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A functional analysis of the private press as a type of publisher 1995

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A FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRIVATE PRESS AS A TYPE OF PUBLISHER by GARY CARRE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987 M.A., C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (S c h o o l o f L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and I n f o r m a t i o n S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1995 © Gary C a r r e , 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department o f - The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date AjgNr- ^ P 0 S > DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T This thesis examines how, i n providing context to records creation, functional analysis can be used i n the a r c h i v a l appraisal of private press records. This thesis draws on l i t e r a t u r e from a v a r i e t y of sources, including the h i s t o r y of p r i n t i n g and publishing a c t i v i t i e s , the nature of private presses and archival appraisal theory. It also involves the examination of private press records held at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Library, Special C o l l e c t i o n s and U n i v e r s i t y Archives Di v i s i o n . Three private presses i n B r i t i s h Columbia are used as examples i n t h i s thesis. They are Barbarian Press, Klanak Press and Cobblestone Press. In chapter one, the h i s t o r i c a l experience of private presses i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s outlined. Following t h i s , i n chapters two through four, the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of publishing organizations are examined, with special reference to the p a r t i c u l a r way i n which they are carried out by private presses. The nature of records created by private presses are also i d e n t i f i e d . In chapter two, the author examines the function of publishing organizations to acquire prospective manuscripts. Chapter three describes the function of publishing organizations to p h y s i c a l l y produce a finished work. Chapter four examines the marketing function of publishing organizations. Throughout these chapters, the author examines the a r c h i v a l records of the three private presses used as examples i n t h i s thesis, h i g h l i g h t i n g archival appraisal implications drawn from an analysis of functions and a c t i v i t i e s . In his conclusion, the author reaffirms the role of functional analysis i n a r c h i v a l work. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Acknowledgements i v Introduction 1 Chapter One: A Short History of Private Presses i n B.C. . . 20 Chapter Two: Acquiring Appropriate Manuscripts 39 Chapter Three: Producing a Finished Work 53 Chapter Four: Marketing a Published Work 66 Conclusion: 74 Appendix: 81 Bibliography 83 Checklist of Books Used as Examples 92 i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Gl o r i a Chao and Maureen Nicholson for t h e i r e f f o r t s i n the preparation of thi s thesis. I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e to thank my thesis supervisor, Terry Eastwood, for his assistance, and my fr i e n d and colleague, Laura M i l l a r , for her support and encouragement. i v I I N T R O D U C T I O N In the archival l i t e r a t u r e as a whole, there i s a paucity of functional analyses, even though there continues to be an i n t e r e s t i n the concepts of function and provenance, and a recognition of the importance of incorporating these concepts into records management and archival p r a c t i c e s . 1 The aim of t h i s thesis i s to demonstrate how functional analysis can be applied to a p a r t i c u l a r class of private organization, namely private presses. By providing a functional analysis of three private presses i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s thesis d i f f e r s from e a r l i e r studies that have applied functional analysis to other organizations and persons. 2 However, the main premise of a l l these studies, including the present one, i s the same: an analysis of the functions and a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by organizations and persons provides a context for records creation, and i t i s t h i s context that i s useful i n a r c h i v a l work. aDonna Humphries, "Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s : A Functional Analysis" (Master of Archival Studies thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1991), 9. 2 I b i d ; Anne M. Maclean, "The A c q u i s i t i o n of L i t e r a r y Papers i n Canada" (Master of Archival Studies thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987); V i c t o r i a Blinkhorn, "The Records of V i s u a l A r t i s t s : Appraising for A c q u i s i t i o n and S e l e c t i o n " (Master of A r c h i v a l Studies thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1988); Frances Fournier, "Faculty Papers: Appraisal for A c q u i s i t i o n and Selection" (Master of Archival Studies thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1990); and Helen Samuels, V a r s i t y Letters: Documenting Modern Colleges and U n i v e r s i t i e s (Metuchen, N.J. & London: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s and the Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1992). 2 This thesis examines private presses as a p a r t i c u l a r type of private organization. There are a number of reasons why private presses have been chosen. F i r s t , the archival records of private presses are a c t i v e l y acquired by manuscript l i b r a r i e s and are therefore r e a d i l y available for consultation. In view of t h i s , implications for archival appraisal of private press records can be drawn from an analysis of functions and a c t i v i t i e s . Second, as l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l organizations, private presses complement other studies on l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l records. 3 Third, private presses are t y p i c a l of other small organizations. A r c h i v a l appraisal implications highlighted i n t h i s thesis thus have a broader ap p l i c a t i o n to any number of other small organizations or firms. F i n a l l y , private presses are an overlooked class of publishing organization. 4 While there have been a number of works written about the publishing industry i n B.C., few have made s p e c i f i c references to private presses. 5 However, private presses 3For more information on l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l records, see Maclean and Blinkhorn. 4The main reason why private presses have been overlooked as a type of publishing organization i s due to t h e i r emphasis on form, rather than content. In view of t h i s , private presses tend to be associated with other c r a f t s , such as pottery or basket weaving. While they may be overlooked, private presses are an important type of publishing organization, often publishing f i r s t e d i t i o n of poems and prose by major Canadian authors. Jean-Marcel Duciaume, "Private Presses," The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2nd ed. (Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, 1988), 1762. 5See e s p e c i a l l y Association of Book Publishers of B r i t i s h Columbia, Review of the Book Publishing Industry of B r i t i s h Columbia with Recommendations for Public Policy Development 3 i n B.C. have been more prevalent than i n other regions of Canada. B.C. private press proprietor William McConnell writes: It's not surprising that there have been more private presses i n B r i t i s h Columbia than elsewhere i n Canada, for three of the outstanding typographers and book designers i n North America have made th e i r i n i t i a l reputations i n t h i s Province. 6 Three private presses are used as examples throughout t h i s thesis, namely Barbarian Press, Klanak Press and Cobblestone Press. These presses have been chosen for a number of reasons. F i r s t , they have a l l have been successful i n producing published works. Second, they have a l l operated for a s i g n i f i c a n t period of time, longer than many other private presses which have operated i n B.C. Third, they have a l l made s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c contributions to th e i r c r a f t , helping to shape the hi s t o r y of book arts i n the province. F i n a l l y , t h e i r a r c h i v a l records have been acquired by a single manuscript l i b r a r y , the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library, Special C o l l e c t i o n s and Univ e r s i t y Archives Division, and are therefore r e a d i l y available for examination. A description of the archival records of these (Vancouver: Association of Book Publishers of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987); and Roy MacSkimming, Publishing on the Edge: A C u l t u r a l and Economic Study of Book Publishing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Prepared for the Association of Book Publishers of B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: Association of Book Publishers of B.C., 1983) . 6William McConnell, "Private Presses of B r i t i s h Columbia," Amphora i (1967), 2. 4 three private presses i s provided i n the Appendix of t h i s t h e s i s . Before s e t t i n g out the methodology and scope of t h i s thesis, the nature of private presses w i l l be examined.7 What are private presses? Many writers who have written on the subject of private presses have had d i f f i c u l t y i n tryi n g to define a private press. For example, W i l l Ransom, writing i n 1929, states: Whenever private presses are maintained, one of two questions i s certain to be heard. The layman asks, "What do you mean, a private press?" while a c o l l e c t o r smiles q u i z z i c a l l y and inquires, with gentle malice, "How do you define a private press?" There have been many answers and much discussion, but common agreement has not yet been fixed upon a single d e f i n i t e phrase. Perhaps one fas c i n a t i n g element of the subject i s th i s very uncertainty. 8 Private press proprietors themselves have had d i f f i c u l t y i n defining private presses. One B.C. private press proprietor wrote that: " I t ' s hard to define a ^private press'. Far easier, i n fact, to diagnose i t from the care, love, s k i l l and dedication which are evident i n i t s product." 9 7For the purposes of th i s thesis, private presses have been examined i n terms of how they carry out the publishing function. The author recognizes that private presses carry out other functions, such as commercial p r i n t work. "Will Ransom, Private Presses and t h e i r Books (New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1929), 15. 9McConnell, 2. 5 For the purposes of thi s thesis, private presses are defined by a number of common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s include s e l f - r e l i a n c e , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l constraint. A closer examination of these common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l follow. F i r s t , private presses can be characterized as a p a r t i c u l a r type of publishing organization i n which the proprietor or owner of the press performs most or a l l of the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of the press. Jean-Marcel Duciaume writes: Private presses are dedicated to the art of fine p r i n t i n g , and, as the name implies, are usually operated by ind i v i d u a l s who normally perform or oversee a l l aspects of production: selecting the text, designing, typesetting, i l l u s t r a t i n g , p r i n t i n g (on handmade papers) and binding the book. 1 0 In view of the li m i t e d number of persons involved i n t h e i r operation, private presses are, by the i r nature, s e l f - r e l i a n t and, as a re s u l t , highly personal. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of private presses i s the sp e c i a l nature of t h e i r products. Private press works are t y p i c a l l y f i n e l y - c r a f t e d , limited-edition, often l i t e r a r y works. 1 1 Unlike 10Duciaume, 1761. nOther types of works published by private presses are h i s t o r i c a l texts and works i n translation, such as A l f r e d Waddington's The Fraser Mines Vindicated, or The History of Four Months. o r i g i n a l l y published i n 1858 and Sam Hamill's t r a n s l a t i o n of Chi Lu's Wen Fu: The Art of Writing. A l f r e d Waddington, Hie. Fraser Mines Vindicated, or The History of Four Months, o r i g . ed. 1858, with a pri n t e r ' s note by Robert Reid and an introduction by W. Kaye Lamb, Dominion A r c h i v i s t (Vancouver: Robert Reid, 1949) 6 general trade books, which are produced for a large market, private press works tend to be specialized, unique works of art, catering to a l i m i t e d c l i e n t e l e . In his p r i n t e r ' s note to private press proprietor Robert Reid's 1949 reprint of A l f r e d Waddington's The Fraser Mines Vindicated. Reid writes: Fine books have l i t e r a r y value, and they have commercial value, but i t ' s t h e i r value as works of art which distinguishes them from other books. This intangible, aesthetic q u a l i t y i s not e a s i l y obtained. The designer's use of binding materials, of type, of paper and of inks a l l contribute to a f e e l i n g of luxuriousness and of fineness. There i s another element, personality, without which a book i s l o s t . It results from the designer imparting something of himself - his love for fine books, his consequent s i n c e r i t y of purposes, his grasp of the elements of the p r i n t i n g c r a f t - into his books. 1 2 In view of t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d products, private presses are often viewed as being more l i k e a c r a f t . A t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of private presses i s t h e i r f i n a n c i a l circumstance. Private presses t y p i c a l l y have l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l resources. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c inevitably affects every aspect of the work of private presses, including the nature and volume of products produced. One B.C. private press proprietor writes: In the l a s t several months, we have taken a hard look at the press. Our very survival i s at stake. The r e s u l t of t h i s and Chi Lu, Wen Fu: The Art of Writing, trans. Sam Hamill (Mission: Barbarian Press, 1986). :Waddington, v. 7 review i s that we have decided to slow down on publishing poetry. It i s d i f f i c u l t as a private press to s e l l books of poetry and we have done l i t t l e else since we started. We are not by any means abandoning poetry and t r a n s l a t i o n , but for the next couple of years we are going to concentrate on the wood engraving and p r i n t e r l y projects we [have] on hand. 1 3 Another B.C. private press proprietor expresses a s i m i l a r sentiment: Any p r o f i t s which might accrue from any volume i s invested i n the next project, t h i s being c l e a r l y understood by each author. We r e a l l y don't want to become any more ambitious for then we know the Press w i l l lose i t s character (not to mention the work load) . 1 4 The common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of private presses as provided above, not only help to define private presses. They also influence the way i n which private presses carry out publishing functions and a c t i v i t i e s . 1 5 Having i d e n t i f i e d some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of private presses, the methodology used i n t h i s thesis w i l l be outlined. As stated at the outset, the aim of t h i s thesis i s to demonstrate " C r i s p i n E l s t e d to Robert Frimage, 1 February 1988, f. 2- lb, Barbarian Press fonds, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library, Special Collections and University Archives D i v i s i o n , Vancouver. "William McConnell to Jan Gould, 15 August 1969, f. 2-2, Klanak Press fonds, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library, Special Collections and University Archives Division, Vancouver. 1 5The spe c i a l way i n which private presses carry out publishing functions and a c t i v i t i e s i s examined i n chapters two through four of t h i s thesis. 8 how functional analysis can be applied to private presses for the purposes of archival appraisal. What i s functional analysis? Donna Humphries i n her thesis on Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s states that l i t t l e attention has been given to defining the term function. For her thesis, Humphries defines function as "... the whole of the a c t i v i t i e s , considered abstractly, necessary to accomplish one purpose." 1 6 While Humphries does not e x p l i c i t l y define functional analysis, she does state that her analysis of functions, j u r i d i c a l persons and competences of a u n i v e r s i t y i s a functional a n a l y s i s . 1 7 For the purposes of t h i s thesis, functional analysis i s the study of how organizations and persons function. 1 8 The idea i s not a new one i n archival l i t e r a t u r e . The notion that "records follow function" can be traced to Muller, Feith and Fruin, who, i n t h e i r 1894 manual on archives, wrote: "Experience teaches, therefore, that i f the functions or rights of one administrative body pass to another, the archives accompanies them."19 While Muller, Feith and Fruin were r e f e r r i n g to the custody of ar c h i v a l records, the reference highlights the relat i o n s h i p of functions "Humphries, i i . 1 7 I b i d . 1 8 I b i d , 1. 1 9S. Muller, J.A. Feith and R. Fruin, Manual for the Arrangement and Description of Archives, 2nd ed., trans. Arthur H. L e a v i t t (New York: The H.W. Wilson Company, 1968), 24. 9 and a c t i v i t i e s to the records that are generated from them.20 More recently, Canadian a r c h i v i s t s have highlighted the importance of understanding records i n terms of functions and a c t i v i t i e s . Tom Nesmith, for example, wrote that a number of Canadian studies have analysed records i n terms of the functions and a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by organizations that created them.21 For example, he c i t e s Terry Cook and B i l l Russell, who, i n t h e i r a r t i c l e s , examine the relationship between the functions of Canadian federal government departments and the nature of records generated by them.22 Another Canadian a r c h i v i s t , Heather MacNeil, i d e n t i f i e s a number of studies of organizations and persons that have used functional analysis to provide context to records creation. She states: ... the analysis of external structure has been, or i s being, applied to a diverse range of creators, including v i s u a l a r t i s t s , u niversity faculty, and photographers, as 2 0Humphries notes that while Muller, Feith and Fruin frequently used the term ^function', they did not define i t . Humphries, 4. 2 1Canadian Archival Studies and the Rediscovery of Provenance, ed. Tom Nesmith (Metuchen, N.J.: The Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , The Scarecrow Press, 1993), 6. 2 2 I b i d , 8. See B i l l Russell, "The White Man's Paper Burden: Aspects of Records Keeping i n the Department of Indian A f f a i r s , 1860-1914" Arch i v a r i a 19: 50-72; Terry Cook, "Legacy i n Limbo: An Introduction to the Records of the Department of the I n t e r i o r , " A r c h i v a r i a 25 (Winter 1987-88): 73-83. 10 well as school boards, law firms, and museums. MacNeil points out that a number of student theses at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, including those by V i c t o r i a Blinkhorn, Anne Maclean, Frances Fournier and Donna Humphries, have shown how functional analysis can be used i n a r c h i v a l work, e s p e c i a l l y for archival appraisal purposes. 2 4 Blinkhorn, i n her thesis on appraising records of v i s u a l a r t i s t s , describes functional analysis as central to a r c h i v a l appraisal. She states: Appraisal i s not prophetic i n the sense that the a r c h i v i s t i s not to base the evaluation of an a r t i s t ' s records on a 'futurology of potential issues i n research scholarship. 1 Appraisal must take a retrospective approach by considering the elements of the a r t i s t ' s contemporary society and assessing the value of his records and the c e n t r a l i t y of his records to his a c t i v i t y i n the context of these elements. 2 5 Blinkhorn suggests that through an understanding of the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of the a r t i s t , the a r c h i v i s t i s better able to "Heather MacNeil, "Archival Theory and Practice: Between Two Paradigms," Archivaria 37 (Spring 1994): 10. . 2 4While the term ^appraisal' can also refer to the monetary appraisal of records, for the purposes of t h i s thesis, a r c h i v a l appraisal may be defined as "a basic archival function of determining the eventual disposal of records based upon t h e i r a r c h i v a l value." Dictionary of Archival Terminology. 21. A r c h i v a l value may be defined as "those values, administrative, f i s c a l , l e g a l , e v i d e n t i a l and/or informational, which j u s t i f y the i n d e f i n i t e or permanent retention of records." Ibid, 23. 'Blinkhorn, 133. 11 appraise a r t i s t s ' records. Maclean, i n her thesis on l i t e r a r y papers, focuses on the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of writers, and i d e n t i f i e s the various records generated from the writing process. Maclean demonstrates how functional analysis i s useful primarily for appraisal for a c q u i s i t i o n purposes; that i s , determining which records among many should be acquired by a p a r t i c u l a r repository. Fournier, i n her thesis on faculty papers, examines the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of faculty members. In doing so, she h i g h l i g h t s the importance of the contextual foundation provided by a functional analysis, and how i t a s s i s t s the a r c h i v i s t i n appraisal for a c q u i s i t i o n and selection. Humphries, i n her thesis on Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , looks at the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of modern u n i v e r s i t i e s . Like previous studies, Humphries states that the primary use of functional analysis i s for archival appraisal purposes: ... the primary beneficiary of such an analysis i s the a r c h i v i s t who i s charged with appraisal because a functional analysis allows the a r c h i v i s t to develop an appraisal plan i n which he ascertains the l e v e l i n the organizational structure at which acquisitions should be undertaken and i d e n t i f i e s the j u r i d i c a l persons from whom records should be acquired i n order to document the functions and spheres of a c t i v i t i e s that comprise the administrative body. 2 6 While these studies have i l l u s t r a t e d the increasing "Humphries, 115. 12 importance of functional analysis i n archival work, at l e a s t from a t h e o r e t i c a l perspective, the importance of understanding how organizations and persons function i s not the exclusive domain of the Canadian archival profession. American a r c h i v i s t Helen Samuels has applied functional analysis, l i k e Humphries, to u n i v e r s i t i e s and colleges. However, Samuels' main purpose i n using functional analysis i s i n i t s application to the development of an * i n s t i t u t i o n a l documentation plan'. 2 7 She writes that functional analysis enables the a r c h i v i s t "to e s t a b l i s h s p e c i f i c documentary goals and c o l l e c t i n g plans" 2 8 and i s useful only i n terms of assuring "the creation and preservation of desired records i n the future, and the creation of supplementary documentation to f i l l gaps." 2 9 While Samuels' approach d i f f e r s considerably from other studies c i t e d above, her work i l l u s t r a t e s another use for functional analysis. This present thesis d i f f e r s from previous studies using functional analysis i n that i t describes the functions and 2 7A number of other American a r c h i v i s t s have also advocated the use of documentation strategy. See especially, Larry J. Hackman and Joan Warnow-Blewett, "The Documentation Strategy Process: A Model and Case Study," American A r c h i v i s t 50, no. 1 (Winter 1987): 12-47; Richard J. Cox, "A Documentation Strategy Case Study: Western New York," American A r c h i v i s t 52. no. 2 (Spring 1989): 192-200; and Helen W. Samuels and P h i l i p Alexander, "The Roots of 128: A Hypothetical Documentation Strategy," American A r c h i v i s t 50, no. 4 (Winter 1987): 518-31. 2 8Samuels, 1. Ibid, 254. 13 a c t i v i t i e s of a private organization, namely private presses. In view of t h i s , another benefit of t h i s present study i s to draw comparisons between how the approach has been used i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case with those previously analysed. Having i d e n t i f i e d the nature of the organization to be examined and the primary method of analysis used i n t h i s thesis, some of i t s primary sources w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . A broad l i t e r a t u r e base i s used i n t h i s thesis, covering many d i f f e r e n t and i n t e r r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s : 1. Functional analysis. A number of studies, as previously i d e n t i f i e d , have been used which show the value of functional analysis for archival work.30 None of them, however, has used functional analysis i n the context of a priv a t e organization, and so inferences have been drawn from them i n connection with private presses. 2. A r c h i v a l appraisal (a) L i t e r a r y archives. 3 1 The area of l i t e r a r y archives has tended to focus on records r e s u l t i n g from the w r i t i n g process. In view of t h i s , information from t h i s area has been used for comparison purposes. As 3 0Blinkhorn, Maclean, Fournier, Humphries and Samuels. 3 1 L i t e r a r y archives are defined i n Dictionary of A r c h i v a l Terminology as the archives of individual authors, l i t e r a r y organizations or i n s t i t u t i o n s , Dictionary of A r c h i v a l Terminology. 101. 14 indicated previously, Maclean's thesis on the a c q u i s i t i o n of l i t e r a r y papers i s an example of work i n the general area of l i t e r a r y archives. Another example i s a series of a r t i c l e s on the archival appraisal of l i t e r a r y papers i n A r c h i v a r i a . 3 2 (b) L i t e r a r y manuscripts. 3 3 While t h i s body of l i t e r a t u r e tends to focus on the l i t e r a r y manuscript as a discrete item, rather than as part of an a r c h i v a l fonds, i t has been examined here for comparison purposes. 3 4 3 2Robin Skelton, "The Acqui s i t i o n of L i t e r a r y Archives," A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984): 214-219; K.E. Garay, "Access and Copyright i n L i t e r a r y Collections," Archivaria 18 (Summer 1984): 220-227; and Jean Tener, "Problems of L i t e r a r y Archives: A Commentary," Arch i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984): 228-231. 3 3While private press records are not l i t e r a r y manuscripts, they may, and often do, include l i t e r a r y manuscripts. Private press records comprise a l l of the records created by private presses, including such records as production schedules, business correspondence, invoices and other sales-related material. The a r c h i v a l records of a private press are considered an a r c h i v a l fonds. An a r c h i v a l fonds i s defined as "the t o t a l body of records accumulated by a p a r t i c u l a r individual, i n s t i t u t i o n or organization i n the exercise of i t s functions and a c t i v i t i e s " (Dictionary of Archival Terminology. 79). In contrast, l i t e r a r y manuscripts are defined as "manuscripts, including drafts and proofs, of l i t e r a r y texts." Ibid, 95. L i t e r a r y manuscripts then form part of an archival fonds, either of an author's fonds or a publisher's fonds. For information on author's fonds, see Maclean. 3 4These works generally have t h e i r roots i n the l i b r a r y profession. For more information on l i t e r a r y manuscripts, see Lois More Overbeck, "Researching L i t e r a r y Manuscripts: A Scholar's Perspective," American A r c h i v i s t 56, no. 1 (Winter 1993): 62-69; Robert W. H i l l , "Literary, A r t i s t i c and Musical Manuscripts," Library Trends 5: 322-329; and P h i l i p N. (c) Art and l i t e r a t u r e archives. 3 5 Publishing organizations, as a type of c u l t u r a l organization, can be compared with other c u l t u r a l organizations. Information drawn from work i n the area of art and l i t e r a t u r e archives has been used i n areas of common concern. (d) Business records. Publishing organizations are a type of business. While much of the work i n t h i s area has been conducted by U.S. writers, some notable Canadian exceptions include works by Christopher Hives, Grant M i t c h e l l and John Hall Archer. 3 6 3. Publishers' records. There have been few works i n t h i s area. The primary exception i s Laura Coles' A r c h i v a l Gold: Managing and Preserving Publishers' Records, a manual for Cronenwatt, "Appraisal of L i t e r a r y Manuscripts," i n A r c h i v a l Choices: Managing the H i s t o r i c a l Record i n an Age of Abundance, ed., Nancy E. Peace (Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath & Co., 1984), 105-116. 3 5For more information on art and l i t e r a t u r e archives, see Walter Muir Whitehall, "Archives of the Arts: An Introduction," American A r c h i v i s t 30, No. 3 (July 1967): 427-29; and Sigurd Rambusch, "Should Archives of Literature and Art be Established as Separate I n s t i t u t i o n s ? " Archivum 24: 272. 3 6Christopher Hives> "Business Archives: H i s t o r i c a l Developments and Future Prospects" (Master of A r c h i v a l Studies thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985); Idem, "History, Business Records, and Corporate Archives i n North America," A r c h i v a r i a 22 (Summer 1986): 40-57; Grant M i t c h e l l , "Canadian Archives and the Corporate Memory," Archivaria 28 (Summer 1989): 48-67; and John H a l l Archer, "Business Records: The Canadian Scene," American A r c h i v i s t 32, no. 3 (July 1969): 251-9. 16 book publishers on the proper care and management of t h e i r business records. It has been used to a s s i s t i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of record types common to publishing organizations. 4. Canadian publishing. In the area of Canadian publishing, the discussion tends to focus on market-related topics, such as foreign ownership, d i s t r i b u t i o n and manufacturing. 3 7 However, some information from t h i s material can be gleaned to provide some insight into the nature of publishing i n general. 5. Canadian publishing history. The vast majority of works tend to be Toronto-centred and as a re s u l t , much of the h i s t o r y of publishing a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been ignored. 3 8 Some notable exceptions are Glennis Zilm's thesis, "Early B.C. Books: An Overview of Trade Book Publishing i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1880s," and Robert Bringhurst's Ocean. Paper. Stone: The Catalogue of an E x h i b i t i o n of Printed Objects which Chronicle More Than a 3 7See especially, Paul Audley's Canada's Cu l t u r a l Industries: Broadcasting. Publishing Records and Film (Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. i n association with the Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Economic Policy, 1983). 3 8See especially, George Parker, The Beginnings of the Book Trade i n Canada (Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1985). 17 Century of L i t e r a r y Publishing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 3 9 6. Canadian p r i n t i n g history. This area of l i t e r a t u r e i s d i s t i n c t from Canadian publishing h i s t o r y and has been used i n providing a h i s t o r i c a l context to private presses. Works include Pearson H. Gundy's The Spread of P r i n t i n g : Western Hemisphere, Canada and A. Fauteux's The Introduction to P r i n t i n g into Canada: A B r i e f History. 4 0 The approach here i s to draw upon these various areas of study taking from each that which i s useful and relevant to the present t h e s i s . Information about the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of private presses has been based on standard works on publishing, such as Datus C. Smith's A Guide to Book Publishing. Chandler Grannis' What Happens i n Book Publishing. C l i v e Bingley's Book Publishing Practice and John Dessauer's Book Publishing: What i t Is. What i t Does. 4 1 These standard works include information on 3 9Glennis Zilm, "Early B.C. Books: An Overview of Trade Book Publishing i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1800s with Checklists and Selected Bibliography Related to B r i t i s h Columbia", Master of Arts thesis (Burnaby: Simon Fraser University, Department of Communication, 1981); and Robert Bringhurst, Ocean. Paper. Stone: The Catalogue of an Exhibition of Printed Objects which Chronicle More Than a Century of L i t e r a r y Publishing i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: William Hoffer, 1984). "Pearson H. Gundy, The Spread of Printing: Western Hemisphere. Canada (Amsterdam: Vangendt & Co., 1972) and A. Fauteux, The Introduction of Printing into Canada: A B r i e f History (Montreal: Rolland Paper Company, 1930). 4 1Datus C. Smith, A Guide to Book Publishing (New York & London: R.R. Bowker Co.: 1966); What Happens i n Book Publishing. the nature o f book publishing and the main functions and a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by book publishing companies. Other works, such as Roderick Cave's The Private Press. Ransom's The Private Press and t h e i r Books and The P r i v a t e P r ess ; Handbook to an E x h i b i t i o n Held i n the School o f Librarianship 6-11 Mav 1968 have been used to i l l u s t r a t e the s p e c i f i c ways i n which private presses carry out publishing functions and a c t i v i t i e s . 4 2 This thesis also examines the nature o f records generated by p r i v a t e presses. Information about the types o f records created by private presses has been based mainly on an examination o f a r c h i v a l records o f private presses. 4 3 Information about the records o f larger publishing organizations has been taken p r i m a r i l y from Laura Coles' account o f publishers' records as presented i n her manual, Archival Gold: Managing & Preserving Publishers' Records. 4 4 Chandler B. Grannis, ed., 2d ed. (New York & London: Columbia Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1983); Clive Bingley, Book Publishing Practice (London: Crosby Lockwood & Son Ltd., 1966); and John P. Dessauer, Book Publishing; What i t i s . What i t does. 2d ed. (New York & London: R.R. Bowker Company, 1981). 4 2Roderick Cave, The Private Press. 2d ed. (New York and London: R.R. Bowker Company, 1983); Ransom; and The Private Press. 4 3The following archival fonds have been examined for t h i s t h e s i s : Barbarian Press fonds, Klanak Press fonds and Cobblestone Press fonds. They are a l l located at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library, Special Collections and University Archives Divisions, Vancouver. 4 4Laura M. Coles, Archival Gold: Managing & Preserving Publishers' Records (Vancouver: Canadian Centre for Studies i n 19 An outline of t h i s thesis w i l l follow. Chapter one presents an h i s t o r i c a l outline of the experience of private presses i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Following t h i s , a t h e o r e t i c a l model of the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of publishing organizations i s outlined, describing the functions and a c t i v i t i e s involved i n the publishing process and the nature of records generated by them. This model i s then tested i n connection with private presses for the purpose of determining whether private presses follow the pattern established by larger publishing organizations. Chapter two examines the function of acquiring prospective manuscripts. Chapter three examines the function of producing a f i n i s h e d work. F i n a l l y , chapter four examines the marketing function. A f t e r an examination of each function, implications for the a r c h i v a l appraisal of private press records are highlighted. These implications are based on an examination of private press records and information about how private presses carry out these main functions. Publishing, 1989). 2 0 CHAPTER ONE A SHORT HISTORY OF PRIVATE PRESSES IN B.C. To My Fellow Pioneers, Friends and Acquaintances. I o f f e r you the f i r s t book published on Vancouver Island, and I recommend i t to you. Not for i t s own merit, which I value at no more than what i t has cost me, that i s to say a few days s c r i b b l i n g at spare hours; but on account of i t s object. The c i r c u l a t i o n of truth can be useful; so I i n v i t e each of you to buy a copy, which s h a l l be c a r e f u l l y put down to your account of patriotism, and also to that of the p r i n t e r . 4 5 This chapter provides h i s t o r i c a l context to p r i n t i n g and publishing a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , focuses on the h i s t o r y of private presses. An h i s t o r i c a l perspective of p r i n t i n g and publishing a c t i v i t i e s i s important because i t provides context to functions and a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by private presses. Glennis Zilm, i n her thesis on early B.C. books, wrote that e a r l y p r i n t i n g and publishing a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were l i m i t e d to the areas of newspaper publishing, government publications and p r a c t i c a l materials for the incoming population. These main areas of publishing a c t i v i t i e s as practised i n the early part of B.C.'s history w i l l be examined i n closer d e t a i l . Newspaper publishing had a v i r t u a l monopoly on p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s during B.C.'s early history. Four newspapers began 4 5 A l f r e d Waddington, The Fraser Mines Vindicated, or. The History of Four Months (Victoria: De Garro, 1858), 3. 21 operations i n B.C. i n 1858: Le Courrier de l a Nouvelle-Caledonie. journal p o l i t i q u e et l i t t e r a i r e . oraane des populations francaises dans les possessions anglaises. the V i c t o r i a Gazette. 4 6 the Steamer V i c t o r i a Gazette and the prj.tj.sh C o l o n i s t . While these newspapers were a l l s h o r t - l i v e d , 4 7 other newspapers followed shortly a f t e r : the Vancouver Island's Gazette, the New Westminster Times, the Daily B r i t i s h Colonist. V i c t o r i a Weekly Gazette, the B r i t i s h Columbian. 4 8 the V i c t o r i a Daily Chronicle and the Cariboo Sentinel. 4 9 Newspaper publishing was an important 4 6The V i c t o r i a Gazette (August 4, 1858 - September 2, 1858) was also c i r c u l a t e d i n C a l i f o r n i a . The paper was known as the Weekly V i c t o r i a Gazette from August 14, 1858 to November 26, 1859. 4 7Le Courrier de l a Nouvelle-Caledonie. Journal p o l i t i q u e et l i t t e r a i r e . oraane des populations francaises dans les possessions anglaises operated from September 11, 1858 to October 8, 1858, the V i c t o r i a Gazette from June 25, 1858 to November 26, 1859, the Steamer V i c t o r i a Gazette from August 4, 1858 to August 20, 1859 and the B r i t i s h Colonist from December 11, 1858 to July 28, 1860. 4 8The B r i t i s h Columbian was l a t e r absorbed by the Daily B r i t i s h Colonist and the V i c t o r i a Daily Chronicle i n July 18 69. For more information on the B r i t i s h Columbian, see James G. Reid, "John Robson and the B r i t i s h Columbian, a study of a pioneer i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (Master of Arts thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950) and Ivan E. Antak, "John Robson: B r i t i s h Columbian" (Master of Arts thesis, University of V i c t o r i a , 1972). 4 9The dates of operation of these newspapers were as follows: the Vancouver Island's Gazette (February 5, 1859 - August 29, 1859), the New Westminster Times (September 17, 1859 - February 27, 1861), the Daily B r i t i s h Colonist (July 31, 1860 - June 23, 1866), V i c t o r i a Weekly Gazette (August 4, 1860 - September 29, 1860), the B r i t i s h Columbian (February 13, 1861 - July 25, 1869), the V i c t o r i a Daily Chronicle (October 28, 1862 - June 23, 1866) and the Cariboo Sentinel (June 6, 1865 - October 30, 1875). 22 area of publishing because the presses that were used to produce them were often used to publish the few works of f i c t i o n and prose produced during t h i s early period of B.C.'s h i s t o r y . 5 0 The second main area of publishing during t h i s period was government publications. These publications included notices, announcements, proclamations and other l e g a l documents. One of the e a r l i e s t known publications i n t h i s area was an Order i n Council Constituting the Supreme Court of C i v i l Justice of Vancouver's Island and Rules of Practice and Forms to be Used Therein published i n 1858.51 The work was advertised i n the Gazette newspaper for purchase. 5 2 This fact indicates that, even during t h i s early period, publishers c a r r i e d out a marketing function. 5 3. Other early government documents include Proclamation of His Excellency James Douglas. Governor of Vancouver's Island, and i t s Dependencies; Vice Admiral of the 50Many of the early works of f i c t i o n and prose, such as James Anderson's Sawney's Letters; or. Cariboo Rhymes and Kim B i l i r ' s As i t was i n the F i f t i e s , were published by newspaper publishers. James Anderson, Sawnev's Letters; or. Cariboo Rhymes. From 1864 to 1868 (Barkerville: Cariboo Sentinel Press, 1968); Kim B i l i r , As It Was i n the F i f t i e s ( Victoria: The Province Publishing Co., 1895). 5 1Great B r i t a i n , Privy Council, Order i n Council Constituting the Supreme Court of C i v i l Justice of Vancouver Island and Rules of Practice and Forms to be Used Therein ( V i c t o r i a : V i c t o r i a Gazette, 1858). 5 2Zilm, 14. 5 3As w i l l be demonstrated l a t e r i n t h i s thesis, the marketing function i s one of the main functions c a r r i e d out by publishing organizations. 23 Same, etc.. etc.. etc. published i n 1858 and an Act of Incorporation of the B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a Steam Navigation Company. Limited, incorporated February 18 60 published i n I8 60.54 A t h i r d area of publishing during t h i s period was guides, handbooks and d i r e c t o r i e s . These works served a p r a c t i c a l purpose, r e l a t i n g to such matters as homesteading or resource extraction. One such example i s the Dictionary of Indian Tongues. Containing Most of the Words and Terms Used i n the Tshimpsean. Hydah. & Chinook, with t h e i r Meaning or Equivalent i n the English Language, published i n V i c t o r i a by booksellers Hibben & Carswell i n 1862. Zilm notes the importance of booksellers as publishers i n t h i s e arly period: T.H. Hibben and James Carswell, the publishers, were owners of a bookstore and, l i k e booksellers of the time the world over, they became publishers on the side. The firm went on to publish several other books over the years as well as becoming one of the most important bookstores and businesses i n the c i t y . T.H. Hibben i s a major name i n the early publishing h i s t o r y of B.C. With a succession of partners a f t e r Carswell, Hibben continued to publish books. 5 5 Another example of a publication i n the area of guides, handbooks ^Proclamation of His Excellency James Douglas. Governor of Vancouver's Island, and i t s Dependencies; Vice Admiral of the Same, etc.. etc.. etc. (Victoria: Vancouver Island Gazette, 1858); and an Act of Incorporation of the B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a Steam Navigation Company. Limited, incorporated February 1860 ( V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Colonist, 1860). Zilm, 41-42. 24 and d i r e c t o r i e s was V i c t o r i a ' s f i r s t c i t y d i r e c t o r y published i n I860. 5 6 While the F i r s t V i c t o r i a Directory was a business publication, i t contained unique design elements. 5 7 This fact provides an early i n d i c a t i o n of another main function of publishing organizations to produce the f i n i s h e d work.58 Explaining the unique design quality of early B.C. books, Zilm writes that: ... the p r i n t e r usually made i t [their t i t l e pages] an excuse for showing o f f a l l the v a r i e t i e s of type face he used i n his p r i n t i n g works, from the p l a i n to the ornate. T i t l e pages were sometimes rather l i k e works of a r t . 5 9 There were a number of reasons why there was l i t t l e publishing a c t i v i t y outside of the three main areas mentioned above. F i r s t , there was a limited market and resources available to produce publications i n the new province. Books and other printed materials could be obtained elsewhere, through l o c a l booksellers, such as from H.N. Hibbins and James Carswell i n 5 6 F i r s t V i c t o r i a Directory: Comprising a General Directory of C i t i z e n s , also, an O f f i c i a l L i s t . L i s t of Voters. Postal Arrangements and Notices of Trades and Professions: Preceded bv a Preface and Synopsis of the Commercial Progress of the Colonies of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : Edward Mallandaine & Co., 1860). 5 7Zilm, 25. 5 8Chapter two of t h i s thesis analyses the function of publishing organizations to produce a fi n i s h e d work. 'Ibid, 27. 25 V i c t o r i a , or through mail order from booksellers i n San Francisco. 6 0 Another reason, as A. Fauteux wrote, was that publishing a c t i v i t i e s outside of these main areas did not serve a p o l i t i c a l purpose: P o l i t i c i a n s had l i t t l e need for books or pamphlets, for the newspapers adequately served t h e i r purposes, and l i t e r a t u r e made few demands i n i t s own service, for as yet i t scarcely existed i n [ B r i t i s h Columbia] . 6 1 In view of these reasons, there was l i t t l e demand for an indigenous publishing industry i n the province at t h i s time. There were, however, a few notable exceptions outside of these three main areas of publishing during t h i s early period. One such exception was A l f r e d Waddington's The Fraser Mines Vindicated: or The History of Four Months published i n 1858. The work was a t r e a t i s e on the Fraser River Gold Rush and the Crown Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia generally. The opening passage to the work begins: We hear everyday that V i c t o r i a has caved i n ; that the country has caved i n ; that the gold mines are humbug; that our s o i l i s poor, the climate Siberian; that V i c t o r i a i s no port at a l l , and that the c i t y w i l l have to be removed somewhere else; i n short, that the bubble has burst, and "Advertisements were placed i n l o c a l newspapers for mail order requests from booksellers i n San Francisco. Zilm, 59. 61A. Fauteux, The Introduction of P r i n t i n g into Canada: A B r i e f History (Montreal: Rolland Paper Company, 1930), 159. 26 nothing remains to do, but to go away. Luc k i l y assertions are not f a c t s . " 6 2 The Fraser Mines Vindicated i s considered to be the f i r s t non- government trade book published i n the province. 6 3 The press that p r i n t e d The Fraser Mines Vindicated was one that had been used to p r i n t the French-language news-sheet, Le Courrier de l a Nouvelle- Caledonie. The publication, l i k e the previous Order i n Council, was placed i n the Gazette newspaper for marketing purposes. The advertisement read: Just Published! The Fraser Mines Vindicated; or, The History of Four Months. By A l f r e d Waddington. For sale by W.E. Herre, Yates street, and by a l l the Book stores. 6 4 Another exception outside of the three main areas of publishing were works of f i c t i o n and prose. An example of such a "Waddington, 3. "The author wrote i n his preface to the work that i t was the f i r s t book to be printed on Vancouver Island. However, as H. Pearson Gundy notes, Waddington q u a l i f i e d t h i s statement i n a footnote i n d i c a t i n g h i s statement was written before Chief Justice Cameron had brought out his newly published Order i n Council. In view of t h i s , The Fraser Mines Vindicated was a c t u a l l y the second book to be published on Vancouver Island. H. Pearson Gundy, The Spread of Printing; Western Hemisphere. Canada (Amsterdam: Vangendt & Co., 1972), 72. Zilm, 60. 27 work was James Anderson's Sawney's Letters; or. Cariboo Rhymes.65 The work, a broadsheet of verses, was published by the Cariboo Sentinel newspaper i n B a r k e r v i l l e . 6 6 A passage from one of the verses reads as follows: And tho' they struck the d i r t by name, They ne'er struck pay d i r t i n t h e i r claim. Some ithe r s made a gae fine joke And christen'd t h e i r b i t ground "Dead Broke". 6 7 A number of other l i t e r a r y works were published i n B.C. short l y a f t e r : Reverend George Mason's Lo! the Poor Indian! 1875); E.A. Jenns', Evening to Morning and Other Poems (1890); Kim B i l i r ' s Three Letters of Credit and Other Stories (1894); 6 8 and L i l y A l i c e Lefevre's The Lions' Gate and other Verses (1895). With the exception of Lo! the Poor Indian!, these early works were published by either newspaper publisher or booksellers. 6 9 65James Anderson, Sawney's Letters; or. Cariboo Rhymes. From 1864 to 1868. (Barkerville, Cariboo Sentinel Press, 1868). 66Sawney's Letters was published again i n 1868 and 1869, demonstrating i t s popularity. "Anderson, 1. 6 8Three Letters of Credit and Other Stories i s credited as being the f i r s t book of f i c t i o n i n B.C. See Anne H. Taylor and Glennis Zilm's, "Printing & Publishing," From Hand to Hand: A Gathering of Book Arts i n B r i t i s h Columbia, ed. Anne H. Taylor and Megan J. Nelson (Vancouver: Alcuin Society, 198 6): 9-16. 6 9Bringhurst wrote that: "Alex. Rose of Fort Street, V i c t o r i a , s t y l e d himself book and job printer, though what books he produced I cannot say." Bringhurst, 63. 28 Lefevre's work was apparently the f i r s t l i t e r a r y p u b l i c a t i o n by a woman i n B.C.70 In the 1900S/ p r i n t i n g and publishing a c t i v i t i e s i n the province continued to grow. However, the l i m i t e d l i t e r a r y publishing a c t i v i t y that existed i n B.C. at the time moved eastward as writers came to r e l y on publishing organizations established elsewhere i n Canada. Bringhurst writes: ... the best known B.C. authors of e a r l i e r generations published nothing at a l l or nothing of substance i n t h i s province... This i s true for Roderick Haig-Brown, Malcolm Lowry and Ethel Wilson. 7 1 There were, however, a number of exceptions. C i t i z e n P r i n t i n g & Publishing Company, which produced the Vancouver weekly the C i t i z e n , used i t s presses to produce a number of l i t e r a r y works i n the l a t e 1910s and early 1920s, including Lionel Haweis' Tsoqalem: A Weird Tale of the Cowichan Monster (1918) and L i t t l e Lanterns (1923), 7 2 Bringhurst notes that these works were l i m i t e d 7 0Bringhurst, 19. Reverend George Mason, Lo! the Poor Indian! ( V i c t o r i a : Alex Rose, 1875); E.A. Jenns, Evening to Morning and Other Poems (Victoria: T.N. Hibben & Co., 1890); Kim B i l i r , Three Letters of Credit and Other Stories ( V i c t o r i a : Province Publishing Co., 1894); and L i l y A l i c e Lefevre, The Lions' Gate and other Verses (Victoria: Province Publishing Co., 1895) . 7 1Bringhurst, 13. 7 2 L i o n e l Haweis, Tsoqalem: A Weird Tale of the Cowichan Monster (Vancouver: The C i t i z e n Printing & Publishing Co., 1918; and Lionel Haweis, L i t t l e Lanterns or. As It Might be Said 29 editions and published on fine paper. 7 3 In view of t h i s , these publications were t y p i c a l of those produced by private press works as defined at the outset of th i s thesis. Other examples of p r i n t i n g and publishing organizations engaged i n publishing include Wrigley P r i n t i n g and Clarke & Stuart. Taylor and Zilm write: ...a few printer/publishers kept fine p r i n t i n g a l i v e between the wars, among them two Vancouver commercial firms, Wrigley Printers (Roy Wrigley) and Clarke & Stuart. Both firms produced affordable, well-made books; and both employed some of the f i n e s t typefaces available i n North America at the time. 7 4 The Wrigley P r i n t i n g Co. published a number of works of poetry throughout the mid-1930s, including those written by Wildred J. Reed and A.R. Evans. 7 5 Clarke & Stuart, another. Vancouver p r i n t e r , produced a number of l i t e r a r y works i n the 1930s, including R. H. Chestnut's Rambling Rhymes of the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast (1933) and George H. G r i f f i n ' s Legends of the (Vancouver: The C i t i z e n Printing & Publishing Co., 1923). 7 3Bringhurst, 65. 7 4Taylor & Zilm, 12. 75A.R. Evans, Bittersweet (Vancouver: Roy Wrigley, 1934); Wildred J. Reed, The Empire of the North (Vancouver: Roy Wrigley, 1935); and Idem, Stories of Travel (Vancouver: Roy Wrigley, [1936?]). 30 Evergreen Coast (1934). 7 6 Like e a r l i e r works published i n B.C., these works were published using commercial presses already i n use for other purposes. Other than commercial printers, there were a number of other publishing endeavours made during t h i s early period of B.C.'s publishing h i s t o r y . These endeavours s i g n a l l e d the beginning of indigenous publishing e n t i t i e s i n B.C., independent from commercial p r i n t e r s or newspaper publishers. William Dalton, for example, published a series of poems written by his wife, Annie Dalton, e n t i t l e d The Marriage of Music i n 1910.77 This work was set i n f i n e p r i n t , and printed by a separate Vancouver p r i n t i n g o u t f i t , Evans & Hastings. Another example i s the publication by Vancouver lawyer Charles Bradbury of Ross Lort's A l l Creatures Great and Small i n 1934.78 The work was typeset by hand and included linocut i l l u s t r a t i o n s . It was t y p i c a l of private press works, given that i t had a l i m i t e d run of 200 copies, was f i n e l y - c r a f t e d and was the product of a single person. Bringhurst cr e d i t s Bradbury with 7 6Robert H. Chestnut, Rambling Rhymes of the Sea, the Forest, the Coast, the Missions. Incidents, Folks and Indian Lore pertaining to the B r i t i s h Columbian Coast (Vancouver: Clarke & Stuart Co., 1933); and George H. G r i f f i n , Legends of the Evergreen Coast (Vancouver: Clarke & Stuart Co., 1934). 7 7Bringhurst, 64-65. 7 8Ross Lort, A l l Creatures Great and Small (Vancouver: Charles Bradbury, 1934). 31 operating one of the f i r s t known private presses i n B.C.79 A number of other private presses i n B r i t i s h Columbia began to emerge i n the l a t e 1940s and early 1950s. In 1949, Vancouver designer and p r i n t e r Robert Reid produced a number of works under the imprint of the Private Press of Robert Reid, including John Newlove's Grave S i r s published i n 19 6 2 . 8 0 Reid l a t e r joined e f f o r t s with Vancouver p r i n t designer, Takao Tanabe, to produce a number of other works, bearing Reid and Tanabe's j o i n t imprint. 8 1 Takao Tanabe also ran his own presses: Pica Press i n 1962 and Periwinkle Press from 1962 to 1965. Another collaborator of Reid's was George Kuthan, a fine graphics p r i n t e r . Kuthan produced works under two d i f f e r e n t imprints, The Nevermore Press and Honeysuckle Press. He published a number of l i t e r a r y works, including Kuthan's Menagerie and Aphrodite's Cup.82 Aphrodite's Cup was a l i m i t e d e d i t i o n work cons i s t i n g of two-colour woodcuts. 8 3 7 9Bringhurst, 65. 8 0John Newlove, Grave Sirs (Vancouver: Robert Reid, 1962). 8 1See for example, F.G. Claudet's Gold: Its Properties. Modes of Extraction. Value &c. (Vancouver: Robert Reid and Takao Tanabe, 1958). 8 2George Kuthan, Kuthan's Menagerie (North Vancouver: Nevermore Press, 1960); and Idem, Aphrodite's Cup (Honeysuckle Press, 1964) . 8 3Given that these works were not only published by Kuthan, but also written by him, these presses may more accurately be defined as a s e l f - p u b l i s h i n g enterprise. Self-publishing may be defined as a "the publishing of a work by i t s author; usually 32 In the 1950s, William and A l i c e McConnell's Klanak Press and Jim Rimmer's Pie Tree Press were established. In the 1960s and 1970s, a number of other private presses were established, including Wil Hudson's Grouse Mountain Press i n I960 8 4; Gerald Giampa's Cobblestone Press i n 1964; Robin and S y l v i a Skelton's Pharos Press i n 196785; C r i s p i n and Jan Elsted's Barbarian Press i n 1977; and Peter Quartermain and Meredith Yearsley's Slug Press i n 19 7 9 . 8 6 In the 1990s, the number of private presses continued to grow i n B.C., including Bookworm Press and High Ground Press. 8 7 These new private presses are t y p i c a l of private presses as characterized i n the introduction to t h i s t h e s i s . Writing i n 1993 about High Ground Press, Theresa Kishkan and John Pass, the press' proprietors wrote: includes marketing and fulfilment r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as w e l l . " David M. Brownstone and Irene M. Franck, The Dictionary of Publishing (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1982), 248. 8 4Wil Hudson has issued several li m i t e d e d i t i o n booklets, including Bertoldt Brecht's To Posterity (Vancouver: Grouse Mountain Press, 1964). 8 5Pharos Press was founded i n V i c t o r i a by Robin and S y l v i a Skelton, publishing such works as Skelton's and Herbert Siebner's Musebook (1972); Robert Graves' The Marmoset's Miscellany (1975); and Susan Musgrave and Sean Virgo's Kiskatinaw Songs (1977). 8 6The e a r l i e s t publications of Slug Press date from 1979, including Tom Pickard's In Search of Ingenuousness (1981) and Michael McClure's Interpenetration (1984). 87Bookworm Press' l a t e s t release i s Versus Verse. The S a t i r i c a l Rhvmes of Three Antibodies i n Opposition to P r a c t i c a l l y Everything! (Vancouver: Bookworm Press, 1995). 33 High Ground Press i s a private press operating near Pender Harbour on the Sechelt Peninsula. We publish poetry i n l i m i t e d editions of broadsides, chapbooks and occasional ephemera.88 High Ground Press has published a number of works, including those by bp Nichol, Michael Ondaatje and Howard White. While the hi s t o r y of private presses i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been a r e l a t i v e l y short one, i t i s possible to i d e n t i f y a recurring theme. Throughout t h e i r history i n B.C., priva t e presses have c a r r i e d out the main functions of publishing organizations to acquire manuscripts, to produce f i n i s h e d works, and to market them. The methods employed by private presses to produce works are s t i l l much the same as they were f i r s t p r a c t i s e d i n B.C. One B.C. private press proprietor characterizes private presses as having a "dogged devotion to t r a d i t i o n a l methods." 8 9 Having provided a short history of private presses i n B.C., a more d e t a i l e d outline of the three private presses used as examples i n t h i s thesis w i l l follow. Barbarian Press was founded i n Boughton Monchelsea, Kent, England by Jan and C r i s p i n E l s t e d i n June 1977 . 9 0 In August 1978, the Elsteds moved to Steelhead, 8 8Theresa Kishkan and John Pass, "High Ground Press," Amphora 91 (Spring 1993): 3-4. 8 9Martin Jensen to Mr. Cokling, [n.d.], f. 5-32, Cobblestone Press fonds. 9 0The following h i s t o r i c a l descriptions of the three private presses used i n t h i s thesis are based i n part on information 34 near Mission, B.C., where they have continued t h e i r publishing a c t i v i t i e s . Dona Sturmanis writes of Barbarian Press: The Elsteds consider Barbarian to be a private l i t e r a r y press, that i s , one which focuses p r i m a r i l y on publishing manuscripts of t h e i r choice. They did commercial or "job" p r i n t i n g for several years to help the press pay for i t s e l f , but w i l l now only do i t for long-time c l i e n t s . 9 1 The publishing agenda of Barbarian Press f a l l s into three main categories: poetry of a l l periods, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t r a n s l a t i o n ; Medieval and Renaissance texts (usually Greek and Roman c l a s s i c s ) ; and i l l u s t r a t e d editions of texts, mainly, but not exc l u s i v e l y c l a s s i c s . 9 2 Publications of Barbarian Press include Sam Hamill's t r a n s l a t i o n of Chi Lu's Wen Fu: The Art of Writing (1986) and Paula Jones and Rachel Norton's Believed to Cause Night: Poems (1991) , 9 3 Barbarian Press' l a t e s t work i s a series obtained from the Publishers' Papers Project database on Canadian publishers' records at the Canadian Centre for Studies i n Publishing, Simon Fraser University. The Publishers' Papers Project, c a r r i e d out by the Canadian Centre for Studies i n Publishing, i s a nation-wide search for information about the hi s t o r y of book publishing. A database has been maintained, i d e n t i f y i n g not only the business records of Canadian publishers but also re l a t e d documents such as correspondence between authors and publishers and the o f f i c i a l records of publishers' associations. 91Dona Sturmanis, "Masters of th e i r own Type," The Vancouver Step, v o l . 2, no. 2 (1991): 14. 9 2 C r i s p i n E l s t e d to Elizabeth Lieberman, 16 July 1978, f. 1- 1, Barbarian Press fonds. "Paula Jones and Rachel Norton, Believed to Cause Night: Poems (Mission: Barbarian Press, 1991); and Chi Lu, Wen Fu: The 35 of commissioned woodcuts expected for publication i n 1995.94 The press i s s t i l l i n operation. Klanak Press was founded i n Vancouver by William and A l i c e McConnell i n 1957. The primary intention of the Press was to provide a non-commercial outlet for Canadian writers to publish poetry and prose i n li m i t e d editions with high q u a l i t y design and typography. In a l e t t e r to a prospective writer, McConnell writes: Klanak was born simply. Both A l i c e and I have written (and published) for years. I have always been interested i n p r i n t i n g , typography and design. In 1957 when i t [Klanak Press] started, book design was non-existent. At f i r s t we thought of doing our own p r i n t i n g but r e a l i z e d t h i s would demand far more time than a p r a c t i s i n g lawyer and a housewife could afford. Too, with such designers as Bob Reid, Tak Tanabe and Ben Lim i n Vancouver (as they were then) i t would take years to approach t h e i r standards, i f the same were possible. The name i s a S a l i s h word meaning a gathering together for good conversation, either i n t r i b a l or i n t e r - t r i b a l . 9 5 The decision not to assume design and p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s was made from the s t a r t . Vancouver a r t i s t Takao Tanabe designed most early Klanak volumes, although Charles Morriss of the V i c t o r i a Art of Writing (Mission: Barbarian Press, 1986). 9 4The work, e n t i t l e d Engrain: Contemporary Wood Engraving i n North America, i s a c o l l e c t i o n of 125 wood engravings by a r t i s t s from a l l over North America, who are contributing an exclusive work or woodblock to the project. The work has yet to be completed. Sturmanis, 3. 9 5William McConnell to Jan Gould, 15 August 1969, f. 2-2, Klanak Press fonds. 36 p r i n t i n g company Morriss Printing also designed a number. Morriss P r i n t i n g c a r r i e d out most of the p r i n t i n g for Klanak Press. Although Klanak Press did not o f f i c i a l l y close operations u n t i l 1990, most of the poetry, short s t o r i e s and h i s t o r i c a l r e p r i n t s were published between the late 1950s and early 1970s. Publications of Klanak Press include Klanak Islands: Eight Short Stories (1959) and Laurence Soule's The Eye of the Cedar (1970) . 9 6 Cobblestone Press was established i n 1964 by Vancouver typographer and letterpress job printer, Gerald Giampa. S p e c i a l i z i n g i n fine p r i n t i n g , Cobblestone Press printed books for various other publishers, including Fireweed Press and the A l c u i n Society, as well as a number of i t s own, under the imprint of Cobblestone Press. Giampa writes that: Cobblestone Press i s a Private press and has been such since 1964. We published a deluxe edition of *Image-nations 13 & 14' by Robin Blaser. I have spent almost two years p r i n t i n g a book for the Alcuin Society, a fine book club, *In Praise of Scribes' . 9 7 Cobblestone Press sought to establish i t s e l f as a publisher 9 6Henry K r e s i e l , et a l . , Klanak Islands: Eight Short Stories (Vancouver: Klanak Press, 1959); and Laurence Soule, The Eye of the Cedar (Vancouver: Klanak Press, 1970). "Gerald Giampa to Aliquanda Press, [n.d.], f. 5-2, Cobblestone Press fonds. 37 of f i n e editions of mainly Canadian prose and verse. The press sought assistance from a variety of presses and s o c i e t i e s to pursue t h i s goal, but met with limited success, producing mainly broadsides of poetry rather than larger projects such as books. 9 8 In addition to Robin Blaser's Imaae-Nations 13 & 14 (1975), another p u b l i c a t i o n of Cobblestone Press i s Ezra Pound's The Letter of Siaismundo Malatesta to Giovanni de Medici (1977)." A typographical journal, The Fount. also developed from the Press. Cobblestone Press ceased operations i n 1982, although i t s commercial a c t i v i t i e s have continued under a new company name, Northland Letterpress. Writing i n 1991, Sturmanis states that Giampa and partner Mary Jane Ireland run three re l a t e d companies: The commercial or xjob' work i s done at The Northland Letterpress. Formerly Cobblestone Press, Northland i s Canada's largest hot metal foundry. The Lanston Type Company holds the trademarks for the 8,000 h i s t o r i c a l typefaces of the Lanston Monotype Library. The t h i r d i s Giampa Textware Corporation, which creates d i g i t i z e d t r a d i t i o n a l fonts for the desktop publishing market. 1 0 0 9 8A memo to f i l e i n the Cobblestone Press fonds indicates that the press sought assistance from a number of publishing organizations, including, the Averhahn Society, Imprint Society, Godine Press, G r o l i e r Society, Black Sparrow Press and the F o l i o Society. Memo to f i l e , [n.d.], f. 5-32, Cobblestone Press fonds. "Robin Blaser, Image-nations 13 & 14 (Vancouver: Cobblestone Press, 1975); and Ezra Pound, The Letter of Siaismundo Malatesta to Giovanni de Medici (Vancouver: Cobblestone Press Society, 1977). Sturmanis, 3. 38 The three private presses used as examples i n t h i s thesis are t y p i c a l of private presses i n that they have a l l produced l i m i t e d - e d i t i o n , f i n e l y - c r a f t e d works. Two of the three presses, namely Barbarian Press and Cobblestone Press have also engaged i n commercial p r i n t work. Barbarian Press started out doing more commercial p r i n t work, but has since moved away from t h i s to focus on publishing. In the case of Cobblestone Press, the reverse i s true: the press moved from publishing a few l i t e r a r y works to pursue commercial p r i n t work. Klanak Press, on the other hand, did not undertake any commercial p r i n t work and contracted out i t s design and p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Of the three, only Barbarian Press i s s t i l l a c t i v e l y publishing. As mentioned e a r l i e r , Klanak Press stopped most of i t s publishing a c t i v i t i e s i n the early 1970s, while Cobblestone Press closed down i t s publishing operations i n the early 1980s. 39 CHAPTER TWO ACQUIRING PROSPECTIVE MANUSCRIPTS To perform an e d i t o r i a l service alone, whether at r i s k or for a fee, i s not to publish; to purchase p r i n t i n g and binding services alone i s not to publish; to promote sales i s not, i n i t s e l f , to publish; to d i s t r i b u t e another's printed product i s not, i n i t s e l f , to publish. Book publishing i s a l l of these things together, an integrated process, whether carried out by a single firm or by several. It i s the whole i n t e l l e c t u a l and business procedure of s e l e c t i n g and arranging to make a book and of promoting i t s ultimate use. 1 0 1 The process of publishing consists of a number of functions and a c t i v i t i e s , each contributing to the o v e r a l l process. While the format of the following three chapters assumes a l i n e a r approach, i n practice, the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of publishing organizations do not usually follow a l i n e a r sequence. Rather, they tend to overlap as circumstance dictates. The following three chapters examine the main functions of publishing organizations: to acquire prospective manuscripts, to produce a f i n i s h e d work and to market the work. 1 0 2 Throughout 1 0 1Chandler B. Grannis, What Happens i n Book Publishing. 2nd ed. (New York & London: Columbia University Press, 1983), 1. 1 0 2These three main functions have been i d e n t i f i e d from a v a r i e t y of sources, including Grannis, Bingley and Smith. The administrative or housekeeping function i s not examined i n t h i s thesis as i t i s common to a l l organizations. The focus of t h i s thesis i s on the substantive or operational functions of publishing organizations. 40 these chapters, the p a r t i c u l a r way i n which private presses carry out these functions and the nature of records generated by them w i l l be examined. This present chapter focuses on the function of acquiring prospective manuscripts. Chapter three examines the function of producing a finished work, and chapter four examines the function of marketing the work. The function of publishing organizations to acquire prospective manuscripts involves developing ideas about what to publish, s o l i c i t i n g prospective manuscripts, considering t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n and negotiating the terms of publi c a t i o n . These main a c t i v i t i e s associated with the function of acquiring a manuscript are examined separately below. Publishing organizations usually s t a r t by developing an idea about what to pu b l i s h . 1 0 3 This a c t i v i t y i s usually considered part of e d i t o r i a l development. Farrar writes that: Ideas for books are often generated within the publishing house i t s e l f . It i s said of one highly modern firm that a r o l l i n g wall-screen i s kept with such ideas g r a p h i c a l l y represented. If an author enters with an idea for a book, on say, "Games My Grandfather Played," the proper s c r o l l i s pu l l e d down to display the fact that the edi t o r himself had that i n s p i r a t i o n long ago. The practice of developing ideas i n e d i t o r i a l departments, then finding writers to do them on assignment, has, I should think, doubled since the 1920s. Some of our most successful books are developed i n t h i s manner, and i t i s doubtful i f many successful publishers' 1 0 3See especially, chapter four, " E d i t o r i a l Development: Ideas into Books," Smith, 37-50. 41 l i s t s could exist without them.104 In the case of private presses, ideas are developed i n a s i m i l a r manner, a l b e i t i n a less formalized way. The nature of priv a t e presses to be highly personal make t h i s the case. Records generated from the a c t i v i t y of developing ideas include research documents, such as surveys or analyses, e d i t o r i a l p o l i c i e s and report and draft proposals of book ideas. 1 0 5 In the case of private presses, the a c t i v i t y of developing book ideas generally does not generate any documentary evidence. Given the personal nature of private presses, ideas are generally discussed informally or o r a l l y and are not documented. Once an idea has been developed, the next a c t i v i t y of publishing organizations i s to s o l i c i t manuscripts from prospective w r i t e r s . 1 0 6 The a c t i v i t y of s o l i c i t i n g writers involves informing prospective writers that a publishing organization i s seeking material for publication. There are a number of ways i n which publishing organizations make i t known that they are interested i n receiving manuscripts for 1 0 4John Farrar, "Securing and Selecting the Manuscript," What Happens i n Book Publishing. 32. 1 0 5As mentioned i n the introduction to t h i s thesis, records generated by publishing organizations have been i d e n t i f i e d by Laura Coles i n her manual on publishers' records, A r c h i v a l Gold. 1 0 6 I n the case of some publishing organizations, manuscripts are developed in-house. Writers are hired to write a manuscript pertaining to a p a r t i c u l a r subject as s p e c i f i e d by the publisher. Smith, 37. 42 pu b l i c a t i o n . One way i n which they do t h i s i s to target s p e c i f i c writers. In such cases, publishing organizations may look to a p a r t i c u l a r writer with an established reputation i n the desired f i e l d . For example, i f a publishing organization was looking to publish a t h r i l l e r , i t might contact writer Anne Rice, whose reputation i s already established i n the f i e l d . 1 0 7 In other cases, publishing organizations may be interested i n simply publishing anything that a p a r t i c u l a r writer i s working on, r e l y i n g on the reputation of the writer alone. In these cases, publishing organizations are usually successful when they have already established an ongoing relationship with the author. 1 0 8 E s p e c i a l l y i n the case of larger publishing organizations, a l i t e r a r y agent i s an important player i n fostering relationships between writers 1 0 7Anne Rice, The Vampire Lestat (New York: Knopf, 1985) ; Idem, The Witching Hour: A Novel (New York: Knopf, 1990); and Idem, Taltos: Tales of the Mayfair Witches (New York: Knopf, 1994) . 1 0 8Such has been i n the case of Margaret Atwood and Pierre Berton with publisher McClelland & Stewart, and Ethel Wilson with Macmillan Company. See for example, Margaret Atwood, Surfacing (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1994); Idem. The Robber Bride (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1993); Idem. Wilderness Tips (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1991); and Idem, The Handmaid's Tale (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1985). See also Pierre Berton, The Death of Tecumseh (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1994); Idem, C i t y of Gold (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1992); and Idem, The A r c t i c G r a i l : the Quest for the Northwest Passage and the North Pole. 1818-1911 (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1988). See also Ethel Wilson, Mrs. Goliohtv and Other Stories (Toronto: Macmillan, 1961); Idem, The Innocent T r a v e l l e r (Toronto: Macmillan, 1960); and Idem, The Equations of Love (Toronto: Macmillan, 1952). 43 and p u b l i s h e r s . 1 0 9 Publishing organizations not only a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t manuscripts from prospective writers, they also receive u n s o l i c i t e d manuscripts. In th e i r book on se l f - p u b l i s h i n g , Friesen Printers note that the supply of manuscripts outnumber publishing organizations by a wide margin. 1 1 0 For example, Toronto publisher McClelland & Stewart accepts roughly 10 books out of the approximately 70,000 u n s o l i c i t e d manuscripts i t receives per year. 1 1 1 Private presses, i n contrast, tend to r e l y on t h e i r personal judgement when deciding which writers to s o l i c i t works from. While t h i s i s generally true, i t i s not always the case. Private presses sometimes canvass generally to the writing community. For example, i n response to an advertisement placed i n a l i t e r a r y journal, one prospective writer inquired: In a recent issue of Writer's Quarterly. I noticed Barbarian Press was s o l i c i t i n g manuscripts. Enclosed would you f i n d a l i t e r a r y cv, reviews and a recent broadsheet. 1 0 9A l i t e r a r y agent may be defined as "an i n d i v i d u a l or organization who acts on behalf of an author on publishing and rights matters for a commission or percentage of the proceeds from the author's work". Nat G. Bodian, Bodian's Publishing Desk Reference (Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1988), 206. 1 1 0 P u b l i s h i n a Your Own Book: A Guide for the F i r s t Time Publisher (Altona, Manitoba: Friesen Printers, 1982), 11. 1 1 1 Jane Widerman, "A Homey Alternative to the Rejection S l i p : Do-it-Yourself Publishers Crack the Best-Seller L i s t s , " Maclean's 94, no. 21 (May 25, 1981): 42. 44 The poems i n question for the new volume would number a f u l l fledged book (64 pages). I am open to any size, format, though, you might suggest. Many of the new materials have seen pub l i c a t i o n i n a wide range of small magazines and u n i v e r s i t y p e r i o d i c a l s . Kindly inform me of any p a r t i c u l a r philosophy or s p e c i f i c a t i o n s your press may hold. 1 1 2 Not unlike larger publishing organizations, private presses receive a great many u n s o l i c i t e d manuscripts. 1 1 3 The o v e r a l l volume of incoming manuscripts i s , however, less i n the case of private presses. The p a r t i c u l a r nature of private presses, s p e c i a l i z i n g i n limited-edition, often l i t e r a r y works, usually a t t r a c t s a p a r t i c u l a r kind of writer. An academic s p e c i a l i z i n g i n biomechanics, for example, i s not l i k e l y to turn to a private press for pu b l i c a t i o n purposes. There are, however, exceptions. In response to an u n s o l i c i t e d manuscript, one B.C. p r i v a t e press proprietor wrote: Thank you for your recent l e t t e r i n which you o f f e r us a chapter synopsis of your book. Barbarian Press i s a private press devoted to l i m i t e d editions of poetry and belles l e t t r e s . and we r a r e l y accept u n s o l i c i t e d manuscripts. Moreover, Science F i c t i o n and Fantasy are not among our p r i n c i p a l interests as publishers. I don't know where to suggest you turn with your book, but an hour i n the l i b r a r y at Mission with a copy of Writer's 1 1 2Paul Cameron Brown to C r i s p i n Elsted, 1 June 1981, f. 2- l a , Barbarian Press fonds. 1 1 3See f i l e s 2-la and 2-lb which contain many u n s o l i c i t e d manuscripts, Barbarian Press fonds. 45 Market might provide some useful places." 1 1 4 In summary, private presses carry out the a c t i v i t y of s o l i c i t i n g a manuscript i n a d i f f e r e n t way than other larger publishing organizations. Private presses are less aggressive about s o l i c i t i n g writers, given that they produce a l i m i t e d number of works and r e l y heavily on t h e i r own i n t u i t i o n and judgement. Generally, private presses pursue projects they wish to undertake for personal reasons, rather than those intended for commercial success. Records that document the a c t i v i t y of s o l i c i t i n g manuscripts consist p r i m a r i l y of correspondence with writers about p u b l i c a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Advertisements may be another type of record generated from the a c t i v i t y of s o l i c i t i n g manuscripts. As mentioned at the outset, the a c t i v i t y of s o l i c i t i n g manuscripts i s often c a r r i e d out informally. The same i s true for private presses. Private presses often r e l y on personal contacts, word of mouth and informal l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s to s o l i c i t manuscripts. In view of t h i s , l i t t l e documentary evidence i s generated from t h i s a c t i v i t y , i n comparison with other a c t i v i t i e s discussed i n t h i s chapter. A t h i r d a c t i v i t y associated with the function of acquiring prospective manuscripts i s considering whether to publish a 1 1 4 C r i s p i n E l s t e d to Tammy Smith, 26 November 1986, f. 2-lb, Barbarian Press fonds. 46 p a r t i c u l a r manuscript. This a c t i v i t y involves reviewing a manuscript to make a judgement on i t s s u i t a b i l i t y for p u b l i c a t i o n . There are a number of factors that influence a publisher's decision to publish a prospective manuscript, including the mandate of the press, the book's s u i t a b i l i t y , p o t e n t i a l market and timeliness, the author's popularity, and f i n a n c i a l and l o g i s t i c a l considerations. 1 1 5 Farrar wrote: The easiest thing i n publishing, as a rule, i s to r e j e c t a book. But the hard work and the rewards, i n s p i r i t u a l as well as f i s c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , are i n acceptance. 1 1 6 In the case of private presses, the choice of works to be published i s no easier. Works are selected for p u b l i c a t i o n mainly for personal reasons but other factors, such as t h e i r l i t e r a r y value and p o t e n t i a l for creative expression i n p r i n t are also considered. Financial p r o f i t a b i l i t y i s of less concern. In the end, the decision whether to publish a p a r t i c u l a r work comes down to a matter of personal taste. In response to a prospective writer, one private press proprietor writes: Thank you for sending along the Orban poems. I was interested to read them, though again I'm a f r a i d we have to 1 1 5See section e n t i t l e d , "How Manuscripts are Judged," i n Farrar, 40-44. 116 Farrar, 41, 47 say No; they simply aren't to our taste. 1 Records generated from the a c t i v i t y of considering whether to publish a p a r t i c u l a r work include draft notes, i n t e r n a l memoranda, appraisal and/or market analysis reports and costing records. In the case of private presses, fewer record types are generated. 1 1 8 Other examples include r e j e c t i o n l e t t e r s , o r i g i n a l manuscripts ( i f not returned to author) and edited manuscripts ( i f not returned to author) which might provide some evidence of reasons for acceptance or re j e c t i o n for p u b l i c a t i o n . 1 1 9 More often, private presses do not naturally create any documentary evidence as a r e s u l t of the a c t i v i t y of considering whether to publish a p a r t i c u l a r work. A fourth a c t i v i t y associated with the function of acquiring the manuscript i s negotiating the terms of p u b l i c a t i o n . This a c t i v i t y involves communicating with prospective writers to 1 1 7 C r i s p i n E l s t e d to Jascha Kessler, 16 September 1986, f. 2- lb, Barbarian Press fonds. The work of Hungarian poet Otto Orban has since been published. Otto Orban's Blood of the Walsungs: Selected Poems, ed. George Szirtes (Newcastle: Bloodaxe Books, 1993). A previous c o l l e c t i o n was published as The Catullan Games (Vermont: Marlbor, 1988). 1 1 8 I n the case of the archival fonds of the three private presses examined i n t h i s thesis, there i s very l i t t l e documentary evidence of the a c t i v i t y of considering whether to publish a p a r t i c u l a r work. What l i t t l e evidence exists i s contained i n l e t t e r s to prospective writers indicating whether the press has decided to publish a p a r t i c u l a r work. 9Coles, 35-36. 48 determine the nature and rights associated with the p u b l i c a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r work. It may involve some form of consultation, such as meeting with a writer's lawyer or the signing of a contract. 1 2 0 Increasingly, negotiations have become more le g a l i z e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of manuscripts submitted to larger publishing operations. Movie rights, i n t e l l e c t u a l property r i g h t s and e l e c t r o n i c publishing options may a l l be brought up i n negotiations. 1 2 1 Private presses, i n contrast, are less formalized as f a r as negotiation i s concerned. In practice, there i s l i t t l e to negotiate. Works are generally published on terms set by a private press. 1 2 2 Records generated as a r e s u l t of negotiation, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of larger publishing organizations, t y p i c a l l y include contracts and other l e g a l documents, such as royalty and advance documents. 1 2 3 Because formal agreements are r a r e l y entered into i n 1 2 0A contract i s defined as "an agreement between two or more par t i e s , the purpose of which i s to establish the conditions to which they agree and to define each party's rights and duties as regards to these conditions." Sara B. Sluss, "Interpreting and Applying the A c c e p t a b i l i t y Clause i n Book Publishing Contract," Book Research Quarterly 6, no. 2: 29. 1 2 1Lazar Sarna, Authors and Publishers. Agreements and Legal Aspects of Publishing. 2d ed. (Toronto and Vancouver: Butterworths, 1987). 1 2 2A review of the archival fonds of the three private presses used as examples i n t h i s thesis provides no evidence of formal contracts with writers over the publication of a p a r t i c u l a r work. 1 2 3 I n the case of November House Press fonds, a medium-sized publishing company, f i l e s 1-17 to 1-20 are e n t i r e l y devoted to 49 the case of private presses, there are fewer records generated by privat e presses from the negotiation a c t i v i t y . Details respecting p u b l i c a t i o n are worked out informally, the writer and the press a r r i v i n g at mutually agreed upon terms. Like the other a c t i v i t i e s described previously, t h i s a c t i v i t y i s l a r g e l y o r a l , thereby generating l i t t l e documentation. Whatever documentation that i s generated from t h i s a c t i v i t y tends to be correspondence which may address negotiation issues. A closer examination of the records created by the three privat e presses used as examples i n t h i s thesis w i l l follow. The records are examined with a view to i d e n t i f y i n g those records which show evidence of the function of acquiring prospective manuscripts. In the case of the Barbarian Press fonds, the types of records generated from the function of acquiring the manuscript include correspondence f i l e s . The "General Correspondence, 1978-1990" series contains general business and s o c i a l correspondence r e l a t i n g to the a c q u i s i t i o n of manuscripts. In some cases, prospective writers enquire about p u b l i c a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; i n other cases, the proprietor of the press may r e f e r to a l t e r n a t i v e projects or e d i t o r i a l revisions required p r i o r to p u b l i c a t i o n . In addition, two other f i l e s , namely contracts. These f i l e s consist mainly of standardized forms, "Contractual Agreements," with s p e c i f i c a t i o n s regarding r o y a l t i e s s p e c i f i e d . F i l e 1-11, for example, contains an agreement reached between the Press and Kenneth Dyba pertaining to the p u b l i c a t i o n of The Long (& Glorious) Weekend... (Vancouver: November House, 1975) . 50 "Manuscript Submissions, 1981-84" and "Manuscripts Submissions, 1985-89" show evidence of t h i s function. These f i l e s consist p r i m a r i l y of manuscript material, but contain l i t t l e correspondence i n d i c a t i n g how the material came to the press. 1 2 4 In the case of Klanak Press fonds, the entire fonds i s described i n i t s inventory as consisting "of business and personal correspondence regarding manuscripts submitted to or published by the press." 1 2 5 The Klanak Press fonds i s arranged alphab e t i c a l l y , mainly by the name of correspondent. In F i l e "Correspondence - G", for example, much of the correspondence i s from prospective writers enquiring about publication p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 1 2 6 One prospective writer wrote: I understand that Klanak Press i s active and about to produce another publication. Are you looking at material from people other than those who usually contribute? I would l i k e to submit a short story - or send two or three - i n the hope that you would l i k e one - my f i c t i o n has been used by CBC and by the Canadian Forum though I r e a l i z e t h i s i s no comment on the work I am doing right now.127 The Klanak Press fonds does not include separate f i l e s or series 1 2 4 F i l e s 2-la and 2-lb, Barbarian Press fonds. 1 2 5Stephanie Bolster, "Inventory of Klanak Press Papers, 1958-1990." (Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library, Special Collections Division), 1. 1 2 6 F i l e 2-2, Klanak Press fonds. 1 2 7Jan Gould to William McConnell, 10 July 1969, f. 2-2, Klanak Press fonds. 51 pertaining to the s o l i c i t a t i o n or a c q u i s i t i o n of manuscripts. Records that document t h i s function are generally interspersed i n these general correspondence f i l e s . In the case of Cobblestone Press fonds, the fonds contains very few documents r e f l e c t i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n function. There i s however, a Manuscript series, which includes f i l e s pertaining to p a r t i c u l a r authors, such as George Bowering, John Crosse, Leonard A. Haffenden, James Harvey and Gladys Hindmarch. However, these f i l e s contain manuscript material only. Not unlike manuscript f i l e s i n the Klanak Press fonds, th i s series contains manuscript material only with no related correspondence. In view of t h i s , there i s l i t t l e of way of determining how these manuscripts came to the press. 1 2 8 This chapter has shown that the way i n which a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d out by publishing organizations i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t s the nature of the records generated by them. In the case of larger publishing organizations, a c t i v i t i e s associated with the function of acquiring the manuscript can be involved and formalized. In the case of private presses, the process tends to be ad hoc and personal. As a result, the special way i n which private presses carry out t h i s function i s r e f l e c t e d i n the nature of the record generated from i t . In the case of private presses, the volume of records generated from the function of acquiring a manuscript i s F i l e s 1-1 to 1-13, Cobblestone Press fonds. 52 far less than for other larger publishing organizations. A functional analysis of private presses i s useful to the a r c h i v i s t because i t supplies information about records created by them. With t h i s information, an a r c h i v i s t i s better able to determine the r e l a t i v e value of a p a r t i c u l a r private press fonds i n terms of appraisal for ac q u i s i t i o n . For example, an a r c h i v a l fonds of a private press w i l l more l i k e l y be acquired by an a r c h i v a l repository i f i t consists of records showing evidence of the function of acquiring a manuscript. Information about i t s functions and a c t i v i t i e s i s also important i n appraisal for s e l e c t i o n . Once acquired, the a r c h i v i s t w i l l be able to determine which records to keep, selecting those records which provide evidence of t h i s function. 1 2 9 1 2 9 I n practice, private press records are often acquired by manuscript l i b r a r i e s , not archival r e p o s i t o r i e s . The main reason why manuscript l i b r a r i e s acquire private press records i s because they complement ex i s t i n g holdings, such as works published by private presses. With respect to appraisal for se l e c t i o n , manuscript l i b r a r i e s generally do not undertake appraisal for s e l e c t i o n once records have been acquired. Interview with George Brandak, 3 March 1995. 53 CHAPTER THREE PRODUCING A FINISHED WORK Within a publishing house the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for creating the book as a physical e n t i t y l i e s with the production department. Very few publishers own t h e i r own p r i n t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , so t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y normally involves dealing with commercial typesetters, printers and binders. A production manager and his or her s t a f f are therefore involved i n the following basic steps as the physical book i s brought into being: planning, cost estimating, scheduling, design, selection of supplies, purchase of paper and cover materials, and the supervision of typesetting, p r i n t i n g and binding. 1 3 0 A second function of publishing organizations i s producing a fi n i s h e d work. 1 3 1 A manuscript must be edited, p h y s i c a l l y arranged on pages and printed. The function of producing a f i n i s h e d work involves copy-editing, designing the work and p r i n t i n g the work. This chapter w i l l examine these a c t i v i t i e s associated with producing a f i n i s h e d work, focusing on the p a r t i c u l a r way i n which they are ca r r i e d out by private presses. The three a c t i v i t i e s associated with the function of producing a f i n i s h e d work are examined separately below. 1 3 0Dessauer, 72. 1 3 1For the purposes of th i s thesis, the term 'work' has been used to denote any finished printed product. It encompasses a broad spectrum of products, including, but not l i m i t e d to 'books', 'broadsheets', ' l i t e r a r y pamphlets' and any other printed material. 54 Datus C. Smith writes that copy-editing involves e s t a b l i s h i n g l e g i b i l i t y , consistency, grammar, c l a r i t y and s t y l e , f a c t u a l accuracy, l e g a l i t y and propriety, and production d e t a i l s . 1 3 2 As a r e s u l t of these various aspects of the work involved, the e d i t o r i a l process can be long and involved, i n order to ensure that the most suitable version of the text w i l l be published. A manuscript may go through many versions before i t i s ever f i n a l l y i n an acceptable format. 1 3 3 The f i r s t a c t i v i t y involved i n producing the work i s copy e d i t i n g . 1 3 4 William Bridgwater describes the copy-editing process as follows: Take the manuscript of a book. Set i t f i r m l y upon a desk or a table so that i t cannot s l i p or s l i d e . Pick up a p e n c i l . Start reading through the manuscript, and as you read correct typographical errors and note passages that may confuse a reader and usages that may cause trouble for a p r i n t e r . You are doing copy e d i t i n g . 1 3 5 In the case of private presses, copy-editing focuses p r i m a r i l y on production d e t a i l s , although i t not unusual for private presses to be involved i n editing for c l a r i t y and s t y l e . 1 3 2Smith, 53. 1 3 3See Chapter 5, "Editing the manuscript," i n Smith, 51-63. 1 3 4 , ,The process of making such changes i s c a l l e d copy- editing, with the amount of editing varying with the book, the house, and the acquiring editor's i n c l i n a t i o n . A l i g h t copyediting may involve l i t t l e more than a quick check for errors i n punctuation and grammar, while depth ed i t i n g often involves major organizational and rewriting changes." Brownstone, 78. 'Smith, 54. 55 Records documenting the a c t i v i t y of copy-editing consist mainly of edited manuscripts, although correspondence with writers regarding e d i t o r i a l decisions may also be created. 1 3 6 Records created by private presses showing evidence of the a c t i v i t y of copy-editing are much the same, although the e d i t o r i a l information contained on these basic record types may be d i f f e r e n t . Once a work has been thoroughly reviewed and revised, i t i s ready for the next stage of production. Designing a work involves determining how i t w i l l p h y s i c a l l y take shape. It consists of choosing various design elements, such as the type of paper to be used, the method of p r i n t i n g , the p r i n t type, and how i l l u s t r a t i o n s , i f any, w i l l be incorporated into the f i n a l product. Ernst Reichl writes: i t i s the designer i n whose hands l i e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for converting raw material of manuscript, type, paper, ink, cloth, photography, and drawing into what we c a l l a book, i n such a way that the end product ca r r i e s an idea into as many minds as possible, as impressively as possible, and for as long a time as p o s s i b l e . 1 3 7 Design i s influenced by many considerations, including cost, l e g i b i l i t y , physical attractiveness and s u i t a b i l i t y to the work's 1 3 6Coles, 35. 1 3 7Ernst Reichl, "Designing the Physical Book," What Happens i n Book Publishing. 83. 56 p a r t i c u l a r purpose. 1 3 8 A l l these factors depend on the nature of the work being published. Reichl writes: Given two manuscripts of the same length, one an economic thesis of predictably li m i t e d c i r c u l a t i o n , the other a spy story with a large sales potential, the designer w i l l want to handle them somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y , aside from a l l considerations of l e g i b i l i t y and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . 1 3 9 In view of t h i s , the nature of the work probably has the greatest single impact on design decisions. Publishing organizations s t r i v e to achieve a balance between the commercial and aesthetic imperative of design. Richard Bingham writes: Canadian book design i s most commonly functional, modest, inoffensive, conservative, and untainted by ambition; a r e f l e c t i o n , says poet and typographer/designer Robert Bringhurst, of Canadian publishers' 'deep Presbyterian fear of the sensuality and asceticism of fine design.' Perhaps; c e r t a i n l y i t i s not because Canadian designers are mediocre, but more l i k e l y for three interconnected reasons: better design i s costly; most marketing departments have untested (and perhaps untestable) perceptions about how books should look; and f i n a l decisions i n matters of design do not rest with designers. 1 4 0 1 3 8 R e i c h l , 82. 1 3 9 I b i d , 84. 1 4 0Richard Bingham, "Publishers and Design - The F i n a l F r o n t i e r , " Amphora 89 (Autumn 1992): 22. 57 As mentioned i n the introduction to t h i s thesis, the ultimate goal of private presses i s not commercial success. In view of t h i s , private presses do not necessarily aim to s t r i k e a balance between the competing forces of commercial and aesthetic imperatives i n the same way as other larger publishing organizations. Private presses focus instead on the aesthetic value of the work, producing a work large l y for personal reasons. Two design decisions involved i n producing a f i n i s h e d work include type and paper choice. F i r s t , factors a f f e c t i n g type choice include the s t y l e or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , size, width, and l e g i b i l i t y of the typeface. 1 4 1 In the case of larger publishing organizations, the choice of type i s t y p i c a l l y based on p r a c t i c a l concerns, such as l e g i b i l i t y . 1 4 2 Type choice i s generally given a lower p r i o r i t y , given the many other decisions required i n producing a f i n i s h e d work. 1 4 3 The main consideration for larger publishing organizations i s that whatever type i s chosen, i t be clear, l e g i b l e and readable. In the case of private presses, type choice i s a subjective decision, influenced not only by the nature of the text, but also by personal taste and preferences. Private presses t y p i c a l l y choose s p e c i a l i t y or h i s t o r i c a l 141Raymond Roberts, Typographic Design (London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1966), xx. 1 4 2 I b i d , 75. 1 4 3Interview with Maureen Nicholson, 6 July 1995. 58 typefaces to r e f l e c t the nature of the text being published. 1 4 4 Christopher Andreae writes that: "Many private presses s e t t l e for a formula, for a type face or a paper they can master and then use over and over again." 1 4 5 For both private presses and other larger publishing organizations, a main consideration i s that the type choice r e f l e c t the text being presented. In t h i s respect, priva t e presses and other larger publishing organizations make the same considerations, only a r r i v i n g at d i f f e r e n t decisions based on the nature of the product being produced. Paper choice i s another consideration i n publishing design. In the case of larger publishing organizations, the choice of paper comes down to a matter of s u i t a b i l i t y . 1 4 6 For example, the combination of weight and bulk i s a major consideration i n the choice of stock as i t w i l l a f f e c t the appearance of the type, as well as the o v e r a l l appearance of the book. In the case of private presses, paper choice i s also a major consideration. The main d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature of the private press i n t h i s respect i s that private presses often use specialty or handmade papers, often with unusual texture and colour. 1 4 7 Like type choice, the choice of an appropriate paper centres on the nature of work 1 4 4Roberts, 33. 1 4 5Christopher Andreae, "Small Press Publishers: A Craft Raised to an A r t , " Amphora 81 (September 1990): 21. 1 4 6Bingley, 49. 1 4 7The Private Press. 20. 59 being produced. In summary, design i s influenced by a number of factors, the most important being the nature of the work to be produced. In the case of larger publishing organizations, decisions respecting design tend to be more influenced by factors of cost and p r a c t i c a l concerns of l e g i b i l i t y and d u r a b i l i t y , whereas i n the case of private presses, the decisions tend to be more spe c i a l i z e d , i d i o s y n c r a t i c and subjective. In view of some of the factors influencing design decisions, both larger publishing organizations and private presses gather information and purchase necessary hardware and equipment as part of the design a c t i v i t y . This t y p i c a l l y involves corresponding with suppliers, requesting catalogues and price l i s t s , and then purchasing the desired supplies. Once the necessary materials have been secured, prototypes and layouts are created, experimenting with the various combinations of materials to produce the desired e f f e c t . Records generated from the a c t i v i t y of designing the work consist of design and layout information, design notes, and supplier information, such as contracts, invoices and sales brochures. In addition, larger publishing organizations may also create contracts with designers, p o l i c y documents and procedural records or notes. 1 4 8 In the case of private presses, s i m i l a r Coles, 37-38. 60 documents are created, such as notes, sketches and sample designs. In addition, correspondence with suppliers, catalogues, p r i c e l i s t s and related f i n a n c i a l documents, such as invoices, are also created. The t h i r d a c t i v i t y associated with producing the work i s p r i n t i n g and binding ( i f applicable) of the work. 1 4 9 P r i n t i n g i s the process of producing finished sheets, while binding i s the process of converting finished sheets and cover materials into a p u b l i c a t i o n format. In the case of larger publishing organizations, p r i n t i n g and binding are increasingly automated, using computers to manipulate and p r i n t texts. As Dessauer writes: Some publishers have discovered that e f f e c t i v e advance coordination with such authors enables them to employ the machine-readable output of the author's word processor (e.g. a floppy disk) i n t h e i r own editing-composition or word processing systems, thereby allowing them to copy ed i t or typeset the manuscript e l e c t r o n i c a l l y without ever s e t t i n g p e n c i l to paper or p r i n t i n g out proofs. 1 5 0 This i s e s p e c i a l l y the case with the increasing use of computer software designed for desk-top publishing. 1 5 1 In most instances, 1 4 9Given the special nature of private press works, binding may not be applicable. As mentioned previously, private presses publish such works as broadsides and pamphlets which do not require binding. 1 5 0Dessauer, 79-80. 1 5 1While computers have increasingly been used i n the production a c t i v i t y of producing a finished work, computers have 61 however, larger publishing houses contract out the p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t y to outside p r i n t e r s . Even a publishing house which does not control i t s own production f a c i l i t i e s must prepare budgets to determine the cost of paper, binding materials, presswork, and manufacturing costs. In the case of private presses, p r i n t i n g i s t y p i c a l l y done in-house and by hand, using a t r a d i t i o n a l process c a l l e d l e t t e r p r e s s . 1 5 2 In letterpress printing, the type i s locked into chases or s t e e l frames and mounted on the bed of the press. Each l e t t e r i s placed i n d i v i d u a l l y i n l i n e and each l i n e i s then spaced. Lines of type are assembled i n long trays known as "galleys" from which proofs can be pulled. In view of i t s mechanical nature, the p r i n t i n g process as practised by private presses can be extremely time-consuming. Records generated from the p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t y consist of such production records as manuscripts, galleys, pages and production notes. In the case of larger publishing organizations, records may include contracts with printers and production reports. Like not yet replaced the t r a d i t i o n a l method of copy-editing i n smaller publishing houses (marking hard-copy versions of manuscripts), despite Dessauer's claim to the contrary. Interview with Maureen Nicholson, 4 July 1995. 1 5 2Letterpress i s also known as the r e l i e f p r i n t i n g method, " i n which p r i n t i n g area are raised above non-printing areas and the impression i s made d i r e c t l y from the inked raised surface to the substrate or paper." William Forbes, "Print Industry," The Canadian Encyclopedia, v o l . 3 (Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, 1988), 1755. 62 larger publishing organizations, records generated by private presses from the p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t y consist of layouts, make- readies, sketches, galleys, and other printed m a t e r i a l . 1 5 3 The records of the three private presses used as examples i n t h i s thesis w i l l now be examined. In p a r t i c u l a r , records which show evidence of the function of producing the work w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . F i r s t , i n the case of the Barbarian Press fonds, a "Books" series refers to the major publishing projects undertaken by the press. 1 5 4 Each has i t s own Project f i l e , including d e t a i l e d planning and design documents, manuscripts, layouts and make- readies. 1 5 5 In the case of the Klanak Press fonds, there i s l i t t l e i n the way of production records. As mentioned i n chapter one, the press contracted with other designers and pr i n t e r s , such as Takao Tanabe and the Morriss Printing company, to design and p r i n t t h e i r works. Records which show evidence of the production function consist of correspondence with design and p r i n t i n g contractors concerning the nature of the work involved i n producing these works. For example, Klanak Press proprietor McConnell writes the following instructions to the Morriss P r i n t i n g Company: 1 5 3See, for example, Subgroup 2, Project F i l e s series, Barbarian Press fonds. 1 5 4 S e r i e s 3, "Books", Barbarian Press fonds. 155Norman Amor, "Barbarian Press Papers Inventory", 6. 63 Sorry to be so long i n getter [sic] back to you on the F.R. Scott translations but I had to have a meeting with Frank, then agree with a few changes i n the translations and f i n a l l y getting copyright clearance and royalty agreement with respect to the St. Denys Garneau owners, Editions Fides, 1949. I think a p r i n t i n g of 750 would be best. Notwithstanding the additional cost we would l i k e the re p r i n t i n g to be as f a i t h f u l as possible to the o r i g i n a l , which i s widely considered to be the most beautiful book ever done i n Canada. To save time, I am enclosing POEMS OF FRENCH CANADA with cross-references to most of the text changes. Both Frank and ourselves would l i k e to proof before f i n a l p r i n t i n g . 1 5 6 Other than these few references found i n l e t t e r s contained i n general correspondence f i l e s , other records that document the production function include some design sketches and annotated manuscripts which show evidence of the design a c t i v i t y . 1 5 7 In the case of Cobblestone Press, many of the records generated by the press document the i t s involvement i n commercial p r i n t work, such as the production of b i r t h announcements, business cards, i n v i t a t i o n s and miscellaneous s t a t i o n e r y . 1 5 8 This fact r e f l e c t s the nature of the organization as p r i m a r i l y a commercial p r i n t e r . While the bulk of production records generated by Cobblestone Press r e f l e c t t h i s commercial aspect, 1 5 6William McConnell, Klanak Press to Dick Morriss, 12 A p r i l 1978, f. 3-2, Klanak Press fonds. 1 5 7See e s p e c i a l l y Subgroup 2, Project F i l e s series, Barbarian Press fonds. 1 5 8See e s p e c i a l l y Printwork Order and Printed Material series, Cobblestone Press fonds. 64 the fonds does contain some records r e f l e c t i n g i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n the production of l i t e r a r y works. Part of a series e n t i t l e d "Printed M aterial: Printwork" refers to works produced by the press written by Robin Blaser, Ezra Pound, John Pass, Howard Evan Rafferty and R. Maria R i l k e . 1 5 9 An examination of the records generated from the function of producing the work provides insight into the nature of private presses generally. In the case of Barbarian Press, the Barbarian Press fonds contains considerable records documenting the production function. In contrast, there are few production records i n the Klanak Press fonds i n view of the press' decision not to undertake design and p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . In the case of Cobblestone Press, documentary evidence generated from the function of producing the work i s overwhelmed i n a mass of records documenting the press' a c t i v i t i e s pertaining to commercial p r i n t work. This i s the d i r e c t r e s u l t of the nature of Cobblestone Press to have been primarily involved i n commercial p r i n t work. An a r c h i v i s t appraising private press records i s better able to determine the r e l a t i v e value of the records of private presses knowing something about how the press functioned. For example, the fact that the Klanak Press fonds contains few production records does not necessarily mean that the fonds i s less F i l e s 3-7 to 3-12, Cobblestone Press. 65 valuable; t h i s fact merely r e f l e c t s the manner i n which the press c a r r i e d out t h i s p a r t i c u l a r function. Information, such as t h i s , makes i t easier for the a r c h i v i s t to decide whether to acquire a p a r t i c u l a r body of records or determine which records, among many, should be maintained for long-term preservation. 1 6 0 1 6 0As mentioned e a r l i e r , manuscript l i b r a r i e s do not generally undertake appraisal for selection. Given the r e l a t i v e l y small s i z e of a private press fonds, manuscript curators are more l i k e l y to preserve the fonds i n i t s entirety, rather than to s e l e c t i v e l y r e t a i n certain records, once the fonds has been acquired. Another important factor influencing a manuscript curator not to undertake appraisal for selection i s the cost involved i n acquiring a private press fonds. Private press records are t y p i c a l l y acquired by manuscript l i b r a r i e s by purchase. 66 CHAPTER FOUR MARKETING A PUBLISHED WORK No matter how c a r e f u l l y selected, meticulously edited, or a t t r a c t i v e l y produced a book may be i t w i l l not achieve i t s purpose nor w i l l a publishing house achieve i t s goal unless the book reaches i t s intended customer. What the publisher does i n marketing and d i s t r i b u t i n g the product i s as v i t a l as the e d i t o r i a l and production e f f o r t s . 1 6 1 The t h i r d function of publishing organizations i s to market a published work. 1 6 2 For the purposes of t h i s thesis, marketing may be defined as a l l a c t i v i t i e s related to d i r e c t i n g the sale and movement of books and publications from publisher to user, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y (as i n mail order) or through agents such as book s e l l e r s , jobbers, professors, cooperative sales accounts, etc. A l l publishing organizations carry out a marketing function for t h e i r works to be known by t h e i r intended audience. The marketing function t y p i c a l l y involves d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t marketing a c t i v i t i e s . These main a c t i v i t i e s are examined separately below. In the case of larger publishing organizations, d i r e c t marketing a c t i v i t i e s include producing catalogues and advertising. Direct marketing techniques are e s s e n t i a l to Dessauer, 101. Bodian's Publishing Desk Reference. 221. 67 publishing organizations to inform prospective purchasers about a p a r t i c u l a r work. These a c t i v i t i e s are used p r i m a r i l y to stimulate i n t e r e s t and generate sales. Unlike private presses, which t y p i c a l l y produce lim i t e d e d ition works, larger publishing organizations d i r e c t t h e i r marketing e f f o r t s to i n t e r e s t the widest possible audience. Larger publishing organizations t y p i c a l l y produce seasonal catalogues, announcing the publication of recent works. In other cases, publishers may advertise a recent release by placing advertisements i n newspapers or magazines. Franklin Spier writes: At f i r s t glance, i t would seem that publishers advertise books i n order to s e l l them to book buyers. Yet that i s an o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . In the broadest sense, publishers advertise books i n order to create readers. 1 6 3 Other d i r e c t marketing a c t i v i t i e s employed by larger publishing organizations can be more aggressive i n nature, using techniques such as posters, exhibits, book release parties, book signings and other such p u b l i c i t y stunts. For example, the advertising for Douglas Coupland's Shampoo Planet included the production of posters and two book covers (one with a male and the other with a female) . 1 6 4 1 6 3 F r a n k l i n Spier, "Book Advertising, " What Happens i n Book Publishing. 154. 1 6 4Douglas Coupland, Shampoo Planet (New York: Pocket Books, 1992) . 68 Private presses also carry out d i r e c t marketing a c t i v i t i e s , although, given the nature of private presses and t h e i r products, the way i n which these a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d out d i f f e r s from other larger publishing organizations. Because private presses often r e l y on an established c l i e n t e l e and produce a l i m i t e d number of works, d i r e c t marketing of a work i s less of a concern. Advertising, for example, serves not to create a market but rather to inform regular c l i e n t s that a new work has recently been completed and available for purchase. Private presses t y p i c a l l y do t h i s by producing announcement cards. 1 6 5 Announcement cards are often d i s t r i b u t e d through mailing l i s t s to regular c l i e n t s . While t h i s i s generally the case, private presses may also place advertisements i n l i t e r a r y journals where they are l i k e l y to f i n d interested c l i e n t s . 1 6 6 Records generated from d i r e c t marketing a c t i v i t i e s consist mainly of the advertisements themselves, but also may include correspondence with newspapers or magazines pertaining to the advertisement. Other records include campaign records, notes and dr a f t marketing plans. Records created by private presses, however, tend to r e f l e c t the personal nature of the marketing 165Announcement cards for Rona Murray's The Enchanted Adder and Florence McNeil's A S i l e n t Green Sky are contained i n f i l e 1- 2 "Advertising", Klanak Press fonds. 1 6 6 F i l e 1-2 of the Klanak Press fonds contains a copy of an advertisement i n a l i t e r a r y journal e n t i t l e d the fiddlehead for Klanak Press' The Quality of Halves and Klanak Islands. 69 approach used. In view of t h i s , records include correspondence, mailing l i s t s and announcement cards. 1 6 7 The second main a c t i v i t y associated with the function of marketing the work i s i n d i r e c t marketing a c t i v i t i e s . Such a c t i v i t i e s t y p i c a l l y include sending out complimentary copies of t h e i r works to book reviewers, issuing press releases, or preparing background information about the press or writer. These a c t i v i t i e s tend to be less overt or aggressive i n nature. Indirect approaches are useful ways for publishing organizations to disseminate information about themselves to the media and to the general public which may then generate i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r work. For example, the reviewing of a work can help to enhance the appreciation of the work and i n so doing encourage p o t e n t i a l purchasers. Unlike larger publishing organizations, private presses, given t h e i r nature to produce limited-edition works, do not have to be as aggressive i n marketing. Indirect marketing a c t i v i t i e s include seeking d i r e c t interaction with c l i e n t s , such as through attendance at conferences or book f a i r s . 1 6 8 Records generated from i n d i r e c t marketing a c t i v i t i e s consist mainly of brochures, order cards, press releases, catalogues of 1 6 7See e s p e c i a l l y the Ephemera & Promotion series, Barbarian Press fonds. 1 6 8Louise Thomas, "Book P u b l i c i t y , " Chandler B. Grannis, ed. What Happens i n Book Publishing. 182-197. 70 publications and other promotional pamphlets. In the case of private presses, records tend to consist of conference materials and book reviews. 1 6 9 Having i d e n t i f i e d some of the a c t i v i t i e s associated with the function of marketing the work, a b r i e f examination of the a r c h i v a l fonds of the three private presses used i n t h i s thesis w i l l follow. In the case of Barbarian Press, two series e n t i t l e d "Early Correspondence, 1976-78," and "General Correspondence, 1979-1990," include f i l e s pertaining to the marketing f u n c t i o n . 1 7 0 Included i n the former series i s a f i l e pertaining to the press' involvement with C i r c l e Craft Co-operative. 1 7 1 Other a c t i v i t i e s documented i n t h i s series include promotional e f f o r t s at the Vancouver Antiquarian Book F a i r . 1 7 2 In the case of Klanak Press fonds, separate f i l e s have been created which contain unique documents r e f l e c t i n g the marketing function. A f i l e e n t i t l e d "Clippings and Reviews" contains a r t i c l e s , reviews and other written material concerning the press and the works produced by 1 6 9See e s p e c i a l l y Public Notices, Drawings & Photographs, Barbarian Press fonds. This series includes public notices of the press, reviews, catalogue entries, newspaper writeups and records of the Elsted's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n courses, p r i n t i n g demonstrations and other public events. 1 7 0 S e r i e s 1 and 2, Barbarian Press fonds. 1 7 1 F i l e 1-5, Barbarian Press fonds. F i l e 3-4, Barbarian Press fonds. 71 the press. 1 7 3 /Another f i l e i n the Klanak Press fonds e n t i t l e d "Advertising", contains copies of advertisements placed i n journals, announcements cards and press releases on c e r t a i n works. 1 7 4 Included i n t h i s f i l e i s a release prepared for pub l i c a t i o n i n the Community Arts Council News and Calendar, a monthly p u b l i c a t i o n describing arts and cr a f t s events throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. The release i s t y p i c a l of the kind of marketing a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by a private press: Vancouver's Klanak Press has just released i t s fourth book. With design and typography by the well-known Vancouver a r t i s t Takao Tanabe, the volume goes on sale September 1st i n bookstores across Canada... The three previous books published by Klanak Press have won awards i n typography shows i n Canada and Europe and have been displayed i n many book f e s t i v a l s both i n Eastern Canada and abroad. They are now d i s t r i b u t e d by Peter Martin Books of 896 Queen Street West, Toronto 3, Canada. The r e t a i l p rice of the l a t e s t book i s $2.50. 1 7 5 Another f i l e i n the Klanak Press fonds which documents the spe c i a l way i n which private presses t y p i c a l l y carry out the function of marketing the work i s r e f l e c t e d i n a f i l e e n t i t l e d "Mailing L i s t " . 1 7 6 The f i l e contains copies of l i s t s of pu b l i c and un i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i e s , membership l i s t s , l i s t s of previous 1 7 3 F i l e 1-5, Klanak Press fonds. 1 7 4 F i l e 1-21, Klanak Press fonds. 1 7 5Release for the Community Arts Council News and Calendar (1960), f. 1-2, Klanak Press fonds. 1 7 6 F i l e 3-1, Klanak Press fonds. 72 purchasers and l i s t s from other publishing companies and r e f l e c t s the press' emphasis on di r e c t mailing to market the work. In the case of Cobblestone Press, very few records r e f l e c t the marketing function. 1 7 7 This fact i s not only r e f l e c t i v e of the way i n which private presses carry out the marketing function, but also the special case of Cobblestone Press to have produced few published works. An exception i s a f i l e e n t i t l e d "Patronage (in search o f ) " containing correspondence with other publishing organizations seeking general assistance and possible j o i n t ventures. 1 7 8 Other f i l e s i n the Subject series, such as "Book Dealers" (f. 6-6 to 6-7), "Events" (f. 6-13) also contain material r e l a t i n g to the marketing function. Correspondence and other printed material pertaining to a number of public events, such as the Burnaby Art Gallery Show and the I t a l i a n C u l t u r a l Centre Show, are also contained i n the Cobblestone Press fonds. 1 7 9 An examination of the three private presses used as examples i n t h i s thesis shows that, i n comparison with the function of producing the work, very few records of the marketing function are created. The marketing function i s li m i t e d i n the three 1 7 7 F i l e s e n t i t l e d "Advertising" and "Clippings" i n the Cobblestone Press fonds do not refer to any promotional a c t i v i t y but rather to the administrative function of the press to purchase equipment and supplies. F i l e s 3-18 and 3-19, Cobblestone Press fonds. 1 7 8 F i l e 5-32, Cobblestone Press fonds. 1 7 9See f i l e s 6-12 and 6-13a, Cobblestone Press fonds. 73 private presses examined i n t h i s thesis compared with the other functions examined previously. As discussed i n the introduction to t h i s thesis, the nature of private presses to have a b u i l t - i n market, precludes the need to pursue major e f f o r t s i n marketing the work. Information about how private presses carry out the marketing function can a s s i s t a r c h i v i s t s i n a r r i v i n g at appraisal decisions. Knowing that private presses do not pursue an active marketing program i s useful to an a r c h i v i s t appraising the records of a private press. With t h i s information, an a r c h i v i s t w i l l understand why private press fonds contain few records documenting the marketing function. It i s because of the way i n which private presses carry out t h i s function, rather than that the fonds i s incomplete, and therefore less valuable. Understanding the p a r t i c u l a r way i n which private presses carry out the marketing function provides context to the nature of records generated by private presses, making i t easier for an a r c h i v i s t to appraise them. 74 C O N C L U S I O N A l l a r c h i v i s t s assume that the minimum record to be kept i s the record of organization and functioning and that beyond t h i s minimum values become more debatable. By,a judicious s e l e c t i o n of various groups and series an a r c h i v i s t can capture i n a r e l a t i v e l y small body of records a l l s i g n i f i c a n t facts on how the agency was created, how i t developed, how i t i s organized, what functions i t performs and what are the consequences of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . 1 8 0 This thesis has shown how functional analysis can be used to provide context to records created by private presses. While the class of organization used i n t h i s thesis, namely private presses, i s d i f f e r e n t from e a r l i e r studies by Blinkhorn, MacLean, Fournier and Humphries, i t s results are s i m i l a r . A l l of these studies provide information about how an organization or person functions, information that i s useful to a r c h i v i s t s for appraisal purposes. As Terry Eastwood writes: "Understanding the properties of archives and the processes forming them i s important i n the exercise of archival a p p r a i s a l . " 1 8 1 While the main focus of t h i s thesis has been on i d e n t i f y i n g the main functions c a r r i e d out by private presses and the nature of records generated by them, i t s use i n archival appraisal has 180T.R. Schellenberg, Modern Archives: P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956, Midway Reprint, 1975); 140. 1 8 1Terry Eastwood, "How Goes i t with Appraisal," A r c h i v a r i a 36: 112. 75 been highlighted. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of record types i n connection with the functions and a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by private presses i s useful to a r c h i v i s t s because i t helps to determine the r e l a t i v e value of records acquired by ar c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s or manuscript l i b r a r i e s . Information which provides context to records can a s s i s t a r c h i v i s t s not only i n determining which records to acquire, but also which records, among many, should be retained for long-term preservation. This thesis has also shown that the nature of the records generated by an organization depends i n large measure on the way i n which a p a r t i c u l a r function or a c t i v i t y has been c a r r i e d out. In the case of private presses, certain records are simply not generated, i n view of the fact that a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y does not, by i t s nature, naturally generate documentary evidence. Such i s the case for private presses i n considering whether to publish a manuscript. In other instances, the nature of the record generated may be d i f f e r e n t from other s i m i l a r organizations depending on how a p a r t i c u l a r function or a c t i v i t y i s c a r r i e d out. Such i s the case for private presses i n carrying out the production function i n which private presses produce s p e c i a l i z e d products. As outlined i n chapter three of t h i s thesis, records generated from the production function vary considerably from other larger publishing organizations given that private presses produce li m i t e d - e d i t i o n , fine-crafted products. Understanding the spe c i a l nature of how a p a r t i c u l a r type of organization or person 76 operates i s he l p f u l i n understanding the records created by that body, and as a res u l t , helpful to the a r c h i v i s t for a r c h i v a l appraisal purposes. This thesis has also examined three archival fonds of private presses currently held at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library, Special Collections and University Archives D i v i s i o n . A number of observations can be made about the nature of records generated by private presses on the basis of an examination of these records and knowledge gained from a functional analysis of private presses. 1 8 2 The f i r s t set of observations relates to private presses generally, i n contrast with other larger publishing organizations. The other set of observations r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to the three private presses used as examples i n t h i s thesis. F i r s t , an examination of the archival fonds of the three private presses used i n thi s thesis has shown that, i n comparison with other larger publishing organizations, the functions and a c t i v i t i e s of publishing organizations are c a r r i e d out d i f f e r e n t l y by private presses than by other larger publishing organizations. 1 8 2The author recognizes that archival fonds of a p a r t i c u l a r records-creating body does not always accurately r e f l e c t the nature of the organization. An archival a c q u i s i t i o n does not always include a l l records of an organization. For example, c e r t a i n records may be kept back i n view of operational requirements. Further, by the time archival records are made availab l e to the general public, certain records may have been c u l l e d through appraisal for selection. 77 In the case of the function of acquiring a manuscript, there are, i n comparison with other records created, fewer records generated by private presses from t h i s function. This fact r e f l e c t s the nature of private presses to i n i t i a t e projects, rather than to s o l i c i t works to be published. As outlined i n the introduction to t h i s thesis, private presses publish a l i m i t e d number of works, and decisions about whether to publish a p a r t i c u l a r work are highly subjective and personal. In view of t h i s , the vast majority of records r e f l e c t i n g t h i s function tend to be correspondence with writers who have submitted an u n s o l i c i t e d text. In contrast with the function of acquiring the manuscript, private presses place a much greater emphasis on the function of producing the work. In view of t h i s fact, i t should not be s u r p r i s i n g that the vast majority of records created by private presses are production records. With respect to the marketing function, private presses pursue t h i s function the l e a s t of the three main publishing functions i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . This fact can be attributed to the fact that, as outlined i n the introduction to t h i s thesis, private presses have a b u i l t - i n market, and do not have to r e l y on marketing i n the way that general trade publishers tend to. In view of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p r i v a t e presses, i t should not be surprising that few marketing records exist for private presses, i n comparison with other records types created by them. A f i n a l observation on private presses generally i s that because the main focus of 78 private presses i s on a single function, namely producing the work, the bulk of records created by private presses tend to be production records. In contrast, larger publishing organizations tend to be more involved i n the other two functions of publishing organizations: namely, to acquire prospective manuscripts and to market a published work. A number of other observations based on an examination of t h e i r a r c h i v a l records can be made about the way i n which the three private presses used as examples i n t h i s thesis carry out the three main publishing functions. F i r s t , the Barbarian Press fonds appears to have the most complete set of records r e f l e c t i n g the three main publishing functions. This observation can be a t t r i b u t e d to the fact that Barbarian Press i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n a l l three of the publishing functions described i n t h i s t h e s i s . In contrast, the Klanak Press fonds i s noticeably lacking i n records generated from one of the main functions outlined i n t h i s thesis, namely producing the work. The lack of production records i n the Klanak Press fonds can be attributed to the fact that design and production a c t i v i t i e s were contracted outside the press. In the case of Cobblestone Press, there are comparatively few records i n i t s archival fonds which document the three main publishing functions as examined i n t h i s thesis. This can be a t t r i b u t e d to the fact that the press engaged i n r e l a t i v e l y fewer publishing projects than did the other two presses examined i n t h i s thesis, and focused instead on i t s commercial p r i n t work. 79 A r r i v i n g at observations such as these can be useful i n a r c h i v a l appraisal because they help the a r c h i v i s t to determine the r e l a t i v e worth of records, by placing them i n the context of t h e i r creation. But not only i s such analysis useful to a r c h i v i s t s for appraisal purposes. Information gained from such an analysis can a s s i s t a r c h i v i s t s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c q u i s i t i o n agreements with p o t e n t i a l publishing organizations to determine the kinds of records that are valuable to the archives. This information can also a s s i s t i n records management by determining the worth of records currently i n use by organizations based on the functions and a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by the organization. Having provided a number of observations a r i s i n g from a functional analysis of private presses, a number of areas for future study w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . While t h i s thesis has examined private presses, other private organizations, such as theatre, f i l m and art organizations, should also be examined using a functional analysis approach. While there w i l l be s i m i l a r i t i e s among them, other studies of private organizations w i l l be of use to r e p o s i t o r i e s that acquire such records. More work as well should be done i n the area of the appropriate use of functional analysis i n archival appraisal. Documentation s t r a t e g i s t s , such as Helen Samuels, argue that a r c h i v i s t s should encourage organizations to document a l l a c t i v i t i e s regardless of whether the a c t i v i t y n a t u r a l l y generates record material. Further discussion of t h i s question should be 80 made e s p e c i a l l y given that documentation strategy i s gaining momentum i n the U.S. Another area of study that should be pursued i s the app l i c a t i o n of archival theory, namely functional analysis, by non-archival r e p o s i t o r i e s . As mentioned at the outset of t h i s thesis, records generated by private presses are t y p i c a l l y acquired by manuscript l i b r a r i e s , and not archival i n s t i t u t i o n s . Further analysis i s required to examine the implications of applying a r c h i v a l theory to material acquired by a manuscript l i b r a r y . This thesis has shown that there are uses for a functional analysis beyond those previously being applied. It has demonstrated how a functional analysis can be applied to a private organization. In doing so, i t has shown the usefulness of such an approach to another class of organization. By providing context for records creation, functional analysis serves a useful t o o l for a r c h i v i s t s i n archival appraisal. 81 Appendix: Record descriptions taken from Simon Fraser University's Publishers' Papers Database 1 8 3 Barbarian Press fonds. (1977-1990) The Barbarian Press fonds (1977-1990) consists of approximately 6 feet of records consisting of printed ephemera and job p r i n t i n g , such as wedding and b i r t h announcements, i n v i t a t i o n s , g i f t c e r t i f i c a t e s , Christmas cards, menus, wine labels, bookplates, letterheads, bookmarks, calendars, pamphlets, broadsheets, and prospecti. Some correspondence and f i n a n c i a l records e x i s t as well as drawings, designs, and numbered page proofs of books published by Barbarian Press. The Barbarian Press fonds i s arranged into four main sub- groups: Business and Personal Correspondence; Project F i l e s ; General P r i n t i n g (ephemera and early p r i n t i n g products of the Press); and Financial Records. The Project f i l e s consist of e d i t o r i a l records, sales records, and production records, including layouts, make-readies, camera-readies and proofs. Klanak Press fonds (1958-1990) The Klanak Press fonds (1958-1990) consists of approximately 23 feet of records, consisting of business and personal correspondence regarding manuscripts submitted to or published by the Press, and include carbon copies of many outgoing l e t t e r s . The fonds also contains press releases, invoices, order forms, mailing l i s t s , tax forms, book reviews, and poetry manuscripts. The Klanak Press fonds consists mainly of incoming correspondence f i l e s interspersed with some sales records and some manuscript material. 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