UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A functional analysis of the private press as a type of publisher Carre, Gary 1995

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A FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRIVATE PRESS AS A TYPE OF PUBLISHER by GARY CARRE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M.A., C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED  1987  I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School o f L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and I n f o r m a t i o n  We a c c e p t  t h i s t h e s i s as  to the required  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H A u g u s t 1995 © Gary Carre,  1995  COLUMBIA  Studies)  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  in  partial  University  of  British Columbia,  for  this  department publication  thesis  thesis  or of  reference  by this  for  his thesis  and  study.  scholarly  or for  her  of  -  DE-6 (2/88)  AjgNr- ^ P 0 S >  gain  the  requirements  I agree  I further  purposes  financial  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  of  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  permission.  Department  fulfilment  be  It not  that  the  Library  permission  granted  is  by  understood be  for  allowed  the  an  advanced  shall for  make  extensive  head  that without  it  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s examines how, i n p r o v i d i n g context to r e c o r d s c r e a t i o n , f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s can be used i n the a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l of p r i v a t e press records. T h i s t h e s i s draws on l i t e r a t u r e from a v a r i e t y of sources, i n c l u d i n g the h i s t o r y of p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s , the nature o f p r i v a t e presses and a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l t h e o r y . I t a l s o i n v o l v e s the examination of p r i v a t e p r e s s r e c o r d s h e l d at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s and U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s D i v i s i o n . Three p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia are used as examples i n t h i s t h e s i s . They are B a r b a r i a n Press, Klanak Press and Cobblestone Press. In chapter one, the h i s t o r i c a l experience of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s o u t l i n e d . Following t h i s , i n c h a p t e r s two through four, the f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s of p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s are examined, with s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to the p a r t i c u l a r way i n which they are c a r r i e d out by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s . The nature of r e c o r d s c r e a t e d by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s are a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . In chapter two, the author examines the f u n c t i o n of p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s to acquire p r o s p e c t i v e m a n u s c r i p t s . Chapter t h r e e d e s c r i b e s the f u n c t i o n of p u b l i s h i n g organizations to p h y s i c a l l y produce a f i n i s h e d work. Chapter four examines the marketing f u n c t i o n of p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Throughout these chapters, the author examines the a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s of the three p r i v a t e presses used as examples i n t h i s t h e s i s , h i g h l i g h t i n g a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l i m p l i c a t i o n s drawn from an a n a l y s i s of f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s . In h i s c o n c l u s i o n , the author r e a f f i r m s the r o l e of f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n a r c h i v a l work.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgements  iv  Introduction  1  Chapter One:  A Short H i s t o r y o f P r i v a t e Presses i n B.C. . . 20  Chapter Two:  A c q u i r i n g A p p r o p r i a t e Manuscripts  39  Chapter Three: Producing a F i n i s h e d Work  53  Chapter Four:  66  Marketing a P u b l i s h e d Work  Conclusion:  74  Appendix:  81  Bibliography  83  C h e c k l i s t o f Books Used as Examples  92  iii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o thank G l o r i a Chao and Maureen N i c h o l s o n f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , T e r r y Eastwood, f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e , and my f r i e n d and c o l l e a g u e , Laura M i l l a r , f o r h e r support and encouragement.  iv  I INTRODUCTION  In the a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e as a whole, t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y of f u n c t i o n a l analyses, even though t h e r e c o n t i n u e s to be an i n t e r e s t i n the concepts of f u n c t i o n and provenance, and a r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of i n c o r p o r a t i n g these concepts i n t o records management and a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e s . 1  The  aim  of t h i s t h e s i s i s to demonstrate how  a n a l y s i s can be organization,  a p p l i e d to a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s o f  functional private  namely p r i v a t e p r e s s e s . By p r o v i d i n g  a  functional  a n a l y s i s o f t h r e e p r i v a t e presses i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s t h e s i s d i f f e r s from e a r l i e r s t u d i e s t h a t have a p p l i e d a n a l y s i s to o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s premise o f a l l these s t u d i e s , same: an a n a l y s i s of the  and persons.  2  functional  However, the main  i n c l u d i n g the p r e s e n t one,  functions  and  i s the  a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out  by  organizations  and persons p r o v i d e s a context f o r r e c o r d s  creation,  i t i s t h i s context that i s u s e f u l i n a r c h i v a l work.  and  Donna Humphries, "Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s : A F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s " (Master of A r c h i v a l Studies t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1991), 9. a  I b i d ; Anne M. Maclean, "The A c q u i s i t i o n of L i t e r a r y Papers i n Canada" (Master of A r c h i v a l Studies t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987); V i c t o r i a B l i n k h o r n , "The Records of V i s u a l A r t i s t s : A p p r a i s i n g f o r A c q u i s i t i o n and S e l e c t i o n " (Master o f A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1988); Frances F o u r n i e r , " F a c u l t y Papers: A p p r a i s a l f o r A c q u i s i t i o n and S e l e c t i o n " (Master of A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1990); and Helen Samuels, V a r s i t y L e t t e r s : Documenting Modern C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s (Metuchen, N.J. & London: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s and the Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1992). 2  2 T h i s t h e s i s examines p r i v a t e p r e s s e s as a p a r t i c u l a r type of private organization.  There are a number of reasons why  p r e s s e s have been chosen. F i r s t , p r e s s e s are a c t i v e l y a c q u i r e d therefore  of p r i v a t e  by manuscript l i b r a r i e s and  r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n . In view o f  implications be  the a r c h i v a l records  are this,  f o r a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l of p r i v a t e p r e s s r e c o r d s  drawn from an a n a l y s i s of f u n c t i o n s  l i t e r a r y and  private  c u l t u r a l organizations,  o t h e r s t u d i e s on l i t e r a r y and  and  can  a c t i v i t i e s . Second,  as  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s complement  c u l t u r a l records.  Third,  3  p r e s s e s are t y p i c a l of other small o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  private  Archival  a p p r a i s a l i m p l i c a t i o n s h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s thus have a broader a p p l i c a t i o n to any number of other small o r g a n i z a t i o n s  or  f i r m s . F i n a l l y , p r i v a t e presses are an o v e r l o o k e d c l a s s o f publishing organization.  4  While there have been a number o f works  w r i t t e n about the p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y i n B.C., s p e c i f i c references  to p r i v a t e p r e s s e s .  F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n Maclean and B l i n k h o r n . 3  5  few  have made  However, p r i v a t e p r e s s e s  on l i t e r a r y and  c u l t u r a l records,  see  The main reason why p r i v a t e presses have been o v e r l o o k e d as a type o f p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i s due to t h e i r emphasis on form, r a t h e r than content. In view of t h i s , p r i v a t e p r e s s e s tend to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h other c r a f t s , such as p o t t e r y or basket weaving. While they may be overlooked, p r i v a t e p r e s s e s are an important type of p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , o f t e n p u b l i s h i n g f i r s t e d i t i o n o f poems and prose by major Canadian a u t h o r s . Jean-Marcel Duciaume, " P r i v a t e P r e s s e s , " The Canadian E n c y c l o p e d i a . 2nd ed. (Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , 1988), 1762. 4  See e s p e c i a l l y A s s o c i a t i o n of Book P u b l i s h e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Review of the Book P u b l i s h i n g Industry of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h Recommendations f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y Development 5  3 i n B.C. have been more p r e v a l e n t than i n o t h e r r e g i o n s o f Canada. B.C.  p r i v a t e p r e s s p r o p r i e t o r W i l l i a m McConnell  writes:  I t ' s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t there have been more p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia than elsewhere i n Canada, f o r t h r e e o f the o u t s t a n d i n g typographers and book d e s i g n e r s i n North America have made t h e i r i n i t i a l r e p u t a t i o n s i n t h i s Province. 6  Three p r i v a t e presses are used as examples throughout  this  t h e s i s , namely B a r b a r i a n Press, Klanak Press and Cobblestone P r e s s . These p r e s s e s have been chosen f o r a number o f reasons. First,  they have a l l have been s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o d u c i n g p u b l i s h e d  works. Second, they have a l l operated f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d o f time,  l o n g e r than many other p r i v a t e presses which have operated  i n B.C. T h i r d , they have a l l made s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e i r c r a f t , h e l p i n g t o shape the h i s t o r y o f book a r t s i n the p r o v i n c e . F i n a l l y , t h e i r r e c o r d s have been a c q u i r e d by a s i n g l e manuscript  archival  l i b r a r y , the  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s and U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s D i v i s i o n , and are t h e r e f o r e r e a d i l y  available  f o r examination. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s o f these  (Vancouver: A s s o c i a t i o n o f Book P u b l i s h e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987); and Roy MacSkimming, P u b l i s h i n g on the Edge: A C u l t u r a l and Economic Study o f Book P u b l i s h i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Prepared f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n o f Book P u b l i s h e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: A s s o c i a t i o n o f Book P u b l i s h e r s o f B.C., 1983) . W i l l i a m McConnell, Amphora i (1967), 2. 6  " P r i v a t e Presses o f B r i t i s h Columbia,"  4 three p r i v a t e presses i s provided  i n the Appendix o f t h i s t h e s i s .  B e f o r e s e t t i n g out the methodology and scope o f t h i s t h e s i s , the n a t u r e o f p r i v a t e p r e s s e s w i l l be examined.  7  What a r e p r i v a t e  p r e s s e s ? Many w r i t e r s who have w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t p r e s s e s have had d i f f i c u l t y i n t r y i n g t o d e f i n e  of private  a private  press.  For example, W i l l Ransom, w r i t i n g i n 1929, s t a t e s :  Whenever p r i v a t e presses are maintained, one o f two q u e s t i o n s i s c e r t a i n t o be heard. The layman asks, "What do you mean, a p r i v a t e p r e s s ? " while a c o l l e c t o r s m i l e s q u i z z i c a l l y and i n q u i r e s , w i t h g e n t l e malice, "How do you d e f i n e a p r i v a t e p r e s s ? " There have been many answers and much d i s c u s s i o n , but common agreement has not y e t been f i x e d upon a s i n g l e d e f i n i t e phrase. Perhaps one f a s c i n a t i n g element o f the s u b j e c t i s t h i s very u n c e r t a i n t y . 8  P r i v a t e p r e s s p r o p r i e t o r s themselves have had d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g p r i v a t e presses.  One B.C. p r i v a t e p r e s s p r o p r i e t o r wrote  that:  " I t ' s hard t o d e f i n e a ^ p r i v a t e p r e s s ' . Far e a s i e r , i n f a c t , t o diagnose i t from the care, love, s k i l l and d e d i c a t i o n which a r e evident i n i t s p r o d u c t . " 9  F o r the purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s , p r i v a t e p r e s s e s have been examined i n terms o f how they c a r r y out the p u b l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n . The author recognizes that p r i v a t e presses c a r r y out o t h e r f u n c t i o n s , such as commercial p r i n t work. 7  " W i l l Ransom, P r i v a t e Presses and t h e i r Books R.R. Bowker Company, 1929), 15. 9  McConnell, 2.  (New York:  5 For the purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s , p r i v a t e p r e s s e s a r e d e f i n e d by a number o f common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s include s e l f - r e l i a n c e ,  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t . A  c l o s e r examination o f these common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l  follow.  F i r s t , p r i v a t e p r e s s e s can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a p a r t i c u l a r type o f p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which the p r o p r i e t o r o r owner o f the p r e s s performs most or a l l o f the f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s of the press.  Jean-Marcel Duciaume w r i t e s :  P r i v a t e p r e s s e s are d e d i c a t e d t o the a r t o f f i n e p r i n t i n g , and, as the name i m p l i e s , are u s u a l l y operated by i n d i v i d u a l s who normally perform o r oversee a l l a s p e c t s o f p r o d u c t i o n : s e l e c t i n g the t e x t , d e s i g n i n g , t y p e s e t t i n g , i l l u s t r a t i n g , p r i n t i n g (on handmade papers) and b i n d i n g the book. 10  In view o f the l i m i t e d number o f persons i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r operation, and,  p r i v a t e presses are, by t h e i r nature,  as a r e s u l t , h i g h l y  self-reliant  personal.  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i s the s p e c i a l nature o f t h e i r products. finely-crafted,  10  P r i v a t e press works are t y p i c a l l y  l i m i t e d - e d i t i o n , o f t e n l i t e r a r y works.  11  Unlike  Duciaume, 1761.  O t h e r types o f works p u b l i s h e d by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s a r e h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s and works i n t r a n s l a t i o n , such as A l f r e d Waddington's The F r a s e r Mines V i n d i c a t e d , o r The H i s t o r y o f Four Months. o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1858 and Sam H a m i l l ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f C h i Lu's Wen Fu: The A r t o f W r i t i n g . A l f r e d Waddington, Hie. F r a s e r Mines V i n d i c a t e d , or The H i s t o r y o f Four Months, o r i g . ed. 1858, w i t h a p r i n t e r ' s note by Robert Reid and an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W. Kaye Lamb, Dominion A r c h i v i s t (Vancouver: Robert Reid, 1949) n  6 g e n e r a l t r a d e books, which are produced f o r a l a r g e market, p r i v a t e p r e s s works tend to be s p e c i a l i z e d , unique works of a r t , c a t e r i n g to a l i m i t e d c l i e n t e l e . In h i s p r i n t e r ' s note to p r i v a t e p r e s s p r o p r i e t o r Robert Waddington's The  Reid's  1949  r e p r i n t of A l f r e d  F r a s e r Mines V i n d i c a t e d . R e i d w r i t e s :  F i n e books have l i t e r a r y value, and they have commercial v a l u e , but i t ' s t h e i r value as works of a r t which d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from other books. T h i s i n t a n g i b l e , a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y i s not e a s i l y o b t a i n e d . The d e s i g n e r ' s use o f b i n d i n g m a t e r i a l s , of type, of paper and o f i n k s a l l c o n t r i b u t e to a f e e l i n g of l u x u r i o u s n e s s and o f f i n e n e s s . There i s another element, p e r s o n a l i t y , without which a book i s l o s t . I t r e s u l t s from the designer i m p a r t i n g something of h i m s e l f - h i s l o v e f o r f i n e books, h i s consequent s i n c e r i t y o f purposes, h i s grasp of the elements of the p r i n t i n g c r a f t - i n t o h i s books. 12  In view o f t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d products, p r i v a t e p r e s s e s are o f t e n viewed as b e i n g more l i k e a c r a f t . A t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i s t h e i r circumstance.  P r i v a t e presses t y p i c a l l y have l i m i t e d  financial  financial  r e s o u r c e s . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t s every aspect of the work o f p r i v a t e p r e s s e s , i n c l u d i n g the nature and volume o f p r o d u c t s produced. One  B.C.  p r i v a t e press p r o p r i e t o r w r i t e s :  In the l a s t s e v e r a l months, we have taken a hard look a t the p r e s s . Our v e r y s u r v i v a l i s at stake. The r e s u l t o f t h i s and C h i Lu, Wen Fu: The A r t of W r i t i n g , t r a n s . Sam ( M i s s i o n : B a r b a r i a n Press, 1986). :  Waddington, v.  Hamill  7 review i s t h a t we have decided to slow down on p u b l i s h i n g p o e t r y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t as a p r i v a t e p r e s s to s e l l books of p o e t r y and we have done l i t t l e e l s e s i n c e we s t a r t e d . We are not by any means abandoning p o e t r y and t r a n s l a t i o n , but f o r the next couple of years we are going to c o n c e n t r a t e on the wood engraving and p r i n t e r l y p r o j e c t s we [have] on hand. 13  Another B.C.  p r i v a t e press p r o p r i e t o r expresses a s i m i l a r  sentiment:  Any p r o f i t s which might accrue from any volume i s i n v e s t e d i n the next p r o j e c t , t h i s being c l e a r l y understood by each author. We r e a l l y don't want to become any more ambitious f o r then we know the Press w i l l l o s e i t s c h a r a c t e r (not to mention the work load) . 14  The  common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s as p r o v i d e d above,  not  o n l y h e l p to d e f i n e p r i v a t e p r e s s e s . They a l s o i n f l u e n c e  way  i n which p r i v a t e presses c a r r y out p u b l i s h i n g  activities.  functions  the and  1 5  Having i d e n t i f i e d some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r e s s e s , the methodology used i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be s t a t e d at the o u t s e t ,  the aim  private outlined.  As  of t h i s t h e s i s i s to demonstrate  " C r i s p i n E l s t e d to Robert Frimage, 1 February 1988, f . 2l b , B a r b a r i a n Press fonds, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s and U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s D i v i s i o n , Vancouver. " W i l l i a m McConnell to Jan Gould, 15 August 1969, f . 2-2, Klanak Press fonds, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s and U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s D i v i s i o n , Vancouver. The s p e c i a l way i n which p r i v a t e p r e s s e s c a r r y out p u b l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s i s examined i n c h a p t e r s through f o u r o f t h i s t h e s i s . 15  two  8 how f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s can be a p p l i e d t o p r i v a t e p r e s s e s f o r the purposes o f a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l . What i s f u n c t i o n a l  analysis?  Donna Humphries i n her t h e s i s on Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s s t a t e s that  little  function.  a t t e n t i o n has been given to d e f i n i n g the term  For her t h e s i s , Humphries d e f i n e s  whole o f the a c t i v i t i e s , accomplish one purpose." define  f u n c t i o n as "... the  considered a b s t r a c t l y , necessary to 16  While Humphries does not e x p l i c i t l y  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , she does s t a t e t h a t her a n a l y s i s o f  functions,  j u r i d i c a l persons and competences o f a u n i v e r s i t y i s a  functional  analysis.  1 7  For the purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s , f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s study o f how o r g a n i z a t i o n s not  and persons f u n c t i o n .  a new one i n a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e . The n o t i o n  f o l l o w f u n c t i o n " can be t r a c e d to M u l l e r , i n t h e i r 1894 manual on a r c h i v e s , therefore,  that  i f the f u n c t i o n s  records,  The i d e a i s  18  that  "records  F e i t h and F r u i n ,  who,  wrote: "Experience teaches, or r i g h t s o f one  body pass t o another, the a r c h i v e s Muller,  i s the  administrative  accompanies them."  19  While  F e i t h and F r u i n were r e f e r r i n g t o the custody o f a r c h i v a l the r e f e r e n c e  "Humphries, 1 7  Ibid.  1 8  I b i d , 1.  h i g h l i g h t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f u n c t i o n s  i i .  S. M u l l e r , J.A. F e i t h and R. F r u i n , Manual f o r the Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n of A r c h i v e s , 2nd ed., t r a n s . A r t h u r H. L e a v i t t (New York: The H.W. Wilson Company, 1968), 24. 19  9 and  a c t i v i t i e s to the records  that are generated from them.  More r e c e n t l y , Canadian a r c h i v i s t s have h i g h l i g h t e d importance of understanding records a c t i v i t i e s . Tom  i n terms of f u n c t i o n s  records  i n terms of the  a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by o r g a n i z a t i o n s  that created  examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  Canadian f e d e r a l government departments and generated by  and  functions  For example, he c i t e s T e r r y Cook and B i l l R u s s e l l , who, articles,  the  Nesmith, f o r example, wrote t h a t a number o f  Canadian s t u d i e s have analysed and  20  them.  them.  21  in their  functions  the nature of  of records  22  Another Canadian a r c h i v i s t , Heather MacNeil, i d e n t i f i e s number o f s t u d i e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s to provide  a  and persons t h a t have used  context  to records  creation.  She  states:  ... the a n a l y s i s of e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e has been, or i s being, a p p l i e d to a d i v e r s e range of c r e a t o r s , i n c l u d i n g v i s u a l a r t i s t s , u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y , and photographers, as  Humphries notes that while M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n f r e q u e n t l y used the term ^ f u n c t i o n ' , they d i d not d e f i n e i t . Humphries, 4. 20  C a n a d i a n A r c h i v a l Studies and the R e d i s c o v e r y of Provenance, ed. Tom Nesmith (Metuchen, N.J.: The S o c i e t y American A r c h i v i s t s , The Scarecrow Press, 1993), 6. 21  of  I b i d , 8. See B i l l R u s s e l l , "The White Man's Paper Burden: A s p e c t s o f Records Keeping i n the Department o f Indian A f f a i r s , 1860-1914" A r c h i v a r i a 19: 50-72; T e r r y Cook, "Legacy i n Limbo: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Records of the Department of the I n t e r i o r , " A r c h i v a r i a 25 (Winter 1987-88): 73-83. 2 2  10 w e l l as school MacNeil p o i n t s  out  boards, law  firms, and museums.  t h a t a number of student theses at  the  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n c l u d i n g those by V i c t o r i a Blinkhorn,  Anne Maclean, Frances Fournier  have shown how  and  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s can be used i n a r c h i v a l work,  e s p e c i a l l y f o r a r c h i v a l appraisal purposes. Blinkhorn, artists,  i n her  describes  a p p r a i s a l . She  Donna Humphries,  t h e s i s on a p p r a i s i n g  24  records of v i s u a l  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s as c e n t r a l to a r c h i v a l  states:  A p p r a i s a l i s not p r o p h e t i c i n the sense t h a t the a r c h i v i s t i s not to base the e v a l u a t i o n of an a r t i s t ' s r e c o r d s on a ' f u t u r o l o g y of p o t e n t i a l i s s u e s i n r e s e a r c h scholarship. A p p r a i s a l must take a r e t r o s p e c t i v e approach by c o n s i d e r i n g the elements o f the a r t i s t ' s contemporary s o c i e t y and a s s e s s i n g the value of h i s records and the c e n t r a l i t y of h i s r e c o r d s to h i s a c t i v i t y i n the context o f these e l e m e n t s . 1  25  Blinkhorn  suggests t h a t through an understanding of the  functions  and  a c t i v i t i e s o f the a r t i s t ,  the a r c h i v i s t i s b e t t e r able  to  Two  "Heather MacNeil, " A r c h i v a l Theory and P r a c t i c e : Between Paradigms," A r c h i v a r i a 37 (Spring 1994): 10. .  W h i l e the term ^ a p p r a i s a l ' can a l s o r e f e r to the monetary a p p r a i s a l o f records, f o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l may be d e f i n e d as "a b a s i c a r c h i v a l f u n c t i o n of d e t e r m i n i n g the eventual d i s p o s a l of records based upon t h e i r a r c h i v a l v a l u e . " D i c t i o n a r y of A r c h i v a l Terminology. 21. A r c h i v a l v a l u e may be d e f i n e d as "those values, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , fiscal, l e g a l , e v i d e n t i a l and/or i n f o r m a t i o n a l , which j u s t i f y the i n d e f i n i t e or permanent r e t e n t i o n of r e c o r d s . " I b i d , 23. 24  'Blinkhorn,  133.  11 appraise a r t i s t s '  records.  Maclean, i n her functions  and  t h e s i s on l i t e r a r y papers, focuses on  a c t i v i t i e s of w r i t e r s ,  and  i d e n t i f i e s the  the  various  r e c o r d s generated from the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . Maclean demonstrates how  functional analysis i s useful primarily for appraisal  for  a c q u i s i t i o n purposes; t h a t i s , determining which r e c o r d s among many s h o u l d be Fournier, functions  and  h i g h l i g h t s the by  acquired i n her  t h e s i s on f a c u l t y papers, examines  importance of the c o n t e x t u a l  f o r a c q u i s i t i o n and  Humphries, i n her functions  the  a c t i v i t i e s of f a c u l t y members. In doing so,  a f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , and how  appraisal  the  by a p a r t i c u l a r r e p o s i t o r y .  and  previous studies,  she  foundation provided  i t a s s i s t s the  archivist in  selection.  t h e s i s on Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , l o o k s at  a c t i v i t i e s of modern u n i v e r s i t i e s . L i k e Humphries s t a t e s that the primary use  of  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s f o r a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l purposes:  ... the primary b e n e f i c i a r y of such an a n a l y s i s i s the a r c h i v i s t who i s charged with a p p r a i s a l because a f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s allows the a r c h i v i s t to develop an a p p r a i s a l p l a n i n which he a s c e r t a i n s the l e v e l i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e at which a c q u i s i t i o n s should be undertaken and i d e n t i f i e s the j u r i d i c a l persons from whom r e c o r d s s h o u l d be a c q u i r e d i n order to document the f u n c t i o n s and spheres of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t comprise the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body. 26  While these s t u d i e s have i l l u s t r a t e d the "Humphries,  115.  increasing  12 importance o f f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n a r c h i v a l work, a t l e a s t from a t h e o r e t i c a l perspective, organizations  the importance o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g how  and persons f u n c t i o n i s not the e x c l u s i v e domain o f  the Canadian a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n . American a r c h i v i s t Helen Samuels has a p p l i e d f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , l i k e Humphries,  to  u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . However, Samuels' main purpose i n using  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the  development writes  o f an * i n s t i t u t i o n a l documentation p l a n ' .  2 7  She  t h a t f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s enables the a r c h i v i s t "to  e s t a b l i s h s p e c i f i c documentary  goals  and c o l l e c t i n g p l a n s "  2 8  and  i s u s e f u l o n l y i n terms o f a s s u r i n g "the c r e a t i o n and preservation  o f d e s i r e d records  i n the f u t u r e , and the c r e a t i o n  o f supplementary documentation to f i l l approach d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y  gaps."  from other  29  While  Samuels'  s t u d i e s c i t e d above, her  work i l l u s t r a t e s another use f o r f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . This present  t h e s i s d i f f e r s from p r e v i o u s  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n that i t d e s c r i b e s  studies  the f u n c t i o n s  using and  A number o f other American a r c h i v i s t s have a l s o advocated the use o f documentation s t r a t e g y . See e s p e c i a l l y , L a r r y J . Hackman and Joan Warnow-Blewett, "The Documentation S t r a t e g y P r o c e s s : A Model and Case Study," American A r c h i v i s t 50, no. 1 (Winter 1987): 12-47; R i c h a r d J . Cox, "A Documentation S t r a t e g y Case Study: Western New York," American A r c h i v i s t 52. no. 2 (Spring 1989): 192-200; and Helen W. Samuels and P h i l i p Alexander, "The Roots o f 128: A H y p o t h e t i c a l Documentation S t r a t e g y , " American A r c h i v i s t 50, no. 4 (Winter 1987): 518-31. 27  28  Samuels, Ibid,  1.  254.  13 a c t i v i t i e s o f a p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , namely p r i v a t e p r e s s e s . view o f t h i s ,  another b e n e f i t of t h i s present  comparisons between how  study i s to draw  the approach has been used i n t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r case with those p r e v i o u s l y  analysed.  Having i d e n t i f i e d the nature of the o r g a n i z a t i o n to examined and  In  be  the primary method of a n a l y s i s used i n t h i s t h e s i s ,  some of i t s primary sources w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . A broad l i t e r a t u r e base i s used i n t h i s t h e s i s , c o v e r i n g many d i f f e r e n t and  interrelated disciplines:  1. F u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . A number o f s t u d i e s , as p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d , have been used which show the value f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s f o r a r c h i v a l work.  30  of  None of them,  however, has used f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n the context  of a  p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and so i n f e r e n c e s have been drawn from them i n connection  with p r i v a t e p r e s s e s .  2. A r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l (a) L i t e r a r y a r c h i v e s . has  31  The  area of l i t e r a r y  tended to focus on records  w r i t i n g process.  archives  r e s u l t i n g from the  In view of t h i s ,  information  from  t h i s area has been used f o r comparison purposes. As  30  B l i n k h o r n , Maclean, Fournier, Humphries and  Samuels.  L i t e r a r y a r c h i v e s are d e f i n e d i n D i c t i o n a r y of A r c h i v a l Terminology as the a r c h i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l authors, l i t e r a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s or i n s t i t u t i o n s , D i c t i o n a r y of A r c h i v a l Terminology. 101. 3 1  14 i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , Maclean's t h e s i s on the a c q u i s i t i o n of l i t e r a r y papers  i s an example o f work i n  the g e n e r a l area of l i t e r a r y a r c h i v e s . Another  example  i s a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s on the a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l of l i t e r a r y papers i n A r c h i v a r i a . (b) L i t e r a r y m a n u s c r i p t s .  33  3 2  While t h i s body o f  l i t e r a t u r e tends to focus on the l i t e r a r y manuscript a d i s c r e t e item, r a t h e r than as p a r t of an fonds, i t has been examined here f o r purposes.  as  archival  comparison  34  R o b i n S k e l t o n , "The A c q u i s i t i o n o f L i t e r a r y A r c h i v e s , " A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984): 214-219; K.E. Garay, "Access and C o p y r i g h t i n L i t e r a r y C o l l e c t i o n s , " A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984): 220-227; and Jean Tener, "Problems o f L i t e r a r y A r c h i v e s : A Commentary," A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984): 228-231. 32  W h i l e p r i v a t e p r e s s records are not l i t e r a r y manuscripts, they may, and o f t e n do, i n c l u d e l i t e r a r y manuscripts. P r i v a t e p r e s s r e c o r d s comprise a l l of the records c r e a t e d by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s , i n c l u d i n g such records as p r o d u c t i o n schedules, b u s i n e s s correspondence, i n v o i c e s and o t h e r s a l e s - r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l . The a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s of a p r i v a t e press are c o n s i d e r e d an a r c h i v a l fonds. An a r c h i v a l fonds i s d e f i n e d as "the t o t a l body o f r e c o r d s accumulated by a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , i n s t i t u t i o n or o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the e x e r c i s e of i t s f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s " ( D i c t i o n a r y o f A r c h i v a l Terminology. 79). In c o n t r a s t , l i t e r a r y manuscripts are d e f i n e d as "manuscripts, i n c l u d i n g d r a f t s and p r o o f s , o f l i t e r a r y t e x t s . " I b i d , 95. L i t e r a r y manuscripts then form p a r t of an a r c h i v a l fonds, e i t h e r of an author's fonds or a p u b l i s h e r ' s fonds. For i n f o r m a t i o n on author's fonds, see Maclean. 33  These works g e n e r a l l y have t h e i r r o o t s i n the l i b r a r y p r o f e s s i o n . For more i n f o r m a t i o n on l i t e r a r y manuscripts, see L o i s More Overbeck, "Researching L i t e r a r y M a n u s c r i p t s : A S c h o l a r ' s P e r s p e c t i v e , " American A r c h i v i s t 56, no. 1 (Winter 1993): 62-69; Robert W. H i l l , " L i t e r a r y , A r t i s t i c and M u s i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s , " L i b r a r y Trends 5: 322-329; and P h i l i p N. 34  (c) A r t and l i t e r a t u r e a r c h i v e s .  3 5  Publishing  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as a type of c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , can be compared with other c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Information drawn from work i n the area of a r t  and  l i t e r a t u r e a r c h i v e s has been used i n areas o f common concern. (d) Business  r e c o r d s . P u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s are a  type of b u s i n e s s . While much of the work i n t h i s has been conducted by U.S. Canadian exceptions  area  w r i t e r s , some n o t a b l e  i n c l u d e works by C h r i s t o p h e r  Grant M i t c h e l l and John H a l l  Archer.  Hives,  36  3. P u b l i s h e r s ' r e c o r d s . There have been few works i n t h i s a r e a . The primary  exception i s Laura C o l e s ' A r c h i v a l Gold:  Managing and P r e s e r v i n g P u b l i s h e r s ' Records, a manual f o r  Cronenwatt, " A p p r a i s a l of L i t e r a r y Manuscripts," i n A r c h i v a l C h o i c e s : Managing the H i s t o r i c a l Record i n an Age of Abundance, ed., Nancy E. Peace (Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath & Co., 1984), 105-116. F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on a r t and l i t e r a t u r e a r c h i v e s , see Walter Muir W h i t e h a l l , "Archives of the A r t s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n , " American A r c h i v i s t 30, No. 3 (July 1967): 427-29; and S i g u r d Rambusch, "Should A r c h i v e s of L i t e r a t u r e and A r t be E s t a b l i s h e d as Separate I n s t i t u t i o n s ? " Archivum 24: 272. 35  C h r i s t o p h e r Hives> "Business A r c h i v e s : H i s t o r i c a l Developments and Future P r o s p e c t s " (Master of A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985); Idem, " H i s t o r y , Business Records, and Corporate A r c h i v e s i n North America," A r c h i v a r i a 22 (Summer 1986): 40-57; Grant M i t c h e l l , "Canadian A r c h i v e s and the Corporate Memory," A r c h i v a r i a 28 (Summer 1989): 48-67; and John H a l l Archer, "Business Records: The Canadian Scene," American A r c h i v i s t 32, no. 3 (July 1969): 251-9. 36  16 book p u b l i s h e r s on the proper care and management o f t h e i r b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s . I t has been used to a s s i s t i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e c o r d types common t o p u b l i s h i n g organizations. 4. Canadian p u b l i s h i n g . In the area of Canadian p u b l i s h i n g , the d i s c u s s i o n tends to focus on m a r k e t - r e l a t e d t o p i c s , as f o r e i g n ownership, d i s t r i b u t i o n and  manufacturing.  However, some i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s m a t e r i a l can be  such  37  gleaned  to p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of p u b l i s h i n g i n general. 5. Canadian p u b l i s h i n g h i s t o r y . The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f works tend t o be Toronto-centred and as a r e s u l t , much o f the h i s t o r y o f p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia been i g n o r e d . thesis,  38  has  Some notable exceptions are G l e n n i s Zilm's  " E a r l y B.C.  Books: An Overview of Trade Book  P u b l i s h i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1880s," and B r i n g h u r s t ' s Ocean. Paper. Stone: The Catalogue  Robert  of an  E x h i b i t i o n of P r i n t e d Objects which C h r o n i c l e More Than a  See e s p e c i a l l y , Paul Audley's Canada's C u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i e s : B r o a d c a s t i n g . P u b l i s h i n g Records and F i l m (Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Economic P o l i c y , 1983). 37  See e s p e c i a l l y , George Parker, The Beginnings o f the Book Trade i n Canada (Toronto and B u f f a l o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1985). 38  17 Century o f L i t e r a r y P u b l i s h i n g i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  39  6. Canadian p r i n t i n g h i s t o r y . T h i s area o f l i t e r a t u r e i s distinct  from Canadian p u b l i s h i n g h i s t o r y and has been used  i n p r o v i d i n g a h i s t o r i c a l context  to p r i v a t e p r e s s e s .  Works  i n c l u d e Pearson H. Gundy's The Spread of P r i n t i n g : Western  Hemisphere, Canada and A. Fauteux's The I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P r i n t i n g i n t o Canada: A B r i e f H i s t o r y .  4 0  The approach here i s to draw upon these v a r i o u s  areas o f  study t a k i n g from each t h a t which i s u s e f u l and r e l e v a n t to the present  t h e s i s . Information about the f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s o f  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s has been based on standard  works on p u b l i s h i n g ,  such as Datus C. Smith's A Guide to Book P u b l i s h i n g . Chandler G r a n n i s ' What Happens i n Book P u b l i s h i n g . C l i v e B i n g l e y ' s  Book  P u b l i s h i n g P r a c t i c e and John Dessauer's Book P u b l i s h i n g : What i t I s . What i t Does.  41  These standard  works i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n  on  G l e n n i s Zilm, " E a r l y B.C. Books: An Overview o f Trade Book P u b l i s h i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1800s w i t h C h e c k l i s t s and S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y R e l a t e d to B r i t i s h Columbia", Master o f A r t s t h e s i s (Burnaby: Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Department o f Communication, 1981); and Robert B r i n g h u r s t , Ocean. Paper. Stone: The Catalogue o f an E x h i b i t i o n of P r i n t e d Objects which C h r o n i c l e More Than a Century o f L i t e r a r y P u b l i s h i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: W i l l i a m H o f f e r , 1984). 39  " P e a r s o n H. Gundy, The Spread of P r i n t i n g : Western Hemisphere. Canada (Amsterdam: Vangendt & Co., 1972) and A. Fauteux, The I n t r o d u c t i o n of P r i n t i n g i n t o Canada: A B r i e f H i s t o r y (Montreal: R o l l a n d Paper Company, 1930). Datus C. Smith, A Guide to Book P u b l i s h i n g (New York & London: R.R. Bowker Co.: 1966); What Happens i n Book P u b l i s h i n g . 41  the n a t u r e o f book p u b l i s h i n g and the main f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by book p u b l i s h i n g companies.  Other  such as R o d e r i c k Cave's The P r i v a t e Press. Ransom's The Press and t h e i r Books and The P r i v a t e E x h i b i t i o n H e l d i n the School o f  Private  P r e s s ; Handbook t o  L i b r a r i a n s h i p 6-11 Mav  works,  an 1968  have  been used t o i l l u s t r a t e the s p e c i f i c ways i n which p r i v a t e p r e s s e s c a r r y out p u b l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n s and T h i s t h e s i s a l s o examines  activities.  the nature o f  4 2  r e c o r d s generated by  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s . Information about the types o f  records created  by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s has been based mainly on an examination o f a r c h i v a l records of private presses. records of  43  I n f o r m a t i o n about the  l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s has been taken  p r i m a r i l y from Laura Coles' account o f p u b l i s h e r s ' r e c o r d s as p r e s e n t e d i n her manual, A r c h i v a l Gold: Managing P u b l i s h e r s ' Records.  & Preserving  44  Chandler B. Grannis, ed., 2d ed. (New York & London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1983); C l i v e B i n g l e y , Book P u b l i s h i n g P r a c t i c e (London: Crosby Lockwood & Son L t d . , 1966); and John P. Dessauer, Book P u b l i s h i n g ; What i t i s . What i t does. 2d ed. (New York & London: R.R. Bowker Company, 1981). R o d e r i c k Cave, The P r i v a t e Press. 2d ed. (New York and London: R.R. Bowker Company, 1983); Ransom; and The P r i v a t e Press. 42  The f o l l o w i n g a r c h i v a l fonds have been examined f o r t h i s t h e s i s : B a r b a r i a n Press fonds, Klanak Press fonds and Cobblestone Press fonds. They are a l l l o c a t e d at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s and U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s D i v i s i o n s , Vancouver. 43  L a u r a M. Coles, A r c h i v a l Gold: Managing & P r e s e r v i n g P u b l i s h e r s ' Records (Vancouver: Canadian Centre f o r S t u d i e s i n 44  19 An  o u t l i n e of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l  f o l l o w . Chapter one  presents  an h i s t o r i c a l o u t l i n e of the experience of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Following functions  and  this,  a t h e o r e t i c a l model o f  a c t i v i t i e s of p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s  d e s c r i b i n g the  functions  p u b l i s h i n g p r o c e s s and  and  a c t i v i t i e s involved  the nature of records  the  i s outlined,  i n the  generated by  them.  T h i s model i s then t e s t e d i n connection w i t h p r i v a t e p r e s s e s f o r the purpose o f determining whether p r i v a t e p r e s s e s f o l l o w pattern two  e s t a b l i s h e d by l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  examines the  Chapter t h r e e Finally,  f u n c t i o n of a c q u i r i n g p r o s p e c t i v e  examines the  the  Chapter  manuscripts.  f u n c t i o n of p r o d u c i n g a f i n i s h e d work.  chapter four examines the marketing f u n c t i o n . A f t e r  an  examination of each f u n c t i o n , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l o f p r i v a t e p r e s s records  are h i g h l i g h t e d .  These  i m p l i c a t i o n s are based on an examination of p r i v a t e p r e s s and  information  about how  functions.  Publishing,  1989).  p r i v a t e presses c a r r y out  records  these main  20  CHAPTER  ONE  A SHORT HISTORY OF PRIVATE PRESSES IN  B.C.  To My Fellow Pioneers, Friends and A c q u a i n t a n c e s . I o f f e r you the f i r s t book p u b l i s h e d on Vancouver I s l a n d , and I recommend i t to you. Not f o r i t s own m e r i t , which I v a l u e at no more than what i t has cost me, that i s to say a few days s c r i b b l i n g at spare hours; but on account o f i t s o b j e c t . The c i r c u l a t i o n of t r u t h can be u s e f u l ; so I i n v i t e each of you to buy a copy, which s h a l l be c a r e f u l l y put down to your account of p a t r i o t i s m , and a l s o to t h a t o f the p r i n t e r . 4 5  T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s h i s t o r i c a l context to p r i n t i n g p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and focuses on the h i s t o r y of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s . perspective  in particular, historical  of p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s important  because i t p r o v i d e s context to f u n c t i o n s out by p r i v a t e Glennis  An  and  and  activities carried  presses.  Zilm,  i n her t h e s i s on e a r l y B.C.  books, wrote t h a t  e a r l y p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were l i m i t e d to the areas o f newspaper p u b l i s h i n g , p u b l i c a t i o n s and p r a c t i c a l m a t e r i a l s  government  f o r the incoming  population.  These main areas of p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s as p r a c t i s e d i n the e a r l y p a r t of B.C.'s h i s t o r y w i l l be examined i n c l o s e r Newspaper p u b l i s h i n g had  detail.  a v i r t u a l monopoly on p r i n t i n g  a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g B.C.'s e a r l y h i s t o r y . Four newspapers began  A l f r e d Waddington, The Fraser Mines V i n d i c a t e d , or. H i s t o r y o f Four Months ( V i c t o r i a : De Garro, 1858), 3. 4 5  The  21 o p e r a t i o n s i n B.C.  i n 1858: Le C o u r r i e r de l a N o u v e l l e - C a l e d o n i e .  j o u r n a l p o l i t i q u e et l i t t e r a i r e .  oraane des p o p u l a t i o n s  f r a n c a i s e s dans l e s p o s s e s s i o n s a n g l a i s e s . the V i c t o r i a Gazette.  46  the Steamer V i c t o r i a Gazette and the prj.tj.sh C o l o n i s t .  While these newspapers  were a l l s h o r t - l i v e d ,  4 7  other  newspapers  f o l l o w e d s h o r t l y a f t e r : the Vancouver I s l a n d ' s Gazette, the  New  Westminster Times, the D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . V i c t o r i a Weekly Gazette, the B r i t i s h Columbian. and the C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l .  4 9  48  the V i c t o r i a D a i l y C h r o n i c l e  Newspaper p u b l i s h i n g was  an important  The V i c t o r i a Gazette (August 4, 1858 - September 2, 1858) was a l s o c i r c u l a t e d i n C a l i f o r n i a . The paper was known as the Weekly V i c t o r i a Gazette from August 14, 1858 to November 26, 1859. 46  L e C o u r r i e r de l a Nouvelle-Caledonie. J o u r n a l p o l i t i q u e et l i t t e r a i r e . oraane des p o p u l a t i o n s f r a n c a i s e s dans l e s p o s s e s s i o n s a n g l a i s e s operated from September 11, 1858 to October 8, 1858, the V i c t o r i a Gazette from June 25, 1858 to November 26, 1859, the Steamer V i c t o r i a Gazette from August 4, 1858 t o August 20, 1859 and the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t from December 11, 1858 to J u l y 28, 1860. 47  The B r i t i s h Columbian was l a t e r absorbed by the D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and the V i c t o r i a D a i l y C h r o n i c l e i n J u l y 18 69. For more i n f o r m a t i o n on the B r i t i s h Columbian, see James G. Reid, "John Robson and the B r i t i s h Columbian, a study o f a p i o n e e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (Master of A r t s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950) and Ivan E. Antak, "John Robson: B r i t i s h Columbian" (Master of A r t s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1972). 48  The dates o f o p e r a t i o n of these newspapers were as f o l l o w s : the Vancouver Island's Gazette (February 5, 1859 August 29, 1859), the New Westminster Times (September 17, 1859 February 27, 1861), the D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ( J u l y 31, 1860 June 23, 1866), V i c t o r i a Weekly Gazette (August 4, 1860 September 29, 1860), the B r i t i s h Columbian (February 13, 1861 J u l y 25, 1869), the V i c t o r i a D a i l y C h r o n i c l e (October 28, 1862 June 23, 1866) and the Cariboo S e n t i n e l (June 6, 1865 - October 30, 1875). 49  22 area o f p u b l i s h i n g because the presses t h a t were used to produce them were o f t e n used to p u b l i s h the few works o f f i c t i o n prose produced d u r i n g The  and  t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d of B.C.'s h i s t o r y .  second main area of p u b l i s h i n g d u r i n g  this period  government p u b l i c a t i o n s . These p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d announcements, proclamations and  5 0  was  notices,  other l e g a l documents. One  the e a r l i e s t known p u b l i c a t i o n s i n t h i s area was  of  an Order i n  C o u n c i l C o n s t i t u t i n g the Supreme Court of C i v i l J u s t i c e of Vancouver's I s l a n d and Rules of P r a c t i c e and Therein  published  i n 1858.  51  The  Gazette newspaper f o r purchase. during  work was 52  Forms to be  advertised  Used  i n the  This f a c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t ,  t h i s early period, publishers  c a r r i e d out  even  a marketing  f u n c t i o n . . Other e a r l y government documents i n c l u d e 5 3  P r o c l a m a t i o n of His E x c e l l e n c y Vancouver's I s l a n d ,  and  James Douglas. Governor o f  i t s Dependencies; V i c e Admiral o f  the  Many o f the e a r l y works of f i c t i o n and prose, such as James Anderson's Sawney's L e t t e r s ; or. Cariboo Rhymes and Kim B i l i r ' s As i t was i n the F i f t i e s , were p u b l i s h e d by newspaper p u b l i s h e r s . James Anderson, Sawnev's L e t t e r s ; or. Cariboo Rhymes. From 1864 to 1868 ( B a r k e r v i l l e : Cariboo S e n t i n e l Press, 1968); Kim B i l i r , As I t Was i n the F i f t i e s ( V i c t o r i a : The P r o v i n c e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1895). 50  G r e a t B r i t a i n , P r i v y C o u n c i l , Order i n C o u n c i l C o n s t i t u t i n g the Supreme Court of C i v i l J u s t i c e of Vancouver I s l a n d and Rules of P r a c t i c e and Forms to be Used T h e r e i n ( V i c t o r i a : V i c t o r i a Gazette, 1858). 51  52  Zilm,  14.  As w i l l be demonstrated l a t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , the marketing f u n c t i o n i s one o f the main f u n c t i o n s c a r r i e d out publishing organizations. 53  by  23 Same, e t c . . e t c . . e t c . p u b l i s h e d i n 1858  and  an A c t  I n c o r p o r a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a Navigation i n I8 60.  Company. L i m i t e d ,  of Steam  i n c o r p o r a t e d February 18 60  published  54  A t h i r d area o f p u b l i s h i n g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was handbooks and  directories.  purpose, r e l a t i n g e x t r a c t i o n . One  These works served  guides,  a practical  to such matters as homesteading or  resource  such example i s the D i c t i o n a r y of I n d i a n  Tongues.  C o n t a i n i n g Most of the Words and Terms Used i n the  Tshimpsean.  Hydah. & Chinook, with t h e i r Meaning or E q u i v a l e n t  i n the E n g l i s h  Language, p u b l i s h e d i n 1862.  i n V i c t o r i a by b o o k s e l l e r s Hibben & C a r s w e l l  Z i l m notes the importance of b o o k s e l l e r s as  publishers  i n this early period:  T.H. Hibben and James C a r s w e l l , the p u b l i s h e r s , were owners o f a bookstore and, l i k e b o o k s e l l e r s of the time the world over, they became p u b l i s h e r s on the s i d e . The f i r m went on to p u b l i s h s e v e r a l other books over the years as w e l l as becoming one of the most important bookstores and b u s i n e s s e s i n the c i t y . T.H. Hibben i s a major name i n the e a r l y p u b l i s h i n g h i s t o r y of B.C. With a s u c c e s s i o n of p a r t n e r s a f t e r C a r s w e l l , Hibben continued to p u b l i s h books. 55  Another example of a p u b l i c a t i o n i n the area of guides,  handbooks  ^ P r o c l a m a t i o n of His E x c e l l e n c y James Douglas. Governor of Vancouver's I s l a n d , and i t s Dependencies; V i c e Admiral o f the Same, e t c . . e t c . . e t c . ( V i c t o r i a : Vancouver I s l a n d Gazette, 1858); and an A c t of I n c o r p o r a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a Steam N a v i g a t i o n Company. L i m i t e d , i n c o r p o r a t e d February 1860 ( V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , 1860). Zilm,  41-42.  24 and d i r e c t o r i e s was I860.  56  Victoria's first  c i t y directory published i n  While the F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y was  publication,  a business  i t c o n t a i n e d unique d e s i g n elements.  57  This  fact  p r o v i d e s an e a r l y i n d i c a t i o n of another main f u n c t i o n of p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s to produce the f i n i s h e d work. E x p l a i n i n g the unique d e s i g n q u a l i t y of e a r l y B.C.  58  books, Z i l m  writes that:  ... the p r i n t e r u s u a l l y made i t [ t h e i r t i t l e pages] an excuse f o r showing o f f a l l the v a r i e t i e s of type f a c e he used i n h i s p r i n t i n g works, from the p l a i n to the o r n a t e . T i t l e pages were sometimes r a t h e r l i k e works of a r t . 5 9  There were a number of reasons why  there was  little  p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e of the three main areas mentioned above. F i r s t , to  t h e r e was  a l i m i t e d market and r e s o u r c e s  produce p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the new  p r o v i n c e . Books and  p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be obtained elsewhere, b o o k s e l l e r s , such as from H.N.  through  available other local  Hibbins and James C a r s w e l l i n  F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y : Comprising a General D i r e c t o r y of C i t i z e n s , a l s o , an O f f i c i a l L i s t . L i s t of V o t e r s . P o s t a l Arrangements and N o t i c e s of Trades and P r o f e s s i o n s : Preceded bv a P r e f a c e and Synopsis of the Commercial Progress of the C o l o n i e s of Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : Edward M a l l a n d a i n e & Co., 1860). 5 6  57  Zilm,  25.  C h a p t e r two of t h i s t h e s i s analyses the f u n c t i o n o f p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s to produce a f i n i s h e d work. 58  'Ibid,  27.  25 Victoria,  or through m a i l order  Francisco.  6 0  from b o o k s e l l e r s  Another reason, as A.  in  San  Fauteux wrote, was  that  p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e of these main areas d i d not political  serve  purpose:  P o l i t i c i a n s had l i t t l e need f o r books or pamphlets, f o r the newspapers adequately served t h e i r purposes, and l i t e r a t u r e made few demands i n i t s own s e r v i c e , f o r as yet i t s c a r c e l y e x i s t e d i n [ B r i t i s h Columbia] . 61  In view o f these reasons, there was  little  demand f o r an  indigenous p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y i n the p r o v i n c e There were, however, a few notable  at t h i s  exceptions  time.  outside  of  these t h r e e main areas of p u b l i s h i n g d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d . One  such e x c e p t i o n  Vindicated: work was  or The  was  A l f r e d Waddington's The  F r a s e r Mines  H i s t o r y of Four Months p u b l i s h e d  i n 1858.  a t r e a t i s e on the F r a s e r R i v e r Gold Rush and  Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia g e n e r a l l y . The  The  the Crown  opening passage to  the  work b e g i n s :  We hear everyday that V i c t o r i a has caved i n ; t h a t the c o u n t r y has caved i n ; that the g o l d mines are humbug; t h a t our s o i l i s poor, the c l i m a t e S i b e r i a n ; t h a t V i c t o r i a i s no p o r t at a l l , and t h a t the c i t y w i l l have to be removed somewhere e l s e ; i n short, that the bubble has b u r s t , and  order  "Advertisements were p l a c e d i n l o c a l newspapers f o r m a i l requests from b o o k s e l l e r s i n San F r a n c i s c o . Zilm, 59.  A. Fauteux, The I n t r o d u c t i o n of P r i n t i n g i n t o Canada: A B r i e f H i s t o r y (Montreal: R o l l a n d Paper Company, 1930), 159. 61  a  26 nothing  remains to do, but to go away.  L u c k i l y a s s e r t i o n s are not The  facts."  6 2  F r a s e r Mines V i n d i c a t e d i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the f i r s t  government t r a d e book p u b l i s h e d i n the p r o v i n c e . p r i n t e d The  F r a s e r Mines V i n d i c a t e d was  one  63  non-  The p r e s s  that  t h a t had been used to  p r i n t the French-language news-sheet, Le C o u r r i e r de l a N o u v e l l e Caledonie. was  The p u b l i c a t i o n , l i k e the p r e v i o u s Order i n C o u n c i l ,  p l a c e d i n the Gazette  advertisement  newspaper f o r marketing purposes.  The  read:  Just Published! The F r a s e r Mines V i n d i c a t e d ; or, The H i s t o r y of Four Months. By A l f r e d Waddington. For s a l e by W.E. Herre, Yates s t r e e t , and by a l l the Book stores. 6 4  Another e x c e p t i o n o u t s i d e of the three main areas  of  p u b l i s h i n g were works of f i c t i o n and prose. An example o f such a  "Waddington,  3.  "The author wrote i n h i s p r e f a c e to the work t h a t i t was the f i r s t book to be p r i n t e d on Vancouver I s l a n d . However, as H. Pearson Gundy notes, Waddington q u a l i f i e d t h i s statement i n a f o o t n o t e i n d i c a t i n g h i s statement was w r i t t e n b e f o r e C h i e f J u s t i c e Cameron had brought out h i s newly p u b l i s h e d Order i n C o u n c i l . In view of t h i s , The F r a s e r Mines V i n d i c a t e d was a c t u a l l y the second book to be p u b l i s h e d on Vancouver I s l a n d . H. Pearson Gundy, The Spread of P r i n t i n g ; Western Hemisphere. Canada (Amsterdam: Vangendt & Co., 1972), 72. Zilm,  60.  27  work was James Anderson's Sawney's L e t t e r s ; o r . Cariboo  Rhymes.  65  The work, a broadsheet o f verses, was p u b l i s h e d by the Cariboo S e n t i n e l newspaper i n B a r k e r v i l l e .  6 6  A passage from one o f the  v e r s e s reads as f o l l o w s :  And tho' they s t r u c k the d i r t by name, They ne'er s t r u c k pay d i r t i n t h e i r c l a i m . Some i t h e r s made a gae f i n e joke And c h r i s t e n ' d t h e i r b i t ground "Dead Broke".  67  A number o f other l i t e r a r y works were p u b l i s h e d i n B.C. s h o r t l y a f t e r : Reverend George Mason's Lo! the Poor  Indian!  1875); E.A. Jenns', Evening to Morning and Other Poems (1890); Kim  B i l i r ' s Three L e t t e r s o f C r e d i t and Other S t o r i e s  (1894);  and L i l y A l i c e L e f e v r e ' s The L i o n s ' Gate and other Verses With the e x c e p t i o n o f Lo! the Poor Indian!, these  (1895).  e a r l y works  were p u b l i s h e d by e i t h e r newspaper p u b l i s h e r o r b o o k s e l l e r s .  James Anderson, Sawney's L e t t e r s ; or. Cariboo 1864 t o 1868. ( B a r k e r v i l l e , Cariboo S e n t i n e l Press, 65  68  6 9  Rhymes. From 1868).  Sawney's L e t t e r s was p u b l i s h e d again i n 1868 and 1869, demonstrating i t s p o p u l a r i t y . 66  "Anderson, 1. T h r e e L e t t e r s o f C r e d i t and Other S t o r i e s i s c r e d i t e d as b e i n g the f i r s t book o f f i c t i o n i n B.C. See Anne H. T a y l o r and G l e n n i s Zilm's, " P r i n t i n g & P u b l i s h i n g , " From Hand t o Hand: A G a t h e r i n g o f Book A r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, ed. Anne H. T a y l o r and Megan J . Nelson (Vancouver: A l c u i n S o c i e t y , 198 6): 9-16. 68  B r i n g h u r s t wrote t h a t : "Alex. Rose o f F o r t S t r e e t , V i c t o r i a , s t y l e d h i m s e l f book and j o b p r i n t e r , though what books he produced I cannot say." B r i n g h u r s t , 63. 69  28 L e f e v r e ' s work was woman i n B.C.  a p p a r e n t l y the f i r s t  l i t e r a r y p u b l i c a t i o n by a  70  In the 1900S/ p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the province  continued  to grow. However, the l i m i t e d  p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t y t h a t e x i s t e d i n B.C.  literary  at the time moved  eastward as w r i t e r s came to r e l y on p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d elsewhere i n Canada. B r i n g h u r s t w r i t e s :  ... the b e s t known B.C. authors of e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n s p u b l i s h e d n o t h i n g at a l l or nothing of substance i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . . . T h i s i s t r u e f o r Roderick Haig-Brown, Malcolm Lowry and E t h e l W i l s o n . 71  There were, however, a number of e x c e p t i o n s . C i t i z e n P r i n t i n g & P u b l i s h i n g Company, which produced the Vancouver weekly the C i t i z e n , used i t s presses in  the l a t e 1910s  to produce a number of l i t e r a r y works  and e a r l y 1920s, i n c l u d i n g L i o n e l Haweis'  Tsoqalem: A Weird Tale of the Cowichan Monster Lanterns  (1923),  72  (1918) and  Little  B r i n g h u r s t notes t h a t these works were l i m i t e d  B r i n g h u r s t , 19. Reverend George Mason, Lo! the Poor I n d i a n ! ( V i c t o r i a : A l e x Rose, 1875); E.A. Jenns, Evening to Morning and Other Poems ( V i c t o r i a : T.N. Hibben & Co., 1890); Kim B i l i r , Three L e t t e r s of C r e d i t and Other S t o r i e s ( V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1894); and L i l y A l i c e L e f e v r e , The L i o n s ' Gate and other Verses ( V i c t o r i a : Province P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1895) . 70  71  Bringhurst,  13.  L i o n e l Haweis, Tsoqalem: A Weird Tale of the Cowichan Monster (Vancouver: The C i t i z e n P r i n t i n g & P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1918; and L i o n e l Haweis, L i t t l e Lanterns or. As I t Might be S a i d 7 2  29 e d i t i o n s and p u b l i s h e d on f i n e paper.  73  In view o f t h i s ,  these  p u b l i c a t i o n s were t y p i c a l o f those produced by p r i v a t e p r e s s works as d e f i n e d at the o u t s e t of t h i s  thesis.  Other examples of p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g  organizations  engaged i n p u b l i s h i n g i n c l u d e W r i g l e y P r i n t i n g and C l a r k e & S t u a r t . T a y l o r and Z i l m w r i t e :  ...a few p r i n t e r / p u b l i s h e r s kept f i n e p r i n t i n g a l i v e between the wars, among them two Vancouver commercial f i r m s , W r i g l e y P r i n t e r s (Roy Wrigley) and C l a r k e & S t u a r t . Both f i r m s produced a f f o r d a b l e , well-made books; and both employed some o f the f i n e s t t y p e f a c e s a v a i l a b l e i n North America a t the time. 74  The W r i g l e y P r i n t i n g Co. p u b l i s h e d a number o f works o f p o e t r y throughout the mid-1930s, i n c l u d i n g those w r i t t e n by W i l d r e d J . Reed and A.R.  Evans.  75  C l a r k e & S t u a r t , another. Vancouver  p r i n t e r , produced a number o f l i t e r a r y works i n the 1930s, i n c l u d i n g R. H. Chestnut's Rambling Rhymes of the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast  (1933) and George H. G r i f f i n ' s Legends o f the  (Vancouver: The C i t i z e n P r i n t i n g & P u b l i s h i n g Co., 73  Bringhurst,  7 4  T a y l o r & Zilm,  1923).  65. 12.  A.R. Evans, B i t t e r s w e e t (Vancouver: Roy Wrigley, 1934); W i l d r e d J . Reed, The Empire of the North (Vancouver: Roy Wrigley, 1935); and Idem, S t o r i e s o f T r a v e l (Vancouver: Roy Wrigley, [1936?]). 75  30 Evergreen Coast  (1934).  76  L i k e e a r l i e r works p u b l i s h e d i n  these works were p u b l i s h e d u s i n g commercial  B.C.,  presses already i n  use f o r o t h e r purposes. Other than commercial p u b l i s h i n g endeavours  p r i n t e r s , there were a number o f o t h e r  made d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d o f B.C.'s  p u b l i s h i n g h i s t o r y . These endeavours  s i g n a l l e d the b e g i n n i n g o f  indigenous p u b l i s h i n g e n t i t i e s i n B.C., commercial example,  independent  from  p r i n t e r s or newspaper p u b l i s h e r s . W i l l i a m Dalton, f o r p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s of poems w r i t t e n by h i s w i f e , Annie  Dalton, e n t i t l e d The Marriage of Music i n 1910. set i n f i n e p r i n t ,  77  T h i s work  was  and p r i n t e d by a separate Vancouver p r i n t i n g  o u t f i t , Evans & H a s t i n g s . Another example i s the p u b l i c a t i o n by Vancouver C h a r l e s Bradbury 1934.  78  of Ross L o r t ' s A l l Creatures Great and Small i n  The work was  illustrations.  lawyer  t y p e s e t by hand and i n c l u d e d  I t was  linocut  t y p i c a l of p r i v a t e p r e s s works, g i v e n t h a t  i t had a l i m i t e d run of 200 c o p i e s , was  f i n e l y - c r a f t e d and  the p r o d u c t of a s i n g l e person. B r i n g h u r s t c r e d i t s Bradbury  was with  R o b e r t H. Chestnut, Rambling Rhymes of the Sea, the F o r e s t , the Coast, the M i s s i o n s . I n c i d e n t s , F o l k s and I n d i a n Lore p e r t a i n i n g t o the B r i t i s h Columbian Coast (Vancouver: C l a r k e & S t u a r t Co., 1933); and George H. G r i f f i n , Legends of the Evergreen Coast (Vancouver: C l a r k e & S t u a r t Co., 1934). 76  77  Bringhurst,  64-65.  Ross L o r t , A l l Creatures Great and Small C h a r l e s Bradbury, 1934). 78  (Vancouver:  31 o p e r a t i n g one of the f i r s t  known p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i n B.C.  79  A number of other p r i v a t e presses i n B r i t i s h Columbia began to emerge i n the l a t e 1940s and e a r l y 1950s. In 1949, d e s i g n e r and p r i n t e r Robert Reid produced  Vancouver  a number of works under  the i m p r i n t o f the P r i v a t e Press of Robert Reid, i n c l u d i n g John Newlove's Grave S i r s p u b l i s h e d i n 19 6 2 .  80  Reid l a t e r  joined  e f f o r t s w i t h Vancouver p r i n t designer, Takao Tanabe, t o produce a number o f o t h e r works, b e a r i n g Reid and Tanabe's j o i n t i m p r i n t . Takao Tanabe a l s o ran h i s own P e r i w i n k l e Press from 1962  to  p r e s s e s : P i c a Press i n 1962  8 1  and  1965.  Another c o l l a b o r a t o r of Reid's was g r a p h i c s p r i n t e r . Kuthan produced  George Kuthan, a f i n e  works under two  different  i m p r i n t s , The Nevermore Press and Honeysuckle P r e s s . He p u b l i s h e d a number o f l i t e r a r y works, i n c l u d i n g Kuthan's Menagerie A p h r o d i t e ' s Cup.  82  A p h r o d i t e ' s Cup was  c o n s i s t i n g o f two-colour  woodcuts.  79  Bringhurst,  80  J o h n Newlove, Grave S i r s  and  a l i m i t e d e d i t i o n work  83  65. (Vancouver:  Robert Reid,  1962).  See f o r example, F.G. Claudet's Gold: I t s P r o p e r t i e s . Modes o f E x t r a c t i o n . Value &c. (Vancouver: Robert R e i d and Takao Tanabe, 1958). 81  George Kuthan, Kuthan's Menagerie (North Vancouver: Nevermore Press, 1960); and Idem, A p h r o d i t e ' s Cup (Honeysuckle Press, 1964) . 82  G i v e n t h a t these works were not o n l y p u b l i s h e d by Kuthan, but a l s o w r i t t e n by him, these presses may more a c c u r a t e l y be d e f i n e d as a s e l f - p u b l i s h i n g e n t e r p r i s e . S e l f - p u b l i s h i n g may be d e f i n e d as a "the p u b l i s h i n g of a work by i t s author; u s u a l l y 83  32 In the 1950s, W i l l i a m and A l i c e McConnell's  Klanak Press  and  Jim Rimmer's P i e Tree Press were e s t a b l i s h e d . In the 1960s and 1970s, a number of other p r i v a t e presses were e s t a b l i s h e d , i n c l u d i n g W i l Hudson's Grouse Mountain Press i n I960 ; G e r a l d 84  Giampa's Cobblestone  Press i n 1964;  Robin and S y l v i a  Skelton's  Pharos Press i n 1967 ; C r i s p i n and Jan E l s t e d ' s B a r b a r i a n Press 85  i n 1977;  and Peter Quartermain  i n 19 7 9 .  8 6  In the 1990s, the number of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s  to grow i n B.C., Press.  87  and M e r e d i t h Y e a r s l e y ' s S l u g Press  These new  continued  i n c l u d i n g Bookworm Press and High Ground p r i v a t e presses are t y p i c a l of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s  as c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s t h e s i s . W r i t i n g i n 1993  about High Ground Press, Theresa Kishkan and John Pass,  the  p r e s s ' p r o p r i e t o r s wrote:  i n c l u d e s marketing and f u l f i l m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as w e l l . " David M. Brownstone and Irene M. Franck, The D i c t i o n a r y o f P u b l i s h i n g (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1982), 248. W i l Hudson has i s s u e d s e v e r a l l i m i t e d e d i t i o n b o o k l e t s , i n c l u d i n g B e r t o l d t Brecht's To P o s t e r i t y (Vancouver: Grouse Mountain Press, 1964). 8 4  Pharos Press was founded i n V i c t o r i a by Robin and S y l v i a S k e l t o n , p u b l i s h i n g such works as Skelton's and Herbert S i e b n e r ' s Musebook (1972); Robert Graves' The Marmoset's M i s c e l l a n y (1975); and Susan Musgrave and Sean V i r g o ' s Kiskatinaw Songs (1977). 85  The e a r l i e s t p u b l i c a t i o n s of Slug Press date from 1979, i n c l u d i n g Tom P i c k a r d ' s In Search of Ingenuousness (1981) and M i c h a e l McClure's I n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n (1984). 86  Bookworm Press' l a t e s t r e l e a s e i s Versus Verse. The S a t i r i c a l Rhvmes of Three A n t i b o d i e s i n O p p o s i t i o n to P r a c t i c a l l y E v e r y t h i n g ! (Vancouver: Bookworm Press, 1995). 87  33 High Ground Press i s a p r i v a t e press o p e r a t i n g near Pender Harbour on the S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a . We p u b l i s h p o e t r y i n l i m i t e d e d i t i o n s of broadsides, chapbooks and o c c a s i o n a l ephemera. 88  High Ground Press has p u b l i s h e d a number of works,  including  those by bp N i c h o l , M i c h a e l Ondaatje and Howard White. While  the h i s t o r y of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  been a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t one,  has  i t i s p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y a  r e c u r r i n g theme. Throughout t h e i r h i s t o r y i n B.C.,  private  p r e s s e s have c a r r i e d out the main f u n c t i o n s of p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s to a c q u i r e manuscripts,  to produce f i n i s h e d works,  and t o market them. The methods employed by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s t o produce works are s t i l l much the same as they were p r a c t i s e d i n B.C.  One  B.C.  first  p r i v a t e press p r o p r i e t o r c h a r a c t e r i z e s  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s as having a "dogged d e v o t i o n to t r a d i t i o n a l methods."  89  Having p r o v i d e d a short h i s t o r y of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i n a more d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of the three p r i v a t e p r e s s e s used  B.C., as  examples i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l f o l l o w . B a r b a r i a n Press was  founded  i n Boughton Monchelsea, Kent, England by Jan and C r i s p i n  Elsted  i n June 1977 .  90  In August 1978,  the E l s t e d s moved t o Steelhead,  T h e r e s a Kishkan and John Pass, "High Ground P r e s s , " Amphora 91 (Spring 1993): 3-4. 88  M a r t i n Jensen t o Mr. Press fonds. 89  C o k l i n g , [n.d.], f . 5-32,  Cobblestone  The f o l l o w i n g h i s t o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the t h r e e p r i v a t e p r e s s e s used i n t h i s t h e s i s are based i n p a r t on i n f o r m a t i o n 90  34 near M i s s i o n , B.C., where they have continued t h e i r p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Dona Sturmanis w r i t e s o f B a r b a r i a n P r e s s :  The E l s t e d s c o n s i d e r B a r b a r i a n to be a p r i v a t e l i t e r a r y p r e s s , t h a t i s , one which focuses p r i m a r i l y on p u b l i s h i n g manuscripts o f t h e i r c h o i c e . They d i d commercial o r " j o b " p r i n t i n g f o r s e v e r a l years t o help the p r e s s pay f o r i t s e l f , but w i l l now o n l y do i t f o r long-time c l i e n t s . 9 1  The p u b l i s h i n g agenda o f B a r b a r i a n Press f a l l s i n t o t h r e e main categories: poetry of a l l periods, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t r a n s l a t i o n ; Medieval  and Renaissance  classics);  t e x t s ( u s u a l l y Greek and Roman  and i l l u s t r a t e d e d i t i o n s o f t e x t s , mainly,  exclusively classics.  9 2  but not  P u b l i c a t i o n s o f B a r b a r i a n Press i n c l u d e  Sam H a m i l l ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f C h i Lu's Wen Fu: The A r t o f W r i t i n g (1986) and Paula Jones and Rachel Norton's B e l i e v e d t o Cause N i g h t : Poems (1991) ,  9 3  B a r b a r i a n Press' l a t e s t work i s a s e r i e s  o b t a i n e d from the P u b l i s h e r s ' Papers P r o j e c t database on Canadian p u b l i s h e r s ' r e c o r d s a t the Canadian Centre f o r S t u d i e s i n P u b l i s h i n g , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . The P u b l i s h e r s ' Papers P r o j e c t , c a r r i e d out by the Canadian Centre f o r S t u d i e s i n P u b l i s h i n g , i s a nation-wide search f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the h i s t o r y o f book p u b l i s h i n g . A database has been maintained, i d e n t i f y i n g not o n l y the business records o f Canadian p u b l i s h e r s but a l s o r e l a t e d documents such as correspondence between authors and p u b l i s h e r s and the o f f i c i a l records o f p u b l i s h e r s ' associations. Dona Sturmanis, "Masters o f t h e i r own Type," The Vancouver Step, v o l . 2, no. 2 (1991): 14. 91  C r i s p i n E l s t e d t o E l i z a b e t h Lieberman, 16 J u l y 1978, f . 11, B a r b a r i a n Press fonds. 9 2  " P a u l a Jones and Rachel Norton, B e l i e v e d t o Cause N i g h t : Poems ( M i s s i o n : B a r b a r i a n Press, 1991); and C h i Lu, Wen Fu: The  35 o f commissioned woodcuts expected press i s s t i l l  f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1995.  94  The  i n operation.  Klanak Press was McConnell i n 1957.  founded i n Vancouver by W i l l i a m and  The primary  i n t e n t i o n of the Press was  Alice to  p r o v i d e a non-commercial o u t l e t f o r Canadian w r i t e r s to p u b l i s h p o e t r y and prose i n l i m i t e d e d i t i o n s with h i g h q u a l i t y d e s i g n  and  typography. In a l e t t e r to a p r o s p e c t i v e w r i t e r , McConnell writes:  Klanak was born simply. Both A l i c e and I have w r i t t e n (and p u b l i s h e d ) f o r y e a r s . I have always been i n t e r e s t e d i n p r i n t i n g , typography and d e s i g n . In 1957 when i t [Klanak Press] s t a r t e d , book design was n o n - e x i s t e n t . A t f i r s t we thought of doing our own p r i n t i n g but r e a l i z e d t h i s would demand f a r more time than a p r a c t i s i n g lawyer and a housewife c o u l d a f f o r d . Too, with such d e s i g n e r s as Bob Reid, Tak Tanabe and Ben Lim i n Vancouver (as they were then) i t would take years to approach t h e i r standards, i f the same were p o s s i b l e . The name i s a S a l i s h word meaning a g a t h e r i n g t o g e t h e r f o r good c o n v e r s a t i o n , e i t h e r i n t r i b a l or i n t e r - t r i b a l . 9 5  The  d e c i s i o n not to assume design and p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s  was  made from the s t a r t . Vancouver a r t i s t Takao Tanabe designed most e a r l y Klanak volumes, although Charles M o r r i s s of the V i c t o r i a A r t of Writing  (Mission: B a r b a r i a n Press,  1986).  The work, e n t i t l e d E n g r a i n : Contemporary Wood Engraving i n North America, i s a c o l l e c t i o n of 125 wood engravings by a r t i s t s from a l l over North America, who are c o n t r i b u t i n g an e x c l u s i v e work or woodblock to the p r o j e c t . The work has yet to be completed. Sturmanis, 3. 94  W i l l i a m McConnell to Jan Gould, 15 August 1969, Klanak Press fonds. 9 5  f.  2-2,  36 p r i n t i n g company M o r r i s s  P r i n t i n g a l s o designed a number. M o r r i s s  P r i n t i n g c a r r i e d out most o f the p r i n t i n g f o r Klanak  Press.  A l t h o u g h Klanak Press d i d not o f f i c i a l l y c l o s e o p e r a t i o n s 1990,  most o f the poetry,  were p u b l i s h e d  until  short s t o r i e s and h i s t o r i c a l r e p r i n t s  between the l a t e 1950s and  e a r l y 1970s.  P u b l i c a t i o n s of Klanak Press i n c l u d e Klanak I s l a n d s : E i g h t Stories (1970) .  (1959) and  Laurence Soule's The  Eye  of the  Short  Cedar  96  Cobblestone Press was typographer and  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1964  by Vancouver  l e t t e r p r e s s job p r i n t e r , G e r a l d  Giampa.  S p e c i a l i z i n g i n f i n e p r i n t i n g , Cobblestone Press p r i n t e d books for  various  other p u b l i s h e r s ,  A l c u i n Society,  i n c l u d i n g Fireweed Press and  as w e l l as a number of i t s own,  o f Cobblestone Press. Giampa w r i t e s  under the  the imprint  that:  Cobblestone Press i s a P r i v a t e press and has been such s i n c e 1964. We p u b l i s h e d a deluxe e d i t i o n of *Image-nations 13 & 14' by Robin B l a s e r . I have spent almost two years p r i n t i n g a book f o r the A l c u i n S o c i e t y , a f i n e book c l u b , *In P r a i s e of Scribes' . 97  Cobblestone Press sought to e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f as a p u b l i s h e r  Henry K r e s i e l , et a l . , Klanak I s l a n d s : E i g h t Short S t o r i e s (Vancouver: Klanak Press, 1959); and Laurence Soule, The Eye of the Cedar (Vancouver: Klanak Press, 1970). 96  " G e r a l d Giampa to A l i q u a n d a Press, Cobblestone Press fonds.  [n.d.],  f.  5-2,  37 of  f i n e e d i t i o n s o f mainly Canadian prose and v e r s e . The p r e s s  sought a s s i s t a n c e from a v a r i e t y o f p r e s s e s and s o c i e t i e s t o pursue t h i s g o a l , but met with l i m i t e d success, p r o d u c i n g mainly b r o a d s i d e s o f p o e t r y r a t h e r than l a r g e r p r o j e c t s such as books. In  98  a d d i t i o n t o Robin B l a s e r ' s I m a a e - N a t i o n s 13 & 14 (1975),  another p u b l i c a t i o n o f Cobblestone Press i s E z r a Pound's The L e t t e r o f Siaismundo M a l a t e s t a t o Giovanni de M e d i c i (1977)." A t y p o g r a p h i c a l j o u r n a l , The Fount. a l s o developed from the P r e s s . Cobblestone Press ceased o p e r a t i o n s i n 1982, commercial  although i t s  a c t i v i t i e s have continued under a new company name,  N o r t h l a n d L e t t e r p r e s s . W r i t i n g i n 1991,  Sturmanis s t a t e s  Giampa and p a r t n e r Mary Jane I r e l a n d run t h r e e r e l a t e d  that  companies:  The commercial o r j o b ' work i s done a t The N o r t h l a n d L e t t e r p r e s s . Formerly Cobblestone Press, N o r t h l a n d i s Canada's l a r g e s t hot metal foundry. The Lanston Type Company holds t h e trademarks f o r the 8,000 h i s t o r i c a l t y p e f a c e s o f the Lanston Monotype L i b r a r y . The t h i r d i s Giampa Textware C o r p o r a t i o n , which c r e a t e s d i g i t i z e d t r a d i t i o n a l f o n t s f o r the desktop p u b l i s h i n g market. x  100  A memo t o f i l e i n the Cobblestone Press fonds i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p r e s s sought a s s i s t a n c e from a number o f p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g , the Averhahn S o c i e t y , Imprint S o c i e t y , Godine P r e s s , G r o l i e r S o c i e t y , Black Sparrow Press and the F o l i o S o c i e t y . Memo t o f i l e , [n.d.], f . 5-32, Cobblestone Press fonds. 98  "Robin B l a s e r , Image-nations 13 & 14 (Vancouver: Cobblestone Press, 1975); and E z r a Pound, The L e t t e r o f Siaismundo M a l a t e s t a t o Giovanni de M e d i c i (Vancouver: Cobblestone Press S o c i e t y , 1977). Sturmanis, 3.  38 The  t h r e e p r i v a t e p r e s s e s used as examples i n t h i s  thesis  are t y p i c a l of p r i v a t e presses i n t h a t they have a l l produced limited-edition,  f i n e l y - c r a f t e d works. Two  namely B a r b a r i a n Press and Cobblestone  o f the t h r e e p r e s s e s ,  Press have a l s o engaged i n  commercial p r i n t work. B a r b a r i a n Press s t a r t e d out doing more commercial p r i n t work, but has s i n c e moved away from t h i s to focus on p u b l i s h i n g . In the case of Cobblestone  Press,  r e v e r s e i s t r u e : the p r e s s moved from p u b l i s h i n g a few  the literary  works t o pursue commercial p r i n t work. Klanak Press, on the o t h e r hand, d i d not undertake  any commercial p r i n t work and c o n t r a c t e d  out i t s d e s i g n and p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Of the t h r e e , o n l y B a r b a r i a n Press i s s t i l l  a c t i v e l y p u b l i s h i n g . As mentioned  e a r l i e r , Klanak Press stopped most of i t s p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the e a r l y 1970s, while Cobblestone  Press c l o s e d down i t s  p u b l i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n the e a r l y 1980s.  39 CHAPTER  TWO  ACQUIRING PROSPECTIVE MANUSCRIPTS  To perform an e d i t o r i a l s e r v i c e alone, whether at r i s k or f o r a fee, i s not to p u b l i s h ; to purchase p r i n t i n g and b i n d i n g s e r v i c e s alone i s not to p u b l i s h ; to promote s a l e s i s not, i n i t s e l f , to p u b l i s h ; to d i s t r i b u t e another's p r i n t e d product i s not, i n i t s e l f , to p u b l i s h . Book p u b l i s h i n g i s a l l of these things together, an i n t e g r a t e d p r o c e s s , whether c a r r i e d out by a s i n g l e f i r m or by s e v e r a l . I t i s the whole i n t e l l e c t u a l and b u s i n e s s procedure o f s e l e c t i n g and arranging to make a book and of promoting i t s ultimate use. 101  The  p r o c e s s of p u b l i s h i n g c o n s i s t s of a number of  and  activities,  the  format of the  each c o n t r i b u t i n g to the o v e r a l l p r o c e s s . While f o l l o w i n g three  chapters assumes a l i n e a r  approach, i n p r a c t i c e , the f u n c t i o n s organizations  and  a c t i v i t i e s of  publishing  do not u s u a l l y f o l l o w a l i n e a r sequence. Rather,  they tend t o o v e r l a p The  functions  as circumstance d i c t a t e s .  f o l l o w i n g three  publishing organizations:  chapters examine the main f u n c t i o n s to acquire p r o s p e c t i v e  produce a f i n i s h e d work and  to market the work.  manuscripts, 102  of to  Throughout  C h a n d l e r B. Grannis, What Happens i n Book P u b l i s h i n g . 2nd (New York & London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1983), 1. 101  ed.  T h e s e three main f u n c t i o n s have been i d e n t i f i e d from a v a r i e t y of sources, i n c l u d i n g Grannis, B i n g l e y and Smith. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or housekeeping f u n c t i o n i s not examined i n t h i s t h e s i s as i t i s common to a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The focus o f t h i s t h e s i s i s on the s u b s t a n t i v e or o p e r a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s of publishing organizations. 102  40 these chapters, out  the p a r t i c u l a r way i n which p r i v a t e p r e s s e s c a r r y  these f u n c t i o n s and the nature o f records  w i l l be examined. T h i s present acquiring prospective  chapter focuses  generated by them on the f u n c t i o n o f  manuscripts. Chapter three examines the  f u n c t i o n o f p r o d u c i n g a f i n i s h e d work, and chapter f o u r examines the  f u n c t i o n o f marketing the work. The f u n c t i o n o f p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s  prospective publish,  manuscripts i n v o l v e s developing  to acquire  ideas about what t o  s o l i c i t i n g p r o s p e c t i v e manuscripts, c o n s i d e r i n g  their  p u b l i c a t i o n and n e g o t i a t i n g the terms o f p u b l i c a t i o n . These main a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f u n c t i o n o f a c q u i r i n g a manuscript are examined s e p a r a t e l y below. Publishing organizations about what t o p u b l i s h .  1 0 3  u s u a l l y s t a r t by d e v e l o p i n g  an i d e a  This a c t i v i t y i s u s u a l l y considered  o f e d i t o r i a l development. F a r r a r w r i t e s  part  that:  Ideas f o r books are o f t e n generated w i t h i n the p u b l i s h i n g house i t s e l f . I t i s s a i d o f one h i g h l y modern f i r m t h a t a r o l l i n g w a l l - s c r e e n i s kept with such ideas g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . I f an author enters with an i d e a f o r a book, on say, "Games My Grandfather Played," the proper s c r o l l i s p u l l e d down t o d i s p l a y the f a c t t h a t the e d i t o r h i m s e l f had t h a t i n s p i r a t i o n long ago. The p r a c t i c e o f d e v e l o p i n g ideas i n e d i t o r i a l departments, then f i n d i n g w r i t e r s t o do them on assignment, has, I should think, doubled s i n c e the 1920s. Some o f our most s u c c e s s f u l books are developed i n t h i s manner, and i t i s d o u b t f u l i f many s u c c e s s f u l p u b l i s h e r s '  S e e e s p e c i a l l y , chapter four, " E d i t o r i a l Development: Ideas i n t o Books," Smith, 37-50. 103  41 l i s t s c o u l d e x i s t without them. In the case o f p r i v a t e presses,  104  ideas are developed i n a  s i m i l a r manner, a l b e i t i n a l e s s f o r m a l i z e d way.  The  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s to be h i g h l y p e r s o n a l make t h i s the  nature of case.  Records generated from the a c t i v i t y of d e v e l o p i n g include research  documents, such as surveys or  e d i t o r i a l p o l i c i e s and ideas.  1 0 5  developing  analyses,  r e p o r t and d r a f t p r o p o s a l s  In the case of p r i v a t e presses,  of book  the a c t i v i t y  book ideas g e n e r a l l y does not generate any  evidence. Given the p e r s o n a l generally discussed  ideas  of documentary  nature of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s ,  i n f o r m a l l y or o r a l l y and  are not  prospective  writers.  involves informing  1 0 6  are  documented.  Once an i d e a has been developed, the next a c t i v i t y publishing organizations  ideas  of  i s to s o l i c i t manuscripts from  The  a c t i v i t y of s o l i c i t i n g  writers  prospective writers that a p u b l i s h i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s seeking m a t e r i a l f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . There are a number o f ways i n which p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s  make i t known  t h a t they are i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c e i v i n g manuscripts f o r  J o h n F a r r a r , "Securing and S e l e c t i n g the M a n u s c r i p t , " What Happens i n Book P u b l i s h i n g . 32. 104  A s mentioned i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s t h e s i s , r e c o r d s generated by p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been i d e n t i f i e d by Laura Coles i n her manual on p u b l i s h e r s ' r e c o r d s , A r c h i v a l Gold. 105  I n the case of some p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , manuscripts are developed in-house. W r i t e r s are h i r e d to w r i t e a manuscript p e r t a i n i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t as s p e c i f i e d by the p u b l i s h e r . Smith, 37. 1 0 6  42 p u b l i c a t i o n . One way i n which they do t h i s i s t o t a r g e t s p e c i f i c w r i t e r s . In such cases, p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s may look t o a p a r t i c u l a r w r i t e r w i t h an e s t a b l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n i n the d e s i r e d field.  For example, i f a p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n was l o o k i n g t o  publish a t h r i l l e r ,  i t might contact w r i t e r Anne R i c e , whose  r e p u t a t i o n i s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i e l d .  1 0 7  In o t h e r  cases,  p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be i n t e r e s t e d i n simply p u b l i s h i n g a n y t h i n g t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r w r i t e r i s working on, r e l y i n g on the r e p u t a t i o n o f the w r i t e r alone. In these cases, p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s are u s u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l when they have a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d an ongoing r e l a t i o n s h i p with the a u t h o r .  108  Especially  i n the case o f l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a l i t e r a r y agent i s an important  p l a y e r i n f o s t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between w r i t e r s  Anne R i c e , The Vampire L e s t a t (New York: Knopf, 1985) ; Idem, The W i t c h i n g Hour: A Novel (New York: Knopf, 1990); and Idem, T a l t o s : T a l e s o f the M a y f a i r Witches (New York: Knopf, 1994) . 107  S u c h has been i n the case o f Margaret Atwood and P i e r r e B e r t o n w i t h p u b l i s h e r M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, and E t h e l Wilson w i t h M a c m i l l a n Company. See f o r example, Margaret Atwood, S u r f a c i n g (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1994); Idem. The Robber B r i d e (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1993); Idem. Wilderness T i p s (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1991); and Idem, The Handmaid's T a l e (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1985). See a l s o P i e r r e Berton, The Death o f Tecumseh (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1994); Idem, C i t y o f Gold (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1992); and Idem, The A r c t i c G r a i l : the Quest f o r the Northwest Passage and the North Pole. 1818-1911 (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1988). See a l s o E t h e l Wilson, Mrs. G o l i o h t v and Other S t o r i e s (Toronto: Macmillan, 1961); Idem, The Innocent T r a v e l l e r (Toronto: Macmillan, 1960); and Idem, The Equations o f Love (Toronto: Macmillan, 1952). 108  43 and  publishers.  1 0 9  Publishing organizations manuscripts from p r o s p e c t i v e  not o n l y a c t i v e l y  solicit  w r i t e r s , they a l s o  receive  u n s o l i c i t e d manuscripts. In t h e i r book on s e l f - p u b l i s h i n g , F r i e s e n P r i n t e r s note that the supply publishing organizations publisher McClelland  o f manuscripts outnumber  by a wide m a r g i n .  110  For example, Toronto  & Stewart accepts roughly  10 books out o f  the approximately 70,000 u n s o l i c i t e d manuscripts i t r e c e i v e s p e r year.  111  P r i v a t e presses,  i n c o n t r a s t , tend t o r e l y on t h e i r  judgement when d e c i d i n g which w r i t e r s t o s o l i c i t  personal  works from.  While t h i s i s g e n e r a l l y true, i t i s not always the case. P r i v a t e p r e s s e s sometimes canvass g e n e r a l l y to the w r i t i n g community. For example, i n response t o an advertisement p l a c e d j o u r n a l , one p r o s p e c t i v e  in a literary  writer inquired:  In a r e c e n t i s s u e o f W r i t e r ' s Q u a r t e r l y . I n o t i c e d B a r b a r i a n Press was s o l i c i t i n g manuscripts. Enclosed would you f i n d a l i t e r a r y cv, reviews and a recent broadsheet. A l i t e r a r y agent may be d e f i n e d as "an i n d i v i d u a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n who a c t s on b e h a l f o f an author on p u b l i s h i n g and r i g h t s matters f o r a commission or percentage o f the proceeds from t h e author's work". Nat G. Bodian, Bodian's P u b l i s h i n g Desk Reference (Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1988), 206. 109  P u b l i s h i n a Your Own Book: A Guide f o r the F i r s t Time P u b l i s h e r (Altona, Manitoba: F r i e s e n P r i n t e r s , 1982), 11. 1 1 0  Jane Widerman, "A Homey A l t e r n a t i v e t o the R e j e c t i o n S l i p : D o - i t - Y o u r s e l f P u b l i s h e r s Crack the B e s t - S e l l e r L i s t s , " Maclean's 94, no. 21 (May 25, 1981): 42. 1 1 1  44 The poems i n q u e s t i o n f o r the new volume would number a f u l l f l e d g e d book (64 pages). I am open to any s i z e , format, though, you might suggest. Many of the new m a t e r i a l s have seen p u b l i c a t i o n i n a wide range of small magazines and u n i v e r s i t y p e r i o d i c a l s . K i n d l y inform me o f any p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h y or s p e c i f i c a t i o n s your p r e s s may h o l d . 1 1 2  Not u n l i k e l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r i v a t e p r e s s e s r e c e i v e a g r e a t many u n s o l i c i t e d m a n u s c r i p t s . volume o f incoming  manuscripts  113  The  overall  i s , however, l e s s i n the case of  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s . The p a r t i c u l a r nature of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s , s p e c i a l i z i n g i n l i m i t e d - e d i t i o n , o f t e n l i t e r a r y works, u s u a l l y a t t r a c t s a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of w r i t e r . An academic s p e c i a l i z i n g i n biomechanics,  f o r example, i s not l i k e l y to t u r n to a p r i v a t e  p r e s s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n purposes. In response  There are, however, e x c e p t i o n s .  to an u n s o l i c i t e d manuscript,  one B.C.  p r i v a t e press  p r o p r i e t o r wrote:  Thank you f o r your recent l e t t e r i n which you o f f e r us a chapter s y n o p s i s of your book. B a r b a r i a n Press i s a p r i v a t e press devoted to l i m i t e d e d i t i o n s o f p o e t r y and b e l l e s l e t t r e s . and we r a r e l y accept u n s o l i c i t e d manuscripts. Moreover, Science F i c t i o n and Fantasy are not among our p r i n c i p a l i n t e r e s t s as p u b l i s h e r s . I don't know where to suggest you t u r n w i t h your book, but an hour i n the l i b r a r y at M i s s i o n with a copy of W r i t e r ' s  P a u l Cameron Brown to C r i s p i n E l s t e d , l a , B a r b a r i a n Press fonds. 1 1 2  1 June 1981,  f . 2-  S e e f i l e s 2 - l a and 2-lb which c o n t a i n many u n s o l i c i t e d manuscripts, B a r b a r i a n Press fonds. 113  45  Market might p r o v i d e some u s e f u l p l a c e s . "  1 1 4  In summary, p r i v a t e p r e s s e s c a r r y out the a c t i v i t y of a manuscript  i n a d i f f e r e n t way  soliciting  than other l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P r i v a t e p r e s s e s are l e s s a g g r e s s i v e about s o l i c i t i n g w r i t e r s , given t h a t they produce works and r e l y h e a v i l y on t h e i r own  a l i m i t e d number of  i n t u i t i o n and judgement.  G e n e r a l l y , p r i v a t e p r e s s e s pursue p r o j e c t s they wish t o undertake f o r p e r s o n a l reasons, r a t h e r than those i n t e n d e d f o r commercial success. Records t h a t document the a c t i v i t y of s o l i c i t i n g c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y of correspondence with w r i t e r s p u b l i c a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Advertisements may  manuscripts  about  be another type of  r e c o r d generated from the a c t i v i t y of s o l i c i t i n g m a n u s c r i p t s . As mentioned at the o u t s e t , the a c t i v i t y of s o l i c i t i n g  manuscripts  i s o f t e n c a r r i e d out i n f o r m a l l y . The same i s t r u e f o r p r i v a t e p r e s s e s . P r i v a t e p r e s s e s o f t e n r e l y on p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , word o f mouth and i n f o r m a l l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s to s o l i c i t m a n u s c r i p t s . In view o f t h i s , activity,  l i t t l e documentary evidence i s generated from  i n comparison  this  with other a c t i v i t i e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s  chapter. A t h i r d a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the f u n c t i o n o f a c q u i r i n g p r o s p e c t i v e manuscripts i s c o n s i d e r i n g whether to p u b l i s h a  C r i s p i n E l s t e d to Tammy Smith, 26 November 1986, B a r b a r i a n Press fonds. 1 1 4  f . 2-lb,  46 p a r t i c u l a r manuscript. This a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e s r e v i e w i n g a manuscript to make a judgement on i t s s u i t a b i l i t y  for  p u b l i c a t i o n . There are a number of f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e a publisher's  d e c i s i o n to p u b l i s h a p r o s p e c t i v e  i n c l u d i n g the mandate of the press, p o t e n t i a l market and f i n a n c i a l and  manuscript,  the book's s u i t a b i l i t y ,  t i m e l i n e s s , the author's p o p u l a r i t y ,  l o g i s t i c a l considerations.  115  and  F a r r a r wrote:  The e a s i e s t t h i n g i n p u b l i s h i n g , as a r u l e , i s to r e j e c t a book. But the hard work and the rewards, i n s p i r i t u a l as w e l l as f i s c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , are i n a c c e p t a n c e . 116  In the case o f p r i v a t e presses, published  i s no  for personal  the choice  of works to  e a s i e r . Works are s e l e c t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n mainly  reasons but other f a c t o r s , such as t h e i r l i t e r a r y  v a l u e and p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i v e expression considered. end,  be  i n p r i n t are  also  F i n a n c i a l p r o f i t a b i l i t y i s of l e s s concern. In  the  the d e c i s i o n whether to p u b l i s h a p a r t i c u l a r work comes down  to a matter of p e r s o n a l w r i t e r , one  t a s t e . In response to a  p r i v a t e press proprietor  prospective  writes:  Thank you f o r sending along the Orban poems. I was i n t e r e s t e d to read them, though again I'm a f r a i d we  S e e s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d , "How F a r r a r , 40-44. 115  116 F a r r a r ,  41,  have to  Manuscripts are Judged," i n  47 say No;  they simply  aren't to our t a s t e .  1  Records generated from the a c t i v i t y of c o n s i d e r i n g whether to p u b l i s h a p a r t i c u l a r work i n c l u d e d r a f t notes,  internal  memoranda, a p p r a i s a l and/or market a n a l y s i s r e p o r t s and records.  In the case of p r i v a t e presses,  generated.  manuscripts ( i f not  fewer r e c o r d types  Other examples i n c l u d e r e j e c t i o n l e t t e r s ,  118  ( i f not r e t u r n e d to author) and  returned  are  original  e d i t e d manuscripts  to author) which might p r o v i d e  some evidence of  reasons f o r acceptance or r e j e c t i o n f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . o f t e n , p r i v a t e presses  costing  do not n a t u r a l l y c r e a t e any  1 1 9  More  documentary  evidence as a r e s u l t of the a c t i v i t y of c o n s i d e r i n g whether to p u b l i s h a p a r t i c u l a r work. A f o u r t h a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the f u n c t i o n o f a c q u i r i n g the manuscript i s n e g o t i a t i n g the terms of p u b l i c a t i o n . T h i s a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e s communicating with p r o s p e c t i v e w r i t e r s to  C r i s p i n E l s t e d to Jascha K e s s l e r , 16 September 1986, f . 2l b , B a r b a r i a n Press fonds. The work of Hungarian poet Otto Orban has s i n c e been p u b l i s h e d . Otto Orban's Blood of the Walsungs: S e l e c t e d Poems, ed. George S z i r t e s (Newcastle: Bloodaxe Books, 1993). A p r e v i o u s c o l l e c t i o n was p u b l i s h e d as The C a t u l l a n Games (Vermont: Marlbor, 1988). 1 1 7  I n the case of the a r c h i v a l fonds of the t h r e e p r i v a t e p r e s s e s examined i n t h i s t h e s i s , there i s very l i t t l e documentary evidence o f the a c t i v i t y of c o n s i d e r i n g whether to p u b l i s h a p a r t i c u l a r work. What l i t t l e evidence e x i s t s i s c o n t a i n e d i n l e t t e r s to p r o s p e c t i v e w r i t e r s i n d i c a t i n g whether the p r e s s has d e c i d e d to p u b l i s h a p a r t i c u l a r work. 1 1 8  9  Coles,  35-36.  48 determine the nature and  r i g h t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n  o f a p a r t i c u l a r work. I t may  i n v o l v e some form of c o n s u l t a t i o n ,  such as meeting w i t h a w r i t e r ' s lawyer or the s i g n i n g of a contract.  Increasingly, negotiations  1 2 0  legalized,  have become more  e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of manuscripts submitted to  l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s . Movie r i g h t s , i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g h t s and  e l e c t r o n i c p u b l i s h i n g options may  negotiations.  P r i v a t e presses,  1 2 1  a l l be brought up  i n c o n t r a s t , are l e s s  as f a r as n e g o t i a t i o n i s concerned. In p r a c t i c e , t h e r e to n e g o t i a t e . private  Works are g e n e r a l l y p u b l i s h e d  press.  documents.  123  is little a  1 2 2  the case o f l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and  in  formalized  on terms s e t by  Records generated as a r e s u l t of n e g o t i a t i o n ,  contracts  property  other  especially in  typically  include  l e g a l documents, such as r o y a l t y and  Because formal  advance  agreements are r a r e l y e n t e r e d  into in  A c o n t r a c t i s d e f i n e d as "an agreement between two or more p a r t i e s , the purpose of which i s to e s t a b l i s h the c o n d i t i o n s to which they agree and to d e f i n e each p a r t y ' s r i g h t s and d u t i e s as regards to these c o n d i t i o n s . " Sara B. S l u s s , " I n t e r p r e t i n g and A p p l y i n g the A c c e p t a b i l i t y Clause i n Book P u b l i s h i n g C o n t r a c t , " Book Research Q u a r t e r l y 6, no. 2: 29. 120  L a z a r Sarna, Authors and P u b l i s h e r s . Agreements and A s p e c t s of P u b l i s h i n g . 2d ed. (Toronto and Vancouver: Butterworths, 1987). 1 2 1  Legal  A review of the a r c h i v a l fonds of the three p r i v a t e p r e s s e s used as examples i n t h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s no evidence of formal c o n t r a c t s w i t h w r i t e r s over the p u b l i c a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r work. 122  I n the case of November House Press fonds, a medium-sized p u b l i s h i n g company, f i l e s 1-17 to 1-20 are e n t i r e l y devoted to 1 2 3  49 the case of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s , there are fewer r e c o r d s generated  by  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s from the n e g o t i a t i o n a c t i v i t y . D e t a i l s r e s p e c t i n g p u b l i c a t i o n are worked out i n f o r m a l l y , the w r i t e r and the p r e s s a r r i v i n g a t m u t u a l l y agreed upon terms. L i k e the o t h e r described previously, this a c t i v i t y i s largely oral,  activities  thereby  g e n e r a t i n g l i t t l e documentation. Whatever documentation t h a t i s generated  from t h i s a c t i v i t y tends to be correspondence  which  may  address n e g o t i a t i o n i s s u e s . A c l o s e r examination  of the records c r e a t e d by the t h r e e  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s used as examples i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l  f o l l o w . The  r e c o r d s are examined with a view to i d e n t i f y i n g those  records  which show evidence of the f u n c t i o n of a c q u i r i n g p r o s p e c t i v e manuscripts. of  In the case of the B a r b a r i a n Press fonds, the  r e c o r d s generated  manuscript  types  from the f u n c t i o n of a c q u i r i n g the  i n c l u d e correspondence  files.  The  "General  Correspondence, 1978-1990" s e r i e s c o n t a i n s g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s s o c i a l correspondence In  r e l a t i n g to the a c q u i s i t i o n of  and  manuscripts.  some cases, p r o s p e c t i v e w r i t e r s enquire about p u b l i c a t i o n  possibilities;  i n other cases, the p r o p r i e t o r of the p r e s s  may  r e f e r to a l t e r n a t i v e p r o j e c t s or e d i t o r i a l r e v i s i o n s r e q u i r e d p r i o r t o p u b l i c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , two other f i l e s ,  namely  c o n t r a c t s . These f i l e s c o n s i s t mainly of s t a n d a r d i z e d forms, " C o n t r a c t u a l Agreements," with s p e c i f i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r o y a l t i e s s p e c i f i e d . F i l e 1-11, f o r example, c o n t a i n s an agreement reached between the Press and Kenneth Dyba p e r t a i n i n g t o the p u b l i c a t i o n of The Long (& G l o r i o u s ) Weekend... (Vancouver: November House, 1975) .  50 "Manuscript Submissions,  1981-84" and "Manuscripts Submissions,  1985-89" show evidence o f t h i s f u n c t i o n . These f i l e s c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y o f manuscript m a t e r i a l , but c o n t a i n correspondence i n d i c a t i n g how  little  the m a t e r i a l came t o the p r e s s .  1 2 4  In the case o f Klanak Press fonds, the e n t i r e fonds i s d e s c r i b e d i n i t s i n v e n t o r y as c o n s i s t i n g " o f b u s i n e s s and p e r s o n a l correspondence r e g a r d i n g manuscripts submitted t o o r p u b l i s h e d by the p r e s s . "  1 2 5  The Klanak Press fonds i s arranged  a l p h a b e t i c a l l y , mainly by the name of correspondent. In F i l e "Correspondence  - G",  f o r example, much o f the correspondence i s  from p r o s p e c t i v e w r i t e r s e n q u i r i n g about possibilities.  1 2 6  One p r o s p e c t i v e w r i t e r  publication wrote:  I understand t h a t Klanak Press i s a c t i v e and about t o produce another p u b l i c a t i o n . Are you l o o k i n g a t m a t e r i a l from people other than those who u s u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e ? I would l i k e t o submit a short s t o r y - or send two or t h r e e - i n the hope t h a t you would l i k e one - my f i c t i o n has been used by CBC and by the Canadian Forum though I r e a l i z e t h i s i s no comment on the work I am doing r i g h t now. 127  The Klanak Press fonds does not i n c l u d e separate f i l e s o r s e r i e s  1 2 4  F i l e s 2 - l a and 2-lb, B a r b a r i a n Press fonds.  S t e p h a n i e B o l s t e r , "Inventory of Klanak Press Papers, 1958-1990." (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n ) , 1. 125  1 2 6  F i l e 2-2,  Klanak Press fonds.  J a n Gould t o W i l l i a m McConnell, 10 J u l y 1969, Klanak Press fonds. 1 2 7  f . 2-2,  51 p e r t a i n i n g t o the s o l i c i t a t i o n or a c q u i s i t i o n o f m a n u s c r i p t s . Records t h a t document t h i s f u n c t i o n are g e n e r a l l y i n t e r s p e r s e d i n these g e n e r a l correspondence In  files.  the case o f Cobblestone Press fonds, the fonds c o n t a i n s  v e r y few documents r e f l e c t i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n f u n c t i o n . There i s however, a Manuscript s e r i e s , which i n c l u d e s f i l e s p e r t a i n i n g to p a r t i c u l a r authors, such as George Bowering, A. Haffenden,  John Crosse, Leonard  James Harvey and Gladys Hindmarch. However, these  files  c o n t a i n manuscript m a t e r i a l o n l y . Not u n l i k e manuscript  files  i n the Klanak Press fonds, t h i s s e r i e s c o n t a i n s manuscript  m a t e r i a l o n l y w i t h no r e l a t e d correspondence. In view o f t h i s , there i s l i t t l e to  the p r e s s .  of way  of determining how  these manuscripts came  1 2 8  T h i s chapter has shown that the way  i n which a c t i v i t i e s are  c a r r i e d out by p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t s the n a t u r e o f the r e c o r d s generated by them. In the case o f l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f u n c t i o n of the  a c q u i r i n g the manuscript can be i n v o l v e d and f o r m a l i z e d . In case o f p r i v a t e p r e s s e s , the process tends to be ad hoc  p e r s o n a l . As a r e s u l t , the s p e c i a l way  and  i n which p r i v a t e p r e s s e s  c a r r y out t h i s f u n c t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the nature o f the r e c o r d generated from i t . In the case of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s , the volume o f r e c o r d s generated from the f u n c t i o n of a c q u i r i n g a manuscript i s  F i l e s 1-1  to 1-13,  Cobblestone Press fonds.  52 f a r l e s s than f o r other l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i s u s e f u l to the a r c h i v i s t because i t s u p p l i e s i n f o r m a t i o n about r e c o r d s c r e a t e d by them. With t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , an a r c h i v i s t i s b e t t e r a b l e to determine the r e l a t i v e value of a p a r t i c u l a r p r i v a t e p r e s s i n terms o f a p p r a i s a l f o r a c q u i s i t i o n . For example, an  fonds  archival  fonds o f a p r i v a t e p r e s s w i l l more l i k e l y be a c q u i r e d by  an  a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y i f i t c o n s i s t s of r e c o r d s showing evidence the f u n c t i o n of a c q u i r i n g a manuscript.  of  Information about i t s  f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s i s a l s o important  in appraisal for  s e l e c t i o n . Once a c q u i r e d , the a r c h i v i s t w i l l be a b l e to determine which r e c o r d s to keep, s e l e c t i n g those records which p r o v i d e evidence o f t h i s f u n c t i o n .  1 2 9  I n p r a c t i c e , p r i v a t e press records are o f t e n a c q u i r e d by manuscript l i b r a r i e s , not a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . The main reason why manuscript l i b r a r i e s a c q u i r e p r i v a t e press r e c o r d s i s because they complement e x i s t i n g h o l d i n g s , such as works p u b l i s h e d by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s . With r e s p e c t to a p p r a i s a l f o r s e l e c t i o n , manuscript l i b r a r i e s g e n e r a l l y do not undertake a p p r a i s a l f o r s e l e c t i o n once records have been a c q u i r e d . Interview w i t h George Brandak, 3 March 1995. 1 2 9  53  CHAPTER THREE PRODUCING A FINISHED WORK  W i t h i n a p u b l i s h i n g house the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c r e a t i n g the book as a p h y s i c a l e n t i t y l i e s w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n department. Very few p u b l i s h e r s own t h e i r own p r i n t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , so t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y normally i n v o l v e s d e a l i n g w i t h commercial t y p e s e t t e r s , p r i n t e r s and b i n d e r s . A p r o d u c t i o n manager and h i s or her s t a f f are t h e r e f o r e i n v o l v e d i n the f o l l o w i n g b a s i c steps as the p h y s i c a l book i s brought i n t o being: planning, cost e s t i m a t i n g , s c h e d u l i n g , design, s e l e c t i o n o f s u p p l i e s , purchase o f paper and cover m a t e r i a l s , and the s u p e r v i s i o n o f t y p e s e t t i n g , p r i n t i n g and b i n d i n g . 1 3 0  A second f u n c t i o n o f p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s f i n i s h e d work.  131  i s producing a  A manuscript must be e d i t e d , p h y s i c a l l y arranged  on pages and p r i n t e d . The f u n c t i o n o f producing a f i n i s h e d work involves copy-editing,  designing  the work and p r i n t i n g the work.  T h i s chapter w i l l examine these a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d  with  p r o d u c i n g a f i n i s h e d work, f o c u s i n g on the p a r t i c u l a r way i n which they are c a r r i e d out by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s .  The t h r e e  a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with the f u n c t i o n o f p r o d u c i n g a f i n i s h e d work are examined s e p a r a t e l y below.  130  Dessauer, 72.  F o r the purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s , the term 'work' has been used t o denote any f i n i s h e d p r i n t e d product. I t encompasses a broad spectrum o f products, i n c l u d i n g , but not l i m i t e d t o 'books', 'broadsheets', ' l i t e r a r y pamphlets' and any other printed material. 1 3 1  54 Datus C. Smith w r i t e s t h a t c o p y - e d i t i n g establishing l e g i b i l i t y ,  consistency,  involves  grammar, c l a r i t y and  f a c t u a l accuracy, l e g a l i t y and p r o p r i e t y , and details.  1 3 2  involved, order  As  a r e s u l t of these v a r i o u s  the e d i t o r i a l process can be  production  aspects o f the work long and  involved,  to ensure t h a t the most s u i t a b l e v e r s i o n of the t e x t  be p u b l i s h e d .  A manuscript may  in will  go through many v e r s i o n s b e f o r e i t  i s ever f i n a l l y i n an acceptable  format.  The  133  first  i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c i n g the work i s copy e d i t i n g . Bridgwater d e s c r i b e s  style,  1 3 4  the c o p y - e d i t i n g process as  activity  William follows:  Take the manuscript of a book. Set i t f i r m l y upon a desk or a t a b l e so t h a t i t cannot s l i p or s l i d e . P i c k up a p e n c i l . S t a r t r e a d i n g through the manuscript, and as you read c o r r e c t t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s and note passages t h a t may confuse a reader and usages that may cause t r o u b l e f o r a p r i n t e r . You are doing copy e d i t i n g . 1 3 5  In the case of p r i v a t e presses, production to be  details,  copy-editing  focuses  p r i m a r i l y on  although i t not unusual f o r p r i v a t e p r e s s e s  i n v o l v e d i n e d i t i n g f o r c l a r i t y and  style.  132  Smith,  53.  133  S e e Chapter 5, " E d i t i n g the manuscript," i n Smith, 51-63.  T h e p r o c e s s of making such changes i s c a l l e d copyediting, w i t h the amount of e d i t i n g v a r y i n g w i t h the book, the house, and the a c q u i r i n g e d i t o r ' s i n c l i n a t i o n . A l i g h t c o p y e d i t i n g may i n v o l v e l i t t l e more than a quick check f o r e r r o r s i n p u n c t u a t i o n and grammar, while depth e d i t i n g o f t e n i n v o l v e s major o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and r e w r i t i n g changes." Brownstone, 78. 134,,  'Smith,  54.  55 Records documenting the a c t i v i t y  of c o p y - e d i t i n g c o n s i s t  m a i n l y of e d i t e d manuscripts, although correspondence writers regarding  editorial  d e c i s i o n s may  Records c r e a t e d by p r i v a t e presses activity editorial be  a l s o be  created.  showing evidence of  of c o p y - e d i t i n g are much the same, although i n f o r m a t i o n contained  with 1 3 6  the  the  on these b a s i c r e c o r d types  may  different. Once a work has been thoroughly  reviewed and  ready f o r the next stage of p r o d u c t i o n . determining choosing  how  Designing  revised, i t i s a work i n v o l v e s  i t w i l l p h y s i c a l l y take shape. I t c o n s i s t s o f  v a r i o u s design elements, such as the type of paper to  used, the method of p r i n t i n g , the p r i n t type, illustrations,  i f any,  and  be  how  w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the  final  product. Ernst Reichl writes:  i t i s the designer i n whose hands l i e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n v e r t i n g raw m a t e r i a l of manuscript, type, paper, ink, c l o t h , photography, and drawing i n t o what we c a l l a book, i n such a way t h a t the end product c a r r i e s an i d e a i n t o as many minds as p o s s i b l e , as i m p r e s s i v e l y as p o s s i b l e , and f o r as l o n g a time as p o s s i b l e . 1 3 7  Design i s i n f l u e n c e d by many c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , legibility,  136  p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and  Coles,  suitability  to the work's  35.  E r n s t R e i c h l , "Designing i n Book P u b l i s h i n g . 83. 1 3 7  i n c l u d i n g cost,  the P h y s i c a l Book," What Happens  56 p a r t i c u l a r purpose.  138  A l l these f a c t o r s depend on the nature  of  the work b e i n g p u b l i s h e d . R e i c h l w r i t e s :  Given two manuscripts of the same l e n g t h , one an economic t h e s i s of p r e d i c t a b l y l i m i t e d c i r c u l a t i o n , the o t h e r a spy s t o r y w i t h a l a r g e s a l e s p o t e n t i a l , the d e s i g n e r w i l l want to handle them somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y , a s i d e from a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of l e g i b i l i t y and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . 1 3 9  In view o f t h i s , s i n g l e impact  the nature of the work p r o b a b l y has the g r e a t e s t  on d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s .  P u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s s t r i v e to achieve a balance between the commercial and a e s t h e t i c imperative of d e s i g n . R i c h a r d Bingham w r i t e s :  Canadian book design i s most commonly f u n c t i o n a l , modest, i n o f f e n s i v e , c o n s e r v a t i v e , and u n t a i n t e d by ambition; a r e f l e c t i o n , says poet and typographer/designer Robert B r i n g h u r s t , of Canadian p u b l i s h e r s ' 'deep P r e s b y t e r i a n f e a r of the s e n s u a l i t y and a s c e t i c i s m of f i n e d e s i g n . ' Perhaps; c e r t a i n l y i t i s not because Canadian d e s i g n e r s are mediocre, but more l i k e l y f o r three i n t e r c o n n e c t e d reasons: b e t t e r d e s i g n i s c o s t l y ; most marketing departments have u n t e s t e d (and perhaps untestable) p e r c e p t i o n s about how books should l o o k ; and f i n a l d e c i s i o n s i n matters of d e s i g n do not r e s t with designers. 140  1 3 8  Reichl,  1 3 9  Ibid,  82.  84.  R i c h a r d Bingham, " P u b l i s h e r s and Design - The F r o n t i e r , " Amphora 89 (Autumn 1992): 22. 1 4 0  Final  57 As mentioned i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s t h e s i s ,  the u l t i m a t e  g o a l o f p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i s not commercial s u c c e s s . In view of t h i s , p r i v a t e p r e s s e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y aim to s t r i k e a balance between the competing f o r c e s of commercial and a e s t h e t i c i m p e r a t i v e s i n the same way  as other l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P r i v a t e presses focus i n s t e a d on the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e o f the work, producing a work l a r g e l y f o r p e r s o n a l Two  d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v e d i n producing  i n c l u d e type and paper c h o i c e . F i r s t ,  l e g i b i l i t y o f the t y p e f a c e .  141  a f i n i s h e d work  factors affecting  c h o i c e i n c l u d e the s t y l e or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,  such as l e g i b i l i t y .  lower p r i o r i t y ,  type  s i z e , width,  and  In the case of l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the choice of type i s t y p i c a l l y based on concerns,  reasons.  1 4 2  practical  Type choice i s g e n e r a l l y g i v e n a  g i v e n the many other d e c i s i o n s r e q u i r e d i n  p r o d u c i n g a f i n i s h e d work.  143  The main c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r l a r g e r  p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s t h a t whatever type i s chosen, i t be clear,  l e g i b l e and readable. In the case of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s ,  c h o i c e i s a s u b j e c t i v e d e c i s i o n , i n f l u e n c e d not o n l y by  type  the  nature o f the t e x t , but a l s o by p e r s o n a l t a s t e and p r e f e r e n c e s . P r i v a t e p r e s s e s t y p i c a l l y choose s p e c i a l i t y or h i s t o r i c a l  Raymond Roberts, L i m i t e d , 1966), xx. 141  Typographic  Design  (London: E r n e s t Benn  1 4 2  Ibid,  75.  143  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Maureen Nicholson, 6 J u l y  1995.  58 t y p e f a c e s t o r e f l e c t the nature o f the t e x t b e i n g  published.  C h r i s t o p h e r Andreae w r i t e s t h a t : "Many p r i v a t e p r e s s e s a formula,  1 4 4  settle for  f o r a type face or a paper they can master and then  use over and over a g a i n . "  145  For both p r i v a t e p r e s s e s and o t h e r  l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a main c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t the type c h o i c e r e f l e c t the t e x t being presented.  In t h i s r e s p e c t ,  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s and other l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s make the same c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , o n l y a r r i v i n g a t d i f f e r e n t d e c i s i o n s based on the nature o f the product being produced. Paper c h o i c e i s another  consideration i n p u b l i s h i n g design.  In the case o f l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the c h o i c e o f paper comes down t o a matter o f s u i t a b i l i t y . combination  1 4 6  For example, the  o f weight and bulk i s a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the  c h o i c e o f s t o c k as i t w i l l a f f e c t the appearance o f the type, as w e l l as the o v e r a l l appearance o f the book. In the case o f p r i v a t e p r e s s e s , paper choice i s a l s o a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The main d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f the p r i v a t e p r e s s i n t h i s i s t h a t p r i v a t e p r e s s e s o f t e n use s p e c i a l t y o r handmade o f t e n w i t h unusual  t e x t u r e and c o l o u r .  1 4 7  respect papers,  L i k e type c h o i c e , the  c h o i c e o f an a p p r o p r i a t e paper centres on the nature o f work  144  Roberts,  33.  C h r i s t o p h e r Andreae, "Small Press P u b l i s h e r s : A C r a f t R a i s e d t o an A r t , " Amphora 81 (September 1990): 21. 145  146  B i n g l e y , 49.  147  The P r i v a t e Press. 20.  59 being  produced. In summary, design  most important being  i s i n f l u e n c e d by a number o f f a c t o r s , the  the nature o f the work t o be produced. In  the case o f l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , design  decisions  respecting  tend t o be more i n f l u e n c e d by f a c t o r s o f c o s t and  p r a c t i c a l concerns o f l e g i b i l i t y and d u r a b i l i t y , whereas i n the case o f p r i v a t e presses, specialized,  the d e c i s i o n s tend t o be more  i d i o s y n c r a t i c and s u b j e c t i v e .  In view o f some o f the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g d e s i g n both l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g organizations information  decisions,  and p r i v a t e p r e s s e s gather  and purchase necessary hardware and equipment as p a r t  o f the d e s i g n  a c t i v i t y . This t y p i c a l l y involves  with s u p p l i e r s , requesting  catalogues  corresponding  and p r i c e l i s t s ,  p u r c h a s i n g the d e s i r e d s u p p l i e s . Once the n e c e s s a r y  and then  materials  have been secured, p r o t o t y p e s and l a y o u t s are c r e a t e d , experimenting w i t h the v a r i o u s combinations o f m a t e r i a l s t o produce the d e s i r e d  effect.  Records generated from the a c t i v i t y o f d e s i g n i n g c o n s i s t of design  and layout information,  supplier information,  design  the work  notes, and  such as c o n t r a c t s , i n v o i c e s and s a l e s  b r o c h u r e s . In a d d i t i o n , l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s c r e a t e c o n t r a c t s w i t h designers, records  or notes.  Coles,  148  37-38.  may a l s o  p o l i c y documents and p r o c e d u r a l  In the case o f p r i v a t e p r e s s e s ,  similar  60 documents are c r e a t e d , such as notes, sketches and d e s i g n s . In a d d i t i o n , correspondence price l i s t s  sample  with s u p p l i e r s , c a t a l o g u e s ,  and r e l a t e d f i n a n c i a l documents, such as  invoices,  are a l s o c r e a t e d . The t h i r d a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o d u c i n g the work i s p r i n t i n g and b i n d i n g ( i f a p p l i c a b l e ) of the work.  149  Printing i s  the p r o c e s s o f producing f i n i s h e d sheets, w h i l e b i n d i n g i s the p r o c e s s of c o n v e r t i n g f i n i s h e d sheets and cover m a t e r i a l s i n t o a p u b l i c a t i o n format. In the case of l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r i n t i n g and b i n d i n g are i n c r e a s i n g l y automated, u s i n g computers to manipulate  and p r i n t t e x t s . As  Dessauer  writes:  Some p u b l i s h e r s have d i s c o v e r e d that e f f e c t i v e advance c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h such authors enables them t o employ the machine-readable output of the author's word p r o c e s s o r (e.g. a f l o p p y d i s k ) i n t h e i r own e d i t i n g - c o m p o s i t i o n or word p r o c e s s i n g systems, thereby a l l o w i n g them to copy e d i t or t y p e s e t the manuscript e l e c t r o n i c a l l y without ever s e t t i n g p e n c i l t o paper or p r i n t i n g out p r o o f s . 1 5 0  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the case with the i n c r e a s i n g use of computer software designed f o r desk-top p u b l i s h i n g .  1 5 1  In most i n s t a n c e s ,  G i v e n the s p e c i a l nature of p r i v a t e p r e s s works, b i n d i n g may not be a p p l i c a b l e . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , p r i v a t e p r e s s e s p u b l i s h such works as broadsides and pamphlets which do not require binding. 149  150  Dessauer,  79-80.  W h i l e computers have i n c r e a s i n g l y been used i n the p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t y of producing a f i n i s h e d work, computers have 151  61 however, l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g houses c o n t r a c t out the p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t y t o o u t s i d e p r i n t e r s . Even a p u b l i s h i n g house which does not c o n t r o l i t s own p r o d u c t i o n  f a c i l i t i e s must prepare budgets t o  determine the c o s t o f paper, b i n d i n g m a t e r i a l s , presswork, and manufacturing c o s t s . In the case o f p r i v a t e presses, p r i n t i n g i s t y p i c a l l y done in-house and by hand, u s i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l process letterpress.  1 5 2  In l e t t e r p r e s s p r i n t i n g , the type  called i s locked into  chases o r s t e e l frames and mounted on the bed o f the p r e s s . Each l e t t e r i s p l a c e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n l i n e and each l i n e i s then spaced. L i n e s o f type are assembled i n long t r a y s known as " g a l l e y s " from which p r o o f s can be p u l l e d . In view o f i t s mechanical nature, presses  the p r i n t i n g process  as p r a c t i s e d by p r i v a t e  can be extremely time-consuming.  Records generated from the p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t y c o n s i s t o f such production notes.  records as manuscripts,  g a l l e y s , pages and p r o d u c t i o n  In the case o f l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  may i n c l u d e c o n t r a c t s with p r i n t e r s and p r o d u c t i o n  records  reports. Like  not y e t r e p l a c e d the t r a d i t i o n a l method o f c o p y - e d i t i n g i n s m a l l e r p u b l i s h i n g houses (marking hard-copy v e r s i o n s o f m a n u s c r i p t s ) , d e s p i t e Dessauer's c l a i m t o the c o n t r a r y . Interview w i t h Maureen N i c h o l s o n , 4 J u l y 1995. L e t t e r p r e s s i s a l s o known as the r e l i e f p r i n t i n g method, " i n which p r i n t i n g area are r a i s e d above n o n - p r i n t i n g areas and the i m p r e s s i o n i s made d i r e c t l y from the inked r a i s e d s u r f a c e t o the s u b s t r a t e o r paper." W i l l i a m Forbes, " P r i n t I n d u s t r y , " The Canadian E n c y c l o p e d i a , v o l . 3 (Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , 1988), 1755. 1 5 2  62 l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , records generated by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s from the p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t y c o n s i s t o f l a y o u t s , maker e a d i e s , sketches, g a l l e y s , and other p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l .  1 5 3  The r e c o r d s o f the three p r i v a t e p r e s s e s used as examples i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l now be examined. In p a r t i c u l a r ,  r e c o r d s which  show evidence o f the f u n c t i o n o f producing the work w i l l be identified. First,  i n the case o f the B a r b a r i a n Press fonds, a  "Books" s e r i e s r e f e r s t o the major p u b l i s h i n g p r o j e c t s undertaken by the p r e s s .  1 5 4  Each has i t s own P r o j e c t f i l e ,  p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n documents, manuscripts, readies. In  including  detailed  l a y o u t s and make-  1 5 5  the case o f the Klanak Press fonds, t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n  the way o f p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s . As mentioned i n chapter one, the p r e s s c o n t r a c t e d w i t h other d e s i g n e r s and p r i n t e r s ,  such as Takao  Tanabe and the M o r r i s s P r i n t i n g company, to d e s i g n and p r i n t t h e i r works. Records which show evidence o f the p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n c o n s i s t o f correspondence  with design and p r i n t i n g  c o n t r a c t o r s concerning the nature o f the work i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c i n g these works. For example, Klanak Press p r o p r i e t o r McConnell  w r i t e s the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s t o the M o r r i s s  P r i n t i n g Company:  See, f o r example, Subgroup 2, P r o j e c t F i l e s B a r b a r i a n Press fonds. 153  1 5 4  155  S e r i e s 3, "Books", B a r b a r i a n Press  series,  fonds.  Norman Amor, " B a r b a r i a n Press Papers Inventory",  6.  63 S o r r y t o be so long i n g e t t e r [ s i c ] back t o you on the F.R. S c o t t t r a n s l a t i o n s but I had to have a meeting w i t h Frank, then agree with a few changes i n the t r a n s l a t i o n s and f i n a l l y g e t t i n g c o p y r i g h t c l e a r a n c e and r o y a l t y agreement w i t h r e s p e c t t o the S t . Denys Garneau owners, E d i t i o n s F i d e s , 1949. I t h i n k a p r i n t i n g o f 750 would be b e s t . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the a d d i t i o n a l c o s t we would l i k e the r e p r i n t i n g t o be as f a i t h f u l as p o s s i b l e t o the o r i g i n a l , which i s w i d e l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be the most b e a u t i f u l book ever done i n Canada. To save time, I am e n c l o s i n g POEMS OF FRENCH CANADA w i t h c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s to most o f the t e x t changes. Both Frank and o u r s e l v e s would l i k e t o proof b e f o r e f i n a l printing. 1 5 6  Other  than these few r e f e r e n c e s found i n l e t t e r s c o n t a i n e d i n  g e n e r a l correspondence  files,  other records t h a t document the  p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n i n c l u d e some design sketches and annotated manuscripts  which show evidence o f the design  In the case o f Cobblestone  activity.  1 5 7  Press, many o f the r e c o r d s  generated by the p r e s s document the i t s involvement  i n commercial  p r i n t work, such as the p r o d u c t i o n o f b i r t h announcements, b u s i n e s s cards, i n v i t a t i o n s and m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t a t i o n e r y .  1 5 8  This  f a c t r e f l e c t s the nature o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n as p r i m a r i l y a commercial p r i n t e r . While the bulk o f p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s generated by Cobblestone  Press r e f l e c t t h i s commercial aspect,  W i l l i a m McConnell, Klanak Press to Dick M o r r i s s , 12 A p r i l f . 3-2, Klanak Press fonds.  1 5 6  1978,  157  Press  S e e e s p e c i a l l y Subgroup 2, P r o j e c t F i l e s s e r i e s , fonds.  Barbarian  S e e e s p e c i a l l y Printwork Order and P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l s e r i e s , Cobblestone Press fonds. 158  64  the fonds does c o n t a i n some records r e f l e c t i n g i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n the p r o d u c t i o n of l i t e r a r y works. Part of a s e r i e s  entitled  " P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l : Printwork" r e f e r s to works produced by p r e s s w r i t t e n by Robin B l a s e r , E z r a Pound, John Pass, R a f f e r t y and R. Maria An examination producing  Rilke.  the  Howard Evan  1 5 9  of the records generated  from the f u n c t i o n of  the work p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of p r i v a t e  p r e s s e s g e n e r a l l y . In the case of B a r b a r i a n Press, the B a r b a r i a n Press fonds c o n t a i n s c o n s i d e r a b l e records documenting the p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n . In c o n t r a s t , there are few  production  r e c o r d s i n the Klanak Press fonds i n view of the p r e s s ' d e c i s i o n not to undertake d e s i g n and p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Cobblestone  Press, documentary evidence  f u n c t i o n o f producing  generated  In the case o f from the  the work i s overwhelmed i n a mass of  r e c o r d s documenting the p r e s s ' a c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n i n g to commercial p r i n t work. T h i s i s the d i r e c t r e s u l t of the nature Cobblestone  of  Press to have been p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e d i n commercial  p r i n t work. An a r c h i v i s t a p p r a i s i n g p r i v a t e press r e c o r d s i s b e t t e r able to determine the r e l a t i v e value of the records of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s knowing something about how  the press f u n c t i o n e d . For example,  the f a c t t h a t the Klanak Press fonds c o n t a i n s few  production  r e c o r d s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t the fonds i s l e s s  F i l e s 3-7  to 3-12,  Cobblestone  Press.  65  v a l u a b l e ; t h i s f a c t merely r e f l e c t s the manner i n which the p r e s s c a r r i e d out t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n . Information, such as t h i s , makes i t e a s i e r f o r the a r c h i v i s t t o decide whether t o a c q u i r e a p a r t i c u l a r body o f r e c o r d s or determine which r e c o r d s , among many, s h o u l d be maintained f o r long-term p r e s e r v a t i o n .  1 6 0  A s mentioned e a r l i e r , manuscript l i b r a r i e s do not g e n e r a l l y undertake a p p r a i s a l f o r s e l e c t i o n . Given the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e o f a p r i v a t e p r e s s fonds, manuscript c u r a t o r s are more l i k e l y t o p r e s e r v e the fonds i n i t s e n t i r e t y , r a t h e r than t o s e l e c t i v e l y r e t a i n c e r t a i n r e c o r d s , once the fonds has been a c q u i r e d . Another important f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g a manuscript c u r a t o r not t o undertake a p p r a i s a l f o r s e l e c t i o n i s the c o s t i n v o l v e d i n a c q u i r i n g a p r i v a t e press fonds. P r i v a t e p r e s s r e c o r d s are t y p i c a l l y a c q u i r e d by manuscript l i b r a r i e s by purchase. 160  66  CHAPTER FOUR MARKETING A PUBLISHED WORK  No matter how c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d , m e t i c u l o u s l y e d i t e d , or a t t r a c t i v e l y produced a book may be i t w i l l not a c h i e v e i t s purpose nor w i l l a p u b l i s h i n g house achieve i t s goal u n l e s s the book reaches i t s intended customer. What the p u b l i s h e r does i n marketing and d i s t r i b u t i n g the product i s as v i t a l as the e d i t o r i a l and p r o d u c t i o n e f f o r t s . 1 6 1  The  t h i r d f u n c t i o n of p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s  a p u b l i s h e d work. may  be d e f i n e d  162  i s to market  For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , marketing  as  a l l a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to d i r e c t i n g the s a l e and movement of books and p u b l i c a t i o n s from p u b l i s h e r to user, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y (as i n m a i l order) or through agents such as book s e l l e r s , jobbers, p r o f e s s o r s , c o o p e r a t i v e s a l e s accounts, etc. A l l publishing organizations t h e i r works to be  c a r r y out a marketing f u n c t i o n f o r  known by t h e i r intended  f u n c t i o n t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s d i r e c t and  audience. The  marketing  i n d i r e c t marketing  a c t i v i t i e s . These main a c t i v i t i e s are examined s e p a r a t e l y below. In the case of l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , marketing a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e producing catalogues  direct  and  a d v e r t i s i n g . D i r e c t marketing techniques are e s s e n t i a l to  Dessauer,  101.  Bodian's P u b l i s h i n g Desk Reference.  221.  67  p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s to inform p r o s p e c t i v e p u r c h a s e r s about a p a r t i c u l a r work. These a c t i v i t i e s are used p r i m a r i l y to i n t e r e s t and  generate s a l e s . U n l i k e p r i v a t e p r e s s e s ,  stimulate  which  t y p i c a l l y produce l i m i t e d e d i t i o n works, l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i r e c t t h e i r marketing e f f o r t s to i n t e r e s t the widest p o s s i b l e audience. L a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s t y p i c a l l y produce catalogues, cases,  seasonal  announcing the p u b l i c a t i o n of recent works. In  p u b l i s h e r s may  other  a d v e r t i s e a recent r e l e a s e by p l a c i n g  advertisements i n newspapers or magazines. F r a n k l i n S p i e r w r i t e s :  A t f i r s t glance, i t would seem t h a t p u b l i s h e r s a d v e r t i s e books i n order to s e l l them to book buyers. Yet t h a t i s an o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . In the broadest sense, p u b l i s h e r s a d v e r t i s e books i n order to c r e a t e r e a d e r s . 163  Other d i r e c t marketing a c t i v i t i e s employed by l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s can be more aggressive such as p o s t e r s , and o t h e r  i n nature,  using  techniques  e x h i b i t s , book r e l e a s e p a r t i e s , book s i g n i n g s  such p u b l i c i t y s t u n t s . For example, the a d v e r t i s i n g f o r  Douglas Coupland's Shampoo Planet i n c l u d e d the p r o d u c t i o n posters  and  female) .  two  book covers  (one with a male and  of  the other w i t h  164  F r a n k l i n S p i e r , "Book A d v e r t i s i n g , " What Happens i n Book P u b l i s h i n g . 154. 1 6 3  164  1992) .  D o u g l a s Coupland, Shampoo Planet  (New  York: Pocket Books,  a  68 P r i v a t e p r e s s e s a l s o c a r r y out d i r e c t marketing  activities,  although, g i v e n the nature of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s and t h e i r p r o d u c t s , the way  i n which these a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d out d i f f e r s  from  o t h e r l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Because p r i v a t e p r e s s e s o f t e n r e l y on an e s t a b l i s h e d c l i e n t e l e and produce  a limited  number o f works, d i r e c t marketing of a work i s l e s s o f a concern. Advertising,  f o r example, serves not to c r e a t e a market but  r a t h e r t o i n f o r m r e g u l a r c l i e n t s that a new been completed  work has  recently  and a v a i l a b l e f o r purchase. P r i v a t e p r e s s e s  t y p i c a l l y do t h i s by producing announcement c a r d s .  1 6 5  Announcement  cards are o f t e n d i s t r i b u t e d through m a i l i n g l i s t s t o r e g u l a r c l i e n t s . While t h i s i s g e n e r a l l y the case, p r i v a t e p r e s s e s  may  a l s o p l a c e advertisements i n l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l s where they are l i k e l y to f i n d i n t e r e s t e d  clients.  1 6 6  Records generated from d i r e c t marketing m a i n l y o f the advertisements themselves, correspondence  activities  but a l s o may  consist  include  w i t h newspapers or magazines p e r t a i n i n g t o the  advertisement. Other records i n c l u d e campaign r e c o r d s , notes  and  d r a f t marketing p l a n s . Records c r e a t e d by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s , however, tend to r e f l e c t the p e r s o n a l nature of the  marketing  Announcement cards f o r Rona Murray's The Enchanted Adder and F l o r e n c e McNeil's A S i l e n t Green Sky are c o n t a i n e d i n f i l e 12 " A d v e r t i s i n g " , Klanak Press fonds. 165  F i l e 1-2 o f the Klanak Press fonds c o n t a i n s a copy o f an advertisement i n a l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l e n t i t l e d the f i d d l e h e a d f o r Klanak P r e s s ' The Q u a l i t y of Halves and Klanak I s l a n d s . 1 6 6  69 approach used. mailing l i s t s The  In view of t h i s , records i n c l u d e and announcement c a r d s .  correspondence,  167  second main a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the f u n c t i o n of  marketing  the work i s i n d i r e c t marketing  activities.  Such  a c t i v i t i e s t y p i c a l l y i n c l u d e sending out complimentary c o p i e s of t h e i r works to book reviewers, i s s u i n g p r e s s r e l e a s e s , or p r e p a r i n g background i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r e s s or w r i t e r . These a c t i v i t i e s tend t o be l e s s o v e r t or a g g r e s s i v e i n n a t u r e . I n d i r e c t approaches are u s e f u l ways f o r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s to d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n about themselves the g e n e r a l p u b l i c which may  then generate  to the media and to interest in a  p a r t i c u l a r work. For example, the reviewing of a work can h e l p to enhance the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the work and i n so doing encourage potential  purchasers.  Unlike larger publishing organizations, private presses, g i v e n t h e i r nature to produce l i m i t e d - e d i t i o n works, do not have to be as a g g r e s s i v e i n marketing.  I n d i r e c t marketing  i n c l u d e s e e k i n g d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n with c l i e n t s , attendance  at conferences or book f a i r s .  Records generated m a i n l y o f brochures,  such as  Press  through  1 6 8  from i n d i r e c t marketing  activities  consist  order cards, press r e l e a s e s , c a t a l o g u e s of  S e e e s p e c i a l l y the Ephemera & Promotion s e r i e s , fonds.  167  activities  Barbarian  L o u i s e Thomas, "Book P u b l i c i t y , " Chandler B. Grannis, What Happens i n Book P u b l i s h i n g . 182-197. 1 6 8  ed.  70 p u b l i c a t i o n s and other promotional pamphlets. In the case of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s , records tend to c o n s i s t of conference m a t e r i a l s and book  reviews.  Having  169  i d e n t i f i e d some of the a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  f u n c t i o n o f marketing  the work, a b r i e f examination  of the  a r c h i v a l fonds of the three p r i v a t e p r e s s e s used i n t h i s will  f o l l o w . In the case of B a r b a r i a n Press, two  " E a r l y Correspondence, 1976-78," and "General  series  thesis entitled  Correspondence,  1979-1990," i n c l u d e f i l e s p e r t a i n i n g to the marketing  function.  1 7 0  I n c l u d e d i n the former s e r i e s i s a f i l e p e r t a i n i n g to the p r e s s ' involvement  with C i r c l e Craft Co-operative.  171  Other  activities  documented i n t h i s s e r i e s i n c l u d e promotional e f f o r t s at the Vancouver A n t i q u a r i a n Book F a i r .  1 7 2  In the case of Klanak Press  fonds, s e p a r a t e f i l e s have been c r e a t e d which c o n t a i n unique documents r e f l e c t i n g the marketing  function. A f i l e  " C l i p p i n g s and Reviews" c o n t a i n s a r t i c l e s ,  entitled  reviews and  other  w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l concerning the press and the works produced  by  S e e e s p e c i a l l y P u b l i c N o t i c e s , Drawings & Photographs, B a r b a r i a n Press fonds. T h i s s e r i e s i n c l u d e s p u b l i c n o t i c e s o f the p r e s s , reviews, catalogue e n t r i e s , newspaper writeups and r e c o r d s of the E l s t e d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n courses, p r i n t i n g demonstrations and o t h e r p u b l i c events. 169  1 7 0  S e r i e s 1 and 2, B a r b a r i a n Press  1 7 1  File  1-5,  B a r b a r i a n Press  fonds.  F i l e 3-4,  B a r b a r i a n Press  fonds.  fonds.  71 the p r e s s .  1 7 3  /Another f i l e  i n the Klanak Press fonds  " A d v e r t i s i n g " , c o n t a i n s copies o f advertisements  entitled  placed i n  j o u r n a l s , announcements cards and p r e s s r e l e a s e s on c e r t a i n works.  174  I n c l u d e d i n t h i s f i l e i s a r e l e a s e prepared f o r  p u b l i c a t i o n i n the Community A r t s C o u n c i l News and Calendar, a monthly p u b l i c a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g a r t s and c r a f t s events  throughout  B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e l e a s e i s t y p i c a l o f the k i n d o f marketing a c t i v i t i e s undertaken  by a p r i v a t e p r e s s :  Vancouver's Klanak Press has j u s t r e l e a s e d i t s f o u r t h book. With d e s i g n and typography by the well-known Vancouver a r t i s t Takao Tanabe, the volume goes on s a l e September 1 s t i n bookstores across Canada... The three p r e v i o u s books p u b l i s h e d by Klanak Press have won awards i n typography shows i n Canada and Europe and have been d i s p l a y e d i n many book f e s t i v a l s both i n E a s t e r n Canada and abroad. They a r e now d i s t r i b u t e d by Peter M a r t i n Books o f 896 Queen S t r e e t West, Toronto 3, Canada. The r e t a i l p r i c e o f the l a t e s t book i s $2.50. 175  Another f i l e  i n the Klanak Press fonds which documents the  s p e c i a l way i n which p r i v a t e presses t y p i c a l l y c a r r y out the f u n c t i o n o f marketing "Mailing L i s t " .  1 7 6  the work i s r e f l e c t e d i n a f i l e  entitled  The f i l e c o n t a i n s c o p i e s o f l i s t s o f p u b l i c and  u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i e s , membership l i s t s ,  1 7 3  File  1-5, Klanak Press  1 7 4  File  1-21, Klanak Press  l i s t s of previous  fonds. fonds.  R e l e a s e f o r the Community A r t s C o u n c i l News and Calendar (1960), f . 1-2, Klanak Press fonds. 175  1 7 6  File  3-1, Klanak Press  fonds.  72 p u r c h a s e r s and l i s t s from other p u b l i s h i n g companies and r e f l e c t s the  p r e s s ' emphasis on d i r e c t m a i l i n g to market the work. In  the  the case o f Cobblestone Press, v e r y few r e c o r d s r e f l e c t  marketing f u n c t i o n .  1 7 7  This f a c t i s not o n l y r e f l e c t i v e o f the  way i n which p r i v a t e p r e s s e s c a r r y out the marketing  function,  but a l s o the s p e c i a l case o f Cobblestone Press t o have produced few p u b l i s h e d works. An e x c e p t i o n i s a f i l e e n t i t l e d  "Patronage  ( i n s e a r c h o f ) " c o n t a i n i n g correspondence with o t h e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s seeking g e n e r a l a s s i s t a n c e and p o s s i b l e ventures. Dealers"  178  Other f i l e s  i n the Subject s e r i e s ,  joint  such as "Book  ( f . 6-6 t o 6-7), "Events" ( f . 6-13) a l s o  contain  m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o the marketing f u n c t i o n . Correspondence and o t h e r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g t o a number o f p u b l i c events, such as the Burnaby A r t G a l l e r y Show and the I t a l i a n  Cultural  Centre Show, a r e a l s o c o n t a i n e d i n the Cobblestone Press f o n d s .  179  An examination o f the three p r i v a t e p r e s s e s used as examples i n t h i s t h e s i s shows t h a t , i n comparison w i t h the f u n c t i o n o f p r o d u c i n g the work, v e r y few records o f the marketing are  function  c r e a t e d . The marketing f u n c t i o n i s l i m i t e d i n the t h r e e  F i l e s e n t i t l e d " A d v e r t i s i n g " and " C l i p p i n g s " i n the Cobblestone Press fonds do not r e f e r to any p r o m o t i o n a l a c t i v i t y but r a t h e r t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f the p r e s s t o purchase equipment and s u p p l i e s . F i l e s 3-18 and 3-19, Cobblestone Press fonds. 1 7 7  1 7 8  179  File  5-32, Cobblestone Press fonds.  See f i l e s  6-12 and 6-13a, Cobblestone Press fonds.  73 p r i v a t e p r e s s e s examined i n t h i s t h e s i s compared w i t h the functions  examined p r e v i o u s l y . As d i s c u s s e d  i n the  other  introduction  to t h i s t h e s i s , the nature of p r i v a t e p r e s s e s to have a b u i l t - i n market, p r e c l u d e s the need to pursue major e f f o r t s i n marketing the work. I n f o r m a t i o n about how  p r i v a t e presses c a r r y out  the  marketing f u n c t i o n can a s s i s t a r c h i v i s t s i n a r r i v i n g at  appraisal  d e c i s i o n s . Knowing that p r i v a t e presses do not pursue an marketing program i s u s e f u l to an a r c h i v i s t a p p r a i s i n g records  of a p r i v a t e p r e s s . With t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n ,  w i l l understand why  p r i v a t e press fonds c o n t a i n  few  active  the  an a r c h i v i s t records  documenting the marketing f u n c t i o n . I t i s because of the way  in  which p r i v a t e p r e s s e s c a r r y out t h i s f u n c t i o n , r a t h e r than t h a t the  fonds i s incomplete, and  therefore  Understanding the p a r t i c u l a r way out  less  valuable.  i n which p r i v a t e p r e s s e s  carry  the marketing f u n c t i o n p r o v i d e s context to the n a t u r e of  records  generated by p r i v a t e presses,  a r c h i v i s t to a p p r a i s e  them.  making i t e a s i e r f o r  an  74 CONCLUSION  A l l a r c h i v i s t s assume that the minimum r e c o r d to be kept i s the r e c o r d of o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n i n g and t h a t beyond t h i s minimum values become more debatable. By,a j u d i c i o u s s e l e c t i o n of v a r i o u s groups and s e r i e s an a r c h i v i s t can capture i n a r e l a t i v e l y small body of records a l l s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s on how the agency was c r e a t e d , how i t developed, how i t i s organized, what f u n c t i o n s i t performs and what are the consequences of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . 1 8 0  T h i s t h e s i s has provide  context  shown how  to records  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s can be used to  c r e a t e d by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s .  While  the  c l a s s of o r g a n i z a t i o n used i n t h i s t h e s i s , namely p r i v a t e presses,  i s d i f f e r e n t from e a r l i e r s t u d i e s by B l i n k h o r n ,  Fournier  and  Humphries, i t s r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r . A l l o f these  studies provide functions,  of a r c h i v e s  information  information  purposes. As  MacLean,  about how  an o r g a n i z a t i o n or person  that i s u s e f u l to a r c h i v i s t s f o r a p p r a i s a l  T e r r y Eastwood w r i t e s : "Understanding the and  properties  the processes forming them i s important i n the  exercise of a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l . "  1 8 1  While the main focus of t h i s t h e s i s has been on i d e n t i f y i n g the main f u n c t i o n s c a r r i e d out by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s and of r e c o r d s  generated by them, i t s use  the  nature  in archival appraisal  has  T.R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s : P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1956, Midway R e p r i n t , 1975); 140. 180  T e r r y Eastwood, "How 112. 1 8 1  36:  Goes i t with A p p r a i s a l , " A r c h i v a r i a  75 been h i g h l i g h t e d . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e c o r d types i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s i s u s e f u l t o a r c h i v i s t s because i t h e l p s t o determine the r e l a t i v e value o f records a c q u i r e d by a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s o r manuscript  libraries.  Information which p r o v i d e s  context t o r e c o r d s can a s s i s t a r c h i v i s t s not o n l y i n d e t e r m i n i n g which r e c o r d s t o a c q u i r e , but a l s o which r e c o r d s , among many, s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d f o r long-term p r e s e r v a t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s has a l s o shown t h a t the nature o f the r e c o r d s generated  by an o r g a n i z a t i o n depends i n l a r g e measure on the way  i n which a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n or a c t i v i t y has been c a r r i e d o u t . In the case o f p r i v a t e p r e s s e s , c e r t a i n records are simply not generated,  i n view o f the f a c t t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y does  not, by i t s nature, n a t u r a l l y generate  documentary evidence.  Such  i s the case f o r p r i v a t e presses i n c o n s i d e r i n g whether t o p u b l i s h a manuscript.  In other i n s t a n c e s , the nature o f the r e c o r d  generated may be d i f f e r e n t from other s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s depending on how a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n o r a c t i v i t y i s c a r r i e d out. Such i s the case f o r p r i v a t e presses i n c a r r y i n g out the p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n i n which p r i v a t e presses produce  specialized  p r o d u c t s . As o u t l i n e d i n chapter three o f t h i s t h e s i s , generated  records  from the p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y from  o t h e r l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s given t h a t p r i v a t e p r e s s e s produce l i m i t e d - e d i t i o n ,  f i n e - c r a f t e d p r o d u c t s . Understanding the  s p e c i a l nature o f how a p a r t i c u l a r type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o r person  76 operates i s h e l p f u l i n understanding the r e c o r d s c r e a t e d  by t h a t  body, and as a r e s u l t , h e l p f u l t o the a r c h i v i s t f o r a r c h i v a l appraisal  purposes.  T h i s t h e s i s has a l s o examined three a r c h i v a l fonds o f p r i v a t e p r e s s e s c u r r e n t l y h e l d at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s and U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s D i v i s i o n . A number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made about t h e n a t u r e o f r e c o r d s generated by p r i v a t e presses on the b a s i s o f an examination o f these records and knowledge gained from a functional analysis of private presses.  182  The f i r s t  o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l a t e s to p r i v a t e presses g e n e r a l l y , with other l a r g e r publishing  organizations.  set of i n contrast  The o t h e r s e t o f  o b s e r v a t i o n s r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to the three p r i v a t e p r e s s e s used as examples i n t h i s t h e s i s . First,  an examination o f the a r c h i v a l fonds o f the t h r e e  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s used i n t h i s t h e s i s has shown t h a t , with other l a r g e r publishing a c t i v i t i e s of publishing  organizations,  organizations  i n comparison  the f u n c t i o n s and  are c a r r i e d out  d i f f e r e n t l y by p r i v a t e presses than by other l a r g e r  publishing  organizations.  The author r e c o g n i z e s that a r c h i v a l fonds o f a p a r t i c u l a r r e c o r d s - c r e a t i n g body does not always a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the nature o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . An a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n does not always i n c l u d e a l l records o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . For example, c e r t a i n r e c o r d s may be kept back i n view o f o p e r a t i o n a l requirements. Further, by the time a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s are made a v a i l a b l e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , c e r t a i n r e c o r d s may have been c u l l e d through a p p r a i s a l f o r s e l e c t i o n . 182  77 In the case of the are,  f u n c t i o n of a c q u i r i n g a manuscript,  i n comparison w i t h other  records  created,  fewer  there  records  generated by p r i v a t e presses from t h i s f u n c t i o n . T h i s  fact  r e f l e c t s the nature of p r i v a t e presses to i n i t i a t e p r o j e c t s , r a t h e r than to s o l i c i t works to be p u b l i s h e d . As  o u t l i n e d i n the  i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s t h e s i s , p r i v a t e p r e s s e s p u b l i s h a l i m i t e d number o f works, and  d e c i s i o n s about whether to p u b l i s h a  p a r t i c u l a r work are h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e and p e r s o n a l . this,  the v a s t m a j o r i t y of records  to be  correspondence with w r i t e r s who  In view o f  r e f l e c t i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n tend have submitted  an  u n s o l i c i t e d t e x t . In c o n t r a s t with the f u n c t i o n o f a c q u i r i n g  the  manuscript, p r i v a t e presses p l a c e a much g r e a t e r  the  emphasis on  f u n c t i o n of p r o d u c i n g the work. In view of t h i s f a c t , not be  s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the vast m a j o r i t y of records  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s are p r o d u c t i o n  r e c o r d s . With r e s p e c t  i t should  created to  by  the  marketing f u n c t i o n , p r i v a t e presses pursue t h i s f u n c t i o n  the  l e a s t o f the three main p u b l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . T h i s f a c t can be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t , as o u t l i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s t h e s i s , p r i v a t e p r e s s e s have a b u i l t i n market, and general  do not have to r e l y on marketing i n the way  t r a d e p u b l i s h e r s tend t o . In view of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of p r i v a t e presses, marketing r e c o r d s other  that  records  i t should not be  s u r p r i s i n g that  e x i s t f o r p r i v a t e presses,  few  i n comparison w i t h  types c r e a t e d by them. A f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n  on  p r i v a t e p r e s s e s g e n e r a l l y i s that because the main focus  of  78 p r i v a t e presses  i s on a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n , namely p r o d u c i n g  the  work, the b u l k of records c r e a t e d by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s tend to be p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s . In c o n t r a s t , l a r g e r p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s tend to be more i n v o l v e d i n the other two  f u n c t i o n s of p u b l i s h i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n s : namely, to a c q u i r e p r o s p e c t i v e manuscripts  and  to  market a p u b l i s h e d work. A number of other o b s e r v a t i o n s based on an examination t h e i r a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s can be made about the way  of  i n which the  t h r e e p r i v a t e presses used as examples i n t h i s t h e s i s c a r r y out the t h r e e main p u b l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t , fonds  the B a r b a r i a n  appears to have the most complete s e t of r e c o r d s  Press  reflecting  the t h r e e main p u b l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n can  be  a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t B a r b a r i a n Press i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n a l l t h r e e o f the p u b l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . In c o n t r a s t , the Klanak Press fonds i n r e c o r d s generated  i s noticeably lacking  from one of the main f u n c t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n  t h i s t h e s i s , namely producing  the work. The  lack of production  r e c o r d s i n the Klanak Press fonds can be a t t r i b u t e d to the  fact  t h a t d e s i g n and p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s were c o n t r a c t e d o u t s i d e p r e s s . In the case of Cobblestone Press, there are  the  comparatively  few r e c o r d s i n i t s a r c h i v a l fonds which document the t h r e e main p u b l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n s as examined i n t h i s t h e s i s . T h i s can  be  a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t the press engaged i n r e l a t i v e l y  fewer  p u b l i s h i n g p r o j e c t s than d i d the other two p r e s s e s examined i n t h i s t h e s i s , and  focused i n s t e a d on i t s commercial p r i n t work.  79 A r r i v i n g at o b s e r v a t i o n s  such as these can be u s e f u l i n  a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l because they help the a r c h i v i s t to determine the r e l a t i v e worth of records, by p l a c i n g them i n the context  of  t h e i r c r e a t i o n . But not o n l y i s such a n a l y s i s u s e f u l to a r c h i v i s t s f o r a p p r a i s a l purposes. Information  gained  from such  an a n a l y s i s can a s s i s t a r c h i v i s t s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c q u i s i t i o n agreements w i t h p o t e n t i a l p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s the kinds of records information  to determine  t h a t are v a l u a b l e to the a r c h i v e s .  can a l s o a s s i s t i n records management by  the worth o f r e c o r d s the f u n c t i o n s and  determining  c u r r e n t l y i n use by o r g a n i z a t i o n s based  a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by the  Having p r o v i d e d  a number of o b s e r v a t i o n s  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of p r i v a t e presses,  f i l m and  a r i s i n g from a  a number of areas f o r  other p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as  art organizations,  examined theatre,  should a l s o be examined u s i n g a  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s approach. While there w i l l be among them, o t h e r  on  organization.  f u t u r e study w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . While t h i s t h e s i s has p r i v a t e presses,  This  similarities  s t u d i e s of p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be of  use  t o r e p o s i t o r i e s t h a t a c q u i r e such r e c o r d s . More work as w e l l should be done i n the area of appropriate  use  the  of f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l .  Documentation s t r a t e g i s t s ,  such as Helen Samuels, argue t h a t  a r c h i v i s t s should encourage o r g a n i z a t i o n s to document a l l a c t i v i t i e s r e g a r d l e s s of whether the a c t i v i t y n a t u r a l l y generates r e c o r d m a t e r i a l . Further d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s q u e s t i o n  should  be  80  made e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n that documentation s t r a t e g y  i s gaining  momentum i n the U.S. Another area o f study t h a t should be pursued i s the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a r c h i v a l theory, namely f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , by non-archival  r e p o s i t o r i e s . As mentioned a t the o u t s e t  of this  t h e s i s , r e c o r d s generated by p r i v a t e p r e s s e s a r e t y p i c a l l y acquired  by manuscript l i b r a r i e s ,  Further analysis i s required applying  and not a r c h i v a l  institutions.  to examine the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  a r c h i v a l theory t o m a t e r i a l  acquired  by a manuscript  library. T h i s t h e s i s has shown that there are uses f o r a f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s beyond those p r e v i o u s l y being a p p l i e d .  I t has  demonstrated how a f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s can be a p p l i e d t o a private organization.  In doing so, i t has shown the u s e f u l n e s s o f  such an approach t o another c l a s s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . context f o r records creation,  By p r o v i d i n g  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s serves a u s e f u l  tool f o r archivists i n archival appraisal.  81 Appendix: Record d e s c r i p t i o n s taken from Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ' s P u b l i s h e r s ' Papers Database 183  B a r b a r i a n Press fonds.  (1977-1990)  The B a r b a r i a n Press fonds (1977-1990) c o n s i s t s o f approximately 6 f e e t o f r e c o r d s c o n s i s t i n g o f p r i n t e d ephemera and j o b p r i n t i n g , such as wedding and b i r t h announcements, i n v i t a t i o n s , g i f t c e r t i f i c a t e s , Christmas cards, menus, wine l a b e l s , b o o k p l a t e s , l e t t e r h e a d s , bookmarks, c a l e n d a r s , pamphlets, broadsheets, and p r o s p e c t i . Some correspondence and f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s e x i s t as w e l l as drawings, designs, and numbered page p r o o f s o f books p u b l i s h e d by B a r b a r i a n Press. The B a r b a r i a n Press fonds i s arranged i n t o f o u r main subgroups: Business and Personal Correspondence; P r o j e c t F i l e s ; General P r i n t i n g (ephemera and e a r l y p r i n t i n g products o f the P r e s s ) ; and F i n a n c i a l Records. The P r o j e c t f i l e s c o n s i s t o f e d i t o r i a l r e c o r d s , s a l e s records, and p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s , i n c l u d i n g l a y o u t s , make-readies, camera-readies and p r o o f s .  K l a n a k P r e s s fonds  (1958-1990)  The Klanak Press fonds (1958-1990) c o n s i s t s o f approximately 23 f e e t o f r e c o r d s , c o n s i s t i n g o f business and p e r s o n a l correspondence r e g a r d i n g manuscripts submitted t o o r p u b l i s h e d by the Press, and i n c l u d e carbon copies o f many outgoing l e t t e r s . The fonds a l s o c o n t a i n s press r e l e a s e s , i n v o i c e s , order forms, m a i l i n g l i s t s , tax forms, book reviews, and p o e t r y m a n u s c r i p t s . The Klanak Press fonds c o n s i s t s mainly o f incoming correspondence f i l e s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h some s a l e s records and some manuscript m a t e r i a l . There are few, i f any, p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s i n the Klanak Press fonds.  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s are based on i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from the P u b l i s h e r s ' Papers P r o j e c t database on Canadian p u b l i s h e r s ' r e c o r d s a t the Canadian Centre f o r S t u d i e s i n P u b l i s h i n g , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . 183  82 Cobblestone Press fonds  (1968-82)  The Cobblestone Press fonds (1968-82) c o n s i s t s o f approximately 12 f e e t o f r e c o r d s . The Cobblestone Press fonds c o n s i s t o f manuscripts and p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l as w e l l as s u b j e c t , l e t t e r , book and magazine f i l e s from 1960 t o 1980. The r e c o r d s a l s o c o n t a i n s e v e r a l photographs. In comparison w i t h the o t h e r fonds d i s c u s s e d here, the Cobblestone Press fonds c o n s i s t m a i n l y of p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s , l a r g e l y printwork m a t e r i a l , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e correspondence.  83 BIBLIOGRAPHY Amor, Norman. " B a r b a r i a n Press Papers: Inventory." Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , 1991. Anderson, Frank J . P r i v a t e Press Work: A B i b l i o g r a p h i c Approach to P r i n t i n g as an A v o c a t i o n . South Brunswick and New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1977. Andreae, C h r i s t o p h e r . "Small Press P u b l i s h e r s : A C r a f t R a i s e d to an A r t . " Amphora 81 (September 1990): 20-22. Antak, Ivan E. "John Robson: B r i t i s h Columbian." Master o f A r t s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1972. 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Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r f o r O n t a r i o , 1973. O n t a r i o . Royal Commission on Book P u b l i s h i n g : Background Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r and P u b l i s h e r , 1972.  Papers  Overbeck, L o i s More. "Researching L i t e r a r y M a n u s c r i p t s : A S c h o l a r ' s P e r s p e c t i v e . " American A r c h i v i s t 56, no. 1 (Winter 1993): 62-69. Parker, George L. A H i s t o r y o f a Canadian P u b l i s h i n g House: A Study o f the R e l a t i o n Between P u b l i s h i n g and the P r o f e s s i o n of W r i t i n g . 1890-1940. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1969. - The Beginnings of the Book Trade i n Canada. and B u f f a l o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1985.  Toronto  P r i v a t e P r e s s : Handbook to an E x h i b i t i o n Held i n the School o f L i b r a r i a n s h i p 6-11 May 1968. Loughborough: Loughborough T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e , 1968. P r i v a t e Press Today: 17th Kings Lynn F e s t i v a l . England: Standing, 1967.  Juliet  P u b l i s h i n g Your Own Book: A Guide f o r the F i r s t Time P u b l i s h e r . A l t o n a , Manitoba: F r i e s e n P r i n t e r s , 1982. Rambusch, S i g u r d . "Should A r c h i v e s of L i t e r a t u r e and A r t be E s t a b l i s h e d as Separate I n s t i t u t i o n s ? " Archivum 24: 272. Ransom, W i l l . P r i v a t e Presses and t h e i r Books. New Bowker Company, 1929.  York:  R.R.  Reid, James G. "John Robson and the B r i t i s h Columbian: A Study of a P i o n e e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Master o f A r t s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. Reuter, W i l l i a m . Order Touched with D e l i g h t : Some P e r s o n a l O b s e r v a t i o n s on the Nature o f the P r i v a t e Press w i t h an Account o f Aliguando Press. Toronto: Aliquando Press, 1976. Roberts, Raymond. Typographic Design. London: E r n e s t Benn L i m i t e d , 1966. R u s s e l l , B i l l . "The White Man's Burden: Aspects o f Records Keeping i n the Department of Indian A f f a i r s , 1860-1914." A r c h i v a r i a 19.  90 Ryder, John. P r i n t i n g f o r Pleasure.  London: Bodley Head,  1976.  Samuels, Helen. V a r s i t y L e t t e r s : Documenting Modern C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s . Metuchen, N.J. & London: The S o c i e t y o f /American A r c h i v i s t s and The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1992. Samuels, Helen W. and Alexander, P h i l i p . "The Roots o f 128: A H y p o t h e t i c a l Documentation S t r a t e g y . " American A r c h i v i s t 50, no. 4 (Winter 1987): 518-31. Sarna, L a z a r . Authors and P u b l i s h e r s . Agreements and L e g a l A s p e c t s o f P u b l i s h i n g . 2d ed. Toronto and Vancouver: Butterworths, 1987. S c h e l l e n b e r g , T.R. Modern A r c h i v e s : P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1956, Midway R e p r i n t , 1975. S i e g l e r , K a r l H. " P u b l i s h i n g as a C u l t u r a l Industry." P r e s e n t e d f o r the seminar sponsored by the A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canadian P u b l i s h e r s . Vancouver: A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian P u b l i s h e r s , 1978. S k e l t o n , Robin. "The A c q u i s i t i o n of L i t e r a r y A r c h i v e s . " A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984): 214-219. S l u s s , Sara B. " I n t e r p r e t i n g and A p p l y i n g Clause i n Book P u b l i s h i n g C o n t r a c t . " 6, no. 2 (Summer 1990): 29-36.  the A c c e p t a b i l i t y Book Research Q u a r t e r l y  Smith, Datus C , J r . A Guide to Book P u b l i s h i n g . London: R.R. Bowker Co.: 1966.  New  York &  S t a t e o f English-Language P u b l i s h i n g i n Canada. S p e c i a l i s s u e o f J o u r n a l o f Canadian Studies.10. No. 2. S t u a r t - S t u b b s , B a s i l . " B r i t i s h Columbia's P e r i p a t e t i c P r e s s . " BC L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 22 (July 1958): 25-30. Sturmanis, Dona. "Masters of t h e i r own Type." The Vancouver Step 2, no. 2 (1991): 74-77. T a y l o r , Anne H. and Zilm, G l e n n i s . " P r i n t i n g & P u b l i s h i n g . " From Hand t o Hand: A Gathering o f Book A r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Compiled and e d i t e d by Anne H. T a y l e r and Megan J . N e l s o n . Vancouver: A l c u i n S o c i e t y , 1986. T a y l o r , Hugh A. "'My Very A c t and Deed': Some R e f l e c t i o n s on the Role o f T e x t u a l Records i n the Conduct o f A f f a i r s . " American  91 A r c h i v i s t 51, no. 4 ( F a l l 1988): 456-469. Tener, Jean. "Problems o f L i t e r a r y A r c h i v e s : A r c h i v a r i a 8 (Summer 1979): 228-231.  A Commentary."  Thomas, Louise, "Book P u b l i c i t y . " What Happens i n Book P u b l i s h i n g . 2nd ed. Ed. Chandler B. Grannis (New York & London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967): 182-197. Thorpe, James. The Use of Manuscripts i n L i t e r a r y Research: Problems o f Access and L i t e r a r y P r o p e r t y R i g h t s . New York: Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, 1974. Turner, G i l b e r t . The P r i v a t e Press: I t s Achievement and I n f l u e n c e . Birmingham: The A s s o c i a t i o n of A s s i s t a n t L i b r a r i a n s , 1954. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n . "The A c q u i s i t i o n of Manuscript C o l l e c t i o n s , U.B.C. A r c h i v a l C o l l e c t i o n s P o l i c y . " Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , [n.d.]. Walker, M i r i a m . L i t e r a r y P u b l i s h i n g i n Vancouver: a survey r e p o r t on the four major p r e s s e s . Burnaby: Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1979. Walne, P e t e r ; Evans, Frank B.; and Himly, F r a n c o i s J . D i c t i o n a r y o f A r c h i v a l Terminology. Munchen, New York: K.G. Saur, 1984. W h i t e h a l l , Walter Muir. "Archives of the A r t s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n . " American A r c h i v i s t 30, no. 3 (July 1967): 427-430. Widerman,' Jane. "A Homey A l t e r n a t i v e to the R e j e c t i o n S l i p : i t - Y o u r s e l f P u b l i s h e r s Crack the B e s t - S e l l e r L i s t s . " Maclean's 94, no. 21 (May 25, 1981): 42-44. Zilm,  Glennis. 18-23.  "B.C.'s F i r s t Books," Amphora 45  (September  Do-  1981):  . " E a r l y B.C. Books, An Overview o f Trade Book P u b l i s h i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1800s With C h e c k l i s t s and S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y R e l a t e d to B r i t i s h Columbia." Master o f A r t s t h e s i s , Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1981. . " P r i n t i n g Technology i n B.C. (March 1983): 3-11.  i n the 1800s." Amphora 51  92 C h e c k l i s t o f Books Used as Examples  Anderson, James. Sawney's L e t t e r s ; or Cariboo Rhymes. B a r k e r v i l l e : Carboo S e n t i n e l , 1866. Atwood, Margaret. S u r f a c i n g . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart,  1994.  . The Robber B r i d e . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1993. . Wilderness T i p s . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, . The Handmaid's T a l e . 1985.  1991.  Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart,  Berton, P i e r r e . The Death o f Tecumseh. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1994. . The A r c t i c G r a i l ; the Quest f o r the Northwest Passage and the North Pole, 1818-1911. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1988. B i l i r , Kim [Arthur Hodgins S c a i f e ] . Three L e t t e r s o f C r e d i t and Other S t o r i e s . V i c t o r i a : Province P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1894. . As i t Was Co., 1895.  i n the F i f t i e s . V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c e P u b l i s h i n g  B l a s e r , Robin. Image-Nations Press, 1975.  13 & 14. Vancouver:  Brecht, B e r t o l d t . To P o s t e r i t y . Vancouver: Grouse Press, 1964.  Cobblestone Mountain  Brody, Hugh. Maps and Dreams: Indians and the B r i t i s h F r o n t i e r . Vancouver: Douglas & M c l n t y r e , 1981.  Columbia  Chestnut, Robert H. Rambling Rhymes of the Sea, the F o r e s t , the Coast, the M i s s i o n s . I n c i d e n t s . Folks and I n d i a n Lore p e r t a i n i n g to the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast. Vancouver: C l a r k e & S t u a r t Co., 1933. Claudet, F.G. Gold: I t s P r o p e r t i e s . Modes o f E x t r a c t i o n . Value &c. Vancouver: Robert R e i d and Takao Tanabe, 1958. Coupland, Douglas. Shampoo P l a n e t . New  York: Pocket Books,  1992.  93 Dalton, Anne C. The Marriage o f Music. Vancouver: W i l l i a m Dalton, 1910. D i c t i o n a r y o f Indian Tongues. C o n t a i n i n g Most o f the Words and Terms Used i n the Tshimpsean. Hydah. & Chinook, w i t h t h e i r Meaning or E q u i v a l e n t i n the E n g l i s h Language. V i c t o r i a : Hibben & C a r s w e l l , 1862. Douglas, James. P r o c l a m a t i o n by H i s E x c e l l e n c y James Douglas. Governor o f Vancouver's I s l a n d , and i t s Dependencies; V i c e A d m i r a l o f the Same, e t c . . e t c . . e t c . V i c t o r i a : Vancouver I s l a n d Gazette O f f i c e , 1858. Downes, G.V.  When We L i e Together. Vancouver: Klanak Press,  1973.  Dyba, Kenneth. The Long (& G l o r i o u s ) Weekend... Vancouver: November House, 1975. Evans, A.R.,  B i t t e r s w e e t . Vancouver: Roy Wrigley, 1934.  F i r s t V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y : Comprising a General D i r e c t o r y o f C i t i z e n s , a l s o and O f f i c i a l L i s t o f V o t e r s . P o s t a l Arrangement and N o t i c e s o f Trades and P r o f e s s i o n s , preceded by a P r e f a c e and Synopsis of Commercial Progress o f the C o l o n i e s o f Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : Edward M a l l a n d a i n e & Co., 18 60. Graves, Robert. The Marmosite's M i s c e l l a n y . V i c t o r i a : Press, 1975.  Pharos  Great B r i t a i n . P r i v y C o u n c i l . Order i n C o u n c i l C o n s t i t u t i n g the Supreme Court of C i v i l J u s t i c e of Vancouver I s l a n d and Rules of P r a c t i c e and Forms to be Used T h e r e i n . V i c t o r i a : V i c t o r i a Gazette, 1858. G r i f f i n , George H. Legends of the Evergreen Coast. Vancouver: The C l a r k e and S t u a r t Co. L t d . , 1934. Haweis, L i o n e l . Tsoqalem: A Weird Tale of the Cowichan Vancouver: The C i t i z e n P r i n t i n g & P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  Monster. 1918.  . L i t t l e Lanterns or. As I t Might Be S a i d . Vancouver: C i t i z e n P r i n t i n g & P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1923. Jenns, E.A. Evening to Morning and Other Poems. V i c t o r i a : Hibben & Co., 1880.  The  T.N.  Jones, P a u l a and Rachel Norton. B e l i e v e d to Cause N i g h t : Poems. M i s s i o n : B a r b a r i a n Press, 1991.  94 K r e s i e l , Henry, et a l . Klanak I s l a n d s : E i g h t Short Vancouver: Klanak Press, 1959.  Stories.  Kuthan, George. A p h r o d i t e ' s Cup. North Vancouver. Honeysuckle Press, 1964. . Kuthan's Menagerie. North Vancouver: The Nevermore Press, 1960. L e f e v r e , L i l y A l i c e . The L i o n s ' Gate and o t h e r V e r s e s . V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1895. L o r t , Ross. A l l C r e a t u r e s Great and Small. Vancouver: Bradbury, 1934. Lowry, Malcolom. Under the Volcano. London: J . Cape, Lu,  Charles 1947.  C h i . Wen Fu: The A r t of W r i t i n g . T r a n s l a t e d by Sam M i s s i o n : B a r b a r i a n Press, 1986.  Hamill.  Mason, Rev. George. Lo! The Poor Indian. V i c t o r i a : A. Rose,  1875.  Murray, Rona. The Enchanted Adder. Vancouver: Klanak Press, 1965. Newlove, John. Grave S i r s . Vancouver: Robert Reid,  1962.  Orban, O t t o . Blood o f the Walsungs: S e l e c t e d Poems. Ed. George S z i r t e s . Newcastle: Bloodaxe Books, 1993. _. The C a t u l l a n Games. Vermont: Marlbor, 1988?. Park, Joseph. A P r a c t i c a l View of the M i n i n g Laws o f B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t O f f i c e , 1864. Paul, K e v i n . C h a i r i n g a Meeting i n Confidence. Vancouver: Counsel Press, 1989. P i c k a r d , Tom. 1981.  In Search of Ingenuousness. V i c t o r i a :  Self-  S l u g Press,  Pound, E z r a . The L e t t e r of Sigismundo M a l a t e s t a to G i o v a n n i de M e d i c i . Vancouver: Cobblestone Pres, 1977. R a f f e r t y , Howard. Now 1978.  & Zen. Vancouver: R i v e r r u n P u b l i s h i n g ,  Reed, W i l f r e d J . The Empire of the North. Vancouver:  Roy  95 Wrigley, 1935. . S t o r i e s o f T r a v e l . Vancouver: Roy Wrigley, [1936?]. R i c e , Anne. The Vampire L e s t a t . New York: Knopf, 1985. . The W i t c h i n g Hour: A Novel. New York, Knopf, 1990. • T a l t o s : T a l e s o f the M a y f a i r Witches. New York: Knopf, 1994. S h i e l s , Andre. The Witch o f the Westcot: A T a l e o f Nova S c o t i a , i n Three Cantos: and other Waste Leaves o f L i t e r a t u r e . H a l i f a x : Joseph Howe, 1831. Soule, Laurence. The Eye o f the Cedar. Vancouver: Klanak Press, 1970. Trenholm, Hayden. A C i r c l e o f B i r d s . Vancouver: A n v i l 1993.  Press,  Versus Verse. The S a t i r i c a l Rhvmes o f Three A n t i b o d i e s i n O p p o s i t i o n t o P r a c t i c a l l y E v e r y t h i n g ! Vancouver: Bookworm Press, 1995. V i r g o , Sean. K i s k a t i n a w Songs. V i c t o r i a : Pharos Press, 1979. Waddington, A l f r e d . The Fraser Mines V i n d i c a t e d , o r The H i s t o r y o f Four Months. V i c t o r i a : De Garro, 1858. Waddington, A l f r e d . The F r a s e r Mines V i n d i c a t e d , o r The H i s t o r y of Four Months, with a p r i n t e r ' s note by Robert R. R e i d and an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W. Kaye Lamb, Dominion A r c h i v i s t . Vancouver: Robert Reid, 1949. Wilson, E t h e l . The E q u a t i o n o f Love. London: Macmillan, 1952. . H e t t y D o r v a l . London: Macmillan: 1948. . Mrs. G o l i g h t y and Other S t o r i e s . Toronto: Macmillan, 1961. . The Innocent T r a v e l l e r . Toronto: Macmillan, 1952.  

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