poetic doubling of i t s own. Pel Where sunlight shines through there i s a good opportunity to gain a fresh view of what previously had been buried i n the shadows. Readjusting our perspective on i n t e r c u l t u r a l spaces e n t a i l s taking the i n i t i a t i v e for learning the k a n j i when there i s a growing sense of appreciation for the Page 84 s e t t i n g of t h e i r composition. In Empire of Signs, Barthes t e l l s how ...a friend's remark on Japanese opens up a whole f i c t i v e realm, of which only c e r t a i n modern texts (but no novel) can a f f o r d a notion, permitting us to perceive a landscape which our speech (the speech we own) could under no circumstances eit h e r discover or divine. (Barthes, 1975, p.7) Consider the power of the learning t o o l that can be both the door, the l i g h t and the space that propels the learner into a s e t t i n g where they see that one of the more powerful hidden advantages of Chinese-Japanese characters i s that we can use our native language to break down t h e i r i n t e r t e x t , and i n s c r i b e meaning into a neglected etymology by taking part i n the doubling of the meaning under study. Instructors can benefit by using t h i s new s e t t i n g for viewing the characters i n combination with already proven JSL teaching strategies. Highlighting unusual meanings of the k a n j i on the landscape where English and Japanese co- e x i s t i n the writings of students, however, provides a valuable opportunity for learners to gain confidence i n the target language and consider how the use of t h e i r own w i l l also bring them closer to the distant shores of the new.. P a c i f i c . C u l t u r a l values are transmitted from generation to generation by forms of communication - through language, gestures, movements and other non-verbal aspects. The t r u l y Page 85 e x c i t i n g teaching c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Chinese-Japanese symbols derives from t h e i r natural a b i l i t y to combine the many forms of communication by surrendering a process of etymology to the learner. By p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the doubling of the kan j i and bringing the character's meaning c l o s e r to them i n the re-writing, students may be taught through discovery and invention, how languages are symbolic and complex, no matter how distant the culture i n which they are used. Aside from the inherent value attached to t h i s knowledge and consequent self-teaching, I view these characters as the tools by which to begin a humanized occupation of P a c i f i c spaces. Here we have the combination This meeting of concepts forms the compound word for 'human' and to my mind plays with our notion of complexity. Certainly, the kanji often are an intimidating array of constructs, i n a space of language that r e d i s t r i b u t e s the c u l t u r a l communication we a l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n , there i s a i sense of t h e i r doubling i n meaning, value and existence that leads to an appeal to the learning sense of the JSL student. of a basic character, 'person' strokes. Yet, when the characters are seen as human Page 86 A l l human i n t e r a c t i o n occurs within a p a r t i c u l a r language- charged space, and i n the kan j i we have written symbols that can serve as guides into a new s o c i o - l i n g u i s t i c realm for the North American learner, as well as agents of s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l learning. ( As space and landscape predominate my wri t i n g of the pedagogical merit of a review and r e - i n s c r i b i n g of k a n j i , i t i s useful to stress the double nature of characters that also speak to the topic of t h i s stroke through t h e i r etymology. There may be no greater s p a t i a l area f o r meaningful comparison between East and West, Canada and Japan, than the homes i n which we dwell. I could also r e f e r to t h i s almost u n i v e r s a l l y known private space as a home or dwelling, and i n Japanese there i s an important d i s t i n c t i o n of terms surrounding the notion of where we choose to reside fo r most of our l i v e s . By i n s c r i b i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l meaning into the Chinese-Japanese characters that represent the various views of 'dwelling', I hope to reveal how a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of c u l t u r a l l y s i m i l a r notions leads to a new understanding or re-learning of the meeting of two languages. Joy Hendry, i n her commentary on the importance of the presentation of space i n Japan, Wrapping Culture: Politeness, Presentation and Power i n Japan and Other So c i e t i e s , o f f e r s a d i s t i n c t i o n between view of space both East and West. For many Westerners a house i s a thing, an object...But to the Japanese i t i s a context - or rather a s h i f t i n g set Page 87 of smaller contexts within a larger one...not a box with openings, as i n the West, but a space-moulding system. (Hendry, 1993, p.98) The challenges awaiting the newcomer to Japan seem to become magnified i n a Japanese home, and i t i s no small challenge to give students a sense of the space they enter once t h e i r shoes are taken o f f and the f i r s t tentative step i s taken into the world of the inhabitant. An i n t r i g u i n g comparison of dwellings might also characterize the i n t e r t e x t of the k a n j i : "a s h i f t i n g set of smaller contexts within a larger one...not a box with openings as i n the West, but a space moulding system". To a fascinating degree the learner of the Chinese-Japanese characters must come to terms with how they w i l l appreciate the doubling (or t r i p l i n g or more) of the k a n j i and f i n d the openings that w i l l be personally important for a valuable re-writing of the symbol. A "space-moulding system" implies for me a powerful object, one that through proper in t e r p r e t a t i o n can lead to the further spaces through doors of learning. Similar to a chosen path into a home, our choice of revealing the hidden realm of meaning within a kanji holds much c u l t u r a l meaning. The JSL teacher can f i n d a suitable context from which to breach some of these values and issues within the i n t e r t e x t of the character for 'house', as well as related symbols that force us to reconsider and possibly readjust our Western concept of these terms. Page 88 roof boar or pig For those accustomed to surroundings that resemble a pigsty, t h i s could be a p a r t i c u l a r l y easy k a n j i to remember. Etymologically, the combination of these two symbols i s thought to derive from the supposed ancient p r a c t i c e of keeping pigs i n house (Henshall, 1988, p. 24) . I r o n i c a l l y , i t now also means a (house of) a s p e c i a l i s t . 'IE' then, r e f e r s to a house or even one's own house, though i t i s treated as a more formal and generic form of the concept. For expressing more personal or private connotations of the term, along the l i n e s of 'home', the Japanese use 'UCHI', an in t e r e s t i n g choice given the characters basic meaning of 'inside'. person dwelling The action of entering takes one inside, to an i n t e r i o r as revealed by the character that i s open to the outside and not boxed i n . The Japanese home i s sui t a b l y represented by a character that appears quite simple, while revealing Page 89 complex c u l t u r a l t r a i t s that teach the learner a great deal about a private space i n a distant land. Additional readings of r e l a t e d characters provide more intermingling of shared concepts. The more formal "dwelling, address or f residence" i s often expressed by sumu (in combination with other characters) . person master The right-hand r a d i c a l o r i g i n a l l y represented a s t y l i z e d lamp burning o i l ( ^ ) but became a symbol fo r master of the house, who issued the command that the lamp be l i t . The house where one l i v e s , then, i s where they are master or "where a person i s master of the lamp" (Henshall, 1988, p. 93). The doubling of kanji can occur within the target language, the d e s c r i p t i v e language of the student, or a fa s c i n a t i n g mixture of the two. I t i s also of true c u l t u r a l value to note that the design of the Japanese home allows for various forms of entry, j u s t the number and d i f f i c u l t y of r a d i c a l s comprising a k a n j i i n i t i a l l y l i m i t s the beginners' forays into the i n t e r t e x t . Imagine, i f you w i l l , a v i s i t o r new to Japan who was oblivious to the many customs involved with entering the home. The perceived meaning of the k a n j i leads to an i n s t r u c t i v e lesson on the various Page 90 d i f f e r e n t degrees to which Japanese domestic space may be penetrated. F i r s t of a l l there i s a porch, which may be entered with very l i t t l e ceremony by anyone who cares to c a l l at the door. I t i s here that b i l l s w i l l be paid, messages l e f t , and other minor business negotiated. The only r i t u a l to be observed by those who enter i s to c a l l out a greeting, and i n the country the outer door may be opened without even knocking or pressing a b e l l . This i s unwrapping the outermost layer of domestic space, but the l e v e l of communication i s f a i r l y distant. (Hendry, 1993, p.99) As dwellers of a domestic space, humans assume c e r t a i n commonalities i n the home among cultures, yet a f t e r more comparison the customs to be learned can be very i n s i g h t f u l . During my f i r s t home stay i n Japan, I seemed to take some time getting used to the s l i d i n g of the entrance door to the front hallway with no warning. In some ways I was always more than a l i t t l e surprised by d e l i v e r i e s and the c a l l from j u s t inside before the v i s i t o r departed. Valuing the signs of a d i f f e r e n t culture also e n t a i l s valuing the signs of that unpredictable s e t t i n g . A f i n a l character related to private and domestic s p a t i a l i t y i s TAKU, 'house 7 or 'home7. 1 roof rooted plant Page 91 This lower r a d i c a l i s a depiction of a plant which has taken root, indicated by the growing head and roots ( ) • Some scholars take roof and rooted plant to a c t i d e o g r a p h i c a l l y i n expressing 'the bui l d i n g i n which one takes root or s e t t l e s ' (Henshall, 1988, p. 293). While i t can r e f e r to one's home, i t has more formal connotations, and i n a society as custom-bound as Japan, the p o l i t e form of any concept i s u t i l i z e d a great deal. In fact, i t i s very useful to consider each of these s e r i e s of related characters on t h e i r own, placed into a context where they might best be used i n communicating to students d i r e c t l y on Japanese language and culture. I t intrigues me, f o r example, that f a i r l y formal or o f f i c i a l v i s i t s to the Japanese home now often take place i n a western room with tables and chairs. The language used, most l i k e l y semi- formal at the very l e a s t , and the se t t i n g as well, indicate a meeting of the personal world of the home with the outside - a p a r t i a l penetration of the domestic space. There i s also a great deal of symbolism i n the popularity of a western s e t t i n g f o r the hosting of outsiders v i s i t i n g a Japanese home. So many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f or c u l t u r a l discussion i n the classroom. There are addit i o n a l characters that express concepts such as residence, household and family that are c l o s e l y linked to those revealed i n t h i s stroke. The opportunity for doubling and i n t e r c u l t u r a l comparison of meaning that t i e s to a Page 92 perception of space on both sides of the P a c i f i c i s indeed f u l l of i n s t r u c t i o n a l depth. The kan j i provide the landscape f o r us to move the Eastern perception of space clo s e r to where we dwell. My as yet few years of teaching k a n j i have influenced my conviction that yes, i t i s necessary to present the Chinese-Japanese characters as a writing system, "a system with the rules and patterns that one expects and usually finds i n constructs fashioned by the human mind over time" (Rogers, 1991, p.446). In my pursuit of kan j i knowledge i n the JSL classroom i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s human element that I prefer to stress with students. The moment of appreciation comes c l o s e r to hand (and writing instrument) when the components of kan j i take on a human face, infused with the c u l t u r a l perception of i t s originators, but also those who use the characters today. The Sinographic lexicon, for example, does not consist of thousands of s t r u c t u r a l l y unrelated kan j i , each to be learned without regard to any other. Rather, kanji are constructed of discrete components, t y p i c a l l y two or three to a character, from a f i n i t e stock of components, of which there e x i s t a r e l a t i v e handful. T r a d i t i o n decrees 214 of these, but the more commonly used elements probably amount to le s s than two-thirds that number. (Rogers, 1991, p.446) Even the most tentative JSL novice, determined to avoid considering numbers of kanji to be learned, can take solace i n such an op t i m i s t i c passage. The fac t that the semantic Page 93 c l a s s i f i e r s of the kanji (the r a d i c a l s or components) are e s s e n t i a l l y the keys to the i n t e r t e x t implies to me that once a learner begins t h e i r appreciation of how they are s t r u c t u r a l l y related, the r e a l motivation to learn more characters has the chance to take hold. The development and consideration of the i n t e r s t i c e , where Barthes wished to dwell and pose such questions as "How d i d you s a t i s f y that v i t a l need of communication?" (Barthes, 1982, p.9), w i l l become the k a n j i learner's expanding f i e l d of confidence. In my understanding of re-writing the k a n j i , dwelling i n the i n t e r s t i c e of a sign or character i s an attempt to i n i t i a t e a f u l l e r understanding of the symbols that humans have constructed f o r communication. Perhaps the development of an i n t e r s t i c e can help students of very d i f f e r e n t written languages, as represented by English and Japanese, deal with the ambiguities and unexpected c u l t u r a l habits they w i l l encounter i n i t s use. "How b e n e f i c i a l i t would be, conversely, to gain a version of the i r r e d u c i b l e differences which a very remote language can, by glimmerings, suggest to us". (Barthes, .1975, p.6). My perception of these glimmerings i n the space of the JSL classroom where so many a c t i v i t i e s attempt to i n j e c t the basic structures of language with an insight into culture, i s that the kanji provide the opportunity to single out words that allow the student to speak to both languages of i n s t r u c t i o n . By taking the k a n j i out of t h e i r regular context the student i s able to add some personal flavour so that " t h e i r weight Page 94 within h i s own writing i s preserved, instead of being surrendered to the system of meaning constructed by others... 1 1 (Klinkowitz, 1988, p.51). This disassembly of the character i s at once mechanical and personal and may allow the learner to attach t h e i r own s i g n i f i c a n c e to the symbol's meaning before or a f t e r encountering i t within the • context of a page of Japanese writing. Certainly, other JSL methods are needed to tackle the l i t e r a l meaning of a passage, but i n undoing a ka n j i the learner can become the se l f - p r o v i d e r of a v a l i d introduction or conclusion to the scope of a character's meaning, while touching upon fundamental i n t e r c u l t u r a l concepts. The dwelling, and parts of i t as represented by r a d i c a l s such as "roof" ( > 7 ) appear throughout the interconnected writing system known as ka n j i - why not attach these to our own understanding of these notions and r e d i s t r i b u t e them among newly learned Japanese customs and an appreciation for writing Chinese- Japanese characters? I f i n s e r t i n g mystery and enigma into the personality of a kanji opens up the i n t e r t e x t so that we might dwell i n an i n t e r s t i c e on the P a c i f i c , then the very s h i f t i n g plates on which i n t e r c u l t u r a l communication rests may become f a r less perilous than those forces involved i n physical tectonics. L i n g u i s t i c tectonics are one of the central challenges i n the attempt to construct bridges to cultures across the P a c i f i c and discover themes for learning a new s c r i p t l i k e k a n j i . This stroke has followed a perspective of Page 95 l e g i t i m a t i n g a new appeal to the senses i n the JSL classroom by defining the k a n j i as bridges to a space on the P a c i f i c c l o s e r to the target culture. The i n t e r s t i c e represents the space we choose to occupy situated between the target culture and our own, helped by the i n s t r u c t i v e power of the kanji's i n t e r t e x t . My intention has been to emphasize the need fo r s e l f - l e a r n i n g and creating a desire f o r a nondefinitive exploration of the characters. Barthes, indeed, has written on the subject of playing with language and how "the meaning w i l l be precarious, revocable, r e v e r s i b l e , the discourse incomplete..." (Barthes, 1975, p.4). On a basic l e v e l the discourse i s never ending for the learner of a second language, and when we intermingle English and Japanese within the i n t e r t e x t , we have the cohabitation of languages working side by side. This I sense i n Barthes 'precarious discourse' - an opportunity to define the k a n j i as instruments of meaning that i n t h e i r musicality and playfulness allow f o r a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of c u l t u r a l concepts that divide English and Japanese. For Barthes "such r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s always achieved by cutting. Two edges are created..." (Barthes, 1975, p.6). The cutting or s p l i c i n g of kanji and the subsequent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n t e r t e x t ' s meaning by the student may serve as banks of understanding on which to b u i l d bridges across the P a c i f i c . In readjusting our perspective through the doubling of k a n j i , the JSL classroom adds a method of teaching and learning which I f e e l advances our concept of culture and Page 96 language, and complements current approaches i n the classroom by r a i s i n g central aspects of the goals and objectives now sought. F i n a l l y , consider the humanizing notion of the kan j i as c u l t u r a l constructs. In our attempt to remain open to a process of s e l f - l e a r n i n g and, the ro l e of i n t e r c u l t u r a l contact, I see a readjustment of our perspectives so that evaluating the kanji i n English takes on legitimacy, i p a r t i c u l a r l y when the student i s developing an appreciation fo r t h e i r composition. "Culture then recurs as an edge: i n no matter what form" (Barthes, 1975, p.7). Our perception of culture and language learning would benefit from a view that i n my opinion takes advantages of a t o o l that allows us to shed l i g h t on spaces of learning. On both shores of the P a c i f i c we have occupied a r e l a t i v e l y stable home, but only by venturing into the s h i f t i n g waters where cultures meet w i l l we begin to bring some new meaning into the kanji i n s t r u c t i o n of the JSL classroom. earth sun l i g h t rays BA: place or "Place where the sun shines down on the ground" (Henshall, 1988, p.40). Contrast the above Page 97 character with a symbol that i s very s i m i l a r , but f o r the exchange of 'earth' f o r 'water'. sun l i g h t rays YU: hot water. The presence of water s i g n i f i c a n t l y changes the meaning of the above character, and i n future we w i l l need to consider more c a r e f u l l y the influence of such waters as the P a c i f i c on the languages we hope to successfully study. When our outlook begins to take i n the r e f l e c t i o n s of wavelight on an intercultural,- s h i f t i n g P a c i f i c , I f e e l we w i l l move towards a greater understanding of the pedagogical strengths of the kanji , with s e l f - l e a r n i n g an important force i n moving away from the space where we simply 'teach' the characters. Meditation: The Satori of Kanji The temptation to compare the 'inscrutable' Eastern mind with i t s Western counterpart has never r e a l l y entered my plans f o r t h i s writing on the place of the Chinese- Japanese characters i n the language classroom. I suspect that the measurement of language and related semiotics i s water Page 98 not a s k i l l most users of symbols have time for. The s i t e of my explanation, however, hasr-brought me into a usage of terms that I hope w i l l teach us to work i n difference and learn from the advantages of dwelling i n an i n t e r c u l t u r a l space. My emphasis has been on texture and play, strongly influenced by the theory as r e f l e x i v i t y Roland Barthes greatly admired i n the writing of J u l i a Kristeva. Barthes' has been my guide through a se r i e s of related writings that have transformed my i n i t i a l suspicion that the k a n j i held i n them a great teaching and learning p o t e n t i a l . The ' r e f l e x i v i t y ' I would hope to bring to the JSL classroom i s part of a process whereby the i n s t r u c t o r introduces a s k i l l of w r i t i n g and description that includes "the reversed gaze of language upon i t s e l f " (Barthes, 1989, p.148). Such i s the nature of t h i s r e f l e x i v i t y that i t lends i t s e l f well to a c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n where the characters o f . Japanese begin a learning process for the JSL learner that also r e l i e s on English. Inserting imagination and play into these symbols and encouraging a discourse of i n t e r - s o c i e t a l communication i s p r e c i s e l y what i t seems t h i s " s c r i p t from h e l l " (Rogers, 1991, p.446) needs i n order that i t might lend i t s f a s c i n a t i n g constructs to a new context for the North American student. Much of the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r my w r i t i n g comes from learners' reactions of fear i n the face of a Japanese text that includes k a n j i , and my b e l i e f that i t i s possible to develop an appreciation f o r t h e i r compositioning that leads to a valuable s k i l l i n learning Page 99 Japanese. The s a t o r i of kanji w i l l be part of a discourse that proposes we begin to see language d i f f e r e n t l y and bear i n mind how "society i s a means of contact and of comprehension" (Kristeva i n Barthes, 1978, p.449). My intent i s to present t h i s f i n a l stage of w r i t i n g as a meditation which s i g n i f i e s the practice of considering one's e f f o r t s once the cal l i g r a p h e r ' s brush has l i f t e d from the p a p e r T h e c a l l i g r a p h e r remains i n a meditative posture - as I w i l l do by continuing my narrative - while l i v i n g i n the character that has been produced. This act involves some meditation and a consideration of the factors that have most influenced the writing - i t s shape, texture and meaning. A l l of these elements play a r o l e i n c o n s t i t u t i n g my perception of the s a t o r i of k a n j i . In Empire of Signs Roland Barthes envisaged Japan as an immense rese r v o i r of empty signs a l l i n s p i r i n g a meditation on semantics (Trinh, 1991, p.210). In my reading of Barthes, I constantly f i n d myself able to f i l l these signs he deconstructs (packages, bows of respect, haiku, cuisine) with the very meaning the author seems to want to provoke from the reader: a personalized journey through a language of exploration, amusement and displacement (Barthes, 1978, p.168). The p o t e n t i a l for opening any sign and exposing i t s pedagogical value has been exemplified for me by many of the passages i n Empire of Signs and The Pleasure of the Text. The sig n a l to my thinking on the composition and classroom presentation of the kanji i s that instru c t o r s have much to Page 100 share by showing the production of the product to the c l a s s . Barthes provides examples of the Japanese chef preparing food i n front of the customer and describes how t h i s a c t i v i t y i s l i t e r a l l y graphic and I think of the wri t i n g of a Chinese-Japanese character. The product i s arranged, yet need not be pre-arranged to the extent where we have no stake i n the play of i t s strokes as we are learning i t . This French semiologist has captured my imagination by leading me to writers such as J u l i a Kristeva and her subversion of authority (Barthes, 1986, p.168). In the JSL classroom there i s not only the authority of the teacher's knowledge dominating the learning landscape, but the dictated, cultureTbound rules of the stroke that I f e e l i n h i b i t f r u i t f u l play with the body of the characters held up f o r study. The d i c t a t o r i a l l i n e a r i t y of the stroke order represents for me a kind of monologic thinking that attempts to compartmentalize and l i m i t the etymological p o t e n t i a l of the k a n j i . Breaking free of a pre-determined f i e l d of i n s t r u c t i o n and learning to inte r p r e t the kanji through English eyes does not mean that the JSL classroom w i l l lose some of i t s focus on the target culture, but w i l l l e g i t i m i z e a rendering of new symbols by creating conversations and narrative. The r e a l challenge i s to i n s e r t Barthes' r e f l e x i v i t y into our in s t r u c t i o n , and bring to our teaching the kind of enthusiasm we see i n h i s walks throughout Empire of Signs. Haiku f o r him represents a " r e p e t i t i o n without o r i g i n , a Page 101 memory without person, a language without moorings" (Barthes, 1970, p.79). The kan j i surround the v i s i t o r to Japan, from str e e t to subway they are l i k e countless s t o r i e s waiting to be interpreted by the stroke, the event. What I am saying here about the haiku I might also say about everything which happens when one t r a v e l s i n the country I am c a l l i n g Japan. For there, i n the street, i n a bar, i n a shop, i n a t r a i n , something always happens. This something - which i s etymologically an adventure - i s of an i n f i n i t e s i m a l order: i t i s an incongruity of clothing, an anachronism of culture, a freedom of behavior, an i l l o g i c a l i t y of int i n e r a r y , etc. To count up these events would be a Sisyphean .enterprise, for they g l i s t e n only at the moment when one reads them. , (Barthes, 1970, p.79) My focus as a teacher of Japanese i s not only of the adventure through culture an appreciation of etymology can provide, but that the personalized reading of the strokes of a ka n j i i s an event that can continue to g l i s t e n a f t e r our i n i t i a l contact with the character. The layering of meaning and the re-compositioning of the symbol are the choices l e f t to the student encouraged to explore the workings of the ka n j i . Echoing the sentiments of Ted Aoki, there i s a danger i n temporal thinking that ignores works that are not l i n e a r . 'Trapped' i n the instrumental language of curriculum, we can explore ways of breaking free from l i n e a r i t y by modelling a personalized uncovering and co n s t i t u t i n g of meaning i n the in t e r t e x t of Chinese-Japanese characters. Page 102 As I contemplate the purpose of opening the ka n j i to a new kind of complexity involving an i n t e r t e x t u a l discourse between P a c i f i c languages, the writing of the strokes stands out as an attempt to at once encourage confidence and appreciation of these symbols i n my students. I f the empty signs that produced a meditative musing on semantics i n Barthes have helped me to explore where I dwell between Japanese and English, I would hope my students w i l l also one day engage i n meditation and consider how working with a new language gives them an inspired sense of learning and a re- consideration how p e n c i l i s put to paper v i a the i n t e r a c t i o n of symbols, both c u l t u r a l and i n t e r c u l t u r a l . Remembering the clucks of disapproval my handwriting i n my native language produced i n grade school teachers, I was c e r t a i n when I began studying Japanese that any ka n j i I wrote would be doomed to an equivalent grotesqueness, but that gloomy expectation, over time, has proven f a l s e . I have also noticed, moreover, that my hand i n English seems to have improved over the years, a development I a t t r i b u t e to the d i s c i p l i n e and aesthetic sense that writing, writing, and rewriting kanji i n s t i l l s i n the hand and, perhaps, the psyche as well. (Rogers, 1991, p.450) The e x c i t i n g notion for me, as t r a d i t i o n a l l y minded and resp e c t f u l of admirable handwriting though I am, i s the thought that a developing sense for the compositional aesthetics of ka n j i and a re-writing of i t s meaning may i n fac t be the new chapter i n the philosophy of language Fenollossa f e l t hinged on the p o e t i c a l and metaphorical q u a l i t i e s of the Chinese character (1991, p.21). In fa c t t Page 103 Barthes adds further weight to the idea of the re- constituted, retrospective adventure of the writing that attempts to l i n k East and West. He uses s a t o r i as an awakening to the fact - apprehension of the thing as event and not as substance, a t t a i n i n g to the anterior shore of language. The other shore i s only too well known i n the JSL s e t t i n g , but I f e e l we need to intermingle our notion of d e s c r i p t i o n "a Western genre... i t s s p i r i t u a l equivalent i n contemplation..." and bring into our learning s e t t i n g more of a meditative i l l u m i n a t i o n of the adventure involved i n re-discovering language. I f contemplation following the strokes i s not a f i n a l commentary, i t i s hopefully a learning experience that i s remembered when we encounter the character again, or perhaps often as we re-trace the very strokes that constitute the event as re-writing. Meditation, illumination, i n t e r s t i c e , i n t e r t e x t - a l l part of the musicality of the k a n j i , and part of the p r o d u c t i v i t y that moves the learner along a path of continuing language appreciation. Early i n Empire of Signs s a t o r i i s described as a seism which causes knowledge (Barthes, 1970, p.4), and by creating an emptiness of language, I take t h i s to be an undoing of our own which can serve to help us perceive the difference i n a new language. To come to know the inconsistencies and l i m i t s of our own language by i n s c r i b i n g the,characters of a Japanese with a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l require more of the learner than contemplation. I have introduced the i n t e r t e x t Page 104 as the body of a kanji that w i l l y i e l d valuable images as i t s components break down for our personal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . As we begin to appreciate the system of components and how they represent a very human attempt at communication, there occurs f o r me a t r a n s f e r into a dwelling space c l o s e r to the culture of Japan, or for that matter any l o c a l e where the characters of Chinese o r i g i n are used and I might add, respected. This i n t e r s t i c e i s a space which has yet to be located or occupied because i n my opinion the journey through a new and distant language i s very i n d i v i d u a l . I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y and the doubling of both the meaning of ka n j i and the Japanese-English contact produce a discourse of choice. The i n t e r s t i c e can only be defined by a writer who inscribes and begins a meditation that means we s e l e c t an item, cast a l i g h t on various sides of the selected object. I t may lack s p e c i f i c edges (Barthes, 1970, p.26) but i n reaching a theme we are dwelling i n the i n t e r s t i c e - a kind of meditation. In writing and re-writing the characters I f e e l we are taking part i n an action representative of thought as well as productive of thought. The view from the i n t e r s t i c e , and of the i n t e r s t i c e , i s fundamental to a new discourse on the P a c i f i c . . . . t h i s discourse transforms us, displaces us, gives us words, meanings, sentences which permit us to work and to release i n ourselves the creative movement i t s e l f : permutation. (Barthes, 1986, p.170) Displacement i n the language classroom provokes thought, and fo r students of Japanese kanji are the medium whereby they Page 105 can t r u l y take a step c l o s e r to the target culture. My hope as an i n s t r u c t o r i s to occasionally a s s i s t my students i n removing t h e i r imaginations from the classroom, i t i s possible to a f f o r d learners the time to experiment with i n t e r c u l t u r a l discourse. Given words, meanings and sentences we are provided with the food . for thought that leads to composition or narrative, b u i l d i n g to the 'creative movement' where we see our language i n t e r a c t i n g with the one we are attempting to learn. I see t h i s as a form of meditation i n the JSL classroom, perhaps a s i l e n c e to conclude an a c t i v i t y - a productive sign that q u i e t l y speaks of a s e l f - s e l e c t e d student production. Working with a graphic object e n t a i l s an i n s c r i b i n g that can apply to almost any aspect of culture. The labour of our thought forms "a product whose meaning i s not f i n a l but progressive..." (Barthes, 1970, p.26). As Barthes describes the play of the graphic" a r t i s t or chef with the t o o l s of t h e i r trade, I envision a space i n the JSL curriculum where i t i s the student who owing to the 'permutation' of the i n t e r s t i t i a l moment i s able to play, write and produce. Both the mathematical view of permutation (any one of a t o t a l number of groupings, or subsets, into which a group, or set, of elements can be arranged) or i t s reading as any a l t e r a t i o n , hold a metaphorical lesson f o r the k a n j i as graphic units with an a b i l i t y to teach to us something of ourselves and the new. Whereas the haiku, through i t s concise message of symbol, metaphor, morality, image and Page 106 sentiment seems to o f f e r the West c e r t a i n r i g h t s i t s own l i t e r a t u r e denies i t (Barthes, 1970, p.70), I see within the k a n j i an opportunity to be personal and exploratory, operating within what the meaning of the character o f f e r s , but not l i m i t e d to one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t s etymology and s i g n i f i c a n c e . You are e n t i t l e d , says the haiku, to be t r i v i a l , short, ordinary; enclose what you see, what you f e e l , i n a slender horizon of words, and you w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g ; you yourself (and s t a r t i n g from yourself) are e n t i t l e d to e s t a b l i s h your own n o t a b i l i t y ; your sentence, whatever i t may be, w i l l enunciate a moral, w i l l l i b e r a t e a symbol, you w i l l be profound.... (Barthes, 1982, p.70) Once more I sense a c a l l to a space that holds much for the classroom owing to i t s a b i l i t y to speak to our desire to learn about how language structures our l i v e s and how communication operates i n bringing cultures together. This embodied language of l i f e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by writing systems such as k a n j i , a permutation of complex groupings and subsets that are pre-arranged, yet leave themselves open to an a l t e r i n g that i s the productivity we seek i n our classrooms. Do I simply portray the , s a t o r i of k a n j i as an "awakening to the f a c t " of the symbol as substance and event? I suspect any e f f o r t to t r a n s l a t e s a t o r i into English loses an element of the true essence of t h i s Zen term, as transformation of a word i s slippery, elusive process. Illumination, revelation, i n t u i t i o n - a l l Page 107 ambiguous words for the language classroom. To my mind revealing the i n t e r t e x t of the character which represents the word somehow le g i t i m a t i z e s my attempt to describe something of the nature of i t s meaning. heart / I/me mouth Satoru, the verb form of s a t o r i or enlightenment, has come to symbolize "perceive or discern'. By considering each of the components of the character, we f i n d a combination that may have had connotations of balance and proper proportion before expressing enlightenment. Could i t have been that enlightenment i n the heart, as a way of seeing things i n proper proportion, led to perception and discernment? (Henshall, 1988, p.396). The r i g h t hand r a d i c a l i s also a component of language, a f i t t i n g reminder to the e s s e n t i a l purpose i n my writing of the strokes. My contemplation here may be considered a form of meditation on one character or a look back at a l l of the characters inscribed throughout the strokes. Within the context of the stroke and attempting to learn these characters, writing l i k e s a t o r i i s an 'awakening to the f a c t ' that any inspired writer can turn the kan j i into a contemplation, meditation, or i l l u m i n a t i o n of the symbol as an event. As the character 'satoru' speaks to us, Page 108 we can speak with our own hearts and allow the thoughts and words to enlighten the journey into a new language. / Page 109 v L i s t of Sources Aoki, Ted T. I n s p i r i t i n g Curriculum and Pedagogy:Talks to Teachers. Edmonton: University of Alberta, 1991. Barthes, Roland. The Grain of the Voice. Trans. Linda Coverdale. Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1988. The Rustle of Language. Trans. Richard Howard. Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1986. Empire of Signs. Trans. Richard Howard. New York: H i l l and.Wang, 1982. The Pleasure of the Text. Trans. Richard M i l l e r . New York: H i l l and Wang, 1975. Chaudhuri, Una. "The Future of the Hyphen". I n t e r c u l t u r a l - ism and Performance. Ed. Bonnie Marrance and Gautani Dasgupta. New York: PAJ Publications, 1991. Clark, Suzanne and Kathleen Hulley. "An Interview with J u l i a Kristeva". Discourse 13:1, Fall-Winter, (1990- 91): 149-179. Fenollossa, Edward. The Chinese Character as a Medium of Poetry. Ed. Ezra Pound. San Francisco: C i t y Lights, 1991. Hendry, Joy. Wrapping Culture: Politeness, Presentation and Power i n Japan and Other So c i e t i e s . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. Henshall, Graeme. A Guide to Learning the Chinese-Japanese Characters. Tokyo: Tut t l e , 1988. Inagaki, Yoshiko. "Our Favourite Words". Japan Echo, 16 (1989): 22-25. Klinkowitz, Jerome. Rosenberg, Barthes, Hassan: The Postmodern Habit of Thought. Athens: University of Georgia, 1988. Page 110 Kondo, Dorinne. C r a f t i n g Selves: Power, Gender and Differences i n the Japanese Workplace. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1990. Ling, Yang. "Trends i n Contemporary Chinese Calligraphy". The East, 23 (1986): 66-70. Lyotard, Jean-Francois. The Inhuman: Reflections on Time. Trans. Geoffrey Bennington and Rachel Bowlby. Stanford: Stanford University, 1991. Moi, T o r i l . Ed. The Kristeva Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. Moore, Sheila. "Pedagogical Listening as a Mode of Being". The C a l l of Teaching. Eds. Ted T. Aoki and Mohammed Shamsher. Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation, 1993. Rogers, Lawrence. "Confessions of a Kanjiphile". Japan Quarterly, 38 (1991), 446-454. Saito, Shuichi. "The Naturalization of Kanji Characters f o r Sounds". P a c i f i c Friend, 9 (1981), 38-39. Trinh, Minh-Ha. When the Moon Waxes Red: Representation, Gender and Cul t u r a l P o l i t i c s . New York: Routledge, 1991. Page 111

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