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Greater Vancouver regional town centres policy in comparative perspective Perkins, Ralph A. 1992

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GREATER V A N C O U V E R REGIONAL T O W N CENTRES POLICY IN C O M P A R A T I V E P E R S P E C T I V E by RALPH A. PERKINS B. A . ( G e n e r a l )  U n i v e r s i t y of W e s t e r n  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L  Ontario  FULFILMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE M a s t e r of Arts  OF  OF  (Planning)  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE SCHOOL  OF C O M M U N I T Y We  STUDIES  A N D REGIONAL  PLANNING  a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH September  COLUMBIA  1992  (c) R a l p h A . P e r k i n s , 1 9 9 2  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e it f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e that p e r m i s s i o n for e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of this thesis for scholarly p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d of m y D e p a r t m e n t or b y his or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It is u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s for financial gain shall not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  S c h o o l of C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l T h e U n i v e r s i t y of British C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date:  30 S e p t e m b e r  1992  Planning  ABSTRACT  S u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c i e s in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , m e t r o p o l i t a n M e l b o u r n e , a n d Bellevue, W a s h i n g t o n are e x a m i n e d to derive general lessons t o w a r d i m p r o v e m e n t of this t y p e of p o l i c y .  the  It is f o u n d t h a t t w o a t t e m p t s t o p u r s u e t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t of a r e g i o n a l s y s t e m of s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s h a v e b e e n u n s u c c e s s f u l , w h i l e a m u n i c i p a l l y - b a s e d p o l i c y has a c h i e v e d s o m e s u c c e s s in t e r m s of t h e p h y s i c a l d e s i g n of a s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n .  Patterns of private sector d e v e l o p m e n t  are f o u n d t o have b e e n v e r y little a f f e c t e d b y a n y of t h e c a s e s t u d y p o l i c i e s . Further, several a s s u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the linkages b e t w e e n p u b l i c transit a n d land u s e in s u b u r b a n centres are f o u n d to r e q u i r e further careful e x a m i n a t i o n b e f o r e t h e y s h o u l d b e u s e d as a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t .  ii  TABLE O F  CONTENTS  Abstract  ii  Table of C o n t e n t s  iii  List o f F i g u r e s  v  Acknowledgement  vi  Chapter 1 Introduction  1  1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5  1 4 6 8 8  Purpose Context Research C o n c l u s i o n The Structure of t h e Paper Notes on Terminology  Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.0 Introduction 2.1 G e n e r a l Literature 2.2 Vancouver 2.3 Melbourne 2.4 Bellevue  11 11 11 17 21 27  Chapter 3 Greater Vancouver: Regional T o w n Centres Policy 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Policy Context 3.2 Policy D e v e l o p m e n t 3.3 Policy Evaluation 3.3.1 M e t r o t o w n 3.3.2 D o w n t o w n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 3.3.3 C o q u i t l a m T o w n C e n t r e 3.3.4 W h a l l e y T o w n C e n t r e ( S u r r e y C i t y C e n t r e ) 3.3.5 R i c h m o n d T o w n C e n t r e a n d N o r t h V a n c o u v e r L o n s d a l e 3.4 Conclusion  29 29 30 33 39 47 52 54 56 62 66  Chapter 4 Metropolitan Melbourne: 4.0 Introduction 4.1 Policy Context  District Centres Policy  iii  71 71 72  4.2 4.3  4.4  Policy D e v e l o p m e n t Policy Evaluation 4.3.1 T h e S u c c e s s o f D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s 4.3.2 D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s as a P o l i c y I n s t r u m e n t 4.3.3 T h e M a r k e t P o t e n t i a l of D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s 4.3.4 State G o v e r n m e n t C o m m i t m e n t t o District C e n t r e s Policy... Conclusion  76 84 84 86 87 90 94  Chapter 5 Bellevue Central Business District Policies 5.0 Introduction 5.1 Policy Context 5.2 Policy D e v e l o p m e n t 5.3 Policy Evaluation 5.4 Conclusion  99 99 100 107 112 115  Chapter 6 Observations and Conclusions 6.0 Introduction 6.1 R e v i e w of C h a p t e r C o n c l u s i o n s 6.2 Five G e n e r a l Lessons 6.3 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for Greater Vancouver 6.3.1 S t u d y t h e r e g i o n 6.3.2 S t u d y t h e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y 6.3.3 D e v e l o p p o l i c y b a s e d d i r e c t l y o n t h e s e s t u d i e s 6.3.4 D o n o t w a v e r 6.3.5 A Final N o t e 6.4 Topics for Further Study  120 120 120 122 132 133 134 134 135 136 136  Notes  140  Bibliography  147  Appendix 1 Regional T o w n C e n t r e boundaries, 1985  159  Appendix 2 District C e n t r e s by r e g i o n a n d date of d e s i g n a t i o n  160  Appendix 3 M a p s 1-9  161  iv  LIST O F F I G U R E S  M a p 1. P r o p o s e d r e g i o n a l t o w n c e n t r e s a n d p u b l i c t r a n s i t s y s t e m , 1 9 7 5 . . . 1 6 2 M a p 2. B o u n d a r i e s o f s i x r e g i o n a l t o w n c e n t r e z o n e s , 1 9 9 2  163  M a p 3. M e l b o u r n e p u b l i c t r a n s i t n e t w o r k , 1 9 9 0  164  M a p 4. D i s t r i c t c e n t r e s , 1 9 8 3  165  M a p 5. D i f f e r e n t i a t e d d i s t r i c t c e n t r e s  166  M a p 6. D i s t r i c t c e n t r e s , 1 9 9 1  167  M a p 7. S e a t t l e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , s h o w i n g t h e C i t y o f B e l l e v u e  168  M a p 8. B e l l e v u e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t  169  M a p 9. C o n c e p t u a l m a p o f B e l l e v u e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s u b - a r e a s . . . . 1 7 0  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w o u l d like t o thank t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s f o r assisting in various w a y s w i t h t h e c o n d u c t of t h e research f o r this paper: M r . Neil A t c h i s o n , District of Surrey; M r . Jim C h i m , G V R D D e v e l o p m e n t Services; M r . N i c k Fothergill, State of V i c t o r i a D e p a r t m e n t of Planning a n d H o u s i n g ; D r . M a r g o H u x l e y , Royal M e l b o u r n e Institute of T e c h n o l o g y ; M r . R o b Innis, District of C o q u i t l a m P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ; M r . D a l e King, State of V i c t o r i a D e p a r t m e n t of Planning a n d H o u s i n g ; Dr. Kevin O ' C o n n o r , M o n a s h University; M r . Stephen Pearce, City of Seattle L o n g Range Planning D e p a r t m e n t ; M r . M a r i n o P i o m b i n i , G V R D D e v e l o p m e n t Services; M r . Joe Stott, G V R D D e v e l o p m e n t Services; M r . D a n S t r o h , C i t y o f B e l l e v u e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ; t h e f a c u l t y , staff, a n d f e l l o w students in t h e S c h o o l of C o m m u n i t y a n d Regional P l a n n i n g , University of British C o l u m b i a . T h e y g e n e r o u s l y s h a r e d t h e i r t i m e , o p i n i o n s , advice, a n d d o c u m e n t s , a n d this thesis c o u l d n o t have b e e n p r o d u c e d w i t h o u t their generosity.  vi  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  1.1  PURPOSE This thesis e x a m i n e s t h e Regional T o w n C e n t r e s policy in G r e a t e r  f r o m its f o r m u l a t i o n in t h e early 1970s t o t h e p r e s e n t .  Vancouver  T h e p o l i c y is s t u d i e d b o t h  in i s o l a t i o n a n d i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t w o o t h e r s i m i l a r p o l i c i e s : t h e D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s policy e n a c t e d in M e l b o u r n e , Australia, a n d t h e C e n t r a l Business District ( C B D ) policies of the suburban municipality of Bellevue, Washington.  The research  m e t h o d o l o g y has involved an examination of official d o c u m e n t s a n d the a c a d e m i c literature c o n c e r n i n g these particular policies a n d t h e p h e n o m e n o n of s u b u r b a n centres in general.  T h e study of t h e literature has b e e n a u g m e n t e d b y m a n y  broad  d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h p l a n n e r s a n d a c a d e m i c s , a n d b y site visits t o t h e s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a n d B e l l e v u e .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a site visit t o M e l b o u r n e w a s  not p o s s i b l e d u r i n g t h e course of t h e research.  Ultimately, any conclusions  r e g a r d i n g M e l b o u r n e , o r d r a w n f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e policy in M e l b o u r n e , have b e e n b a s e d solely o n a review of t h e literature, a n d rely very heavily o n t h e j u d g e m e n t of other researchers. T h e s t u d y o f R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s ( R T C ) p o l i c y is u s e f u l f o r s e v e r a l reasons.  F i r s t , R T C p o l i c y h a s b e e n a k e y e l e m e n t i n t h e Livable  Region  Strategy,  the overall plan f o r G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r w h i c h has b e e n in o p e r a t i o n since 1975. The Greater V a n c o u v e r Regional District (the agency responsible for t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t h e p l a n ) is n o w i n v o l v e d i n t h e w i d e s t r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f i t s p l a n s a n d p o l i c i e s since t h e early 1970s.  T h e r e g i o n a l Creating  input a n d set t h e broad goals.  Transport  Our Future  process solicited public  2021, a j o i n t e x e r c i s e b e t w e e n t h e  G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r Regional District ( G V R D ) a n d t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d H i g h w a y s , is s t u d y i n g t h e r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e e d s f o r t h e  1  next three decades.  Concurrently, the G V R D  strategic plan for the region.  is d e v e l o p i n g t h e b a s i s o f a n e w  S o m e f o r m o f c e n t r e s p o l i c y is l i k e l y t o b e a k e y  c o m p o n e n t of any n e w regional strategy.  A n analysis of t h e s u c c e s s of the  previous p o l i c y r e g i m e m a y p r o v i d e useful c o m m e n t t o w a r d the i m p r o v e m e n t of these m o d e r n initiatives. S e c o n d , t h e r e c e n t e l e c t i o n of t h e N e w D e m o c r a t i c Party (1991) to t h e c o n t r o l of t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t m a y b r i n g a c h a n g e in t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e regional planning mandate for both land use and transportation. A n examination o f p o l i c y w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c u r r e n t m a n d a t e is t h e r e f o r e pertinent. F i n a l l y , s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n is o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p r o c e s s e s at w o r k i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n regions of the w e s t e r n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d w o r l d .  M u c h work  remains  to be d o n e in t h e s t u d y of t h e basic p h e n o m e n a of s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n , b u i l d i n g o n t h e large s t r u c t u r e of w o r k that has b e e n d o n e in t h e past, b u t a l s o i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e latest w a v e of c h a n g e s c u r r e n t l y p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e s e r e g i o n s .  American  researchers have b e e n i n t e r e s t e d for several years in the g r o w t h of s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t centres, w h i c h are generally located o n h i g h w a y interchanges. S u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t is c o n t i n u i n g i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t , a n d a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f p o l i c y w h i c h h a s a t t e m p t e d t o s h a p e t h a t t r e n d is timely.  T h e c o m p a r a t i v e study of three policies allows the creation of a m o r e  g e n e r a l set of c o n c l u s i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a b o u t t h e c r e a t i o n of s u b u r b a n downtowns. T h e p o l i c i e s t o b e c o m p a r e d are s i m i l a r in i n t e n t b u t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t in scope.  M e l b o u r n e is a m u c h l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n t h a n e i t h e r V a n c o u v e r o r  Seattle ( w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e ) , a n d has a t t e m p t e d a m u c h policy toward centres development.  broader  M o r e c e n t r e s are s e l e c t e d in a r e g i o n w h i c h  is l e s s d e n s e l y s e t t l e d t h a n t h e o t h e r s .  F u r t h e r , M e l b o u r n e is t h e o n l y r e g i o n o f  2  t h e t h r e e in w h i c h b o t h l a n d u s e a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g are c e n t r a l i z e d a single governmental authority.  under  In c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e g i o n a l c a s e s , t h e C i t y o f  B e l l e v u e is a m u n i c i p a l i t y , a n d h a s p u r s u e d a p o l i c y i n m a n y w a y s i s o l a t e d f r o m wider regional considerations. The differences b e t w e e n the two international case studies provide a g o o d contrast o n either side of the V a n c o u v e r situation, a n d a g o o d range within to place t h e s t u d y of V a n c o u v e r ' s s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s .  The lessons derived  such a range may indicate the appropriate scale for action u n d e r a  which  from  renewed  centres policy. T h e regions themselves are sufficiently similar to allow a c o m p a r i s o n .  Each  is w e s t e r n i n o u t l o o k , w i t h m a r k e t e c o n o m i e s d e v e l o p e d i n m o d e r n i n d u s t r i a l democracies.  E a c h is a P a c i f i c R i m p o r t m e t r o p o l i s w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l  and particularly Asian connections.  T h e c u l t u r e s of t h e cities are  English-speaking, but with substantial multicultural admixtures.  predominantly  T h e regions are  s u b j e c t t o m a n y of t h e s a m e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d l o c a l p r e s s u r e s , s u c h as s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n , e c o n o m i c g l o b a l i z a t i o n , a n d t h e rise of t h e i m p o r t a n c e of s e r v i c e sector production. Distinctions based o n history and g e o g r a p h y have m a d e significant differences between the regions.  M e l b o u r n e h o l d s a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d rail n e t w o r k ,  w h i l e Seattle has an e x t e n s i v e h i g h w a y s y s t e m , a n d V a n c o u v e r has neither. M e l b o u r n e is a r e g i o n o f v e r y l o w d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l s p r a w l i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s a r o u n d Port P h i l i p Bay, w h i l e V a n c o u v e r a n d Seattle f a c e s e v e r e g e o g r a p h i c c o n s t r a i n t s (ocean, lakes, borders, mountains).  E c o n o m i c a l l y , n e i t h e r of t h e o t h e r regions  s h a r e s t h e r e l i a n c e o f S e a t t l e o n a s i n g l e c o r p o r a t i o n ( B o e i n g ) f o r s o m u c h o f its prosperity. T h e r e are also d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e o r i g i n a l d e r i v a t i o n of t h e s u b u r b a n policies.  centres  V a n c o u v e r ' s policies w e r e discussed t h r o u g h o u t the 1960s, and the  3  eventual i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was a result of m u n i c i p a l a n d provincial electoral victories for r e f o r m - m i n d e d political parties. a reprise of a similar 1954 p o l i c y .  In M e l b o u r n e , t h e D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s p o l i c y w a s  T h e revival w a s a result of a shift f r o m  e x p a n s i o n a r y regional plans in 1960s a n d 1970s, t o w a r d better use of the existing urbanized area (urban consolidation).  In B e l l e v u e , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t r a d i t i o n a l  C B D h a d b e e n i n t e n d e d since t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y in 1953.  The  actual i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e stated p o l i c y w a s a result of t h e d e s i r e of t h e c o m m u n i t y to prevent sprawling c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t from interfering with t h e s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l lifestyle of  7.2  Bellevue.  CONTEXT T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of m o d e r n s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s to c o n t r o l t h e  negative  a s p e c t s o f s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n h a s b e e n a c o m m o n p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s i n c e at l e a s t t h e 1960s.  S o m e authorities trace the history of the c o n c e p t e v e n earlier, to  G a r d e n City p r o p o s a l s of the 1890s ( H o d g e 1986, 290).  Howard's  The three centres policies  u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n in this p a p e r are d i r e c t results of t h e w a v e s of s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n w h i c h h a v e o c c u r r e d in w e s t e r n i n d u s t r i a l m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s in t h e post-1945 era. T h e o r i g i n a l w i d e s p r e a d residential s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n w a s t h e result of a c o m b i n a t i o n of factors.  In a l l t h r e e s t u d y r e g i o n s , g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y t o w a r d  relaxation of h o m e mortgage requirements put single family h o m e within reach of a larger n u m b e r of families than ever before.  the  ownership  C h e a p l a n d at t h e  u r b a n fringe (and b e y o n d ) c o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d a n d m a r k e t e d b e c a u s e of the increasingly w i d e s p r e a d use of the private a u t o m o b i l e .  Road building programs  a c c o m m o d a t e d this increased p e r s o n a l m o b i l i t y a l l o w e d b y t h e a u t o m o b i l e .  Road  c o n s t r u c t i o n w a s m o s t e x t e n s i v e i n t h e U.S., w h e r e a n a t i o n a l s y s t e m of interconnected highways and urban core bypasses was built.  4  In V a n c o u v e r ,  the  r o a d n e t w o r k w a s e x p a n d e d t h r o u g h a m a j o r h i g h w a y t o t h e U.S. a n d t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h e Trans C a n a d a H i g h w a y w h i c h passes t h r o u g h t h e r e g i o n the attendant bridges and tunnels w h i c h these projects required).  (and  In M e l b o u r n e , a  c o m p l e t e radial arterial r o a d s y s t e m e x i s t e d , a n d a ring road was p l a n n e d a r o u n d the urban fringe. A l t h o u g h retail s p a c e , in the f o r m of a u t o m o b i l e - c e n t r e d s h o p p i n g m a l l s a n d strips, had b e g u n to f o l l o w the c o n s u m e r markets to the s u b u r b s , the life of t h e s e r e g i o n s r e m a i n e d f o c u s s e d o n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o r e .  economic  Interregional  travel  began to increase, particularly related to the daily c o m m u t i n g pattern b e t w e e n central core and the dispersed suburbs.  A growing imbalance between  the  the  l o c a t i o n of w o r k p l a c e s a n d r e s i d e n c e s l e d t o i n c r e a s e s in t i m e s a n d d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d , a n d c o n c o m i t a n t i n c r e a s e s in t h e n o i s e , p o l l u t i o n , s c a r c e r e s o u r c e u s e , a n d stress associated w i t h a u t o m o b i l e use.  Further, d u e to the isolation of  s u b u r b a n r e s i d e n t i a l areas f r o m t h e c u l t u r a l heart of t h e r e g i o n , s u b u r b a n life w a s p e r c e i v e d to b e a sterile residential m o n o c u l t u r e , lacking the sense of c o m m u n i t y w h i c h w a s r e p u t e d t o exist in o l d e r u r b a n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . G i v e n these c o n d i t i o n s , the logic of s u b u r b a n centres b e c o m e s very a t t r a c t i v e , a n d p e r h a p s u n a v o i d a b l e w h e n s t a t e d i n its s i m p l e s t t e r m s . I n t e r r e g i o n a l t r a v e l , a n d its a t t e n d a n t n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s , w o u l d b e b y m o v i n g e m p l o y m e n t c l o s e r to t h e r e s i d e n c e s of t h e w o r k e r s .  reduced  Sprawl would  c o n t a i n e d b y c o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e s e j o b s into m i x e d use c e n t r e s w i t h retail a n d c o n s u m e r services, a n d a d e n s e r ( m o r e " u r b a n " ) pattern of residences.  By  c o n c e n t r a t i n g the thinly s p r e a d o u t s u b u r b a n culture, the benefits of an u r b a n lifestyle w o u l d f l o w naturally. T h i s l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t r e s t e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t if t h e attributes  of an  u r b a n d o w n t o w n are p r o v i d e d ( p e d e s t r i a n s c a l e ; high-rise office b u i l d i n g s ; retail c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ; cultural activities; p u b l i c transit; etc.), t h e n the s u b u r b a n  5  be  d o w n t o w n s w i l l t a k e o n t h e characteristics  of traditional d o w n t o w n s  (lively  p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y ; c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y in m o d e r n  service  s e c t o r offices; C B D c o m m u t i n g patterns, n a m e l y less a u t o m o b i l e u s e in f a v o u r of public transit; a cultural focus for the sub-region's c o m m u n i t y ; a n d an e c o n o m i c generator for the sub-region).  These centres w e r e not intended to replace  the  e x i s t i n g c o r e o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n , b u t t o a u g m e n t it a n d p e r h a p s t o i m p r o v e it b y r e d u c i n g t h e p r e s s u r e o f h o l d i n g a l l o f t h e r e g i o n ' s i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s .  The  C B D w o u l d r e m a i n as t h e r e g i o n a l f o c u s f o r h i g h - o r d e r e c o n o m i c a n d c o m m u n i t y functions.  Existing traditional n e i g h b o u r h o o d s in t h e central area w o u l d benefit  because fewer automobiles w o u l d be travelling between the core and the suburbs. S u b u r b a n municipalities w o u l d receive the e c o n o m i c benefits of growth and a f o c u s f o r c o m m u n i t y life e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e r o l e p e r f o r m e d b y t h e C B D f o r t h e whole region.  7.3  RESEARCH  CONCLUSIONS  T h e o r i g i n a l p o l i c y t o w a r d t h e c r e a t i o n of R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r reflected an awareness of the high level of p u b l i c intervention that w o u l d l i k e l y h a v e b e e n r e q u i r e d t o s h a p e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a s y s t e m of suburban downtowns.  D u e t o s h i f t s at t h e p o l i t i c a l l e v e l i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l  government and on Vancouver City Council, the policy which was  eventually  i m p l e m e n t e d w a s m u c h less assertive, a n d r e l i e d m o r e o n i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l resolve than o n regional planning and coordination.  P e r h a p s as a r e s u l t o f t h i s  r e d u c e d effectiveness, Regional T o w n Centres policy cannot be s h o w n to have c a u s e d m o r e d e v e l o p m e n t , or different f o r m s of d e v e l o p m e n t , than w o u l d have o c c u r r e d in t h e a b s e n c e of p o l i c y .  R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s p o l i c y w a s first  d e v e l o p e d in t h e late 1 9 6 0 s a n d e a r l y 1970s, a n d m a y h a v e b e e n an a p p r o p r i a t e response to the suburbanization problems which existed then.  6  T h e r e g i o n of t h e  1990s is, h o w e v e r , s u b s t a n t i a l l y c h a n g e d a n d a n e w f o r m of p o l i c y r e s p o n s e  may  be required. D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s p o l i c y i n M e l b o u r n e w a s n o t a s c l e a r l y c o n c e i v e d as t h e original p o l i c y in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r .  A s in V a n c o u v e r , t h e p o l i c y c a n n o t b e  shown  t o h a v e h a d a n y p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s . Those centres w h i c h had d e v e l o p m e n t potential prior to the policy continued to grow.  Those centres without such potential d i d not.  Indeed, the use of the  negative statutory i n s t r u m e n t of restricting office location m a y have h a d the p e r v e r s e effect of c u r t a i l i n g t h e level of s u b u r b a n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t to s u p p o r t a s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n .  required  T h e r e m a y n o t as y e t b e s u f f i c i e n t s u b u r b a n  o f f i c e a c t i v i t y in all of m e t r o p o l i t a n M e l b o u r n e t o c r e a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t C B D - s t y l e e m p l o y m e n t and cultural centre. T h e d o w n t o w n of t h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e has g r o w n v e r y r a p i d l y s i n c e the i n s t i t u t i o n o f C B D l a n d u s e a n d d e s i g n p o l i c i e s . T h e B e l l e v u e C B D is a n i m p o r t a n t office, retail, a n d cultural centre for the Eastside region.  D u e t o its o r i g i n a l  i m p o r t a n c e in t h e r e g i o n , a n d t o t h e e x i s t e n c e of p o w e r f u l s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n t r e n d s t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d States in t h e 1 9 8 0 s , t h e C B D p o l i c i e s c a n n o t b e s h o w n t o h a v e a l t e r e d t h e scale  of d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e B e l l e v u e C B D .  d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s a n d f l o o r a r e a ratio (FAR) o n t h e style  of d e v e l o p m e n t .  Conversely, the  incentives have had a significant effect  T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of b o t h the policies a n d the  CBD  m a y h a v e b e e n t h e result of a f o r t u n a t e c o i n c i d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t i m i n g of a m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o v e r s y a n d the w a v e of c o m m e r c i a l (especially office space) s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n in t h e 1980s. F r o m t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s , g e n e r a l l e s s o n s a r e d e r i v e d w h i c h s t a t e t h a t (a) a r e g i o n a l p o l i c y is n e c e s s a r i l y f r a g i l e , (b) it is d i f f i c u l t t o i n f l u e n c e c o m m e r c i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , (c) it is d a n g e r o u s t o m a k e p o l i c y i n i g n o r a n c e o f t h e f o r c e s o f r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , (d) s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y m a y a p p l y o n l y i n a p a r t i c u l a r  7  p e r i o d o r s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a n d (e) t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n k a g e s t o s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s is n o t a s c l e a r as h a s b e e n assumed.  Finally, g e n e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s are p r o v i d e d for t h e  previously  subsequent  i m p r o v e m e n t o f s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y i n g e n e r a l . T h e r e g i o n a n d its d e v e l o p m e n t industry m u s t b e carefully s t u d i e d , a n d the fruits of these studies s h o u l d b e a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y to t h e f o r m a t i o n of p o l i c y .  G o v e r n m e n t a l resolve  must  t h e n b e s h o w n to p r e v e n t u n d u e p r e s s u r e f o r t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n of t h e d e s i r e s of the d e v e l o p m e n t industry.  1.4  THE  STRUCTURE  OF  THE  PAPER  T h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r is f o l l o w e d b y a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w .  Chapter 3  e x a m i n e s R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s p o l i c y in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , C h a p t e r 4 e x a m i n e s District C e n t r e s p o l i c y in M e l b o u r n e , a n d C h a p t e r 5 e x a m i n e s t h e Bellevue policies.  CBD  T h e c o n c l u s i o n s of e a c h c h a p t e r are c u m u l a t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d , t h e n  r e v i e w e d in t h e final c h a p t e r .  1.5  NOTES  ON  TERMINOLOGY  AND  FORMAT  U n l e s s t h e w o r d a p p e a r s d i f f e r e n t l y in t h e title of a p a p e r o r in a d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n , t h e w o r d " c e n t r e " s h a l l b e s p e l l e d as s h o w n .  T h e a l t e r n a t e , " c e n t e r , " is  n o t i n c o r r e c t , b u t has in t h e past b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a m o r e A m e r i c a n s p e l l i n g . ^ A l t h o u g h t h e m e t r i c e q u i v a l e n t is m o r e p r o p e r , t h e u s e o f s q u a r e f o o t a g e a s a m e a s u r e of f l o o r s p a c e r e m a i n s the standard in b o t h C a n a d a a n d the States.  United  W h e r e Australian s o u r c e s have g i v e n a v a l u e in s q u a r e m e t e r s , the value in  s q u a r e f e e t is e x p r e s s e d p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y . ^  Similarly, acres s e e m to be a m o r e  c o m m o n m e a s u r e than hectares, e v e n in m o d e r n d o c u m e n t s . g i v e n in t h e original s o u r c e , acres a p p e a r parenthetically.  8  W h e r e hectares  are  A v e r y e x t e n s i v e list o f t e r m s has b e e n u s e d t o r e f e r t o s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s .  In  t h i s p a p e r , t h e u s a g e is r e s t r i c t e d t o " s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s " o r " s u b u r b a n downtowns."  S o m e authors m a y have special or technical meanings for these  terms, or may make a distinction between t h e m .  This p a p e r , h o w e v e r , treats the  t e r m s as i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e g e n e r i c r e f e r e n c e s t o a n y r e l a t i v e l y d e n s e  concentrations  of l a n d use a n d activity ( a l t h o u g h t h e y are d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m " c o r r i d o r s , " w h i c h are less d e n s e o r linear c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ) .  The t e r m " e d g e city" s e e m s to be gaining  a c c e p t a n c e as a t e r m of r e f e r e n c e f o r l a r g e s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s in t h e U n i t e d T h e u s e o f t h a t t e r m is u s e d t o m a k e a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c e n t r e s study in this p a p e r a n d t h e slightly different A m e r i c a n p h e n o m e n o n .  States.  under  (In  some  c a s e s , w h e r e a p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h e r ' s w o r k is d i s c u s s e d , t h e t e r m u s e d b y t h a t researcher may be included.  For e x a m p l e , C e r v e r o studies " s u b u r b a n  employment  centers.") T h e t e r m u s e d t o r e f e r t o a r e g i o n w i t h m a n y s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s in a d d i t i o n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l c o r e is " m u l t i c e n t r e d . " A s w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s , t h e r e is a v e r y e x t e n s i v e l i s t o f a l t e r n a t i v e t e r m s .  " M u l t i c e n t r e d " is u s e d  generically, and no technical m e a n i n g should be assigned. T h e t e r m s " V a n c o u v e r " a n d " G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r " are u s e d  interchangeably  t o r e f e r t o t h e r e g i o n . T h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f t h e s a m e n a m e is a l w a y s r e f e r r e d t o a s the "City of Vancouver."  Similarly, " M e l b o u r n e " always refers to the entire region  of that n a m e .  ( T h e r e is a C i t y o f M e l b o u r n e , w h i c h is n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y n a m e d  in t h i s p a p e r .  The City of M e l b o u r n e contains m u c h of the regional C B D , but a  better descriptive area of the entire regional core e n c o m p a s s e s the municipalities w h i c h f o r m the Inner Area or "Central  several  Melbourne.")  T h e c i t a t i o n s t y l e u s e d i n t h i s p a p e r is as f o l l o w s : (Ley 1 9 8 5 , 3).  below  ( N a m e Date, Page), e.g.  W h e r e several texts b y o n e a u t h o r are r e f e r e n c e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ,  9  t h e d a t e s are s e p a r a t e d  b y s e m i c o l o n s , as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e : ( G V R D 1 9 7 4 a ,  4 ; 1 9 7 5 a , 2-3).  10  CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE  2.0  REVIEW  INTRODUCTION This chapter examines t h e literature relevant to t h e study of m u l t i c e n t r e d  regions a n d s u b u r b a n centres in V a n c o u v e r , M e l b o u r n e , a n d Bellevue. case, t h e review considers s o m e g o v e r n m e n t d o c u m e n t s a n d relevant coverage in a d d i t i o n t o t h e analytical papers o n policies t o w a r d regions.  In e a c h newspaper  multicentred  First, h o w e v e r , t h e g e n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e o n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s u b u r b a n  centres  is e x a m i n e d .  2.7  GENERAL  LITERATURE  T h e r e is a w i d e - r a n g i n g l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a n d e m p i r i c a l a s p e c t s o f s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t centres a n d m u l t i c e n t r e d regions, primarily in t h e A m e r i c a n context.  2.1.1  W i t h i n this b o d y of w o r k , t h e r e are t h r e e s t r e a m s of d i s c u s s i o n .  S u b u r b a n C e n t r e s a n d P u b l i c Transit First, a n u m b e r o f a u t h o r s d i s c u s s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s  a n d p u b l i c mass transit o r r a p i d transit s y s t e m s .  M u c h of this w o r k stems f r o m  c o n c e r n s about energy efficiency resulting f r o m t h e " e n e r g y crisis" in t h e U n i t e d States in t h e early 1970s.  Because suburban centres of e m p l o y m e n t w e r e not very  m u c h d e v e l o p e d b y that t i m e , authors s u c h as S c h n e i d e r a n d B e c k (1974),  Roberts  (1975), Rice (1977), a n d P e t e r s o n a n d K e y e s (1977) d i s c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n s theoretically, largely t h r o u g h t h e u s e of urban transportation m o d e l s , with t h e general c o n c l u s i o n almost always b e i n g that a m u l t i c e n t r e d region w o u l d b e m o r e efficient than a d i s p e r s e d region of urban sprawl.  Concurrently, though, Ward and  P a u l h u s (1974) a n d M u l l e r (1976, 1 9 8 0 , 1986) q u e s t i o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n that t h e  11  provision of p u b l i c transit t o s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s w o u l d have a definite effect o n i n d i v i d u a l t r a v e l b e h a v i o u r , e s p e c i a l l y if t h e p u b l i c t r a n s i t s y s t e m w a s r a d i a l l y connected to the original metropolitan d o w n t o w n .  Later e m p i r i c a l w o r k by  C e r v e r o ( 1 9 8 9 , 54-69) p o i n t s o u t t h a t m o s t o f t h e a c t u a l s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s t o e m e r g e h a v e b e e n a u t o m o b i l e - o r i e n t e d , c a u s i n g e n d e m i c s u b u r b a n traffic congestion problems.  T h e a u t o m o b i l e is t h e p r i m a r y m o d e o f t r a v e l i n s u b u r b a n  centres because most p u b l i c transit a n d f r e e w a y systems are core-oriented, radial networks a n d are not c o n d u c i v e to serving t h e increasing amounts of suburb-tos u b u r b travel (Muller 1976, 14; C e r v e r o 1984; 1986). W h i l e most authors concentrate o n using t h e p u b l i c transit system t o e n c o u r a g e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s (e.g., H u t h 1983),  Schneider  (1981) a n d S c h n e i d e r a n d S m i t h (1981) s u g g e s t that t h e g r o w t h of a " p o l y c e n t r i c " city w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e best u r b a n f o r m t o a l l o w t h e c r e a t i o n of s u b u r b a n p u b l i c transit n e t w o r k s ( w h i c h c o u l d n o t arise s p o n t a n e o u s l y d u e t o t h e lack o f a sufficiently d e n s e clustering of riders).  S c h n e i d e r (1981) a n a l y z e d cities t h r o u g h o u t  North A m e r i c a , describing policies t o w a r d t h e " p o l y c e n t r i c " m o d e l in Baltimore, Minneapolis-St. Paul, D e n v e r , a n d m a n y other places.  2.1.2  Suburban Centres M o d e l s The application of e c o n o m i c a n d other mathematical m o d e l s to urban f o r m  provides a second stream of discussion about multicentred regions.  Odland  (1978), f o r e x a m p l e , d i s c u s s e s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a n d e m p i r i c a l limitations of m o n o c e n t r i c e c o n o m i c m o d e l s of urban growth a n d attempts to d e d u c e  formal  conditions for the existence of single-centre versus multicentred regions based o n idealized c o m m u t i n g costs, p r o d u c t i o n costs a n d i n c o m e losses d u e to c r o w d i n g ( G r e e n e 1980).  Griffith (1981) e x t e n d s a m o n o c e n t r i c d e n s i t y - d i s t a n c e m o d e l t o  include multicentred regions.  12  E c o n o m i c m o d e l l i n g , d e s p i t e t h e early efforts of O d l a n d (1978) a n d H a r t w i c k a n d H a r t w i c k ( 1 9 7 4 ) , h a s b e e n g e n e r a l l y u n s u c c e s s f u l at s a y i n g a n y t h i n g meaningful about multicentred regions.  R i c h a r d s o n (1988) states w i t h  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t " t h e s t a n d a r d m o n o c e n t r i c m o d e l o f u r b a n l a n d u s e [...]  has  dominated urban economics, a n d urban models within regional science, for a generation or more."  A s l a t e a s 1 9 8 5 , at l e a s t a d e c a d e a f t e r t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f  s u b u r b a n centres was b e i n g taken seriously b y other urban disciplines, M u t h (1985, 598) d e m o n s t r a t e s h o w unrealistic t h e m o d e l - b a s e d r e s e a r c h h a d b e c o m e b y q u e s t i o n i n g " w h e t h e r n o n - C B D concentrations of u n e m p l o y m e n t are i m p o r t a n t e n o u g h in t h e t y p i c a l U.S. city t o p r o d u c e n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t s " in a n e c o n o m i c model.  2.1.3  E m p i r i c a l S t u d i e s of S u b u r b a n C e n t r e s T h e final a n d largest s t r e a m in t h e s t u d y o f m u l t i c e n t r e d r e g i o n s in t h e  American context attempts to describe empirically the development and characteristics of s u b u r b a n centres.  V o o r h e e s (1963) cites a v e r y early p o l i c y  e x a m p l e in Baltimore, in w h i c h " m e t r o t o w n s " of concentrated s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t w e r e b e i n g p r o m o t e d as a m e a n s t o c o m b a t t h e t r e n d t o u r b a n sprawl.  M u l l e r (1976) a n d H i r s c h (1977) d e s c r i b e t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f  e m p l o y m e n t t o s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s as t h e r e s u l t o f s u c c e s s i v e w a v e s o f s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n in residential, retail, a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g .  M u l l e r (1976, 1980, 1986)  extends t h e discussion to the interrelationships between the location of suburban " m i n i c i t i e s " a n d t h e l o c a t i o n of c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l h i g h w a y s in m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. D a n i e l s (1974) offers a n early d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p h e n o m e n o n , a n d notes d i f f e r e n c e s b a s e d o n m o b i l i t y b e t w e e n A m e r i c a n a n d British s u b u r b a n centres. B a e r w a l d (1978) p r e s e n t s a four-stage m o d e l o f s u b u r b a n  centre  d e v e l o p m e n t , similarly based o n highway interchange locations, a n d provides an  13  e x a m p l e f r o m t h e 1-494 a r e a o f M i n n e a p o l i s .  In B a e r w a l d ' s m o d e l , r e s i d e n t i a l  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s h i g h w a y i n t e r c h a n g e l o c a t i o n , w h i c h in t u r n  draws  industry and c o m m e r c e (due to c h e a p land a n d easy a u t o m o b i l e access).  Next,  real estate s p e c u l a t i o n a n d site a s s e m b l y t a k e u p m o s t of t h e v a c a n t areas a r o u n d interchange locations.  Finally, t h e s e large sites are d e v e l o p e d (or  redeveloped).  E r i c k s o n a n d G e n t r y ( 1 9 8 5 , 22-29) u s e B a e r w a l d ' s m o d e l to s t u d y an e x a m p l e of suburban development along the Baltimore  beltway.^  G r e e n e (1980) i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e " e x i s t e n c e a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e of e m p l o y m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e C B D s of large m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s " f o r five A m e r i c a n cities.  G r e e n e u s e s a n i n d e x of spatial c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( a d a p t e d f r o m t h e c o n c e p t o f  Lorenz Curves) to rank the significance of e m p l o y m e n t concentrations, then displays t h e z o n e s of greatest e m p l o y m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n m e t r o p o l i t a n m a p s . T h e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s a m u l t i c e n t r e d p a t t e r n i n a l l f i v e c a s e s ( i . e . , e m p l o y m e n t is n o t dispersing evenly throughout the regions).  G r e e n e notes that these z o n e s  d e v e l o p e d w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t of any m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . In t h e m o s t e x t e n s i v e e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t c e n t r e s , C e r v e r o ( 1 9 8 9 , 4-6) r e c o g n i z e s t h e s p e e d at w h i c h t h i s phenomenon occurred.  In 1 9 8 0 , i n t h e a v e r a g e m e t r o p o l i s , d o w n t o w n o f f i c e s p a c e  a c c o u n t e d for 57 p e r c e n t of the m e t r o p o l i t a n total. fallen to o n l y 40 percent.  Six years later this p o r t i o n h a d  C e r v e r o cites cases in w h i c h s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s w i t h  1 0 m i l l i o n s q . ft. o f o f f i c e s p a c e d e v e l o p e d in l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s .  over  C e r v e r o (1989,  44-45) a l s o p r o v i d e s a n a v e r a g e c o m p o s i t i o n ( f r o m a s a m p l e o f 56) f o r A m e r i c a n suburban centres:  57 p e r c e n t office s p a c e , 15 p e r c e n t retail s p a c e , 10 p e r c e n t  residential, 8 percent manufacturing, and 5 percent warehousing. H a r t s h o r n a n d M u l l e r (1986) d e s c r i b e t h e e v o l u t i o n of six A m e r i c a n suburban e m p l o y m e n t centres, concentrating o n the internal structure and e m p l o y m e n t c o n s e q u e n c e s of the centres.  14  H a r t s h o r n a n d M u l l e r a r g u e that, w h i l e  t h e s e c e n t r e s h a v e f o c u s s e d h i g h d e n s i t y c o m m e r c i a l activity in p r e v i o u s l y sprawling a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y d e p e n d e n t s u b u r b s , the centres have also m a g n i f i e d the spatial m i s m a t c h b e t w e e n h o u s i n g , e m p l o y m e n t , a n d transportation. T h e  more  a f f l u e n t s u b u r b a n w o r k f o r c e is f o u n d t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e p r o x i m i t y a n d accessibility of jobs, h o u s i n g , a n d c o m m e r c i a l a n d leisure o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h e  blue  c o l l a r a n d l o w - s k i l l s e r v i c e w o r k f o r c e h a s r e m a i n e d in t h e less e x p e n s i v e h o u s i n g o f t h e o l d e r c i t y , a n d is t h u s f o u n d t o b e at a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e economy.  new  T h e lack of effective p u b l i c transit b e t w e e n the central city a n d t h e  s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t c e n t r e s in m o s t m e t r o p o l i t a n areas t h e r e f o r e creates a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r t o e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e s e less affluent w o r k e r s . C e r v e r o (1984; 1986) p r o v i d e s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y of the g r o w i n g p r o b l e m s of traffic c o n g e s t i o n a n d p o l l u t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e g r o w t h of suburban e m p l o y m e n t centres.  K n a c k (1986), F u l t o n (1986), Barron (1986), a n d  B a e r w a l d (1989) d e s c r i b e t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t c o n s e q u e n c e s of m o r e d i v e r s i f i e d s u b u r b s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e g r o w t h of d o w n t o w n - s t y l e o f f i c e tower clusters b e i n g built along the beltways of metropolitan A m e r i c a .  Baerwald  (1989) also n o t e s t h e g r o w i n g p u b l i c , m e d i a , a n d g o v e r n m e n t a l r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t c e n t r e s , a n d d i s c u s s e s (as d o e s 1 9 8 9 , 74) t h e v a r i e d t e r m i n o l o g y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e m .  Cervero  M a t t h e w (1992) asserts a  lack of r i g o r o u s p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s o r g u i d e l i n e s for s u b u r b a n office clusters or centres, particularly in the C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t .  M a t t h e w also notes that C a n a d i a n  m e t r o p o l i t a n areas lag b e h i n d t h o s e in t h e U n i t e d States in t h e m a g n i t u d e a n d nature of " o f f i c e d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n . " H u g h e s a n d S t e r n l i e b (1988) a n d B a e r w a l d (1989, 54) d i s c u s s t h e a l a r m i n g i n c r e a s e s in v a c a n c y rates f o r o f f i c e s p a c e in m a n y s u b u r b a n l o c a t i o n s .  Hughes  a n d Sternlieb astutely point o u t the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the large scale of s u b u r b a n o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e 1 9 8 0 s a n d U.S. f e d e r a l p o l i c y t o w a r d f i n a n c i a l  15  d e r e g u l a t i o n (e.g., S a v i n g s a n d L o a n s i n s t i t u t i o n s w e r e a l l o w e d t o invest in speculative real estate ventures).  T h e y f u r t h e r assert that the saturation of t h e  s u b u r b a n o f f i c e m a r k e t s , t h e vast a m o u n t o f m o n e y c o m m i t t e d , a n d t h e lack of s u c c e s s in m a n y s u b u r b a n l o c a t i o n s w i l l f o r e c l o s e d e v e l o p m e n t o p t i o n s in o t h e r p l a c e s (i.e., t h e b a n k s a n d o t h e r l e n d e r s w i l l b e r e l u c t a n t t o s u p p o r t p r o j e c t s a i m e d at r e v i t a l i z i n g t r a d i t i o n a l d o w n t o w n s -- H u g h e s a n d S t e r n l i e b 1 9 8 8 , 2 8 6 ) . G a r r e a u (1991) asserts that s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t c e n t r e s r e p r e s e n t a f u n d a m e n t a l shift in t h e u r b a n p a t t e r n of n o t j u s t A m e r i c a , b u t t h e w o r l d .  Garreau  ( 1 9 9 1 , 6-7) p r o v i d e s a l i s t o f t h e r e q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a " f u l l b l o w n e d g e c i t y " as f o l l o w s :  f i v e m i l l i o n s q . ft. o r m o r e o f l e a s a b l e o f f i c e s p a c e ; 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. o r  m o r e o f l e a s a b l e r e t a i l s p a c e ; m o r e j o b s t h a n b e d r o o m s ; a n d is p e r c e i v e d i n h a b i t a n t s as " o n e p l a c e . "  by  A c c o r d i n g to a r e v i e w e r (Jackson 1991), Garreau's  p o i n t is t h a t d i v e r s i f i e d s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t a n d r e t a i l c e n t r e s " r e p r e s e n t a creative a n d optimistic solution to the r e q u i r e m e n t s of a m o d e r n , a u t o m o b i l e centered civilization.'"*  J a c k s o n ( 1 9 9 1 ) c o m p l a i n s , h o w e v e r , (a) t h a t G a r r e a u  c a v a l i e r l y d i s m i s s e s r a c i s m a s a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r i n s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n , (b)  too  that  G a r r e a u m a k e s u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d c l a i m s (e.g., t h a t " e d g e c i t i e s " are m o r e e f f i c i e n t t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l d o w n t o w n s ) , a n d (c) t h a t G a r r e a u d o e s n o t m e n t i o n " t h e  savings  a n d loan fiasco that f i n a n c e d the building, a n d o v e r b u i l d i n g , of so m a n y o u t l y i n g office and s h o p p i n g c o m p l e x e s . "  B l e m i s h e s a s i d e , G a r r e a u ' s r e a d a b l e b o o k is  a i m e d at a p o p u l a r a u d i e n c e a n d is a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s to A m e r i c a n r e s i d e n t i a l a n d b u s i n e s s life. In a c o m p a r a t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y i n V a n c o u v e r a n d M e l b o u r n e , D a v i s a n d P e r k i n s (1992) h y p o t h e s i z e that t h e c r e a t i o n of a s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n t h r o u g h policy will be c o n t i n g e n t u p o n four factors.  These  a r e : (a) r e f l e c t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y o f a g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n a l l a n d m a r k e t , e s p e c i a l l y a s it r e l a t e s t o p r i v a t e s e c t o r l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s ; (b)  16  c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l o f c h a n g e s t o t h e r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e t w o r k ; (c)  effective  c o o r d i n a t i o n of r e g i o n a l p o l i c y w i t h m u n i c i p a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ; a n d , (d) a f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of t h e s u b u r b a n  2.2  centres.  VANCOUVER T h e r e is a s h o r t list o f a c a d e m i c p u b l i c a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h  Greater  V a n c o u v e r ' s Regional T o w n C e n t r e s p o l i c y , offset s o m e w h a t b y a large n u m b e r of analytical d o c u m e n t s p r o d u c e d by the G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r Regional District (or for the G V R D  by consultants).  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e a m u l t i t u d e o f o f f i c i a l d o c u m e n t s  at t h e m u n i c i p a l a n d r e g i o n a l l e v e l w h i c h p e r t a i n t o R e g i o n a l T o w n  Centres.  Several a u t h o r s p r o v i d e c o n t e x t f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e R e g i o n a l Centres (RTCs) policy.  Town  N a d e r (1976) d e s c r i b e s c o n d i t i o n s in m e t r o p o l i t a n  V a n c o u v e r j u s t p r i o r t o t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e Livable  Region  Strategy  and the  RTCs.  N a d e r (1976, 386-389) states that "[t]he V a n c o u v e r m e t r o p o l i t a n area has always h a d a m u l t i p l e - n u c l e a t e d s t r u c t u r e , " w i t h l o n g - s t a n d i n g s e t t l e m e n t s at Westminster,  North V a n c o u v e r City, and elsewhere.  New  K i n g s w a y is r e c o g n i z e d a s  o n e of f o u r major g r o w t h c o r r i d o r s f o r t h e city, a n d a 1970 m a p of t h e  GVRD  s h o w s all of t h e o r i g i n a l R T C s , p l u s R i c h m o n d , as a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l centres.  T h e g r o w t h m a n a g e m e n t p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e V a n c o u v e r c i t y c o u n c i l is a l s o  n o t e d , with reference to the 1973 interim z o n i n g by-law w h i c h sharply  reduced  p e r m i t t e d d e n s i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e d o w n t o w n area ( a n d m a d e t r a d i t i o n a l d o w n t o w n densities subject to negotiation o v e r d e s i g n issues). G e r t l e r a n d C r o w l e y (1977) p r e s e n t a n early a n d o p t i m i s t i c a p p r a i s a l of t h e  Livable  Region  Strategy  in g e n e r a l a n d t h e R T C p o l i c y in particular.  T h e p o l i c y is  o u t l i n e d i n its o r i g i n a l t e r m s , w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f " a c h i e v i n g a r a d i c a l c h a n g e i n the balance of e m p l o y m e n t b e t w e e n V a n c o u v e r , particularly the d o w n t o w n ,  and  o u t l y i n g areas, w h i c h o t h e r w i s e w o u l d b e p r e d o m i n a n t l y d o r m i t o r y in f u n c t i o n . "  17  G e r t l e r a n d C r o w l e y a l s o d e s c r i b e t h e a c t i v i s t r o l e a n d e x p a n d e d p o w e r s w h i c h it was a s s u m e d w e r e g o i n g to b e given to the G V R D t o w a r d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e plan. In t h e c o u r s e o f a c o m p a r i s o n o f t w o m a j o r c o r p o r a t e h e a d o f f i c e s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , Ley (1985) o u t l i n e s t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h B C  Telephone  C o . w a s f o r c e d t o a b a n d o n a d o w n t o w n l o c a t i o n in f a v o u r of t h e s u b u r b s  because  V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l r e f u s e d t h e c o m p a n y a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t in 1 9 7 4 (Ley 1 9 8 5 , 33-34). T h o u g h this a c t i o n o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o t h e f o r m a l a d o p t i o n of t h e  Livable  Region  Strategy  it w a s s e e n as a n e x p r e s s i o n o f s u p p o r t f o r its p r i n c i p l e s b y  V a n c o u v e r ' s T E A M - d o m i n a t e d city c o u n c i l (and an e x a m p l e of h o w t h e city a n d  the  plan d i d n o t a d e q u a t e l y c o n s i d e r t h e e c o n o m i c c o n s e q u e n c e s of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n f a c e d b y f i r m s - Ley, 41).  G u t s t e i n d e s c r i b e s the political history of t h e  TEAM  g o v e r n m e n t in V a n c o u v e r , i n c l u d i n g T E A M ' S initial s u p p o r t for d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n in t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f its e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s a n d its s u b s e q u e n t a b a n d o n m e n t o f t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e f o r m a l a d o p t i o n o f t h e Livable (Gutstein 1985, 213).  Region  Strategy  T E A M eventually sided with the Non-Partisan Association in  its d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t t h e c i t y c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o l o s e d e v e l o p m e n t t o t h e s u b u r b s . G u t s t e i n (1985, 214-215) also d e s c r i b e s several of t h e unilateral r e g i o n a l transportation d e c i s i o n s taken by the Social C r e d i t provincial g o v e r n m e n t of the early 1980s ( w h i c h h a d an effect o n the d e v e l o p m e n t of Regional T o w n  Centres).  L e y a n d H u t t o n ( 1 9 8 4 , 1 4 3 - 1 4 4 ) a n d H u t t o n a n d D a v i s ( 1 9 8 4 , 6) b o t h r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e of o f f i c e s p a c e l o c a t i o n a n d o f f i c e e m p l o y m e n t in connection with the RTC policy.  Ley a n d H u t t o n d e s c r i b e the expectations that  t h e p o l i c y w o u l d i n c r e a s e s u b u r b a n o f f i c e g r o w t h b y d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n (as o p p o s e d t o in situ  g r o w t h of a p o p u l a t i o n - s e r v i n g nature) a n d that p u b l i c sector d e c i s i o n s  w o u l d affect private sector location d e c i s i o n s ; b o t h expectations w e r e severely t e s t e d in t h e reality of R T C  development.  18  H u t t o n a n d D a v i s (1984) e x a m i n e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of o f f i c e s p a c e o v e r in m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n t a i n i n g R T C s , v e r s u s V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e municipalities.  time  non-RTC  B e t w e e n 1971 a n d 1 9 8 2 , t h e d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n of V a n c o u v e r  city  g e n e r a l l y a n d t h e d o w n t o w n in particular w a s u n c h a l l e n g e d b y t h e i n n e r s u b u r b s . F u r t h e r , it is n o t e d t h a t t h e r a t e o f g r o w t h i n t h e p e r i o d 1 9 7 7 - 1 9 8 2 w a s g r e a t e r f o r V a n c o u v e r than for the inner s u b u r b s , s u g g e s t i n g a t r e n d c o u n t e r to that e x p e c t e d under the RTC policy.  T h e fact that m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h o u t RTCs w e r e a d d i n g o f f i c e  s p a c e j u s t a s q u i c k l y as t h o s e w i t h R T C s a l s o s u g g e s t s t h e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e policy.  H u t t o n a n d D a v i s ( 1 9 8 4 , 24-30) p r o p o s e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e  weakness  i n t h e R T C p o l i c y , i n c l u d i n g (a) a m i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e v o l v i n g r e g i o n a l e c o n o m y , (b) a m i s c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e o f f i c e m a r k e t , (c) a f a i l u r e t o d e s i g n a t e p r i o r i t y c e n t r e s , (d) i n e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y a p p r o a c h e s b y m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s , c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m n o n - R T C c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e s , a n d (f) i n a d e q u a t e transportation linkages.  (e)  core-periphery  H u t t o n a n d D a v i s a l s o n o t e t h e d i f f i c u l t y in p r o m o t i n g a  m u l t i p l e s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y i n a c o n s e n s u a l f r a m e w o r k ( i n t h a t t h e r e is n o ability to m a k e trade-offs w h e n necessary b e t w e e n c o m p e t i n g m u n i c i p a l interests). P r i o r t o t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e Livable  Region  Strategy,  the G V R D was very  active in d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o t h e r levels of g o v e r n m e n t a n d in c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h business interests and the general public.  Background studies to Regional  Town  C e n t r e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d ( T h o m p s o n , B e r w i c k , Pratt a n d Partners 1 9 7 3 ; G V R D 1974d), seminars w e r e held with public a n d private stakeholders ( G V R D 1974a; 1974b), and corporations w e r e surveyed ( G V R D 1974c).  A final r e p o r t was  p r o d u c e d w h i c h o u t l i n e d t h e final f o r m a t of t h e original v e r s i o n of the R T C p o l i c y ( G V R D Planning Department and Spaeth 1975).  5  The d e s i r e d size a n d scale of the  R T C s w e r e s t a t e d ( o n e m i l l i o n s q . ft. o f o f f i c e s p a c e , 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. o f r e t a i l s p a c e , 7 , 0 0 0 - 1 0 , 0 0 0 j o b s , e t c . -- G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 1 0 ) .  A time frame was  proposed  for staging RTC d e v e l o p m e n t , with M e t r o t o w n and N e w W e s t m i n s t e r to be  19  c o m p l e t e d b y 1980 a n d w i t h yet t o b e d e f i n e d RTCs in S u r r e y a n d in t h e Sector to be d e v e l o p e d by 1986.  Northeast  R e a s o n s w e r e g i v e n f o r t h e r e j e c t i o n of RTCs in  R i c h m o n d a n d N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 33).  Finally, a  p r o g r a m m e of p u b l i c s e c t o r a c t i o n s a n d a c q u i s i t i o n s w a s d e s c r i b e d ( G V R D  and  S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 34-38). In 1 9 7 5 , t h e Livable  Region  Strategy  and Regional T o w n Centres w e r e  a d o p t e d ( s u b s t a n t i a l l y in t h e f o r m d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ) as r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s ( G V R D 1975a; 1975b).  W h e n the G V R D  gained responsibility for the Official  Regional Plan f r o m the d i s b a n d e d L o w e r M a i n l a n d Regional P l a n n i n g B o a r d , the directions w e r e reaffirmed ( G V R D 1980a).  Major restatements and  o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s b e h i n d t h e Livable  Strategy  Region  1980 a n d in 1990 ( G V R D 1980b; 1990b).  reaffirmations  a n d the R T C p o l i c y o c c u r r e d in  Each municipality c o n t a i n i n g an RTC has,  o v e r t h e y e a r s s i n c e t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e p l a n , i n c l u d e d s o m e f o r m of t h e  RTC  p o l i c y in m u n i c i p a l O f f i c i a l C o m m u n i t y Plans a n d o t h e r p l a n n i n g a n d p r o m o t i o n a l documents. The G V R D  has relied o n b o t h internally p r o d u c e d status reports ( G V R D  1 9 7 6 ; 1 9 8 1 ; 1 9 8 2 ; 1 9 8 3 ; 1987) a n d o n t h e w o r k of c o n s u l t a n t s (e.g., C o r i o l i s C o n s u l t i n g C o r p . 6 1986 a n d A r t i b i s e , et al. 1990) for appraisals of the R T C policies a n d t h e effect of t h o s e p o l i c i e s o n s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t .  All of the  documents  p r o d u c e d after 1980 have c o m m e n t e d u p o n the failure of the RTCs to d e v e l o p planned.  as  T h e character of the existing RTCs m o r e closely r e s e m b l e d s h o p p i n g  m a l l s t h a n u r b a n d o w n t o w n s ( G V R D 1 9 8 3 , 2 6 ; C o r i o l i s 1 9 8 6 , 4; A r t i b i s e , et al. 1 9 9 0 , 27).  E m p l o y m e n t has b e e n d e c e n t r a l i z i n g t o s u b u r b a n l o c a t i o n s in a d i s p e r s e d  r a t h e r t h a n c o n c e n t r a t e d m a n n e r ( G V R D 1 9 8 1 , 1 8 ; 1 9 8 2 , 3 ; 1 9 8 3 , 8; 1 9 8 7 , 2 4 - 2 5 ; C o r i o l i s 1 9 8 6 , 8-9; A r t i b i s e , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 8 ) .  T h e g r o w t h w h i c h h a s o c c u r r e d in R T C s  is a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e f i r m s w h i c h s e r v e t h e g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i n t h e R T C a r e a s ( C o r i o l i s 1 9 8 6 , 4; A r t i b i s e , et a l . 1 9 9 0 , 8).  20  trade  T h e activist role originally a s s i g n e d to t h e G V R D  is r e p l a c e d b y a p a s s i v e  a c c e p t a n c e of m u n i c i p a l p r e r o g a t i v e , of t h e c o n t i n u e d s t r e n g t h of the office m a r k e t in d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r , a n d of a n e w r o l e f o r t h e G V R D w h i c h c o n s i s t s of a t t e m p t i n g to f o c u s t h e a t t e n t i o n of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ( G V R D 1 9 8 3 , 2 2 ; 1 9 8 7 , 4-5; A r t i b i s e , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 2 8 ) .  T h e R T C p o l i c y has  m o d i f i e d to i n c l u d e the originally rejected areas of R i c h m o n d C e n t r e a n d V a n c o u v e r Lonsdale ( G V R D 1983; 1987). The m o s t recent  been North  recommendations  toward a m e n d i n g RTC policy include defining n e w specialized roles for each  RTC,  and a c c e p t i n g a n d adapting to the existing regional hierarchy of c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e ( G V R D 1 9 8 7 , 5 3 ; A r t i b i s e , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 3 9 - 4 0 ) , a s w e l l as d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e u r b a n d e s i g n p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s u b u r b a n c h a r a c t e r of t h e e x i s t i n g R T C s ( A r t i b i s e , et al. 1 9 9 0 , 45-49).  2.3  MELBOURNE T h e b a c k g r o u n d l i t e r a t u r e o n M e l b o u r n e is m u c h m o r e e x t e n s i v e t h a n f o r  the other t w o cities u n d e r study.  T h e r e is a w i d e r d e b a t e i n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d  d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e f f e c t s o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s (as o p p o s e d t o t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n f o c u s o n transportation a n d regional e c o n o m i c efficiency) a n d m a n y of the discussions i n c l u d e t h e r o l e of State a n d F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s in t h e f o r m a t i o n of u r b a n p o l i c y (a d i m e n s i o n a l s o l a c k i n g i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t e x t ) . larger than either Seattle or V a n c o u v e r .  M e l b o u r n e is m u c h  T h o u g h all t h r e e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s a r e  p r i m a t e f o r t h e i r S t a t e o r P r o v i n c e , M e l b o u r n e is m u c h m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t t o its region than the others are.  M e l b o u r n e c o n t a i n s 70 p e r c e n t of the total State  p o p u l a t i o n , is t h e s e a t o f t h e S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t , a n d is t h e c e n t r e o f m o s t o f t h e e c o n o m i c activity of t h e State ( e s p e c i a l l y in t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sectors).  21  M . L o g a n , et al. (1975) a n d N e u t z e (1978) o u t l i n e t h e m a j o r u r b a n i s s u e s w h i c h o b t a i n e d in t h e p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e District Centres (DCs) policy.  N e u t z e (1978, 172-185) d i s c u s s e s the c o n t r o l o f  scattered d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e d e b a t e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p l a n n e d f o r m of u r b a n e x p a n s i o n , a n d the inequitable distribution of jobs a n d services a m o n g the v a r i o u s sections of the city.  M . L o g a n , et al. (1975, 105) d i s c u s s the s o c i o e c o n o m i c  differences b e t w e e n s u b u r b s , the differing levels of p u b l i c services, high p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h into l o w d e n s i t y s u b u r b a n s p r a w l , a n d t h e o v e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d facilities in a s i n g l e c o r e area. M o r i s o n a n d R i c h a r d s o n (1977) p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n p a p e r s for a series of national s e m i n a r s o n t h e c o n c e p t of s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s .  R i c h a r d s o n ( 1 9 7 7 , 6-7) a n d  M o r r i s o n a n d W i n t e r (1977, 18) assert that t h e k e y e l e m e n t s in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s is o f f i c e e m p l o y m e n t b e y o n d t h e a m o u n t n e e d e d t o s e r v i c e  the  residential p o p u l a t i o n . M o r r i s o n a n d W i n t e r also n o t e the lack of d e v e l o p m e n t of any s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t concentrations u p to the 1970s.  M o r i s o n (1977, 41)  notes that M e l b o u r n e l a c k e d an o b v i o u s single s e c o n d a r y location for c o n c e n t r a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d d e M o n c h a u x (1977, 48) r e p e a t s t h e o f t e n e x p r e s s e d a r g u m e n t t h a t s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s m u s t d e v e l o p g r a d u a l l y (i.e., w i t h o u t m u c h p u b l i c s e c t o r regulation).  D u r i n g t h e d e b a t e in t h e late 1 9 7 0 s , B u n k e r (1976, 169-177) d i s c u s s e s  the lack of k n o w l e d g e r e g a r d i n g s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s a n d m e n t i o n s t h e g r o w t h of office e m p l o y m e n t districts just o u t s i d e t h e e x i s t i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n c o r e s of Melbourne and Sydney. T h e h i s t o r y of u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t in M e l b o u r n e u p t o t h e a d o p t i o n of t h e D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s p o l i c y is c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y c o n s i d e r e d i n T. L o g a n ( 1 9 8 4 ) , M a h e r (1988), a n d B e e d (1981).  A m o n g many other topics, Beed describes the  distinctions b e t w e e n the p r o s p e r o u s residential s o u t h a n d east a n d t h e industrial n o r t h a n d w e s t in t h e 1970s ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 149-156), t h e shift in p o p u l a t i o n a n d  22  e m p l o y m e n t to the o u t e r s u b u r b s of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area a n d the resulting reliance o n the a u t o m o b i l e for m o s t transportation n e e d s ( B e e d 1981, 131-133), a n d t h e relative i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e c o r r i d o r - o r i e n t e d r e g i o n a l plans of t h e 1 9 6 0 s a n d 1 9 7 0 s ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 8 3 , 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 ) . T h i s f a i l u r e is a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a c k o f p u b l i c sector p o w e r s to i n f l u e n c e private s e c t o r d e c i s i o n s ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 160-169). S e v e r a l a u t h o r s (in p a p e r s w h i c h f o c u s o n w i d e r t o p i c s ) c o m m e n t o n i s s u e s relevant to the d e v e l o p m e n t of the District C e n t r e s policy.  S a n d e r c o c k (1977, 149-  151) d i s c u s s e s t h e lack of p u b l i c s e c t o r s u p p o r t f o r t h e o r i g i n a l 1954 s u b u r b a n b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s p l a n a n d t h e l a c k o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s as a n o p t i o n d u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s of t h e 1960s.  T h o m p s o n (1978, 133-135)  d e s c r i b e s the general urban f o r m of M e l b o u r n e (small, high density u r b a n c o r e s u r r o u n d e d b y l o w density s p r a w l ; w h i t e collar east a n d southeast; b l u e collar north and west) and the automobile d o m i n a n c e which resulted.  O'Connor  and  M a h e r (1979) o u t l i n e t h e a u t o n o m o u s g r o w t h of s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t in M e l b o u r n e a n d the associated patterns of c o m m u t i n g , w h e r e e m p l o y m e n t clusters in t h e central s u b u r b s a n d takes a d v a n t a g e of w i d e c o m m u t e r s h e d s in t h e o u t e r suburbs.  E d g i n g t o n ( 1 9 8 8 , 7) c i t e s t h i s a r g u m e n t a s o n e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e c r e a t i o n  of the State g o v e r n m e n t ' s s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y w h i c h identified a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d o n five e c o n o m i c sub-regions. B u n k e r ( 1 9 8 3 , 9, 3 1 ) d i s c u s s e s t h e o u t w a r d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f M e l b o u r n e ' s p o p u l a t i o n in t h e 1970s, a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g i n t e r e s t in u r b a n c o n s o l i d a t i o n w h i c h  led  d i r e c t l y t o t h e D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s p l a n of 1 9 8 1 . S a n d e r c o c k ( 1 9 8 3 , 5 5 , 60) d e s c r i b e s the Australian federal government's support for metropolitan office d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a n d the lack of any m e c h a n i s m to affect private office location decisions d u r i n g the office b o o m of the early 1970s.  B. L o g a n ( 1 9 8 6 , 1 3 1 )  d e s c r i b e s t h e inconsistencies r e g a r d i n g the p r o m o t i o n of s u b u r b a n  development  that e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e 1971 M e l b o u r n e a n d M e t r o p o l i t a n B o a r d of W o r k s  23  ( M M B W ) regional plan and the  M e l b o u r n e C i t y C o u n c i l p l a n o f 1 9 7 4 . T. L o g a n  (1986a, 177) e x a m i n e s the d e t e r m i n i n g effect of rates of p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h o n t h e style of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g in M e l b o u r n e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e r e d u c e d g r o w t h p r o j e c t i o n s of t h e late 1970s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e 1 9 8 0 p l a n f o c u s s i n g o n t h e  redevelopment  of the e x i s t i n g u r b a n area. Regarding the actual i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the District C e n t r e s policy (which w a s a d o p t e d in 1981 in A m e n d m e n t 1 5 0 t o t h e M M B W p l a n o f 1 9 8 0 ) , B u n k e r ( 1 9 8 7 , 8) r e i t e r a t e s h i s e a r l i e r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e p r o m o t i o n o f s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s is b e i n g a t t e m p t e d w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e k n o w l e d g e of r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e .  Edgington  (1982, 234) a n d M o s e r a n d L o w (1986, 1450-1454) b o t h c o m m e n t o n t h e s u p p o r t for C B D d e v e l o p m e n t given b y t h e State a n d M e l b o u r n e city g o v e r n m e n t s , a n d t h e potential conflict this causes w i t h t h e p r o m o t i o n of s u b u r b a n centres.  Daniels  (1986, 35) a s s e r t s t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e C B D a n d n e a r b y o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t areas l i m i t s t h e p o t e n t i a l of s u b u r b a n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of e m p l o y m e n t . C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 2 , 3-7) a l s o d i s c u s s e s t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n s u p p o r t f o r t h e C B D and support for the District Centres, and the further contradiction  between  the stated intention of the p o l i c y to respect m a r k e t p r e f e r e n c e s a n d the n e e d for g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n in t h e o f f i c e m a r k e t f o r D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s t o s u c c e e d . p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y is g i v e n b y t h e O f f i c e  The  Development  A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e ( O D A C 1 9 8 6 , 1-6), w h i c h w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o a d v i s e t h e S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t o n the c o n c e r n s of the office d e v e l o p m e n t industry.  The  Committee  p o i n t s o u t s e v e r a l p e r c e i v e d d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o D i s t r i c t C e n t r e l o c a t i o n s , s u c h as traffic c o n g e s t i o n , lack of m a t c h b e t w e e n D C b o u n d a r i e s a n d f u n c t i o n a l activities, a n d an i n a d e q u a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the actual o p e r a t i o n of the office d e v e l o p m e n t market.  In a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t ,  O ' C o n n o r a n d B l a k e l y (1988, 12) assert that t h e D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s p o l i c y has actually  24  i m p e d e d t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of m e d i u m - s i z e d o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s (by r e s t r i c t i n g t h e areas w h e r e t h e y m a y  locate).  T. L o g a n ( 1 9 8 6 b ) c r i t i c a l l y e x a m i n e s s e v e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s p o l i c y , n a m e l y t h a t it u n d e r v a l u e s s t r o n g l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s a n d b a r g a i n i n g p o w e r o f f i r m s , t h a t it e x a g g e r a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s u b s t a n t i a l c h a n g e i n p e o p l e ' s m o d e o f t r a v e l , t h a t it o v e r e s t i m a t e s t h e e c o n o m i e s t o b e g a i n e d i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f u t i l i t i e s , a n d t h a t it f a i l s t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s a n d v a r i e d c o m m i t m e n t of p u b l i c a g e n c i e s r e s p o n s i b l e for p o l i c y implementation.  T. L o g a n c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e p o l i c y d o e s n o t p o s s e s s a s u f f i c i e n t  relationship to t h e realities of u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e s a n d , therefore, c a n n o t h o p e to harness or influence those forces to p r o v i d e progress t o w a r d policy objectives. K i l m a r t i n ( 1 9 8 6 ) a n d K i n g ( 1 9 9 1 ) e x a m i n e t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s at w o r k i n t h e relocation of a major M e l b o u r n e head office f r o m the core to a s u b u r b a n setting. B o t h r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e District C e n t r e s p l a n , has b e e n w i l l i n g t o i g n o r e t h e plan t o satisfy t h e locational r e q u i r e m e n t s of major c o r p o r a t e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t industry interests. In 1 9 8 7 , t h e M i n i s t r y f o r P l a n n i n g a n d E n v i r o n m e n t ( M P E ) c o m p r e h e n s i v e planning strategy for the M e l b o u r n e area called  Melbourne's  Future,  released a  Shaping  w h i c h c o n t a i n e d the State g o v e r n m e n t ' s general policy  objectives regarding District Centres.  T h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s a r e s t a t e d as (a)  the  r e t e n t i o n o f C e n t r a l M e l b o u r n e as t h e p r i m e m e t r o p o l i t a n f o c u s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c u l t u r a l , r e t a i l , c o m m e r c i a l , a n d t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s a n d (b) t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t of t h e " w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d " pattern of c e n t r e s in w h i c h retail, office, a n d p u b l i c services are grouped (MPE  1 9 8 7 , 17-20).  District Centres are differentiated into categories  based o n proximity to the Central M e l b o u r n e .  25  In s e p a r a t e b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s o n s u b u r b a n o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t , F o t h e r g i l l (1987, 28) a n d J o n e s L a n g W o o t t o n W o l i n s k i P l a n n e r s (1987, 2 )  7  note the lack of  any significant office d e v e l o p m e n t o t h e r t h a n in t h e near eastern s u b u r b s . E d g i n g t o n ( 1 9 8 8 , 8, 1 1 ) , i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c s u b - r e g i o n s o f M e l b o u r n e , n o t e s that little s u b u r b a n office g r o w t h c o u l d b e a t t r i b u t e d t o d e f l e c t i o n f r o m t h e CBD.  Edgington concurs with the assessment that the suburban  development  p a t t e r n is s k e w e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e s o u t h a n d e a s t . T h e c u r r e n t v e r s i o n o f D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s p o l i c y is p r e s e n t e d i n  Activity  Centres  Metropolitan  (MPE 1989). This d o c u m e n t reiterates the rationales for D C s  p o l i c y , s u c h as s a v i n g s f r o m s h a r e d f a c i l i t i e s a n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , e a s e o f a c c e s s b y p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t m o r e e q u i t a b l e a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s in all r e g i o n s , e t c .  In o u t l i n e ,  the p o l i c y calls for 15 D C s t h r o u g h o u t the r e g i o n , s u b o r d i n a t e t o the d o w n t o w n  in  s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s a n d e m p l o y m e n t , b u t at t h e t o p o f a s u b u r b a n r e t a i l a n d e m p l o y m e n t h i e r a r c h y w h i c h i n c l u d e s o v e r 5 0 s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s of v a r i o u s s i z e a n d composition.  P r e s u m a b l y in r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r o b l e m s i d e n t i f i e d b y t h e O f f i c e  D e v e l o p m e n t A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e ( O D A C 1986), t h e p o l i c y also states that t h e b o u n d a r i e s of District C e n t r e s will b e " f l e x i b l e " t o allow the m a x i m u m o p p o r t u n i t y for s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . M o o d i e (1991) p r e s e n t s t h e m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e e m p i r i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n of the District Centres policy.  M o o d i e describes the background to policy  d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d District C e n t r e s ( D C s ) are e v a l u a t e d in t e r m s of their c o m p o s i t i o n (retail a n d o f f i c e s p a c e , e m p l o y m e n t , c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s , etc.) qualitative character.  and  F e w D C s are f o u n d to p r o v i d e t h e b r o a d s p e c t r u m of  activities a n d different regional roles that the policy was i n t e n d e d to foster. Further, t h e s e f e w s u c c e s s e s are f o u n d to b e less a result of p o l i c y t h a n of p r i o r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d of external e c o n o m i c factors u n a d d r e s s e d by the policy.  26  2.4  BELLEVUE Prior to 1980, the c o r e of B e l l e v u e w a s a relatively typical A m e r i c a n  s u b u r b a n retail district, w i t h a large s h o p p i n g m a l l , v e r y little local e m p l o y m e n t , and an almost total reliance o n the a u t o m o b i l e for transportation.  Schneider  ( 1 9 8 1 , 2 4 8 , 2 5 0 ) a s s e r t s t h a t d o w n t o w n B e l l e v u e " h a s d e v e l o p e d as a n a u t o m o b i l e o r i e n t e d retail, office a n d residential c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h virtually no a p p e a l t o o r provision for the pedestrian" a n d discusses the disincentives to other forms of d e v e l o p m e n t , m o s t notably the large a m o u n t of p a r k i n g r e q u i r e d b a s e d o n developed floorspace.  D a n i e l s (1982, 59) a l s o n o t e s t h e a u t o m o b i l e  of d o w n t o w n B e l l e v u e in t h e e a r l y 1 9 8 0 s .  In a d i s c u s s i o n o f C e n t r a l  dependence Business  D i s t r i c t p o l i c i e s in S e a t t l e , D a n i e l s e x p r e s s e s d o u b t as t o t h e p o t e n t i a l o f d o w n t o w n Bellevue to d e v e l o p into a major c o m p e t i t o r for p r i m e office space. T h r o u g h o u t the 1980s, h o w e v e r , several policies a n d regional c o n d i t i o n s c o m b i n e d t o a l l o w t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a n e w k i n d of d o w n t o w n area in B e l l e v u e . T h e 1981 L a n d U s e C o d e , b y w h i c h B e l l e v u e r e s t r i c t e d large s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t t o t h e c o r e a n d c r e a t e d a h i g h d e n s i t y " w e d d i n g c a k e " d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n , is d e s c r i b e d b y m a n y r e s e a r c h e r s ( N o g u c h i 1 9 8 2 , 2; N a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i v e  Highway  Research P r o g r a m 1987, 77-79; M i l e s a n d H i n s h a w 1987, 2 2 2 ; W h y t e 1988, 3 0 7 ; C e r v e r o 1 9 8 9 , 1 7 2 ; Kay 1 9 9 1 , 6).  N o g u c h i ( 1 9 8 2 , 4) a n d C e r v e r o ( 1 9 8 9 , 1 7 3 )  describe an a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n Bellevue a n d the regional p u b l i c transportation service to link the provision of p u b l i c transit in the c o r e to increasing density a n d reduced parking requirements. T h e s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e n e w c o d e w h i c h p e r t a i n t o i m p r o v e m e n t s in t h e pedestrian character a n d u r b a n d e s i g n of the c o r e of Bellevue have also received a t t e n t i o n ( N o g u c h i 1 9 8 2 , 3; M i l e s a n d H i n s h a w 1 9 8 7 ; N a t i o n a l  Cooperative  H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h P r o g r a m 1 9 8 7 , 77-79; W h y t e 1 9 8 8 , 307-309; C e r v e r o 1 9 8 9 , 169171).  W e l c h ( 1 9 8 9 , 33-71) p r o v i d e s a r e a d a b l e t r e a t m e n t of t h e h i s t o r i c a l  27  d e v e l o p m e n t o f B e l l e v u e ' s d o w n t o w n a n d t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h l e d t o its s u c c e s s , s u c h as t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a n d t h e b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , t h e l e a d e r s h i p of the F r e e m a n family, the i m p o r t a n c e of t h e w i d e r regional e c o n o m y b a s e d  on  t h e s u c c e s s of t h e B o e i n g c o m p a n y , a n d t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n o v e r t h e E v e r g r e e n East proposal.  The next three chapters present case studies of the s u b u r b a n centre policies in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , m e t r o p o l i t a n M e l b o u r n e , a n d t h e C i t y of Washington.  Bellevue,  T h e c o n c l u s i o n ( C h a p t e r 6) a p p l i e s t h e l e s s o n s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c a s e  studies t o t h e i m p r o v e m e n t of s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y b o t h g e n e r a l l y a n d in t h e particular c i r c u m s t a n c e s of G r e a t e r  Vancouver.  28  CHAPTER 3 GREATER V A N C O U V E R : REGIONAL T O W N CENTRES  3.0  POLICY  INTRODUCTION The s u b u r b a n centres strategy w h i c h has b e e n a d o p t e d in t h e Greater  V a n c o u v e r r e g i o n is c a l l e d t h e R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s p o l i c y .  This chapter  presents t h e historical d e v e l o p m e n t , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a n d results of t h e policy. In t h e p o l i c y c o n t e x t s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r , t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s ( R T C ) p o l i c y is f o u n d t o b e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f g r o w t h p r e s s u r e s i n t h e 1970s a n d a c o n v e r g e n c e of political will a m o n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t s in t h e City of V a n c o u v e r , its s u b u r b a n n e i g h b o u r s , a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l .  T h e policy  development section describes the planning process which led to the  Region  Strategy,  Livable  t h e goals eventually e x p r e s s e d in t h e strategy, a n d t h e details of  the original Regional T o w n Centres policy.  A s p e c t s of t h e p o l i c y w h i c h are  d i s c u s s e d i n c l u d e t h e selection of R T C sites, t h e criteria b y w h i c h R T C s c o u l d b e j u d g e d , a n d a five-element implementation procedure.  It is a r g u e d t h a t c h a n g e s i n  the political context a r o u n d t h e time of original i m p l e m e n t a t i o n h a d significant consequences for the policy. The policy evaluation section of the chapter describes, in detail, the c o n s e q u e n c e s for the RTCs resulting from t h e altered political environment.  A  review of evaluative c o m m e n t s f r o m t h e a c a d e m i c literature a n d f r o m policy d o c u m e n t s is u s e d t o s u p p o r t t h e a n a l y s i s .  This section includes a discussion of  the inadequacy of R T C p e r f o r m a n c e criteria in v i e w of t h e a d o p t e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t y l e i n t h e R T C s , a n d a c r i t i c i s m c o n c e r n i n g t h e w a y s i n w h i c h o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e is u s e d a s a k e y i n d i c a t o r . T h e p r o g r e s s a n d p r o s p e c t s o f e a c h R T C is e x a m i n e d i n turn.  29  In t h e c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r , it is f o u n d t h a t t h e p o l i c y c a n n o t b e d e m o n s t r a t e d to have altered t h e pattern of d e v e l o p m e n t o r w h i c h has o c c u r r e d in t h e d e s i g n a t e d R T C s .  redevelopment  It is f u r t h e r a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e h i s t o r i c a l  m o m e n t w h e n R T C s c o u l d a d d r e s s r e g i o n a l p r o b l e m s is p a s t , a n d t h a t a n e w p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n is r e q u i r e d .  3.1  POLICY  CONTEXT Livable  T h e R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s (RTC) p o l i c y w a s an e l e m e n t of t h e 1 9 7 5  Region  Strategy,  a general m e t r o p o l i t a n r e s p o n s e to u r b a n g r o w t h patterns in the  G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r area in the post-1950s p e r i o d .  Regional population had  grown  t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 5 0 s a n d 1 9 6 0 s at a n a n n u a l r a t e o f s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n f o u r p e r c e n t (Gertler a n d C r o w l e y 1976, 176), nearly d o u b l i n g the G V R D total p o p u l a t i o n f r o m 5 6 2 , 0 0 0 i n 1 9 5 1 t o 1.02 m i l l i o n i n 1 9 7 1 ( G V R D 1 9 8 1 b , 6 ) . Such rapid growth raised three major interrelated c o n c e r n s for regional planners, politicians, and citizens.  First, t h e r e w a s a p e r c e p t i o n that c o m m e r c i a l  d e v e l o p m e n t was o v e r - c o n c e n t r a t e d in the central city.  By the early 1970s, the  C i t y of V a n c o u v e r c o n t a i n e d 62 p e r c e n t of r e g i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t , 60 p e r c e n t of regional leasable office s p a c e (plus o v e r 60 p e r c e n t of the office s p a c e  under  d e v e l o p m e n t ) , a n d a l m o s t all o f t h e m a j o r c u l t u r a l a n d e n t e r t a i n m e n t facilities f o r t h e r e g i o n ( G V R D 1 9 7 4 d , 7; G e r t l e r a n d C r o w l e y 1 9 7 7 , 1 7 6 ) .  The downtown  a l o n e c o n t a i n e d 3 6 p e r c e n t of r e g i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t ( G V R D 1 9 7 4 d , 6).  area  Second, the  balance of the residential population was shifting to the s u b u r b a n municipalities (Gertler a n d C r o w l e y 1977, 176), c a u s i n g c o n c e r n a b o u t the inefficiencies of s u b u r b a n s p r a w l a n d a b o u t t h e lack of local j o b s a n d facilities available t o e m p l o y a n d serve the g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n . T h i r d , t h e primary m o d e of c o m m u t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n in t h e r e g i o n w a s t h e a u t o m o b i l e (only 10 p e r c e n t of c o m m u t e r s u s e d t r a n s i t -- G e r t l e r a n d C r o w l e y 1 9 7 7 , 1 7 6 ) a n d , s i n c e t h e r e w e r e n o m a j o r  30  freeway connectors b e t w e e n the d o w n t o w n core of the City of Vancouver a n d  the  s u b u r b a n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , it w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t m a j o r i n c r e a s e s i n t r a f f i c f l o w  (and  the a c c o m p a n y i n g n o i s e a n d p o l l u t i o n ) w o u l d s e r i o u s l y h a r m t h e quality of life in t h e i n t e r v e n i n g C i t y of V a n c o u v e r r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s ( G V R D 1 9 7 4 b , 2; G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1975, 23). Regarding suburban centres, there w e r e two notable policy responses to 1975.  prior  In 1 9 6 7 i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , a c i t y c o u n c i l d e c i s i o n w a s m a d e  solve the p e r c e i v e d traffic f l o w p r o b l e m s b e t w e e n t h e d o w n t o w n a n d the by constructing a freeway connector.  to  suburbs  The resulting citizen backlash against  the  d e c i s i o n , called " T h e G r e a t Freeway D e b a t e , " led to the f o r m a t i o n of a reformm i n d e d civic political party, The Electors A c t i o n M o v e m e n t (TEAM) (Tennant 1 9 8 0 , 14; G u t s t e i n 1985, 202).  T E A M eventually supplanted the business-minded  Non-  p a r t i s a n A s s o c i a t i o n ( N P A ) as t h e g o v e r n i n g p a r t y o n V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l a n d r u l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o r m a t i v e y e a r s o f t h e Livable T e n n a n t 1980, 17).  Region  Strategy  ( 1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 6 --  T E A M h a d c o m e to p o w e r o n a p l a t f o r m of c o n t r o l l i n g g r o w t h  t o p r e s e r v e t h e q u a l i t y of life in t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , a n d this a n t i - g r o w t h c o m m i t m e n t w a s e x p r e s s e d in t h e Interim Z o n i n g By-law of 1 9 7 3 ( B u r e a u of M u n i c i p a l Research 1976, 14; N a d e r 1976, 410-411; G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1975, 38). U n d e r this by-law, o u t r i g h t a l l o w a b l e d e n s i t i e s of d o w n t o w n d e v e l o p m e n t  were  sharply r e d u c e d , m a k i n g the traditional scale of c o r e d e v e l o p m e n t subject to negotiation b e t w e e n d e v e l o p e r s a n d city planners.  In a d d i t i o n t o a d e s i r e t o  control the design of d o w n t o w n built space, "there was a general wish to d i s c o u r a g e d o w n t o w n o f f i c e g r o w t h a n d at t h e s a m e t i m e t o e n c o u r a g e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of g r o w t h " ( B u r e a u of M u n i c i p a l R e s e a r c h 1 9 7 6 , 22).  a  Since 1967,  t h e d o w n t o w n of t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r h a d e x p e r i e n c e d a b o o m in o f f i c e s p a c e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( N a d e r 1976, 411), the negative effects of w h i c h T E A M w i s h e d  to  a m e l i o r a t e b y m o v i n g office d e v e l o p m e n t o u t of t h e d o w n t o w n a n d o u t of t h e city.  31  T h i s p o l i c y w a s e n f o r c e d in 1974, w h e n t h e B.C. T e l e p h o n e C o m p a n y w a s d e n i e d a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t a n d w a s t h e r e b y f o r c e d t o m o v e its h e a d q u a r t e r s o u t o f t h e City of V a n c o u v e r , eventually to relocate in B u r n a b y , near M e t r o t o w n , in 1977 (Ley 1 9 8 5 , 30-34). T E A M ' s c o n c e r n s a l s o f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n in t h e s t a t e d 1 9 7 2 p o l i c y o f the G V R D  Board "to regionally control and d e v e l o p office centres or regional t o w n  centres o u t s i d e of d o w n t o w n , a n d d e c e n t r a l i z e s o m e d o w n t o w n g r o w t h to these c e n t r e s " ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1975, 23). The s e c o n d notable policy response prior to 1975 was the Official Regional Plan of 1 9 6 6 , p r e p a r e d b y t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d  (LMRPB).  This a d v i s o r y p l a n c o n t a i n e d a g e n e r a l p o l i c y for t h e c r e a t i o n of " a series of c o m p a c t R e g i o n a l T o w n s , e a c h w i t h its o w n b u s i n e s s a n d c i v i c c e n t r e a n d e a c h related to industrial areas, c o m p l e m e n t i n g a Regional b u s i n e s s , social, a n d financial C o r e in d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r " ( L M R P B 1 9 6 6 , 3).  These regional towns had  been  u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n s i n c e at l e a s t 1 9 6 2 ( G V R D 1 9 7 5 a , 1) a n d w e r e t o b e l o c a t e d b o t h in t h e s u b u r b s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r a n d in t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f u r t h e r east in t h e Fraser Valley.  T h e regional t o w n s w e r e m e a n t to p r o v i d e an u r b a n  g r o w t h pattern that w o u l d preserve t h e s u r r o u n d i n g g r e e n spaces a n d that w o u l d b e m o r e e c o n o m i c a l t o s e r v i c e t h a n s c a t t e r e d d e v e l o p m e n t ( L M R P B 1 9 6 6 , 3, 5 ) .  By  the early 1970s, h o w e v e r , o n l y the retail s h o p p i n g f u n c t i o n h a d d e c e n t r a l i z e d t o a n u m b e r of regional centres, o n l y s o m e of w h i c h w e r e also t h e d e s i g n a t e d " r e g i o n a l t o w n s " ( G V R D 1 9 7 4 d , 9). Nevertheless, there was support a m o n g the suburban municipalities for the c o n c e p t of s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s .  In B u r n a b y , f o r e x a m p l e , p o l i t i c i a n s a n d  planners w i s h e d to create a focal point for their c o m m u n i t y and recognized the c o i n c i d e n c e of interests b e t w e e n the regional p o l i c y of c o m p a c t t o w n s a n d the City of V a n c o u v e r policy t o w a r d office d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ( B u r n a b y Planning D e p a r t m e n t a n d N o r m a n H o t s o n A r c h i t e c t s 1977, 7).*  32  T h e final e v e n t w h i c h p r e c e d e d a n d p r e c i p i t a t e d the d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e  Livable (NDP)  Region  Strategy  was t h e e l e c t i o n in 1 9 7 2 of t h e N e w D e m o c r a t i c  to the c o n t r o l of t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t .  Party  T h e r e p l a c e m e n t of the  long-  s t a n d i n g Social C r e d i t Party c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e o p t i m i s m w h i c h w a s e v i d e n t in t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Livable  Region  Strategy  c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e r e f o r m of  municipal and regional planning powers.  O n e of the key c o n c e r n s of the N D P  the r e f o r m of the V a n c o u v e r regional transportation system.  The expansion of the  p u b l i c t r a n s i t s y s t e m w a s s e e n as a m e a n s o f p r o m o t i n g b o t h h u m a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a l u e s in t h e u r b a n i z e d r e g i o n ( S w a i n s o n  3.2  POLICY  was  and  1983, 251-252).  DEVELOPMENT  In t h e t w o y e a r s p r i o r t o 1 9 7 5 , t h e Livable  Region  Strategy  was d e v e l o p e d  by  the G V R D in an o p e n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h i n v o l v e d extensive c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h municipal governments, the general public, the d e v e l o p m e n t industry, and c o r p o r a t i o n s ( G V R D 1 9 7 4 a ; 1 9 7 4 b ; 1 9 7 4 c ; 1 9 8 0 a , 5; L a s h 1 9 8 0 ) .  Citizen  p a r t i c i p a t i o n in p u b l i c s e c t o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w a s a m a j o r g o a l of t h e n e w m a j o r i t y o n V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l ( T e n n a n t 1 9 8 0 , 15).  major  A s in t h e 1 9 7 2  TEAM  GVRD  " o f f i c e c e n t r e s " p o l i c y , it is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e d o m i n a n t c i t y in t h e r e g i o n w o u l d b e r e f l e c t e d in t h e p l a n n i n g actions of t h e  GVRD.  Background studies on RTCs were c o n d u c t e d by consultants and by  GVRD  staff t o g a u g e t h e l e v e l o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l h i e r a r c h y a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s of R T C d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e r e g i o n ( T h o m p s o n , B e r w i c k , Pratt & Partners 1973; G V R D 1974d).  O n e of the major consultative seminars f o c u s s e d  directly o n Regional T o w n Centres ( G V R D 1974b). T h e Livable  Region  Strategy  w a s ultimately e x p r e s s e d in five major  i n t e r r e l a t e d g o a l s f o r t h e m a n a g e m e n t of u r b a n g r o w t h in t h e G r e a t e r area ( G V R D 1975a; 1975b).  T h e s e w e r e g i v e n as f o l l o w s :  33  Vancouver  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Share residential g r o w t h to r e d u c e travel a n d e q u a l i z e service costs. P r o m o t e a b a l a n c e of j o b s t o p o p u l a t i o n in e a c h part of t h e r e g i o n . Build regional t o w n centres. Build a transit-oriented transportation system. P r o t e c t a n d d e v e l o p r e g i o n a l o p e n s p a c e ( G V R D 1 9 7 5 b ; 1 9 8 0 a , 6).  T h e five goals w e r e to b e mutually r e i n f o r c i n g . Residential g r o w t h sharing c o u l d r e d u c e t r a v e l c o s t s o n l y if p u b l i c t r a n s i t s y s t e m s c o u l d b e i m p r o v e d .  Service  costs c o u l d be e q u i t a b l e , p u b l i c transit c o u l d b e e c o n o m i c , a n d o p e n space c o u l d b e p r o t e c t e d o n l y if r e s i d e n t i a l g r o w t h w a s c o n t a i n e d .  Jobs c o u l d be spread  t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n o n l y if e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t , c o u l d b e a t t r a c t e d t o t h e s u b u r b s . ( A r t i b i s e , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 1-2).  RTCs would flourish only with good transit service; people could avoid long commutes only if job growth took place where residential development was occurring; good transit service could be viable only if there were concentrations of activity at transit accessible sites ( A r t i b i s e , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , p. 2 ) . T h e original b r o a d objectives of the Regional T o w n C e n t r e s policy w e r e e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s :  Developing Regional Town Centres in suburban locations will bring jobs, shopping and cultural opportunities closer to where people live. Decentralization to these centres of some of the office growth that otherwise will locate in downtown Vancouver will greatly reduce transportation problems. The aim, therefore, is to create lively and diverse urban places which are attractive alternatives to downtown. ( G V R D 1 9 7 5 b , 10) S p e c i f i c e l e m e n t s of t h e p o l i c y i n c l u d e d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of sites f o r RTCs, a p r o s p e c t i v e t i m e frame for the d e v e l o p m e n t of e a c h RTC, the p e r f o r m a n c e criteria w h e r e b y an RTC c o u l d be j u d g e d a success, and the m e t h o d of policy implementation. F o u r s i t e s w e r e o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d ( s e e M a p 1, p. 1 6 1 ) .  The  Metrotown  area of B u r n a b y a n d the d o w n t o w n area of N e w W e s t m i n s t e r w e r e originally s e l e c t e d as c a n d i d a t e sites w i t h c l o s e t o t h e r e q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Metrotown  h a d a l r e a d y b e e n s e l e c t e d b y t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y as a site f o r c e n t r a l i z e d g r o w t h ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 3 0 ; B u r n a b y a n d H o t s o n 1 9 7 7 , 28) a n d d o w n t o w n  34  New  W e s t m i n s t e r , in 1975, was the primary regional focal point o u t s i d e of the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r ( G V R D a n d Spaeth 1975, 28; N a d e r 1976, 386-387; City of W e s t m i n s t e r a n d G V R D 1 9 7 7 , 1).  Since significant a m o u n t s of g r o w t h  New already  e x i s t e d i n b o t h l o c a t i o n s , it w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e R T C s c o u l d b e c o m p l e t e l y d e v e l o p e d by 1 9 8 0 ( G V R D 1 9 7 5 b , 32).  A d d i t i o n a l l y , t w o areas of the o u t e r  suburbs (North Surrey and the Northeast Sector of the G V R D ) w e r e d e t e r m i n e d to h a v e t h e p o t e n t i a l t o h o l d R T C s in t h e f u t u r e b e c a u s e of t h e r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d in b o t h areas ( G V R D 1 9 7 5 b , 2 0 ; G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 30-32).  Eventually, the Whalley-Guildford a n d C o q u i t l a m T o w n C e n t r e RTCs w e r e  s e l e c t e d ( G V R D 1 9 8 0 a , 1 2 - 1 3 ) , a n d it w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e  (undefined)  p r e c o n d i t i o n s for R T C d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d b e c r e a t e d in b o t h locations by 1986 ( G V R D 1 9 7 5 a , 7; 1 9 7 5 b , 2 0 ) . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of RTCs was thus to be staged, with only o n e pair b e i n g c r e a t e d at a t i m e . planners that "[b]y  This c o n f o r m e d to the general u n d e r s t a n d i n g a m o n g the  GVRD  1986 the r e g i o n has the capability to d e v e l o p n o m o r e than  two  t o t h r e e r e g i o n a l t o w n c e n t r e s t o s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y " ( G V R D 1 9 7 4 b , 2; 1 9 7 5 b , 19). a 1973 c o m m e n t a r y o n the m a n a g e m e n t of g r o w t h in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , B l u m e n f e l d h a d a s s e r t e d t h a t o n l y one  In  Hans  RTC c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d by 1986 ( G V R D  1 9 7 4 a , iii). T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of R T C s in t h e C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r a n d in R i c h m o n d w a s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e j e c t e d in t h e o r i g i n a l p o l i c y ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 32-33). N o r t h V a n c o u v e r city i n t e n d e d to d e v e l o p t h e entire Lonsdale C o r r i d o r , a n d d i d not i n t e n d t o c h o o s e the o n e c o n c e n t r a t e d location that the G V R D r e q u i r e d for the RTC.  T h e d e v e l o p m e n t potential of a R i c h m o n d RTC was well r e c o g n i z e d in  1975, but the idea was rejected o n two grounds:  first, t h e r e w e r e p o t e n t i a l  c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n a n R T C site a n d t h e a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n (in t e r m s of n o i s e , traffic, a n d b u i l d i n g height restrictions), and s e c o n d , R i c h m o n d had already nearly  35  a c h i e v e d t h e jobs-to-residents b a l a n c e that w a s a p r i m a r y stated g o a l of t h e  RTC  p o l i c y ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 3 3 ; G V R D 1 9 8 3 , 21). Several characteristics w e r e used to define a fully-functional RTC.  It w a s  c o n s i d e r e d that " R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s will p r o b a b l y h a v e to b e t h e size of the d o w n t o w n of a small city b e f o r e t h e y c a n g r o w o n their o w n " ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 8; G V R D  1 9 7 5 b , 18).  O n e b a c k g r o u n d d o c u m e n t e s t i m a t e d t h a t a self-  sufficient RTC w o u l d have to be approximately o n e tenth the size of  downtown  V a n c o u v e r in t e r m s o f c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e a n d a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s ( G V R D 1 9 7 4 b , B1). T h e s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e g i v e n as f o l l o w s : - a s u r r o u n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n of 100,000 to 150,000; -  o n e m i l l i o n s q u a r e feet of office s p a c e ; $ 5 0 m i l l i o n in a n n u a l retail sales; 700,000 s q u a r e feet of retail s p a c e ; 2,000 t o 3,000 d w e l l i n g units w i t h i n a short walk; 7,000 t o 10,000 j o b s w i t h i n a short w a l k ; 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e feet of r e c r e a t i o n a l s p a c e ;  - a site a r e a of o n l y 100 t o 2 0 0 acres.*' A d d i t i o n a l l y , it w a s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s h a d t o b e  more  than just s h o p p i n g a n d e m p l o y m e n t districts. T h e quality a n d character of the u r b a n d e s i g n o f t h e R T C s w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e as i m p o r t a n t as t h e q u a n t i f i a b l e e l e m e n t s ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 13). were meant to be accentuated.  T h e u n i q u e characteristics of e a c h site  The h u m a n scale features w o u l d s u p e r s e d e the  existing a u t o m o b i l e orientation of the RTC sites.  Cars and p e o p l e w e r e to be kept  apart, a n d a g o o d pedestrian circulation s y s t e m , w e l l - c o n n e c t e d to p u b l i c transit nodes, was a priority.  D e n s e r u r b a n h o u s i n g styles a n d a b a l a n c e d m i x t u r e of  activities, h a p p e n i n g t h r o u g h o u t the day a n d into the e v e n i n g , w o u l d p r o v i d e the p o t e n t i a l f o r an u r b a n lifestyle in s u b u r b a n s e t t i n g s ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 17-19; G V R D 1975b, 18-19; G e r t l e r a n d C r o w l e y 1 9 7 7 , 178). T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s d e v e l o p m e n t , as o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d , was n o t m e a n t to rely s i m p l y o n t h e identification of sites a n d the  36  o p e r a t i o n of m a r k e t f o r c e s .  It w a s w e l l u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e G V R D  RTCs c o u l d not w o r k that way.  planners that  A c c o r d i n g to Harry Lash, the G V R D  d i r e c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e Livable  Region  Strategy,  planning "under a  v o l u n t a r y p l a n it w o u l d n o t b e p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d r e g i o n a l t o w n c e n t r e s " 1974b, 4 ) .  1 0  (GVRD  The G V R D ' s policy report on RTCs concurred:  Regional Town Centres will not happen in Greater Vancouver without an action program to get them started. No one government agency has the capability to develop Regional Town Centres on its own. Nor are the current means of co-operation amongst governments adequate for the task. ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 3 4 ) A c c o r d i n g l y , an elaborate five-element i m p l e m e n t a t i o n plan had developed.  been  First, t h e R T C sites w o u l d b e r e s e r v e d ( t h r o u g h z o n i n g , l a n d u s e  contracts, a n d provincial e n a b l i n g legislation) to prevent preliminary scattered d e v e l o p m e n t a n d to a v o i d real estate s p e c u l a t i o n .  Second, RTCs w o u l d  be  p l a n n e d j o i n t l y t h r o u g h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l , r e g i o n a l , a n d p r o v i n c i a l agencies.  This joint exercise w o u l d be c o o r d i n a t e d by the G V R D .  T h i r d , l a n d in  the later-developing RTC sites (Surrey, Northeast Sector) w o u l d b e a c q u i r e d for p u b l i c p u r p o s e s t h r o u g h the use of provincial f u n d i n g a n d a revolving f u n d (initially $15 m i l l i o n ) g e n e r a t e d b y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of the initial R T C sites (Metrotown, D o w n t o w n N e w Westminster).  Fourth, a formal  development  m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s for e a c h R T C was d e e m e d crucial to the success of the policy.  F i n a l l y , t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r w o u l d c o n t i n u e its a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e  diversion of office space e x p a n s i o n f r o m the d o w n t o w n a n d Broadway C o r r i d o r ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 3 4 - 3 8 ; G V R D 1 9 7 4 b , 3-4; 1 9 7 5 a , 7; 1 9 7 5 b , 4 9 - 5 0 ; G e r t l e r a n d C r o w l e y 1 9 7 7 , 1 8 0 - 1 8 1 ; V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t 1 9 7 7 , 2.10). A l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y after the 1975 p u b l i c a t i o n of the policy, h o w e v e r , c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g its i m p l e m e n t a t i o n b e g a n t o c h a n g e .  With each change,  the RTC policy was m o v e d progressively further f r o m the original proposals.  37  the  A political shift o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e ranks of T E A M , w h i c h was t h e n the majority party o n V a n c o u v e r City C o u n c i l .  Losing the reformist fervour which  had  b e e n e v i d e n t in t h e i r first y e a r s in o f f i c e , s o m e T E A M m e m b e r s b e g a n t o s i d e w i t h the Non-Partisan Association (NPA), a traditionally pro-development party with very little i n t e r e s t in t h e c o n t r o l of g r o w t h ( G u t s t e i n 1 9 8 5 , 2 0 9 , 2 1 3 ; T e n n a n t 1 9 8 0 , 19). In t h e t h r e e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e Livable  Region  Strategy,  the City  of V a n c o u v e r ' s a c t i o n s t o w a r d t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of o f f i c e s p a c e c o n s i s t e d of little m o r e t h a n a s k i n g d e v e l o p e r s t o w r i t e d o w n t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g a d o w n t o w n l o c a t i o n o v e r t h e R T C l o c a t i o n s {The  Vancouver  Sun  1981). The  B.C.  T e l e p h o n e C o m p a n y was the only major office user to be f o r c e d to relocate, and t h a t d e c i s i o n h a d p r e c e d e d t h e f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e Livable (Ley 1 9 8 5 , 33).  Region  Strategy  Further, a c c o r d i n g to T e d D r o e t t b o o m , ^ " t h e anti-growth fervor 1  w a s s o o n c o n v e r t e d into a late-1950s-style b o o s t e r i s m " in r e s p o n s e t o a r e c o r d e d d r o p i n C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e m i d - 1 9 7 0 s (The G V R D 1 9 8 0 a , 9).  Vancouver  Sun  1981;  By 1977, T E A M s i d e d c o m p l e t e l y w i t h t h e N P A in t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n  "that the city c o u l d not afford to lose the d e v e l o p m e n t to the s u b u r b s " (Gutstein 1985, 213).  Additionally, both the provincial and federal governments ignored the  c o n c e p t of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n b y unilaterally p l a c i n g m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t s in t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r d o w n t o w n c o r e (Gutstein 1985, 213-214). N e x t , as a r e s u l t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n o f 1 9 7 5 , t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y , under William Bennett, reclaimed p o w e r f r o m the N D P .  In a d d i t i o n t o  downtown  d e v e l o p m e n t activities, there was an almost c o m p l e t e w i t h d r a w a l o n the part of the provincial g o v e r n m e n t f r o m a regional c o n s i d e r a t i o n of issues b a s e d o n the  Livable  Region  Strategy.  The Bennett g o v e r n m e n t significantly s l o w e d and altered  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r a p i d t r a n s i t s y s t e m w h i c h w a s p l a n n e d t o l i n k all o f t h e RTCs a n d the d o w n t o w n c o r e (Swainson 1983, 252-253). T h e P r o v i n c e  alone  d e t e r m i n e d t h e n a t u r e , t i m i n g , p l a c e m e n t , a n d f u n d i n g o f t h e S k y T r a i n l i g h t rail  38  system (Swainson  1983, 253-254; G u t s t e i n 1 9 8 5 , 214-215; M a c D o n a l d 1987, 193-  1 9 4 ; The  1989a).  Province  The new implementation powers which had  anticipated for the G V R D never materialized.  been  Indeed, the provincial government  never officially c o m m i t t e d any r e c o g n i t i o n or r e s o u r c e s to the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e Livable  Region  Strategy,  K e n C a m e r o n ^ (The  thus slowing town centre development, according to  Vancouver  Sun  1981).  By 1978, the Province had c o m p l e t e l y  u n d e r c u t t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e G V R D t h r o u g h t h e creation of the provincially a p p o i n t e d U r b a n Transit A u t h o r i t y (Gutstein 1985, 215). In 1 9 8 3 , t h e P r o v i n c e c o m p l e t e l y a n d u n i l a t e r a l l y r e m o v e d t h e l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p o w e r s o f t h e G V R D ( G V R D 1 9 8 7 , 4; B a k e r a n d L a n s k a i l 1 9 9 0 ) . A l s o in 1 9 8 3 , the G V R D r e c o m m e n d e d t h e i n c l u s i o n of R i c h m o n d  Town  C e n t r e a n d t h e L o w e r L o n s d a l e a r e a of t h e C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r in t h e p o l i c y ( G V R D 1 9 8 3 , 22). reality of the r e g i o n a l  RTC  T h e rationale for i n c l u s i o n was a s i m p l e r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e  i m p o r t a n c e of the t w o centres, i g n o r i n g the p r o b l e m s w h i c h  h a d b e e n p e r c e i v e d in 1 9 7 5 . T h e loss o f p l a n n i n g p o w e r s p r e v e n t e d t h e o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e s e a r e a s , b u t t h e y h a v e b e e n i n f o r m a l l y t r e a t e d a s R T C s s i n c e at least 1 9 8 3 ( G V R D 1 9 8 7 , 5 2 ; T o w n s h i p of R i c h m o n d 1 9 8 6 , 4 4 , 47).  3.3  POLICY  EVALUATION  A s a r e s u l t o f t h e c h a n g e s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , f o u r i m p o r t a n t Livable  Strategy  Region  elements w h i c h related to Regional T o w n Centres w e r e missing almost  f r o m t h e o u t s e t of t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y .  First, t h e s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p o f  the regional level of local g o v e r n m e n t was lacking b e c a u s e the  increased  acquisition and implementation powers o n w h i c h such leadership was to be were not forthcoming from the provincial level.  It h a d b e e n w i d e l y a s s u m e d t h a t  the p o w e r s w o u l d be granted a n d that the G V R D w o u l d use t h e m . anticipated that the G V R D  based  "It  [was]  [would] a s s u m e a l e a d e r s h i p role in this w h o l e area of  39  legislative a m e n d m e n t and decentralization a m e n d m e n t H o t s o n 1 9 7 7 , 81).  programs" (Burnaby and  It w a s a l s o w i d e l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t a v o l u n t a r y  implementation  s y s t e m w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o t h e task of b u i l d i n g R T C s w i t h i n t h e t i m e f r a m e of t h e  Livable  Region  Strategy  ( G V R D 1 9 7 4 b , 4 -- s e e f o o t n o t e 1 0 ) .  S e c o n d , t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of C i t y of V a n c o u v e r c o r e office s p a c e , w h i c h w a s m e a n t t o d r i v e the d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e R T C s , was n e v e r a c c o m p l i s h e d , n o r even pursued.  V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l , t h r o u g h a c h a n g e of collective  lacked the will to deflect d e v e l o p m e n t . lacked the  The suburban and regional  heart,  governments  power.  The municipalities (to which office planning has devolved) do not have sufficient powers to redirect private and public sector development, particularly in the face of local jurisdictional fragmentation and policy disagreement. The one level of government to have taken significant initiative in office locational policy [i.e., G V R D ] is constitutionally disqualified from accomplishing its purposes. (Ley a n d H u t t o n 1984, 149) Third, regional transportation d e v e l o p m e n t decisions were r e m o v e d provincial authority.  to  T h e p l a n n e d d e v e l o p m e n t of an i n t e r c o n n e c t e d rapid transit  network was delayed and altered.  As a result, rather than f o l l o w i n g a denser,  transit-oriented d e v e l o p m e n t s c e n a r i o , t h e g r o w t h of t h e R T C s w a s b a s e d o n t h e existing automobile-centred transportation pattern.  It is t h u s n o a c c i d e n t t h a t a  m a j o r i t y o f t h e R T C s h a v e s u b u r b a n s h o p p i n g m a l l s a n d p a r k i n g l o t s at t h e i r c o r e s ( G V R D 1987, 51). F i n a l l y , t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f R T C s w a s n o t s t a g e d as o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d . The four original RTCs and the t w o additions w e r e not differentiated or d i s t i n g u i s h e d in t h e t i m i n g of t h e i r p r o m o t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h policy.  Since the G V R D  the  had no p o w e r to enforce such distinctions, each  m u n i c i p a l i t y t r e a t e d its o w n R T C a s h a v i n g p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e .  The goal of  l e a r n i n g l e s s o n s f r o m t h e e a r l i e r R T C s (to b e a p p l i e d t o s u b s e q u e n t development) c o u l d not be fulfilled.  40  RTC  N o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , g i v e n t h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t o b s t a c l e s in t h e p a t h of p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s h a v e d e v e l o p e d v e r y s l o w l y in m o s t cases a n d h a r d l y at a l l i n o t h e r s .  T h e e v a l u a t i o n s of t h e p o l i c y w h i c h c a n b e f o u n d in t h e  a c a d e m i c l i t e r a t u r e a n d in g o v e r n m e n t a n a l y t i c a l d o c u m e n t s are u n i f o r m l y unenthusiastic. In 1 9 8 0 , f i v e y e a r s a f t e r t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y a n d t h e y e a r w h e n the M e t r o t o w n a n d N e w W e s t m i n s t e r RTCs w e r e to be fully f o r m e d , a  both  GVRD  r e p o r t ( 1 9 8 0 a , 14) n o t e d that, a l t h o u g h s u b u r b a n g r o w t h in o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e w a s occurring, "the regional t o w n centres have not increased their p r o p o r t i o n of office space.  T h e y have not yet p r o v e n an office location alternative to  downtown  V a n c o u v e r n o r an effective f o c u s for office d e v e l o p m e n t in the s u b u r b s . " o f s u c c e s s w a s a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o t h e a d v i s o r y n a t u r e o f t h e Livable  Strategy  This lack  Region  a n d also to the lack of m u n i c i p a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l c o m m i t m e n t ( G V R D  1980a, 17). A 1981 G V R D r e p o r t o n c o m m e r c i a l f l o o r s p a c e in t h e r e g i o n m e n t i o n e d t h e same problems.  T h e RTCs had n o t b e c o m e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of c o m m e r c i a l  floorspace, and the growth w h i c h had o c c u r r e d was primarily d u e to the expansion of retail s h o p p i n g malls, w h i c h w a s n o t a r e f l e c t i o n of p o l i c y , b u t a r e s p o n s e t o p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h in retail t r a d e a r e a s a r o u n d t h e R T C s ( G V R D 1 9 8 1 a , 13-19).  The City of Vancouver's office growth was strongly focussed in its downtown, but Burnaby, Richmond and Surrey all saw their strongest office growth occurring outside their major commercial centres. As a result, municipal office centres of regional importance are not emerging. [...S]uburban office growth has yet to produce the concentrations of office employment required to stimulate growth of associated service, retail or shopping centre facilities. Nor has it been concentrated enough to create significant municipal transportation foci. [...\]t seems unlikely that such concentrations will develop unless significant changes are made to the transportation system, and unless more effective local and regional policies are devised to encourage suburban office development ( G V R D 1 9 8 1 a , 18)  41  A series of articles in t h e m i d - 1 9 8 0 s also d i s c u s s e d R T C p o l i c y .  In w i d e r  d i s c u s s i o n s of r e g i o n a l office s p a c e issues, Ley a n d H u t t o n (1984, 417) a n d  Ley  (1985, 33) d e s c r i b e t h e p o l i c y goals of o f f i c e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a n d t h e lack of success a m o n g the RTCs, especially regarding major office employers. H u t t o n a n d D a v i s (1984, 1 0 , 24-30, 33) f i n d that, in t e r m s of o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e g r o w t h b e t w e e n 1971 a n d 1 9 8 2 , t h e d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n of t h e C i t y of  Vancouver  g e n e r a l l y a n d t h e d o w n t o w n in p a r t i c u l a r w a s u n c h a l l e n g e d b y t h e i n n e r s u b u r b s a n d that the rate of g r o w t h 1977-1982 was greater for the City of V a n c o u v e r  than  for the i n n e r s u b u r b s , s u g g e s t i n g a t r e n d c o u n t e r to that e x p e c t e d u n d e r t h e policy.  T h e r e a s o n s f o r p o l i c y f a i l u r e a r e c i t e d as a m i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e  RTC  evolving  r e g i o n a l e c o n o m y , a m i s c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e b e h a v i o u r of t h e o f f i c e m a r k e t , a f a i l u r e to designate priority centres, ineffective policy a p p r o a c h e s by m u n i c i p a l governments, competition from non-RTC commercial centres, and core-periphery transportation linkages.  inadequate  H u t t o n a n d Davis also note the p r o b l e m of  reaching consensual agreement a m o n g c o m p e t i n g municipal interests. A r e p o r t o n c o m m e r c i a l centres in t h e G V R D  by Coriolis C o n s u l t i n g C o r p .  ( 1 9 8 6 , 4) r e i t e r a t e s a n e a r l i e r c r i t i c i s m w h e n it n o t e s t h a t " r e g i o n a l t o w n h a v e b e e n g r o w i n g b e c a u s e t h e p o p u l a t i o n s in t h e i r t r a d e a r e a s h a v e  centres  been  g r o w i n g , not b e c a u s e t h e y are d e f l e c t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a w a y f r o m V a n c o u v e r  or  "stealing" d e v e l o p m e n t potential from neighbouring municipalities." In 1 9 8 7 , t h e G V R D T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e c o n d u c t e d a b r o a d of regional p l a n n i n g policies, i n c l u d i n g the R T C policy.  review  This r e v i e w stated that  R T C p o l i c y h a d a c h i e v e d a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h a t it h a d i n c l u d e d in m u n i c i p a l O f f i c i a l C o m m u n i t y Plans, b u t that t h e R T C s  the  been  themselves  w e r e i n c o m p l e t e , that they h a d not a c h i e v e d p l a n n e d e m p l o y m e n t t h r e s h o l d s , a n d that the physical i m p r e s s i o n s of the RTCs (except N e w W e s t m i n s t e r )  w e r e of  s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s , rather than t o w n c e n t r e s ( G V R D 1987, 18, 25, 4 7 , 51).  42  A r t i b i s e , et al. (1990) p r o v i d e t h e m o s t r e c e n t c o m p r e h e n s i v e analysis of policy.^**  T h e i r f i n d i n g s r e i n f o r c e t h e c r i t i c i s m s of the p r e v i o u s r e p o r t s .  g r o w t h was solely a result of t r a d e area p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h .  RTC  RTC  Faster g r o w t h in o f f i c e  f l o o r s p a c e w a s b e i n g a c h i e v e d in t h o s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h o u t R T C s .  Municipal  g o v e r n m e n t s had given only passive s u p p o r t to RTCs and had allowed  market  f o r c e s a n d s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t i n v e s t m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e g r o w t h pattern of t h e RTCs.  W h e n o n e R T C r e c e i v e d s o m e f o r m o f s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t i n v e s t m e n t , all  other municipalities d e m a n d e d the same investment.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , Artibise, et al.  offered n e w criticisms. The areas w h i c h municipalities had designated w e r e t o o l a r g e t o s e r v e as f o c i f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r e v i o u s p o l i c y a n a l y s i s w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e c o n c e n t r a t e d t o o m u c h o n t h e a d d i t i o n of c o m m e r c i a l f l o o r s p a c e a n d n o t e n o u g h o n the other e l e m e n t s w h i c h w o u l d contribute to a t o w n centre, especially t h o s e r e l a t e d t o t h e q u a l i t y o f R T C u r b a n d e s i g n ( A r t i b i s e , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 8, 2 3 - 2 9 ) . T h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h e R T C p o l i c y b a s e d s o l e l y o n its o w n p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a is d i f f i c u l t .  To review, these criteria were:  - a s u r r o u n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n of 100,000 to 150,000; -  o n e million square feet of office space; $ 5 0 m i l l i o n in a n n u a l retail sales; 700,000 s q u a r e feet of retail s p a c e ; 2,000 to 3,000 d w e l l i n g units w i t h i n a short w a l k ; 7,000 t o 1 0 , 0 0 0 j o b s w i t h i n a s h o r t w a l k ; 250,000 square feet of recreational space;  - a site area of o n l y 100 to 200 acres. First, t h e r e w a s n o s u p p o r t o f f e r e d f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e l e c t i o n of f e a t u r e s , n o r a n y p r o o f that their a p p e a r a n c e w o u l d necessarily entail t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e sorts of qualitative a n d d e s i g n characteristics that w e r e also d e s i r e d .  It is l i k e l y t h a t  t h e s e criteria r e p r e s e n t s i m p l y t h e " b a l l p a r k " e s t i m a t e s of t h e o r i g i n a l r e g i o n a l planners.  In t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s , R T C s w e r e n o m o r e t h a n a n a m b i t i o u s c o n c e p t , o n e  p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n of the existing m u l t i c e n t r e d d e v e l o p m e n t pattern d e s c r i b e d by N a d e r (1976).  N o actual RTCs existed f r o m w h i c h to empirically derive criteria.  43  S e c o n d , the criteria w e r e heavily d e p e n d e n t o n proximity.  The existence of  a s u r r o u n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n of 100,000 to 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 d e p e n d s o n t h e d e f i n i t i o n of " s u r r o u n d i n g . " A trade area c o u l d not be a s s u m e d simply by drawing a certain radius a r o u n d a centre.  The existence of major road linkages complicate the issue,  especially w h e r e a u t o m o b i l e - o r i e n t e d retail patterns are c o n c e r n e d .  The definition  of " s u r r o u n d i n g " p o p u l a t i o n also d e p e n d s o n w h e t h e r or not this p o p u l a t i o n was w i t h i n t h e exclusive  trade area of o n e of the RTCs.  New Westminster, once  s e c o n d urban centre of the L o w e r M a i n l a n d , began the 1970s w i t h a h u g e area.  trade  T h e s u b s e q u e n t g r o w t h of regional s h o p p i n g centres a n d the designation of  RTCs placed N e w Westminster areas.  the  in t h e m i d d l e of several n e w a n d o v e r l a p p i n g t r a d e  T h e s u r r o u n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n w a s l a r g e ( a n d g r o w i n g ) , b u t it is h i g h l y  u n l i k e l y t h a t a m a j o r i t y l o o k e d t o N e w W e s t m i n s t e r as t h e i r s o l e o r e v e n p r i m a r y c h o i c e for retail o r e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h e r e a r e p r o x i m i t y p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e o t h e r c r i t e r i a as w e l l . GVRD  Though  the  p l a n n e r s a s k e d f o r a site a r e a of 1 0 0 t o 2 0 0 a c r e s , n o n e of t h e six e v e n t u a l  m u n i c i p a l l y - d e s i g n a t e d R T C s k e p t t o t h a t l i m i t ( s e e M a p 2 , p. 1 6 3 , a n d A p p e n d i x 1, p. 1 5 9 ) . ^  O n l y N e w Westminster even c o m e s close.  The figure for Whalley alone  is a n i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r t h e o r i g i n a l 2 , 1 6 0 a c r e s g i v e n f o r W h a l l e y - G u i l d f o r d , b u t is still l a r g e r t h a n t h e 1,320 a c r e s o f t h e c o r e a r e a of t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r (Rao 1 9 8 9 , 7.4) o r t h e 1 , 2 3 0 a c r e s o f t h e e n t i r e C i t y o f W h i t e R o c k .  C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e is n o t  a p p r e c i a b l y smaller than the 2,500 acres of the entire C i t y of Langley.  A t any of  these scales (except perhaps for N e w Westminster), the d e s i r e d high density, p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d d i s t r i c t is n o t  achievable.  If R T C s a r e n o t d e f i n e d b y t h e i n t e n d e d h i g h d e n s i t y c o r e s , t h e n m a n y o f t h e rest of t h e criteria b e c o m e s u s p e c t .  T h e d e f i n i t i o n of a " s h o r t w a l k " t o j o b s o r  h o u s i n g or recreational space takes on a different meaning.  T h e o n l y criteria that  are easily m e t b y e a c h R T C , e x c e p t N e w W e s t m i n s t e r , are t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g retail  44  space.  A s has b e e n n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s e R T C s all h a v e o n e o r m o r e  large  r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s at t h e i r c o r e s , a n d t h e s e c e n t r e s a r e all d e p e n d e n t  on  the a u t o m o b i l e rather than p e d e s t r i a n traffic. T h e c r i t e r i o n w h i c h h a s b e e n m o s t w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d i n r e g a r d t o t h e R T C s is office floorspace.  N o n e of the sources for R T C office space figures gives any  spatial r e f e r e n c e w h i c h indicates c o n t a i n m e n t .  It m u s t b e a s s u m e d t h a t a n y o f f i c e  s p a c e w i t h i n t h e v e r y l a r g e s i t e a r e a s is i n c l u d e d . In B u r n a b y , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e B . C . T e l e p h o n e C o . b u i l d i n g is at t h e w e s t e r n e d g e of M e t r o t o w n (and Burnaby).  extreme  Until 1990, this 600,000-square-foot-  p l u s o f f i c e b u i l d i n g ( C o l l i e r s M a c a u l a y N i c o l l s 1 9 9 0 a , 1 2 ) ^ r e p r e s e n t e d o v e r half of t h e e n t i r e o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e " i n " M e t r o t o w n ( g i v e n as 1.3 m i l l i o n s q . ft. i n A r t i b i s e et al., 10).  T h i s b u i l d i n g is a l m o s t t w o k i l o m e t e r s d i s t a n t f r o m t h e d e s i g n a t e d  c e n t r e o f M e t r o t o w n at t h e c o r n e r o f K i n g s w a y a n d S u s s e x A v e n u e ( B u r n a b y a n d H o t s o n 1977, 37).  S i m i l a r d i s t a n c e p r o b l e m s exist in W h a l l e y a n d  Richmond  C e n t r e , w h i c h s p r a w l , a n d N o r t h V a n c o u v e r L o n s d a l e , w h i c h is b i - p o l a r . ( C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e h a s v e r y l i t t l e o f f i c e s p a c e at a n y  scale.)^  O t h e r m o r e s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s a t t e n d o n t h e c h o i c e o f o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e as the l e a d i n g criterion of RTC success.  N o s o u r c e defines the types of office  f l o o r s p a c e w h i c h are to b e i n c l u d e d in t h e total R T C f i g u r e s .  Different sources  have p r o d u c e d wildly varying figures for the s a m e area a n d s a m e year.  For  e x a m p l e , 1 9 8 9 o f f i c e s p a c e f i g u r e s f o r M e t r o t o w n h a v e b e e n g i v e n as 1,748,474 s q . ft. ( C o l l i e r s 1 9 9 0 a , 1 2 ) a n d as 1 , 3 8 2 , 2 5 2 s q . ft. ( A r t i b i s e , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 1 2 ) .  A 1982  G V R D p r o m o t i o n a l d o c u m e n t for RTCs gives D o w n t o w n N e w Westminster's  office  s p a c e as 9 1 2 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. ( G V R D 1 9 8 2 b ) , w h i l e A r t i b i s e , e t a l . g i v e a f i g u r e o f o n l y 586,481 s q . ft. f o r 7989.  C u r r e n t f i g u r e s f o r W h a l l e y v a r y f r o m 2 8 7 , 0 0 0 s q . ft.  ( C o l l i e r s 1 9 9 0 a , 2 9 ) t o 5 3 9 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. ( D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y 1 9 9 1 , 3 . 1 2 ) . estimates of office f l o o r s p a c e are e v e n f o u n d for a single structure.  45  Very different The  h e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e B . C . T e l e p h o n e C o m p a n y a r e r e c o r d e d as c o n t a i n i n g 5 8 0 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. i n 1 9 7 7 ( B u r n a b y a n d H o t s o n 1 9 7 7 ) a n d 4 4 2 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. o f o f f i c e s p a c e i n 1982 (District of Burnaby 1982).  Such variance b e t w e e n sources brings the  a c c u r a c y of all s o u r c e s i n t o q u e s t i o n . These discrepancies have several potential causes.  O n e analyst may  only leasable space, while a n o t h e r m a y i n c l u d e total b u i l d i n g area.  include  A 500,000-  s q u a r e - f o o t o f f i c e t o w e r m a y h a v e o n l y 4 2 0 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. o f u s a b l e , l e a s a b l e s p a c e . O n e analyst m a y m a k e n o d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n types of office space, w h e r e  another  might include only Class A or B structures and e x c l u d e l o w quality buildings and offices a t t a c h e d to retail areas.  O n e analyst m a y i n c l u d e t h e f l o o r area of  " a p p r o v e d " c o n s t r u c t i o n sites o r o t h e r m e r e l y p o t e n t i a l f l o o r s p a c e , w h e r e  another  might include only o c c u p i e d structures. A n o t h e r p r o b l e m exists w i t h the logic of u s i n g a w i d e definition of office floorspace.  N o d i s t i n c t i o n s e e m s t o b e m a d e in t h e R T C literature  institutional and market office space and usage.  between  In c o n t r a s t , t h e c r i t e r i a f o r  A m e r i c a n s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s or " e d g e c i t i e s " invariably i n c l u d e a very large a m o u n t o f p u r e l y leasable  office f l o o r s p a c e . ^  7  Several RTCs have significant a m o u n t s institutional office floorspace. M e t r o t o w n i n c l u d e s t h e B.C. T e l e p h o n e C o m p a n y h e a d q u a r t e r s .  Whalley includes  the Surrey Taxation C e n t r e and will s o o n h o l d the B C Transit headquarters.  North  V a n c o u v e r L o n s d a l e c o n t a i n s t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s of t h e I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n of B.C. a n d B.C. Rail.  New Westminster  holds a provincial justice building and  Douglas College. T h e s e b u i l d i n g s i n f l a t e t h e o f f i c e s p a c e i n v e n t o r y o f t h e R T C s , b u t t h e r e is n o e s t a b l i s h e d link b e t w e e n this t y p e of s p a c e a n d t h e attraction of m a r k e t office b u i l d i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e b u i l t s p e c u l a t i v e l y . ( P r e s u m a b l y , t h i s is w h y A m e r i c a n c o m m e n t a t o r s concentrate o n leasable space.)  46  the  T h o u g h this c o n n e c t i o n  h a s b e e n w i d e l y a s s u m e d i n r e g a r d t o t h e R T C s , t h e r e is n o e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t that private office d e v e l o p e r s are i n f l u e n c e d b y large-scale institutional l o c a t i o n decisions.  If o n l y l e a s a b l e s p a c e is c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e R T C s , t h e n m u c h s m a l l e r  numbers have to be accepted. F i n a l l y , t h o u g h t h e c r i t e r i o n u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n is u n d o u b t e d l y o n e m i l l i o n square feet of office f l o o r s p a c e , this a m o u n t s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be altered to reflect the passage of t i m e a n d the c h a n g i n g regional market for office space.  That  m i l l i o n s q u a r e feet w a s i n t e n d e d t o b e c r e a t e d in t h e t w o o r i g i n a l R T C s b y 1 9 8 0 , w h e n the total regional office space m a r k e t was approximately 25 million square feet ( G V R D 1 9 8 0 a , 14).  T h e c u r r e n t r e g i o n a l m a r k e t is d o u b l e t h a t s i z e ( A r t i b i s e , e t  al. 1 9 9 0 , 12), h a l v i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e R T C c r i t e r i o n . In v i e w o f t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , t h e o r i g i n a l p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a o f t h e RTCs c a n n o t rightly be u s e d to e x a m i n e t h e success of the individual RTCs. m o r e qualitative historical and logical analysis m u s t be relied u p o n .  A  Consequently,  this d i s c u s s i o n w i l l t u r n to an e v a l u a t i o n of t h e six d e s i g n a t e d R T C s .  3.3.1  Metrotown M e t r o t o w n was the m o s t p r o m i s i n g of the original RTCs.  It l a y a l o n g o n e o f  t h e m a j o r r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o r r i d o r s o u t l i n e d b y N a d e r ( 1 9 7 6 , 3 8 7 ) a n d it e n j o y e d g o o d a u t o m o b i l e access to the rest of the region via Kingsway, W i l l i n g d o n Ave., and Boundary Road.  A t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e Livable  Region  Strategy  it w a s  a l r e a d y a t t r a c t i n g c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 30) t o a d d t o an e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e a n d significant strip retail a l o n g K i n g s w a y (Rao 1 9 8 9 , 4).  It w a s t h e l a r g e s t a n d o l d e s t o f t h e e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e s i n  Burnaby,  with an already established c o m m e r c i a l a n d residential b a s e ^ (District of 1982).  47  Burnaby  Since the early 1970s, the area had also e x p e r i e n c e d a high density residential d e v e l o p m e n t b o o m , with 17 high-rise towers b e i n g a d d e d 1971 a n d 1 9 7 7 ( B u r n a b y a n d H o t s o n 1 9 7 7 , 1 7 ; R a o 1 9 8 9 , 4).  between  Large parcels of land  at t h e h e a r t o f M e t r o t o w n w e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r c o m m e r c i a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t ( R a o 1 9 8 9 , 4; G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 30). In 1 9 7 5 , G V R D p l a n n e r s o p i n e d t h a t " t h e B u r n a b y R e g i o n a l T o w n  Centre  may be the easiest to get started a n d c o u l d p r o v i d e an e x a m p l e " ( G V R D S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 30).  and  A c c o r d i n g t o B u r n a b y p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r A . L. P a r r , " i t is a l m o s t  c e r t a i n t h a t e v e n w i t h o u t [a M e t r o t o w n p l a n ] , s o m e f o r m o f c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e with related residential a n d recreational facilities will be d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the e n v i r o n s of C e n t r a l P a r k " ( B u r n a b y a n d H o t s o n 1 9 7 7 , f o r e w o r d ) .  T h e q u e s t i o n in  M e t r o t o w n w a s n o t w h e t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d c o m e , b u t h o w it w o u l d  be  accommodated. Both G V R D a n d B u r n a b y planners a g r e e d that the c o n t r o l of the a u t o m o b i l e w a s c r u c i a l . T h e Livable  Region  Strategy  p r o p o s e d that M e t r o t o w n " s h o u l d have a  strong pedestrian orientation and reduce the space d e v o t e d to the a u t o m o b i l e " ( G V R D 1 9 7 5 b , 33).  Burnaby's d e v e l o p m e n t plan for M e t r o t o w n p r o m i s e d that "it  w o u l d n o t b e m o d e l l e d after t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a u t o - o r i e n t e d c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t " ( B u r n a b y a n d H o t s o n 1977, 28), a n d a p a r k i n g strategy w o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d to provide  convenience for the auto user while at the same time not allowing the car to dominate large areas of Metrotown. [...] At the outset, it should be emphasized that off-street surface parking is considered inappropriate for all future development within Metrotown. (Burnaby a n d H o t s o n 1 9 7 7 , 37) The M e t r o t o w n d e v e l o p m e n t plan i n c l u d e d several c o n c e p t u a l m a p s w h i c h s h o w e d a d e s i r e f o r a f i n e - g r a i n e d p a t t e r n of activity in t h e heart of M e t r o t o w n , i n c l u d i n g c o r r i d o r s of g r e e n space t h r o u g h o u t the c o r e area. ( B u r n a b y a n d  Hotson  1977, 5 3 , 69; District of B u r n a b y 1982). T h e C o r e A r e a P e d e s t r i a n P r e c i n c t was to  48  contain both i n d o o r and o u t d o o r malls, urban pedestrian parkways, and publiclya c q u i r e d areas a n d e a s e m e n t s for a vehicle-free pedestrian circulation system w h i c h w o u l d c r e a t e "[a] s t r o n g w a l k w a y n e t w o r k a n d u r b a n s q u a r e s s y s t e m p r o v i d i n g p e d e s t r i a n c o n t i n u i t y in t h e c o r e a r e a " ( B u r n a b y a n d H o t s o n 1977, 68, 72). By 1980, plans for M e t r o t o w n w e r e w e l l a d v a n c e d , b u t " m a j o r  change"  a w a i t e d the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e e v e n t u a l l a n d use of t w o v e r y large central r e d e v e l o p m e n t l o c a t i o n s ( G V R D 1 9 8 0 a , 13).  T h e s e plots, h e l d by Sears and Kelly  D o u g l a s , w e r e t h e s u b j e c t of m a j o r s h o p p i n g c e n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s , w h i c h w e r e rejected by Burnaby planners and politicians because they d i d not c o n f o r m t o t h e d e s i r e d " s t a n d a r d s o f t o w n - c e n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t " (The  Vancouver  Sun  1981),  a g a i n a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r A . L. P a r r . B y t h e m i d - 1 9 8 0 s , h o w e v e r , c o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e arrival o f S k y T r a i n (light rail s y s t e m ) , t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e d e v e l o p e r s h a d s u c c e e d e d in g a i n i n g m u n i c i p a l acceptance for three large, u n c o n n e c t e d regional s h o p p i n g c o m p l e x e s .  Metrotown  C e n t r e , a $100-million s h o p p i n g mall r e d e v e l o p m e n t o n three levels with 150 stores, o p e n e d in 1986. A d j a c e n t to t h e west, Eaton C e n t r e , a n e w $130-million s h o p p i n g a n d o f f i c e c o m p l e x w i t h o v e r 1.1 m i l l i o n s q u a r e f e e t o f c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e , o p e n e d in 1 9 8 9 a n d S t a t i o n S q u a r e , a $ 9 0 - m i l l i o n retail, h o t e l , a n d a p a r t m e n t c o m p l e x , o p e n e d s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d ( B C T r a n s i t A u t h o r i t y 1 9 8 9 , 8-9). T h e s e t h r e e d e v e l o p m e n t s c o m b i n e d t o c r e a t e a retail c o m p l e x s e c o n d in size in W e s t e r n C a n a d a o n l y t o W e s t E d m o n t o n M a l l (Trade 1992).  and  Commerce  Magazine  T h e c o r e o f M e t r o t o w n , w h i c h h a d b e e n p l a n n e d as a f i n e - g r a i n e d , street-  level retail district to serve the p e d e s t r i a n , h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r e d b y three vast mall c o m p l e x e s w i t h blank external walls a n d almost non-existent pedestrian connections.  49  D e s p i t e the provision of a SkyTrain stop adjacent to the malls, the automobile dominates Metrotown.  A u t o m o b i l e p a r k i n g is u b i q u i t o u s , w i t h a b o v e  g r o u n d a n d u n d e r g r o u n d s t r u c t u r e s , a n d acres of surface-level p a r k i n g .  Traffic  congestion along Kingsway persists t h r o u g h o u t each w o r k i n g day, and the c o n g e s t i o n is m o r e w i d e s p r e a d o n t h e w e e k e n d , w h e n t h e m a l l s a t t r a c t c a r d r i v i n g s h o p p e r s f r o m a trade area that includes N e w W e s t m i n s t e r a n d the eastern  parts  of t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ( A r t i b i s e , et a l . 1 9 9 0 , 9). M u n i c i p a l s u p p o r t for M e t r o t o w n has b e e n m i x e d .  Burnaby Municipal  C o u n c i l has a d d e d p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s t o M e t r o t o w n , in t h e f o r m o f t h e B o n s o r Park Recreation C o m p l e x a n d a five-acre p u b l i c library a n d park site.  Recently,  h o w e v e r , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y d i d n o t t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l o c a t e its m u n i c i p a l h a l l t o M e t r o t o w n , o p t i n g i n s t e a d t o e x p a n d o p e r a t i o n s at its C a n a d a W a y a r e a s i t e (The  Vancouver  Sun  1991d). T h e refusal of a p e r m i t to a major  s h o p p i n g mall d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p a n y w h i c h w a n t e d to build a large regional c e n t r e i n s o u t h e r n B u r n a b y , a w a y f r o m M e t r o t o w n , h a s b e e n c i t e d as e v i d e n c e o f t h e m u n i c i p a l c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e R T C c o n c e p t ( G V R D 1 9 9 1 a , 3).  This action,  h o w e v e r , m e r e l y p r o t e c t e d the market share of the M e t r o t o w n s h o p p i n g malls, a n d d i d n o t h i n g to p r o m o t e the qualitative character of the area.  Indeed, a major  peripheral s h o p p i n g mall may have i m p r o v e d the M e t r o t o w n area by drawing away s o m e of t h e ever-present a u t o m o b i l e traffic. Significant short-term b e n e f i t s have b e e n g a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e c u r r e n t style of d e v e l o p m e n t at M e t r o t o w n .  Tax r e v e n u e g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e large scale of  d e v e l o p m e n t a l l o w e d t h e m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t t o h o l d t h e 1991 m u n i c i p a l tax i n c r e a s e t o o n l y 1.5 p e r c e n t , a s c o m p a r e d t o a 1 9 9 0 i n c r e a s e o f 8.4 p e r c e n t  Vancouver  Sun  (The  1990c).  T h e l o n g - t e r m p r o s p e c t s f o r M e t r o t o w n are less clear.  Despite the addition  of SkyTrain to t h e site, t h e earlier pattern of a u t o m o b i l e o r i e n t a t i o n r e m a i n s a n d  50  continues to shape the area's character.  M e t r o t o w n has m a n y e l e m e n t s that  are  r e m i n i s c e n t of t h e A m e r i c a n " e d g e c i t i e s " ( a u t o m o b i l e o r i e n t a t i o n , rapid p a c e of d e v e l o p m e n t , s h o p p i n g m a l l s at t h e c o r e , s o m e h i g h q u a l i t y o f f i c e s p a c e ) , a l b e i t o n a m u c h smaller scale. C o n v e r s e l y , t h e n e a r b y p r e s e n c e of a large p o p u l a t i o n in a w i d e m i x of h o u s i n g t y p e s a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n of m a j o r r a p i d transit infrastructure c o n f o r m w e l l to the RTC concept.  M e t r o t o w n is i n a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n as r e g a r d s t h e  region's  p o p u l a t i o n , a n d has easy access to t h e d o w n t o w n s of t h e cities of V a n c o u v e r New Westminster.  and  N e a r b y areas of m i x e d c o m m e r c i a l , institutional, a n d light  industrial land use (Brentwood,  Canada Way,  Lougheed, Edmonds) may provide a  m a r k e t b a s e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e v e n m o r e h i g h q u a l i t y o f f i c e s p a c e at M e t r o t o w n ( A r t i b i s e , et al. 1 9 9 0 , 21). U l t i m a t e l y , h o w e v e r , M e t r o t o w n a s a n R T C is h o s t a g e t o t h e t h r e e s h o p p i n g m a l l c o m p l e x e s at its h e a r t .  T h e e x p e r i e n c e of M e t r o t o w n  large  supports  M a t t h e w ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t a n a t t e m p t t o u s e a m a j o r s h o p p i n g m a l l as t h e  catalyst  for a mixed-use centre will create " u n c o m f o r t a b l e pedestrian c o n d i t i o n s " (Matthew 1992, 53). If i n n o v a t i v e m e a n s c a n b e f o u n d t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s e m a l l s i n t o s o m e f o r m o f street-level, pedestrian c o r e , ^ t h e n M e t r o t o w n has a g o o d c h a n c e to b e c o m e a true suburban d o w n t o w n .  If n o t , if t h e m a l l s f o l l o w t h e c o m m o n p a t t e r n o f  expansion a n d adaptation to c o m p e t e with other n e w or e x p a n d e d regional malls, t h e n M e t r o t o w n w i l l l i k e l y r e m a i n a s it i s :  a m i x t u r e of urban a n d  suburban  d e v e l o p m e n t styles, with the potential to be a lively urban centre for the c o m m u n i t y , but with that potential c o m p r o m i s e d b y t o o m u c h a u t o m o b i l e oriented commercial  development.  51  3.3.2  D o w n t o w n New Westminster T h e r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s at M e t r o t o w n p r o v i d e s a s h a r p c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e R T C in D o w n t o w n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r .  Although both had  b e e n s e l e c t e d as t h e easiest R T C s w i t h w h i c h t o b e g i n ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 25), t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t p a t h s w e r e d i v e r g i n g , e v e n as e a r l y as 1 9 7 5 . Prior t o t h e early 1970s, t h e d o w n t o w n area of N e w W e s t m i n s t e r h a d b e e n the Lower Mainland's second most important commercial a n d business centre, after t h e d o w n t o w n c o r e of t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r (City of N e w W e s t m i n s t e r 1 9 7 8 , 3; N e w W e s t m i n s t e r a n d G V R D 1 9 7 7 , 1; G e r t l e r a n d C r o w l e y 1 9 7 7 , 1 7 8 ) .  It l a y a t  o n e e n d of t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t regional g r o w t h c o r r i d o r (Kingsway) a n d c o n t a i n e d m o r e office floorspace than a n y area outside t h e City of V a n c o u v e r (Nader 1976, 387-389).  N e w W e s t m i n s t e r w a s t h e d o w n t o w n h u b f o r t h e entire Fraser Valley  ( F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p . 1 9 8 2 , 1 ) . In 1 9 7 5 , G V R D  planners  c o n s i d e r e d that D o w n t o w n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r w a s already near t h e size of a "selfsufficient" R T C ( G V R D a n d Spaeth 1975, 33). Like M e t r o t o w n , D o w n t o w n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r also h e l d substantial sites with redevelopment potential.  It w a s a n a d d e d b o n u s t h a t m o s t o f t h e s e s i t e s  were riverfront, a n d therefore potentially very marketable. Additionally, N e w Westminster was the only RTC to benefit from the existence of a c o o r d i n a t i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g agency (one of t h e k e y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n m e a s u r e s r e c o m m e n d e d in t h e original R T C policy).  T h e job of  o r g a n i z i n g t h e e x p e c t e d large scale of r e d e v e l o p m e n t w a s felt t o b e t o o o n e r o u s f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o h a n d l e a l o n e (First C a p i t a l C i t y 1 9 8 2 , 3, 5). A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e city e n t e r e d into a partnership with a c r o w n c o r p o r a t i o n , B.C. D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n , t o f o r m t h e First C a p i t a l C i t y D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p a n y L t d .  First Capital development Westminster.  City Development Company Ltd. has been established as a vehicle to syndicate major lands within Downtown New The Development Company will perform the function of  52  holding land, of marketing that land, of implementing the Official Community Plan and of entering into leases with prospective developers as well as contracts and agreements with the City of New Westminster and other government agencies for the provision of services, financing, and public capital projects. (New Westminster and G V R D 1 9 7 7 , 14) H o w e v e r , d e s p i t e past s u c c e s s , r e d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l , a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l m a n a g e m e n t , t h e g r o w t h o f a l a r g e c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e at D o w n t o w n W e s t m i n s t e r has not o c c u r r e d .  New  S i n c e at l e a s t 1 9 7 0 , N e w W e s t m i n s t e r h a s b e e n  d e c l i n i n g as a c e n t r e o f r e g i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e d o w n t o w n o f N e w  Westminster  " b e c a m e a business backwater w h e n the Trans C a n a d a Highway by-passed the o l d city in t h e late 1 9 6 0 s " ( B C Transit 1 9 8 6 , 28).  F r o m s u b u r b a n p r e - e m i n e n c e in the  early 1970s, N e w W e s t m i n s t e r ' s d o w n t o w n h a d b e c o m e " G r e a t e r  Vancouver's  s m a l l e s t o f f i c e m a r k e t " in t h e 1 9 9 0 s ( C o l l i e r s 1 9 9 0 b , 4). B e t w e e n 1971 a n d 1 9 8 2 , t h e p r o p o r t i o n of r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s p a c e w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y d r o p p e d f r o m 5.6 p e r c e n t t o 4.2 p e r c e n t ( L e y a n d H u t t o n 1 9 8 4 , 1 4 2 ) . B y 1 9 8 9 , t h i s p r o p o r t i o n h a d d r o p p e d t o 3.4 p e r c e n t .  Further, this smaller  p e r c e n t a g e has not b e e n c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n the d e s i g n a t e d RTC z o n e , w h i c h h o l d s o n l y a b o u t o n e t h i r d of m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e (Artibise, et al. 1 9 9 0 , 12). T h e R T C d e s i g n a t i o n w a s in p a r t a n a t t e m p t t o halt t h i s d e c l i n e (First C a p i t a l C i t y 1 9 8 2 , 3).  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e s i g n a t i o n , p u b l i c a g e n c i e s s u p p o r t e d D o w n t o w n  N e w Westminster by locating a provincial courts building and Douglas College t h e r e , a n d b y p r o v i d i n g r a p i d transit c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e d o w n t o w n of t h e C i t y of Vancouver and to Metrotown. Private office a n d retail i n v e s t m e n t d i d n o t f o l l o w t h e s e p u b l i c commitments.  T h e waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t areas have b e e n a l m o s t entirely  t a k e n u p b y h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t (The  Vancouver  Sun  1992b).  Aside from a riverfront public market and a riverfront hotel, major c o m m e r c i a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t h a s b y p a s s e d D o w n t o w n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r (The 1992c).  2 0  53  Vancouver  Sun  T h e d e c l i n e in regional c o m m e r c i a l significance has n o t b e e n s t e m m e d b y RTC policy for t w o mains reasons.  First, l a r g e s u b u r b a n s h o p p i n g m a l l s w e r e  d e v e l o p e d , a n d these malls f r a g m e n t e d a n d intercepted N e w W e s t m i n s t e r ' s f o r m e r market p o p u l a t i o n . S e c o n d , t h e decentralization of office space t h r o u g h o u t the region bypassed D o w n t o w n N e w Westminster.  Both of these effects are  probably related to the denser urban d e v e l o p m e n t and dispersed ownership pattern of the original d o w n t o w n core of the municipality.  B o t h office a n d retail  d e v e l o p e r s c o u l d a v o i d t h e difficulty in site a s s e m b l y b y m o v i n g t o " g r e e n f i e l d " sites in t h e o u t e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (or t o a l r e a d y a s s e m b l e d sites in t h e i n n e r s u b u r b s , s u c h a s t h e t w o at M e t r o t o w n ) . The existence of a previously successful, pedestrian-scale core w a s o n e of the original reasons for o p t i m i s m about t h e R T C potential of d o w n t o w n N e w Westminster.  It w o u l d b e i r o n i c if t h a t h i s t o r y a n d h u m a n s c a l e w e r e a c t u a l l y  limiting factors in t h e successful d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e R T C . ^ T h e N e w W e s t m i n s t e r R T C is n o w a s m a l l r e t a i l d i s t r i c t , w e l l - s e r v e d b y r a p i d transit, s u r r o u n d e d b y a large resident p o p u l a t i o n o n t h e heights a b o v e a n d a l o n g the waterfront to the west.  W i t h t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e waterfront  lands  c o m p l e t e , it is u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e a r e a h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l t o i n c r e a s e i t s c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e significantly in t h e near t e r m .  In t h e l o n g e r t e r m , h o w e v e r , if t h e r e is a n  o v e r a l l c o m m e r c i a l d e c l i n e a s t h e o r i g i n a l d o w n t o w n a r e a a g e s , it is p o s s i b l e t h a t the d e v e l o p m e n t industry will a t t e m p t t h e site a s s e m b l y that has b e e n s o far b e e n foregone.  3.3.3  Coquitlam Town Centre C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e w a s c h o s e n as o n e o f t h e t w o o u t e r s u b u r b a n areas t o b e  d e v e l o p e d as p o t e n t i a l R T C s b y 1 9 8 6 . T h e s i t e h e l d n o real a d v a n t a g e s o t h e r t h a n  54  a c c e s s t o a g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n b a s e a n d a n e a r b y rail l i n e w i t h c o m m u t e r t r a i n potential. T h e s e l e c t i o n of C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e w a s t h e o u t c o m e of an i n t e n s e political c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n the municipalities of C o q u i t l a m , Port C o q u i t l a m , a n d Port M o o d y ( G V R D 1 9 7 5 b , 3 6 ) , all o f w h i c h h a d s e p a r a t e t o w n c e n t r e p l a n s . plans, a n d t h e rivalries, c o n t i n u e to t h e present.  Those  In p a r t i c u l a r , C o q u i t l a m a n d P o r t  C o q u i t l a m c o n t i n u e to p u b l i c l y b i c k e r over the location of n e w p u b l i c buildings, s u c h as c o u r t h o u s e s a n d p o l i c e s t a t i o n s (The  Vancouver  attempt to b u i l d up important areas for their separate  Sun  1 9 9 1 f ) , as t h e y  communities.  W h i l e t h e District of C o q u i t l a m has e l a b o r a t e plans f o r t h e site (District of Coquitlam 1988; Hotson Bakker Architects and The D M G r o u p A r c h i t e c t s 1 9 9 0 ) , it l a c k s m a n y R T C p r e r e q u i s i t e s .  Landscape  Despite a long-running political  e x e r c i s e , t h e r e is as y e t n o r a p i d t r a n s i t c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e r e s t o f t h e r e g i o n .  As  p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , t h e a r e a d e s i g n a t e d a s t h e R T C is v a s t . A c o n s u l t a n t s t u d y n o t e d that t h e largest p r o p o r t i o n of t h e g r o w t h in C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e in t h e n e a r f u t u r e w o u l d b e m u l t i - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l , as o p p o s e d t o a n y f o r m o f c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( C o r i o l i s 1 9 9 0 , 3). aspect w o u l d be slow to develop.  Even this positive  T h e first of several h i g h rise r e s i d e n t i a l  i n C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e w a s n o t c o m p l e t e d u n t i l 1 9 9 1 (The  Vancouver  Sun  towers  1991b).  T o o m a n y c o m p e t i t o r s for t o o small a m a r k e t a n d a lack of regional c e n t r a l i t y are o b v i o u s r e a s o n s w h y C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e has a t t r a c t e d v e r y little o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e ( l e s s t h a n 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 s q . f t . -- A r t i b i s e , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 1 2 ) .  The only current  c o m m e r c i a l p o t e n t i a l is p o p u l a t i o n - s e r v i n g ( C o r i o l i s 1 9 9 0 , 2-3). C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e is n o m o r e t h a n a n a u t o m o b i l e - o r i e n t e d s h o p p i n g c o m p l e x ( C o r i o l i s 1 9 8 6 , 2-3; A r t i b i s e , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 1 0 ) .  regional  It h a s b e e n  such  s i n c e 1 9 7 9 w h e n t h e C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e M a l l o p e n e d , w i t h its " a c c o m p a n y i n g s e a o f p a r k i n g " (The  Vancouver  Sun  1981).  Limited market potential for office space  55  and  its c u r r e n t a u t o m o b i l e - s e r v i n g d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n w i l l e n s u r e t h a t , e x c e p t f o r v e r y l o n g r a n g e p o t e n t i a l , ^ it w i l l r e m a i n s o .  3.3.4  W h a l l e y T o w n C e n t r e (Surrey C i t y C e n t r e ) T h e W h a l l e y area of t h e District of S u r r e y w a s also originally i d e n t i f i e d as  having the potential to b e c o m e an RTC by 1986( G V R D a n d Spaeth 1975, 2 5 ; G V R D 1975b, 42). A s in C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e , t h e area w a s t h o u g h t t o b e well situated to a c c o m m o d a t e the needs of a g r o w i n g nearby population base.  Whalley  is, h o w e v e r , m u c h m o r e c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e r e g i o n , a n d c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d a n extension of the primary regional growth corridor.  It h a s a n e x c e l l e n t r o a d  c o n n e c t i o n t o N e w W e s t m i n s t e r a n d is n o t f a r ( a b o u t t h r e e k i l o m e t e r s ) f r o m H i g h w a y 1, t h e m a j o r e a s t - w e s t h i g h w a y f o r t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d .  At the outset of  the R T C policy, W h a l l e y held a regional s h o p p i n g mall a n d a m o d e r a t e a m o u n t of automobile-oriented strip d e v e l o p m e n t a l o n g King G e o r g e  Highway.  Unfortunately for the original prospects of Whalley, these advantages  were  shared b y a c o m p e t i n g (and larger) regional s h o p p i n g c o m p l e x , G u i l d f o r d , w h i c h w a s m u c h c l o s e r t o H i g h w a y 1. ( T h e G u i l d f o r d T o w n C e n t r e s h o p p i n g m a l l w a s p r o b a b l y o n e of t h e factors m o s t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e c l i n e of D o w n t o w n N e w Westminster.)  The GVRD  p l a n n e r s s e l e c t e d W h a l l e y o v e r G u i l d f o r d b e c a u s e it w a s  t h o u g h t to b e far t o o difficult t o serve G u i l d f o r d with an e x t e n s i o n of t h e p l a n n e d rapid transit service ( G V R D a n d Spaeth 1975, 31). T h e D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y d i d n o t a c c e p t t h a t it w a s f o r c e d t o c h o o s e  between  the t w o centres, even t h o u g h they w e r e separated by almost three kilometers. The W h a l l e y - G u i l d f o r d R T C w a s a d u m b b e l l - s h a p e d , linear z o n e of p l a n n e d d e v e l o p m e n t a l m o s t as l a r g e as t h e C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e R T C . ^ 3 F u r t h e r , a l t h o u g h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y q u i c k l y a c c e p t e d t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e R T C , it m o v e d s l o w l y t o w a r d  56  a d o p t i n g municipal plans w h i c h reflected this, c o m p l e t i n g the a d o p t i o n process o n l y in 1985 (District of S u r r e y 1 9 9 1 , 1 . 2 ) .  2 4  By t h e late 1 9 8 0 s , n o s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t ( o t h e r t h a n retail) o c c u r r e d in t h e R T C .  had  A 1989 study c o m m i s s i o n e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o u n d that:  Whalley and Guildford Town Centres are distinct and function as separate entities although they are only two miles apart. The OCP Plan to link the centres by high density development along 104 Avenue has not happened over 10 years due to poor market acceptance. [Further,] commercial growth and major projects have in fact spread all over Surrey including other Town Centres such as Newton and South Surrey. [...] Whalley and Guildford are meeting some of the objectives for a Regional Town Centre particularly as a retail centre but do not yet function as office business centres or concentrations of civic and cultural facilities. ( R a o 1 9 8 9 , 1-2) The study, and a provincial g o v e r n m e n t decision to extend the r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e t o t h r e e W h a l l e y s t a t i o n s (The  Vancouver  Sun  SkyTrain  1990b), coincided  w i t h a m u n i c i p a l re-evaluation of t h e R T C plans ( M . O ' C o n n o r 1990).  A s of 1 9 9 1 ,  t h e D i s t r i c t of S u r r e y (1991) h a d d e c i d e d t o d e s i g n a t e W h a l l e y as t h e p r i m a r y d e v e l o p m e n t site in t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h e site is, h o w e v e r , n o l o n g e r t o b e p l a n n e d as a s i m p l e R T C .  A c c o r d i n g to statements by m u n i c i p a l officials,  Whalley  is n o w t o b e p l a n n e d as " t h e p r o v i n c e ' s s e c o n d c i t y c e n t r e , " o n e m a j o r a n c h o r i n w h a t S u r r e y p l a n n e r s e n v i s i o n as a f u t u r e b i - n o d a l r e g i o n (The 1990a).  Vancouver  The project was originally called "Whalley T o w n C e n t r e , " but  Sun more  r e c e n t l y t h e D i s t r i c t of S u r r e y (1992) has r e f e r r e d t o t h e a r e a as " S u r r e y  City  Centre." T h e n e w d e v e l o p m e n t z o n e is s t i l l q u i t e l a r g e ( l a r g e r i n f a c t t h a n t h e e n t i r e C i t y o f W h i t e R o c k ) , b u t u r b a n i z e d d e v e l o p m e n t is m e a n t t o c o n c e n t r a t e i n t h r e e s m a l l e r areas s u r r o u n d i n g t h e t h r e e p l a n n e d SkyTrain stations (District of 1991, 3.6-3.7).  2 5  Surrey  T h e a r e a is p l a n n e d t o h a v e at l e a s t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s o f  c o m m e r c i a l z o n i n g and two grades of m o r e d e n s e residential z o n i n g , s u r r o u n d e d b y large areas of single f a m i l y residential. T h e r e are large r e d e v e l o p m e n t sites  57  which have already been a s s e m b l e d by developers, and w h i c h have b e e n a p p r o v e d as m i x e d c o m m e r c i a l a n d h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s .  Many  other  d e v e l o p m e n t o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t in t h e v i c i n i t y ( D i s t r i c t of S u r r e y 1 9 9 1 , 2 . 6 , 6.1-6.2). T h e 1 9 9 1 p r o p o s e d p l a n is a n a t t r a c t i v e d o c u m e n t , a n d s e e m s t o b e w e l l c o n s i d e r e d in m o s t aspects.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n is g i v e n t o t h e r o a d n e t w o r k , t h e  infrastructure requirements, the d e v e l o p m e n t cost charges n e e d e d to finance p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t , c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d m o r e (District of S u r r e y 1991).  V e r y positive press c o v e r a g e has r e p o r t e d the " c o m m i t m e n t " of $2-billion  o f i n v e s t m e n t ( o f w h i c h $ 4 0 0 - m i l l i o n w o r t h is c u r r e n t l y i n t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s ) , o f a f o r e s t o f f o r t y o f f i c e a n d r e s i d e n t i a l t o w e r s (of w h i c h t w e n t y c o u l d b e u p w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s ) , a n d o f a r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 0 , 0 0 0 - a l l b y 2 0 1 1 (The  Sun  Vancouver  1990a; 1991a; 1992d). M u c h o f t h i s " p r o j e c t i o n " is s i m p l e b o o s t e r i s m .  O n e r e p o r t e r has o b s e r v e d  that S u r r e y ' s m a y o r pitches t h e t o w n c e n t r e p r o j e c t w i t h t h e z e a l of a Baptist m i n i s t e r (The  Vancouver  Sun  1992d).^6  T h e m u n i c i p a l i t y has e n g a g e d Hill &  K n o w l t o n C o m m u n i c a t i o n s t o assist " w i t h a broad-scale m a r k e t i n g p r o g r a m " for the W h a l l e y area (District of S u r r e y 1992).  M a n y of the m o s t o p t i m i s t i c statements  r e g a r d i n g t h e f u t u r e of the area are m a d e b y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p a n i e s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t c u r r e n t a n d p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t s i n t h e a r e a (The  Province  1989b; District of Surrey 1992). W h a l l e y is b e i n g v e r y a g g r e s s i v e l y p r o m o t e d (The  Vancouver  Sun  Province  1989b;  The  1 9 9 2 d ; District of S u r r e y 1992), but several i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s  r e m a i n a b o u t its l o n g t e r m f u t u r e .  The municipality should have no p r o b l e m  attracting a large resident p o p u l a t i o n .  Properly marketed and targeted, housing  g e n e r a l l y f i n d s a r e a d y m a r k e t in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r .  Retail s p a c e s h o u l d also  increase s m o o t h l y , e x p a n d i n g either to service the large local p o p u l a t i o n or to  58  c o m p e t e with the other regional s h o p p i n g complexes.  P u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t in t h e  f o r m of SkyTrain a n d the B C Transit h e a d q u a r t e r s location d e c i s i o n are already c o m m i t t e d and m o r e will u n d o u b t e d l y follow f r o m the municipal level. T h e m a i n o b s t a c l e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f W h a l l e y as t h e r e g i o n ' s s e c o n d c e n t r e ( a n d i n d e e d t o its d e v e l o p m e n t as o n e o f s i x R T C s ) is t h e p r o b l e m a t i c a t t r a c t i o n of large a m o u n t s of l e a s a b l e o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e , a n d t h e e m p l o y m e n t t h a t w o u l d fill s u c h s p a c e . F o l l o w i n g a c o n s u l t a n t ' s p r o j e c t i o n ( C o l l i e r s 1 9 9 0 a , 5-31), W h a l l e y ' s p l a n n e r s a s s u m e t h a t W h a l l e y T o w n C e n t r e c o u l d e x p e c t t o a t t r a c t b e t w e e n 3.4 a n d 5.8 m i l l i o n s q u a r e f e e t o f o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e b y 2 0 1 1 ( D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y 1 9 9 1 , 3.12). w o u l d r e p r e s e n t a s i z a b l e shift in t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of t h e W h a l l e y site.  This  It  c u r r e n t l y h o l d s o n l y a b o u t 2 8 7 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. in s e v e n b u i l d i n g s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e large site area (Colliers 1990a, 2 9 )  2 7  a n d m o s t o f t h a t is i n o n e f e d e r a l  g o v e r n m e n t b u i l d i n g , t h e S u r r e y T a x a t i o n C e n t r e ( 2 3 0 , 0 0 0 s q . ft.). ** 2  The  p r o j e c t i o n m e a n s t h a t , f r o m a s t a n d i n g s t a r t o f m u c h l e s s t h a n 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. o f  leasable  office f l o o r s p a c e , W h a l l e y will b e g i n t o attract b e t w e e n 110,000 a n d  1 5 0 , 0 0 0 s q . f t . per  year f o r t h e n e x t n i n e t e e n y e a r s ( C o l l i e r s 1 9 9 0 a , 3 1 ) .  T h i s a s s u m p t i o n m u s t b e t r e a t e d w i t h s o m e s k e p t i c i s m . In t h e p a s t s e v e n t e e n years, d e s p i t e a d o u b l i n g in t h e S u r r e y p o p u l a t i o n ( G V R D 1 9 9 1 b , 52), W h a l l e y office space g r o w t h has b e e n m e a g r e .  T h e r e is n o r e a s o n t o e x p e c t t h a t a  f u r t h e r d o u b l i n g of t h e local p o p u l a t i o n will s u d d e n l y h a v e a drastically different effect.  M o r e reasonably, a population threshold could be reached beyond which  t h e a r e a ' s o f f i c e s p a c e w i l l begin  to grow, but gradually.  T h e addition of the 18-storey, 200,000-square-foot Station T o w e r will s o o n a d d m o r e s p a c e ( m u c h o f it l e a s e d t o a p u b l i c s e c t o r a g e n c y , B C T r a n s i t ) , b u t t h i s is t h e o n l y C l a s s A o f f i c e b u i l d i n g e v e r t o b e b u i l t s o u t h o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r ( D i s t r i c t of S u r r e y 1992).  A glossy b r o c h u r e d e s c r i b i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t activity in  59  Whalley  refers to n o o t h e r i m m e d i a t e office projects (but d o e s refer to several high-rise a n d low-rise residential d e v e l o p m e n t s ) . T h e o n l y o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l c h a n g e is t h e a d d i t i o n o f S k y T r a i n , w h i c h u n d o u b t e d l y h a s b e e n a c a t a l y s t f o r s o m e f o r m s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l o n g its r o u t e (BC Transit A u t h o r i t y 1989).  SkyTrain has not, h o w e v e r , attracted vast a m o u n t s of  office space to every stop along the route, nor even to the N e w W e s t m i n s t e r  RTC.  T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t factor w o r k i n g against t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a n e w d o w n t o w n o f f i c e c o r e i n W h a l l e y is t h e c o n t i n u i n g a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e e x i s t i n g d o w n t o w n C i t y of V a n c o u v e r office m a r k e t .  M a j o r o f f i c e u s e r s l o c a t e in t h e  existing c o r e b e c a u s e of t h e availability of face-to-face c o n t a c t , b e c a u s e of t h e natural features a n d p r e s t i g e of t h e area, a n d b e c a u s e of t h e p r o x i m i t y t o residential areas a p p r o p r i a t e to the m a n a g e m e n t level (West V a n c o u v e r , Shaughnessy, the W e s t Side).  O t h e r office users are attracted b y the large  p o p u l a t i o n b a s e in V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e i n n e r s u b u r b s . If t h e v a c a n c y r a t e i n t h e c o r e is h i g h , a s it is n o w ( C B C o m m e r c i a l 1 9 9 2 ) , t e n a n t s w i l l h a v e t h e a d d e d a d v a n t a g e s of l e a s i n g i n c e n t i v e s , l o w e r p r i c e s , a n d a w i d e c h o i c e of sites.  If t h e d o w n t o w n m a r k e t is s t r o n g , s o m e d e f l e c t i o n o f o f f i c e  t e n a n t s m a y o c c u r b a s e d o n p r i c e , b u t W h a l l e y is f a r t h e r a w a y f r o m t h e c o r e o f t h e City of V a n c o u v e r than any o t h e r existing office s u b m a r k e t . T h e B r o a d w a y C o r r i d o r is c u r r e n t l y t h e l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o f f i c e s p a c e o u t s i d e the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r d o w n t o w n ( C B C o m m e r c i a l 1992). This area benefits by b e i n g very close to the existing core.  A n y firms deflected from the  C B D b y p r i c e m a y easily locate across False C r e e k f r o m t h e d o w n t o w n . O t h e r c e n t r e s in t h e r e g i o n h a v e a d v a n t a g e s o v e r W h a l l e y in a t t r a c t i n g o f f i c e tenants.  R i c h m o n d has easy access to the international a i r p o r t a n d t o the major  h i g h w a y b e t w e e n t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e U n i t e d States.  M e t r o t o w n already  h a s S k y T r a i n f o r c o n n e c t i v i t y , is c l o s e r t o d o w n t o w n , a n d h a s b e t t e r r e l a t i v e  60  population centrality. to the regional core.  N e w W e s t m i n s t e r a n d N o r t h V a n c o u v e r Lonsdale are c l o s e r T h e o n l y e x i s t i n g R T C o v e r w h i c h W h a l l e y has a d i s t i n c t  a d v a n t a g e is C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e , w h i c h h a s v i r t u a l l y n o o f f i c e s p a c e d e m a n d . F u r t h e r , u n l e s s s u b j e c t t o as y e t u n d e t e r m i n e d r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l s , m u c h of t h e r e g i o n ' s f u t u r e o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e w i l l n o t b e i n c e n t r e s at a l l , b u t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o s p r e a d o u t t o s u b u r b a n o f f i c e p a r k s a n d o t h e r i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n s -- a n d s o w i l l b e u n a v a i l a b l e t o l o c a t e at W h a l l e y . E v e n if f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h o c c u r s i n t h e a r e a s o u t h o f t h e F r a s e r  River,  Whalley may not be the centre best placed to capture population-serving businesses.  L a n g l e y C i t y o r a n y o f t h e f i v e o t h e r t o w n c e n t r e s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d in  S u r r e y , * * o r o t h e r s i n N o r t h D e l t a , m a y i n t e r c e p t t h e p o p u l a t i o n W h a l l e y is b e i n g 2  d e v e l o p e d to serve.  W h a l l e y ' s f u t u r e as t h e p r i m a r y c e n t r e f o r S u r r e y m a y e v e n  c o n t i n u e to be challenged by G u i l d f o r d , w h i c h retains better accessibility.^  highway  0  In t e r m s o f m a r k e t o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , W h a l l e y c a n g r o w e i t h e r t h r o u g h t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g o f f i c e t e n a n t s o r t h r o u g h t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f n e w t e n a n t s , b u t is w e a k o n b o t h c o u n t s in relation to e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s (and s u b u r b a n office parks). W h a l l e y has l i m i t e d h i g h w a y access a n d n o d i s t i n g u i s h i n g natural features t o attract redevelopment.  It is f a r f r o m d o w n t o w n a n d f r o m t h e a i r p o r t .  A s has  been  illustrated, W h a l l e y does not have the features to d r a w existing office tenants f r o m o t h e r c e n t r e s , a n d W h a l l e y w i l l h a v e t h e s a m e d i s a d v a n t a g e s in r e g a r d t o a n y  new  demand. M a s s i v e p u b l i c sector s u p p o r t in t h e f o r m of location d e c i s i o n s for g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y m e n t m a y c o n t r i b u t e t o W h a l l e y , b u t as h a s b e e n s e e n i n o t h e r RTCs (Lonsdale and N e w W e s t m i n s t e r particularly), such location decisions have little i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p r i v a t e o f f i c e m a r k e t .  Consistent municipal zoning policy  m a y f o r c e a n y S u r r e y o f f i c e u s e r s t o t h e W h a l l e y a r e a , b u t as has b e e n d i s c u s s e d  61  this will b e a limited market.  Further, G u i l d f o r d has b e e n given the same  " d o w n t o w n " z o n i n g d e s i g n a t i o n as W h a l l e y , a n d m a y d i l u t e e v e n t h e l i m i t e d o f f i c e d e m a n d w i t h i n S u r r e y (District of Surrey 1 9 9 1 , 4.7). W h a l l e y d o e s have g r o w t h potential. T h e addition of SkyTrain a n d t h e g r o w t h i n t h e n e a r b y p o p u l a t i o n b a s e are i m p o r t a n t .  However, the preceding  discussion has given reasons w h y s o m e care s h o u l d b e taken in predicting a future f o r W h a l l e y as a n o f f i c e c e n t r e s e c o n d o n l y t o t h e c o r e o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . W h a l l e y w i l l b e f o r t u n a t e if, b y 2 0 1 1 , it h a s a c h i e v e d t h e l e v e l o f s u c c e s s t h a t M e t r o t o w n enjoys in 1992.  If W h a l l e y ' s p l a n n e r s c a n l e a r n f r o m s o m e o f t h e  p r o b l e m s in M e t r o t o w n (and their plan indicates that they m a y have), p e r h a p s W h a l l e y c a n e x c e e d M e t r o t o w n in m a n a g i n g t h e qualitative aspects of R T C development.  3.3.5  R i c h m o n d T o w n Centre and North Vancouver Lonsdale T h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f R i c h m o n d C e n t r e a n d N o r t h V a n c o u v e r L o n s d a l e as R T C s  has h a d little i m p a c t o n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t .  T h e d e s i g n a t i o n c a m e m u c h later t h a n  f o r t h e first f o u r c e n t r e s a n d , p e r h a p s t o a n e v e n g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l RTCs, their d e v e l o p m e n t patterns w e r e already firmly set. Both R i c h m o n d a n d N o r t h V a n c o u v e r h a d b e e n c o n s i d e r e d for inclusion in the original policy.  In t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s , b o t h a l r e a d y e x i s t e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t  c o m m e r c i a l concentrations (Nader 1976, 389). R i c h m o n d w a s a c k n o w l e d g e d as t h e " g r o w t h l e a d e r " a m o n g t h e s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s of Greater V a n c o u v e r (Ley a n d H u t t o n 1984, 144; H u t t o n a n d Davis 1 9 8 4 , 9 ) . Its a d v a n t a g e s i n c l u d e d t h e e x i s t i n g s c a l e a n d p a c e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , c o m m e r c i a l diversity, a n d g o o d access to t h e international airport a n d t h e major h i g h w a y t o t h e U n i t e d States ( G V R D a n d Spaeth 1975, 33). T h e disadvantages, however, were considered to outweigh these benefits.  62  "A Richmond  Regional  T o w n C e n t r e is n o t n e e d e d t o m a i n t a i n b a l a n c e b e t w e e n j o b s a n d p o p u l a t i o n , h a s conflicts w i t h airport e x p a n s i o n a n d w o u l d b e e x p e n s i v e to serve w i t h light rapid transit" ( G V R D and Spaeth 1975, 33; G V R D  1 9 8 3 , 2 1 ; 1 9 8 7 , 52).  Concerns were  also e x p r e s s e d that i n c r e a s e d c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e flat, alluvial t o p o g r a p h y of R i c h m o n d w o u l d h i n d e r the preservation of agricultural land, a n d m i g h t i n c r e a s e t h e risks of f l o o d i n g ( G V R D 1 9 7 5 b , 39; Ley a n d H u t t o n 1984, 144). G o o d s h o r t - t e r m d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l w a s s i m i l a r l y r e c o g n i z e d in t h e L o n s d a l e area of t h e C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 33), b u t l i m i t a t i o n s w e r e c i t e d h e r e as w e l l .  T h e r e w e r e p e r c e i v e d to b e l o n g t e r m limits  o n p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h d u e to the restrictions of the m o u n t a i n o u s t o p o g r a p h y , the existing linear d e v e l o p m e n t pattern of the 1970s was r e c o g n i z e d t o lack a base u p o n w h i c h t o c o n c e n t r a t e n e w facilities, a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n of a n y r a p i d transit system on the North Shore was recognized to be very expensive ( G V R D 1975b, 39).  Further, the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l of the t i m e d i d not c o n s i d e r that the level of  d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e d f o r t h e R T C w a s d e s i r a b l e f o r its c o m m u n i t y ( G V R D  and  S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 3 3 ; G V R D 1 9 8 3 , 2 1 ; 1 9 8 7 , 52). T h r o u g h o u t t h e first y e a r s of t h e R T C p o l i c y , t h e t w o e x c l u d e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n t i n u e d t o a d d o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e at f a s t e r r a t e s t h a n t h o s e w i t h t h e f o u r d e s i g n a t e d c e n t r e s ( H u t t o n a n d D a v i s 1 9 8 4 , 1 1 ; C o r i o l i s 1 9 8 6 , 4).  Richmond  c o n t i n u e d t o g r o w b a s e d o n its l o c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s , a n d m a y a l s o h a v e b e g u n t o e n j o y m u l t i p l i e r b e n e f i t s as m a n u f a c t u r e r s , p a r t s s u p p l i e r s , s e r v i c e p r o v i d e r s , a n d other interrelated firms influenced each other's location decisions.  By 1 9 8 1 ,  R i c h m o n d h a d m o r e j o b s t h a n r e s i d e n t l a b o u r f o r c e , a n d s o h a d a c h i e v e d o n e of t h e m a j o r g o a l s o f t h e Livable  Region  Strategy  ( G V R D 1 9 8 3 , 1 2 ; 1 9 8 5 , 4, 6).  North Vancouver Lonsdale was g r o w i n g for a different reason.  In t h e y e a r s  p r i o r t o its 1 9 8 3 s e l e c t i o n a s a n R T C , t h e L o w e r L o n s d a l e w a t e r f r o n t a r e a h a d targeted for redevelopment by the provincial government.  63  been  T h e a r e a w a s t h e first  to r e c e i v e a n y f o r m of r e g i o n a l r a p i d transit, in t h e f o r m of a d i r e c t p a s s e n g e r ferry service across the h a r b o u r (SeaBus), c o n n e c t i n g a N o r t h S h o r e ferry terminal to the d o w n t o w n of t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r .  The area benefited f r o m other significant  p u b l i c s e c t o r l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , w i t h t h e w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e  Lonsdale  Q u a y P u b l i c M a r k e t , t h e Pacific M a r i n e T r a i n i n g Institute of B.C., a n d t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s of t w o m a j o r c r o w n c o r p o r a t i o n s , the Insurance C o r p o r a t i o n of  B.C.  a n d B.C. Rail ( L o n s d a l e Q u a y D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p a n y 1 9 8 0 ; G V R D 1 9 8 2 a , 1 6 ; L e y a n d H u t t o n 1984, 146).  A l l of this g o v e r n m e n t - d i r e c t e d d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r r e d in  d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e Livable  Region  Strategy  and the RTC policy.  It w a s i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e t w o  centres  that t h e y w e r e e v e n t u a l l y r e c o m m e n d e d f o r i n c l u s i o n in t h e R T C p o l i c y in 1983 ( G V R D 1 9 8 3 , 2).  This inclusion was, however, not formally a d o p t e d into the  r e g i o n a l p l a n d u e to t h e r e m o v a l of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p o w e r s that s a m e year ( G V R D 1987, 52).  A l l R T C p o l i c y d o c u m e n t s after 1 9 8 3 refer t o all six R T C s o n an  equivalent basis. T h e s i m p l e d e s i g n a t i o n of t h e s e c e n t r e s has h a d little e f f e c t o n t h e i r a l r e a d y established d e v e l o p m e n t patterns.  R i c h m o n d has a very large a m o u n t of low-  d e n s i t y c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s p r e a d o v e r a very large d e s i g n a t e d t o w n area (City of R i c h m o n d , 4.6; T o w n s h i p of R i c h m o n d 1986).  centre  A l t h o u g h the 1990  c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e t o t a l is g i v e n a s o v e r 4 m i l l i o n s q . f t . , R i c h m o n d C e n t r e  has  b e c o m e a " r o w of s h o p p i n g centres a n d strip malls r u n n i n g f r o m L a n s d o w n e c i t y h a l l a n d s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e s t r e e t s b y p a r k i n g l o t s " (The 1991e).  Vancouver  to  Sun  V e r y l a r g e a m o u n t s o f s u r f a c e p a r k i n g is a v a i l a b l e i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e t o w n  c e n t r e ( C i t y o f R i c h m o n d , 5.9). R i c h m o n d ' s o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e is d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t o w n c e n t r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ( C o l l i e r s 1 9 9 0 a , 10-11).  E v e n as e a r l y a s 1 9 8 1 , it w a s  r e c o g n i z e d that R i c h m o n d ' s d i s p e r s e d office space g r o w t h was o u t p a c i n g the  64  and  g r o w t h in t h e large d e s i g n a t e d c o r e ( G V R D 1981a, 18).  The pattern of d i s p e r s e d  activities a n d a u t o m o b i l e orientation has b e e n u n c h a n g e d by the RTC d e s i g n a t i o n . A n y s u b s e q u e n t c h a n g e m u s t a w a i t t h e l o n g r a n g e r e d e v e l o p m e n t of large p o r t i o n s of central R i c h m o n d .  Even t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of rapid transit c o u l d have  o n l y a l i m i t e d a f f e c t o n t h e p a t t e r n , b e c a u s e it is l i k e l y t h a t e a c h o f t h e l a r g e s h o p p i n g mall c o m p l e x e s along N o . 3 Road w o u l d receive a station stop, thereby reinforcing their e c o n o m i c viability and land use proclivities. T h e case of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r again illustrates the p r o b l e m s associated with a l t e r i n g e s t a b l i s h e d l a n d use patterns t o fulfil R T C goals. Vancouver held two "town centres."  In 1 9 8 0 , t h e C i t y o f N o r t h  U p p e r Lonsdale h e l d m o r e retail, office a n d  s e r v i c e f l o o r s p a c e t h a n L o w e r L o n s d a l e (City of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r 1 9 8 0 , 16), a n d also h e l d t h e h o s p i t a l a n d p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u i l d i n g s (city hall, library, justice administration building), but Lower Lonsdale was an area ripe for c o m m e r c i a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t a l o n g its f o r m e r l y i n d u s t r i a l w a t e r f r o n t . S h o u l d North Vancouver have refused to allow the waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t , insisting instead on the (expensive) r e d e v e l o p m e n t of the buildings around U p p e r Lonsdale?  Should U p p e r Lonsdale have been  as a s i t e f o r a l l t h o s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s ?  major  abandoned  Lower Lonsdale had  better c o m m e r c i a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t potential, a n d a rapid transit c o n n e c t i o n to d o w n t o w n C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , b u t t h e r e w a s n o w a y t o r e l o c a t e all o f t h e u s e f u l t o w n centre e l e m e n t s of the U p p e r L o n s d a l e area. T h e C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r o p t e d f o r t h e s a m e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n as the District of Surrey had with W h a l l e y - G u i l d f o r d .  The municipality refused to  c h o o s e , a n d i n s t e a d i n v e n t e d t h e L o n s d a l e A v e n u e L i n e a r T o w n C e n t r e as a c o m p r o m i s e (City of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r 1 9 8 0 , B4).  The c o n c e p t of a c o n c e n t r a t e d ,  p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d c o r e of d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e m p l o y m e n t o n c e again c o u l d n o t  65  b e r e c o n c i l e d t o a m u n i c i p a l d e s i r e t o b r i n g p o s i t i v e c h a n g e t o all o f its t r a d i t i o n a l commercial centres.  3.4  CONCLUSION S u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s h a v e n o t a p p e a r e d in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r .  R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s p o l i c y o f t h e Livable  Region  Strategy  The  has n o t s u c c e e d e d in  c r e a t i n g major office a n d b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s w h i c h are also lively, d i v e r s e , p e d e s t r i a n districts.  Several g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n e n c o m p a s s the causes of this lack of  success. A l t h o u g h t h e o r i g i n a l p o l i c y w a s w e l l - c o n c e i v e d , it w a s n o t c a r r i e d o u t a s originally planned.  Those w h o framed the policy seem to have had a g o o d  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e h i g h level of p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l R T C development.  They u n d e r s t o o d that municipalities w o u l d have to  receive  assistance a n d d i r e c t i o n f r o m an effective regional c o o r d i n a t i n g b o d y .  They  b e l i e v e d that d e v e l o p m e n t of an i n t e r c o n n e c t e d rapid transit n e t w o r k h a d to shape, not f o l l o w the c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t of the c e n t r e s . ^  They  understood  that a d e t a i l e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s was r e q u i r e d , c o n s i s t i n g of p u b l i c s p e n d i n g a n d o w n e r s h i p , of land use regulation to c o n t r o l s p e c u l a t i o n , a n d of professional m a n a g e m e n t of the d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s .  underestimated  The planners may even have  the a m o u n t of c o n t r o l that municipalities w o u l d have h a d to  exercise t h r o u g h o u t their jurisdictions to p r e v e n t scattered large-scale c o m m e r c i a l construction, and to funnel every project with t o w n centre potential into their individual RTCs (without harming regional e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t T h e p o l i c y w a s n o t c a r r i e d o u t as o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d .  potential).  The political will w h i c h  h a d b e e n in e v i d e n c e d u r i n g t h e f o r m a t i v e stages of t h e p o l i c y v a n i s h e d just w h e n implementation had been about to begin.  Shifting priorities a n d electoral reversals  r e m o v e d t h e political c o m m i t m e n t w h i c h h a d b e e n e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e C i t y of  66  Vancouver and from the provincial government.  Without wider powers  and  r e s o u r c e s (an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f t h e p o l i c y ) , t h e G V R D w a s u n a b l e t o coordinate regional development.  W h i l e Regional T o w n Centres have remained a  d i s c u s s i o n p o i n t a m o n g t h e v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t s of t h e r e g i o n , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have a c c e p t e d the f o r m s of d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h have b e e n o f f e r e d by the market. T h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e lack of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n rests w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l level.  E v e n if t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r h a d c o n t i n u e d t h e e n f o r c e d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  o f c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e , it is u n l i k e l y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l R T C m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o u l d h a v e p r e v e n t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m j u m p i n g to o t h e r areas of t h e r e g i o n w i t h less s t r i n g e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o r w i t h a g r e a t e r d e s i r e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t at a n y c o s t .  It h a d  b e e n a s s u m e d that o n l y in t h e f a c e o f a u n i t e d r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t y c o u l d s u c h capital flight be p r e v e n t e d , a n d o n l y the provincial g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d have m a n d a t e d s u c h an authority. T h e s e c o n d g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n is t h a t t h e p o l i c y , a s a c t u a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d b y i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , has h a d little e f f e c t o n t h e scale of d e v e l o p m e n t has o c c u r r e d in t h e RTCs.  which  T h o u g h e a c h area has g r o w n in t h e i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d ,  t h e r e is n o e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i r g r o w t h h a s b e e n o t h e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h w o u l d h a v e o c c u r r e d in t h e a b s e n c e of p o l i c y . In 1 9 7 5 , d e v e l o p m e n t w a s a l r e a d y o c c u r r i n g at M e t r o t o w n , a n d m o r e was expected. the style.  growth  T h e i s s u e at M e t r o t o w n w a s n o t t h e a m o u n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t ,  but  M e t r o t o w n is b y f a r t h e m o s t s u c c e s s f u l o f t h e f o u r o r i g i n a l R T C s , b u t it  h a s a v a s t r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c o m p l e x at its c o r e , a n d t h e u b i q u i t o u s a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c a n d p a r k i n g t h a t a c c o m p a n y it. T h e f i n e - g r a i n e d , p e d e s t r i a n - s c a l e c o r e street pattern has b e e n f o r e g o n e .  E v e n t h e a d d i t i o n of r a p i d transit has n o t a l t e r e d  t h e a u t o m o b i l e p a t t e r n w h i c h w a s p u t in p l a c e b y t h e m a l l d e v e l o p m e n t s . D o w n t o w n N e w Westminster and North Vancouver Lonsdale had the  benefit  of large areas of potential waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d significant a m o u n t s of  67  provincial g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t for that r e d e v e l o p m e n t .  T h e s e t w o areas w e r e t h e  o n l y c e n t r e s t o r e c e i v e assistance a n d p a r t n e r s h i p f r o m t h e B.C. Corporation.  Development  North Vancouver Lonsdale gained massive public sector support  b e f o r e its i n c l u s i o n i n t h e p o l i c y .  I n d e e d , this s u p p o r t illustrated the lack of  concern which the provincial government afforded the regional policy. e v i d e n c e to suggest that D o w n t o w n  T h e r e is n o  N e w W e s t m i n s t e r r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t as a n  rather t h a n as a n o t h e r l u c r a t i v e w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t y . W e s t m i n s t e r has b e c o m e a m o d e r a t e l y d e n s e residential s u b u r b .  RTC,  New  ( T h i s is n o t  n e c e s s a r i l y a p r o b l e m , s i n c e it is w e l l s e r v e d b y p u b l i c t r a n s i t a n d t h e r e g i o n a l r o a d n e t w o r k ) . It i s , h o w e v e r , n o t a n i m p o r t a n t c o m m e r c i a l  centre.  R i c h m o n d T o w n C e n t r e was an e c o n o m i c a l l y successful c o m m e r c i a l  area  b e f o r e t h e o r i g i n a l p o l i c y w a s c o n c e i v e d , a n d b e f o r e a n d a f t e r its u l t i m a t e s e l e c t i o n as o n e of six R T C s .  R i c h m o n d C e n t r e w a s a n d is g r o w i n g b y v i r t u e o f s i g n i f i c a n t  locational a d v a n t a g e s . ^  It is c l o s e t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t a n d t o t h e  n o r t h - s o u t h h i g h w a y b e t w e e n t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e U n i t e d  major  States.  R i c h m o n d contains s o m e of the areas closest to the City of V a n c o u v e r  with  a v a i l a b l e s i t e s f o r i n d u s t r y o r o t h e r l a n d - i n t e n s i v e c o m m e r c i a l v e n t u r e s , s u c h as w a r e h o u s i n g (other s u c h areas exist in central Burnaby).  The municipality and  the  t o w n centre area benefit f r o m the original success, and likely also f r o m a multiplier effect o n business location decisions.  M a n u f a c t u r e r s , service providers, parts  suppliers, small repair a n d fabrication s h o p s , factory outlets, a n d m a n y k i n d s of retail stores b e n e f i t f r o m p r o x i m i t y t o o n e a n o t h e r , a n d n e w v e n t u r e s likely take this cross-influence into a c c o u n t w h e n m a k i n g regional location decisions. R i c h m o n d is, h o w e v e r , a c o m p l e t e l y a u t o m o b i l e - r e l i a n t s u b u r b .  T h e t o w n c e n t r e is  a s p r a w l i n g c o r r i d o r s e v e r a l k i l o m e t e r s l o n g a n d at l e a s t a n o t h e r k i l o m e t e r w i d e . C o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c a n n o t b e said to b e c o n c e n t r a t e d in s u c h a district, n o r even contained.  68  C o q u i t l a m T o w n Centre and Whalley T o w n Centre, despite plans on a grand s c a l e , are n o t e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m o t h e r r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s in o t h e r parts of t h e r e g i o n . T h e y c o v e r a w i d e area, c o n t a i n m u c h m o r e retail t h a n o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d t h e y are m o s t easily a c c e s s i b l e b y car. T h e t h i r d g e n e r a l p o i n t is a c o n j e c t u r e m o r e t h a n a n o b s e r v a t i o n . p o s s i b l e that t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s w a s heavily o n a p a r t i c u l a r e r a in t h e g r o w t h of t h e r e g i o n .  It is  dependent  In t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s , m o s t o f t h e  e m p l o y m e n t a n d e c o n o m i c activity of t h e r e g i o n w a s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r a n d its d o w n t o w n c o r e .  I n d e e d , this w a s o n e of t h e  p r o b l e m s that the original RTC plan was m e a n t to address.  perceived  If t h e R T C s h a d  been  i m p l e m e n t e d as o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d , w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r a p i d t r a n s i t i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s , it m a y h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e t o c a t c h t h e w a v e s o f d i s p e r s e d c o m m e r c i a l activity w h i c h f o l l o w e d in t h e s u b s e q u e n t t w o d e c a d e s .  Commercial  d e v e l o p e r s m i g h t have b e e n c o n v i n c e d to take a d o p t a different style of d e v e l o p m e n t if t h e y h a d b e e n p r e s e n t e d w i t h a u n i t e d m u n i c i p a l a n d r e g i o n a l resolve, a n d w i t h g o o d r e d e v e l o p m e n t sites w e l l - s u p p l i e d w i t h p u b l i c transit. T h a t o p p o r t u n i t y is l o n g p a s t .  T h e dispersal of c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t  has  o c c u r r e d a n d c a n n o t b e c a l l e d b a c k f r o m s u c h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s as G u i l d f o r d , L o u g h e e d , B r e n t w o o d , L a n g l e y City, Park R o y a l , t h e K n i g h t c o r r i d o r in R i c h m o n d , t h e C a n a d a W a y c o r r i d o r in B u r n a b y , a n d m a n y o t h e r s m a l l e r o r less d e n s e locations. E v e n if t h e n e x t w a v e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a r e p a r t i a l l y m o d i f i e d b y t h e  RTC  p o l i c y ( a n d b a s e d o n p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e is n o r e a s o n t o e x p e c t s u c h m o d i f i c a t i o n ) , t h e d i s p e r s a l t h a t h a s o c c u r r e d is a l r e a d y i n p l a c e a n d h a s d e f i n e d the current f o r m of the region.  If t h e r e a r e m a n y c e n t r e s a n d i s o l a t e d c o m m e r c i a l  s i t e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n , it is f a r t o o e x p e n s i v e t o s e r v e a l l o f t h e m w i t h p u b l i c rapid transit.  If t o o f e w c e n t r e s a r e s o s e r v e d , h o w e v e r , t h e a u t o m o b i l e  69  becomes  the only viable s u b u r b a n c o m m u t i n g o p t i o n .  Regional T o w n Centres policy, based  o n its o r i g i n a l g o a l s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n , m a y n o t c u r r e n t l y b e as i m p o r t a n t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n as d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s a n d d y n a m i c s b e t w e e n a m u l t i t u d e of c o m m e r c i a l sites in an a l r e a d y w e l l - d e f i n e d r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . In c o n c l u s i o n , i n n o c a s e c a n R T C p o l i c y b e d e m o n s t r a t e d t o h a v e a l t e r e d t h e p a t t e r n of d e v e l o p m e n t o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h has o c c u r r e d in t h e six designated centres.  T h e e v e n t u a l a d d i t i o n of S k y T r a i n has h a d t h e e f f e c t of  s p u r r i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n M e t r o t o w n a n d D o w n t o w n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r , b u t it h a s not b e e n t h e k i n d of d e v e l o p m e n t that was e n v i s i o n e d for t h e RTCs.  Richmond  T o w n C e n t r e a n d N o r t h V a n c o u v e r L o n s d a l e d e v e l o p e d to patterns set w e l l they b e c a m e RTCs.  The outer s u b u r b a n centres have not been d e v e l o p e d  before beyond  the retail f u n c t i o n . Greater V a n c o u v e r Regional T o w n Centres policy must be re-evaluated  in  the m o d e r n c o n t e x t of s u b u r b a n i z e d a n d d e c e n t r a l i z e d c o m m e r c i a l activity, e m p l o y m e n t , a n d travel patterns.  T h e t i m e is p a s t w h e n a s m a l l g r o u p o f c e n t r e s  c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d to a b s o r b m o s t of the region's c o m m e r c i a l g r o w t h , e m p l o y m e n t , or travel.  Fresh ideas are n e e d e d to d e s c r i b e a n d adapt to the  current r e g i o n a l realities.  70  CHAPTER 4 METROPOLITAN MELBOURNE:  4.0  DISTRICT CENTRES  POLICY  INTRODUCTION M e l b o u r n e h a s a s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y c a l l e d D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s , w h i c h is  similar in m a n y respects t o R T C p o l i c y in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r .  This chapter  examines t h e relevant aspects of M e l b o u r n e ' s historical d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d t h e details a n d results of t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e policy. In t h e p o l i c y c o n t e x t s e c t i o n , c o m p a r i s o n s a r e d r a w n b e t w e e n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d character of M e l b o u r n e a n d V a n c o u v e r in an attempt t o justify the comparison of the t w o policies.  If t h e t w o m e t r o p o l i s e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r ,  then lessons learned f r o m t h e study of M e l b o u r n e can reasonably b e a p p l i e d to the examination of Vancouver. M e l b o u r n e is s h o w n t o h a v e a n u n b a l a n c e d s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e .  The suburbs  to t h e s o u t h a n d east of t h e c o r e area are g r o w i n g m u c h m o r e rapidly than t h e suburbs to the north and west.  T h e core area of t h e metropolis (Central  M e l b o u r n e ) contains t h e largest p r o p o r t i o n of c o m m e r c i a l office activity a n d retains a large a m o u n t of retail s p a c e .  T h e region's extensive p u b l i c transit  n e t w o r k is s h o w n t o b e r a d i a l l y f o c u s s e d o n t h e d o w n t o w n . In t h e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t s e c t i o n , e a r l i e r p o l i c y r e s p o n s e s t o s u b u r b a n g r o w t h a r e d e s c r i b e d , i n c l u d i n g a n early a t t e m p t at t h e c r e a t i o n o f a m u l t i c e n t r e d s t r u c t u r e i n 1 9 5 4 . T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n 1 9 8 0 o f t h e D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s p o l i c y is detailed, a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t modifications a n d flexibility w h i c h w e a k e n e d t h e effect of t h e policy are d e s c r i b e d . T h e p o l i c y evaluation s e c t i o n synthesizes t h e various p o l i c y critiques that have b e e n m a d e of District C e n t r e s policy in t h e a c a d e m i c a n d consultant literature in Australia.  It is f o u n d t h a t t h e p o l i c y h a d f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e i t s g o a l s f o r  71  the following reasons:  the w r o n g policy instrument was chosen; the policy  reflected t h e lack of an a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y ; a n d , the State g o v e r n m e n t was a m b i v a l e n t t o w a r d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e policy. In t h e c o n c l u s i o n , t h e g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s m a d e i n t h e c a s e o f R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s p o l i c y are r e - e x a m i n e d in t h e c o n t e x t of M e l b o u r n e ' s District Centres policy.  M e l b o u r n e ' s p o l i c y is j u d g e d t o h a v e b e e n i n f e r i o r t o t h e o r i g i n a l  p o l i c y i n V a n c o u v e r , b u t t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f e a c h p o l i c y is s h o w n to be similar — n o d i s c e r n i b l e c h a n g e in t h e scale o r pattern of d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e designated suburban centres.  4.7  POLICY  CONTEXT  M e l b o u r n e ' s historical d e v e l o p m e n t and character share m a n y features with those of G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r .  Both cities have a Pacific Rim e c o n o m i c focus, a n d  e a c h is t h e " p r i n c i p a l m e t r o p o l i s f o r m a j o r e x p o r t i n g i n d u s t r i e s " f o r t h e i r respective n a t i o n s (Fothergill 1 9 8 7 , 34; G V R D 1 9 9 1 b , 11).  B o t h cities are culturally  a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y W e s t e r n , in that t h e y exist in c o n s u m e r - o r i e n t e d , m a r k e t - d r i v e n democracies.  T h i s f a c t o r is s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e s t u d y o f u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y ,  since firms a n d i n d i v i d u a l s are a l l o w e d to locate p r i m a r i l y a c c o r d i n g t o real estate markets a n d internal preferences rather than plans a n d external constraints. T h e s t a t u t o r y c o n t r o l o f m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s is h e l d i n b o t h c a s e s at a h i g h e r level of g o v e r n m e n t :  f o r M e l b o u r n e , in t h e g o v e r n m e n t of t h e State of V i c t o r i a ,  a n d f o r V a n c o u v e r , in t h e g o v e r n m e n t of t h e P r o v i n c e of British C o l u m b i a . party political divisions exist in t h e p a r l i a m e n t s of b o t h places, b e t w e e n  Similar  left-leaning  parties w h i c h t e n d to plan strategically ( N D P , Labour) a n d right-leaning parties w h i c h f a v o u r ad hoc  p l a n n i n g a n d market forces (Social C r e d i t , Liberal).  T h e g o v e r n a n c e o f b o t h m e t r o p o l i s e s is f r a g m e n t e d a m o n g m a n y s m a l l e r , s e m i - a u t o n o m o u s l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s -- a f a c t o r t h a t m a k e s p l a n n i n g f o r t h e r e g i o n  72  difficult.  As a result of this f r a g m e n t a t i o n a n d t h e a t t e n d a n t difficulty in p r o v i d i n g  necessary c o m m o n services, cooperative water and sewerage agencies were formed.  T h e M e l b o u r n e a n d M e t r o p o l i t a n B o a r d of W o r k s ( M M B W ) w a s f o r m e d in  1861 a n d w a s g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n h y d r a u l i c s e r v i c e s .  Greater  V a n c o u v e r has h a d cooperative sewerage since 1914 and cooperative water provision since the 1920s u n d e r t w o predecessor agencies to the V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l District ( G V R D ) , w h i c h was f o r m e d in 1967.  Greater B e c a u s e of t h e i r  metropolitan focus and cooperative experience, these agencies gradually gained s o m e planning powers over their respective regions, (although these powers w e r e s e v e r e l y c u r t a i l e d b y s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s i n t h e 1 9 8 0 s (B. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 , 1 5 3 - 1 5 4 ; S p o s i t o 1 9 9 0 , 1; G V R D 1 9 8 7 , 4)). A l t h o u g h both regions have extensive public transportation systems, M e l b o u r n e ' s is l a r g e r , w i t h m o r e e l e m e n t s a n d f l e x i b i l i t y .  T h e k e y feature of t h e  M e l b o u r n e s y s t e m is a c o m p l e t e r a d i a l c o m m u t e r r a i l n e t w o r k c o n n e c t i n g t h e I n n e r A r e a ( t h o s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r o u n d t h e o r i g i n a l c o r e , a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as Central M e l b o u r n e ) with every d e v e l o p e d s u b u r b a n c o r r i d o r , for distances of u p to 6 0 k i l o m e t e r s f r o m t h e c o r e ( T e r r e l l 1 9 9 0 , 5 4 - 5 5 ; s e e M a p 3, p. 1 6 4 ) .  The  M e l b o u r n e s y s t e m has a d o w n t o w n - o r i e n t e d l i g h t rail s y s t e m , a n u n d e r g r o u n d C B D rail l o o p , a n d o v e r 2,000 t r a m s a n d p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e b u s e s in t h e  network.  T h e n e t w o r k f o c u s is t h e r e g i o n a l c o r e , as o p p o s e d t o i n t e r s u b u r b a n l i n k a g e s (K. O ' C o n n o r , et al. 1 9 9 0 , 38), a f e a t u r e s h a r e d w i t h t h e V a n c o u v e r s y s t e m . M e l b o u r n e has also s h a r e d s o m e c o m m o n historical g r o w t h features w i t h Vancouver.  B o t h are p r i m a t e p o r t cities s u r r o u n d e d b y vast, sparsely-settled,  resource-producing hinterlands.  In e a c h c a s e , t h e e a r l y p o r t - c e n t r e d c i t y w a s  c o m p a c t a n d w o u l d later h o l d t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s District of t h e m e t r o p o l i s . C o r r i d o r s of g r o w t h r a d i a t e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l c i t y f o l l o w i n g i n t e r u r b a n rail l i n e s laid d o w n in t h e late 1 9 t h a n d e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r i e s .  73  Until the 1940s almost 90 per cent of Melbourne's inhabitants within 15 kilometers of the central city, and most jobs, shops other services and facilities were either in the city or locally The urban structure, the travel needs of the population, and transport system were in close harmony. ( M P E 1 9 8 7 , 5)  lived and based. the  In t h e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d , h o w e v e r , M e l b o u r n e b e g a n t o f a c e t h e p r e s s u r e s o f s u b u r b a n s p r a w l b r o u g h t o n b y t h e rise of a u t o m o b i l e use, a n d b y national g o v e r n m e n t policies which p r o m o t e d universal single-family h o m e o w n e r s h i p a n d the d e v e l o p m e n t of national (and m e t r o p o l i t a n ) r o a d n e t w o r k s ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 1401 4 5 ; C a r t e r 1 9 8 2 , 2; M a h e r 1 9 8 8 , 164).  Residential z o n i n g was allowed to  p r o l i f e r a t e in a d v a n c e of n e e d , r e s u l t i n g in s u b u r b a n " l e a p f r o g g i n g . "  Automobile  u s e b e c a m e a n e c e s s i t y b e c a u s e s u b u r b a n rail a n d p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t c o u l d n o t economically provide m o r e than corridor service.  In a d d i t i o n t o i n c r e a s e d t r a v e l  costs, a h o m e o w n e r f a c e d i n c r e a s e d h o u s i n g costs d u e t o s p e c u l a t i o n in l a n d . T h e m o s t attractive s u b u r b s b e c a m e enclaves of the m i d d l e a n d u p p e r e c o n o m i c classes. There are several significant differences b e t w e e n M e l b o u r n e and  Greater  Vancouver.  M e l b o u r n e has a p o p u l a t i o n a b o u t d o u b l e the size of  Greater  Vancouver.  T h e s e a t o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e S t a t e o f V i c t o r i a is M e l b o u r n e i t s e l f ,  a n d that city's m e t r o p o l i t a n p r o b l e m s are t h e r e f o r e i m m e d i a t e to the d e c i s i o n makers.  V a n c o u v e r is g o v e r n e d f r o m t h e c i t y o f V i c t o r i a o n V a n c o u v e r  Island,  across G e o r g i a Strait f r o m t h e m a i n l a n d . That s e p a r a t i o n , real a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l , m a y b e t h e c a u s e of less s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n m e t r o p o l i t a n p r o b l e m s t h a n is e v i d e n t i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n c a s e . A l t h o u g h b o t h m e t r o p o l i s e s are f r a g m e n t e d into m a n y small local g o v e r n m e n t a r e a s , M e l b o u r n e is f a r m o r e f r a g m e n t e d , w i t h 5 6 s e m i - a u t o n o m o u s governments (MPE  1 9 8 7 , 2-3) t o G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r ' s 1 8 .  \T]he governmental pattern in the Melbourne area [...] is the most complex pattern of any of the Australian metropolitan statistical divisions and districts. Not only are there 5 5 local councils [in 1 9 7 9 ] ,  74  but an unusually wide range of regional bodies and state departments and agencies is involved in one way or another metropolitan governance. ( L e a c h 1 9 7 9 , 49) G e o g r a p h i c a l differences are i m p o r t a n t .  government in  Mountains, ocean, and an  international boundary funnel Greater Vancouver's growth into a narrow southeasterly corridor.  M e l b o u r n e is a l s o g r o w i n g t o t h e s o u t h e a s t , b u t t h a t is n o t  t h e sole o p t i o n , o n l y t h e m o s t attractive ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 154-156).  Further,  Vancouver's restricted growth avenue puts valuable farmland under pressure f r o m urban d e v e l o p m e n t interests.  M e l b o u r n e has an a b u n d a n c e of s u r r o u n d i n g  f a r m l a n d a n d its p r e s e r v a t i o n is l i k e l y m o r e a m a t t e r o f a m e n i t y t h a n e c o n o m i c s . T h e r e is a l a c k o f b a l a n c e b e t w e e n v a r i o u s s u b u r b a n a r e a s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n Melbourne.  " A l l i n a l l , M e l b o u r n e ' s d e v e l o p m e n t is s k e w e d t o f a v o u r t h e s o u t h  a n d east, w i t h m a j o r i m p l i c a t i o n s for e c o n o m i c g r o w t h a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n " ( E d g i n g t o n 1988, 11).  employment  M e l b o u r n e has traditionally g r o w n m o r e  toward  t h e a m e n i t y - r i c h s o u t h e a s t t h a n t o w a r d t h e n o r t h w e s t , a n d t h a t t r e n d is c o n t i n u i n g ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 1 5 4 - 1 5 6 ; K. O ' C o n n o r , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 1 5 ) . B e t w e e n 1976 a n d 1 9 8 1 , s o u t h e r n r e g i o n e m p l o y m e n t i n c r e a s e d by 11.3 p e r c e n t a n d eastern r e g i o n e m p l o y m e n t i n c r e a s e d b y 15.2 p e r c e n t . C o r r e s p o n d i n g figures for the northern and western suburbs were, 5.4 a n d 0.5 p e r c e n t .  The southern  respectively,  a n d eastern areas have consistently taken a  larger share of office floorspace than the n o r t h e r n a n d w e s t e r n areas (Edgington 1 9 8 8 , 8-9, 1 1 ) .  T h e n o r t h e r n a n d w e s t e r n s u b u r b s h o l d a d e c l i n i n g base of  m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries a n d jobs, a n d a negligible level of significant office d e v e l o p m e n t ( J o n e s L a n g 1 9 8 7 , 2).  The western suburbs are characterised economically by large-scale industrial development, and residentially by a predominantly bluecollar workforce, low educational skill levels, and a high proportion of the population born in non-English speaking countries. (Maher 1988, 171)  75  In c o m p a r i s o n , t h e s o u t h e r n a n d e a s t e r n s u b u r b s h o l d g r o w i n g o f f i c e development, population, and e m p l o y m e n t (MPE  1 9 8 7 , 1 3 - 1 5 ; E d g i n g t o n 1 9 8 8 , 9-  1 2 ; K. O ' C o n n o r , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 1 8 - 1 9 ) . T h e s o u t h e a s t e r n s u b u r b s o c c u p y r o l l i n g h i l l s of f i n e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y t h a n t h e flat, f o r m e r l y s w a m p y n o r t h a n d w e s t ,  and  have t e n d e d t o attract m o r e of t h e white-collar s e g m e n t of t h e residential m a r k e t ( T h o m p s o n 1978, 133). T h e s h a r e of t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g in t h e Inner A r e a h a s d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y s i n c e t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , f r o m 5 2 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 4 7 t o 21 p e r c e n t in 1 9 7 6 ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 223).  T h r o u g h o u t the 1960s, h o w e v e r , total  CBD  e m p l o y m e n t g r e w b y 66 p e r c e n t a n d t h e c e n t r a l a r e a a c c o u n t e d f o r 85 p e r c e n t of t h e total v a l u e of m e t r o p o l i t a n o f f i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( A l e x a n d e r 1 9 7 9 , 38-39).  The  Inner A r e a has recently h a d a d e c l i n i n g share of e m p l o y m e n t , office d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l s , retail t u r n o v e r a n d f l o o r s p a c e versus t h e s u b u r b a n share (MPE 1 9 8 7 , 1315).  C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 2 , 4) r e p o r t s a 9.1 p e r c e n t d e c l i n e i n C B D e m p l o y m e n t  between  1972 and 1977. D e s p i t e t h e s e r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e s , h o w e v e r , t h e C B D r e m a i n s u n c h a l l e n g e d as t h e p r e - e m i n e n t o f f i c e d i s t r i c t in t h e r e g i o n , p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f C B D d e v e l o p m e n t b o o m s in t h e early 1 9 7 0 s a n d late 1 9 8 0 s ( S a n d e r c o c k O ' C o n n o r , et al. 1 9 9 0 , 18).  office  1 9 8 3 , 6 0 ; K.  Even t h o u g h t h e Inner A r e a share of office f l o o r s p a c e  fell 1 0 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n 1 9 8 0 a n d 1 9 8 9 , t h e a r e a still h o l d s o v e r 83 p e r c e n t of m e t r o p o l i t a n office stock ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 58).  3.2  POLICY  DEVELOPMENT  S e v e r a l issues l e d t o t h e a d o p t i o n of m u l t i p l e s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y in Melbourne. Australia:  C o n d i t i o n s in t h e 1970s w e r e t y p i c a l of t h o s e in t h e w h o l e of u r b a n  a high degree of s o c i o e c o n o m i c segregation b e t w e e n suburbs; variations  in basic facilities a n d s e r v i c e s a m o n g s u b u r b s ; lack of m a t c h b e t w e e n local skills  76  a n d a v a i l a b l e j o b s (e.g., b l u e - c o l l a r skills in a n o f f i c e area); l o w d e n s i t y s u b u r b a n sprawl with i n a d e q u a t e infrastructure a n d p u b l i c transit p r o v i s i o n ; a n d high l a n d c o s t s d u e t o l o w d e n s i t y d e m a n d a n d s p e c u l a t i o n ( M . I. L o g a n , e t a l . 1 9 7 7 , 1 0 5 ; N e u t z e 1978, 172-185). F o r t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a as a w h o l e , e x t r e m e l y r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h was e x p e c t e d in t h e 1970s b u t d i d n o t o c c u r ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 83), l e s s e n i n g t h e pressure o n o u t w a r d e x p a n s i o n of the city.  This e x p e c t a t i o n , h o w e v e r , r e s u l t e d in  the o v e r - e s t i m a t i o n of t h e a m o u n t of z o n e d residential l a n d r e q u i r e d f o r n e w population growth.  L o w d e n s i t y s p r a w l o c c u r r e d , w i t h its i n c u m b e n t s e r v i c i n g  problems.  Public sector investment [...] was hard pressed to keep up with the pace of development, particularly at the urban fringe where subdivision was occurring well in advance of demand. As late as 1971, only 76 per cent of all dwellings were connected to sewerage mains in Melbourne. ( M a h e r 1988, 164) M u l t i c e n t r e d regional p o l i c y has b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a p o t e n t i a l u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t i n s t r u m e n t as e a r l y as 1 9 5 4 , w h e n five d i s t r i c t b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s w e r e c h o s e n to d r a w retail activity f r o m t h e C B D t o w a r d t h e f a s t - g r o w i n g s u b u r b s ( M M B W 1954, 5 3 ; H o f m e i s t e r 1988, 97, 207).  This early p o l i c y was similar in intent  t o t h e R T C p o l i c y in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , in that e a c h s o u g h t t o r e d i s t r i b u t e t h e costs a n d b e n e f i t s of g r o w t h t h r o u g h o u t t h e m e t r o p o l i s . T h e b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s p o l i c y w a s m e a n t t o r e l i e v e t h e C B D f r o m t h e p r e s s u r e of c o n t a i n i n g all o r m o s t of the region's c o m m e r c i a l activity, a n d to p r o v i d e easier access to c o m m e r c i a l s e r v i c e s ( a n d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h ) f o r t h e l o w - d e n s i t y s u b u r b s (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 a , 1 7 7 ) . The district business centres d i d not d e v e l o p .  Governments were unwilling  t o p l a c e p u b l i c s e c t o r d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e c e n t r e s a n d w e r e a l s o u n w i l l i n g t o r e g u l a t e private s e c t o r l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s in s u p p o r t of t h e c e n t r e s  (Sandercock  1977, 149-150). M o s t m e t r o p o l i t a n p o l i c i e s c o n t i n u e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l levels of s u p p o r t f o r t h e C B D ( A l e x a n d e r 1 9 7 9 , 95).  77  M o s t importantly, the State g o v e r n m e n t  did not even attempt to fully i m p l e m e n t the plan until 1968 (Maher 1988, 173), by which time regional conditions had changed.  In t h e a b s e n c e o f d i s t r i c t c e n t r e s ,  free-standing s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s e m e r g e d t o serve t h e s u b u r b a n areas. Various m e t h o d s w e r e p r o p o s e d t h r o u g h o u t the 1960s a n d 1970s for d e a l i n g with s u b u r b a n sprawl a n d with an e x p e c t e d c o n t i n u a n c e of rapid p o p u l a t i o n growth.  T h e State G o v e r n m e n t p r o p o s e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of satellite cities  o u t s i d e the d e v e l o p e d area of M e l b o u r n e ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 166-167; N e u t z e 1978, 175). T h e 1969 M e l b o u r n e T r a n s p o r t Plan r e c o m m e n d e d e x p e n d i t u r e s of a l m o s t t h r e e billion Australian dollars o n a radial f r e e w a y n e t w o r k and road  improvements  t h r o u g h o u t the r e g i o n ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 77-78; T h o m p s o n 1978, 137).  Plans a n d studies  throughout the 1960s concentrated attention o n adapting to outward  growth  t h r o u g h the use of satellite cities a n d s u b u r b a n g r o w t h corridors ( N e u t z e 1978, 1 7 7 ; S a n d e r c o c k 1 9 7 7 , 1 5 1 ; T. L o g a n 1 9 8 4 , 1 0 4 8 ) .  T h e 1967-1971 P l a n n i n g Policies  for the M e l b o u r n e M e t r o p o l i t a n Region, p r e p a r e d by the M M B W , identified eight c o r r i d o r s of o u t w a r d u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t , e a c h t o b e a n c h o r e d b y an external s u b u r b a n c e n t r e ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 159-164; T h o m p s o n 1978, 137). All of these policies w e r e b a s e d o n an e x p e c t a t i o n that rapid p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h w o u l d c o n t i n u e a l o n g t h e t r e n d e s t a b l i s h e d in t h e 1 9 6 0 s ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 77-78; T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 1 7 7 ; M P E 1 9 8 7 , 5) a n d n o n e w e r e f u l l y i m p l e m e n t e d .  The  Transport Plan w a s t o o e x p e n s i v e , the M M B W h a d l i m i t e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p o w e r s , and the p o p u l a t i o n projection was an overestimate of the eventual g r o w t h (Beed 1981, 77-78; M a h e r 1 9 8 8 , 173-174). The s u b s e q u e n t expectation of r e d u c e d p o p u l a t i o n growth  pressure  e n g e n d e r e d a n e w s e t o f p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e s (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 4 , 1 0 4 7 - 1 0 4 9 ; 1 9 8 6 a , 177)  A t t e n t i o n b e g a n to b e paid to the actual structure of the m e t r o p o l i s a n d the  c h a n g e s t h a t w e r e o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n it ( e . g . , t h e d e c l i n e o f t r a d i t i o n a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g in the central a n d n o r t h e a s t e r n s e c t i o n s of t h e city a n d the e c o n o m i c g r o w t h of  78  the southeast).  C e n t r a l t o t h e d e b a t e w a s t h e c o n c e p t o f u r b a n c o n s o l i d a t i o n -- a n  i n c r e a s e d i n t e n s i t y of l a n d use in e x i s t i n g u r b a n areas of M e l b o u r n e ( C a r t e r 1 9 8 2 , 2; B u n k e r 1 9 8 3 , 2 6 - 2 9 ) .  D i s c u s s i o n of u r b a n c o n s o l i d a t i o n led to r e n e w e d  interest  in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s , w h i c h w a s p u t f o r w a r d as a w a y of targeting social, e c o n o m i c , land use, and transportation i m p r o v e m e n t s to specific areas of t h e m e t r o p o l i s ( C a r t e r 1 9 8 2 , 2; S a n d e r c o c k 1 9 8 3 , 5 5 ; B u n k e r 1 9 7 6 ; M o r i s o n and Richardson 1977).  The 1970s possibility of higher made up suburbs.  saw the MMBW attempt to guide debate toward the and implications of a more compact urban form consisting density residential areas, and more specific activity centres of a multitude of functions at various points throughout the ( M a h e r 1 9 8 8 , 176)  D i s t r i c t C e n t r e P o l i c y w a s o f f i c i a l l y r e v i v e d as p a r t o f t h e 1 9 8 0 M M B W M e t r o p o l i t a n Strategy.  This p o l i c y statement d e c l a r e d that the M e l b o u r n e  CBD  w o u l d c o n t i n u e as t h e p r e d o m i n a n t c e n t r e in t h e r e g i o n , b u t r e c o g n i z e d t h e p r i n c i p l e of u r b a n c o n s o l i d a t i o n in t h e s u b u r b s a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s that w o u l d a c c r u e if s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d b e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a f e w  selected  c e n t r e s ( O D A C 1 9 8 6 , 2; M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 1 4 - 1 5 ) . T h e s e b e n e f i t s w e r e t a k e n t o b e : - better access to jobs and services for suburban residents, resulting in r e d u c e d n e e d for d i s p e r s e d r e g i o n a l travel; - m o r e efficient use of existing transportation infrastructure by m a k i n g m u l t i p u r p o s e local trips possible via p u b l i c transit; - m o r e e f f i c i e n t p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s a n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e (as o p p o s e d t o the n e e d s of m o r e s p r a w l i n g d e v e l o p m e n t ) ; - c o n c e n t r a t i o n of local trade a n d s u b u r b a n j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; a n d , - the p r o v i s i o n of a potential social focus for s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 15). U p p e r a n d lower limits w e r e r e c o g n i z e d o n the eventual n u m b e r of District Centres (DCs).  T h e s e l e c t i o n of t o o m a n y c e n t r e s m i g h t h a v e d i l u t e d t h e effect of  the policy and might not have presented the d e v e l o p m e n t industry with clear investment priorities. T o o f e w centres might have represented a threat to the p r i m a c y o f t h e C B D ( M M B W 1 9 8 2 , 1; T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 4 ) .  U p to twenty centres,  and not many fewer, was considered the appropriate range.  79  T h e criteria f o r D C s e l e c t i o n i n c l u d e d t h e p r e s e n t size a n d f u n c t i o n of t h e c e n t r e , its a c c e s s i b i l i t y b y b o t h p r i v a t e a n d p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t , its i n f r a s t r u c t u r e capacity, a n d the available range of cultural a n d c o m m e r c i a l facilities ( M M B W 1982, 1; T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 4 ) .  There were two key considerations.  First, p u b l i c  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k a g e s w e r e t a k e n t o b e of p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e ( M a h e r 1988, 176).  S e c o n d , a l t h o u g h e a c h c e n t r e w a s t o b e j u d g e d o n t h e b a s i s o f its e x i s t i n g  r e g i o n a l r e t a i l i n g f u n c t i o n , it w a s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e e v e n t u a l D C f u n c t i o n w o u l d b e t o p r o v i d e a b r o a d r a n g e of r e t a i l , c o m m e r c i a l , c o m m u n i t y , a n d  entertainment  o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( M M B W 1 9 8 2 , 4; M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 15). M e l b o u r n e ' s 35 largest s h o p p i n g centres (and s u r r o u n d i n g areas) w e r e a s s e s s e d b a s e d o n t h e s e c r i t e r i a (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 4 ) .  In 1 9 8 1 , as p a r t o f t h e  M M B W M e t r o p o l i t a n Strategy I m p l e m e n t a t i o n d o c u m e n t , t h e d e s i g n a t i o n of f o u r t e e n District C e n t r e s a n d six p o t e n t i a l District C e n t r e s was a n n o u n c e d 1 9 8 2 , 6; s e e M a p 4, p. 1 6 5 .  (MMBW  F o r a l i s t o f D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s , s e e A p p e n d i x 2, p. 1 6 0 ) .  N o t a l l p o t e n t i a l D C s w e r e s e l e c t e d ( M M B W 1 9 8 2 , 5-6).  Some were  c o n s i d e r e d t o b e s u f f i c i e n t l y far o u t in t h e s u b u r b a n f r i n g e that t h e i r s e l e c t i o n w o u l d e n c o u r a g e sprawl rather than c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  Others w e r e so close to the  C B D a n d the inner D C s that their trade areas o v e r l a p p e d a n d might dilute the effect of t h e o t h e r s e l e c t i o n s .  D e s p i t e these restrictions, every major subarea of  t h e m e t r o p o l i s c o n t a i n e d at l e a s t o n e D C ( s e e M a p 4, p. 1 6 5 ) . T h e original D C s varied w i d e l y in character.  S o m e w e r e already well-  d e v e l o p e d , d i v e r s i f i e d c e n t r e s ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 162), w h i l e o t h e r s w e r e little m o r e t h a n s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s at c r o s s r o a d s ( C a r t e r 1 9 8 2 , 2 ) .  All D C s were located around  e x i s t i n g c o m m u t e r rail s t a t i o n s ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 156). In 1 9 8 2 , t h e L i b e r a l G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h h a d h e l d p o w e r i n t h e S t a t e f o r decades was replaced by a n e w Labor G o v e r n m e n t .  The D C policy was  and approved by the newly-formed Ministry for Planning and  80  reviewed  Environment  (MPE).' ' 4  5  T h e o n l y m a j o r c h a n g e m a d e t o t h e p o l i c y w a s that t h e six p o t e n t i a l D C s  w e r e r e m o v e d b e c a u s e it w a s f e l t t h a t n e w , o u t e r - a r e a D C s w o u l d p r o m o t e f r i n g e e x p a n s i o n (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 5 ) .  Implementation measures for the district centres  w o u l d i n c l u d e a m o d e s t a m o u n t of direct s p e n d i n g , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e p l a n s in a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l o c a l c o u n c i l s , a n d s t a t u t o r y c o n t r o l s o n d e v e l o p m e n t . The most important statutory provision was the creation of a n e w District Centre Z o n e f o r a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e f o u r t e e n D C s a n d t h e u s e of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n p o l i c y t o support them. W i t h i n t h e D C z o n e , office d e v e l o p m e n t s of u p to 4 000 s q . m. (43,000 s q . ft.) w e r e p e r m i t t e d o u t r i g h t , s u b j e c t o n l y t o s i t e p l a n a p p r o v a l s .  O u t s i d e of this  z o n e a n d parts of Central M e l b o u r n e , office b u i l d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t size was limited t o 2 5 0 0 s q . m . ( 2 7 , 0 0 0 s q . ft.) ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 1 6 ) .  In i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , f r e e s t a n d i n g  o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t s w e r e e v e n m o r e d r a s t i c a l l y l i m i t e d ( O D A C 1 9 8 6 , 3; M P E  and  M M B W 1984). In r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r e s t r i c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e o f f i c e l o c a t i o n p o l i c y , t h e  MPE  established the Office D e v e l o p m e n t Advisory C o m m i t t e e ( O D A C ) to present d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y c o n c e r n s d i r e c t l y t o t h e M i n i s t e r ( O D A C 1 9 8 6 , 1).  ODAC  w a s s u c c e s s f u l at p r o m o t i n g a m o r e f l e x i b l e a p p r o a c h t o o f f i c e l o c a t i o n p o l i c y . Following O D A C ' s recommendation, two n e w zones were created.  The "Office A "  Z o n e a l l o w e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of small to m e d i u m office projects in the C e n t r a l M e l b o u r n e h i n t e r l a n d . T h e " O f f i c e B" Z o n e a l l o w e d o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o b u t n o t w i t h i n t h e D C Z o n e a r e a s ( O D A C 1 9 8 6 , 4). T h e i n c r e a s e d flexibility of t h e p o l i c y was further s h o w n in the creation of t h e C o m p r e h e n s i v e D e v e l o p m e n t Z o n e in 1 9 8 3 . A c c o r d i n g t o K i l m a r t i n (1986, 8), this z o n e was an ill-defined c o n c e p t d e s i g n e d to give the State g o v e r n m e n t m a x i m u m discretion w h e n e x a m i n i n g very large d e v e l o p m e n t proposals. The  most  n o t a b l e u s e of this z o n e w a s in t h e r e z o n i n g of a site for t h e r e l o c a t i o n of a m a j o r  81  c o r p o r a t e h e a d q u a r t e r s f r o m t h e C B D t o a n o n - D C site in t h e Inner Eastern area of t h e r e g i o n -- a r e z o n i n g w h i c h w a s c o u n t e r t o b o t h t h e D C p o l i c y a n d t h e o f f i c e location policy (Kilmartin 1986; King 1991). W h e n t h e L a b o r g o v e r n m e n t i s s u e d its n e w c o m p r e h e n s i v e m e t r o p o l i t a n s t r a t e g y , Shaping  Melbourne's  Future,  in 1987, District C e n t r e s h a d b e c o m e part of  a w i d e r l o c a t i o n p o l i c y c a l l e d Metropolitan  Melbourne's  Future  Activity  Centres  (MPE  1989).  Shaping  was a regional strategy i n t e n d e d to redistribute the benefits of  growth t h r o u g h o u t the region, to control sprawl, to a c c o m m o d a t e ongoing e c o n o m i c r e s t r u c t u r i n g , a n d to a l l o w the g o v e r n m e n t to play a m o r e active role in f a c i l i t a t i n g c h a n g e t h a n s i m p l y r e g u l a t i n g it. L i k e t h e Livable  Future  Region  Strategy  i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , Shaping  Melbourne's  h a d a set of m u t u a l l y r e i n f o r c i n g goals, o n l y o n e of w h i c h was d i r e c t e d  specifically t o t h e c r e a t i o n of m u l t i p l e s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s .  G o a l s of c o n s o l i d a t i o n of  future g r o w t h within established urban areas and g r o w t h corridors, i m p r o v e d infrastructure for m o d e r n industries, i m p r o v e d access to services,  encouragement  of e m p l o y m e n t in d e c l i n i n g areas (the n o r t h e r n a n d w e s t e r n s u b u r b s particularly) w o u l d all b e s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e p o l i c y f o r a c h i e v i n g a b a l a n c e d p a t t e r n of a c t i v i t y centres (MPE  1 9 8 7 , 1).  U n d e r t h e n e w s t r a t e g y , t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e m o d i f i e d D C p o l i c y w e r e as follows:  to reinforce the existing pattern of activity centres (not o n l y the D C s ) ; to  s t r e n g t h e n t h e r o l e o f C e n t r a l M e l b o u r n e as t h e p r i m e m e t r o p o l i t a n f o c u s ; t o concentrate major d e v e l o p m e n t s within D C s ; to differentiate b e t w e e n the locations a n d t y p e s of D C s a n d t o e n c o u r a g e i n d i v i d u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s ; a n d t o i n t r o d u c e centres for high technology industries or other innovative uses.  new  The policy also  a d d r e s s e d the f u n d a m e n t a l social objectives of m i n i m i z i n g a u t o m o b i l e use, p r o m o t i n g p u b l i c transit use, a n d m a i n t a i n i n g access to c o m m u n i t y benefits for t h o s e w i t h o u t v e h i c l e s ( M P E 1 9 8 9 , 2).  82  D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s w e r e p l a c e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ( s e e M a p 5, p. 1 6 6 ) .  First,  t h r e e E s t a b l i s h e d I n n e r U r b a n D C s w e r e r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g n e a r l y at t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t capacity within the D C Z o n e boundaries, limiting their s c o p e for expansion and increasing pressure for redevelopment.  S e c o n d , six R e g i o n a l  DCs  varied in their p o t e n t i a l , b u t a t t e m p t s w o u l d be m a d e to contain strip o r s p r a w l i n g d e v e l o p m e n t in all six.  Finally, six O u t e r Strategic D C s ^ 4 w e r e to b e actively  p r o m o t e d as t h e b e s t l o c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r h i g h e r rates of d e v e l o p m e n t , d u e t o their p r o x i m i t y to p r o p o s e d ring a n d radial road routes t h r o u g h o u t the m e t r o p o l i s . M i x e d use developments, m e d i u m density developments, and road and public t r a n s i t a c c e s s w e r e i m p o r t a n t p r i o r i t i e s i n all t h r e e v a r i a t i o n s . ( M P E  1987, 38; 1989,  4-6; M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 1 9 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o D C s , t h e A c t i v i t y C e n t r e s p o l i c y i n t e n d e d t o p r o m o t e other spatial c o n c e n t r a t i o n s within the m e t r o p o l i s .  Six r e s e a r c h a n d  many  development  areas, c a l l e d T e c h n o l o g y P r e c i n c t s a n d all a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c a d e m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s in the region, w e r e to be s u p p l i e d with infrastructure appropriate to high t e c h n o l o g y industrial d e v e l o p m e n t (MPE  1989, 20).  Further, the policy r e c o g n i z e d and was intended to reinforce an existing c o m m e r c i a l h i e r a r c h y of a l m o s t 50 o t h e r activity c e n t r e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n . These other areas w e r e freestanding s h o p p i n g malls, strip d e v e l o p m e n t s , a n d regional s h o p p i n g centres (MPE  1 9 8 7 , 3 7 ; 1 9 8 9 , 4-8).  Later, a d d i t i o n a l c e n t r e s  w o u l d b e a d d e d , b r i n g i n g t h e n u m b e r of D C s t o s e v e n t e e n (see f o o t n o t e 34). W h i l e t h e r o l e of D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s w a s r e a f f i r m e d in t h e p o l i c y , t h e  centres  had b e c o m e merely the " p r e f e r r e d " location for office d e v e l o p m e n t . S u b s e q u e n t l y , o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t s w o u l d a l s o b e c o n s i d e r e d if t h e y w e r e w i t h i n the u n d e f i n e d " f u n c t i o n a l a r e a " of any of 63 r e c o g n i z e d activity centres. physical limits of the D C Z o n e s w e r e n o longer necessarily restrictive. s u b s i d i a r y c e n t r e s w e r e t o b e d e s i g n a t e d as " s p i l l o v e r a r e a s " t o  83  The  Nearby  accommodate  developments than might be deflected by t h e "full u p " D C zones (MPE 1987, 20). Even c o m p l e t e l y isolated office d e v e l o p m e n t s w o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d , based o n a n u m b e r of c o n d i t i o n s .  F o r e x a m p l e , p r o j e c t s c o u l d b e p e r m i t t e d if t h e y c o n t a i n e d  a mixture of uses, or d e m o n s t r a t e d a high quality of design, or c o n f o r m e d to e x i s t i n g local d e v e l o p m e n t patterns ( M P E 1 9 8 9 , 1 6 ; S p o s i t o 1990, 4; M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 20).  3.3  POLICY  EVALUATION  District Centres policy has b e e n criticized o n a n u m b e r of g r o u n d s .  Studies  of office l o c a t i o n patterns a n d a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c y i n d i c a t e that D C s have not fulfilled t h e goals set o u t for t h e m . attributed to three main sources.  This lack of s u c c e s s has b e e n  F i r s t , it h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t D C s w e r e t h e  w r o n g policy instrument t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e stated goals.  S e c o n d , it is a r g u e d t h a t  t h e f r a m e r s o f t h e p o l i c y d e m o n s t r a t e d a lack o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e office a n d retail d e v e l o p m e n t m a r k e t s .  Finally, g o v e r n m e n t a m b i v a l e n c e t o w a r d t h e p o l i c y  has b e e n s e e n t o b e t h e k e y t o p o l i c y failure. T h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n e x a m i n e s D C policy in these critical contexts.  4.3.1  T h e S u c c e s s of District C e n t r e s District C e n t r e s h a v e failed t o attract sufficient d e v e l o p m e n t  significant mixed-use areas in t h e s u b u r b s .  to become  I n d e e d , b y s o m e m e a s u r e s t h e D C s as  a g r o u p have d e c l i n e d in regional significance since t h e outset of t h e policy. T h e share of s u b u r b a n retail s t o c k w i t h i n D C Z o n e s fell f r o m 4 7 . 9 p e r c e n t t o 39.3 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n 1 9 8 0 a n d 1 9 9 0 ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 3 7 ) . In t h e s a m e p e r i o d , t h e D C share o f s u b u r b a n office stock fell f r o m 55.5 p e r c e n t t o 45.2 p e r c e n t ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 69).  T h e scale of these n u m b e r s indicates that t h e selected D C s h a d a significant  84  p r e s e n c e in t h e s u b u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s , b u t that this p r e s e n c e h a d n o t been augmented through D C policy. Further, w h a t e v e r success the D C s have e n j o y e d has b e e n f o c u s s e d almost entirely in the eastern a n d s o u t h e a s t e r n regions.  Studies of the regional office  m a r k e t in t h e 1 9 8 0 s i n d i c a t e d that t h e n o r t h e r n a n d w e s t e r n s u b u r b s h a d  been  b y p a s s e d b y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y , w h i l e at t h e s a m e t i m e a n o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t b o o m was b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d in C e n t r a l M e l b o u r n e a n d a l o n g a n a r r o w e a s t e r n s u b u r b a n c o r r i d o r ( J o n e s L a n g 1 9 8 7 , 2; F o t h e r g i l l 1 9 8 7 , 2 8 , 3 7 ; M o o d i e 1991, 163).  E v e n s o , F o t h e r g i l l n o t e s in 1 9 8 7 that o n l y o n e of t h e  eastern  a r e a D C s , B o x H i l l , h a d g r o w n s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a n o f f i c e c e n t r e ( F o t h e r g i l l 1 9 8 7 , 31). In 1 9 9 1 , M o o d i e r e c o g n i z e s t h a t o n l y o n e c e n t r e , P r a h r a n , c o u l d b e c a l l e d a complete, functional D C .  The success of this centre, h o w e v e r , c a n n o t be ascribed  to the D C policy because Prahran was a large a n d diversified centre prior to d e s i g n a t i o n ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 1 6 2 ; s e e M a p 6, p. 1 6 7 ) . A n o t h e r D C , D a n d e n o n g , was seen to be g r o w i n g into a potential mini-CBD for the entire southeastern region of M e l b o u r n e .  Three other D C s were  r e c o g n i z e d as c o n t a i n i n g e i t h e r t h e o f f i c e ( B o x H i l l ) o r retail  (Footscray,^  F r a n k s t o n ) f u n c t i o n s o f a t r u e D i s t r i c t C e n t r e ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 1 6 2 - 1 6 3 ) . M o o d i e is again reluctant to apply credit to the D C policy.  It is readily evident that the successful centres to date are in the south and east sectors — and they may well have been successful centres without District Centre status given that these sectors are the focus of most development activity in Melbourne. ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 5) D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e D C s w e r e o r i g i n a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r s t r e n g t h as retail c e n t r e s , o n l y t w o , D a n d e n o n g a n d P r a h r a n , h e l d o v e r 92 900 s q . m. m i l l i o n s q . ft.) o f r e t a i l s p a c e i n 1 9 9 0 ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 4 4 ) . o f f i c e c e n t r e s w a s e v e n less p l a u s i b l e .  (one  T h e s t a t u s o f t h e D C s as  In 1 9 9 0 , n o D C c o n t a i n e d o v e r 9 2 9 0 0 s q .  85  m . ( o n e m i l l i o n s q . ft.) o f o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e , a n d o n l y B o x H i l l ' s 9 0 0 0 0 s q . m . c a m e close ( M o o d i e 1991, 72). Unfortunately, e v e n t h e relative success of B o x Hill m a y be q u e s t i o n a b l e u n d e r t h e exact terms of the D C policy.  B o x H i l l is t h e o n l y D C t o h a v e b e n e f i t e d  f r o m a special Office D e v e l o p m e n t Z o n e , adjacent t o b u t n o t within t h e B o x Hill D C Z o n e ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 5 4 ) . N o w h e r e is it s t a t e d t h a t t h e o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e w i t h i n t h i s u n i q u e z o n e is e x p l i c i t l y e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e t a b u l a t i o n o f o f f i c e f i g u r e s .  It m u s t  t h e r e f o r e b e a s s u m e d t h a t it is i n c l u d e d , t h u s s k e w i n g t h e f i g u r e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e other D C s . Regarding t h e w i d e r f u n c t i o n s e n v i s i o n e d for D C s , o n l y o n e (Prahran again) f u n c t i o n e d as a n e n t e r t a i n m e n t c e n t r e .  N o n e o f t h e D C s c o n t a i n e d a full range of  c o m m u n i t y service facilities ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 148-150). Finally, o n e of t h e k e y goals o f D C p o l i c y w a s t o p r o m o t e m o r e efficient travel in s u b u r b a n regions, particularly via t h e readily available p u b l i c transit linkages w i t h i n t h e D C s . D e s p i t e t h e stated i m p o r t a n c e of this goal, u p t o 1991 there h a d b e e n n o m o n i t o r i n g of p u b l i c transit usage t o a n d f r o m t h e D C s . Further, a c c o r d i n g to M o o d i e , there w e r e " f e w instances of major i m p r o v e m e n t s to t r a n s p o r t infrastructure u n d e r t a k e n in District C e n t r e s o v e r t h e past d e c a d e " ( M o o d i e 1991, 157).  4.3.2  O f f i c e L o c a t i o n Restrictions as a P o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t S e v e r a l a n a l y s t s assert t h a t t h e c h o i c e of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s as t h e  key statutory device was i m p r u d e n t .  Statutory controls of this type have b e e n  v i e w e d i n A u s t r a l i a a s w e a k i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e v i c e s b e c a u s e t h e i r f u n c t i o n is negative: t h e y c a n refuse, b u t n o t p r o m o t e d e v e l o p m e n t ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 169).  Only  in p e r i o d s of s t r o n g e c o n o m i c g r o w t h c a n t h e y b e u s e d t o a t t e m p t t o d i r e c t d e v e l o p m e n t (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 1 3 ) . E v e n t h e n , a s is s h o w n b y t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k o f  86  success in d r a w i n g office d e v e l o p m e n t t o t h e n o r t h e r n a n d w e s t e r n d u r i n g t h e 1980s b o o m s , ^ 6 n e g a t i v e p o l i c y c a n h a v e little e f f e c t o n p r i v a t e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s w h e n m a n y o t h e r c h o i c e s exist w i t h i n a v e r y large u r b a n i z e d r e g i o n (Jones L a n g 1 9 8 7 , 2). T. L o g a n c h a r g e s t h a t t h e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s w a s f l a w e d b y a n insufficient e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e ability of D C p o l i c y t o fulfil t h e stated goals a n d a lack of e x a m i n a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s w h i c h m i g h t p r o v i d e a n o t h e r m e a n s o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e m (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 1 2 ) . In s u p p o r t o f t h i s a l l e g a t i o n , T . L o g a n c o n t e n d s that t h e potential benefits w h i c h w o u l d accrue f r o m t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s h a v e b e e n o v e r e s t i m a t e d (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 8-9). A d d i t i o n a l l y , o n e of t h e k e y aims of D C p o l i c y w a s t o a l l o w a n alteration of the s u b u r b a n travel patterns t o favour p u b l i c transit instead of t h e a u t o m o b i l e .  T.  Logan asserts that t h e potential f o r s u c h c h a n g e in travel patterns w a s e x a g g e r a t e d (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 7; C a r t e r 1 9 8 2 , 4 ) . S i n c e a r a d i a l p u b l i c t r a n s i t n e t w o r k c a n c o n v e n i e n t l y serve only c o r r i d o r s , m o s t of t h e d i s p e r s e d h o u s e h o l d s in t h e s u r r o u n d i n g hinterlands will have limited access t o efficient service, especially for multi-purpose trips.  Further, t h e existence of a large n u m b e r of two-earner  h o u s e h o l d s a n d t h e c o n t i n u i n g increases in s u b u r b - t o - s u b u r b travel limit t h e potential f o r p u b l i c transit usage.  If c e n t r e s w e r e i n d e e d s u c c e s s f u l a t d r a w i n g  significant retail a n d office d e v e l o p m e n t , a u t o m o b i l e u s e c o u l d actually increase, causing serious congestion problems within suburban centres.  Such congestion  p r o b l e m s in t h e m o r e s u c c e s s f u l D C s are n o t e d e l s e w h e r e ( O D A C 1 9 8 6 , 4; Fothergill 1987, 3 6 ) .  3 7  4.3.3 T h e M a r k e t Potential of District C e n t r e s A f r e q u e n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e D i s t r i c t C e n t r e l i t e r a t u r e is t h a t t h e p o l i c y reflects a f u n d a m e n t a l lack of u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d b e h a v i o u r of  87  b o t h t h e o f f i c e a n d retail d e v e l o p m e n t m a r k e t s .  A f u n d a m e n t a l c o n f l i c t is  r e c o g n i z e d b e t w e e n t h e n e e d s of m o d e r n retail c o n c e r n s a n d t h e p o l i c y r e q u i r e m e n t s of D C s .  T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of stand-alone s h o p p i n g malls a n d one-  stop, high v o l u m e stores that m a x i m i z e access b y a u t o m o b i l e "is generally n o t c o n d u c i v e t o district c e n t r e l o c a t i o n . " T h e k e y r e q u i r e m e n t s for s u c h retail establishments are c h e a p land a n d effective a u t o m o b i l e access, not e x p e n s i v e s t r e e t - l e v e l s i t e s a n d e a s y a c c e s s t o p u b l i c t r a n s i t ( C a r t e r 1 9 8 2 , 4).  Further, large  retail d e v e l o p m e n t players w e r e a l r e a d y r e p r e s e n t e d in D C s ( w h i c h w e r e s e l e c t e d b a s e d o n their retail f u n c t i o n ) , a n d w e r e u n l i k e l y to substantially increase t h e i r profiles.  DC  T h e e x i s t i n g retail h i e r a r c h y t h e r e f o r e f a v o u r e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i s o l a t e d  s i t e s w h i c h h a d n o t y e t b e e n s e r v e d b y o n e o f t h e m a j o r p l a y e r s (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 6).  Because the assumption underlying the design and location of these facilities is that the potential users can reach them only by private motor vehicle, the typical size of new facilities and the distance between them can be great. Given the low density nature of suburban settlement, facilities often have to be large to attract a sufficient market to ensure their viability. In retailing, for example, new shopping centres have to depend on an extensive market area to generate a threshold level of sales. Since access to suburban facilities depends on private transport, there is little compulsion for facilities to cluster together, at least from the point of view of the providers of the facilities. ( B e e d 1 9 8 1 , 26) Similar p r o b l e m s e x i s t e d w i t h r e g a r d to t h e office f u n c t i o n of t h e D C s .  The  r e q u i r e m e n t s of m o d e r n o f f i c e u s e r s are c o m p l e x , a n d n o t all of t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n be s u p p l i e d b y sites w i t h i n D C s .  Office location factors can  i n c l u d e access t o face-to-face b u s i n e s s c o n t a c t s , access t o s p e c i a l i z e d financial a n d legal services, prestige a n d tradition, c o r p o r a t e inertia, staffing considerations, residential p r e f e r e n c e s of m a n a g e r s , a n d the price a n d availability of speculative o f f i c e s p a c e (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 6 ) .  S u b u r b a n office d e v e l o p e r s are m o s t c o n c e r n e d  w i t h serving t h e n e e d s of tenants a n d w i t h r e d u c e d costs.  S u b u r b a n office users  are m o s t c o n c e r n e d with regional accessibility, especially to markets, and the  88  availability of plentiful a u t o m o b i l e p a r k i n g . l o c a t i o n s (Fothergill 1 9 8 7 , 32).  backward  Both of the factors mitigate against  " A s s u b u r b a n o f f i c e s h a v e f e w forward  DC  and  linkages to their i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t , the physical proximity to other  s e r v i c e f i r m s l o c a t e d in District C e n t r e s offers o n l y l i m i t e d a d v a n t a g e s t o s u b u r b a n t e n a n t s " ( E d g i n g t o n 1 9 8 8 , 11).  M a n y of the preferences of the s u b u r b a n office  users c a n b e satisfied w i t h i n f r e e - s t a n d i n g office p a r k s (Fothergill 1 9 8 7 , 32). Further, there are c o n s i d e r a b l e costs associated with D C area  development  d u e to site c o n s t r a i n t s a n d c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r l a n d uses, particularly retail ( F o t h e r g i l l 1 9 8 7 , 1, 3 2 ) .  T h e r e is a l a c k o f l a r g e r e d e v e l o p m e n t s i t e s , a n d s i t e  a s s e m b l y i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y d e n s e D C s is d i f f i c u l t ( O D A C 1 9 8 6 , 6; M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 5 4 ; King 1 9 9 1 , 25).  This c a n p r e s e n t p r o b l e m s e v e n w h e n firms are g o o d c a n d i d a t e s  for D C locations.  Larger offices, having high ratios of junior to senior employees, benefit from access to public transport and so are better suited to District Centre locations. For these larger developments, the main constraints have been difficulties in finding suitable vacant sites within District Centre zones. This problem is compounded by the inability of offices to compete (in terms of their realised capital value) with existing District Centre uses, especially in the retailing core. ( F o t h e r g i l l 1 9 8 7 , 32) D a n i e l s (1986, 35) c o n s i d e r e d that t h e D C p o l i c y r e p r e s e n t e d  excessive  o p t i m i s m a b o u t t h e p o t e n t i a l v o l u m e of o f f i c e e n t e r p r i s e s that w o u l d b e to or c o u l d g r o w w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of D C s .  attracted  The Office Development Advisory  C o m m i t t e e c o n s i d e r e d "that t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e District C e n t r e Z o n e s d o n o t always c o i n c i d e w i t h f u n c t i o n a l activity in a n d a r o u n d the c e n t r e s  and  c o n s e q u e n t l y , o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t is u n d u l y r e s t r i c t e d " ( O D A C 1 9 8 6 , 5 ) .  In  a d d i t i o n to t h e lack of sites, t h e a u t o m o b i l e - r e l a t e d c o n g e s t i o n , a n d t h e lack of a d e q u a t e suburban-scale p a r k i n g , s o m e m e m b e r s of the C o m m i t t e e asserted that " t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t all s u b u r b a n o f f i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s of s u b s t a n c e c a n  be  s a t i s f i e d w i t h i n D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s is p a t e n t l y e r r o n e o u s " ( O D A C 1 9 8 6 , A p p e n d i x A ) .  89  As m e n t i o n e d previously, the C o m m i t t e e argued successfully for greater locational flexibility regarding the D C policy. In a r e p o r t o n t h e B o x H i l l D C , U S E C o n s u l t a n t s ( c i t e d i n M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 1 8 ) c o n t e n d e d that D C policy was t o o general to address t h e d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l a n d u s e s w i t h i n e a c h D C (i.e., r e t a i l , o f f i c e , institutional, recreational).  It w a s a r g u e d t h a t s e p a r a t e r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s f o r e a c h  s e c t o r s h o u l d h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d first, t h e n a p p l i e d t o t h e D C s o n l y after a m u c h m o r e careful e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of s u c h an spatial amalgamation.  Carter offers s u p p o r t t o this c o n t e n t i o n .  [T]here is no relation of the physical plan to an understanding of the locational influences affecting the sorts of land uses the plan intends to promote in the district centres - all 14 district centres are to have 'a little bit of everything'. Nor is there any comment on the social or economic affects (apart from accessibility) of a successful programme of attracting growth to district centres. ( C a r t e r 1 9 8 2 , 4)  4.3.4  State G o v e r n m e n t C o m m i t m e n t t o District C e n t r e s P o l i c y Several investigators e x a m i n e t h e s u p p o r t of t h e State g o v e r n m e n t f o r D C  p o l i c y a n d f i n d it t o h a v e b e e n i n c o n s i s t e n t . T h e f i r s t a n d m o s t o b v i o u s s o u r c e o f inconsistency has b e e n t h e State's c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t f o r C B D p r e - e m i n e n c e . Carter argues that s u p p o r t f o r t h e C B D a n d f o u r t e e n other centres d i l u t e d t h e p o t e n t i a l o f p u b l i c s e c t o r a c t i o n o n b o t h f r o n t s ( C a r t e r 1 9 8 2 , 6; F i n c h e r 1 9 8 8 ) . Logan notes the extensive C B D office use by the public sector, a n d a resistance to a l t e r t h i s u s e i n f a v o u r o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 1 0 ) . M o o d i e cites several factors w h i c h indicate a lack of p u b l i c sector interest in D C policy.  There was n o planned program of g o v e r n m e n t office decentralization,  s u c h as h a d o c c u r r e d in m e t r o p o l i t a n S y d n e y u n d e r a s i m i l a r s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p r o g r a m ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 5). I n d e e d , in t h e t e n years s i n c e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f D C policy, n o single policy d o c u m e n t of a n y k i n d h a d dealt solely with t h e centres.  90  D C p o l i c y h a d always b e e n an a d d - o n to w i d e r p o l i c y c o n c e r n s ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 22). A c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t is c i t e d ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 1 8 ) w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t n o m a j o r p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s h a d b e e n u n d e r t a k e n as a r e s u l t o f D C p o l i c y . M o o d i e also n o t e s t h e i n a d e q u a c y of staff r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o t h e D i s t r i c t Centre program.  O n l y o n e full t i m e officer was a s s i g n e d , s u p p l e m e n t e d b y o t h e r  staff s u b j e c t t o t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y t o b e c a l l e d f r o m o t h e r a s s i g n m e n t s ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 9). F i n a l l y , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t is s h o w n clearly in t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of D C p o l i c y i n c r e a s i n g l y f l e x i b l e t h r o u g h o u t its f i r s t t e n y e a r s .  became  A l t h o u g h the State g o v e r n m e n t  e n d o r s e d t h e c o n c e p t of D C s in e v e r y m a j o r e c o n o m i c a n d r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t strategy a n n o u n c e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 8 0 s ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 16-20), t h e r e w a s  no  i n d i c a t i o n of t h e level of i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d o n t h e c o n c e p t in c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r e l e m e n t s of t h e s e strategies, n o r w h i c h strategy e l e m e n t w o u l d take p r e c e d e n c e in t h e e v e n t of a c o n f l i c t . A s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t h e p o l i c y of s u p p o r t for t h e C B D a p p a r e n t l y t o o k precedence over D C development.  Similarly, w h e n e v e r  D C policy c a m e into  conflict with an e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t issue, e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t appeared to be m o r e h i g h l y valued by the g o v e r n m e n t than the issues of efficiency, a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a n d s o c i a l f o c u s w h i c h w e r e at t h e c o r e o f D C p o l i c y .  The  a t t e n t i v e n e s s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y p o s i t i o n is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h O D A C w a s a b l e t o a d d r e s s t h e i r c o n c e r n s d i r e c t l y t o t h e M i n i s t e r a n d t o s u c c e e d in p r o m o t i n g a f l e x i b l e o f f i c e l o c a t i o n .  "The impact of  District C e n t r e policy has b e e n l e s s e n e d b y the ability of d e v e l o p e r interests to b y p a s s t h e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m a n d w i e l d d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e at M i n i s t e r i a l l e v e l t o facilitate d e v e l o p m e n t s in o t h e r l o c a t i o n s " ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 194).  91  K i l m a r t i n (1986) d e s c r i b e s in d e t a i l t h e c a s e of t h e r e l o c a t i o n of t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s o f G . J. C o l e s L t d . , A u s t r a l i a ' s largest retail c h a i n , f r o m t h e C B D t o a n i s o l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s i t e at T o o r o n g a i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f H a w t h o r n .  The  c o m p a n y r e c o g n i z e d t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o its o w n o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e A m e r i c a n s t y l e o f s u b u r b a n c a m p u s h e a d q u a r t e r s , w i t h e a s y a u t o m o b i l e a c c e s s t o its d i s p e r s e d r e g i o n a l o u t l e t s a n d l a r g e a m o u n t s o f f r e e p a r k i n g f o r its c l i e n t s a n d ( K i l m a r t i n 1 9 8 6 , 7-8).  employees  T h o u g h C o l e s w o u l d c i t e C B D p a r k i n g c o n s t r a i n t s as t h e  m a j o r r e a s o n f o r t h e m o v e ( K i l m a r t i n 1 9 8 6 , 9), it is l i k e l y t h a t t h e p r e s t i g e a n d h i g h p r o f i l e of s u c h a s i t e (in t h e A u s t r a l i a n c o n t e x t ) w e r e a l s o c o r p o r a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h e fact that t h e r e l o c a t i o n w a s d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y to D C p o l i c y ( r e g a r d i n g t h e s u p p o r t of b o t h t h e c e n t r e s a n d t h e C B D ) , v e r y little o p p o s i t i o n w a s raised.  T h e m u n i c i p a l i t y of H a w t h o r n s u p p o r t e d t h e project b e c a u s e of t h e  p o t e n t i a l f o r l o c a l j o b c r e a t i o n a n d i n c r e a s e s in l o c a l tax r e v e n u e s ( K i l m a r t i n 1 9 8 6 , 8).  T h e State g o v e r n m e n t planners h a d initially a t t e m p t e d to p e r s u a d e C o l e s to  relocate w i t h i n t h e C B D (not to o n e of t h e D C s ) , b u t r e l e n t e d w h e n C o l e s r e m i n d e d the g o v e r n m e n t of the e c o n o m i c c o n t r i b u t i o n w h i c h the c o m p a n y t o t h e S t a t e i n e m p l o y m e n t a n d t a x r e v e n u e ( K i l m a r t i n 1 9 8 6 , 9).  made  The State  g o v e r n m e n t h a d to r e c k o n seriously w i t h t h e possibility that C o l e s c o u l d q u i t e easily r e l o c a t e to t h e c o m p e t i n g city of S y d n e y , in t h e State of N e w S o u t h ( K i l m a r t i n 1 9 8 6 , 12).  Wales  T h e p r o p o s e d s i t e w a s r e z o n e d as a C o m p r e h e n s i v e  D e v e l o p m e n t Z o n e , w h i c h a l l o w e d t h e S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t (in t h e p e r s o n o f t h e Minister for Planning a n d Environment) to place the project on the "fast-track" t h r o u g h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t p r o c e s s ( K i l m a r t i n 1 9 8 6 , 8, 1 1 ) . Kilmartin finds this r e z o n i n g to b e typical of general g o v e r n m e n t to corporate pressure.  responses  " T h e S t a t e h a s s h o w n o n n u m e r o u s o c c a s i o n s t h a t it is  willing to a c c o m m o d a t e private sector interests w h e n d e v e l o p m e n t and/or l o c a t i o n a l p r o p o s a l s d o n o t c o m p l y w i t h g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y " ( K i l m a r t i n 1 9 8 6 , 7).  92  K i n g (1991) r e a c h e s a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n in his s t u d y of a later r e z o n i n g p r o p o s e d for an a d d i t i o n a l m a j o r office a n d retail d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e T o o r o n g a site.  Large c o r p o r a t i o n s are s h o w n to b e able to c i r c u m v e n t g o v e r n m e n t location  p o l i c y , a g a i n p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h e t h r e a t o f c a p i t a l f l i g h t ( K i n g 1 9 9 1 , 5, 3 9 ) . F o l l o w i n g d e N e u f v i l l e a n d B a r t o n (1987), K i n g a r g u e s that t h e f l e x i b l e p o l i c y has b e e n a " c o m f o r t a b l e m y t h " w h i c h has p r e s e n t e d t h e a p p e a r a n c e of  government  control a n d guidance, while a l l o w i n g political a n d e c o n o m i c a c c o m m o d a t i o n s to b e m a d e in t h e interests of private c a p i t a l (King 1 9 9 1 , 11).  While projects are assessed on a "one-off" basis with little concern for the overall effect of development on the whole economy, and whole policy continues to be rationalized and its force downgraded in the application by both public and private planners, the interests of private capital will continue to dominate over rational approaches by elected Governments. ( K i n g 1 9 9 1 , 17) D e v e l o p m e n t h a s p r o c e e d e d at t h e T o o r o n g a s i t e d e s p i t e t h e l a c k o f g o o d p u b l i c transit access and any p r e v i o u s major c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t .  T h e later  d e s i g n a t i o n o f T o o r o n g a as a n a c t i v i t y c e n t r e s i m p l y r e c o g n i z e s t h e a c t u a l i t y o f t h e scale of d e v e l o p m e n t that has b e e n a l l o w e d , a n d l e g i t i m i z e s the a c c o m m o d a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e m a d e t o a l l o w s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t (King 1 9 9 1 , 12).  T h e initial  a c c o m m o d a t i o n m a d e for C o l e s Ltd. s h o w e d o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t interests that the g o v e r n m e n t w a s n o t g o i n g t o e n f o r c e its s t a t e d p o l i c y , l e a d i n g t o t h e l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r e s s u r e at T o o r o n g a a n d t o m a n y m o r e n e a r b y  development  a p p l i c a t i o n s at v a r i a n c e w i t h D C p o l i c y ( K i n g 1 9 9 1 , 2 6 - 2 9 ) . T. L o g a n ' s 1 9 8 6 c r i t i q u e o f D i s t r i c t C e n t r e p o l i c y p r o v i d e s a n e x c e l l e n t s u m m a r y of t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n .  She asserts that D C policy was t o o  s i m p l i s t i c t o a d d r e s s t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f m o d e r n u r b a n c o n d i t i o n s (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 2-13).  T h e p o l i c y d i d n o t reflect a g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e " s t r o n g e c o n o m i c  a n d s o c i a l f o r c e s t h a t w o u l d m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t its s u c c e s s . "  The locational  p r e f e r e n c e s of large firms w e r e not sufficiently c o n s i d e r e d , a n d t h e bargaining  93  p o w e r of t h o s e firms w a s s e r i o u s l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d .  The potential for major  c h a n g e s in t h e m o d e of travel f r o m a u t o m o b i l e t o p u b l i c transit w a s e x a g g e r a t e d . T h e p o t e n t i a l i n c r e a s e s in i n f r a s t r u c t u r e e f f i c i e n c y w e r e o v e r e s t i m a t e d .  Finally, t h e  resources constraints a n d conflicting priorities of the p u b l i c sector w e r e not sufficiently a c k n o w l e d g e d .  W h e r e Kilmartin a n d King i m p l y that D C policy  i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s w a s d e l i b e r a t e a n d d e s i g n e d t o a l l o w a c c o m m o d a t i o n , T. L o g a n is p e r h a p s less k i n d in i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e p o l i c y w a s s i m p l y p o o r l y c r a f t e d a n d inadequately researched.  4.4  CONCLUSION A s in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s h a v e n o t b e e n c r e a t e d in  Melbourne.  T h e e x p e r i e n c e of D C p o l i c y t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to  e x a m i n e a n d test t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s m a d e in t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r w i t h r e s p e c t to Regional T o w n C e n t r e s p o l i c y in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r .  To review, these  observations  c o n c e r n i n g R T C s w e r e (a) t h a t a w e l l - c o n c e i v e d p o l i c y w a s p o o r l y i m p l e m e n t e d , a n d t h a t t h e f a u l t l a y w i t h t h e s e n i o r l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t ; (b) t h a t t h e p o l i c y as actually i m p l e m e n t e d h a d v e r y little effect o n t h e p a t t e r n o r s c a l e of r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; a n d (c) t h a t it is l i k e l y t h a t s u c h a p o l i c y c o u l d o n l y b e s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d u n d e r a l i m i t e d set of historical c o n d i t i o n s , n o w past. First, as d e s c r i b e d in t h e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , District C e n t r e policy was not particularly well-conceived.  W h e r e RTC policy  reflected a solid u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the high level of intervention r e q u i r e d to create a s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n , D C policy relied almost entirely o n a negative statutory i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h restricted office s p a c e l o c a t i o n . T h e p o l i c y in V a n c o u v e r was i m p l e m e n t e d b e c a u s e of a lack of s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t interest.  In M e l b o u r n e , t h e  State g o v e r n m e n t p r o c l a i m e d several times that D C p o l i c y was an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t in w i d e r e c o n o m i c a n d regional strategies, b u t in t h e actual  94  not  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y , t h e State d e m o n s t r a t e d that m a n y o t h e r e l e m e n t s in t h o s e strategies w e r e m o r e h i g h l y v a l u e d t h a n t h e c r e a t i o n of D C s . T h e e x a m p l e of District C e n t r e s c h a l l e n g e s o n e of the key a s s u m p t i o n s in t h e s t r a t e g i e s o f b o t h V a n c o u v e r a n d M e l b o u r n e -- t h a t i s , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p u b l i c mass transit to the creation of s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s .  The existence of an  e l a b o r a t e , m u l t i c e n t r e d p u b l i c transit n e t w o r k , a n d t h e s e l e c t i o n of D C sites a l o n g this n e t w o r k , has m a d e n o d i s c e r n i b l e d i f f e r e n c e in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e D C s . I n  Greater Vancouver, SkyTrain can be s h o w n to have spurred  d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s w h i c h l a y a l o n g its r o u t e , b u t t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n M e l b o u r n e s h o w s t h a t it m a y n o t b e t h e existence responsible. a unique  o f t h e r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e t h a t is  A potential alternative e x p l a n a t i o n m i g h t be that SkyTrain  represents  c o m p a r a t i v e locational advantage for a l i m i t e d n u m b e r of s u b u r b a n firms.  If s o , t h i s c o u l d a r g u e a g a i n s t t h e m a r g i n a l v a l u e o f m o r e r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e s , w h i c h c o u l d r e d u c e the value of a f o r m e r l y u n i q u e locational advantage. T h e s e c o n d o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t p o l i c y as i m p l e m e n t e d h a s h a d l i t t l e e f f e c t o n t h e p a t t e r n a n d s c a l e o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s , is b o r n e o u t a g a i n in M e l b o u r n e .  A s in V a n c o u v e r , any centres w h i c h have d e v e l o p e d can b e  shown  to have b e e n d e v e l o p i n g well prior to their designation under the policy. T h e r e is a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e e f f e c t o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o n t h e w i d e r suburban context.  In V a n c o u v e r , R T C p o l i c y h a d n o e f f e c t w h a t s o e v e r o n t h e  overall scale of s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t .  O f f i c e a n d retail space d i s p e r s e d  t h r o u g h o u t t h e u r b a n i z e d r e g i o n , a n d in s o m e cases c r e a t e d n e w c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of activity w h i c h h a d not b e e n significant prior to t h e p o l i c y ( C a n a d a W a y  corridor,  Knight Street corridor, and others). In M e l b o u r n e , h o w e v e r , t h e u r b a n f i e l d h a d a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r .  Central  M e l b o u r n e has a m u c h h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of c o m m e r c i a l office activity t h a n the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ( w h i c h c a n b e u s e d as a n e q u i v a l e n t ) h a s i n G r e a t e r  95  Vancouver.  C e n t r a l M e l b o u r n e h o l d s 83.3 p e r c e n t of r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s t o c k , w h e r e t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r h o l d s o n l y 64.3 p e r c e n t .  W h i l e e a c h m e t r o p o l i t a n area has a s t r o n g  s u b s i d i a r y o f f i c e c e n t r e o n t h e c o r e f r i n g e , t h e St. K i l d a R o a d a r e a is m u c h  more  s i g n i f i c a n t t o M e l b o u r n e t h a n C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y is t o G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . ^  Unlike  retail s p a c e , o f f i c e s p a c e has n o t yet s u b u r b a n i z e d t o a n y great e x t e n t in M e l b o u r n e , a n d the restrictive nature of the office location policy m a y have d a m p e n e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r s u c h s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n (K. O ' C o n n o r a n d B l a k e l y 1 9 8 8 , 12)  4  0  This rigidity of policy may have had the effect of constraining supply of suburban office space with some developers being from entering the suburban market because of the prescriptive of the policy. ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 193)  the dissuaded nature  W h i l e it h a s b e e n s h o w n t h a t s o m e l a r g e r f i r m s w e r e a b l e t o n e g o t i a t e l o c a t i o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h t h e S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t , it is u n l i k e l y t h a t s m a l l e r c o n c e r n s had such power.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s s m a l l e r s c a l e o f o f f i c e b u i l d i n g is e x a c t l y t h e  l e v e l in t h e h i e r a r c h y w h i c h p r o v i d e s s e r v i c e s t o t h e s u b u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n .  By  severely restricting this f u n c t i o n , the D C policy m a y have d e g r a d e d the access to services (and jobs) w h i c h the policy was m e a n t to a u g m e n t , thus increasing the n e e d for s u b u r b a n residents to travel l o n g distances to obtain such services. Interestingly, D C g r o w t h was greatest in t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n areas w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e d m o s t of t h e r e g i o n a l d i s p e r s e d g r o w t h o f all k i n d s .  had  It m a y b e t h a t t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s w i t h d o w n t o w n f u n c t i o n s is c o n t i n g e n t u p o n t h e prior existence of a c o m p l e x hinterland of office a n d industrial a c t i v i t y . ^ true, t h e n e v e n the l o n g range p r o s p e c t s of s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n  If t h i s is  development  w e r e h a r m e d by the restrictive c o m p o n e n t s of D C policy. The p r e c e d i n g discussion applies also to the third observation, that the introduction of s u b u r b a n centres policy may be d e p e n d e n t on u n i q u e historical circumstances.  C o m m e r c i a l o f f i c e a c t i v i t y is s t i l l s o c e n t r a l i z e d i n M e l b o u r n e t h a t it  96  c o u l d b e a r g u e d that the m o m e n t for t h e s u c c e s s f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n of s o m e f o r m of D C p o l i c y has n o t yet arrived.  E v e n if all suburban  office  space  in M e l b o u r n e  was  c o n c e n t r a t e d in t h e s e v e n t e e n D C s , t h e y w o u l d still c o n t a i n o n l y a b o u t o n e fifth of t h e a m o u n t in C e n t r a l M e l b o u r n e , a n d o n l y half of t h e a m o u n t in t h e C B D alone (Moodie 1991, 58-59).  fringe  4 2  C u r r e n t l y , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s o u t h a n d e a s t is b e i n g l e d b y t h e industrial sector (Hofmeister, 207).  If t h e o f f i c e l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s w e r e t o r e l a x ,  m o r e d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d be d r a w n to the s u b u r b s , particularly t h o s e in the s o u t h a n d east, p r o v i d i n g the c o n t e x t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of cross-linkages  between  firms a n d t h e r e f o r e also p r o v i d i n g a b r o a d e r regional base o n w h i c h to s u p p o r t a suburban downtown. Even w e r e this scenario to b e accurate, the f r a m i n g of a g o o d D C policy w o u l d still b e d i f f i c u l t .  A s has b e e n s h o w n in t h e c a s e of M e l b o u r n e , m a n y  c o m p l e x and s o m e t i m e s contradictory factors must be taken into account. S u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s m u s t c o n t a i n a large e n o u g h a n d v a r i e d e n o u g h a m o u n t of d e v e l o p m e n t to m i m i c the functions of a traditional d o w n t o w n . functions could not be achieved simply.  This m i x t u r e of  It c a n n o t , f o r e x a m p l e , b e a s s u m e d t h a t a  s u c c e s s f u l retail s p a c e h i e r a r c h y will b e i d e n t i c a l t o a s u c c e s s f u l o f f i c e s p a c e hierarchy.  A n e w D C policy w o u l d therefore have to be sufficiently powerful to be  a b l e t o s h a p e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y all o f t h e v a r i o u s p r i v a t e s e c t o r d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h intersect in a typical d o w n t o w n .  Further, this p o w e r to s h a p e  markets  markets  w o u l d have to b e sufficiently subtle to avoid d a m a g i n g the p r o s p e c t s for private s e c t o r d e v e l o p m e n t in e a c h of t h o s e s e c t o r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e r e g i o n a l economy. P u t i n t h o s e d a u n t i n g t e r m s , it is n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e e f f o r t s t o w a r d t h e creation of s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s failed in V a n c o u v e r a n d M e l b o u r n e , w h e r e this w a s p u r s u e d at t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e .  T o s e e h o w it is p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d a s u c c e s s f u l  97  s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n in t h e face of s u c h d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e n e x t c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f B e l l e v u e , W a s h i n g t o n , a n d its C B D p o l i c i e s .  98  CHAPTER 5 BELLEVUE C E N T R A L BUSINESS DISTRICT POLICIES  5.0  INTRODUCTION In c o n t r a s t t o t h e t w o p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , w h i c h c o n s i d e r e d r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s  t o w a r d t h e creation of s u b u r b a n centres in V a n c o u v e r a n d M e l b o u r n e , this chapter examines t h e municipal policies of t h e City of Bellevue, Washington.  Bellevue's  C B D is a n e x c e l l e n t e x a m p l e o f t h e p r o g r e s s t h a n m a y b e m a d e , t h r o u g h t h e application of policy, toward t h e modification of a s u b u r b a n area into a recognizable centre.  T h efollowing quotations indicate t h e nature of t h e changes  w h i c h have o c c u r r e d in d o w n t o w n Bellevue, a n d t h e s p e e d with w h i c h  they  occurred.  The layout of the Bellevue CBD is similar to many suburban activity centers designed around the automobile. Arterial streets are wide with large setback distances from sidewalks. Office buildings are widely dispersed. This land use and street configuration make pedestrian travel very difficult. ( N o g u c h i 1 9 8 2 , 1) The central business district of Bellevue does not sprawl; it has a tight pattern of development within well-defined edges. ( W h y t e 1 9 8 8 , 3 0 7 ) The Bellevue case suggests what can be achieved when suburban centers are transformed to places where people take priority over automobiles. (Cervero 1989,193) The City of Bellevue, a suburban downtown (Rao 1989, 12.5)  Washington, offers one of the best example(s) of which has reached a mature stage of growth.  Less t h a n a d e c a d e s e p a r a t e s t h e first s t a t e m e n t f r o m t h e n e x t t h r e e .  In t h a t  short time, t h e core area of Bellevue has been transformed f r o m an automobileo r i e n t e d retail district into a vibrant r e g i o n a l office e m p l o y m e n t c e n t r e , w i t h a high-rise c o r e a n d significant pedestrian amenities. The policy context section o f this chapter describes t h e statutory a n d r e g u l a t o r y e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h t h e C i t y o f B e l l e v u e d e v e l o p e d its p o l i c i e s ,  99  particularly w i t h r e g a r d to t h e lack of r e g i o n a l g o v e r n a n c e .  The historical  d e v e l o p m e n t o f B e l l e v u e is a l s o p r e s e n t e d , a n d t h e p i v o t a l e f f e c t o f a p a r t i c u l a r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l is d e s c r i b e d . The policy d e v e l o p m e n t section outlines the various instruments w h i c h have b e e n e m p l o y e d t o w a r d the d e v e l o p m e n t of Bellevue's C B D .  These include the  1979 C B D S u b a r e a Plan, t h e 1981 a m e n d m e n t s t o t h e L a n d U s e C o d e , ( i n c l u d i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e FAR A m e n i t y Incentive System), a n d t h e i m p r o v e m e n t of p u b l i c transit service to the C B D t h r o u g h a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n the City of Bellevue and t h e M E T R O transit carrier.  T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t is a l s o  described. The p o l i c y evaluation section details the successful d e v e l o p m e n t of a s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n in B e l l e v u e , in t e r m s o f b o t h c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t qualitative character.  and  In t h e c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s  s u c c e s s are b r i e f l y c o m p a r e d t o t h e less s u c c e s s f u l p o l i c y e n d e a v o u r s in V a n c o u v e r and Melbourne.  It is a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e B e l l e v u e p o l i c y h a s b e e n m o r e c o n s i s t e n t l y  i m p l e m e n t e d than the others.  Broader regional and national s u b u r b a n  d e v e l o p m e n t t r e n d s are e x a m i n e d w i t h r e g a r d to their effect o n t h e scale of d e v e l o p m e n t in d o w n t o w n B e l l e v u e .  Despite questions surrounding the success  o f p o l i c y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s c a l e , it is f o u n d t h a t t h e u n i q u e f e a t u r e s o f t h e C B D are related m o r e to d e s i g n a n d o t h e r qualitative factors.  Finally, the  C B D p o l i c i e s a r e f o u n d t o h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d at e x a c t l y t h e r i g h t t i m e t o  Bellevue Bellevue achieve  the m o s t beneficial effect.  5.7  POLICY  CONTEXT  T h e C i t y o f B e l l e v u e is a n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a o f K i n g C o u n t y i n t h e S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n , a n d is l o c a t e d a c r o s s L a k e W a s h i n g t o n t o t h e e a s t o f S e a t t l e ( s e e 7, p. 1 6 8 ) .  Map  L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t i n W a s h i n g t o n is e n t i r e l y u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e  100  State legislature a n d any p o w e r s or obligations given to t h e local level directly f r o m statutes of the legislature (Stroh interview 1991).  derive  Under the principle  of " l o c a l o p t i o n a n d c o n t r o l , " m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h a v e traditionally b e e n g r a n t e d f r e e d o m to d e c i d e w h i c h p o w e r s and responsibilities they will adopt, and extent to w h i c h they will submit to any regional authority (Washington Governance  Study C o m m i s s i o n , 1988, 3 5 ) .  4 3  the  the  State Local  A l t h o u g h B e l l e v u e is w i t h i n t h e  b o u n d a r i e s of King C o u n t y , the C o u n t y C o u n c i l has n o jurisdiction over the city, b u t is s i m p l y a p a r a l l e l l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t .  King C o u n t y controls the land use  p l a n n i n g a n d service p r o v i s i o n of the u n i n c o r p o r a t e d areas of the county,  while  B e l l e v u e h a s a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f its i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a . T h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e has a " c o u n c i l / c i t y m a n a g e r " f o r m of g o v e r n m e n t . e l e c t e d city c o u n c i l m a k e s policy, enacts laws, a n d a d o p t s a b u d g e t .  An  The council  h i r e s a c i t y m a n a g e r , w h o is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g p o l i c y , a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e c i t y ' s l a w s , a n d d i r e c t i n g its d e p a r t m e n t s .  C o u n c i l m e m b e r s elect o n e of their  n u m b e r t o s e r v e as m a y o r ( C i t y o f B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 0 a , 4 ) .  T h e city regulates land use  t h r o u g h p l a n n i n g a n d z o n i n g p o w e r s , a n d regulates the c o n s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s t h r o u g h the i s s u a n c e of p e r m i t s .  T h e city has authority o v e r m a n y of the  natural  f e a t u r e s w i t h i n its b o u n d a r i e s , i n c l u d i n g s h o r e l i n e s , w e t l a n d s , s t e e p s l o p e s , a n d streams. T h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e S e a t t l e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a is fragmented.  T h e P u g e t S o u n d R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l ( P S R C ) ' * is a v o l u n t a r y 4  and  cooperative association of m o s t of the local g o v e r n m e n t s within the f o u r c o u n t i e s of t h e Seattle r e g i o n .  T h e P S R C p r e p a r e s t h e r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n , w h i c h is  a prerequisite for the receipt of federal transportation f u n d i n g (Stroh P S C O G 1 9 8 9 , 9).  interview;  T h e p l a n is d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h a n o n - g o i n g n e g o t i a t i o n  a m o n g the m e m b e r local g o v e r n m e n t s . enforcement powers.  process  T h e P S R C has n o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n or  Cooperation between local governments o n joint land use  101  a n d p l a n n i n g i s s u e s is u s u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t e d c o n t r a c t s c a l l e d "interlocal a g r e e m e n t s " (Stroh  interview).  T h e M e t r o p o l i t a n M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n o f S e a t t l e ( M E T R O ) is t h e o n l y e x a m p l e of a r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t y in W a s h i n g t o n State ( W a s h i n g t o n  S t a t e 1 9 8 8 , 5).  w a s f o r m e d in 1958 to t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w a t e r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a n d in K i n g C o u n t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a r o u n d Lake W a s h i n g t o n .  It  sewerage  C o u n t y voters consistently  refused to mandate any other role for M E T R O until 1 9 7 2 , ^ w h e n the agency 4  was  granted authority to plan and o p e r a t e p u b l i c transit within King C o u n t y , i n c l u d i n g the City of Bellevue (Brambilla a n d L o n g o 1980, 47; Bish 1982, 60-61; Stroh interview). T h e m o s t r e c e n t l o n g r a n g e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e is a p u b l i c a n d i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l d i s c u s s i o n p r o c e s s c a l l e d Vision controlled by the PSRC ( P S C O G 1 9 9 0 b ) ^ 4  2020,  coordinated, but not  Preliminary planning for a high-capacity  r a p i d transit n e t w o r k has b e e n u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n b y a c o m m i t t e e of local government representatives  4 7  (KCTS 1991; Stroh interview).  T h e recent passage of  t h e W a s h i n g t o n State G r o w t h M a n a g e m e n t A c t r e q u i r e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of county-wide land use plans a n d policies (toward the c o n t a i n m e n t of urban sprawl), b u t t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o n c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s a r e as y e t preliminary (Stroh  interview). ** 4  A l t h o u g h Bellevue participates in m a n y c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s a n d " i n t e r l o c a l a g r e e m e n t s , " a n d is a m e m b e r o f t h e P S R C , it is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e for the f o l l o w i n g discussion of the Bellevue central business district  (CBD)  i n i t i a t i v e s t h a t t h e c i t y w a s n o t r e q u i r e d b y a n y e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y t o p l a n as it did. ** 4  T h e c r e a t i o n of an s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n f o r B e l l e v u e ( a n d f o r t h e  s u r r o u n d i n g Eastside c o m m u n i t i e s ^ ) was a p u r e l y local r e s p o n s e to local conditions and community vision.  102  A l t h o u g h t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f B e l l e v u e is o n l y a b o u t 8 2 , 0 0 0 , it is t h e c o r e a r e a of a n e w a n d r a p i d l y d e v e l o p i n g g r o u p o f c o m m u n i t i e s k n o w n as t h e " E a s t s i d e "  (in  r e f e r e n c e to t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s o n the eastern s h o r e of Lake Washington).  T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s a r e a is 3 5 0 , 0 0 0 , a n d its e c o n o m i c b a s e is h i g h  technology manufacturing and software companies.  T h e initial g r o w t h of this  s e c t o r has b e e n a t t r i b u t e d to " s p i n - o f f " contracts f r o m B o e i n g a n d t h e local military e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( W e l c h 1989, 61). State of W a s h i n g t o n ' s  W h i l e c o n t a i n i n g o n l y 7 p e r c e n t of t h e  p o p u l a t i o n , t h e a r e a h o l d s 35 p e r c e n t of t h e h i g h t e c h n o l o g y  f i r m s , a n d e m p l o y s o v e r 50,000 p e r s o n s in that sector ( s u r p a s s i n g t h e C i t y of S e a t t l e in this r e g a r d in 1 9 8 3 - W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 58-61).  In r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e  i m p o r t a n c e o f B e l l e v u e ( a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y its C B D ) as t h e p u t a t i v e " d o w n t o w n " f o r t h e e n t i r e E a s t s i d e e c o n o m y , t h e s u b r e g i o n is o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s  "Greater  B e l l e v u e " ( W e l c h 1989, 142). U r b a n g r o w t h in B e l l e v u e b e g a n in 1 9 4 0 w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Island Floating Bridge.  Mercer  The bridge allowed suburban c o m m u n i t i e s to d e v e l o p  on  t h e east s i d e of L a k e W a s h i n g t o n in t h e late 1940s a n d early 1 9 5 0 s , p r o v i d i n g h o m e s f o r w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d i n d o w n t o w n S e a t t l e , o r at B o e i n g C o m p a n y throughout the region.  sites  Until that t i m e , B e l l e v u e had b e e n a small u n i n c o r p o r a t e d  c o m m u n i t y of berry farms a n d s u m m e r h o m e s .  U n d e r the pressure of rapid  g r o w t h , m e m b e r s of the small c o m m u n i t y o b j e c t e d to several features of King C o u n t y z o n i n g , especially r e g a r d i n g lot sizes a n d the a l l o w a n c e of i n c o m p a t i b l e land uses near residential areas (Washington  State 1988, 38).  In r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s , B e l l e v u e w a s i n c o r p o r a t e d b y p o p u l a r v o t e in 1 9 5 3 , a n d a p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n w a s i m m e d i a t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d t o a d d r e s s issues of z o n i n g a n d land use.  the  Single family residences w e r e separated from high  density h o u s i n g a n d f r o m light industrial land uses.  A n o t h e r n o t a b l e a c t i o n of t h e  first p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n w a s t h e d e s i g n a t i o n of B e l l e v u e ' s c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s district  103  ( W e l c h 1989, 35).  T h i s C B D is l o c a t e d i n t h e w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f B e l l e v u e ,  between  t h e s h o r e o f L a k e W a s h i n g t o n a n d I n t e r s t a t e H i g h w a y I-405 ( s e e M a p 8, p. 1 6 9 ) . The p r o p o s e d d o w n t o w n was to be d e v e l o p e d around Bellevue Square, a c o m m u n i t y s h o p p i n g mall b u i l t in 1 9 4 6 . G e n e r o u s a m o u n t s of off-street p a r k i n g w e r e r e q u i r e d b y t h e c i t y ' s o r i g i n a l l a n d u s e c o d e -- p r o v i s i o n o f f i v e p a r k i n g s p a c e s f o r e v e r y 1 0 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t o f d e v e l o p m e n t w a s m a n d a t o r y ( T r a n p l n 1 9 7 6 , 8; S c h n e i d e r 1 9 8 1 , 250) — a n d t h e d o w n t o w n z o n e w a s laid o u t in 6 0 0 - f o o t superblocks.  This c o m b i n a t i o n of factors c r e a t e d a d o w n t o w n s u i t e d t o low-rise  d e v e l o p m e n t s s e p a r a t e d b y p a r k i n g lots, a n d c o m f o r t a b l e to the a u t o m o b i l e driver, but not to the pedestrian (National C o o p e r a t i v e H i g h w a y Research Program 1987, 81).  5 1  In 1 9 6 3 , a n o t h e r b r i d g e t o S e a t t l e w a s o p e n e d , a n d a n e w g r o w t h p e r i o d began.  The city m a n a g e r u n d e r t o o k an active a n n e x a t i o n c a m p a i g n w h i c h  enlarged both the land area a n d the population of Bellevue.  In u n d e r a d e c a d e ,  the city had a n n e x e d 17 s q u a r e miles a n d a d d e d a p o p u l a t i o n of 38,500 ( W a s h i n g t o n State 1988, 38).  T h i s a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r half of t h e e v e n t u a l l a n d a r e a  of t h e city (27 s q u a r e m i l e s ) , a n d t h e p o p u l a t i o n m o r e t h a n d o u b l e d b e t w e e n 1 9 6 8 a n d 1970 (City of Bellevue 1991a). T h e k e y t o t h e g r o w t h o f B e l l e v u e (as w e l l a s t o t h e r e s t o f t h e r e g i o n )  has  b e e n the B o e i n g C o m p a n y , a major aircraft m a n u f a c t u r e r a n d military c o n t r a c t o r b a s e d in Seattle, b u t w i t h ancillary o p e r a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n ( P S C O G 1 9 9 0 a , 3, 8; C i t y o f S e a t t l e 1 9 9 1 , 2 , 9, 4 3 ) .  So m a n y engineers a n d managers f r o m  B o e i n g m o v e d to B e l l e v u e in the 1960s that t h e s m a l l city c a m e to b e c a l l e d a " c o m p a n y t o w n " ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 70). Bellevue in the 1970s s h a r e d m a n y features w i t h t h e typical A m e r i c a n s u b u r b of t h e t i m e .  It h e l d a p r e d o m i n a n t l y w h i t e , w e a l t h y p o p u l a t i o n a n d it a f f o r d e d  104  convenient automobile access to the metropolitan c o r e . ^ 5  also typically s u b u r b a n .  The Bellevue C B D  was  In t h e 1 9 7 0 s ,  Bellevue's downtown area [...] consisted of a collection of low-rise commercial structures, with a sprinkling of six- to thirteen-story office buildings, a sprawling regional shopping center, and strip commercial development. The 400-acre downtown had been totally oriented to the automobile, with about half its area devoted to parking. (Miles and H i n s h a w 1987, 221) A 1976 p a r k i n g s t u d y n o t e d that the "tt]rip characteristics of reflect[ed]  Bellevue  t h o s e of a large s h o p p i n g c e n t e r rather t h a n a C B D in a city of 66,000  p e o p l e " ( T r a n p l n 1 9 7 6 , 8).  O v e r 60 p e r c e n t of trips to the Bellevue C B D w e r e for  s h o p p i n g and only 10.7 percent w e r e w o r k trips.  In c o n t r a s t , 3 4 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t r i p s  to the Seattle C B D w e r e for s h o p p i n g a n d 38.6 percent w e r e for w o r k . Large scale C B D office space c o n s t r u c t i o n was inhibited by the parking r e q u i r e m e n t s . S c h n e i d e r (1981) cites a s t u d y  which showed the inhibiting effects of this very high parking requirement on the economics of building high-rise office buildings downtown Bellevue and [...] concludes that such buildings will not economically attractive until the parking requirement is lowered (Schneider 1981, 250). The downtown (Tranpln 1 9 7 6 , 49).  in be  B e l l e v u e o f f i c e s p a c e v a c a n c y rate in 1 9 7 6 w a s 13.4 p e r c e n t  Less t h a n half of t h e available z o n e d c o m m e r c i a l  land  t h r o u g h o u t t h e C i t y o f B e l l e v u e h a d b e e n t a k e n u p (931 a c r e s o u t o f a t o t a l o f 2,000), a n d this o v e r s u p p l y p r o v i d e d e v e n less i n c e n t i v e for o f f i c e s e c t o r b u s i n e s s e s to locate in the C B D area ( S c h n e i d e r  1981, 251).  d e v e l o p m e n t s b e g a n t o scatter t h r o u g h o u t t h e city. C B D area w e r e only $150 million.  O f f i c e a n d retail  A n n u a l retail sales for t h e  A l m o s t n o o n e lived in t h e d o w n t o w n  area.  Traffic w a s c o n g e s t e d , t h e air q u a l i t y w a s p o o r , a n d t h e a u t o m o b i l e d o m i n a t e d streetscape (Schneider  1981, 248).  "In g e n e r a l , c e n t r a l B e l l e v u e w a s  not  distinguishable f r o m o t h e r s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s of the 1960s a n d 1 9 7 0 s " ( C e r v e r o 1 9 8 9 , 171).  105  the  These c o m m o n suburban p r o b l e m s might not have provided sufficient i m p e t u s f o r B e l l e v u e t o c h a n g e its p o l i c i e s .  Indeed, the same problems  u n a d d r e s s e d in m a n y s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s t o d a y . additional growth  remain  Bellevue, however, faced  an  challenge.  In t h e m i d - 1 9 7 0 s , a m a j o r r e t a i l a n d m i x e d - u s e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l w a s put forward by E d w a r d D e B a r t o l o , d e v e l o p e r of m o r e than 125 s h o p p i n g mall c o m p l e x e s in the U n i t e d States ( W e l c h 1989, 36).  The Evergreen  East p r o j e c t  was  to be built t h r e e m i l e s f r o m t h e C B D o n a 120-acre c l e a r e d tract of l a n d o n Bellevue's eastern b o r d e r with the m u n i c i p a l i t y of R e d m o n d , a n d w o u l d contain " a major regional retail/office/apartment c o m p l e x " (Schneider  eventually  1 9 8 1 , 248).  City officials a n d the d o w n t o w n Bellevue b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y r e c o g n i z e d that this p r o p o s a l , if r e a l i z e d , w o u l d t h r e a t e n t h e f u t u r e v i a b i l i t y o f t h e d o w n t o w n a s a major centre (Schneider  1 9 8 1 , 2 4 8 ; W h y t e 1 9 8 8 , 3 0 7 ; W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 46).  A s e a r l y as 1 9 7 4 , c i t y o f f i c i a l s h a d b e e n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i n t e n t i o n t o t h e C B D m o r e i n t e n s e l y a n d t o d i s c o u r a g e c o m p e t i n g retail a n d service f r o m locating in B e l l e v u e (Tranpln 1976, 147). T h e Evergreen  develop centres  East p r o p o s a l  p r o v i d e d the necessary link b e t w e e n e x p r e s s e d intention a n d action.  According to  C a r o l i n e R o b e r t s o n , p r e s i d e n t (in 1 9 8 9 ) o f t h e B e l l e v u e D o w n t o w n A s s o c i a t i o n : " T h e c i t y c o u n c i l a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y t o o k a l o o k at i t s e l f i n t h e s e v e n t i e s a n d the d a n g e r of b e c o m i n g A n y p l a c e , U.S.A., w i t h s u b u r b a n s p r a w l , a n d said,  saw  'We  can't a l l o w this t o h a p p e n in B e l l e v u e ' " ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 46). T h e d o w n t o w n b u s i n e s s m a n w i t h t h e m o s t t o l o s e if t h e E v e r g r e e n  East  d e v e l o p m e n t w e r e t o p r o c e e d w a s K e m p e r F r e e m a n , Sr., d e v e l o p e r a n d o w n e r t h e B e l l e v u e S q u a r e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e , w h i c h lay o n t h e w e s t e r n e d g e of Bellevue.53  W i t h t h e s u p p o r t of B e l l e v u e C i t y C o u n c i l a n d of o t h e r  of  downtown  downtown  retail c o n c e r n s , F r e e m a n ' s r e s p o n s e w a s to d o u b l e t h e s i z e of B e l l e v u e  Square,  t u r n i n g it " f r o m a s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t y s h o p p i n g c e n t e r t o a r e g i o n a l s u p e r - m a l l "  106  ( C e r v e r o 1989, 171).  W h e n t h e e x p a n s i o n w a s c o m p l e t e d in 1 9 8 4 , B e l l e v u e S q u a r e  h e l d o v e r 900,000 s q u a r e feet of f l o o r s p a c e o n t w o levels, c o n t a i n e d f o u r major retail a n c h o r t e n a n t s , 3,000 e m p l o y e e s , a n d t h e B e l l e v u e A r t M u s e u m ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 46-47). In t h e m i d - 1 9 7 0 s , t h e C i t y o f B e l l e v u e u n d e r t o o k a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s t o accurately d e t e r m i n e the d e v e l o p m e n t potential of the d o w n t o w n (Schneider 1981, 248). (preconceived)  area^  more  4  Not surprisingly, these studies confirmed the  i m p o r t a n c e of t h e C B D area to t h e f u t u r e h e a l t h of the city  e c o n o m y , a n d t h e d e s t r u c t i v e c o m p e t i t i o n w h i c h t h e E v e r g r e e n East p r o p o s a l represented.^  M o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e f i n d i n g s , in c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e  B e l l e v u e S q u a r e e x p a n s i o n , t h e c o n d u c t of t h e s t u d i e s d e m o n s t r a t e d a u n i t e d civic r e s o l v e a g a i n s t t h e E v e r g r e e n E a s t p r o p o s a l . ^ T h e p r o p o s a l w a s a b a n d o n e d b y its developer.^  5.2  POLICY  7  DEVELOPMENT  T h e m u n i c i p a l e n e r g y w h i c h h a d b e e n g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g t h e E v e r g r e e n East c o n f r o n t a t i o n w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y a p p l i e d in a series of p u b l i c a n d private a c t i o n s w h i c h altered the character of the Bellevue C B D  area.  T h e C B D S u b a r e a P l a n w a s a d o p t e d i n N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 9 , as t h e c u l m i n a t i o n of t h e w i d e - r a n g i n g s t u d y p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n of t h e report.^**  The plan established the goals, policies, and guidelines by w h i c h the city  council intended to p r o m o t e the d e v e l o p m e n t of the C B D .  The major goal was  e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s :  The Bellevue Central Business District shall be the financial business hub of the community. The regional retail district, office, major multi-family, major hotel and major institutional  107  and major uses  and  complexes shall be located in this area in order to protect and preserve residential communities from proliferation and encroachment of such uses. Defined areas of the Central Business District may be more intensely developed in order to facilitate public transit and pedestrjan circulation as a primary mode of travel. ( C i t y o f B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 1 b , 1)*>9 The sub-area plan c o n t a i n e d seven major goals and over a h u n d r e d policy s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n o n w h i c h later i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was based.  The plan o u t l i n e d a n u m b e r of c o n c e p t u a l land use districts within the  d o w n t o w n ( s e e M a p 9, p. 1 7 0 ) . primarily for office uses.  T h e central c o r e of t h e d o w n t o w n w o u l d  be  S u r r o u n d i n g this central h u b w o u l d b e t w o m u l t i p l e use  districts, a residential area in the northeast c o r n e r , a " c h a r a c t e r " area  (Old  B e l l e v u e ) in t h e s o u t h w e s t c o r n e r , a n d a h o t e l / m o t e l d i s t r i c t t o t h e east, n e a r t h e highway.  T h e w e s t e r n e d g e of t h e d o w n t o w n w o u l d b e an area of retail f o c u s ,  containing Bellevue Square.  A l l of t h e major e l e m e n t s w h i c h w e r e t o f o l l o w f o u n d  c o n c e p t u a l e x p r e s s i o n in t h e p l a n , i n c l u d i n g :  bonus incentives, land use types and  intensity, urban d e s i g n , pedestrian circulation, a n d the limitation of p a r k i n g s u p p l y ( C i t y o f B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 1 b , 1-8). T h e C B D L a n d U s e C o d e w a s a m e n d e d in 1981 t o g i v e f o r c e t o t h e goals a n d p o l i c i e s o u t l i n e d in t h e C B D S u b a r e a Plan ( N o g u c h i 1 9 8 2 , 2).  The C B D  land  use districts w h i c h h a d b e e n p r e s e n t e d c o n c e p t u a l l y in 1979 w e r e b r o u g h t into the Code.  Previously large setback r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e r e d u c e d for c o r e area  d e v e l o p m e n t s , a l l o w i n g d e v e l o p e r s to b u i l d o u t to the s i d e w a l k in t h e traditional urban manner.  M a x i m u m lot c o v e r a g e of 100 p e r c e n t was a l l o w e d in t h e central  h u b , a n d w a s p l a c e d at 7 5 p e r c e n t i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g C B D d i s t r i c t s .  Outward  f r o m t h e c e n t r e , t h e a l l o w a b l e f l o o r a r e a ratios (FAR) r a n g e d f r o m a m a x i m u m level o f 8 i n t h e m o s t c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t t o v e r y l o w m a x i m u m s o f 0.5 o r l e s s i n t h e o u t l y i n g C B D residential a n d character areas.  T h e gradual d r o p in a l l o w a b l e FAR f r o m t h e  centre, t h r o u g h m o d e r a t e intervening multiple use districts, to the low-rise  108  CBD  f r i n g e p r o d u c e d a " w e d d i n g c a k e " p a t t e r n of d e v e l o p m e n t , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i g h d e n s i t y c o r e s in o t h e r c i t i e s ( C i t y o f B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 0 b , 96). A m a j o r f e a t u r e of t h e C B D L a n d U s e C o d e w a s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e  FAR  A m e n i t y Incentive System, w h e r e b y d e v e l o p m e n t s w e r e allowed b o n u s floorspace ( d e p e n d i n g o n t h e C B D district) in e x c h a n g e f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s . Eligible a m e n i t i e s i n c l u d e d p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d f r o n t a g e , retail f r o n t a g e , plazas a n d landscape features, arcades, marquees and awnings, u n d e r g r o u n d parking, and m a n y o t h e r f a c t o r s ( N o g u c h i 1 9 8 2 , 2; C i t y of B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 0 b , 99-108). T h e size of t h e b o n u s e s p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the relative w h i c h city officials p l a c e d o n each amenity.  importance  Underground parking yielded a bonus  o f o n l y 0.5:1,6° v v h e r e a s p u b l i c s p a c e s y i e l d e d 8:1, a n d t h e r e w e r e e v e n h i g h e r b o n u s e s for p r o v i d i n g p o r t i o n s of a p e d e s t r i a n c o r r i d o r o r m a j o r p u b l i c o p e n space.  T h e c h i l d c a r e s p a c e b o n u s w a s s e t at 8 : 1 , w h i l e p e r f o r m i n g a r t s s p a c e  y i e l d e d 1 0 : 1 . A v e r a g e a m e n i t y b o n u s s i z e v a r i e d b e t w e e n 5:1 a n d 8:1 ( C i t y o f B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 0 b , 99-108). Additionally, the parking requirements which had previously provided a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o high-rise c o n s t r u c t i o n w e r e a l t e r e d in f a v o u r of development.  downtown  M u c h l o w e r m i n i m u m a n d m a x i m u m a m o u n t s of p a r k i n g w e r e  r e q u i r e d of n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s .  A typical office structure w h i c h had r e q u i r e d five  p a r k i n g s p a c e s p e r 1 0 0 0 s q . ft. o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n 1 9 8 1 w a s t h e r e a f t e r r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e o n l y b e t w e e n 2 a n d 3.3 s p a c e s p e r 1 0 0 0 s q . ft. ( l a t e r t h e m a x i m u m w a s r e d u c e d f u r t h e r t o 2.7 s p a c e s ) .  The reductions were intended to remove  the  disincentive to high-rise d e v e l o p m e n t a n d to i n t r o d u c e a n e w d i s i n c e n t i v e t o w a r d a u t o m o b i l e use, w h i c h m i g h t w o u l d a l l o w t h e later p r o m o t i o n of p u b l i c transit use b y c o m m u t e r s a n d s h o p p e r s ( C e r v e r o 1 9 8 9 , 1 7 3 - 1 7 4 ; N o g u c h i 1 9 8 2 , 4-5; C i t y o f B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 0 b , 112-117).  109  A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c o m p o n e n t of t h e C B D L a n d U s e C o d e was t h e p r o v i s i o n of d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s for d e v e l o p m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e C B D .  The central office  a r e a s o f t h e C B D w e r e d e s i g n a t e d as t h e C o r e D e s i g n D i s t r i c t , i n w h i c h all d e v e l o p m e n t is s u b j e c t t o d e s i g n r e v i e w b y c i t y o f f i c i a l s ( C i t y o f B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 0 b , 122-143).  Later d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s f o l l o w e d for b u i l d i n g / s i d e w a l k r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  pedestrian connections through superblocks, a pedestrian corridor, and the B e l l e v u e c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t ( C i t y of B e l l e v u e 1 9 8 3 , 1).  Old  These policies ensured a  large m e a s u r e of civic c o n t r o l o v e r the style of b u i l d i n g s a n d t h e aesthetic e n v i r o n m e n t of t h e c o r e of t h e C B D .  T h e u r b a n d e s i g n staff of t h e c i t y s u b s c r i b e s  to W i l l i a m H. W h y t e ' s p h i l o s o p h y of human-scale a n d pedestrian a m e n i t y  (Kay  1 9 9 1 , 6; M i l e s a n d H i n s h a w 1 9 8 7 , 2 2 2 - 2 2 3 ) . T h e c e n t r e p i e c e o f t h e h u m a n - s c a l e p l a n n i n g o f t h e C B D c o r e is t h e p l a n n e d P e d e s t r i a n C o r r i d o r , w h i c h is t o r u n t h r o u g h t h e c e n t r e o f t h e C B D , a n c h o r e d at the eastern e n d by Bellevue S q u a r e ^  a n d at t h e w e s t e r n e n d b y a p u b l i c t r a n s i t  c o m p l e x (Miles a n d H i n s h a w 1987; National C o o p e r a t i v e 1987; Kay 1991). c o r r i d o r will bisect o n e of t h e 600-foot s u p e r b l o c k s .  The  It is t o b e d e v e l o p e d p i e c e -  by-piece a l o n g with the privately-held parcels of land w h i c h b o r d e r the d e s i g n a t e d area.  G e n e r o u s b o n u s i n g p r o v i s i o n s are in place to e n c o u r a g e private interests t o  s u p p l y a m e n i t i e s (City of B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 0 b , 1 0 5 ) .  6 2  T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e C B D was f u r t h e r a d v a n c e d in the early 1980s t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t e d a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n t h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e a n d M E T R O , regional p u b l i c transit carrier.  the  M E T R O h a d s h i f t e d its p o s i t i o n o n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n  f r o m an entirely Seattle-centred a p p r o a c h to o n e w h i c h f o c u s s e d additionally o n f o u r regional centres, o n e of w h i c h was Bellevue.  T h e City of Bellevue a n d  METRO  w e r e therefore able to agree o n the location of a six-bay, timed-transfer bus transit station in t h e o f f i c e c o r e of t h e C B D ( N o g u c h i 1 9 8 2 , 3).  110  M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , B e l l e v u e a n d M E T R O n e g o t i a t e d t h e 1981 Transit I n c e n t i v e A g r e e m e n t , w h e r e b y M E T R O w o u l d p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l h o u r s of transit service b a s e d o n t w o C B D p e r f o r m a n c e f a c t o r s ( N o g u c h i 1 9 8 2 , 4-6).  Service hours w o u l d  b e i n c r e a s e d if d o w n t o w n e m p l o y m e n t i n c r e a s e d , o r if t h e n u m b e r o f parking spaces p r o v i d e d by n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s was limited.  These  downtown  performance  criteria w e r e r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e M E T R O was initially reluctant t o c o m m i t scarce p u b l i c transit resources to an area w h i c h had a d e c i d e d l y a u t o m o b i l e - o r i e n t e d land use pattern.  O n l y if t h e B e l l e v u e C B D p o l i c i e s w e r e e f f e c t i v e l y p u r s u e d w o u l d t h e  extra service be provided. T w o a l t e r n a t i v e e m p l o y m e n t f o r e c a s t s w e r e u s e d as b e n c h m a r k s f o r t h e provision of 10,000 additional service hours.  If t h e l o w e r o f t h e t w o f o r e c a s t s w a s  r e a c h e d , an initial c o m p o n e n t of a p o t e n t i a l 1 0 , 0 0 0 a d d i t i o n a l h o u r s w o u l d provided.  be  If t h e h i g h e r f o r e c a s t w a s r e a c h e d , t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e a d d i t i o n a l h o u r s  w o u l d be released.  T h e b a l a n c e o f t h e e x t r a s e r v i c e w o u l d b e g i v e n o n l y if C B D  e m p l o y m e n t e x c e e d e d the level of the higher forecast by 25 percent.**  3  A final p l a n n i n g i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h s h o u l d b e d i s c u s s e d in r e l a t i o n t o B e l l e v u e ' s C B D p o l i c i e s is t h e C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n P r o c e s s .  T h i s p r o c e s s is n o t  s o l e l y a f e a t u r e o f t h e C B D p o l i c i e s , b u t is a g e n e r a l m o n i t o r i n g i n s t r u m e n t u s e d t o u p d a t e s u b a r e a plans t h r o u g h o u t t h e city o n a p h a s e d six-year cycle.  The  CBD  S u b a r e a p r o c e s s o c c u r r e d in 1 9 9 1 . In e a c h p r o c e s s , a t e a m o f p r o f e s s i o n a l f a c i l i t a t o r s is h i r e d b y t h e c i t y t o discuss any p r o b l e m s or concerns raised by the general public or the business community.  T h e m o s t r e c e n t p r o c e s s r e s u l t e d in t h e d o w n - z o n i n g of a r e s i d e n t i a l  sector of the C B D a n d the p l a c e m e n t of a height limit of 450 feet o n future development.**  4  CBD  At the e n d of the p r o c e s s , d e s p i t e these m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s ,  C i t y C o u n c i l r e a f f i r m e d its p o l i c i e s t o w a r d t h e C B D ( S t r o h  111  interview).  T h e c o m m u n i t y a n d t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r w e r e a l s o i n v o l v e d in b u i l d i n g t h e downtown.  Bellevue Square s h o p p i n g centre p r o v i d e d space for the Bellevue Art  M u s e u m for an a n n u a l fee of o n e d o l l a r ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 48).  Studies for the  pedestrian corridor guidelines w e r e f u n d e d solely by the property owners  who  w e r e t o b e a f f e c t e d b y t h e c o r r i d o r ( N a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i v e 1 9 8 7 , 79). T h e m o s t i m p r e s s i v e c o m m u n i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n to the d o w n t o w n area w a s in r e g a r d to t h e 17.5-acre park w h i c h o p e n e d in 1987 o n t h e s o u t h w e s t e d g e of t h e CBD.  W h e n t h e o r i g i n a l p u b l i c b o n d issue f o r t h e p u r c h a s e of t h e p a r k l a n d  was  rejected by Bellevue voters, a citizens g r o u p was f o r m e d w h i c h raised $1.8 million in c o r p o r a t e a n d private d o n a t i o n s .  T h e m o n e y f u n d e d t h e first p h a s e of t h e  park,  a n d e n c o u r a g e d v o t e r s t o pass t h e b o n d issue f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r in 1 9 8 8 ( W e l c h 1989, 53).  5.3  POLICY  EVALUATION  P u b l i c a n d private s e c t o r a c t i o n s h a v e b e e n effective in t h e c r e a t i o n of a s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n f o r t h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e .  In 1 9 8 1 , t h e r e w e r e o n l y t w o  m e d i u m - r i s e b u i l d i n g s in the d o w n t o w n area ( S c h n e i d e r  1981, 248).  The  alteration  of t h e C B D p o l i c i e s w e r e f o l l o w e d b y an i m m e d i a t e rise in private s e c t o r interest in d o w n t o w n d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g inflation of p r o p e r t y v a l u e s  from  $ 6 . 0 0 - $ 1 0 . 0 0 p e r s q . ft. t o $ 4 0 . 0 0 - $ 6 0 . 0 0 p e r s q . ft. ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 4 8 ) .  office  A CBD  development b o o m followed. T h r e e high-rise t o w e r s w e r e c o m p l e t e d in 1983 a n d t w o m o r e w e r e c o m p l e t e d in 1 9 8 6 . A 17-storey s e n i o r s r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d o m i n i u m w a s c o m p l e t e d in 1987.  B e l l e v u e P l a c e , a m u l t i - t o w e r h o t e l / o f f i c e / r e t a i l c o m p l e x , w a s c o m p l e t e d in  1988.  By 1989, t h e r e w e r e e l e v e n b u i l d i n g s in the C B D taller than ten  ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 48-51).  112  storeys  T h e a m o u n t o f o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e g r e w f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 m i l l i o n s q . ft. i n 1 9 8 0 ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 4 4 ) t o 4 . 7 m i l l i o n s q . ft. i n 1 9 9 1 ( S t r o h i n t e r v i e w ) . r e s i d e n t i a l f l o o r s p a c e is c u r r e n t l y o v e r 9 m i l l i o n s q . ft. ( S t r o h  6 5  Total n o n -  interview).  E m p l o y m e n t i n t h e C B D g r e w f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 2 , 0 0 0 i n 1 9 8 1 ( N o g u c h i 1 9 8 2 , 1) t o o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 in 1 9 8 9 ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 50).  Interestingly, this c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e has n o t b e e n a c h i e v e d b y u n d u l y r e s t r i c t i n g c o m m e r c i a l g r o w t h in o t h e r areas of t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y .  O n l y major  and intensive commercial  d e v e l o p m e n t s , s u c h as h i g h - r i s e o f f i c e a n d l a r g e m i x e d - u s e d e v e l o p m e n t s , h a v e b e e n s o r e s t r i c t e d . O v e r 7 m i l l i o n s q . ft. o f n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l f l o o r s p a c e e x i s t s a l o n g t h e B e l - R e d c o r r i d o r , a 4 m i l e s t r i p o f d e v e l o p m e n t b e t w e e n I-405 a n d t h e m u n i c i p a l b o r d e r w i t h R e d m o n d ( C e r v e r o 1989, 171).  A c c o r d i n g t o Kay ( 1 9 9 1 , 4),  t h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e c o n t a i n s 1 6 m i l l i o n s q . ft. o f o f f i c e s p a c e .  The C B D , therefore,  a c c o u n t s f o r o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r c e n t of t h e total. T h e C B D p o l i c i e s also reflect a certain flexibility w i t h r e g a r d to t h e p a c e of development.  This flexibility m a y be a s i m p l e r e c o g n i t i o n , g i v e n t h e lack of a  regional authority, that capital flight c o u l d not b e p r e v e n t e d .  Conversely, the  p o l i c y m a y reflect an u n d e r s t a n d i n g that m a r k e t c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t  was  attracted to Bellevue for market reasons, and w o u l d not be deflected by consistent qualitative control.  There is no legal mandate that puts the planning on a fixed time schedule. When a parcel of land is developed or redeveloped, then the improvements for that site are made. Therefore, market forces for office and retail space are what drives the schedule. (National C o o p e r a t i v e 1 9 8 7 , 71) T h e retail p r o m i n e n c e of t h e C B D area w a s a s s u r e d t h r o u g h t h e e x p a n s i o n of Bellevue Square s h o p p i n g centre.  In 1 9 8 9 , s t o r e s i n t h e m a l l h a d a r e t a i l f a i l u r e  rate less t h a n o n e t h i r d o f t h e U.S. a v e r a g e .  In 1 9 8 7 , t o t a l r e t a i l s a l e s at  Bellevue  S q u a r e w e r e $ 9 5 7 m i l l i o n , a c c o u n t i n g f o r o v e r o n e t h i r d o f all retail sales in t h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 46-47).  113  T h e o n l y d o w n t o w n s e c t o r w h i c h h a s n o t p e r f o r m e d t o e x p e c t a t i o n s is t h e residential.  O n l y a b o u t 5 0 0 units of h o u s i n g c u r r e n t l y exist in t h e C B D , m o s t l y in  older multi-family buildings.  The 120-unit Pacific Regent seniors b u i l d i n g a c c o u n t s  for the o n l y recent a d d i t i o n .  H o w e v e r , d e s p i t e a d i f f i c u l t f i n a n c i a l m a r k e t in t h e  U.S., t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s i n t h e C B D is p r o c e e d i n g , w i t h o v e r 2,000 u n i t s c u r r e n t l y in t h e last s t a g e s o f t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s ( S t r o h i n t e r v i e w ) . T h e a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n t h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e a n d M E T R O h a v e also c o n t r i b u t e d t o c h a n g e in t h e C B D . served by 17 M E T R O bus routes.  T h e p u b l i c transit station was eventually to be By 1984, p u b l i c transit service t o the Bellevue  C B D h a d b e e n increased by almost 4,000 h o u r s u n d e r the t e r m s of the Transit Incentive a g r e e m e n t ( C e r v e r o 1989, 173). T h e a g r e e m e n t w a s  amicably  d i s c o n t i n u e d in t h e late 1 9 8 0 s , b e c a u s e b o t h p a r t i e s c a m e t o a g r e e that a d d i t i o n a l service h o u r s w e r e in t h e i r m u t u a l b e s t interests (Stroh  interview).  In 1 9 8 1 , t h e C B D h a d a t r a n s i t m o d e s p l i t ^ G o f a b o u t o n e p e r c e n t 1 9 8 2 , 1).  (Noguchi  By 1 9 8 9 , this h a d i m p r o v e d t o s e v e n p e r c e n t , w i t h a f u r t h e r 18 p e r c e n t  of c o m m u t e r s u s i n g e i t h e r c a r o r v a n p o o l s ( C e r v e r o 1 9 8 9 , 1 7 5 ) .  Downtown  B e l l e v u e h a d t h e l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e of single o c c u p a n t v e h i c l e c o m m u t e r s  among  all s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t c e n t r e s s t u d i e d b y C e r v e r o . T h e q u a l i t y o f g r o w t h h a s b e e n a s i m p o r t a n t as t h e s c a l e .  Beyond the  figures, t h e C B D has the " f e e l " of an u r b a n c e n t r e , w i t h (occasionally) b u s t l i n g p e d e s t r i a n traffic, a c l u s t e r of c e n t r a l o f f i c e t o w e r s , street art, g o o d restaurants, e x p e n s i v e h o t e l s , a n d e x c l u s i v e c l u b s f o r t h e b u s i n e s s class ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 42-54). D o w n t o w n B e l l e v u e has g r o w n f r o m a l o w - d e n s i t y , a u t o m o b i l e - o r i e n t e d retail district serving a local m a r k e t to a high-rise regional office e m p l o y m e n t centre. A n initial w a v e of o f f i c e s l o c a t i n g in t h e C B D in t h e e a r l y 1 9 8 0 s w a s c o m p o s e d m o s t l y of b r a n c h o p e r a t i o n s of Seattle service s e c t o r f i r m s w h i c h w a n t e d a p r e s e n c e o n the Eastside.  In t h e m i d - 1 9 8 0 s , h o w e v e r , a s e c o n d w a v e o f  114  d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r r e d w h i c h b r o u g h t h i g h e r p r o f i l e o f f i c e s , s u c h as t h e c o r p o r a t e b a n k i n g h e a d q u a r t e r s of Seafirst Bank, r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s of m a j o r a c c o u n t i n g f i r m s K P M G Peat M a r w i c k a n d T o u c h e R o s s , a n d t h e n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s of C i t y F e d M o r t g a g e , o n e of t h e largest m o r t g a g e b a n k s in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 49).  D o w n t o w n B e l l e v u e has arrived.  T h e d o w n t o w n has t h e capacity to g r o w .  Mark Hinshaw, Bellevue's  p r i n c i p a l u r b a n d e s i g n e r , asserts that the B e l l e v u e C B D has e n o u g h p o t e n t i a l to c o n t i n u e g r o w i n g until 2 0 5 0 ( W e l c h 1989, 110).  former  development  D u e t o its h i g h p r o f i l e  ( a n d h i g h l a n d c o s t s ) , t h e B e l l e v u e C B D w i l l n o t r e c e i v e all of t h e f u t u r e c o m m e r c i a l g r o w t h o f t h e E a s t s i d e , b u t it is l i k e l y t o r e m a i n t h e p r e s t i g e l o c a t i o n f o r first class d e v e l o p m e n t . c o m m u n i t i e s of the Eastside.  A n e w city m a y b e f o r m i n g out of the  many  T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e E a s t s i d e is f o r e c a s t t o s u r p a s s  S e a t t l e ' s e a r l y i n t h e n e x t c e n t u r y ( C i t y o f B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 1 a ) , a n d its h i g h t e c h n o l o g y industrial b a s e a l r e a d y s u r p a s s e s that of t h e c e n t r a l city ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 61).  If s u c h a  c i t y d o e s d e v e l o p , d o w n t o w n B e l l e v u e w i l l b e its u r b a n c o r e .  5.4  CONCLUSION B e l l e v u e has s u c c e e d e d in c r e a t i n g a s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n t h r o u g h t h e  a p p l i c a t i o n of a m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y , w h e r e r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s in M e l b o u r n e a n d V a n c o u v e r w e r e u n s u c c e s s f u l . T h e c o m p a r a t i v e analysis of t h e p o l i c i e s of M e l b o u r n e a n d V a n c o u v e r , b e g u n in t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , n o w be extended.  may  As before, the discussion will be based on the observations  m a d e originally with regard to the Regional T o w n Centres.  To review,  these  o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e (a) t h a t a w e l l - c o n c e i v e d p o l i c y w a s p o o r l y i m p l e m e n t e d , a n d t h a t t h e f a u l t l a y w i t h t h e s e n i o r l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t ; (b) t h a t t h e p o l i c y a s a c t u a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d h a d v e r y little effect o n t h e p a t t e r n o r scale of r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ;  115  a n d (c) t h a t it is l i k e l y t h a t s u c h a p o l i c y c o u l d o n l y b e s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d u n d e r a limited set of historical c o n d i t i o n s , n o w  past.  T h e r e are o n l y l i m i t e d similarities to b e f o u n d r e g a r d i n g t h e quality a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the t h r e e p o l i c i e s .  Greater Vancouver's RTC policy was  to be well-conceived, but poorly i m p l e m e n t e d .  found  M e l b o u r n e ' s D C policy was  to be poorly conceived and inconsistently implemented.  found  In c o n t r a s t , t h e C i t y o f  Bellevue created the right policies a n d consistently reaffirmed t h e m t h r o u g h o u t decade.  These policies were d e v e l o p e d under a simple m o d e l :  the p r o b l e m  i d e n t i f i e d , s t u d i e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n , goals w e r e set, i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w e r e enacted, and monitoring was d o n e .  the  was  measures  D e s p i t e t h e s i m p l i c i t y , t h e results of t h e  process w e r e only realized through vision, perseverance, and o p e n consultation on t h e part of city officials, the b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y , a n d the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  A n y of  t h e s e t h r e e p a r t i e s c o u l d h a v e d e l a y e d o r d e s t r o y e d t h e p r o c e s s h a d it c h o s e n t o d o so.  T h i s c i v i c r e s o l v e i n t h e C i t y o f B e l l e v u e is i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e l a c k o f  s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t for r e g i o n a l p o l i c y in t h e o t h e r t w o c a s e s , a n d u n w i l l i n g n e s s or inability of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o c o n s i s t e n t l y s u p p o r t  the  independent  policy. As with the M e l b o u r n e e x a m p l e , the case of Bellevue challenges  the  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t g o o d p u b l i c t r a n s i t p r o v i s i o n is a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f a suburban downtown.  In M e l b o u r n e , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c o m p l e t e r a d i a l p u b l i c  t r a n s i t n e t w o r k w a s n o t a f a c t o r in t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h e D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s . B e l l e v u e , g o o d p u b l i c t r a n s i t l i n k a g e s d i d n o t e x i s t at t h e o u t s e t a n d it w a s c o n s i d e r e d that such linkages w e r e r e q u i r e d .  In  not  T h e p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c transit was  p u r s u e d s t r i c t l y as a n a m e n i t y w h i c h w o u l d r e d u c e t h e c o m p l e t e d o m i n a n c e of t h e d o w n t o w n by the automobile.  O n e of t h e k e y factors in t h e s u c c e s s of t h e  B e l l e v u e C B D h a s b e e n its l o c a t i o n d i r e c t l y a d j a c e n t t o a m a j o r  north-south  h i g h w a y (1-405), a n d w i t h i n a f e w m i l e s o f i n t e r c h a n g e s w i t h t h e t w o m a j o r east-  116  w e s t h i g h w a y s o u t o f t h e C i t y o f S e a t t l e (1-90 t o t h e s o u t h a n d R o u t e 5 2 0 t o t h e north). It is l e s s c l e a r w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e a d o p t i o n o f C B D p o l i c i e s h a d a m a j o r effect o n t h e p a t t e r n a n d scale of d e v e l o p m e n t in d o w n t o w n B e l l e v u e .  In  V a n c o u v e r , R T C p o l i c y was s h o w n t o h a v e little effect o n t h e c o n t i n u i n g d i s p e r s a l of residential a n d c o m m e r c i a l activity t h r o u g h o u t the region.  Regarding  M e l b o u r n e , it w a s a s s e r t e d t h a t D C p o l i c y m a y a c t u a l l y h a v e i m p e d e d t h e underlying structural suburbanization w h i c h may be required to s u p p o r t a s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n (see S e c t i o n 4.4 a b o v e ) . D o w n t o w n B e l l e v u e w a s t h e m o s t p r o m i n e n t s u b u r b a n c e n t r e in t h e S o u n d r e g i o n in 1 9 7 9 ( D a n i e l s 1 9 8 2 , 59), a n d r e m a i n s s o in 1 9 9 2 .  Puget  Further,  Bellevue's C B D d e v e l o p m e n t benefitted f r o m a rapidly growing sub-regional e c o n o m y o n the Eastside, b a s e d o n software a n d high-technology firms ( P S C O G 1 9 9 0 a , 9), w h i c h w e r e an a d d i t i o n t o ( a n d p e r h a p s a result of) t h e c o n t i n u i n g e c o n o m i c p r e s e n c e of B o e i n g .  This parallels t h e cases of V a n c o u v e r  and  M e l b o u r n e , w h e r e t h e m o s t s u c c e s s f u l of t h e s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s w e r e f o u n d to have d e v e l o p e d either f r o m important existing centres ( M e t r o t o w n , Prahran) or f r o m c e n t r e s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d a h i g h d e g r e e of e c o n o m i c activity in t h e i r surrounding regions (Richmond Centre,  Dandenong).  H o w e v e r , w h i l e B e l l e v u e ' s r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n is u n c h a n g e d , its r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e has g r o w n very m u c h .  D a n i e l s ( 1 9 8 2 , 62) n o t e s t h a t o f f i c e s p a c e in t h e  Seattle r e g i o n in 1 9 7 9 w a s h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d , a n d that c o m p e t i n g s u b u r b a n  centres  w e r e t h e r e f o r e m u c h m o r e l i m i t e d than in typical A m e r i c a n m e t r o p o l i t a n regions. S u b s e q u e n t l y , b e t w e e n 1980 a n d 1988, d o w n t o w n Seattle's share of regional office s p a c e fell f r o m 75 p e r c e n t to 50 p e r c e n t (Pivo 1990, 459).  In t h e s a m e p e r i o d , t h e  Bellevue C B D has b e c o m e not o n l y the s e c o n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o m m e r c i a l centre in t h e r e g i o n , b u t in t h e e n t i r e State ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 44, 5 0 ) .  117  6 7  C o n v e r s e l y , it is h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e C B D p o l i c i e s c a n b e g i v e n e v e n a m o d e r a t e a m o u n t o f t h e c r e d i t f o r t h i s l a r g e r scale  of d e v e l o p m e n t .  The relocation  o f a c t i v i t y f r o m S e a t t l e a n d its r e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s is c e r t a i n l y o n l y t h e local e x p r e s s i o n of a n a t i o n - w i d e t r e n d .  The a u t o n o m o u s and rapid  d e v e l o p m e n t of s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s in t h e 1 9 7 0 s a n d 1980s, g e n e r a l l y a r o u n d f r e e w a y i n t e r c h a n g e s , has b e e n n o t e d by m a n y A m e r i c a n  researchers.^  T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e B e l l e v u e C B D is n o t e w o r t h y n o t b e c a u s e o f t h e s c a l e o f its d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t f o r its u n i q u e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d e t a i l s o f d e s i g n a n d p e d e s t r i a n c o m f o r t , a n d f o r its r e l a t i v e l y e x c e l l e n t p u b l i c t r a n s i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F u r t h e r , t h e C i t y o f B e l l e v u e h a s p e r s i s t e d i n t h e d e s i g n a t i o n a n d p l a n n i n g o f its C B D s i n c e m u n i c i p a l a m a l g a m a t i o n in t h e 1950s.  Most other American  "edge  c i t i e s " d i d n o t e v e n e x i s t a s p l a c e s i n t h e 1 9 5 0 s a n d 1 9 6 0 s ( G a r r e a u 1 9 9 1 , 6-7). T h e Bellevue e x a m p l e lends s u p p o r t to the c o n c e p t that particular events a n d t i m e s are i m p o r t a n t for t h e s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t of s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s . E v e r g r e e n East p r o p o s a l m a y h a v e b e e n t h e k e y e v e n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f C B D development.  The  Bellevue's  First, as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n o v e r t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t f o c u s s e d the attention of the c o m m u n i t y .  Fortunately, this civic  f o c u s w a s c r e a t e d at e x a c t l y t h e r i g h t t i m e t o a l l o w t h e c i t y t o at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y d i r e c t t h e p o w e r f u l p r o c e s s of c o m m e r c i a l s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n in t h e 1980s. n e w C B D policies not b e e n in effect, the d e v e l o p m e n t of o n e o r m o r e  Had  the  "edge  c i t i e s " i n B e l l e v u e m i g h t h a v e o c c u r r e d i n t h e B e l - R e d c o r r i d o r , o r at o n e o f t h e f r e e w a y i n t e r c h a n g e s , rather than in the c u r r e n t d o w n t o w n . ® 9  The C B D  could  h a v e b e e n b y p a s s e d , as N e w W e s t m i n s t e r w a s in t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r  case  study. S e c o n d , t h e E v e r g r e e n East p r o p o s a l m a y h a v e b e e n a s i g n a l t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t industry that Bellevue was an attractive location for large scale d e v e l o p m e n t .  E d w a r d D e B a r t o l o w a s a m a j o r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p e r , a n d it  118  w o u l d n o t b e u n l i k e l y that o t h e r d e v e l o p e r s w o u l d b e c o m e i n t e r e s t e d in a n a r e a w h e r e DeBartolo had s h o w n such interest.  S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n a n d its  o u t c o m e w o u l d have p r o v i d e d a clear signal f r o m the c o m m u n i t y to potential d e v e l o p e r s a b o u t the p r o p e r place for large scale projects w i t h i n the desirable Bellevue market. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a d o w n t o w n e n v i r o n m e n t , o n c e b e g u n , p r o v i d e d an o b v i o u s a n d c o n v e n i e n t location for office users relocating f r o m the Seattle C B D , f o r n e w b r a n c h o f f i c e s of d o w n t o w n S e a t t l e f i r m s , a n d f o r p r e s t i g e d e v e l o p m e n t s , s u c h as t h e r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s o f n a t i o n a l f i r m s . T h e p r e s t i g e f a c t o r w o u l d attract m o r e firms.  O t h e r firms w o u l d find Bellevue a g o o d , central location from  w h i c h to provide the s u r r o u n d i n g high t e c h n o l o g y industries (and many other firms) with sophisticated legal, a c c o u n t i n g , a n d b a n k i n g services.  N o n e of t h e s e  f i r m s w o u l d h a v e l o c a t e d in B e l l e v u e s o l e l y b e c a u s e of t h e C B D p o l i c i e s . w o u l d have followed their internal priorities and markets to the n e w  They  Eastside,  w h e r e Bellevue had built a comfortable, familiar, and prestigious place for t h e m .  119  CHAPTER 6 OBSERVATIONS A N D  6.0  CONCLUSIONS  INTRODUCTION This chapter provides a brief review of t h e c o n c l u s i o n s of t h e three  p r e c e d i n g chapters, a n d provides a synopsis of t h e lessons w h i c h have b e e n derived from the study of the suburban centres policies of Vancouver, M e l b o u r n e , and Bellevue.  T h e s e l e s s o n s s t a t e t h a t (a) a r e g i o n a l p o l i c y is n e c e s s a r i l y f r a g i l e ; ( b )  it is d i f f i c u l t t o i n f l u e n c e c o m m e r c i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s ; (c) it is d a n g e r o u s t o m a k e p o l i c y in i g n o r a n c e o f t h e f o r c e s o f r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; (d) s u b u r b a n  centres  p o l i c y m a y a p p l y o n l y i n a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d o r s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; a n d (e) t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n k a g e s t o s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s is n o t a s i m p o r t a n t a s has b e e n p r e v i o u s l y c l a i m e d . General r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s are p r o v i d e d for t h e subsequent i m p r o v e m e n t of suburban centres policy in general.  T h e r e g i o n a n d its d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y m u s t  b e carefully s t u d i e d , a n d t h e fruits of t h e s e studies s h o u l d b e a p p l i e d directly t o the formation of policy.  Governmental resolve must then b e s h o w n to prevent  u n d u e pressure f o r t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n of t h e desires of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t industry.  T h e paper c o n c l u d e s with t h e presentation of s o m e prospective topics  for further research.  6.1  REVIEW  OF CHAPTER  CONCLUSIONS  T h e original policy t o w a r d t h e creation of Regional T o w n C e n t r e s in Greater V a n c o u v e r reflected an awareness of t h e high level of p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n that w o u l d likely have b e e n required t o shape t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a system of suburban downtowns.  D u e t o shifts at t h e p o l i t i c a l level i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l  government a n d o n Vancouver City Council, the policy which was eventually  120  i m p l e m e n t e d w a s m u c h less assertive, a n d r e l i e d m o r e o n i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l resolve than on regional planning and coordination.  P e r h a p s as a r e s u l t of t h i s  r e d u c e d effectiveness, Regional T o w n C e n t r e s policy cannot be s h o w n to have c a u s e d m o r e d e v e l o p m e n t , or different f o r m s of d e v e l o p m e n t , than w o u l d have o c c u r r e d in t h e a b s e n c e of p o l i c y .  R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s p o l i c y w a s first  d e v e l o p e d in t h e late 1 9 6 0 s a n d e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s , a n d m a y h a v e b e e n a n a p p r o p r i a t e response to the suburbanization p r o b l e m s w h i c h existed then.  T h e r e g i o n of t h e  1 9 9 0 s is, h o w e v e r , s u b s t a n t i a l l y c h a n g e d a n d a n e w f o r m p o l i c y r e s p o n s e m a y  be  required. D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s p o l i c y i n M e l b o u r n e w a s n o t as c l e a r l y c o n c e i v e d as t h e o r i g i n a l p o l i c y in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r .  A s in V a n c o u v e r , t h e p o l i c y c a n n o t b e  shown  to h a v e h a d a n y positive effect o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s . Those centres w h i c h had d e v e l o p m e n t potential prior to the policy continued to grow.  Those centres without such potential did not.  I n d e e d , t h e u s e of the  n e g a t i v e s t a t u t o r y i n s t r u m e n t of r e s t r i c t i n g o f f i c e l o c a t i o n m a y h a v e h a d t h e p e r v e r s e effect of c u r t a i l i n g t h e level of s u b u r b a n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t to support a suburban d o w n t o w n .  required  T h e r e m a y n o t as y e t b e s u f f i c i e n t s u b u r b a n  a c t i v i t y i n all o f M e l b o u r n e t o c r e a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t C B D - s t y l e e m p l o y m e n t  and  cultural centre. T h e d o w n t o w n of t h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e has g r o w n v e r y r a p i d l y s i n c e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f C B D l a n d u s e a n d d e s i g n p o l i c i e s . T h e B e l l e v u e C B D is a n i m p o r t a n t office, retail, a n d cultural c e n t r e for t h e Eastside r e g i o n .  D u e t o its o r i g i n a l  i m p o r t a n c e in t h e r e g i o n , a n d t o t h e e x i s t e n c e of p o w e r f u l s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n t r e n d s t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d States in t h e 1 9 8 0 s , t h e C B D p o l i c i e s c a n n o t b e s h o w n t o h a v e a l t e r e d t h e scale  of d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e B e l l e v u e C B D .  d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s a n d f l o o r area ratio (FAR) o n t h e style  of d e v e l o p m e n t .  Conversely, the  incentives have had a significant effect  The d e v e l o p m e n t of b o t h the policies a n d the  121  CBD  m a y h a v e b e e n t h e result of a f o r t u n a t e c o i n c i d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t i m i n g of a m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o v e r s y a n d t h e w a v e of c o m m e r c i a l s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n in t h e 1980s.  6.2  FIVE GENERAL  LESSONS  Lesson 1 A regional policy t o w a r d the d e v e l o p m e n t of a system of s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s is f r a g i l e , a n d is s u b j e c t t o m a n y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s b e y o n d t h e p u r v i e w o f such policy. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e g i o n a l s y s t e m o f s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s is n e c e s s a r i l y a l o n g t e r m p r o p o s i t i o n , m e a s u r e d in d e c a d e s .  If t h e r e is a c h a n g e i n g o v e r n m e n t at  t h e l e v e l w h i c h is r e q u i r e d t o i m p l e m e n t p o l i c y ( o r p a s s s t a t u t e i n s u p p o r t o f p o l i c y ) , t h e n t h e r e is l i k e l y t o b e a n a c c o m p a n y i n g s h i f t i n p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . T h e S o c i a l C r e d i t g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h r e p l a c e d t h e N e w D e m o c r a t s in B.C. in 1 9 7 5 h a d m u c h less i n t e r e s t in i n t e r v e n i n g in t h e o p e r a t i o n of m a r k e t f o r c e s t h a n their predecessors.  had  Indeed, d u e t o the g e o g r a p h i c a l manifestations of political  s u p p o r t in the 1970s, the Social C r e d i t party h a d a m o r e rural p o w e r base, a n d p e r h a p s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y l o w e r level of interest in u r b a n issues.  In t h e C i t y o f  V a n c o u v e r , c o n c e r n o v e r a d r o p in m u n i c i p a l p o p u l a t i o n l e d t o a n e w " b o o s t e r i s m " w h i c h contradicted earlier municipal support for Regional Centres policy.  Town  A s in the case of t h e M e t r o t o w n mall d e v e l o p e r s , large  d e v e l o p m e n t interests can s o m e t i m e s afford to be patient e n o u g h to outlast government resolve.  In t h e S t a t e o f V i c t o r i a , t h e g o v e r n m e n t  became  p r o g r e s s i v e l y m o r e f l e x i b l e as a r e s p o n s e t o t h e c o n c e r n s of d e v e l o p e r s a n d  some  m a j o r c o r p o r a t i o n s . T h e s e c h a n g e s are n o t u n u s u a l in d e m o c r a c i e s , a n d a r e g i o n a l policy w h i c h requires a consistent a n d l o n g t e r m level of political c o m m i t m e n t a n d c o u r a g e will fare poorly.  122  F u r t h e r , e v e n if t h e l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t c o m m i t m e n t is c o n s i s t e n t , it m a y  be  a l o w e r l e v e l o f c o m m i t m e n t t h a n t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s t o o t h e r p l a n k s i n its p o l i c y platform.  T h e State of V i c t o r i a has c o n s i s t e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d that District C e n t r e s are  a part of their overall m e t r o p o l i t a n a n d e c o n o m i c strategies, a n d s u c h c o m m i t m e n t has b e e n e x p l i c i t in m a j o r p o l i c y p a p e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 8 0 s ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e p r i o r i t y p l a c e d o n t h i s p o l i c y is m u c h l o w e r t h a n t h e g o v e r n m e n t has p l a c e d o n w i d e r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h e case o f t h e G . J . C o l e s L t d . p e r f e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p r o b l e m o f c a p i t a l f l i g h t at t h e regional scale.  W h e n t h e c h o i c e is b e t w e e n a c o n s i s t e n t p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  a n d the loss of a major c o r p o r a t e e m p l o y e r , the g o v e r n m e n t c a n n o t afford to be courageous.  Lesson 2 It is v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o r e d i r e c t t h e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y at t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e . N o n e of t h e t h r e e policies d e s c r i b e d in this p a p e r c a n b e s h o w n to have c a u s e d m o r e o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t t h a n w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e o c c u r r e d in t h e r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n s . T h e s u c c e s s i v e w a v e s of s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n w h i c h h a v e f l o w e d t h r o u g h m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s in t h e p o s t w a r p e r i o d h a v e n e e d e d n o s u c h p o l i c y support.  It is v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y w o u l d h a v e h a d a n e f f e c t  o n the a m o u n t a n d t y p e of d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h has b e e n b o t h r e l o c a t i n g f r o m the c o r e a n d g r o w i n g i n d i g e n o u s l y , a n d if s u c h a n e f f e c t w e r e p r e s e n t it w o u l d  be  i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h f r o m t h e e f f e c t s of t h e m a n y o t h e r f o r c e s at w o r k . A s at t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l , n o n e o f t h e t h r e e p o l i c y e x a m p l e s c a n b e s h o w n t o h a v e c a u s e d m o r e d e v e l o p m e n t t h a n w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e o c c u r r e d in particular suburban centres.  T h e m o s t s u c c e s s f u l s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s in e a c h c a s e w e r e f o u n d  to have b e e n important centres prior to policy institution, or to have b e e n  123  located  in areas w i t h d y n a m i c s u b - r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c activity (or b o t h ) .  By this a r g u m e n t ,  the potential to d e v e l o p a s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n m a y be limited to specific areas w i t h i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n , a n d t h e a t t e m p t e d use of s u c h p o l i c i e s to s p r e a d d e v e l o p m e n t into areas of t h e r e g i o n w h i c h h a v e n o t p r e v i o u s l y attracted d e v e l o p m e n t interest m a y b e a w a s t e of effort.  The northern and western  of M e l b o u r n e , like t h e n o r t h e a s t sector a n d s o u t h of Fraser area of  suburbs  Greater  V a n c o u v e r , h a v e o n l y v e r y l o n g t e r m d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l (if a n y ) , a n d s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d r e q u i r e just t h e sort of s t r u c t u r a l shift in t h e u r b a n f o r m of t h o s e regions that s u b u r b a n centres p o l i c y has b e e n u n a b l e to deliver. A s is s h o w n i n t h e B e l l e v u e c a s e s t u d y , t h e k e y o p p o r t u n i t y w h i c h is p r e s e n t e d t o s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y is n o t t h e c r e a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t n o r t h e r e d i r e c t i o n of d e v e l o p m e n t i n t o c e n t r e s , b u t t h e i n f l u e n c e o n t h e d e s i g n of d e v e l o p m e n t that has a l r e a d y b e e n attracted.  B e l l e v u e s u c c e e d e d in u s i n g t h e  " n a t u r a l " o u t w a r d m o v e m e n t of d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e 1980s t o c r e a t e an urban-style downtown.  M e t r o t o w n m a y h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t e d w i t h a s i m i l a r o p p o r t u n i t y , b u t it  w a s n o t p u r s u e d as e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h a t c a s e .  Lesson 3 W i t h o u t a s o l i d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n , a n d of t h e  needs  of the local c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t industry, a p o l i c y w h i c h tinkers with the regional e c o n o m y can be dangerous. T h e r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s in M e l b o u r n e a n d V a n c o u v e r b o t h c o n t a i n e d r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of c o m m e r c i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . p o l i c y is n o t i m p l e m e n t e d , t h e n it c a n d o n o h a r m .  If s u c h a  In t h e c a s e o f R e g i o n a l T o w n  C e n t r e s , t h e o n l y l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n w h i c h w a s f o r c e d w a s t h e B.C.  Telephone  C o m p a n y h e a d q u a r t e r s , a n d t h i s w a s d o n e as a r e s u l t of a C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r  124  decision which predated the RTC policy.  All other RTC location decisions have  f o l l o w e d the p r e f e r e n c e s of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t industry.  In M e l b o u r n e ,  however,  t h e r e w a s a h i g h level of i n t e r v e n t i o n in t h e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t l o c a t i o n process.  Rigid g u i d e l i n e s w e r e set a n d f o l l o w e d . W h i l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n s w e r e  m a d e f o r p o w e r f u l interests, less p o w e r f u l a p p l i c a n t s w e r e f o r c e d t o c h o o s e a s a n c t i o n e d l o c a t i o n or alter their plans.  O ' C o n n o r a n d Blakely (1988) assert that  this p o l i c y m a y have s t e m m e d the s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n of s o m e activities, a n d so h a r m e d the e c o n o m i c p r o s p e c t s of t h e d e p r e s s e d areas of M e l b o u r n e . O n the o t h e r h a n d , the m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y of Bellevue f o c u s s e d d e v e l o p m e n t i n its c e n t r e w i t h o u t c a u s i n g a n y h a r m t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s u b - r e g i o n a l e c o n o m y , or e v e n to n e a r b y areas within Bellevue's b o r d e r s .  Firms w h i c h w i s h e d t o l o c a t e in  o f f i c e p a r k s w e r e f r e e t o l o c a t e in t h e B e l - R e d c o r r i d o r , o r in n e i g h b o u r i n g R e d m o n d , or beyond.  The restrictions o n suburban d o w n t o w n d e v e l o p m e n t only  applied once the location decisions had been made, and the policy intervention was m o d e r a t e e n o u g h to avoid c h a n g i n g those decisions.  Business  and  d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e r e s t s h a v e a r g u e d f o r l e s s - r e s t r i c t i v e p o l i c y , b u t t h i s is n o t surprising.  D e v e l o p e r s w i l l always  c o m p l a i n a b o u t state i n t e r v e n t i o n .  In  Bellevue,  t h e y c o m p l a i n e d , b u t s t a y e d b e c a u s e t h e y p e r c e i v e d t h a t it w a s i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t s t o stay ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 51).  Lesson 4 S u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y is r e l e v a n t o n l y t o p a r t i c u l a r e r a s ( a n d p e r h a p s t o u n i q u e c i r c u m s t a n c e s ) in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . The City of Bellevue d e v e l o p e d a g o o d policy and steadfastly i m p l e m e n t e d it, b u t t h e s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t o f its C B D a l s o d e r i v e d f r o m a l u c k y h i s t o r i c a l circumstance.  A s m e n t i o n e d in t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h e E v e r g r e e n East p r o p o s a l  f o c u s s e d c i v i c a t t e n t i o n o n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a t r u e C B D at t h e c r i t i c a l t i m e j u s t p r i o r  125  to t h e m o s t r e c e n t w a v e of c o m m e r c i a l s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n ( b a s e d o n h i g h o r d e r office e m p l o y m e n t ) .  T h e s i t u a t i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t if t h e  CBD  p o l i c i e s h a d b e e n d e l a y e d a f e w y e a r s , o r h a d n o t b e e n d e v e l o p e d at a l l f o r l a c k o f a c a t a l y s t , o r if t h e c i v i c c o a l i t i o n w h i c h s t o p p e d E v e r g r e e n E a s t h a d n o t formed.  been  In t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f d o w n t o w n m i g h t h a v e  d e v e l o p e d , based on a more typical freeway oriented pattern.  Such a downtown  m i g h t not have t h e potential to attract high o r d e r office f u n c t i o n s a n d users, w h o m i g h t h a v e d e t e r m i n e d that a n o f f i c e park in t h e Bel-Red c o r r i d o r , o r a p r e s t i g e l o c a t i o n at o n e o f t h e n e a r b y h i g h w a y i n t e r c h a n g e s w a s a b e t t e r w a y t o f u l f i l t h e i r Eastside location r e q u i r e m e n t s than the n o n d e s c r i p t Bellevue C B D . D u e t o t h e u n c h a l l e n g e d c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of h i g h o r d e r u r b a n f u n c t i o n s in C e n t r a l M e l b o u r n e , D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s p o l i c y m a y h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d at t o o e a r l y a stage in that r e g i o n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t .  After a f e w m o r e years of s u b u r b a n i z i n g of  e m p l o y m e n t a n d p r o d u c e r services, there m a y b e e n o u g h activity to require the services of a h i g h o r d e r s u b u r b a n  CBD.  R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s p o l i c y m a y h a v e b e e n f o r m e d at j u s t t h e r i g h t m o m e n t in t h e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t of G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r .  O n l y t h e central city  had more jobs than labour force, and the c o m m u t i n g pattern was distinctly inward from the suburbs every m o r n i n g .  N e w Westminster's small d o w n t o w n was  m o s t important regional centre o u t s i d e of the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r .  the  Regional  planners r e c o g n i z e d that rapid s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n was o c c u r r i n g . It c a n n o t b e k n o w n w h a t w o u l d h a v e h a p p e n e d if t h e suburbanization had been focussed.  subsequent  Perhaps, like M e l b o u r n e , the policy w o u l d  have b e e n t o o rigidly e n f o r c e d a n d w o u l d have d e l a y e d the p r o c e s s of b r o a d suburban economic development.  Perhaps, like Bellevue, the policy w o u l d have  allowed the municipalities, particularly Burnaby a n d R i c h m o n d , to g u i d e the d e v e l o p m e n t that was certainly c o m i n g to their centres into a m o r e urban pattern.  126  T h a t m o m e n t is p a s t .  A great d e a l of s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n a n d d i s p e r s a l of  e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y h a s o c c u r r e d , a n d n o t h i n g w i l l c a l l it b a c k .  The RTCs have grown  ( s o m e m o r e than others), b u t other c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of varying size a n d functional c o m p o s i t i o n have also b e e n f o r m i n g o v e r the past fifteen years.  Regional decision  makers must n o w plan for a region with d o z e n s of major a n d m i n o r centres, strips, and corridors.  P l a n n e r s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r ' s m o d e r n e r a m u s t d e t e r m i n e if a  p o l i c y f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f e w i m p o r t a n t n o d e s is s t i l l r e l e v a n t t o s u c h a region.  Lesson 5 P u b l i c r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n k a g e t o t h e r e g i o n a l c o r e m a y n o t b e a s i m p o r t a n t as p r e v i o u s l y a s s u m e d in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n (or a n e t w o r k o f suburban  downtowns).  T h e e x i s t e n c e of a c o m p l e t e radial p u b l i c transit n e t w o r k in M e l b o u r n e , u p o n w h i c h t h e s e l e c t i o n of D i s t r i c t C e n t r e s w a s partially b a s e d , w a s n o t a factor in the success or failure of policy.  A s a r g u e d in p r e v i o u s sections of this p a p e r , the  o n l y i m p o r t a n t factors in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e c e n t r e s w e r e s u c c e s s p r i o r t o p o l i c y a n d t h e e x i s t e n c e of a d y n a m i c s u b - r e g i o n e c o n o m y (the s o u t h a n d east in Melbourne).  If a n y t h i n g , a r a d i a l n e t w o r k r e i n f o r c e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e  CBD,  w h i c h is t h e m o s t a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n f r o m t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f s u b u r b a n a r e a s . W h i l e s o m e c e n t r e s in t h e s o u t h e a s t m a y b e n e f i t f r o m l i n k a g e s b e t w e e n t h e f e w centres o n the s a m e p u b l i c transit lines, Central M e l b o u r n e benefits f r o m the c o n v e r g e n c e o f all l i n e s . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e S k y T r a i n l i g h t rail l i n e f r o m t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r t o d o w n t o w n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r , later e x t e n d e d to Surrey, has h a d a positive effect o n the d e v e l o p m e n t of several areas a l o n g the line.  H o w e v e r , m o s t of this  d e v e l o p m e n t h a s n o t b e e n r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e R T C s , n o r h a s m o s t o f it b e e n  127  related  to c o m m e r c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e majority of s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d after t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of SkyTrain have b e e n multi-family residential projects (BC Transit Authority 1989), a n d these have not  been  c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e R T C s b u t h a v e o c c u r r e d at a l m o s t e v e r y s t a t i o n a l o n g t h e l i n e . ( T h i s p a t t e r n is b e i n g r e p e a t e d a s S k y T r a i n is b e i n g e x t e n d e d t o W h a l l e y ~ D i s t r i c t of S u r r e y 1992)  A l t h o u g h m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t h a s o c c u r r e d at  M e t r o t o w n , this c a n n o t b e a t t r i b u t e d solely to t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of SkyTrain.  The  o w n e r s of the major M e t r o t o w n sites h a d b e e n a t t e m p t i n g to o b t a i n d e v e l o p m e n t approval for the malls for several years prior to SkyTrain.  T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  line c h a n g e d o n l y the resolve of B u r n a b y M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l t o h o l d o u t for a different style of d e v e l o p m e n t . not directly related to SkyTrain.  T h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t of N e w W e s t m i n s t e r w a s also Attractive w a t e r f r o n t sites w e r e sufficient to attract  d e v e l o p m e n t activity well before the d e c i s i o n to b u i l d SkyTrain was t a k e n . In B e l l e v u e , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C B D w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e of a r a p i d transit c o n n e c t i o n to t h e r e g i o n a l c o r e .  Improved  public  transit service (by bus) d i d not c o n t r i b u t e to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e C B D , but was i n c r e a s e d afterwards  in d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r i o r i n c r e a s e s in e m p l o y m e n t  d e s i g n c h a n g e s w h i c h f a v o u r e d less p a r k i n g .  and  In B e l l e v u e , a s i n m o s t o t h e r  A m e r i c a n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas, highways w e r e the key locational c o n s i d e r a t i o n . There m a y be a serious p r o b l e m with using p u b l i c rapid transit to attempt to s h a p e d e v e l o p m e n t in a d i s p e r s e d r e g i o n . T h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c r a p i d transit w i l l n o t h a v e t h e s a m e e f f e c t i n t h e m o d e r n r e g i o n as it h a d f o r e a r l i e r u r b a n f o r m s .  In  t h e m o n o c e n t r i c r e g i o n s of t h e e a r l y part of this c e n t u r y , t h e l o c a t i o n of rail t r a n s i t lines l e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l a n d retail d e v e l o p m e n t a r o u n d t h e rail s t a t i o n s b e c a u s e rail l i n e r e p r e s e n t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e in t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y b e t w e e n t h e c o r e ( w h e r e jobs a n d c o m m e r c i a l activity w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d ) a n d the p r e v i o u s l y  128  the  u n d e v e l o p e d h i n t e r l a n d . T h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p u b l i c transit l o c a t i o n a n d later d e v e l o p m e n t was readily apparent. In t h e m o d e r n r e g i o n , w h e r e a r t e r i a l r o a d a n d f r e e w a y n e t w o r k s p r o v i d e a high level of b r o a d r e g i o n a l accessibility for a u t o m o b i l e users, t h e p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c r a p i d t r a n s i t is o n l y a m a r g i n a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e t o t a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r s u b - r e g i o n . T h e n a s c e n t s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e all accessible by road (otherwise, they c o u l d not have b e c o m e relatively important centres).  A r a p i d transit line can o n l y a u g m e n t this accessibility, a n d t h e n o n l y o n  o n e of several c o r r i d o r s w h i c h serve the centre. This a p p l i e s also to t h e e n t i r e m o d e r n r e g i o n of s u b u r b a n i z e d a n d d i s p e r s e d residential a n d c o m m e r c i a l activity.  The road a n d transit n e t w o r k that exists  now  h a s b u i l t a d i s p e r s e d r e g i o n , a n d t h i s r e g i o n c o u l d n o t h a v e d e v e l o p e d if t h e s e d i s p e r s e d l o c a t i o n s h a d n o t b e e n a c c e s s i b l e in t h e first place.  The a d d i t i o n of  s o m e f o r m of r a p i d transit will t h e r e f o r e m a k e m u c h less d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e m a r g i n a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y t h a n it m i g h t h a v e i n 1 9 1 0 , o r 1 9 5 0 , o r 1 9 7 0 .  ( T h i s p o i n t is  strongly related to the previous lesson regarding the time-related aspect of s u b u r b a n centres policy effectiveness.)  Today's metropolitan areas are characterized by a well transportation system and a highly decentralized pattern These characteristics have reduced accessibility-related between locations, which have in turn weakened the land use linkage. (Guiliano 1989, 1 6 )  developed of land use. differences transportation-  7 0  In a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w o n t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d l a n d u s e l i n k a g e , D e a k i n (1991) f o u n d that, a l t h o u g h t h e r e r e m a i n m a n y p r o p o n e n t s f o r t h e u s e of rail transit to " r e d i r e c t u r b a n g r o w t h patterns t o w a r d m o r e c o m p a c t ,  centered  d e v e l o p m e n t , " it is d i f f i c u l t t o s h o w s u c h a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ( D e a k i n , 2 6 ) . Economic and mathematical models generally a s s u m e d monocentricity, and b e c a m e less t r a c t a b l e w i t h " e a c h a d d i t i o n a l d o s e of reality" ( D e a k i n , 31). S i m u l a t i o n m o d e l s g e n e r a l l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t m a n y o t h e r f a c t o r s ( s u c h as h o u s i n g  129  t y p e , c o s t , a n d s i z e ; s c h o o l s ; c r i m e r a t e s ; l i f e s t y l e a n d l i f e c y c l e v a r i a t i o n s ) w e r e as o r m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t r a n s p o r t v a r i a b l e s in f o r m i n g l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s ( D e a k i n , 32).  Finally, e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of t h e effect of p u b l i c transit l o c a t i o n w e r e f o u n d to  s h o w that  [m]any localized benefits can be found, but from a regional the benefits are quite modest. Shifts toward compact growth increased density, when they occur, seem overwhelmed by regional trends toward decentralization. ( D e a k i n , 34)  perspective and stronger  W o r s e , t h e a u t o m o b i l e has a l l o w e d t h e m o b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s of s u b u r b a n residents to e x p a n d .  A n y s w i t c h to the use of p u b l i c transit will r e p r e s e n t a net  loss in m o b i l i t y for s o m e residents, b e c a u s e t h e ability to a c c o m m o d a t e  multi-  destination trips, especially those related to s h o p p i n g and children, will be hampered.  A c c o r d i n g l y , T. L o g a n h a s a r g u e d ( 1 9 8 6 b , 12) t h a t p o l i c y m a k e r s h a v e  e x a g g e r a t e d t h e possibility for a large scale m o d a l shift f r o m a u t o m o b i l e use to p u b l i c t r a n s i t u s e in a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s .  Those persons and  b u s i n e s s e s l o c a t e d in t h e w i d e l y spread-out s u b u r b s have n o true incentive to leave their a u t o m o b i l e s , a n d d o have s o m e significant disincentives. T h e r e are yet m o r e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p u b l i c transits u b u r b a n c e n t r e link.  In c e n t r e s w h i c h d o e x p e r i e n c e i n c r e a s e s i n c o m m e r c i a l a n d  r e s i d e n t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n , a n y attraction c r e a t e d in t h e c e n t r e s will n o t b e r e s t r i c t e d to p u b l i c transit users.  S e v e r e traffic c o n g e s t i o n results w h e n individuals d o n o t  c h o o s e t o e m p l o y p u b l i c t r a n s i t in t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o t h e c e n t r e s .  The decentralization of employment, however, rarely achieves the goal of higher transit use. In fact, experience in most cities indicates that suburban town centres more often than not give rise to serious traffic congestion. ( L e i c e s t e r 1 9 9 1 , 1) T h i s p r o b l e m c a n b e o b s e r v e d o n a n y b u s i n e s s d a y at t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e c o m p l e x in Burnaby.  Metrotown  D e s p i t e the provision of a SkyTrain station,  the extensive p a r k i n g lots are u s e d to nearly c a p a c i t y a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r o a d s y s t e m is j a m m e d a l m o s t t o g r i d l o c k .  Large s u b u r b a n s h o p p i n g malls generate  130  s i g n i f i c a n t a m o u n t s o f t r a f f i c b y d e s i g n — t h e i r s i z e is a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p e r ' s e s t i m a t e of t h e e x t e n t of t h e mall's trade area, a n d large malls m u s t d r a w customers f r o m a wider area than small malls. T h e p r o b l e m can also a p p l y to w o r k trips.  In a G V R D  report on a seminar  g i v e n b y K e n n e t h O r s k i , a W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . - b a s e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n s u l t a n t , it is stated that [ S ] o m e U.S. cities are discovering that often rail transit systems can create new traffic congestion problems to replace the ones they solve. In Washington, D.C, for instance, high density office developments have grown up around the Metrorail's suburban stations. But 9 5 % of the people who work in the new office developments arrive by car creating more congestion than ever around the stations. (GVRD 1 9 9 0 a , 6) T h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l b e i n t e n s i f i e d if o f f i c e e m p l o y m e n t is r e l o c a t e d f r o m t h e c o r e o f t h e r e g i o n (as w a s t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e n t o f t h e R T C p o l i c y ) .  The traditional  C B D s invariably h a v e t h e h i g h e s t transit m o d a l splits in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n s , versus very m u c h l o w e r m o d a l splits in t h e s u b u r b a n centres.  For e x a m p l e , the  d o w n t o w n of t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r has a p e a k h o u r m o d a l split of o v e r 40 p e r c e n t , w h e r e M e t r o t o w n ' s s p l i t is o n l y 1 7 p e r c e n t ( L e i c e s t e r , 3 ) .  Government  r e l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s , o n e of t h e f e w p u b l i c initiatives that c a n e n c o u r a g e  higher  s u b u r b a n centre densities, can therefore have a perverse effect o n travel patterns. T. L o g a n ( 1 9 8 6 , 8) n o t e s t h a t t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f a t a x a t i o n o f f i c e f r o m t h e c e n t r a l a r e a t o a d i s t r i c t c e n t r e in t h e 1 9 7 0 s i n c r e a s e d a u t o m o b i l e u s e a m o n g t h e d i s p l a c e d w o r k e r s f r o m 14 p e r c e n t t o 78 p e r c e n t .  The shorter journey to work  had  t h e effect of f o r c i n g p u b l i c transit users i n t o their a u t o m o b i l e s . T h e f i n a l i r o n y is t h a t t h e r e s u l t i n g t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n a n d p a r k i n g p r o b l e m s of an initially s u c c e s s f u l centre m a y d e t e r t h e office e m p l o y m e n t l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s that the centre was m e a n t to attract.  N e u t z e ( 1 9 7 8 , 1 8 5 ) a s s e r t s t h a t "[a]s  a  s u b u r b a n e m p l o y m e n t c e n t r e g r o w s it b e c o m e s l e s s e a s y t o h a n d l e t h e i n c r e a s i n g v o l u m e of r o a d traffic a n d t o p r o v i d e p a r k i n g f o r all t h e c a r s o f c u s t o m e r s a n d  131  employees."  A s F o t h e r g i l l ( 1 9 8 7 , 1) p o i n t s o u t , t h e m o s t d e s i r e d l o c a t i o n a l  advantages for s u b u r b a n businesses are accessibility a n d parking.  If t h e s e  e l e m e n t s are u n a v a i l a b l e in t h e s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n , t h e o f f i c e park b e c o m e s a m u c h m o r e attractive o p t i o n . T h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e use of p u b l i c transit p r o v i s i o n as a l a n d u s e t o o l d o n o t c o n s t i t u t e p r o o f t h a t t h e r e is n o c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n p u b l i c transit a n d s u b u r b a n c e n t r e land use a n d character.  The policies  w h i c h h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d i n t h i s p a p e r m a y h a v e b e e n s o i n e f f e c t i v e at s h a p i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r of s u b u r b a n g r o w t h that t h e b e n e f i t s of transit p r o v i s i o n c o u l d n o t b e realized, a n d there m a y exist m o r e effective m e a n s of f o r g i n g the c o n n e c t i o n .  If  p u b l i c t r a n s i t h a d b e e n p r o v i d e d t o M e t r o t o w n at t h e r i g h t t i m e (i.e., p r i o r t o t h e g r o w t h of the c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s ) , t h e pattern of g r o w t h m i g h t h a v e b e e n different and the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l w h i c h a p p r o v e d the three malls might have m a d e a different choice. T h e benefits of p u b l i c transit p r o v i s i o n to a r e g i o n are u n q u e s t i o n e d . S k y T r a i n is j a m m e d t o c a p a c i t y e v e r y m o r n i n g a n d e v e r y a f t e r n o o n as it t r a n s p o r t s c o m m u t e r s f r o m s u b u r b a n h o m e s t o t h e i r j o b s in t h e r e g i o n a l c o r e elsewhere).  (and  M a n y , if n o t m o s t , o f t h e s e t r a v e l l e r s h a v e b e e n i n d u c e d t o l e a v e t h e i r  a u t o m o b i l e s at h o m e .  This can only be positive for everyone.  W h a t remains to be  s h o w n , h o w e v e r , is w h e t h e r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c t r a n s i t c a n h a v e a p o s i t i v e effect o n t h e a b s o l u t e a m o u n t of g r o w t h o r t h e pattern of g r o w t h in a s u b u r b a n centre.  6.3  M o r e r e s e a r c h is n e e d e d i n t h i s a r e a .  RECOMMENDATIONS  FOR  GREATER  VANCOUVER  This p a p e r has o u t l i n e d m a n y difficulties a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of suburban d o w n t o w n s through explicit policy.  If t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a n d l e s s o n s h e r e i n  are w e l l - f o u n d e d , several c o u r s e s of action m a y b e s u g g e s t e d t o w a r d  132  the  i m p r o v e m e n t of such policy.  T h e f o l l o w i n g is a h y p o t h e t i c a l list o f  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s for the d e v e l o p m e n t of s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s , with special reference to h o w the Greater Vancouver region might comply.  6.3.1  S t u d y the  region.  First, a n y m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n w i s h i n g t o d e v e l o p a p o l i c y f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s m u s t have accurate a n d b r o a d l y b a s e d k n o w l e d g e of the r e g i o n , b o t h its e c o n o m y a n d its u r b a n s t r u c t u r e .  A n t i q u e i m a g e s of t h e r e g i o n ,  w h e t h e r d e r i v e d f r o m t h e 1950s o r t h e 1980s, m u s t b e a b a n d o n e d in f a v o u r of very intensive investigation. context?  H o w d o e s t h e r e g i o n really w o r k in t h e  W h a t d o e s it r e a l l y l o o k l i k e t o d a y ?  modern  W h a t t r e n d s are in o p e r a t i o n w h i c h  will affect the e c o n o m y or the u r b a n structure?  Without answering these  q u e s t i o n s , as t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f M e l b o u r n e s h o w s , p o l i c y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n c a n  be  dangerous. G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r m u s t t h o r o u g h l y investigate t h e e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s of Richmond.  A r e R i c h m o n d ' s locational advantages the sole s o u r c e of this success,  o r are t h e r e o t h e r factors that m i g h t b e s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r areas of the m e t r o p o l i s ? W h a t is t h e l i n k a g e b e t w e e n t h e d y n a m i c s u b - r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i e s o f R i c h m o n d and Burnaby with their t w o respective RTCs?  H o w important to the regional  e c o n o m y a r e t h e l o w - d e n s i t y c o r r i d o r s a n d c l u s t e r s o f e m p l o y m e n t , s u c h as t h e Knight Street, C a n a d a Way, or B r e n t w o o d - L o u g h e e d - H i g h w a y  corridors?  e q u i v a l e n t s of t h e s e c o r r i d o r s d e v e l o p s o u t h of t h e Fraser River, o r in t h e sector?  Will northeast  W h e r e will they be located, a n d h o w will they affect the p l a n n e d t o w n  centres?  133  6.3.2  S t u d y t h e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t industry. S e c o n d , if p o l i c y is m e a n t t o a f f e c t p r i v a t e s e c t o r l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , t h e n  a c c u r a t e a n d b r o a d l y b a s e d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y is a n e c e s s i t y . H o w does the development industry make location and investment decisions? W h a t t r e n d s are o p e r a t i n g presently w h i c h affect that d e c i s i o n process? t h e r e g i o n in t h e c u r r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t c y c l e ?  W h e r e is  G i v e n a n s w e r s t o all of t h e a b o v e ,  h o w attractive are t h e areas b e i n g p r o m o t e d b y policy?  Without answering these  questions, the attraction of private sector investment will b e slow, non-existent, o r based o n luck.  T h e s c h e d u l e of d e v e l o p m e n t in a s u b u r b a n centre will b e  u n k n o w n and uncoordinated (and perhaps uncontrollable). F u r t h e r , it is w i d e l y a s s u m e d t h a t t h e i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c sector c a n b e a catalyst f o r private s e c t o r location d e c i s i o n s . This a s s u m p t i o n should be tested.  H o w d i d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of SkyTrain affect t h e t i m i n g of  d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e RTCs a n d b e y o n d ? increase?  D i d the attractiveness of t h e RTCs  H a s p u b l i c s e c t o r o f f i c e l o c a t i o n ( B C Transit, B.C. Rail, I.C.B.C., f o r  examples) d r a w n a c o r r e s p o n d i n g a m o u n t of private sector office construction?  6.3.3  D e v e l o p p o l i c y b a s e d directly o n t h e s e s t u d i e s . After s o u n d k n o w l e d g e of t h e region a n d t h e c o m m e r c i a l  development  i n d u s t r y is a c q u i r e d , p o l i c y s h o u l d b e f o r m u l a t e d w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h a t k n o w l e d g e . G i v e n s u c h u n d e r s t a n d i n g , it m u s t b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n s c h o s e n f o r s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n d e v e l o p m e n t are a b l e t o attract interest.  That interest s h o u l d  not be squandered through immoderate policy requirements.  The policy must be  powerful enough to shape the expected development, but judicious enough to avoid alienating t h e d e v e l o p e r s a n d d r i v i n g t h e m t o o t h e r sites.  Both  Bellevue's  FAR incentive system a n d t h e 1973City of V a n c o u v e r interim z o n i n g b y l a w w e r e p r e d i c a t e d o n t h e fact that d e v e l o p m e n t w a s a s s u r e d a n d that t h e r e w a s a certain  134  flexibility or n e g o t i a t i n g r o o m w h e r e i n d e v e l o p e r s a n d p l a n n e r s c o u l d t r a d e off design quality for additional c o m m e r c i a l floorspace. C l i n g i n g t o t h e l o g i c a l p o l i c i e s o f a p r e v i o u s a n d b y g o n e d e v e l o p m e n t e r a is a mistake.  P l a n n e r s s h o u l d r e s p o n d t o t h e a c t u a l r e g i o n , as o p p o s e d t o t h e  idealized region of m e m o r y .  H o w l i k e l y is it t h a t a p o l i c y d e s i g n e d t o s o l v e t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t p r o b l e m s of t h e 1960s will a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s t h e p r o b l e m s of a r e g i o n that has s p e n t thirty years g r o w i n g into a n e w u r b a n form?  6.3.4  D o not w a v e r . T h e f i n a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a s u c c e s s f u l s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y is p o l i t i c a l  resolve.  If t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e g i o n a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y h a s  t h o r o u g h , t r u s t it. business cycle.  been  B e p r e p a r e d t o w a i t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h at l e a s t o n e  D o not allow c o n c e s s i o n s , because they set a p r e c e d e n t for  s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p e r s t o insist u p o n .  D o not change the rules.  If t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t industry smells the panic of politicians n e e d i n g a q u i c k , high-profile d e v e l o p m e n t , then they will apply pressure.  D e v e l o p e r s o f t e n state that t h e  t h i n g t h e y m o s t w a n t f r o m g o v e r n m e n t is c o n s i s t e n c y .  one  It d o e s n o t r e a l l y m a t t e r  w h a t t h e r u l e s a r e ( w i t h i n r e a s o n ) , a s l o n g a s t h e y a p p l y e q u a l l y t o all p l a y e r s i n t h e competitive market. T h e e x p e r i e n c e of the Bellevue C B D m a y c o n v i n c e a farsighted m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l of t h e l o n g t e r m a d v a n t a g e s of b e i n g patient a n d f i r m .  T h e City of  B e l l e v u e w a s ( a n d is) c o n f i d e n t e n o u g h i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f t h e i r  CBD  that t h e y are w i l l i n g t o wait for t h e e v e n t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e i r p e d e s t r i a n corridor.  B e l l e v u e ' s p o l i t i c i a n s a n d p l a n n e r s w e r e n o t s t a m p e d e d i n t o w a n t i n g it  i m m e d i a t e l y , a n d a l l o w i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y t o s e n s e t h a t d e s i r e a n d u s e it to apply pressure.  135  6.3.5  A Final N o t e If t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s l i s t e d a b o v e w e r e t o b e f o l l o w e d e x a c t l y , t h e p o l i c y  w o u l d n o t fulfil all of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s that p l a n n e r s o r i g i n a l l y p l a c e d o n s u b u r b a n downtowns.  N o n e of t h e three policies studied h a d a n y d e m o n s t r a b l e effect o n  the scale of d e v e l o p m e n t o r o n t h e location of d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e t h r e e regions. T h e success of B e l l e v u e d i d n o t lay in t h e attraction of m o r e d e v e l o p m e n t  than  w o u l d otherwise have c o m e to Bellevue o r the region. T h e dispersal of e c o n o m i c activity w a s n o t altered b y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of an urban-style C B D . T h e travel pattern of t h e region has n o t b e e n significantly altered either. This suggests that t h e goals attached t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s m a y have b e e n t o o broad to b e achieved.  A n urban d o w n t o w n ,  c o m f o r t a b l e t o t h e pedestrian a n d attractive t o high o r d e r businesses, has b e e n shown to be approachable.  H o w e v e r , t h e positive benefits that w e r e a s s u m e d t o  accrue to s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t have n o t b e e n in e v i d e n c e , p r o v i d i n g yet m o r e justification f o r a re-examination of s u b u r b a n centres policy.  If t h e e v e n t u a l  b e n e f i t s a r e s o l i m i t e d , is it r e a l l y w o r t h c o n t i n u i n g s u c h a l o n g a n d d i f f i c u l t t a s k ? Are there m o r e effective ways of p r o v i d i n g jobs, s h o p p i n g opportunities, a n d h o u s i n g t o s u b u r b a n areas, w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a c o m m i t m e n t t o a m o r e " l i v a b l e " and environmentally responsible region?  6.4  TOPICS  FOR  FURTHER  STUDY  The foregoing discussion has p r e s e n t e d several areas w h e r e further research w o u l d b e of u s e . M o s t importantly, t h e nature of t h e p u b l i c transit a n d land u s e linkage should be examined.  C a n p u b l i c transit s h a p e l a n d u s e into a m u l t i c e n t r e d form?  C a n a m u l t i c e n t r e d f o r m s u p p o r t a financially viable transit network? s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s p o l i c y still w o r t h p u r s u i n g ?  136  If n o t , is a  W h a t is t h e b e n e f i t o f a c e n t r e s  p o l i c y if it d o e s n o t c o n t r o l t h e u s e o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e a n d l e s s e n t h e n e e d t o commute?  If a r e g i o n is d i s p e r s e d i n t o a m u l t i t u d e o f v a r i o u s s i z e s o f c e n t r e  and  c o r r i d o r , w h a t is t h e b e s t w a y t o a m e l i o r a t e t h e n e g a t i v e e x t e r n a l i t i e s o f u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( n o i s e , p o l l u t i o n , l a n d c o n s u m p t i o n , h i g h c o s t of transit, etc.)?  If  s u b u r b a n centres d o not c o n t r o l the use of the a u t o m o b i l e , w h a t effect d o e s the c r e a t i o n of a h i g h o r d e r s u b u r b a n c e n t r e h a v e o n the d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e  urban  f r i n g e (i.e., w i l l f r i n g e d e v e l o p m e n t i n c r e a s e d u e t o t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o x i m i t y o f a n urban-style d o w n t o w n ) ?  W h a t w o u l d b e t h e effect of c o m b i n i n g the p r o v i s i o n of  p u b l i c transit to s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s w i t h t h e use of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e m a n d m a n a g e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s ( T D M ) , s u c h as e m p l o y e r - p r o v i d e d v a n p o o l s o r h i g h o c c u p a n c y vehicle lanes b e t w e e n centres?  W o u l d such measures improve the  s t r e n g t h of t h e a s s u m e d l i n k a g e b e t w e e n transit a n d l a n d u s e in t h e s u b u r b s ? F u r t h e r , if p u b l i c t r a n s i t a n d p e d e s t r i a n m o b i l i t y i m p r o v e m e n t s d o n o t a c c r u e , if t h e d e s i g n v a l u e s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e R T C s a r e t h o s e o f t h e r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g m a l l , w h a t is t h e e f f e c t o n t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s f o r w h o m the RTCs are their n e i g h b o u r h o o d s ?  Does RTC growth penalize residents  with constant non-resident p a r k i n g a n d traffic c o n g e s t i o n p r o b l e m s , a n d the attendant p r o b l e m s of noise, p o l l u t i o n , a n d stress?  W h a t is t h e c o r r e l a t i o n  b e t w e e n S k y T r a i n a n d v a r i o u s f o r m s o f i l l e g a l a c t i v i t y ( s u c h a s d r u g t r a n s a c t i o n s at stations, t h e m i g r a t i o n of p r o s t i t u t i o n f r o m t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , i n c r e a s e s in b u r g l a r i e s near stations, a n d assaults in d e s e r t e d train cars o r stations)?  If t h e r e  are  c r i m e p r o b l e m s , will RTCs s i m p l y reinforce the negative o p i n i o n of h i g h e r density living already held by many citizens? A s e c o n d a r e a o f u s e f u l s t u d y is t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n d y n a m i c s u b regional e c o n o m i e s and the d e v e l o p m e n t of s u b u r b a n centres.  D o such sub-  regional e c o n o m i e s exist, a n d d o e s s u c h a c o n n e c t i o n exist, o r are the cases s t u d i e d in this p a p e r c o i n c i d e n t a l ?  D o centres develop to provide services to their  137  h i n t e r l a n d , o r are they f o r m e d in parallel by the s a m e p r o c e s s e s that drive the subregional economies?  W h a t is t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n , h i g h w a y  i n t e r c h a n g e l o c a t i o n , a n d s u b u r b a n c e n t r e l o c a t i o n in t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e s u b regional  economy?  T h i r d , t h e r e are m a n y c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n s that relate to the d i s c u s s i o n of suburban centres which might be tested.  Is t h e r e s u c h a t h i n g as a " c r i t i c a l m a s s "  of d e v e l o p m e n t , beneath w h i c h a centre n e e d s policy g u i d a n c e a n d b e y o n d it w i l l g r o w a u t o n o m o u s l y ?  which  W h a t is t h e l o n g t e r m d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l i n a r e a s  w i t h g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n s , b u t little h i g h o r d e r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t Coquitlam Centre, Whalley)?  (e.g.,  It s e e m s t o b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e s e a r e a s w i l l  eventually take o n the characteristics of the inner s u b u r b a n centres, w h i c h have g r o w n as a r e s u l t of t h e d i s p e r s a l o f r e g i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t .  Is t h i s p r o c e s s  s e q u e n t i a l a n d inevitable, o r will t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e i n n e r u r b a n p r e c l u d e the d e v e l o p m e n t of other, m o r e r e m o t e s u b u r b a n  centres  centres?  F o u r t h , as d i s c u s s e d i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r c a s e s t u d y , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e a great deal of i n c o n s i s t e n c y associated with the use of office f l o o r s p a c e figures in p o l i c y e v a l u a t i o n .  The d e v e l o p m e n t of g u i d e l i n e s for t h e collection of s u c h  figures, a n d for their use in s u p p o r t of a r g u m e n t s , w o u l d b e beneficial in t h e s t u d y of the m o d e r n regional e c o n o m y .  T h e a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t i o n o f o f f i c e s p a c e is  d o u b l y i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e it is o f t e n u s e d as a p r o x y f o r e m p l o y m e n t , a n d particularly for managerial, research, and p r o d u c e r service jobs. space figures be differentiated? separated?  H o w should office  Should leasable and non-leasable space  be  Should owner-occupied buildings be distinguished from speculative  office buildings and public sector space?  Is a l l o f f i c e s p a c e e q u i v a l e n t ( i . e . , s h o u l d  t h e r e b e a d i s t i n c t i o n m a d e b e t w e e n p o p u l a t i o n - s e r v i n g o f f i c e u s e r s , s u c h as d o c t o r s a n d a c c o u n t a n t s , a n d o t h e r u s e r s w i t h a w i d e r m a r k e t , s u c h as e n g i n e e r i n g  138  firms or r e s e a r c h firms)?  A r e t h e r e i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e r e p o r t i n g of office  s p a c e f i g u r e s , a n d if n o t , s h o u l d s u c h s t a n d a r d s b e s e t ? Fifth, t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e has p r o b a b l y h a d m o r e e f f e c t o n the current s h a p e of the u r b a n i z e d area of the G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e g i o n than any other single factor, and certainly m o r e than RTC policy. ^ 7  W h a t are the  implications for c o n t i n u i n g or d i s c o n t i n u i n g the p r o t e c t i o n of agricultural lands from urban d e v e l o p m e n t pressure?  D o e s t h e lack of a c o n t i g u o u s d e v e l o p m e n t  pattern h e l p or h a r m the f o r m a t i o n of s u b u r b a n  centres?  Sixth, t h e r e are several t r e n d s w h i c h m i g h t b e e x a m i n e d in r e l a t i o n t o regional growth patterns.  W h a t h a p p e n s t o t h e n e e d f o r s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s if t h e  population c o n t i n u e s to disperse b e y o n d the urban fringe?  Will the existing  h i e r a r c h y of s m a l l rural t o w n s b e a next w a v e of RTCs, o r will t h e r e s i d e n t s be d e t e r m i n e d to retain the small t o w n character w h i c h attracted the p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h at t h e o u t s e t ? o n the region?  W h a t effect will t h e a d v e n t of practical t e l e c o m m u t i n g have  S u b u r b a n centres w e r e m e a n t to r e d u c e interregional travel a n d  p r o v i d e a cultural focus, and t e l e c o m m u t i n g m a y p r o v i d e a partial s o l u t i o n to the f o r m e r b u t m a y p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r n e e d f o r t h e latter. Finally, s o m e q u e s t i o n s c o u l d b e a d d r e s s e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u c c e s s of the B e l l e v u e C B D p o l i c i e s in attracting urban-style d e v e l o p m e n t s . development industry conform?  Exactly w h y did the  T h e d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n i n B e l l e v u e is c e r t a i n l y  d i s t i n c t f r o m a l m o s t a n y o t h e r s u b u r b a n c e n t r e i n t h e U.S., i n t h a t it is r e l a t i v e l y d i s t a n t f r o m h i g h w a y i n t e r c h a n g e s a n d it is b e i n g d e s i g n e d f o r p e d e s t r i a n s .  Was  t h e r e a " b a n d w a g o n " e f f e c t (i.e., d i d t h e i n i t i a l p a t t e r n c o n d i t i o n l a t e r developments)?  D o e s the adaptation of the d e v e l o p m e n t industry t o the particular  c a s e o f B e l l e v u e s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i n d u s t r y i n g e n e r a l is c a p a b l e o f m o r e f l e x i b i l i t y t h a n m o s t c u r r e n t p o l i c y r e q u i r e s o f it?  139  NOTES For a d i s c u s s i o n , see " W i l l T h e C e n t e r H o l d ? " , a letter to t h e e d i t o r f r o m F i s h e r , a n d e d i t o r ' s r e p l y i n Vancouver Magazine ( N o v e m b e r , 1 9 9 1 , 22). 1  O n e s q u a r e f o o t is e q u a l t o 0 . 0 9 2 9 s q u a r e m e t e r s . s q u a r e f e e t is e q u a l t o 9 2 9 0 0 s q u a r e m e t e r s . 2  Ian  Accordingly, one million  A b e l t w a y is d e f i n e d as a l i m i t e d a c c e s s h i g h w a y , p a r t i a l l y o r c o m p l e t e l y e n c i r c l i n g a (traditional A m e r i c a n ) city area. M o s t beltways w e r e originally i n t e n d e d t o be high-speed bypass routes a r o u n d central city traffic c o n g e s t i o n . Beltway interchanges w i t h radial routes p r o v i d e d a focus for s u b u r b a n i z i n g c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . S e e U . S. D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) f o r a n early d i s c u s s i o n of t h e effects of b e l t w a y s o n A m e r i c a n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. 3  Garreau also r e c o g n i z e s the i m p o r t a n c e of highway interchanges a n d linkages to t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s (1991, 32-35). 4  5  H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as " ( G V R D a n d S p a e t h ) . "  6  H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as " C o r i o l i s . "  7  H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as " ( J o n e s  8  H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as " ( B u r n a b y a n d  Lang)." Hotson)."  T h e r e are m a n y s o u r c e s f o r t h e s e c r i t e r i a ( G V R D 1 9 7 4 , B 1 ; 1 9 7 4 c , 2 1 ; 1 9 8 0 b , 344 0 ; G V R D a n d S p a e t h 1 9 7 5 , 8-10; G e r t l e r a n d C r o w l e y 1 9 7 7 , 1 7 8 ) . N o n e o f t h e s o u r c e s p r e s e n t justifications or s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r q u a n t i t i e s . It m u s t b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e y w e r e s i m p l y "ballpark" figures about w h i c h a consensus had d e v e l o p e d a m o n g the planners and other interested parties. 9  1 0  T h e r e f e r e n c e is d r a w n f r o m p a g e 4 o f t h e " O v e r v i e w " s e c t i o n o f t h e d o c u m e n t .  M r . D r o e t t b o o m w a s t h e n a C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r p l a n n e r , a n d is n o w C i t y Manager. 1 1  M r . C a m e r o n w a s t h e n a G V R D p l a n n e r , a n d is n o w M a n a g e r o f t h e G V R D D e v e l o p m e n t Services Department, which s u c c e e d e d the G V R D Planning D e p a r t m e n t in 1 9 8 3 . 1 2  A m o r e r e c e n t s u m m a r y of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of R e g i o n a l T o w n C e n t r e s p o l i c y c a n b e f o u n d in Davis a n a P e r k i n s (1992). Davis a n d P e r k i n s u s e a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y of RTC p o l i c y a n d a similar p o l i c y in M e l b o u r n e to d r a w g e n e r a l lessons for the f o r m a t i o n of future m u l t i c e n t r e d regional policy. 1 3  A digital m a p of m u n i c i p a l R T C designations was u s e d to estimate the area of each z o n e . Several other sources w e r e also used to c o n f i r m the a p p r o x i m a t e size of t h e e s t i m a t e b a s e d o n t h e digital m a p (Rao 1 9 8 9 ; T o w n s h i p of R i c h m o n d 1986; District of B u r n a b y 1 9 8 2 ; District of B u r n a b y 1 9 9 1 ; G V R D 1 9 8 6 , A p p e n d i x D). A c r e s are u s e d to maintain consistency w i t h 1970s d o c u m e n t s . 1 4  140  1 5  C o l l i e r s M a c a u l a y N i c o l l s is h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as " C o l l i e r s . "  1 6  1 1 5 , 0 0 0 s q . ft., a c c o r d i n g t o A r t i b i s e , et a l . ( 1 9 9 0 , 12).  H a r t s h o r n a n d M u l l e r ( 1 9 8 6 ) a n d G a r r e a u ( 1 9 9 1 ) a g r e e t h a t five million square f e e t o f leasable o f f i c e s p a c e is n e e d e d t o q u a l i f y f o r r e c o g n i t i o n as a s u b u r b a n b u s i n e s s c e n t r e (or " e d g e city"). 1 7  D i s t r i c t of B u r n a b y (1982) e s t i m a t e s that 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 t o 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s l i v e d w i t h i n a 3-mile r a d i u s f r o m t h e c o r e of M e t r o t o w n in 1 9 8 2 . 1 8  A n i n n o v a t i v e e x p e r i m e n t i n s h o p p i n g m a l l a l t e r a t i o n is o c c u r r i n g at P a r k R o y a l i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r (The Vancouver Sun 1 9 9 2 g ) . P a r k R o y a l ' s o w n e r is s p e n d i n g t w e n t y million dollars o n an e x p a n s i o n project w h i c h will i n c l u d e the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s t r e e t - f r o n t r e t a i l o u t l e t s a n d a n e w p u b l i c m a r k e t . If t h i s v e n t u r e is s u c c e s s f u l , o t h e r c o m p a n i e s i n v o l v e d in t h e h i g h l y i m i t a t i v e s h o p p i n g m a l l s e c t o r m a y d e c i d e t o f o l l o w Park Royal's e x a m p l e . T h e M e t r o t o w n R T C c o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m s u c h a t r e n d . ( B e l l e v u e S q u a r e , the major r e g i o n a l mall in the Bellevue C B D has already i n t r o d u c e d s u c h s t r e e t level retail.) 1 9  T w o small o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s h a v e b e e n a d d e d t o t h e R T C s i n c e 1980, o n e of 8 0 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. o n t h e e d g e o f t h e o l d d o w n t o w n a n d o n e o f 4 3 , 0 0 0 s q . f t . i n t h e N e w W e s t m i n s t e r Q u a y d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a ( R e a l M a r k e t R e v i e w Inc. 1 9 9 2 , 2 5 , 2 8 ) . M o s t o f t h e o f f i c e s p a c e i n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r is c o n c e n t r a t e d o u t s i d e o f t h e R T C , in t h e 6 t h Street a n d 6 t h A v e n u e area. 2 0  T h e p r e f e r e n c e of c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t m a r k e t s for large sites a n d t h e difficulty in p r o v i d i n g t h e s e sites in n a s c e n t s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s are also s e e n t o b e barriers t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s u b u r b a n d o w n t o w n s in M e l b o u r n e (see C h a p t e r 4). 2 1  C o r i o l i s ( 1 9 9 0 , 2) i m p l i e s t h a t t h e C o q u i t l a m C e n t r e f o r e c a s t p e r i o d o f 2 0 y e a r s is p r o b a b l y t o o s h o r t t o s e e a n y m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  2 2  2 3  T h e s i z e o f W h a l l e y - G u i l d f o r d is g i v e n as 2 , 1 6 0 a c r e s ( R a o 1 9 8 9 , 7.4).  A n earlier d o c u m e n t (District of Surrey 1980) h a d o u t l i n e d the o p t i o n s available for a Regional T o w n C e n t r e in n o r t h Surrey, a n d h a d r e c o m m e n d e d t h e c o n c e p t of developing a connection between Whalley and Guildford. 2 4  T h e r e is c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r a b l e d o u b t a b o u t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e m o s t southerly of the stations. Negotiations are o n g o i n g b e t w e e n the District of Surrey, t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h e d e v e l o p e r (The Vancouver Sun 1 9 9 2 a ; 1 9 9 2 e ; 1 9 9 2 f ) . T h e m o s t r e c e n t a n n o u n c e m e n t f r o m B C T r a n s i t is t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l n o t p r o c e e d (The Vancouver Sun 1 9 9 2 f ) . 2 5  T h e reporter, H a r o l d M u n r o , i n c l u d e s the m a y o r s of b o t h Surrey a n d C o q u i t l a m i n t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n (The Vancouver Sun 1 9 9 2 d ) .  2 6  H e r e a g a i n t h e r e is c o n f u s i o n b e t w e e n s o u r c e s , a n d e v e n w i t h i n t h e s a m e s o u r c e , o v e r t h e exact extent of office f l o o r s p a c e in an area. T h e District of Surrey ( 1 9 9 1 , 3.12) d o c u m e n t g i v e s a c u r r e n t f i g u r e f o r W h a l l e y o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e o f 5 3 9 , 0 0 0 s q . ft., w h i l e t h e C o l l i e r s ( 1 9 9 0 a ) s t u d y g i v e s t w o d i f f e r e n t f i g u r e s : o n p a g e 2 7  141  2, o v e r 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 s q . ft., a n d o n p a g e 2 9 , o n l y 2 8 7 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. i n s e v e n b u i l d i n g s . I a s s u m e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t r i e t w o C o l l i e r s n u m b e r s is d u e t o t h e a d d i t i o n o f S t a t i o n T o w e r , b u t that still l e a v e s t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e t w o d o c u m e n t s . T h e f i g u r e g i v e n i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y d o c u m e n t is a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t g i v e n i n A r t i b i s e , e t a l . ( 1 9 9 0 , 1 2 , T a b l e 1) f o r t h e o l d t o w n c e n t r e , W h a l l e y - G u i l d f o r d ( 5 3 2 , 9 2 6 s q . ft.). T h e D i s t r i c t of S u r r e y f i g u r e m a y r e f l e c t a n u n a l t e r e d n u m b e r f r o m a pre-1991 d o c u m e n t . A s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , s u c h c o n f u s i o n b r i n g s all s o u r c e s into d o u b t . D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y ( 1 9 9 1 , 6.2) c i t e s a f l o o r s p a c e e s t i m a t e o f 5 3 0 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. i n Whalley. Aside from the Surrey Taxation Centre, the only other buildings noted w e r e W h a l l e y P o s t O f f i c e , W e s t e r n C a b l e S y s t e m s , s o m e B.C. T e l e p h o n e C o . o f f i c e s , a n d o n e m e d i c a l / d e n t a l b u i l d i n g . A g a i n , t h e r e is d o u b t a b o u t t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h i s 5 3 0 , 0 0 0 s q . ft. o f o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e . 2 8  G u i l d f o r d , N e w t o n , F l e e t w o o d , C l o v e r d a l e , a n d South Surrey are the c e n t r e s f o r e a c h of Surrey's o t h e r sub-areas (District of Surrey 1992). 2 9  town  A n o t h e r important s h o p p i n g centre with 150 stores, 3 anchor tenants, and over 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 s q . f t . o f r e t a i l s p a c e w i l l o p e n i n w e s t N e w t o n i n 1 9 9 4 (The Vancouver Sun 1 9 9 1 c ) . T h e a d d i t i o n of this s h o p p i n g m a l l t o t w o e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s o n t h e D e l t a s i d e of Scott R o a d (Scottsdale M a l l , Scott 72 C e n t e r ) will create t h e largest retail a g g l o m e r a t i o n s o u t h of t h e Fraser River, a n d c o u l d p r o v i d e a n o t h e r m a j o r c o m p e t i t i v e threat to the attractiveness of W h a l l e y .  3 0  3 1  T h e p r u d e n c e o f t h i s b e l i e f is c h a l l e n g e d i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s p a p e r .  S e e W a l m s l e y (1992) f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e c u r r e n t g e n e r a l c o m m e r c i a l s u c c e s s in R i c h m o n d .  3 2  The Ministry for Planning and Environment (MPE) received the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s of t h e M M B W in 1 9 8 5 . A t t h e e n d of t h e 1980s, M P E w a s r e c o n s t i t u t e d as t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P l a n n i n g a n d U r b a n G r o w t h a n d , m o r e r e c e n t l y , h a s b e e n r e n a m e d the D e p a r t m e n t of Planning a n d H o u s i n g . 3 3  T h e t o t a l o f 1 5 D C s is a r e s u l t o f t h e a d d i t i o n o f B r o a d m e a d o w s i n 1 9 8 5 . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t w o m o r e D C s w e r e d e s i g n a t e d : F o u n t a i n G a t e / N a r r e W a r r e n in 1 9 8 9 a n d W e r r i b e e in 1 9 9 0 ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 1 7 , 21).  3 4  F o o t s c r a y is n o t i n t h e s o u t h o r e a s t . It is d i r e c t l y t o t h e w e s t o f t h e C B D a n d is p r i m a r i l y a p o p u l a t i o n - s e r v i n g retail c e n t r e ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 162).  3 5  T h i s is i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r d u r i n g a c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t b o o m in t h e late 1 9 7 0 s a n d early 1980s, w h e n c o m m e r c i a l f l o o r s p a c e w a s b e i n g a d d e d i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e m e t r o p o l i s at f a s t e r r a t e s t h a n p o p u l a t i o n w a s g r o w i n g ( C o r i o l i s 1 9 8 6 , 4-5). 3 6  Increased a u t o m o b i l e use has b e e n n o t e d in t h e case of a p u b l i c s e c t o r office r e l o c a t i o n s f r o m C B D t o s u b u r b i n S y d n e y ( N e u t z e 1 9 7 8 , 1 8 5 ) a n d D a n d e n o n g (T. L o g a n 1 9 8 6 b , 8 ) . S u c h i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n is f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t A m e r i c a n s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s ( C e r v e r o 1 9 8 4 ; 1 9 8 6 ) . A l t h o u g h n o e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t is a v a i l a b l e , s u c h c o n g e s t i o n is r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t i n M e t r o t o w n i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . 3 7  142  H o f m e i s t e r (1988, 209) asserts that t h e lack of s u b u r b a n n u c l e a t i o n s in M e l b o u r n e is t h e r e s u l t o f a n a b s e n c e o f f r e e w a y i n t e r s e c t i o n s .  3 8  C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y c o n t a i n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 . 6 m i l l i o n s q . ft. o f o f f i c e s p a c e ( C o l l i e r s M a c a u l a y N i c o l l s 1 9 9 0 b ) , l e s s t h a n t e n p e r c e n t oi t h e r e g i o n a l t o t a l ( A r t i b i s e , e t a l . 1 9 9 0 , 1 2 ) , a n d w a s r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e t o t a l i n t h e six R T C s i n 1 9 8 9 . St. K i l d a R o a d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , c o n t a i n s a b o u t e i g h t m i l l i o n s q . ft. o f o f f i c e s p a c e ( s i x t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e r e g i o n a l t o t a l ) . T h i s is m o r e t h a n d o u b l e t h e a m o u n t i n all fifteen D C s ( a n d St. K i l d a R o a d o n l y a c c o u n t s f o r a b o u t half oi t h e n o n - C B D o f f i c e s p a c e of t h e c o r e area) ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 58-59).  3 9  T h e 2 5 0 0 s q . m . ( 2 7 , 0 0 0 s q . ft.) l i m i t o n n o n - D i s t r i c t - C e n t r e o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s m e a n t that e v e n very small b u i l d i n g s w e r e restricted. T h e limit in industrial areas w a s e v e n s m a l l e r ( 5 0 0 s q . m . , o r a b o u t 5 , 4 0 0 s q . ft.). 4 0  T h e cases of R i c h m o n d in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a n d B e l l e v u e , W a s h i n g t o n t o b e a r t h i s o u t . T h i s p o i n t w i l l b e e l a b o r a t e d u p o n i n C h a p t e r 6. 4 1  appear  T h e C B D c o n t a i n e d 51.9 p e r c e n t of r e g i o n a l o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e in 1 9 9 1 , t h e rest of the Inner A r e a c o n t a i n e d an a d d i t i o n a l 31.4 p e r c e n t , a n d the s u b u r b a n areas c o n t a i n e d o n l y 16.7 p e r c e n t ( M o o d i e 1 9 9 1 , 58-59). 4 2  4 3  H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as " ( W a s h i n g t o n  State)."  The P S R C r e p l a c e d the Puget S o u n d C o u n c i l of G o v e r n m e n t s ( P S C O G ) , w h i c h was d i s b a n d e d earlier this year (Stroh i n t e r v i e w 1991) o n the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n of t h e P S C O G R e v i e w T a s k F o r c e ( P S C O G 1 9 8 9 , 1). T h e P S C O G p e r f o r m e d t w o f u n c t i o n s : c o o p e r a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g (necessary for trie r e c e i p t of federal transportation grants) a n d general f o r e c a s t i n g for p o p u l a t i o n a n d e m p l o y m e n t . T h e C i t y o f B e l l e v u e a l m o s t w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e P S C O G in 1 9 8 6 b e c a u s e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t s over P S C O G ' s f o r e c a s t e d levels of e m p l o y m e n t (lower than Bellevue's o w n estimates) and over the P S C O G ' s o p p o s i t i o n to Bellevue's attempt t o o b t a i n its o w n w a t e r s u p p l y ( P S C O G 1 9 8 9 , A p p e n d i x B). 4 4  R e j e c t i o n of f u r t h e r p o w e r s o c c u r r e d in 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 , 1 9 6 8 , a n d 1 9 7 0 ( B r a m b i l l a a n d L o n g o 1 9 8 0 , 37-38, 45). 4 5  A r e n e w e d r e g i o n a l s t r a t e g y is a l s o c u r r e n t l y o c c u r r i n g i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . A s t a t e m e n t o f g o a l s f o r t h e s t r a t e g y , c a l l e d Creating Our Future ( G V R D 1 9 9 0 ) , is b e i n g used to create a n e w Regional Strategic Plan. C o n c u r r e n t l y , strategic p l a n n i n g f o r r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n is b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n i n a j o i n t G V R D - M i n i s t r y of H i g h w a y s a n d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , c a l l e d T r a n s p o r t 2 0 2 1 .  4 6  4 7  It is c a l l e d t h e R e g i o n a l T r a n s i t P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e ( K C T S ) .  The Washington G r o w t h M a n a g e m e n t Act requires the following several actions f r o m local g o v e r n m e n t s : - c o m p r e h e n s i v e land use and transportation plans to be s u b m i t t e d f r o m local governments by 1993; - t h e s e t t i n g o f u r b a n g r o w t h b o u n d a r i e s (as i n O r e g o n ) ; - the identification a n d protection of e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y sensitive areas; a n d , - concurrence between increasing population and infrastructure provision (KCTS). 4 8  143  T h e G r o w t h M a n a g e m e n t A c t w i l l r e q u i r e a c t i o n in t h e f u t u r e , b u t t h e d i r e c t i o n of g r o w t h t o e x i s t i n g c o m p a c t u r b a n i z e d areas w i l l l i k e l y o n l y a u g m e n t t h e initiatives a l r e a d y c u r r e n t in B e l l e v u e ( S t r o h i n t e r v i e w ; K C T S ) .  4 9  T h e " E a s t s i d e " is t h e n a m e u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e u r b a n i z e d a n d to the east of Lake W a s h i n g t o n f r o m Seattle, i n c l u d i n g Bellevue, Kirkland, Bothell, Issaquah a n d o t h e r areas. T h e total p o p u l a t i o n 1 9 8 9 w a s e s t i m a t e d at 3 5 0 , 0 0 0 ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 2 0 ; C i t y o f B e l l e v u e 5 0  5 1  H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as " ( N a t i o n a l  u r b a n i z i n g areas Redmond, in t h i s a r e a in 1991a).  Cooperative)."  F r o m n o t e s t a k e n at " T h e B e l l e v u e E x p e r i e n c e , " p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n at T h e E m e r g i n g C i t y C o n f e r e n c e , h e l d at B e l l e v u e o n S e p t e m b e r 2 7 , 1 9 9 1 . T h e r e f e r e n c e t o r a c e a n d w e a l t h is d r a w n f r o m t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f p a n e l m e m b e r M r . L e e Springate, h e a d of t h e City of Bellevue Parks D e p a r t m e n t . 5 2  T h e F r e e m a n s h a v e b e e n o n e of t h e l e a d i n g f a m i l i e s in t h e a r e a f o r o v e r 50 years. M i l l e r F r e e m a n , an Eastside p u b l i s h e r , w a s a l e a d e r in t h e d i s c u s s i o n f a v o u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e M e r c e r Island B r i d g e in 1 9 4 0 . K e m p e r F r e e m a n , S r . , d e v e l o p e d B e l l e v u e S q u a r e i n 1 9 4 6 . K e m p e r F r e e m a n , Jr., r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d B e l l e v u e P l a c e (a l a r g e h o t e l a n d c o m m e r c i a l c o m p l e x i n t h e C B D ) . 5 3  T h r e e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s w e r e Bellevue CBD Parking Study ( T r a n p l n 1 9 7 6 ) , Downtown Bellevue: Problems, Potentials and Future Directions (City of Bellevue a n d B e l l e v u e D o w n t o w n D e v e l o p m e n t B o a r d 1 9 7 6 ) , a n d Bellevue Central Business District Framework Plan ( C i t y o f B e l l e v u e 1 9 7 7 ) .  5 4  D e B a r t o l o h a d his o w n s t u d y w h i c h s h o w e d , again n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e b e n i g n n a t u r e of E v e r g r e e n East ( S c h n e i d e r 1 9 8 1 , 2 4 8 ) .  5 5  K i n g C o u n t y h a d also o p p o s e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t ( W e l c h 1 9 8 9 , 46). T h e s o u r c e g i v e s n o r e a s o n f o r t h i s o p p o s i t i o n . S e e K a y ( 1 9 9 1 , 6) f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f c i v i c agreement on C B D development.  5 6  A c c o r d i n g to W e l c h (1989, 46) this w a s t h e first t i m e D e B a r t o l o h a d b e e n t o gain a p p r o v a l f o r a m a j o r p r o j e c t in t h e U n i t e d States. 5 7  unable  T h e C e n t r a l Business District ( C B D ) S u b a r e a Plan was a d o p t e d b y R e s o l u t i o n N o . 3 4 5 3 o f t h e B e l l e v u e C i t y C o u n c i l o n N o v e m b e r 1 3 , 1 9 7 9 . It w a s l a t e r a m e n d e d b y R e s o l u t i o n N o . 4 6 3 2 o n O c t o b e r 7, 1 9 8 5 . T h e p l a n f o r m s C h a p t e r 21.V.3 of t h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e C o m p r e h e n s i v e Plan. 5 8  T h i s g o a l w a s a m e n d e d i n 1 9 9 0 t o r e a d : Maintain the Bellevue Central Business District (CBD) as the financial, retail and business hub of the Eastside and the primary commercial area to provide local goods and services to the neighborhoods surrounding the CBD and to the residents and employees within the district (City o f B e l l e v u e 1 9 9 1 b , 1) 5 9  T h e r a t i o s y s t e m is r e a d as f o l l o w s : f o r e v e r y s q u a r e f o o t o f a m e n i t y p r o v i d e d ( t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e r a t i o ) , a d e v e l o p e r is a l l o w e d t o b u i l d a n a d d i t i o n a l a m o u n t o f c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e (the left s i d e of t h e ratio). For e x a m p l e , t h e p a r k i n g ratio of 0.5:1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t e a c h s q u a r e f o o t o f p a r k i n g p r o v i d e d w o u l d y i e l d t h e d e v e l o p e r o n l y o n e half a s q u a r e f o o t of d e v e l o p m e n t area, w h e r e a s a b o n u s o f e i g h t s q u a r e 6 0  144  f e e t w o u l d b e p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h s q u a r e f o o t o f c h i l d c a r e s p a c e p r o v i d e d (at a n 8:1 b o n u s l e v e l ) . T h e mall itself has b e e n a d a p t i n g t o t h e p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e a d d i t i o n o f s t r e e t l e v e l r e t a i l a n d r e s t a u r a n t o u t l e t s o n its e a s t e r n ( d o w n t o w n f a c i n g ) f r o n t a g e . P u b l i c art a n d g r e e n e r y h a s b e e n a d d e d t o t h e s i d e w a l k s a l o n g o t h e r areas o f that frontage. 6 1  T h e c o r r i d o r h a s n o t y e t b e e n d e v e l o p e d , o t h e r t h a n as a s i d e w a l k p a s s i n g b e t w e e n p a r k i n g lots. A s s u c h , h o w e v e r , the c o r r i d o r e n h a n c e s p e d e s t r i a n mobility within the core.  6 2  T h e l o w e r f o r e c a s t h a d b e e n p r o d u c e d b y t h e P S C O G (see f o o t n o t e 44) a n d h a d b e e n a s o u r c e of c o n t e n t i o n b e t w e e n B e l l e v u e a n d M E T R O , w h i c h h a d u s e d t h e l o w e r f o r e c a s t t o p r e p a r e its p l a n , r a t h e r t h a n B e l l e v u e ' s o w n m o r e o p t i m i s t i c f o r e c a s t ( P S C O G 1 9 9 0 b , A p p e n d i x B; N o g u c h i 1 9 8 2 , 5 ) . 6 3  T h e t a l l e s t b u i l d i n g c u r r e n t l y i n t h e C B D is 3 7 3 f e e t h i g h , b u t at l e a s t t w o p r o j e c t s in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p i p e l i n e w i l l e x c e e d 4 5 0 f e e t . T h e y w i l l b e a l l o w e d t o proceed through "grandfathering" provisions (Stroh interview).  6 4  T h o u g h l e s s s o t h a n i n t h e c a s e o f R T C s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , t h e r e is s o m e i n c o n s i s t e n c y s u r r o u n d i n g the figures given in various s o u r c e s for office a n d c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e i n B e l l e v u e . W e l c h ( 1 9 8 9 ) is t h e o n l y s o u r c e t o p r o v i d e a f i g u r e for 1980 office space, a n d agrees generally w i t h descriptions of d o w n t o w n Bellevue as a n i m p o r t a n t , b u t p r i m a r i l y r e t a i l c e n t r e f o r t h e E a s t s i d e . T h e f i g u r e p r o v i d e d b y S t r o h ( i n t e r v i e w ) w a s d r a w n d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e C i t y o f B e l l e v u e d a t a b a s e , a n d is b a s e d o n C B D b u i l d i n g records. Pivo (1990, 461), h o w e v e r , p r o v i d e s a 1988 office s p a c e f i g u r e o f 9 m i l l i o n s q . ft. f o r d o w n t o w n B e l l e v u e . It m a y b e t h a t P i v o h a d m e a n t to refer to total c o m m e r c i a l or total non-residential space. Several sources ( S t r o h ; W e l c h 1 9 8 9 ; C e r v e r o 1 9 8 9 ) p l a c e c u r r e n t t o t a l C B D c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e at o v e r 7 m i l l i o n s q u a r e f e e t . S t r o h ( i n t e r v i e w ) g i v e s a f i g u r e o f 9 . 2 4 m i l l i o n s q . ft. f o r c u r r e n t n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l f l o o r s p a c e in t h e C B D . 6 5  T h e t r a n s i t m o d e s p l i t is t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c o m m u t e r s i n t h e m o r n i n g p e a k t r a v e l p e r i o d w h o u s e p u b l i c t r a n s i t , as o p p o s e d t o a l l o t h e r m e t h o d s . 6 6  In 1 9 8 9 , d o w n t o w n B e l l e v u e c o n t a i n e d a l m o s t t w i c e as m u c h c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e as e i t h e r S p o k a n e o r T a c o m a , t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d l a r g e s t c i t i e s in W a s h i n g t o n State. 6 7  T h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w s e c t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r ( s e e S e c t i o n 2.1) c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n of o n l y part of t h e c o p i o u s r e s e a r c h o n the p h e n o m e n o n of m o d e r n s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s in t h e U n i t e d States. S e e p a r t i c u l a r l y M u l l e r (1976), B a e r w a l d (1978), G r e e n e (1980), H a r t s h o r n a n d M u l l e r (1986), C e r v e r o (1989), a n d G a r r e a u (1991). 6 8  Pivo, in his s t u d y of o f f i c e s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n in six N o r t h A m e r i c a n cities, n o t e s t h a t B e l l e v u e w a s u n u s u a l a m o n g t h e m i n its d i s t a n c e f r o m f r e e w a y i n t e r c h a n g e s (1990, 462). 6 9  7 0  A s q u o t e d in Parker (1991, 44).  145  T h e Agricultural Land C o m m i s s i o n Act of 1973 p r o v i d e d statutory p r o t e c t i o n f r o m u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t t o t h e h i g h e s t c l a s s e s of f a r m l a n d in t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d Reserve. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of lands ( a n d t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t ) w i t h i n t h e R e s e r v e is a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a provincially-appointed, but putatively i n d e p e n d e n t Agricultural Land C o m m i s s i o n . 7 1  146  BIBLIOGRAPHY A l e x a n d e r , I a n ( 1 9 7 9 ) Office  Location  and Public  Policy.  N e w York:  Longman.  A r t i b i s e , A l a n F. J . , J a y W o l l e n b e r g , N o r m a n H o t s o n , a n d A r t h u r F a l l i c k ( 1 9 9 0 ) Town Centres and the Livable Region: A Strategy for the 1990s. Burnaby: G V R D , April. B a e r w a l d , T h o m a s J . ( 1 9 7 8 ) " T h e E m e r g e n c e o f a N e w ' D o w n t o w n , ' " The Geographical Review 68, p p . 308-318. (1989) " T h e E v o l u t i o n of S u b u r b a n D o w n t o w n s in M i d w e s t e r n M e t r o p o l i s e s , " i n B a r b a r a M . K e l l y ( e d . ) Suburbia Re-examined. W e s t p o r t , C t . : G r e e n w o o d ; C h a p t e r 6, p p . 45-57. B a k e r , M a r i l y n , a n d D o n L a n s k a i l ( 1 9 9 0 ) " U s e it a n d l o s e i t , G V R D l e a r n e d , " The Vancouver Sun, D e c e m b e r 8, p . B 4 , l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r . B C Transit A u t h o r i t y (1986) " G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r ' s R e b o r n Transit S y s t e m R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , " Greater Vancouver 1986 Office Leasing V a n c o u v e r : B O M A B.C., p p . 28-29. ( 1 9 8 9 ) SkyTrain:  A Catalyst  for Development.  Vancouver:  Benefits Guide.  Consultant  report b y B o b Egby, April.  B e e d , C l i v e S. ( 1 9 8 1 ) Melbourne's C l e w a r a Press. B i s h , R o b e r t L. ( 1 9 8 2 ) Governing  Development Puget  Sound.  and Planning. Seattle:  B r a m b i l l a , R o b e r t o , a n d G i a n n i L o n g o ( 1 9 8 0 ) Learning Institute f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l A c t i o n .  Melbourne:  Puget S o u n d  from  Seattle.  Books.  Seattle:  B u n k e r , R a y m o n d (1976) " M e t r o p o l i t a n S u b - C e n t r e s : P o l i c i e s a n d P o t e n t i a l , " i n G . J . R. L i n g e , e d . ( 1 9 7 6 ) Restructuring Employment Opportunities in Australia. Canberra: Australian National University, D e p a r t m e n t of H u m a n G e o g r a p h y , n o . H G / 1 1 , C h a p t e r 10, p p . 169-183. ( 1 9 8 3 ) Urban  Adelaide.  Consolidation:  Canberra:  The Experience  of Sydney,  Melbourne  A u s t r a l i a n Institute of U r b a n Studies, N o . 1 1 1 .  (1987) " M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g i n M e l b o u r n e a n d A d e l a i d e , "  Planner  and  2 5 (4), D e c e m b e r , p p . 5-8.  Australian  B u r e a u o f M u n i c i p a l R e s e a r c h ( 1 9 7 6 ) Legislative Attempts to Control Urban in Canada. Toronto: Bureau of Municipal Research, N o v e m b e r .  Growth  C a r t e r , R o b e r t A . (1982) " T h e Effect o f P r o p o s e d District C e n t r e s o n M e l b o u r n e ' s C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t , " Urban Policy and Research 1 (1), D e c e m b e r , p p . 2-7. C B C o m m e r c i a l (1992) " G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r O f f i c e S p a c e R e p o r t , F o u r t h 1 9 9 1 , " C B C o m m e r c i a l Real Estate G r o u p , newsletter.  147  Quarter  C e r v e r o , R o b e r t (1984) " M a n a g i n g t h e Traffic I m p a c t s of S u b u r b a n O f f i c e G r o w t h , " Transportation Quarterly 3 8 (4), O c t o b e r , p p . 5 3 3 - 5 5 0 . ( 1 9 8 6 ) Suburban  Gridlock.  N e w B r u n s w i c k , N. J.:  ( 1 9 8 9 ) America's  Suburban  Centers.  C i t y o f B e l l e v u e ( 1 9 8 3 ) Design November.  Boston:  Guidelines,  Rutgers.  Unwin  Building/Sidewalk  Hyman.  Relationships,  CBD.  ( 1 9 9 0 a ) " C i t y o f B e l l e v u e at a g l a n c e , " p a m p h l e t . 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( 1 9 7 5 ) " E n e r g y a n d L a n d U s e : D e v e l o p m e n t P a t t e r n s , " Environmental  S a n d e r c o c k , L e o n i e ( 1 9 7 7 ) Cities p p . 145-175.  for Sale.  155  Analysis of Alternative  Comment,  S e p t e m b e r , p p . 2-11.  M e l b o u r n e : M e l b o u r n e University Press,  (1983) " U r b a n p o l i c y : f r o m W h i t l a m t o F r a s e r , " in L e o n i e S a n d e r c o c k  and  M i c h a e l B e r r y (eds.) (1983) U r b a n Political E c o n o m y : T h e A u s t r a l i a n C a s e . S y d n e y : G e o r g e A l l e n & U n w i n , C h a p t e r 3, p p . 4 7 - 6 5 .  S c h n e i d e r , J e r r y B. ( 1 9 8 1 ) Transit and the Polycentric D e p a r t m e n t of Transportation.  City.  Washington, D.C:  U.S.  S c h n e i d e r , J e r r y B., a n d J . R. B e c k ( 1 9 7 4 ) " R e d u c i n g t h e t r a v e l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e A m e r i c a n city: an investigation of alternative u r b a n spatial s t r u c t u r e s , " Transportation Research Record 4 9 9 , p p . 12-33. S c h n e i d e r , J e r r y B., a n d S t e p h e n P. S m i t h ( 1 9 8 1 ) " R e d e s i g n i n g U r b a n T r a n s i t S y s t e m s : A T r a n s i t - C e n t e r - B a s e d A p p r o a c h , " Transportation Research Record 7 9 8 , p p . 56-65. S p o s i t o , V i c t o r A . (1990) " S h a p i n g M e l b o u r n e ' s F u t u r e : T h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c y a n d Its I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . " P a p e r a c c o m p a n y i n g a l e c t u r e g i v e n in V a n c o u v e r , January, 1 9 9 0 . S t r o h , D a n (1991) S e n i o r Planner, C i t y of B e l l e v u e :  Telephone  interview.  S w a i n s o n , N e i l A . (1983) " T h e P r o v i n c i a l - M u n i c i p a l R e l a t i o n s h i p , " in M o r l e y , et al., C h a p t e r 8, p p . 2 3 7 - 2 7 0 . T e n n a n t , P a u l ( 1 9 8 0 ) " V a n c o u v e r C i v i c P o l i t i c s , 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 8 0 , " BC p p . 3-27.  Studies  Developing  Terrell, Richard (1990) " M e l b o u r n e Builds an Integrated N e t w o r k , " Metros 1990, p p . 5 4 - 5 5 . T h o m p s o n , B e r w i c k , P r a t t & P a r t n e r s ( 1 9 7 3 ) Regional ( D r a f t ) . V a n c o u v e r : G V R D , N o v e m b e r 9. T h o m p s o n , J . M . ( 1 9 7 8 ) Great 131-140.  Cities  and  Their  T o w n s h i p o f R i c h m o n d ( 1 9 8 6 ) Town Centre Planning Department, June.  Trade  and  The  Area  Plan.  Centers  N e w York:  Study,  CBD  Parking  Study.  Part  A  Penguin, pp.  T o w n s h i p of R i c h m o n d  Commerce Magazine (1992) " L o w e r M a i n l a n d a n d G r e a t e r Regional District." Special Report supplement.  T r a n p l n C o m p a n y ( 1 9 7 6 ) Bellevue April. U.S.  Traffic.  Town  46, S u m m e r ,  Bellevue:  Vancouver  City of  Bellevue,  D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) The Land Use and Urban Development Impacts of Beltways. S u m m a r y of consultant study, D O T - O S - 9 0 0 7 9 , October.  Vancouver Sun ( 1 9 8 1 ) " T o w n C e n t r e s h i t r o a d b l o c k , " a n d " O n e o f f o u r p r o j e c t s h a s s o m e s u c c e s s " b y B r u c e C o n s t a n t i n e a u , J u n e 6. ( 1 9 9 0 a ) " S u r r e y ' d o w n t o w n ' p u s h e d , " , b y J e f f L e e , J a n u a r y 3 0 , p. A 1 .  156  ( 1 9 9 0 b ) " F r a s e r H i g h w a y c h o s e n as S k y T r a i n ' s e n d o f l i n e , " b y G o r d o n H a m i l t o n , M a r c h 3 0 , p. A 2 0 . ( 1 9 9 0 c ) " B u r n a b y k e e p s t a x h i k e s t i n y , " M a y 8, p. B 5 . (1990d) " S e a t t l e ' s c r a c k e d m i r r o r reflects V a n c o u v e r , " b y D. N o v e m b e r 3, p. A 1 0  Ward,  ( 1 9 9 1 a ) " W h a l l e y p o i s e d f o r h u g e f a c e l i f t , " b y A n n B a r l i n g , A p r i l 5, p. E 1 . ( 1 9 9 1 b ) " F r o n t e n a c a n d c e n t r e , " b y A n n B a r l i n g , J u l y 1 2 , p.  E1  (1991c) " S u r r e y s h o p s o p p o s e m e g a - m a l l , " b y H a r o l d M u n r o , 2 6 , p. D 3  November  (1991d) " B u r n a b y buys land, offices to e x p a n d civic hall," by Bruce C o n s t a n t i n e a u , N o v e m b e r 2 9 , p. E 2 . ( 1 9 9 1 e ) " G r o w t h p u t s n e w b e n t t o R i c h m o n d p l a n n i n g , " b y Jes D e c e m b e r 5, p. F 1 2 .  Odam,  (1991f) " M a y o r f o r a n d against P o C o c o u r t h o u s e s i t e , " b y Brian M o r t o n a n d H a r o l d M u n r o , D e c e m b e r 1 2 , p. B 1 4 . (1992a) " B C Transit signals e n d of t h e line for S u r r e y s t a t i o n , " b y H a r o l d M u n r o , M a r c h 18, p p . A 1 , A 1 3 . (1992b) " N o r t h V a n , N e w W e s t : G o o d things a b o u t b e i n g o l d , " by H a r o l d M u n r o , M a r c h 2 8 , p. B 1 0 . (1992c) " T o u g h times o n the e d g e of the e d g e , " by H a r o l d M u n r o , M a r c h 2 8 , p. B 1 0 . (1992d) " A critical mass to s t o p the strip m a l l s , " b y H a r o l d M u n r o , M a r c h 28, p p . B10. ( 1 9 9 2 e ) " B u i l d e r s e t t o s t a r t W h a l l e y s t a t i o n , " b y H a r o l d M u n r o , A p r i l 2, p. (1992f) " P l a n s f o r S u r r e y S k y T r a i n site d e r a i l e d b y l a n d d e v e l o p e r s ' financial w i t h d r a w a l , " b y J e f f L e e , A p r i l 4, p. A 5 . (1992g) " P a r k Royal c o u n t s o n street-front l o o k t o l u r e s h o p p e r s o u t of p a s s i n g t r a f f i c , " b y J e n n y L e e , A u g u s t 1, p. B 1 . V o o r h e e s , A l a n M . (1963) " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t , " Canada 4 (3), p p . 1 0 0 - 1 1 0 . W a l m s l e y , A n n ( 1 9 9 2 ) " B r i g h t L i g h t s , B e s t C i t i e s , " Report p p . 42-58, A u g u s t .  157  on Business  Plan  Magazine,  W a r d , J e r r y D., a n d N o r m a n G . P a u l h u s , Jr. ( 1 9 7 4 ) Suburbanization and Its Implications for Urban Transportation Systems. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: D e p a r t m e n t of Transportation.  U.S.  W a s h i n g t o n State Local G o v e r n a n c e S t u d y C o m m i s s i o n (1988) A History of Washington's Local Governments, Vol. 1. O l y m p i a , W a s h . : I n s t i t u t e f o r Public Policy, Evergreen State C o l l e g e , January. W e l c h , B o b ( 1 9 8 9 ) Bellevue Publications.  and  W h y t e , W i l l i a m H . ( 1 9 8 8 ) City: p p . 307-309.  The  New  Rediscovering  158  Eastside. the  C h a t s w o r t h , Calif.:  Center.  N e w York:  Windsor Doubleday,  APPENDIX 1 Regional T o w n C e n t r e b o u n d a r i e s , 1985 ( G V R D 1986: A p p e n d i x D; a u t h o r ' s digitized map). A digital m a p of m u n i c i p a l R T C d e s i g n a t i o n s w a s u s e d to e s t i m a t e t h e area of e a c h z o n e . Several o t h e r d o c u m e n t s w e r e u s e d to c o n f i r m the a p p r o x i m a t e size of the e s t i m a t e (Rao 1 9 8 9 ; T o w n s h i p of R i c h m o n d 1 9 8 6 ; District of B u r n a b y 1 9 8 2 , 1991). 1.  2.  3a.  3b. 4.  5.  6a.  6b.  M e t r o t o w n , 735 acres - North by Thurston, B o n d , and G r a n g e to D o v e r - East b y R o y a l O a k - S o u t h b y I m p e r i a l St. - West by Boundary N e w Westminster D o w n t o w n , 250 acres - N o r t h by Royal A v e . - East b y M c B r i d e B l v d . - South by the waterfront - West by Q u e e n s b o r o u g h Bridge W h a l l e y - G u i l d f o r d T o w n C e n t r e , 2,160 acres - North by 112th Ave. - E a s t b y 1 5 6 t h St. - South by 96th Ave. - W e s t b y 1 3 2 n d St. W h a l l e y T o w n C e n t r e , 1,320 acres - E a s t b y 1 4 0 t h St. ( s e e D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y 1 9 9 0 : 3-9) - all o t h e r b o u n d a r i e s r e m a i n t h e s a m e C o q u i t l a m T o w n C e n t r e , 2,400 acres - North by Pathan Ave. - East b y C o q u i t l a m / P o r t C o q u i t l a m m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r y - South by the railway - West by Coquitlam/Port M o o d y boundary R i c h m o n d C e n t r e , 1,150 acres - North by C a m b i e Road - East b y G a r d e n C i t y - South by Granville Ave. - West by Gilbert Road Lonsdale Q u a y (Lower Lonsdale area only) - W e s t b y F o r b e s St. - N o r t h b y 5 t h St. - East b y St. P a t r i c k s - South by the waterfront Lonsdale T o w n C e n t r e , 690 acres - W e s t b y F o r b e s St. a n d M a h o n A v e . - N o r t h by Trans C a n a d a H i g h w a y - E a s t b y St. A n d r e w s A v e . - S o u t h b y t h e w a t e r f r o n t (see C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r 1989)  159  APPENDIX 2 District C e n t r e s b y r e g i o n a n d d a t e of d e s i g n a t i o n ( M o o d i e 1991).  DISTRICT CENTRE Footscray Sunshine M o o n e e Ponds Preston Greensborough Prahran Camberwell Box Hill Ringwood Cheltenham Oakleigh Glen Waverley Dandenong Frankston Broadmeadows Fountain Gate/Narre W a r r e n Werribee  SUB-REGION West West Northwest Northeast Northeast East East East East Southeast Southeast Southeast Southeast South North Southeast West  160  DESIGNATED 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1985 1989 1990  APPENDIX 3  M a p 1.  P r o p o s e d regional t o w n centres a n d p u b l i c transit s y s t e m , 1975... 162  M a p 2.  B o u n d a r i e s of six r e g i o n a l t o w n c e n t r e z o n e s , 1 9 9 2  163  M a p 3.  M e l b o u r n e p u b l i c transit n e t w o r k , 1990  164  M a p 4.  District centres, 1983  165  M a p 5.  Differentiated district centres  166  M a p 6.  D i s t r i c t c e n t r e s , 1991  167  M a p 7.  Seattle m e t r o p o l i t a n area, s h o w i n g t h e C i t y of B e l l e v u e  168  M a p 8.  Bellevue central business district  169  M a p 9.  C o n c e p t u a l m a p of Bellevue c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s district sub-areas.... 170  161  M a p 1.  P r o p o s e d regional t o w n c e n t r e s a n d p u b l i c transit s y s t e m , 1975 (Adapted from G V R D 1975b).  162  M a p 2.  B o u n d a r i e s of six r e g i o n a l t o w n c e n t r e z o n e s a n d S k y T r a i n , 1992 (Author's map).  163  M a p 3.  M e l b o u r n e p u b l i c transit network,  1990 (Terrell 1 9 9 0 ) .  M a p 4.  District centres, 1982 (Carter 1982).  • District Centres O Potential District Centres M.M.B.W. Planning Boundary  M a p 5.  Differentiated district centres, 1989 (MPE  166  1989).  M a p 6.  Map  7.  Seattle m e t r o p o l i t a n area, s h o w i n g the C i t y of ( N o g u c h i 1982).  168  Bellevue  Map  8.  Bellevue central business district ( C e r v e r o 1989).  169  M a p 9.  C o n c e p t u a l m a p of B e l l e v u e central b u s i n e s s district sub-areas (City of B e l l e v u e 1991b).  

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