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The effects of sympathetic activation via acute exercise on physiological and subjective sexual arousal… Meston, Cindy May 1992

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THE EFFECTS OF SYMPATHETIC PHYSIOLOGICAL AND  ACTIVATION V I A ACUTE EXERCISE ON  S U B J E C T I V E SEXUAL AROUSAL I N WOMEN by CINDY MAY MESTON  B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY  OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Department of  Psychology  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA August ©  1991  1992  C i n d y May M e s t o n ,  1992  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  of  University  of  British  Columbia,  I agree  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  of  The University of British Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  Columbia  I further  purposes  gain  shall  requirements that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  Department  study.  the  It not  be is  that  the  permission  granted  allowed  an  advanced  Library shall  by  understood be  for  for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT This  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was d e s i g n e d  of sympathetic sexual  t o examine t h e e f f e c t s  a c t i v a t i o n on p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n d s u b j e c t i v e  a r o u s a l i n women.  The p u r p o s e was t o e m p i r i c a l l y  t e s t t h e widely h e l d assumption that sympathetic inhibits  sexual  arousal.  In experiment I , subjects  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n two e x p e r i m e n t a l  sessions  viewed a n e u t r a l preexposure stimulus stimulus.  I n one o f t h e s e  sessions,  i n which  activity,  they  f o l l o w e d b y an e r o t i c s u b j e c t s were  t o 20 m i n u t e s o f i n t e n s e e x e r c i s e , d e s i g n e d sympathetic  activation  p r i o r t o viewing  exposed  t o increase  the films.  e x p e r i m e n t I I , s u b j e c t s v i e w e d two c o n s e c u t i v e  In  neutral  s t i m u l i p r e c e d e d b y 20 m i n u t e s o f i n t e n s e e x e r c i s e . E x p e r i m e n t I I was d e s i g n e d of experiment I .  Sexual  primarily to verify the results  a r o u s a l was m e a s u r e d  p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y w i t h a v a g i n a l photoplethysmograph and subjectively with a self-report rating scale. exercise  increased both vaginal pulse  amplitude  Acute and v a g i n a l  b l o o d volume responses t o e r o t i c  s t i m u l i but not t o neutral  stimuli.  of sexual  Subjective perceptions  u n a l t e r e d w i t h exposure t o e x e r c i s e .  arousal  The p r e s e n t  were findings  have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e enhancing e f f e c t s o f a n x i e t y sexual  a r o u s a l i n women, W o l p e ' s r e c i p r o c a l i n h i b i t i o n  hypothesis, sexual  upon  d e s y n c h r o n y between s u b j e c t i v e and p h y s i o l o g i c a l  arousal  dysfunction.  i n women, a n d t h e t r e a t m e n t  of sexual  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  II  L I S T OF TABLES  VII  L I S T OF FIGURES  VIII  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  IX  INTRODUCTION  1  Sympathetic  Activation  and P h y s i o l o g i c a l  Sexual Arousal  Sympathetic  Activation  Enhances Sexual A r o u s a l  2 4  A n x i e t y and A v e r s i v e S t i m u l i Enhance S e x u a l A r o u s a l  6  Cognitive Explanations  8  o f A n x i e t y on S e x u a l Sympathetic  Activation  f o r t h e Enhancing E f f e c t s Arousal  I n h i b i t s Sexual Arousal  10  The R e c i p r o c a l I n h i b i t i o n T h e o r y  10  Anxiety I n h i b i t s Sexual Arousal  12  Treatments f o r Sexual Dysfunction  14  EXPERIMENT  I  18  Method  18  Subjects  18  Apparatus and M a t e r i a l s  19  Film  Stimuli  Physiological  19 Measurement  19  S u b j e c t i v e Measurement Derogatis Fitness  Sexual  Tests  Experimental  Design  Functioning Inventory  22 (DSFI)  23 23 24  Page Procedure  25  Session  1  25  Session  2  26  Session  3  27  Session  4  27  Data Sampling and Reduction  31  V a g i n a l Pulse Amplitude  31  V a g i n a l Blood Volume  31  Heart Rate  32  Results  32  A n a l y s e s of the V a l i d i t y of E r o t i c S t i m u l i  32  A n a l y s e s of Order E f f e c t s  33  A n a l y s e s of the C o n t r o l f o r F i t n e s s L e v e l s  33  A n a l y s e s of P h y s i o l o g i c a l Sexual A r o u s a l  34  V a g i n a l P u l s e Amplitude  34  V a g i n a l Blood Volume  34  A n a l y s e s of Heart Rate  34  A n a l y s e s of S u b j e c t i v e Measures  37  Subjective  Sexual A r o u s a l  37  S u b j e c t i v e Autonomic A r o u s a l  37  A f f e c t i v e Response  38  A n a l y s e s of the R e l a t i o n s h i p Between VBV and VPA  Responses  A n a l y s e s of the R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P h y s i o l o g i c a l and  Subjective  Discussion  38  38  Responses 40  Page EXPERIMENT I I  44  Method  44  Subjects  44  Apparatus  and M a t e r i a l s  44  Experimental Design  45  Procedure  45  Data Sampling  and R e d u c t i o n  Results  45 45  Analyses  of Physiological  Sexual A r o u s a l  45  Vaginal Pulse Amplitude  45  V a g i n a l B l o o d Volume  45  Analyses  of Heart Rate  Analyses  of the V a l i d i t y  i n Experiment Analyses  46 o f VPA S c o r e s  46  of Physiological  46  I  of the V a l i d i t y  Measurements Analyses  o f S u b j e c t i v e Measures  47  Subjective Sexual Arousal  47  S u b j e c t i v e Autonomic A r o u s a l  47  A f f e c t i v e Response  48  Discussion  48  GENERAL DISCUSSION  50  A n x i e t y Enhances Sexual A r o u s a l v i a  51  Sympathetic Sympathetic Mutually  Activation  Activation Inhibitory  and S e x u a l A r o u s a l a r e n o t  52  Page S u b j e c t i v e a n d P h y s i o l o g i c a l Components  of the  53  Female S e x u a l Response a r e i n Synchrony Implications  58  BIBLIOGRAPHY  64  APPENDIX  72  L I S T OF  TABLES  Page  Table I . of  Demographic and P s y c h o m e t r i c  Subjects.  Characteristics  20  L I S T OF FIGURES Page  Figure  1.  amplitude stimulus  Mean p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n v a g i n a l p u l s e (mm o f p e n d e f l e c t i o n )  presentations  (neutral-erotic) Exercise and  during  condition  +/- S.E.M. b e t w e e n  the No-Exercise  i n experiment I , t h e  (neutral-erotic) condition  the Exercise  35  (neutral-neutral)  i n experiment I , condition i n  experiment I I . Figure  2.  Mean v a g i n a l  from b a s e l i n e  b l o o d volume  (mV d e v i a t i o n  a v e r a g e d a c r o s s 900 d a t a  +/- S.E.M. d u r i n g  the No-Exercise  points/subject)  (neutral-erotic)  condition  i n experiment I , t h e Exercise  condition  i n experiment I , and t h e E x e r c i s e  (neutral-neutral) Figure sexual and  3.  condition  Mean s u b j e c t i v e  arousal,  (neutral-erotic)  i n experiment I I . r a t i n g s +/- S.E.M. o f  autonomic arousal,  negative affect during  positive  the No-Exercise  39  affect,  (neutral-  erotic)  condition  i n experiment I , t h e Exercise  erotic)  condition  i n experiment I , and t h e E x e r c i s e  (neutral-neutral)  condition  36  i n experiment I I .  (neutral-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S To b e g i n , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my s u p e r v i s o r . D r . B o r i s G o r z a l k a , who, i n P s y c h o l o g y 100, 1986, i n s p i r e d me t o enter i n t o the f i e l d of psychology. I w i l l f o r e v e r be g r a t e f u l n o t o n l y f o r t h e many o p p o r t u n i t i e s he h a s p r o v i d e d me w i t h , b u t f o r t h e s t r e n g t h , e n c o u r a g e m e n t , a n d c o n f i d e n c e he g a v e me t h r o u g h o u t my u n d e r g r a d u a t e y e a r s . I am t h a n k f u l f o r h i s a d v i s e and d i r e c t i o n i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s , and f o r h i s c o u r a g e t o c o l l a b o r a t e i n r e s e a r c h i n g an u n e x p l o r e d area o f female s e x u a l i t y . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k my o t h e r c o m m i t t e e members. F i r s t , Dr. D i m i t r i P a p a g e o r g i s f o r h i s i n s i g h t , and f o r b e i n g a "Greek p i l l a r o f s t r e n g t h " t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e r r o r s o f my f i r s t y e a r o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . Whenever I became d i s c o u r a g e d , D i m i t r i was t h e r e w i t h n u m e r o u s r e a s o n s why I s h o u l d q u i t g r a d u a t e s c h o o l a n d go b a c k t o b u s i n e s s . W h e n e v e r I f e l t g u i l t y a b o u t n e g l e c t i n g f r i e n d s , D i m i t r i was t h e r e t o r e m i n d me o f my " p o o r , l o n e l y , a g i n g p a r e n t s " , a n d w h e n e v e r I was down, D i m i t r i was t h e r e w i t h an e n d l e s s l i s t o f ways I m i g h t e n d my l i f e ! Second, I thank Dr. A n g e l o B e l c a s t r o f o r h i s i n s i g h t i n t o the e x e r c i s e aspect of t h i s r e s e a r c h , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e f i t n e s s t e s t i n g , and f o r c a r r y i n g e x e r c i s e b i c y c l e s a c r o s s campus f o r me. D r . B e l c a s t r o h a s b e e n more t h a n g e n e r o u s i n o f f e r i n g me u n l i m i t e d time and a s s i s t a n c e . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e man who h a s won my g r e a t e s t a d m i r a t i o n . D r . J a c k Rachman, f o r h i s i n s i g h t i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s a n d f o r t h e f r i e n d s h i p he h a s p r o v i d e d me t h i s past year. D r . Rachman i s n o t o n l y a p e r f e c t m o d e l o f b r i l l i a n c e and s u c c e s s , b u t o f honesty, c a r i n g , and compassion. L a s t l y , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my s c h o o l f r i e n d s T e r r i B u l l e r , S h e i l a C o l w i l l , Laureen M i k i , and Lee Ryan f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and l o y a l t y , t h e i r e n d l e s s s u p p o r t a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t , a n d f o r b e l i e v i n g i n me-at t i m e s , more t h a n I . T h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d t o t h e i r u n d y i n g friendship.  The  E f f e c t s o f Sympathetic A c t i v a t i o n v i a Acute E x e r c i s e  on  P h y s i o l o g i c a l and S i i b j e c t i v e It  i s commonly a s s u m e d t h a t i n c r e a s e s  nervous system a c t i v i t y , sexual  Sexual A r o u s a l i n Women  arousal  i n sympathetic  as i n t h e case o f a n x i e t y ,  i n b o t h men a n d women  Furthermore, i t i sb e l i e v e d that  (Kaplan,  inhibit  1974).  female sexual  arousal i s  p r i m a r i l y under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e parasympathetic nervous system  (Heiman & H a t c h ,  1981).  B a s e d on t h e s e a s s e r t i o n s ,  t r e a t m e n t s f o r s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l men a n d women, s u c h a s sensate focus,  are largely anxiety-reduction  designed t o decrease sympathetic a c t i v i t y . etiological large,  However, t h e s e  a s s u m p t i o n s o f o v e r 30 y e a r s a r e b a s e d , i n  on c l i n i c a l r e p o r t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e p e r f o r m a n c e  anxiety  causes e r e c t i l e  (1958) t h e o r y inhibitory. has  techniques  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n men, a n d on W o l p e ' s  that anxiety  and s e x u a l  arousal  E m p i r i c a l evidence supporting  n o t been o f f e r e d .  are mutually  these  assertions  Hence, t h e a u t o n o m i c pathways and  p r o c e s s e s by which s e x u a l  arousal  i s i n i t i a t e d and  heightened remain a matter o f conjecture  (Schnieden & Rees,  1985). Despite activation  the widely  inhibits  h e l d assumption that  sexual  arousal, research  b o t h a n i m a l s a n d humans i n d i c a t e s t h a t activity  may a c t u a l l y  example, r e c e n t  f a c i l i t a t e sexual  research  sympathetic conducted i n  increased arousal.  sympathetic For  c o n d u c t e d i n b o t h men a n d women h a s  shown t h a t , u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , a n x i e t y c a n h e i g h t e n sexual  arousal.  Unfortunately,  i t i sd i f f i c u l t t o ascertain  whether t h e i n c r e a s e s i n s e x u a l a r o u s a l r e p o r t e d i n t h e s e studies are a t t r i b u t a b l e t o increased sympathetic resulting  from a n x i e t y exposure,  result of cognitive  activity  o r whether they a r e t h e  factors associated with the anxiety  stimuli. The effect  present study i s t h e f i r s t examination o f t h e  o f s y m p a t h e t i c a c t i v a t i o n v i a a c u t e e x e r c i s e on  s u b j e c t i v e and p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures o f s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n women.  I f sympathetic  a c t i v a t i o n i s shown t o e n h a n c e s e x u a l  arousal, then the findings  from t h i s  study w i l l  provide a  possible explanation for the recent reports of a facilitatory  effect  o f a n x i e t y on s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n women.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f s y m p a t h e t i c a c t i v a t i o n  fails to  enhance s e x u a l a r o u s a l , then t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t a n x i e t y e n h a n c e s s e x u a l a r o u s a l v i a c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s w i l l be strengthened. sympathetic implications arousal,  Furthermore,  identification  a c t i v a t i o n on f e m a l e  s e x u a l a r o u s a l has major  f o r d e r i v i n g an e t i o l o g i c a l  theory of sexual  and f o r d e v e l o p i n g e f f e c t i v e treatments  alleviation  o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n i n women.  Sympathetic  Activation  and P h y s i o l o g i c a l  B o t h male and female  sympathetic nerves.  for the  Sexual Arousal  sex organs r e c e i v e i n n e r v a t i o n  from t h e s a c r a l p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c  and thoracolumbar  I n t h e male, a c t i v a t i o n o f t h e  parasympathetic  pathways e l i c i t s  parasympathetic  signal  dilation  of the effects of  erection.  The  a c t i v a t e s p e n i l e nerves which  of the penile arteries  cause  and r e l a x a t i o n o f muscles i n  the w a l l s of the  s i n u s o i d s and  erectile tissue. increases  As  a result,  expansion of the  and  rigidity  flow i n e r e c t i l e t i s s u e pressure  cavernous spaces to produce  extension  of the penis  (deGroat & S t e e r s ,  also a l t e r blood  (deGroat & S t e e r s ,  spinal cord  supply  i n intracavernous  S y m p a t h e t i c f i b e r s may  1990).  1990).  flow to the  example, Comarr l e s i o n s at the  be  sufficient  to e l i c i t  (1970) d e s c r i b e d  male  sympathetic  erection.  several patients  s a c r a l segment o f t h e  able to experience  erectile  R e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d on  i n j u r y p a t i e n t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the  p a t h w a y a l o n e may  still  blood  which leads to a r i s e  and  tissue  arterioles that  For  with  s p i n a l c o r d who  were  erections.  While p e n i l e e r e c t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y under s a c r a l p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c c o n t r o l , e j a c u l a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y under sympathetic c o n t r o l . provides  an  vesicles,  A c t i v a t i o n of the  e x c i t a t o r y i n p u t t o the vas  prostate  gland,  (deGroat & S t e e r s ,  1990).  nerves which innervate that the  and  deferens,  internal urinary  During emission,  seminal  sphincter  the  each of these organs are  semen i s t r a n s m i t t e d  sympathetic activated  i n t o the p o s t e r i o r urethra,  internal urinary sphincter  retrograde  s y m p a t h e t i c pathways  i s closed to  e j a c u l a t i o n i n t o the bladder  so  and  prevent  (deGroat &  Steers,  1990). The  m e c h a n i s m s by  influences majority and  which the  female sexual  of research  has  behavior focused  autonomic nervous are on  system  l e s s understood.  reproductive  b r o a d a s s u m p t i o n s h a v e b e e n made t h a t t h e  The  functioning  c o n t r o l of  a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m i n women i s d i r e c t l y e r e c t i o n a n d e j a c u l a t i o n i n men. entirely  These a s s u m p t i o n s  a c c u r a t e a n d may b e o v e r s t a t e d .  the female, which male, i s thought system  comparable t o  i s c o n s i d e r e d analogous  are not  Vasocongestion i n t o erection i n the  t o be r e g u l a t e d b y t h e s y m p a t h e t i c  (Geer e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) .  nervous  By c o n t r a s t , e r e c t i o n i n t h e  male i s c o n t r o l l e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c system.  W i t h r e s p e c t t o o r g a s m , more d i r e c t  be made b e t w e e n men a n d women. i n t h e lumbar  nervous  comparisons  Sympathetic nerves  may  located  section of the spinal cord provide input t o  the bulbocavernosus  and i s c h i o c a v e r n o s u s muscles  which are  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b o t h e j a c u l a t i o n i n males and c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r h y t h m i c p e r i n e a l c o n t r a c t i o n s d u r i n g o r g a s m i n women (deGroat  & Steers,  Overall,  1990).  the direct  s e x u a l a r o u s a l remains males,  i n f l u e n c e o f autonomic  unclear.  p a t h w a y s on  I t seems h o w e v e r t h a t i n  e r e c t i o n i s under p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c c o n t r o l and  e j a c u l a t i o n i s under sympathetic c o n t r o l . v a s o c o n g e s t i o n and orgasm appear  I n females,  t o be under  both  sympathetic  control. S y m p a t h e t i c A c t i v a t i o n Enhances Sexual A r o u s a l Support activity  o n s e x u a l a r o u s a l comes f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t  physiological activity  f o r a f a c i l i t a t o r y e f f e c t of sympathetic  changes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d sympathetic  accompany t h e s e x u a l r e s p o n s e .  F o r example, s e x u a l  a r o u s a l has been r e p o r t e d t o i n c r e a s e h e a r t perspiration,  several  and muscle  rate,  tension; alter galvanic  skin  c o n d u c t a n c e ; i n c r e a s e s y s t o l i c and and  d i a s t o l i c blood  pressure;  c a u s e n i p p l e e r e c t i o n ( e . g . Hoon e t a l . , 197 6; M a s t e r s  J o h n s o n , 1966;  Wenger e t a l . , 1 9 6 8 ) .  These responses  known t o be u n d e r t h e  i n f l u e n c e of the sympathetic  system.  I t s h o u l d be  noted,  r a t e and  s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e do n o t  response.  are  nervous  however, t h a t changes i n h e a r t  F o r e x a m p l e , Hoon and  a l w a y s accompany t h e  sexual  a s s o c i a t e s (1976) r e p o r t e d  t h a t i n c r e a s e s i n s e x u a l a r o u s a l , m e a s u r e d by  increases i n  v a g i n a l b l o o d volume, were accompanied by  increases i n  systolic  n o t by  and  d i a s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e but  heart r a t e or s k i n conductance. s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n men, significant  Wenger a n d  Similarly,  stimuli,  change i n h e a r t r a t e .  no  changes i n h e a r t r a t e and a t t r i b u t a b l e to the  not  The  finding  always,  that  reported  in a laboratory setting  sexual s t i m u l i .  by  be  f a c t t h a t the s t u d i e s which  f i l m s as  erotic  accompanied  s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e may  f i n d i n g s were c o n d u c t e d  of  diastolic  s k i n conductance w i t h exposure to  s e x u a l a r o u s a l i s sometimes, but  used e r o t i c  i n a study  increases i n s y s t o l i c blood pressure, and  such  changes i n  a s s o c i a t e s (1968) r e p o r t e d  blood pressure, but  &  and  In c o n t r a s t , s t u d i e s  w h i c h r e p o r t e d t h e s e m e a s u r e s t o accompany s e x u a l a r o u s a l , such  as t h a t c o n d u c t e d  by M a s t e r s  and  more n a t u r a l s e x u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and of sexual  Johnson  (1966),  attained higher  used levels  responding.  More i n d i r e c t  evidence  that sympathetic  activity  may  enhance s e x u a l a r o u s a l i s d e r i v e d from animal s t u d i e s . Beach  (1947) was  one  of the  first  animal  researchers  to  report that general animals  activation  induced by " b a t t i n g t h e  s h a r p l y about t h e cage" c o u l d i n c r e a s e  excitability  i n rats.  Since then,  demonstrated that e l e c t r i c  sexual  a number o f s t u d i e s h a v e  shock o r t a i l  p i n c h can i n c r e a s e  t h e number o f p r e p u b e r t a l m a l e r a t s c o p u l a t i n g , i n c r e a s e t h e rate of copulation i n experienced  males, decrease t h e l e n g t h  of the p o s t e j a c u l a t o r y p e r i o d of sexual i n a c t i v i t y , the  r a t e o f mounting behavior  temporarily  Caggiula,  1980).  sexual a c t i v i t y  Calhoun  suppressed  (for review,  by  see Antelman &  (1962) a l s o r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e s i n  i n male and female r a t s f o l l o w i n g a  succession of aggressive events,  i n a g i n g males, and  restore copulatory a c t i v i t y  v a r i o u s f o r m s o f b r a i n damage  increase  encounters.  Generally  arousing  s u c h as f e a r , have a l s o been r e p o r t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e  e r e c t i o n and e j a c u l a t i o n i n male dogs and chimpanzees (Beach,  1947).  Anxiety  and A v e r s i v e S t i m u l i Enhance S e x u a l  Further support sympathetic clinical  activity  Arousal  f o r a f a c i l i t a t o r y effect of on s e x u a l a r o u s a l i s p r o v i d e d b y  and e x p e r i m e n t a l  evidence  which i n d i c a t e s that  a n x i e t y a n d v a r i o u s f o r m s o f a v e r s i v e s t i m u l i known t o increase sympathetic and  women.  activity  Early clinical  e n h a n c e s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n men  r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d b y Ramsey  (1943) r e v e a l e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y have e x p e r i e n c e d s u c h as b e i n g Similar  50% o f a d o l e s c e n t  e r e c t i o n s i n response t o f e a r f u l  i n an a c c i d e n t o r b e i n g  boys  situations  chased by t h e p o l i c e .  f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d by B a n c r o f t  (1970).  I n an  i n t e r e s t i n g r e p o r t by S a r r e l and Masters able t o perform sexual threats with knives  (1982),  intercourse repeatedly  despite  a n d o t h e r weapons i f t h e y  failed.  s i m i l a r phenomenon h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d amongst and  experiencing  1976).  Related  the threat o f being  report, Kinsey  p o i n t o u t t h a t many women e x p e r i e n c e being b i t t e n . "definite  "some e r o t i c  responses",  experiencing  erotic  erotic  without  (Stoller,  i n women.  and a s s o c i a t e s  In  (1953)  e r o t i c sensations t o  responses",  and 45% r e p o r t e d  29% r e p o r t e d  "never"  responses t o being b i t t e n .  associates also p o i n t out that b i t i n g  K i n s e y and  i s a part o f sexual  i n a number o f mammalian s p e c i e s  including the  baboon, v a r i o u s monkeys, mink, m a r t e n , f e r r e t , sheep, l i o n ,  skunk,  horse,  shrew, e t c .  More r e c e n t l y , t h e e f f e c t s o f a n x i e t y on s e x u a l have been examined d i r e c t l y Rowland  A  In. a s a m p l e o f 2200 women, 2 6 % r e p o r t e d  and/or frequent  activity  arrested  f i n d i n g s have been r e p o r t e d  t h e w e l l known K i n s e y  direct  exhibitionists  v o y e u r s who a r e o f t e n u n a b l e t o become a r o u s e d  first  pig,  men w e r e  (1983) r e p o r t e d  i n the laboratory.  increases  arousal  Heiman a n d  i n subjective  sexual  a r o u s a l i n m a l e s who w e r e g i v e n demand i n s t r u c t i o n s t o maintain Aron  an e r e c t i o n .  (1974),  reported suspension  increases  In a study  conducted by Button and  i n subjective sexual  i n men who w e r e a s k e d t o c r o s s a f e a r - a r o u s i n g bridge.  With respect  t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  a r o u s a l i n t h e male, W o l c h i k and a s s o c i a t e s and  a r o u s a l were  associates  (1983),  (1980),  a n d Heiman a n d R o w l a n d  (1983)  Barlow  d e m o n s t r a t e d an i n c r e a s e t o an a n x i e t y and  arousing  i n p e n i l e tumescence w i t h  videotape,  a shock-threat  p e r f o r m a n c e demand i n s t r u c t i o n s .  condition,  The f e w s t u d i e s  have been c o n d u c t e d i n t h e female r e v e a l s i m i l a r in p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual evoking  stimuli.  exposure  that  increases  a r o u s a l w i t h exposure t o a n x i e t y -  F o r e x a m p l e , Hoon, W i n c z e , a n d Hoon  (1977)  e x p o s e d s e x u a l l y f u n c t i o n a l women t o e i t h e r an a n x i e t y evoking  film  f o l l o w e d b y an e r o t i c  f o l l o w e d by an e r o t i c arousal,  film.  i n d i c a t e d by i n c r e a s e d v a g i n a l b l o o d were r e p o r t e d  evoking  film prior to the erotic  v o l u m e (VBV)  amongst women who v i e w e d a n a n x i e t y stimuli.  P a l a c e and  (1990) r e p l i c a t e d t h e f i n d i n g s o f Hoon and^  associates  (1977) i n b o t h s e x u a l l y f u n c t i o n a l a n d s e x u a l l y  d y s f u n c t i o n a l women. i n VBV l e v e l s ,  In contrast t o the reported  s u b j e c t i v e measures o f s e x u a l  a slight but significant  the  (Palace  film  caused  decrease i n r a t i n g s of sexual  & Gorzalka,  authors hypothesized  increase  arousal  i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r e e x p o s u r e t o an a n x i e t y - e v o k i n g  arousal  film  Higher l e v e l s o f sexual  levels,  Gorzalka  film or a neutral  1990).  B a s e d on t h i s f i n d i n g ,  a possible  desynchronous  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e components of the sexual  r e s p o n s e i n women.  This  i s the only  study  known t o t h e a u t h o r t h a t h a s m e a s u r e d b o t h s u b j e c t i v e a n d physiological  sexual  responses t o anxiety  Cognitive Explanations Anxiety  on S e x u a l  stimuli.  f o r t h e Enhancing E f f e c t s o f  Arousal  The t o an  r e s u l t s of the  anxiety-evoking  R e s e a r c h e r s who focused  increase evoking  For  s i t u a t i o n may  c o g n i t i v e , as  example, Wolpe  i n sexual stimulus  arousal  may  be  was  (1978) c l a i m e d  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o an  t h e y had  shock.  g r e a t l y out  experienced  of anxiety  a r o u s a l w h i c h has another.  For  (Wolpe,  on  (1987) e x p l a i n e d  w i t h i n the  conceptual  context  arousal  the  relies  Faced w i t h  a n x i e t y when v i e w i n g  mislabeled  the  turn,  served  the  emotional Aron  current  arousal  to heighten  sexual  sense  experience  i s not  context  as  on  and  arousal  excitation asserts  that  apparent,  the  for interpretation.  erotic  sexual  to  Beggs  i n sexual  This theory  the  enhancing  film,  subjects  arousal.  This,  in  for  the  responding.  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e many c o g n i t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s enhancing e f f e c t s of anxiety  at  discomfort  (1974) and  increase  1964).  individual  anxiety  of  as a f o r m o f r e s i d u a l  for heightened arousal on t h e  anxiety.  a f e e l i n g of r e l i e f  framework o f S c h a c t e r ' s  (Schacter,  relief"  1958).  moved f r o m one  associates  when t h e  e f f e c t of  have d e s c r i b e d  sexual  anxiety-  Often t h e i r reported  e x a m p l e . B u t t o n and  transfer theory  the  "anxiety  of p r o p o r t i o n to the  Social psychologists effects  that  b a s e d , i n p a r t , on a s e r i e s  c e s s a t i o n of e l e c t r i c  o f r e l i e f was  f i n d i n g have  f o l l o w i n g e x p o s u r e t o an  e x p e r i m e n t s whereby p a t i e n t s r e p o r t e d the  arousal.  opposed t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l ,  phenomenon as o p p o s e d t o a f a c i l i t a t o r y This explanation  exposure  enhance s e x u a l  have a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n t h i s  p r i m a r i l y on  factors.  above s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t  sexual  arousal. Palace  and  Gorzalka  (1990) w e r e t h e  enhances s e x u a l  first  to propose that  arousal through the  direct instigation  facilitation  of sympathetic a c t i v a t i o n .  the  i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  increase  their  study  c o u l d not  1978), g i v e n exposure  be  (Palace  & Gorzalka,  1990).  s u c c e s s f u l l y determine whether the anxiety  are two  r u l e out  s e v e r a l of the  erotic  i s s u e s must be  relief  inducing  and  stimulus.  physiological  presented  s t a t e , must be  anxiety  cognitions.  presented  Sympathetic A c t i v a t i o n I n h i b i t s Reciprocal and  Inhibition  most i n f l u e n t i a l  sympathetic a c t i v i t y  arousal he  s t a t e s s u c h as  are  such the  without  Sexual  sexual  the  a behavioral  and  an  Arousal  to assert arousal.  state.  but  the  that In h i s  (1958) p r o p o s e d  cognitive level,  the  sexual  J o s e p h Wolpe was  anxiety  the  accompanying  theory  that  r e l a x a t i o n , h u n g e r , and  a n t a g o n i s t i c t o an  as  with  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  researcher  Wolpe  to  anxiety-  simultaneously  p r o p o s e d t h a t t h i s m u t u a l i n h i b i t i o n was  only  i n order  t o determine whether  Theory.  inhibits  of r e c i p r o c a l i n h i b i t i o n , emotional  cognitive,  components of a n x i e t y a l o n e enhance  anxiety  first  First,  r e s i d u a l e x c i t a t i o n theory,  the heightened arousal,  erotic  enhancing e f f e c t s of  addressed.  Second, i n o r d e r  in  to  cognitive explanations,  s i t u a t i o n must be  arousal,  In order  that  (Wolpe,  throughout the  a t t r i b u t a b l e to p h y s i o l o g i c a l , versus  factors,  anxiety  reported  anxiety r e l i e f  reported  and  They a s s e r t e d  arousal  e x p l a i n e d by  t h a t a n x i e t y was  anxiety  sexual  Furthermore,  operative at a neural  at or  not  autonomie l e v e l arousal,  as w e l l .  He  asserted that  s u c h as t h a t g e n e r a t e d by  sympathetic  an a n x i e t y s t a t e ,  i n t e r f e r e d or competed w i t h p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c g e n e r a t e d by  a sexual  Wolpe's t h e o r y  state.  i s b a s e d on a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s  c a t s which aimed at d e t e r m i n i n g and  arousal  avoidance behavior.  methods t o d e c r e a s e  C a t s were f i r s t  shock t o d i s p l a y i n t e n s e  fear behavior  with  anxiety  conditioned v i a  i n a small  cage.  They w e r e t h e n f e d w h i l e e x p o s e d t o g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g "doses" of a n x i e t y - e v o k i n g a n x i e t y was was  lower,  stimuli.  i n t e n s e , e a t i n g was  Wolpe n o t e d t h a t when  i n h i b i t e d and,  a l l o w i n g e a t i n g t o take p l a c e , the  when a n x i e t y anxiety  r e s p o n s e weakened. S i n c e Wolpe's t h e o r y been o n l y  one  study  t h a t a n x i e t y and  o r i g i n a l l y proposed, there  aimed d i r e c t l y  has  at t e s t i n g the a s s e r t i o n  sexual a r o u s a l are mutually  (Hoon e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) . study  was  inhibitory  C o n s i s t e n t w i t h Wolpe's t h e o r y ,  this  d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a n x i e t y e x p o s u r e f o l l o w i n g an  erotic  f i l m d e c r e a s e d p h y s i o l o g i c a l s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n women ( m e a s u r e d by VBV film.  l e v e l s ) more r a p i d l y t h a n d i d a n e u t r a l  Presumably, the  sympathetic  e x t i n g u i s h e d the parasympathetic stimuli.  t h a t the measures.  Wolpe  film  (1978),  a result,  erotic  anxiety  stimuli  increased p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual criticized this  a n x i e t y s t i m u l i d i d not As  anxiety  i n f l u e n c e of the  However, c o n t r a r y t o t h e t h e o r y ,  p r i o r t o an e r o t i c arousal.  i n f l u e n c e of  t h e r e was  study  on t h e  increase heart no  grounds  rate  e v i d e n c e o f an  anxiety  response during p r e s e n t a t i o n According basis  t o Wolpe,  for testing  because i n order  the study  Inhibits  arousal  simultaneously, Sexual  Johnson  with erectile  by c l i n i c a l  dysfunctional a "marked  reports which  erectile  reported  (1969) r e p o r t e d  c o i t a l anxiety."  (73%), being ridiculed  (1975) r e p o r t e d that their discrete  sexual  that  experiences.  a n x i e t y was  may  most  anxiety.  or  sexual  being  Ansari  reported  d e v e l o p e d as a r e a c t i o n t o  anxiety  and  these  findings  erectile erectile  be more a c o n s e q u e n c e o f n e g a t i v e specific  failure  (43.5%),  However, t h e y a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t  associated with generalized  n e u r o t i c but 51% had  Taken t o g e t h e r ,  between  men  later  w i t h Cooper's f i n d i n g s ,  dysfunction  o f males  12% o f h i s s e x u a l l y  66% o f t h e p a t i e n t s s t u d i e d  support the connection  dysfunction  Coital  In a  link For  t o be a c o n s e q u e n c e o f f e a r o f  Consistent  erectile  dysfunction.  that only  r e g a r d e d as s e x u a l l y i n f e r i o r  (40%).  ability.  t h a t 48% o f t h e  s u b j e c t s were c l i n i c a l l y  frequently reported  inhibits  i n h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e study  dysfunction,  Cooper  inhibitory,  not s e q u e n t i a l l y .  s t u d i e d s u f f e r e d f r o m an a n x i e t y d i s o r d e r . study,  hypothesis  Arousal  and i m p a i r e d  (1965),  adequate  assertion that anxiety  i s provided  generalized anxiety example,  inhibition  an  f o r two e v e n t s t o be m u t u a l l y  Support f o r Wolpe's sexual  stimuli.  d i d not provide  the reciprocal  t h e y must be p r e s e n t e d Anxiety  of the e r o t i c  a c t i v i t i e s than of  cognitions  Laboratory situations, Strassberg arousal  studies also indicate that, given c e r t a i n  a n x i e t y may i n h i b i t (1990) r e p o r t e d  arousal.  Hale and  decreased p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  i n a g r o u p o f 54 men i n r e s p o n s e t o e i t h e r s h o c k  threat or false sexual  sexual  feedback i n d i c a t i n g a t y p i c a l l y  response.  low l e v e l s o f  The a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t h r e a t e n i n g  c o g n i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s became t h e subjects'  focus  of attention.  attention  available forerotic  levels of arousal. by  data  sexual  This,  i n turn, left  less  s t i m u l i and r e s u l t e d i n lower  This hypothesis  was p a r t i a l l y  supported  w h i c h i n d i c a t e d l o w e r l e v e l s o f memory r e c a l l f o r stimuli  Differences  i n the threatening versus  i n memory  however, r e a c h  control condition.  r e c a l l between c o n d i t i o n s d i d n o t ,  statistical  significance.  In a  study  c o n d u c t e d b y Bozman a n d B e c k  (1991),  decreases i n subjective  sexual  a r o u s a l were r e p o r t e d  i n m a l e s who w e r e e x p o s e d t o an  erotic  f i l m c o n t a i n i n g s t a t e m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o evoke  These a n x i e t y  s t i m u l i h a d no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on  physiological  sexual  arousal.  Using  the threat of e l e c t r i c  shock as t h e s o u r c e o f a n x i e t y . Beck and B a r l o w Beck and a s s o c i a t e s physiological  (1987) r e p o r t e d  sexual  arousal  i n men.  anxiety.  (1986) a n d  that anxiety The a b o v e  decreased studies  c o n t r a d i c t those reviewed e a r l i e r which i n d i c a t e that anxiety sexual  enhances s e x u a l responding,  anxiety,  arousal.  Individual differences i n  different operational definitions of  a n d / o r a number o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  differences  between s t u d i e s c o u l d e x p l a i n these c o n t r a d i c t o r y  results.  Treatments f o r Sexual The  Dysfunction  majority of techniques  sexual d y s f u n c t i o n focus of these,  reducing  anxiety.  s y s t e m a t i c d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n , was  i n 1958. patient  on  used i n the treatment  This technique  i s constructed.  stimuli,  while remaining  First,  relaxed.  relaxation.  imagines the  Finally,  in real  stimuli  Third, beginning  the c l i e n t  sexual a c t i v i t i e s  the  life,  or  w i t h the  feared  least  situation  t h e c l i e n t engages i n t h e  while maintaining a s t a t e of  Presumably, the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s  treatment  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e m u s c u l a r r e l a x a t i o n component w h i c h  induces  a s t a t e of parasympathetic  dominance  (Wolpe,  A l a r g e number o f o u t c o m e s t u d i e s r e p o r t h i g h rates i n t r e a t i n g sexual dysfunction with desensitization success  has  sympathetic  (for review,  desensitization  inhibits  is effective  of sexual d y s f u n c t i o n . S o t i l e and  Kilmann  sexual arousal.  However, systematic  i n t r e a t i n g only s p e c i f i c  F o r e x a m p l e , i n an e l a b o r a t e (1978),  improved pleasure  types  study  s y s t e m a t i c d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n was coital  d u r i n g i n t e r c o u r s e , improved  satisfaction with overall  sexual  extracoital  However,  stimulation.  This  f o r the a s s e r t i o n that  shown t o p r o d u c e r e d u c t i o n s i n s e v e r a l m e a s u r e s o f anxiety,  success  see N o r t o n & Jehu, 1984).  b e e n u s e d as s u p p o r t activation  1958).  systematic  s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i n women seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  by  Wolpe  i s t r a i n e d t o r e l a x t h e m u s c l e s i n h i s / h e r body.  situations  is  foremost  p r o p o s e d by  involves four stages.  Second, a h i e r a r c h y o f a n x i e t y - p r o v o k i n g  fearful  The  of  f u n c t i o n , and systematic  increased  d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n was not e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g orgasmic ability.  T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t with other  that i n d i c a t e s systematic t r e a t i n g anorgasmia  desensitization i s ineffective in  (e.g., Andersen, 1983; Cooper, 1981;  Crown & D'Ardenne, 1982; Kuriansky  & Sharpe, 1981).  Since the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Wolpe's t h e o r y l i t t l e has changed i n t h e understanding sexual  research  i n 1958,  and treatment o f  dysfunctions.  The  present  study  i s the f i r s t  examination o f the  e f f e c t o f sympathetic a c t i v a t i o n , v i a acute  e x e r c i s e , on  s u b j e c t i v e and p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures o f sexual a r o u s a l i n women.  In experiment I, s u b j e c t s were exposed t o two  experimental  s e s s i o n s i n which they were shown a n e u t r a l  f i l m stimulus stimulus.  f o l l o w e d immediately by an e r o t i c  film  In one o f the c o n d i t i o n s , the s u b j e c t s were  exposed t o 20 minutes o f i n t e n s e e x e r c i s e p r i o r t o viewing the  films.  T h i s experiment was designed  t o t e s t the e f f e c t s  o f sympathetic a c t i v a t i o n on s u b j e c t i v e and p h y s i o l o g i c a l s e x u a l responses t o e r o t i c s t i m u l i . s u b j e c t s were shown two d i f f e r e n t ,  In experiment I I , consecutive  neutral film  sequences, preceded by 20 minutes o f i n t e n s e e x e r c i s e . experiment was designed  t o t e s t the e f f e c t s o f sympathetic  a c t i v a t i o n on s u b j e c t i v e and p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual to neutral stimuli. necessary  This  responses  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s experiment were  t o determine whether the p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses  r e p o r t e d i n experiment I were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a sexual as opposed t o a c a r d i o v a s c u l a r or hormonal response t o  sympathetic  activation.  s e x u a l a r o u s a l was Physiological  In both experiments,  measured u s i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  s e x u a l a r o u s a l was  measured u s i n g both v a g i n a l  b l o o d v o l u m e and v a g i n a l p u l s e a m p l i t u d e r a t e was  u s e d a s an  The First,  sympathetic  i s an a t t e m p t  a c t i v a t i o n on  o f s u b j e c t s t o an activity  of the  as i n d i c e s .  investigation i s threefold. t o t e s t the d i r e c t e f f e c t s  female  sexual arousal.  sympathetic  nervous system s i m i l a r  w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y h a v e l e s s o f an e f f e c t  on  to  (Obrist et a l . , exercise  on c o g n i t i v e s e t .  a n x i e t y - e v o k i n g s t i m u l i have s i m i l a r  effects  s e x u a l a r o u s a l , t h i s w o u l d s t r e n g t h e n t h e argument t h a t  a n x i e t y may  act v i a sympathetic  activation rather  cognitively to increase physiological The indirect and  Exposure  However, u n l i k e a n x i e t y - p r o d u c i n g s t i m u l i ,  I f e x e r c i s e and  of  i n t e n s e e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n would i n c r e a s e  e x p o s u r e t o an a n x i e t y - e v o k i n g s t i m u l u s 1978).  Heart  i n d i c a t o r of g e n e r a l autonomic a r o u s a l .  purpose of the present  the study  subjective  second purpose of t h i s test  sexual arousal. i s to provide  of the a s s e r t i o n that sympathetic  sexual a r o u s a l are mutually  research i n the (1977) a n d  study  female  P a l a c e and  inhibitory.  conducted Gorzalka  by Hoon and (1990) has  must o c c u r  In these presented  sequentially.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n ensured  The  been inadequate (1978),  sexual stimuli  design of the  sympathetic  activation  associates  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o be m u t u a l l y  s t u d i e s , t h e a n x i e t y and  an  Previous  t e s t t h i s t h e o r y b e c a u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o Wolpe events  than  the  to two  inhibitory. were  present  influences during  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e r o t i c  s t i m u l i by e v o k i n g  a c t i v a t i o n of the sympathetic  intense  n e r v o u s s y s t e m and by  ensuring  ( v i a h e a r t r a t e measures) i t s p e r s i s t e n c e throughout erotic  exposure.  The  t h i r d purpose of t h i s  f i n d i n g s o f P a l a c e and exposure had  Gorzalka  an o p p o s i t e e f f e c t  study  i s to replicate  i s designed  a c t i v a t i o n has physiological II,  t o determine  on s u b j e c t i v e and  whether  That i s , t h e  sympathetic  d i s s i m i l a r or s i m i l a r e f f e c t s and  the  (1990) w h e r e b y a n x i e t y  p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures of s e x u a l a r o u s a l . study  the  on  subjective sexual arousal.  In  experiment  subjects viewed only consecutive n e u t r a l s t i m u l i .  p r o v i d e s b a s e l i n e d a t a and p e r m i t s experimentally manipulated a r o u s a l and study  "nonsexual"  comparisons between  l e v e l s of s u b j e c t i v e sexual  b a s e l i n e measures.  I t i s the  of i t s k i n d to i n c l u d e t h i s type of c o n t r o l  P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has experimental  This  first  group.  a l l o w e d o n l y comparisons between  c o n d i t i o n s and,  h e n c e , has  been unable  to  d i s c e r n w h e t h e r s u b j e c t s a r e aware and/or w i l l i n g t o r e p o r t changes i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l  s e x u a l a r o u s a l from a  "nonsexual"  state. Specifically,  the  f o l l o w i n g questions are  1. Does s y m p a t h e t i c 2. A r e  sympathetic  mutually  addressed:  a c t i v a t i o n enhance s e x u a l a c t i v a t i o n and  inhibitory?  arousal?  sexual arousal  3. Does a d e s y n c h r o n o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t  between  c o g n i t i v e and p h y s i o l o g i c a l components o f t h e s e x u a l response  i n women?  EXPERIMENT I Method Subjects Twenty-five 24  years,  through  women p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y  r a n g e = 18-34 y e a r s ) .  a psychology  The s u b j e c t s w e r e  department undergraduate  p a r t i c i p a n t p o o l o r by p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . graduate  students  second year  i n psychology,  students  psychology.  participation. 18-35  research  N i n e s u b j e c t s were  and f i v e  students  s u b j e c t s were  i n disciplines  S u b j e c t s were g i v e n c o u r s e  f i t n e s s assessment p r o f i l e  other  than  c r e d i t and/or a  as an i n c e n t i v e f o r t h e i r  I n c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a were: between t h e ages o f  y e a r s , no u s e o f m e d i c a t i o n s  known t o a f f e c t  o r s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g , no h i s t o r y o f t r e a t m e n t dysfunction,  recruited  11 s u b j e c t s w e r e f i r s t o r  i n psychology,  undergraduate o r graduate  (Mean age =  and c u r r e n t involvement  vascular  for sexual  i n a heterosexual  relationship. Profile the Derogatis  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a l l s u b j e c t s were o b t a i n e d v i a Sexual F u n c t i o n i n g Inventory  1 9 7 8 ) . The S e x u a l  F u n c t i o n i n g Index Index  Derogatis,  (SFI) and t h e G l o b a l  Sexual  Satisfaction  screen  f o r absence o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n .  employed i n t h e study  (DSFI;  (GSSI) o f t h e DSFI w e r e u s e d t o  scored greater than  A l l subjects or equal t o the  4 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e on b o t h r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d by  of these measures.  Palace  and  Gorzalka  s u b j e c t s b e l o w t h i s p e r c e n t i l e t o be In a d d i t i o n , the B r i e f 1975)  general psychopathology, scored greater than BSI  (see T a b l e  I.).  (1992)  considered  sexually dysfunctional.  Symptom I n v e n t o r y  s u b t e s t o f t h e D S F I was  Previous  (BSI;  used to screen  Derogatis,  f o r absence  A l l s u b j e c t s employed i n the  or equal The  to the  of  study  3 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e on  the  30th p e r c e n t i l e c u t o f f c r i t e r i o n  for general psychopathology  was  u s e d by P a l a c e  and  Gorzalka  (1992) . A p p a r a t u s and Film  Materials  Stimuli.  four-minute  Preexposure s t i m u l i  color videotapes:  w o r d relax  f o l l o w e d by  sequence.  The  two  three-minute  couple  e n g a g i n g i n f o r e p l a y and  explicit  o f a nude,  intercourse.  The  f a s t - p a c e d m u s i c and  The  The  i n women  ( P a l a c e and  Gorzalka,  1990;  P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measurement.  1975).  pulse  amplitude  and  heart  duration  settings.  sexual  arousal  P h y s i o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e s were  Changes i n v a g i n a l b l o o d volume (VPA),  erotic  1992).  obtained using a v a g i n a l photoplethysmograph Geer,  two  and  same a c t o r s and  f i l m s h a v e b e e n shown t o r e l i a b l y e l i c i t  erotic  included  f i l m s w e r e m a t c h e d on t h e number, o r d e r , t y p e , i n c l u d e d the  c o n s i s t e d of  heterosexual  s e x u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n by t h e c o u p l e .  o f s e x u a l a c t s , and  the  neutral travelogue  or e r o t i c s t i m u l i ,  c o l o r videotapes  f i l m s w e r e a c c o m p a n i e d by  two  a one-minute d i s p l a y of  a three-minute  experimental,  c o n s i s t e d of  rate  (HR)  (Sintchak  &  (VBV), v a g i n a l  were  monitored  Table I .  DEMOGRAPHIC AND  PSYCHOMETRIC  CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS  Measure  M  SD  Range  Age  24 .28  4. 91  18-•34  V02 Max  27 .40  8. 35  16-•45  8 .88  5. 13  1-•17  50 .60  9. 61  33-•68  50 .44  8. 12  31-•63  51 .64  10. 94  42-•70  54 . 96  9. 45  41-•70  46 .72  8. 28  32-•61  Duration of sexual Derogatis  Sexual  experience  Functioning  Inventory  Affect Experience Sexual  subtest  Functioning  Index  Global Sexual  Satisfaction  Brief  Inventory  Symptom  Index  Note. D u r a t i o n o f S e x u a l E x p e r i e n c e i s c a l c u l a t e d a s t h e d i f f e r e n c e bet-ween age a t f i r s t i n t e r c o u r s e a n d c u r r e n t a g e . Means f o r t h e D e r o g a t i s S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g I n v e n t o r y a r e b a s e d on raw s c o r e s t h a t w e r e c o n v e r t e d t o e s t a b l i s h e d p e r c e n t i l e r a n k i n g s (T s c o r e s ) .  simultaneously do  signal,  during a l l experimental  reflects  the v a g i n a l t i s s u e reflects  short-term  slow  sessions.  VBV, t h e  changes i n t h e p o o l i n g o f b l o o d i n  (Hatch,  1 9 7 9 ) , w h i l e VPA, t h e a c s i g n a l ,  changes i n engorgement  (Rosen a n d B e c k ,  1988). Contradictions exist  i n the literature  as t o w h e t h e r  VBV o r VPA i s t h e more a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i c a t o r o f f e m a l e sexual arousal.  S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a v e f o u n d VPA t o be  a more s e n s i t i v e m e a s u r e o f s e x u a l a r o u s a l 1974;  (Geer e t a l . ,  H e i m a n , 1 9 7 7 : O s b o r n & P o l l a c k , 1 9 7 7 ) , t o show a more  rapid return t o baseline following stimulus presentation (Henson e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ) , t o d e m o n s t r a t e g r e a t e r w i t h i n - s e s s i o n reliability  (Heiman, 1 9 7 6 ; 1 9 7 7 ) , a n d t o be u n a f f e c t e d b y  t e m p e r a t u r e and d r i f t contrast,  confounds  Hoon a n d a s s o c i a t e s  (Beck e t a l . , 1 9 8 3 ) .  (1976) a n d P a l a c e  and G o r z a l k a  ( 1 9 9 0 ; 1 9 9 2 ) c l a i m t h a t VBV i s t h e more s e n s i t i v e of g e n i t a l vasocongestion a fraction Light  In  indicator  a s c h a n g e s i n VPA a c c o u n t f o r o n l y  o f t o t a l b l o o d volume d u r i n g  engorgement.  and h e a t i n g e f f e c t s were m i n i m i z e d  by a l l o w i n g  t h e p h o t o p l e t h y s m o g r a p h a 4 5 - m i n u t e warm-up p e r i o d p r i o r t o insertion,  f o l l o w e d by a 10-minute r e c o r d e d  period before  t h e experiment began.  Geer gauge and module  (Farral  was c h a n n e l e d  an o p t i c a l  through  VBV s i g n a l was r e c o r d e d  and Labtech  G r a n d I s l a n d , NE)  isolator-power supply.  at a sampling  Acquire  The s i g n a l f r o m t h e  Instruments,  w i t h a Data T r a n s l a t i o n (Marlborough, converter  adaptation  Program  rate of 5  times/second  MA) a n a l o g - d i g i t a l (Laboratory  The  Technologies  C o r p . , 1986)  microcomputer. c h a n n e l e d and  The  VPA  recorded  ( S c h e l l e r Park,  IL).  administration of the  installed and  on  heart  software  stimuli  s i g n a l t o mark a l l s t i m u l u s  research t o be  and  u s e d an a u d i o  (1983),  s c a l e has  (Palace & Gorzalka  program timed  1990;  was  (Heiman 1980;  R o w l a n d 1983; that there  1 9 9 2 ) , and  Heiman and  significant  has  a  previous b e e n shown  reactions to  H a t c h 1980;  M o r o k o f f & Heiman 1 9 8 0 ) .  a r e no  trigger  u s e d as  been used i n  a s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r of emotional  stimuli  the  A self-report rating scale,  Rowland  The  dynagraph  changeovers.  S u b j e c t i v e Measurement.  s u b j e c t i v e measure.  r a t e s i g n a l s were  a Beckman m o d e l R612  The  a d a p t e d from Heiman and  on a S a m t r o n SC-386  erotic  Heiman &  Research i n d i c a t e s  differences i n subjective  reports of sexual  a r o u s a l o b t a i n e d by methods o f d i s c r e t e  versus  s u b j e c t i v e measurement  continuous  1981).  The  s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f 32  item), perceptions autonomic a r o u s a l negative  affect  each of these experienced (1) n o t was  warmth i n g e n i t a l s ,  (1  (4 i t e m s ) ,  (5 i t e m s ) , p o s i t i v e a f f e c t  (11 i t e m s )  (see A p p e n d i x ) .  d e p e n d i n g on t h e  sensations,  the  sexual arousal  change  (11 i t e m s )  at a l l to  d e f i n e d by  of p h y s i c a l sexual  items,  the  items:  (Steinman et a l . ,  (7)  on  Likert  and  any  genital  a u t o n o m i c a r o u s a l was  d e f i n e d by  the  from  arousal  s e x u a l l y aroused,  g e n i t a l wetness or l u b r i c a t i o n ,  p u l s i n g or throbbing,  they  Scale,  Subjective sexual  f o l l o w i n g 5 items:  rated  degree t o which  a 7-point  intensely.  Subjects  and  feelings.  genital  Subjective  following five  items:  f a s t e r b r e a t h i n g , f a s t e r heart beat,  perspiration,  o f warmth, and any p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n a t a l l .  feelings  Positive  a f f e c t was d e f i n e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g 11 i t e m s : s e n s u o u s , a d e s i r e t o be c l o s e t o someone, p l e a s u r e , attracted,  e x c i t e d , sexy,  to arouse,  feminine.  following guilty,  Negative  inhibited,  levels  (information,  experience,  gender r o l e ,  r a t i n g of present  incompetent,  embarrassed,  sexually turned o f f ,  drive,  fantasy) score  Index  the respondents'  functioning.  inventory designed  Research  The D S F I i s a t o assess  Eight  attitudes,  subtests symptoms,  c o n s t i t u t e an o v e r a l l  ( S F I ) a n d one i t e m  sexual relationship)  Satisfaction  reflect  disgusted,  of sexual functioning.  Functioning Inventory  Sexual  a f f e c t was d e f i n e d b y t h e  Sexual Functioning Inventory.  standardized self-report  affects,  easy  bored.  Derogatis  current  sexually attractive,  11 i t e m s : w o r r i e d , a n g r y ,  dirty,  offended,  loving,  interested,  (GSSI).  Sexual  (satisfaction  constitutes a Global  The GSSI i s b e l i e v e d t o  perception of their  l e v e l of sexual  h a s shown t h e D S F I t o be a v a l i d  r e l i a b l e measure f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  sexually functional  and and  d y s f u n c t i o n a l women ( D e r o g a t i s & M e l i s a r a t o s , 1979; Derogatis  & Meyer, 1979).  The s y m p t o m o l o g y s u b t e s t o f t h e  DSFI, t h e BSI, i s a d i s t i n c t psychometric designed  t o assess psychopathology.  instrument  N i n e symptom  dimension  s c o r e s and t h r e e g l o b a l s c o r e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e B S I . Fitness Tests. subject.  F i t n e s s l e v e l s were a s s e s s e d  These assessments p r o v i d e d t h e  necessary  f o r each  information  t o s e t c y c l e s p e e d a n d i n t e n s i t y t o t h e same  r e l a t i v e work l o a d f o r a l l s u b j e c t s , d u r i n g t h e e x e r c i s e conditions. A continuous,  submaximal, m u l t i - s t a g e  t e s t was u s e d t o e s t i m a t e oxygen u p t a k e  e a c h s u b j e c t ' s maximum v o l u m e o f  (V02 m a x ) . V02 max i s t h e m a x i m a l v o l u m e o f  o x y g e n t h a t one c a n consume d u r i n g the point  exhausting  a t w h i c h i n c r e a s e d w o r k l o a d i s no  associated with and  b i c y c l e ergometer  increased  oxygen uptake.  oxygen uptake i n c r e a s e  linearly  work; i t i s longer  Because heart  rate  i n response t o increased  w o r k l o a d , t h i s t e s t a l l o w s t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f V02 max f r o m heart  r a t e response  ( P o l l o c k e t a l . , 1978).  V02 max i s an  e s t a b l i s h e d i n d i c a t o r o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance and subsequent p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s submaximal m u l t i - s t a g e  (Pollock et al.,1978).  The  ergometer t e s t i n g and s c o r i n g  procedures used i n t h i s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n were i d e n t i c a l t o  t h o s e s u g g e s t e d f o r women b y t h e YMCA ( G o l d i n g e t a l . , 1982). Experimental  Design  A within-subject  repeated  measures d e s i g n  w h i c h e a c h s u b j e c t was e x p o s e d t o e a c h c o n d i t i o n i n separate conditions, across  sessions.  subjects.  experimental  The t w o  e x e r c i s e and no-exercise,  was u s e d i n  were  experimental counterbalanced  During each o f these s e s s i o n s ,  subjects  v i e w e d a one-minute d i s p l a y o f t h e word r e l a x , f o l l o w e d by a three-minute neutral travelogue  film,  f o l l o w e d by a t h r e e -  minute e r o t i c  film.  The f i l m s w e r e c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d  across  sessions. Procedure. The p r o c e d u r e c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r s e s s i o n s : orientation bicycle  screening  and q u e s t i o n n a i r e  ergometer f i t n e s s t e s t ,  experimental session. subjects  session,  session,  a 45-minute  from p s y c h o a c t i v e  c a f f e i n e and a l c o h o l )  and t o r e f r a i n  e n g a g i n g i n any s t r e n u o u s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y  Session subjects  1.  experimenter.  Following  an i n i t i a l  During t h i s session,  facilities  instructions  screening,  subjects  w e r e shown t h e verbal  on t h e u s e o f t h e p h o t o p l e t h y s m o g r a p h , a n d were related  t o the experiment.  w e r e t o l d t h a t t h e y w o u l d be p a r t i c i p a t i n g  arousal.  brief visual content. were g i v e n regarding  telephone  s e s s i o n w i t h the female  experiment which i n v o l v e d the e f f e c t s sexual  from  f o r 24 h o u r s  and equipment, were g i v e n  e n c o u r a g e d t o a s k any q u e s t i o n s Subjects  drugs  session.  were s c h e d u l e d f o r a f i r s t  laboratory  experimental  were i d e n t i c a l f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . A l l  were a s k e d t o a b s t a i n  p r i o r t o each  a 20-minute  no-exercise  and a one-hour e x e r c i s e  The s e s s i o n s  (including  a one-hour  of exercise  on f e m a l e  They w e r e t o l d t h a t t h e y w o u l d be  s t i m u l i , some o f w h i c h c o u l d  To m i n i m i z e a p o s s i b l e the option  include  viewing erotic  sense o f c o e r c i o n ,  of telephoning  their decision to participate.  to participate.  Subjects  who  subjects  w i t h i n a week, Two  subjects  t e l e p h o n e d w i t h i n t h e week a n d i n f o r m e d me o f t h e i r not  i n an  chose t o take p a r t  decision i n the  study  signed the standard  DSFI i n a p r i v a t e room.  c o n s e n t form and completed t h e To m i n i m i z e p o t e n t i a l  experimental  demand, s u b j e c t s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d a s f o l l o w s : When y o u f i l l  out t h i s  honest as p o s s i b l e . there  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p l e a s e be a s  E v e r y p e r s o n i s unique and  a r e a b s o l u t e l y no r i g h t  o r wrong answers.  realize that this questionnaire  asks very  i n f o r m a t i o n and so I w o u l d l i k e  t o assure  again  t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n i s kept  confidential. filling no  identifying  you  strictly be  coded; t h e r e w i l l  be  i n f o r m a t i o n on a n y o f t h e f o r m s .  O n l y m y s e l f a n d one f e m a l e r e s e a r c h have access  to this  Session  During  2.  personal  A l l o f t h e forms t h a t you w i l l  out are n u m e r i c a l l y  coded  assistant w i l l  information.  t h e second s e s s i o n ,  subjects  r e c e i v e d a submaximal m u l t i - s t a g e b i c y c l e ergometer test.  Prior to taking the test,  Readiness Questionnaire  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h reported medical  (see Appendix).  asthma. the  adapted from t h e d e v e l o p e d by t h e Subjects  from t h e study.  because o f b r e a t h i n g  difficulties  One  subject  related to  A l l f i t n e s s t e s t s were c o n d u c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e  g u i d e l i n e s s e t f o r t h b y The A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e  Medicine  who  c o n d i t i o n s t h a t may h a v e p u t them a t r i s k  when e x e r c i s i n g w e r e e x c l u d e d was e x c l u d e d  fitness  subjects completed a  P h y s i c a l R e a d i n e s s Exam F o r F i t n e s s T e s t Physical Activity  I  (Pollock et al.,1978).  with  of Sports  A M o n a r c h 814E e r g o m e t e r was  used t o conduct t h e f i t n e s s t e s t s .  The b i c y c l e s e a t  height  was  a d j u s t e d f o r each i n d i v i d u a l t o ensure a s l i g h t bend i n  t h e k n e e j o i n t when t h e p e d a l was i n i t s l o w e s t The  t e s t began w i t h a workload  subject c y c l e d at a constant  position.  o f 150 k g / m i n u t e .  The  50 rpm w h i l e t h e w o r k l o a d  i n c r e a s e d 150 k g / m i n u t e e v e r y t h r e e m i n u t e s .  was  The t e s t  l a s t e d b e t w e e n 9-12 m i n u t e s d e p e n d i n g on t h e s u b j e c t s ' h e a r t rate response.  Heart  r a t e was m o n i t o r e d  carotid artery during the final minute.  manually  30 s e c o n d s o f e a c h  The s u b j e c t s ' h e a r t r a t e o v e r t i m e ,  workload,  from t h e  i n relation to  was u s e d t o p r e d i c t e a c h s u b j e c t ' s maximum v o l u m e  o f oxygen uptake Sessions  (V02 m a x ) .  3 & 4.  The t h i r d a n d f o u r t h s e s s i o n s w e r e t h e  two  experimental  two  s e s s i o n s were c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d  s e s s i o n s : e x e r c i s e and n o - e x e r c i s e . across subjects.  to minimize  any p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n - s u b j e c t m e n s t r u a l  influences,  t h e two e x p e r i m e n t a l  approximately  subjectively  1982;  Meuwissen & Over, All  Sexual  experimental  private,  Columbia.  In order cycle  indicates that  measured  both  i s only minimally, i f at  c y c l e phases  (Hoon e t a l . ,  1992).  s e s s i o n s were conducted  Psychophysiology  British  Research  stimuli,  and p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y ,  i n f l u e n c e d by m e n s t r u a l  These  s e s s i o n s were s c h e d u l e d a t  t h r e e day i n t e r v a l s .  sexual a r o u s a b i l i t y t o e r o t i c  all,  third  Laboratory  inside the  at the University of  T h i s l a b o r a t o r y has an a d j o i n i n g ,  internally-locked  s u b j e c t room.  s u b j e c t s i s made p o s s i b l e v i a an i n t e r c o m s u b j e c t and e x p e r i m e n t e r  rooms.  Communication w i t h system between  The room i s k e p t  at a  constant  21.7 C. A c o l o r t e l e v i s i o n m o n i t o r  where s u b j e c t s c a n s i t c o m f o r t a b l y view of the screen.  i s positioned  i n a recliner with a  full  A b i c y c l e ergometer i s p o s i t i o n e d t o  t h e r e a r o f t h e room. During the no-exercise private,  internally  experimenter.  session, the subject entered the  l o c k e d room t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e  W i t h t h e a i d o f diagrammed  female  instructions,  s u b j e c t s w e r e t o l d t o i n s e r t t h e p h o t o p l e t h y s m o g r a p h so as to  allow approximately  a 2.5 cm d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e e n d o f  t h e probe and t h e v a g i n a l opening.  The p h o t o p l e t h y s m o g r a p h  was w a s h e d w i t h H i b i t a n e a n d s t e r i l i z e d Cidex  ( l o n g - l i f e a c t i v a t e d dialdehyde  Canada, P e t e r b o r o u g h , informed  of these  i n s t r u c t e d as I will via  Ontario)  s t e r i l i z a t i o n procedures,  be g i v i n g y o u s t e p b y s t e p  the intercom  session.  photoplethysmograph.  just  "ready".  and  then  I will  system.  chair a l i t t l e  instructions,  take  place  When I l e a v e t h e room, I ' d c h a i r and i n s e r t t h e  Once y o u a r e r e a d y ,  please  be a b l e t o h e a r y o u v i a t h e  A t t h a t p o i n t , I ' d l i k e you t o  s i t back and r e l a x .  blanket  Subjects  s y s t e m a s we go a l o n g , b u t I ' l l  you t o s i t i n t h i s  intercom  Surgikose  follows:  during this  say  solution:  between uses.  a l s o e x p l a i n t o y o u now what w i l l  like  f o r 10 h o u r s i n  and c o v e r  You c a n r e c l i n e t h e yourself with  i f i t makes y o u f e e l more  Once y o u a r e r e a d y ,  I will  this  comfortable.  t a k e a 10 m i n u t e  were  baseline recording. for  This time p e r i o d i s necessary  t h e p h o t o p l e t h y s m o g r a p h t o adapt t o y o u r body  temperature.  A f t e r the  a s e r i e s of short television. i s very  possible during during the  films w i l l  They w i l l  important  10 m i n u t e b a s e l i n e  last  t h a t you  a b o u t how  The  s e n s i t i v e and  hard to read  you  you  to  fill  Please  be  out  f i l m s have  this  short  as h o n e s t as  f e e l about the  any  the  Immediately a f t e r the  questionnaire.  as  t h e b a s e l i n e p e r i o d and e s p e c i a l l y  movement makes i t v e r y  like  the  r e m a i n as s t i l l  film presentations.  information.  on  a b o u t 10 m i n u t e s . I t  photoplethysmograph i s very  ended, I'd  begin  period,  films.  possible  Remember,  e v e r y p e r s o n i s u n i q u e i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e and a r e no all  right  or wrong answers.  information  Following v i e w e d one  the  o f two  counterbalanced conditions). display  i s kept s t r i c t l y  videotaped  across  ( t h e s e q u e n c e s were  experimental  film,  f o l l o w e d by f o l l o w e d by  Immediately f o l l o w i n g the fill  During the private,  and  subjects  Each sequence c o n s i s t e d of a one-minute  o f t h e w o r d relax,  asked to  period,  sequences  subjects  remember t h a t  confidential.  10 m i n u t e a d a p t a t i o n  neutral travelogue film.  Also  there  out  the  three-minute  a three-minute  erotic  film,  erotic  subjects  were  subjective rating scale.  e x e r c i s e s e s s i o n , the  internally  a  locked  subject  room w i t h t h e  entered  female  the  experimenter  and  c y c l e d f o r 20 m i n u t e s on a Get  bicycle.  The  s u b j e c t s ' h e a r t r a t e was  c o n t i n u o u s l y u s i n g a Heart Instruments  F i t 200-11 s t a t i o n a r y monitored  S p e e d o m e t e r m o d e l 8719  C o r p . , W e s t b u r y N.Y.)  a d j u s t e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r  and  the workload  throughout  max.  The  shown t h a t e x e r c i s i n g sufficient  to e l i c i t  70%  of  their  exercise physiology literature  f o r 20 m i n u t e s a t 70% s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n  nervous system a c t i v i t y  was  t h e 20 m i n u t e s t o  ensure t h a t the s u b j e c t s c y c l e d at a constant e s t i m a t e d V02  (Computer  (Grossman & M o r e t t i ,  o f V02  max  is  sympathetic 1986).  In  a d d i t i o n , by  ensuring that a l l subjects e x e r c i s e d at a  constant  of t h e i r estimated  to  70%  fitness  V02  l e v e l s were e l i m i n a t e d .  max,  d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses variation at  in fitness  equivalent levels  1986).  During  the  levels  experimental procedures cycling  time  max  from  when s u b j e c t s work  (Grossman & M o r e t t i ,  few m i n u t e s o f c y c l i n g t i m e , were r e p e a t e d .  remained, the experimenter  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f 20 m i n u t e s o f c y c l i n g , procedures  relating  indicates that  resulting  are minimized  o f t h e i r V02  first  confounds  Research  were i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e  has  When one  the  minute  l e f t t h e room.  of With  a l l experimental  of the  no-exercise  session. S u b j e c t s who II  w o u l d n o t be p a r t i c i p a t i n g  were t h o r o u g h l y  p u r p o s e s and  debriefed, informed  goals of the study,  and  about the  experiment additional  g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  view the records of t h e i r v a g i n a l responses. were g i v e n p e r s o n a l  in  A l l subjects  fitness profiles indicating their  level  of  cardiovascular fitness  F i r s t year psychology points Data  for their  Sampling  as p e r C a n a d i a n  Fitness  s t u d e n t s were g i v e n t h r e e  and  Reduction  e n t i r e n e u t r a l and e r o t i c  VPA  film  was  recorded d u r i n g the  sequences.  The  hand s c o r e d from t h e p o l y g r a p h r e c o r d i n g s . experimental condition,  an a v e r a g e  summing t h e a m p l i t u d e s  VPA  VPA  c h a n g e was  used  by  a n d Heiman  V a g i n a l B l o o d Volume. times/second  180  dividing  deviation  80  The  +/-  from  100.  the  Mean  between  Percentage statistical  are comparable w i t h  was  sampled at a r a t e of 5  seconds of n e u t r a l stimuli  film,  d a t a w e r e m e a s u r e d as  80 s e c o n d s o f t h e  2 sd. of each  10 s e c o n d  and  (1,300 d a t a  from a b a s e l i n e r e f e r e n c e  d e f i n e d as t h e mean o f t h e l a s t Scores  film  by  (1980).  seconds of e r o t i c  points/subject/condition). u n i t s o f VBV  procedures  VBV  during the l a s t  during the e n t i r e  conditions.  20  amplitude  f i l m m u l t i p l i e d by  for a l l other  These s t a t i s t i c a l  those of Morokoff  stimulus.  Percentage  i n the analyses of responses  stimulus presentations within  mV  films  during the neutral  during the e r o t i c  s c o r e s were u s e d  analyses.  erotic  amplitude  computed f o r each e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n  s u b t r a c t i n g the average  amplitude  each  f i l m s t i m u l u s and  by t h e number o f p e a k s p e r i n t e r v a l .  VPA  For  o f each peak d u r i n g the middle  seconds o f the n e u t r a l or e r o t i c  average  d a t a were  peak t o peak  c o m p u t e d f o r b o t h t h e n e u t r a l and  c h a n g e was  credit  participation.  Vaginal Pulse Amplitude.  was  Standards.  .00001  level  neutral  time block  mean w e r e e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s e s . used i n order  This procedure  t o c o n t r o l f o r p o t e n t i a l movement  Mean VBV s c o r e s w e r e u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s  was  artifacts.  of responses  between s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h i n c o n d i t i o n s .  Deviation  scores,  averaged across  stimuli  (900 d a t a p o i n t s / s u b j e c t / c o n d i t i o n ) , w e r e u s e d f o r  all  other  statistical  Heart Rate. polygraph  t h e e n t i r e 180 s e c o n d s o f e r o t i c  analyses.  H e a r t r a t e was s c o r e d  r e c o r d by c o u n t i n g  t h e number  f r o m t h e VPA of beats per minute.  The e n t i r e 180 s e c o n d s o f n e u t r a l a n d 180 s e c o n d s o f e r o t i c f i l m were s c o r e d  t o y i e l d 20 m e a s u r e s  per  condition.  experimental  (bpm)  f o r each  subject  Results Analyses  of the V a l i d i t y  In order significant  to v e r i f y that the erotic  increase  averaged across  i n VBV r e s p o n d i n g ,  of n e u t r a l s t i m u l i  a significant  increase  neutral stimuli  the l a s t  revealed that the e r o t i c  stimuli  80 s e c o n d s  films  caused  i n VBV i n b o t h t h e n o - e x e r c i s e ,  and e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n s ,  S i m i l a r analyses  Mean VPA s c o r e s ,  responses  ( n o - e x e r c i s e , Mean=-1.39; e x e r c i s e  Analyses  t ( 2 4 ) = 3 . 7 8 , p=.001, p<.001.  VBV  e x e r c i s e , Mean=2.98 6) w e r e c o m p a r e d  b a s e l i n e VBV l e v e l s a v e r a g e d a c r o s s  Mean=.043).  f i l m s caused a  t h e e n t i r e 180 s e c o n d s o f e r o t i c  ( n o - e x e r c i s e , Mean=.0 68; to  of Erotic Stimuli  t(24)=4.44,  w e r e c o n d u c t e d w i t h VPA  averaged across  scores.  t h e m i d 20 s e c o n d s o f  ( n o - e x e r c i s e , Mean=10.609; e x e r c i s e .  Mean=7.414) w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h mean VPA s c o r e s across  t h e m i d 20 s e c o n d s o f e r o t i c  stimuli  averaged  (no-exercise,  Mean=16.133; e x e r c i s e , M e a n = 1 7 . 5 3 6 ) .  Analyses revealed  the e r o t i c  increase  f i l m s caused a s i g n i f i c a n t  amplitude i n both the no-exercise,  manipulating  sexual  i n pulse  t ( 2 4 ) = 5 . 8 9 , p<.001, a n d  e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n s , t ( 2 4 ) = 6 . 8 9 , p<.001. indicate that the experimental  that  These r e s u l t s  s t i m u l i were e f f e c t i v e i n  arousal.  Analyses o f Order E f f e c t s A n a l y s e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d on a l l p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n d s u b j e c t i v e measures recorded no-exercise  sessions  of p r e s e n t a t i o n the  results.  d u r i n g b o t h t h e e x e r c i s e and  i n order  t o determine whether t h e order  of experimental  The d a t a  c o n d i t i o n s had i n f l u e n c e d  indicate there  differences a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the order no-exercise, p=.613;  t ( 2 3 ) = . 3 1 , p=.lbl;  subjective sexual  no-exercise,  NA e x e r c i s e  t(23)=.51,  (SSA) n o -  t(23)=.95,  (AA) n o - e x e r c i s e ,  t(23)=.43,  t ( 2 3 ) = . 1 5 , p=.882; p o s i t i v e a f f e c t (PA)  t ( 2 3 ) = 1 . 1 8 , p=.249; PA e x e r c i s e  p=.394; n e g a t i v e  affect  (NA) n o - e x e r c i s e  t(23)=.87,  t ( 2 3 ) = 2 . 6 0 , p=.02;  t(23)=.54, p=.597).  Analyses of the Control In order fitness  arousal  t ( 2 3 ) = . 3 5 , p=.728; SSA e x e r c i s e ,  AA e x e r c i s e ,  (VPA  t ( 2 3 ) = . 6 1 , p=.546; VBV e x e r c i s e ,  p=.352; a u t o n o m i c a r o u s a l p=.614;  of presentation  t ( 2 3 ) = . 3 8 , p=.711; VPA e x e r c i s e ,  VBV n o - e x e r c i s e ,  exercise,  w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r Fitness  Levels  t o verify that variations i n individual  l e v e l s d i dnot influence l e v e l s of p h y s i o l o g i c a l  sexual  responding during  correlational levels  analyses  the exercise  were c a l c u l a t e d between f i t n e s s  (as i n d i c a t e d by V02 max  deviation scores,  s c o r e s ) a n d mean VBV  a n d b e t w e e n f i t n e s s l e v e l s a n d mean  p e r c e n t a g e change i n p u l s e significant  conditions,  amplitude scores.  T h e r e w e r e no  c o r r e l a t i o n s between f i t n e s s l e v e l s and  VPA  r e s p o n s e s r ( 2 5 ) = . 1 2 6 , p=.274, o r b e t w e e n f i t n e s s l e v e l s a n d VBV r e s p o n s e s r ( 2 5 ) = . 0 2 5 , p=.452. that  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e  i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  responses  c a n n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o v a r i a t i o n s i n f i t n e s s l e v e l s . Analyses of P h y s i o l o g i c a l Sexual Vaginal  Pulse  Amplitude.  between e r o t i c s t i m u l i between n o - e x e r c i s e  and e x e r c i s e  a significant  condition,  increase  Deviation  conditions.  p r e s e n t e d i n F i g . 2.  the exercise  increase  i n VBV d u r i n g  (one-tailed).  Analyses of Heart  Rate  A 2x2x10  scores  i n VBV  between  (Condition  m e a s u r e s ANOVA was  Mean d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s  are  A n a l y s e s o f t h e s e d a t a showed a  t ( 2 4 ) = 1 . 7 1 , p=.05  exercise  i n VPA d u r i n g  Analyses  a n d n e u t r a l s t i m u l i w e r e c o m p a r e d b e t w e e n no-  and e x e r c i s e  significant  Mean  a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g . 1.  B l o o d Volume.  stimuli  exercise  conditions.  compared  t ( 2 4 ) = 4 . 5 6 , p<.001.  Vaginal erotic  P e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e s i n VPA  a n d n e u t r a l s t i m u l i were  p e r c e n t a g e change s c o r e s revealed  Arousal  the exercise  x Stimulus  x Time)  condition,  repeated  computed t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f  and e r o t i c s t i m u l i  on h e a r t  rate.  Results  indicate  <  200  1  • No Exercise (neutral-erotic) ^ Exercise (neutral-erotic) • Exercise Control (neutral-neutral)  Figure 1. Mean percentage change in vaginal pulse amplitude (mm of pen deflection) ± S.E.M. between stimulus presentations during the No-Exercise (neutralerotic) condition in experiment I, the Exercise (neutral-erotic) condition in experiment I, and the Exercise (neutral-neutral) condition in experiment II.  4> C  •  No Exercise  (neutral-erotic)  ^  Exercise (neutral-erotic)  •  Exercise Control  (neutral-neutral)  Figure 2. Mean vaginal blood volume (mV deviation from baseline averaged across 900 data points/subject) ± S.E.M. during the No-Exercise (neutral-erotic) condition in experiment I, the Exercise (neutral-erotic) condition in experiment I, and the Exercise (neutral-neutral) condition in experiment II.  a significant condition,  increase  i n heart  rate during  F ( l , 2 4 ) = 5 4 . 0 9 , p<.001.  No d i f f e r e n c e i n h e a r t  r a t e was f o u n d b e t w e e n n e u t r a l a n d e r o t i c F ( l , 2 4 ) = 3 . 0 3 , p=.094, o r a c r o s s These r e s u l t s films,  the exercise  time,  films,  F ( 9 , 2 1 6 ) = . 8 5 , p=.567.  suggest that e x e r c i s e , but not the e r o t i c  caused a s i g n i f i c a n t  change i n s y m p a t h e t i c  activation. Analyses of Subjective Subjective  Measures  Sexual Arousal.  Ratings  of sexual  arousal,  i n response t o e r o t i c  s t i m u l i , were compared between t h e no-  exercise  c o n d i t i o n s . Mean s u b j e c t i v e  and e x e r c i s e  are p r e s e n t e d i n F i g . 3 .  Analyses revealed  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e n o - e x e r c i s e  no  ratings  significant  and e x e r c i s e  conditions,  t ( 2 4 ) = 1 . 0 1 , p=.320. These s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s a r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures o f s e x u a l s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher erotic  s t i m u l i during  Subjective  levels  arousal which i n d i c a t e  of sexual  the exercise  Autonomic A r o u s a l .  of autonomic a r o u s a l  arousal  i n response t o  condition. Subjective  i n response t o e r o t i c  compared between t h e n o - e x e r c i s e  with  perceptions  stimuli  and e x e r c i s e  conditions.  Mean s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g . 3 . revealed  no s i g n i f i c a n t  autonomic a r o u s a l , the  no-exercise  were  Analyses  difference i n subjective ratings of  i n response t o e r o t i c  and e x e r c i s e  conditions,  stimuli,  between  t ( 2 4 ) = . 8 4 , p=.412.  These s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s p a r a l l e l p h y s i o l o g i c a l  measures o f h e a r t  r a t e w h i c h a l s o i n d i c a t e no c h a n g e i n  autonomic a r o u s a l  with the presentation  A f f e c t i v e Response.  of e r o t i c stimuli.  P o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e  affective  r e s p o n s e s t o e r o t i c s t i m u l i were a n a l y z e d  separately  the  Mean  no-exercise  and e x e r c i s e  conditions.  r a t i n g s o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e Fig.  3.  affect,  subjective  a f f e c t are presented i n  T h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o s i t i v e t ( 2 4 ) = . 3 3 , p=.741, o r n e g a t i v e  p=.682 b e t w e e n t h e n o - e x e r c i s e These f i n d i n g s i m p l y positive  between  and n e g a t i v e  were u n a l t e r e d  with  that  a f f e c t , t(24)=.42,  and e x e r c i s e  conditions.  subjective ratings of both  a f f e c t i n response t o e r o t i c s t i m u l i  exposure t o e x e r c i s e .  A n a l y s e s o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n VBV a n d VPA R e s p o n s e s In order  t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n VBV  and  VPA r e s p o n s e s , P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r b o t h t h e e x e r c i s e exercise  conditions.  Analyses revealed  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n VBV  a n d VPA d u r i n g  r ( 2 5 ) = . 2 4 2 , p=.122, o r e x e r c i s e ,  no the  and no-  significant no-exercise,  r ( 2 5 ) = - . 0 6 3 , p=.383,  conditions. A n a l y s e s o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P h y s i o l o g i c a l and Subjective  Responses  P e a r s o n product-moment calculated order  separately  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were  f o r each experimental  condition i n  t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n between  physiological  and s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s o f s e x u a l  T h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t  arousal.  c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n VPA  and  Sexual Arousal Autonomic Arousal  Positive Affect  Negative Affect  Figure 3. Mean subjective ratings ± S.E.M. of subjective arousal, autonomic arousal, positive affect, and negative affect during No-Exercise (neutral-erotic) condition in experiment I, the Exercise (neutral-erotic) condition in experiment I, and the Exercise (neutral-neutral) condition in experiment II.  subjective  ratings during  p=.465, o r e x e r c i s e b e t w e e n VBV  and  the  no-exercise,  r(25)=.018,  r ( 2 5 ) = - . 0 3 3 , p=.437, c o n d i t i o n s ,  subjective  ratings during  r ( 2 5 ) = - . 0 9 , p=.336, o r e x e r c i s e ,  the  or  no-exercise,  r ( 2 5 ) = . 1 9 , p=.182,  conditions.  Discussion The the  results reveal  presentation  increases  i n b o t h VPA  of e r o t i c s t i m u l i .  This  e x p e r i m e n t a l s t i m u l i were s u c c e s s f u l physiological  sexual  arousal.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  heart rate  presentations  the  that  during  c y c l i n g f o r 20  to e l i c i t  at r e l a t i v e ,  eliminated fitness  any  as  condition. o f V02  This  max  was The  film  indicates sufficient  absence  of  physiological  indicates that  exercising  opposed t o a b s o l u t e ,  work  loads  p o t e n t i a l confounds r e l a t i n g to v a r i a t i o n s i n  levels.  Analyses of order e f f e c t s revealed  order of p r e s e n t a t i o n  of experimental conditions  influence  subjective  arousal.  In o t h e r words, f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the  subjects'  m a n i p u l a t i o n s and  v i e w i n g an  responses.  erotic film,  C l e a r l y , the  c o n t r o l s were e f f e c t i v e .  that  did  or p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures of  procedures and/or w i t h influence  showed  l e v e l s throughout the  m i n u t e s a t 70%  the  in altering  a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n f i t n e s s l e v e l s and  subjects  with  Analyses of heart rate  exercise  arousal  VBV  indicates that  s i g n i f i c a n t sympathetic a c t i v i t y .  measures of s e x u a l  and  the  not  sexual  experimental did  not  experimental  The  f i n d i n g t h a t b o t h VPA and VBV responses t o e r o t i c  s t i m u l i were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r d u r i n g t h e e x e r c i s e no-exercise  condition provides  s t r o n g support t h a t  versus  acute  e x e r c i s e f a c i l i t a t e s s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n women. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , VPA measures r e v e a l e d a much s t r o n g e r and l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y t h a n VBV measures.  effect  Furthermore,  r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d a l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n between s u b j e c t s ' VPA and VBV  responses.  T h i s i s t h e f i r s t study t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t s o f acute e x e r c i s e on VBV and VPA measures o f s e x u a l a r o u s a l hence, d i r e c t comparisons w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h cannot be made. Comparisons can, however, be made between t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e no-exercise  c o n d i t i o n and r e s e a r c h w h i c h has examined t h e  e f f e c t s o f e r o t i c s t i m u l i on VBV and VPA measures and, i n d i r e c t comparisons can be made between t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n and r e s e a r c h which has l o o k e d a t t h e e f f e c t s o f a n x i e t y on t h e s e measures.  Data from t h e p r e s e n t  study i n d i c a t e a 62% i n c r e a s e i n VPA w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of e r o t i c s t i m u l i .  This f i n d i n g i s consistent with  previous  r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d i n a n o n c l i n i c a l sample (Morokoff & Heiman, 1980) which showed a 63% i n c r e a s e i n VPA w i t h exposure t o an e r o t i c f i l m . ^  There have been no s t u d i e s , t o  my knowledge, w h i c h have l o o k e d a t VPA responses t o a n x i e t y stimuli.  W i t h r e s p e c t t o VBV measures, d a t a from t h i s  study  r e v e a l an average 1.5 m i l l i v o l t s d e v i a t i o n from b a s e l i n e with the presentation of e r o t i c s t i m u l i .  This f i n d i n g i s  lower t h a n t h a t r e p o r t e d by P a l a c e and G o r z a l k a  (1990), who  found an average 2.1 m i l l i v o l t s d e v i a t i o n from b a s e l i n e u s i n g the same e r o t i c s t i m u l i .  Data from the e x e r c i s e  c o n d i t i o n r e v e a l e d an average 2.9 m i l l i v o l t s d e v i a t i o n from b a s e l i n e w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e r o t i c s t i m u l i . the magnitude o f t h i s e f f e c t  Again,  i s somewhat lower than t h a t  r e p o r t e d by P a l a c e and G o r z a l k a (1990) which i n d i c a t e d an average 3.4 m i l l i v o l t s d e v i a t i o n from b a s e l i n e w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an a n x i e t y f o l l o w e d by an e r o t i c  film.  Based on the above comparisons, s u b j e c t s used i n the present study appear t o be comparable r e s e a r c h i n t h e i r VPA r e s p e c t t o t h e i r VBV  t o those used i n p r e v i o u s  responses t o e r o t i c s t i m u l i .  With  responses, i t appears t h a t they  may  have demonstrated a t y p i c a l l y low l e v e l s f o r a n o n c l i n i c a l sample.  I f so, t h i s may  h e l p t o e x p l a i n why VPA responses  d u r i n g the e x e r c i s e v e r s u s n o - e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n were significant  at p<.001, w h i l e VBV  responses t o acute e x e r c i s e  were s i g n i f i c a n t at p=.05 ( o n e - t a i l e d ) .  However, i t i s a l s o  p o s s i b l e t h a t the s u b j e c t s used i n the P a l a c e and G o r z a l k a study  (1990) demonstrated a t y p i c a l l y h i g h l e v e l s o f VBV  responses i n which case comparisons w i t h t h i s study cannot be made. A second p o s s i b l e reason why  VPA measures showed a  much s t r o n g e r e f f e c t than VBV measures r e l a t e s t o m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g the photoplethysmograph. Research i n d i c a t e s t h a t the dc s i g n a l , used i n the measurement o f VBV,  i s more l i k e l y a f f e c t e d by temperature  confounds than the ac s i g n a l used i n the measurement of VPA  (Beck e t a l , 1 9 8 3 ) . fluctuations but  C h a n g e s i n b o d y t e m p e r a t u r e may  t o explain the increase  exercise  i n VBV v a r i a b i l i t y  b e t w e e n VPA a n d VBV r e s p o n s e s i s  consistent with previous  research  t h a t h a s shown a l a c k o f  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s e two measures 1978; R o s e n & B e c k , 1 9 8 8 ) .  ( Z i n g h e i m & Sandman,  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s  remains open t o s p e c u l a t i o n .  One p o s s i b i l i t y  a more s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r o f s e x u a l suggestion  i s consistent with  al.(1974),  Heiman  arousal  discrepancy  i s t h a t VPA i s i n women.  (1977), and Osborn and P o l l a c k  (1977).  i t i s questionable  w h e t h e r VPA a n d VBV r e s p o n s e s c a n b e r e l i a b l y they r e f l e c t  This  a s s e r t i o n s made b y G e e r e t  One must k e e p i n m i n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t  that  during  condition.  The d i s c r e p a n c y  given  caused  i n b o d y t e m p e r a t u r e w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e VBV  n o t t h e VPA r e s p o n s e .  also help the  I t i spossible that exercise  compared,  d i f f e r e n t aspects of the  v a s o c o n g e s t i v e response and a r e sampled and  analysed  differently, Data i n d i c a t e higher arousal  levels of physiological  i n response t o e r o t i c s t i m u l i during  versus no-exercise  condition.  Despite  this  sexual  the exercise finding,  there  w e r e no d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e l f - r e p o r t e d l e v e l s o f a r o u s a l between t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s .  Furthermore, there  was a l a c k o f  c o r r e l a t i o n between s u b j e c t s ' p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e ratings of sexual  arousal.  e i t h e r unable t o detect levels of sexual  arousal  In other  words, s u b j e c t s  and/or u n w i l l i n g t o r e p o r t  were higher  i n response t o e r o t i c s t i m u l i  during the exercise versus no-exercise condition. c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h t h a t has  demonstrated  d e s y n c h r o n y between s u b j e c t i v e and p h y s i o l o g i c a l of  the female sexual response  This i s  components  (Heiman e t a l . , 1 9 9 1 ; M o r o k o f f  & Heiman, 1980; P a l a c e & G o r z a l k a , 1990;1992; S t e i n m a n e t al.,  1981; Wincze e t a l . ,  1976).  EXPERIMENT I I Method Subjects Prior  t o t h e d e b r i e f i n g i n e x p e r i m e n t I , s u b j e c t s were  a s k e d i f t h e y were w i l l i n g experimental session. i n experiment  to take part  i n another  Ten o f t h e 25 women who  I agreed t o take part  r a n g e = 19-34 y e a r s ) .  participated  (Mean age = 25 y e a r s ,  F i v e o f t h e s u b j e c t s were g r a d u a t e  s t u d e n t s i n p s y c h o l o g y , two were f i r s t  o r second year  p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s , and t h r e e were g r a d u a t e o r undergraduate  students i n disciplines  Participation  was s t r i c t l y  other than psychology.  v o l u n t a r y ; no i n c e n t i v e s  were  offered. A p p a r a t u s and M a t e r i a l s The f i l m the  stimuli  w o r d relax;  travelogue film;  c o n s i s t e d o f a one-minute d i s p l a y o f  f o l l o w e d by a t h r e e - m i n u t e n o v e l , f o l l o w e d by a second, n o v e l ,  neutral  three-minute  neutral travelogue film. All identical  s u b j e c t i v e and p h y s i o l o g i c a l measurements were t o those used i n experiment I .  Experimental  Design  A within subject  r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s d e s i g n was u s e d  in  w h i c h e a c h s u b j e c t v i e w e d two n e u t r a l t r a v e l o g u e s e q u e n c e s . Procedure The p r o c e d u r e was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t u s e d i n t h e exercise condition  i n experiment I w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the  f i l m s t i m u l u s which c o n s i s t e d o f a one-minute d i s p l a y o f t h e word r e l a x , travelogue  f o l l o w e d b y two c o n s e c u t i v e t h r e e - m i n u t e n e u t r a l sequences.  Data Sampling and R e d u c t i o n D a t a s a m p l i n g and r e d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s were to  identical  those used i n experiment I .  Results Analyses of P h y s i o l o g i c a l  Sexual Arousal  Vaginal Pulse Amplitude.  VPA s c o r e s w e r e  averaged  a c r o s s t h e m i d 20 s e c o n d s o f e a c h o f t h e two n e u t r a l stimuli. the  No s i g n i f i c a n t  two n e u t r a l  stimuli  d i f f e r e n c e i n VPA r e s p o n s e s b e t w e e n was r e v e a l e d ,  V a g i n a l B l o o d Volume. across the l a s t  80 s e c o n d s  t ( 9 ) = . 2 2 , p=.829.  VBV r e s p o n s e s w e r e of the f i r s t  neutral travelogue  s e q u e n c e a n d c o m p a r e d t o t h e mean VBV r e s p o n s e across the entire sequence.  180 s e c o n d s  averaged  of t h e second t r a v e l o g u e  A n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t  VBV r e s p o n s e s b e t w e e n n e u t r a l  averaged  stimuli,  difference i n  t ( 9 ) = . 2 8 , p=.788.  Analyses of Heart  Rate  A one-way r e p e a t e d  m e a s u r e s ANOVA was c o m p u t e d t o  investigate the effects of film rate.  Results  i n d i c a t e d no d i f f e r e n c e i n h e a r t  the p r e s e n t a t i o n across  time,  c h a n g e a n d t i m e on h e a r t  of a novel  stimulus  F(l,9)=.02,  with  p=.882, o r  F ( 9 , 8 1 ) = . 8 2 , p=.598.  Analyses of the V a l i d i t y  o f VPA S c o r e s i n E x p e r i m e n t I  A n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r higher  rate  l e v e l s o f VPA d u r i n g  t o v e r i f y that the  the exercise condition  (reported  i n e x p e r i m e n t I) were n o t a t t r i b u t a b l e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n baseline  l e v e l s between t h e n o - e x e r c i s e  conditions.  A one-way r e p e a t e d  b e t w e e n a v e r a g e VPA s c o r e s  e x e r c i s e and n o - e x e r c i s e  the  first  no  conditions  i n experiment I and  n e u t r a l s e q u e n c e i n e x p e r i m e n t I I (mean VPA  7.28, 9.36, 8.90, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  significant  This  Analyses of the V a l i d i t y Analyses o f heart increase  revealed  films,  s u g g e s t s t h a t e x e r c i s e p e r se had  e f f e c t o n VPA d u r i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n  significant  Analyses  d i f f e r e n c e i n VPA b e t w e e n n e u t r a l  F ( 2 , 1 8 ) = 1 . 3 , p=.296. no  m e a s u r e s ANOVA was c o m p u t e d  d u r i n g t h e n e u t r a l segments o f  the  scores:  and e x e r c i s e  of neutral  films.  o f P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measurements  r a t e r e v e a l t h a t e x e r c i s e caused a  i n autonomic a r o u s a l  i n both the  e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n i n e x p e r i m e n t I , F ( l , 2 4 ) = 5 4 . 0 9 , p<.001, and  t h e e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n i n experiment I I , F(l,9)=12.76,  p=.006.  Analyses of p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  arousal  indicate  t h a t b o t h VPA, t ( 2 4 ) = 6 . 8 9 , p<.001, a n d VBV, t ( 2 4 ) = 4 . 4 4 , p<.001, w e r e i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of erotic  stimuli  during  t h e e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n i n experiment I .  N e i t h e r VPA, t ( 9 ) = . 2 2 , p=.829, n o r VBV, t ( 9 ) = . 2 8 , p=.788 were i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n stimulus other  t h e e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n i n experiment I I .  words, e x e r c i s e alone,  stimuli, not  during  without  was s u f f i c i e n t t o i n c r e a s e  sexual  of t h e second n e u t r a l  arousal.  These d a t a  the presence of e r o t i c autonomic a r o u s a l but  indicate that the  photoplethysmograph d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  arousal  arousal.  from g e n e r a l i z e d autonomic  Analyses of Subjective Subjective  Sexual  i n response t o e r o t i c  In  Measures Arousal.  Ratings  of sexual  stimuli during the exercise  arousal condition  i n e x p e r i m e n t I were compared t o r a t i n g s o f s e x u a l  arousal  i n response t o n e u t r a l s t i m u l i during the e x e r c i s e  condition  i n experiment I I . Fig.3.  Mean s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d  Analyses revealed  response t o e r o t i c  that reports of sexual  p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures  with  which i n d i c a t e higher  response during t h e presentation  neutral  than i n  t ( 9 ) = 4 . 2 0 , p=.002.  These s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t  sexual  arousal i n  s t i m u l i were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  response t o n e u t r a l s t i m u l i ,  in  levels of  of e r o t i c  versus  stimuli.  S u b j e c t i v e Autonomic A r o u s a l .  Subjective  perceptions  o f a u t o n o m i c a r o u s a l w e r e c o m p a r e d b e t w e e n t h e two e x e r c i s e conditions. Subjects arousal  Mean s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d  reported  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  i n response t o e r o t i c  stimuli  levels  i n Fig.3.  o f autonomic  i n experiment I than  i n response t o n e u t r a l s t i m u l i  i n e x p e r i m e n t I I , t (9)=3.48,  p=.007. T h e s e s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s do n o t p a r a l l e l p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures o f h e a r t  r a t e which revealed  arousal with e i t h e r the presentation experiment I or t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n  no c h a n g e i n a u t o n o m i c of erotic stimuli i n  of neutral stimuli i n  experiment I I . A f f e c t i v e Response. responses t o f i l m  P o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a f f e c t i v e  s t i m u l i were a n a l y s e d  t h e two e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n s . p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e Subjects affect  reported  separately  Mean s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s o f  a f f e c t are presented  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  i n response t o the e r o t i c  stimuli  i n experiment I i n experiment I I ,  T h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n  ratings of negative versus  i n F i g . 3.  l e v e l s of p o s i t i v e  than i n response t o the n e u t r a l s t i m u l i t (9)=3.24, p=.01.  between  affect with the presentation  neutral stimuli,  t(9)=.77,  These f i n d i n g s i m p l y  of erotic  p=.46.  that subjective ratings of  p o s i t i v e a f f e c t were i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f erotic were  stimuli while  subjective ratings of negative  affect  unaltered.  Discussion VPA a n d VBV r e s p o n s e s r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d w i t h t h e presentation to confirm erotic  o f t h e second n e u t r a l f i l m .  that the increases  stimuli  This  f i n d i n g tends  i n VPA a n d VBV r e s p o n s e s t o  ( r e p o r t e d i n e x p e r i m e n t I ) c a n be a t t r i b u t e d  to the  sexual  increases  content of the  i n VBV  o f t i m e o r an presentation i n VBV  and  and  VPA  film.  I f , instead,  were s i m p l y  a r e s u l t of the  o r i e n t i n g r e f l e x r e s u l t i n g from of a novel stimulus,  VPA  during  one  presentation  the passage  the  would e x p e c t a change  of the  second  neutral  stimulus. Exercise film  d i d not  several  First,  the  differences conditions o f VPA  neutral  fact that  i n VPA  baseline  the  In o t h e r words, t h i s  results reported  o f VPA  exercise  higher  the  levels  exercise  no-exercise  exercise  I.  d i d not  increase  s t i m u l i indicates that  the  represent a purely  l e v e l s o f VPA  or hormonal responses t o  the  l e v e l s o f VPA  exercise  versus  the  response.  were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o o t h e r  would also expect higher s t i m u l i during  sexual  VPA  higher  i n response to e r o t i c s t i m u l i during  cardiovascular  conditions.  and  f i n d i n g helps to v e r i f y  i n experiment  fact that  condition  higher  neutral  s t i m u l i across  p o s s i b i l i t y that the  measurements between e x e r c i s e  responses to n e u t r a l  sexual"  w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t  i n e x p e r i m e n t I were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t  Second, the  levels  there  responses to n e u t r a l  r u l e s out  conditions. t h e VPA  This  implications.  responses to e r o t i c s t i m u l i during  condition  one  responses t o the  segments i n e i t h e r e x p e r i m e n t I or experiment I I .  f i n d i n g has  the  i n f l u e n c e VPA  If  "non  exercise,  i n response no-exercise  to  Lastly, increased  and  during  indicates that d i d not  most i m p o r t a n t l y , the presentation  i n the  In other  a c t i v a t i o n a l o n e does not This  of n e u t r a l  was  not  stimuli  stimuli,  words,  exercise  sympathetic  enhance p h y s i o l o g i c a l s e x u a l  finding illustrates  b e t w e e n c o g n i t i v e and  f a c t t h a t VPA  absence of e r o t i c  i n c r e a s e VPA.  arousal.  the  the  complex i n t e r p l a y  p h y s i o l o g i c a l components o f t h e  sexual  response. The sexual  finding that subjects  reported  higher  l e v e l s of  a r o u s a l w i t h exposure to e x e r c i s e i n experiment  t h a n i n e x p e r i m e n t I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t s u b j e c t s were a b l e detect  and/or w i l l i n g t o r e p o r t  with exposure to e r o t i c I, the  increases  stimuli.  i n sexual  In c o n t r a s t t o  subjects' reports of sexual  I to  arousal  experiment  a r o u s a l were i n synchrony  with t h e i r p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses.  GENERAL DISCUSSION The the  r e s u l t s of t h i s  study  sympathetic nervous system v i a p h y s i c a l  enhances p h y s i o l o g i c a l s e x u a l effects and  i n d i c a t e t h a t a c t i v a t i o n of  i n c l u d e an  vaginal blood  sexual  increase volume.  arousal  arousal.  i n women.  i n both vaginal pulse Despite  r e s p o n s e s , e x e r c i s e d i d not  of sexual  activity These amplitude  increased physiological alter  subjective  reports  T h e s e f i n d i n g s h o l d b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l and  practical implications.  Anxiety  Enhances Sexual A r o u s a l  The f i n d i n g s explanation arousal.  from t h i s  v i a Sympathetic A c t i v a t i o n  study provide  f o r the effects of anxiety  a possible  upon f e m a l e  sexual  Several  studies  i n b o t h men a n d women h a v e  demonstrated that  anxiety  increases  arousal  physiological  sexual  ( e . g . Hoon e t a l . , 1977; P a l a c e & G o r z a l k a ,  In t h e s e s t u d i e s ,  anxiety  was i n d u c e d b y e x p o s i n g  t o s t i m u l i such as shock t h r e a t s such as t h r e a t e n e d amputation. sympathetic a c t i v i t y , cognitions.  1990). subjects  or films depicting  events  In a d d i t i o n t o enhancing  these s t i m u l i undoubtedly  Thus, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  altered  t o d e t e r m i n e t o what  e x t e n t t h e f i n d i n g s were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l , versus cognitive,  factors.  p h y s i o l o g i c a l component  In t h e present study, t h e  of anxiety  was s i m u l a t e d ,  acute e x e r c i s e ,  without a l t e r i n g cognitions.  that  were n o t a l t e r e d w i t h  is  cognitions  s u p p o r t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t  between s u b j e c t i v e affect,  the  The a s s e r t i o n  exposure t o e x e r c i s e  no d i f f e r e n c e s were  reported  ratings of p o s i t i v e affect, negative  autonomic a r o u s a l ,  exercise  using  and no-exercise  arousal  conditions.  p h y s i o l o g i c a l component  sympathetic a c t i v i t y )  or sexual  of anxiety  between t h e  Results alone  indicated (ie.  i s s u f f i c i e n t t o enhance  arousal.  This  f i n d i n g supports the notion  increases  i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  exposure t o anxiety-evoking  arousal  that  that  increased  sexual reported  i n women f o l l o w i n g  s t i m u l i may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o  p h y s i o l o g i c a l as opposed t o c o g n i t i v e  factors.  Anxiety  stimuli  serve to a c t i v a t e the sympathetic  nervous  system  which, i n t u r n , enhances s e x u a l a r o u s a l . S y m p a t h e t i c A c t i v a t i o n and  Sexual A r o u s a l are not  Mutually  Inhibitory The  f i n d i n g that sympathetic  physiological sympathetic  a c t i v a t i o n and The  significantly  present  sexual a r o u s a l are  data  mutually  indicate that heart rate  was that  i n c r e a s e remained unchanged throughout the e n t i r e  e f f e c t s of sympathetic presented  These d a t a v e r i f y t h a t  a c t i v a t i o n and  erotic  180  the  stimuli  were  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , as o p p o s e d t o s e q u e n t i a l l y as i n  previous studies.  Wolpe  that  i n c r e a s e d i n t h e e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n and  seconds of e r o t i c exposure.  test  enhanced  sexual a r o u s a l challenges the theory  inhibitory.  this  activation  Hence, t h i s  of the r e c i p r o c a l  s t u d y p r o v i d e d an  i n h i b i t i o n hypothesis  adequate  set f o r t h  by  (1958). I f sympathetic  inhibitory,  one  activity  would expect  and  sexual a r o u s a l are  mutually  e i t h e r a decrease i n sexual  arousal during the e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , decrease i n heart r a t e during the e r o t i c exposure. of these  outcomes o c c u r r e d .  facilitated physiological physiological activity. mutually  inhibitory  cognitions.  sympathetic  s e x u a l a r o u s a l , and  s e x u a l a r o u s a l d i d not  Perhaps, then,  physiological  Increased  a n x i e t y and  alter  l e v e l but  activity  increased  sympathetic  only or, at  o n l y when a c c o m p a n i e d by  Perhaps sympathetic  Neither  sexual arousal  at a c o g n i t i v e l e v e l  a c t i v a t i o n can  are a  anxiety be  a  considered  an  "engine" t h a t d r i v e s the  behavioral  response.  I f anxiety  c o g n i t i o n s are  then sympathetic a c t i v a t i o n provides sexual  arousal.  sexual  arousal  if the  sexual  In t h i s  regard,  are mutually  c o g n i t i o n s are  inhibitory.  sexual  system f u n c t i o n s are mutually female sexual  On  arousal  during  inhibitory,  i n f l u e n c e of the  and  are  sense,  mutually  nervous  then perhaps  initial  stage,  is  sympathetic rather  than  l o n g b e e n assumed.  increased p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t s of increased research  b e t w e e n t h e s e two  not  sexual  accompanied  Sexual  arousal  w h i c h shows a l a c k o f  m e a s u r e s i n women ( P a l a c e  i s consistent  concordance &  Gorzalka,  Steinman et a l ,  Wincze et a l . , 1976).  of research  male i n d i c a t e s a h i g h  The  majority  arousal  by  1 9 9 0 ; 1 9 9 2 ; M o r o k o f f & H e i m a n , 1980;  1981;  done i n  the  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p h y s i o l o g i c a l and  s u b j e c t i v e components o f t h e R o w l a n d , 1983;  hand,  i n Synchrony  e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n was  with previous  other  P h y s i o l o g i c a l Components o f t h e F e m a l e  f i n d i n g that  the  decrease  In t h i s  parasympathetic  t h e p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c n e r v o u s s y s t e m as has  The  the  arousal.  a r o u s a l , at l e a s t i n the  l a r g e l y under the  Response are  force to  I n a d d i t i o n , i f Wolpe i s c o r r e c t i n h i s  a s s e r t i o n t h a t s y m p a t h e t i c and  Subjective  i n play,  sympathetic a c t i v a t i o n i s  force behind increasing sexual  facilitatory.  the  a  s y m p a t h e t i c a c t i v a t i o n and  i n play,  s y m p a t h e t i c a c t i v a t i o n and  cognitions to  sexual  R o s e n & B e c k , 1988;  response  (Heiman &  Steinman et a l . , 1981).  However, r e c e n t by  no  research  means p e r f e c t  indicates that t h i s  (Bozman & B e c k ,  A u t h o r s have e x p l a i n e d physiological  and  the  correlation is  1991).  l a c k of c o n c o r d a n c e between  c o g n i t i v e components o f t h e  female  sexual  response i n terms of a p o t e n t i a l desynchronous r e l a t i o n s h i p (Palace  & Gorzalka,  1990)  t h i s d e s y n c h r o n y may feedback system  be  .  Heiman  (erection vs.  s t u d y do  not  Subjects reported arousal  vasocongestion) i n the  e n t i r e l y support t h i s  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  In t h i s  l e v e l s of  stimuli.  to the  subjective offered.  sexual First,  arousal,  arousal  three  i n the  higher  were i n  to detect  exercise  ratings  of  p o t e n t i a l explanations  i t i s p o s s i b l e that the  subjective  changes from a  s t a t e " t o a s e x u a l l y aroused s t a t e but s e n s i t i v e to detect  stimuli.  f i n d i n g i n e x p e r i m e n t I , whereby  a c c o m p a n i e d by  employed were a b l e  are  tests  "non-sexual  were not  sufficiently  more s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n a  s e x u a l l y a r o u s e d s t a t e and explanation  of  responses.  l e v e l s of p h y s i o l o g i c a l arousal  c o n d i t i o n were not  This  levels  sense, s u b j e c t i v e measures of s e x u a l  With respect higher  sexual  i n response to e r o t i c versus n e u t r a l  synchrony with p h y s i o l o g i c a l  Data  explanation.  i n response to e r o t i c versus n e u t r a l  arousal  female,  more e a s i l y i g n o r e d .  P h y s i o l o g i c a l measures a l s o i n d i c a t e d h i g h e r sexual  that  a t t r i b u t a b l e to a less d i r e c t  t h u s a l l o w i n g b o d i l y c u e s t o be from t h i s  (1977) s u g g e s t e d  a "more" s e x u a l l y a r o u s e d  i s consistent  with  research  a lower concordance between s u b j e c t i v e  and  which  state.  indicates  physiological  components o f t h e  s e x u a l r e s p o n s e d u r i n g low v e r s u s  l e v e l s of sexual arousal i n mind t h a t t h i s P e r h a p s one achieve  (Heiman, 1 9 7 6 ) .  One  i s an a n a l o g u e l a b o r a t o r y  would need n a t u r a l s e x u a l  much h i g h e r ,  high  must a l s o k e e p setting.  interactions to  "detectable" l e v e l s of sexual  arousal.  Second, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s u b j e c t s were w i l l i n g report a c e r t a i n l e v e l w i l l i n g to report  study  explanation.  provide  Subjects  not  "too  partial reported  were  not  of sexual a r o u s a l .  d i c t a t e s allowed  s e x u a l l y aroused but  from t h i s  a r o u s a l but  intense levels  other words, s o c i a l being  of sexual  subjects to aroused".  support  to  In  report  The  findings  for this  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  levels  of autonomic a r o u s a l i n response t o e r o t i c s t i m u l i than i n response to n e u t r a l s t i m u l i . p h y s i o l o g i c a l heart  This  i s s u r p r i s i n g given  r a t e measures i n d i c a t e d t h e r e were  that no  changes i n autonomic a r o u s a l w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e i t h e r n e u t r a l or e r o t i c the  subjects reported  increases  increases  describing their  descriptives "faster heart w e t n e s s and throbbing". the  s u c h as  "any  beat"  versus  lubrication"  to speculate  i n sexual arousal Perhaps they  felt  more  s e x u a l l y aroused s t a t e  d e s c r i p t i v e s s u c h as  and  "genital pulsing  using and  "genital and  T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n c a n n o t , however, f u l l y study.  subjects reported higher  arousal during the  exercise versus  Consistent with l e v e l s of no-exercise  that  as  p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n at a l l "  f i n d i n g s from t h i s  assertion,  I t i s tempting  i n autonomic a r o u s a l .  comfortable  for  stimuli.  account  this  autonomic condition;  however, t h e s e  r e s u l t s d i d not reach  statistical  significance. A t h i r d potential explanation  f o rthe lack of  concordance between p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e measures o f sexual  arousal relates to the p o s s i b i l i t y  of a ceiling  e f f e c t on s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s o f s e x u a l a r o u s a l .  Mean  ratings of subjective sexual arousal during the no-exercise and  e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e 4.2 a n d 3.8, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  These r e s u l t s a r e comparable t o a s t u d y and  Gorzalka  scale.  c o n d u c t e d by  (1990) w h i c h u s e d t h e same s u b j e c t i v e  Palace  and G o r z a l k a  Palace  rating  (1990) r e p o r t e d mean s u b j e c t i v e  r a t i n g s o f 4.5 a n d 3.8 w i t h e x p o s u r e t o a n e u t r a l - e r o t i c a n d an a n x i e t y - e r o t i c f i l m , findings highest erotic  film  i n a laboratory  sexual  o f a c e i l i n g e f f e c t on  (see a p p e n d i x ) .  level of  a r o u s a l you t h i n k t h a t you c o u l d experience  returned.  f i l m alone?".  Ten o f 25 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  viewing were  The mean r a t i n g o f e x p e c t e d s e x u a l a r o u s a l was  The r e p o r t e d  level  of sexual  arousal f o r these t e n  s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h e e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n was 4.0. findings  was  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (on a s c a l e o f 1 t o 7) "What i s t h e h i g h e s t  an e r o t i c  4.2.  setting.  arousal, a post-hoc questionnaire  distributed to subjects  sexual  these  o f a r o u s a l t h a t s u b j e c t s can a t t a i n v i e w i n g  test the possibility  subjective  asked  Together,  i n d i c a t e t h a t , on a s c a l e o f 1 t o 7, 4 may be t h e level  To  respectively.  support  the notion that reported  These  levels of sexual  an  a r o u s a l w e r e p o s s i b l y as h i g h laboratory  t o s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e shown  b e t w e e n p h y s i o l o g i c a l and  and  social  response.  arousal using  an e r o t i c  sexual  i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to  p h y s i o l o g i c a l components  Experimental film  manipulation  i s sufficient to  increases p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  sympathetic a c t i v i t y acute e x e r c i s e . further  s u c h as  In other  an  An  sexual  increase  can  film  increases  increase  anxiety-evoking  words,  erotic  further  film  or  s t i m u l i have been added t o  " b o o s t " t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l component.  Furthermore,  t h e p r e c i s i o n o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l measurement  devices,  d e t e c t i o n of even minute changes i n a r o u s a l  possible. film  a r o u s a l and  induced w i t h exposure to s t i m u l i that  given  of  d e g r e e t o w h i c h e i t h e r o f t h e s e components  raised i n a laboratory setting differs.  are  a  a r o u s a l b o t h p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y and c o g n i t i v e l y .  However, t h e be  sexual  f a c t o r s as o p p o s e d t o  d e s y n c h r o n y b e t w e e n c o g n i t i v e and sexual  discordance  s u b j e c t i v e reports of  i n women, I p r o p o s e t h a t t h i s  methodological  of the  expected i n a  setting.  With respect  arousal  as c o u l d be  With respect  t o c o g n i t i o n s h o w e v e r , an  i n a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g can  a r o u s a l but  a second e r o t i c  s e t t i n g does not nothing  has  subjects'  film  further increase  been added t o  Furthermore, given  as an the  i n the  of sexual  erotic  sexual  In other  words,  c o g n i t i v e component; a r o u s a l has  film will  comparatively  erotic  same l a b o r a t o r y  arousal.  "boost" the  "cognitive" level  b e e n r a i s e d as h i g h  raise subjective  is  already  allow.  unsophisticated  measures used and  s o c i a l demands which may  s u b j e c t s ' w i l l i n g n e s s to r e p o r t b e i n g  limit  s e x u a l l y aroused, i t  i s l i k e l y t h a t only l a r g e changes i n s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l would be  the  sexual  detected.  Implications The  f i n d i n g s from t h i s study have broad i m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r d e r i v i n g an e t i o l o g i c a l theory over 30 years,  of sexual a r o u s a l .  i t has been assumed t h a t female  For  sexual  a r o u s a l i s l a r g e l y under the i n f l u e n c e of the parasympathetic nervous system and t h a t i n f l u e n c e s p l a y an i n h i b i t o r y r o l e . t h a t sympathetic a c t i v a t i o n may  sympathetic  T h i s study demonstrated  enhance p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  a r o u s a l i n women. The sexual  mechanism by which sympathetic a c t i v a t i o n enhances  a r o u s a l remains undetermined.  Basic  physiology  i n d i c a t e s t h a t s i g n a l s from the c e n t r a l nervous system are sent along  along v a s c u l a r pathways t o the p i t u i t a r y gland sympathetic pathways to the adrenal medulla.  the p i t u i t a r y gland  and the adrenal  s i g n a l s the s e c r e t i o n of catecholamines  been documented to i n c r e a s e  s e c r e t i o n secondary to ACTH r e l e a s e  medulla  (Bunt, 1986).  P h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e at the i n t e n s i t y induced study has  In t u r n ,  s e c r e t e s a v a r i e t y of hormones, many of  which act upon other t a r g e t glands,  present  and  i n the  Cortisol  (Carr et a l . , 1981); to  i n c r e a s e serum l e v e l s of p r o l a c t i n and growth hormone (Sutton & Lazurus, 1976); to i n c r e a s e 1984), decrease  ( G u g l i e l m i n i et a l . ,  (Kuusi et a l . , 1984), or not  change  (Bunt,  1985)  testosterone levels;  or not  change  progesterone levels  (Loucks  to increase  & Horvath,  responses;  of norepinephrine  beta-endorphin  and  any  estrogen  epinephrine  and  circulating  (Hartley et a l . ,  l e v e l s o f dopamine  (Grossman  t o t r i g g e r a r i s e i n plasma l e v e l s  (Gambert e t a l . , 1981;  Conceivably, be  1984)  to markedly increase  1972); t o i n c r e a s e c i r c u l a t i n g & M o r e t t i , 1 9 8 6 ) , and  (Bonen e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ) ,  F a r r e l et a l . , 1982).  number o f t h e a b o v e a l t e r a t i o n s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n f l u e n c i n g the  sexual response.  e x a m p l e , n u m e r o u s d r u g s known t o a f f e c t  see M e s t o n & G o r z a l k a ,  monoaminergic  1992) .  response  Both acute  c h r o n i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f o p i o i d s have been r e p o r t e d inhibit  sexual behavior  see P f a u s  & Gorzalka,  i n humans and  1987).  responses to sympathetic  testosterone,  and  response i n males  Cortisol  animals  luteinizing  sometimes f a c i l i t a t e t h e  Rowland et a l . , 1987).  a r o u s a l has  been o n l y m i n i m a l l y e x p l o r e d . (1982) and M e u w i s s e n and  that sexual arousability to erotic  evidence be  cycle influences.  in altering  Hoon (1992)  stimuli  I n women, t h e sexual and reported  i s unaffected  by  This i s consistent with  i n d i c a t i n g that estrogen  important  Over  sexual  P i r k e e t a l . , 1974;  t h a t hormonal responses f a c i l i t a t e  menstrual  (for review  hormone,  possibility  associates  to  research indicates that  ( S t e a r n s e t a l . , 1973;  L a F e r l a e t a l . , 1978;  and  With r e s p e c t t o hormonal  activation,  c h a n g e s i n h o r m o n e s s u c h as  could For  systems have been r e p o r t e d t o i n f l u e n c e the s e x u a l (for review  of  and  progesterone  sexual arousal  may  (Rosen & B e c k ,  not  1988). to  Heiman a n d a s s o c i a t e s (1991) r e p o r t e d t h a t e x p o s u r e  an e r o t i c  Cortisol, The  f i l m d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  prolactin,  levels of  l u t e i n i z i n g hormone, o r t e s t o s t e r o n e .  above s t u d i e s argue a g a i n s t t h e hormonal c o n t r o l o f  s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n women, a t l e a s t possible,  alter  i n t h e short term.  It is  h o w e v e r , t h a t h o r m o n a l i n f l u e n c e s on s e x u a l  a r o u s a l i n women o c c u r v i a t h e r e l e a s e o f e p i n e p h r i n e norepinephrine.  Indirect  p r o v i d e d by a c l a s s i c  support  and/or  f o r t h i s hypothesis i s  study by S c h a c t e r  and S i n g e r  (1962).  S u b j e c t s were i n j e c t e d w i t h e p i n e p h r i n e  and e i t h e r  informed  or misinformed  o f t h e s i d e e f f e c t s they would  S u b j e c t s who w e r e m i s i n f o r m e d  experience.  o f t h e s i d e e f f e c t s and,  h e n c e , d i d n o t know t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n a r o u s a l ( i e . increased heart rate, the drug, emotions.  rapid breathing)  was a t t r i b u t a b l e t o  l o o k e d t o t h e i r environment f o r cues about F o r example, s u b j e c t s exposed t o a  who a c t e d i n an a n g r y manner, s u p p o s e d l y drug,  a l s o a c t e d i n an a n g r y manner.  their  confederate  i n response  to the  In contrast, subjects  who knew t h a t t h e d r u g was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r a r o u s a l d i d not  a c q u i r e t h e mood o f t h e c o n f e d e r a t e .  highlights the p o s s i b i l i t y for  interpretation,  physiological  This  t h a t , g i v e n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e cues  e p i n e p h r i n e may a l t e r b o t h  states of arousal.  s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n men.  designed  to a r t i f i c i a l l y  c o g n i t i v e and  Lange and a s s o c i a t e s  (1981) d i r e c t l y t e s t e d t h e p o s s i b i l t i y t h a t alters  study  Epinephrine  epinephrine injections,  increase sympathetic  activity,  f a c i l i t a t e d the loss of erection, but only a f t e r ,  and n o t  during, the sexual s t i m u l u s . female  The  e f f e c t s o f e p i n e p h r i n e on  s e x u a l a r o u s a l have not been e x p l o r e d .  In  sum,  t h e manner i n w h i c h  enhances s e x u a l a r o u s a l remains on t h e a b o v e s t u d i e s ,  sympathetic  activation  open t o s p e c u l a t i o n .  i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e s  i n sexual a r o u s a l r e p o r t e d i n the present study a t t r i b u t a b l e t o hormonal changes. i s t h a t the sympathetic nervous arousal  are  A more l i k e l y  system  possibility  activates  sexual  t h r o u g h a n e u r a l pathway o r a nonhormonal  F o r e x a m p l e , an i n c r e a s e i n v a s o c o n g e s t i o n may result  system.  be t h e  of sympathetic a c t i v a t i o n of the c i r c u l a t o r y  The  direct  system.  f i n d i n g t h a t s y m p a t h e t i c a c t i v a t i o n enhances s e x u a l  a r o u s a l by no means i m p l i e s t h a t p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c are not  Based  important i n sexual arousal.  influences  Furthermore,  i t does  n o t mean t h a t s e x u a l a r o u s a l i s d o m i n a t e d  by  activity.  study p o i n t to the  Rather,  possibility  the f i n d i n g s  from t h i s  that both sympathetic  and  sympathetic  parasympathetic  i n f l u e n c e s are i n t e g r a l t o the sexual response, s h o u l d be  c o n s i d e r e d dominant.  and  It i s possible that during  the i n i t i a l  stages of sexual arousal,  sympathetic  activity  an i n c r e a s e i n  prepares the i n d i v i d u a l  for sexual  a r o u s a l or p r o v i d e s a "boost" t o a l r e a d y i n c r e a s i n g of  neither  levels  arousal. Future r e s e a r c h i s necessary t o determine  r o l e o f s y m p a t h e t i c and p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c sexual arousal. effects  I t w o u l d be  the p r e c i s e  i n f l u e n c e s on  female  i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare t h e  o f deep r e l a x a t i o n e x e r c i s e s v e r s u s a c u t e  physical  e x e r c i s e on  sexual  arousal.  This would provide  direct  i n d i c a t i o n of the  versus  s y m p a t h e t i c d o m i n a n c e on  The  finding that  presence of e r o t i c emphasizes t h a t  r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of sexual  sympathetic a c t i v a t i o n without  s t i m u l i d i d not  sexual  arousal  p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s a l o n e do response.  critical  increase  The the  not  o f sex  desensitization, techniques  study  dysfunction.  therapy  continue  coital  anxiety  techniques,  to focus  and  on  h i g h l i g h t the  sexual.  the  improving  systematic  disorders.  anxiety  systematic  reduction  i n t r e a t i n g anorgasmia  for review).  Perhaps systematic  i n t r e a t i n g sexual  Several  studies  desensitization in pleasure  during  for review),  while  (see N o r t o n & J e h u ,  d e s i r e d i s o r d e r s or  i n t r e a t i n g sexual  1984  desensitization is  i n which c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s play a primary r o l e . ineffective  The  desensitization is  ineffective  is  e a r l y 1960s,  s u c h as  i s mixed.  (see N o r t o n & J e h u , 1984  indicate that  the  subjective  Since  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of systematic  intercourse  effective  define  which decrease sympathetic a c t i v i t y .  report the  arising  a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these techniques  others  study  changed i n the t r e a t m e n t of s e x u a l  majority  arousal,  words,  sufficiently  r e s u l t s of t h i s  f i n d i n g s from t h i s  has  reducing  In other  i n i n t e r p r e t i n g an a r o u s e d s t a t e as  treatment of sexual  little The  The  sexual  the  c a n n o t be v i e w e d as  r o l e o f c o g n i t i v e l a b e l i n g and  experience  parasympathetic  arousal.  from a s t a t e of g e n e r a l i z e d a r o u s a l .  sexual  a more  disorders  disorders Perhaps i t  i n which  p h y s i o l o g i c a l processes c o n s t i t u t e the primary Such may b e t h e c a s e w i t h  component.  anorgasmia.  T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e d o n l y on s e x u a l l y Future research i s necessary t o determine  f u n c t i o n a l women. whether  s y m p a t h e t i c a c t i v a t i o n enhances s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l women.  I fthis  i s t h e case, then  f o r s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n need t o be r e - e v a l u a t e d .  treatments Techniques  n e e d t o f o c u s n o t o n l y on a l t e r i n g a n e g a t i v e c o g n i t i v e s e t , b u t must a l s o g i v e f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e r o l e o f sympathetic a c t i v i t y response.  i n enhancing  the physiological  BIBLIOGRAPHY A n d e r s e n , B.L. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Primary orgasmic d y s f u n c t i o n : D i a g n o s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and r e v i e w o f t r e a t m e n t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 93, 1 0 5 - 1 3 6 . A n s a r i , J . M. A. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . A s t u d y o f 65 i m p o t e n t m a l e s . 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P s y c h o s e x u a l s t i m u l a t i o n a n d p l a s m a t e s t o s t e r o n e i n man. A r c h i v e s o f S e x u a l B e h a v i o r , 3, 5 7 7 - 5 8 4 . P f a u s , J.G, & G o r z a l k a , B.B. (1987) . O p i o i d s a n d s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . N e u r o s c i e n c e and B i o b e h a v i o r a l Reviews, 11, 1-34. P o l l o c k , M.L., W i l m o r e , J.H., & F o x , S.M. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . H e a l t h a n d F i t n e s s Through P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y New Y o r k : W i l e y . Ramsey, G. ( 1 9 4 3 ) . The s e x u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f b o y s . J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 56, 217.  American  R o s e n , R.C., & B e c k , J . G . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . P a t t e r n s o f S e x u a l A r o u s a l : P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l P r o c e s s e s and C l i n i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n s . New Y o r k : G u i l f o r d P r e s s . R o w l a n d , D.S., H e i m a n , J.R., G l a d u e , B.A., H a t c h , J . P . , D o e r i n g , C H . , & W e i l e r , S . J . (1987). Endocrine, p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and g e n i t a l response t o s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n men. P s y c h o n e u r o e n d o c r i n o l o g y , 12, 149-158.  S a r r e l , D.M, & M a s t e r s , W.H. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Sexual molestation of men b y women. A r c h i v e s o f S e x u a l B e h a v i o r , 1 1 , 1 1 7 - 1 3 1 . S c h a c t e r , S. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e a n d p h y s i o l o g i c a l determinants of emotional states. In B e r k o w i t z , L. ( e d ) , A d v a n c e s i n E x p e r i m e n t a l S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1, New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . S c h a c h t e r , S. & S i n g e r , J . E . ( 1 9 6 2 ) . C o g n i t i v e , s o c i a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l determinants of emotional state. P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 69, 3 7 9 - 3 9 9 . S i n t c h a k , G., & G e e r , J . H . , ( 1 9 7 5 ) . A v a g i n a l system. P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y , 12, 1 1 3 - 1 1 5 .  plethysmograph  S c h n i e d e n , H., & R e e s , J . M. H. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Pharmacological a s p e c t s o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n caused by drugs o f abuse. I n M. S e g a l ( E d . ) , P s y c h o p h a r m a c o l o g y o f s e x u a l d i s o r d e r s London: John L i b b e y . S o t i l e , W.M., & K i l m a n n , P.R. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . E f f e c t s o f group s y s t e m a t i c d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n on f e m a l e o r g a s m i c dysfunction. A r c h i v e s o f S e x u a l B e h a v i o r , T_, 4 7 7 - 4 9 1 . S t e a r n s , E,, W i n t e r , J . , & F a i r m a n , C. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . Effects of c o i t u s on g o n a d o t r o p i n , p r o l a c t i n , a n d s e x s t e r o i d l e v e l s i n man. J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l E n d o c r i n o l o g y a n d M e t a b o l i s m , 37, 6 8 7 - 6 9 1 . S t e i n m a n , D.L., W i n c z e , J . P . , S a k h e i m , D.K., B a r l o w , D.H., & M a v i s s a k a l i a n , M. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n o f m a l e a n d female p a t t e r n s o f s e x u a l a r o u s a l . A r c h i v e s o f Sexual B e h a v i o r , 10, 5 2 9 - 5 4 7 . S t o l l e r , R. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . S e x u a l e x c i t e m e n t . A r c h i v e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h i a t r y , 33, 899-909. S u t t o n , J . , & L a z a r u s , L. (1976) . G r o w t h hormone i n e x e r c i s e : Comparison o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l and pharmacological s t i m u l i . Journal of Applied Physiology, 41, 523-527. W i n c z e , J . P . , Hoon, E . F . , & Hoon, P.W. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . P h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s i v i t y o f n o r m a l a n d s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l women d u r i n g e r o t i c s t i m u l u s exposure. J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o s o m a t i c R e s e a r c h , 20, 445-451. W o l c h i k , S.A., B e g g s , V . E . , W i n c z e , J . P . , S a k h e i m , D.K., B a r l o w , D.H., & M a v i s s a k a l i a n , M. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The e f f e c t s o f e m o t i o n a l a r o u s a l on s u b s e q u e n t s e x u a l a r o u s a l i n men. J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l P s y c h o l o g y , 89, 5 9 5 - 5 9 8 . Wolpe, J . (1958). P s y c h o t h e r a p y by R e c i p r o c a l I n h i b i t i o n . S t a n f o r d , CA: S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  Wolpe, J . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Comments on "A T e s t o f R e c i p r o c a l I n h i b i t i o n " b y Hoon, W i n c z e , a n d Hoon. J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l P s y c h o l o g y , 87, 452-454. Z i n g h e i m , P., & Sandman, C. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . D i s c r i m i n a t i v e c o n t r o l of t h e v a g i n a l vasomotor response. B i o f e e d b a c k and Self-Régulâtion, 3, 2 9 - 4 1 .  APPENDIX Page Film Scale  -73  P h y s i c a l R e a d i n e s s Exam f o r F i t n e s s T e s t  75  Arousal  Scale  7g  coae  No. 73  FILM SCALE  Instructions: Please use the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e to e v a l u a t e how you f e l t d u r i n g the l a s t f i l m . Please answer h o n e s t l y and c a r e f u l l y . On the s c a l e r c i r c l e any of the numbers from 1 (not a t a l l ) to 7 ( i n t e n s e l y ) . During the f i l m /  I felt:  1.  Faster  breathing_  2  3  5  6  7  2.  Faster  h e a r t beat.  2  3  5  6  7  3.  Perspiration  2  3  5  6  7  4.  Feelings  2  3  5  6  7  5,  Any p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n a t a l l .  2  3  5  6  7  o f warmth_  Continue on to the next page.  Code FILM SCALE  No.  (Continued)  74  Instructions; Please use the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e to evaluate how you f e l t d u r i n g the l a s t f i l m . Please answer h o n e s t l y and c a r e f u l l y . On the s c a l e , c i r c l e any of the numbers from 1 (not a t a l l ) to 7 ( i n t e n s e l y ) . During  the f i l m ,  I felt; 2  3  5  6  Warmth i n g e n i t a l s _  2  3  5  6  7  8.  G e n i t a l wetness or l u b r i c a t i o n _  2  3  5  6  7  9.  G e n i t a l p u l s i n g or throbbing  2  3  5  6  7  10.  Any g e n i t a l f e e l i n g s  2  3  5  6  7  11. S e x u a l l y aroused  2  3  5  6  7  12. Wor r i ed  2  3  5  6  7  13. Anxious  2  3  5  6  7  14. Angry  2  3  5  6  7  15. D i s g u s t e d  2  3  5  6  7  2  3  5  6  7  2  3  5  6  7  2  3  5  6  7  2  3  5  6  7  6.  Breast  7.  16.  sensations  Embarrassed,  17. G u i l t y 18.  Sensuous  19. A d e s i r e t o be c l o s e to someone. 20.  Pleasure  2  3  5  6  7  21.  Interested,  2  3  5  6  7  22. A t t r a c t e d _  2  3  5  6  7  23.  Excited  2  3  5  6  7  24.  Sexy  2  3  5  6  7  25. D i r t y _  2  3  5  6  7  26.  2  3  5  6  7  2  3  5  6  7  Loving,  27. S e x u a l l y  attractive.  28.  Inhibited  2  3  5  6  7  29.  Easy to arouse.  2  3  5  6  7  30.  Incompetent  2  3  5  6  7  31.  S e x u a l l y turned o f f .  2  3  5  6  7  32.  Offended  2  3  5  6  7  33. Bored  2  3  5  6  7  34.  2  3  5  6  7  Feminine  Stop and w a i t  for further  i n s t n i r i - i nr.c  PHYSICAL READINESS EXAM FOR  FITNESS TEST  For most of us, p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y poses no problem or hazard. T h i s t e s t has been designed to i d e n t i f y that small number of i n d i v i d u a l s who should seek medical advice p r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a fitness test. YES  NO  Has your d o c t o r ever s a i d you have heart t r o u b l e ? Do you o f t e n have pains i n your h e a r t or chest? Do you o f t e n f e e l f a i n t or have s p e l l s of severe dizziness? Has a d o c t o r ever s a i d your blood p r e s s u r e was too h i g h or too low? Has your d o c t o r ever t o l d you t h a t you have a bone or j o i n t problem t h a t has been aggravated by e x e r c i s e , or might be made worse w i t h e x e r c i s e ? Do you have any menstrual p e r i o d problems? Do you have problems with r e c u r r e n t i t c h i n g or discharge? Are you c u r r e n t l y u s i n g any p r e s c r i p t i o n medications? I f yes, what are they? Are you u s i n g any r e c r e a t i o n a l drugs? Have you ever smoked? I f you c u r r e n t l y smoke, how many c i g a r e t t e s per day? I f you have q u i t smoking, when was i t ? Do you d r i n k c o f f e e ? I f yes, how many cups per day? Are you c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n a r e g u l a r e x e r c i s e program? Do you r e g u l a r l y walk or run one or more miles continuously? I f yes, average no. o f miles per day What i s your average time per m i l e ? Do you p r a c t i c e weight l i f t i n g or home calisthenics? Are you i n v o l v e d i n an aerobics program? I f yes, how f r e q u e n t l y ? Do you f r e q u e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n competive sports? I f yes, how f r e q u e n t l y ? Have you s u f f e r e d any s e r i o u s medical problems t h a t you c o n s i d e r important f o r us t o know? Is there a good p h y s i c a l reason not mentioned here why you should not r e c e i v e a f i t n e s s t e s t ?  Signature  No.  Instructions: Please answer the following questions using the scale providedCircle any of the numbers from 1 (low^ to 7 (intense'». Please answer honestly and carefully.  1. Given the appropriate situation, what is the highest level of sexual arousal you think that you could experience? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  2. What is the highest level of sexiial arousal you have ever experienced? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  3. Prior to the films used in this research, had you ever viewed an erotic film? Yes  No  4. What is the highest level of sexual arousal you think that you could experience viewing an erotic film alone? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  76  

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