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Saving and naming the garbage : Charles E. Borden and the making of B.C. prehistory, 1945-1960 West, Robert Gerard 1995

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SAVING AND NAMING THE GARBAGE: CHARLES E. BORDEN AND THE MAKING OF B.C. PREHISTORY, 1945-1960 by ROBERT GERARD WEST B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f H i s t o r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g tQ t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1995 © Robert G e r a r d West, 1995  In presenting this thesis degree  at the  in partial fulfilment  of the  requirements  for an  advanced  University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  may be granted It  is  by the head of my  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Hv STORM  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  Ao^  \  11  ABSTRACT Professional Columbia  archaeologists  firmly control  (more commonly r e f e r r e d to today as  the  prehistory  "pre-contact"  of  history).  British This  has  been the case s i n c e Dr. C h a r l e s E. Borden, a German p r o f e s s o r a t the U n i v e r s i t y of  British  1945  and  Columbia,  1960.  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d the  archaeological  discipline  between  The purpose of t h i s paper i s to c r i t i c a l l y examine and  explain  the p r o c e s s by which t h i s m o n o p o l i z a t i o n occurred, r a m i f i c a t i o n s t h a t have Relevant "contextual" richness  to suggest the massive  followed.  approaches to  the  h i s t o r y of  a r c h a e o l o g y are  s t r a t e g y i s adopted as the best way  of the  and  reviewed,  and  to u n r a v e l , but p r e s e r v e ,  l o c a l h i s t o r y of a r c h a e o l o g y i n B.C.  A m i x t u r e of  a the  narrative  and a n a l y t i c a l s t y l e i s employed i n e x p l a i n i n g the r i s e Borden and p r o f e s s i o n a l archaeology drawing on  i n the an  substantiate,  1950s.  It  i s argued  that  Borden produced  knowledge  e x i s t i n g network of North American a r c h a e o l o g y to c r e a t e , his authoritative position.  s i t e destruction, during  In  the  the 1950s, Borden was  context  of  a b l e to p u l l u n r e l a t e d  populous to h i s cause, i n c l u d i n g p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s ,  passing  of  the  Amateur  archaeologists  "Archaeological and  powerful a l l i a n c e s that  and  people  Borden d i d , and  unable to o f f e r a p e r s u a s i v e  lacked  therefore  the  means to  amateurs and  members  through the  H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n Act,"  Aboriginal  in  Natives  the were  a l t e r n a t i v e to Borden's a u t h o r i t y .  a r c h a e o l o g y , we,  as n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s , have to put  and  the  that  1960.  amass  i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t because of the p r o f e s s i o n a l e n c a p s u l a t i o n  assume  and  archaeological  of the B.C.  It  by  knowledge  they produce  our  of  B.C.  f a i t h i n archaeologists,  is truthful  and  valid.  It  is  suggested t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have j o i n e d o t h e r human s c i e n t i s t s in  a  rapidly spiralling  because s p e c i a l i s t s i n f o r m identities resources.  on  us  The  scientification  of  humanity.  the S t a t e about who  which p a r t l y d i c a t e how example of N a t i v e s  i n B.C.,  the who  we  This  is  are as c i t i z e n s ,  State  regulates  have r e c e n t l y  our  significant and  impose  access  appropriated  to  I l l  professional  a r c h a e o l o g y to t h e i r  i s o f f e r e d to show how to us  through p o l i t i c a l  own  cause of s e t t l i n g  a l i e n a t e d components of our action.  land-claim  identities  can be  disputes, returned  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract Table  i i  o f Contents  iv  L i s t of Figures  v  Acknowledgement  vi  Body of Text  1  Notes  44  Bibliography  63  Appendix 1  Maps: B.C. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s ,  Appendix 2  Photo: Whalen Farm E x c a v a t i o n s ,  1945-1960 1949  71 73  V  LIST OF FIGURES  F i g u r e 1 Map:  Fraser Delta Sites Borden, 1945-1960  Excavated  by  Charles  71  F i g u r e 2 Map:  Major B.C. S i t e s Surveyed and E x c a v a t e d by C h a r l e s Borden, 1945-1960  72  F i g u r e 3 Photo:  Whalen Farm Midden E x c a v a t i o n Trench, P o i n t Roberts, Washington, 1949  73  vi ACKNOWLEDGMENT I w i s h t o express ray g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. Dianne Newell f o r t a k i n g a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n my p r o j e c t from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g . Her c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and s u g g e s t i o n s have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s paper. I a l s o thank my c o l l e a g u e s and i n s t r u c t o r s , who over t h e p a s t year, have p r o v i d e d a c o m f o r t a b l e and s t i m u l a t i n g environment f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l growth. I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o the s t a f f a t the UBC A r c h i v e s , and Lynn Maranda and Wilma Wood, D i r e c t o r o f the Vancouver C e n t e n n i a l Museum, f o r s p e c i a l treatment t h a t made my r e s e a r c h go smoothly. I a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge t h e h e l p o f Paul Pat f o r p r i n t i n g the g r a p h i c r e p r o d u c t i o n s i n t h i s m a n u s c r i p t . F i n a l l y , I s a l u t e my f a m i l y f o r p o s i t i v e encouragement, and above a l l I thank Karen f o r c o p i n g w i t h me and the midden o f paper I accumulated i n our l i v i n g - r o o m over the p a s t months.  1 That a r c h a e o l o g i s t s c o n t r o l what we know o f t h e p r e h i s t o r y o f Canada i s evident  i n government and p r i v a t e l y - f i n a n c e d museum c o l l e c t i o n s ,  curricula,  and p r o t e c t e d h e r i t a g e s i t e s .  I n B r i t i s h Columbia,  t r u e s i n c e a r c h a e o l o g y became p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d b e g i n n i n g a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia began e x c a v a t i n g Vancouver.  Before  histories,  Local  amateur  ubiquitous province,  myths,  archaeologists,  such  and developed  in  as  and p a s s e d on a n c i e n t  s t o r i e s to succeeding Charles  field.  Hill-Tout,  generations. excavated  the  the c o a s t a l shores and r i v e r e s t u a r i e s o f the  their  theories  about  B.C. p r e h i s t o r y .  But i n the  Borden p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d B.C. archaeology, drove amateurs from  the p u b l i c sphere, and c o n c u r r e n t l y process  E. Borden,  known as middens, on P o i n t Grey i n  and o r a l l y r e c o r d e d  and totem p o l e  middens t h a t d o t t e d  1950s, C h a r l e s  Charles  Borden B.C. p r e h i s t o r y was a r e l a t i v e l y wide-open  A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e knew t h e i r p a s t family  t h i s has been  i n 1945. I n t h a t y e a r  (UBC) German p r o f e s s o r ,  Aboriginal refuse p i l e s ,  university  s i l e n c e d Native  claims  about t h e p a s t ,  a  f i r s t begun on the B.C. c o a s t when p r o f e s s i o n a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s a r r i v e d  the l a t e  19th c e n t u r y .  The  legacy  o f Borden's  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of  a r c h a e o l o g y i s t h a t the p r e h i s t o r y o f t h i s extremely r i c h and a n c i e n t c u l t u r e area  o f N o r t h America  i s monopolized  by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s .  This  monopoly i s  guaranteed by p r o t e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n passed i n 1960, which l i m i t s  access  p r e h i s t o r i c m a t e r i a l s t o a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , who use t h e m a t e r i a l s t o b u i l d c a r e e r s and advance the d i s c i p l i n e .  to  their  T h i s s i t u a t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t o  the d i s a d v a n t a g e o f contemporary A b o r i g i n a l people, who have had t h e i r m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y apprehended, examined, and d i s p l a y e d , w i t h o u t much i n p u t . The  l e v e l o f c o n t r o l t h a t a r c h a e o l o g i s t s e x e r c i s e over t h e o r i g i n s and h i s t o r y  of N a t i v e s ,  and the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g importance o f a r c h a e o l o g y i n c u r r e n t  Native  claims,  land  archaeology. archaeology consequences  My came this  demands a c r i t i c a l  purpose  then  to control  inquiry into  i s t o expose  B.C.  the process  prehistory,  has had, and w i l l  continue  the f o r m a t i o n by which  and t o suggest t o have,  o f B.C. Borden's  the massive  on t h e l i v e s  of a l l  2 British  Columbians.  Approaches how  t o the h i s t o r y o f a r c h a e o l o g y do not i n c l u d e examinations o f  the s c i e n c e became e s t a b l i s h e d i n p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e s and times.  i n the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e e x i s t s between " p o s i t i v i s t i c ones  that  depict  the  development  of  the  discipline  i n s u l a t e d from i n f l u e n c e by s o c i a l change, which  locate  archaeology within  an  A division  internalist" as  self  contained  and " s o c i a l e x t e r n a l i s t "  larger  social  context.  studies, and  histories  Traditionally,  1  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s themselves w r i t e the h i s t o r y of N o r t h American a r c h a e o l o g y as internalists.  Gordon R. W i l l e y and Jeremy A. S a b l o f f ' s , A H i s t o r y of American  A r c h a e o l o g y , has s i n c e the e a r l y 1970s been the most s i g n i f i c a n t proponent of t h i s type o f h i s t o r i c a l study, a l t h o u g h G l y n D a n i e l p i o n e e r e d the approach i n E n g l a n d i n the 1950s. professional  I n t e r n a l i s t s argue t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l development  2  archaeology  has  been  driven  entirely  from  within  i n c r e a s i n g s c i e n t i f i c i t y i n a u n i l i n e a r and i n e v i t a b l e f a s h i o n . o b j e c t i v e knowledge" its  success, or  by  The  of  ever  "rational  produced by a r c h a e o l o g y i s a l l t h a t i s needed t o e x p l a i n  so  the argument  goes,  while s o c i a l  factors  are o f f e r e d  to  account f o r those i n s t a n c e s i n the p a s t when the r a t i o n a l p a t h appears t o have been  lost.  3  Locally,  the  internalist  approach  dominates  the  histories  of  B.C.  a r c h a e o l o g y , which i n c l u d e Knut R. Fladmark's " B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h a e o l o g y i n the  1970s,"  Roy  L.  Carlson's  "History  of  Research  i n Archaeology,"  "Archaeology i n B r i t i s h Columbia," R o d e r i c k Sprague's "The P a c i f i c  and  Northwest,"  W i l l i a m Noble's "One Hundred and Twenty-Five Years i n the Canadian P r o v i n c e s , " and, most r e c e n t l y , a c h a p t e r i n R.G. of the Northwest C o a s t . theses authors  i n anthropology, display  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s do. of s i g n i f i c a n t  no  These B.C.  4  5  Matson and Gary Coupland, The  accounts, which i n c l u d e s e v e r a l graduate  are very d i s c i p l i n a r y  interest  in  Prehistory  questioning  i n their the  approach,  assumptions  and of  the what  There i s a d i s t i n c t tendency t o r e l y on the p u b l i s h e d works  individuals,  such as C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t and C h a r l e s Borden,  and  3 a powerful propensity to c h r o n i c l e excavation p r o j e c t s . that  T h i s s t r a t e g y suggests  these works are d e s i g n e d t o e s t a b l i s h a h i s t o r i c a l p e d i g r e e f o r ongoing  research  in  conducted.  the  province,  rather  than  explain  why  past  were  The authors no doubt c o n s i d e r the l a t e r p o i n t s e l f e v i d e n t .  Some  archaeologists,  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Thought.  6  epitomized  by  Bruce  G.  Trigger,  context.  Thomas C. P a t t e r s o n and o t h e r " e x t e r n a l i s t s , "  Wright  f o r Canada, e x p l a i n a r c h a e o l o g y as an outgrowth  milieu  i n which i t i s p r a c t i s e d .  relativist  A  History  have l o c a t e d a r c h a e o l o g y w i t h i n a l a r g e r  social  more  excavations  assertion  r e f l e c t i o n o f contemporary  historical  including  Jim  socio-economic  However, these s c h o l a r s s t o p s h o r t o f  7  that  of the  of  archaeological  s o c i a l concerns.  knowledge  i s nothing  the  but  a  Instead, they argue t h a t d e s p i t e  the impingement o f e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s , such c l a s s i d e o l o g y o r n a t i o n a l i s m , over time a r c h a e o l o g y has s t i l l managed to p r o g r e s s and accumulate an o b j e c t i v e c o r e of f a c t u a l d a t a .  8  The problem w i t h e x t e r n a l i s t works i s the p r e d o m i n a n t l y one-  way c a u s a l arrow p o i n t i n g from the s o c i a l m i l i e u t o changes i n a r c h a e o l o g y , and a l s o the l a c k o f a c l e a r e x p l a n a t i o n of how o b j e c t i v i t y i s m a i n t a i n e d under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f massive Ultimately, internal  and  both  external  social  influence.  approaches influences  create  an  to account  illusionary  division  for disciplinary  between  developments.  R e c e n t l y , some s e l f - s t y l e d " c r i t i c a l " s c h o l a r s , f o l l o w i n g the " p o s t - p r o c e s s u a l " archaeology suggested  of  that  discipline.  9  Ian  Hodder  and  the  sociology  t h e r e i s an u n c e a s i n g  They r e j e c t  flow of  of  knowledge  influences  i n t e r n a l i s t s as Whig h i s t o r i a n s ,  approaches,  i n and  out  and they  of  have the  criticize  e x t e r n a l i s t s f o r smothering l o c a l d i s c i p l i n a r y change under the c o v e r o f c l a s s i d e o l o g y o r o t h e r broad s o c i a l s c h o l a r s such as C M .  forces.  1 0  Best d e s c r i b e d as  "contextualists, "  H i n s l e y , A l i c e Kehoe, S e r g i o Chavez, Donald McVicker,  and  V a l e r i e P i n s k y opt t o study p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l cases, i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the i n t e r p l a y o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s , i n a m u l t i p l i c i t y of m i c r o c o n t e x t s of time and  space.  11  4 Because o f the r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n i n which a r c h a e o l o g y has d e v e l o p e d i n the  province,  contextually,  the I  c o n t e x t u a l approach  hope  to  explain  i s well-suited  Charles  Borden's  to  B.C.  Proceeding  monopolization  of  B.C.  p r e h i s t o r y as an i n t e r p l a y of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f o r c e s i n numerous s p e c i f i c contexts.  For t h i s purpose,  i n a d d i t i o n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s ,  I have c o n s u l t e d contemporary newspaper accounts  t o gauge p u b l i c r e a c t i o n t o  a r c h a e o l o g y , and government documents f o r the o f f i c i a l view.  Most  however, were the r i c h a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s - correspondence,  lecture  and u n p u b l i s h e d essays - from the w e l l - o r d e r e d p e r s o n a l papers other relevant archaeologists.  important, notes,  o f Borden  and  Borden i n p a r t i c u l a r seems t o have saved  and  c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d every s c r a p of paper he came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h , and the p o s t mortem d e p o s i t i o n o f h i s papers r o l e i n the f o r m a t i o n o f B.C. Among o t h e r uses, Borden produced  a t UBC  suggests he d i d not want h i s c e n t r a l  a r c h a e o l o g y t o be misunderstood  or  trivialized.  t h i s c o l l e c t i o n has proven i n v a l u a b l e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  knowledge, a p r o c e s s t h a t i s i n v i s i b l e  how  i f only his published  works a r e s t u d i e d . By emphasizing being u n f a i r l y  the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t n a t u r e o f knowledge, I run the r i s k o f  accused  of r e l a t i v i s m .  A c o n t e x t u a l approach  does not  imply  t h a t t r u t h i s r e l a t i v e even though t r u t h i t i s c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e d by p e r s o n a l and  social  location.  I b e l i e v e t h a t i n every s o c i e t y t h e r e i s an economy o f  t r u t h i n which some knowledge i s c o n s i d e r e d more t r u t h f u l than o t h e r knowledge. I t was  the case i n B.C.,  between 1945-1960, t h a t Borden's s c i e n t i f i c knowledge  of p r e h i s t o r y came t o be accepted, p u b l i c l y and p o l i t i c a l l y , than  knowledge  understand  this  generated process,  control prehistory,  by  which  I prefer  knowledge p r o d u c i n g systems, are manipulated  either  "amateurs"  or  as more t r u t h f u l  Aboriginal  i s absolutely central  t o t h i n k of p r o f e s s i o n a l  t o how  people.  To  archaeologists  archaeology  and  other  as networks w i t h i n which t h e r e are r e s o u r c e s t h a t  t o c o n s t r u c t knowledge.  12  A r c h a e o l o g i s t s use  universities,  r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and s p e c i f i c methods and  5 t h e o r i e s to form h e a v i l y f o r t i f i e d s t r o n g h o l d s from which t o produce f a c t s knowledge.  The  success  of  p r o f e s s i o n a l archaeology  in  B.C.,  demonstrate, can be a t t r i b u t e d to a v e r y r e a l s e t of h i s t o r i c a l  as  I  and will  circumstances  i n which C h a r l e s Borden g a i n e d access to the p r e v a i l i n g network of p r o f e s s i o n a l archaeology,  i n N o r t h America i n the l a t e 1940s, and f a s h i o n e d h i m s e l f i n t o the  a u t h o r i t y on B.C. 1950s,  of  ability  prehistory.  Borden's  The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and  t o draw as many people,  i n t o t h i s network. process  both  p r o f e s s i o n a l and p u b l i c acceptance i n the standards,  groups, and  was  governmental a l l i e s  amateurs  and  Natives  were m a r g i n a l i z e d .  cannot be  overstated.  n i n e t e e n t h century, country,  by 1950,  i f not  s i x people  prehistory.  and  States.  1 5  1 4  argue,  p r e h i s t o r y emerged a f t e r  i n Canada immediately  on  at  this  archaeology  UBC.  Borden grew up  early period: i n Canada  to  take  remained u n t i l r e t i r e m e n t u n l i k e l y as  himself  "In 1955  seemed s c a r c e l y more p r o f i t a b l e  than  the o n l y a r c h a e o l o g i s t west  was  was  an American  educated i n the  from Germany i n 1927,  post  i n the 1970s.  t h e r e were  specialists  i n the  by  United  a t the age of 22,  finished his studies i n  a t B e r k e l e y i n the same s u b j e c t .  faculty  reflected  Can.  i n German at UCLA and  a  as  as a German n a t i o n a l , but  A f t e r he r e t u r n e d to the U.S.  i n 1939  a f t e r WWII  in  l i k e most a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n Canada he  and Ph.D.  Borden  13  U n t i l the l a t e 1950's I was  a f t e r r e c e i v i n g an M.A.  As  Borden  immodestly,  Borden completed h i s A.B.  UBC  I  o n l y t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t s worked i n  A c a r e e r i n Can.  of O n t a r i o ! "  at  They were,  f l u o r e s c e n c e i n e a s t e r n Canada i n the  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y employed  a career i n poetry.  birth,  Despite a b r i e f  i n c l u d i n g Charles  incredulously, only  as p o s s i b l e  i t p e r s i s t s today w i t h monumental consequences.  The n o v e l t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g y  the  his  As a r e s u l t , i t w i l l be shown, o n l y  one seemingly o b j e c t i v e and t r u t h f u l d i s c o u r s e on B.C. and  upon  T h i s o c c u r r e d i n many ways on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , and i n the  unable to f o r m u l a t e c o m p e t i t i v e networks.  1960,  dependent  1 6  German department,  He  1937,  arrived  where  he  17  i t seems, Borden choose t o make h i s academic c a r e e r i n  6 archaeology.  Former c o l l e a g u e Roy L. C a r l s o n e x p l a i n s :  I once asked him why he took up l o c a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , and he r e p l i e d t h a t he had become so f r u s t r a t e d w i t h the U.B.C. l i b r a r y i n a t t e m p t i n g t o o b t a i n c o p i e s of o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l w i t h which t o pursue Germanic s t u d i e s , t h a t he t u r n e d t o a r c h a e o l o g y , i n which he had been i n t e r e s t e d s i n c e h i s s c h o o l days i n Germany when he a s s i s t e d h i s t e a c h e r i n e x c a v a t i n g Hamburgian s i t e s . 1 8  Borden's p a s s i o n f o r a r c h a e o l o g y appears t o have l i n g e r e d throughout h i s y e a r s a t B e r k e l e y , where he a p p a r e n t l y s a t i n on a n t h r o p o l o g y l e c t u r e s .  1 9  I t was  here  t h a t Borden s u r e l y encountered the u b i q u i t o u s B o a s i a n d i s c i p l e , A l f r e d Kroeber, who  was  one  of the p i o n e e r s of the c u l t u r e - a r e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  c o n t i n u e s t o be c e n t r a l t o how  A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s are s t u d i e d .  scheme which 2 0  While Borden r e c e i v e d no formal t r a i n i n g i n a n t h r o p o l o g y o r a r c h a e o l o g y , h i s amateur i n t e r e s t e n t i c e d him t o devour a s u b s t a n t i a l number of works on the subject  d u r i n g the 1940s.  remotely  academic  Preeminent  works  among the  T h i s p r o b a b l y a l e r t e d him  on  the  s l e n d e r c h o i c e s was  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t P h i l i p Drucker, N o r t h e r n Northwest C o a s t . Nootkan p e o p l e s 1938 was  22  on B.C.,  of  the  Island,  the 1943  Northwest  Coast  monograph by  Drucker's  systematic  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work  21  Californian on  the  interested primarily i n l i v i n g archaeological f i e l d  l i m i t e d t o s i t e surveys, minor e x c a v a t i o n s , and an a r t i f a c t f o r Borden was  even  (NWC).  e n t i t l e d A r c h e o l o c r i c a l Survey  As an ethnographer  of Vancouver  Especially significant for  archaeology  t o the d e a r t h o f  work of  typology.  the p a s s i o n a t e c r y t h a t Drucker i s s u e d on  the  origins  of  prehistoric  coastal  peoples:  The t r u t h of the matter can be determined o n l y by c a r e f u l and e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . My aim here, however, i s not t o soar o f f i n t o the realms of s p e c u l a t i o n , but t o p o i n t out a s e r i e s o f problems, and s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t h i s p o i n t , the v i t a l need f o r more r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d e x c a v a t i o n s i n the F r a s e r - C o l u m b i a r e g i o n as w e l l as on the a d j a c e n t c o a s t . 2 3  In the mid 1960s Borden would r e f l e c t  i n the essay,  Research C a r r i e d Out i n B r i t i s h Columbia,"  "Review of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  t h a t Drucker's words i n s t i g a t e d h i s  7 e a r l y amateur involvement profound  influence  on  i n B.C.  archaeology:  the p r e s e n t w r i t e r .  "Drucker's r e p o r t  I t was  the d i r e c t  . . . had  impact  a  of h i s  p u b l i c a t i o n which i n 1945 prompted me t o i n i t i a t e a s e r i e s of s a l v a g e p r o j e c t s at p o t e n t i a l l y important but r a p i d l y v a n i s h i n g s i t e s w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s o f Vancouver."  Early  24  s a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n s from 1945  Borden and h i s f r i e n d , ( F i g u r e 1, p. 71) .  25  t o 1947  were conducted  Dr. A.V.P. A k r i g g , a t numerous l o c a l e s  on P o i n t  A l t h o u g h an u n s a n c t i o n e d hobby, Borden's 1947  by  Grey  unpublished  " P r e l i m i n a r y Report on the A r c h e o l o g y o f P o i n t Grey," i n d i c a t e s the s e r i o u s n e s s w i t h which they worked: a v o c a t i o n , we  "Though a r c h a e o l o g y  i s not  our major  field,  but  an  are t r y i n g t o f o l l o w a c c e p t e d procedures and t o a v o i d , as much  as p o s s i b l e , the e r r o r s and s i n s o f o m i s s i o n commonly committed by amateurs."  26  By l o o k i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r guidance, Borden was a l r e a d y d i s t a n c i n g h i m s e l f from o t h e r l o c a l amateurs and p r e p a r i n g h i m s e l f t o command p r o f e s s i o n a l archaeology i n  field  B.C.  The l o c a l amateur t r a d i t i o n t h a t Borden r e j e c t e d was  deeply entrenched.  I t d a t e d from the f i r s t e x c a v a t i o n s by E n g l i s h immigrant C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , moved from O n t a r i o t o Vancouver i n 1890. school,  and  a  Archaeological  fellow  of  Institute  both  the  o f Great  He was  Royal  p r i n c i p a l of h i s own  Society  Britain,  and  of  Canada  and  who  private  the  Royal  considered himself eminently  27  q u a l i f i e d t o excavate l o c a l midden  sites.  d i s c o v e r e d i n Marpole  (then  In p a r t i c u l a r , Eburne)  during  he worked on the road  massive  construction  from  28  Vancouver t o Sea I s l a n d i n 1888  ( F i g u r e 1, p. 71) .  The r e s u l t s o f h i s work  on what he dubbed "The Great F r a s e r Midden," were p u b l i s h e d as a p r o f e s s i o n a l article  i n 1895,  entitled  "Late P r e h i s t o r i c Man  T r a n s a c t i o n s of the Roval S o c i e t y of Canada, of  the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada.  29  i n B r i t i s h Columbia,"  under George M. Dawson, D i r e c t o r  H i l l - T o u t met Dawson i n the 1880s through  D a n i e l W i l s o n , the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto. George  Dawson's  father,  John  i n the  W i l l i a m Dawson,  and  Wilson, along with  Horatio  Hale,  initiated  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d a r c h a e o l o g y i n Canada when they formed the Committee on the  8 North-Western T r i b e s of Canada, as a branch of the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement o f S c i e n c e , i n 1884. ethnographic  field  trips  to  T h i s Committee sponsored Franz Boas'  30  B.C.  (1888-1894),  e s t a b l i s h e d Boas' e a r l y dominance i n Canada. the  newly-formed  Association.  and,  Douglas  I n 1897,  31  Cole  first  argues,  George Dawson c h a i r e d  Committee on an E t h n o g r a p h i c Survey o f Canada o f the B r i t i s h  H i l l - T o u t was  chosen by Dawson as the B.C.  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the Committees'  1902  report.  anthropologist  3 2  The d e c i s i v e moments f o r Canadian a r c h a e o l o g y began w i t h the 1901 of  left  no  33  The death of these g i a n t s o f Canadian a r c h a e o l o g y  professionally-trained  E t h n o g r a p h i c Survey i n 1903,  1897-1902,  Boas,  as  heirs,  and  with  the  local pursuits.  Professor  of  3 4  Anthropology  E x p e d i t i o n to B.C.  at  c a p i t a l i s t Western for  to  be  culture.  in  t o the  York,  and  l e d the Jesup  The major g o a l o f the Jesup E x p e d i t i o n  grave  The  1920s, which  from  University  danger  of  extinction  in  the  focus o f the Jesup E x p e d i t i o n on  d e p l e t e d the a r e a o f v i r t u a l l y  face  The  Jesup  professional  Chicago, London, and Expedition  archaeological  Berlin.  conducted surveys  from the  a l l material New  3 5  ethnographic  under  of  collecting  c u l t u r e , i n a massive exodus t o major American and European c i t i e s such as York, Washington,  was  which were p e r c e i v e d  museum purposes, was consonant w i t h o t h e r e x p e d i t i o n s t o the NWC,  mid-1870s  the  a c r o s s Canada were  Columbia  s a l v a g e N a t i v e m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e and o r a l t r a d i t i o n s , anthropologists  of  D u r i n g the same time,  C u r a t o r o f the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y i n New North P a c i f i c  liquidation  H i l l - T o u t and o t h e r amateurs  e s s e n t i a l l y abandoned t o t h e i r  by  death  George Dawson, f o l l o w i n g s h o r t l y a f t e r the deaths of Dawson's f a t h e r . Hale,  and W i l s o n , i n the 1890s.  to  and  the  surveys  direction  of  and  the  Harlan  first Smith.  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y Smith was v e r y s i m i l a r t o H i l l - T o u t , e x c a v a t i n g r a p i d l y , w i t h little  measuring,  according skulls,  t o the  and f o c u s i n g on the procurement standards of  the day.  of a r t i f a c t s  Literally  thousands  and s k e l e t o n s of  skeletons,  and m a t e r i a l a r t i f a c t s were a c q u i r e d through e x c a v a t i o n , purchase, o r  9 t h e f t and s h i p p e d back t o the American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y i n New Y o r k . A s i d e from c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the c u l t u r a l e x h a u s t i o n o f B.C., t h e impact Jesup  Expedition  on  Hill-Tout  and  the  future  of  B.C.  36  o f the  archaeology  was  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t Boas had a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l d i s l i k e f o r H i l l - T o u t  from  monumental.  e a r l y on.  I n 1897, d e s p i t e H i l l - T o u t ' s d e v o t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e ,  (he gave f i v e N a t i v e s k u l l s t o B o a s ) ,  37  and g e n e r o s i t y  Boas f l a t l y d e n i e d H i l l - T o u t a p o s i t i o n  i n t h e Jesup E x p e d i t i o n , w h i l e h i r i n g o t h e r l o c a l s such as James T e i t , who had a b s o l u t e l y no p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e o r t r a i n i n g . and p r o v i d e d Boas w i t h v i t a l  T e i t was m a r r i e d t o a N a t i v e woman  c o n t a c t s , w h i l e h i s l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n gave Boas  the o p p o r t u n i t y t o mould T e i t t o h i s brand o f anthropology, not  have  argument,  done w i t h arising  examinations,  Hill-Tout.  from  race  Boas a l s o  h i s excavations  t h a t an e a r l i e r  "broad-headed"  3 8  related  trivialized  something he c o u l d  Hill-Tout's  a t Marpole and based  "long-headed" p e o p l e  central  on a few s k u l l  were r e p l a c e d by a  t o the contemporary N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s .  later Boas  3 9  d i s m i s s e d H i l l - T o u t ' s assessment, a r g u i n g t h a t the long-headed s k u l l was merely an unremarkable example o f r i t u a l d e f o r m a t i o n . of  t h e G e o l o g i c a l Survey,  i n 1910, about  40  When c o n s u l t e d by R.W.  candidates  Brock  f o r the j o b o f c h i e f  e t h n o l o g i s t a t the new V i c t o r i a Museum i n Ottawa, Boas a d v i s e d :  " I t seems t o  my mind t h a t the few Canadians who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l work have not s u f f i c i e n t s c i e n t i f i c t r a i n i n g f o r the p o s i t i o n t h a t you i n t e n d t o f i l l . " He c o n t i n u e d , remarkable  "I mention p a r t i c u l a r y Mr. H i l l - T o u t ,  who b e s i d e s , has a most  a b i l i t y o f e x a s p e r a t i n g everyone w i t h whom he comes i n t o c o n t a c t ,  who i s a good c o l l e c t o r , but t h o r o u g h l y u n s c i e n t i f i c i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n s . "  4 1  The  j o b went t o a Boas student, the American Edward S a p i r , who had a l s o worked on the B.C. c o a s t . archaeologist,  S a p i r i n t u r n a p p o i n t e d H a r l a n Smith, as Canada's  national  the Jesup  a r c h a e o l o g i s t , thereby  Expedition  completing  the  B o a s i a n e n c a p s u l a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l anthropology and a r c h a e o l o g y i n Canada.  42  10 In t h e s u c c e e d i n g decades, S a p i r demonstrated a d i s t i n c t p r e f e r e n c e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s from the A m e r i c a n i s t Canada was n e g l e c t e d . ignoring when  s c h o o l o f Boas, and the work o f amateurs i n  In a l e t t e r  43  from 1912, H i l l - T o u t c h a s t i s e d S a p i r f o r  t h e work o f Canadian a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s .  President  Wesbrook,  o f the newly-formed  Sapir  4 4  UBC,  reciprocated  inquired  i n 1916  as t o  Sapir's  o p i n i o n o f H i l l - T o u t f o r the C h a i r o f the U n i v e r s i t y A n t h r o p o l o g y Department. Sapir  replied  altogether  "To be p e r f e c t l y frank,  answer  the needs  of a  I do n o t t h i n k  university."  amateurs, l i k e H i l l - T o u t , were b a r r e d  by S a p i r  Mr. H i l l - T o u t  Ultimately,  4 5  West  would Coast  from a c c e s s t o t h e G e o l o g i c a l  Survey's e t h n o l o g y j o u r n a l , and had t o p u b l i s h e i t h e r l o c a l l y o r o u t s i d e o f t h e country. A f t e r 1910, owing t o the B o a s i a n c o n t r o l o f Canadian a n t h r o p o l o g y under Sapir,  B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y  limped  along  i n a particulary local  and i n s u l a t e d  manner from the r e s t o f N o r t h America, u n t i l Borden s t a r t e d d i g g i n g The  Art, Historical,  and S c i e n t i f i c  Association  o f which  i n 1945.  H i l l - T o u t was  a  c h a r t e r member from 1894, o p e r a t e d the Vancouver C i t y Museum and c o n t i n u e d t o sponsor l o c a l e x c a v a t i o n s , 1932 .  Hill-Tout  46  Vancouver d u r i n g  p a r t i c u l a r y those o f Hermann L e i s k a t Marpole, 1927-  and other  the f i r s t  museum  members  were  tremendously  h a l f o f the 20th century,  popular i n  issuing their  own A r t s  Notes p u b l i c a t i o n , h o l d i n g p u b l i c l e c t u r e s , and u s i n g t h e Vancouver newspapers as  their professional  forum.  H i l l - T o u t a l s o had a s u b s t a n t i a l f o l l o w i n g i n  England, where t h e London I l l u s t r a t e d News p r o v i d e d r e s u l t s o f h i s Marpole work.  Despite  extensive  coverage o f t h e  Boas' r e j e c t i o n o f him, and h i s  further  m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n by S a p i r , H i l l - T o u t ' s two-race replacement model remained the working t h e s i s o f l o c a l amateurs w e l l i n t o the 1940s.  47  H i l l - T o u t d i e d i n 1944  j u s t as Borden began h i s own d i g s into- B.C. p r e h i s t o r y . It  4 8  i s o f paramount s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t Borden chose t o r e j e c t t h e l o c a l  amateur a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i n e a g e , and pursue the p r o f e s s i o n a l B o a s i a n t r a d i t i o n , when he began h i s 1945 P o i n t Grey e x c a v a t i o n s .  Americanist  I t would have been  11 easy  for  him to  have  died  in  1944.  However,  Boasian  school  professional tradition,  in  assumed  the  most  had  which at  this  taught  In  "professional"  and H i l l - T o u t ' s  lineage  Hill-Tout  in  Hill-Tout's The UBC,  of  spite  writing,  Archaeological  the  he  local  his  to  amateur  exposure  desire  maintain  to  to  his  after Kroeber  build  distance  similarity  of  a  the  field  at  the  terminus  archaeology.  carefully  avoided  of  local  Harlan  Smith's  Marpole,  5 0  Smith and D r u c k e r ' s  While any  the  North American  "amateur" t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y w o r k a t himself  and  recognized  from  on p r o f e s s i o n a l  methodological  Hill-Tout  Borden  direct  acknowledged  association  with  pedigree.  of  Borden, p r o f e s s i o n a l  and the e x i s t i n g in  chief  Borden's  and him  established  amateur  fusion  officially  of  professional  his  of  p o i n t h a d no i n f l u e n c e  archaeology.  tiny  likely  California,  career  Borden c o n s c i o u s l y  role  British  network of s c i e n t i f i c  1948,  and  Society  was  described  Columbian  field  archaeology,  North American archaeology occurred  by  Borden  in  a  1977  lecture  to  the  of B . C . :  When D r . H a r r y H a w t h o r n was a p p o i n t e d t o a t e a c h i n g p o s t a t UBC i n 1947 ( t h e f i r s t a n t h r o p . a t a u n i v e r s i t y i n w e s t e r n C a n ! ) h e l o o k e d w [ i t h ] f a v o r on our s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l [ o g y a t P o i n t G r e y a n d ] ; i n the f a l l o f 1948 D r . H a s k e d me t o u n d e r t a k e a t r i a l t e a c h i n g field p r o j e c t as p a r t o f h i s c o u r s e on B r i t . C o l . I n d i a n s . T h i s was c a r r i e d o u t s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t h e M a r p o l e s i t e i n l a t e 1948 [and] e a r l y 1949. Its success l e d to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a course i n the A r c h a e o l . o f B r i t . C o l . a t UBC. The c o u r s e has been t a u g h t t h e r e 51  since.  The s i g n i f i c a n c e member o f to  the  of  U.S.,  and allowed  ranks  of  local taking  American  events  is  paramount.  establishment,  Borden to  derive  his  authority  As a Y a l e  educated  H a r r y H a w t h o r n was  Borden to h i s network of i n s t i t u t i o n s  and c o l l e a g u e s  f r o m them,  rather  able  in  the  than  the  amateurs. the  provincial university, in  sequence of  American a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  f o r m a l l y connect  By  this  title  "Lecturer  in  Archaeology"  in  1949  5 2  B o r d e n a d o p t e d t h e a c a d e m i c s t a t u s o f h i s new  universities.  The A m e r i c a n  at  a  major  colleagues  Anthropological Association  quickly  12 made Borden a member, and Shelter  h i s s h o r t a r t i c l e on  f i e l d methods,  "A  Translucent  f o r F i e l d Work i n Regions w i t h High P r e c i p i t a t i o n , " appeared i n  J a n u a r y 1950  e d i t i o n of the premier j o u r n a l i n the f i e l d , American A n t i q u i t y .  H i s r e c o g n i t i o n as an expert short report, w r i t e two  i n NWC  a r c h a e o l o g y l e d to p u b l i c a t i o n of Borden's  i n c l u d i n g one  a r c h a e o l o g i s t , Arden K i n g . a r c h a e o l o g y , Borden was  Thus, i n s p i t e of h i s l a c k of formal  54  by  f o r a book by U n i v e r s i t y of Washington  the e a r l y 1950s, a f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d  academic community of p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t s ,  conduit  conferences,  through  which  and  publications.  the  network  of  He  5 5  with f u l l  had,  training in  member of  access to  in effect,  Americanist  c o l l e c t i o n of approved methods, t h e o r i e s , and  archaeology  g o a l s b u i l t up by  the  U.S.  the had  achieved  first  h a l f of the 20th century,  followed  the  i t s f u l l e s t expression  their  become  the  with  its  B.C.  professional archaeologists  Boasian h i s t o r i c a l  school  of  i n S a p i r ' s seminal 1916  i n A b o r i g i n a l American C u l t u r e . A Study i n Method. 1940s, p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , armed w i t h new  anthropology,  work, Time By  56  Perspective  Borden's day,  in  f i e l d methods, c o n t i n u e d  task  of  "area  chronologies, according  synthesis"  that  defined  was and  the  t h e i r purpose.  development  located  "cultures"  of  regional  to " a r t i f a c t " d i s t r i b u t i o n s . S p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n was  typologies  that  grouped  artifacts  according  to  the to  "area  The e s s e n t i a l  57  temporally  in  which  agree, f o r the most p a r t , t h a t the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y and s y n t h e s e s " of p r e h i s t o r i c American c u l t u r e s was  the  professionals  over decades, i n t e r s e c t e d w i t h the l a r g e l y unearthed p r e h i s t o r y of For  5 3  " F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l F i n d i n g s , " and i n v i t a t i o n s t o  reviews i n 1951,  societies,  the  charts  and  and  spatially  c o n t r o l l e d by  how  they were manufactured,  The  relative  58  material  type,  and  their  d i f f e r e n c e of a r t i f a c t l i m i t s of c u l t u r e s .  original  function.  types a c r o s s  space,  the  U.S.,  in  assumed, c o u l d  define  and the  These " c u l t u r e s " were mapped s p a t i a l l y and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  the g e o g r a p h i c areas d e r i v e d by K r o e b e r . in  i t was  similarity  the  1930s  and  59  1940s,  For temporal c o n t r o l , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s employed  stratigraphic  techniques  13 d e v e l o p e d i n t h e 1910s and 1920s. artifacts first,  found  i n lower  and t h e r e f o r e  surface.  layers  establish  these  i n sites  of excavating  vertically  temporal,  i n v o l v e d the assumption  during  are n e c e s s a r i l y older  The o b j e c t i v e  6 0  Stratigraphy  e x c a v a t i o n s were  than o b j e c t s  and a r t i f a c t and  that  deposited  found c l o s e r t o the  classification  horizontally  spatial,  was t o maps  or  latticeworks of Aboriginal cultures. In the l a t e 1930s and 1940s C l y d e Kluckhohn, W.D. and  J u l i a n Steward among o t h e r s ,  argued  that  archaeology  culture  processes,  culture  history.  needed  rather  than  Kluckhohn,  c u l t u r e h i s t o r y as d e v o i d 'structure catalyzed science?"  by  historical  fervently c r i t i c i z e d culture history. t o pursue focus  scientific  a damning  t o be  revealed  by  flashes  insight  o r by  the i n d u c t i v e  about  instances  of  indictment  of  and posed a d e c i s i v e q u e s t i o n :  world'  They  6 1  generalizations  too c l o s e l y on s p e c i f i c  i n p a r t i c u l a r , issued  o f theory,  o f the modern  Strong, F.M. S e t z l e r ,  of  "Is t h e intuition  generalizations  of  Many N o r t h American a r c h a e o l o g i s t s chose the l a t t e r p a t h and i s s u e d  6 2  a s t r i n g e n t c a l l t o t i g h t e n c o n t r o l s on e x c a v a t i o n s i n t h e name o f s c i e n t i f i c objectivity. The  p i n n a c l e o f s c i e n t i f i c i t y was a c h i e v e d  work o f W a l t e r W. T a y l o r called  the "conjunctive  i n t h e 1940s by t h e landmark  e n t i t l e d A Study o f A r c h e o l o g y . approach,"  advocated  a convergence  forms o f e v i d e n c e t o answer s p e c i f i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s c i e n t i f i c a l l y systematic  data  63  Taylor's  scheme,  of a l l p o s s i b l e  questions.  64  C e n t r a l was  collection:  The g a t h e r i n g o f d a t a from a r c h e o l o g i c a l s i t e s , i n n e a r l y e v e r y i n s t a n c e , i n v o l v e s the d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l r e c o r d . Only to t h e extent t o which t h a t record i s transposed to the a r c h e o l o g i s t ' s notes i s i t p r e s e r v e d f o r study e i t h e r by t h e c o l l e c t o r himself o r by other students. A good axiom f o r a r c h e o l o g i s t s i s t h a t " i t i s n o t what you f i n d , but how you f i n d i t , " and i t i s s u p e r f l u o u s t o p o i n t out t h a t "how you f i n d i t " c a n be t o l d o n l y from notes and n o t specimens. An a r c h e o l o g i c a l f i n d i s o n l y as good as the notes upon i t . T h e r e f o r e o n l y one o b j e c t i v e can be s a n c t i o n e d with regard to the a c t u a l excavation of a r c h e o l o g i c a l s i t e s : t h a t o f s e c u r i n g the most complete r e c o r d as p o s s i b l e , n o t o n l y o f those d e t a i l s which a r e o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e  14 c o l l e c t o r , but o f the e n t i r e geographic and human environment. That which i s not r e c o r d e d i s most o f t e n e n t i r e l y l o s t . I n such a s i t u a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n i m p l i e s wanton w a s t e . 65  The g o a l o f a r c h a e o l o g y was t o be a b l e t o reproduce  the o r i g i n a l  of a r t i f a c t s and c u l t u r a l and environmental d e t r i t u s  association  i n the l a b , i n o r d e r t o  d i s c o v e r t h e f u n c t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l c u l t u r a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l contexts.  T a y l o r ' s i n t e r e s t i n f u n c t i o n a l i s m was drawn from the B r i t i s h s o c i a l  a n t h r o p o l o g y o f B r o n i s l a w Malinowski and A.R. R a d c l i f f e - B r o w n who b o t h taught i n the U.S. i n the 1930s. The  66  t i m i n g o f T a y l o r ' s 1948 work  is critical  f o r understanding the  development o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g y i n B.C. and Borden's ascendency it.  The e m p i r i c i s m o f the c o n j u n c t i v e approach  Borden's p r o c l i v i t y actually  became  dovetailed  perfectly  f o r f i e l d r i g o u r e v i d e n c e d a t P o i n t Grey.  the c o r e  around  expressed  which  coalesced,  and were  scientific  a r c h a e o l o g y was a r t i c u l a t e d  Borden's  own  i n the classroom.  archaeological  lectures  s t u d e n t s a t UBC i n 1949: "Among the d i s c i p l i n e s which comprise  with  T a y l o r ' s work  Borden's  in his first  within  ideas  commitment  to  to archaeology t h e wide  range  of the f i e l d o f a n t h r o p o l o g y the s c i e n c e o f a r c h a e o l o g y o c c u p i e s an important place."  He went on t o make a case  6 7  for scientific  archaeology,  c i t i n g the  t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y Jesup E x p e d i t i o n work o f H a r l a n Smith as an example o f how permanent  value  precision."  6 8  was  because  of a  In h i s standard c l a s s  Modern Archaeology," Taylor:  lost,  lack  lecture,  Borden made statements  of  "scientific  t h a t c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d those o f  September  1954, Borden  actually  r e a d pages  c o n t a i n i n g t h e s e c t i o n reproduced above. not  lost  on t h e s t u d e n t s .  a p i c t u r e as  i n terms o f i t s human and g e o g r a p h i c  b o t h on a s i n g l e time p l a n e and i n s u c c e s s i v e p e r i o d s . " from  70  and  " O b j e c t i v e s + Methodology o f  "The modern a r c h a e o l o g i s t seeks t o c o n s t r u c t as complete  p o s s i b l e o f p a s t human l i f e  control  6 9  154-156  environment  In a c l a s s  lecture  o f T a y l o r ' s book,  The importance o f s c i e n t i f i c i t y was  Borden's p r i z e d i s c i p l e ,  Wilson Duff,  explicitly  15 s t a t e d i n h i s A n t h r o p o l o g y 401 1949,  t h a t "the method of p r e s e n t a t i o n  suggested by W a l t e r T a y l o r that only standardized the p a s t was  readily  to  culture  teachings.  scientificity,  history  c o n s t a n t emphasis  and  he,  u n l i k e Kluckhohn, d i d  anthropological  not  generalization:  "The  approach i s not concerned as t o whether the p a r t i c u l a r a r c h e o l o g i s t  for his  that,  focus on  The  71  l a b techniques c o u l d r e v e a l knowledge of  the c e n t r a l theme i n Borden's  divorce  conjunctive  of t h i s r e p o r t i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h a t  i n A Study of A r c h e o l o g y . "  e x c a v a t i o n and  Despite Taylor's  has  r e p o r t f o r Borden, on e x c a v a t i o n s a t Marpole i n  objective  justify  historiography  itself  as  a  social  a r c h a e o l o g y must a t l e a s t w r i t e  or  anthropology.  science  as  But  opposed  to  i t does  believe  antiquarianism,  h i s t o r y , must a t l e a s t c o n s t r u c t  the  fullest  72 p o s s i b l e c u l t u r a l contexts."  Borden, i n agreement, suggested i n c l a s s  the  "chief goal  scientific  f o r him  archaeologist's  t h i s t a s k took p r i o r i t y ,  basic chronologies Indeed,  i n the l a t e 1940s and  or a r e a syntheses had  the  ultimate  i s to w r i t e  legacy  of  culture history," 1950s, because not  been f o r m u l a t e d f o r B.C.  the  encapsulation  w i t h i n a c o n t e x t of B o a s i a n anthropology, by S a p i r and  of  NWC  self-taught  is  archaeological  research  culture  i n B.C.  of N o r t h America i n which the Setzler,  Taylor,  and  others  74  history  is  even  archaeology  Smith from Ottawa,  by Kroeber, Drucker, F r e d e r i c a de Laguna, and that  and  73  from the western U.S. Boasian,  that  still  the  and  Borden  the  thrust  of  main  T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r a r e a s  scientific  l e d to the  a n t h r o p o l o g y of Kluckhohn,  Steward,  r e j e c t i o n of c u l t u r e h i s t o r y ,  in  the  l a t e 1950s and 1960s, as p a r t i c u l a r i s t , non-explanatory, and thus u n s c i e n t i f i c . The  resulting  Phillips,  and  "processual" Lewis  or  Binford,  "new  archaeology"  of  which dominated American  Gordon  Willey,  archaeology  e a r l y 1960s u n t i l the 1980s, i s o r i e n t e d toward d i s c o v e r i n g g e n e r a l laws of c u l t u r e change. and  anti-historical  anthropology  from  a  s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g y to argue t h a t  generalizing  science)  or  the  scientific  P r o c e s s u a l i s t s draw h e a v i l y on n e o - e v o l u t i o n a r y  British  (meaning  Philip  ideas  archaeology i s  i t i s nothing.  75  To  the  16 contrary,  Borden  1960s and  1970s, and y e t drew on the s c i e n t i f i c  Taylor,  remained  within  the B o a s i a n h i s t o r i c a l  r i g o u r and  w i t h o u t i r r e c o n c i l a b l y s p l i t t i n g h i s t o r y and s c i e n c e  others d i d .  through  the  functionalism  of  as Kluckhohn and  So the s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e h i s t o r y t h a t was u n i v e r s a l i n the l a t e  7 6  1940s and 1950s i n N o r t h America, c o n t i n u e d i n B.C. while  school  i n the  1960s  i t was  rejected  through Borden's  i n other parts  tutelage,  of N o r t h America  by  a  p o s i t i v i s t urge t o i d e n t i f y g e n e r a l laws o f c u l t u r a l development. D u r i n g the 1950s, i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d synthesis, this  Borden began t o monopolize B.C.  stems  prehistory  from as  knowledge as "truth"  the  differences  a professional, amateurs.  o f Borden's  The  how  he  t o how  laboratories,  theories.  he was  able  t o do  knowledge  about  l o c a l s continued to  significant difference  i s not  an  issue  produce of  the  o f amateur knowledge,  but  When Borden dug i n t o the p r e h i s t o r y o f B.C. he d i d  professional  special  How  produced  as an i n d i v i d u a l , but as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of N o r t h American  approved  compared  prehistory.  knowledge v e r s u s the " f a l s i t y "  r a t h e r an economy of t r u t h . so not o n l y  between  of c h r o n o l o g y b u i l d i n g and a r e a  of the massive  network  a r c h a e o l o g y , w i t h i t s u n i v e r s i t i e s , museums,  technology,  standard  language,  H i s knowledge-production e n t e r p r i s e  known  methods,  involved  and  drawing  on  t h i s network t o b u i l d a l l i a n c e s of a u t h o r i t y t h a t would support and promote h i s work.  Borden  archaeology  for professional  confirmed  archaeologists communication  spoke  Borden's  authority.  In  and  contrast,  professional most  amateur  i n B.C. were i n d i v i d u a l s working a l o n e , unconnected, and w i t h o u t lines,  publications,  and d e r i v i n g t h e i r a u t h o r i t y it  a r c h a e o l o g y i n B.C.,  c o l l e c t i v e language,  theories  or methods,  s o l e l y from p e r s o n a l i t y and common sense.  came t o making c l a i m s about p r e h i s t o r y  i n the p u b l i c  forum,  When  the weight o f  a l l i a n c e s became d e c i s i v e . E x c a v a t i o n s i n the summer 1949, farm a t P o i n t Roberts Washington conducted s c i e n t i f i c  a t a l a r g e midden on the Whalen  family  (Figure 1, p. 71), a r e t y p i c a l o f how  Borden  c u l t u r e h i s t o r y and mustered r e s o u r c e s and a l l i a n c e s t o  17  c o n s t r u c t knowledge.  The  school  University  for  UBC  A l t h o u g h i t was most of  the  and  f i n a n c e d by UW,  results  Q u a r t e r l y i n 1950, archaeologist. he  P o i n t Roberts e x c a v a t i o n s  7 7  of  Washington  were conducted as a  (UW)  archaeology  Borden d i r e c t e d the e x c a v a t i o n s ,  i n Anthropology i n B.C.  and  British  field  students.  and  Columbia  published Historical  which were among h i s f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n s as a p r o f e s s i o n a l In these  articles,  Borden makes i t c l e a r t o the r e a d e r  i s p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r producing  the c u l t u r a l l y r i c h F r a s e r D e l t a  that  what l i m i t e d knowledge e x i s t e d on  area:  Among the s i t e s t h a t have been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the Vancouver a r e a are the f o l l o w i n g : P o i n t Grey, one m i l e n o r t h e a s t of P o i n t Grey proper; Locarno Beach, a m i l e and a h a l f n e a r e r t o the b u s i n e s s c e n t r e of Vancouver; and Marpole (Eburne), the well-known and much abused s i t e on the N o r t h Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r . A surface c o l l e c t i o n has a l s o been made a t the two v i l l a g e s i t e s on the Musqueam Reserve a t the mouth of the N o r t h He  conveniently,  and  understandably,  did  not  Arm.  mention  78  that  most  of  these  e x c a v a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out by him as amateur a c t i v i t i e s .  Indeed, he l i k e n e d  them to the p r o f e s s i o n a l 1946  of Arden King  UW.  79  Borden a l s o took t h i s  San Juan I s l a n d s e x c a v a t i o n s opportunity  •  elaborate  for  "rigidly  •  c o n t r o l l e d excavations" The  to c i t e Drucker's c a l l  80  as the impetus behind  ritual  of  excavation  at  the Whalen farm p r o j e c t . the  Whalen  site,  as  i n a l l of  Borden's subsequent e x c a v a t i o n s , proceeded m e t h o d i c a l l y u s i n g r e c o g n i z e d methods  borrowed  from A  Manual  from  of  Archaeological  Field  Methods,  Robert F. H e i z e r from the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y .  81  field  edited The  by  process  o u t l i n e d i n Borden's p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s on the p r o j e c t began w i t h the p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n of the s i t e :  "Before  the e x c a v a t i o n  proper  began, the s t u d e n t s  busy w i t h a l i d a d e , p l a n e - t a b l e , and s t a d i a rod, s u r v e y i n g , and  benchmarks,  digging  and  progressed,  preparing "every  contour  find,  upon  maps of  discovery,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number and  i t s l o c a t i o n was  reference  and  to  datum p o i n t  the  bench mark."  f i x i n g datum p o i n t s  site."  8 2  As  immediately  the  actual  received  measured t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l l y 83  Objects  were  identified  during  an with the  18  excavation  were  treated carefully:  s t a n d a r d t y p e w r i t e r - p a p e r , was and  other data."  directly  The  84  adapted  from  a r t i f a c t s themselves, apprehended: manufacture,  a  final  UW  forms  samples  of  stratigraphic  size  of  these  Heizer's  manual.  such  ash  as  and  food  other  profiles  were  In  85  a d d i t i o n to  also  "scientifically"  remains,  midden  detritus  material  from  i t s o r i g i n recorded."  copied  onto  the  graph  of the  86  As  paper  and  "In t h i s f a s h i o n a t r e n c h 80 f e e t l o n g , 5 f e e t  excavated d u r i n g the n i n e weeks of the f i e l d - t r i p . "  Because i t was  archaeological sites  methods ensured  the  t h a t were used a t the Whalen s i t e were  c o l l e c t e d i n s p e c i a l bags and  wide, and 12 f e e t deep was  that  and  material,  hundreds of photographs taken.  ( F i g u r e 3, p. 73)  record-sheet,  the p h y s i c a l c o n t e x t or m a t r i x was  charcoal,  measure,  artifact  devoted to each f i n d f o r the r e c o r d i n g of  record-sheets  "Associated  v a r i o u s s t r a t a , was  "One  are  g e n e r a l l y understood, destroyed  t h a t the s p a t i a l and  during  temporal  from T a y l o r ' s w r i t i n g s ,  excavation,  exacting  field  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a l l r e c o v e r e d  items were " f r o z e n , " so to speak, f o r t r a n s p o r t to the a r c h a e o l o g y where t h e i r meaning c o u l d be d e r i v e d .  87  laboratory  The a r t i f a c t sheets and e x t e n s i v e  field  notes r e c o r d e d l i t e r a l l y tons of data, m e t i c u l o u s l y encoded i n the s t a n d a r d i z e d t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l language of p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , and d e p o s i t e d a t i n massive b o o k l e t s .  8 8  A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of the e x c a v a t i o n s a t P o i n t Roberts, the UBC lab  r e c e i v e d c r a t e s of  raw  data  and  boxes  of  notes  archaeology  for analysis.  attempted to r a t i o n a l i z e the massive e f f o r t s of m e t i c u l o u s necessary  UBC  Borden  record-keeping  as  to r e v e a l the t r u e s t o r y about the p a s t :  The reward f o r a l l t h i s c a r e i n the f i e l d came l a t e r i n the l a b o r a t o r y when, a f t e r the o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n of each f i n d had been p r e c i s e l y p l o t t e d on the p r o f i l e drawings, the a r t i f a c t s were l a i d out on a l a r g e t a b l e i n t h e i r proper a s s o c i a t i o n and sequence. A l t h o u g h not one of the a r t i f a c t s was v e r y s p e c t a c u l a r by i t s e l f , as the f i n d s l a y spread out i n t h i s f a s h i o n they began to t e l l the s t o r y of two i n t e r e s t i n g c h a p t e r s i n the p r e - h i s t o r y of t h i s a r e a . For  Borden,  following Taylor's  f u n c t i o n a l i s m , l a b a n a l y s i s was  the  89  crucial  19  process  whereby  the relationships between a r t i f a c t s  encoded on paper, were  "revealed."  Taylor  and other  had noted  materials,  the primacy of the  relationships i n the raw data: "I refer to what may be c a l l e d the  affinities  e x i s t i n g between the material remains: between i n d i v i d u a l c u l t u r a l objects, between  groups  environment.  of objects,  between  groups  of objects  and the natural  These a f f i n i t i e s are as much facts and as much i n t e g r a l parts of  the archaeological data as are the material objects themselves."  90  The f i r s t  step i n revealing the meaning of relationships between material objects, was to  group  them into a r t i f a c t  types.  For this  task  Borden turned  to the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme developed by P h i l i p Drucker for his 1943 survey of NWC archaeology. As the pioneer i n NWC a r t i f a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Drucker provided the most expedient and applicable typology.  He was r e a l l y the only one to whom Borden  could turn f o r the analysis of the Whalen a r t i f a c t s .  9 1  Drucker described the  rationale behind his c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme: A heterogeneous l o t of material objects may be c l a s s i f i e d i n various ways. Theoretically, i t should be advantageous to group them p r i m a r i l y according to a single one of the several possible c r i t e r i a — form, material, or function. To follow this procedure consistently would mean that i t would be possible to compare components widely separated i n time and/or space. In p r a c t i s e , any single c r i t e r i o n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r s p e c i f i c and d e t a i l e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The present body of material has been c l a s s i f i e d according to whichever of the three aspects -- material, form, or function — seemed to meet immediate demands. In some cases, material seemed the primary factor of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; i n others, function or form played this r o l e . This procedure has the advantage of f l e x i b i l i t y , which outweighs i t s t h e o r e t i c a l l y objectionable inconsistency. 92  By employing Drucker' s typology to formulate hypotheses about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a r t i f a c t s , Borden incorporated into his a l l i a n c e system both Drucker, and Drucker s colleagues and predecessors 1  to Linnaeus.  i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n from M.C. McKern back  93  A r t i f a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n allowed Borden to hypothesize  that two cultures  20 with d i s t i n c t He  concluded  o r i g i n s were p r e s e n t a t d i f f e r e n t t h a t the  times  a t the Whalen midden.  94  artifact  c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n e d two d i s t i n c t assemblages of a r t i f a c t s ; t h a t i s , i t r e p r e s e n t e d a sequence of two d i f f e r e n t I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two a r e more numerous, and some of these a r e v e r y s t r i k i n g . The t r a n s i t i o n from one to the o t h e r i s q u i t e abrupt, w i t h a d i s t i n c t d i v i d i n g l i n e between the two g r o u p s . 95  D i f f e r e n c e s i n the a r t i f a c t assemblages i n c l u d i n g the s i z e , m a t e r i a l type,  and  method of manufacture of p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , adzes, a n t l e r wedges, and of o t h e r important distinct  wood-working cultures,  artifacts  to  implements,  which he  types  and  substantiated  designated  attributing  i n f e r e n c e from the ethnographic  his  Whalen I and  cultural  claims  for  Whalen I I .  significance  to  9 6  the  two  Assigning  them r e q u i r e d  known to the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l unknown.  97  Viewed as most r e l i a b l e f o r both the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a r t i f a c t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r c u l t u r a l meaning was T h i s method had century,  and  been w i d e l y  counted  the " d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l approach."  employed i n North  Kroeber  and  the  prominent  America  s i n c e the  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s W.D.  early  20th  Strong  and  98  J u l i a n Steward among i t s d e v e l o p e r s .  T h i s method r e l i e d on a s c e r t a i n i n g the  known  descendants  f u n c t i o n of  prehistoric  sites,  corresponding  tools, as  a  from  direct  basis  for  s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n and  inferring  the  of  original  f u n c t i o n of  s o c i a l behaviour  occupants tools  of  and  a  i n the unknown p a s t .  Drucker used t h i s approach i n h i s survey to formulate h i s a r t i f a c t  9 9  typology,  and Borden h i m s e l f employed the d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l approach d u r i n g h i s a n a l y s i s of m a t e r i a l s excavated N o r t h Arm  from middens on the Musqueam I n d i a n Reserve a l o n g  of the F r a s e r i n 1950  and 1951  a p p l i c a b l e to the Whalen s i t e , which was time  of e x c a v a t i o n ,  classified ethnographic  ethnographic  artifacts  to  infer  i n f o r m a t i o n on NWC  ( F i g u r e 1, p. 71). ° 10  S i n c e i t was  the not  not contemporaneously o c c u p i e d a t the  knowledge from o t h e r l o c a l e s was cultural  significance.  For  a p p l i e d to comparative  c u l t u r e s , Borden r e l i e d on the e x t e n s i v e d a t a  21  c o m p i l e d by the Jesup E x p e d i t i o n .  1 0 1  With a r t i f a c t s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y nominated, but b e f o r e a p p l y i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c analogy,  Borden sought  t o o l s had been used.  to reconstruct  which  He d i d t h i s by a n a l y z i n g f l o r a l and f a u n a l m a t e r i a l found  i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the a r t i f a c t s . the  the g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n  F o r the Whalen s i t e , s t u d e n t s were a s s i g n e d  t a s k o f c o m p i l i n g d a t a on s p e c i f i c  environment  and a n a l y z i n g the d a t a  contributed  the b o t a n i c a l  aspects of the p r e h i s t o r i c  i n the l a b .  report.  Wilson  H i s approach  was  Duff, that  physical  f o r example,  o f UW  Boasian  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , Erna Gunther, and drew on the r a t i o n a l e o f f e r e d by T a y l o r , the  cultural  context. "adzes,"  meaning  i n artifacts  Interpreting  1 0 2  was o n l y a s c e r t a i n a b l e  the Whalen  artifacts,  which  "wedges," and "pounding-hammers," i n l i g h t  contextual  material,  Borden  b e h a v i o u r o f the p r e h i s t o r i c  made  powerful  i n their  Borden  that  physical  classified  as  o f e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a and  conclusions  about  the  social  occupants:  From e t h n o g r a p h i c sources we know t h a t such t o o l s were used f o r s p l i t t i n g o f f p l a n k s from l a r g e cedar l o g s . The p r e s e n c e o f t h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f wood-working t o o l s i n t h e upper h o r i z o n suggests, t h e r e f o r e t h a t the l a t e r occupants o f the Whalen s i t e had a w e l l developed wood-working i n d u s t r y , and t h a t they p r o b a b l y l i v e d i n l a r g e p l a n k houses o f the h i s t o r i c Coast S a l i s h type. C o n v e r s e l y , the absence i n t h e lower h o r i z o n o f a l l t h r e e o f these heavy-duty t o o l s may i n d i c a t e t h a t wood-working was n o t h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d among the e a r l i e r occupants, and t h a t they l i v e d i n houses o f a d i f f e r e n t .  type.  103  Borden went even f u r t h e r t o i n f e r a d i f f e r e n t i a l two  cultures  artifacts.  based  1 0 4  on  These  remains  inferences of a r t i f a c t  c o n t e x t u a l d e t r i t u s were as fundamental  sea animal  p r e s e n t e d by Borden,  subsistence p a t t e r n f o r the  found  i n association  function  and  w i t h key  the meaning  i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l  of  literature,  " f a c t s " from which a broader i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o u l d , and would be  made. To o r d e r the " f a c t s " and account f o r the apparent c u l t u r e change i n t h e Whalen  midden,  Borden  took  from  h i s professional  repertoire,  the c l a s s i c  22 Boasian  explanatory  mechanism  of  cultural  transference.  m i g r a t i o n , e x p l a i n e d c u l t u r e change as e i t h e r the t r a n s f e r of  Diffusion  ideas/technology  or of e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n s , r a t h e r than as the product of indigenous A r r a n g e d t h i s way,  the  archaeological  "facts,"  1 0 5  excavations,  had l i v e d a t t h i s  f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e time, and whose e n t i r e o r i e n t a t i o n was l o n g t r a d i t i o n , was  innovation.  from the Whalen  suggested t o Borden " t h a t an e a r l y group of Indians who  and  site  e v i d e n t l y c o a s t a l by  e v e n t u a l l y overwhelmed by i n t r u s i v e Indians whose c u l t u r e  e x h i b i t s s t r o n g t i e s w i t h the I n t e r i o r . " the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence,  1 0 6  Adding comparative l i n g u i s t i c s  to  Borden went f u r t h e r out on a limb t o c o n c l u d e t h a t  A t an e a r l y p e r i o d e x t e n s i v e d i s l o c a t i o n s among the I n d i a n groups of the North-west were caused by r e p e a t e d waves of m i g r a t i o n of Athabaskan-speaking peoples sweeping from northern regions southward a l o n g the Coast i n through the I n t e r i o r . Great u n r e s t was caused among the S a l i s h . I t appears t h a t S a l i s h - s p e a k i n g groups were j o s t l e d out of p o s i t i o n s i n the I n t e r i o r of Washington and m i g r a t e d towards the Coast, where they adapted themselves to a new  , . j-  107  life. While a d m i t t i n g Salish,  a l a c k of evidence  to e x p l a i n who  North  possibility available.  rather of  than  from  the  i n t r o d u c i n g new  I t might  appear  at  "facts" this  tool  the  types,  have " d e r i v e d i t s main s t i m u l u s from the  East."  removed from the data, t h a t Borden was  This  1 0 8  to the  stage  of  hypothesis  left  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as the  open  the  they  became  analysis, several  levels  i n danger of f a l l i n g i n t o the a m a t e u r i s h  t r a p of s p e c u l a t i n g beyond what the data c o u l d support. the  been d i s p l a c e d by  Borden i n d i c a t e d i n a d i f f u s i o n i s t manner, t h a t based on  the c u l t u r e of the Whalen I p e o p l e may Far  had  case t o Borden's p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l e a g u e s ,  who  T h i s , however, was  recognized  t h a t he  not  stayed  s a f e l y w i t h i n the range of a c c e p t a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l l o w e d by the methods and a u t h o r i t i e s he employed i n h i s P u b l i c a t i o n was  support.  the c u l m i n a t i o n  of the knowledge-production e n t e r p r i s e  because acceptance or r e j e c t i o n by peers determined whether e x c a v a t i o n  results  23 became t r u t h f u l f a c t u a l  knowledge,  to  be  used  authoritatively,  or  academic  109  a r t i f a c t s to be d i s c a r d e d . journals, was  the  Borden p u b l i s h e d  i n c l u d i n g American A n t i q u i t y . introduction  appeared i n 1950  of  the  journal  a r t i c l e s i n a number of  Most important f o r Borden  1 1 0  Anthropology i n B r i t i s h  locally,  Columbia,  as a p u b l i c a t i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l Museum, under the  helm of Borden's former student and protegee, W i l s o n D u f f .  leading  which  editorial  Borden's s u c c e s s  1 1 1  i n h a v i n g h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s g r a c i o u s l y r e c e i v e d i n t o the academic community stemmed  from h i s  effectiveness  i n mustering a l l i e s  i n the  field.  By  112  using  e s t a b l i s h e d p r o f e s s i o n a l techniques, methods, and t h e o r i e s , Borden demonstrated to h i s p e e r s , m o s t l y i n the U.S., l o g i c of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l to the  p r e p a r e d to conform t o the  d i s c i p l i n e . T h i s l o g i c was  from analogy d u r i n g  d i s c i p l i n e were v i t a l  to  interpretation. the  ability  inner  d i c t a t e d by a d e v o t i o n  s a n c t i t y of e m p i r i c i s m i n e x c a v a t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  inference the  t h a t he was  i n analysis,  These c u r r e n t  of a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  cornerstones to  transform  and in raw  data, such as salmon bones, crushed s h e l l s , and smooth stones, i n t o s u b s i s t e n c e patterns,  modes  of  labour,  and  patterns  d i s c i p l i n a r y l o g i c of p r o f e s s i o n a l  of  archaeology,  r e p r o d u c e d through the p r o d u c t i o n and  social i n the  organization. 1950s, was  spread of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l Additionally,  severely  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to  archaeologists,  thereby  the  range of  guiding  research  along  constantly  knowledge t h a t  endorsed the work of p r e d e c e s s o r s . circumscribed  the p r e v a i l i n g i n n e r  a  narrow  band  The  logic  professional of  plausible  explanations,  and u l t i m a t e l y g u a r a n t e e i n g the a c c u m u l a t i o n of u n i f o r m knowledge  over time and  the  "progress" of the d i s c i p l i n e .  C l e a r l y , p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g y had changed s u b s t a n t i a l l y , i n terms of f i e l d methods and in  the  i n t e r p r e t i v e r i g o u r , from the time of Smith's work a t Marpole  1890s, t o Borden's a t  Point  Roberts  i n the  1950s.  To  the  contrary,  l o c a l amateur work, had remained i n v i r t u a l s t a s i s from the days of H i l l - T o u t ' s 1890s e x c a v a t i o n s , the  1940s.  One  to those by members of the Vancouver museum a t Marpole i n  amateur, Hermann L e i s k ,  described  h i s e x c a v a t i o n methods i n  24 1944  as  steel  sinking a pit  rod  "in  promising.  some  into  a midden and then c u t t i n g away a t  methodical  You can z i g - z a g  behind you.  .  Vancouver Sun,  .  .  that  or  whenever  earlier,  i n 1937,  space  City  retrieve  Museum.  artifacts  for  These  114  display  s p a t i a l o r temporal l o c a t i o n s , to T . P . O . methods,  Menzies, given  The knowledge  amateur  1944,  of  were  being  the  conducted  done  that  despite  of  range i n the  t o The  skeletons  his  storage  entirely  establish 1 1 5  in  to  their  Leisk claimed  less  than r i g o r o u s  notes,  match them up  by memory, and o f f e r and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  a l t h o u g h t h i s was a p p a r e n t l y never analysis  to  most  dirt  insufficient  and note keeping was m i n i m a l .  artifacts  sometimes  done.  116  a  basic  but u s u a l l y from s i m p l e  "common-sense,"  which  form and r e l i a b i l i t y o f  interpretations.  more f a n t a s t i c a l o f these r e c e i v e d l o c a l p u b l i c i t y . Brooks,  filling  time he c o u l d go through h i s  of Native ethnology,  a l l o w e d a massive  little  the museum c u r a t o r ,  sufficient  the a r t i f a c t s ,  excavations  with  w i t h the unmarked museums c o l l e c t i o n s of  seem  i n two y e a r s work he had r e c o v e r e d about 1000  most of which were thrown away because  the  leads  with a  indicated in a letter  from M a r p o l e , at  the  to and f r o under b i g t r e e s ,  Leisk  1 , 1 1 3  fashion,  a face  who owned a Vancouver a n t i q u e shop,  proceeded  from  The  A l o c a l amateur named R . A .  excavated a s i t e on the F r a s e r  in  and c o n c l u d e d from the stone heads he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the s i t e was a Maya 117  outpost. stories  D u r i n g the 1930s and i n t o the 1950s, p r o v i n c i a l newspapers o f t e n r a n about amateur d i s c o v e r i e s  that concluded Aztecs l i v e d i n B . C . , l i k e n e d  Marpole to K i n g T u t s tomb, or d e s c r i b e d i t as the s i t e of a major p r e h i s t o r i c 1  battle  e v i d e n c e d by stone swords and s k u l l - c r u s h i n g c l u b s . While c o n s i d e r e d  associates, informal,  these  "coded  language"  confining  amateur  and p e r s o n a l  s o l i t a r y experts.  fantastic  and f o o l i s h by Borden and h i s  interpretations  nature  of  all  could  and c o n f i r m i n g l o g i c .  reflect  B . C . amateur  They had no l a b s , that  1 1 8  the  professional  highly  archaeology.  individual,  Amateurs  no agreed upon v o c a b u l a r y , no  read,  no  authorities  Publication outlets  behind  were  systematic  them,  and no  f o r amateur i d e a s  were  25 limited  in  mechanisms  number  and  to  insure  "unconnected"  beyond  newspapers.  formation  the  consequently  of  there  knowledge.  association  of  a  In  few  was  no  short,  with  archaeological  than a t i g h t l y woven network.  t r u t h about B.C.  amateurs  local  were  museums  landscape as  In a c o n t e s t  feed-back  from  of h i s a l l i e s  the  archaeology  lab  at  UBC,  for discovering  and  from North American a r c h a e o l o g y .  and  independent  p r e h i s t o r y , no amateur c o u l d compete w i t h the a u t h o r i t y  exercised  approval  the  and  They appear on the B.C.  dots r a t h e r  Borden  quality,  displayed  the that  for  Additionally, unlike  Borden, most amateurs had a b s o l u t e l y no d e s i r e to be connected to a n y t h i n g to produce knowledge; many of them d e s i r e d o n l y to amass p e r s o n a l f o r fun or  the  nor  collections  profit.  I f the p r o f e s s i o n a l acceptance of Borden as the v o i c e of a u t h o r i t y about B.C.  p r e h i s t o r y was  scientific  guaranteed by the i n d e l i b l e l i n k of d i s c i p l i n a r y l o g i c  j o u r n a l s , how  can  h i s e q u a l l y broad acceptance be  the v a s t m a j o r i t y of n o n - s c i e n t i f i c B r i t i s h Columbians who network?  The  answer l a y i n Borden's a b i l i t y  r e l e v a n t , and i n some cases, D u r i n g the and  a  monopoly  ordinary  people  production  indispensable,  explained  B.C  i n his  process.  prehistory  was  archaeological  T h i s need was  seem b o t h  his  ability,  projects  g e n e r a t e d by  as  and  allies  credibility  need,  to  i n the  the n a t u r e of  the  April  f a c e of p o s t 1947  report  on  WWII urban expansion and the  Point  industrial  Grey e x c a v a t i o n s ,  involve  knowledge-  archaeological  e x c a v a t i o n s i n the 1950s, which were l a r g e l y conducted i n a c l i m a t e of in  the  to the l i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbians.  1950s, Borden's success i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p o p u l a r over  among  were o u t s i d e of  to make a r c h a e o l o g y  and  crisis  development. In  Borden g r i m l y  his  acknowledged  t h a t "at the time of w r i t i n g , the t h i c k e t s of salmonberry are b e i n g removed and the stands of maple and a l d e r t h i n n e d . the midden] as s t a t i n g that ancient  i t pushes around the  A t r a c t o r i s churning  felled  trees."  1 1 9  He  the s u r f a c e  ends the  report  " i n the immediate f u t u r e the camp on the u p l a n d northwest of  canoe runways w i l l  be  excavated i f a t a l l p o s s i b l e ,  f o r the  [of by the  land i s  26 being  c l e a r e d and  threatened close  sites  proximity  subtle  and  s l a t e d to be plowed w i t h i n a few weeks." t h a t d i v e r s e members of with  Borden's  overt  archaeological  ways,  sites,  B.C.  them  was  important  obviously  a t such  populous were drawn i n t o  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l network,  making  which  the  I t was  120  central  and  l i n k e d to  i t in  allies  in  to  production  the  preserving of  knowledge. Borden began e n l i s t i n g  the p u b l i c to the cause of  e a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r as a s c i e n t i f i c a r c h a e o l o g i s t . a  variety  of  interviews.  forms, On  Vancouverites, the  8  "The  scientific  including  March  lectures,  1948,  for  radio  example,  like  H i s p u b l i c d i s c o u r s e s took broadcasts,  Borden's  Middens of B r i t i s h Columbia,"  study of garbage p i l e s ,  knowledge-production  and  CBR  newspaper  radio  introduced  talk  the n o t i o n  to that  "Indian middens," c o u l d r e v e a l a  w e a l t h of knowledge, and a l s o c o n t a i n e d an a b r i d g e d v e r s i o n of h i s P o i n t Grey results.  He  1 2 1  ended the broadcast  p r o f e s s i o n a l archaeology mere c o l l e c t i n g  w i t h a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n of the purpose of  i n B.C.:  "Modern A r c h a e o l o g y i s not c o n t e n t  of museum p i e c e s  f o r e x h i b i t i o n purposes.  the  of the  chief  aims i s the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the p r e h i s t o r y of the d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s .  This  t a s k i s f a r from complete on t h i s c o n t i n e n t , begun."  122  indeed,  One  with  i n Canada i t has  hardly  In o t h e r p o p u l a r p u b l i c a t i o n s Borden suggested t h a t s c i e n t i s t s c o u l d  r e a d middens l i k e books, and i n the newspapers he c r i t i c i z e d amateurs f o r d o i n g 123  "science  a dis-service."  In h i s r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s  Borden's c a r e f u l  a l i g n i n g of r e s o u r c e s  factors  production  in  the  of  and  knowledge,  a r b i t r a r y t y p o l o g i e s , drawing i n f e r e n c e s and audience.  unambiguous, t r u e , and Concurrent  with  124  lent popular Borden's  newspaper  the massive number of such  as  assigning  articles, contingent  artifacts  so f o r t h , were i n v i s i b l e  What the p u b l i c r e c e i v e d were s y n t h e s i z e d  c a t c h phrase of " s c i e n t i s t s s a y . "  and  results  cloaked  to  to  the  in  the  To most p e o p l e t h i s meant the r e s u l t s were c r e d i b i l i t y t o Borden's  public  education  campaign,  efforts. and  facilitating  media a c c e s s and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , were the i n t e n s e p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e s over the  27 p r e s e r v a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h - p r o f i l e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . even b r o a d e r s o c i a l the p r o c e s s instigated  These i n v o l v e d  l i n k a g e s t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s and  o f knowledge-production. the i n i t i a l  Borden's former student,  crusade t o p r e s e r v e  Wilson  archaeological sites,  Duff,  i n the f a l l  of 1950, from h i s new p o s i t i o n as A s s i s t a n t i n A n t h r o p o l o g y a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l 125  Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and Anthropology, i n V i c t o r i a . h i s UBC c o l l e a g u e ,  Duff sent Borden and  Harry Hawthorn, a s e r i e s o f recommendations based on t h e  assessment t h a t p r o v i n c i a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s were i n danger o f d e s t r u c t i o n , by  both  urban  expansion  and proposed  h y d r o - e l e c t r i c dam  projects.  Duff  1 2 6  recommended r e s t r i c t i n g access t o s i t e s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s o n l y , d e s i g n a t i n g some sites  as  outside  permanent  o f B.C.,  monuments,  regulating  and c o n t r o l l i n g  excavations  the e x p o r t a t i o n  by  researchers  of a n t i q u i t i e s .  from Borden  1 2 7  s t r o n g l y a d v i s e d t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n go even f u r t h e r by u r g i n g t h a t d e v e l o p e r s pay for  salvage  excavations:  "We  cannot prevent  development, but by i n t e l l i g e n t to a boon t o archaeology. Duff  and  Borden  legislation, legislation  together  l e g i s l a t i o n they c o u l d be t u r n e d  from a bane  I can get a l l e x c i t e d about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s . " reviewed  the " H i s t o r i c Objects barred  urban expansion and i n d u s t r i a l  the  existing  provincial  antiquities  P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t , " d a t i n g from 1948.  the d e s e c r a t i o n  o f any o b j e c t  or s i t e  L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l as v a l u a b l e , a l t h o u g h to assess value r e a l i s t i c a l l y prevented  1 2 8  designated  This  by t h e  the l a c k of researchers  i t s application.  1 2 9  Through c o n s u l t a t i o n  w i t h a lawyer, Duff had determined t h a t the proper channel f o r d e v e l o p i n g  fresh  and more comprehensive l e g i s l a t i o n was the P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , W.T.  S t r a i t h , who oversaw the P r o v i n c i a l Museum. The  December Salvage  assault  on S t r a i t h  o f 1950 w i t h  a  by Duff  letter  scientific  and Borden  and memoranda  o f Threatened A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  130  Sites."  1 3 1  for legislation  entitled, Duff  began i n  "Preservation  briefly  and  explained the  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r o v i n c i a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s and lamented t h a t  middens r a n g i n g  from Marpole and Locarno beach, t o P r i n c e Rupert, had a l r e a d y  28 been  destroyed  hunters,  and  projects.  by  urban  cultivators Duff  developers, and  dismissed  now  commercial  faced  existing  the  sea-shell  onslaught  legislation  of  as  project  on  of  the  Aluminum  the Nechako r i v e r  Company  of  i n central  Canada, B.C.,  t e m p o r a r i l y abandon e f f o r t s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n ,  Ltd  The  1 3 2  Duff  requested  $2000 i n s p e c i a l  1951 .  Kenney, Borden and grants  1951  Kenney  dam  Borden  to  and pursue immediate f u n d i n g f o r  In a barrage of l e t t e r s from e a r l y 1951, F o r e s t s , E.T.  urged  January  and  emergency s i t e surveys and e x c a v a t i o n s i n the t h r e a t e n e d a r e a .  Lands and  river-dam and  (Al-Can)  prompted  souvenir  massive  inadequate  immediate government a c t i o n f o r g r e a t e r s i t e p r o t e c t i o n . announcement,  mining,  1 3 3  t o S t r a i t h and the M i n i s t e r of  Duff  offered  their  s e r v i c e s and  f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i n the  summer  of  Duff met p e r s o n a l l y w i t h S t r a i t h i n A p r i l t o p l e a d f o r the g r a n t , which  134  was advanced through a s p e c i a l a c t of c a b i n e t i n l a t e A p r i l of 1951 . August were spent drainage  by  Borden and  i n Tweedsmuir Park  those t h a t promised  Duff  and  J u l y and  1 3 5  a s m a l l team i n the Nechako  ( F i g u r e 2, p. 72), mapping s i t e s and  r i c h rewards i f e x c a v a t e d .  river  identifying  136  A t the u r g i n g of W i l s o n Duff, Borden sent S t r a i t h a d e t a i l e d r e p o r t of the summer of 1951 momentum and 1952. and  surveys, as a f o l l o w - u p e x e r c i s e d e s i g n e d  secure  additional  funding  to maintain  f o r more f i e l d w o r k i n the  Duff a d v i s e d Borden t o "shuck o f f some of your s c i e n t i f i c make  releases  i t good  - you  s h o u l d be  s h o u l d b e g i n your  have  journalized campaign  the  exciting  m a t e r i a l to  (I won't say  do  the  summer  hyper-caution  i t with.  Press  s e n s a t i o n a l i z e d ) as w e l l .  f o r more money soon, and  this  of  would be  You  a way  to  137  start." spent  I t worked. C l a i m i n g t h a t the eyes of the w o r l d were on B.C.,  the w i n t e r  funding.  of 1951-1952 s e c u r i n g promises  A g r a n t was  approved  from  Borden  Straith  for additional  by s p e c i a l a c t i n March of 1952  f o r the amount  of $8650, supplemented by c o n t r i b u t i o n s of $5000 from Al-Can and $900 from UBC  Research  extensive  Committee.  surveys  and  138  T h i s unprecedented  excavations  i n the  financial  summer of  1952.  backing The  the  facilitated results  were  29 published  i n the  first-ever  same y e a r  government  Museum and used  i n Anthropology  backed  salvage  dams, and in  the 1954  the 1950s.  1 4 0  over major  p r o j e c t , the Quesnal  archaeology  r a m i f i c a t i o n of the  Al-Can  Borden's i n v e n t i o n , and p u b l i c a t i o n , of a u n i f o r m s i t e d e s i g n a t i o n  across  Canada,  scheme a s s i g n s  this  the  Borden System,  and  still  in official  a l l archaeological sites  c o o r d i n a t e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a p r e c i s e l a t i t u d i n a l and on maps from the N a t i o n a l Topographic  Series.  a  four  longitudinal  use  letter  location,  1 4 2  i s s u e of l e g i s l a t i o n , dormant d u r i n g the Al-Can p r o j e c t , r e s u r f a c e d  i n 1955  over  the  c o n t i n u e d d e s t r u c t i o n of  the Great  F r a s e r Midden a t  i n the f a c e of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the F r a s e r Arms H o t e l .  i n i t i a t e d s a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n s i n May UBC  river  141  Known as  Marpole,  this  A d d i t i o n a l concerns  F r o b i s h e r p r o j e c t among o t h e r s dominated B.C.  f o r Canada.  again  of  Provincial  Kootenay-Libby  scheme  The  films the  Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t was  Colour  139  o p e r a t i o n were made by  i n i t s educational s e r i e s .  power developments such as the 1954  i n B.C.  of 1955  but was  Borden  1 4 3  stymied when f u n d i n g  r a n out and students l e f t the p r o j e c t f o r o t h e r summer employment.  from After  144  an o u t p o u r i n g of media coverage, and n e g o t i a t i o n s by Borden, the Vancouver C i t y Museum  granted  artifacts labour.  1 4 5  Borden  $350  to  facilitate  t h a t were r e c o v e r e d . While  amateurs whom he  A  excavations  crew of v o l u n t e e r s  orchestrating untrained  workers,  joined  the  Foundation  146  In August of 1955,  crusade  to  save  the  midden  and  formed  f r e n z y over  lectures,  favourably  also of  t o do  the  encountered hazards  of  come down t o [Marpole]  to  the  the  influenced  1 4 8  some  Great  president.  Borden's r a d i o - c a r b o n dates  y e a r s f o r o r g a n i c d e b r i s from, the Marpole s i t e . public  Borden  out  for a l l  members of the Marpole Chamber of Commerce  i n the autumn w i t h Borden as honourary  came a media  turned  c h a s t i s e d i n newspaper i n t e r v i e w s : "One  r e s e a r c h work i s Sunday a f t e r n o o n a r c h a e o l o g i s t s who 'pot h u n t ' . "  i n exchange  of  1 4 7  1950  Fraser  Midden  Months years  +/-  later 125  T h i s , combined w i t h Borden's local  business  people  with  30 government c o n n e c t i o n s . legislative  circles  government f o r new  As  by  a result,  the  time  legislation.  Duff wrote to the new 1955:  "For  cooperation  several toward  Wilson  Duff  Dr.  Borden  p r o t e c t i o n and  and  I  r e g a r d the problem as one  Province."  1 5 0  Duff emphasized the wide-ranging both  locally  and  Ray  have  salvage  We  site  his  already pressure  reached on  the  1 4 9  remains.  Marpole  resumed  M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n ,  years the  the Marpole i s s u e had  of  Williston,  been  support Duff  working  in  close  threatened a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  of g r e a t c u l t u r a l  nationally.  i n October  importance to  this  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n of the  also offered professional  a d v i c e i n f o r m u l a t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would ensure the p r o t e c t i o n of  sites,  f a c i l i t a t e f u n d i n g f o r s a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n s from d e v e l o p e r s and government, c o n t r o l the a c t i o n s of e x c a v a t o r s  through  an a d v i s o r y  board.  and  151  D e s p i t e renewed media i n t e r e s t and the c o n t i n u i n g h o t e l p r o j e c t , because of  insufficient  summer of 1956.  funding,  no  excavations  were undertaken  at  Marpole  in  the  Borden resumed e x c a v a t i o n s the next summer u s i n g a g r a n t from  152  an anonymous Vancouver i n d u s t r i a l i s t ,  a p p a r e n t l y prompted by an e d i t o r i a l  in  153  The  Vancouver Sun.  T h i s d i g , and  the completion  of the F r a s e r Arms H o t e l  p r o j e c t , chewed-up the remaining u n d i s t u r b e d s e c t i o n s of the midden, which once spanned a remarkable 4.5 seven decades.  acres i n a r e a  1 5 4  and had been under c o n s t a n t s e i g e f o r  D e s p i t e the f a i l u r e to p r e s e r v e any p o r t i o n of the midden f o r  l a t e r r e s e a r c h , e f f o r t s to b u i l d a park and d i s p l a y case h o u s i n g a r t i f a c t s a t i n y p o r t i o n of the exhausted  midden, s t i l l  c o n t i n u e d i n v a i n i n t o the e a r l y 1960s.  on  owned by the C i t y of Vancouver,  155  Borden's well-documented p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r demonstrates t h a t i t i s the seemingly  insignificant  and  p l a c e d newspaper a r t i c l e s , volunteers, professional minute  and  tedious  archaeology  political  actions  d i s p a r a t e l e t t e r s of s u g g e s t i o n , minor but public lectures,  grant  applications  radio interviews, receptions for 1 5 6  i n the p u b l i c sphere that  spun  almost  well-  that  explain  i n the invisible  1950s.  the  success  of  These were  the  threads,  linking  the  31 complex i n t e r n a l network of a l l i a n c e s w i t h i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g y larger  public  particular  forum.  group  institutions  of  Within  the  methods,  network of  theories,  from a c r o s s North America  to produce knowledge.  specialists,  individuals,  Borden  t o the  aligned  technologies,  a  and  t o c o n s t r u c t a s t r o n g p o i n t from which  So, too, d i d he and W i l s o n Duff over more than a decade  l i n k t h i s d i s c i p l i n a r y network w i t h the l i v e s and o b j e c t i v e s of o f t e n u n r e l a t e d individuals  and  institutions  across  British  p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r of e d u c a t i o n , a phone c a l l  Columbia.  A  t o Al-Can,  letter  to  the  a press r e l e a s e to  The Vancouver Sun, d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the Whalens about a c c e s s t o t h e i r farm,  and  a  but  radio  talk  about  middens  were  subtle,  often  unconsciously  formed,  c u m u l a t i v e bonds.  The commonality to these threads and l i n k s , too numerous and  diffuse  i s that  t o count,  they  spliced  the  lives  of o r d i n a r y and u n r e l a t e d  p e o p l e t o the s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. preservation,  whether through  volunteering, writing  an  Each t i n y a c t o f  article,  money, h e l p e d stymie the d e s t r u c t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s ,  or  donating  facilitated  p r o d u c t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, made a r c h a e o l o g y a p u b l i c i s s u e , and gave i t power i n the p u b l i c 1946-1947, middens. in  sphere.  T h i s c u r r e n c y s i m p l y d i d not  A decade l a t e r , of  the  as Marpole  midden  and  there  was  under-seige,  do  been i m p l i c a t e d ,  in  the numbers of people  p u b l i c c o n c e r n over s i t e d e s t r u c t i o n . c o n c e n t r a t e d a t the c r i t i c a l influential  who  stood  with  him,  b e i n g s a i d ; because they  however t e n u o u s l y or t e m p o r a r i l y , i n Borden's network.  not want t o exaggerate  At  exist  Borden's s c i e n c e spoke  were many p e o p l e  l i s t e n e d , and understood the s i g n i f i c a n c e of what was  I  thus  when Borden watched h e l p l e s s l y as b u l l d o z e r s r a z e d the P o i n t Grey  defense  had  the  i n v o l v e d o r the  level  of  The numbers were v e r y s m a l l , but h i g h l y  j u n c t u r e s where c o n f l i c t  o c c u r r e d , and i n c l u d e d  with  volunteers,  citizens.  Marpole,  Borden,  his  alliance  of  newspaper  c o l u m n i s t s , and Chamber of Commerce members, c o u l d not be i g n o r e d as he was decade e a r l i e r a t P o i n t Grey.  a  For the h o t e l d e v e l o p e r t o c o n t i n u e towards a  32 completion  of  his project  r e q u i r e d him  to  take  issue  with  prehistory  as  i n t e r p r e t e d by Borden, not t o mention the whole network h i s knowledge r e s t e d upon: UBC, Philip  H a r r y Hawthorn and h i s Y a l e e d u c a t i o n , Walter T a y l o r , Robert H e i z e r ,  Drucker,  M.C.  McKern,  Julian  Steward,  Erna  Gunther,  H a r l a n Smith, Edward S a p i r , James T e i t , and even Franz Boas.  Alfred  Kroeber,  A d i s s e n t e r would  have had t o m e t a - p h y s i c a l l y engage the v a l i d i t y o f e m p i r i c i s m , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and i n f e r e n c e from analogy,  concepts most people would have been i l l - e q u i p p e d  t o t a c k l e , had they even wanted t o . have  been  extended  comparative  anatomy  c h e m i s t r y and dating.  to  I f necessary, t h i s a l l i a n c e system c o u l d  i n c l u d e other  and  physical  parts  of  science  including  anthropology,  botany,  zoology,  p h y s i c s , which were l i n k e d  to archaeology  through  and  even  radiocarbon  For the d e v e l o p e r t o d i s m i s s the Marpole midden as n o t h i n g more than  a w o r t h l e s s garbage p i l e r e q u i r e d r e f u t i n g the combined weight p e o p l e and Of Marpole  geology,  of a l l of these  institutions.  course,  we  know t h a t  midden v i r t u a l l y  the  destroyed  F r a s e r Arms H o t e l was i n the  completed  summer of 1957.  and  the  Even though  the  d e v e l o p e r may have r e c o g n i z e d the v a l u e of the midden t o a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and the public,  h i s own  o b j e c t i v e s were i n no way  impeded by c a l l s  media, o r the Chamber o f Commerce t o p r o t e c t the s i t e . d e v e l o p e r was archaeologists  not  f o r m a l l y r e q u i r e d t o address  and  he  d i d not,  a r c h a e o l o g y l a b on the way  from Borden,  the  In o t h e r words,  the  the concerns  so t o speak, have t o d e t o u r  of  professional  through  the  UBC  to f u l f i l l i n g h i s o b j e c t i v e s of b u i l d i n g a h o t e l .  The whole p o t e n t i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n between the d e v e l o p e r and Borden's p o w e r f u l a l l i e s f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e .  The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l network was  s i m p l y too  frail  and too incomplete t o e n t r a p everyone whose own g o a l s i n v o l v e d the d e s t r u c t i o n of  archaeological sites,  Borden's financial sites  and  efforts,  developer  i t c o u l d not  be  and  souvenir-hunter  ensured  that  i n times  alike. of  So  despite  conflict,  when  and o t h e r stakes were h i g h , people would v a l u e the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f artifacts  over  development  and  economic  growth.  This  guarantee  33  required  y e t stronger  allies  t o be  enlisted  i n t h e knowledge-production  enterprise. With a r e s o u n d i n g m a j o r i t y , b i l l 67 passed t h r e e r e a d i n g s w i t h o u t d e b a t e and was committed t o law as the " A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Act,"  and H i s t o r i c S i t e s  Protection  on 18 March 1960 by the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  culmination  of a  decade  of p o l i t i c a l  a g i t a t i o n by Borden  157  158  and Duff,  The this  l e g i s l a t i o n f u s e d the network o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g y t o the p e n a l code o f B r i t i s h Columbia, making p r o v i n c i a l power the u l t i m a t e a l l y i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l production  o f knowledge.  S e c t i o n s 2 and 3 o f the A c t d e f i n e d and q u a l i f i e d t h e  make-up o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s and m a t e r i a l s i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l v o c a b u l a r y :  2. I n t h i s Act, u n l e s s the context o t h e r w i s e r e q u i r e s , " a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e " means an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e d e s i g n a t e d as such under s e c t i o n 3; " a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t " means any o b j e c t i n o r from an archaeological site; 3.  (1) The M i n i s t e r may d e s i g n a t e any (i) I n d i a n kitchen-midden; ( i i ) Indian shell-heap; ( i i i ) Indian house-pit; (iv) I n d i a n cave; (v) other I n d i a n h a b i t a t i o n ; (vi) c a i r n ; ( v i i ) mound; viii) fortification; (ix) s t r u c t u r e ; (x) p a i n t i n g o r c a r v i n g on rock; (xi) grave o r o t h e r b u r i a l - p l a c e ; o r ( x i i ) other p r e h i s t o r i c o r h i s t o r i c remain as an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Though many o f these terms p r e - d a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l archaeology, t h e meaning they took i n t h e A c t was t h a t A  of t h e i r  formal  usage i n p r o f e s s i o n a l  "kitchen-midden" which may have been f o r m e r l y  "Indian r e l i c s " on a Sunday a f t e r n o o n ,  archaeology.  known as a p l a c e  to c o l l e c t  became a l e g a l l y - d e f i n e d and r e s t r i c t e d  e n t i t y i n 1960. The  new A c t a l s o ensured t h a t the g o a l s o f d e v e l o p e r s would n e c e s s i t a t e  a t r i p through the a r c h a e o l o g y l a b , not t o mention the bank.  P r o v i s i o n s i n the  34 legislation prospective  insured  that  developers,  all  necessary  salvage  and d i c t a t e d s t r i n g e n t  work  would  professional  be  financed  standards  for  by site  assessment:  10. Whenever, i n the o p i n i o n o f the M i n i s t e r , any p r e h i s t o r i c o r historic remain, whether or not designated as a part of an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l or h i s t o r i c s i t e under t h i s A c t , i s threatened w i t h d e s t r u c t i o n by reason of commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , or o t h e r a c t i v i t y , t h e M i n i s t e r may r e q u i r e t h e p e r s o n s u n d e r t a k i n g t h e a c t i v i t y t o provide f o r adequate investigation, recording, and s a l v a g e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c o b j e c t s t h r e a t e n e d w i t h d e s t r u c t i o n as t h e M i n i s t e r may d i r e c t . 1 6 0  This  section  destruction financial  entangled in  the  prohibitions, prevent  major  perpetrators  knowledge-production  support,  Restricted  all  and ample  access  backed  by  to  time  of  process,  archaeological  by r e q u i r i n g a  for professional  archaeological  penalties  of  a l l but v a l i d permit holders  sites  resource  guarantee  of  excavations.  was  imprisonment  insured and  by  fines,  a  1 6 1  series  of  designed  to  from m a n i p u l a t i n g p r e h i s t o r i c  materials:  (4)No p e r s o n s h a l l k n o w i n g l y d e s t r o y , d e f a c e , o r o t h e r w i s e alter, e x c a v a t e , o r d i g i n any I n d i a n k i t c h e n - m i d d e n , s h e l l - h e a p , pithouse, cave, or other habitation site, or and c a i r n , mound, fortification, or other s t r u c t u r e , o r any o t h e r archaeological r e m a i n on Crown l a n d s , w h e t h e r d e s i g n a t e d as an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e or not, under the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t , except to the e x t e n t t h a t h e i s a u t h o r i z e d t o do s o b y a v a l i d a n d s u b s i s t i n g p e r m i t i s s u e d under t h i s A c t . 1 6 2  The i s s u i n g exercised of  the  o f p e r m i t s was a t  t h r o u g h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e Provincial  representative, representative Columbia, to  the d i s c r e t i o n of  develop  the  Museum  Provincial  from the  o r a n y two o f  them.  Wilson Duff  1 , 1 6 3  A d v i s o r y Board  Natural  or  department  T h i s B o a r d was  manage  all  knowledge-production c h a i r e d the  History  Archivist  appropriate  provincial policy,  and hence c o n t r o l  of  t h e M i n i s t e r , whose p o w e r s composed and his of  Advisory Board,  "the  Director  Anthropology  or  representative,  the  University  granted the  archaeological  about  of  B.C. prehistory. which had i t s  of  and  his  and  a  British  centralized  sites  were  power  resources,  1 6 4  inaugural  meeting  35 on  15  August  Wallace.  1960,  and  included  Measures f o r a s s e s s i n g  165  resources  of  were s w i f t l y adopted.  Charles and  Borden, W.E.  Irekland,  and  L.J.  controlling provincial archaeological  Duff assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of drawing up  the s t i p u l a t i o n s of p e r m i t s and a p p l i c a t i o n forms f o r a c c e s s to a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sites,  and  the  Board  c a t a l o g u e B.C. threatened along  sites.  adopted  archaeological  burning  national  Immediate p l a n s  1 6 6  the proposed r o u t e The  Borden's  resources  on  collection  of  were b a r r e d  the  the  s u r v e y and  Peace R i v e r ,  i s s u e of  the  groups.  artifacts  Columbia R i v e r ,  and  of  167  f u t u r e r o l e f o r amateur a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  Those who from s i t e s  meeting.  The  agreed,  followed  by  be  corresponding  reports  split  the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e  on  "irresponsibles" -  public  land  p r e h i s t o r y - the  l i m i t e d to  a  i n s i s t e d on c o n t i n u i n g  professionalism.  "should  was  Act e f f e c t i v e l y  - the  Amateurs who  "responsibles"  Augustin  M i l l i k e n was  site on  surveys  the  and  wished  - were brought elected  A d v i s o r y Board as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of r e s p o n s i b l e a m a t e u r s . was  to the  from a c c e s s under the t h r e a t of p r o s e c u t i o n .  wing  system assess  of the P a c i f i c N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y .  to c o n t i n u e to i n v e s t i g a t e B.C. under  designation  were made to  c e n t r a l c o n c e r n of the Board at the f i r s t amateurs i n t o two  site  168  the  Their role, i t  small-scale  r e s u l t s obtained.  to  test  I t was  pits,  further  agreed t h a t beyond t h i s p o i n t , a c e r t a i n amount of danger e x i s t e d t h a t amateurs could  do  serious  harm  archaeological s i t e . "  1 6 9  and  even  contribute  to  the  To e x p l a i n the l e g i s l a t i o n ,  destruction  of  an  i n s t i l l a "sense of moral  170  responsibility,"  and  delineate  amateurs, W i l s o n Duff p u b l i s h e d  between  the  the pamphlet,  actions  "Preserving  P r e h i s t o r y : A guide for. Amateur A r c h a e o l o g i s t s . " extensive  of  1 7 1  professionals British  to r i g o r o u s  Columbia's  This brochure provided  summary of the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of modern s c i e n t i f i c  w i t h a heavy emphasis g i v e n  and  r e c o r d keeping and  the  an  archaeology  importance  of  172  context.  Amateurs were encouraged to c a r r y out s u r f a c e surveys u s i n g s p e c i a l  forms and  send t h e i r r e s u l t s to UBC  would  assigned  be  coordinates,  and  or the P r o v i n c i a l Museum, where the the  forms  kept  on  file  pending  sites future  36 planning.  173  I t was  suggested  that  " r e s p o n s i b l e amateurs,  especially  those  a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a museum or s i m i l a r p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n , " c o u l d o b t a i n p e r m i t s . But i t was  r e p e a t e d l y emphasized  t h a t e x c a v a t i o n was  1 7 4  the j o b o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s ,  and amateurs s h o u l d d i g o n l y i n cases o f emergency, and then s h o u l d f o l l o w the a c c e p t e d p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d i n books by Robert H e i z e r and R.E.M of t h i s was  t o i n s u r e t h a t amateurs who  be t e t h e r e d t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s a t UBC  Wheeler.  All  175  d i d c o n t i n u e t o e n j o y t h e i r hobby would  and the P r o v i n c i a l Museum.  While amateurs were e i t h e r e l i m i n a t e d o r co-opted by the l e g i s l a t i o n ,  the  d e l i b e r a t e d i s m i s s a l of what A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e had t o say about p r e h i s t o r y  was  a  tragic  b i - p r o d u c t of  professionalization  that  E a r l y 19th c e n t u r y ethnographers were the f i r s t  had  begun  decades  t o study the f a m i l y  before.  histories  and o r i g i n myths of c o a s t a l N a t i v e s through the o b j e c t i f y i n g l e n s o f s c i e n c e . From Franz Boas t o James T e i t , C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , P h i l i p Drucker, W i l s o n D u f f , and C h a r l e s Borden, N a t i v e knowledge systems were t r e a t e d as t h i n g s about which knowledge  was  included,  has  produced. always  Indeed, been  Americanist  constructed  o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n o f the indigenous " o t h e r . " the  literature  between  Native  176  around  about  ethnography  Boas n o t e d the d i f f i c u l t y i n f i g u r i n g out NWC  the  archaeology  Western  scientific  There i s a c l e a r j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n  "beliefs"  "knowledge" g a t h e r e d from comparative  anthropology,  history  and  scientific  and a r c h a e o l o g y .  Native h i s t o r y :  In  1902,  "Naturally i t i s  i m p o s s i b l e t o u t i l i z e h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s of the t r i b e s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r h i s t o r y , because a l l of them are more o r l e s s o f a m y t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t the h i s t o r y o n l y by comparative study o f a l l the elements  of t h e i r  culture."  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  1 7 7  he advocated  a r c h a e o l o g y as  a 178  means t o o b j e c t i v e l y Drucker  i n this  determining traditions;  the  1943  check  the  work argued  actual  subjective that  historical  s h o u l d they prove  historical  "archaeology may worth  of  these  beliefs  of N a t i v e s .  thus be  the means o f  [family  historical]  r e a s o n a b l y sound they c o u l d become an  r e s e a r c h i n the r e g i o n a l p r e h i s t o r y . "  1 7 9  While  a i d to  few a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s d e n i e d the  37 v a l u e o f Indigenous h i s t o r i e s , of  Native  circles,  anthropological  and no  they saw them as h a v i n g independent  l i m i t e d merit  outside  truth-value  i n the  or objective  sense.  There i s some evidence Natives taking a s c i e n t i f i c  t o suggest  t h a t non-Natives  viewed t h e i d e a o f  i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r h i s t o r y w i t h stunned  disbelief.  A newspaper h e a d l i n e from 1955 m a r v e l l e d a t t h e s i g h t o f an "Indian" amongst Borden's  Marpole  ARCHAEOLOGIST."  teams:  "FIRST  IN  B.C.  The author c o n t i n u e d :  YOUNG  INDIAN  PROVES  KEEN  "Andy 'Smitty' C h a r l e s , a handsome 22 -  y e a r o l d I n d i a n o f t h e Musqueam Reserve, i s unique among h i s p e o p l e . known r e c o r d s he i s t h e f i r s t B.C. I n d i a n t o s c i e n t i f i c a l l y e x p l o r e excavate  into  AS  t h e p r e - h i s t o r y remains o f h i s a n c e s t o r s . "  To a l l  [ s i c ] and  There a r e o t h e r  1 8 0  examples i n which A b o r i g i n a l people a r e p o r t r a y e d as i g n o r a n t and d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r own h i s t o r y , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f p r e h i s t o r i c materials,  such as t h e 1960 Chase b u r i a l mound " a f f a i r . "  Vancouver Sun.  10 June 1960,  exclaimed:  UNEARTH RELICS OF FORGOTTEN PAST.  1 , 1 8 1  "BURIAL MOUND A MYSTERY SHUSWAP INDIANS  N a t i v e s d i s c o v e r e d the b u r i a l mound d u r i n g  r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n on a Shuswap r e s e r v e . next:  The c o l u m n i s t d e s c r i b e s what happened  "Whatever i t was they had found,  giving  i t away o r —  i n some cases  f l o c k e d t o the diggings."  A h e a d l i n e i n The  t h e Indians were soon t a k i n g i t home, —  selling  i t t o souvenir  The a l l e g e d rampage was o n l y stopped  hunters  by a p o l i c e  o f f i c e r who i n t e r c e d e d , warned the N a t i v e s t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s belonged province,  and then  Borden a t UBC.  182  called  t h e Kamloops Museum A s s o c i a t i o n , which  The o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n i s t h a t u n t i l  Whites i n t e r v e n e d t o determine what was r e a l l y g o i n g on, on d e s t r o y i n g t h e v a l u a b l e  who  to the  contacted  the level-headed  the N a t i v e s were bent  site.  I t h i n k i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e erroneous  popular  i d e a t h a t N a t i v e s were  unconcerned w i t h h i s t o r y stemmed from dichotomous views o f what composed " r e a l " history. through  T r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l h i s t o r y was o r a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d and t r a n s m i t t e d the generations  i n complex  interaction  with  culturally  specific  38 material Natives  objects  and geographic  features.  The t r u t h o f o r a l t r a d i t i o n s t o  was based on v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t premises c o n c e r n i n g  time, space, m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s , and concepts o f c a u s a t i o n ,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of than those o f Western  183  scientists.  The p a s t was n o t found i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d but i n the  words o f e l d e r s . as  On t h e o t h e r  hand, f o r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  and a r c h a e o l o g i s t s ,  c u l t u r e h i s t o r i a n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y obsessed w i t h a r t i f a c t s ,  truth  o f h i s t o r y was  study,  located  and c o u l d be e x t r a c t e d  184  i n the p h y s i c a l  the " u n i v e r s a l "  relationships  of objects  of  through s c i e n t i f i c g r i d s o f a n a l y s i s and made  t o v e r i f y o r deny the v a l i d i t y o f A b o r i g i n a l h i s t o r i e s and myths. e s c a l a t e d i n the 1950s and 1960s as N a t i v e  This  belief  s t u d i e s i n B.C. became i n c r e a s i n g l y  e m p i r i c a l , and thousands o f p e o p l e v i s i t e d museum e x h i b i t s f i l l e d w i t h m a t e r i a l culture  1 8 5  and h e a r d Borden and Duff advocate p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  r e c o r d i n t h e name o f s c i e n c e . that  the c u l t u r a l l y  Natives by  specific  had, were c o n s i d e r e d  Natives,  I n such an environment t h e r e and h i g h l y  merely  f o r archaeological  of h i s t o r y  " b e l i e f s , " w h i l e t h e apparent  remains,  d i s i n t e r e s t i n " r e a l " h i s t o r y as d i s c o v e r e d With t h e s u p p r e s s i o n  i d e a t i o n a l views  i s l i t t l e wonder  allegedly  proved  that  disrespect  ignorance  or  by s c i e n t i s t s .  o f o t h e r v o i c e s and t h e f u s i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l l e g a l  power t o the network o f p r o f e s s i o n a l archaeology, a f t e r 1960 t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s became the p o l i c y o f the p r o v i n c e ,  and v i c e v e r s a .  The u l t i m a t e  g o a l o f Borden and those who f o l l o w e d him was t o p r o t e c t t h e raw m a t e r i a l s o f p r e h i s t o r y for archaeological research and  speculation  about  prehistory  (and c o n t r o l ) , and d i s p e l m i s c o n c e p t i o n  by speaking  its "scientific  truth."  The  p u r i t y o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e was t r a n s m i t t e d t o B r i t i s h Columbians, by Borden, over CBU  P a c i f i c Network i n March o f 1960: I t i s from the evidence which l i e s b u r i e d i n the d e p o s i t s o f a n c i e n t o c c u p a t i o n s i t e s t h a t a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a l l over t h e w o r l d r e c o n s t r u c t the p r e h i s t o r y o f man. I n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t an important p o r t i o n o f t h i s s t o r y t r a n s p i r e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y o f h e r a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l as the l i m i t e d , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e now a t our d i s p o s a l  39 p o i n t t o the f a c t t h a t f o r many thousands of y e a r s t h i s p r o v i n c e p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n the p e o p l i n g and c u l t u r a l development of the New World. The d a t a t o document these happenings can be o b t a i n e d o n l y through s y s t e m a t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n s a t ancient s i t e s . O b v i o u s l y , i f g r e a t numbers of such s i t e s a r e destroyed [by c o l l e c t o r s o r development] b e f o r e they can be properly investigated, the a r c h a e o l o g i s t i s d e p r i v e d o f h i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e source m a t e r i a l s , and l a r g e and permanent gaps i n the p r e h i s t o r i c r e c o r d a r e the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t . I t i s f o r t u n a t e t h a t the p r o v i s i o n f o r adequate s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l o g y i n t h i s a c t w i l l p r e v e n t such a c a l a m i t y from o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . The c i t i z e n s of B r i t i s h Columbia can be proud of, and the c i v i l i z e d w o r l d w i l l be g r a t e f u l . 1 8 6  While  i t i s c l e a r t h a t Borden, Duff, and t h e i r contemporaries  saw  their  g o a l , and t h a t o f the p r o v i n c e , as the p u r s u i t o f pure s c i e n t i f i c knowledge f o r its  own  sake  indicate  and  exactly  the b e n e f i t  of c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  they u n f o r t u n a t e l y f a i l e d  what  benefits  My  these  were.  study  suggests  p r o d u c t i o n of t r u t h f u l knowledge simply s e r v e d t o j u s t i f y  that  to the  the c o n t i n u a n c e  of  i n q u i r y , hence g e n e r a t i n g ever more knowledge and j u s t i f y i n g more r e s e a r c h , i n a  self-sustaining  cycle  of  accumulation.  At  base,  Borden,  too,  was  a  collector. Without  inquiring  knowledge  i n B.C.  since  important  effects  of  knowledge p r o d u c t i o n . culture  and  field  repositories  such  limited  number  serious  student  province.  too  deeply  into  the  1960s,  I  Borden's  of  professional  UBC  is 187  literally  and  the  acknowledged  of  would  function like  They c o u l d do  this  Provincial  could without  easily  suggest  in a  Museum, In  master  even g o i n g  some  of  of  the  prehistoric  p r e h i s t o r y , both m a t e r i a l  concentrated  archaeologists.  archaeology  to  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  monopolization  P r e s e n t l y the r e c o r d o f B.C.  notes, as  the  and  this the  into  small  number  controlled  by  circumstance, prehistory  the  field  of a any  of  the  simply  by  l o o k i n g a t a map,  i d e n t i f y i n g a s i t e from i t s Borden c o o r d i n a t e s , l o c a t i n g the  appropriate  surveys  notes,  site  at  the  designated repository,  and p o s s i b l y h a n d l i n g the a r t i f a c t s  reviewing  i n the museum.  the  field  Extensive notes,  maps, s t r a t i g r a p h i c p r o f i l e s , and photos would a l l o w them i n an i n s t a n t t o know  40 what had taken other locate  archaeologists  any a r t i f a c t  location avoided  without by  i n the p r o v i n c e  ever  simply  months o r y e a r s  leaving  reading  to within  their  the  chair,  scholarly  millimetres  and even  this  literature  p r o f e s s i o n a l mode o f t h i n k i n g , and a l s o s y n t h e s i z e s i n t o c l e a r prose.  t o compile.  In an i n s t a n t , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  They  could  of i t s o r i g i n a l hassle  which  could  introduces  be the  the complex e m p i r i c a l d a t a  can dominate the a c t i o n s o f  thousands of p e o p l e of numerous languages and customs, through the m i l l e n n i a , and  across  the  coordinates, empirical  entire  province.  In  maps, known datum p o i n t s ,  grids  of  archaeology,  effect,  wherever  there  are  and s t r a t i g r a p h i c p r o f i l e s  so,  too,  is  there  the  site  i . e . the  power  of  the  a r c h a e o l o g i s t t o c o n t r o l p r e h i s t o r y p h y s i c a l l y , and d i c t a t e i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n contemporary s o c i e t y . As n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s , unaware o f what goes on i n the a r c h a e o l o g y l a b and how  knowledge  i s manufactured,  knowledge t h a t a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  we  must  rely  on  the assumption  that  the  produce and d i s s e m i n a t e t o us through museums,  f i l m s and classrooms, i s the t r u t h .  On t h i s p o i n t , a r c h a e o l o g y j o i n s the o t h e r  s c i e n c e s t h a t study humans, i n p r o v i d i n g us w i t h c o v e t e d " t r u t h f u l knowledge," which has g r e a t power i n our s o c i e t y . can  Michel  Foucault  has argued t h a t  be no p o s s i b l e e x e r c i s e of power without a c e r t a i n economy o f  "there  discourses  of t r u t h which o p e r a t e s through and on the b a s i s o f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . subjected  We a r e  t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f t r u t h through power and we cannot e x e r c i s e power 188  except through the p r o d u c t i o n  of t r u t h . "  truth  many  i s that  individuals  they  provide  to construct  of  The power o f these d i s c o u r s e s  the  our i d e n t i t i e s ,  crucial  descriptors  and more i m p o r t a n t l y  we  that  use  of as  the s t a t e  uses t o d e s c r i b e us as c i t i z e n s . Human psychology,  sciences  such  criminology,  as  archaeology,  and p a t h o l o g i c a l  social  sciences  geography, give  us  sociology,  the a n a l y t i c a l  c a t e g o r i e s and l a b e l s t o d e s c r i b e o u r s e l v e s ever more p r e c i s e l y and enhance our individual  and group  identities.  At  the same  time,  however,  these  human  41 s c i e n c e s a l s o c i r c u m s c r i b e our l i v e s . quantifying, why  we  do  labelling, things,  At e v e r y t u r n t h e r e i s a human s c i e n t i s t  and d i a g n o s i n g  and what  our b e h a v i o u r - t e l l i n g us who we a r e ,  our problems  are.  This  would  be  relatively  unimportant except t h a t the s t a t e i s dependent on human s c i e n t i s t s t o d e s c r i b e , quantify, access  and c a t e g o r i z e  citizens  t o many r e s o u r c e s  payments, taxes,  and i n f o r m  from h e a l t h - c a r e  policies,  which  and e d u c a t i o n ,  regulate  to s o c i a l  h u n t i n g l i c e n c e s , and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p e r m i t s .  our  welfare  Reciprocally,  the human s c i e n c e s have become dependent on the s t a t e through r e g u l a t i o n s  that  control  for  educational  practitioners. archaeology through  requirements,  I n B.C.  has i n s u r e d  tightly  archaeological  since  funding,  the 1960s,  the constant  controlled materials,  and this  linkage  reproduction  access  to  entrance  to  quality  standards  of the s t a t e  of " t r u t h f u l  a l l resources educational  such  and  knowledge"  as  the  facilities,  raw  financial  support, c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e l a b o r a t o r i e s , p u b l i c a t i o n o u t l e t s , c o n f e r e n c e s and so  forth.  The n e t r e s u l t i s t h a t the r e g u l a t o r y power o f the s t a t e over o u r  l i v e s i s growing i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o the p r o d u c t i o n  o f " t r u t h f u l knowledge"  189  by t h e human s c i e n c e s ,  i n a self-sustaining cycle.  The p r o o f o f t h i s s p i r a l i n B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y i s c l e a r .  At numerous times  i n h i s c a r e e r Borden commented t h a t the s c i e n c e o f a r c h a e o l o g y has j u s t begun to i n v e s t i g a t e p r e h i s t o r y .  I n 1994 Matson and Coupland commented: "The f u t u r e  of Northwest Coast a r c h a e o l o g y h o l d s g r e a t  promise because t h e r e  i s so much  190  work y e t t o be done."  I am q u i t e c o n f i d e n t  f u t u r e a r c h a e o l o g i s t w i l l a g a i n repeat to t h i s s p i r a l l i n g e m p i r i c i s m  t h a t i n another f i f t y y e a r s some  t h i s sentiment.  I see no end i n s i g h t  and r e g u l a t i o n o f humanity t h a t t h r e a t e n s us w i t h  entrapment i n almost l i m i t l e s s g r i d s o f a n a l y s i s and s t a t e power.  Ultimately  t h i s causes me t o r e g a r d Borden's a r c h a e o l o g y w i t h g r e a t ambivalence. one ego  hand, t h e v a s t n e s s o f h i s p e r s o n a l indicate  that  he  was  ambitious,  On t h e  papers and sometimes o v e r t d i s p l a y s o f and h i s m a g n i f i c e n t  career  largely  v i n d i c a t e s t h i s generous view o f him. As a student o f h i s t o r y and a r c h a e o l o g y ,  42 I  applaud  strongly  h i s dismissal approve  responsible. Borden's  o f amateurism  o f the p r o t e c t i v e  On the o t h e r  career  and d e d i c a t i o n  legislation  hand, I r e c o g n i z e  i s the c o n t i n u e d  apprehension of other peoples'  t o empiricism,  f o r which  that the impalatable  scientification  largely  legacy of  o f B.C. p r e h i s t o r y and  c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , which began a c e n t u r y ago i n  the name o f p r e s e r v a t i o n , and thus a r c h a e o l o g i s t ' s u n e n v i a b l e l a r g e r t r e n d o f the e m p i r i c i s m  he was  and  r o l e i n t h e much  o f a l l a s p e c t s o f humanity, and i n c r e a s i n g s t a t e  c o n t r o l over our l i v e s . As f o r e b o d i n g as the ongoing e m p i r i c i s m o f humanity may be, r e c e n t events i n B.C. suggest control  how  Natives, from  that while  "truthful  Historically,  t o stop  knowledge" a f f e c t s our l i v e s  archaeologists  the outside  we may n o t be a b l e  and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  as demonstrated  t h i s process,  on a l o c a l  level.  i n museum  displays  around  past  the p r o v i n c e .  t h i s has o f t e n been t o the disadvantage o f N a t i v e s  the outlawing  With  d e f i n e the r e a l i t y o f t h e i r  and t h e i r own  v o i c e s about who they a r e have been p u b l i c l y and p o l i t i c a l l y i g n o r e d , during  we can  such as  o f the p o t l a t c h from 1885 t o 1951, and t h e massive l o s s 191  of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e t o museums.  Recently,  however, N a t i v e s  i n the province  have begun t o s e i z e c o n t r o l o f the network o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g y Borden c r e a t e d . for  that  The " t r u t h f u l knowledge" o f a r c h a e o l o g y i s b e i n g made t o work  them i n s u b s t a n t i a t i n g c u r r e n t  land claims,  which i n 1995 e n g u l f  a l l of  B r i t i s h Columbia, i n c l u d i n g coveted s e c t i o n s o f Vancouver, such as S t a n l e y Park and  P o i n t Grey which i n c l u d e s UBC and the a r c h a e o l o g y l a b .  Such i n s t a n c e s , i n  which t h e power o f " t r u t h f u l knowledge" has been apprehended by l o c a l and  i s being  brought t o bear a g a i n s t  groups  the s t a t e , a r e c e r t a i n l y s u g g e s t i v e f o r  a l l p e o p l e who have been a l i e n a t e d from p a r t s o f t h e i r i d e n t i t y by s p e c i a l i s t s . Underlying the  the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y from 1945-1960 i s  e l i m i n a t i o n o f many v o i c e s  professional increasing  archaeology.  scientificity  and the c o n s t r u c t i o n  I n B.C. s i n c e  the 1960s  of a s i n g l e : that of there  have  and more p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s ,  been  ever  excavations,  43 funding,  a p p l i c a t i o n s of technology, and e l a b o r a t e t h e o r i e s p r o d u c i n g e v e r more  knowledge.  So,  too, has t h e r e been a more f i n e l y - w o v e n net to draw p e o p l e i n t o  the p r o c e s s whether they r e a l i z e i t or not. a r c h a e o l o g y may a  scientific  be  and  o n l y a p e r i p h e r a l component of a much l a r g e r t r e n d q u a n t i f i e d world,  we  pretending,  as Borden would have us do,  and  the  serves  public  interest.  can  Columbia Natives  and  produce and the  There  a c t i o n can c o n t r o l how outcome of  the  f u t u r e of B.C.,  use  is a  longer  afford  the  The  recent  i n land-claim  d e f i n i t e need  serve  i n the  seizure  negotiations  for control  i s not y e t b e f o r e  of  prehistory,  the c o u r t s  and  luxury  a  critical  of  British  of p r e h i s t o r y by suggests t h a t  and  of  professional  future  such knowledge i s a p p l i e d to human l i v e s .  struggle  toward  i s value-free  for  " t r u t h knowledge" t h a t  disseminate w i l l  r e s t of Canada.  f o r t h e i r own  no  that s c i e n t i f i c research  commentary on what f u n c t i o n the p o w e r f u l archaeologists  While the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of  B.C.  political  However,  i t s meaning  remains undecided.  in  the the  Looking  to the f u t u r e , I guarantee t h a t a knowledge of p r e h i s t o r y w i l l c o n t i n u e to have v a s t l y longer-reaching Borden had  repercussions,  i n mind when he 192  f u t u r e of the  past."  f o r a l l B r i t i s h Columbians, than  raised his glass  i n his favourite toast:  Charles "To  the  44 NOTES *For a s y n o p s i s of the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n between " i n t e r n a l i s t " and " e x t e r n a l i s t " h i s t o r i e s o f s c i e n c e see: Thomas S. Kuhn, "The H i s t o r y o f S c i e n c e , " i n The E s s e n t i a l T e n s i o n ed. Thomas S. Kuhn (Chicago, London: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1977), 110-114 and 118-120. The same s p l i t i s i d e n t i f i e d i n the h i s t o r y o f a r c h a e o l o g y i n Bruce G. T r i g g e r , " W r i t i n g the H i s t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y , " i n O b j e c t s and O t h e r s : Essays o f Museums and M a t e r i a l C u l t u r e , v o l . 3 H i s t o r y of A n t h r o p o l o g y ed. George W. S t o c k i n g (Madison, London: The U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n Press, 1985), 226. Gordon R. W i l l e y and Jeremy A. S a b l o f f , A H i s t o r y o f American A r c h a e o l o g y T h i r d E d i t i o n (New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1993); G l y n E. D a n i e l , A Hundred Years o f A r c h a e o l o g y (London: Duckworth, 1950) . 2  An example i s W i l l e y and S a b l o f f ' s attempt t o e x p l a i n why N o r t h American a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a p p a r e n t l y took so l o n g t o adopt the s t r a t i g r a p h i c method compared t o Europeans. See W i l l e y and S a b l o f f , American A r c h a e o l o g y . 90-92 and n o t e s 35 and 36 on pages 94-95. 3  Knut R. Fladmark, " B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h a e o l o g y i n the 1970s," i n Fragments o f the P a s t : B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h a e o l o g y i n the 1970s, ed. Knut R. Fladmark, A S p e c i a l I s s u e of BC S t u d i e s no. 48 (Winter 1980-81): 11-20; Roy L. C a r l s o n , " H i s t o r y o f Research i n Archaeology," i n Northwest Coast, ed. Wayne S u t t l e s , v o l . 7 Handbook of N o r t h American I n d i a n s (Washington: S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n , 1990), 107-115; Roy L. C a r l s o n , "Archaeology i n B r i t i s h Columbia," BC S t u d i e s nos. 6-7 ( F a l l and Winter 1970): 7-17; R o d e r i c k Sprague, "The Pacific Northwest," i n The Development of N o r t h American A r c h a e o l o g y ed. James E. F i t t i n g ( U n i v e r s i t y Park, London: The P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973), 251-285; W i l l i a m C. Noble, "One Hundred and Twenty-Five Years o f A r c h a e o l o g y i n the Canadian P r o v i n c e s , " B u l l e t i n o f the Canadian A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n no. 4 (1972), 30-34; and R.G. Matson and Gary Coupland, " H i s t o r y of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Research," chap, i n The P r e h i s t o r y o f the Northwest Coast (New York, T o r o n t o : Academic Press, 1995), 37-47. 4  E l l e n W a l l a c e Robinson, "Charles E. Borden: H i s F o r m u l a t i o n and T e s t i n g o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Hypotheses" (M.A. t h e s i s , P o r t l a n d S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1975); and Judith Judd Banks, "Comparative Biographies of Two British Columbia A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s : C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t and James A. T e i t " (M.A. thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970). 5  B r u c e G. T r i g g e r , A H i s t o r y of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Thought U n i v e r s i t y Press," 1989). 6  (Cambridge:  Cambridge  Thomas C. P a t t e r s o n , "Some Post War T h e o r e t i c a l Trends i n U.S. A r c h a e o l o g y , " C u l t u r e v o l . 6, no. 1 (1986): 43-54; Thomas C. P a t t e r s o n , "The L a s t S i x t y Y e a r s : Toward a S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f A m e r i c a n i s t A r c h a e o l o g y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t v o l . 88, no. 1 (March 1986): 7-26; Don D. Fowler, "Uses o f the Past: A r c h a e o l o g y i n the S e r v i c e o f the S t a t e , " American A n t i q u i t y v o l . 52, no. 2 (1987) 229-248; Bruce G. T r i g g e r , "Alternative A r c h a e o l o g i e s : N a t i o n a l i s t , C o l o n i a l i s t , I m p e r i a l i s t , " Man New S e r i e s . v o l . 19, no. 3 (September 1984): 355-370; Bruce G. T r i g g e r , "Editorial," World A r c h a e o l o g y v o l . 13, no. 2 (October 1981): 133-137; Bruce G. T r i g g e r , "AngloAmerican A r c h a e o l o g y , " World A r c h a e o l o g y v o l . 13, no. 2 (October 1981): 138155; and J.V. Wright, "The Development of P r e h i s t o r y i n Canada, 1935-1985," American A n t i q u i t y v o l . 50, no. 2 (1985): 421-433. 7  45 T r i g g e r , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Thought, 13-16 the H i s t o r y o f Archaeology," 232.  and 410; and Bruce G. T r i g g e r , " W r i t i n g  P o s t - p r o c e s s u a l archaeology, a l s o known as " c o n t e x t u a l a r c h a e o l o g y , " i s i n t r o d u c e d by Hodder i n the f o l l o w i n g : Ian Hodder, The Present Past (London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1982); and Ian Hodder, "Post-modernism, P o s t - S t r u c t u r a l i s m , and P o s t - P r o c e s s u a l Archaeology," i n The Meaning o f Things ed. Ian Hodder (London: Unwin Hyman, 1989), 64-78. Good synopses a r e a l s o p r e s e n t i n : W i l l e y and S a b l o f f , American Archaeology. 297-305; and T r i g g e r , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Thought. 348-357. For the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge approach see K a r i n D. KnorrC e t i n a , The Manufacture of Knowledge (New York, T o r o n t o : Permagon P r e s s , 1981); Bruno L a t o u r and Steve Woolgar, L a b o r a t o r y L i f e : The S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f S c i e n t i f i c F a c t s ( B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1979); and P e t e r L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f R e a l i t y (Garden C i t y NY: Doubleday & Co., L t d . , 1966). The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s an u n c e a s i n g f l o w of i n f l u e n c e s i n and out on a r c h a e o l o g y i s made by C M . H i n s l e y , " R e v i s i n g and R e v i s i o n i n g the H i s t o r y of Archaeology: R e f l e c t i o n s on Region and Context," i n T r a c i n g A r c h a e o l o g y ' s Past: The H i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f A r c h a e o l o g y ed. Andrew L. C h r i s t e n s o n (Carbondale, E d w a r d s v i l l e : Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1989), 81 and 94-95. 9  A l i c e B. Kehoe, "The Paradigmatic V i s i o n of Archaeology: A r c h a e o l o g y as a B o u r g e o i s S c i e n c e , " i n R e d i s c o v e r i n g Our Past: Essays on the H i s t o r y o f American A r c h a e o l o g y ed. Jonathan E. Reyman ( A l d e r s h o t : Avebury Ashgate P u b l i s h i n g L t d . , 1992), 5; A l i c e B. Kehoe, " C o n t e x t u a l i z i n g A r c h a e o l o g y , " i n T r a c i n g A r c h a e o l o g y ' s Past ed. Andrew L. C h r i s t e n s o n (Carbondale, E d w a r d s v i l l e : Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1989), 97; and H i n s l e y , " R e v i s i n g and R e v i s i o n i n g , " 80-83. A l t h o u g h he does not e x p l i c i t l y condemn W i l l e y and S a b l o f f as "Whigs," Robert S c h u y l e r was the f i r s t t o c r i t i c i z e them f o r d e p i c t i n g N o r t h American a r c h a e o l o g y as an i n e v i t a b l e development. See: Robert L. S c h u y l e r , "The H i s t o r y o f American Archaeology: An Examination o f Procedure," American A n t i o u i t v v o l . 36, no. 4 (1971): 383-409. 1 0  H i n s l e y , " R e v i s i n g and R e v i s i o n i n g , " 83; Kehoe, "The P a r a d i g m a t i c V i s i o n , " and " C o n t e x t u a l i z i n g Archaeology;" S e r g i o J . Chavez, "A Methodology f o r S t u d y i n g the H i s t o r y o f Archaeology: An Example From Peru (1524-1900), " i n R e d i s c o v e r i n g Our Past ed. Jonathan E. Reyman ( A l d e r s h o t : Avebury Ashgate P u b l i s h i n g L t d . , 1992), 35-49; Donald E. McVicker, "The M a t t e r o f S a v i l l e : Franz Boas and the A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l D e f i n i t i o n of Archaeology," i n R e d i s c o v e r i n g Our Past ed. Jonathan E. Reyman ( A l d e r s h o t : Avebury Ashgate P u b l i s h i n g L t d . , 1992), 145-159; and V a l e r i e Pinsky, "Archaeology, P o l i t i c s , and Boundary-Formation: The Boas Censure (1919) and the Development of American A r c h a e o l o g y D u r i n g the Inter-War Years," i n R e d i s c o v e r i n g Our Past ed. Jonathan E. Reyman ( A l d e r s h o t : Avebury Ashgate P u b l i s h i n g L t d . , 1992), 161-189. 1 1  I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o Bruno Latour, S c i e n c e i n A c t i o n (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1987), f o r c l a r i f y i n g the i d e a o f s c i e n c e as a network o f r e s o u r c e s deployed f o r the purpose of c o n s t r u c t i n g knowledge. 1 2  13  Wright,  " P r e h i s t o r y i n Canada,"  425.  " U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s and U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s D i v i s i o n , C h a r l e s E. Borden Papers [ h e r e a f t e r UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden P a p e r s ] , box 28, f i l e 26, "A P a r a d i s e L o s t - A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Salvage i n Tweedsmuir Park 8 VI 77 L e c t u r e t o ASBC, " 8 J u l y 1977, by C h a r l e s Borden, 3-4. 15  Wright,  " P r e h i s t o r y i n Canada,"  425.  46 Roy L. C a r l s o n , "Obituary: C h a r l e s of A r c h a e o l o g y no. 3 (1979): 234. "ibid.,  235.  "ibid.,  234.  19  Matson  E. Borden  (1905-1978),"  Canadian  Journal  and Coupland, The P r e h i s t o r y of the Northwest Coast. 42.  20  A.L. Kroeber, C u l t u r a l and N a t u r a l Areas o f N a t i v e N o r t h America (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1939), p a r t i c u l a r l y pages 28-31, f o r the Northwest Coast r e g i o n . The o n l y excellent Fladmark, nos. 6 and 21  comprehensive b i b l i o g r a p h y f o r pre-1970 B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y i s the c o m p i l a t i o n by Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y a r c h a e o l o g i s t , Knut R. " B i b l i o g r a p h y o f the A r c h a e o l o g y of B r i t i s h Columbia," BC S t u d i e s 7 ( F a l l and Winter 1970): 126-151.  Philip Drucker, A r c h e o l o g i c a l Survey on the N o r t h e r n Northwest Coast Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 133, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers, no. 20 (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1943), 17-132. 2 2  2 3  Ibid.,  128.  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 47, f i l e 12, "Review o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Research C a r r i e d Out i n B r i t i s h Columbia," n.d., by C h a r l e s E. Borden, 7-8. 24  2 5  Ibid.,  8.  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 51, f i l e 37, " P r e l i m i n a r y Report on the A r c h e o l o g y of P o i n t Grey, B r i t i s h Columbia," A p r i l 1947, by C h a r l e s E. Borden, 1. 'On page 1, Borden a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t he and Dr. A k r i g g v i s i t e d the Museum of Anthropology at Berkeley i n 1946, a t which time they t a l k e d to a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and r e c e i v e d a d v i c e . 26  P e r t i n e n t b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t i s a v a i l a b l e i n J u d i t h Judd Banks, "Comparative B i o g r a p h i e s ; " and Ralph Maud, " B i o - b i b l i o g r a p h y of C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , " i n The S e c h e l t and the S o u t h - E a s t e r n T r i b e s of Vancouver I s l a n d , v o l . 4 The S a l i s h People: The L o c a l C o n t r i b u t i o n s of C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t ed. R a l p h Maud (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1978), 17-34, and Ralph Maud, A Guide t o B.C. I n d i a n Myth and Legend (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1982), 29-39. 2 7  Vancouver C e n t e n n i a l Museum L i b r a r y , The H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n [ h e r e a f t e r VCML, Hill-Tout Collection], f i l e DIX, "EBURNE INDIAN MIDDEN PROBABLE DATE OF DISCOVERY, 1888," 14 September 1956, note by Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v i s t Major J.S. Mathews. 28  C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , " L a t e r P r e h i s t o r i c Man i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n T r a n s a c t i o n s of the R o v a l S o c i e t y of Canada S e r i e s 2 (1895): 103-122; r e p r i n t e d i n The M a i n l a n d Halkomelem. v o l . 3 of The S a l i s h People: The L o c a l C o n t r i b u t i o n o f C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t ed. Ralph Maud (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1978), 21-38 (page references are to r e p r i n t e d e d i t i o n ) . 29  D o u g l a s Cole, "The O r i g i n s of Canadian Anthropology, 1850-1910," J o u r n a l o f Canadian S t u d i e s v o l . 8, no. 1 (February 1973): 40; and Bruce G. T r i g g e r , "Giants and Pygmies: The P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f Canadian A r c h a e o l o g y , " i n 30  47 Towards a H i s t o r y of A r c h a e o l o g y ed. G l y n D a n i e l (London: Thames and Hudson L t d . , 1981), 69-76; and A l i c e B. Kehoe, "The I n v e n t i o n of P r e h i s t o r y , " C u r r e n t A n t h r o p o l o g y v o l . 32, no. 4 (August-October 1991): 467-476. C o l e , "Canadian Anthropology," 42. A l s o see: Franz Boas, "Fieldwork f o r the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , 1888-1897," Report o f the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement o f S c i e n c e (1898): 667-682; r e p r i n t e d i n The Shaping o f American A n t h r o p o l o g y 1883-1911: A Franz Boas Reader ed. George S t o c k i n g , J r . (New York: B a s i c Books, Inc., P u b l i s h e r s , 1974), 88-107 (page r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o the reprinted edition). 31  C o l e , "Canadian Anthropology," 42. A l s o see H i l l - T o u t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the Committee's 1902 r e p o r t : C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , " E t h n o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s o f the M a i n l a n d Halkomelem, A D i v i s i o n of the S a l i s h of B r i t i s h Columbia," Report o f the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of S c i e n c e 72nd meeting (1902): 355-490; r e p r i n t e d i n The Mainland Halkomelem. v o l . 3 of The S a l i s h People: The L o c a l C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t ed. Ralph Maud (Vancouver: T a l o n books, 1978), 39-93 p a r t i c u l a r y the s e c t i o n t i t l e d " A r c h a e o l o g i c a l , " 83-93 (page r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o the r e p r i n t e d e d i t i o n ) . 32  33  Cole,  3 4  Ibid.,  "Canadian Anthropology," 41-42. 42.  F r a n z Boas, "The Jesup N o r t h P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n , " P u b l i c a t i o n s o f the Jesup N o r t h P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n 1 (1898): 1-11; r e p r i n t e d i n The Shaping of American A n t h r o p o l o g y 1883-1911: A Franz Boas Reader ed. George W. S t o c k i n g , J r . (New York: B a s i c Books, Inc., P u b l i s h e r s , 1974), 107-116 (page r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o the r e p r i n t e d e d i t i o n ) . The magnitude of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , p r i m a r i l y e t h n o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than a r c h a e o l o g i c a l , which was removed from the NWC a r e a i s s t a g g e r i n g . The b e s t source i s Douglas C o l e , Captured H e r i t a g e : The Scramble f o r Northwest Coast A r t i f a c t s (Vancouver, Toronto: Douglas & M c l n t y r e L t d . ; S e a t t l e : The U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, 1985), which d e s c r i b e s , i n a n a r r a t i v e format, c o l l e c t i n g e x p e d i t i o n s by r i v a l E n g l i s h , French, German, and American museums i n the age o f monopoly c a p i t a l i s m and p h i l a n t h r o p y . An e x c e l l e n t summary i s a l s o g i v e n i n E.S. Lohse and Frances Sundt, " H i s t o r y o f Research: Museum C o l l e c t i o n s , " i n Northwest Coast, ed. Wayne S u t t l e s , v o l . 7 Handbook o f N o r t h American I n d i a n s (Washington: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , 1990), 88-97. T h i s a r t i c l e a l s o has an e x t e n s i v e l i s t i n g o f r e p o s i t o r y c o l l e c t i o n s o f NWC a r t i f a c t s , photos, and p a i n t i n g s from around the w o r l d . 35  H a r l a n I . Smith, Shell-Heaps of the Lower F r a s e r R i v e r . B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir o f the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , v o l . 2, p t . 4 The Jesup N o r t h P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n ed. Franz Boas. New York: 1903; r e p r i n t New York: AMS P r e s s , Inc., 1975, 187 (page r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o the r e p r i n t e d e d i t i o n ) . Smith d e s c r i b e s t y p i c a l e x c a v a t i o n s : " T h i r t y - t h r e e human s k e l e t o n s were s e c u r e d by us from the s h e l l - h e a p s a t P o r t Hammond d u r i n g two months' e x c a v a t i o n s ; s e v e n t y - f i v e were found i n the s h e l l - h e a p s a t Eburne d u r i n g about a month's work." The t h e f t o f s k e l e t o n s and b u r i a l a r t i f a c t s i s documented by C o l e , Captured H e r i t a g e . 119121 and page 308: "Boas c o l l e c t e d hundreds of s k u l l s and s k e l e t o n s . S t e a l i n g bones from a grave was " r e p u l s i v e work" but "someone had t o do i t , " he wrote i n 1888 d u r i n g h i s major o s t e o l o g i c a l f i e l d season." 3 6  31  R a l p h Maud, A Guide t o B.C. Banks,  "Comparative  I n d i a n Mvth and Legend.  B i o g r a p h i e s , " 85 and 191-192.  37.  48 Hill-Tout, "Later S t u d i e s , " 84-93.  3 9  Prehistoric  Man,"  28-29;  and  Hill-Tout,  "Ethnological  Boas d i s m i s s a l of H i l l - T o u t ' s s k u l l a n a l y s i s f o l l o w e d immediately after, " E a r l y P r e h i s t o r i c Man," i n the o r i g i n a l p r i n t i n g : "The s k u l l had been deformed i n the same manner as i s p r a c t i s e d by the p r e s e n t I n d i a n s . . . . What l i t t l e remains of the f a c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t s shape resembled the f a c e of the p r e s e n t I n d i a n s of t h i s r e g i o n . " Franz Boas, "Remarks on a S k u l l from B r i t i s h Columbia," (1895) : 122, quoted i n Ralph Maud ed. , The Mainland Halkomelem. v o l . 3 The S a l i s h People: The L o c a l C o n t r i b u t i o n s of C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1978), 34 f o o t n o t e 14. H i l l - T o u t ' s r e a c t i o n to Boas was e q u a l l y d i s m i s s i v e : "Although Dr. Boas i n c l i n e s to the b e l i e f t h a t such of the f a c e as i s l e f t p r e s e n t s f e a t u r e s i n common w i t h the heads of the p r e s e n t I n d i a n s , the e v i d e n c e i n support of t h i s i s so s c a n t y and i n c o n c l u s i v e a n a t u r e t h a t i t can s c a r c e l y be taken i n t o account." H i l l - T o u t , " E t h n o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s of the M a i n l a n d Halkomelem," 92. 40  1  L e t t e r from Franz Boas to R.W. Brock, 14 May 1910, quoted i n Ralph Guide t o B.C. I n d i a n Mvth and Legend. 109 f o o t n o t e 9. 4 1  42  Cole,  4 3  Ibid.,  "Canadian Anthropology,"  42.  43.  L e t t e r from C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t to Edward S a p i r , 26 February 1912, Ralph Maud, A Guide to B.C. I n d i a n Mvth and Legend. 39-41 f o o t n o t e 4 4  Maud, A  quoted i n 14.  L e t t e r from Edward S a p i r to Wesbrook, 29 June 1916, quoted i n Ralph Maud, A Guide to B.C. I n d i a n Mvth and Legend. 41 f o o t n o t e 14. 4 5  Banks, "Comparative B i o g r a p h i e s , " 22; and Hermann L e i s k , " F i e l d Notes of Hermann L e i s k . Marpole Middens and Other B.C. L o c a t i o n s , 1927-1932," t r a n s , and ed. Gordon S t a n l e y (1945-1973). Vancouver C e n t e n n i a l Museum L i b r a r y . 46  M e n t i o n of H i l l - T o u t ' s work b e i n g r e p o r t e d by the London I l l u s t r a t e d News i s found i n VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e BXV, " E d i t o r i a l , " 1930 ( s p e c i f i c date unknown), The Vancouver P r o v i n c e . M u l t i p l e r e p r i n t s of H i l l - T o u t , "The Great F r a s e r Midden," i n 1938, 1948, and 1953 i n , Museum and A r t Notes, c o n t i n u e d t o advocate the two r a c e replacement model f i r s t p o s i t e d by C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t i n 1895. See: VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e A l , The Great F r a s e r Midden (Vancouver: A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 193 8), 5; The Great F r a s e r Midden. (Vancouver: A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1938; r e p r i n t 1948) . C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s [ h e r e a f t e r CVA], Vancouver A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , Add.MSS 366, V o l . 33, F i l e 425, O c c a s i o n a l Papers. C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , The Great F r a s e r Midden. (Vancouver: A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1938; r e p r i n t 1953 w i t h a d d i t i o n a l p a p e r s ) . Examples of the p o p u l a r acceptance of the two r a c e model a r e found i n newspaper a r t i c l e s , see: VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e AVI #2 of 2, "SKULLS OF OLD RACE FOUND IN MARPOLE DUMP, C i t y Excavators Unearth I n t e r e s t i n g R e l i c s of I n d i a n s , WEAPONS LOCATED, A n c i e n t Midden D i s c o v e r e d Southwest of Marine D r i v e , " 28 May 1928, newspaper a r t i c l e from The Morning S t a r . Vancouver. The a u t h o r s t a t e s : "Fragments of e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y t h i c k s k u l l s show t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e were a t l e a s t p e c u l i a r . Measurements of s k u l l s show t h e r e i s a d e c i d e d d i f f e r e n c e between the Indians of today and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h i s a n c i e n t type, as r e p r e s e n t e d by r e l i c s i n the o l d mound." F i l e BXV, "Long-Headed Race H e l d Sway i n Vancouver Twenty C e n t u r i e s B e f o r e 1886," 16 December 1928, newspaper a r t i c l e by C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t i n The Sunday P r o v i n c e : "Echoes of 47  49 V a n i s h e d Races i n B.C.," 22 September 1933, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The P r o v i n c e ; f i l e AXXV, "Ancestors o f Eskimo Roamed T h i s D i s t r i c t B e f o r e I n d i a n s H i l l - T o u t Informs L o c a l C l u b , " 8 June 1934, newspaper a r t i c l e i n the Wenatchee D a i l y World. Washington; and f i l e BXV, "The I n d i a n s Have Vague S t o r i e s Of An A n c i e n t Race They C a l l The O l d People," 13 A p r i l 1958, newspaper a r t i c l e i n the D a i l y Colonist. Victoria. 48  Maud, " B i o - b i b l i o g r a p h y of C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , "  28.  I n a d d i t i o n t o Matson and Coupland's c l a i m , The P r e h i s t o r y of the Northwest Coast, 42, t h a t Borden s a t i n on a n t h r o p o l o g y l e c t u r e s w h i l e i n u n i v e r s i t y , t h e r e i s another i n t e r e s t i n g c o n n e c t i o n to a n t h r o p o l o g y a t B e r k e l e y . I mention i n note 40 t h a t Borden v i s i t e d the Museum of A n t h r o p o l o g y a t B e r k e l e y i n 1946. In h i s P o i n t Grey r e p o r t Borden says: "I wish t o e x p r e s s our thanks t o Mr. R.C. B e a r d s l e y , who p a t i e n t l y answered innumerable q u e s t i o n s w h i l e showing us through the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a . " UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 51, f i l e 37, " P r e l i m i n a r y Report on the A r c h e o l o g y of P o i n t Grey," 1. T h i s i s the same B e a r d s l e y who, as an undergraduate, accompanied Drucker on h i s 1938 survey o f the NWC r e g i o n , see: Drucker, A r c h e o l o g i c a l Survey. 24. C e r t a i n l y t h i s suggests t h a t Borden's a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h Boas, Kroeber, and Drucker's American t r a d i t i o n , was more p e r s o n a l i n the mid 1940s than s i m p l y through the l i t e r a t u r e . 4 9  T h e r e i s no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n f i e l d methodology evident i n a comparison o f C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , " L a t e r P r e h i s t o r i c Man," 21-38; and H a r l a n Smith, S h e l l - H e a p s . 133-191. Both are about e x c a v a t i o n s a t the Marpole midden i n the 1890s, and t h e r e are even remarkably s i m i l a r photos i n the two p u b l i c a t i o n s (page 27 H i l l - T o u t , and p l a t e VI between pages 190 and 191 i n Smith) d e p i c t i n g a p a r t i a l l y exposed s k e l e t o n l y i n g i n an open p i t , w i t h a l a r g e p i c k o r axe r e s t i n g next t o i t , c l e a r l y h i n t i n g a t the s i m i l a r i t y o f how b o t h men excavated. 50  51  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 28,  "Carlson,  file  " O b i t u a r y : C h a r l e s E. Borden,"  26,' "A P a r a d i s e L o s t , "  6.  235.  " C h a r l e s E. Borden, "A T r a n s l u c e n t S h e l t e r f o r F i e l d Work i n Regions w i t h High P r e c i p i t a t i o n , American A n t i q u i t y v o l . 15, no. 3 (1950): 252-253. C h a r l e s E Borden, " F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l F i n d i n g s , " American A n t i q u i t y v o l . 16, no. 3 (1951): 263; C h a r l e s E. Borden, review o f A r c h a e o l o g y of the C o l u m b i a - F r a s e r Region, by Marion W. Smith, i n American A n t i q u i t y v o l . 16, no. 3 (1950): 278-279; and C h a r l e s E. Borden, review of C a t t l e P o i n t : A Stratified Site i n the Southern Northwest Coast Region, by Arden R. King, i n American A n t i q u i t y v o l . 16, no. 3 (1950): 279-280. 54  " T y p i c a l examples of Borden's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n f e r e n c e s a r e the f o l l o w i n g : UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 7, f i l e 10, l e t t e r t o W i l s o n D u f f from C h a r l e s Borden, 10 January 1951, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t Borden had j u s t r e t u r n e d from an American A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n meeting i n B e r k e l e y where he met Robert H e i z e r , P h i l i p Drucker, and Arden King, and p r e s e n t e d a paper on h i s work a t the Whalen farm s i t e i n 1949-1950. Box 1, f i l e 4, l e t t e r t o S o l Tax, Program Chairman American Anthropological Association, from C h a r l e s Borden, 27 September 1957, r e g a r d i n g Borden's p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the paper, "The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Ground S l a t e s i n Northwest Coast H i s t o r y , " a t the 56th Annual Meeting o f the A.A.A. i n Chicago i n December 1957. Box 1, f i l e 5, l e t t e r t o Dr. Raymond H. Thompson, E d i t o r of American A n t i q u i t y , from C h a r l e s Borden, 22 September 1958,  50 accepting the p o s i t i o n of A s s i s t a n t Editor f o r the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Region o f f e r e d t o him, 11 September 1958.  Northwest  Coast  Edward S a p i r , Time P e r s p e c t i v e i n A b o r i g i n a l American C u l t u r e . A Study i n Method Canada, Department o f Mines, G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Memoir 90, no. 13, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S e r i e s (Ottawa: Government P r i n t i n g Bureau, 1916), 1-87. 56  5 7  W i l l e y and S a b l o f f , American Archaeology. 127-128.  5 8  Trigger, Archaeological  59  K r o e b e r , C u l t u r a l and N a t u r a l  6 0  W i l l e y and S a b l o f f , American Archaeology. 97-108.  6 1  Ibid.,  Thought. 270. Areas.  154-155.  C l y d e Kluckhohn, "The Conceptual S t r u c t u r e i n M i d d l e American S t u d i e s , " i n The Mava and T h e i r Neighbors Second E d i t i o n , ed. J e s s e D. J e n n i n g s (New York: D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company Inc., 1940; r e p r i n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f Utah Press, 1962), 50. 62  " W a l t e r W. T a y l o r , A Study o f A r c h e o l o g y no. 69 o f the T i t l e s i n t h e Memoir S e r i e s o f t h e American A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ( J u l y 1948). I b i d . , c h a r t on page A r c h a e o l o g y . 162-165. 6 4  6 5  Taylor,  6 6  Ibid.,  153; and s y n o p s i s  i n Willey  and S a b l o f f ,  American  A Study o f Archeology. 154. 181-189; and T r i g g e r , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Thought. 270-275.  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 27, f i l e 13, A n t h r o p o l o g y 420 c l a s s l e c t u r e , 20 September 1949, by C h a r l e s Borden, 1.  67  6 8  Ibid.,  4.  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 44, f i l e 20, " O b j e c t i v e s + Methodology Modern A r c h e o l o g y , " n.d., c l a s s l e c t u r e by C h a r l e s Borden, 2-3. 69  of  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 27, f i l e 13, " A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Field Techniques," 23 September 1954, Anthropology 420 l e c t u r e by C h a r l e s Borden, 2. 70  W i l s o n Duff, "Report on an A r c h e o l o g i c a l E x c a v a t i o n a t Marpole, B.C., May 2, 1949," A r c h a e o l o g y Reading Room, Museum o f Anthropology, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 71  7 2  Taylor,  A Study o f Archeology. 202.  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 44, f i l e 20, " O b j e c t i v e s + Methodology o f Modern A r c h a e o l o g y , " 3; C a r l s o n , " H i s t o r y o f Research," 111-112; and Matson and Coupland, The P r e h i s t o r y o f the Northwest Coast. 44-47 and 312. 73  The phenomenal permeation by Boas and a n t h r o p o l o g y and a r c h a e o l o g y i s a s t o u n d i n g . on t h e NWC i s suggested by Wayne S u t t l e s Research i n Ethnology," i n Northwest Coast, 74  h i s students of North American Some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e and Aldona J o n a i t i s , " H i s t o r y o f ed. Wayne S u t t l e s , v o l . 7 Handbook  51 of N o r t h American Indians (Washington: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , 1990), 74-80. V i r t u a l l y a l l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , who have worked on the NWC, a r e e i t h e r s t u d e n t s of Boas, or students of h i s s t u d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g : A.L. Kroeber, P. Drucker, R. H e i z e r , E. S a p i r , F. de Laguna, E. Gunther, M. Smith, L. S p i e r , W. Duff, and Wayne S u t t l e s . In g e n e r a l the major American a n t h r o p o l o g y departments on the West Coast, UC B e r k e l e y and the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, were staunch Boasian s t r o n g h o l d s w e l l i n t o the 1950s. The r i s e of the "new" or " p r o c e s s u a l archaeology," and n e o - e v o l u t i o n i s e x t e n s i v e l y covered by W i l l e y and S a b l o f f , American A r c h a e o l o g y . 214-257; and T r i g g e r , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Thought. 289-328. The seminal work t h a t c o i n e d the term " p r o c e s s u a l archaeology," and argued t h a t a r c h a e o l o g y was anthropology or n o t h i n g , i s Gordon R. W i l l e y and P h i l i p P h i l l i p s , Method and Theory i n American A r c h a e o l o g y (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1958), e s p e c i a l l y pages 1-7. Lewis B i n f o r d ' s d i s c i p l i n e shaking a r t i c l e , which draws h e a v i l y on L e s l i e White and J u l i a n Steward's n e o - e v o l u t i o n a r y thought, and i s c o n s i d e r e d by many to be the foundation of the "new archaeology" is, "Archaeology as A n t h r o p o l o g y , " American A n t i q u i t y v o l . 28, no. 2 (1962): 217-225. 75  The f a l s e dichotomy between h i s t o r y and science, t h a t was forced on a r c h a e o l o g y by Kluckhohn and o t h e r s , i s d i s c u s s e d i n T r i g g e r , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Thought, 372-379. In the f a c e of a n t i - h i s t o r i c a l B r i t i s h s o c i a l anthropology, Kroeber argued e a r l y on i n , " H i s t o r y and S c i e n c e i n A n t h r o p o l o g y , " American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t New S e r i e s , v o l . 37, no. 4 (October-December, 1935): 539-569, t h a t the d i v i s i o n between h i s t o r y and s c i e n c e was artificial, and that anthropology had ample room f o r both functionalist g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and historical particularism. 76  C h a r l e s E. Borden, " P r e l i m i n a r y Report on A r c h e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the F r a s e r D e l t a Region," A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia no. 1 (1950): 13-27; and C h a r l e s E. Borden, "Notes on the P r e - h i s t o r y of the Southern North-west Coast Region," The B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y v o l . 14, (1950): 241-246. For a complete l i s t i n g of Borden's p u b l i c a t i o n s to 1970 see Fladmark, " B i b l i o g r a p h y of the A r c h a e o l o g y of B r i t i s h Columbia," 127-129. 77  •  78  Borden, 7 9  Ibid.  8 0  Ibid.  " P r e l i m i n a r y Report,"  13.  R o b e r t F. H e i z e r ed., A Manual of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l F i e l d Methods ( M i l l b r a e , C a l i f . : The N a t i o n a l Press, 1949). The copy I examined, from the UBC l i b r a r y , was a g i f t from C h a r l e s Borden. 81  82  Borden,  8 3  Ibid.  8 4  Ibid.  "Notes on the P r e - h i s t o r y , "  242.  B o r d e n makes t h i s p o i n t h i m s e l f : UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 28, f i l e 19, "Archaeology of the Pt. Grey Area Vancouver B.C. Seattle Anthropological A s s o c i a t i o n , " A p r i l 1949, l e c t u r e g i v e n by Borden a t The U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 3-4. The o r i g i n a l a r t i f a c t r e c o r d sheet p r o t o t y p e i s found i n H e i z e r ed., A Manual of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l F i e l d methods. 32; and f o r the o r i g i n a l Whalen farm r e c o r d sheets see the bound volumes: "Whalen Farm: E x c a v a t i o n 85  52 A r t i f a c t and S u r f a c e F i n d s 1949-1950," and "Whalen Farm S i t e Boundary Bay Washington 1949," A r c h a e o l o g y Reading Room, Museum o f Anthropology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 86  Borden,  "Notes on the P r e - h i s t o r y , "  242.  The f u l l magnitude o f maps, s t r a t i g r a p h i c p r o f i l e s , and hundreds o f pages o f m e t i c u l o u s l y r e c o r d e d measurements can o n l y be grasped by p e r u s i n g the Whalen f i e l d n o t e s see: C h a r l e s E. Borden, " F i e l d Notes + Photo Record I & I I Whalen Farm (DfRs 3) Boundary Bay 1949," A r c h a e o l o g y Reading Room, Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 89  Borden,  "Notes on the P r e - h i s t o r y , "  9 0  T a y l o r , A Study o f A r c h e o l o g y . 113.  91  Borden,  92  D r u c k e r , A r c h e o l o g i c a l Survey. 35.  242.  " P r e l i m i n a r y Report," 13.  C a r l s o n , " H i s t o r y o f Research i n A r c h e o l o g y , " 108, makes the p o i n t t h a t Drucker's a r t i f a c t t y p o l o g y was based on t h a t o f W.C. McKern, "The Midwestern Taxonomic Method as an A i d t o A r c h a e o l o g i c a l C u l t u r e Study," American A n t i q u i t y v o l . 4, no. 4 (1939): 301-113. The c o n n e c t i o n from McKern t o Linnaeus i s made in William Duncan Strong, "Historical Approach i n Anthropology," i n A n t h r o p o l o g y Today ed. A.L. Kroeber (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1953, 1957), 391: "The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l use of the taxonomic approach of Linnaeus i n r e g a r d t o a r t i f a c t s a l s o goes back t o 1849, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the midwestern taxonomic system, w i t h whose name McKern (1939) i s most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d , has long roots." A l s o see: A l e x D. K r i e g e r , "The T y p o l o g i c a l Concept," American A n t i q u i t y v o l . 9, no. 3 (1944): 271-288. 9 3  94  Borden, "Notes on the P r e - h i s t o r y , " 243. Borden's f o r m a t i o n i s comprehensively examined i n Robinson, F o r m a t i o n and T e s t i n g o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Hypotheses." 95  Borden,  9 6  Ibid.,  "Notes on the P r e - h i s t o r y , "  approach t o h y p o t h e s i s "Charles E. Borden H i s  243.  243-244.  An e x c e l l e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n and c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of i n f e r e n c e from a n a l o g y i s found i n Hodder, The Present Past. 11-27.  97  The development of the d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l approach i s c o v e r e d i n W i l l e y and S a b l o f f , American Archaeology. 125-127 and 150 endnote 29. A.L. Kroeber employed the d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l approach i n , "Zuni P o t s h e r d s , " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers, American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , v o l . 18, p t . 1 (1916): 7-37; and i n f l u e n c e d W. Duncan Strong, who c a r r i e d the approach t o i t s g r e a t e s t r e f i n e m e n t i n , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Nebraska A r c h e o l o g y S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c e l l a n e o u s C o l l e c t i o n s , v o l . 93, no. 10 (Washington: S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n , 1935). J u l i a n Steward was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by Kroeber and p r o v i d e d the most c o n c i s e s y n o p s i s of the d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l approach i n , "The D i r e c t Historical Approach," American A n t i q u i t y v o l . 7, no. 4 (1942): 337-343. 98  Ibid.,  393.  53 D r u c k e r , A r c h e o l o g i c a l Survey. 24. The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Borden used the d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l approach a t Musqueam i s based on the f o l l o w i n g items: UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 50, f i l e 14, "Musgueam," 17 September 1950, f i e l d notes on an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l survey of the Musgueam I n d i a n Reserve, by C h a r l e s Borden. Box 50, f i l e 15, "A Musgueam House S i t e , " n.d., f i e l d notes, by Norman Young a s t u d e n t of Borden; and "Results of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l E x c a v a t i o n s a t Musgueam (October 1950 - A p r i l 1951)," by the student Helen P i d d i n g , which i n d i c a t e t h a t e x c a v a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out on a p r e - h i s t o r i c house s i t e , on the c u r r e n t l y o c c u p i e d s e c t i o n of the Musgueam Reserve. 100  C a r l s o n makes t h i s p o i n t i n , " H i s t o r y of A r c h e o l o g i c a l Research," 108. In Boas' 1902 a r t i c l e , "Some Problems i n N o r t h American A r c h a e o l o g y , " American J o u r n a l of A r c h a e o l o g y Second S e r i e s , v o l . 6 (1902): 1-6; r e p r i n t e d i n Race. Language, and C u l t u r e ed. Franz Boas (New York: The F r e e Press, 1940), 525 (page r e f e r e n c e s are to the r e p r i n t e d e d i t i o n ) , Boas s t a t e s : " I t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t the remains found i n most of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s of America were l e f t by a p e o p l e s i m i l a r i n c u l t u r e to the p r e s e n t I n d i a n s . For t h i s reason, the e t h n o l o g i c a l study of the Indians must be c o n s i d e r e d as a p o w e r f u l means of e l u c i d a t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains. I t i s h a r d l y p o s s i b l e to u n d e r s t a n d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of American a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains w i t h o u t h a v i n g r e c o u r s e t o e t h n o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , which f r e q u e n t l y e x p l a i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of p r e h i s t o r i c f i n d s . " The b i b l i o g r a p h i e s of Borden's own p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t e n suggest the sources f o r h i s e t h n o g r a p h i c knowledge, f o r example i n " P r e l i m i n a r y Report," f o r the Whalen s i t e , Borden l i s t s (page 20) Boas' 1895 work The K w a k i u t l of Vancouver I s l a n d . Memoir of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , v o l . 5, p t . 2 The Jesup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n ed. Franz Boas. New York: E . J . B r i l l , Leiden, and G.E. S t e c h e r t , 1909 301-522; r e p r i n t New York: AMS Press, Inc., 1975, c i t e d by Borden as: Boas, Franz 1905-1909 "The K w a k i u t l of Vancouver I s l a n d . " Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. H i s t . , V o l . 8, pp. 307-515. Boas' work i s a massive e t h n o g r a p h i c account of the K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e and l i f e ways, f o c u s i n g on: " I n d u s t r i e s , Measurements, House and H o u s e - F u r n i s h i n g s , Meals, T r a v e l and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , C l o t h i n g and Ornaments, F i s h i n g , and H u n t i n g Sea-Mammals, and Hunting Land-Mammals and B i r d s , " (from t a b l e of c o n t e n t s 301303) . T h i s book p r o v i d e d Borden w i t h the knowledge to i n f e r l i f e p a t t e r n s of p r e h i s t o r i c p e o p l e a t the Whalen s i t e from the a r t i f a c t u a l remains. 1 0 1  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 50, f i l e 19, " B o t a n i c a l Report, Whalen S i t e , Boundary Bay," n.d., by W i l s o n Duff, page 8 f o o t n o t e s 4 and 5 and b i b l i o g r a p h y page 14. 102  103  Borden,  "Notes on the P r e - h i s t o r y , "  244.  Ibid. B o a s ' i n t r o d u c t i o n of d i f f u s i o n i s m to North America,- from the European cultural-geography s c h o o l of F r i e d r i c h R a t z e l , i s d i s c u s s e d i n Trigger, Archaeological Thought. 151-155. The use of m i g r a t i o n and d i f f u s i o n as explanatory s t r a t e g i e s i n N o r t h American c u l t u r e - h i s t o r i c a l a r c h a e o l o g y i s d i s c u s s e d i n I r v i n g Rouse, "The S t r a t e g y of C u l t u r e H i s t o r y , " i n A n t h r o p o l o g y Today ed. A.L. Kroeber (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1953, 1957), 71-72. Boas' i n t e r e s t i n e x p l a i n i n g c u l t u r a l t r a n s f e r e n c e i s u b i q u i t o u s i n h i s w r i t i n g s and was a p r i m a r y g o a l of the Jesup E x p e d i t i o n , see: Boas, "The Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition," 108-109. 105  106  1 0 7  Borden, Ibid.,  " P r e l i m i n a r y Report," 245  footnote  5.  245.  54 i U 8  I b i d . , 246.  109  •  Latour, 110  m  •  Science  Fladmark,  •  i n A c t i o n . 131.  "Bibliography  W i l s o n Duff,  "Preface,"  o f the A r c h a e o l o g y o f B r i t i s h Columbia," 127-128. Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia no. 1 (1950): 1-2.  112  Sprague, "The P a c i f i c Northwest," 265, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the o n l y c o n t r o v e r s y , i n NWC a r c h a e o l o g y d u r i n g the 1950s, was between Borden and h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n Washington over the i s s u e o f c u l t u r e flow between t h e i n t e r i o r and t h e c o a s t , b e g i n n i n g w i t h Borden's paper, "Some A s p e c t s o f P r e h i s t o r i c C o a s t a l - I n t e r i o r R e l a t i o n s i n t h e P a c i f i c Northwest," A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia no. 4 (1953-1954): 26-32, and c o n t i n u e d i n Douglas Osborne, e t a l . , "The Problem o f Northwest C o a s t a l - I n t e r i o r R e l a t i o n s h i p s as Seen from S e a t t l e , " American A n t i o u i t v v o l . 22, no. 2 (1956): 117-129. The s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e i s n o t t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s arguments, but r a t h e r the f a c t t h a t Borden was considered b o t h an a u t h o r i t y t o contend with, and a s c h o l a r o f extreme c r e d i b i l i t y , whose work was t r e a t e d as such by h i s American c o l l e a g u e s . VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e DIV, "Hints f o r E x c a v a t i o n a t Marpole," 8 October 1944, by Hermann L e i s k , 3. 113  VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e DVII, l e t t e r p r i n t e d i n The Vancouver Sun. 4 F e b r u a r y 1937, by Hermann L e i s k .  114  Hermann L e i s k , " F i e l d Notes o f Hermann L e i s k , " book 1, page 25, i s a d e s c r i p t i o n by L e i s k , o f a grave e x c a v a t i o n i n t h e Marpole midden, 19 May 1930, which i s t y p i c a l o f h i s work. No maps were made, no measuring t o o l s mentioned, and no d e s c r i p t i o n o f the context o f the exhumed s k e l e t o n i s g i v e n . CVA, Vancouver A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , Add.MSS 366, V o l . 33, F i l e 425, O c c a s i o n a l Papers. "Northwest Coast Middens" by T.P.O. Menzies C i t y of Vancouver Museum Curator, i n .Charles H i l l - T o u t , The Great F r a s e r Midden (Vancouver: A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1938; r e p r i n t 1953 w i t h a d d i t i o n a l p a p e r s ) , 16, i n d i c a t e s t h a t L e i s k " s 1930 e x c a v a t i o n s produced over one hundred s k e l e t o n s f o r the museum, and d e s c r i b e s the e x c a v a t i o n s : "The method f o l l o w e d i n examining t h i s midden was t o t r e n c h down t o r o c k bottom, then work forward on a f a c e . I n t h i s manner s c a r c e l y an item o f i n t e r e s t was missed, and t h e exact p o s i t i o n o f the item c o u l d be c a r e f u l l y measured from t h e s u r f a c e . " As i n d i c a t e d , however, I have found no e v i d e n c e t h a t L e i s k made c a r e f u l measurements o f any k i n d . VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e DIV, l e t t e r to T.H. Ainsworth, C i t y o f Vancouver Museum C u r a t o r , from Hermann L e i s k , 16 October 1955. I n t h i s l e t t e r L e i s k i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s e x c a v a t i o n s a t Marpole s u f f e r e d from poor r e c o r d keeping, and t h a t most m a t e r i a l was u n c a t a l o g u e d and e v e n t u a l l y thrown away because o f i n s u f f i c i e n t s t o r a g e space. He i n d i c a t e s embarrassment over the l a c k o f r i g o u r i n h i s work and c l a i m s t o have been an u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r when the museum h i r e d him t o excavate a t Marpole. I t seems to me t h a t L e i s k o n l y s t a r t e d t o c o n s i d e r h i s work unmethodical, a f t e r Borden began e x c a v a t i n g a t Marpole, i n 1955, u s i n g the extreme r i g o u r he was known for. 115  VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e DIX, l e t t e r t o T.P.O. Menzies from Hermann L e i s k , 14 F e b r u a r y 1937. I n t h i s l e t t e r L e i s k c l a i m s t h a t he c o u l d match h i s f i e l d notes up w i t h the C i t y Museum c o l l e c t i o n s . I n a p e r s o n a l communication from Lynn Maranda a t the VCML, I l e a r n e d t h a t t h i s never happened, and t h a t L e i s k ' s f i e l d notes were o n l y t r a n s l a t e d from the o r i g i n a l Dutch i n t h e e a r l y 1970s. 116  55 117  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 39, f i l e 8, "Brook's Mound," n.d., e s s a y by Borden on an a l l e g e d b u r i a l mound d i s c o v e r e d by l o c a l amateur R.A. Brooks i n 1944, 5. VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e BXV, "Did A z t e c s L i v e Here? - F i n d R e v i v e s C o n t r o v e r s y , " 2 January 1953, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The Vancouver Sun, and " P r e h i s t o r i c C a r v i n g s P u z z l e A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , " 1 March 1953, newspaper a r t i c l e i n the D a i l y C o l o n i s t , V i c t o r i a ; f i l e BXV, "Echoes of V a n i s h e d Races i n B.C.," 22 September 1933, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The P r o v i n c e ; f i l e AVI #2 o f 2, "SKULLS OF OLD RACE FOUND IN MARPOLE DUMP," 28 May 1928, newspaper a r t i c l e from The Morning S t a r . Vancouver; and f i l e DIV, "Dawn-Men Of N o r t h America," 13 October 1948, newspaper a r t i c l e from The Evening C i t i z e n . Ottawa. 118  119  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, A r c h a e o l o g y o f P o i n t Grey," 5. 1 2 0  Ibid.,  box  51,  file  37,  "Preliminary  Report  on  the  52.  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 28, f i l e 28, "The Middens o f B r i t i s h Columbia," 8 March 1948, CBR Vancouver r a d i o b r o a d c a s t t r a n s c r i p t , by C h a r l e s Borden, 1-6. 121  1 2 2  Ibid.,  6.  123  Quote from: UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box B.C.'s P a s t , " 3 December 1948, newspaper a r t i c l e Borden's book metaphor f o r middens i s found V i l l a g e i n Southern B r i t i s h Columbia," I n d i a n 1955) : 11.  32, f i l e , 1, " P r o f . D i g s i n t o i n the News H e r a l d . Vancouver. i n , "An A n c i e n t Coast I n d i a n Time v o l . 2, no. 15 (December  F o r examples see the f o l l o w i n g : UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 31, f i l e 19, " S c i e n c e A i d s A r c h a e o l o g i s t In Research," 11 March 1954, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The P r o v i n c e ; box 31, f i l e 19, " E d i t o r i a l Page of The Vancouver Sun. B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, Tuesday, October 11, 1955," by Elmore P h i l p o t t . The a u t h o r s t a t e s : " A c c o r d i n g t o Dr. Borden the evidence c l e a r l y shows t h a t I n d i a n s were l i v i n g a t the s i t e of t h i s Marpole midden, or Great F r a s e r r i v e r midden a t l e a s t as e a r l y as the time o f C h r i s t . H i g h l y a c c u r a t e , s c i e n t i f i c carbon t e s t s on the b i t s o f wood dug up from the s t r u c t u r e show an age o f more than 1,900 y e a r s . There a r e the r e l a t i v e l y i n t a c t remains of a house of a s u r p r i s i n g l y c i v i l i z e d type." Box 31, f i l e 18, "In R a d i o a c t i v e T e s t s B.C. I n d i a n Campfire Ash Proved 8,150 Years O l d , " 10 December 1957, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The Vancouver Sun. The c o n f i d e n c e of the author i n Borden's a u t h o r i t y i s e v i d e n t : " U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. a r c h a e o l o g i s t Dr. C h a r l e s E. Borden s a i d the Y a l e [ a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e ] f i n d i n g , and t h r e e o t h e r dates a l s o r e c e i v e d today from the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan l a b o r a t o r i e s , g i v e B.C. one of the c o m p l e t e s t p i c t u r e s o f p r e h i s t o r i c l i f e i n North America." 1 2 4  D u f f took the p o s i t i o n o f "Temporary A s s i s t a n t i n Anthropology" i n 1949, and then permanent " A s s i s t a n t i n Anthropology" i n 1950; see: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and A n t h r o p o l o g y Report f o r the Year 1949 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1950): B5; and B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and A n t h r o p o l o g y Report f o r the Year 1950 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1951): B5. 1 2 5  1 2 6  Ibid.,  B15.  56 UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 11, f i l e 1, l e t t e r t o C h a r l e s Borden from H a r r y Hawthorn, 3 November 1950, including, "WILSON DUFF'S SUGGESTIONS REGARDING PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES," n.d. 127  128  UBC A r c h i v e s , C h a r l e s Borden,  Borden Papers, box 10 November 1950.  11,  file  1,  letter  t o H a r r y Hawthorn from  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 7, f i l e 10, l e t t e r t o C h a r l e s Borden W i l s o n D u f f , 9 December 1950, including, "AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC OBJECTS, R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B.C., 1948." 129  from THE  130.,., . ,  Ibid.  U B C A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 7, f i l e 10, l e t t e r t o W.T. of E d u c a t i o n , from W i l s o n Duff, 9 December 1950. m  132_,  .  Straith, Minister  j  Ibid.  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 7, f i l e 10, l e t t e r t o W i l s o n D u f f from C h a r l e s Borden, 10 January 1950; and l e t t e r t o W i l s o n D u f f from C h a r l e s Borden, 29 J a n u a r y 1951, i n c l u d i n g , "Memorandum Re: The E f f e c t s of Proposed Power Developments on the A r c h e o l o g y of B r i t i s h Columbia," 29 January 1951, by W i l s o n Duff. 133  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 7, f i l e 10, l e t t e r t o W.T. S t r a i t h , M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , from C h a r l e s Borden, "Re: The P r e s e n t Emergency i n B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h e o l o g y , " 5 F e b r u a r y 1951; l e t t e r t o E.T. Kenney, M i n i s t e r o f Lands and F o r e s t s , from W i l s o n Duff, "Re: Emergency A r c h e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f Areas t o be F l o o d e d by Power Development, " 28 F e b r u a r y 1951; and l e t t e r t o W.T. S t r a i t h , M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , from W i l s o n Duff, "Re: Emergency A r c h e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of Areas t o be F l o o d e d by Power Development," 28 F e b r u a r y 1951, i n c l u d i n g , "Memorandum Re: The E f f e c t s of Proposed Power Developments on the A r c h e o l o g y of B r i t i s h Columbia," which o u t l i n e d the e s t i m a t e d c o s t s (page 7) a t $2000 f o r a two p e r s o n survey o f the Nechako d r a i n a g e . 134  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 7, f i l e 10, l e t t e r t o C h a r l e s Borden from W i l s o n Duff, 17 A p r i l 1951, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t D u f f had j u s t met w i t h W.T. S t r a i t h to p l e a d the case f o r f u n d i n g of the Nechako s u r v e y s ; l e t t e r t o C h a r l e s Borden from W i l s o n Duff, 20 A p r i l 1951, c o n c e r n i n g H a r r y Hawthorn, who a p p a r e n t l y sent a l e t t e r t o W.T. S t r a i t h u r g i n g f o r f u l l f u n d i n g of the Nechako p r o j e c t ; and box 16, f i l e 2, l e t t e r t o N.A.M. MacKenzie, P r e s i d e n t o f UBC, from W.T. S t r a i t h , M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , 25 A p r i l 1951, announcing t h a t a cheque f o r $2000 was b e i n g forwarded to MacKenzie f o r the purpose of f u n d i n g Borden and D u f f ' s Nechako p r o j e c t . 135  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 16, f i l e 2, "TWEEDSMUIR PARK ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY, ( J u l y and August 1951), A Summary o f R e s u l t s and Recommendations," n.d., by C h a r l e s Borden. A l s o see: C h a r l e s E. Borden, "Tweedsmuir Survey Notes 1951," A r c h a e o l o g y Reading Room, Museum of Anthropology, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 136  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box W i l s o n Duff, 12 September 1951. 137  7,  file  10,  letter  t o C h a r l e s Borden  from  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers", box 16, f i l e 2, l e t t e r t o W.T. S t r a i t h , M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , from C h a r l e s Borden, 12 December 1951, "Re: Emergency A r c h e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n Tweedsmuir Park," c a l l i n g f o r f u n d i n g f o r the 138  57 summer o f 1952 and i n c l u d i n g , "TWEEDSMUIR PARK ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY, ( J u l y and August 1951), A Summary o f R e s u l t s and Recommendations," n.d., by C h a r l e s Borden. T h i s r e p o r t c o n t a i n e d a s t r o n g p l e a f o r c o n t i n u e d f u n d i n g f o r the summer o f 1952 and a f i n a n c i a l summary o f how the $2000 g r a n t f o r t h e summer of 1951 was spent. Box 16, f i l e 2, l e t t e r t o C h a r l e s Borden from W.T. S t r a i t h , M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 27 December 1951, t h a n k i n g Borden f o r h i s 12 December r e p o r t , and c o n c u r r e d w i t h Borden on the importance o f c o n t i n u i n g t h e s u r v e y s i n t h e summer o f 1952. Box 16, f i l e 2, l e t t e r t o W.T. S t r a i t h from C h a r l e s Borden, 12 March 1952, reminding S t r a i t h o f h i s commitment t o p r o v i d e f u n d i n g f o r t h e summer o f 1952. Borden made a s t r o n g case f o r a t l e a s t $8650. Box 16, f i l e 2, l e t t e r t o C h a r l e s Borden from W.T. S t r a i t h , 14 March 1952, i n f o r m i n g Borden t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t approved the amount r e q u e s t e d i n t h e l e t t e r from 12 March 1952; l e t t e r t o W.T. S t r a i t h from C h a r l e s Borden, 24 March 1952, t h a n k i n g S t r a i t h f o r h i s e f f o r t s i n s e c u r i n g f u n d i n g and p r o m i s i n g " s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o our knowledge o f the p r e h i s t o r y o f t h i s r e g i o n . " Box 16, f i l e 2, l e t t e r from C h a r l e s Borden t o W.T. S t r a i t h , 6 May 1952, i n q u i r i n g i n t o t h e whereabouts o f t h e $8650 approved 14 March 1952; l e t t e r t o C h a r l e s Borden from R.C. Grant, E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 7 May 1952, e n c l o s e d w i t h an $8650 cheque f o r the Tweedsmuir Park s u r v e y o f 1952; and l e t t e r t o R.C. Grant from C h a r l e s Borden, 9 May 1952, acknowledging r e c e i p t o f the cheque e n c l o s e d w i t h Grant's l e t t e r 7 May 1952. Al-Can's c o n t r i b u t i o n i s mentioned by Borden i n box 28, f i l e 26, "A P a r a d i s e L o s t , " 9; and t h e UBC c o n t r i b u t i o n i s mentioned i n box 11, f i l e 1, l e t t e r t o Dr. J e s s e L. Nusbaum, Santa Fe, New Mexico, from C h a r l e s Borden, 17 May 1952. C h a r l e s E. Borden, " R e s u l t s o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia," A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia no. 3 (1952): 31-43. 1 3 9  W i l s o n D u f f , "Report o f the A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , " i n P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and A n t h r o p o l o g y Report f o r the Year 1952. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of E d u c t i o n , ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1953): B19. 1 4 0  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 7, f i l e 10, "Memorandum Re: The E f f e c t o f Proposed Power Developments on the A r c h e o l o g y o f B r i t i s h Columbia," n.d., by W i l s o n Duff, a s s e s s i n g a l l o f the major power p r o j e c t s i n c l u d i n g t h e NechakoK i t i m a t P r o j e c t p. 1, the Kootenay-Libby P r o j e c t p. 3, the Quesnal R i v e r P r o j e c t p. 4, and numerous o t h e r s m a l l e r power p r o j e c t s i n the p r o v i n c e d u r i n g the 1950s p. 5. Box 7, f i l e 10, l e t t e r t o C h a r l e s Borden from W i l s o n D u f f , 20 October 1954, r e g a r d i n g the F r o b i s h e r dam p r o j e c t i n t h e Yukon t h a t t h r e a t e n e d s i t e s i n B.C., and i n c l u d i n g , " A r c h e o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s o f t h e F r o b i s h e r P r o j e c t , " n.d., by W i l s o n Duff, i n d i c a t i n g the p o s s i b l e e x t e n t o f r i v e r f l o o d i n g t h a t would o c c u r i n B.C. The r e s u l t s o f surveys, i n 1954, ahead o f t h e L i b b y Dam p r o j e c t , which a f f e c t e d the Kootenay r e g i o n , and surveys on t h e Windermere l a k e s a r e found i n : C h a r l e s E. Borden, " R e s u l t s o f Two A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Surveys i n t h e E a s t Kootenay Region o f B r i t i s h Columbia," Research S t u d i e s o f t h e S t a t e C o l l e g e o f Washington v o l . 24, no. 1 (March 1956): 73-104. 141  Charles E. Borden, "A Uniform S i t e Designation Scheme F o r Canada," A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia no. 3, (1952): 44-48. C a r l s o n , "Archaeology i n B r i t i s h Columbia," 13, mentions the n a t i o n a l a d o p t i o n o f Borden's scheme. A l s o s e e : C h a r l e s E. Borden "Tweedsmuir Survey Notes 1951." These raw f i e l d notes from t h e s u r v e y i n d i c a t e t h a t a v e r s i o n o f Borden's s i t e d e s i g n a t i o n scheme was a l r e a d y i n working o r d e r by the summer o f 1951. 1 4 2  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 11, f i l e 15, l e t t e r t o P.B. S t r o y a n , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t and E n g i n e e r Vancouver C i t y Parks Board, from C h a r l e s Borden, 25 August 1957, naming the h o t e l p r o j e c t as t h a t o f the F r a s e r Arms H o t e l . 143  58 UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 47, f i l e 42, summary o f Borden's work a t the Marpole midden i n the summer of 1955, n.d., 1-3. I b i d . , 1, Borden makes the p o i n t about media coverage. The C i t y Museum's r o l e and a l i s t o f v o l u n t e e r s a r e n o t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g : UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 11, f i l e 15, l e t t e r t o Thomas A i n s w o r t h , S e c r e t a r y - C u r a t o r Vancouver C i t y Museum, from C h a r l e s Borden, 31 May 1956, i n c l u d i n g the l i s t , "ARTIFACTS RECOVERED DURING EXCAVATIONS CARRIED OUT BY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WITH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE VANCOUVER CITY MUSEUM AT MARPOLE, LOT 28, JULY 9 - AUGUST 19, 1955, FIELD CATALOGUE NUMBERS Ma 4001 Ma 5415," 2 pages, "ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN MARPOLE, LOT 28, VOLUNTEER ASSISTANTS JULY 9 - AUGUST 17, 1955," l i s t i n g 21 v o l u n t e e r s , and, "VANCOUVER CITY MUSEUM GRANT IN AID OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON MARPOLE LOT NO. 28, JULY 1955," e x p l a i n i n g i n d e t a i l how Borden spent the $350 g r a n t , which the Vancouver C i t y Museum swapped f o r a l l o f the a r t i f a c t s r e c o v e r e d d u r i n g the summer 1955 e x c a v a t i o n s . 1 4 5  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 31, f i l e 19, "In Marpole A r e a I n d i a n Midden Probe i n Race A g a i n s t Time," 1 June 1955, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The P r o v i n c e .  146  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 31, f i l e 19, "Chamber attempts t o save midden, Whole s i t e may be d e s t r o y e d by b u i l d i n g development soon," 17 August 1955, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The P r o v i n c e . VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e DVII, "Harry Duker heads Midden Foundation," 1 December 1955, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The P r o v i n c e . 147  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 47, f i l e 42, summary o f Borden's work a t the Marpole midden i n the summer of 1955, d e s c r i b i n g media hype and p r o v i d i n g the r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s f o r the s i t e , 1. Box 31, f i l e 19, " E d i t o r i a l Page o f The Vancouver Sun." VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e DVII, "Great F r a s e r Midden i s s o u r c e of h i d d e n I n d i a n t r e a s u r e s , " 26 November 1955, a r t i c l e , i n The Vancouver Province B.C. Magazine. referring to Borden's summer 1955 excavations. 148  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 11, f i l e 15, l e t t e r t o Jean Lesage, M i n i s t e r of N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, Ottawa, from A r t h u r L a i n g , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l MLA, 23 August 1955. L a i n g wrote: "Last week I met t h r e e b u s i n e s s men who had a t t e n d e d a s e r v i c e c l u b meeting t o hear a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r who has t h i s y e a r conducted, w i t h a number o f v o l u n t e e r workers, further e x c a v a t i o n s [at the Marpole midden]. The p r o f e s s o r so impressed t h e s e b u s i n e s s men t h a t t h e y t o l d me t h a t i f the h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e was h a l f as g r e a t as the p r o f e s s o r impressed upon them then t h i s p r o p e r t y s h o u l d be s e t a s i d e as an h i s t o r i c a l s i t e f o r the enjoyment and i n v e s t i g a t i o n by a l l p e o p l e . Would you be good enough t o make some i n q u i r i e s among your o f f i c e r s t o a s s e s s the v a l u e of t h i s s i t e as o f permanent h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e ? I might add t h a t a number o f b o d i e s , i n c l u d i n g the Marpole Chamber o f Commerce, a r e a l r e a d y on r e c o r d as advocating d e f i n i t e action." L a i n g a l s o mentioned t h a t Dr. W a l t e r Sage, the B.C. h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , was i n f u l l agreement w i t h the t h r e e b u s i n e s s men. Box 11, f i l e 15, l e t t e r t o A.J.H. R i c h a r d s o n , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t H i s t o r i c Parks and S i t e s , Ottawa, from W a l t e r N. Sage B.C., h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , 25 August 1955, m e n t i o n i n g Borden's work a t the Marpole midden and u r g i n g immediate a c t i o n t o save the remains of the midden from d e s t r u c t i o n . Box, 11, f i l e 15, l e t t e r t o A.J.H. R i c h a r d s o n from W a l t e r N.Sage, 25 August 1955, d i s c u s s i n g the imminent danger t o the Marpole midden, from the h o t e l p r o j e c t , and i n c l u d i n g a copy o f L a i n g ' s l e t t e r t o Lesage, from 23 August 1955. Box 11, f i l e 15, l e t t e r t o W.N. Sage from A.J.H. R i c h a r d s o n , 6 September 1955, n o t i n g : "Mr. L a i n g ' s l e t t e r has been r e c e i v e d and h i s comments w i l l be p l a c e d 149  59 b e f o r e the [ H i s t o r i c S i t e s ] Board a t i t s meeting." UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 7, f i l e 10, l e t t e r t o Ray W i l l i s t o n , M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , from W i l s o n Duff, 12 October 1955, i n c l u d i n g memorandum, "Marpole Midden," 2 pages, and " A r c h e o l o g i c a l S i t e s L e g i s l a t i o n , " 3 pages, by W i l s o n Duff. 150  1 5 1  Ibid.  VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e DVII, "For Lack o f $1000," 21 June 1956, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The Vancouver Sun, lamenting the l a c k o f money f o r Borden to e x c a v a t e and c h a s t i z i n g the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r not p r o v i d i n g f u n d i n g f o r a UBC p r o j e c t . However, Borden d i d excavate i n 1956 a t s i t e s i n the F r a s e r Canyon w i t h f u n d i n g from the Koerner Foundation and the^ UBC Committee on Research: C h a r l e s E. Borden, "DjRi 3, An E a r l y S i t e in. -the F r a s e r Canyon, B r i t i s h Columbia," N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o A n t h r o p o l o g y , B u l l e t i n 162 (1957, 1960): 101. 152  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 31, f i l e 17, " i n s p i r e d by Sun e d i t o r i a l p r i v a t e g i f t f i n a n c e s d i g on marpole midden, " 19 August 1957, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The Vancouver Sun. Box 11, f i l e 15, l e t t e r t o P.B. S t r o y a n , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t and E n g i n e e r Vancouver C i t y Parks Board, from C h a r l e s Borden, 25 August 1957, n o t i n g t h a t "thanks t o the generous f i n a n c i a l support o f a well-known B.C. i n d u s t r i a l i s t we were a b l e t o resume i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t the s i t e i n June 1957." 153  1 5 4  Hill-Tout,  " L a t e r P r e h i s t o r i c Man  i n B r i t i s h Columbia,"  21.  T h e f a i l e d attempt t o b u i l d a park and i n t e r p r e t i v e c e n t r e on c i t y owned p r o p e r t y i s d e t a i l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g : VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e DII, l e t t e r t o T.A. Wylie, D i r e c t o r of the M a r i t i m e Museum, from Thomas H. A i n s w o r t h , C u r a t o r of the C i t y Museum, 11 August 1960; l e t t e r t o T.A. W y l i e from E l i s a b e t h B o u s c h o l t e , S e c r e t a r y t o Dr. C.E. Borden, 29 August 1960; l e t t e r to J.C. O l i v e r , Commissioner a t C i t y H a l l , from T.A. Wylie, 26 October 1960; l e t t e r t o T.A. W y l i e from the C i t y C l e r k , 4 June 1962; l e t t e r t o Mr. Lefeaux, Park S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f the Vancouver Parks Board, from T.A. Wylie, 20 June 1962; l e t t e r t o Mrs. C. Pacey, S e c r e t a r y of the Marpole Chamber o f Commerce, from T.A. Wylie, 22 June 1962; l e t t e r t o Mr. M c G i l l i v a r y , P r e s i d e n t o f the Marpole R o t a r y Club, from T.A. Wylie, 22 June 1962; l e t t e r t o T.A. W y l i e from the Deputy C i t y C l e r k , 28 August 1962; and l e t t e r t o T.A. W y l i e and Mrs. C. Pacey, from S t u a r t S. Lefeaux, Parks S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , 2 October 1962. These l e t t e r s r e p r e s e n t two y e a r s o f attempts by T.A. W y l i e and members o f the Marpole Chamber o f Commerce t o have the C i t y of Vancouver c o n v e r t i t s l o t s on the Marpole midden i n t o a park. U l t i m a t e l y C i t y C o u n c i l members c o n s i d e r e d the p a r k p r o p o s a l redundant t o the e x i s t i n g Marpole Park (not a c t u a l l y l o c a t e d on the midden) and no f u r t h e r a c t i o n was taken. 155  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 11, f i l e 15, l e t t e r t o the 1955 Marpole v o l u n t e e r d i g g e r s from C h a r l e s Borden, 30 March 1956, r e g a r d i n g a p u b l i c l e c t u r e he was g o i n g t o g i v e t o the Vancouver I n s t i t u t e , 7 A p r i l 1956, entitled, "The Marpole Midden, 56 B.C. t o 1956 A.D.: R e s u l t s o f Recent A r c h a e o l o g i c a l E x c a v a t i o n s , " and i n v i t i n g the v o l u n t e e r s t o a r e c e p t i o n a t h i s home f o l l o w i n g the t a l k . Box.10, f i l e 11, l e t t e r t o The Committee t o C o n s i d e r Uses of Leon and Thea Koerner F o u n d a t i o n Funds from C h a r l e s Borden, 9 December 1955, r e g a r d i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n by Borden f o r $3000 p e r annum over f i v e y e a r s to conduct a r c h a e o l o g i c a l surveys o f B.C., t o determine the e x t e n t o f p r o v i n c i a l s i t e s i n danger of d e s t r u c t i o n from i n d u s t r i a l development; l e t t e r to Harlow, S e c r e t a r y P r o j e c t s Committee of the Leon and Thea Koerner 156  60 Foundation, from C h a r l e s Borden, 10 A p r i l 1959, r e g a r d i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r f u n d i n g o f e x c a v a t i o n s a t the D j R i 3 F r a s e r canyon s i t e . 157  to  B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, J o u r n a l s v o l . 15, ( s e s s . 28 January 18 March, 1960): 97, 121, 127, and 206.  158  B r i t i s h Columbia, " A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t , " S t a t u t e s of t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 1960, c.2, 7-10. 1 5 9  I b i d . , 7-8.  1 6 0  Ibid.,  1 6 1  I b i d . , 8-9.  1 6 2  Ibid.,  1 6 3  I b i d . , 10.  9.  8.  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 34, f i l e 17, minutes from t h e i n a u g u r a l meeting o f t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board, 15 August 1960, 1. 164  I b i d . , UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 2, f i l e 6, l e t t e r t o C h a r l e s Borden from L . J . Wallace, Deputy P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , 29 June 1960, i n f o r m i n g Borden of t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board and l i s t i n g t h e a p p o i n t e d members. 1 6 5  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 34, f i l e 17, minutes from t h e i n a u g u r a l meeting o f t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board, 15 August 1960, 2. 166  1 6 7  I b i d . , 3.  1 6 8  I b i d . , 1.  1 6 9  Ibid.  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 34, f i l e 17, minutes from t h e second meeting of t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board, 3 November 1960, 1. 170  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 48, f i l e 38, P r e s e r v i n g B r i t i s h Columbia's P r e h i s t o r y : A Guide f o r Amateur A r c h e o l o g i s t s . 1960, by W i l s o n D u f f .  171  1 7 2  Ibid.,  6-8.  1 7 3  Ibid.,  9.  I b i d . , 4; UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden.Papers, box 3, f i l e 5, l e t t e r t o Borden from Donald N. Abbott, A s s i s t a n t A n t h r o p o l o g i s t a t the P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 31 October 1960, r e g a r d i n g Abbott forming a V i c t o r i a A r c h a e o l o g y Club, i n a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Museum, f o r r e s p o n s i b l e amateur a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . Abbott i n d i c a t e s t h a t he made the 14 founding members take a "pledge, " presumably r e g a r d i n g t h e e t h i c s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work, which some were h e s i t a n t t o do. 1 7 4  175  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 48, f i l e 38, P r e s e r v i n g B r i t i s h P r e h i s t o r y . - 1 9 6 0 . by W i l s o n Duff, 11.  Columbia's  176  B r u c e G. T r i g g e r , "Archaeology and the Image o f the American I n d i a n , " American  61 A n t i q u i t y v o l . 45, no. 4 (1980): 662-676. 177  Boas,  "Problems  i n N o r t h American Archaeology," 527.  Ibid. 179  D r u c k e r , A r c h e o l o g i c a l Survey. 33.  180  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 31, f i l e 19, " F i r s t i n B.C. Young I n d i a n proves keen as a r c h a e o l o g i s t , " 22 June 1955, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The P r o v i n c e . VCML, H i l l - T o u t C o l l e c t i o n , f i l e BXV, " B u r i a l mound a mystery shuswap i n d i a n s u n e a r t h r e l i c s o f f o r g o t t e n p a s t , " 10 June 1960, newspaper a r t i c l e i n The Vancouver Sun. 181  Ibid. 183  J u l i e Cruikshank, "Legend and Landscape: Convergence o f O r a l and S c i e n t i f i c T r a d i t i o n s i n t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y , " A r c t i c A n t h r o p o l o g y v o l . 18, no. 2 (1981): 67-87. 184  J a c o b W. Gruber, "Archaeology, H i s t o r y , and C u l t u r e , " i n American A r c h a e o l o g y Past and F u t u r e eds. D a v i d J . M e l t z e r , Don D. Fowler, and Jeremy A. S a b l o f f (Washington, London: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n P r e s s , 1986), 170. B y c o m p i l i n g the attendance f i g u r e s f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a , from: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and A n t h r o p o l o g y Report f o r the Years 1949-1960 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1950-1961), I g e t the f o l l o w i n g t o t a l s : r e g i s t e r e d v i s i t o r s 586 418 and e s t i m a t e d v i s i t o r s 815 493. 185  UBC A r c h i v e s , Borden Papers, box 49, f i l e 17, "Comments on an A c t f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s and O b j e c t s , " March 1960, CBU Vancouver P a c i f i c Network r a d i o b r o a d c a s t t r a n s c r i p t , by C h a r l e s Borden, 2.  186  F o r example, the A r c h a e o l o g y Reading Room, i n t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , i s a d e s i g n a t e d r e p o s i t o r y f o r f i e l d n o t e s compiled d u r i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t s conducted under t h e a u s p i c e s o f UBC. 1 8 7  M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , "Two L e c t u r e s , " i n C u l t u r e / P o w e r / H i s t o r y eds. N i c h o l a s B. D i r k s , G e o f f E l e y , and S h e r r y B. O r t n e r ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1994), 211. 1 8 8  Michel Foucault, "The S u b j e c t and Power," quoted " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n The F o u c a u l t Reader ed. Paul Rabinow Books, 1984), 22. 1 8 9  190  M a t s o n and Coupland,  The P r e h i s t o r y o f the Northwest  i n Paul (New York:  Rabinow, Pantheon  Coast. 307.  T h e o u t l a w i n g o f t h e p o t l a t c h i s comprehensively examined i n Douglas C o l e and I r a C h a i k i n , An I r o n Hand Upon the People (Vancouver, T o r o n t o : Douglas & M c l n t y r e L t d . ; S e a t t l e : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s , 1990). C o l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t d e s p i t e l e t t e r s o f p r o t e s t , l e g a l a c t i o n , and c a l l s f o r a f e d e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , by the K w a k i u t l , t o e x p l a i n what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e p o t l a t c h , the f e d e r a l government r e l i e d on hearsay and t h e t e s t i m o n y o f i t s own " e x p e r t s " t o f o r m u l a t e p o l i c y . C o l e i n d i c a t e s , (page 21) t h a t t h e g i a n t o f Canadian anthropology, George M. Dawson, h i m s e l f judged t h e p o t l a t c h t o be 191  62  " p e r n i c i o u s . " Another more r e c e n t example of how N a t i v e s a r e s t u d i e d bya n t h r o p o l o g i s t s f o r the purpose of i n f o r m i n g government a c t i o n was the massive " I n d i a n Research P r o j e c t " commissioned by the Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, i n 1954, under the d i r e c t i o n of H a r r y Hawthorn, from UBC: H.B. Hawthorn, C.S. Belshaw, and S.M. Jamieson, The I n d i a n s of B r i t i s h Columbia (Toronto: The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1958, 1960). Coupland and Matson,  The P r e h i s t o r y of the Northwest Coast.  315.  63 BIBLIOGRAPHY Manuscript City  Collections  o f Vancouver Association.  Archives,  Vancouver  Art, Historical,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s A r c h i v e s D i v i s i o n , C h a r l e s E. Borden Papers. Vancouver C e n t e n n i a l Museum L i b r a r y , The H i l l - T o u t  and  Scientific  and U n i v e r s i t y  Collection.  U n p u b l i s h e d Sources Banks,  Judith Judd. "Comparative B i o g r a p h i e s o f Two B r i t i s h Columbia A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s : C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t and James A. T e i t . " M.A. t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970.  Borden, C h a r l e s E. "Tweedsmuir Survey Notes 1951." 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American  Wright, J.V. "The Development of P r e h i s t o r y i n Canada, A n t i c r u i t v v o l . 50, no. 2 (1985): 421-433.  Imperialist."  133-  no.  2  of Canadian Glyn Daniel.  Indian."  American  1935-1985."  American  71 APPENDIX 1 Maps: B.C. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s , 1945-1960  l  0 F i g u r e 1:  i  10  l  20 km  FRASER DELTA SITES EXCAVATED BY CHARLES BORDEN, 1945-1960  Adapted from: Matson and Coupland, The P r e h i s t o r y o f t h e Northwest C o a s t , 155.  72  0 I—, 1 2 3 4  100  200  I  l  300 km I  F r a s e r D e l t a S i t e s , 1945-1957 Nechako R i v e r Survey S i t e s , 1951-1952 Kootenay Survey S i t e s , 1954 F r a s e r Canyon S i t e s , 1956  F i g u r e 2:  MAJOR B.C. SITES SURVEYED AND EXCAVATED BY CHARLES BORDEN, 1945-1960  Adapted from: Robinson, "Charles A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Hypotheses," 3.  E. Borden:  His Formulation  and T e s t i n g  o  73  APPENDIX 2 Photo: Whalen Farm E x c a v a t i o n s , 1949  F i g u r e 3:  WHALEN FARM MIDDEN EXCAVATION TRENCH, POINT ROBERTS, WASHINGTON, 1949  C o p i e d From: Borden, " F i e l d Notes + Photo Record I & I I Whalen Farm (DfRs 3) Boundary Bay 1949, " A r c h a e o l o g y Reading Room, Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  

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