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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of Franz Liszt’s Hungarian rhapsodies Francey, Dana Charlene 1992

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RHAPSODIES By CHARLENE FRANCEY of British Co.lumbia, 1990 FULFILLMENT OF ,THE JtEQUIREMElNTS FOR 'rHE DEGREE OF · MAEITER OF ARTS in THE; FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDJ.ES ( Schc:ml of Music) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard J_ A I ---~------------------------------THE tJNIVERSJ'.TY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1992 ~ Dana Ch~rlene Francey, 1992 -·- ---- :·, _; << ·-/} _._- - - I In J>resenting this thesis 1 in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced ' ·,~tee at the University I of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make·. it #eefy available for refere~ce and study. I further agree that pennission for extens\ve copying of this the~s f6r scholarly :purposes may be granted by the head of r,ny i~· '-. : '. .·.:_~- -:. .. : - . - . -. ! department or by his pr her representatives. It is understood that copying or .;ubllcation of this thesls1 for finandal gain· shall not be allowed without my writtEH'l (SlgnaturE Department of __ MU_SI_c _____ , ___ _ The University of Brltl~h Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date MAY 8, 1992 DE-6 (2/88) ·.·........ ' ' .. ·.· .. · : ''\\Ill!~ ,'llt'1il~N4~~~~~t-~i;ij~~~;t.iiih~ ~~~ ABS'l'RACT . . The aim cf thi!3 thesis ijJ to provide an overview of Liszt's nineteen ------~Bh-A.P~•~od~·ui~a-.si which will lead to 'a better understanding of Liszt's i . . : development in relation to this unique genre of his own creation • . The works willbeapiroached arid classifled according to three main toplcs: I , formal aspect:•, the relationship with pre--existent materials, and techniques I __ - - - - l ·of thematic treatment, Sample i:tetailed analyses of several of the Hungarlan - l Rhapsodies, in light:of the above criteria, will substantiate my findings, - - i The first chap~er of the thesis will place the Hungarian Rhapsodies in the context of Liszt's oeuyrq and desoribe them with reference to the j I 'rhapsody' genre, d4rl:.ailing their style characteristics. - 1 It will then explore the circumlJtances under which Liszt composed the Hun~dJm - I ~, and con~,ider his 'possible rnotivations, including direct and : indirect influences which may have played an important role in the creation and development of hie ideas. Letters and other testimonies will also help to answer questions , such as1 where, when and for whom were these works compoaed (aa revealed by tho dedications), and where, when and for whom were these works performe~ during Liszt's life, The second oha~ter of the thesis will describe the relationship of the Hungarian Rhapsodigg With the original collections of Hungarian folk tunas on which they are baaed! (Magyar_ Dallok and Mfillvar RhapszodiAk pieceo), and subsequently will use the relationship with this pre-existing material aa the foundation for grouping them into categories, ~.g., Hungarian RhaQ.§Qgy Noe. 1-2 (based on folk t:unes not found in the Magyar collection), fuill.9.§._,t;..,l,,s\n Rhapgody Nos, 3-15 (ba, gd on folk tunes found in the Magyar colloction), Hungarian Rhapsody Noa, 16-18 (not based on any pre-exleting material -- all original works), and Hungarian Rhapsody No, 19 (bas~d entirely on£@!,~ nobles by Abr6nyi, an Hungarian composer), An evolution of form from the ii ; __cJ ~gyar Liszt's -~ pi~ces to th~ Hungarian - Rhapsodies will be illustrated, - - -1 :- -re,hsion of the formal structure when transferring selected -1 ! material frpm one piece to the other. -- -1 -A second catJgorizationwill then: be made, baaed on the evolution of I - ,-- <c6mpoaitional aty~e in the Hungarian Rhapsodiep,, exemplified by the - improviaatory, virt~oaic writing in Hungarian Rhapsody Noa. 1-15 as compared l with that in Hungazjlan Rhapsody Noa. 16~19, which consists of less melodic, ! : harmonic and rhythnjic variatipn. l In chapter t~.ree the hypothesis p11t forth by Alfred Brendel (H11sical Thoughts and AfterJ.houghta, -1976) -- that Liszt' a Hungarian Rhapsodies are paraphrases -- wil~. be devel~ped. The first section of this chapter will provide a definitio~ of a musical paraph~ase and Liszt's varied applications of this several 1 : compoaitioqal technique will be .l.llustrated through the analysis of l of his paraphrase pieces. Analyses of Liszt's use of the paraJ?hrase technique in the W\ngarian Rhapsodies and parallel Magyar Dallok or Magya~ Bh11pszodi6k pieces, will show that, in fact, both sets contain similar ' techniques of parap~raee, and thuo, the relationship between the two sets can be seen as one being a variant of tha other. These analyses will also demonstrate a aimilarilty betweem the Hungarian Rhapsodiea and Lis$.lt's other paraphrases regarding the degree to which the pa.raphrase technique is applied, ranging from subtle to extensive. In chapter four conclusions will be drawn concerning the aeethetlc value of the Hungarian Rhapeo!Ull. It i.s common io music criticism to infer that because the ijunqadan Rhapsodieo do not present the conflictual, developmental worktng out of themes epecific to other nineteenth-century genres, but, instead, are comprised of simple tunas repeatod with increaaing elaboration !n a virtuoeic style, they therefore are works of le~1ssr value. In this final ohapt0r I will Buggest reasQning to the contrary in an attempt to give Liszt Is Hw]ga,;ian Rhapsodies the esteemed recognition thray deserve. iii ia:a& I _Abstract •.•........ • I ••••••••••••••••••••• -••••••••••• C, •••• -. -•••••• ii . .. . I -~~~Li.at Of -,-i~~-·~ .. -.. j ••••••••••.•••••••••• • ....................... • vi ,-- ------ < l ;· Li.St of BXIUDpla_• ~ • _ •• 1 •••••••••• _• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• vii j ' - _- - - - - 1 • ~ckn.owla~g~nta. • ~ •I • •••••••••••••••• _ •••••••••••••• _ ••• -•••••••••• xi ' I CHAPTER ONE. Hunqadan Rhapsod'ies -- Background •••••••••••••••••• 1 i 1 ' Rhapsody as Genre and Style •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3 Hungarian vs. 'Gypsy music.' ••••••••••••••••••••••• , .••••••• • .• s Publications eind Dedicat,ions ................. , ..•.......... 7 ' Parformanaaa. •'. ....................................•....•.. 12 CHAPTER TWO. overvitiw of the }lungarian Rhapsodies with an Emphasis on Form and Compositional Style ••••••••••• 16 source of bortowed material ••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••• 16 Formal Struct~res ...........................•. ~ .......... . 23 Compositional : style• ........................•......•...... 30 CHAPTER THREE. The1ne.tic Treatment in the Hungarian M.:,psodies ••• 39 Definition of paraphrase •••••••••••••••.•••••••••• •••0••••39 Diyertissement A 1 'hongro.tse and M6).odies honaroises ••.••• 41 U Trovatore 1tnd Mise:;ere aus Trovatore yon Verdi. •••••••• 57 Magyar Dallok vs. Magyar RhapszodiAJ:r. •••.•••••••••••••••••• 77 Magyar Dallok ~o. 7 and Hungarian Bhapsody No. 4 •••••••••• 78 Magyar Rhapszc~ No. l.7 and llim9,a1:lan Rhapsody No. 13 ••• 85 Hun;at:ion Rha,~ No. 1. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •. • • • • •.. •. • .... . 95 Hunaarian Rha,~ No• 16 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • . • • • • • .. , ....... . 103 iv _l Bvaltiating the Aesthetic Characteristics of the Hungarian Rhapsc;,dies •••••••••••••••• 4;• •••••••••• 108 - ___ - _ J - - ; -- , M~loc;IY Va. ---Theme ••• -••••• : ••••••••• -•••••••••••••• -•••••••••• 108 - - i ~" Form,, •••• -•• -~.~ ••••• -•••• • i ••••••• ~ •• : ••••••••••••••••••••••• 114 Vittuoaic Perlorm~nce . .. ! ••••••••••• o •••••••••••••••••••• • 115 - I -~he ,Piario as <,rchestra. •;• ...•..... : ....................... . 116 Int'9q>retatioJ and Realization ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 118 -_ -_ 1 ! ~IBLIOORAPH! ••••• • _• ~ •••••••••• -. _• . • • • . • ........................ • 120 V LIST or FIGURBS I 1. Liszt's P,iano works!from 1848 ... 1860 .••••• ~ •••••••••.• 2 ll'igure 2. -I , -. - . ---. Relationship of X.qyar DalloJs and Magyar ,Rhapazi:>d~~-to HUngarian Rhapsodies •••••••••••••••• 23 ~·Fi9Ure 3. I - -161::h-cen~ury Hungarian dance form •••••••••••••••••• 24 - ' · riCJUre 4. - - - l 18th-century Verbun_kos dance form •••••••••••••••••• 25 ---1 Figure s. Magyar Da1..lQk No. 3, modified jVerbunkos :form ••••••••••••••.••••••.•••••• 25 Pigure 6. ljaqyar ..Qi.ll,Qk No. 9 - Verbunkos form ••••••••••••••• 26 -- i Pigure 7. C•lrdb ~egment in Verbunkos dance form •••••••••••• 27 i • ) i Figure e. Calrdla form ...... : .......... , ..................... 2 7 i P'igur~ 9A. COcQparb6n of form :1n MaqyaLRhapazodUk Ne. 15 a~•d HunaariAD-,lUlapsody No. 7 ................ 29 Figure 98. COlll')aris~m of form <in ljagyar Rhapszo~ No. 17 aM Hungarian Rhapsody No. 13 ••••••••••••••• 29 . ' ' Figure 10. Form of $chubert's Divertisse,ment A l'honaroise and Liszt:' s Ml2diEl.!Lb.Q.ngt.2i.lum, ••••••••••••••••••• 41 Figure 11, Form of Verdi's ll. Trovatore. Act foui.•, scene I and Liez1: 's Misere1:e aus Trov~ ••••••••••••••••• 58 Figure 12, _:,,,,..., .Jf {iagyar Dall.Qk No. 7 and Hungarian Rhapeody·No. 4 •••••••••••.••••••••••••••• 10 Figure 13. Form of i1unaarian Rhapsody Ne,. 1. •••••••••••••••••• 95 Figure 14. Form of iiungadan llhapsody No. 16 •••.•••••••.••••• 103 vi ' 1. 3. 4., 11:Ji:ample 5 • Example 6. Bxample 7. Bxample BA. . Bxample ea. Bicample BC. Bxamp'.l.e 9. , __ !/ - -_ - J . Liiri'or.BXAMPLBS .I 1 i , c,ardla obstin6e. mm. 11-10 ••• : ••••••••••••••••••• 30 j I . --C8'rd68 Alf!caba. ram~ 1-10 •••• • ••••••••••••••••••• 31 - .- . . .I Hungarian! Rhapaociy ~o. 10, mm. 1-5 ••••••••••••••• 33 - --:- - -_. l Hungarian• Rhapsody Ho. 17, mm. 1-3 ••••••••••••••• 34 -·-. - i -Hungarian Rhapsody Ho. 17, mm. 11-14 ••••••••••••• 34 . - > j -Hungarian Rhapsody No. 11, mm, 65-76 ••••••••••• < .35 :i B1.1nszu:.i.1n Rhng1ody No. 17, mm. 35-46 ••••••••••••• 36 I IIYDSJd1d Rh1psody ko: 10, mm. 3Q-34•••••••e•••••J7 ! aun51aria~ Bbl!PBQdy No. l.O, mm. 82-83 ••••••••••••• 37 H!,UlS'!ld•ri Rh&RIQdy No. 10, mm·. 89-90 ••••••••••••• 37 l uuog11:.i.1~ Rh1p1ody No. 17, mm. 58-64 ••••••••••••• 38 I Bxample 10•12. Compatis.-.,n of paralbtl opening measures in schubfl1rt' s lU.uiJ:iasement A l' honaroise and Liaztls ~tlodiem hongroise~1 i Example 10. Andantet !mm. 1-5 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 43 Bxami,le 11. Marcia, ~ltll. Example 12. Allegrt. Jo, 1-14 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 43-44 Schube1:t - mm. 1-8 ••••••••••••••.•••• 4 5 Liszt-.~ rnrn. 1-10 ••••••••••••••••••••• 45 Example 13. Divertis11ement A l !,honaroise, Andante, rrrn. ss-6t3 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ,._ ,, .47 MtlodiU .bQng,J;w.u.11, Andante, mm. 55-62 •••••••••• 48 1!.tl,o.s!1&11 hona;oiee11, 1\ndante, mm. 63-71 •••••••••• 49 Example 14. Mflodiea: hooaroiset, Me~cia, 1nm, 15-26 ••••••••••• 50 Example 1s. Divertig~§l!IW_Li.'hongroise, Allegretto, nvn. 61-75' •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 51 M6lodiea hongroiQ~i, Allegretto, nv:n. 91-99 ••••••••••••• ~••••• .. ••••••••o•••••• .. ••••52 MtJ.~....b.ongroise~, Allegretto, IM\. 107-115 ••••••• · ••• , ••.••• , •.•••••••••••••••••• 52 Example .\6. MtlodiQB honyrois8f!, Marcia, mm. 91-98 ••••••••••• 54 Kxample 11. Diyertiqsem,nt 4 l!hona[oise, Trio, l1lln. 29-36 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 55 MtlodigQ hongroiev1., Trio, mm. 59-66 ••••••••••••• ss Hllodieg hongroise~, Trio, mm. 120-121 ••••••••••• sG Exampla 18. Il TrovJ.tQ.a, Act four, scene I, theme A, rnrn. 62-?0 •••••••••••••• • ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 59 11:xample 19. t1i111rere ous Trov~, theme A, rren. 1-10 ••••••••.••••••••••.•••••••••••.••••••••• 60 vii j - - - - -,~.l.~ -?.~-~ ~ Je4. -~-":at> __ --~••·_:-..\.~~,~ .. ~· ~?£:-Jit"--_.\:"i;"· • ~'t"~·~':ryi~~r~ q c.;~~';;uL~~±c;;r;,,,2:c~~r. ~-~"'~' ~F··· · · .~ ~--~ ~~~· > .•.. • .. · · · ·.~ ···. I . .. . 1 i Hi•a(aralaus Trovatore, theme A, ----~: 29_~37 •••••• _.· •• ~---:--.--.-._. ~-. 0 ·- •• , •••••• -•••••••••••••• 61 21. Il'l'rovJore, Act iour, seen~ I, theme e, · --·- 71-80 ••••• • .- •• ~. ~-:~ •••••••••• • •••••••••••• ·-· •• 63 .·.· ..• · .. · 1 . • . . 22. ·11111agjprejaus Trovatore. theme e, m. -11~21 ••••••• -•• ~ •••••••••• : •••••••••••.••••••• -•• 64 . I Bxampla 23. Il .'1'r9Y~.2'!!, . themas Ai & e, ,· • . ... j Act tour, scene I, nm. ~6-104 ••• e ••••••••••••••••••••• 66 >' ·.·. i Bxample 24. Mi11rere1aus Troya:t,om, theme e, IDID• 39.;.42 ••• -•••••• e .••• -.· •••••• : •••••••••••••••••••• 67 i Il Troyaf.Qll, Act four, scene I, theme c, llldl~_- -80~87 ••••••••• ~ •••• -. ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 68 l ' -Bxample 2s. Bxample 26. Hi1erare!aus Troya~, them~ c, 11111. 22-2~) ••••••••• J •••••••••• , •••••••••••••••••••• 69 Bxample 27. I - \ Miaarere1aua Treva~, theme c, 1111\. 49-Sf3 ••••••••• ~•••••-•••••'••••••••••••••••••••71 ; Example 28. Il Trotat&.&:!!, Act tour, scene I, themea A~ B& C, mm. 112-116 ••••••••••••••••.•••• 73 l Example 29. Miaarere1 aus Troyati.Qll, theme B, 111D. 59•64 ••••••••• ~ • -••••••••.•• ~ ••••••••••••••••• 7 4 Example 30. Miaararei aus Trovatc.2a, cooA, arm. 74-9;L •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 76 Example 31. Magyar Piill..124 No. ·1 and Hungaria11 RhapsodY ·No. 4, thetnea At B & C •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 79 Example 32. Maavar Dl\ll.Qk No, '/, theme A, rnrn. 1-s. ~ e e •• ea a e_a II •• e ea a a e ea e •• ea• e •ea. e e ea a e ea .so Hyngarian Rhapsody No. 4, thE1me A, -rmn. 1-e.~ ......................................... a1 Example 33. ,u,;war Dlu..1..2.k No, ·1, theme B, nun. 26-33 e e t e t •• e e •• lit e 4 • e e e e I e t e • e a • e e e I e • e e e • e e .. 82 Qungariaj~ No, 4, theme B, «cm. 2 5-J:? •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 82 E,cample 34. Magyar Pl!.U.2k No. ·1, theme c, 111111. 5!i-6C> •••••••••••••••••••••••••• ..83 Hungarian BbApsody No, 4, thE1ma C, inrn. 59-6~} .............................. , •••••••••• 04 Example J<,. Magyar RI~ No. 17 and HungariaO Rhapsody No. 13, themas Ar B, C & E ..... ,, ••••••••••• , ••••• ,. ••••••• 85-86 E,cample 36, Mogyn RbapezodUk No. 17, theme A, rnrn. 4-8, I, I• t It I• I e II t It It• t t • • t t I•• t t • t f ••I••••• e ,87 Hungarian Rhapsody No, 13, theme A, mm. 4-8 ••.•.•••••••••••••••.. , ...................... 87 viii 7 '"""'""'""·· : "=· .. ----, · •· · ... · -···r----- ··· -· ...tJ ·.·.. . ; ·. • r .. J 37. Magyar RhapszodU.k Nq. 17, theme B, ,~',·-~ l 11111~_: ·2s~2,~:L •.••• -.- •••• i-.- •• --•••••••.•••••••••••••••••• es ·.31 • Hyncrarian ·Rhapsody No. 13, the~e B, .,.,, ! _11111 • . 25.;.27. 1 •••••••••• ; •••••• · ••• ,;- ••••••• ~ •••••••••• 88 /j 1 ·.sximple 38 •. Hunq~rian ~apsody· Nb ... 13, ·t. hetae B, , . < ···l ,11111 .• ,76-9,9. j" ••••••••• : ••••••••• .; •••••••••••••••••• 89 Bxample 39 ~ Magyar' Rha~szodU.k No. 1 7, theme C, . ~f:_._,lS_~~~;~-! • ., ••• ~. --~. -~. • _ ••••••• ~-- •• -•••••••• ~ •••••• 90 Bunga#IJ:L)UtapEiody No. 13,theme c, 11111• 100-105 ••••••• -•• ~ .-•••••••• ~ ••••••••••• ., •••••• 90 . . I . . .· Example 40. Hynqarian ·Rhapsody No. 13, theme c, -lllll~---23e.;.2s:a •••••••••.••••• -••••• ~ •••••••••••••••••• 91 , .· .· .' i Example 41. Magyar Rh.pszodilk Np. 17, theme E, 11111.~ 115•122 .................. : •••• -................. -................................ 92 HunaarianiRhapsody No. 13, theme E, flin. 148-15 S • • • • • • • • • \a • • • • • • • • • ~ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9 2 Example 42. Hunqarianlm,apaody No. 13, theme o .••••.•••.••••. 93 ] Example 43. HunqarianlRhapsody No. 13, theme D, na. 124..;129 ••••••• -.- •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 94 l Example 44. HunqarianiRhapsody No. 13, theme o, Exam:,:,le 45. nm. 1&s-110 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 94 ; HunqarianjRhapsody No. HuriqarianiRhapsogy No. Huoa1rianiRhapsody No. 1, 1, 1, theme A •••••••••••••••• 96 theme B •••••••••••••••• 96 theme c •••••••••••••••• 96 Example 46. uungadll)iRhapeody Ho. 1, theme A, IDIII. l-lO.~ ..................... e ................................................... 97 Example 47. ffungarian:Rhapsody Ho. 1, theme A, mn. 23-261 .••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 9 .. , Enmple 48. HungarianRhapsgdy Ho. 1, theme A, Inn\. 40-47it .............................................................................. 98 Example 49. liYmffiilinRhapsody No. 1; theme B, nun. 77-91:.. ........................................ 99 ' Examplo so. Hungarian Rhapsody No. 1, theme e, nun. 92-97 1 ........... , •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 99 Ex-,mplu 5.1. Hungarian Rhapsody No, 1, therne c, rtllrl. 234-241 ••••• , • , , ••••••••• ,. •••••••••••••••••• 100 Example, 52. H~naarian Rhapsody No. 1, theme c, ll\tll, 272-279 ...................................... 101 Examplo 53. Hungarian Rhapsody No. 1, CODA, rnrn. 343-3:48 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• " .102 Example 5 4 • UupgariAQ Rhapsody No. 16, th,ame A, rnrn. 1-16 ••••••••••••••••••••• "' •••• , .••••••••••••• 104 Bxamvlo ss. Hungarian~ No. 16, theme A, nun. 98-115 •••••• , ••••••.••••••••.•••••••••••••• , 105 ix I I 56. ftunqariari Rhapsody No. 16, thel(le 8, ••••••••••••• 105 -·:- - - ,- 'l - - --- - i 57. Hungarian !Rhapsody No. 1,6, theme B, -DIil-. _, 27-35-.i •••••••••• :. ~ •• ~ ••••••••••••••••••••••• 106 ,-- ! ' -_ -_ -- - l -- - ' 58. Hungarian1Rhapsody No. 16, theme B, - m.-- _1-1_6-~12s ••.••••• • : •••••••••. :. ••.••....•.• ~ ••• • -106 l I l -59. B minor Sonata, themes A & B, mm. 8-15 •••••••••• 110 • I -i -60. B minor Sonata, development c;,ftheme A, am_. -:120~1-~o •.•.••••.... . -.- .....•.•••.. ·-· .••.. p, •• • 111 I Bxillllple 61. B minor Sonata, development of theme A, am • . 67_~e1-.1- •••••••• 'C" -••• ·- ~-- •••• '." •••••••••••••••• • 112 - I ' > _- l . Example 62. B minor sonata, combination of themes A & a, ~~ 3~-33 ·l • ••• -.•••••••••••••••......•.•••...•..• 113 i ,Example 63. B minor Sonata, devel..'.>pment of theme e, am. 153-lS:6 • .....•.. : ....•••. • .................• • 113 Example 64. Hungarian 'Rhapsody No. 3, mm. 17-19 ............. 117 Hungarian Rhapsody No. 11, mm. 1-4 .............. 11 7 X I wish to expre~s my most·sincere gratitude to Professor Vera Micznik, _. ! . . thesis advisor, /wh~se patlent super;vision and invalua,ole criticisms ,·::>_, _- - _- i - - :, j - : contributed aignific'-ntly to t~e completion of the thesis. I also wieh •.:o . ··-- ,. ·- " I ---_,, - _I extend _ my appreciat.f.on to the other member a of my advisory cornmi_t.tee, . I J. Evar. treider and : John Sawyer, whose thoughtful auggestions proved verybelpful, land from whOh'I I gained' an abundance of knowle~)ge during - - I . . . 111y years at u.e.c. F;A.nally, I wish to thank my family and my fia,;1c6, Darren, i - _ for their encouragem~mt and lo~ing support, not only during U,e composition of my theais, but thtoughout all of my academic endeavors. xi ~~s~!;;;,1u'f~e~~~~; ;, <~\.:· . ' ·1 :: ... ,v, T , .. . J I - _i ,-l l i ! .CHAPTER ONE: !HUNGARIAN RHAPsoDIES:_ BACKGROUND 1 _, - i l ! l Franz Liszt (lf:311-1886) (.fas. an extraordinary musician who possessed j pt~>ciigio\la talents · '.in both performance and composition. Lisit began ' .perfo1:'llling at the·pi~no at the age of nine, giving his first concert in 1820 at Oedenburg, a townJnear Esterhlzy wher~ he was raised. 1 From this point . J on, under his fath&J:'.' s guidance Liszt toured all over Europe,, continually receiving invitation~ to perform in new cities, which allowed him the opportunity to travb1 across the continent and become ncquainted with different cultures. At the zenith ~f his performing career Liszt chose to shift his focus i away from playing and toward composing. At this time, in 1848, Liszt was I , offered a position ~>y the Grand Duke of Weimar, Karl-Alexander, as Grand Ducal Conductor and l Director of Music at the court of Weimar, which he accepted. The period of employment at Weimar became the most productive and successful period fo!c Liszt.'s composing, Liszt's duties as D Lrector of Music at Weimar ( 18,48-1860) entailed hiring, teaching, rehearsi:i'lg, supervising, conducting, and composing for the court orchestra and related theatre productions. Liszt composed a great quantity of music, i.ncludlng twelve eymphonic poems, two symphonies (Dante and Faust), seven co11certc1s, an abundance of secular and sacred vocal wc)rks, and a multitude of piano 1md organ piecea and transcriptions. The piano works alcme represent an enormous achievement for such a relatively short pe1~iod c:>f time (1848-1860). works composed during Liszt'o Weimar period. Figure One liets the P.iano 1 Sacheverell Sitwell, ~JJ!ll (New York1 Dover Publishing Inc., 1967), 6. l 2 Liazt•a piano wo~ks 'from 1848-1860. Title composition Publication date date ~~-:----------------~--l---------~..1~-.:---------------.... ~-------------------------1 i l Three concert atudie,11 Il Lament.2, La Legqierazza, and YD Sospu:Q. Two Balladeas i Nol 1 in 0-fl.at major No J 2 in B mJ.nor six consolations gwsea xoo11rtap10 Six 2aod11 ftudea de1 Paganini ' Tw&lve Btud11 d •extci,tJ.on tranac•oclante I Two Polonai•••• c ~1inor, E rnajor Fifteen Hungarian Bbmpgodiee j Ten P,iecea of the HAalll9~ At,Jreliaieus1;ta. soherzn und Marach ~a in a minor Nine I,1ieces in the Swiss book of Ann6aa de ftlerinaat seven pieces in the Italian book of &oot,s de et1erinage Three pieces of ~~.i 1848 1849 1845-48 1849 1853 1854 1849-50 1850 1849 1851 1851 1851 1851 1852 1851 1852 1846-53 1851-53 1845-52 1853 1851 1854 185~·-53 1854 1848-54 1855 1837-49 1858 1859 1861 1854 1865 This study wUl. focus on the 11Y..ru:Jllr.ian Rhapg2diaa, a set of nineteen piano works based on Hungarian folk tunes which LJ.ezt had collected aaveral years earlier from the music of his native country, Hungary. Li~zt initially transcribed and arranged these folk melodies in a group of twonty-two piano piecoa, published J.n collect;iona ent:ltled Magyar DallQk and M.5!™£. Bb.ill>.BZQ<U.Ak, which through gradual r,evioione and rearrangemento ouboequently b II cam 11 t he lll,UlgAw.n....Rll.tm!!ol!J..u..1. STYLE I • 1 context of Liszt's oeuvr;, the Hungarian Rhapsodiei1 may be -:r-::--.\~_·,~-~, -- ~ \- -t~:-·._- -, -_:_._- . - I : . - : ~ ostensibly claaaified! together with his solo piano works. Yet, the Hunga~,m '·. .... . .. -· ' . i , ,_, -- ·- --· - _, - - I Rhapsodies are dUfe~ent in style from Liszt's other piano works, not only " - -- -· - - - - l • _ ~causetb~y~e-baa~d on Hung¥ian national ftQl,k tunes (unlike most piano . --_<:_·_··--.- -- ~~. , -! f-. ; ,works produced duringl this period which are original compositions)' but also ~-----·;--., __ -_-_-< . -; _>:_~/ ... -~ l - i- '.. \'Yb_ecause they.,')~along Jto a diff~rent genre -- the rhapsody. Indeed, the ;-,':·'- _· ·. . . . . . ; . . .i ' · Hungarian Rhapaodijaldefine Liszt's own genuine adaptation of this new and .·,' - - - . ·j i : ra}atively unexplored musical genre that emerged in the last two decade1:1 of ~ • - -~' . --. i I -i eighteenth.century. The term 'rha~sody' was first used in ancient Greek literature, l particularly in H~iric epic . poetry which was constructed -,f several - I I "rhapsodies" -- poet~c phrases assigned a specific order in the text by the I rhapsode (poet). 2 In: the eighteenth centu1.y, the term 'rhaJ?sody' was f.lrst i used with regard to l music in · an Anthology compiled in 1781, containing several anonymous compositions with similar musical styles. One particular piece from this colle~:tion bears the descriptive title "Die dankbaren Kinder, eine Rhapsodie auf den Auter dee Itinderfraundes, mit Begl. und Flugel." 3 The 'rhapsody' :as a new form of music was further exemplified in the eighteenth century by'C,F,D. sch1.1.bart (1739-1791), in his Three Mueikali,gctw.n Rhapsodies (1786). 4 The earliest occurrence of the term 'rhapsody' in the nineteenth century is in an isolated work by the Prince of Gallenburg (1'783-1839), Rhapsody for pianofox·t:e, op. 3 (1802). This piece wall\ writtE>n .ln a virtuosic, improvisatory style and bore the evocative description of 2 Maurice J, E, Brown, "Rhapaody," .'.!'.rut. Hew Gr9ve DiQtionary of Muaig ...!lllQ. Musioians, edited by Stanley Sadie, v. 15 (London: Macmillan, 1980), 786, 3 Willi Kahl, "Rhapaodie," fu,Myeik in G~!ohte uod Geqenwart, edited by Friedrich Blume, v. 11 (Basel1 BMranreiter V~rlag, 1960), col, 367. 4 Ibid, . :!~1;1~j~]%\:f~~~~~~,w~~.~~~··~:~~~~,~~<·:•-,, ... ,~~~ry··~----~-~"'---~--"·i'•-,i-·=r--ai ... ..--~-~-~-t} 4 . ·._>J{~'.t.arghetto.Jon pai111~one" •5 Om~ year late~, W.J. Tomasek (1774-1850) used the I in ,the title of his lyric piano suite, Six Rhapsodies for (laoi, •6 .· . / In· Tama••k' 8 ~ands the ithapsody genre Wk:S developed into a three-part -- - ·:_•, - l - ' ternary •tructura, ~-B-A, aimflar to a song form with contrasting middle, and --.. - i · . . - ~ - . - I ; • -outer aectiona. 7 Cet:tain of T~aaak' s students composed rhapsodies and other . •.. . .. ·..• • . i ... : .·. . . works. to which ther applied ~ascriptive titles, !l•!il•, Tedesco, Blliui!sodie pa11ion6e. Op. 52, ~md Keasle~, 4 jtudes rapsodigues~ Op. s1. 8 I i ·. · . The popularity of the rh/1,paody greiltly increased in the second ha.lf of l ' the ninat-nth cantju:y and eventually the term was applied in instrumental c:ompoaitiona other than piano pieces, particularly in orchestral works (although the piano remained the favourite medium for the rhapsody genre). Characteriati to the rhapsody genre was a freer, more improvisatory "rhapsodic" 1tyle, which Willi Kahl in his Die Musik in GeschichtlL...l,!Jlg Gegenwart article describes aa "Rhapsodenkunst, ala Produkt der Improviaation."9 !1n fact, Kahl lists numerous pieces both from the eighteenth century ;(three pieces by ReJ.chardt) and the nineteenth century (other pieces by Tbmaeek), which although not called rhapsodies, use the "Rhapeodenkunst." Throughout thlt nineteenth century, the most common manifestationn of both the rhapsody genre and style occurred in lyrical piano pieces. These ' pieces had various forms, from A-B-A song forms to full-scale sectional works resembling loosely c:onstructed fantasies or potpourri compositions. Pieces using the rhapsodic style also encompassed themes of national or epic character, indicating such colourings through descriptive titles, ,ae in 5 Brown, "Rhapsody," 786. 6 Kahl, "Rhapeodio,," 368. 7 Ibid, 8 Ibid, 9 Ibid, _2F~~''1'1li3JiJ2!,1,~~r#<:V-~~~~~6T•r-~ ··: ,,~ ~ · . - -·.- -.. ·- . ·. . . - . --,_;--1 ·, I 5 \:~,;i,:~rt'a Dljjrj;J.1111dent ' l'ho#groiae fo:r piano, four hands, Op. 54 ( 18,26), 0rJ/'< ? >, " l . •.·. ..•....•. L . . . · • ·• . . . . . . . ·. _ '.tii~~t.··11 miri@illlPIQDOle, for pi•no, two hands (1845), Brahma' 21 Hungarian .... · .. -..•.... · .. · -•.... ·. I . . ·- . • for piano, ~wo; hands, ( 1~69.;1880) , , and Grieg' a Norwegian Dances for < .. ' .I .... I -_-. - . . ..• •i:f;i'~?, four hand•, <>p~ 35 (1887).~ Liszt was greatly influenced and inspired . ' .<i> . • .. ,< 0 . _.·.·- , '] - . I . .-•/t,y~ Schubert'•. DJ,urti1sament 4 · 1, honqroiae, for he transcribed this work into >' > .. • /_ -.... ·.• ··• I r. - ' -- ;hia·· MAlociMlt • hortqroises_ in· 1$46. Liszt eubsequ9-ntly used Schubert's ·,compc,aition.:aa a at~ie model for the Hungarian Rhapsodies -- piano pieces ·· "bttlonging to the rhaJsody genre' which aptly exemplify the rhapsodic style, -. .· · · .· ·" I · , · . -· With their character~atic national themas (Hungarian) elaborated through . - "-·. - - ! t - ' I . aetl within multiaectional structures. i HUNGARIAN vs. GY:PSY: JusIC I While growing ! up in Raiding, Hungary, Liszt developed a special affinity for the folk music he heard, often played by the gypsies, which instilled in him a sknse of na~ional identity. Although his travels as a . . concert pianist aepa~ated him from Hungary in 1821, upon his retur.n eighteen years later, these s~®e feelings of patriotiam were revived, coupled with a renewed adoration for his native foll:. music. It was during his visit to Hungary in 1,839 on 0~1e stop of a concert tour, that Liszt committed himself to collecting and trimscribing tht"Jse folk tunes which he would then arrange into piano works_ to portray the strqng national devotion he felt for his homeland. It ie important: to clariJ:y the difference between Hungarian music and Gypsy music -- a dist.inction about which Liszt was confused. In his prE1face to the Hungarian Rhq.psodies, .Des Bohemians et de leur muaique f.m HQru;[ili, Liszt mistakenly credited the gypsy music:iane with the original melodies in these works, thinking that the gypsies were the true representatives of Hungarian music, when in fact the melodies were shown later to be of Hungarian origin. Aa Alan Walker explainss --j ! 6 A~aic 111bcai!culation w~ahls [Liszt's) confusion of Hungarian mu11ic:11ith,GYPiBYD1Uaic. ;By regard+ng them aa_one and the same, Lie&t>unwittingly made a gift to the Zigeuner _ of a remarkable tr~ae~:ry2of =, ic tllat re~lly belonged to the· Hagyal:'s ••• The music that,Lieat heard>the Gypai•• play CIU!I& from two quite different aoqrce,; It ccntainad ge,auine Magy*r folk-melodies, picked up by -th• Gypai••-•011! their tra~ela across' Hungary and Transylvania and thell. faahionec!l by them: after the~r own image. But .it also ciontainecl po~lar melodiea of the day by a number of·Hungarian compoilera ( ld'gely dile~tante gentlemen of the middle class), whc,li~ ~d-ntiti~s have lo11g b,een known to us; the,6 included J6zsef ltoeaovita, Har;k R6zaavalgyi,· and Bcini Egressy. - - --- I .;tt. WH not unth the begipning of the twentieth century tha·.: KodUy and i • Bart6k produced aignificant studiea on t.ho Hungarian folk song, demonstrating thatthegenu~ne folk mu.ic of l.l~~gary originated in the remote Hungarian-•pea,king villa:gaa and ilamlets of the hinterland, of Tran•ylvania and_ Rumania, kept alive by an oral tradition stretching ba~k hundreds of ye-Are, and that it had nothing whatever to d9 with the Gypsies. · j In the Hungarian RhJ,sodies Liszt utilized melodies which were Hungarian, and i presented them in the improvisatory performance style of the gypsies. For the purpoae· of thi• study, all references to the origin of the thematic material in the liY!l\garian Rhapsodies will be indicated by the \:isage of "Hungarian" •12 It is interesting that Liszt was concerned with the authenticity of the folk tunes he had :transcribed. In 1853 htl tried to purchaae a large collttction of Hungarian melodies from Count IetvAn F4y (Hungarian magnat1Et and pianist) of Oedenburg, whom he understood was in debt ~nd "might be prepared to sell him (Liszt) the collection. n 13 It was at this tJme th&t Liszt: was preparing to publish several of the !:IY,paarian Rhapsodies (Noe. 3-15), and 10 Alan Walker, nanz Liszt, v. 2: The Weimar Years, 1848-186l (New ~lork: Faber and Faber, Limited, 1989), 381. 11 Alan Walker, .[J'J!lilz Liszt, v. 1: The V!rtuoeo Years. 1811-1847 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983), 341. 12 No definitive et11dy on the issue of Liszt's relationship to Hungarian ancl Gypsy music has ooen p~bliehed, and becauae such a complex issue deserves a broader discussion than that warranted by the scope of this work, the subject shall necessarily be suspended here. 13 Alan Walker, Wm; Liszt, .L.-1, 384. II 7 , -e wanted ~o verify h:is transcriptions of the Hungadan i .-,~-:. /-:- ~----- ._--- -_ - - - ·: _- - l - : -' "~lodia• before print~ng them SCI that he was sure to reproduce the _same tunes of which he \o'H· •o f+d. 14 - Li•zt'• collackion of Hungarian folk tunes were first aet into -: ! - collact~on• ot, pi-...nojpiecea entitled Magyar Dallok and Magyar Rhapezodi~, - ~; ~ ' -- J pabliahad between 1&40-1847. During and after the Weimar period Liszt -_- ,. I altering the basic formal structures and creating new aettinga for the folJ tunes, which resulted in the final set of pieces, the . - - - I HynqarianRhapaodiaa.j published[between 1851-1885. PUBLICATIONS AND DBDI:CA'l'IONS , i Although Liszt !was working in Weimar during this time, the Hungar~ Rhapaodie• were publi~hed in a number of different cities throughout Europe. Thia indicates that J:.iszt 's involvement with the Hungarian Rhapsodi@Jl was continuous and conaiat~ent over a number of years as he persistently worked on them through his travails, as evidenced by their various publishing locations: Noa. 1-2 were pub,lieh~1d in Leipzig, 18511 Nos. 3-7 in Vienna, 18531 Nos. 8-10 in Mainz, 18531 Nos. l.1-14 in Berlin, 18531 No. 15, first and second versions both were published +n Leipzig, 1853 & 18711 Nos. 16-19 were published in Budapest, 1882-1886. The last four Hungarian Rhapsodies were composed later in Liszt's life and therefore rapresent a different compositional style from the first fifteen pieces (to be discussed in Chapter Two). Several of the Hungarian Rhapaudies ,(Nos. 2, 5, 6, 9, 12, 14) were later transcribed into orchestral versions and published in Leipzig in 1875, by Liszt in collaboration with Fx·anz Dopplar (one of his students). Although recurds show that Liszt was not stationed in Hunga1:y at any point during this period, it is evident that he thought frequently about hie homeland, as all of the Hungarian Rhapsodies are dedicated to fellow Hungarians including musicians, politicians and nobility. 14 Ibid., 385. However, Liszt received only part of the collection. 8 i aaaj~th11t iiHt held lhia fello~ musicians in the highest regard as i of.ttaeninet.e11~ Hunqariaqfthapaodietl are dedicated to members of this ··'- -: ,· - - I - · , · · ; "?~~fealiion_ with w~t LiHt w1• acquainted. Hungarian Rhap•ody No, 1 is. -- ciedicatecl to:N• saerdahelyi (1820-1880), an Hungarian composer who wrote a ' - ·· .. ~'t .".1octi•• i,rhich Liazt borrowed for his arrangements of the aarly . ' . _.., __ o_,_11_0_,Jr.. piec:et but mieiakenly attributed to the gypsies. ~ Rhapagdi•• Noa. 7. Jnd 11 are dedicated to Baron Pery Orczy, an Hunguian -~ .. i lllUaician and .~iato~rat. Liazt;became acquainted with the Orczy family early _,_J J ' - - -,_ I _in hie life when n~ lived in! Hungary, he = - - i . their reaidence in I,ondon during hie visit -, ! stayed with the Orczy family at to England in 1841,15 ~ Ho. 8 ia dedicated to Baron Antal Augusz ( 1807-i ' 1878), a wealthy li~ngarian st'.at~aman, art patron and musician (singer and pianist) who lived l.n Szekazlrd, ,Hungary, and with whom Liszt stayed during ! a number of viaita !to Hungary, particularly in 1846 and 1865. 16 According to G&rdonyi, Auguazj was "Liszt's moat davoted Hungarian friend.,," and "At - i his manor in Szekazlrd ... he repeatedly entertained Liszt for long periods."17 . ' Baron Auguaz was a ri1ember of t.he honorary committee from whom Liszt received a jewelled sword d~ring hie visit to Budapest in 18~9. Augun translated Liszt' a accaptanc~ speech from French into Hungarian so that the predominantly Hun~arian t,paaking audience could appreciate Liszt• a gratitude.18 Hungarian Rha~ No. 9 is dedicated to Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst (1814-1865), iln Austrian violinist and composer who in his youth studied with Niccola Paganini. 1~t the celebration folt' St, Cecilia's Day in 1835 (Paids), 15 Adrian William~, Portrait of Li,m (Oxfords Clarendon Press, 1990), 672. 16 Derek Watson, JJ..i..&t_ (Lonclona J ,M. Dent and Sona, Ltd,, 1989), 76. 17 Z6ldn G&rdonyJ. and Istvlm szeHnyi, eds,, liftwL.Liszt Auegab~, a. 1, v. 18 (Budapeata Bditio Husico, 1985), preface. 18 Williama, ~~. 118. 9 performed a ,riolin 111010 which Liszt had composed just ;0~,,1101 .. 111t•' befote~19 - I IMDAV!M Bh1d1ocSy No. l(f ia dedicaited to B6ni EgreHy (1814-1851), an __ ', .. _ , -- ---- - _ - l r _ ' - ---- -ll~DCJariian .;.~-r 1itnvolved in;the d•vel~pnent of the new Hungarian national' ~~~dla d~ce foi:111 dpring the i840'a. 20 ~•n tranacribing the Hungarian folk · tun•• for 11111 NagyaJ collectiori, Liazt mi.atakanly credited the gypsies with I ' - --- - -· _J_ .' -- - ; - l certain •ladi•• th~t ware•-act~ally -campoaad by Bgreaay. ~- - I -No. 10 ia baaed in p~rt on a wprk written by Bgraaay. - -, _-- - _- 1 ' i ~ - ; The dedicatio~ of Hupqariao IUlap•ody No. 12 is to Joseph Joachim ( 1831'-1907), the 'virtuoaol violinat. ' Liazt firat met Joachim in 1846 in V.lenna where they collabora~ed in a performance of Mandalaeohn'• Violin concer~ - - - j I minor (Liazt acc~panied Joa~him on th,a pianoforte). In 1850 Joachim "~e ' - -invited by Liaat tci coma to Weimar to be the leader of his orchaatra. 21 i Hungarian Rhpaody ~o. 14 is dctdicated to Hans von Billow (1830-1894), who in 1851 atudiod with Li~zt at Weirnar, and who later enjoyed enormous eucceH aa a pianiat and condudtor. 22 The ninetuntH Hungarian Rhapsody le baaed in its entirety on~~ nohlaa by Korn61 v~n Abr4nyi (1822-1903), an Hungarian composer for whom Liazt arranged it. ~n a latter to Olga von Meyandorff of February 26, 1885, Liszt writea "Modestly, lat ma-mention another Rhapsody (No. 19) written for my old friend AbrA~yi, plus ,t Ca4rd6a Obatine and a very Magyar funeral March."" It appear~, that Liszt was greatly influenced by Abr4nyi • s wr:lting style as he also trai1acribed Abr4nyi' a fJ.ye Hungarian Folksongs for PWQ, in 1873. 19 Ibid,, 65. 20 Walker, Ft1nz LJ.Bzt. v, 2, 381. 21 Williama, .L.i,,ut; 266, 22 Walker, l1:JmLJ,~,gzt, y. 2, 167. 23 Franz Liezt, fJl,) Letters 1~1> Meyendorff. U!71-l886 Translated by William R, Tyler (Waohington, D.C.1 Dumbuton Oaku, 1979). 477. ··. l - i i I: ', -- -- "' - - - -::'., ~ - - _< • - - - - - •• 10 Within the reJ1111 of the farts Liszt was also closely associat~ with :~-lllcihel·· ~u~c11y· •(i~~4-1909), lan ··Hungarlan painter to whom he dedicated iriariap RlllPJlody /No. 16 · (1879} -- the first of the. later &!nSl.§l.dm - _-., -· - -- - ·-- -- - -._ -- - l \ ' Liazt-aritst have had a relatively close friendship with Munk6csy .·•.·· ,, . . . .· ... · ... _··. I : ·.· , .. · a~ he afayed with ht"' during hie Paris visit in 1886 and again during his to Lwi:embourg /in July of 1 the same ,tear. 24 Liszt ditdicat~d six of t;&e HungarJ.an Rhapsodies to certain Hungarian . . . i ' , : ,· -politicians and not:tlrn9n witll wh?!' he shared a common devotion toward Hungary I . . ·and a strongaanae o~ Hungarian nationalistic pride. Hungarian Rhapsody No. ; ' 2 is dedicated to ~unt Llszl6 (Ladisla~) Teleki (1811-1861), an Hungarian 'I j .' - I " politician. 25 Liszt/ also dedicated one of the ungar,i,ache Bildnh to Count I ' Taleki (1885). Hungorian Rhapsodies Nos. 3 and 13 are dedicated to count Leo . . i , Festetics ( 1800-1881), a Magyar leader of the party opposing the ruling government of Hunga~y. Liszt stayed with Count Festetics J:n 1839 while ' visiting Budapest, a~d it was during this same visit that a ceremony was held for Liszt by the Hungarian honorary committee at which Festetics gave a ~hort speech and presente~ Liszt a jewelled sword. 26 The dedicatio'n of Hungarian Rh»sody No. 4 is to Count Casimir Esterhazy ( 1805-1870), a desceridant of the noble Esterhazy frunily which began ruling Hungary in 1687. Liszt's father was employed as a st~ward by Prince Nicholas Esterhazy (1765-1833), the same Prince to whom Liszt gave his first concert in Hungary ,in 1820. At this performance Prince Esterhazy was so thoroughly ·impressed by Liszt' a talent that he and three other magnates promised Liszt 600 Austrian gulden per year for six years. 27 When Llszt returned to Hungary in 1839 he was egcorted by Counts Feetetics and Casimir Esterhazy (son of Nicholas) from Pozsony to Budapest. 24 Sitwell, !J.m, 324, 25 Watson, L.i.ln, :253. 26 Sitwell, ~, 81. 27 Sitwell, ~, 7, In January of the 11 ~uw~:ng yeaz I.J.azt1 returned ~o Pozsony ~or another , concert, where he stayed - -- I -Count ·~almir Bsterhlzy. 2~ . -_ --- _- •.•. _--•• -•.•• __ ---. -_-1 . ; HJUW-ktar{Rliapsody No. 5 1 is dedicated to Countess Sidonia Reviczy with < .• - - -_ ,j ' • Li•zt:~ 11Nllia t~ have bee~ - acquaint:ad through his teaching duties at -,- ! In hie bi~raphy of Lbzt, Huneker makes brief mention of the ' . i . arid her attendance as a - spectator at one of Liszt's afternoon -1 . i ' . . . : · teaching aeiit•iona. 291 Hunqariatl Rhapsody No. 6 ie dedicated to Count Albert -- _,1 - - : I - ' (Anton) Apponyl (1~46-1933), 'a politiciar, and nobleman from Budapest who I , Liszt considered to; be the "jeunease dode" of Hungary, and with whom he l i ahared a atrong aen~a of pride forHungary. 30 I Hungarian Rhaqs~ No. 15 waa not dedicated to a particular individual; ; rather, the Bungar.ilan national Rik6czy march theme on which it is baaed I - - -repreaanta "the a~:rivinga for natiorlal independence and freedoLn in I Hungary, 1131 and Liaz't likely intended this piece as a gesture of patriotism i toward hia homeland:. Hungarian Rhapsod!!l!_ Noa. 17 and 18 do not !r.clude dedicationa1 howave~, in the lotter to Olga von Meyendorff dated February 26, 1885, Liszt remarke~ that he had written ! a rhapaody (No. 18) for t.he album of the Exhibition (Grand Annual concerts of t:he Musical Association - Allgemeiner Deutscher Muaik-Verein]:whioh is to open on Hay 1. It will be entirely national (the,album), so that thero will be only Hungarian wor~ and objects in great quantity and some of them of great value. This statement indicates that Liszt may have intended~ No. 18 (and poaaibly No, 17 ae well), much like Hungarian Rhapsody No. 15 28 Williams,~. 120, 29 James Hunaker, Franz Liu~. (New Yo1:kz Charles Scribner's Sonfl, 1911), 100. 30 Ibid., 274, AJ;,ponyi was only seven years old in 1853, when fuUlSlll&W!l Rhapsody No. 5 was published, an<i most lik,aly was not yet politically actiw,, therefore, Liezt most likely dedicated H.\109iJ.:ilD RbAP@QQY No. 5 to l\pponyi several yeare after it was published, when Apponyi would have been older. 31 Glirdony i, liiY.i--r:dhQZ~ Aygg,w, pref ac:e, 32 Liea:t, b..J&t..tJ~rs to ola,a yon Me~1)Jl2tl1, 476. ~~~~,;~J~t......,,.~~l"k0f~r._. ~ > • I > · ..,--_ l 12 f, -- ' ·-a~ his . contfibl.ltion t'o the movement of nationalism in -- j ta,king placef at this time. I l I i l i i Liazt perf9rJed several of the · Hungarian . Rhapsodies during his .. -·• .. · .. ·. ·I : · lifetime, and_c alth9ugh he neyer gave a single performance of the whole ~ ~ - l '.,_ Ccollectiori, there e~ists doc~ntation to verify performances of specific Hungarian Rhapaoc:H.eJ given at ~arious times throughout Liszt's life. I ,I I At oneofhia!first conc~rts in 1823, in Pest, Liszt performed for an audience of Bungari~n magnates the R;1k6czy March· (the Hungarian national i melody which he lat~r incorpo!:'ated into Hungarian Rhapsody No. 15) •33 In - - ! ' April 1846 while onitour in Olmiltz, Czechoslovakia, Liszt played the first i eleven Magyar Dallo~ pieces from which the better known Hungarian Rhasodies were developec:1.34 In 1852, whil(! employed at the court of Weimar Liszt gave a private performance for Heiririch Ehrlich of tho second Hungarian Rhapsody. This rhapsooy later received the most attention out of all the filmggJ&n Rhapsodies, and it e1lso enjoyed much success as an orchestral version. 35 In the Spring of 1858,, in Weimar. at the home of Princess Wittgenstein, Liszt played one of his Hungarian Rhapsodies at a private recital to which the Princess invited twenty-five special guasts. 36 Unfortunately, there is no mention as to which Hungarian Rhapsody Liszt played, but according to the date of performanc~ ( 1858) i't would have to have been one of the first fifteen Hungarian RfJiapsodies. 33 Williams, li.!llt,, 9. 34 Ibid., 227. 35 Ibid,, 390. ?i.:i Ibid., 349. .- i 13 :···> · .. < ... 1 . ;.. . .. ,. :<;. In J:urt~);:,_f 185BlLiszt performed a nwiiber of. his Hungarian Rhapeodieg in ·>r, .· .. ·, ··J . : .··. , .· . . ·';,riim~r, thia ti.tcle ~t'Jhe Altenbtlrg (hie residence while employed at Weimar)• • ___ :._:,~---: _·· ·:-__ < ".- - - ·-_-. ·;_,- - - ·:_ -_:· •• • -- • _::_-_· ~_-j _ .. -_- : f --. - _: f·~~~ording't~ ~c~•tterj by Friedr~ch Hebbel (German dramatist and author of the ·:.,. ,_.._ . 0: •;, .. :····,:. .. I .: ; .: . : : '}Nibelunqeri .trJ,.logy, 1813-1863) \1hich refers to this occasion, "Liszt played -:-- :--.--,-._ --"' < - - _, ,___ -- -.". - • • • • C, ' _, • J ~- - - : <~l'iich he 1• aaid to' ~o very seidom now - ,his gypsy rhapsodies, and utterly ~iJctrified : ID8 •. .i37. . /Two month& later Liszt played one of the !b!I!.9.f!Lti.An - j - ' -. - . · l\bllJ?Bodie11:~~ an lnthnate lunch-time recital at the AltenburglB (again, no . ,\> .. · ........ · .. I ... :. , mention is made of w~ich Hungarian RhapsodY was heard). In December of 1858 .- -, . - . --- -; . -. ti11zt: ·host~d an'bther ~rivat.e reqital in Weimar (probably at the Altenburg) at ' -_ ·' . ti11hich he perfopnadO:ne of the Hungarian ·Rhapsodies for his special guest, . - ·_"--,-._. i ' Pauline Viardot-Garcia (French mezzo-soprano of Spanish origin, 1821-1890) •39 j In 1865Liazt ~ravelled tb SzekszArd, Hungary, where he was greeted by a large welcoming tjeremony hosted by several Hungarian aristocrats and magnates. At this i celebration Liszt played a number of his Hungarian i Rhapsodies with the i reknowned Hungarian violinist, Eduard Rem6nyi ( 1828-1989), and ·performs~ a duet version of the RAk6czy March with Hans von Billow."° A letter written by Edvard Grieg (1843-1907) to his biographer in April of 1870 provides evidence that Liszt may have played the Hungarian Rhapeog.w quite frequently in ~he privacy and solitude of hie own home. 37 38 39 40 41 I heard Liszt : play daily, and often by the hour ••• His touch changed so totiLlly with each composer that we could hiwe thought we were liste(1ing to an entirely different instrument. What struck me moat of all was the way in which Liszt seemed as it were to orchestrate with his fingers, a phenomenon most noticeable in his performancee of his own works, above all the Rhapsodies, in'. which he displayed an amazing and unprecedented range. of f,olour. Hie playing was at once poetry and revelation 1 1 Ibid,, 345. Ibid., 350. Ibid,, 351. Ibid., 405. Ibid., 457. 14 . On SaptembeJ:" 2s;, 1870 in ~zekszArd, Hungary, Liszt performed one of his \\· i ' ', . ,i ; ' - ' j ' ' :i~Hui\qarian Rhp•odi•• lat a charity concert, as documented by La Maras · I .·. ·. ··. ' .. ·· • .... ·. l ' ' ' . on;the 25t.1.l.o~ that mo~th (Septe~r) he attended a cha:ity concert . . ·.given! at Szeksz&rd·_ by Sophie Menter, . Olga. Jan1na, Kihalovicn, ancl Servais, 'all of whom had been lured to the town by Lint•• ·: pr~sence in • it. ' Repeatedly called for bll the aud!.,ricef he c~ntributed~oneof his Hungarian Rhapsodies~ In 1875 a Lisitt-Wagner concert was held in Budapest at which Liszt -·_- - 1 ' - ' , pei;;f,ormed liev~r~l ofJ his works/ and at a charity concert held on one of the _. -:,\-· -- . __ ·,- ·.·· ·_ - l ~- . . days. followingLiazt)gave a-pei-formance of Hungarian-Rhapsody no.11. about i which the NayH Paat,n,· Journal tprinteds I Who. can deacrilie the enthusial!lm evoked by Liszt with his dazzling rendering of ~his. masterpiece, when the well-know~ national melodiea rang.out in the•magic sounds unique to him?4 I In the Spring of 1886 Liszt visited Windsor, England, where he played i one of his ljynqarian!Rhapsodies. for Queen Victoria. During the eame visit, . I ' a reception was held/ in honour of Liszt in the Grosvenor Gallery. A recital was given consisting: of performances by s,everal musicians each playing works by Liszt. Liszt: played the thirteenth Hungarian Rhapsody and his transcription of Sct1ubert • s D:Lvertissemant A l' honsrpu.!t• 44 Later in the same visit Liszt attcmded a fo1111al luncheon at Baron Orczy • s in London where he played one of his Hungarian Rhapsodies, 45 which likely may have been Hungarian Rhapsody l~o. 7 or IJiangarian Rhapsody No. 11 as these are both dedicated to Baron orczy. During the per~od after tho England visit Liszt took seriously ill and did not perform mur:h of anything up to the time of his death on July 31, 1885. 42 Ibid,, 461. 43 Ibid,, 517. 44 Sitwell, IJ.m., 321. 45 Williatne, 1.t.Wt, 668. I j 1 -,-, .__ 1 15 -_ ''------- /_,":_ - '-:: j - - , - - -Thi:9 Hungarian Rhapsodies t like manyi of Liszt I s compositions, served not as p{eQ•l df: .kusi.c b~t ~iso -as p{eces of identification for Lb\zt, -_-,;-_ - -- j - - - - -tihl with hi'iJ homeland, Hungary. 'It is therefore not surprising that -, -~<-i '.\.::::/.·<~:· -~'.>J - ._ ' -- L • • - relativ41tlyj rar~ performances of the Rhapsodies were given , -·· ' -_:~:- -_ :\\ -~'· .- _- .'i - , '' . - - ·. . - ---- prEKlomi~antlyi11Bu11-garywherethey functioned as touch-stones between Liszt ~he'expit.ii~i -arid tae Bungariah nati~es.' Similarly, Liszt Is performances of _:--- - -- : - -_: I ,_ _ __ _ - . - - : ~ ; - - -: - -_' . -". - . j - - - I -1:he Hunqarip'Rhapabdies outside of Hungary were significa,nt in that Liszt - - '!- -- :I able to ~laplay; hie heritil.ge proudly while at the same time displaying / his talents -asap~anist and:composer. In this way Liszt.was very much a cosmopolite; he had; the ability to adapt to many different cultures through i -: the chance circumat~nces of his career, yet, all the while bringing a glimpse ' -':·· i of his own Bungari~n culture to the rest of the world. ' • CHAPTER TWO: i . . . C:>VERVIEW . OF, THE HUNGARIAN RHAPSODIES Lio&t'B ::Ji::I•.L:.:o,:::i::l:~~nee first took <f"rm as several bookJ of H,agyaripalloks (Hungarian for "Hungarian melodies"), and Hagy~ Rhap11iodi1ks (Hungarian for "Hungarian rhaps6dies"). The total of .· . . . 1 '. . the collection conai1sts of ten' books which include fieventeen pieces: books . ; - - l : - . _, . ! - j one to four contain ~agyar Dalloks Nos. 1~11 and books five to twelve contain , - . - i ; Magyar Rhapaggdi4ka Nos. 12-17; published between 1840-1847. The collection i also contain• four !individual Ungarische Rhapsodien Nos. 18-21, composed between 1844-1847, and a final compoaitio~, fJll!_ther carneval, which was later added to complete t~o twenty-two piece set. The basic difference between these compoaitiona is that tho Hungarian folk tunes are presented in more I . I complex aettinga in the Magyar RhapszodiAk~ than in the Magyar Dalloka1 also, i I the Magyar Rhapazodijili! are stylistically closer to the Hungarian Rhapec)dieQ I than are the Magyar :oalloks.1 Moat of the or}gins of the Hungarian folk tunes in this collection have been traced by Zolt6n GArdonyi. 2 The following information derived from GArdonyi's study li,ts the orlgins of the H~ngarian folk tunes borrowe1 by Liszt and details t_heir relationship and subsequent use in the ~ Rhapsodieg. SOURCE OF BORROWED MATERIAL The first book of the Ma11yar collection cont21.ns Magyar QallQ}s. Noe. 1-6, of which Noa, 1 ... 5 eHentially conelet of one theme each (unllko the 1 The stylistic differencell between the Magyar QalJ,ok and the M~ llb.AP.1zodi1t pieces and the liY.nsarian Rhapao~ will be diecue6ed in detail in Chapter three. 2 Zolt4n G/'\rdonyi, "Paralipomena zu den Ungariechen Rhapeodien Franz Liuta," lllJ:tL....LJ..,..&.t,;1 Beit;d,aca yon uoq•1rL1chen A~~, 11dited by Kllira Hamburger (Budapeat1 corvina Kiad6, 1978), 197-225. 16 l 1 17 .I ·;,,tl\~~~~~~~·•·:::l:r~: ... :· ~:·:~· ==:l ::·::.::·:~::: · · ''?;~,c.haz::acta~iatic•, £oz, the purpo~e of this. :study it shaU be referred to as an ·• '/)·.· . "\<' : .. ·.• ·i ... ['. ·.. . . · . Hungarian melody. Magyar Dallok ·,No. 2 has been defined as an Hungarian song ~_-_-_-.>: ____ -~-"··_:<,_::-,--.·_·~_-:::l : _-_--- ~- -... •· ~lody, aaha;. ,sagyat Dallok No. 3, although it ia riot known who the original , :~.~01Dposar•,.,-~•-. Li.~r t also us~id ~ha first half of Magyar pall_ok No. 3 in the · ·aacond half of HaqyarRhapazodi&k No. 17. The themes of Magyar DallokNos. ... ware not raa~t,i~ the Hunakian Rhapsodies. . > . , I . ! . . The .theme of tiagyar Dallok No. 4 has been traced to a collection of i ·, malodieil CCllllpOBecl b~ Szerdaheil;i and Egressy in the style of Hungarian .national folk-muaic,i published[ln 1843. 'This melody was also later usod as i • the second theme .in ~lunqarian Rhapsody No. 6, The earliest traced sourc~e of i ! Magyar Dal_lok No, s iis an Hun~arian folk song Chlopizky, Liszt later used i Magyar Dallok No. s for the first theme of Hungarian Rhapsody No, 6. He~ I Dallok No. 6 is an early setting of an Hungarian instrumental compocition i written by J6zaaf lto~eovitz early in the nineteenth century. Liszt rese1: all ! the theme• of Magyar! Dallok No, 6 in Huncru,~ No. s. l . The second fflstyar Dallok book contains only one piece, No. 7, I,iszt I reused all three th~mee from t:his piece in Hungarian Rhapsody No, 4. The first theme has noi~ been traced to its original source, but cont:aine characteristics of a ;national Hungarian dance melody, the second theme c:omee from a collection of!Hungarian dance melodies written by Anton csermAk, and the third theme has 1>een trace,i to an Hungarian folk music collection, ftMIY ~...YD;J., which is ~iow preserved in the Liszt Archive in Weimar. The t:hird theme haa alao been found in a larger collection of Hungarian instrumGmtal pieces in which it iii attribut«1d to Anton CeermAk. The source of Magyar Poll.Pk No, a, Elook III, is unknown. Liezt did not use thid piece in any of the ~.n...8llila.@odiee, but according to GArdonyi, the themes contained in Maavar,Dallok No. 8 share stylistic characterhtica similar to those of Schubert's DivertiBH'3lQDt A l'bong;9!.se for piano, four -~1-·-"·w=-~=~':"T':2~--: ,; 18 ' " J1;:~!~~~ ~~4',· tiQpi&9i:~:t; :::;:;r~:7.~ .:or piano, twa hands, _ · a Da·l~oJ(jNo. 9, Bo~k #I~ contilins five different themes. The -<· - ·' -_ ·'\'"''>' - .. , __ I . ' - , ,J,irat ia ~.;J.vac1-frt,>lll the Adagio of a Verbunkos co~poaition written by GAbor \ .. ~t!:'J1f ~1::. 1:~.t:;::~:~ :::::.::/::~: ::::: ;:::::::: - ' -- . - ---=- -, - - -1 1 , - ·i823, 1825, 1827),j and the l fifth theme originated in an Hungarian' i11atrwne~tal" folk •019; however', Liszt did not use any of these themes in his - -· - - --1 ' .. Bu99arian Rhapjgdi.11 l 5 - - ' \ The origin of, Magyar p'allok No. 10, Book III, is the Hungarian inatrumentalcocnpoaiiion RAk6c,--Nota. no~ to be confused with the Hungarian . · national Rlk6g;y Marbb, (on whibh Hungari.an Rhapso!ll_ No. 15 is based). The . I themes of Magyar P•ll.Qk No. 10 were not used in any of the Hungarian BblP@9di91, Hlsa.lr Dallok Ile. .U, Boc>k IV, contains three themes, the first which ' la characteriatic of, an Hungarian folk song and the second which contains charactari•tios that lmore closely resemblo a Rumanian folk song. Liszt later re1et these two thtimes in ~~ No. 3. The third thQl'Re correspond• to part; of an Hungarian na1~ional composition from the early nineteenth century, Liszt reset this theme as the fourth theme in liYrulJ3.r}Jn Blw!l2sbl No. -6 , Magyar RhapazpdLjt No. 12, Book v, ie the second setting of an instrumental oompoait:ion origioally written by J6zeef Koeeovitz (the first setting is Magyar DalJ.Qk No. 6). The final setting of this piece and of Magyar Dallok No. 6 ~s IIJ,ln,gAdan BbAP.~ No. s. Magyar Rhapqzodi.Ak No, 13, Book VI, is one of the earliest eottinge of the Hungarian nationai compoaitJ.on, RAk§oH Maron, Hungarian Rhapsogy No. 15 3 Ibid,, 213, 4 Vorbunkon1 Hungar;lan dance form - see more about this on p. 24. !', Fries, (Hungarian) a qu.ick $action of the verbunkoa dance form, f\L.~~~::~~~%:¾~~"!r~QW~j~-~;ix~:rwt~14~¥i;.~~#f~!«-:-£;:aT!i,!:·U;,;';~l}a;~~:'Vif1;;~7,.:tF'i'."J.-:?i:Jt~~ r= f 19 one ~Jf 1:he ·ia,er settin~.- of this ;theme but is b_y no means the final " : <>_,,,-,,:. - - - . - -0 ,_ :., - --_ - -- ;-,1 -_ : ' - - - ' ' i · /;:=.,:a:;tting, ;becauae~Liszt arranged and rearranged this Hungarian national .theme < ?C,'.} : : . , .' :' > J - -. --,- : - ---- : - --:~y t.ime~/thro1:1,9ho~t his -comppsitional career. '::·,,-· ~- - ·:_:;-----.-_-~\ __ ,<--i-:~:;_·"-:,_~_:,_' <_ l . . . :-- -_- - f Magyar,~ Rhapagcdi6k No~ 14, Book VII, contains four themelll, each of . '~hi~h L.i.~z~ utifizl in Hung~rian Rhap~ody No. 11. The source of these -C-iY.- --_- - < > l · - , ~h~s is unlu\own, but they al~ possess ~trong characteristics of Hungarian calrd'8 d_ance tunes. Liazt•reaet t~e first thJ:"ee themes of Magyar RhapszodUik No. 15, Book VIII, in Hungarian Rhapsody No. 7, and ail three themes have been traced to - - -- - - ; I -a collection: of Hun~arian song;melodies, 'dating from c. 1832-1843. The ! fourth theme of Magyar Rhapszodi6k No. 15 is a variant of an Hungarian folk 1 ' ' -song, but was not reusod in any of the Hungarian Rhapsodies. - i -J,laqyar Rhapsz~diAk No. 16, Book IX, an early setting of Hungarian Rhapsody No. 10, is~ compilation of Hungarian melodies, most of which were composed by B6ni Egrlssy to wh~m the piece. is dedicated. The origins of the ' remaining themes hav~ not been traced, but they all contain characteriotics of Hungarian folk tuhes. All five them~s in li§gy_ar Rhapszodiak No. 17, Book x, are Hungarian folk tunes, each ori~Jinating from a different source. The first theme comes from a collection of :Hungarian national folk songs, dating from c. 1832-1843, and the second thert1e is the first half of a folk song belonging to a different collection, published in 1846, The thitd theme is an instrumental variation of an Hungarian folk song which was later published in a work by Liszt, entitled ~onia. The. fourth theme which Liszt first used as the second half of Magya1· Dallok No. 3, originated in an eighteenth-century folk song. The last theme has been labelled by Glirdonyi simply as a cs&rd~s Etong, otherwise, its exact source is unknown, All the themes in Magyar RhaI,?ego_gill No. 17 except the fo\trth, were later arranged in Hungarian Rha12sod_y No. 13. Number 18 (unpublished) contatns £our themes, thre'!l of which X.its:tt arranged in Hunaa,!111 Rhapsogy No. 12 • The first theme has been traced to tho Adagio section c•f a cotlrdlis composition written by Mark R6zsavcHgyi, ,· ~:,__~·:::, ?:,:.=-~: .. -i . . . ,, :. ' 20 ~,~Ylff ~,~l!!f ~,t;:t:~~.·:rL:: .:::::. :t:::~~~:=~= .,~/Lj:cil.lect~~n,:t9j,hich1the third theme of Magynr Dallok No. 7 has. been traced). \;:g,·;c;,,\··-, ?'?:\( : ,·.J . ·· .. · . f . · : ·· ·. -/:tThia folk'iuna wail also published in 182.6 as part 0:f a Trio in a collection Ttr;H~~;;·:;;~;,~i fo{~. '.faic •. The source of .the third then\,, iB u~own fl!ld vttry'poasibly Liaz~ inay have composed it himself; this theme was. '< , 's ·-:· >,,. I . . . r .•. •. . •.. .· . . . )tot r•uaed in any 'i:Sf the Hungaii:ian Rhapsodies. The fifth theme is derived C/'" · ' .c._.c ''C:' · .. , ! · . c · · · ' . ; from the-friila aect~on of an instrumental Fantasy, written by B6ni Egreasy in i 1 Numl:>t!tr 19 (u~published)t is the early setting of three themes which -- -l later rearr~ged in Hungarian Rhapsody No. 8. The first theme ia an -- -. - l old Magyar song, "tn the rushes that's• the Duck's home", w~1ich was later - 1 published in 1846. t The secoz:id theme comes from a csArdaa composition, "Gay i ' ' . Caprice", written by R6zsav6lgyi, published in 1846, and the last thet!,,o is a - 1 -dance melody from t~e Tolma Wedding Collection published in 1840, which Liszt first h~ard · i.n 1846). 7 ' . Number 20 wa~ published posthumously and contains five themes. The first theme comes ; from a collection of Hungarian so· ,g melodies written between c. 1832-1843 (the samo collection to which the first theme of Magyar Rhapszodilk No. 17 :has been traced); Lilazt later reueed this melody for the third theme of Hungarian Rhapsody No. 6. The aecond, thlrd and fourth themes of Number 20 are all derived from folk dance melodies, and contain Rumanian characteristics, ae1 defined by Gardonyi' s labelling of them: No. 2 "Hora batraneasca", No. ~I "Batuta" dance, No. 4 "Molda\ilsche Corabeasca" •8 The last theme of lln!ilAtische RhapJ!odien No. 20 which Liszt reused ae the fifth theme of Hungarian l\hapeody No. 12, has been traced to a tune in the music of the Hungarian folk play, I!...£..~, published in 1847. Thie theme ha~ also 6 Alan Walker, E.rnnz Liszt. v, 2: The Weimat:., Years, 1848-18§1, (London: Faber and Faber Limited, 1989), 382. 7 Ibid., 383. 8 G&rdonyi, "Paralipomena," 216. - .,.- - ---x·f'I' L.n.&.."a-\_~'--~...-.<L··- ·1:.Q;;,,.;.'-a-~_-. _____ :_ ·~--~....:....;th~:... ·-·---·- --·~a,~w-,-;;-·';,i;··-·;;,:!·-_-_,._c-.· 21 uaeii .trithe CC?ffip0Sition "~zeg;edy cs.rdis", found in the Nagy potpourri - -; ', _- - ·-. ' -:._ :_~--' 1 -. ~ Mi1~r;21 · cunlublished) tc:ontains an early setting of several themes .·_·-.-_.<.! ·- 1 r- , - - I .. which Liazt later reµsed in Hungarian Rhapsody No. 14. The first and second - i · '\~'1illnes hjv• 'not been! traced to :epecific sources, however both themes contain I ' cllai:acte,:J,li~ica of>11ungarian ~ollt song melodies. The, source of the third ~~b11111e i~ - al.1110 unknJwn, · but it contains characteristically abi::upt ending a~ct:ions as ;n .the -~lungarian Verbunkos dance. The original source of the I - . . - - - . I . fourth themiit of Number 21 is not known; however, Liszt 11,sed this theme in the . - . -. --- ._.- - - . - _, 1 ' cdrdleeaction of Eungarian$iapsody No. 12 and later as one of the last j : .. - - - : ·I I themes in HynqvianRhapsody No. 14. - ' l The fifth themr, which Li;szt most likely derived from an Hungarian folk t ' . song or folk dance! was notated for the first time in Number 21 (1846); however, the first pkrt of the.theme has been subsequently used in the music ' of the firat two ac~s of the Hungarian folk play, A csik6s (1847), and the eecond part of the theme has been included in a collected set of csardas , - ! ' pieces edited by EdeiBartay and published in 1852. The last theme of Number 21, which also exJ.!sts in the Pesther Carneval· composition, was later published in several collections of Hungarian national folk songs but its origin is unknown. The final piece belon1ing to Liszt'o first c~llection of Hungarian folk tunes is the rhapsody cycle Eg,ather carnem]., consisting of six themes, the first five which LiE1zt later rearranged in Hungarian Rhapsody:_ No. 9. The sources of the first three themes have not been traced but it is estimated that they were all di:1rived from Hungarian csardas compositions. The sE1cond theme has also been published in a separate csardAs piece, c. 1852. The fourth theme is a vax·iation of an Hungarian folk song which was subsequontly published in a collE!iction of csArdAs cornpcsitions, c. ~81;0, and the fifth theme was also traced to an Hungarian csardAs piece, published inc. 1847. Liszt reueed the sb:th theme in Hungarian Rhapsody No. 14 ( its o:dgin is described above as the sixth theme of Number 21). : 22 .. <;.' "'Si;,y The ~ra~11d+~g, cUscuaaio~ . shows that Liszt constructed most of the ~: ~<Hungarian Rhapaodiea from a co~ination of themes taken from certain of the ' .-.· lijggyar Dallgll; and H~lar RhapHodiik -.;,iec,s. The remaining themes that have ,;·t·· · >. ?> ) >: . ·1 . . ... . l ··.··; · ·.not been . accounted . for are those in euhgarian. Rhapsodies _Nos. 16-19 and . 'J':/ .. ·. . . \: .•. ; I . . . '.·. .. 'eunaarimfRHapaodiaaiNo~. 1-2. Hungarian Rhapsodies Nos. 16-18 are comprised <a~f-tJ.azt'•a ~ 6rigi,Ja1 'themes (newly composed) and Hungarian Rhapsody No. 19 ·.,:_> _··-_ - - - ·o- ~- .--_._, .-- - l > j- -· ill based ent~rely on Jthemes fro~ Abrmiyi' s Csardas nobles. The themes in the . -.. _ -,·:_ _ I .-, t- · flrat two. Hungarian I Rhapaodie-, were not derived from the earlier Magyar .• . . ·..... . j • collection,: but theyj are of Hungarian folk origin. Liszt borrowed the first - - - l ! • theme of Hyrigarian R)iapsody, No.' 1 from a s'ong used in the Hungarian folk play ' - - ! -- ' ! UY pis~toly ( 1844) , I composed by Liszt and Franz Erkel. The second theme is i an Hungarian national song attributed to Gaspar Bernat, publist.ed in 1847, and the third theme.~£ Hungarian Rhapsody No. 1 is also an Hungarian national song, written byKarply Thern and published sometime in the late 1840's. Although all the themes in Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 contain J characteristics of Hungarian folk dances (with the exception of the first theme which is more ~umanian than Hungarian in character), none of the them have been traced to their original sources. The source of certain themes that Liszt used in the Hungm.£!.ml RhAJ>sog).g but which were not first transcribed in the Magyar collection remains unknown, th~refore, these themes have been labelled according to their characteristica simply as Hungarian folk tunes. Figure Two illustrates the rela1:ionship between the Magyar Dallok and Magyar Rhapezodiak piecen and the Hungarian Rhapsodies. The Hungarian Rhapsodies may thus be grouped into categories based on the relationship to t:he .,··1at:dsting Magyar Dallojss and Magyar Rhapszodit,a.!s:s: 1) Hungarian Rhapsod.ies Nos. 1-2 are compriseq of· Hungarian folktuneEl not found in the Magyai~ collection, 2) Hungarian Rhapsodies Noa. 3-15 are comprised of Hungarian folktu.nes all previously used in the Magyar collection, and 3) Hungarian Rhapsodies Nos, 16-18 are original works, not baaed on pre-existing material. It appaars that with §ynaar!an Rh!;ruJ..Q.9~ ··,1?N ;}1 );{ ;ifiI~f.I;ii):~{J·· l ·'~·\J .,/·1 23 __ -! ;~~f $Rllf ~~:~:1:4,:e:1::::l~.:::::0 •0·::b:::~z :y};•tt11tirely c,niib~inyi';s Cs6,rd'8 nobles). In this study Hungarian Rhapsody No. ---: _,_.--=·~<"--;~',:"-'. .~-~. C .- , _- a_._,_-,_:-· .. -,·: -,~ -,_ .. ,-_··, - - _- f :_"·,-:-. __ " ; , 019\,,ni riot be ana~yzed specifically, but conclusions made about certain \~11t,ect~ }~,. other>~ungarian 'Rhapsodies will also be relevant to its · c~position1al ~e-4p. j Ralation•hipof MagyarDallok' andMagyarRhapszodia.k t.o'.· l{un@tian · Rhaps~dies. · MD 1, Book Ij " 2, " 1; " 3, "· . I' n 4, " II - HR VI " 5, " Ii - HR VI n 6, " Ij - HR V " '7, " II - HR IV " 8, " 1h " 9, " III " 10, " IV " 11, " IV - HR III, MR 12, " V - HR V " 13, n v± - HR xv " 14, " VII - HR XI " 15, " VIII - HR VII " 16, " Il~ - HR X n 17, n x· - HR XIII Nr 18, - HR XII " 19, - HR VIII " 20, - HR VI, " 21, - HR XIV Pesther Carneval - HR IX, MD= Magyar Dallok MR= Magyar Rhapszodiak Nr = Number FORMAL STRUCTURES HRVI HR XII HR XIV HR I " II " III - MD 11 n IV - MD 7 " V - MD 6, MR 12 " VI - a), MD 5; b), MD 4; c), Nr 20; d), MD 11 n VII - MR 15 R VIII - Nr 19 n IX - Pester Carneval " X - MR 16 ti XI - MR 14 ti XII - a), b), d), Nr 18; e), Nr 20 " XIII - MR 17 n XIV -a)-e), Nr 21 f), Pester Carneval n xv - MR 13 " XVI - original n XVII - original " XVIII - original n XIX - Csardaa nobles (Abranyi) HR= Hungarian Rhapsody small case letter= theme A detailed lt)Ok at th1t formal structure of pieces from both sets reveals an evolution of form from the Magyar Qallok and Magyar Rhaps~ogia~ pieces to the H!!n,g§rian Rhapsodies. The present analysis shows that Liszt used the sixteenth .. century Hungarian dance form as a fundamental modal for 24 , - ' 0 ·;),ia early." if~~garian . compoaitioiia. seems to haw! . fo.itially employed a ''1}1f ;;~;~¢ ::rj:.t}::t;: ~==:..:0~~~:;·::~n w!: . . ,1;~an11tfarr:~11g?fi,l9,p~~ Ka~ar melodies to .the Hungarian Rhapsodies• · · Thtt i~~{·~el that Li~zt used for the Magyar Dallok and Magyar .. , .>. ' . ,/. ·.· j .. ·. ..,· Rhapazodif,Jppi.-cea is the Hunga#an Verbunkos dance form. The Verbunkos has }L·' . , J'. c ' ! . . ~·. . . · .. •.. : i~a o~,ig~a,x ~Ii the! simple H~ngarian fc;,lk dance which was \.Bed in the '.-:;_:::,- .. '>_:-:: _: _' ~--.-. - :_,_\::.- -_ :~i :~ :_ ·: . a~~enth ,;:e~tury by the Hung~rians as a form of entertainment. In ihe , •. ·- .· - • . • . I . . 'tti.ghteenth" cent~ry !(1715) during the x'mperial wars the dance b.igan to . ••; - ·. ___ . _- i function in ,tlie pre>c:ess of military recr'ilitment, thus gaining the title of • . . . • j ;.V~rbunkoa~" after !the Germa~ "WerbunJ" '-,, > i i recruiting ceremony j consisted i of soldiers (meaning "to recruit"). 9 The recruiting new men from nearby villages for the arµty. 1 The ;soldiers danced to simple folk tunes which consisted of alternating quic:k and slow sections; and the gypsies who i performed the accomp~rying instrumental music played in a highly improvised style to· complement! the skillful dancing. The rtacruitment process was terminated in 1849 ! as a result of the Austrian conscription, but the Verbunkos dance contlnued to flourish. Altho~gh the Verbunkos dance was not a creation of the gypsies, under their influence it w'.as interspersed w~th other Hungarian musical r,tyle£1 and eventually became a i:epresentation of their improvisatory performance st:yle. - t , In its earliest form (sixteenth century) t:he Hungarian dance consisted of two symmetrical sections set up ~.n an antecedent-consequent deeign ( slow-filst), with a ~ifect cadence at the end of each section creating a simple harmonic etri.,ature ( see Figv.re 3) • Figure 3. l,.6th-centur~ Hunga.r.ian dance form. I L V B V - I 9 Benj a.min Rajeczky, "Verbunkos, " Qig_~ in Geschichte und C'.e_g•J!.,Qwart, edited by Friedrich Blume, v.13 (Basel: Barenreiter Verlag, 1960), col. 1419. 25 > . 9:'~ ~~,~:rr.:: ·~·' .. t.:. :~lt~:=::.~::·::.:: · · -; '~- called 'laaau' alternating with a quicker section called 'fries' , a middle I~~!i{,f_l~{~J.nk• ... biia~/ilrmed .•cusi• (often there was _more than one disz per. ~ ' . ! '4¥)!,l/J,Jid'},~tiOn, siadiar ti>." co~a, called the 'fj.giira' cseo·Fl.gure ' ' --~ .. · i' l ·•. l 18th-century Verbunkos dance form. . . .; . ,._ . I ' ! ' ; . . - .... : .. ; Laaau-Pr.iss (alt:arnat~d) ! / Diaz (tr.i.o) / Figura (ccida - return of la~su-friss material) ·, - -. - -~ - ; , ._ - -. --- : .-- , .. - . i 'l'he eigh~~nth.;..cerit11fy Verbunkos· dance consisted _of a• ternary structure with the return and. oft.;.~ subsequent; elaboration of opening material at the enci. HAg,var Dallok Nos. ~-6 (simple settings of Hungarian melodies) contain a l ' m.:idest version of th;is ':hree-part Verbunkos form, consisting essentially of · one or two Hungarian :melodfa~s presented in two to three different variations, j and often with new m~terial with characterist'ics of the fries appearing only in the figura (see Figure 5). ! Figure 5. Magyar DJ!!.l:,gk No •. '3 - modified Verbunkos form • . ! Sehr langsam Molt'.o pronunciato Esprassivo ed agitate la l'lielodia mm.1-B 9--16 17-32 A Al A2 LASSU DISZ FIGURA (fries) In Magyar Dallok Nos. 7-11, Liszt included more melodies in a greater variety of elaborations than ~&:....Dallolf. Noe. 1-6. He also utilized a more sophiaticated Verbunkos form, wi~h alternating lassu and fries sections 10 Johns. Weissmann, "Verbunkos," The.New Grove Dictionary of Muru,.Q....Alli! MusiRian~, edited by Stanley Sadie, v. 19 (London: Macmillan, 1980), 630. .26 . t.::t ::.r?j . (containing alternating slow and :fast elilborations .of Hungarian melodiEUI), ,.'-~ - ~ ,, t q ~ ' :·often two or,· three abort disz :sections, ,and a fi.gµra which reelaboratea a , -· tW{Jttf ~l~y f~tlm ~~e firej laBBu-fr~BB aectioti (see Figu;ee 6). , < } ! -.··· ;J/\\·:::;~-'· '·l : 6~ 'pallok No. 9 1 ~ verbunkos form. tent~ Q(i~~J. :;f.~to 1-43 A. . - .. :- :~>.1 : 44-11~ : ! j _, Mol.to menomoliso I-'· 114-i-121 A .·_ I.Af$SU/ ·~ISS .alt~J:'natirig m~lodias Alternative 121-149 150..;225 C DISZ B (fries) Coma Prima 226-249 A FIGURA '. - ' i - T~a 9:re~t..:a~ diff-itrtnce howev~r, Hes between these re1at1ve1y modified ' the mpre complex Magyar Rhapszodiik forms, which ' cqritain several ex~ensively ~laborated Hungarian melodies in a multi-sectional frame <whidh alternates the lassu, fri11s and disz sections (see l i Figures 9A & 98 - ff#yar Rhapsiodiak Nos. 15 & 17, p. 29). i In the 1840' s :a number of pr9minerit Hunga1:ian musicians, !i!.•9.•, B6ni Egressy, J6zsef Kosiovits and Mark R6zeav61gyi, created a new Hungarian national dance form,jthe Cslrdas, which used the older Verbunkos dance form for its structural ~oundation (slow introduction and fast finale). The Cs6rdls dance was ~riginally used as a form of rustic entertainment ("cslrdls" meaning "country inn" - local girls would dance to this music at the country inns),; and later became predominantly associated with aristocratic social events, thereafter representing the stylized Hungarian folk dance. 11 The evolution of the Verbunkos form to the Cslrdls form included few changes, which for the most part were structurally oriented. The Cs&rdis originally corresponded to the Verbunkos fries section, with its own binary design (see Figure 7). 11 John s. Weissmann, "CstirdAs," l:ruLJl'ew Grove Dictionary -of Muai_g an,g Musicians, edited by sta.nley Sadie, v. 4 (London: Macmillan, 1980), 82. 27 -~arbunkos d,ance form. / F,igura L~t.41~} a slow, section fia11,u) wa~ added at the beginning of the C11:l.rdi.s. ia•th~>itiJs portion ~CIUl'l8 multisectional with the alternation Of :~_:/··_c?~_-<"_-/ __ '_ -- .. i . - !"> < ,- f " . . . - '·~, (aebeil).andalo~ (lassu) v~riants ofithe dance melodies (see Figure 8). ·.··· .. ' . · .. ! ~- . Clih-dla f9rm. -·i Laeeu / (slow) i'riss multip~rtite; al~ernation of fast and slow variations of melodiea Liszt's transference of selected Hungarian melodies from the Magyar ' '.· - ' l. ) Dallok and Magyar Rhapszodiak pieces to the Hungarian Rhapsodies necessitated a change from the Vei'bunkos form to a more compact structure -- like that of i . the Cslrdis form -- to encompaos the refined thematic content. Liszt reset only certain of the Hungarian folk tunes from the Magyar Dallok and H§-™ Rhapszodilk pieces in the Hungarian Rhapsodies, and in some cases borrowed single theme& from j:wo or three different Magyar pieces to construct an Hungarian Rhapsody. The forms of the Hungarian Rhapsodies actually consist C'Jf a combination of the sectional structure of the Verbunkos form which is divided into a lassu-friss section, a disz (possibly two or three) and a figura, and the binar~· structure of t.he Cs6rdls f'orm which contains separate laasu and fries section~ in which several melodieo are presented in varied elaboration. The Hungarian Rhapsody form is esn:ient.ially a binary structure with each half containing varied theme sections, ,uid therefore, it may be described as an hybrid Verbunkos-csilrdis form. The formal contents of the H.Y.119...~ Rhapsodies include n elow int:roduction (laesu) which presents different 28 ; \}!:.!t~1~rati9nf 11lingle mel~dy (often! two melodies are presented) , a f?t1ij1~ipartife' faat: -~+tion (frirs> which ~lternates varied el,aborations of /:aeveral Hungarian folk t1.ones, and a short coda-like ending (reminiscent; of '• ~·--,, .;::~:_~ -- .- ; -• ' -_• -_, _,{• -- - ---- -, ' •_ • -! - -- - - ~ -_ a_• Jbt{VerbunkQa. 'figur~·) which often is a further elaboration of a previously ,. <, . . .,< . ·., I ! , . . . . ... ·· ... ·. . . :tolk!llltioct:r, an~ therefore; is an extension of the fries section. ~ _-::~-::-~ ~:-/_-~-·. __ -_-.,--\;_~~----. J - i I . --_·- . A c~laon•· 9,f form between .selected Hungarian Rhapsodies and• the. ' ' ' ,.·· ,'· •. ' ' ' ·: 1 ' :. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '' ' '' 111:paclficMaqyar palldk and Magyar RhapszodU.k pieces from which the thematic hall betll\bo1rowad wil~ illustrate the evolution fromthe.Verbunkos ·-1 the Hacjyar j pieces to• the hybrid Verbunkos-cdrdis form in · the Hu11qarianRhapaodiea:(see Figures 9A & 9B). Figure 9A,ahow~ that the disz.sections of Magyar Rhapszodilk No. 15 • ,.·.· .•. ··,' ' i ', ' '' ! been omitted in1 Hungarian!RhapsodyNo. 7, and Liszt has retained only I . the . three differen~ folk tunes, presenting them in several different, vadatioqs.· Although]the coda/in H~nqarian Rhapsody No. 7 now replaces the : s,flgura from Magyar !Rhapszodia.k No. 15, the treatment of these two end , I sections is very difie:rent. In Hungarian Rhapsody No. 7 the coda material is ' ' elaborated in a sim~lar style to the laosu and fries material, whereas in Magyar Rhapazodiak Np. 15 the figura material is treated di.fferent than the rest of the material] in the piece. In Figure 9B · the two pieces share a similar number of sections; however, in Hungaria~ Rhapsody No. 13 tha trio-like disz sections of Hagyar Rhapazodiak No. 17 (labelled 'X' in Figure 9B) are replaced with the •o-theme' sections (the treatment of theme Din Hungarian Rhapsody No. 13 is consistent with · Lie;zt' s treatment of the other themes in the rhapElody, whereas in Magyar Rhapszodiak No. 17 tho material in the disz sectione is given a completely different treatment from the material in the <>ther portions of the fries). Similarly, the coda material in Hungprian Rhl'.\P.BOdv No. 13 recalls a thelme from the beginning of the fries which ie varied in a similar manner to thE1 rest of the fries themes, whereas the figura section in Magyar Rhaps,;odUk No. 17 ie again treated differently from the other sections of tho fries. ~~~~~~!IW)l!~~·ffl!li~~~c-!\7l1,£,;i~~~~~~~4~~Jt(~~~ii~0Wil~-~:;~d:'i~~~~-h:td:;tS'il-~l~~f~d~~tf~~ r: ~ -·_-.- - --29 '. ~-~ - / ,_: . ·;: .- ;. -'<-,, <·:·1 . . . f,.-- 0 .-: '- ; - -_ - . -~i.aon of form!i.nMagyar Rhapszodiak No. 15·and 11upqarlai\ Rhapsody !No~ 1. ' - -,': l - - ' • '" - 1 Vertninkoa fo,. VIVACB I 32-67 68~92193-101102-178179-255 256-282 283-299 300-,.312 313-351 - - i a I x c x<A> A PriH J::~ .::: No. 7) I 11871 HybridVerburuJ,s-csard'8 form. VIVACB I m. 1-31 32-67. 68-10~ 10~-184 A A B C 185-206 A - i Laasu Pri•• - alte~nating variations of melody. X Diaz B C Figura 207-218 219-262 B C Coda Figure 98. comparia~n of form in Magyar RhapszodiAk No. 17 and Hungarian Rhapsody No. 13. I . ' Hll 171 Verbunkos forl(t. ANDANTE POCO PIU VIVACE m. 1-24 25-74 7~-98 C 99-114 115-130 131-156 A Lassu B X Fries E Diez X (Xamelody not reset in fim:lgarian Rhap~ No. 13)· HR 131 Hybrid Verbunkoa-CaArdAe form, ANDANTE POCO PIU VIVACE MOSSO 157-172 173-178 E Diez X Figura m. 1-24 25-99 100-123 124-147 148-164 165-199 200-223 224-237 238-258 A LRBBU B C D E D C E C Frias - alternating variations of melody. Coda (D•folk tune not used in ~agyar RhAJ?pzodiAk No, 17) l'rJfil!~"t:i f ~If'""T~-·" ~ 7 ~·r···· , , -··- ... ,,, . · .......... ,., ..... ,. ··-!l l . 30 <d cejain amount! of variation exis·ts within the forms of the --- -- :- -~;- ~ . _,. - - - - -. -__ ---. - I \-'. }riJ.neteen Bunqariy' Rhkpsodies. these pieces are nevertheless uniform in terms ,, ... .. .. . . . . · .... ··. I . . ' of :thematic ll'l~tedal throughout each piece. As compared •- < a - _ _ : _ ,- _ _ ~ - -i 1- ' - - - -,with , the earlier Magyar Dalloks and Magyar RhapszodU.ks. which adhere to a . •. ·· ... · ·. , .. ·.' . I ·. . : . . . , more diveraified ••cnonal structure and tend to employ a different style of ' -;-; - -:__- > ---~ __ -_- -1 j .- - - : -. thematic treatment · i~ each sect'.ion, it seems that by employing the Csardas-. .j . ' ' influenced form in t~e Hungarian Rhapaodi@IJ!• Liszt was aiming towards a more . I . • · economical u•• of t~ematic mattfrial, and, thus, towards a tighter, more I concise overall formal design. ! COMPOSITIONAL STrLB While ao far we have beeti concerned with the relationship between the ! original ••ttitiga of :the Hungarian folk tunes and the Hungarian Rha.Rf!25!w, another overview ~rges if w,it conside;r the stylistic features of these worka. LJ.azt • a compositional style changed dramatically in the last two decades of his life ((:. 1867-1886), ao he 1:1xperimented with harmonic, melodic and rhythmic aspects :of hie music, The music of Liszt's later style became more daring harmonically, with the inclusion of many abstruse chords, ~.g., chords built in fourths, chords built on the ninth, eleventh and thirteenth tone• of the acale, functional and non-functional use of augmented triads, diminished seventh chords, chords built of superimposed thirds, fourths and fifths, six-four chords, and wholetone chordo, He also began using unusual intervals .\n great at,undance, ,n.g., major sevenths, augmented fourths, and juxtaposed major thirds and minor thirds (see Example 1), Example 1. Cg4rd4e gbatin6@ (from 2 csAr~h, 1882), mm. 17-18. Juxtaposition of major and minor thirds, T -3 mp ·+--.• u. --'.l. 31 ' . . C <} . ~ ' I - . ·. i • ' .. ' Li11z~ ~11~ ,t~e element /.or conson~nce to its outermost. limits through increau;fuae ofjchromatici~ and' as Ji result his compositions contained obac,.11.:• -~Jhalit~.. .1ihioh were! further diffuaed through the application of C"·'.>-=·~= , .--- ~-_:-_- ~. __ -,,_·"· - . _--1 - -__ - - ( - - _· ,- - ' ~ : 'rie•n.;,ke1y ,~if~ng >Of denoee. rher · feat}lre& common to Liazt' S later works . <;' .. . : patter~" . . of consac:u~ive paraUel fifths ( see Example 2), . and aequenc.'t•of unpre~red and unrHolved dissonances. With his use of these \i~::~oloUrincja LiazJ began ore~ting tranillparent tet:itures which consisted of · .. · .. · . . I . paa•ages and subtle harmonic: shadings. j i I c1Ar411 1macabre (1886), !Ml. 1-10. COnHcu ive parall~l fifths, In general, J can be a11id that in hie later works Liazt moved 111way I from hia earlier sty).e which waa characterized by ruperflcial brilliance, and I toward an economic: aj1d simplistic: display of them11tio material, thu11 creating j lengthy, au1tert, m91lcxUc: paeuagen consisting of single notes which were oxpanded thrOU!Jh aggj:eaeive rhythmic repetitions, and short motivic fragCMmts which were- d&velc;J;:ed through ~imple techniquee euoh as ,imitAtion. LiHt'a Hungar~ Rhaps,prU,u Noa. 16-18, composed in the lut four years of hil life · ( 18&2-1886), are representative of thio later atyla, Hungarian BhlR194Y No, 19, baailld on Abdnyi' a Cdrd4s noblea. is an exception to this c:ategorizatfon becaua,• it imitates AbrAnyi' 9 improvisat.ot·y wri,ting very c,lomaly, t.h~r•fora d•p&rting fr0'il\ Liriit's late,: style, AnalyaH of aa:Leoted piec:1t111 from the ninetoen Hungarian Rhap12!Ji.!IIUII. w.1.11 illuetrate the oatfj,naive evolution of Liozt • a compoeitional otyle fr(>:':; ll.\mg~ Noa, 1-15 to HungarJ.An...BJl.qpood,1.H Nos. 16"18. Thia Urot: ~~~~~~~~~j'"~~~~~~~~~~~~f-4,~-,~it"?-"5';~~~~~-~~~~,:~~~":~:.e..~r£.~Uii;.,Ac~~~ [ ~ _,__ :'- -,. ., . ,: .. ·, r<--, 32 ?/J~;i.)--·_.,·_.:_c--f ------~-2-'..-~~-~_:/:t'--~,-'._ -:------~·-_·:-",_ _ · --· __ ·_ i- __ , _ _ _ i - _ . --·- - - ; .,.:Y';-~!~~~~n;eyns,sf+ID Rha:peodieacliEiplay an im~roviaational_and virtu_osic writi119. H:;Jf;"?':· ',.~,,e,.:;<1 ··.· · ... ·.• .·.· ;,· C • ·. . . . . • . . •. · ·p·,~·sr·~!1e coq~atntng.anbe1ushed and-fun.· textures se~ within definite toriai ... ~~?1-*~~{nt=~::.#.::•i:n:::.1•.::·.:~:·::.:i::· ::: \:~tliat t~e .· Urat . fl.~ieen Hungarian Rhapsodies are based on pre-existing · i ....... ·· r ······.· • · -~t.i~:r:i=.·rt:.::~11:.~·i::-0:1:h::::::·~::::: -- ·_ -- ~ -:·~ . -- - -. ,_ ~ --- - ---_ 1 ' llhap•odill into eady and late atyle groups. ,. ··" .. · ....... · .. ·1 . : . . Bµl)qll,'ian''Rhap~odiea Noa. J 1-15 and ?foe. 16-19 are structurally similar ' w,~th both> 9roup• ditplaying the basic sections of the hY.brid Verbunkoa-cai&rdAa form, 'laaau-f;dHJ however, a comparison of subdivisions withi.n these 1 . . larger ••ctiona •hOW:s that the firat fifteen Hungarian· Rhapsodies have a I 9reator variety of l tempi than do the last four Hungerian RhapsoctJ.u. I ( including No. 19). [lhh difference may be expla.lned by the fact that Liszt I uHd more and a great••r variety of themes in the earlier Hungarian Rhapsoc:UJm l which required diffeient tempi to fit the character of each different thE11ne. In U\maarian Rhap•odi:g. Nos, 16·•18 the themes are le88 intricate motivically, and ther•fc,re do notilend themselves to ext111nsiva development nor to a wide variety of accompanylng tempi. A compadaon of one HL.D!ll.1:ioD RhapB<?QI from each of the early and lnte pedoda, J.·•·, (1) Hungarian Rhapaodiea Noe. 1-15 (1851-1853), and (2) Hungarian Bh1Pt94~u N~a. 16-18 (1882-1886), will illustrate tha change~ in Liut' • compositional style over a period of thirty yeara (liY.rulArtAn BblRB.rulY. No. 15 waa published in 1853, Hungar.lao.. Rhapsody No, 16 was publiuhed in 1~82), Hungarian Bhd9.12SlY. No, 10 will bu used aa an example from the first group to represent Liezt'e ea~ly compositional style, and~~ No, 17 from the second group, will repre11ent his later compositional etyle, Rungarion 8MRJl.2Stt Nn, lo oogine in tha key ()f !!: :li11:)o:.:· whi-ch i.lf Aetablhhed immediatj»ly in the first five measures of the piece by buo r;:hord11 on the dominai,t, leadin9 to an affirmation of the tonic (E major) at li'll'll, 6-21 (He Bxomplf 3), Thie schema aete the tonality immediately at the beginning of the piece. Similarl1t, th• key uf each of the subsequent sections, !!f..g., £ minor at m. 40, A minor at m. 6~, E minor at m. 109 and E major at m. 124 ia confirmed within the first two measures of th~ ~~ction. By contral5t lJ.ke the la·ta works mentioned above (Examplee 1 and 2), ftungarian Rhapsody No. 17 e>1hibits a strikingly more advanced harmonic language. Although composed in the key c>f D minor, it begins with augmented r-triade in the firt1t invarsi<>n (6/4) which place the D minor leading tone (C-aharp) pedal in the baae for the first thirty-four measures (1:1ea Eumple 4). .-1.' 1-· mmi. · 1-3. ' 34· • · Hungarian Rhap1ody· Nb. 17. is tonally unstable from the outset and even with - ' •. - 1 • . I • ttle key change fromjo minor td D major/B minor at m. 11, no tonic note or - - - j I tonic chord confirma: this modu1ation (eee Example 5). lxample 5. i Hungarian Rhapsody No. 11, mm. 11-14. • I Cl 0 0 The presence of the leading-tone pedal in this paeoage creates a strong tonal ambiguity because it does not resolve to the tonic, or even to the dominant anywhere in the piece. In fact, throughout the entire piece not a single perfect oedenoe exists, even at the end of the piece, where Liszt has opted to place a-flat octaves (enharmonic A-sharp) within the D major/a minor key (the piece ends in a manner similar 1:o its beginning with an oatinato :J~l~!~l~·~··~·--~·~-·-··-~·rc• '-1 ;~ ~;r,/'-,:,:;-:, ... 'J ·A-f,--·-., the" pi.ace witb as much .·~hus,.·in .. 9ie,later rhapsodies 0Li~~1::· (present ; in the with the )isa of extreme cbromati,cism and tonal ·. J.•' ~t(est thro4~ti~tit Hun~adan Rhapsody ~o: 17 •. 17, mm. 65-76. :::t .,, .. . . . . . m____.u sva.i, .................................................................... : MalCldically, Hungarian Rhapsody No. 17 contains few interesting moti,ve11 and even these, due to t,heir simple etructuro, are developed through the u1ae of ostinato (Be~ Example 7). 36 35-46. With each recur,rence of a theme in the late Hungarian Rhapsodies, Liszt reuses the same ostlnato pattarn, unlike in the first fifteen .HYn9!!.dJm Rhapsodies in which i.iszt creates new variations for the returning themes. Interestingly, in the late HY!Jqarian Rhapsodies Liszt does not create new motJ.ves from the i.nitial themes, but rather restates the initially established few notes in a type of pseudo-development through rigorous repetition and sequunce. A comparison of these passages in .HYn9Ari.An Rhapsody No. 17 with those in Hungarian· Rhapsody No, 10 reveals juGt ~1ow simplistic and stark the melodic content of the late Hungarian Rhapsodies is. The development of themat:ic material in Hungarian Rhapsody No, 10. is achieved through vir!:uosic scale runs, double-third passages and frequent exchanges of thematic material between the right and left hands, resulting in an improvisatory style (sea Exrunples SA, BB, SC), whereas Hungarian Bh~psody No. 17 lacks any real development, and simply expands its few initial motives through rhythmic patterns to croate a full composition (see Example 9). ~~t~¼~~j\t,~~~J:!~~~~~1~~1~~~;;--.~::3.;:~:~WtlJ~~;~;:~;:.;\~-~J~'.~~:;~ ' ' and left hands. .,.. Example ea. Hungarian Rhapsody No. 10, mm. 82-83. Double; third sequence. Example sc. Hungarian Rhapsod~ No. 10, mm. 89-90. Virtuos'ic scale paaaage, Oula • ... ~ • . -,_j , '_ -. ... ' .. I ,_ tlfll ,,,.,. ' .. . ., . , ... .. ' VlYAC!· ' •............................................ ......... _ ........................ ! I - ' u;.i ll lJ...--JJ! 11 I I I lJ I i l'ffiJJ~!! 11 IJ.Ji~~ C=~iJJJ 1111 l.U 1mn .. . II) I .,.. I _.. I' 1liunio .. l .. l ----t.J . '!' ... • -= • ,f~ _.__ • ~-37 A final comparison should be made of Liszt's use of rhythm in the two I Hungarian Rhapsody ,styles. All nineteen Hungarian Rhapsodies contain · rigorous and lively: rhythmic patterns, however, the variety of different rhythms in Hunqarian!Rhapsodieo Nos. 1-15 is greater than that in ID.ll}g§.rlil Rhapsodies Nos. 16-~8. The more intereoting rhythms in the first fifteen rhapsodies comes fron1 the original Hungarian folk tunes, whereas in th~ later Hungarian Rhapsodies, the melodies invented by Liszt lacked this rhythmic energy. ,,,',I\xt:J . . ........ , .,:,TBBHATI,C TREATMENT 'i:~"rim HUNGARIAN JUWISODlES. ;s~~- ;, f · · · . . . ., ; :::,:,j ] ! -I to· an.~lyzethe tllematic co~tent of the Hungarian Rhapsodies .. l . '8:· Ul\1111:: \l~derstand Liszt• s compositional techniques. Alfred · ··C' > > . , <.,, : · '· ' i . . i . · . . . · . : · . • .·.· >. . · ' ·• ··· < Brtitndel, · in hi.a book Musical Thoughts and Afterthoughts~ discusses on several . >:/ · ... · .. ·.·.· ·· .. ,, i I ·. · .· .. ·.· .·. I .•..•. ·· ...•.. ·. . : ·· . ····.·. • . •· .. ·· · ·· oc:~allions Liss,t·~ Hungarian Rhap~iaa andiproposee an interesting avenue for. ;• . . . . , l .. i: . . . . . . . . ~ analytical approaqh. Because'. of their use and elaboration:'upon previously . :_--,--,-t:~·\\~-- - . · _ -: _- -->-::- · -_/~ ;-(,;' . I _ r . -__ - -• md.stent materials (R,mgarian f~lk tunes), :and of their improvisatory spirit, - ,_- ._ : . . . ., ·:_C _;--- j ~ , ·Br.;Jidel atate~ that'z !"Strictly ;,peaking, then, Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodies • -._;- - -- _,· - - - l - ' - I -1:Hitlong to hi11 paraphJasee,."1 H~ reinforc~s this statement by including t:he Hungarian Rhapaoc:Uea1 in a claaaificaticin, of Liszt Is transcriptions and ... ,.· .· ·• . ···. . I paraphraaaa, inwbic1' two out of the four categories concern paraphrases: a) ! · "the operatic paraph~:ases, whicrh are fantasies based on a single number or I scene, or on severaljnumbers, forming a cross-section of the or,~a;" and b) "at least soma oflthe Hungarian Rhapsodies. in which material taken from ! : •urban' folk music ;is paraph:rased in a style that is derived from the mercurial performing habits of the gipi,ies and from the sound of their instruments. "2 Wi1;h the acceptance of Brendel' s proposition that the Hungarian Rhapsodiea. have b13en const1:ucted through the composit.i.onal ' technique of paraphrase, it is important to understand exactly what "paraphrase" means. A concise definitJ.on of a musical para.phrase is giv•m by Rena Mueller as "a work that takes a theme or themes to be woven into a more complex musical fabric. 113 On the other hand, the definition of paraphrase 1 Alfred Brendel, "Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodies," Mus~cal Thought!L.Arul Afterthoughts (London, Robson Books, 1976), 85, 93. 2 Alfred Brendel, 0 Turning the piano into an orchestra" Musica\ Thou9llll, 3 Rena Charnin Mueller, "Liszt' a T1u1ao Sketch.bookt studies in Sources and chi:-ouology," .a.t.YsiJ.l..HY.iJ.coloaica Aoademiae Sqient;1wm,.Hunaaricae 20 ( 1986 > t 289. 39 'i)0c,,i, ,_,-{~-{/, ',iJ "l ,1· \:J ·- ''-·c --_,·> .~--c- ! ttha::'iit~'iit;;,~~c~L -"an ori~inal· elaboration of pre~exi~ting material, ~eti~)~¥~,.-~. a vehic:le [for ·axpre!l~ive virt~osity," seems to be more ;.;:::}5$::-::1t:~7.9 ::~ia0 f in::::~:~~;.:.::· -_ - -' ifa~t;;,,1riom1>i#ation in the Bunqadan Rhapsodies _of the element of - - ----- -,, . - -. ---- _-_ - _-j - . -_- . - . (_; : l)llt:ionaL Bi#>,g~,ian Jolk music, with the : characterilil.tiCEI of the paraphrase - --.--a.:. - -.-.-.. c 1 _ --_ i • te~'1nique:-- elabl:,ra~ionand v~rtuoso improvisation -- seems to be perfectly /;:f~:-~.-~~~-- -._- .. ~- . __ -_/ __ -__ :-·. -" -~-1 - r- _ - . : ca~urec:l in" one :of B,artok' s deacriptiona of the genre: ~:~-~---:./·-·~ -_-~:_-:-/_' .· \:,,-~-;~--~- -i _- - ' t:_<·.-.: -_ ; • • ;<~the -Rhapsqdiea, especially_ the'. Hungarian ones, are perfect creationil of their own Jtin,d. The l material Liszt uses in them coui1fno~ have! been treaied with more genius and beauty.' This tra_at;llietit take,s poaaeaaion of the i,>rincipl<aa of the gipsy style ~d,ill•~ghten~ ~hem to an infinite dE!«Jrees the roving freedom, the romanticrexa1t11t1on, the [curious moj:lulations, _the volatility and abru~neas, tlie renunciation of metrical fetters ~ all thes1 elemantawere bound to awaken feelings of congeniality in Liszt. -. - I ' ' ! , ' Whah analyzingi Liszt's transcriptions it is important to keep in mind j that paraphrase is dnly a relative term, and therefore, each piece must be - I .. considered in light <>f the degree and extent to which the technique has been applied. Liszt had' a predilection to write pieces based on pre-existing themes as exemplifi~1r', by his copious collection of operatic paraphrmsae, including workir- su11h as, EAmcas,ie aur dee motifs favoris de l'oJ?Ara La sonnambula [Bollint), 1839, Bfiminiscencee de pon JyJlll [MoHrtJ, 1841, and Riqolettos Paraph1JU!e de conc@rl. [Verdi), 1859. However, the degree of elaboration and enteht of paraphrasing io varied from one piece to another. Some of Liszt's worlts contain complet.e themes from other pieces, wharraas others are baaed entJ.rely on theme fragments from pre-existing compositJ.one, furthermore, in someiof his transcriptions Liszt may simply have paraphrased his own newly composed themes and presented them in the etyle of the original piece. In the follo\i,ing pages a comparison between thematic analyses of two 4 "Paraphrase," Int-New Groy@ Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie, v. 14 (l,ondons Ma<~millan and Company, 1980), 179. 5 Cited in Brendel, "Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodies," 85. 40 .: ... ;t;·i;\\_,-_J : .. . . . . . . .. -· --· • . -···<u~ ~tH/. 05':i•• will- ,illustrate cc;,r1tiiining' t~.';~1~aaipcation of t1itt a~os#i,n Rhaose>dies as paraphrases. j '' ' '' ' - '''. ] - -·_ · J2.IUATISSBHBRT ·1t L'BQNGROISE AND MELODIES ·HONGROISES ·;: - - , l '. ' · ' -' ,,, · ' .. ·i - I . Liazt!'11 •~leai applicati~n of the paraphrase technique is illustrated - ...... ,,, ' - - -J , : . ~n ;JliS 11Alodie11 ',hc,ndroiaeac d' aprta Schubert ( 1846) , a piano work based ·ent:irely ~~>,~hubert~~ Diyert:isJtinent A l ':honqroise, ap. 54 (1826), written . -- . - \_ -. . ~ . -__ " .- j - . - t .- _- . ; the aamemac:l~um. jLiszt tra~acribad Schubert's piece from four hands to handa, and added! more parta to the accompaniment to create a fuller • ,· :'- I - - ·-- - : -· texture, yet Ile prea~rved the thematic content (maintaining the essential ; - . - .--- . - I - ; ' shape of each theme) ij.nd the formal-structure of the piece (Andante, Marcia, ! -Allegretto, aee Figu~e 10). : Liszt also retained the key scheme from Schul:>ert's piece, wit~ the singla exception in the Marcia at m. 119, where he used the keyofCmaj~r instead of A-flat major. i Figure 10. Form of Schubert's piyertissement a l'hongroise and Lisztts Melodies honqroiseg. · AIIDAftB Andante Un poco p~.u mosso Tempo I Un poco piu mosso S1 m. 1-20 21-83 84-93 94-106 107-124 125-139 G minor E-flat major G minor D minor G minor LI m. 1-20 21-95 96-106 107-119 120-137 138-151 IUUlCIA Trio Marcia Trio Tempo I 140-152 152-165 Andante con mote SI m. 1-28 29-52 [1-28 29-52) a da capo E-flat major Ls m. 1-se ALLBGRB:l"l'O SI m, 1-66 67-242 o minor c minor A-flat major E-flat major (A-flat major) c ma:ior 59-90 91-119 120-144 Lam. 1-90 91-304 (S = Schubert] G minor C minor (L ~ Liszt) l~l ,-,;;_,,-4 '."; _;-'J -'; :<l>){I-_~}>f ;lJ - _ -_-- , , _ _ , __ -_ _ -· ·- - _ -_ - - 42 c~i,ilc,n,:ot; the o~ning:,;passages from ,each movement in the two _ i-,-.,c - - - ~ . - i -pieceh but creates a fuller accompaniment l:>y fulk'trijada ,tn the right hand and, open fifths in the left hand ( see ,;}c,;,•y: ,cj l ; <' - ' : _-- - - __ - - - --10).,>,: ;tn· the ope_ning 'mea.eures of the Marcia, , Liszt adds two .. ·-·_-i ____ - -~" __ -:J?~· __ -):(~::_~~--::~~ . J _, - ~-- _-_ ,_ ,- - - ~ i~troductory ~--~_rti~ based on ~chubert • s :accompaniment, and he_ changes the - -- ·- - ,: ', ~· -- -- '> - - l ' :' ,,cC>nalstant la~t" hand IC note octaves from : Schubert I s piece to alternating 'c ;-;·_/-~;:\·:... ~ -> -_ ::·-' i- ._- ~· -.j - ' =· 1 -;'and G notaa in his }ranscript+on ( see Ekeample 11) • The register of the ' - - ; : ~- - • . . . l - opening 111elody isl!IC>~ad an octave lower,' thus creating registral contrast ,-_- _·,: , . ·.j ; when ;it returns at jthe origiria,l pitch at m. 15. Liszt also adds new . l az:ticulation marking~, .!t•Sl•, a-pre marcato, m. l, left hand; m. 3, right : hand. In the openi~g measures of the Allegretto, Liszt lo.were the upper octave melody giving ~ta fuller statement•with alternating double thirds and fourths in the lowe~ octave, and at m. 7 adds octaves to the left hand accompaniment ( see Ex'.ample 12) • overall, Liszt seems to integrate the melody i into the chordal text:ure through -an even distribution of notes between the two hands, as opposed: to Schubert's melody and accompaniment texture in which the two hands are ke~,t in sepal:'.ate registers. Examples 10-12. Comp&rison of parallel opening passages in Schubert's QJ.__ftissement A l'honqroise and Liszt's ~ies honaroises. , 6 PleaH note in all of the examples of Schubert• e Di'£@rtis~.mo.\;__J!, l!hongroiee, "prime" me,ms "first piano" and "eecondo" means "second plano". 43 Liszt, M§locH.e1 hong~oises .111 ,tant~. I ·~ . 11 MARCIA, :mm. 1-14. ,,..4 ., .. Example • Schuber~., DiverJ;J&,P.Qment il l 'honr.,,;~ auon4o, r:~;t;.,,.,1,, ·~· ' =~· ~I 1:w=~ -~, 10 44 MARCIA, ~;.azt; Melodies honqroises .,.,,'P;Pr" 111arr.a fo · I ·• I. I ., -;. r= .. , . 'I. f ei er f if ., ' ' -, a mm. l-8 · ·,_ ,-w 1 , -, Allljntt.. i , ·t:1.f ~~ LJi! I;~:: I :. ! :. ~j .. _-.:. ___ ~ .==:n--:E:.-- --~-=~---= l . - . C:.H !+ ;::t-~ -;; : D!U 1-;!Q Liszt, ~lodies hongroises, mm. 1-10 .\ II e g retto. 45 - . . -~ t:~- ; -:--:-each': mov•nt Liszt Js fairly ~aithfuLto Schubert• s ·;;;:r;-::;.:;'.'.P'/1 ... _.-. _.-._ -. l _;.. -- - --::; ~ . >,~,,- . ·,; bu~ ,,1tii itl.llj°h,, repetivpn Lisztls melodic phrases, become mo.re :,;1 : ,,~,;t~~.::·~· ; ... -:r=::ia:r-in::.:·::.:i:. ·:h.i~=: . .- .:-::. ·~:~;1 . J'- « ;T~~~ud}~~:~;!•!~r,.,ellis~nt! with each 1 occurrence~ Examples 13-15 show t)m],,.>~ .,>·1 ::rt::rl:rr::1::~:~rt•:s.and L_iszt,'s repeats in the three movementsa '!cig .·,· Bx~fe.-lJ .. shJs ~arallel: first statements of an Andante phrase from (Sc:hube~, min. 55-631 Liszt, mm. 55-63) and Liszt's written out repeat of thtt' aecol'ld ~tatement ( \DID• 64-:71) in which his elaborations are most ,.- ',_:--· ,_- -_- _'_ l - ._,- '. ·_ ; Changes niada to Liszt's second statement include a presentation of .·.· _··. . i ' the right-hanci melody! in thirds instead of tenths (as in the first statement) i • . and a change in thel~ft-hand accompaniment from a duplication of the right-' J --. l hand rhythmic patter~ (as in the first statement) to a regular eighth-note - - I pattern~ At the end of the second statement Liszt introduceo right-hand .. trills and an elaborated thematic extension marked 'leggieriiasimo • and 'dolciesimo' (m. 71), which is indicative of the "expressive virtuosity" of - a paraph-rase pi~Cft_ {9.P!l\pare Liszt's mm. 70--71 with his eif.rlier statement mm, ---------r- - ---- --~~-----·-- ----- ------- -- - - i 61-62, and with Schubert's parallel statement mm. 61-62). This passage ie exemplary of Lisztian•virtuosity with its unmeasured cadenza or prelude-like style, so strikingly ~ifferent from Schubert's more homogeneous setting. ... , .... ] : ~tii1] .?r:~;.:l .J .. i s~ .. •1111#.-..liat:al:aWPillQll~WDLll~:.,.ll.l....ill,__'..,'bll,2~nlll9111t~· 9'-:liil.lla~e, . Andante, mm. 5 s-63. l :-,,,.-- ,j/ r-· ,. \ '--, , ,, ''" I Andante, mm. 55~63. ft~ k m :I; aah 64-71 55-63) . . 49 l .... t, M*'°i•, &obuj,ert indioataa tho repeat oft: _-__ -1 ! ·.· .. · •.. · atat .. nt withJ ,;-epeat s~gn~ wherea~ Lie21t renders th~ same paasa9.e, with a written out repeat (He Sxample 11,: 111111. 1-14, p. 44 and Exam1r,1le 14, .,~ 1~-26, p. SO -- t~e written f out rep11at:). A. comparison between the two repeat ata~~-~ta ah~s that in ~he wdttell out repeat (Example 14) Liszt's .., ., .. . ·-1 .. ·- . : paraphraae i,• alightlr more ela!f>rate. H~ not only places the right-hand ! ~ - C melody an octave highe!r, but also embellishes it by adding alternating fifths · .. ··.. . . . I , .·. . . . . . .. and .octaveal\to the ltjft-hand acc;ompaniment (mm. 15-21) and octavee in the ji . ! · · ri,ght hand 1(11111. 16, ~e, 20) to :create a fuller texture. Liszt also adds i thr- voice• to the· l~st three meaeures of the phrase (mm. 24-26) to create i a •grandeur' chordal +nding, eap~cially fitting for the Marcia style, Example 14. Liazt, Htladies hongroisea, Marcia, 111111+ 15-26 (written out 1:epeat). I " Pi,i,,,, 'J 't \ -~~ I = -·----;:-::i~-JI .. .. i • ., . 'I r' I. I ; ..• ,,.,¥}.~~~Jl.:;,~~f.'}\t\l'o%i,a'Ji\1J~'.['tj~~~~~~f;1rn ) 51 -! l i A~legretto, [the Sii!lln«: method i.r uaed as in the ;'liecond ~lilli"t, ~cia, with k99ardil to LiHt's)wri.ttan out rel)6at. Liszt j t::\tf::±::-::1:::H• :~i:t: ::::~:.'-:-.;::-:l: ::: - -~ -l ! -- - - '. ~laborate than Soh~ert' Iii litetal repeat c,f the material. Li.lizt changes the - i-, - - - ] I left-hand acd~ntlnent in hi~ 1econd statement (mm. 107-l15) to running . --- ' _: - {L_ -- j ! : . aJ.xt-nth not,:~ out~in~ng vari.+cs triad patterns, and he alt.ere the melody at am. 111-113 .by, plactng fragmen~• of it in both hands &:t"llidst accompanimental alternating 1J.xtHnJh-note U~ree. This Allegretto passage (mm. 107.:..11!; --- --- \ \ Liazt•a writ.ten out kepeat) par~icularly ~xemplifies the para~hrase technique ! through ita highly embellis:hed setting of the me: ody which remains · ! eliaentially unchanged. I Example 15. Schuber~, Divertissment A l'hongroise, Allegretto, mm. 67-79. __ j 152 r .. -, All~retto, mm\ 91-99, .,,,., .. /,,f!u. I L.+ut, Melodie@ honqg:Qi.§U., Allegretto, mm. 107-115 (written out repeat). I :t, //() \ . . ii~ .. ····:· ,I  i 63 ' - - - - - - - - - - [- -_ ' - - -_ _ 1,0~ a:~at1 th• entji&"e Hoondlmovement (Maraia and Trio included) uaot1/~ 'ia•ll\9}~• terai 'da[oapo' ~oll~ing the firat Tri~, In hi.I piece <LiHt •J.ftta.1.n, hJla pa:aotio• of wa:iti~ out the a:epeat .material, - ~hu•, ; in1tead oic~ 1 ... iic~l repet!1uon, h• ~l~borates .th• '':Hoond 1t&tement., of the kuoi~and-Tdd Hction. ~hrough the paraphraH technique (He Rxainplaa 17) • '6_ compari1on f th• da c~poMarcia in Schubert's piece<••• Bxamt,le 11, . - f~> ' ', p. 43) wU:h Lia&t • • equivalent[ wdtten ou~ repeat ( Sff Bxampl• 16) show• that although Lb&t kNpa the dgh~ hand me10<ly intact (raising it by an octave), ~. add• accoaapanilleital chroma~ic triple~s in octavea to both hands to Qraata i - - . ' greatar rhythmic arivity in th• paaea~e. This phrase continues with an accompaniment of ~nning sixt.,.nth notes (mm. 99-102) which both handa take I - - -up while the melodf; moves between the two hands (IMI• 103-119). I ; Li1&t 1 1 repea~ed Trio statement (see Example 17, 111111. 120-127 -- written ' j / out repeat) compare;i with the parallel opening passage of Schubert's da capo l Trio (Bff Bxample j17, mm. 29-36) and Liszt's fi~st Trio statemant (aee I Bxample 17, nn. S~-66) reveflla an increase in rhythmic activity in the written out repeat ;as Liszt roplaces the accompanimental triplets with six-i note group• and pla~:es the melody ( now in full chords) an octave higher. The thematic material-f<>llowing this statement (mm. 128-135) is altered, with the melody now placed ~etween the two hands against accompanying thirty-second notes played in seconds and thirds, and set in a triadic pattern. d~-~<-~y_,-_ ;-\ .... ple 1', LlHJlt1A4l,tt h-4HI• \!.,ola, (, / ·· _ ... 91 198 (wdtte~ out.:. ,:epea,t>. )/- , .. II ,,,,,.,,J JJiii lllt.l1~111111, 64 ' I r 1,, 1 •· ...... mi'· r ! I - ,_-_I - I L1Ht - lllle44•• b9Miroift1• Tr~o, •· 59-66, j --~!I I . " ' _, ,._ -· p Trio,•· 29-36. -·-- I ~ l I ., I '''!/''''" ,·g __ _ - -p ., l ;'Ii,., .-1:,... ·, I -- - -· I iir,s,-. • Lutn ·• 1161-1~- '-UUJ_. •-llfili'h Hu v,..a f4Upt,~•.,. t.e.thfih~, •• -. u~ ,t,. ,~•t el.-..nt.uy fof'tii, •lt~t. •t n.,.,. ,:,:,... via.t-;;u•t um. t• ,., .. ,,..,a,H"'i't .-,r_,,;;,,,;,i,th ~K . ... . .. )(tl . i. ---------...&.1-.,...,...- 57 ) ~ JIQY!'MII --··;IIJ,BIBI AYI 1'Affll ~~ YIBPJ I CONQIRT PABAfHRASE -L1eat•e-MlMU~t IYI Tgc,,ratp;. mn·- V,rdi (1859) Hrvee H a 90ocl , iu .....,1. of . .- eluoi:.ted opttratic .p11raphrf~ c Brendal •• cat~ory a> , Th.to . ..>.. . . . ·. .• I . .· , .. OOIIIPO•A:t1on ·1• MNd j>n a •c•n• f"'* Verdi'• opera Il Trpyat,oc, (publiehad ln itll -- written aft•~· Garcia. Gu~1.rri&i' • :play Bl t;:oy&dgr, 1836), 7 In Aet .. . .· ., .. j t .· • four of V•r41'• ~royttore ~non Uncle her lover, H&nrlco, in pdlllon I . . MM1Unv hi.• ..._th. jrh• ocen• ~· baelcally an operatic duet: between LeonC11ra and Hand.co wt.th Cho~·u•, toUow~ri9 the ty1(1ca1 Italian fonn,al convention of C&ntab1le-calNlleica j1equenoe, canubU.a Netlon ot:thl• du•t, l.leat oh®••• to eet fot piano only t.hct i ln Ven!, th• ,.hree vocal' tprc••, t.c,onon, M&ndco and the. Choi'UG .no - j each 91.ven · 11Uforen~ uter Lale whl,ch Y•rdl preeent• each alono at tint, ' later ~lnl"9 !A•.on•• M}ody and th-a IDelody Of. the Chotua, •and I • elib .... 4mU.f addt.n9 !hncico•s NlOdy to ere<1te • poeH90 vi.th t.hr-eo~f<i-ld ulo44c uterlal. J..1Ht'• ,-Hpb~·ue conutjletne .,... three 1N11iodl••, .-..e:-. ~fl~~ta.._i in I ~ ... 1~. flWA H shffl,Ja ti-~ 1,UUJ nt •illUu Mlodi.~ Mterid in t>l)t.h c;~l\lOI\•, 1"4 l\1 .O!IO iU-.,,n.-~•• Li•rn•• ~dhairenco to Verdi'• roul~Uc ••..,_ Ln th pv"•"l~uLoi, of t,Ma Nl.ert,•l· ,,- .• --fa<:-'..; ! I ! .. ·. . . , l'om of i"•rdi'• Ili'l',:oyatore,: Act four, ecan~ I andLiast'• Hl11rei;11111 Trovatore. 58 n zipyat;m. Act four, f•oene i 62-71 ! j?l-79 80+87 87-96 96-105 105-111 112-122 l ·- Ohoru• :Leonora Hand.co Chorus Chqrus Hanrico Chorus, and Leonora Leonora and Hanrico ttae.ea1 A B G A A + B C A+B+c keye1 ·A-flat A-flat A-flat A-flat A-flat minor ma1or minor major ~inor Liazt1 111111,.,. IH ltr::0HSi21::1 " ! -· 1-1JY. *·21 22-i9 29-37 38-48 49-58 59-73 74-90 -( thalaa, ~ 8 C A B C B 00<,')A A~+1B+;D+; Al-4 I B+ 1D+ 1AP +. In Verdi'• ~~r• the Cho~a einga ~hemo A ~o the text "Kiuorert d'un - alu 91a viclna.'" ~·•re the melody .1.8 pr1tatmted a imply with Tenor and Basu f11U ehord• a eeppe;tla 10~ lieuple 16, ViJrdi, mm. 62-70), Lint treate theffie k ,uaUarly in hi• panphraee, octttinq it with full chord• (eee Exan,ple 19, LLeat, ... 1•10} !· The «)Qly ditference h th~,t Lint placea the melody in t:he n.ae, on th• t01/• line ot full ct-..9rd11 in ch1,t1a poeition, and places tho tel.Ung alMr BIKIOM fht .. 6""5 Jn the t.'lil~• witll th@ indication "like a boll) (QtAillill! <o~!, t1Wi1J g1vi.nq li~ • illiOt'e fun.,.real touch. I ' ' ; •• ·.···.·.,···.·.·.;··.-.·.·1j ·-,? =;- ! ·,1 ., i I 59 18. 'Verdi, U Troyatore, Act four, scene I, mm. 62-70, theme A, I ' •7::••m . ~ . -=.' -!:."M~ ......... :·-.~ :~ ...u~. · · ·FffP r:.=:=r=FF frll. 1e. re • re dun'al.macli vi. cl.aa at.la par. .,Ml.1e. re. re d'un'nl.maclavl.cl.na ''.". ,.~~!:1,~w ~2·~·~.~:.'..~~ -- ---~: . -- . . ·- -------- ----··-.. -~· ,:'\ La (:a111p1n~ dtl saotU . ···- ·---~---·-· ·-·-- ------ : ..: _::.-·.:. !::~:.-~::.~ '"-~::=-=- :-:-:-. .-:~::·: . ~a~1~i~rEr-fm~ic: itfJ rl • tor. noi ml.1c .re.re d.\ lcl,bonta di. ,I. aa; pre.da Mn ii--==---;=....., tJi'l~s;:=r::;.;;:;::+if: ),,_._ ' .. _Ac'J Wp==fff1.i~~r tor. no; ml. se. re.re di Id, bonti di • vi. na; pre .d:1 non ~~ •~ Lio. 69 ''""'" •la ileU' i Liszt, · Miserere aus Troyatoref mm. 1-10, theme A. I I ::>. ; .. ·;,,; . if~ ~ ~ ................ ; ....... i ..... ~ ........ i ... ~ .. .................... '!f.~ ................... .. ., ; II'!=-- ; • o .. i.,_ ~, I j w-::i.~ • .l 1 A 11. tempo The return of theme A in Verdi's piece at m, 8? is presented the same way as in its first statem,ant, with the chorus singing the melody unaccompanied. Lisz1: takes advantage of this repatition to already present a paraphrased versio:n of the materials (nee Example 20, Liszt, mm. 29·-37). '.rhe melody is still placed in the left hand in triads, but now it is ernballiehed with interml.ttent tremolo figuroe while the right hand accompllniment consie,;s of alternating double thirds set in a rhythmic pattern of sixteenth-note trl.plete. Thie paneage exemplifies the paraphrase technique of embellishing molodic material set against an olaborato accompaniment. 61 mm. 29-37, theme a. l . r + + + 3~ . l Th81118 B is I . . , pr~sented in,Verdi's opera by the character Leonora, . l ' ' "Q'l,lel auon, quelle preci" (see Example 21, Verdi, mm. 71-80). ! 62 who This ·. melodic ~ine is accompanied by a repeated rhythmic figure that creates a aenae of ttability f.or the. declamatory phrases of the melody. In Lis,zt' a paraphrase, i theme B begins in much the same way as in Verdi's opera with the right hand ;taking the lyrical line and the. left hand duplicating the I rhythm aet out in'the opera (see Example 22, Liazt, mm. 11-21). However, at m. 15, Liszt applies the paraphrase technique, adding octaves to the right hand melody and v11;rying the strict left-hand accompaniment of the Verdi passage. Liszt re~ats the final two measures of theme B (mm. 20-21, written out repeat) an octave lower than in its first occurrence (mm. 18-19), in effect creating a "textural" decrescendo. ·.:63 · Ver.di, Il Trovatore, Act four, scene I, mm. 71-80, theme B. 11 • ~.P'~ ,( ·~·· L~~ 11 tc!r,U to q{;fb--it ,,-- -u,r! --w ., ,g - r,. .. , 1pi = 64 ,_, 22. Liszt,· H,~aerere aus Tz;pvatore', mm. 11-21, theme B, i 1, I ! is.4 i l ti··.. . ....... r········y ........... '. ..... : .,,,._,, J &1 j H ,ii • l • 65 i The recurrence ~f theme e in Verdi's :opera takes place at m. 96 where l presented simult;aneously with theme A (see Example 23, Verdi, mm. 96-J . j,02) • Here the Chorusj sings theme A while Leonora sings theme B accompanied ',_<- __ ,- - " ! -by the rhythmic figure~ of the first theme B statement. The paral.lel passage ' . : j -_ in Liszt's -paraphrase ?ontains only theme B (Leonora's main theme) , presented in the right hand in f~ll chords, while the left hand spins a chromatic line ! ascending and descend~ng in a rhythmic pattern of el.even and twelve-note groups indicative of the "rhapsodic" style (see Example 24, Liszt, mm. 38-42). A compc.~ison of this theme B passage with its preceding occurrence (Example 22) illustrates how through his innovative application of the paraphrase technique ~iszt is able to continually vary the simple melody in increasingly more elaborate passages. .)'.' .· .. Verdi,. !n Trovatore, themes IA & e. · · Example 23. .. A .. .. ., ... I 4A ' I 1 r r:.c. ' •. r ·' r I • ri .............. w·1a.1nu1..,,lor . oo. ·., ..... · .. ~.i--• , · r , r r l--:.,...- · • ri.u; pttda_, .... 1(·1a.rnu1.._ .• 1., . ... ··• ·••·•• •· I-:--,, ~=----: ... 1.nai;pl'l'dlooe1laddHn.rctn.a.11oe.1ior p no, . :;,.:::t----------?FF-1-3-e:=--1= --'=::J· -"EE ·-=-.. . ··-·, ,-,. r' ---------,,-···,. ,, Ni.n.rr.no! mi.st.R'.RI Mi. tt .. r..rel mi • st. rt.re! Act four, L scene I, mm. 96-102, 19 ,. ' ., ., .. ., ,, I I ' r,r ... i:i ..... ~ ·;j- -- .. ,, ........ Jl..il~ L...a • ICbiu • If "i.:e. frft, . mt.st. nn! 66 mi.:,. . :e.rr! • • ____ § 67 Liszt, Migereg:e aug trovatore, mm. 38-42, theme B, ! , ~ atepapo l ~ \Jt II II II +-= --== ~ .f:~. * 3q ~ !ff: j: ... ~ " I I L5 .... lv ·- -... ~I II II II II ...... r, , ~ I •v••••---,- , ----= I ·v •v• ........ :; ---== 'ti.). *~- *:· l/0 h ,1 I L~ ~ !int . ,. .... lv --: = tJ 3 II II 11 II i[W" , , '-'~ I •v-'+"•- ... - , , '--===== l -··74-"• .......::::::.; ---==== ~- ~ * tJ I l u " --===:: -- -'t:.l. * 1/ 2- .. . " I tA ~:; ~~t . ~ I ,m w············--········· . l ~ . -u LI ... ~ ,:: ,: ,:: ,., -~ 11 I I l l 11 I~ I ,-1 7 - ~l =;· . -·· • . .. --=-, ..... --=::::: :, -68 In Verdi's drama Leonora's distressed theme is followed by Manri1.:;o's - ! theme c, as he prepares himself to die. Theme c is presented in Verdi's i _opera by Manrico set t 1o "Ah, che .la morte ognora" (see Example 25, Verdi, mm. ··-- - l '80-87). This theme contains a triplet figure which is characteristic of each melodic phrase, and the accompaniment is quite simple consisting of repeated eighth-note triplets. Liszt's presentation of theme c is slightly different from Verdi's setting in that Liszt' e melody is an octave lower and is surrounded by eighth-note triplet figures presented in a chordal texture and spanning tLe C3ntire range of the two staves (see Exart1ple 26, Liszt, mm. 22-29). In this particular passage it appaare that Liszt is trying to create a fuller texture by reaching across both the treble and bass regiatere with the accompaniment while placing the lyrical melody in the middle of this activity so it may be more easily heard. Example 25. Verdi, Il Trovatore, Act four, scene I, mm. 80-87, theme C. S'3 .--..--= =--,. . . "T'. . r'f'. ,t L O ~·~lIIJi1£t/i: flJiC::f(J i:: ,-JJ_:;_:{f(j~ilf=-'!lt~:rf}~ cor,il rr • 1pl • ro.l pal • pl • li al '1 I l-1 . ·•·I ! j· 26. Liszt, Miserere aus Trovatore, mm. 22-29, theme c. ! . -cortla 'fa. . ~ * t..,_ d't . ~ •.r.: 't.)_ r * 't.,. * c).(o . "lliilllrlillll f i ,. • jffi 69 -~=· n •$-70 : In the second pccurrence of theme C in Vardi's opera, at m. 105, the ! is essantiatly unchanged, containing the same simple melody and i . -! of accompanilµent as in the first statement of theme c. However, in .• ·....•.. . . I . Liszt's prasentation1of the secol'ld theme c statement he creates a setting of even great111~; elabora~ion· than that of the f iret statement ( see Example 2 7, .. Liszt, mm. 49-58). The melodic line is retained in the middle register ! between the two sd1ves so that it may be easily projected while the . accompaniment is intensified with sixteenth-note groups in the right hand against arpeggi~ting triplet figures in the left hand. Thie passage may be compared to Liszt's •second statement of theme B ( see Example 24), in that both second stat@ments of the thematic material are treated in increasingly more elaborate settings, thus displaying Liszt's mature style of paraphrase. Liszt also displRys a rhapsodic style here with the addition of a virtuoso cadenza passage at m. 56 which contains chromatic thirds and sixths in both hands set in a rhythmic pattern of six-note groups cascading in the treble register from the top to the bottom. Ill ;·pfn@· &&VII 27. Li•zt, austTrovatore,: mm. 49-58, theme c. 5'3 .. " 55' (or-· j" ·pf······--··"! ·~ _. .... .. ,......., ;m __ _ --..,:..---"' -~ . ·.: • .. .. • I I I I 6 I 7l 12 The final · occurrence of' theme C in Verdi's opera, at m. 112, i's ina pasi•~e with the t~o other th13111es, A and B (see Example 2~1, i .Verdi, nm. 112-116) .J - - I Verdi pr~sents all three themes simultaneously, with I • - . • each exhibiting thei~ own characteristics, to create a •grand finale' for the closing of the cant.~ile. Liszt, on the other hand, does not usa all three . ! themes at thisaamei,oint in his work, rather, he recalls theml)l Band treats it in a highly embal;lished setting ( see Example 29, Liszt, mm. 59-64). In this final theme B sEi!ction Liszt changes the time signature from 4/4 to 12/8 and indicates a specific change in mood with the tempo marking 'dolce molto appasionato.' He uses the theme B statement from Verdi's work (see Example 28) and broadens the'rhythm, stretching each measure of the Verdi theme over two measures in his paraphrase. The accompaniment in this passage consistA of arpeggiating thirty-second notes, ascending and descending amJ..dst ever-changing harmonies and a variety of rhythmu. Moreover, Liszt's harmonic imagination is set free. He trlmaposes his ela.,borations twice, moving through unprepared juxtapositions two minor thirds up (from A-flat major to B major at m. 61, and from B major to D major at m. 63). At the same time he also changes the rhythmic pattern of the left hand accompanimental figures. l ; \ • trr,½, •. : ;. \;lYt 51' ,);:~~-=~.,,,..,,..~~,. w,w+:,a ..,.~,,,~.-;.;:~~·;;,;~,~~'llt;;lli ".1 -l J :J ·l 1·, 73 :.-~·~).-.:.·.::-.)_:.' :_:-..:: - :,1 . ,- t .;~j;J~~-~l1t 2,8;~ Verdi/ Il Trovatore', Act four~ scene I, mm. 112:-116, _· ,:Themef'iA~ s· and_ C • . ·;:>b i, : I., .. -11, -~ to ...-ir - , . . . ,,_ •ie-...ir: ·•a~t • _f. __ -:. • l· -tl.eollti -· ,.-ad.. ... • _.mr-: 0 , . ...,..,.._,11.ter ~--r-- . 1111 ......... , --.... .-.--~ - ~-ff • ,., .. "" ,· g - ... ,11 di I ., ~•• .to rol Ma • su, 1 . _,-,-'. -~= ~:f¥¥µ----a-¥® , NJ ....... ,., -T-, 1111.le.,.""' mt .... ,.. nl = 'm i ji d ~ r l~~·s, 1= I~=- 1#1~ . JI~ 4· l ~ ~ , I~·' 'g 7 ri{ :_ li2 ] ---ml ... ,. -.-. .~ .. ~ ~ 7' µ r P @ 1r ! .ut, Id • 4lo L- • "ld4i • o, #f i::Z-3;:; p i , •· I~ DI r., di It -rdanllll di ffi ¥4§ Ml ....... ,., S;<·,· ,-ls, ~ ~~··.~ -·-·----~--"'-(1,1) ··~·········· .......... ,/! (b1..l ....................................... ~ .......................... , ("'~"· ,.~ --- ,, • '14 -75 74A--fl•t*ajor ratur~a·anda new embellished repeat of the same ' . '· ,,, '._-- .·· i - . . :· • . ,-(includi11g :tile mc;,dulationa)!takea place, which leads tothe coda. The ·._ ·.' - _j ' ' -· cadenza..;li~a section in Liszt's paraphrase ia filled with 1 ,: virtuoaic scale patt:arris presented in octaves (Example 30, Liszt, mm. 74-79), - i • : . ·and arpeggio figures ill the right hand against rolled c:hords in the left hand (11111! 80-89). This sec+,ion displays the improvisatory style, characterietic . I . of Liszt's mature par~phrases. 1It shows liszt's exploitation of operatic 1 repetition for the purpose of el~oration within a multisectional work with ' ' several themes, and t~e degree of pianistic sophistication with which he treats the themes. These characteristics will soon be shown to be true for Liszt's mature paraphr~se technique is some'of the Hungarian Rhapsodies. The preceding an~lyses show that Liszt's elaborat.ions in the paraphrase technique range from sµbtle and ~imple as in Melodies honqroisas, to quite extensive ae in MisereJ:e aue Trovatore. Liszt uses a similar range of the paraphrase techniques in the nineteen Hungarian Rhapsodies. Analyses of certain Hungarian RhAQj3odies and the ~r Dallok and Magyar Rhapszodiil! pieces on which they are based will ' illustrate Liszt's different manipulations of the pre-existing thamatic material, demonstrating both the simple and sohpistic~ted paraphrase styles and will elucidate the relationship between the two collections (Magyar pieces and HungariaQ Rhapsodies), showing them to represent varied degrees of arrangemento (paraphrases) of the same Hungarian folk tunes. I I I tJ ! I 30. · Li•at, t1i11rerr, au, Trovatort!• mm. 76-79, cooA. i ==-- -='. >>> > ,- ==-' ~ iH , mm m m w (71) 76 .. :::~:.~~~r~·;:;:;;;:~.;~~~0xL:0y=s1 . At thb point i .] 1 11 diatinction •hould b• made between Magyar Dallok and ggyar BbiPtgadlh c·~•OY•r' tr•n•latea to 'Hungarian'), The term •oallok' . . j (Manino 'Mlody') in: thia cont,,xt impliaa a simple setting, or as in Wlsi:tll l Qallgk Noe, 1-3, an u;naecompaniitd atatamerlt of an Hungarian folk tune, The l i tei':111 'RhapHodiak 1 (~taning 'rhapaody 1 ) aignifiea B more elaborate Betting Of ! ' thematic material in im improvi,ied style. Pieces with the Rhapszodiak title I Magyar BblPHod1'k ilos, 12-21) also contain more themes than the Dallok composition•, which 1nay only consist of one or two themes, g_.g., lin9:tll Dallok Noa, 1-6 each contain only one theme per piece. Liszt seems to have maintained this dist.inct.ion in style ( simple veraua elaborate) in the transference of the Hf1gyar material to the Hungarian Rhapsodies, that is, the simple Magyar Dallok themes area reset in appropriately simple ways in the Hungarian Rhapsodies, and the more complex~ themas are embellished and reset more elaborately in the Hungarian Rhapsodies, in contexts similar to the ones from which they were derived. Hungarian Rhap11odies Nos, l-15 were categorized in Chapter Two au "comprised of Hunga1:ian folk tunes all p.t'eviously used in the Magyar collection" (see p. 22). Thie category may be further divided into those Hungarian Rhapaodiu baaed on themes from the Magyar Dallok, piecea -- Nos. 3-6, and those baaed on themes from the Magyar Rhapszodiak, piacea -- Noe. ?-15. The first categ1::>ry (Noa. 3-6) may be further subdivided as Hung~ian Rhapsody No. 5 includes thematic material from Magyar Rhapszodiak, No. 12 (a later version of the material in Mg.gvar DaJ.l,Qk No. 6) and ijungarian RJJ..<1.,lli;!.QQJ£. No. 6 includes one theme from Number 20. A fruitful analytical approach for understanding the thematic treatment in the Hungarian Bb.AJ:>eodies is to follow the categories thus eatablit:ihed: Hungarian Rhapsodies Nos, 1-2, 3-15 [3-6, 7-15), 16-10, (19) (oee p. 22). One Hungarian Rhaps~ from 8l1Ch categoi:y will be used to euempl.lfy til(d treatment of thematic material and the npecific otyle of paraphrase peculiar 78 the I ord•r of t:na1y111 of the UYOAtcian 8bu1QdiH wlll b• <' .· ·.. . j • . : ,OH.rned by tlle ut•~t to whict~ tu paraJPhl'Hc technique 11 u1ed J.n •iaah _· ___ - - .-- i ' -eate90ry, that 11, tfM! PYPANi.1.U~l with th• •Lep1Ht •ppUoauon of - ·- - - l · tM paraptarate tffhni~u• will be: 1naly1ed Hut, followd by thoae lblDaa.L\IJl . I lb4i111Qdlt1 to which t~i• panphra.1• technlqu• ia elaborated in conee01Jtlvitly vr••t•r detr••· NPXAB QAW>lt NO. 7 AJ!ro HUIIGAI\.UI BUAPSQDX NO, 4 L1Ht uaed th• 11implHt paJC"aphraee application in HY.ogarian Rhapag!3iJt.ll. Noa. 3-6, An analy1i1: of HungarJ~ao Rh•P•cxiY. No, 4 and t11gyar Dallok No. 7 on which it ie baaed will: aarve to Uluetrate the technique• uaad in thelllll euly rhapaodlea, The fdrll!Al atru¢tura of both piecea ia the aame with oorreeponding laeau ( 1dow) and friaa (quick) sections and nearly the ,uune number of meaauraa in aach piece (aee Figure 12), The three folk tuneo, A, e, c, uaed both in HAg,,var Dal).ok No, 7 and Hunaarian Rhapsody No. 4 are sh<>wn in Example 31. Figure 12. Form of t11.gyar Dallok No. 7 and Hungarian Rhapeody No. 4. HQ.7 Andante cantabile Andantino Piu animato CODA (quasi adagio) (quasi allegretto) m.1-25 26-58 59-100 101-119 C minors E-flat major m.1-24 25-59 59-122 123-137 HR 4: Quasi adagio - Andantino Allegretto Preato altieramente A B C C LASSU )1'RISS 7 and BY091aCitn Ahaptpdy No. 4, Thae 8, -~ft) I e··§azif5t~-~ ~""I-§ Themo c. ~tttflf~1-t!•J• r~UU-:w1SWifu.:Ha1t1~ 79 A compari11on of corresponding themat.ic sections in tho two piecan will ohow that Liszt merely transferred the 1™alodic material from filgx_~r OaLl9~ No. 7 to Hungarian 1U1apeody No. 4, making no alterationo to the thema1tic structure, only mod1.fying the surrounding accompaniment to cro«to .;1 moro varied and slightly elaborate context for the tunes (eee Examplom 32-34). The setting of them11 A in lhmgarian BhlWLQID!. No. 4, mm. 1-8, le almoot ident.Lcal to the parallel paeBage in t'l•Ulx.tr Pail.Q.k No. 7, mrn. 1-a (a0e Example 32). Liszt 11.imply rearranges the left-hand accompaniment i \ mrn. 1-2 from broken chords in tl§.gy..ru:,_J2AJJ.9Ji No. 7 to 1·olled choi:de in hqUll!ldJUl ~ No. 4, and ohAngea the right-hdncl melodic lin,i in m. 7 from r, double ~\~~'~[ 1~r'~ "~??Hl , ~,,,.-,r~·'"~"T''~.,. , ,. , .~,,, I 80 I . dotted quarter not• U1/ffMY1r Ptl1lAII No, 1,. to • dotted quarter note with • . . · .•· .•· . . i . • •U•not• .... 1UtbMnti Li.Ht al!10 add1 1011Mt 1taooato marking, to the loft Nftd·of •• 7, and. oal,.t~ the U.nat•i9hth-nou chord from th•,_. l'IMIHura. i -l i ha.pla J2 • ~ No. 7 ,. th8Cll8 ,. , mm. 1-e . i I • . . Andanl~ Hnl•l,l/1' (tfUA•I ,UftJlo,) L'~, =--.,., _ ... \ ...--::=,..... q~~-~~--1 ,.,-----,. . ' --r -----. /I I 1 81 Hunqaria,1 8btPIP4Y No. 4, theme A, mn1. 1-&. ; A comparison of parallel them:! B paesages in the two pieces shows a greater variation of the thematic material in Hungarian Rhapsody No. 4 (see Example 33). In Hungarian RhaQ!ody No. 4, mm. 25-26, Li.szt omits the lower left-hand chords from~ Dallok No. 7, and presents the melody in thirds in the left hand, In mm, 28-29, he omits the lower octave notes in the right hand leaving the melody in thirds, and in the left hand he replaces tho octave accompaniment with an ascending and descending arpeggio figure. Tho second half of tho melody contains few changes, such as the addition of glissando markings tc, the left-hand chs:irdal accompaniment and the omioaion of the low octave in th,i last measures ( left hand) . Liszt also adds sever:al new articulation markinge (staccato and sustain) in addition to the accents that exist in Magyar Dallok No. 7. I Magyar DallokNo. 7, theme e, mm. 26-33. 0 ,., I - " ,L ~ -! I -' -., _______ ...... mJ ~ ,. ,,. ~ ,, :-I Ir -..... ~ ,~~ - ,,~t: ~ -"*-ti..-. J 0 L ,L T"iJ ·---. I ,, I Hungarian Rhapsody No, 4, them~ e, mm. 25-32. 82 -. " f~to r· I .,.. "--~ ;;t 83 The alteration~ made to theme c in Hungarian Rhapsody No. 4 are similar to thos.e made to thetne B, disc\issed above ( see Example 34) • Throughout this l fries passage, Liszt! reduces the left-hand accompaniment from full chords to ~-- I : thirds, and change1111 ~he repeated octave notes on the first and third beats in Magyar pallok No. 7' to alternating tonic and dominant notes in Hungarian Rhapsody No~ 4. Li~zt also writes out the repeat of the second phrases in Hungarian Rhapsody No. 4 in a more elaborate setting, instead of using repeat .marks, as in ~ Dallok No. 7 (a practice which he also employed in MAlodiea honaroises). Example 34. Magyar Dallok No. 7, theme c, mm. 59-66 Plu n.01mAto(qa1111IAll!) u------------------~q. -...... . ;.. u,,,.' f t· ~ 11················································· · ... tnrn. . 'f u---·~ •• .!-!t.~ -·.-.-.~~~~- ~. . . ~ ,A:f-:-lorn . J•xample 34 (cont'd). 1 Hunqarian:Rhapsody No. 4, theme c, mm. 59-68, I (,'?, •••••••••••••••••••••••••• ,., ................................................................................................. . ~ 1 The paraphrase relationship between Hungarian Rh§J2fl.Qslll: No, 4 and Mru~ )2A.U2k No. 7 is sitZlilar to that between Liszt's Mtlo<.Ueg b9D!dk.2i!UU1 and Schubert's Divertieomtot A 1 'hornn~~, in that Liszt ueed all of the material from the pi:e-exieting cocnposltions to creato plecer1 in which the borrowed themes are kept intact, yet oet in eli.ghtly altered contexts. In both exa.mplen Liszt makes only minor. changes to the original rnat£irial; nevertheless, the act; of lifting material from one oourco and resetting it in a more eabelliehed context (although suhtle) juntifies tho claooific,itl.on of the n9'W cocnpoaition as a paraphrase. Sir1cie l,i.uzt initidl.ly paraph.nurnd th9 origJ.nd Hungarian f1'.>lk tunH ,,n M.ASlll.f_JJJ!l),ok. Uo. 7, fuJJ1au:i~.Jl.bA!I/Jf1.<it'l No. nevertheleas. -- 1 MNiXA8 RhapazodUk NO. 17 AND HQHGARIAN RHAPSODY NO. 13 --:- _- - ·,-! 8! A mdre mature applioat.Lon ilf tha paraphrue teoh11iquo r~ay be 1 ex•plitied'. by uunaarian Rhapsg!Uu Noe. 1-1s. 'l'heH HunauiSLD-&bAJ:i.tw.~ i are ~Hed :on Magyar 'Rhap,zodU,1' Nos. 12-21 (aa dhcuaeadl abovo), an,:: i therefore ~uchibit gr•ater thematic elaboration and contain more c~omph, arrangeaient~ of tha borrowed fo:Lk tunes. An analysis of ~t~tu~ No. 13 in c:ornpariaon .with ~lI Rhap110di6k No. 17 on whioh it h 011111.iHS, will illu•:trate Lint' a use of the paraphraee techniqun in 11 1~K>Y.'fl sophiatJ,cated manner ·than that ,u,ed in Hungarian Rhapapdi,a Nou, 3-6, ~r Rhapszosl.U.k No. :L 7 and ffyngadao 8bOPIQ9Y. no. 13 i::orn~111Jlt1 parallel atiructural fe)rmal divit1iono of laHu and fdu oec.:tio1r111 (1»041' ri·!~U•:'t 9B, p. 29). Although the preeen.tutlon of thematic material i.n the- •11mhnt;i1 • and • Poco plu moaoo' sections is similar, the v~.~ious theme arouf"' .fr; ,ir,ao.h friH aectfon are tr·eated quH:e differentiy. RhapazgdUk No. 17 fdsa are eat in distinct atyle Hctlooe, wtu1t'O;!ia U11'J friae in fillngarl&[l RhAP•ody No. 13 contains alternating vnrUtionlt or th.a melodies, all presented in the s.iuoe general style, Thio cotroop<jnd,i t.o ti feature we have already noted in the formAl outl!no of tf,!lJ1Sl,.r.iJ1JfLnh11.v.lH~;j2, Ho, 13 (see C)l,apter Two, p. 29), n4Jl\4ly a proc,aafl of oim;,Hfic&-tii:,n Mid unification that Litlzt soarns to pt1reue whan he rtH:ot,1f;('J1J,1u11 th-.i,i~o m1·.i battteen the two pieca IJ. Thture ,tra ffhO'An ln r.x au,ple 3 !. • 71*MJ "· 86 1?Y1 d. t4'P a 1 ThUIO E. A compariaon of parallal th411Wlt.lc p11.11•a9u• 1o1il 1 tlluatr..tt& L:~o:t ":ti tra.u:u,qnt of the /olJ~ tur.t1• J.n each pLfltt• .t!YJ uJ.Al ~h'"N thf't 1Hfr,r~·n:t context• in which tho thfll,O .to p,l•ced IIMJ nutJ-ltv.f"«ir,tly •htxu.ttlli'J, t;z.ir;,1;,J.1, 07 i Magyar Rhapsz9di4k No, 17, theme A,"'"'' 4~o. - I ,\a ... te ao1tea11t~, 1 I !a•• , Hungarian Rhapsody No, 13, theme A, mm. 4-8. In the presentation of theme B, Liszt collapses the original three etavea into two etovea, and maltes some adjustments to the notation ( aee Example 37), He ch1mgeo the left-hand accompaniment from broken octaveo and chorde on ,.early every beat au in H119yar Rhapazodia].s No, 17 to rolled ocaccato chord~ plaood on every off-beat (except m. 27) in Hungarian Rha~aody No. 13. In the righ.t hand Liazt omito oome o(: the chortle (m. 25) and alter@ tho arrangement of 11otoa in othore, eithe1· adding now notoa or changing the 88 -hJ.lting note• (m, 26-27) ,j and presenting them in broken (glissando) foX'lll, ff• •lac makaa 801118 minor mo~itications to the melodic rhythm, for example th@ fir1t ~eat of m, 26 in Blm.~arian Rhapsod~ Ho, 13 is made up of an eighth note l ,nd several eiJ!tffnth and ~hirty-aecond notea, whereas in Magyar RhapszodiAk H<>, l 7 the euie motive 0011j1ist11 of an eighth note aml uQveral thirty-second and lillty-~toul'th notea I ho'iever, the improviaatory style of the passage dopa IIClt; 9han9e, h!!JIIPl• 37, M.gyar BbAPIZ-q•IU.lk Ho, 17, theme B, IMI, 25-27, 89 -, Liszt extends: the thematic material in the theme B section of Hungarian _ Rhapsody No. p by adding further elaborations of the folk tune at mm. 76-99 (see Example ;38). This passage in particular exemplifies the increased degr- of "expressive virtuosity" attempted in the Hungarian Rhapsody, with 1, the thirty-se4ond note phrase (mm, 82-83) and the shifting of theme B between the left and right hands (mm. 84-91) against sixteenth-note arpeggio patterns (mm, 84), and:with a final ascending arpeggio to complete the section (mm. 98-99). Example 38. ~ungarian Rhapsody No. 13, theme a, mm. 76-99. 90 . In the theme cipassages Liszt makes minor changes to the accompaniment, j by omitting selected! few notes (see Example 39 -- compars Magyar Rhap~zodiAk No. 17, 1m1. · 77-78 jwith HYru!.Anian Rhapsody No. 13, mm. 102-103), The subsequent ther.latic '.statements in the theme c section of Hungarian Rhapeody No, 13 (mm, 106-123) :adhere to the parallel Hllgyar Rhapezod!!J!I No, 17 passage (mm, 81-98), following the melodic setting and accompaniment very closely, with few changes mad11. However, through Liszt's incorporation of theme c in the final section of the piece (mm. 238-258) a c:ompletely different character of the theme is port1:ayed (see Example 40), Li,er;t produces a pallBage filled with a motive of thtlme c, i:epeat11d in an ostinato rhythm and set in highly chromatic setting to complete the piece, Example 39, ~RhapszodiAk No, 17 1 theme c, mm. 75-00. Ii'.!!lQllilllLillllllliQ!l:t N). 13, theme C, !001, 100-!05, ,.. _.J L-~· A comparison of theme E passages in the t,,,o pioceo oho~rn that Liszt keeps the right-hand melody intact, but varioe tho left-hand accompaniment pattorn by replacing the left-hand th.Lrde from l:!ftg'lat: l'\hRJ?B:iodl..111; No. 17 with single notes, and changing tho pattern of broken cho1·do to one of altocnntin9 chord notoe (see Exampl~ 41). 92 Hungarian Rhapsody No. 13, theme E, mm. 148-155. 8Jr ·········: 93 flMI fifth lhw ~n ffMYU Pjl!111J1zad.Uk Uo, 17 libelled 'lC' J.n ttw cU.qn.w , ... 'ifu"° !JI, ll'• 29), ill nttt An or.Lqinal ttun9111:i1m totk tune (l,iut I IIIOlt U.it.ly C!CMtpOHd J.j; himHlf), 11nd 11ub,iequ111ntly1 it .tu not u11aa in Hungn,l,IQ RhfPIR4Y ffo, 13, Unt 11ut111tJ.tute11 tor: it 11n original ttung,u:J.an folk tune, lllbtJlled 'D' .Ln the placeis where theriie 'X' wau originally etatecl (IJH B•MtPl• 42), Lf.11Zt'11 replAcem,nt of theme X with a nnw thet110 al110 re1ulte in a change of tlul~tio treatment in tho new themQ D 1ection11 from that of the theme l seotJ.one, In HA.Pyar Rhaps;odiAk. No, 17 theme X is 11et in a dhlz 11eation, and it h therefore given a different b:eatrnent from the other four theme11 of the piece, however, LiBZt'e treatment of the new theme Din Hungarian Rhapsody No, 13 is the eame as hie treatment of the other four themes in the piece, thus resulting .l.n a consistent style of .l.mpro·.,isatory elaboration throughout, Example 42. Hungarian Rhapsody No. 13, theme D. F r r The first paeeage of theme D (mm. 124-129) presents the folk tune in the right hand with a simple broken chord accompaniment in the left hand (eee Example 43). In the second theme D eection (mm. 165-223), Liszt disguioae the folk tune amidst a passage of repeated notes in the right hand with an accompan.l.ment of off-beat eighth notes ( see Example 44). This pasoage s~rongly resembles the performance practice of the gypsies by which the folk tunes are hidden amidot J.ntricate rhythmo. The fJ.nal passage of Hungarian ~ No. 13 presents theme Cina highly chromatic setting. At the end of this section it settle,s into the dominant of A minor in preparation for the followi.ng A major secti,:,n (mm. 224-258) which containo the final statements of themes E and c to complete the piece, ~ "" *9NJJ •. ~-·~ ~( ., . /!fll(il --• Lisz.t • • Hynqa(ian !'ha~ U<J, 13 f.11 eimil.ar to hie lfi@ei;<oro lVJ!J J".fGv<;.!;.ore von Verdi, ir. that in both piecea he applio11 1:ho paraphr11ao tfi'4i.ni.q-.ta to theaiatic l!la.torial derived trom a pre-uxioting coroPQDition. ln thee-,;, worxe Liszt create1, elaborations, •,ariatione and oxtonaiona of tho b<>rrc;,ie-1 theaiatic mat'3ri1tl, thuo cro,,ting new compooitiono in which tho melodies are reccgniz.eablo, yet preaonted in a different otylo from tho original. In Magyar Rhapazodi.!lk llo, 17 ( liko Ji?qyar Da].],_Q).{ Ho. 7) Liazt paraphraaea the original Hungarian follt tunes for tho firot time, thoroforo, in theory, fuIDqArian l\hl\J>B..Q9Y l/o. 13 ( like fumga,;.i,an Rhapoody llo. 4) io simply a subsequent vari-'ltion of the oarna fol.le tunoa; howover, Linzt • o inclusion of embelliohed thematic extenoiono and hia olaboratJ.on of an entirely now folk melody (theme D) qualifieo HungcgJ.an Rham!E!!Y. No. 13 an a more mature paraphrase, filled with a multituclo of malodic variety and a complexity of intricate rhythmo. 95 HUNGARIAN RHAPSODY N9. l As mentioned ea;rlier (Chapter Two, p. 22), Hungarian Rhapsodies Nos. l and 2 form a separatelcategory because" they are based on Hungarian folk tunes not found in the M~gyar collection. Their thematic treatment may be illustrated through a comparison of the extracted folk tunes with their elaboration in the HYngarian Rhapso_gy. An analysis of Hungarian Rhapsody No. l will serve to exempl.ify the application of the pa:i:aphrase technique in this category. Hungarian RhapsQ.!h'. No. l ha11 the same formal structure as the other eighteen Hungarian Rhapsodies. including an introduction, lassu and fries sections, and a final coda passage (see Figure 13). As the formal diagram shows, it contains three themes which are elaborated in full and in part throughout the piece. Example 45 presents the three themes. Figure 13, Ferm of Hungarian Rhapll.2m!. No. l. Lento q,1asi recitativo Andante aeeai Andantino Allegro animate Proeto Andante con mote m, 1-22 23-76 77-104 185-342 343-381 introduction (A) A () C CODA (D) l,llilSU l'riao lxampl• 4D, il1£1U1H'iAn RhA~ No,1, tllOffl(III A, D, C, ThNe ,., , •t=ssift.rr: @r· 12•1'4 G r ETC Theme e. Ja I J Theme c. J ~ F1Lln I j70i+ I JqpJ Iv 1tf~ "rhs introduction consists of the first motive of theme A (m, 1) set in octaves and presented in a sequence (see Example 46). The alternation between • recJ.tativo' and 'con moto • in t:he performance of the opening pnsange shows Liszt'u attempt to create an improvisatory style. A full presentation of theme A takes place at m. 23, wher,3 it io placed in the left hand uith accompanimental rolled chords on the off-beat!l in the right hand ( see E,wrn(JlG 47), 97 R11llallro, Example 47. Hungarian Rhapsody No. 1, theme A, mm. 23-26. ;i?) Andante. Aual moderalo, 0 ,, n·,. • . I':\ Af:ter stating theme A in a simple context, Liszt elaborates the melody in sevex·al virtuosic phrases (see Example 48). In this passage, the theme iB placed in the right hand ag11inat a pattern of ascending and de•1eendi.ng arpeggios in the left hand. Liszt's use of the fermata in m. 43 and m. 47 add to the improvisatory style of the paasage. Subsequent etatemante of theme A are set in a aixteenth-notl~ pattern, alternating between the high nnd low reglstere in the right hand (mm. 48-55), and later dieguioed in the right hand in a triplet pattern (mm. 60 .. 73). 98 lx1111Pl• 48, 1Uuoaadan Bbl~ 110, 1, theme A, mm, 40-47, The initial statament of theme B presents the melody .in thirds in the right hand (see Example 49, mm. 77-91). In the second statement the theme i0 preeented in a thicker texture of full chords, with the melody etill in the top line, accompanied by the same broken chorde, now in a more intcreoting syncopated rhythmic pattern (see Example 50). The theme D accompnnirnont subeequently appaare in several other variations, but the melody is ah,ayg preeent and recognizeable in each scatting. 99 Example 49, ~191\1::ian Rha,ps~ No, 1, thome B, mm. 77-91, ,. .J ! Example 50. !!Ynaarian Rhapeggy No. 1, theme B, mm. 92-97. 100 Theme c, will.ch is introduced in the fries section (al1DOst 200 meaaurea ! in lengtll) is tre:ated with the widest variety of elaboration and is stated the IDO&t times of:the three thE!llles in the piece, At the outset of the frlso (m, 185), theme ~: is presented in 11hort mcttivic fragments, and J.t iii not until m, 210 that a full etatemant of the meiody in octavos in both hands, la presented, At m. 234 theme c is presented with the indication •1mu:c11to ener9ic0 1 , in meaauree alternating between dynamic markings ot 'forte• 11nd 'p!llno• (eee Example 51), In thie statement Lint aleo 111\ift!I the melody from uppE,r to low~,r registers i,n the right hand, diapiaying hls capacity foe complex and multifaceted explo1ration11 of the registcal var!ety of tha r•lano, Subsequent atate111enta of them,a C place th,, melody in the hitt hand \.llth ecalee ,;1f thirdl! .Ln the right hand (11ee Example 52), Example 51, lll!.rullu.:ian Rhapsody Na, 1, them,, c, n'm, :IJ'l~Hl, I I 1 - i Bxampl• 5,Z. ft1,1nqari~n Rhapsody N~. 1, theme C, mm. 272-279. . . - . I - - - . - . . i . t • ,,, - - I t'INIRffi II •·~!~·······"···~······•1·························-······························ .. ·············: • 101 . . ~ .. : . . . . .,, .. ,, .... ,; . · . E I .... I . . . .... . . e:!!!tz'!!l~!f ;!:i I . .,,,, . Ai .. !···;;•••••• 102 'tllO ciocu.;.uu p1H&iJ@ at tho end of tho pl.fi'1li (ffil'II, :iu~Jflll J.11 bued on thaN B , ... 1ir1111ple 1>31 ~ mn:o, tho Mlo4y J.@ dl,rt9ui11,;id th,:ou9h rhythmio di•pllaemtint. in dgbt.•hA~d ni,cteent;h .. not.e p1t.tin·111;1 whi'1h 11ro prtt11ontcid iH a .. quenUal unmn;, lxample 53, ffururat;ian &I!~ tlo, 1, CODA, nwn. 3U~348, Although Hungarian Rhapsodies Noe, 1-2 are baeecl on pre-existing simple folk tunes, Liszt manages to create vJ.rtuoeic, elaborated compositions out of them, through hie ingenious use of the paraphrase technique. Thus we may e;,y that according to the,ir type of thematic treatment, H1.1ngarian Rhapsodies ?loe. 1-2 and Hungar.!filL_Bhapsodies Noe. 7-15 have similar characteristics: both group~ belon7 to Liszt·~ more m~ture paraphrase technique, in which he p..:eoente the thematic material clearly, yet with an increased flair of improvisatJ.on that evokes the freer perforrnanc-e p1:actice of folk rnueici,ma. Based on this stylistic reee.,,olance, one may apaculate about whether the earlier publication ctate of Noe. ! and 2 in 1851 doae naceeaarily mean that they would have been e;ompoeed earlier than Noa. 7-l.5, publiohed in 1853: they could have been written around the earn_, time. 103 j IJUH9MJM llftAPSODX NC>, 16 ! The final grou~ of Hungnrioo.BbARMQdipp to ooneider include Noe, 16-18, the original worlul (Fungarian Bha1>~ No, 19 io excluded from this group as it is baHd wholely ~n Abdnyi' B g9Ard6p nobl!JU. Ae diecuesud in chapter two, Liazt 'Iii compollitional etyle in the last three Hungarbn Rhapsodies, changed dramatically, thue creating a division between these liungarip.n Rhapeodiea and the first fifteen. However, Liszt continuecl to use the paraphraoe technique, although hie application of it ie slightly different in Hungarian Rhapsodies Noe. 16-18 from hie use of it in the other Hungarian Rhapsodies. Hungarian Rhapeo..!!:£ No. 16 will be analyzed to exemplify the thematic treatment in the later Hungarian Rhapsodies, The structure of Hungarian Rhapsody No. 16 is the same ae in the other .l!!!.ngarian Rhapeodie1B, containing the two main div·isions of lassu and fries which are further subdivided into thematic sections, and a coda (seo Figure 14). Figure 14, Form of Hungarian Rharu!2.lt£ No, 16. Allegro Lassan Quasi Allegro - Allegro con brio Piu mtJSSO capriccioso m,1-26 27-97 98-115 116-225 226-25;6 A B A B CODA (B) Laesu Fries A characteristic of the later Hungarian Rhaosodiee is their limited thematic content. In Noe. 16-18 Liszt includes lees themas par piece than in the first fift,aen Hunqarian Rhapsodies, thus restricting the poasibl.lity for extensive melodic variety: Hunga,:ian Rhapsody No. 16 contains two therneo; Hungarian Rhapsody Ne,. 17 contains one theme; Hungarian Rhapaod:t. No. 10 contains one theme. l',s a result, the later Huncl!!.r.Jd!.n Rhao0odies are smaller in ecale than those t,nsed on pre-existing thernntic material. 104 The fir1t theme J.n Hunaarign Bb1n104't No, 16, theme A, i1 angular and ' hH a nurow IIMllodic r•mge ot a minor 1ixth, At the outset of the piece it · iD prHentttd H a -.1.ng~a melodio line in the right hand doubled with octavee in the left hand ( He 1:,111111ple 54) , Example 54, Hungarian Rhapgody No. 16, theme A, mm, 1-16. Theme A ie only present in the first portion of Hungarian Rhapsody No. 16 and as a result, is not elaborated to any great extent.. Although Liazt ia not very creative with this theme he does attempt to infuse into it the playful improvisatory style of the gypsies, as indicated by the 'quasi allegro, capriccioso • marking at m. 98 ( see Example 55). In thie statement of theme A, certain fragments of the theme are repeated in oequence-liko pasoage0, but the theme itself does not display any virtuoeic charactoristics like those found in the earlier Hungarian RhapoQgy themes. Example 55, JJY~qarian Rhapeci.!ll'.. No, 16, theme A, mm, 98-115, f :aE:l!rm;: 1,:M 1!S1:w;:rz:e:·1:r: 1:::1 105 Thwne Bis slightly more interesting, in that it spans an octave and it modulates from E minor into A major (see Example 56), Liszt uses this theme in the lassu section, where it is set at m. 27 in a atark passage, >Jith a repetitive left hand accompaniment which parallels the right hand th0me (eee Example 57). Example 56. Hungarian Rhapsody No. 16, theme B. I I J 106 Example 57. Hungar~an Rhapsody No. 16, theme B, inm. 27-35. The return of theme Bat the beginning of the fries section is marked 'Allegro con brio', indicating another attempt at creating the improvisatory style of the gypsic1s ( see Example 58). However, Liszt falls short of creating an improvisoto,;y atyle an themo B ia elaborated only through octaves in the right hand and a broken chordal accompaniment in the left hand. EKample 58. !!!mg_u..l.J~n Rh&psody No. 16, theme B, mm. 116-125. 107 .Although t)le last HlmSl!!,_rian Rhapsodies. (Nos. 16-18) contain a different type of motives~n.d perhaps less embellishment, they still may be classified as paraphrases because the e·eeential technique being used to expand their simple themes is that of elaboration. These Hungarian Rhapsodies are certainly closer in style to the early H!!...ngarian Rhapsodies (Nos. 3-6) than to the Hungarian, Rhapsodies of the middle period (Noe. 7-15), however, Noe. 16-18 also strongly exhibit the characteristics of Liszt's late compositional style and therefore, must remain in a separate style category. Liszt achj.evee a great variation of thematic treatment in his transcriptions i:hrough the tE1ohnique of paraphrase, ranging frOlll a subtle and simple manipulation of the melody to intricate elaborations, which for the moat part result in improvisatory compositions resembling the performanco practice11 of the, gypsies. Through hie Uile of Hungarian melodies in tho ijungarian Rhape9diJffl. Liszt ie able not only to croato compositions in a etylo indicative of thoae from which the thematic material was derived, but aloo to maintain the simple etructure11 of the melo,Uoe while placing them in highly embellished eett~nge through Lnnovative paraphraoing, It may thoroforo bo concluded that with th11 uoe ol! the paraphraeo technique Lin:tt hoightonu tho melodic, rhythmic and harmonic charact;oriotico intrinaic in tho Hung111·i11n folk music. CHAPTER l!'OtJR1 EVALUATING TRB AES~TIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HUNGARIAN RHAPSODIES Liszt's Hungarian nhapsodies have long been criticized as superficial _and vulgar piano piecea,;filled with "banal melodies, tawdry harmonies, and large, repetitious and u~intereating forms. • 1 Furthermore, Liszt himself has been attacked for hie treatment of thematic material in them, because "instead of emphasizing its essential simplicity, he uses all the resources of brilliance- and rich sonority available on the pianoforte. "2 These interpretations are the result of judging these works with an inappropriate set of criteria. A critical approach must be taken to elucidate the specificity of the comp.oaitional processes involved in the Hungarian Rhapsodies, thus allowing the critic to appreciate better the originality of these works. "MELODY" VS. "THEME" Whan analyzing the melodic material in the Hungarian Rhapsodies one must keep in mind that it has been derJ.ved from Hungarian folk music, and it is therefore structurally more aimplist;ic than much of the original material used in Liszt's other pJ.ano compositions, §.•.9•, ll-!ll!.ri01;: Sonata. (1853). Writt0n during the same P41riod ae the :Hungarian Rharu!.2!i!fil!., Liszt• s B minor Sgnata has repeatedly been praioed as "the moat significant of Liozt•o piano compoaitione of this period," not only because Liszt applied tho technique of thematic transformation to it, but also because of ito aeriouoneoa and originality of form, 3 f11owovar, it ie unfair to evaluate th,~ Hu[l<JflilM Chnrlaa Rosen, "The No•,, Sound of Li,azt," To!LJIJi>1,'ior)t¾viow 31:6 (April 1984), 17. 2 /\lan Walker, Dd., .tcMLU!!rr.:._IhiLll1!n.-<'Jl9-.ill,JLJil!_c'ti£ Taplingor Publishing Company, 1970), l.31. lOH (!lm1 York: 109 Rhapaodiea by the sajne standards as the B mipoi; Sopata, because the essential ; material from whic~ these compositions are constructed is substantially different, and conse,quently, Liszt's thematic treatment of these materials results in two opposing styles. Liszt used ch~1racteristically simple melodic material in the Hungarian Rhapsodies to create a strong nationalistic expression of his love for Hungary. He likely decided to retain the beautifully naive characteristics of these lyrical folk tunes in order to achievA a distinct Hungarian colouring while maintaining the element of simplicity in the music. The type of folk melodies of which the Hungarian Rhapsodies are constructed corresponds to Schoenberg's definition of "melody," which "tends toward regularity, simple repetitions and even symmetry," and therefore, is self-contained and does not need to be "worked out.•4 on the other hand, the~ minor sonata is built with "themes" that are "strictly bound to consequences which have to be drawn, and without which they may appear insignificant.•5 In other words, unlike the Hungarian Rhapsody melodies, these themes Rre not self-contained1 they comprise the cells of the composition which are continually developed and transformed, thus fulfilling the •consequences" inherent in the thsmea, In hia description of melodic treatment, Schoenberg states1 'l'he melody also tends to achieve balance in the most di,rect way. It avoids inten11ifying the unrest; it supports comprehensibility by limitation, and facilitates lucidity through subdivision; it extends itself rather by c,~ntinuation than by elaboration or development. It uses slightly varied mutivo-forma, which achieve variety bY. presenting the basic foaturea in different aituations,li Liezt'a treatment of melody through elaboration and variation in the Hungarian Rhaoaogiee J.a therefore <lpprcpriate, ,rn this typo of material doeo 4 Arnold Schoenberg, Fundamental§ of Muaical,,Sg,!!ll22!!1_tio11 (New York: St. Martin'e Presa, 1967), 103. Ibid. 6 !bid., 102. * Wha,t Schoenberg mean a by "cdaboratlon'· io c1ovoloprnent, whoreae my uoo of the term indicates ,~mbelliohrnont. 110 not have 1:he 011p110J.ty tor dev11lopm11nt, on the other hand, the theme, ao de1oribttd hy Bohoenberg (ieJ Seldom,. ,extended by spinning II continuation of the baeic motive,, ,The toi:rnul11tion of II theme 11seumae that there will tollpw 'adventures•, •predicaments•, which ,yik for solution, for elabj,r11tion, tor development, for contrast, In the movement proper of the .B minor Sonata, two themes are presented at the outset (ilee Exarnple 59 -- theme A, mm. 8-12; theme a, mm. 13-15). Liszt• s in1:roduction of these two themes ie interesting, in that theme B appears to grow out of theme A. Example 59. B minor SonatA, theme A, mm. a-12, theme a, mm. 13-15. e, c:--In the, B minor Sonata Liszt treats the themes according to two different procedures: ( l) in developmental variation (Schoenberg' a term), which is inherited from the Classical tradition, and (2) in thematic transformation, which io more of a nineteenth-century procedure that originated with Berlioz. According to the procedure of developmentc1l variation, the theme provides the kernel from which subsequent ideas will b0 developed. In this process, Liszt eplits each theme into fragments, t:\Jun developing the srnaller motivic cells (see Examples 60 €, 61). Ex,,.mpl0 60 shows Liszt's manipulation of the front portion of theme A in a ch.H'1,1c1tic line, rising and falling in a series of diaeonant intervalo. 7 Ibid. lH "}.. L, __ ' -------mol/1.1 rile11. -., "-~ - ~ :r,, " /~ f'DCO rail. h;:~ -----r • -In Liezt'o development of the second half of theme l\ (Example 61) he t.1icc;c1> the broken triadic figure in a sequent.lal passage, slowly intr-oducin9 1<u1.·o chromal:iciem with each rep,atition of the motive. Bxample 61 112 B minor SQDW, developnent of 2nd half of theme A, mm. 67-81. According to the procedure of thematic transformation, the themeo are not split into fragments but rather, transformed in their entirety into now entities. The following oxamplea ohow instances of various kinda of thematic tranoformation. Example 62 ahowa the two themoa combined in a pao1rnq0 in which they oach take on new charactera. In thia paasage, themo i\ io embellished in the right hand and its rhythm io olightly modified, \/hi.le the.me D emar1:~0 in tho left hand out of aovoral virtuonic phra,rnu, no,,, 0:i.U1 a more 1.iarkod rhythm. 113 I Example 62. Lm!:nor Sonata, combination of themes A & B, mm. 32-33. • • I 2 marcato In a subsequent 11assage, theme B is presented in a new guise with a new character (see Example 63). Here, theme B has been transformed into a smooth melodic line, marked 'o!tlltando espressivo,' without the sharp rhythmic drive of its initial statement in mm. 13-15. Example 63. B minor sonata, theme Bin a new guise, mm. 153-156. ca11la11do e.'ipressivo ======-=-----. ~l'acco111pag11a1ne11to p These examples show Liszt's idiosyncratic procedure of thematic transformation, in-trinsic to the B minor Soru!~l!- Thie treatment of thematic material may be likened to Linzt' a use of the variation technique in tho Hungarian Rhapeodifil!, by which the molodioo are proeented in aeveral different guises through the variation of harmoniea, rhythmic patterna, and melodic placement. In the l!.l!ngarian Rhapoodioa the original material takoo on new characteriatics aa a roault of oxceaoiv.9 ornamontnLion and elaboration, specific for the paraphraee technique, but thio troatmont doou not ac':.ually altar the oeeential otructuro of the melodiea. Thia ia !:ho rnili.n difference from the t.roatment; of thematic tranofoi:mati.on i.n tho O_rnLnr,r Son/\t&, where the themoo are continually rogc,norated into rww ir.loau ·."ith n0:1 characters, 114 Th• Hungarian Rhapsodies are essentially sectional compositions with I each section containing \several variations of one theme. Within each section the melodic fragments are presented in such a manner that they seem to expand •outward', that i111, they consist of several layers _of embellishment, as opposed to motives that:progress in a forward direction, as do those treated in the traditional developmental style, such as in the B minor sonata. Thus, in the Hungarian Rhapsod!ru!. the basic structure of each folk tune is retained within the various decoL·ated statements of the melody. FORM Most of the Hungarian Rhapsodies have been constructed with relatively large dimensions (taking into consideration their contents of light, intimate subjects) that are comparable to those piano works of a more serious nature, §..q., B minor sonata. If one takeo such large developmental works as a model, the broad frames of the Hungarian Rhapsocjl.es may be expected to be filled with material thut has been treated through a similar developmental process as that in the serious compositions. However, with hie creative imagination and innovatory skills, Liszt has cornbil~ed these large-scale structures with themes that are typically found in works with small fo1·ms, such as character piece1J, g.g., Mazurka, Polonaise, Waltz, and it is this crossing of small forms with large dimensions that has not only otrongl.y separated the Hungarian Rhapeodies from othsr piano works, but through erroneous interpretations it has also relegated them as lessor and unintelligible compositions, rogardlees of their ingenioua form. The Hungarian Rhapaodigs must be evaluated not only ao rhapsodieo and character pieces eet in unusuallJ• large form,a (resembling thooo of development,~! works), but essentially &B pieces of folk m.:sic in which tho baoic thorneo are present in the forefront: of the musical texture and not obacured through regeneration of the melodic material. 115 VIRTUO.SIC PBRPORHAHqE i Another Hpectl to consider when evaluating the Hynaodon RhAP12!3iea, io that they are aleo i~tended as virtuoso performance pieceo, Liszt follows in the tradition of Roepini, via Paganini, in which the virtuosic style playo a very important role·. in the interpretation of the music, Oahlhaus, in hio Nineteanth.:.centyry »!Y!!..l.!2, draws a comparison between th, two different musical cultures of the period -·· that established by Rossini, and that by Beethoven, Beethoven' e symphonies reprQeent inviolable musical •texts• whose meaning is to t,e deciphered with •exegetical" interpretationa1 a Rossini score, on the other hand, is a mere recipe for a performance, and it is the performance ~,hich forms the crucial aesthetic arbiter as the realization of a draft rather than as an event, not on the work as a text pas/eel down and from time to time given acoustical •explications•, Liszt's Hungarian RhapeodLea are exemplary of this style paradigm, because only through a performance of these works will their true characters be realized. Unfortunately for Lbzt, those listeners who w9re influenced by the Beethoven •school' dismiss the Hungarian Rhapsodies as weak and ineubetantial works, because , • , any music such as Rossini' e, which calls neither for formal analysis nor for an interpretation of contents where these methods could find a foothold, was suspected of being empty and meaningless, nothing more than a momentary divereion. 9 It is important. aleo to recognize Liszt aa a • rhapeodiet' -- one who presented Hungarian national idioms in a variety of nuances to create musical expressions symbolic of hie own livelihood as an Hungarian patriot. Liozt created new colours Ecnd nsw sounds through hie imaginative and extravagant treatment of themes in the Hungarian Rhapsodies, and ae with the 8 Carl Dahlhaue, Nineteenth-Century Musi,;_ University of California Press, 1989), 9. (BerkelBy, Loo Angeles, 9 Ibid., lL 116 ---.....a-.-... -.-s..,t..,v .. 4.1 .. 1 i 1md the 1'.Qg1nini Etudeg (which like the 1.Junaarl.an Rhop•oditt• -r• deve~oped from earlier vereione), when he oreated new l t_hematic paHage11 he aleo "develop,td new effects of realization" for this 111ater ial. 10 -THE PIANO AS ORCHESTRA In the Hungarian Rhapsodies. ae in several of Liszt' e other piano works, the treatment of the piano has been elevated to that of an orchestra. Through his simultaneous layering of sounds and manipulation of ranges, registers and textures to their extremes, Liszt has created a multitude of n&w sonorities, and in addition to the full gamut of piano colours he has produced a variety of new tone colours that reach beyond tlC'aditional pianistic boundaries. ,~hrough this transference of orchestral idioms to the piano, Liszt created new possibilitiee for a wide range of moods, dynamics and coloure1 he also invented new ways to exploit the piano, for example, he used an unprecedented rauge of dynamics, from ppp to fff, and embellished the lyrical melodies with rapid rune and surrounded them with arpeggios, thus creating fuller texture11. Through innovativo combinations of rhythm, harmony and melody, Liszt presented the simple folk tunes in a variety of guises and reproduc,ed a close likeness of the instrumental sounds on which he first heard t;1e melodies played. Among these are imitations of the gypsy cimbalom instrument (see Example 64) • It is perhaps Liszt's treatment of the piano as a large enee:mble that misleads the listener into thinking that Liszt is solely trying to create a composition of virtuosity, whereae hie real intent, it would seem, is to achieve a semblance of the gypsies' improvisational style of per·formance through numerous different executions of the folk tunes. ,o Charlee Rosen, "Liszt", 20. IXllllple 64, Imita~ion of the gypay oimbalom instrument, i Hunearian Rhaaodv ,No. 3, mm. 1~4, ' . l~l~::t: 1::::' 1111a oordo ' Si • • Hungarian Rhapeogy; No. 11, mm. 1-4. ~?!;!ft: • ;·w. • 117 INTERPRETATION AND REALIZATION ' 118 The methods of i interpretation and realization are significant when evaluating the Hungarlan Rhapsodies because only through a particular style i of playing will the,true Hungarian-character of the pieces ¾e depicted. An accurate execution of the improvisatory writing that Liszt used to emulate the performance style of the gypsies must be achieved, otherwise, the goal of the compositions will not be reached and they will be reduced to lees than masterpieces. To a large degree the manner in which the Hungarian Rhapsodies are played takes precedence over attention to their structure and content. The Hungarian Rhapsodies nre dependent on a good performance to reveal the true meaning and expression captured in the music by Liszt. Brendel states, "it is a peculiarity of Liszt's muaic that it faithfully and fatally mirrors the character of its interpreter.•11 Thie comment implies, and correctly so, that a poor performance of the Hungarian Rhapsodies, that is, a misinterpretation of the style, will not only harm the reputation of the pianist as a performer, but perhaps more importantly, will cause damage to the Hungarian Rhapsodies by presenting them as technically flashy works, empty of any signific11nt expreeeJ.on. Brendel alao atates that when playing Liszt's piano works one should uae "a technique created by the spirit, not derived from the mechanism of the piano;" therefore, if one doea not understand the purpoae of the l.mproviaatory writing in the Hungarian Rhapaod.le11, as first and foremoat to recall the spirit of the gypeioa • performance style, and only secondarily as a vehicle for virtuosic display, then the performance i.B bound to be unsuccessful. 12 11 Alfred Brendel, "Liazt Misundoratood," !:1\!nir.al Thoqgl1t;s _and_ Aft,<e, Thoughte (London, Robeon Docks, 1976), 78. 12 Alfred Brendel, "Liazt 'a Piano-Playing," llunlcal_1'houqhtn, 90. 119 It may be concluded that in the twentieth century, nWllorous misinterpretations by inexperienced or inadequate performers have generated n&gative impressions of the Hungarian Rhapsodies as invaluable works, unworthy to be listed among standard music history repertoire, In order to rectify this misconception, critics and musicians alike must reevaluate the Hungarian Rhapsodies according to the preceding standards eo that theso original works may receive the esteemed recognition that they deserve, BIBLIOGRAPHY Alain, Oliviet et al. Liszt. Paris: Hachette, 1967. Auber, DFB. La fiancee, Opera comigue en troia actea. Paris: Chez Brandua · a,1d company, 1860. Birdos, J:,ajos. "Die volksmusikalischen Tonleitern bei Liszt." In ~ Liszt: J3eitrage von ungariachen Autoren, ed. Klara Hamburger, 168-196. Budapest: ·coryina Kiado, 1978. Bartek, Bela. "Die Muaik Liazta und daa Publikum von heute." In Franz Liszt: lleitrage von ungariachen Autoren, ed. Klara Hamburger, 118-121. Budapest, corvina Kiado, 1978. "Gypsy Music or Hungarian Music?" (1947)1 240-257. Musical Quarterly 33 "Liszt-Probleme." In Franz Liazt1 Beitrage von unqariechen Autoren, ed. Klira Hamburger, 122-132. Budapest: Corvina Kiad6, 1978. "Liszt und Ungarn," H!ll!ica 8 (1954): 309-312, Barzun, Jacques, Literature in Liszt's Mind and Work. A lecture delivered in The Whittall Pavilion of the Library of congress, June 27, 1986. (Published in Washington, 1987), Bellman, Jonathan. "Toward a Lexicon for the Style hongroia.• The Journal of Muaipology 9:2 (Spring 1991)1 214-237. Bertha, Alexa,ndre de. "Lea 'Rhapsodies Hongroiaea' de Franz Liszt." International Musical congress 4 (1911)1 210-224, Brendel, Alfred. "Liszt Mieunderatoo,1." Chap. in Musical Thought a and Afterthought~. London, Robson Boeke, 1976. • "Liszt' a Hungarian Rhapsodies." Chap. in Mu.,j i,.· ,.\l Thoughtn and Afterthoughte. London, Robeon Booko, 1976. "Liszt' a Piano-Playing," Chap. in Mueical Thought!! . ...!lX!'.! Afterthpu~. London: Robeon Booka, 1976. "The Noble Liszt." The Now Yoi;k Rev ie"{ 33 ( Novum\Jor 1986) I ,J-8. "Turning tho Piano into an Orchootra." Chap. in fllJHical. Thoughtp fill9.....~~- London: Robaon Booke, 1976. Brown, Hnurico J.E. "Rhapaody," 'LhB Now r.r.ovo DJ,ct10!1iU',Y_Qf_jjunJ.rc."'}.<! Muaioia11a, edited b•f Stanley sa,Ho, v. 15. London, Macmllla,, ,rnd company, 1980. pp. 786-07. Chantavoine, ;roan. 1.lftrt. Pario: l.ibr11iro f'elix /\lc,rn, 191J. 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Gnttt.1chli.itJ, i ~ U, !f.3H& _ .Ll~.tt. __ Hit _,,'t!J_~.t ~,f [H1.r,-\in1 Al t-t\,Jt fJl4_i¢ 1 l{)Hl, H~.4-f;UJ~t: i # 1':,:.d .. 14 {"<,of!' •r,-;, : Helm, 122 E\;gene. "Reichardt, Johann Friedrich," _.T_.h.,,e'-'N..,e,._w,,__.,,Gcor_.o..,v...,e=-D=i,.c .. t .. i,.,o.,n.,a.,r._y._.,.o=f M,isic and Musicians, edit1;1d by Stanley Sadie, v. 15. London1 Macmillan and ;company, 1980. pp. 703-707. Harvey, Arthur. Frnnz Liszt and His Music. London: John Lane The Bodley -Head Limited, ,1926. Horv,~th, Klna1erich Karl. Franz Liszt, v. 1-3. Eisenstadt: Emmerich Karl Horvath, 1978. Ftum~ker, James, tnnz Liezt. NQW York; Charles Scribner",1 sons, 1911, Hu11:e, Pierre-Antoina and Claude Knepper. Liszt et son temgs. Parisi Hachette, 1987, a·1.1schen, Heinrich. "Frise," Die Musik .j.n Geschichte und Gegenwart, edited by Frh,drich Blume, v. 4, Basol1 B!irenreiter Verlag, 1960. pp. 970-971. Jank6l.6vitch, Vladimir, Lint f.l; la rhagsodi•l, v. 1. Parisi Plom, 1989. Jung, Hans Rudolf, ed. E.rAn:t Liszt in seinen Bdefen. Frankfurt: Athen!ium, 1988, Kabisch, Thomas, f."iszt und Sc~. (Derlinor Mueik-wisoonechafliche Arbeiten, ed, earl Dahlhaue and Rudolf Stephen, v. 23). MUnich: Musikverlag &1,il Katzbichl•lr, 1984, Kahl, Willi. "Rl\ap11odie," I!.l!LliY..l!.!.k in Geflsf.b.J.c!}te und Oegenwai;t, oditod by Friedrich Blume, v. 11. l!aael1 B!irenr,,iter Verlag, 1960. pp. 367-72, Keating, H1rnjo, ed, ~u..tl. - Richard W11.,;,.ru!L...!!ilifwochnel. Frankfurt, Insel Verlag, 1900. Kratt, oUnther, "U,ooen," Il.iJLJil!D.i!s in Glilf!!lbiC.llt.2-.JJOd <l£.(.l.!m.'ti\.i:_I;.., edited y Fdeddch lllumo, v. a. p,uel1 Bliron:ceiter Vol"lag, 1960. pp. 247-240. Li Hao, lld, (,Q[[lll'129!ll!i!.U£!1-!!0t.l'..!LtrlllL,h!!!ieL_Q!;._li!\.!l.!L.Y9JLJ1i!J.Q..1-£, l.<d.p,.J.9, Breitkopf and H!!rtal, 1099, 1.§.lii-•i"JL.J:!l._.f.rruu __ J;.lJ!:&J;., v. l··2. ,·c1n,do.t:od by conntflnc,, l,Qndo,,, H. nn,v&l ~n,j ccmp.,ny, ltl9·L ·'t.ff.fHJu," Ilt9~ .. -11nl!_,i -~1,-~·tu., __ .C,a_l:~t.\Q-lli!!Y.-_91- _}LP.lb\;_ .cln'J rt,_1c,J,,r;Jt1Jltt, t't•Uti~d Ly Uttlnl~y iilltJi,«$, t~n-r1<1rHlJ H.-icrnL..l.l-1.n ~n,t c:t;-fi:(";..<i.r';cy, ~'hH.J, 101•H.1!_f, te.:nJ4ny, Ot:1:c.;;,~, 1:1d, r1·ilnt"L11_~ti ,VHY!tk,1-nut.-1 Pj:t..r~~J qr;--~ :1;:JtJ(f:~ -::1:_.1:,1 ;-,i~tru J:11~ !!l!!!!• !liHbi""P'.I •:nrvirH, 1'J1i·L t~vy, ,.J3nf;,!t . .H~ ... co1,art ~t~f1 c·..i~1'nil v.._1li..i(1~ )h:v, tltft __ J,•..JJ\J;.tl~l IJJ M·~~i_ __ : _'ct ~,: l t t·)=-; l: Li:ti.t, fCtln~. a1;~ M~l-, t 1 l,q;, thn,1 123 '1.Gdl!al.o alla tyr,ga 11ur;; '1!U! U9!.H@ AA u~atbr,veo, Ruineo __ ....,£1""'""l""~"'ffi""·na. ~ 111 ChH Brandu& and COmpany, 1860. ~<ll:Qru!l!09t• P11d111 J.C. 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L' idea f ixe: andante amoroso pour le piano d' apres une M~lodie H. Berlioz par Franz Liszt. Paris: Brandus and Company, l8B' ~ Dallok, v. 2-3. Vienna: Haslinger, 1840. Marche hongroiee transcrite et executee a ees concerts. Leipzig: Aug. Cranz, 1920. M8lodies hongroiees d'aprea Franz Schubert pour piano seula Vienna: A. Diabelli, 1860. The Letters to Olga von Meyemdorff, 1871-1886. Translated !,J William R, Tyler. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1979. I,heJnatische1; Verzeichniss dar Werke llearbeitungen und ---Tranii'criptionen. Neue vervollatandigte l\uogabe, rep. 1965. Totentnnz {Dance macabre) paraphrase Uber 'Dieo irae' f:L.u: piano und orch,aster. Leipzig: Ernst Eul,mburg, 1911. Trovatore van V<='rdi: Konzert-Paraphrao0 fiir pianofortL~ ~ Leipzig: C.F. Peters, 1891. ~iardas. Budapest: Editio :-iunica, 1985. ll!J.gfil;_tAche Fantaei[l., Leipzig: ,; . l'. Petorn, 1806. 124 l,qr,<ff6U, ~ H, IJB!fUiteU<bff(/;f[lfiH~Pi;llatl(O 11_lt!{l114, fl'itit~U,Ifl:n,, 19~, Huol14t!t bM mi.trntn, ... •1,. i-. " .. 1t'.". T.111110 ' .. M. t. <J·h·t,·1Q11iu f!.t;ud.l..J;i11. Ln. Br,u·r· c@.11 and 'µ;ffl~j:29f,M'dif Jf«tlpgl~R~tiu:1Jtn IJ!WlildWt 28 , wr,int' I! TMHIQ Bk4tllt;l;r,;c1Ju l>tu,Hioll in t/Ol~t;C(;fl Alid ~-··=··=···,,..MY"'.~li!e1J.o!"'!·~n~,~;;o,,,-.'ffi~,«1, d1111,, llnivenity Qt lf~H York, 1966, If~, •~neet, l!lL.fjao, LLHS.• ;Uw Ym:lu TlipHIJliler P!lblhhin,;, ClvJ!ii:,Any, 1975, Hohl, Louie, LU, 9f )J.m. Chic11~101 Janium Mcnlurg and CO<~pany, 1004, "l'araphra1111," %ht U!rd Groye pJctiqnary 9t Kyef.., and Kueiciane, editlld by Stanley Sadie, v, 14, London, f!AcmUlan and Company, 1980, pp, 179, Porter, Andrew, Kusician11, 191635-665, "Giuseppe V11rdi, • The llew Grom Dicdonary of Mu9ig 409 editc,d by Stanloy Badie, London1 M~c:nillon, 1980. Pourtales, Guy de, E&:.ftnz Llszt1 L'llorome d'Amour. New York: Henry Holt and company, 1926, Prahacs, Margit, ed. J~ Liszt1 13riefe aue uncrarischen Sammlungg_n, 1835-. 1886. Basel: Bli1:enrciter Kasrael, 1966. Raabe, Peter. Liazte J,eben, y, l· Tutzing, Gerrnany: Hane Schneider, 1968. ~Schaffen, y. 2, Tutzing, Germany: Hane Schneider, 1968. Rajeczky, Benjamin. "Hungary," The New Grove DJ.ctionarv of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie, v. ll. London: Macmillan and Company, 1980. PP· 793-811. "Verbunkoe," Die Musik in Geechichte und Gegenwart, edited by Friedr.i..ch Blume, v. 13. Basel: Baenreiter Verlag, 1960. pp. 1419-1420. Ramann, Lina. Franz Liszt ale JCUstler und Mensch, v. 1. I 1811-1840. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Hartel, 1880. Franz LiB'l:t al!l Kiinstler ung Mensch, v. 2, I 1840-1847. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Hartel, 1887. Franz Liszt ale Kiinetler ung Mensch, v. 3.' 1848-1886. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Hartel, 1894. Lieztiapa. Mainz: B, Schotte Selma, 1983. 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