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Review and evaluation of strategy behind bicycle transportation policy in Greater Vancouver Mah, Byron 1995

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REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF STRATEGY BEHIND BICYCLE TRANSPORTATION POLICY IN GREATER VANCOUVER  By BYRON MAH B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1982  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming yfco^t^ie r e q u i r e d  THE  s^a^idard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1995 Byron Man, 1995  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by his or  her  representatives.  It  is understood that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  SCHcoi of  CffMVMiTY 4-  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  /zM^IJl/Q  ii ABSTRACT  T h i s '•' t h e s i s  reviews  the o b j e c t i v e s  of  existing  and  proposed  p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e Greater Vancouver r e g i o n and attempts t o evaluate the l e v e l of success these p o l i c i e s will  have  in  achieving  mechanisms . f o r  these  implementation  objectives. will  be  In  the  considered  as  process, well  as  r e a c t i o n t o s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s as i n d i c a t e d from survey r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h b i c y c l i n g advocates i n t h i s  region.  Many of t h e p o l i c i e s t h a t w i l l be e f f e c t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y those a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , are aimed a t making l o n g - d i s t a n c e a more v i a b l e o p t i o n .  bicycle trips  I t i s argued t h a t t r i p s of g r e a t e r  distance  w i l l appeal mostly t o experienced, w e l l - c o n d i t i o n e d b i c y c l i s t s and that  these p o l i c i e s  will  have l i m i t e d e f f e c t i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e  o v e r a l l number of people u s i n g b i c y c l e s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  In order t o e f f e c t i v e l y address the i s s u e of making b i c y c l e s a more v i a b l e mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e r e f i r s t needs t o be a change i n the p a t t e r n s of i n c e n t i v e s The  of land use i n t h i s r e g i o n f o l l o w e d by the p r o v i s i o n f o r changing a t t i t u d e s about t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes.  needs and concerns of c a s u a l  t h e i r b i c y c l e s only  b i c y c l e r i d e r s who u s u a l l y use  f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes must be addressed.  Without a fundamental s h i f t i n the way i n which land i s used and developed i n t h i s r e g i o n and an accompanying program t o p r e c i p i t a t e a  shift  i n transportation  behaviour,  the e f f e c t s  p o l i c i e s on t h e i r own w i l l be token a t best.  of  bicycle  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  i i i  L i s t of Tables Chapter 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1•1 Background on Urban B i c y c l e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1.2 O b s t a c l e s t o B i c y c l e Use 1.3 Reasons f o r Promoting B i c y c l e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  v 1 7 8 11  Chapter 2:  14  L i t e r a t u r e Review  Chapter 3:  The Greater Vancouver B i c y c l i n g Community: Advocacy Groups, Policy-Makers and B i c y c l i s t s Advocacy Groups 3.1.1 C y c l i n g B.C. 3.1.2 The B i c y c l e People 3.1.3 B.E.S.T. 3.1.4 A n a l y s i s of Groups Policy-Makers 3.2.1 Greater Vancouver Regional B i c y c l e Task Force 3.2.2 C i t y of Vancouver 3.2.3 P r o v i n c i a l Bodies 3.2.4 Other M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e G.V.R.D. G r e a t e r Vancouver B i c y c l i s t s - P r o f i l e  27 28 29 30 30  B i c y c l i n g i n G r e a t e r Vancouver - Issues and Conditions Commuting 4.1.1 B i c y c l e Routes 4.1.2 Parking and Other E n d - o f - T r i p F a c i l i t i e s 4.1.3 T r a n s i t Linkage and Support Utilitarian Bicycling 4.2.1 B i c y c l e Routes 4.2.2 Parking F a c i l i t i e s 4.2.3 Land Use P a t t e r n s  36 36 37 40 41 42 43 45 46  3.1  3.2  3.3 Chapter 4: 4.1  4.2  Chapter 5: A n a l y s i s of E x i s t i n g P o l i c i e s 5.1 C i t y of Vancouver 5.2 B.C. T r a n s i t 5.3 B.C. M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n & Highways 5.4 G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Chapter 6: Other F a c t o r s i n B i c y c l i n g P o l i c y 6.1 The Four E's of B i c y c l e Planning 6.1.1 Education 6.1.2 Enforcement 6.1.3 Encouragement 6.1.3.1 D i s i n c e n t i v e s  22 22 23 24 25 26 27  50 50 59 62 , 6 4 71 71 71 74 77 78  6.2 6.3  A d d i t i o n a l Factors I n f l u e n c e of Land Use P a t t e r n s 6.3.1 Obstacles t o Change i n Land Use  84 87 88  Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations 7.1 Land Use 7.2 Bicycle F a c i l i t i e s 7.3 Utilitarian Bicycling 7.4 D i s i n c e n t i v e s To D r i v i n g 7.5 P o l i c y Implementation 7.6 Coordinated B i c y c l e P l a n n i n g 7.7 Conclusion  89 89 92 93 95 97 98 100  Appendix Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110  Bibliography  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  111  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1:  Morning Peak P e r i o d T o t a l T r i p Mode Shares 1985 and 1992  Table 2:  Morning Peak P e r i o d School T r i p Mode Shares 1985 and 1992  Table 3:  Morning Peak P e r i o d Work T r i p Mode Shares 1985 and 1992  Table 4:  Morning Peak P e r i o d Other T r i p Mode Shares 1985 and 1992  1  Chapter 1: Awareness  INTRODUCTION i s growing  about  the problems  v e h i c l e use and many c i t i e s transportation  needs.  associated  with  motor  a r e r e c o n s i d e r i n g how t o meet t h e i r  The c o s t s  of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  f o r motor  v e h i c l e s , i n c r e a s i n g c o n g e s t i o n on many s t r e e t s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , concern about a i r q u a l i t y have l e d policy-makers t o change t h e i r priorities  and work toward  automobile.  The way  reducing  the C i t y  people's dependence on the  of Vancouver  i s attempting t o  accomplish t h i s task i s by promoting and improving the c o n d i t i o n s f o r o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes. promoting  transportation  Vancouver, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  system  Vancouver has adopted a p o l i c y of hierarchy  follows  (City  of  1992):  Walking Bicycling Public transit Movement of goods Automobiles  The G r e a t e r Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t called  as  "reverse  modal p r i o r i t y "  adopted a s i m i l a r  i n Creating  policy  Our F u t u r e  (1990).  While some argue t h a t t h i s h i e r a r c h y e x i s t s only i n words and not i n implementation, the p o i n t expressed i s t h a t the need t o reduce automobile dependence i n t h i s practices  i n engineering  r e g i o n has been  recognized.  and government p o l i c i e s  dependence upon the p r i v a t e (Newman & Kenworthy, 1989).  automobile f o r urban  Past  have l e d t o a transportation  B i c y c l e s p l a y only a small r o l e i n the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system of G r e a t e r Vancouver.  R e s u l t s of t h e 1992  G r e a t e r Vancouver T r a v e l Survey conducted by the G r e a t e r Vancouver Regional  District  (GVRD)  indicate  that  trips  made  by  bicycle  2 account f o r only 1.3 percent peak p e r i o d i n t h i s r e g i b n . percent  recorded  of a l l t r i p s made d u r i n g t h e morning T h i s f i g u r e i s even lower than t h e 2.2  for bicycle trips  taken by t h e GVRD i n 1985.  i n a similar  regional  survey,  In view of a 1990 recommendation by t h e  GVRD t h a t e f f o r t s should be made t o double the number of t r i p s made by b i c y c l e i n t h e r e g i o n by 1995 (GVRD, 1990), t h i s d e c l i n e i n t h e number  of recorded  policy-makers  Table 1:  bicycle trips  would  appear  t o be cause f o r  t o hasten the pace of b i c y c l e p o l i c y implementation.  Morning Peak P e r i o d TOTAL T r i p Mode Shares - 1985 & 1992 1985  Percent of 1985 Total  1992  Percent of 1992 Total  % Change 1985 1992  Auto Driver  367,787  54.3  536,771  56.6  +2.3  Auto Passeng er  114,465  16.9  158,094  16.7  -0.2  Bicycle 14,968 2.2 12,321 .1.3 -0.9 Source: GVRD, 1992 Greater Vancouver T r a v e l Survey. 1993. This d r a s t i c  i n c r e a s e i n auto use (see Appendix: F i g u r e  decrease i n b i c y c l e use may be the impetus f o r governing t h i s r e g i o n t o implement p o l i c i e s t h a t w i l l  1) and a bodies i n  reduce the number of  people t r a v e l l i n g r e l a t i v e l y short d i s t a n c e s by automobile i n order to achieve t h e goals of g r e a t e r l i v a b i l i t y and economic e f f i c i e n c y within the region's  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  One way of a c h i e v i n g  t h i s o b j e c t i v e , i n a d d i t i o n t o encouraging use of p u b l i c t r a n s i t , is  to increase  the p r o p o r t i o n  of people  using  bicycles for  3 transportation trips.  purposes  such as commuting,  shopping or p e r s o n a l  In order t o do t h i s , b i c y c l e p o l i c i e s must be d i r e c t e d a t  people who c u r r e n t l y r i d e b i c y c l e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes but do not  normally use b i c y c l e s f o r  transportation.  In order f o r any b i c y c l e p o l i c i e s t o succeed, t h i s s p e c i f i c t a r g e t group must be won over.  There i s l i t t l e  benefit  p o l i c i e s t o accommodate frequent b i c y c l e r i d e r s . ride regardless or  programs.  will  Many of them w i l l  of the e x i s t e n c e of b i c y c l e - f r i e n d l y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e In order t o achieve  usage, the concerns of casual  As  s i g n i f i c a n t gains  be d i s c u s s e d i n upcoming c h a p t e r s , t h e C i t y of Vancouver  attractive  municipalities follow  to  casual  bicycle  riders.  i n the Greater Vancouver  Vancouver's  lead  b i c y c l e master p l a n s . region  i n bicycle  b i c y c l e users must be addressed.  has made much e f f o r t i n recent years t o make b i c y c l e more  i n developing  with  region  development  On the s u r f a c e ,  transportation Several  other  are prepared t o  and implementation of  i t would appear t h a t  this  i s p o i s e d t o become a model f o r b i c y c l i n g .  A c l o s e r examination of the s i t u a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h i s i s u n l i k e l y t o happen.  While t h e C i t y of Vancouver has the p o t e n t i a l t o develop  into  place  a  transportation  i n which  bicycles  have  a  larger  role  i n the  system, many of i t s neighbouring m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may  f i n d t h a t i n s p i t e of t h e i r e f f o r t s t o promote b i c y c l i n g , they are l i k e l y t o remain a u t o - o r i e n t e d areas i n which t h e r e w i l l be l i t t l e  appreciable  r i s e i n the number of b i c y c l e s on the  One  main  of  the  patterns  of  land  municipalities. amenities  use  in this  that  forecast  i s commonly  can  situated  reach  areas  by  have  too  far  bicycle. been  away Lower  shown  to  be  associated  For many suburban r e s i d e n t s ,  are  conveniently suburban  factors  roads.  found with  services  from  in  correlate  the  suburban and  their  densities  in  other  homes urban  with  to and  greater  consumption of g a s o l i n e p e r , c a p i t a and i n most cases, lower l e v e l s of b i c y c l e use  or p e d e s t r i a n  Current d e n s i t y increased often  laid  which can  (Newman & Kenworthy, 1989).  l e v e l s i n these suburbs are too  b i c y c l e use. out  activity  Further,  low  to  encourage  s t r e e t s i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas  i n c u r v i l i n e a r patterns  that  are  often  enclosed,  l e a d t o a sense of i s o l a t i o n f o r many r e s i d e n t s .  features, i n e f f e c t i n h i b i t the mode other than the  car  development of any  are  These  transportation  from becoming very popular and  may  even  prevent them from ever being p r a c t i c a l . T h i s can not be c o n s i d e r e d the s o l e f a c t o r working against the g r e a t e r use of b i c y c l e s i n the suburbs but i t stands out as one of the major reasons why may  bicycling  never become a s i g n i f i c a n t t r a v e l mode i n most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  i n the GVRD.  With t h i s t h e o r y  as  ramifications  e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s on  of  G r e a t e r Vancouver. and  a background, t h i s t h e s i s  The  will  explore  the  bicycle transportation  in  methodology used f o r s u p p o r t i n g comments  p r o p o s a l s i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be through  (1)  interviews  with  5 activists,  policy-makers  and  other  authorities  on  bicycle  transportation issues, p a r t i c u l a r l y individuals active i n bicycle p o l i c y development and region;  (2)  data  implementation or b i c y c l e advocacy i n t h i s  and  analysis  presented  in articles  l o c a l newspapers, t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d government topic  of  i n t h i s region,  and  (3)  surveys conducted on t r a v e l p a t t e r n s  It  is  hypothesized  that  by v a r i o u s  other books and  bicycle transportation;  printed  in  l e v e l s of  articles  on  the  respondents' comments  from  and a t t i t u d e s i n t h i s r e g i o n .  existing  bicycle  policies  will  be  i n e f f e c t i v e i n addressing the o b s t a c l e s to s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g the  number of  areas  of  this  people using region.  bicycles  While  there  for transportation is  potential  i n most  for  bicycle  programs and p r o j e c t s t o achieve a l e v e l of success i n some areas, the s i t u a t i o n f o r most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i l l be the opposite e f f e c t . i  The  problem i s t h a t  some of  the  e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s do  major b a r r i e r s t o b i c y c l e use  most p a r t s of t h i s r e g i o n . (1) p a t t e r n s nor  of land use  practical;  direct  not  (2)  lack  These b a r r i e r s t o b i c y c l e use  i n which b i c y c l i n g i s n e i t h e r of b i c y c l i n g routes t h a t  access t o d e s t i n a t i o n s  and  have the  amenities such as parking  and  address  for transportation  level  s a f e t y t h a t most c a s u a l b i c y c l i s t s d e s i r e ; and trip  adequately  in  include:  convenient  provide  quick,  of comfort  and  (3) l a c k of end-of-  shower/change f a c i l i t i e s  would make b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n more convenient.  that  6  Lack  of  end-of-trip  facilities  is  a  deterrent  that  most  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n t h i s r e g i o n have the c a p a b i l i t y t o remedy. The  City  of  Vancouver  has  already  addressed  this  issue  i n c o r p o r a t i n g p r o v i s i o n of b i c y c l e parking and other amenities  by for  b i c y c l e users i n t o b u i l d i n g requirements w i t h i n t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t y . Other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have yet t o i n t r o d u c e any  s i m i l a r measures.  The  b i c y c l e routes  f a c t o r s of l a n d use p a t t e r n s and convenient  much more d i f f i c u l t to address. in  this  Vancouver i s one of the few  r e g i o n i n which mixed l a n d uses and  greater  municipalities,  construction  of  places  residential  d e n s i t i e s are being i n t r o d u c e d t o any s i g n i f i c a n t degree. other  are  sprawling  In most  low-density  r e s i d e n t i a l areas and shopping m a l l s and s t r i p m a l l s i n which only automobiles  are  practical  modes  of  transportation  continues.  I n t r o d u c i n g mixed l a n d uses and higher d e n s i t i e s i n t o areas where they  have not p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t e d can be  but  significant  not  likely  a time-consuming  i n c r e a s e s i n b i c y c l e use  occur without  process  for transportation w i l l  a commitment t o i n c r e a s e d  densification  t h a t i s g r e a t e r than p r e v i o u s l y observed (GVRD, 1994).  The  o b s t a c l e of convenient  most d i f f i c u l t  b i c y c l e routes  f o r policy-makers  i s one  t o address.  t h a t may  be  the  For t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  purposes, these routes must p r o v i d e quick, d i r e c t access t o d e s i r e d destination safety  that  but  they  satisfies  must  also  provide  a  level  of  r e c r e a t i o n a l b i c y c l e users.  comfort The  and  street  system of Vancouver i s l a i d out i n a g r i d system and the C i t y  has  7 adopted a p o l i c y of developing s p e c i f i c s i d e s t r e e t s to accommodate the needs of these c a s u a l b i c y c l i s t s , been greeted w i t h enthusiasm  a s t r a t e g y t h a t has  so f a r  from advocacy groups.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s s t r a t e g y i s not a v i a b l e o p t i o n f o r most of the neighbouring m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  The t y p i c a l s t r e e t p a t t e r n i n those  areas do not f o l l o w a g r i d or any other type of s t r e e t p a t t e r n t h a t a l l o w f o r d i r e c t access to most d e s t i n a t i o n s . The only routes t h a t p r o v i d e d i r e c t access to anywhere are along a r t e r i a l s . volumes  and  bicyclists  exhaust  fumes  on  these  from making a journey  r e g a r d l e s s of any  streets  deter  The  traffic  most  casual  along these routes on  b i c y c l e - o r i e n t e d amenities  bicycles,  t h a t are p a i n t e d or  i n s t a l l e d on the route or t h a t await them at the end of the  trip.  P o l i c i e s must address these i s s u e s or t h e r e i s l i t t l e chance t h a t they w i l l  be e f f e c t i v e i n encouraging  the necessary  t a r g e t group  ( r e c r e a t i o n a l b i c y c l i s t s ) to use b i c y c l e s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . thesis  will  closely  examine  existing  policies  on  This  bicycle  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o determine whether or not they adequately  address  these i s s u e s . To p r o p e r l y analyse the environment f o r b i c y c l i n g i n t h i s r e g i o n , the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d f o r c o n t e x t :  1.1  Background on Urban B i c y c l e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Introduced bicycle  i n North  achieved  transportation.  America at the end the  status  of  a  of the serious  19th  Century,  mode  T h i s p o s i t i o n diminished as automobile  of  the local  technology  8 developed and by the 1950's, the b i c y c l e was r e l e g a t e d t o the r o l e of  a children's  toy.  The  p e r c e i v e d abundance of  land  and  the  r e l a t i v e a f f o r d a b i l i t y of the automobile encouraged the development of c i t i e s t h a t were o r i e n t e d toward automobile t r a v e l . was  The b i c y c l e  not c o n s i d e r e d t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e item t o be r i d i n g on the  roadways.  T h i s has  l e d t o a s o c i e t a l dependence on the  automobile and Greater Vancouver data i n d i c a t e s t h a t  i s no e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s .  7 3 percent of a l l t r i p s  made by p r i v a t e automobile  private  in this  Recent  r e g i o n were  (GVRD, 1993).  While the b i c y c l e was a l l but removed from the urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems  of North America, people i n some other p a r t s of the globe  were e x p l o r i n g i t s p o t e n t i a l as an a f f o r d a b l e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y friendly  form  of  transportation.  economic c o n d i t i o n s  I t could  be  argued  that  the  i n n a t i o n s such as the People's R e p u b l i c of  China made implementation of t h i s p o l i c y a necessary p u r s u i t but t h e r e are n a t i o n s where the promotion of b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was more a  result  of  c h o i c e than  necessity.  These  places  include  European n a t i o n s such as the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany where in  many  cities  developed  and  towns,  so t h a t b i c y c l e s  policies  and  have equal and  p r i o r i t y over automobiles on the s t r e e t s  1.2 In  Obstacles to Bicycle recent  decades,  there  road  systems  had  been  sometimes even h i g h e r  (Lowe, 1989).  Use has  been  a  growing  concern  in  North  American c i t i e s w i t h the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n r e s t r i c t e d use  9 of  private  automobiles.  accidents- and c o s t s  A i r pollution, traffic  of p r o v i d i n g  congestion  and  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e are some of t h e  f a c t o r s t h a t have provided the impetus f o r t a k i n g a c l o s e r look a t other methods of t r a n s p o r t i n g people.  The models used i n Europe  have been examined i n an e f f o r t t o r e p l i c a t e t h e r e s u l t s observed i n c i t i e s there effective  i n European c i t i e s  areas on t h i s  Most  of these  cities layouts  (FHWA, 1992).  However, s t r a t e g i e s t h a t have been a r e not always a p p l i c a b l e t o urban  continent.  bicycle-friendly  cities  i n Europe  are o l d e r  than  i n North America and as such, many of them are based on and s t r e e t systems t h a t  i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e automobile.  were developed  long  before t h e  A f a c t o r t h a t may be c o n t r i b u t i n g  t o motor v e h i c l e use i n c i t i e s on t h i s c o n t i n e n t i s the p a t t e r n s of l a n d use (FHWA, 1992).  A characteristic  c i t i e s i s the development of low-density makes l o c a l The  travel  d i s t r i c t s , a feature that  convenient by motor v e h i c l e but not b i c y c l e .  s t r e e t g r i d s of Vancouver's e a r l i e s t  been designed  of many North American  f o r pedestrians  neighbourhoods may have  and horse-drawn c a r r i a g e s but t h e  l a t e r development of other p a r t s of the r e g i o n took p l a c e a f t e r the automobile became an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the North American l i f e s t y l e . Subsequently, many p a r t s of t h i s r e g i o n were planned and developed t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e automobile as the primary means of t r a v e l . model of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e with h i g h - d e n s i t y of  residences  distance  was  and s e r v i c e s eschewed  located  i n favour  within of  The  neighbourhoods  convenient  lower-density  walking districts  10 characterised  by s i n g l e - f a m i l y houses spread  areas and s e r v i c e s being concentrated  While  the C i t y  of Vancouver  sprawling  i n shopping m a l l s .  has avoided  neighbourhoods by the networks  out over  the d i s s e c t i o n of  of i n n e r - c i t y freeways  its  t h a t are  o f t e n p a r t of the urban landscape i n U.S. c i t i e s , the suburbs of t h i s r e g i o n c o n t a i n some of the f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the lowdensity  land  use p a t t e r n  that  favours  private  automobile use.  R e s i d e n t i a l homes a r e b u i l t away from e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s and even farther  away  from  places  of employment.  meander i n c u r v i l i n e a r p a t t e r n s from s e r v i c e s .  Residential  streets  t h a t prevent d i r e c t access t o and  P h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s such as r e t a i n i n g w a l l s and the  absence of p e d e s t r i a n access ways n e c e s s i t a t e making a long t r i p t o d e s t i n a t i o n s t h a t may be a short d i s t a n c e  "as the crow f l i e s " but  a s u b s t a n t i a l l y longer way by automobile.  Another  factor  that  may  be c o n t r i b u t i n g  p r i v a t e automobiles i s i n g r a i n e d large  segment  t o the dependence  a t t i t u d e s and expectations  of the p o p u l a t i o n .  Many  on  of a  i n d i v i d u a l s have, grown  accustomed t o the n o t i o n t h a t , i n terms of convenience, speed and prestige,  the  private  automobile  is  the  best  form  of  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , even f o r d e s t i n a t i o n s t h a t are only a short walking distance problems,  away.  While  public  transit  b i c y c l e s are not even  short-distance  has i t s share  regarded  as a s e r i o u s  of image form of  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by many people (FHWA, 1992, p. l ) i  These c o n d i t i o n s have been very conducive t o t h e emergence o f t h e private  automobile  as  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. maintaining Singapore and  the  dominant  mode  in  this  region's  Given the r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t of owning and  a p r i v a t e automobile i n comparison with p l a c e s such as (Lowe, 1989) combined w i t h t h e . g r e a t e r  inconvenience  associated  with,  other  travelling  modes  of  time local  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , there would appear t o be few i n c e n t i v e s f o r u s i n g other  modes of l o c a l  t r a v e l that  would be obvious i n the d a i l y  l i v e s of most i n d i v i d u a l s .  1.3  Reasons f o r Promoting B i c y c l e  However, w h i l e m o t i v a t i o n  Transportation  f o r switching  modes may be l a c k i n g f o r  most i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e i n c e n t i v e s f o r s o c i e t y as a whole t o reduce i t s automobile dependance are q u i t e prominent.  One such i n c e n t i v e  i s the environmental consequences of u n r e s t r a i n e d The  l e v e l s of a i r p o l l u t i o n and smog i n t h i s  s t e a d i l y over the past  automobile use.  region  have r i s e n  s e v e r a l decades ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1990).  With motor v e h i c l e emissions accounting  f o r 80 percent  of a l l a i r  p o l l u t i o n and government f o r e c a s t s of s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n the population  of Greater Vancouver, i t i s apparent t h a t environmental  c o n d i t i o n s w i l l worsen unless  a l t e r n a t i v e modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  are promoted and u t i l i z e d .  Another  incentive  financial proportion  costs  f o r reducing  to society  of m u n i c i p a l  that  automobile  dependence  are a s s o c i a t e d  and p r o v i n c i a l  budgets  with  i s the  it.  spent  The  on the  12 i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with accommodating c u r r e n t l e v e l s of automobile use such as road c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance, parking  facilities  and t r a f f i c - r e l a t e d  (TRANSPORT 2021, 1993). is  p o l i c i n g are s u b s t a n t i a l  A p o s s i b l e means of reducing  t o develop t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t h a t  these c o s t s  s h i f t emphasis from  the p r i v a t e automobile t o multi-modal t r a f f i c options  (GVRD, 1990) .  Of course, i t must be acknowledged t h a t p r i v a t e automobiles an important r o l e i n the region's suggested i s t h a t there  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  may be a. need t o develop  serve  What i s  transportation  systems t h a t combine and i n t e g r a t e v a r i o u s modes of t r a v e l so t h a t t h e r e are v i a b l e options f o r d i f f e r e n t needs, t r i p s and s i t u a t i o n s . Environmental development  and  financial  concerns  of any such, o p t i o n s .  are key  factors  i h the  As such, the development and  d i r e c t i o n of p o l i c i e s t o encourage b i c y c l e use f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has  become an i n c r e a s i n g l y important option f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  While encouragement of b i c y c l e use i s c o n s i d e r e d step  i n achieving  a better  balance  t o be a p r a c t i c a l  i n regional  transportation  o p t i o n s , i t w i l l be no small task t o overcome the o b s t a c l e s it.  B i c y c l e s , along w i t h p u b l i c t r a n s i t and c a r p o o l s ,  mentioned as ways of addressing  favouring  challenge.  are often  urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems but  making these modes more appealing formidable  facing  t o p o t e n t i a l users i s w i l l be  Although p h y s i c a l  s e t t i n g s and a t t i t u d e s  b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n may be b e t t e r i n some c i t i e s i n  Europe, t h i s  does not mean t h a t p o l i c i e s cannot be e f f e c t i v e i n  13 North  America.  continent  There  a r e a number of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on  i n which b i c y c l i n g accounts f o r a much higher  of o v e r a l l t r i p s .  this  proportion  While many of these p l a c e s are r e l a t i v e l y  small  c o l l e g e towns which do not have many of b i g - c i t y c o n d i t i o n s and issues  f a c i n g t h i s r e g i o n , major urban areas such as S e a t t l e and  San  Diego have made s i g n i f i c a n t inroads  in  their  article,  transportation the b a s i s  systems  for this  i n i n c r e a s i n g b i c y c l e use  (Martin,  ranking  1990)(Note:  of c i t i e s  In  this  was q u a l i t a t i v e  r a t h e r than q u a n t i t a t i v e measures; a numerical t a b l e  illustrating  the b a s i s f o r t h e ranking was not p o s s i b l e ) .  With the decrease i n recorded b i c y c l e use from 1985 t o 1992 coupled w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n automobile t r i p s during t h a t same time p e r i o d (see  Appendix: F i g u r e  reversing  this  trend  2 ) , t h e development of p o l i c i e s are e s s e n t i a l .  aimed a t  As of t h e w r i t i n g of t h i s  r e p o r t , b i c y c l i n g p o l i c i e s f o r the C i t y of Vancouver and f o r t h i s r e g i o n are i n t h e i r e a r l y stages of development or implementation. The scope and t h e d i r e c t i o n of these p o l i c i e s a r e the primary of t h i s  focus  report.  I t i s acknowledged t h a t b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s and w i l l  remain  a minor f a c t o r i n any s t r a t e g y  f o r addressing  issues  However, i t i s proposed here t h a t  f o r Greater  Vancouver.  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  b i c y c l i n g can be a v i a b l e component i n an e f f i c i e n t , c o s t - e f f e c t i v e and  environmentally-friendly  transportation  p o t e n t i a l t o have a much expanded i n t h i s  system  region.  and has t h e  Chapter 2:  LITERATURE REVIEW  Much of the l i t e r a t u r e  reviewed  for this  report  were t e c h n i c a l  documents based on s t u d i e s conducted by government bodies, the most p e r t i n e n t of which were p u b l i s h e d by the C i t y of Vancouver and the GVRD.  As expected, these two e n t i t i e s  extensive  research  on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  have conducted the most  options  i n c l u d i n g s t u d i e s and surveys on b i c y c l i n g .  f o r t h i s . region,  Through the formation  of a b i c y c l e a d v i s o r y committee i n 1980, t h e C i t y of Vancouver had established  a mechanism  f o r consultation  on b i c y c l i n g  issues.  However, the C i t y had no o f f i c i a l w r i t t e n p o l i c y on b i c y c l i n g u n t i l 1988 when i t p u b l i s h e d Vancouver Comprehensive B i c y c l e Plan (VCBP), a r e p o r t i n which the C i t y acknowledged t h e b e n e f i t s o f b i c y c l e use for  transportation.  Using a 1985 GVRD T r a v e l  Vancouver B i c y c l e Survey as i t s r e f e r e n c e s bicyclists  and b i c y c l i n g t r i p s ,  Survey and a 1987  f o r data on Vancouver  the VCBP c o n t a i n e d  a v a r i e t y of  recommendations, many of which have s i n c e been implemented. reviewed the f a c i l i t i e s  f o r b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Vancouver as  they e x i s t e d a t t h a t time and provided which t h e C i t y might  It  achieve  a v a r i e t y of proposals  an i n c r e a s e  i n b i c y c l e use.  by The  r e p o r t approached the subject of b i c y c l i n g through the c a t e g o r i e s of e n g i n e e r i n g , enforcement, education and encouragement, otherwise known  i n bicycle  publication,  planning  as  "The  subsequent C i t y p o l i c i e s  Four  E's."  Since i t s  on b i c y c l i n g have  diverged  from some of the o r i g i n a l s t a t e d goals o u t l i n e d i n the r e p o r t and although C i t y C o u n c i l l o r Gordon P r i c e has s t a t e d t h a t the VCBP i s  15 i n need of some major r e v i s i o n , i t s t i l l presents the standards by which b i c y c l i n g p o l i c y proposals and p r o j e c t s are measured.  Since  the p u b l i c a t i o n  released  the follow-up  of the VCBP,  the C i t y  reports, Bicycle  of Vancouver has  Parking  Standards  (BPSS) (1991) and B i c y c l e Network Study (BNS) (1992).  Study  The BPSS was  undertaken t o determine the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s of b i c y c l e p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t kinds of new developments f o r a p p l i c a t i o n i n by-laws. parking  I t accomplished  facilities  t h i s by examining the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  for bicycles  i n existing  residential  and  commercial establishments, a n a l y s i n g the types of f a c i l i t i e s t h a t were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d i f f e r e n t uses and a s c e r t a i n i n g e n d - o f - t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and requirements  of Vancouver b i c y c l e u s e r s .  The BNS examined the options f o r developing a network of bikeways throughout  the C i t y of Vancouver i n terms of v i a b l e routes and the  types of bikeways t h a t would be s e l e c t e d on  arterials,  painted  streets,  etc.  responses  to a City  Improvements  This  bike  lanes  report  i . e . widened curb  on a r t e r i a l s ,  included  contents  routes of  t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t c a l l e d Options  i n Vancouver  (1991)  and updates  lanes  on s i d e  the p u b l i c for Cycling  on the s t a t u s of  recommendations f o r b i c y c l i n g o u t l i n e d i n the VCBP.  At the w r i t i n g  of t h i s t h e s i s , the BNS has been the most recent major document on b i c y c l i n g put out by the C i t y of Vancouver.  Some of the p r o j e c t s  l i s t e d i n t h e BNS w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter.  16 The  C i t y of Vancouver r e c e i v e d  i t s mandate f o r encouragement of  b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n i t i a l l y through the VCBP and i t r e c e i v e d f u r t h e r support through C o u n c i l approval Change (June 1990). on  Atmospheric  Prepared by the C i t y of Vancouver Task Force  Change,  recommendation t h a t  of t h e r e p o r t Clouds of  this  i n order  report  expressly  stated  the  t o improve the q u a l i t y of a i r f o r  Vancouver r e s i d e n t s , non-motorized forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n such as walking and b i c y c l i n g should be encouraged.  Similarly, regional report  the GVRD acquired  the impetus f o r i t s involvement i n  bicycle transportation  Creating  (September 1990).  Our Future: Focusing  through Steps  the p u b l i c a t i o n  t o a More  of i t s  Livable  Region  on ways i n which t h e q u a l i t y of l i v i n g  i n t h i s r e g i o n c o u l d be improved, t h i s r e p o r t proposed  adjusting  r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t o i n c l u d e the goal of d o u b l i n g the  number  of b i c y c l e commuters  Toward t h a t  i n Greater  end, the S t r a t e g i c Planning  conducted a survey i n 1992,  Vancouver  Department  of the GVRD  t h e r e s u l t s of which were p u b l i s h e d i n  Greater  Vancouver Regional B i c y c l e Survey F i n a l Report  1993).  T h i s r e p o r t contained  as  statistical  by 1995.  (February  t h e responses t o the survey as w e l l  information  on  the  respondents  but  no  recommendations based upon the data were made.  The  issue  of b i c y c l e  consideration B.C.  Ministry  transportation  has a l s o  been  taken  into  by p r o v i n c i a l agencies such as BC T r a n s i t and t h e of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and Highways.  Until  recently,  17 n e i t h e r agency had much involvement bicycle  use.  Recent  i n s u p p o r t i n g or encouraging  programs and documents  indicate  that  both  agencies are now prepared t o acknowledge the m e r i t s of b i c y c l i n g and take a c t i o n t o expand t h e i r r o l e s i n t h i s area.  Experimental s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s i n i t i a t e d by BC T r a n s i t were e v a l u a t e d i n the r e p o r t s B i c y c l e s On SeaBus - E v a l u a t i o n of S e r v i c e and E v a l u a t i o n of the B i c y c l e Locker Demonstration p u b l i s h e d i n February 1993. the  programs,  statistical  As w e l l as o u t l i n i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of  the r e p o r t s  provided  i n f o r m a t i o n on patrons  data  two programs  gave  rise  on  patron  and f o r t h e SeaBus  r e s u l t s of a p u b l i c survey on the p r o j e c t s these  Program, both  numbers, service,  The d e c l a r e d success of  to existing  policies  that are  d e s c r i b e d i n t h e next chapter.  Examining gave r i s e cities.  BC T r a n s i t ' s e f f o r t s t o support b i c y c l e t o the i d e a of l o o k i n g a t s i m i l a r  transportation  attempts  i n other  The i s s u e of t r a n s i t support and l i n k a g e of b i c y c l e s i n  S e a t t l e was c o n s i d e r e d i n Regional T r a n s i t P r o j e c t ;  Report on Non-  M o t o r i z e d Access Study; D r a f t ( S e a t t l e METRO, 1991).  S e a t t l e METRO  o u t l i n e d i t s goals f o r t r a n s i t system support of b i c y c l i n g and what steps i t planned t o take t o achieve them.  One o f t h e key elements  of t h i s p r o p o s a l was equipping s p e c i f i c buses t o have t h e c a p a c i t y to  carry bicycles.  P r o v i s i o n of t h i s  s e r v i c e i s being continued  and e v a l u a t i o n of the program i s an ongoing p r o c e s s .  18 Calgary T r a n s i t a l s o i n i t i a t e d t r i a l  services  i n transit  linkage  with b i c y c l i n g as o u t l i n e d i n Commissioner's Report t o the S.P.C. on T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  T r a n s i t and P a r k i n g :  Bike Racks on Buses, Bikes  on the C - T r a i n and Bike-and-Ride (November 1991).  T h i s r e p o r t took  the form of an e v a l u a t i o n i n which i t was decided t h a t d e s p i t e  some  d i f f i c u l t i e s and r e s i s t a n c e , the t r i a l program of c a r r y i n g b i c y c l e s on  the C - T r a i n  Bicycle  storage  underutilized route  was  along  report  success  facilities  and should  at a  which  may  buses were that  T r a n s i t would c o n s i d e r  transit  to carry  of success  have been a t t r i b u t a b l e  opposed t o the a c t u a l concepts.  pursued  further.  station  was  p r o v i d e d on a s p e c i f i c bus  equipped  the l a c k  be  specific  as were the f a c i l i t i e s  indicated  services  a  bicycles.  The  on the l a t t e r  t o the l o c a t i o n s  two  chosen as  The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t C a l g a r y  f u r t h e r experimentation w i t h these concepts  at other s t a t i o n s or along d i f f e r e n t routes o r times.  As  f o r the B.C. M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  formal  recognition  transportation  to  bicycling  i n i t s Interim  as  Cycling  and Highways, i t gave  a  legitimate  Policy  mode  (December  of  1992) i n  which i t o u t l i n e d i t s p o s i t i o n on b i c y c l e s t r a v e l l i n g on p r o v i n c i a l roads,  highways and f e r r i e s .  The M i n i s t r y  outlined  the d e s i g n  standards t o which i t plans t o adhere i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n bicycling  facilities  under  i t s jurisdiction  and p r o v i d e d  p o l i c y recommendations f o r m u n i c i p a l b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g .  of any broad  The r e s u l t  of prompting by the Union of B.C. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , b i c y c l e advocacy groups and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  task f o r c e s ,  Interim  Cycling Policy i s  19 the f i r s t o f f i c i a l  statement  by the B.C.  bicycle transportation issues. will  take  bicycling  p r o v i n c i a l government on  While i t s t a t e s t h a t the  considerations  into  account  Province  for  future  p r o j e c t s , the document presents very g e n e r a l concepts and i s s h o r t on s p e c i f i c s f o r  implementation.  Many of the design standards c i t e d i n I n t e r i m C y c l i n g P o l i c y were d e r i v e d from a document w r i t t e n by Daphne Hope and Dwight Yachuk for  the Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Planners e n t i t l e d Community C y c l i n g  Manual - A Planning and Design Guide (1990).  This publication i s  one of the most comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n s of i n f o r m a t i o n on b i c y c l e planning design  i n Canada.  standards  parking  I t provides engineering  f o r roads  facilities,  and  elements  recommendations  other p o t e n t i a l bikeways and for  programs  of  definitions  individuals facilities  While the specific  and  who and  may  be  involved  in  for the  planners planning  this  for bicycling  and  of  other  bicycling  region,  around Greater Vancouver i s  i t i s useful to  examine  a f f e c t i n g b i c y c l i n g i n other r e g i o n s i n North America. Bicycling  and  listing  infrastructure.  environment to  considerations  for  encouragement,  enforcement and education concerning b i c y c l i n g , and a broad of  on  Walking  Study  -  Case  Study  No.  1:  the  factors  In N a t i o n a l Reasons  Why  B i c y c l i n g and Walking Are and Are Not Being Used More E x t e n s i v e l y As  T r a v e l Modes  (1992),  the  U.S.  F e d e r a l Highway A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  (FHWA) analyses the f a c t o r s t h a t prevent b i c y c l i n g and walking from  20 becoming more p r e v a l e n t .  While a p p l y i n g d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s and  standards t o d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s i s a r i s k y and d i f f i c u l t undertaking, the FHWA has attempted t o e s t a b l i s h some form of c o n s i s t e n c y what i s e f f e c t i v e i n encouraging Among  i t s findings  were  that  as t o  b i c y c l i n g and what d e t e r s i t .  t h e presence  of a  college or  u n i v e r s i t y s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e s with an i n c r e a s e i n b i c y c l e use and t h a t land use p a t t e r n s  The  FHWA  policies  also  can act as a strong  examined  and f a c i l i t i e s  transportation  deterrent.  systems  i n European c o u n t r i e s  and b i c y c l i n g  and compared them  w i t h U.S. measures i n Case Study No. 16;  A Study of B i c y c l e and  Pedestrian  (1992).  Programs i n European C o u n t r i e s  In addition t o  l o o k i n g a t the b i c y c l i n g programs used i n Europe, the FHWA focused on European methods of slowing so  that  s t r e e t s could  o r "calming" motor v e h i c l e  be more e a s i l y  and comfortably  traffic  shared by  motorized and non-motorized modes of l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  The  Bicycle;  paper  written  Vehicle  f o r a Small Planet  by Marcia  D. Lowe  (September 1989)  f o r Worldwatch  Institute, a  r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on g l o b a l problems. paper p r o v i d e s  information  was a  on programs and p o l i c i e s  This  relating to  b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n North America and i n other p a r t s of t h e world  and i t provides  possible  explanations  f o r t h e success o r  f a i l u r e of b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s .  Lowe a l s o  i n c l u d e s comparative i n f o r m a t i o n and data on automobile and b i c y c l e use i n v a r i o u s nations and c i t i e s .  She c l e a r l y supports the use of  21 b i c y c l e s i n a l l s o c i e t i e s and suggests methods by which governments can  encourage b i c y c l e use and reduce automobile dependence.  Dependence  on  relationship  automobiles  have  been  and  the  chronicled  consequences  by  Peter  Newman  Kenworthy i n C i t i e s and Automobile Dependence (1989). attempt  t o determine  transportation throughout  patterns  the  (automobiles  how  globe  certain and  and  factors  habits how  i n particular)  such and  i n various  urban  transportation  the ways  a  Jeff  The authors  and v a r i a b l e s  specific  affect  of  i n which  affect centres modes cities  f u n c t i o n and develop.  Its  focus i s on b i c y c l i n g s k i l l s , f i t n e s s and b i c y c l e r e p a i r but a  review of the p u b l i c a t i o n E f f e c t i v e C y c l i n g conducted  anyway because  transportation  who has been a c t i v e  urban  He advocates transportation  roadways  as  some  motor  one s i d e  to bicycle  transportation  The author, John F o r e s t e r ,  i s an engineer  i n national that  b i c y c l i n g organizations  bicycles  systems  should  by assuming  vehicles.  of many  1993) was  behind  His  issues.  Given  be i n t e g r a t e d  i n the within  the same p o s i t i o n on  views  c o n t r o v e r s i a l and the author makes l i t t l e than  attention  philosophy and the p o l i t i c s  p o l i c i e s i n the U.S.A.  U.S.A.  i t devotes  (Forester,  have  often  been  e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e more  the h e s i t a n c e  of  casual  b i c y c l e r i d e r s t o r i d e on any roads much l e s s amidst motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c , F o r e s t e r ' s p h i l o s o p h i e s would appear t o be i m p r a c t i c a l f o r this  region.  22 Chapter 3;  THE GREATER VANCOUVER  BICYCLING COMMUNITY:  POLICY-  MAKERS, ADVOCACY GROUPS AND BICYCLISTS  3.1  Advocacy Groups  Much of the impetus f o r encouraging b i c y c l e use f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has come not only from policy-makers responding t o r e p o r t s warning, of  traffic  g r i d l o c k and a i r p o l l u t i o n —  groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s organizations  provide  involved  i t has a l s o come from  i n b i c y c l i n g advocacy.  These  a means through which concerned i n d i v i d u a l s  can work i n some c a p a c i t y toward improved c o n d i t i o n s f o r b i c y c l i n g .  Many of the accomplishments of these groups have been in  nature.  Despite  the f a c t  promoting  safety  potential  f o r bringing  that  for bicyclists, about  a l l of. them are committed t o they  change  have  not addressed the  i n transportation  through pushing f o r changes i n land use s t r a t e g i e s . initiatives  on which  these  incremental  organizations  have  habits  Many of the  worked  such  as  improved f a c i l i t i e s on Lion's Gate Bridge, b e t t e r access t o Second Narrows  Bridge  and r e c o g n i t i o n  for bicycles  s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s that are appreciated However,  these  efforts  may  only  on a r t e r i a l s  are  by experienced b i c y c l i s t s .  have  a  limited  effect  on  encouraging c a s u a l b i c y c l e r i d e r s t o use t h e i r b i c y c l e s more o f t e n for  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n purposes.  In order t o encourage l a r g e r numbers of inexperienced  r i d e r s t o use  t h e i r b i c y c l e s as a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode, i t may r e q u i r e change on  23 a much l a r g e r s c a l e than a c o l l e c t i o n of incremental In  order  f o r anything  ridership,  there  more  than  a token  improvements.  increase  i n bicycle  needs t o be a commitment t o more comprehensive  approach t o r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  This  could  be an area i n  which these advocacy groups may be able t o l e a d the way.  3.1.1  Cycling B.C.  The b i c y c l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n with the highest p r o f i l e i n t h i s r e g i o n i s C y c l i n g B.C. British  P r e v i o u s l y known as the B i c y c l i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of  Columbia,  provincial  i t i s funded  government  by p r i v a t e membership  initiatives  (Rye,  1991).  fees and With i t s  involvement and e f f o r t s i n a wide range of i s s u e s and aspects of bicycling,  Cycling  official  B.C.  i s seen  representative  of  by many  bicyclists  policy-makers in  this  region  a c c o r d i n g l y , i t appears t o have some degree of s t a t u s w i t h levels  of government.  consultation Advocacy  on  I t has a mechanism  specific  Committee  meets  bicycling regularly  issues with  as an  f o r some  and  various  level  of  (the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s officials  from  the  p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways).  C y c l i n g B.C. has a strong o r i e n t a t i o n toward c o m p e t i t i v e with  about  racing.  80 percent  of i t s 1500 members  I t has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  involved  bicycling i n bicycle  f o r s a n c t i o n i n g r a c e r s and r a c i n g  c l u b s and a d m i n i s t e r i n g competition  standards i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  I t i s a l s o a c t i v e i n other aspects of b i c y c l i n g with the remaining 300  o r so members i n v o l v e d i n a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with b i c y c l e  24 r e c r e a t i o n and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n such as  l e g i s l a t i o n and  educational  i s s u e s of s a f e t y ,  programs (Whistler, p . c ,  proposed  1993).  Its  advocacy committee a l s o reviews and evaluates p o l i c i e s and programs implemented by m u n i c i p a l  3.1.2  The  Some  Bicycle  governments.  People  individuals felt  that  more  could  be  done  to  further  i n t e r e s t s of commuter and u t i l i t a r i a n b i c y c l i s t s so i n 1988, formed a group known as The B i c y c l e People ( W h i s t l e r , p . c ,  the they  1993).  One  of the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s group has been t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o  the  need f o r b i c y c l e routes  activities.  and  These a c t i v i t i e s  facilities  through h i g h - p r o f i l e  have i n c l u d e d  bicycling  i n groups  d u r i n g peak t r a f f i c periods along c o r r i d o r s t h a t have been designed only  f o r motor v e h i c l e use  Burrard  such as  the  Lion's  Gate Bridge,  the  S t r e e t Bridge and the C a s s i a r Connector, endeavours which  have o f t e n a t t r a c t e d media coverage.  These p r a c t i c e s have succeeded i n drawing the d e s i r e d a t t e n t i o n t o the  situation  controversy  in  confrontation gained the  observers,  bicyclists  that  there  but has  they often  have been  involved i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .  also an  generated element  of  While they may  have  have been l e f t  with  t h a t proponents of b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n are  very  support of some observers,  the impression r a d i c a l and  for  cannot be taken s e r i o u s l y .  others  Whichever view i s h e l d  by  the methods of The B i c y c l e People appear t o have l i t t l e  support from policy-makers.  The  group has  not been i n c l u d e d  the  25 process of c o n s u l t a t i o n on b i c y c l i n g i s s u e s t h a t has w i t h more c o n v e n t i o n a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as C y c l i n g B.C.  be t h a t t h i s group i s content w i t h i t s image and simply  t o draw a t t e n t i o n to the needs of  3.1.3  BEST  Some of  the  decided 1991,  taken  people who  had  place  I t could  sees i t s r o l e as  bicyclists.  been a c t i v e with The  Bicycle  People  t o pursue a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n i n b i c y c l e advocacy so i n they  formed  Environmentally  a  separate  organization  Sound T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  (BEST).  known  as  Better  T h i s group a l s o works  t o f u r t h e r the cause of b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n but with e f f o r t s of a  less  controversial  promotion  of  other  nature.  forms  Its  of  name  may  transportation  not  such  exclude  as  the  walking  or  p u b l i c t r a n s i t but i t s primary focus i s on b i c y c l i n g . Some members of The  B i c y c l e People have been i n v o l v e d  members of both o r g a n i z a t i o n s groups are separate e n t i t i e s  BEST  is  active  in  n'  a mailing l i s t  proportion functions.  two  and  1993).  consultations  on  p u b l i c a t i o n of the n e w s l e t t e r  b i c y c l e r e c y c l i n g programs and  has  p o i n t out t h a t the  (Whistler, p.c.,  Word, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u b l i c  f o r the Environment.  but  emphatically  discussions  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n proposals,  i n BEST a c t i v i t i e s  meetings  on  The  Spoke  b i c y c l i n g issues,  o r g a n i z i n g events such as the Ride  Group members i n d i c a t e t h a t the  of about 900  bicycle  organization  people but g e n e r a l l y o n l y a  small  of t h i s t o t a l are a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l Although  they  receive  some ad  hoc  grants  from  the  26 federal  government,  c o n t r i b u t i o n s and Unlike  The  most  of  the  funding  nominal membership fees  B i c y c l e People, BEST has  for  BEST  comes  (Whistler, p . c ,  3.1.4  1993).  some l e v e l of involvement i n  b i c y c l e p o l i c y development although i t i s not as w e l l i n t h a t area as i s C y c l i n g  from  established  B.C.  A n a l y s i s of Groups  C y c l i n g B.C. funding,  appears to be i n the  organization  influencing  and  strongest  established  bicycling policies  p o s i t i o n i n terms of  contacts  in this  for  region.  shaping  Its  and  staff  and  members are o f t e n at the f o r e f r o n t of the movement p r o j e c t s t o make t h i s r e g i o n more b i c y c l e - f r i e n d l y .  There i s c l e a r l y a segment of the b i c y c l i n g community t h a t b e l i e v e s groups such as BEST and even The B i c y c l e People have the p o t e n t i a l t o i n i t i a t e more s u b s t a n t i v e b i c y c l i n g p o l i c i e s i n Greater  (or extreme) change i n the development Vancouver.  BEST has been moving i n  t h a t d i r e c t i o n with i t s development and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of programs designed  to  encourage  bicycle  use.  One  such  program  is  "Our  Community B i k e s " which i n v o l v e s the r e s t o r a t i o n of o l d b i c y c l e s f o r use  by  i n d i v i d u a l s who  bicycle.  With  organizations can  be v e r y  the  corporate  programs  the  might  not  financial  otherwise support  have of  access  to  a  community-based  such as VanCity C r e d i t Union, programs such as these  e f f e c t i v e i n r a i s i n g awareness of b i c y c l e s among the  such  s e c t o r as w e l l as the as  these  receive  general the  public. funding  So  long  needed  as for  ' 27 Implementation;  organizations  r o l e i n promoting  3.2  such as BEST may serve an important  the i n t e r e s t s of b i c y c l i s t s .  Policy-Makers  While  the e f f o r t s  of  advocacy  groups  and  organizations  are  important i n i n f l u e n c i n g the development of b i c y c l i n g p o l i c i e s , t h e a c t i o n s of key bureaucrats, t e c h n i c a l s t a f f and p o l i t i c i a n s a r e t h e c a t a l y s t s through which t h e environment shaped throughout  3.2.1  this  f o r b i c y c l i s t s have been  region.  G r e a t e r Vancouver Regional B i c y c l e Task Force  T h i s has been one of the most prominent bodies t o be formed f o r the purpose of encouraging b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1991  by the GVRD, i t c o n s i s t e d of e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s from e i g h t d i f f e r e n t municipalities within  t h i s region  and had l i a i s o n members f o r the  Task Force Committee r e p r e s e n t i n g  almost every one of the GVRD's  member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  The mandate  i d e n t i f y l o c a l and r e g i o n a l develop  policies  and r e g i o n a l  Force  was t o  b i c y c l i n g issues  and t o  f o r addressing them, p a r t i c u l a r l y those  required coordination government.  f o r the Task  which  between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l  The Task  Force  had s u c c e s s f u l l y  carried  out t h i s  mandate ( P r i c e , p.c^, 1994) and disbanded i n late-1993.  However,  the GVRD i s an a d v i s o r y body and as such, capacity or  t o enact b i n d i n g  significance  municipalities  for this themselves.  i t does not have t h e  p o l i c i e s on i t s own. region  are enacted  A c t i o n s of impact primarily  by t h e  28 3.2.2  C i t y o f Vancouver  Many of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h i s r e g i o n have undertaken some form of  review  or p r o p o s a l designed  t o encourage  travel  by b i c y c l e ,  e s p e c i a l l y f o r s h o r t - d i s t a n c e t r i p s w i t h i n t h e i r own boundaries. As might  be expected f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y of i t s s i z e and p o s i t i o n  w i t h i n t h i s r e g i o n , the m u n i c i p a l p o l i c i e s which tend t o have the most profound impact on the r e g i o n as a whole are those adopted by the C i t y of Vancouver.  As such, Vancouver's  e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s and  b u r e a c r a t s are among the most i n f l u e n t i a l and h i g h - p r o f i l e of the b i c y c l e policy-makers w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l l o r Gordon P r i c e ,  who  has a l s o  been  a member  of the GVRD Regional  B i c y c l e Task Force, has been a supporter of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system through by c o n s t r u c t i n g for b i c y c l i s t s .  facilities  He i s regarded by many b i c y c l i s t s as a sympathizer  on the c i t y c o u n c i l and f r e q u e n t l y serves as a spokesperson f o r t h e b i c y c l i n g community.  The Vancouver C i t y t e c h n i c a l s t a f f , e s p e c i a l l y i n the E n g i n e e r i n g Department,  have  also  played  a major  role  i n determining the  d i r e c t i o n of c y c l i n g i n the r e g i o n . Beginning w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of  Vancouver  developed recreational  Comprehensive  several  Bicycle  projects  i n the form  to  Plan  (1988),  encourage  of the Seaside  the C i t y  bicycling,  Bicycle  Route  has both  around  S t a n l e y Park, c i r c l i n g F a l s e Creek and out t o Spanish Banks, and commuter/utility  i n the form of the Adanac Bikeway, an east-west  route i n t o the downtown core, complete  w i t h signage and c y c l i s t -  29 activated  stoplight crossings.  follow-up  reports  Bicycle  The  City  Parking  has  also published  Standards  Study  (1991)  the and  B i c y c l e Network Study (1992) t o o u t l i n e i t s f u r t h e r p l a n s .  Much of the impetus f o r improvements i n c y c l i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n the City  of  Vancouver  have  come  from  the  City's  Bicycle  Advisory  Committee (BAC), a nine-member group t h a t advises the C i t y C o u n c i l and C i t y s t a f f on a v a r i e t y of b i c y c l i n g matters.  Having developed  from an a d v i s o r y committee t o the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Committee of C i t y C o u n c i l i n 1985,  i t c o n s i s t s of t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s appointed  the Parks Board, three by itself.  the  School  I t s mandate i s to a c t  as  Board and  three by  a l i a i s o n with  the  has  acting  been c o n s i d e r e d as  lobbyists  by to  some as going Council  Lovegrove as t o l d t o T. Rye,  3.2.3  Council  staff.  beyond t h i s mandate  behalf  of  bicyclists  and (G.  1991).  P r o v i n c i a l Bodies  Provincial  bodies  development jurisdiction.  of  have  become  bicycling  parts  increasingly  uniform  and  areas  the  T h e i r e f f o r t s have been mostly i n promoting  local  in  in  their  of the  policies  active under  b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g standards the  on  by  bicycling  community and t o serve i n a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y t o C o u n c i l and It  the  and p r o v i d i n g support  for b i c y c l i s t s i n  r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems t h a t  come under p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n such as highways, p u b l i c t r a n s i t arid p r o v i n c i a l f e r r i e s .  A c t i o n s taken have i n c l u d e d :  - B.C. T r a n s i t i n s t a l l i n g b i c y c l e l o c k e r s at the S c o t t Road SkyTrain s t a t i o n . I t has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s a c t i o n may be  30 r e p l i c a t e d at other t r a n s i t s t a t i o n s i f user demand i s high enough. - The B.C. M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways has put t o g e t h e r a c o l l e c t i o n of standards, g u i d e l i n e s and o b j e c t i v e s f o r b i c y c l e planning i n I n t e r i m C y c l i n g P o l i c y (1992) f o r use by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s throughout the p r o v i n c e of B.C. as w e l l as i t s own t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n e r s . 3.2.4  Other M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the GVRD  Following  the  municipalities local  direction  taken  have a l s o  begun t o  transportation  by  systems.  the  City  of  integrate  In  Vancouver,  bicycles  North Vancouver,  other  into  their  Burnaby  and  Surrey, m u n i c i p a l s t a f f have s t a r t e d t o i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l b i c y c l e routes  and  bicycle  advisory  committees  have  been  formed.  c o n t r a s t with e a r l i e r attempts at b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g i n t h i s  In  region,  m u n i c i p a l policy-makers c u r r e n t l y have the advantage of d e v e l o p i n g b i c y c l e plans w h i l e having access t o c o n s u l t a t i o n who  had  with c o l l e a g u e s  served on the Regional B i c y c l e Task Force or are  serving  on  the  process  of  consultation  important  Intermunicipal and  Bicycle  Liaison  coordination  of  currently  Committee. efforts  is  This a  very  f a c t o r i n e f f e c t i v e b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g because a l a c k  of  communication between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and other l e v e l s of government has  been seen as being one  of the o b s t a c l e s  an e f f e c t i v e r e g i o n a l b i c y c l e p o l i c y  3.3  t o the development of  (Desrochers & Rye,  1991).  G r e a t e r Vancouver B i c y c l i s t s - P r o f i l e  To e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of b i c y c l e p o l i c i e s , the f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t b i c y c l e use It  helps t o  also  among people of t h i s r e g i o n must be determined. be  aware of  the  demographics of  bicycle  whether they are r e c r e a t i o n a l , commuter or u t i l i t a r i a n .  users,  Thus, i t  31 is  necessary  t o determine  who  i s currently  using b i c y c l e s f o r  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , who may use b i c y c l e s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and what f a c t o r s would l e a d them t o use t h e i r b i c y c l e s more.  A p r o f i l e of  Greater Vancouver b i c y c l i s t s has been the o b j e c t i v e of s t a t i s t i c a l r e s e a r c h conducted by both the C i t y of Vancouver and the GVRD. The data gathered by Vancouver was compiled from two sources: The 1985 GVRD  Travel  telephone  Survey  sampling  i n which of  responses  households  were  i n the  gathered  from  a  Vancouver  Central  M e t r o p o l i t a n Area and the 1987 Vancouver B i c y c l e Survey  i n which  s e l e c t e d t a r g e t groups were surveyed f o r t h e i r i n p u t on the VCBP.  The  profile  c o n s t r u c t e d from these  sources c o n t r a d i c t e d  several  popular n o t i o n s , one of which was t h a t b i c y c l i n g was an a c t i v i t y f o r c h i l d r e n or those who don't have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n s e .  While a  s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of r i d e r s were under t h e age of 15, over. 36 percent  of Vancouver c y c l i s t s  were 20 years o l d or more and an  a d d i t i o n a l 16 percent were aged 15 t o 19. Together, these two age groups comprised over h a l f of a l l the b i c y c l i s t s i n Vancouver.  The f i n d i n g s a l s o flew i n the f a c e of the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t b i c y c l i n g was  primarily  a recreational  activity.  While  15 percent  were  b i c y c l i n g f o r t h i s reason, n e a r l y 58 percent of those surveyed were using  their  bicycles  to travel  p e r c e n t were commuting t o work.  t o ; school and an a d d i t i o n a l s  The survey was conducted o n l y on  weekdays from September t o December which undoubtedly element  16  i n j e c t e d an  of b i a s i n t o t h e . r e s u l t s i n favour of t h e work and s c h o o l  trips.  Despite  this,  the r e s u l t s  of t h e survey  were  still  s i g n i f i c a n t enough t h a t the C i t y of Vancouver had i t s E n g i n e e r i n g staff  examine i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g b i c y c l i n g and produce  t h e VCBP t o  address these i s s u e s f o r the C i t y .  The  objective  of the r e s e a r c h conducted  by t h e GVRD d u r i n g t h e  s p r i n g and summer of 1992 was t o get an i d e a of the views, and  h a b i t s of c u r r e n t b i c y c l e  population.  users  as opposed  concerns  t o the general  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n along with s t a t i s t i c a l data on these  c u r r e n t users was gathered through responses t o a survey  brochure  d i s t r i b u t e d t o b i c y c l e shops, s c h o o l s , p u b l i c and school l i b r a r i e s , community c e n t r e s , i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s and o r g a n i z e r s of b i c y c l e r e l a t e d events. end  of t h a t  Responses t o t h i s survey were accepted up t o the  c a l e n d a r year.  Aided  by the p u b l i c i z a t i o n  of t h e  survey i n l o c a l newspapers, over f i v e percent of the 2350 brochures d i s t r i b u t e d were r e t u r n e d .  T h i s was the h i g h e s t r a t e of r e t u r n f o r  a survey d i s t r i b u t e d by the GVRD (Perkins, p . c ,  1994).  The d a t a r e v e a l e d these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s about t h e respondents: - N e a r l y 66 percent of them were aged 25-44. - N e a r l y 48 percent were r e s i d e n t s of the C i t y of Vancouver. - Over 59 percent were males. The  latter  two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  researchers. female  Male  bicyclists,  steadily increasing.  bicyclists although  came as no s u r p r i s e have  always  tended  t o t h e GVRD t o outnumber  the p r o p o r t i o n of females  has been  A l s o , l i v i n g i n the p a r t of the r e g i o n w i t h  33 the h i g h e s t d e n s i t i e s and with many of i t s employment, e d u c a t i o n a l , leisure  and  bicycling  service  destinations  located  d i s t a n c e of i t s r e s i d e n t i a l  within  areas,  City  manageable  of Vancouver  r e s i d e n t s were expected t o supply a l a r g e r percentage of t h e survey responses  than i t s share of t h e r e g i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n (30 percent)  would i n d i c a t e . density  of  destinations  Correspondingly, t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y w i t h i t s lower  settlement  and  greater  distance  between  s u p p l i e d only 11 percent of responses  various  compared w i t h  i t s 27 percent share of the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n .  However,  the  respondents  finding  were  aged  that  nearly  25-44 was not r e a d i l y  i n d i c a t i v e of r e g i o n a l b i c y c l i s t s . finding  i n t h e 1985 GVRD  accounted  two-thirds  of  the  accepted  survey  as being  This f i g u r e contrasted with the  Travel  Survey  that  this  age  group  f o r only 21 percent of a l l c y c l i s t s i n the r e g i o n .  d i s c r e p a n c y was a t t r i b u t e d  t o the f a c t  t h a t people  This  i n t h a t age  group were more l i k e l y t o read newspapers thoroughly and respond t o surveys  than were younger . b i c y c l i s t s .  survey  brochures  were  distributed  Also, the fact mostly  during  that the  t h e summer  prevented a l o t p o t e n t i a l respondents of school-age from being made aware of t h e survey and g a i n i n g convenient access t o t h e brochure.  The  GVRD has been able t o o b t a i n an expanded p i c t u r e of r e g i o n a l  c y c l i n g through a more recent t r a v e l survey f o r Greater Vancouver. Conducted  during  November  and December  of  1992, t h i s  survey  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the t o t a l number of t r i p s being made by b i c y c l e i n  t h i s r e g i o n has i n f a c t decreased trips  t o about an average of 12,000  p e r day, down from the f i g u r e of roughly  recorded  d u r i n g the 1985 GVRD t r a v e l  survey.  15,000 t h a t was  Although  bicycling  comprises a very small p r o p o r t i o n of t h e t o t a l number of t r i p s made i n t h i s r e g i o n , t h i s r e d u c t i o n i n the t o t a l number of b i k e t r i p s i s very s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of the f a c t t h a t t r i p s u s i n g any  mode of t r a v e l  increased  by about  25 percent  from  1985 and  t r i p s made by automobile i n c r e a s e d by n e a r l y 50 percent from 1985.  The i n c r e a s e i n t r i p s c o u l d be expected i n view of the i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n i n the r e g i o n .  What was s u r p r i s i n g was the r e d u c t i o n i n  b i c y c l e t r i p s and t h e g r e a t e r - t h a n - p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of auto t r i p s .  increase i n the  The number of i n d i v i d u a l s commuting t o work  by b i c y c l e d i d not decrease.  In f a c t , i t doubled from about 2300  i n 1985 t o about 4600 i n 1992. The decrease i n b i c y c l e r i d e r s h i p came from t h e segment of s o c i e t y t h a t has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t h e h e a v i e s t users of the b i c y c l e , namely c h i l d r e n and teenagers going t o and from s c h o o l . Table 2: Morning Peak P e r i o d SCHOOL T r i p Mode Shares - 1985 & 1992 1985  % of 1985 School Trips  1992  % of 1992 School Trips  % Change 1985 t o 1992  Auto Driver  19,967  10.2  28,666  11.0  + 0.9  Auto Passeng.  56,614  28.8  93,180  35.8  +7.0  Bicycle  12,185 6.2 6544 2.5 . -3,7 Source: GVRD, 1992 Greater Vancouver T r a v e l Survey. 1^937  35 The number of b i c y c l e t r i p s made by students went from over 12,000 in  1985 down t o about 6600 i n t h e 1992 survey.  t h i s t r e n d may be due t o a number of f a c t o r s . child  The reasons f o r  Parental fears f o r  s a f e t y because of i n c r e a s i n g motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c  volumes  and r i s i n g concerns about c h i l d abductions and b i c y c l e t h e f t may be fuelling  the p a t t e r n  of u s i n g  private  autos  or p u b l i c  transit  i n s t e a d of b i c y c l e s t o t r a n s p o r t c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l .  Another p o s s i b l e f a c t o r behind t h i s d e c l i n e c o u l d be t h e same one t h a t may be keeping a d u l t s from u s i n g b i c y c l e s more: suburban  sprawl.  The segregated  nature  of l a n d  increasing  use  patterns  a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s sprawl may be a f f e c t i n g both t h e d i s t a n c e of t r i p s t o s c h o o l and t h e s a f e t y and d i r e c t n e s s o f s t r e e t s , making b i c y c l i n g t o school a l e s s appealing been.  What  metropolitan  has become  a  common  o p t i o n than i t may once have pattern  of development i n  areas throughout t h i s c o n t i n e n t may be a c o n t r i b u t i n g  f a c t o r t o t h e d e c l i n e of the b i c y c l e as a mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n for  An  students.  attempt  was made  t o determine  i f these  patterns  could  be  a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between e s t a b l i s h e d and developing municipalities municipalities. bicyclists  through This  recorded  analysis was  during  of data  unsuccessful  recorded  for different  because  the number of  the 1992 GVRD T r a v e l  Survey were t o o  s m a l l t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t . s a m p l e s from which c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be a c c u r a t e l y drawn (Perkins, p . c , 1995).  Chapter  4;  BICYCLING  I N GREATER  VANCOUVER -  I S S U E S AND C O N D I T I O N S  In t h i s s e c t i o n , b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l be approached through two d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s : commuting and u t i l i t a r i a n .  The former,  i n v o l v e s u s i n g a b i c y c l e f o r t h e r e g u l a r journey t o and from t h e workplace  or school  while the l a t t e r ,  f o r the purpose  of t h i s  r e p o r t , w i l l r e f e r t o u s i n g a b i c y c l e t o conduct a c t i v i t i e s such as shopping, v i s i t i n g  f r i e n d s or other l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t r i p s .  Both  types of b i c y c l e t r i p s Involve a d i f f e r e n t s e t of requirements and concerns f o r b i c y c l i s t s . conditions  4.1  T h i s chapter w i l l  discuss  the e x i s t i n g  and r e l e v a n t i s s u e s f o r both types of t r i p s .  COMMUTING  One of the key developments  i n b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n over the l a s t  s e v e r a l years has been the i n c r e a s e i n commuter b i c y c l i n g i n t h i s region  Table  (GVRD, 1993).  3:  Morning  Peak  Period  WORK T r i p  Mode S h a r e s  -  1985  &  1992  1985  % of 1985 Work Trips  1992  % of 1992 Work Trips  % Change* 1985 1992  Auto Driver  257,617  72.6  332,138  73.0  +0 .4  Auto Passeng.  31,920  9.0  38,887  8.5  -0.5  Bicycle  2287  0.6  4573  1.0  +0.4  Source: GVRD, 1992 Greater Vancouver  T r a v e l Survey. 1993.  37  With  the  growing concern  about  the  impact  of  rush-hour  c o n g e s t i o n caused by commuters i n single-occupancy trend  has  added  relevance  and  immediacy.  traffic  vehicles,  The  this  prospect  of  encouraging even g r e a t e r numbers of commuters out of t h e i r c a r s and onto  bicycles  may  be  appealing  to  policy-makers  and  to  many  c i t i z e n s but the o b s t a c l e s t o making t h i s switch i n commuting modes a r e a l i t y are daunting. that  a l l but  E x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r commuting are such  the most hardy and  d i s c o u r a g e d from u s i n g t h e i r  4.1.1  persistent  of commuters may  be  bicycles.  B i c y c l e Routes  Streets  provide  bicycles  can  designed  to  the  travel  only but  extensive most  accommodate  acknowledged by the GVRD  of  only  corridor  streets motor  system  in  this  vehicles,  on  which  region a  were  situation  (1993):  The key problem with accommodating more c y c l i s t s s a f e l y and comfortably on our e x i s t i n g road network i s t h a t t h i s network was not designed t o i n c l u d e c y c l i s t s . While c y c l i s t s are l e g a l l y e n t i t l e d t o the use of roadways, they are not made t o f e e l welcome t h e r e . . . t h e previous g e n e r a t i o n of p l a n n e r s , b u i l d e r s and engineers d i d not f o r e s e e the p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s would s h i f t and t h a t the b i c y c l e would come t o be c o n s i d e r e d a v i a b l e form of urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . . . Bicycling  along  arterial  streets  i s fast  and  allows  for direct  access t o many d e s t i n a t i o n s but a l s o means r i d i n g a l o n g s i d e h i g h e r speed motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c , a s i t u a t i o n t h a t r a i s e s concerns about safety. traffic 1993,  Real  and  p e r c e i v e d s a f e t y when mixing  i s a major concern  p. 2)  as  i s the  need  of b i c y c l i s t s f o r respect  with  in this  automobile  region  from automobile  (GVRD,  drivers.  Many m o t o r i s t s have grown accustomed t o automobiles having p r i o r i t y  38 over b i c y c l e s on the roadways.  As such, these i n d i v i d u a l s have not  been f a m i l i a r i z e d with r u l e s of road s h a r i n g with other modes of transportation.  Because there are few v i s i b l e i n d i c a t o r s such  as  signs or p a i n t e d bike lanes on most a r t e r i a l s t h a t b i c y c l e s have are e n t i t l e d t o be on the roadway, many i n e x p e r i e n c e d b i c y c l i s t s f e e l unsafe and v u l n e r a b l e when r i d i n g along busy a r t e r i a l s .  Many of these b i c y c l i s t s use s i d e s t r e e t s because t h e r e are fewer c a r s , lower  speed  l i m i t s and  (City  of Vancouver,  often  means  not  1991).  being  l e s s exposure t o auto exhaust However, r i d i n g  able  to  take  the  along these  most  direct  fumes  streets  route  to  s p e c i f i c d e s t i n a t i o n s as w e l l as c o n s t a n t l y s t o p p i n g a t s t o p - s i g n s and a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s .  While these are not major problems f o r s h o r t  u t i l i t y t r i p s or f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l r i d e s , they can make f o r a long and f r u s t r a t i n g journey f o r commuter b i c y c l i s t s .  Even f o r those who commuting  can  be  are more experienced a  frustrating  in riding  venture  on  because  i m p r a c t i c a l i t y of some designated b i c y c l i n g r o u t e s .  The  arterials, of  the  curb'lane  on West Georgia S t r e e t heading toward Stanley Park i s one example.  During peak t r a f f i c p e r i o d s , t h i s l a n e , which merges w i t h the other lanes a t the entrance t o S t a n l e y Park, i s designated f o r use o n l y by  transit,  car  pools  and  bicycles.  While  the  buses  and  car-  p o o l i n g v e h i c l e s can s a f e l y merge with the motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c i n the other l a n e s , the speed  l i m i t s and the narrow lanes widths  of  39 the  Stanley  Park  prohibitive.  Causeway make  Even  bicycling  i f bicyclists  this  continue  stretch  of road  travelling  along  p e d e s t r i a n walkways t o the Lions Gate Bridge, c r o s s i n g t h i s span i s a treacherous  journey as the p e d e s t r i a n walkway i s narrow and i s  separated from the roadway by only a curb. serve as i n c e n t i v e f o r North  If this f a c i l i t y i s to  Shore or even West End r e s i d e n t s t o  use t h e i r b i c y c l e s f o r commuting downtown, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t i t serves i t s purpose.  Facilities  such  as t h i s  can leave  the impression  that  their  d e s i g n e r s have a l i m i t e d understanding of the needs of b i c y c l i s t s . C o n s t r u c t i o n of p r o j e c t s such  as t h i s  which d i d not a l l o w f o r convenient  and the C a s s i a r Connector  access  t o the Second Narrows  Bridge have some b i c y c l i s t s v o i c i n g strong c r i t i c i s m of what they see as b e i n g a c o n t i n u i n g government preoccupation w i t h  automobile  r e l i a n c e and a weak commitment t o b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  I t i s not so much t h e routes themselves as how they have been used that  i s seen  throughout commuters.  t o be  the problem.  The e x i s t i n g  road  the r e g i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t t o address the needs of b i c y c l e I t i s how  the space  on these  roadways  a l l o c a t e d t h a t some f e e l r e q u i r e s r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . face  network  a c h a l l e n g i n g task  system p r i o r i t i e s .  i n addressing  Existing  roads  b i c y c l i s t s , commuters i n c l u d e d .  the concerns  have  been  Policy-makers about  road  are not meeting the needs of  40 4.1.2  Parking and Other E n d - o f - T r i p  Commuters  need  secure  long-term  Facilities  parking  for  their  e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n i s the workplace. are unattended  bicycles,  Their bicycles  f o r the d u r a t i o n of t h e i r workday or long s t r e t c h e s  of t h e i r schoolday so long-term p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s are needed t h a t isolate  the  bicycles  protection  from  from p u b l i c view and  theft  of  components  or  ideally  provide  accessories.  some These  f a c i l i t i e s can take the form of e i t h e r racks i n p a t r o l l e d p a r k i n g areas  or  lockers.  p r i v a t e l y - a c c e s s e d spaces  such  as  storage  the  or  Some commuter b i c y c l i s t s are w i l l i n g t o l o c k t h e i r b i k e s  to e a s i l y accessed racks f o r the whole workday but most to  areas  City  of  Vancouver's  1992  Bicycle  Network  respondents  Study  survey  i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l a c k of more secure or p a t r o l l e d f a c i l i t i e s would serve as a d e t e r r e n t t o t h e i r u s i n g b i c y c l e s f o r commuting. p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s was 1992  Secure  a l s o c i t e d as a major concern i n the GVRD's  Regional B i c y c l e Survey.  In a d d i t i o n t o secured parking areas, other e n d - o f - t r i p f a c i l i t i e s can  such  as  showers  and  changing  rooms  can  encouragement t o p r o s p e c t i v e b i c y c l e commuters. to  two  percent  Vancouver can  of  be  the  expected  workforce  of  an  t o commute by  c l o t h i n g l o c k e r s are provided.  also  An a d d i t i o n a l  employment bicycle  The numbers may  provide  centre  i f showers  to  shower and  change  in and  even be g r e a t e r i f  s p e c i f i c employment c e n t r e s i n C a l i f o r n i a are any i n d i c a t i o n of Vancouver, 1988).  one  (City  With t h i s r e g i o n ' s frequent r a i n f a l l , a p l a c e i s a necessary  component  of  a commute  by  • 41 bicycle  i f personal  workplace.  appearance  i s an important  factor  i n the  Having s t u d i e d the requirements of b i c y c l e r i d e r s i n  B i c y c l e Network Study  (1992), the C i t y of Vancouver has prepared  g u i d e l i n e s which r e q u i r e new and renovated commercial developments to  provide  bicycle  storage  facilities.  The  scope  of  these  g u i d e l i n e s a r e such t h a t "the C i t y of Vancouver may w e l l be one of the  ieading  planning"  4.1.3  The  cities  i n North  (Whistler,  America  i n this  T r a n s i t L i n k a g e and  f a c t o r of d i s t a n c e  case  of l a c k i n g  Support  can be one of the strongest  the physical  between home and workplace. to  ride  this  distance  capacity  deterrents t o  I t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t o t r a v e l the distance  Rather, i t i s the time i t would take  that  discourages  many p o t e n t i a l  commuters from s t r a p p i n g on t h e i r . b i k e helmets. the  of b i c y c l e  p . c , 1993).  u s i n g b i c y c l e s f o r commuting (FHWA, 1992). a  area  bicycle  Short of b r i n g i n g  workplace c l o s e r t o home, one of the few v i a b l e methods of  r e d u c i n g t h i s t r a v e l l i n g time would be t o support t h e b i c y c l i n g portion Public would  of t h e commute with a motorized means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . t r a n s i t would be the l o g i c a l t o o l f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  e n t a i l providing  t r a n s i t pick-up p o i n t s  In  this  region,  facilities  store  bicycles at  or c a r r y b i c y c l e s on t h e t r a n s i t v e h i c l e .  B.C. T r a n s i t  except on a l i m i t e d b a s i s . storage f a c i l i t i e s  to either  It  does  not p r o v i d e  such  facilities  At t h e time of t h i s w r i t i n g , long-term  f o r b i c y c l e s were a v a i l a b l e only  a t the S c o t t  42 Road S k y T r a i n S t a t i o n i n Surrey, t h e Ladner Bus Exchange i n D e l t a and  the Sexsmith Park & Ride i n Richmond.  limited  number  of b i c y c l e  c u r r e n t l y a t c a p a c i t y use. a success and plan  lockers  have  A t these l o c a t i o n s , a been  installed  and a r e  B.C. T r a n s i t has c o n s i d e r e d them t o be  t o continue p r o v i d i n g  these f a c i l i t i e s w i t h a  p o s s i b i l i t y f o r expansion.  As  f o r carrying  bicycles  aboard t r a n s i t  vehicles,  bicycles  have  been allowed on the SeaBus f o r a l l but weekday peak hours and as of Summer 1994, on the #404 Bus through the Massey Tunnel.  Neither  S k y T r a i n nor other bus routes are c u r r e n t l y equipped t o c a r r y out this function.  B.C. T r a n s i t has not made a p u b l i c e v a l u a t i o n of  t h i s s e r v i c e and has not announced any plans t o i n t r o d u c e  such a  s e r v i c e f o r b i c y c l e commuters on a region-wide b a s i s .  4.2  Utilitarian Bicycling  In Community C y c l i n g Manual (1991), a u t i l i t a r i a n t r i p i s d e f i n e d as "a d e s t i n a t i o n - o r i e n t e d a p a r t i c u l a r place. they i n c l u d e the  The means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  i s secondary...  going t o t h e corner s t o r e , going shopping, going t o  l i b r a r y , etc-.  It. d i f f e r s  t r i p . . . f o r which the purpose i s t o reach  These t r i p s o f t e n i n v o l v e t r a n s p o r t i n g  from a commuting t r i p  i n that  the d e s t i n a t i o n  n e c e s s a r i l y t r a v e l l e d t o on a r e g u l a r b a s i s .  goods."  i s not  I t a l s o d i f f e r s from  a r e c r e a t i o n o r f i t n e s s t r i p i n t h a t i t i s not t h e t r i p i t s e l f i s t h e primary o b j e c t i v e  but r a t h e r  i t i s the p l a c e  that  t o where t h e  43 person i s t r a v e l l i n g t h a t  i s the main focus of the  utilitarian  trip  regarded  destination  other  (either  can  enjoyment  destination  be  than or  work  fitness)  or  as  one  school  of  the  that  for  trip  are  The  taken the  to  a  benefits  secondary t o  the  remained c l o s e  to  itself.  same l e v e l s during  Table 4:  is  which  U t i l i t a r i a n b i c y c l i n g i n Greater Vancouver has the  journey.  the past decade.  Morning Peak P e r i o d OTHER T r i p Mode Shares - 1985  &  1992  1985  % of 1985 "Other" Trips  1992  % of 1992 "Other" Trips  % Change 1985 1992  Auto Driver  90,203  71.7  175,967  75.7  +4.0  Auto Passeng,  25,931  20.6  26,027  11.2  -9.4  Bicycle 496 Source: GVRD, 1992  0.4 708 0.5 Greater Vancouver T r a v e l Survey,  +0.1 1993.  U t i l i t a r i a n b i c y c l i s t s have many of the same concerns as commuters but w i t h s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s .  4.2.1  B i c y c l e Routes  Most u t i l i t a r i a n b i c y c l i n g t r i p s are not conducted under the same time c o n s t r a i n t s  as commuting t r i p s and  t h e i r usual  destinations  (such as shopping and  s e r v i c e o u t l e t s ) are g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n  proximity  homes.  utilitarian directness  to  their  bicyclists  are  Because not  as  of  these  concerned with  close  factors, the  speed  most and  of routes and o f t e n avoid h e a v y - t r a f f i c s t r e e t s such as  44 arterials  (FHWA, 1992).  They are more concerned  s a f e t y , f e a t u r e s t h a t are found on s i d e s t r e e t s . low t r a f f i c volumes and exhaust  with comfort  and  Side s t r e e t s have  fume l e v e l s and p r o v i d e access t o  most l o c a l neighbourhood d e s t i n a t i o n s .  The problem f o r u t i l i t a r i a n b i c y c l i s t s i s t h a t t h e r e have been few routes along s i d e s t r e e t s t h a t do not i n c l u d e numerous s t o p - s i g n s and a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s without b i c y c l i s t - a c t i v a t e d s i g n a l s .  Although  speed i s not as much of a f a c t o r as i t i s f o r commuting, b i c y c l e s w i l l not be used even f o r non-commuting t r a n s p o r t a t i o n purposes i f it  i s f a r l e s s convenient than u s i n g c a r s .  The C i t y of Vancouver  has addressed t h i s i s s u e through development of a c i t y w i d e network of  bicycle  terminate  routes. at  These  specific  routes  are  d e s t i n a t i o n s or  along other  side bikeway  streets  corridors.  T h i s network was a r e s u l t of r e s e a r c h and c o n s u l t a t i o n conducted interest  groups and  City  staff  and  was  designed  needs of both u t i l i t a r i a n and commuter b i c y c l i s t s . stages of the network have formal time  and  t o address  by the  Not a l l of the  frames f o r completion  but  t h e r e has been l i t t l e d i s p u t e over the network's development due t o the  consultation  component  of  the  process.  The  needs  of  u t i l i t a r i a n b i c y c l i s t s are s t a r t i n g t o be addressed while commuting b i c y c l i s t s who  look at these routes as being too slow j u s t continue  t o use the a r t e r i a l  streets.  Most other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h i s r e g i o n do not have a g r i d s t r e e t system l i k e Vancouver has.  The l o c a l s t r e e t s i n Vancouver p r o v i d e  45 quiet  and  direct  bicyclists.  transportation  routes  for  inexperienced  In many p l a c e s i n the suburbs, these s t r e e t s a r e more  l i k e l y t o take the form of winding roads, many of which l e a d  into  c u l - d e - s a c s and few of which are s u i t a b l e f o r d i r e c t r o u t e s t o many destinations.  In these l o c a t i o n s ,  direct  to destinations outside  access  arterials. Many  the only routes t h a t residential  arterials  are designed  Even on those  bicycles,  the volumes of motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c  bicycle  travel  arterials  an  that  f o r only  traffic.  The  are  motor  vehicle  p r o v i d e enough room f o r  uncomfortable  inexperienced or recreational b i c y c l i s t s  4.2.2  areas  F o r many b i c y c l e r i d e r s , t h i s i s not a v i a b l e o p t i o n .  of these  make  provide  on these  experience  streets  f o r many  (Desrochers, p.c. 1994).  Parking F a c i l i t i e s  availability  regarded  of p a r k i n g  as being  Vancouver,  facilities  for bicycles  insufficient  by survey  1992) (GVRD, 1993).  The c o s t  parking f a c i l i t i e s  have  respondents  been  ( C i t y of  of p r o v i d i n g b i c y c l e  i s f a r l e s s than auto p a r k i n g but, t h e p a r k i n g  needs of u t i l i t a r i a n b i c y c l i s t s , as w i t h commuting b i c y c l i s t s , have lagged f a r behind those of m o t o r i s t s .  A p e r c e i v e d l a c k of b i c y c l e  racks l o c a t e d near s e r v i c e s , businesses and p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s has been one of t h e f a c t o r s c i t e d as a d e t e r r e n t t o b i c y c l i n g Vancouver, 1991). from  the r e s u l t s  ( C i t y of  The importance of p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s i s apparent of t h e 1992 GVRD B i c y c l e  Survey  which  indicate  t h a t e n d - o f - t r i p f a c i l i t i e s are t h e f a c i l i t i e s t h a t would have t h e g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on i n d u c i n g people t o use t h e i r b i c y c l e s more.  46 Convenient  l o c a t i o n of p a r k i n g i s a primary concern f o r u t i l i t a r i a n  b i c y c l i s t s who use t h e i r (City  of Vancouver,  bicycles  1991).  f o r shopping  o r other  They r e q u i r e p a r k i n g  errands  racks  located  c l o s e t o the goods and s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r neighbourhoods. racks  a r e l o c a t e d beyond  convenient  s e r v i c e s , many i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l bicycles  distance  be discouraged  even i f i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y  automobiles  walking  I f the  from t h e  from u s i n g  short t r i p .  their  They w i l l use  i n s t e a d , e s p e c i a l l y i f p a r k i n g f o r motor v e h i c l e s i s  conveniently located.  The  parking f a c i l i t i e s  not only need t o be r e a d i l y  they a l s o need t o be of a p p r o p r i a t e design. been a v a i l a b l e  —  Of the racks t h a t have  i n the past, many were designed  f r o n t wheel of a b i c y c l e can be secured.  available  so t h a t only t h e  Since many b i c y c l e s  sold  today have a q u i c k - r e l e a s e f e a t u r e f o r both f r o n t and r e a r wheels, it  i s imperative t h a t b i c y c l i s t s are able t o secure not j u s t one  wheel but t h e e n t i r e  bicycle  frame t o the rack.  Without  this  f e a t u r e , the b i c y c l e s are a t t r a c t i v e t a r g e t s f o r t h i e v e s .  4.2.3  As  L a n d Use  i s the case  running  errands  Patterns  with  commuting,  trips  conducted  f o r shopping,  or other u t i l i t a r i a n purposes w i l l  o f t e n be made  u s i n g t h e mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h a t i s most convenient.  I f the  d e s t i n a t i o n s a r e not l o c a t e d w i t h i n convenient b i c y c l i n g d i s t a n c e and  t h e routes t o these p l a c e s are uncomfortable  people  are l i k e l y  t o use  a  more  appropriate  for bicyclists, mode  such  as  47 automobiles existing  f o r these journeys  situation  specifically  f o r many  (FHWA, 1992, p.49). residents  those i n the suburbs.  of  This  Greater  i s the  Vancouver,  The p a t t e r n s of l a n d use i n  those areas have developed i n a manner t h a t makes b i c y c l i n g f o r u t i l i t a r i a n t r i p s an i m p r a c t i c a l mode.  S t r i p m a l l s or shopping m a l l s t h a t  are p h y s i c a l l y  i s o l a t e d away  from r e s i d e n t i a l areas are more p r e v a l e n t i n t h e suburbs than i n the i n n e r c i t y .  A trip  from r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods  m a l l s o f t e n i n v o l v e s t r a v e l l i n g along winding r e s i d e n t i a l  t o these streets  which then connect onto busy a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s , many of which do not p r o v i d e enough space f o r safe and comfortable passage f o r b i c y c l e s (Desrochers,  p . c , 1994).  Bicyclists  need  to ride  along these  s t r e e t s t o reach suburban shopping d e s t i n a t i o n s , many of which a r e surrounded by expansive p a r k i n g l o t s f o r automobiles.  Not  only  would  such  a  trip  be  considered  experience f o r many r e c r e a t i o n a l b i c y c l i s t s —  an  uncomfortable  i t w i l l o f t e n cover  a g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e than many i n d i v i d u a l s would c o n s i d e r t r a v e l l i n g by  bicycle  (Desrochers,  infrastructure  encountered  accommodate automobiles. a  level  p.c., 1994).  of comfort,  on  this  trip  The  facilities  were  designed  and to  In t h a t environment, automobiles p r o v i d e  convenience  and p r a c t i c a l i t y  that  bicycles  cannot match.  B i c y c l e s are more s u i t e d t o a p a t t e r n of mixed l a n d use i n which  48 goods and  s e r v i c e s are  i n close proximity  to  residences.  This  p a t t e r n i s a feature, of Vancouver C i t y d i s t r i c t s such as K i t s i l a n o , Kerrisdale  and  the  West  End  i n which  mixing  of  land  uses  h i g h e r - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods are common ( P r i c e , 1994).  In  these  areas,  bicycling  to  shopping  areas,  and p.c,  community  c e n t r e s or r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i s a much more v i a b l e o p t i o n f o r residents  than  i t is  for  people  living  in  the  Appendix: F i g u r e 3).  Some  difficulties and  mixed  land  1993):  (1)  current  uses  with  incorporation  i n t o suburban  residents  may  areas  have, grown  (see  , -  :  associated  density  surburbs  of  increased  include  (GVRD,  accustomed  to  c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of development and may be r e l u c t a n t t o accept change;  (2)  these  elements of logistics  a comprehensive  of  developing  expense of housing release  changes  protected  may  require  plan  a less  i n order  rigid  to  by. developers who suburban  effective;  (3)  of  streets;  (4)  and  (6)  to  encouraging  and mixed-use developments  housing.  difficulties. having  all  are i n c l i n e d t o b u i l d the most marketable form of  R e s i s t a n c e from e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t s may  to  be  of  (5) i n c r e a s e d pressure  developers;  c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i g h e r - d e n s i t y housing  to  hierarchy  i n d e n s i f i e d areas; lands  implementation  5  a  be the most s e r i o u s of these  Some r e s i d e n t s are l i k e l y t o have grown accustomed greater  level  of  privacy,  more  space  and  less  r e s t r i c t i o n s on the use of t h e i r automobiles, c o n d i t i o n s t h a t they  49 may  be r e l u c t a n t t o g i v e up.  D e n s i f i c a t i o n can a l s o be viewed as  a c a t a l y s t f o r unwanted change i n the neighbourhood acknowledge  (GVRD,  the  1993).  benefits  of  livability  of  this  reluctance  to  accept  that  also  change  neighbourhoods  region.  character  Opponents these The  be  order  in  of  these  lies that  in  the their  their  measures  a  often  maintaining  often  necessary for  value  densification  actions  difficulty  i t may in  of  and  own  to  be  e f f e c t i v e f o r the o v e r a l l r e g i o n .  B i c y c l i n g f o r u t i l i t a r i a n purposes may  be more a p p e a l i n g  i n areas  which have mixed l a n d uses and higher d e n s i t i e s but because of challenges specific  associated  with  neighbourhoods,  incorporating  policy-makers  these  would  concepts  probably  the into  have  to  "piggy-back" b i c y c l e p r o j e c t s on other i n f r a s t r u c t u r e p r o j e c t s i n order t o see them become a r e a l i t y  (Desrochers & Rye,  1991).  50 CHAPTER 5:  ANALYSIS OF EXISTING  There was bicycle  little  i n the way  transportation  POLICIES  of formal w r i t t e n  in this  region  until  Vancouver Comprehensive B i c y c l e Plan (1988).  policy  governing  the p u b l i c a t i o n  of  T h i s r e p o r t was the  f i r s t of s e v e r a l t o p r o v i d e some framework f o r b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g i n Greater Vancouver.  To date, much of the b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g i n t h i s  r e g i o n has been i n the form of r e s e a r c h t h a t has focused p r i m a r i l y on  general  concepts  directions that oriented  5.1  but  specifying  few  actions.  One  has a r i s e n i s a focus on p o l i c i e s and  toward commuting  instead  of  the  facilities  of u t i l i t a r i a n b i c y c l i n g .  C i t y o f Vancouver  In a number of ways, the C i t y of Vancouver has been a l e a d e r among bicycle  planning  municipalities  authorities  and  other  levels  in  this  region.  of government  While  were  other  inactive  or  d e v e l o p i n g b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g goals t h a t were v e r y broad i n scope, the C i t y of Vancouver was developing plans t h a t c a l l e d f o r s p e c i f i c actions  and has implemented s e v e r a l of t h e i r  objectives.  I t s e f f o r t s began with the p u b l i c a t i o n of Vancouver Comprehensive B i c y c l e P l a n (1988) i n which the C i t y acknowledged t h a t the number of  people  increased  using  bicycles  t o the p o i n t  system was a d v i s a b l e .  as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  where a l t e r a t i o n s  around the c i t y t o the  had  transportation  In i t s a n a l y s i s of what approach t o use i n  order t o make these a l t e r a t i o n s , the idea of b u i l d i n g separate b i k e  51 paths was  dismissed  f o r being  too  costly  both  i n terms of  land  a c q u i s i t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n .  I t f o l l o w e d t h a t u s i n g the e x i s t i n g road system t o p r o v i d e routes  f o r b i c y c l e s was  the most l o g i c a l  course  i d e a of c r e a t i n g bike lanes on  arterials,  other  undesirable  cities,  was  considered  travel  of a c t i o n .  a method used i n many because  of  research  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d b i c y c l i s t s , bike lanes can create  a  false  sense  of  security  and  The  uncertainty  as  to  help  proper  procedure i n i n t e r s e c t i o n s ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1988).  The r e p o r t advocated t h a t wherever p o s s i b l e i n Vancouver, the curb lanes  on  arterial  bicyclists. the  needs  s t r e e t s be  safe passage f o r  I t would serve as a c o s t - e f f e c t i v e way of  bicyclists  d e s t i n a t i o n s and  r i d e on C i t y s t r e e t s . who  for  direct  access  to  of a  addressing variety  of  g i v e r e c o g n i t i o n t o the b i c y c l e as a l e g i t i m a t e  form of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  bicyclists  widened t o a l l o w  were  show t h a t b i c y c l i s t s were e n t i t l e d  While t h i s concept accustomed  to  appealed  riding  amidst  to  to  experienced  motor v e h i c l e  t r a f f i c , i t had only l i m i t e d success i n a t t r a c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l and inexperienced  One  of  the  riders.  stated  o b j e c t i v e s of  o v e r a l l number of b i c y c l i s t s .  the  City  was  To achieve t h i s ,  to  increase  the  i t would have t o  get r e c r e a t i o n a l and i n e x p e r i e n c e d r i d e r s onto t h e i r b i c y c l e s more. A s o l u t i o n t o t h i s dilemma was  provided i n 1991  when the C i t y  was  52 approached by This  an  organization  group proposed t h a t  routes  that  arterials  would  (see  called  the  include  Appendix:  the  B i c y c l e Network Group.  C i t y needed a network of b i c y c l i n g side  streets  Figure  4).  that This  i n s t a l l a t i o n of b i c y c l i s t - a c t i v a t e d t r a f f i c at  run  parallel  to  would  entail  the  signals for crossings  intersecting arterials.  A  subcommittee  research  of  the  B i c y c l e Advisory  t h i s concept and  Committee was  set  up  l a t e r t h a t year, the C i t y prepared  to and  d i s t r i b u t e d the d i s c u s s i o n paper Options f o r C y c l i n g Improvements i n Vancouver (1991) t o s o l i c i t addition  to  using  input from the general  e x i s t i n g side  s t r e e t s as  paper a l s o l i s t e d t h r e e other o p t i o n s t r a v e l routes  - i n s t a l l a t i o n of bike lanes on  In  b i c y c l e routes,  the  for providing c y c l i s t s with  around town (see Appendix: F i g u r e 5 ) .  - widened curb lanes on designated  public.  These were:  arterials  arterials  - c o n s t r u c t i n g separate bike paths Bike  lanes  Vancouver included  and  bike  paths  Comprehensive in  this  were  Bicycle  discussion  not  endorsed  Plan  paper  but  to  from the p u b l i c .  The  responses  initial majority routes  or  so  written  these  ascertain  responses they would e l i c i t  hundred  in  indicated  the  earlier  options what  that  were  kind  the  City's  presumptions about b i c y c l e i n t e g r a t i o n were shared by of the respondents. along  arterials  on  of  the  Although some s t a t e d t h a t b i c y c l i n g either  a  widened  curb  lane  or  a  53 designated b i k e lane would be u s e f u l along c e r t a i n c o r r i d o r s , most respondents i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r b i c y c l i n g on l o c a l  These  results  departed  from  those  that  a  1987  survey conducted by the C i t y t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h a t respondents  were  r e c e p t i v e t o b i k e lanes and b i k e paths  were drawn  streets.  ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1988).  One  p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t the 1987  was  d i s t r i b u t e d p r i m a r i l y t o people who  no  proposals f o r a b i c y c l i n g  survey  experienced  the Vancouver B i c y c l e  Up u n t i l then, t h e r e had been  network of l o c a l  given the l e v e l of d e t a i l t h a t was  bicycle  tended t o be  b i c y c l i s t s such as members of C y c l i n g B.C., Club and t o b i c y c l e s t o r e patrons.  from  streets  that  had  provided i n t h i s 1991 r e p o r t .  Other o p t i o n s were not c o n s i d e r e d t o be as v i a b l e .  Bicycle  paths  would p r o v i d e r o u t e s t h a t are separated from motor v e h i c l e s but the r e l a t i v e l y slow speeds a s s o c i a t e d with these paths because of t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l b i c y c l i s t s and p e d e s t r i a n s made t h i s o p t i o n unappealing t o the l a r g e segment of the respondents who were transportation-oriented. too congested recreation.  and  A r t e r i a l s were f a s t and d i r e c t but were  unsafe t o a t t r a c t  people who  usually  ride for  L o c a l s t r e e t s p r o v i d e d a middle-of-the-road s o l u t i o n .  Most respondents  f e l t t h a t i f the number of inconveniences such as  s t o p - s i g n s c o u l d be reduced t o around the frequency of what would be  encountered  along  local  d i r e c t n e s s or  on  arterials,  streets speed.  would  the be  increased safety worth  the  small  of  travelling  sacrifices  in  54 F o l l o w i n g t h i s process, the C i t y s h i f t e d from i n t e g r a t i n g b i c y c l e s solely  onto  arterials  b i c y c l e s on l o c a l were  identified  and  began  looking  s t r e e t s i n Vancouver. and  Appendix: F i g u r e 6).  proposals  were  at  ways  to integrate  S e v e r a l commuter routes  developed  for  them  (see  Included among these routes were:  - an east-west route along Adanac and Union S t r e e t s from Boundary Road t o F a l s e Creek. - an east-west route along West 7th and 8th Avenues from O n t a r i o S t r e e t t o Blanca S t r e e t near the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. - a north-south route along O n t a r i o S t r e e t from Marine D r i v e up t o F a l s e Creek. - a north-south route along the Arbutus  railway corridor.  The Adanac/Union Bikeway opened i n June 1993 w h i l e the West 7th and 8th Avenues "Off-Broadway" r o u t e , while not y e t f u l l y was  officially  timetable they  opened June  f o r completion  are expected  years.  t o be  1994.  Although  there  completed,  i s no  of other major routes of t h i s  formal  network,  opened sometime d u r i n g the next s e v e r a l  Development of l o w e r - p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n s are t o be  reviewed  on a route-by-route b a s i s (see Appendix: F i g u r e 7 ) .  Developing  b i c y c l e routes along these c o r r i d o r s i n s t e a d of along  a r t e r i a l s o f f e r s s e v e r a l advantages such as a v o i d i n g c o m p l i c a t i o n s of  street  unaccustomed  widening, to  dealing  sharing  with  roadways  opposition with  from  slower  motorists  vehicles  or  r e l i n q u i s h i n g s t r e e t space t o b i c y c l i s t s , and p o s s i b l e r e s i s t a n c e from  motorists  as  well  as  business  operators  removal of s t r e e t p a r k i n g f o r motor v e h i c l e s due  about  potential  t o widened curb  55 lanes or b i k e l a n e s .  There a r e s t i l l aspects of t h i s b i c y c l e route network t h a t need t o be  addressed  details  such  as concerns  of i n d i v i d u a l  installation  of  crossings.  of l o c a l  routes  such  as  stop-sign  bicyclist-controlled  However,  these  factors  r e s i d e n t s and t e c h n i c a l alignment  stoplights are minor  c o m p l i c a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with other s t r a t e g i e s .  at  and  arterial  compared  with  The l o c a l - s t r e e t  network concept has been w e l l r e c e i v e d s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n and use of  t h e network's e x i s t i n g  (Desrochefs,  p . c , 1994).  implementing road  routes  have been  While  steadily  the process  increasing  of choosing and  a method of i n t e g r a t i o n f o r b i c y c l e s i n t o the e x i s t i n g  system  has  been  a  long  and  arduous  process  f o r some  p a r t i c i p a n t s and observers, the end r e s u l t has been the f o r m u l a t i o n of  a bicycling  bicyclists  policy  and very  t h a t has t h e support importantly,  i n c r e a s i n g use among r e c r e a t i o n a l  provides  of most great  experienced  potential for  riders.  The main drawback t o t h i s s t r a t e g y of adapting s i d e s t r e e t s i s t h a t it  may not be t r a n s f e r a b l e t o other l o c a t i o n s .  grid street  Vancouver has a  system which allows f o r development of f a i r l y  b i c y c l e routes on s i d e s t r e e t s running p a r a l l e l t o a r t e r i a l s . of the s t r e e t  direct Many  systems i n the other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h i s r e g i o n  have f o l l o w e d a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n of development, one t h a t can be characterized  by  the concept  of  suburban  sprawl.  In  these  l o c a t i o n s , the only s t r e e t s a l l o w i n g d i r e c t access a r e a r t e r i a l s .  Bicycling  on  experienced  arterials  bicyclists  is  an  acceptable  but I t i s a  i n e x p e r i e n c e d or r e c r e a t i o n a l  venture  different  f o r many  situation for  riders.  Respondents t o surveys conducted by the GVRD (1993) and the C i t y of Vancouver  (1992)  indicated  that  one of the main  deterrents to  b i c y c l e use i s concern about motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c . automobiles  on a r t e r i a l s  individuals  t o consider b i c y c l i n g  are p e r c e i v e d t o be t o o high  this  f o r many  t o be a v i a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  o p t i o n so they simply choose other modes. in  The volumes of  c h o i c e may not n e c e s s a r i l y  One of t h e key f a c t o r s  be the a c t u a l  s a f e t y of t h e  route but r a t h e r , i t i s the p e r c e p t i o n of s a f e t y t h a t can be t h e determining f a c t o r  Safety-enhancing  (Desrochers, p.c.,  1994).  f e a t u r e s such as b i k e lanes or widened curb lanes  can be i n c l u d e d on a r t e r i a l s which make b i c y c l e routes  safer  statistical  from  a  statistical  travel  perspective.  p e r s p e c t i v e may not provide  enough  on those  However, comfort  that  f o r the  r e c r e a t i o n a l r i d e r who s t i l l f i n d s the prospect of r i d i n g among o r a l o n g s i d e f a s t e r motor v e h i c l e s t o be an unnerving s i t u a t i o n . casual  bicyclists  automobiles  are i n t i m i d a t e d by p r o x i m i t y  and f e e l  very  d e s p i t e t h e presence.of  vulnerable  to  fast-moving  on busy, a r t e r i a l  bicycle-friendly  features.  Many  streets  The d e c i d i n g  f a c t o r f o r mode c h o i c e f o r many of these i n d i v i d u a l s i s whether or not  a specific  p.c,  1994).  mode provides a comfortable  journey  (Desrochers,  F o r people who a r e not experienced b i c y c l i s t s , any  57 route  that  has  heavy motor v e h i c l e  comfortable b i c y c l i n g environment.  traffic  will  not  provide  a  To a t t r a c t r e c r e a t i o n a l b i c y c l e  r i d e r s onto t h e i r b i c y c l e s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n purposes, r o u t e s t h a t are  separated  needed.  from  high-speed,  heavy-auto-traffic  streets  are  T h i s i s where l o c a l s t r e e t s can p r o v i d e a s o l u t i o n .  The dilemma t h a t t h i s s t r a t e g y poses f o r suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s whether  or  not  their  local  streets  can  be  adapted  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network f o r b i c y c l e s as i s planned One  of the  features  routes f o l l o w l o c a l and  are  just  to  the  s t r e e t s t h a t run p a r a l l e l t o major or  two, away  from  those  a  f o r Vancouver.  of the Vancouver network i s t h a t  a block  form  major  arterials  arterials.  This  p r o v i d e s b i c y c l i s t s w i t h comfortable and d i r e c t routes t o the major d e s t i n a t i o n s t o which the a r t e r i a l s connect as w e l l as access t o the goods and s e r v i c e s l o c a t e d on those  convenient  arterials.  Such a system i s not e a s i l y implemented i n other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n this  region.  Fewer  of  the  local  p a r a l l e l t o a r t e r i a l s f o r any quite that  difficult would  pursue  provide  a  in  the  s i g n i f i c a n t distance.  suburbs  d i r e c t access  drastic  t o major d e s t i n a t i o n s  streets or  even  Unless these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are prepared  overhaul  of  existing  development,  i t is  u n l i k e l y t h a t they can c o n s t r u c t b i c y c l i n g routes t h a t c a s u a l recreational bicyclists w i l l  f i n d comfortable  and  goods,  convenient  access  run  I t would be  t o design a b i c y c l i n g route along l o c a l  l o c a l goods and s e r v i c e s . to  streets  to  services  and  and p r o v i d e d i r e c t and  other  major  58 destinations  The  (Desrochers, P-c., 1994).  standards  for bicycle  parking  developed  by  the C i t y  of  Vancouver would be among the h i g h e s t enacted f o r b i c y c l e s i n North America lack  ( W h i s t l e r , p.c., 1993).  of  available  secure,  Designed t o address the p e r c e i v e d  long-term  bicycle  parking  as  i n d i c a t e d by respondents t o C i t y surveys ( C i t y of Vancouver, the enactment of these standards can ensure  that  new  was  1991),  commercial  developments p r o v i d e s a f e and ample b i c y c l e p a r k i n g f o r employees of  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t e d i n these b u i l d i n g s .  The b e n e f i t s of these standards may not be f e l t f o r some time. standards e s t a b l i s h p a r k i n g requirements only f o r new they  do not address  commercial  the i s s u e  structures.  This  of b i c y c l e poses  a  The  developments;  parking f o r e x i s t i n g  major  disincentive for  commuters i n e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s who do not have access t o secure, day-long b i c y c l e p a r k i n g . transportation.  These  They may simply choose another mode of  facilities  are important  f o r encouraging  these workers t o use t h e i r b i c y c l e s f o r commuting so the C i t y of Vancouver may wish t o address t h e i r needs as w e l l .  One p o s s i b l e  o p t i o n t o c o n s i d e r might  parkades f o r b i c y c l e s .  be the c r e a t i o n  of s m a l l  The c o s t s and l o g i s t i c s of such s t r u c t u r e s  have y e t t o be f u l l y examined but i f c o n s t r u c t e d , they would serve as v i t a l  f a c i l i t i e s f o r b i c y c l e commuters whose workplaces a r e not  covered by the C i t y ' s new b i c y c l e p a r k i n g requirements.  59 The development of b i c y c l e - f r i e n d l y f a c i l i t i e s and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e has  been  initiated  only  recently  i n Vancouver  and  there  are  i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the C i t y i s prepared t o a c c e l e r a t e the pace of i t s b i c y c l i n g programs.  The C i t y had a budget of $250,000 a year f o r  b i c y c l i n g p r o j e c t s from 1991 t o 1993 out of a t o t a l c a p i t a l  plan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n budget of $46.2 m i l l i o n .  plan  for  1994-96 c a l l s  The C i t y ' s c a p i t a l  f o r a b i c y c l i n g p r o j e c t budget of $1 m i l l i o n a  year out of a t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n budget of $57 m i l l i o n p.c,  1994).  New  (Louie,  b i c y c l e routes throughout the C i t y of Vancouver  are expected t o be completed at a r a t e of approximately one a year ( W h i s t l e r , p . c , 1993).  In a d d i t i o n , Burrard  $8 m i l l i o n has been a l l o t t e d  Street  motorists  and  Bridge  f o r r e n o v a t i o n s t o the  t o address the i n t e r e s t s  bicyclists.  While  of  i t i s nearly  pedestrians,  impossible  to  d i s t i n g u i s h what p r o p o r t i o n of t h a t $8 m i l l i o n w i l l b e n e f i t which group, i t does appear t h a t b i c y c l i s t s  stand t o b e n e f i t from t h i s  expenditure as much as any of the others I n v o l v e d .  These gains are  regarded as s i g n i f i c a n t by most b i c y c l i n g advocacy g r o u p s , i n the region.  F u r t h e r , other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h i s r e g i o n such as the  D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver and the C i t y of Surrey have undertaken development 1994).  5.2  of t h e i r  own  municipal  bicycle  plans  (Girard,  p.c.  The budgets f o r such ventures have y e t t o be s p e c i f i e d .  B.C.  Transit  As s t a t e d i n . Chapter 4.1.3, B.C. T r a n s i t does not c u r r e n t l y  allow  60 bicycles  to  be  c a r r i e d onto SkyTrain  e x c e p t i o n of Route # 404 for t h i s p o l i c y include  or  on  i t s buses  through the Massey T u n n e l ) . s a f e t y and  (with  The  the  reasons  l o g i s t i c a l concerns.  However,  t r a n s i t a u t h o r i t i e s i n other North American c i t i e s have implemented methods by which patrons can take t h e i r b i c y c l e s on t r a n s i t without jeopardizing  the  safety  of  the  bus  driver  passengers.  Being able to take b i c y c l e s aboard SkyTrain c a r s  been a p o i n t  of c o n t e n t i o n  f o r some time and  or  any  of  the  so f a r , B.C.  other  Transit  has not g i v e n any i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s p o l i c y w i l l be changing. f o r b i c y c l e s being allowed on  SeaBus during  t h a t i s under ongoing review by B.C.  The  provision  s t a t i o n s and  of  bicycle  allowing  lockers  b i c y c l e s onto the  at  T r a n s i t , 1993).  several  are  not  of  assistance  to  transit  SeaBus at s e l e c t e d  have been commended as p o s i t i v e steps (GVRD, 1993). lockers  bicycle  As  weekday peak hours,  T r a n s i t (B.C.  storage  has  times  However, these  commuters  who  board  S k y T r a i n s t a t i o n s other than S c o t t Road nor do the l o c k e r s address the  needs  of  bicyclists  who  need  to  b i c y c l e a f t e r disembarking S k y T r a i n . take  a bus  work.  In  instead either  of  b i c y c l i n g to  continue They may  by  be i n c l i n e d t o j u s t  SkyTrain  s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e would be  t h e i r commute  or no  simply  drive  incentive  to  to use  t h e i r b i c y c l e s f o r even part of t h e i r commute.  The  R e g i o n a l B i c y c l e Task Force had  recommended t h a t B.C.  Transit  experiment w i t h a s h u t t l e s e r v i c e t o help b i c y c l i s t s get across the Port Mann B r i d g e and through the George Massey Tunnel (GVRD, 1993),  61 a recommendation upon which B.C. T r a n s i t has a l r e a d y acted.  This  i s b e n e f i c i a l f o r t o u r i n g b i c y c l i s t s and but does not address t h e lack  of t r a n s i t  Transit  support  support  i n this  services  region  are needed  f o r b i c y c l e commuters.  i n a more  broad  range of  c o r r i d o r s t o provide i n c e n t i v e f o r commuters t o use t h e i r b i c y c l e s . The  b i c y c l e has a strong  between walking  p o t e n t i a l f o r use in. t r i p s  that are  d i s t a n c e and c a r or t r a n s i t use d i s t a n c e .  Many commuters t r a v e l d i s t a n c e s t h a t are g r e a t e r than what would be regarded  as c o n v e n t i o n a l  bicycling  bicycle  use f o r commuting  distance.  I f encouraging  i s an o b j e c t i v e , then the a b i l i t y t o  c a r r y b i c y c l e s aboard SkyTrain, aboard the SeaBus at rush hour and on s e l e c t e d bus routes i s a n e c e s s i t y .  The a b i l i t y t o take t r a n s i t  f o r p a r t of t h e t r i p c o u l d make t h e i d e a of commuting by  b i c y c l e more  acceptable.  Further,  being  able  (partially) t o take the  b i c y c l e on t r a n s i t may add an element of convenience t o t h e concept of b i k e - a n d - r i d e walking  such t h a t i t may be c o n s i d e r e d  or d r i v i n g  part  as convenient  of t h e way t o the workplace.  b i c y c l e access t o t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s prevents  as  Lack of  p o t e n t i a l commuters  from c o n s i d e r i n g b i c y c l e s f o r commuting purposes.  F o r commutes  t h a t a r e l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r i p s , b i c y c l e s are u n l i k e l y t o be regarded as a v i a b l e commuter mode without  the support  of B.C. T r a n s i t .  Research i n t o a system by which buses c o u l d t r a n s p o r t b i c y c l e s has begun but any c o n c l u s i o n s are y e t t o be drawn.  California  such as San Diego and Santa Barbara have experimented with  cities using  e x t e r i o r racks f o r c a r r y i n g b i c y c l e s but associated  with  prohibitive  using  rear-mounted  ( S e a t t l e METRO, 1991).  have found the  racks  made  endeavour  S e a t t l e , C a l g a r y and  have a l l used front-mounted e x t e r i o r racks and be much more p r a c t i c a l so B.C.  the  problems  Phoenix  have found them t o  T r a n s i t ' s experimentation w i t h t h i s  type of system appears t o be grounded i n s o l i d precedence.  B.C.  Transit  might  also  consider  t r a n s p o r t i n g b i c y c l e s w i t h i n buses. Dallas,  Santa  Clara  and  So  B.C.  Transit  where  there  have  been  i n which b i c y c l e s can be  f a r , t h e r e have been no  complaints r e g a r d i n g  concept  T h i s system has been i n use  Sacramento  r e s t r i c t i o n s on the-times of day i n s i d e buses.  reviewing; the  of in few  brought  recorded a c c i d e n t s  or  t h i s arrangement ( S e a t t l e METRO, 1991).  should  give  serious  consideration  to  allowing  t r a n s p o r t of b i c y c l e s on buses routes throughout Greater Vancouver. It  must  determine  which  greatest  potential  for  bus  use  routes  by  commuting  conduct t r i a l runs and e v a l u a t i o n are  needed  i n order  commuting i n t h i s  5.3 As  B.C. stated  to  fully  and  times  would  bicyclists  have  as  well  the as  of the s e r v i c e but such measures  explore the  potential  for  bicycle  region.  M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n irt Chapter 3.2.3, I n t e r i m  and  Highways  Cycling Policy  (1992) i s  the  f i r s t o f f i c i a l p o l i c y by the M i n i s t r y t h a t addresses a wide range of  bicycling  i s s u e s , . from  defining  the  Ministry's  mandate  to  63 establishing providing  construction  guidelines  standards  for municipal  With t h i s p o l i c y , the M i n i s t r y has  for  bicycling  bicycle  routes  advisory  to  committees.  expressed a c l e a r commitment t o  encouraging the use of b i c y c l e s f o r purposes other than r e c r e a t i o n .  The  scope  of  universal 1994,  the  Ministry's  approval.  In  activities  Cycling  has  not  been  B.C.'s n e w s l e t t e r  met  for  with  February  Advocacy Committee member Helen Warn reviewed the p o s i t i o n of  the M i n i s t r y as o u t l i n e d i n Interim C y c l i n g P o l i c y . commending  the  Ministry  f o r producing  In a d d i t i o n t o  t h i s document, Warn  also  c r i t i c i s e d i t f o r addressing b i c y c l i s t s ' needs only as they r e l a t e to  yet-to-be-built  government.  transportation  She  also  stated  projects  that  the  by  the  provincial  Ministry  should  have  addressed the i s s u e of r e t r o f i t t i n g e x i s t i n g roads and highways, a need t h a t i s more immediate f o r c u r r e n t  and  potential  bicyclists.  I n t e r i m C y c l i n g P o l i c y p r o v i d e s p l a n n i n g and design g u i d e l i n e s  for  f a c i l i t i e s t o serve as t o o l s f o r p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s  throughout  the  developing  province  and  guidelines  for  mechanisms f o r p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n However,  much  policies  that  acknowledged bicycling  of  the  fall  that  policy  document under  not have  the  initiating  i n municipal b i c y c l e planning.  is  comprised  Ministry's  a l l components been  and  addressed  of  mandate.  essential but  facility-based  the  to  a  It  provincial  Ministry  prepared t o develop p o l i c y on areas t h a t f a l l o u t s i d e  has  is  not  i t s mandate.  64  It  has however  expressed  a readiness  t o be  a  facilitator in  c l a r i f y i n g t h e r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of v a r i o u s agencies f o r b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g i n B.C. by s t a t i n g t h a t i t w i l l l e a d i n t e r m i n i s t r y and  intergovernmental discussions  outside  of i t s s p e c i f i c  mandate  on b i c y c l i n g (MoTH,  matters t h a t a r e  1992).  I t has a l r e a d y  demonstrated t h i s through i t s h o s t i n g of t h e "Focus on t h e F u t u r e " C y c l i n g Conference i n 1992 i n Vancouver.  I n t e r i m C y c l i n g P o l i c y addresses a wide range aspects of b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g t h a t are r e l e v a n t f o r Greater Vancouver but stops s h o r t of endorsing  many  definite  immediate impact. demonstrated  a  actions  or p o l i c i e s  that  would  have  While i t s approach i s c a u t i o u s , the M i n i s t r y has clear  commitment  to  t h e concept  of  bicycle  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and has l e f t  t h e door open f o r adjustment t o i t s  current  of  direction  or pace  implementation.  As  its title  i n d i c a t e s , t h e document i s only an i n t e r i m p o l i c y w i t h t h e M i n i s t r y i n v i t i n g comments f o r review from r e a d e r s .  I f a s i g n i f i c a n t number  of i n d i v i d u a l s or groups respond and i n d i c a t e t h a t they want t o see more s p e c i f i c s o r a s h i f t i n emphasis from commuting t o u t i l i t a r i a n use o r from f u t u r e p r o j e c t s t o r e t r o f i t t i n g , t h e M i n i s t r y may be encouraged t o adopt a p o l i c y r e f l e c t i n g these p r e f e r e n c e s .  5.4  Greater  Vancouver  Regional  District  As s t a t e d i n Chapter 3.2.1, the GVRD does not have the a u t h o r i t y t o enact b i n d i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . that  i t hopes w i l l  I t does however make  recommendations  be adopted by i t s member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  65 r e g i o n a l b i c y c l i n g p o l i c i e s are no exception t o t h i s mandate. has been the o b j e c t i v e of i t s Regional B i c y c l e Task Force. i t s p e r i o d of o p e r a t i o n from 1991  to 1993,  This During  the Task Force developed  i t s p o l i c y recommendations through s e v e r a l means.  I t adopted the  policies  Transportation  regarding  Association  of  Canada's New  which b i c y c l i n g friendly  part  bicycling  was  of  as  in  the  V i s i o n f o r Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  endorsed  complete  stated  as  urban  a  healthy  and  environmentally-  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system  s p e c i f i c a l l y i n C r e a t i n g Our Future  (GVRD, 1990)  the number of b i c y c l e t r i p s by 1995  was  and  Committee, agencies  an  Included  among  advisory  body  and  governments  them  more  i n which d o u b l i n g  a stated goal.  I t a l s o took i n t o account the input from a v a r i e t y of groups individuals.  in  was  the  Municipal  comprised  of  directly  responsible  and  Liaison  representatives for  of the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i n t h i s r e g i o n .  The  Task Force  a l s o looked  at the  comments and  f o r t h by the respondents of the Regional  B i c y c l e Survey t h a t  conducted between A p r i l and December of 1992. determining  the  bicyclists,  over  bicycle  shops,  a t t i t u d e s , concerns 40,000  community  survey  and  put was  With the i n t e n t of  behaviour  brochures  centres,  suggestions  were  schools,  of  current  distributed  public  and  to  school  l i b r a r i e s and i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s throughout the r e g i o n as w e l l as being d i s t r i b u t e d at s e v e r a l p u b l i c b i c y c l i n g  events.  66  Over f i v e percent (2350) of t h e survey c o p i e s were r e t u r n e d by t h e end of 1992, a  one of the h i g h e s t r a t e s of response ever r e c e i v e d f o r  GVRD survey.  In g e n e r a l , respondents  supported  t h e i d e a of  b i c y c l e r o u t e s being separated from automobile t r a f f i c , i n c r e a s e d access t o secure b i c y c l e storage, b i c y c l e access t o p u b l i c t r a n s i t vehicles,  enforcement  of t r a f f i c  regulations,  mandatory  helmet laws and use of g a s o l i n e taxes t o pay f o r b i c y c l e  bicycle  facilities  (GVRD, 1993) (see Appendix: F i g u r e 8 ) .  The  Task Force  the i d e a s presented  ina  P u b l i c Forum on Regional B i c y c l e Issues h e l d i n October 1992.  The  three  also  hundred-plus  representatives departments,  The  took  of  into  account  participants community  in  the  and b i c y c l i n g  forum  included  groups,  planning  e n g i n e e r i n g departments and m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s .  information  and  ideas  gathered  from  this  process  of  c o n s u l t a t i o n was used t o develop p o l i c i e s i n a p o l i c y workshop h e l d for  Task Force members i n May 1993.  policies,  In the development of these  the Task Force took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s e v e r a l  a f f e c t i n g t h e implementation jurisdiction  of  other  of any recommendations.  governments  acknowledged and r e s p e c t e d .  and  agencies  factors  F i r s t , the were  t o be  Second, recommendations needed t o be  compatible w i t h t h e s t r a t e g i e s of the L i v a b l e Region S t r a t e g y and TRANSPORT 2021.  T h i r d , recommendations were t o be kept t o i s s u e s  and a c t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be addressed and adopted GVRD and o t h e r governments and agencies  as p o l i c y by t h e  (GVRD, 1993).  67 With  those  factors  i n mind,  the Task  Force's  eleven  policy  recommendations were as f o l l o w s : 1. I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e the e x p l i c i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of b i c y c l e and required f a c i l i t i e s i n any p l a n n i n g , budgeting, c o n s t r u c t i o n process undertaken by government departments other p u b l i c agencies. The l e v e l of c o n s i d e r a t i o n should s i m i l a r t o t h a t given t o the requirements of t r a v e l automobile.  use or or be by  2. Develop, through a c o o p e r a t i v e m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l planning process, r e g i o n a l and l o c a l networks of s a f e , continuous, and i n t e r c o n n e c t e d b i c y c l e r o u t e s . 2a. The M u n i c i p a l L i a i s o n Committee , o r some other form of r e g i o n a l a d v i s o r y committee on b i c y c l e i s s u e s , should be maintained as a v a l u a b l e source of i n f o r m a t i o n exchange and c o o p e r a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n . 2b. The S t r a t e g i c Planning Committee of the GVRD should conduct an annual review of progress on r e g i o n a l and l o c a l b i c y c l e routes and f a c i l i t i e s . The a d v i s o r y committee c o u l d provide the content f o r t h i s annual review. The Board of D i r e c t o r s should c o n s u l t the member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of the GVRD t o request t h e i r support of a p o l i c y of i n t e r m u n i c i p a l c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n f o r the improvement of b i c y c l e f a c i l i t i e s . 3. Adopt a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g i o n a l signage f o r use by l o c a l governments with r e s p e c t t o b i c y c l e f a c i l i t i e s . 4. Adopt a p o l i c y t o ensure t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e and adequate l e v e l s of b i c y c l e storage and e n d - o f - t r i p f a c i l i t i e s , such as showers and change rooms, be provided i n new o r renovated buildings. 5. R e a l l o c a t e a p o r t i o n of e x i s t i n g energy taxes b i c y c l e f a c i l i t i e s and programs.  t o support  6. Review the l e g a l s t a t u s of the b i c y c l e . 7. Support the c o n t i n u a t i o n and expansion of B.C. T r a n s i t ' s e f f o r t s t o provide b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s and access t o b i c y c l e users. 8. Support the c o n t i n u a t i o n and expansion of the e f f o r t s of the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways t o improve the q u a l i t y and a v a i l a b i l i t y of b i c y c l e access t o p u b l i c roads. 9. Support t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n and expansion of the e f f o r t s of the Motor V e h i c l e Branch, M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  68 Highways, t o improve the s a f e t y of b i c y c l e use i n the of B.C.  Province  10. Promote and p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c b i c y c l e r i d e events i n the Greater Vancouver area. 11. Continue with the development of a r e g i o n a l b i c y c l e map b i c y c l e routes and f a c i l i t i e s . Task Force Chairperson bicycling  policy  Gordon P r i c e s t a t e d t h a t one of the goals of  would  not  be  an  attempt  at  replacing  automobile but r a t h e r t o provide a wider range of r e a l i s t i c  the  options  f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from which c i t i z e n s c o u l d s e l e c t ( P r i c e , 1994).  of  p.c,  These recommendations provide a number of p o s i t i v e aspects  for bicycle transportation.  They  lay  the  foundations  for  a  degree  of  coordination  governments and p u b l i c agencies not p r e v i o u s l y achieved planners  and  policy-makers  in this  prevent c o n s t r u c t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s do  not  go  to  any  anywhere e l s e t o go. t o what has  already  specific  region.  This  between  by b i c y c l e  will  help  such, as b i c y c l i n g routes  destinations  or  terminate  which  without  While some of the recommendations add been i n i t i a t e d ,  to  little  recommendations such as  # 5  show a d e s i r e t o make b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v i a b l e o p t i o n  that  goes w e l l  This  beyond  simply  s t a t i n g support  f o r the  c o l l e c t i o n of recommendations a l s o provides  concept.  a means of i n c r e a s i n g  the p r o f i l e of b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h i s  region.  Some of the recommendations c o u l d use o u t r i g h t a l t e r a t i o n . 5,  recommending r e a l l o c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g energy taxes t o  For # finance  69 b i c y c l i n g f a c i l i t i e s and programs i s a b o l d and p o s i t i v e step but the Board of D i r e c t o r s c o u l d have suggested a s p e c i f i c amount or percentage of the energy tax t o t a l i n order t o advance t h i s measure a step f u r t h e r . had  the  For # 7, i t would have been a very welcome step  Task  feasibility  Force  of  included  taking  recommendation f o r B.C.  such  substance  and  focus  The  on  aboard  researching  SkyTrain  the  in  its  lack  the  Transit.  changes  bicycles.  section  bicycles  Even w i t h  the  a  as  these,  to  draw  the  recommendations  people  out  of  cars  f a c t t h a t these recommendations r e f l e c t  and  onto  a process  based on c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g b i c y c l e groups and other l e v e l s of government helps ensure a l e v e l of success w i t h c u r r e n t b i c y c l e commuters and experienced u t i l i t a r i a n b i c y c l i s t s .  However, i t does  not address the s p e c i f i c s of implementation, a c r u c i a l f a c t o r f o r Recommendation  #2.  It  also  does  not  address  the  issue  of  i n c r e a s i n g r i d e r s h i p among c a s u a l b i c y c l i s t s i n the suburban a r e a s . F u r t h e r , the time frame f o r adoption of these recommendations has not y e t been e s t a b l i s h e d .  GVRD p o l i c y relative all  that  i s non-binding and  in i t s  i n f a n c y i n t h i s r e g i o n so a very slow pace of change i s can  realistically  maintained t h a t existing  b i c y c l e planning i s s t i l l  be  these p o l i c i e s  patterns  of  expected.  The  Task  are designed t o adapt  transportation  and  land  use  Force  has  and a d j u s t rather  than  o v e r h a u l i n g f o r completely new p a t t e r n s . The b i c y c l e - f r i e n d l i n e s s  70 of f u t u r e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s addressed as a secondary measure.  By  failing  t o address the i s s u e  of comfort  and convenience f o r  c a s u a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l b i c y c l e r i d e r s , these recommendations are not l i k e l y t o i n c r e a s e t h e number of b i c y c l e u s e r s i n t h e r e g i o n ' s transportation willingness  of  system. local  Without  t h i s element,  governments  and  the a b i l i t y  provincial  implement the recommendations becomes a moot p o i n t .  and/or  agencies  to  71  Chapter 6;  6.1  OTHER FACTORS IN BICYCLING POLICY  The Four E's of Bicycle Planning  Four components of b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g have been t h e b a s i s f o r b i c y c l e p o l i c y i n a number of western n a t i o n s f o r the l a s t s e v e r a l decades ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1988).  These Four E's stand f o r E n g i n e e r i n g ,  Education, Enforcement and Encouragement. c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s and f a c i l i t i e s focus w i t h the most a t t e n t i o n . Chapter  The h i g h v i s i b i l i t y of  o f t e n makes e n g i n e e r i n g t h e  Many of the i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n  4 p e r t a i n t o some form of f a c i l i t i e s .  The other t h r e e E's  a l s o make up important p a r t s of b i c y c l i n g p o l i c y and programs.  As  s t a t e d by the U.S. FHWA (1992),  i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e key i s s u e of  providing  bicycling  safe  and  convenient  components should be addressed increasing bicycle  6.1.1  routes,  these  t o form a comprehensive p o l i c y f o r  ridership.  Education  In order f o r education t o be an e f f e c t i v e p a r t of b i c y c l e it  other  must  focus  on  educating  both  bicyclists  and  policy,  motorists.  B i c y c l i s t s must l e a r n t o obey t h e r u l e s of the road and m o t o r i s t s need t o l e a r n how t o share t h e road.  For b i c y c l i s t s ,  t h i s would  e n t a i l i n s t r u c t i o n on a p p r o p r i a t e b i c y c l i n g conduct i n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s by q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s .  I t should be  d i r e c t e d t o a l l b i c y c l e users but i n p a r t i c u l a r t o s c h o o l c h i l d r e n who c u r r e n t l y make up t h e l a r g e s t segment among b i c y c l i s t s .  For  m o t o r i s t s , an education campaign c o u l d i n c l u d e broadcast messages  72 and l i t e r a t u r e t o r a i s e awareness of proper conduct by automobiles when  sharing  roadways  with  bicyclists  and  the  rights  and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of both p a r t i e s .  I t was l i s t e d i n t h e VCBP (1988) as being an area t o address but b i c y c l i n g education by the C i t y of Vancouver has been l i m i t e d t o the annual B i c y c l e Education Week a c t i v i t i e s t h a t have been put on by the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e . adult  education  bicycle  classes,  Other e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s such as  l e s s o n s taught  at p u b l i c  s c h o o l s and  s a f e t y awareness campaigns have been p r o y i n c i a l l y  funded  and conducted by o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as C y c l i n g B.C., the Vancouver Safety  Council  and ICBC,  although  the C i t y  Police  have  also  conducted b i k e s a f e t y l e s s o n s a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s .  Much of t h i s a c t i v i t y has only been d i r e c t e d a t those who v o l u n t a r i l y been  little  seek i n f o r m a t i o n on b i c y c l i n g  proposed  for raising  awareness  bicyclists  safety.  There has  of proper  road use  e t i q u e t t e among b i c y c l i s t s and m o t o r i s t s who do not come forward of t h e i r own a c c o r d . in  adding  guidelines  The Motor V e h i c l e Branch has expressed i n t e r e s t  i n f o r m a t i o n on  sharing  roads  f o r new d r i v e r s  but as of t h i s  with  bicycles  writing,  to i t s  no d e f i n i t e  plans or requirements t o t h i s e f f e c t have taken p l a c e .  John F o r e s t e r , a U.S. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n engineer, b i c y c l i n g i n s t r u c t o r and author has advocated that b i c y c l i s t s r i d e w i t h i n motor v e h i c l e traffic  flows and they should assume a p o s i t i o n on the road t h a t  73 would be the e q u i v a l e n t of a motor v e h i c l e 1993).  He proposes  what p o s i t i o n motor  additional  and  eliminate  or separate that  extensive  arrangement,  h i s opinions  should take  the need  facilities  acknowledges  education  on  of encouraging  is  road-sharing  such  i n relation to  f o r (and expense o f )  for bicycles.  reviews from t r a n s p o r t a t i o n policy-makers consequences  Cycling,  t h a t t h i s system would reduce the ambiguity of  on the road b i c y c l i s t s  vehicles  (Effective  While  required have  Forester for  received  this mixed  ( P r i c e , p . c , 1994). The  an approach  for bicyclists i n  Greater Vancouver, a r e g i o n w i t h l i t t l e experience i n high-volume bicycle  traffic,  could  be  very  risky.  Regional  Task  Force  C h a i r p e r s o n Gordon P r i c e acknowledged t h a t F o r e s t e r ' s views on the s u b j e c t were not l i k e l y t o be adopted  here  ( p . c , 1994).  In order f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of b i c y c l e s i n t o the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system t o be e f f e c t i v e , there needs t o be a concrete mechanism by which road users of a l l modes can be educated i n the r u l e s of roadsharing. resulting  The p o t e n t i a l from  f o r increased c o n f l i c t s  an i n t e g r a t i o n  process  that  s t r o n g e d u c a t i o n component would be too g r e a t .  does  and a c c i d e n t s not i n c l u d e a  A p r o v i n c i a l agency  would be the most l i k e l y candidate t o serve as a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n c e a program of t h i s nature might be t i e d  i n w i t h t h e l i c e n s i n g of  m o t o r i s t s and any p o s s i b l e r e g i s t r y f o r b i c y c l i s t s .  T h i s education  process f o r road s h a r i n g between modes w o u l d , l i k e l y be implemented in  stages  gradually.  so road  u s e r s ' knowledge  i n this  area  will  increase  U n t i l awareness of r e s p e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s becomes  74 more  widespread,  integrating  system may be best achieved t r a f f i c as separated  6.1.2  bicycles  into  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  by keeping b i c y c l e s and motor v e h i c l e  as p o s s i b l e i n order t o a v o i d  conflicts.  Enforcement  Enforcement would e n t a i l ensuring compliance w i t h e x i s t i n g t r a f f i c laws  and r e g u l a t i o n s  motorists, major  road s h a r i n g .  focus  legislating  preference  bicycling  the p a r t  of  i n this  region  i n the  The Motor V e h i c l e Branch, which i s r e s p o n s i b l e provincial  bicycling  f o r i n c r e a s i n g education  behaviour r a t h e r  and on  T h i s component i s not l i k e l y t o be t h e  of any b i c y c l i n g program  immediate f u t u r e . for  governing  than e n f o r c i n g  issues,  has expressed  a  and i n t e r n a l i z i n g a change i n  compliance  (MoTH, 1992).  Given  t h a t proposed methods of enforcement have not been f u l l y developed and  entail  effectiveness  some  logistical  i n t o question,  difficulties this  that  bring  would appear t o be a  their logical  d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e Motor V e h i c l e Branch.  Should i t be decided  that  the  bicycles  integration  of  some l e v e l of enforcement i s needed i n  measures have been proposed  staff  resources,  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  to f a c i l i t a t e  r e c e n t l y , e f f o r t s i n t h i s area Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e .  into  this  system,  process.  Until  have not been a high p r i o r i t y f o r  Although t h i s i s p a r t l y because of l i m i t e d  a lack  of b i c y c l i n g enforcement  may  be  also  a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t as many as over h a l f of a l l b i c y c l i s t s i n Vancouver a r e under 16 years of age ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1988).  75 The  guidelines  bicyclists  on  the  minimum  i n Vancouver  have  age  of  yet  to  legal be  responsibility for  defined.  It  suggested t h a t b i c y c l e enforcement be given a higher to  enhance  efficiency  of  the  enforcement should concentrate behaviour  with  conformity  continuous  ( C i t y of Van.,  suggested  i n Community  limited  This  been  priority  staffing  and  available,  on prevention of c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s of  evaluation 1988).  Cycling  on  i t s effectiveness  Another approach would be,  Manual  (Hope,  1991),  s e l e c t i v e enforcement over a s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d three weeks.  has  to  as  conduct  such as two  i s known as the S e l e c t i v e T r a f f i c  and  to  Enforcement  Program, or S.T.E.P. (MoTH, 1992).  The  proposed  enforcement  r e g u l a t i o n s of the B.C. Branch  i n the  would  of  Attorney  Vancouver under the m u n i c i p a l  having  the  same  example of  General  and  rights  as  is bicyclists  i n some s t a t e s i n the United States two  provincial  and  i n the  City  of  motorists  with  as  a  few  claim  the  bicyclists.  are  not  e n t i r e width of a s t r e e t lane f o r t h e i r own  areas where the  the  Both of these r e g u l a t i o n s t r e a t b i c y c l i s t s  duties  this  by  r e g u l a t i o n s of the Vancouver S t r e e t  a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s on the p a r t of  One  governed  Motor V e h i c l e Act through the Motor V e h i c l e  Ministry  and T r a f f i c By-Law.  be  regulations  allowed t o  use as has been allowed  ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1988). overlap,  the  Motor V e h i c l e  For Act  takes precedence over municipal  by-laws but Vancouver C i t y p o l i c e  officers  to  have  the  discretion  issue  a  ticket  under  either  76 regulation.  The c h o i c e would be governed by the s e r i o u s n e s s of the  i n f r a c t i o n and the l e v e l of c o o p e r a t i o n  from the o f f e n d i n g  party.  The  i s s u i n g of p o i n t s t o b i c y c l i s t s may not be an e f f e c t i v e means  of  enforcing  compliance  as  points  accumulated  from  bicycle  i n f r a c t i o n s cannot be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the o f f e n d e r ' s motor v e h i c l e driving  record.  I t may be a d v i s a b l e  to issue  fines  f o r which  o f f e n d e r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e t h e i r proper names and addresses. Because  i t i s not a requirement  identification,  for bicyclists  i t may need t o be emphasized  to carry  proper  to offenders  that  f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e t h e i r r i g h t name and address i s an o f f e n c e under the C r i m i n a l Code and would thus open the i n d i v i d u a l t o a much more s e r i o u s l e v e l of o f f e n c e .  Proposed c o l l e c t i o n procedures would d i f f e r q u i t e d r a m a t i c a l l y from those used f o r Motor V e h i c l e A c t v i o l a t i o n s . one's name f l a g g e d  i n the province's  Instead  of having  computer database f o r non-  payment or f a i l u r e t o appear i n c o u r t on the p a r t of t h e m o t o r i s t , a t r a f f i c bench warrant i s i s s u e d f o r the a r r e s t of the o f f e n d i n g bicyclist.  T h i s would mean t h a t the offender would be a r r e s t e d i f  stopped by a p o l i c e o f f i c e r f o r any reason.  With r e g a r d t o i n c r e a s i n g awareness among m o t o r i s t s of b i c y c l i s t s ' r i g h t s , enforcement would not n e c e s s a r i l y need t o be taken t o any s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l e v e l s than i s already i n use.  M o t o r i s t s do  need t o be made aware of the r i g h t s (and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) of  77 b i c y c l i s t s on a r t e r i a l s but t h e r e has been l i t t l e achieve t h i s o b j e c t i v e .  a c t i o n taken t o  L i m i t e d s t a f f resources n e c e s s i t a t e t h a t  any methods of enforcement adopted  need t o be c o s t e f f e c t i v e .  The  Motor V e h i c l e Branch might c o n s i d e r making knowledge of procedures in  road  sharing  with  bicycles  an e s s e n t i a l  component  of the  l i c e n s i n g process f o r d r i v e r s i n B.C.  These  difficulties  enforcement  highlight  of b i c y c l e  bicycles w i l l  the  traffic  have a d i f f i c u l t  need  f o r mechanisms  regulations.  Without  time being regarded  for  these,  as l e g i t i m a t e  v e h i c l e s on the roads nor would they be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a v i a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode by many i n d i v i d u a l s .  6.1.3  In  Encouragement  addition  t o s a f e , convenient  bicycling  routes  and access t o  i n s t r u c t i o n on b i c y c l i n g techniques on urban s t r e e t s , other forms of support can be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o v i d i n g i n c e n t i v e f o r people t o change i n g r a i n e d t r a v e l  habits.  Examples of t h i s  include v i t a l  components such as the previously-mentioned e n d - o f - t r i p workplace f a c i l i t i e s and p u b l i c t r a n s i t support s e r v i c e s ( i . e . b i k e - a n d - r i d e ) for  commuters.  I t can a l s o  take  the form  of programs  such as  employers p r o v i d i n g b e n e f i t s f o r employees who r i d e t h e i r b i c y c l e s to  work o r s p e c i a l  Besides  events  such  as Bike-to-Work Week i n Toronto.  p r o v i d i n g encouragement, r e l a t i v e l y  inexpensive measures  such as these serve t o l e t commuters know t h a t b i c y c l i n g t o work i s not as unconventional as i t may have been years ago.  6.1.3.1  Disincentives  I t has been suggested t h a t d i s i n c e n t i v e s t o d r i v i n g can I n d i r e c t l y serve as a form of encouragement f o r b i c y c l i n g . speculation that forced  t o get people  out by measures  such  out of t h e i r  as b r i d g e  i n c r e a s e d p a r k i n g r a t e s and r e a l l o c a t i o n  There  cars,  tolls,  has been  they must be  gasoline taxes,  of lanes on a r t e r i a l s .  U.S. author Anthony Downs appears t o be a supporter of t h i s In  Stuck  In T r a f f i c ;  (1992),  Downs  traffic  congestion.  o n l y two,could without  Coping  analysed  With  23 t a c t i c s  Peak-Hour T r a f f i c proposed  view.  Congestion  t o reduce  peak-hour  Of a l l of these t a c t i c s , he suggested  that  s i g n i f i c a n t l y achieve t h i s o b j e c t i v e on t h e i r  the a s s i s t a n c e  of other  tactics.  These  own  a r e (1) road  p r i c i n g on major a r t e r i a l s , and (2) a p p l i c a t i o n of a surcharge on long-term p a r k i n g d u r i n g the morning peak p e r i o d .  Unlike  most  applied short  of the other t a c t i c s ,  (at least t e c h n i c a l l y time  period  (within  road  pricing  c o u l d be  fully  i f not p o l i t i c a l l y ) i n a r e l a t i v e l y five  years).  Secondly,  i t would  immediately a f f e c t a l l peak-hour movement on major a r t e r i a l s , not j u s t l o c a l or w o r k - r e l a t e d t r i p s . be  offset  by t r a v e l l e r s  Thirdly,  i t s b e n e f i t s would not  on other roads, modes  or time  periods  because a l l users of those roads would have t o pay peak-hour t o l l s .  A  parking  existing  surcharge  would  have t o cover  a l l employees  p a r k i n g p r o v i d e d f r e e by employers.  who use  I f the surcharge i s  79 l a r g e enough, many workers c o u l d not a f f o r d t o continue commuting alone i n t h e i r p r i v a t e autos.  While t h i s would not a f f e c t peak-  hour t r i p s t h a t would not r e q u i r e long-term p a r k i n g , a u t o - d r i v i n g commuters would not be able t o a v o i d t h i s u s i n g non-priced r o u t e s as they would f o r road p r i c i n g of major a r t e r i a l s .  There  are c r i t i c i s m s and drawbacks a s s o c i a t e d with both of these  t a c t i c s but Downs suggests t h a t the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s a r e of such a magnitude t h a t they would s t i l l be the most e f f e c t i v e methods by which t o address peak-hour t r a f f i c a n a l y s i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t  congestion.  H i s r e s e a r c h and  one of the main reasons why people  p r e f e r u s i n g c a r s i s economical advantage - the c a r i s c u r r e n t l y a great  b a r g a i n with  i t s many b e n e f i t s  and r e l a t i v e l y  low c o s t .  Downs sees t h e only t r u l y e f f e c t i v e way of r e d u c i n g t h e number of single-occupant employ  these  automobiles  and  several  on the peak-hour other  tactics  roads  that  would  would  be t o  make the  o p e r a t i o n of a p r i v a t e auto d u r i n g peak hours much more expensive.  He does  however  express  skepticism that  implemented anywhere i n the near f u t u r e .  these  tactics  will  be  People do not want t o pay  a monetary p r i c e f o r what they t h i n k they a r e g e t t i n g f r e e .  They  are a c t u a l l y paying a high p r i c e f o r time l o s t i n c o n g e s t i o n but they a r e o b l i v i o u s t o t h a t  situation.  Commuters do not want t o  have t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d r i v e t o and from work r e s t r i c t e d a t a l l .  Downs summed up t h i s i s s u e by posing three q u e s t i o n s :  80 1. Is t r a f f i c congestion p e r c e i v e d as being bad enough f o r most commuters t o accept tough remedies? 2. Do they understand t h a t only a p a i n f u l cure w i l l work - l e s s p a i n f u l ones w i l l not help much? 3. W i l l t h e i r a n t i c o n g e s t i o n f e e l i n g s be s t r o n g enough t o cause e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s t o overcome the entrenched r e s i s t a n c e of l o c a l governments t o r e g i o n a l and other a n t i c o n g e s t i o n t a c t i c s ? The  resounding  answer t o a l l these  s i t u a t i o n i n most U.S. people autos  are w i l l i n g  t o g i v e up u n r e s t r i c t e d use  auto  effects  i n U.S.  anything  t r a f f i c congestion.  commuters'  private  than  attitudes  about  been NO.  cities. as  Because being  a  of t h e i r T h i s may  the  about the s t a t e of t r a f f i c  perceived  has  The  c i t i e s has not y e t reached the p o i n t where  i n order t o reduce  about. American  questions  of very  say more  sanctity  of  the  c o n g e s t i o n and i t s  strong  disincentive  private  to  resistance to driving,  Downs  suggested t h a t commuters make t h e i r c a r s as comfortable as p o s s i b l e because they w i l l spend more of t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e i r  As i s the case i n the U.S.  vehicles.  c i t i e s analysed by Downs, d i s i n c e n t i v e s  t o d r i v i n g i n the form of d i r e c t c o s t i n c r e a s e s are not l i k e l y be used  i n support of a b i c y c l i n g p o l i c y i n Greater Vancouver i n  the immediate f u t u r e e i t h e r . of  The  CityPlan  to  Vancouver indicate  Sun  As c i t e d i n the 18 A p r i l 1994  newspaper,  that  surveys  respondents  d i s i n c e n t i v e s t o discourage  conducted  oppose  the  as  idea  edition part  of  of  using  driving.  T h i s sentiment i s echoed by Regional Task Force C h a i r Gordon P r i c e , who  suggested  that  forcing  disincentives  on  m o t o r i s t s would  be  81 i m p r a c t i c a l , cause a l o t of resentment and c o u l d c r e a t e a against  the  t h a t the  f i n a n c i n g of b i c y c l i n g f a c i l i t i e s .  impression  Task Force got was  t h a t he and  Price  backlash indicated  the r e s t of the Regional B i c y c l e in this  region  t h a t Greater Vancouver r e s i d e n t s wanted t o have c h o i c e s .  Their  preference  was  from i n d i v i d u a l s and  organizations  f o r i n c r e a s i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y and  convenience of  a l t e r n a t i v e forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n so t h a t commuters have a wider range of c h o i c e s  These  i n t r a v e l options.  strategies  traffic  may  congestion  be  of  limited  (Downs, 1992)  effectiveness  in  reducing  and people d i d not want t o be i n  a s i t u a t i o n of " c a r s - o n l y " but they c l e a r l y would s t r o n g l y anything  resist  t h a t would appear to r e s t r i c t t h e i r freedom t o use  c a r s at any time or p l a c e .  their  P r i c e b e l i e v e d t h a t the f a c i l i t i e s  and  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r b i c y c l e s and other modes of t r a n s p o r t needed t o be  provided  time  (p.c,  reduction  but  d i s i n c e n t i v e s t o d r i v i n g are unnecessary at. t h i s  1994).  are  I f Anthony Downs' t h e o r i e s  applicable  in  this  region,  the  (1992) on  traffic  r e f u s a l to  apply  monetary d i s i n c e n t i v e s t o d r i v i n g c o u l d mean t h a t b i c y c l e s w i l l used by few people even i f f a c i l i t i e s are provided.  be  The d i f f e r e n c e  i n o p e r a t i n g c o s t s between b i c y c l e s and c a r s would not make up f o r the p e r c e i v e d advantages of the c a r i n time, comfort and  A l e s s d i r e c t way  prestige.  of employing d i s i n c e n t i v e s would be t o focus  not  so much on d i r e c t p e n a l t i e s or a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s f o r m o t o r i s t s  but  rather  to  refrain  from b u i l d i n g more roads  and  facilities  that  82 would a l l e v i a t e the growing t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n .  The p o p u l a r i t y of  private  because  automobiles  p e r c e i v e d t o be f a s t car  continues  f o r commuting  i s i n part  (FHWA, 1992).  I f the time spent commuting by  t o grow while  shortened through  or b i c y c l e are  improved s e r v i c e or f a c i l i t i e s , commuters might  c o n s i d e r experimenting  The  commutes by t r a n s i t  they are  w i t h other forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  C i t y of Vancouver appears t o be t r y i n g t o use a v a r i a t i o n of  this  strategy.  automobile  infrastructure  modes of t r a v e l 1994).  The C i t y  such  has no plans  any a d d i t i o n a l  and i s f o c u s i n g on p r o j e c t s f o r other  as the C i t y ' s  E x i s t i n g automobile  to build  bike  network  (Price, p . c ,  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e w i l l be maintained and  upgraded as r e q u i r e d but t h e r e are no plans t o expand i t .  I f other  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h i s r e g i o n and the p r o v i n c i a l government use a s i m i l a r s t r a t e g y and b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e would be in  p l a c e , t h e r e c o u l d be g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l  f o rbicycle  use. I t  should be noted however t h a t , as i s the case w i t h i n c r e a s e d modal choice,  i n c r e a s e d congestion  i n i t s e l f may have a very  limited  e f f e c t on most m o t o r i s t s ' commitment t o mode c h o i c e (Downs, 1992).  Further, facilities used.  there  would  are b u i l t  likely  and the time  a  l a g between  t h a t they w i l l  the time  that  be e x t e n s i v e l y  Current b i c y c l e commuters might use these new f a c i l i t i e s but  m o t o r i s t s who policy-makers may  be  a r e t r y i n g t o draw out of t h e i r  be r e l u c t a n t t o t r y other  motorists  may  not  ever  ways of commuting.  consider  any  alternative  While mode  cars some of  83 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , others may be r e l u c t a n t t o r i d e b i c y c l e s because of unfamiliarity commute.  with  For  increasingly still  The  bike  these  routes  or  individuals,  f r u s t r a t i n g with  the  logistics  driving  growing  is  traffic  a  of  a  habit  bicycle that  is  c o n g e s t i o n but i s  f a m i l i a r and regarded as convenient.  i d e a t h a t the l e v e l  of use  of b i c y c l i n g  facilities  will  j u s t i f y t h e i r f i n a n c i a l c o s t s c o u l d discourage policy-makers implementing  such p r o j e c t s .  not from  T h i s i s why there needs t o be a s t r o n g  commitment and a l e v e l of p a t i e n c e on the p a r t of policy-makers  who  are w i l l i n g t o push f o r both b i c y c l i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of l a n d use. is  not  likely  increases  in  to the  Although l a r g e - s c a l e c r o s s o v e r t o b i c y c l e s  happen, the number  of  potential bicycle  f o r steady commuters  incremental  is  a  strong  p o s s i b i l i t y i f a l l components of a b i c y c l i n g s t r a t e g y are p r o v i d e d .  Workers  who  make  long  commutes  are  unlikely  candidates  for  c o n v e r t i n g t o b i c y c l e s but those who commute s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e s may, under c e r t a i n circumstances such as favourable weather c o n d i t i o n s or  being  invited  to  ride  by  a  cycling  co-worker,  experiment w i t h b i c y c l i n g t o work on a given day.  decide  to  T h i s experience  c o u l d make them more f a m i l i a r and more comfortable w i t h the r o u t e s and l o g i s t i c s i n v o l v e d i n a b i c y c l e commute.  I f the f a c i l i t i e s f o r  t r a v e l l i n g , p a r k i n g and showering are i n p l a c e , t h e r e would be l e s s r e s i s t a n c e t o the i d e a of b i c y c l e commuting w i t h each s u c c e s s i v e commute.  While these f i r s t - t i m e r i d e r s may  not choose t o b i c y c l e  84 to work most days, there c o u l d be enough of them r i d i n g enough days to  reduce the volumes of motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c d u r i n g rush  L a r g e - s c a l e changes i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n h a b i t s are o f t e n but  i f there  i s a strong commitment t o changing the  hours.  incremental patterns  of  l a n d use so t h a t b i c y c l i n g i s a more p r a c t i c a l and convenient mode of  transportation,  pursuing.  Opinions  bicycling expressed  facilities  would  still  i n the GVRD's 1992  be  worth  Regional B i c y c l e  Survey responses and i n Vancouver's C i t y P l a n process i n d i c a t e t h a t residents  of t h i s  transportation modes are concerns bicycling  r e g i o n are prepared  but  only  i n place. by as  policy-makers  i f the  Along with  developing  to  facilities the  and  goal  of  a l t e r n a t i v e modes  stated i n Creating appear  t o explore  have  Our  been  Future given  a  other modes of  service for addressing  of  travel  such  traffic such  (GVRD, 1993), sufficiently  as  local strong  mandate t o j u s t i f y the c o n s t r u c t i o n of b i c y c l i n g f a c i l i t i e s and the development of comprehensive programs.  6.2  A d d i t i o n a l Factors  Some f a c e t s of b i c y c l i n g p o l i c y do not c o n v e n i e n t l y f a l l under only one  of the Four E's.  T h i s s u b s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s d i s c u s s i o n on some  of the more prominent f a c t o r s t h a t o v e r l a p d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s .  B i c y c l e a d v i s o r y committees are an i n t e g r a l component of b i c y c l i n g p o l i c y f o r any  municipality.  They serve as a mechanism by which  b i c y c l i s t s ' ' concerns can be d i s c u s s e d and addressed with  municipal  85 s t a f f and c o u n c i l l o r s . of  operating  results  with  The C i t y of Vancouver has had t h e b e n e f i t s  such a committee  have been  sufficiently  Vancouver D i s t r i c t  both  local  and  p o s i t i v e that  are a l s o t a k i n g  b i c y c l e a d v i s o r y committees regional  s i n c e the e a r l y 1980s.  steps  Burnaby  and North  to establish their  ( W h i s t l e r , p . c , 1993). bicycling  The  issues  to  own  In order f o r  be  given  full  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , other member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e GVRD need t o g i v e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o doing l i k e w i s e .  The presence of a b i c y c l i n g c o o r d i n a t o r on m u n i c i p a l s t a f f would be another  way  of ensuring  addressed i n m u n i c i p a l beneficial municipal  of  t h e concerns  of b i c y c l i s t s  Vancouver  are  Such a person can a l s o be very  the process  of c o n s u l t a t i o n  and members of the b i c y c l i n g  ( M i l l e r , p . c , 1993). City  projects.  i n expediating staff  that  advisory  between  committee  A b i c y c l i n g c o o r d i n a t o r was on s t a f f a t t h e from  1985  to  1987,  a  position  that  was  d i s c o n t i n u e d when the incumbent was r e a s s i g n e d t o the E n g i n e e r i n g Department and no one was h i r e d or r e a s s i g n e d t o take  h i s place.  While  approved  the D i s t r i c t  of North  Vancouver  has r e c e n t l y  a  b i c y c l e master p l a n t h a t i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e appointment of a  b i c y c l e coordinator, f o r a two-year  term,  s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s i n existence i n t h i s region. the  current  situation  i n the United  States  there  are no  other  T h i s c o n t r a s t s with i n which many major  urban c e n t r e s employ a b i c y c l e program c o o r d i n a t o r .  Support f o r m u n i c i p a l b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r p o s i t i o n s i n t h i s r e g i o n  86 may  be d i f f i c u l t  municipalities  to generate.  The  p r e v a i l i n g viewpoint  of  local  i s t h a t i n s t e a d of b r i n g i n g i n someone t o f i l l  a  b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r p o s i t i o n , b i c y c l i n g i s s u e s should be addressed by e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l s t a f f members who  c o u l d be t r a i n e d t o handle  b i c y c l e planning projects (Price, p . c ,  1994).  While t h i s s t r a t e g y c o u l d r a i s e awareness of b i c y c l i n g i s s u e s among e x i s t i n g s t a f f members, the p o t e n t i a l advantages of having a person designated  as  the  underestimated  or  bicycling  coordinator  overlooked.  By  acting  should  as  a  not  be  proponent  for  b i c y c l e - f r i e n d l y f e a t u r e s from w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l s t a f f , a b i c y c l i n g coordinator been  can  observed  expedite  the  process  i n many major  U.S.  of b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g  urban  centres,  employ such a person ( M i l l e r , p . c ,  1993).  Toronto  bicycling  for  the  presence  of  a  most  of  as  has  which  Support i n the C i t y of coordinator  within  m u n i c i p a l s t a f f i s such t h a t t h e r e i s not one but t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s staffing  City  positions that  focus  on b i c y c l i n g .  One  person i s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b i c y c l i n g f a c i l i t i e s (engineering f a c t o r s ) , another deals  with  education  and  enforcement  issues  and  the  third  is  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r developing and o r g a n i z i n g programs and events aimed at  i n c r e a s i n g r i d e r s h i p i n the c i t y  (encouragement).  Further, i f  the c o s t i f s u p p o r t i n g such a p o s i t i o n i s a p o s s i b l e d e t e r r e n t , i t should  be  pointed  out  that  the  District  of North Vancouver  has  shown t h a t f i n a n c i n g a b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r f o r a f i x e d term i s a viable option.  The advantages and drawbacks of the p o s i t i o n can be  r e a d i l y e v a l u a t e d at the end of the term.  87 6.3  Influence  The  of  L a n d Use  Patterns  number of commuters u s i n g b i c y c l e s had  1992  but b i c y c l e s s t i l l accounted f o r only one  t r i p s i n Greater Vancouver. is  increased  for trips  this  region  of  10  reduce  the  transit  of a l l work  or  recent  for  s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s at t r a n s i t s t a t i o n s can  help  i s very  of  the  average d i s t a n c e  statistics  trip  part  the  l e s s but  f o r a work  stands at 14 kilometres  Bike-and-ride  percent  to  The g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r b i c y c l e use  kilometres  i n d i c a t e that  from 1985  (GVRD, 1993).  commute  for bicycles.  limited i n i t s capacity  to  However,  provide  public  services  to  d i f f e r e n t catchment areas so t r a n s i t support i s not a v i a b l e o p t i o n for  a l l b i c y c l e commuters.  The  p h y s i c a l and  logistical efforts  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h commuting by b i c y c l e are enough t o discourage most commuters who  The only way  must t r a v e l more than 10 k i l o m e t r e s  to work.  t o reduce t h i s d i s t a n c e f o r most commuters would be t o  b r i n g workplaces and r e s i d e n t i a l areas c l o s e r t o g e t h e r .  T h i s would  i n v o l v e p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s t h a t would encompass land use well  as  transportation.  Regional e f f o r t s t o  have been i n i t i a t e d by TRANSPORT 2021. Transportation  Plan  f o r Greater  proposes t h a t c o n t r o l of land use  planning,  address t h i s  as  issue  In i t s r e p o r t Long Range  Vancouver  (1993), TRANSPORT  2021  should be a major component i n a  regional strategy for transportation. through m u n i c i p a l  issues  T h i s would be  accomplished  adoption of the concepts of n e o t r a d i t i o n a l town  r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , t r a f f i c calming  ( f o r motor  v e h i c l e s ) and the design of neighbourhoods and s t r e e t s t h a t would be conducive t o b i c y c l i n g and w a l k i n g . for municipalities  One of the recommendations  states:  "Near and w i t h i n a l l a c t i v i t y c e n t r e s , t h e ( L i v a b l e Region) Strategy should propose a range of housing, w i t h i n a p e d e s t r i a n - and b i c y c l e - f r i e n d l y urban d e s i g n , both by c o n s t r u c t i o n of new c e n t r e s and by redevelopment of e x i s t i n g ones." Adoption of t h i s and the other p o l i c i e s endorsed by t h e TRANSPORT 2021  Steering  Livable  Committee,  Region S t r a t e g y  particularly  those p e r t a i n i n g  (GVRD, 1993), would  t o the  be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n  promoting t h e development of an urban landscape i n which b i c y c l e s would  be  a  much  more  viable  and  practical  mode  for local  transportation.  6.3.1  There  Obstacles  a r e a number of p o t e n t i a l  these p o l i c i e s . as  t o Change i n L a n d U s e  possible  obstacles  t o implementation of  TRANSPORT 2021 (1993) l i s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s  difficulties  associated  with  neotraditional  town  planning: - There i s l e s s f l e x i b i l i t y f o r incremental development i n t h a t p l a n s may f a i l unless a l l elements of a comprehensive package a r e developed together - Some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may r e f u s e t o adopt t h i s approach t o community development - The s a f e t y i m p l i c a t i o n s of f e a t u r e s such as narrower s t r e e t s and i n c r e a s e d s t r e e t p a r k i n g have not been f u l l y examined - Housing p r i c e s i n these neighbourhoods may be r e l a t i v e l y high - Suburban r e s i d e n t s may oppose a departure from p r e v a l e n t , forms of suburban development Opposition residential  from  existing  residents  intensification,  may  as would  also  be a problem f o r  be the f a c t  that  single-  89 purpose  suburban  zoning may p r o h i b i t d i v e r s e housing forms.  Both  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n and n e o t r a d i t i o n a l town p l a n n i n g take time t o have impacts. that  T h i s r e g i o n have a l r e a d y been developed t o t h e e x t e n t  opportunities  f o r implementing  these  land-use  control  strategies i s limited.  The  extent  patterns  t o which  also  these  depends  strategies  to a  large  can a l t e r  degree  o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d i n those areas.  transportation  on what  employment  The GVRD has developed  p o l i c y recommendations f o r encouraging m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and members of the development i n d u s t r y t o develop r e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l town centres  and t o c r e a t e  residential  and commercial  g e t t i n g employers can  be  new  very  forms uses  of development  (GVRD,  1993).  that  combine  The process of  t o l o c a t e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o these c e n t r e s  slow  and the e f f e c t s  of these  relocations  on  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p a t t e r n s i s l i k e l y t o be very g r a d u a l .  If  these  GVRD  implementation  recommendations are established,  a r e adopted bicycles  and mechanisms f o r  may have much g r e a t e r  p o t e n t i a l f o r use i n l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  But t h i s b r i g h t  s c e n a r i o f o r b i c y c l e users i s very dependent on the extent t o which these p o l i c i e s a r e implemented.  90 CHAPTER 7;  CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  A mandate has been f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d by the P r o v i n c e of B.C., the GVRD and t h e C i t y of Vancouver so most of the government bodies involved  i n making t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  decisions  f o r t h i s region  have  c l e a r e d a path f o r t a k i n g l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n t o encourage b i c y c l e transportation. facilities  They have demonstrated a w i l l i n g n e s s t o p r o v i d e  and develop programs t o make b i c y c l e t r a v e l s a f e r and  more convenient f o r a wider spectrum of people. the  7 .1  In order t o ensure  success of these e f f o r t s , s e v e r a l matters must be addressed.  Land Use  Urban and suburban sprawl encourages longer employment.  commute t o p l a c e s of  I f land use i n Greater Vancouver continues t o f o l l o w  t h i s pattern,  there  i s l i t t l e p o t e n t i a l f o r the b i c y c l e t o expand  beyond i t s c u r r e n t minor r o l e i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h i s r e g i o n . is  the c a s u a l  population are  aimed.  bicyclists  who  make  up a l a r g e  segment  It  of t h e  i n t h i s r e g i o n at whom these programs of encouragement While f a c i l i t i e s  and s e r v i c e s t o encourage commuting  may have success with experienced b i c y c l i s t s , they would probably only have l i m i t e d appeal t o c a s u a l  If  the patterns  of development  bicyclists.  i n this  region  were  to  shift  emphasis toward higher d e n s i t y and a g r e a t e r mixture of l a n d uses w i t h i n r e s i d e n t i a l nodes and commercial core areas, there may be an increase  i n t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r b i c y c l e use.  As expressed by the  91 GVRD Task Force  ( P r i c e , 1994,  p.c),  d i s i n c e n t i v e s and  negative  encouragement by themselves are not the answer t o persuading people t o t r y other  forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Cars w i l l not be abandoned  unless other modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n are more  convenient.  Higher d e n s i t y and mixed l a n d uses o f t e n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h use  of  b i c y c l e s and  Kenworthy, 1989). are  convenience as with has been p r e v a l e n t and  numbers  Preference  characterized  Kerrisdale  higher  by  these  any  of  walking  trips  (Newman &  f o r these t r a v e l modes i n areas t h a t features  other  factor.  has  as  much  to  West  End  (Price,  do  with  T h i s p a t t e r n of behaviour  i n Vancouver neighbourhoods such as  the  increased  1994,  Kitsilano,  p.c).  If  other  neighbourhoods i n suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o l l o w s u i t by i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t y and mixing land uses, t h e r e c o u l d be a s i g n i f i c a n t i n the modal s p l i t f o r t r i p s made by b i c y c l e s i n t h i s  The  proposals  support  set  out  i n Livable  t h i s v i s i o n f o r land use  Chapter 6.3,  Region  Strategy  i n t h i s r e g i o n but  increase  region-  (GVRD, as  1993)  stated i n  t h e r e are v a r i o u s o b s t a c l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s k i n d  of l a n d use p a t t e r n s . municipalities  is  A strong commitment from the GVRD's member  needed  for  communities a r e a l i t y i n t h i s  making  vision  of  complete  region.  T h i s f a c t o r i s i n t e g r a l f o r any Greater Vancouver.  this  b i c y c l e p o l i c y t o be e f f e c t i v e i n  The concepts of "comfort" and "convenience" are  o b v i o u s l y s u b j e c t i v e but they must be addressed t o encourage c a s u a l  92 and  recreational  transportation incorporated the use  bicycle  riders  purposes.  The  use  only way  i n t o the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  of n e o t r a d i t i o n a l  region.  to  their  bicycles  for  t h a t these concepts can  system f o r b i c y c l e s i s through  town p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s throughout  the  Unless t h i s land use concept i s adopted and mechanisms f o r  implementation  are  established  for  suburban  municipalities  in  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h proposed b i c y c l e p o l i c i e s , those p o l i c i e s w i l l not worth p u r s u i n g .  The  c o s t s , time.and r e s o u r c e s a s s o c i a t e d  r e l a t i v e l y small numbers of u s e r s , most of whom would probably experienced  Bicycle  bicycle  incorporated  use,  C i t y of Vancouver  by  bicycle-specific facilities  i n t o the  commercial  developed  be  Facilities  are c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e e f f o r t s at r e t r o f i t t i n g e x i s t i n g  and  the  bicyclists.  Although b i c y c l e routes being developed i n the  for  be  with  those proposed f a c i l i t i e s and programs w i l l not be j u s t i f i e d by  7.2  be  o r i g i n a l design of  developments. the  City  of  The  s t r e e t s and  bicycle  Vancouver  should  for  ideally  be  residential  parking new  streets  guidelines  and  renovated  developments p r o v i d e a good example f o r other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  in  this  on  region  roadways,  to  follow.  As  Recommendation  1  of  for  bicycling  the  Greater  infrastructure Vancouver  Regional  B i c y c l e Task Force P o l i c y Recommendations (1993) reads: "Institutionalize required process  the  facilities undertaken  explicit  i n any by  consideration  planning,  government  of  budgeting,  departments  bicycle or or  use  and  construction other  public  93 agencies.  The l e v e l  of c o n s i d e r a t i o n  should  be s i m i l a r t o t h a t  given t o t h e requirements of t r a v e l by automobile." As with land use concepts such as n e o t r a d i t i o n a l town p l a n n i n g and residential  intensification,  adoption of these p r i n c i p l e s by t h e  GVRD's member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s v i t a l .  Further,  t o ensure t h a t  these p r i n c i p l e s a r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ,  developers should be r e q u i r e d t o i n c l u d e s p e c i f i c plans f o r b i c y c l e f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e i r development a p p l i c a t i o n s . P r o v i d i n g i n c e n t i v e s to  developers  t o encourage  the d e d i c a t i o n  and development of  b i c y c l i n g c o r r i d o r s w i t h i n proposed s u b d i v i s i o n commercial p l a n s i s one  possible  tactic  f o r carrying  out t h i s  agenda  (Pugh, 1989)  (Desrochers and Rye, 1991).  7.3  Utilitarian Bicycling  There should be more a t t e n t i o n given t o f a c i l i t i e s , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  encouragement  immediate  future.  automobiles  with  kilometres.  may  from  b i c y c l i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f o r the  The g r e a t e s t bicycles  Proposals  development distances  for utilitarian  someday their  opportunities  are f o r shorter  f o r more result  current  for substituting  trips  concentrated  forms  i n the r e d u c t i o n  regional  average  of under of  urban  of work  of 14  10  trip  kilometres  (GVRD, 1993) but f o r the immediate f u t u r e , s h o r t e r t r i p s a r e more likely nearest  t o be f o r u t i l i t a r i a n supermarket  community  centre.  purposes  or pharmacy  such  or using  as shopping  the l o c a l  at the  l i b r a r y or  94 S t u d i e s and proposals by TRANSPORT 2021 have concentrated mainly on issues  relating  t o work  automobile t r a f f i c April  1994, p.27).  barriers  trips  but only  i s work-related  (Laidlaw,  The cumulative  a s s o c i a t e d with  36  percent  of  daily  C y c l i n g B.C. News,  e f f e c t of p e r c e i v e d or a c t u a l  bicycling  t o work such as s a f e t y , t h e  l o g i s t i c s of t a k i n g work clothes: along, workplace a t t i t u d e s toward b i c y c l i n g , Weather c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , e t c . i s such t h a t most c a s u a l b i c y c l i s t s cannot e n v i s i o n u s i n g t h i s mode f o r commuting.  They a r e  much more l i k e l y t o c o n s i d e r b i c y c l i n g as means of t r a v e l l i n g f o r u t i l i t a r i a n purposes.  Among t h e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of government, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are i n t h e best p o s i t i o n t o address with  i t s current  Vancouver area.  Although  neighbourhoods  i n bicycle  transportation  planning,  t o provide  the C i t y  direction  of  i n this  i t s planned b i c y c l e network has more of a commuter Vancouver  has  the  (e.g. K i t s i l a n o ,  bicycling.  developers  progress  i s i n a strong p o s i t i o n  orientation,.  which  the needs of u t i l i t a r i a n b i c y c l i s t s and  is  a  West  convenient  for utility  greatest  use.  concentration  End, Commercial and  appealing  I t s use of  of  Drive) i n mode  of  incentives f o r  i n i t s b i c y c l e parking g u i d e l i n e s and; i t s  requirements  f o r b i c y c l i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development p r o p o s a l s for  i t s inner  municipalities  city/downtown core i n this  provide  good models  f o r other  r e g i o n t o use as p o i n t s of r e f e r e n c e f o r  t h e i r own b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g  efforts..  95 Bicycling  advocacy  groups  utilitarian bicycling.  can  also  focus  greater  attention  on  C y c l i n g B.C.'s E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r D a n i e l l e  Laidlaw acknowledged t h a t i t may  be more p r a c t i c a l t o emphasize the  m e r i t s of b i c y c l e s f o r u t i l i t y use r a t h e r than t r y i n g to promote i t as a commuter mode, s t a t i n g ( C y c l i n g B.C.  News, A p r i l 1994)  "...we  should work w i t h what the g e n e r a l p u b l i c can see themselves doing, r a t h e r than t r y i n g to coerce them i n t o something t h a t doesn't seem like  a possibility  highly-motivated  at t h i s  point."  With i t s resources  s t a f f and membership. C y c l i n g B.C.  and i t s  i s i n a good  p o s i t i o n t o p r o v i d e i n i t i a t i v e and d i r e c t i o n i n t h i s endeavour.  I f they have a strong commitment t o reducing automobile dependence by promoting b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as BEST and The  B i c y c l e People should  e f f o r t s toward pushing a t u t i l i t a r i a n use. bicycling  a l s o c o n s i d e r d i r e c t i n g more of  their  f o r b i c y c l i n g f a c i l i t i e s and programs aimed  The l i k e l i h o o d of persuading m o t o r i s t s t o t r y  for certain  trips  would be  greater  and  there  is  less  chance t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s would be wasted or even c r e a t e a b a c k l a s h as  could  happen with  c o r r i d o r s d u r i n g rush  7.4  riding  en  masse  along  congested  commuter  hours.  D i s i n c e n t i v e s To D r i v i n g  I t would be b e s t i f r e g i o n a l b i c y c l i n g p o l i c y does not i n c l u d e any direct  p e n a l i z a t i o n of m o t o r i s t s  t h e i r c a r s d u r i n g the course  f o r now.  Many commuters  of t h e i r workday and  any  need  effects  of  proposed l a n d use; p o l i c i e s on commuting p a t t e r n s w i l l take time t o  be f e l t .  In the meantime,  the iautomobile i s ; the only  mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r those  practical  individuals.  D i s i n c e n t i v e s t o d r i v i n g i s not a popular i d e a and so f a r , i t has not  become a necessary  1994).  The  one  i d e a of b i c y c l e  (Price,  The Vancouver Sun,  facilities  and programs  18  April  i s t o make  b i c y c l e use more safe and convenient  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who  are i n a  p o s i t i o n t o use t h e i r b i c y c l e s more.  L i m i t i n g the range of o p t i o n s  open t o c u r r e n t automobile users should not be a p a r t of b i c y c l i n g policy  at t h i s  time.  I t i s b e t t e r f o r everyone i f b i c y c l i n g i s  c o n s i d e r e d an a t t r a c t i v e o p t i o n r a t h e r than a' n e c e s s i t y .  I t may time.  not however be p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o u n t d i s i n c e n t i v e s f o r a l l I f i t i s ever  the case  that  i t i s necessary  to  apply  d i s i n c e n t i v e s , t a c t i c s such as road p r i c i n g , p a r k i n g surcharges or other methods may be c o n s i d e r e d but i t would be e s s e n t i a l t h a t they be i n t r o d u c e d i n a more p o s i t i v e way.  Instead  of r e f e r r i n g  to  these s t r a t e g i e s as being p e n a l t i e s t o m o t o r i s t s , the focus should be on the b e n e f i t s they would p r o v i d e t o the r e g i o n as a whole.  They  should  skyrocketing  be  referred  to  as  being  transportation costs  pollution conditions.  as  the well  means as  of  preventing  debilitating a i r  The emphasis should be on how they can help  i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y , not on the inconvenience they would be f o r private  motorists.  Effective  depend t o a l a r g e extent  application  of them  on the a v a i l a b i l i t y  would  of other  still  practical  97 modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  7.5  P o l i c y Implementation  There needs t o be mbre concrete plans f o r implementing b i c y c l i n g policy  i n this  proposals  region.  and  capital  S e a t t l e ' s VISION 2020 o u t l i n e d s p e c i f i c works  budgets  for bicycle transportation  p r o j e c t s i n i t s plans f o r t h a t r e g i o n ' s f u t u r e development. its  counterpart  level  of  detail  Although Range  t o the south, (Reid,  Unlike  TRANSPORT 2 021 d i d not match  Planning  A c t i o n , April/May  1994,  this  p.5).  i t spoke of a more prominent r o l e f o r b i c y c l e s i n A Long  Plan  TRANSPORT  for  2021  Transportation has  provided  for  few  Greater  specifics  Vancouver on  how  (1993),  i t plans  to  i n t e g r a t e b i c y c l e s i n t o the e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system or what l e v e l of funding would be c o n s i d e r e d .  The  recommendations  released simply  just  be  of  the  Regional  a f t e r TRANSPORT 2021  the  recommendations  case  that  a  i s currently  plan being  Bicycle  Task  u n v e i l e d i t s plans f o r implementation developed.  One  Force  were  so i t may of  these  means  of  i n c r e a s i n g the l e v e l of a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the needs of b i c y c l i s t s would be t o d e v i s e a mechanism by which bicycle  master  regional plans. Force, matter.  there  plans  could  be  integrated  into  municipal  and  With the disbandment of the Regional B i c y c l e Task  needs  t o be  a mechanism f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n on  this  98 Having  worked  closely  with  the members  of the Task Force, the  members of the M u n i c i p a l L i a i s o n Committee f o r the Task Force would be  an v a l u a b l e  developing having  resource  a bicycle  developed  to tap.  A l s o , with  network and b i c y c l e  an approved  Capital  i t s experience i n  parking  Plan  that  standards provides  and funds  s p e c i f i c a l l y designated f o r b i c y c l e - r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s , the C i t y of Vancouver i s a l s o i n a f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p on implementing b i c y c l i n g p o l i c i e s f o r t h i s r e g i o n .  7.6  Coordinated B i c y c l e  Planning  As a f i n a l recommendation, a concrete mechanism i s needed f o r the coordination  of  municipalities.  the  bicycle  Recommendation  planning  efforts  2 of Greater  of  different  Vancouver  Regional  B i c y c l e Task Force P o l i c y Recommendations (GVRD, 1993) s t a t e s : "Develop, through a cooperative municipal and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g process, r e g i o n a l and l o c a l networks of s a f e , continuous and i n t e r c o n n e c t e d b i c y c l e r o u t e s . " The maintenance of the Task Force's M u n i c i p a l L i a i s o n Committee o r a form of r e g i o n a l a d v i s o r y committee i s suggested i n Subsection 2a of  this  Recommendation.  direction, mechanism  the r e p o r t  While t h i s does  policy  not provide  a step i n t h e r i g h t  specific  f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n o r a means  by which  details goals  on a  can be  e s t a b l i s h e d and a t t a i n e d .  The  Municipal  engineers  and  Liaison other  Committee members  was  of  comprised  the  of  different  planners, government  b u r e a u c r a c i e s and agencies whose operations and p o l i c i e s determine  99 the  status  of b i c y c l e  transportation  i n this  region.  Their  knowledge of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e geographic and demographic areas and t h e i r areas of e x p e r t i s e would be v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s t o u t i l i z e f o r c o o r d i n a t e d r e g i o n a l b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r the immediate future.  However, the extent of t h e i r input  restricted  by  the  duration  respective organizations. t h e i r current the  pursuit  of  their  i n t o t h i s process i s  employment  with  their  Whenever one of these i n d i v i d u a l s l e a v e s  p o s i t i o n through e i t h e r reassignment, r e l o c a t i o n o r of other employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  that  resource i s  l o s t t o the r e g i o n a l b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g e f f o r t .  What  would  continuity planning  be  more  f o r the  purposes  of  ensuring  i n an ongoing process of c o o r d i n a t e d r e g i o n a l  would be the formation  committee,  the  municipalities. and  practical  members  of  of a r e g i o n a l  which  would  They should be r e s i d e n t s  represent  of those  i d e a l l y , they would a l s o be members  committees f o r t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  bicycle  bicycle advisory  different  municipalities  of the b i c y c l e  advisory  Only a few m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n  t h i s r e g i o n have or are i n the process of forming t h e i r own b i c y c l e advisory should  committees  but the formation  not be postponed  until  of a r e g i o n a l  municipal  committees  committee  become more  prevalent.  Candidates f o r a r e g i o n a l  committee c o u l d  be s e l e c t e d  from among  interested  i n d i v i d u a l s who are f a m i l i a r with b i c y c l i n g i s s u e s and  have  active  been  i n their  communities.  Those  who  represent  100 municipalities  that  do not have a l o c a l  committee c o u l d  i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e i n working t o e s t a b l i s h such a body. working with the GVRD and the Province, regional  committee  could  be important  p l a y an A l s o , by  i n d i v i d u a l members of a factors  i n ensuring  that  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s adequately address r e g i o n a l as w e l l as l o c a l b i c y c l i n g concerns.  7.7  Conclusion  Support f o r i n c r e a s i n g b i c y c l e use i n Greater Vancouver i s e v i d e n t among many of t h e key policy-makers i n t h i s r e g i o n . this writing,  t h e GVRD Board of D i r e c t o r s  a r e i n t h e process of  r e v i e w i n g the Task Force P o l i c y Recommendations. can  provide a basic  Cycling  Policy  municipalities  (1992)  with  which  the GVRD  and  Interim  i t s member  can begin t o make b i c y c l e s more than j u s t a token  i s v i t a l that  system.  the proposals f o r increased  land  uses put f o r t h i n L i v a b l e  and  implemented  recommendations  I f adopted, they  framework, along with the P r o v i n c e ' s  element on t h e f r i n g e of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  It  A t t h e time of  in  Region S t r a t e g y  conjunction  i n order  densities  f o r these  with  (1993) be adopted  GVRD  policies  and mixed  bicycle  policy  t o be e f f e c t i v e .  Without t h a t element, the p o l i c i e s w i l l not be enough t o encourage casual  and r e c r e a t i o n a l  transportation worthwhile.  purposes  b i c y c l e r i d e r s t o use t h e i r b i c y c l e s f o r i n sufficient  numbers  t o make  them  101 Even i f t h i s i s the case, and s p e c i f i c mechanisms f o r implementation of p o l i c i e s are e s t a b l i s h e d , the b e n e f i t s of i n c r e a s e d b i c y c l e use are l i k e l y t o take more time than many people would l i k e . if  the  political  bicycle-friendly  will  and  accompanying  initiatives  and  land  funding use  However,  i s provided  patterns,  for  Greater  Vancouver has the p o t e n t i a l to be a North American l e a d e r , not on b i c y c l i n g i s s u e s but on urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as a whole.  only  102  A P P E N D I X  FIGURE 1  Changes in Key Transportation Characteristics in the morning peak period in Greater Vancouver 1985-1992 - 3 0 % - 2 0 % - 1 0 % 0 + 1 0 % +20°/o+30% + 4 0 %  Population  I  Commuting autos  I I  rips by car drivers|  I  I  Trips by transit  I  i,-„: i, rzr .LI  Total trips  I  Trips per person  i  •  I  i  I  f i Suburb-suburb share • 1  I  I  i  i  Suburb-Vancouver share I I I H Auto driver share^ I I I Transit mode share  2  4  Trip distance  I  Trip time  l l  Trip speed  1  - 3 0 % - 2 0 % - 1 0 % 0 +10% +20%+30% +40%  Relative Percentage Difference  1. Change in the share.of total trips which begin in one suburb and end in another. ,, 2. Change in share of total trips which end in Vancouver City.; 3. Change in the share of total trips which are undertaken by car drivers. 4., Change in the share of total trips which are, undertaken by transit passengers. Source: 1992 Greater Vancouver Travel Survey-^ Comparisons of Travel Demand Characteristics, 19851992.  FIGURE 2  Exhibit 13: Morning Peak Period Trips by Mode, 1985-1992 Thousands E31985 E31992  mm  Auto Driver Transit Auto Passenger  Bicycle Walk  Other  Exhibit 14: Morning Peak Period Total Trips by Mode, 1985-1992 Mode of Travel  1985  1992  Absolute Change  Percent Change  Auto Driver  369,580  545,660  176,080  47.6%  Auto Passenger  115,020  159,580  44,560  38,7%  Transit  76.320  95,180  18,860  24.7%  137,820  46 500  50.9%  Walk  9t,320  r  Bicycle  1.5,040  13.060  -1,980  -13.2%  Other  13,160  11,230  -1,930  -W%  Total  680,440  .962.530  282,090  41.5%  1992 Greater Vancouver Travel Survey: Report No. 6  I FIGURE 3  Modal Split Comparison  100 90  Conventional Suburb  80 70  Neotraditional Town  60 50 40 30 20 10 H  >»»»%WlAWkW,V  W.VWNN.W,  0 Automobile  Public Transit  Walking  Source: R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Neiobourhood-Level P l a n n i n g I n i t i a t i v e s . TRANSPORT 2021. 1993.  S o u r c e : B i c y c l e Network Study. C i t y of Vancouver E n g i n e e r i n g Dept. 1992.  o  FIGURE  5  SUMMARY OF OPTIONS FOR CYCLING IMPROVEMENTS  OPTION  PROS  CONS  I n t e g r a t i o n on Arterial Streets  fast, convenient, d i r e c t educates m o t o r i s t s and c y c l i s t s t o s h a r e road l e g i t i m i z e s b i k e as a v e h i c l e on t h e road uses e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s  pollution, noise p e r c e i v e d a s u n s a f e by some c y c l i s t s l i m i t e d success i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e number of c y c l i s t s may r e q u i r e s t r e e t widening  I n t e g r a t i o n on Local Streets  fewer c a r s quiet, less pollution p e r c e i v e d as s a f e easy t o implement (no widening i s n e c e s s a r y )  likely indirect/slower i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y on residential streets changes t r a f f i c p a t t e r n s in neighbourhoods may r e q u i r e new t r a f f i c signals  B i k e Lanes  fast, direct p e r c e i v e d as s a f e guarantee space f o r bikes  pollution, noise f a l s e sense o f s e c u r i t y motorists expect c y c l i s t s to stay i n lane may r e q u i r e s t r e e t widening conflicts at intersections, d r i v e w a y s , and bus s t o p s .  no c a r s q u i e t , very, l i t t l e pollution p e r c e i v e d as s a f e guarantees space f o r bikes  indirect/slower may be d i f f i c u l t t o b u i l d no e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e f o r road s h a r i n g may r e q u i r e l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n  B i k e Paths  S o u r c e : B i c y c l e Network Study. C i t y o f Vancouver E n g i n e e r i n g Dept. 1992.  I°1  S o u r c e : B i c y c l e Network Study. C i t y o f Vancouver E n g i n e e r i n g Dept. 1992.  O  FIGURE 8  Figure 4.1.1  Responses to " W h a t would motivate you to cycle more?"  45%  Segregated Lines/Paths  Access t o Public Transit  Safer Roads/Less T-raffic  End-o'f-trip Driver F a c i l i t i e s Awarenessj  Other  MOTIVATIONAL F A C T O R  Source: Greater Vancouver Regional B i c v c l e Survey: F i n a l Report. Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . 1993.  BIBLIOGRAPHY B i c y c l e Network Study. C i t y of Vancouver E n g i n e e r i n g Vancouver, B.C.: 1992.  Department.  B i c y c l e s on SeaBus - E v a l u a t i o n of S e r v i c e . B.C. T r a n s i t P l a n n i n g & Marketing D i v i s i o n , S e r v i c e P l a n n i n g Department. Vancouver, B.C.: 1993. B i c y c l e P a r k i n g Standards Study. C i t y Department. Vancouver, B.C.: 1991.  of Vancouver  Engineering  The Bikeway S o l u t i o n . Vancouver Bikeway Network Group. Vancouver, B.C.: 1991. Clouds of Change. C i t y of Vancouver. Vancouver, B.C.: 1990. Commissioners' Report t o the S.P.C. on T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , T r a n s i t and P a r k i n g . C a l g a r y T r a n s i t . Calgary, A l b e r t a : 1991. The Cost of T r a n s p o r t i n g People i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Lower Mainland: Working Paper. TRANSPORT 2021. Burnaby, B.C.: 1993. C r e a t i n g Our Future. Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . B.C.: 1990. C y c l i n g B.C. News. C y c l i n g B.C. 1993 - 1994.  Burnaby,  Vancouver, B.C.: V a r i o u s  issues  Desrochers, M i c h e l and Rye, Tom. Steps Towards Implementing a R e g i o n a l B i c y c l e P o l i c y f o r G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and I t s Member M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Vancouver, B.C.: 1991. Downs, Anthony. Stuck In T r a f f i c : Coping With Peak-Hour T r a f f i c Congestion. Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n . Washington, D . C : 1992. E v a l u a t i o n of B i c y c l e Locker Demonstration Program. Planning & Marketing D i v i s i o n , Service Planning Vancouver, B.C.: 1993.  BC T r a n s i t Department.  F o r e s t e r , John. E f f e c t i v e C y c l i n g . New York, N.Y.: 1993. G r e a t e r Vancouver Regional B i c y c l e Survey: F i n a l Report. Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . Burnaby, B.C.: 1993.  Greater  Greater Vancouver Regional Bicycle Task Force Policy Recommendations. Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . Burnaby, B.C.: 1993.  Hope, Daphne and Yachuk, Dwight. Community C y c l i n g Manual - A P l a n n i n g and Design Guide. Canadian I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s . Ottawa, O n t a r i o : 1990. I n t e r i m C y c l i n g P o l i c y . B.C. M i n i s t r y Highways. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: 1992.  of  Transportation  King County Nonmotorized Transportation Plan. King Department of P u b l i c Works. S e a t t l e , Washington. 1993.  and  County  L i v a b l e Region S t r a t e g y : P r o p o s a l - A S t r a t e g y f o r Environmental and Growth Management. . Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l District. Burnaby, B.C.: 1993. A Long-Range T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n f o r Greater Vancouver. TRANSPORT 2021. Burnaby, B.C.: 1993. Lowe, Marcia D. The B i c y c l e : V e h i c l e f o r a Small P l a n e t ; Wbrldwatch Paper 90: The Worldwatch I n s t i t u t e . Washington, D . C : 1989. M a r t i n , S c o t t . The 10 Best C i t i e s f o r C y c l i n g . B i c y c l i n g Magazine. Emmaus, P e n n s y l v a n i a : A p r i l 1990. Newman, P e t e r and Kenworthy, Jeffrey. Cities and Automobile Dependence: An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sourcebook. Hants, England: 1989. 1992 G r e a t e r Vancouver T r a v e l Survey: D r a f t f o r Review. Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . Burnaby, B.C.: 1993.  Greater  Options f o r C y c l i n g Improvements i n Vancouver. C i t y of Vancouver E n g i n e e r i n g Department. Vancouver, B.C.: 1991. Reasons Why B i c y c l i n g and Walking Are and Are Not Being Used More E x t e n s i v e l y as T r a v e l Modes: N a t i o n a l B i c y c l i n g and Walking Study: Case Study No. 1. U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n F e d e r a l Highway A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Washington, D . C : 1992. R e g i o n a l T r a n s i t P r o j e c t : Report on Non-Motorized Access Study D r a f t F i n a l . Parsons B r i n c k e r h o f f / K a i s e r Engineers Team. S e a t t l e , Washington. 1991. Regional Transportation Implications of Neighbourhood-Level P l a n n i n g I n i t i a t i v e s . TRANSPORT 2021. Burnaby, B.C.: 1993. Reid, B a r t o n . P l a n n i n g A c t i o n . Vancouver, B.C.  April/May 1994.  Rye, Tom. B i c y c l e P o l i c i e s and Programmes i n Vancouver, B.C. and SeattJLe, WA. : A Comparison. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, B.C.: 1991. The Spoke N' Word. B.E.S.T. 1994.  Vancouver, B.C.: V a r i o u s i s s u e s 1993 -  (13 Thorn, Robert G. R e s i d e n t i a l Land Use P a t t e r n s and B i c y c l e Use. U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g Department. Winnipeg, Manitoba: 1983. Vancouver Comprehensive B i c y c l e P l a n . C i t y of Vancouver E n g i n e e r i n g Department. Vancouver, B.C.: 1988. Wynne, George G. A Study of B i c y c l e and P e d e s t r i a n Programs i n European C o u n t r i e s : N a t i o n a l B i c y c l i n g and Walking Study: Case Study No. 16. U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n - F e d e r a l Highway A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Washington, D . C : 1992.  INTERVIEWS Desrochers, M i c h e l (August 1994) - Planner, C i t y of Vancouver - Member, The Vancouver Bikeway Network Group F i s h e r , Brad (September 1994) - E n g i n e e r / B i c y c l e Coordinator, C i t y of Surrey G i r a r d , Joseph (October 1993) - P r e s i d e n t , CanWest C y c l i n g Dimensions L o u i e , Doug (October 1993) - E n g i n e e r / B i c y c l e Coordinator, C i t y of Vancouver M i l l e r , P h i l ( J u l y 1993) - RoadShare Program Coordinator, King County Department of P u b l i c Works ( S e a t t l e , WA). P e r k i n s , Ralph (March 1995) - Planner, Greater Vancovuer Regional D i s t r i c t P r i c e , Gordon (February 1994) - C o u n c i l l o r , C i t y of Vancouver - C h a i r , Greater Vancouver Regional B i c y c l e Task Force W h i s t l e r , John (November 1993) - C h a i r , C i t y of Vancouver B i c y c l e Advisory - Member, C y c l i n g B.C. Advocacy Committee - Member, B.E.S.T.  Committee  

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