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Marine Drive, North Vancouver : Can it become pedestrian oriented? Sandberg, Eric Ralph 1995

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MARINE DRIVE, NORTH VANCOUVER:  Can i t become p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t e d ?  by ERIC RALPH SANDBERG B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1992  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l o f Community a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  April :© E r i c  1995  R a l p h Sandberg,  1995  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  Library shall make it  is  granted  by the  understood  of  CtmmU^lfh  'fi^jfi>Pdl  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  kffil  lb'j 1416.  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  permission.  Department  an advanced  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  ftrfhtoinj  ABSTRACT  Mixed l a n d use p o l i c i e s a r e being recognized ameliorate the i l l s perpetuate  of s i n g l e land use p r e c i n c t s .  these p r e c i n c t s a r e i n f l e x i b l e ,  change, and a r e b e g i n n i n g  Policies  unresponsive  to r e c o n f i g u r e urban space.  sterile.  d i c t a t e t h a t we  M i x e d l a n d u s e s and compact  must r e p l a c e s e g r e g a t i o n a n d u r b a n s p r a w l .  which  to  t o make N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s  F u r t h e r , economic and e c o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s  residential,  a s a way t o h e l p  begin  form  Mixed commercial and  p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d c o r r i d o r s o f f e r one way o f  dealing with this issue. Mixed use c o m m e r c i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l c o r r i d o r s have a t t r a c t e d interest i n the Planning f i e l d . Vancouver Planners  In the D i s t r i c t  a n d c o m m u n i t y members w i s h  of North  to explore the  p o s s i b i l i t y of transforming the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s Marine c o r r i d o r i n t o a l i v e l y and a t t r a c t i v e , p e d e s t r i a n mixed-used commercial s t r e e t .  Drive  friendly,  R e c e n t amendments t o t h e O f f i c i a l  Community P l a n s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c o r r i d o r i s u n d e r g o i n g  changes.  However, t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t M a r i n e w o u l d make a v i a b l e p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d c o m m e r c i a l  ii  Drive  corridor.  This thesis investigates p o t e n t i a l along Marine  Drive.  Two  for pedestrian orientation  of Vancouver's mixed-use  commercial  c o r r i d o r s were s t u d i e d i n o r d e r t o d i s c e r n t h e i n g r e d i e n t s necessary  f o r success.  initiatives,  A n a l y s i s f o c u s e s on h i s t o r y a n d  a s w e l l a s c u r r e n t z o n i n g and  developments.  Next,  Marine  oriented, premature,  lively,  mixed commercial  and may  be d i f f i c u l t  General North Shore commercial  Avenue  Evidence  suggests  Drive into a pedestrianand  residential  to achieve i n the and g e o g r a p h i c  s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s along Marine However, i t may  surrounding  Drive i s studied.  that attempting to transform Marine  policy  corridor i s future.  characteristics  D r i v e are not  favourable.  be p o s s i b l e t o b e g i n t r a n s f o r m i n g P e m b e r t o n  (an i m p o r t a n t M a r i n e  pedestrian-oriented  Drive cross street)  corridor.  Ill  into  a  and  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i v  L I S T OF TABLES  v i  L I S T OF FIGURES  v i i  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  1  CONTEXT OBJECTIVES SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS METHODOLOGY STRUCTURE AND OVERVIEW  1 3 3 5 7  CHAPTER TWO: THE CASE FOR MIXED-USE INTRODUCTION THE I L L EFFECTS OF ZONING TRIGGER A RESPONSE PRESSURES AND CHANGES DICTATE A RE-BIRTH OF MIXED USE Household formation Regional growth: p o p u l a t i o n and p o l l u t i o n Affordability THE BENEFITS OF MIXED USE R e v i s i t i n g T r a d i t i o n a l Concepts C a l t h o r p e a n d Duany, P l a t e r - Z y b e r k P u t t i n g t h e concepts t o use Economic a t t r i b u t e s Sense o f p l a c e L i v a b i l i t y and q u a l i t y o f l i f e RE-BIRTH OF AN OLD CONCEPT CONCLUSION CHAPTER THREE: VANCOUVER'S MIXED COMMERCIAL CORRIDORS INTRODUCTION THE CASE STUDIES R E T A I L I N G PATTERNS PLANNING POLICY VANCOUVER'S COMMERCIAL STREETS WEST BROADWAY  iv  10 10 11 . 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 27 27  . . . .  29 29 34 34 37 39 39  History C u r r e n t Use a n d A c t i v i t y Future Trends Planning Policy Zoning Surroundings Movement P a t t e r n s Design Considerations GRANVILLE STREET SOUTH History C u r r e n t Use and A c t i v i t y Future Trends Planning Policy Zoning Surroundings Movement P a t t e r n s ... Design Considerations CONCLUSIONS Components n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s Case Study F i n d i n g s How Do We A c h i e v e D e s i r e d C o n d i t i o n s ?  41 42 45 45 48 51 55 57 66 66 69 70 71 73 76 79 81 86 87 88 96  CHAPTER FOUR: RECREATING MARINE DRIVE INTRODUCTION THE MARINE DRIVE STUDY History C u r r e n t Use and A c t i v i t y Future Trends Planning Policy Zoning Surroundings Movement P a t t e r n s Design Considerations The D e v e l o p e r ' s P e r s p e c t i v e TRENDS, CONSTRAINTS AND ISSUES IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS  98 98 98 100 103 105 106 110 113 117 121 12 7 12 7 135  CHAPTER F I V E : POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS EXISTING POLICIES POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE STUDY  13 8 138 141  BIBLIOGRAPHY  147  V  LIST OF  TABLES  T a b l e 1: K i t s i l a n o Age S t r u c t u r e  54  T a b l e 2: B r o a d w a y T r a f f i c  56  Counts  T a b l e 3: M a r p o l e Age S t r u c t u r e  78  T a b l e 4: G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t T r a f f i c  Counts  81  T a b l e 5: L o w e r C a p i l a n o Age S t r u c t u r e  116  T a b l e 6: M a r i n e D r i v e T r a f f i c  121  Counts  Vi  LIST OF  FIGURES  One:  L o c a t i o n Map;  Broadway, G r a n v i l l e , M a r i n e D r i v e  Two:  Examples  Three:  West B r o a d w a y and G r a n v i l l e  Four:  West B r o a d w a y A v e n u e S i t e and S i t u a t i o n Map  Five:  Community M e e t i n g P l a c e s ; G r a b b a  Six:  Granville  Seven:  M a r i n e D r i v e S i t e a n d S i t u a t i o n Map  Eight:  Marine d r i v e ; A D i s t r i c t  Nine:  Marine Drive Surroundings  of Mixed-use  Commercial  ...  Streets  31  South i n Context  ...  33  . . . .  40  J a b b a on B r o a d w a y  S t r e e t S o u t h , S i t e a n d S i t u a t i o n Map  Commercial  6  . .  44 67 101  Arterial  . . . 104 115  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  CONTEXT Planning l i t e r a t u r e  i n d i c a t e s a growing i n t e r e s t  concept o f m i x i n g l a n d uses.  T h i s age o l d c o n c e p t i s e n j o y i n g a  r e b i r t h i n t h e form o f t r a d i t i o n a l corridors.  Mixed-use  pedestrian friendly,  i n the  s t y l e mixed-use  c o r r i d o r s a r e compact, and l i v e l y mixed  commercial  attractive,  commercial/residential  s t r e e t s l o c a t e d w i t h i n an urban area.  They a r e  attracting  i n t e r e s t a s a way o f r e d u c i n g a u t o m o b i l e c o m m u t i n g a n d m a n a g i n g r e g i o n a l growth. way  of l i v i n g ,  Further,  t h e y a r e s e e n b y some a s a n U t o p i a n  o f f e r i n g a b e t t e r sense o f community a n d i n c r e a s e d  convenience. The m i x e d  commercial c o r r i d o r concept has a t t r a c t e d t h e  i n t e r e s t o f Planners and c i t i z e n s i n t h eD i s t r i c t Vancouver.  Specifically,  i t has prompted  of North  District  Planners t o  begin e x p l o r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e v i t a l i z i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s Marine Drive c o r r i d o r . f u n c t i o n s as a major e a s t west commercial s t r i p ,  arterial  The c o r r i d o r  currently  and automobile  housing a u t o - o r i e n t e d commercial  dependent  users.  Marine D r i v e has been t a r g e t e d as an a r e a o f c o n c e r n f o r two main reasons.  First,  t h e current plan, which governs land use  p o l i c e s f o r t h eMarine Drive area, i s n e a r i n g t h e end o f i t s I  intended time h o r i z o n .  Second, and perhaps more i n t e r e s t i n g ,  the  scope of the c u r r e n t p l a n i s no l o n g e r r e s p o n s i v e to emerging c o n d i t i o n s along the The  corridor.  "Marine D r i v e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n " was  on February  23,  1985,  and was  p e r i o d of f i v e to ten y e a r s .  first  adopted  intended to guide development f o r a The p l a n has been amended s e v e r a l  times and i s c u r r e n t l y i n the process of b e i n g superseded "Lower Capilano O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . "  The  e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g due  nature of the  corridor.  to the changing  by  the  current process i s  Recent amendments have g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d  r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s and a mixing of l a n d uses. p l a n permits  The  current  such c o n d i t i o n s , yet does not encourage them.  D i s t r i c t Planners now  wish to e x p l o r e the p o s s i b i l i t y  r e d i r e c t i n g the c o r r i d o r ' s l a n d use p o l i c i e s .  New  concentrate on r e v i t a l i z i n g the c o r r i d o r through  Thus,  of  p o l i c i e s would an  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of commercial a c t i v i t y and an i n c r e a s e i n mixeduse c o m m e r c i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t y . The  i n t e n t of t h i s t h e s i s i s to meet a request by  North  Vancouver D i s t r i c t S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s Planner Ross T a y l o r f o r study and a n a l y s i s of Marine D r i v e ' s p o t e n t i a l .  I t i s i n t e n d e d to h e l p  guide the D i s t r i c t ' s development of l a n d use p o l i c i e s f o r the Lower Capilano O f f i c i a l Community P l a n t h a t r e l a t e to the 2  transformation  of Marine Drive  pedestrian-oriented  i n t o a more l i v e l y  and v i b r a n t  commercial c o r r i d o r .  OBJECTIVES The  o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o answer t h r e e  specific  questions: 1. I s i t a p p r o p r i a t e lively 2.  t o attempt t o transform  traditional  s t y l e commercial  I f s o , what s h o u l d Specifically,  the corridor's " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n "  adopt i n t h i s  into a  street?  what l a n d u s e p o l i c i e s  North Vancouver  Marine Drive  should  e n t a i l ? --  the D i s t r i c t of  regard?  3 . What c a n we l e a r n b y s t u d y i n g  o t h e r mixed-use  commercial  corridors?  SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS As i s t h e c a s e w i t h a n y u r b a n s t u d y , commercial c o r r i d o r should variables.  Urban  dramatic  involve the i n c l u s i o n of countless  c o n d i t i o n s do n o t e x i s t  f u n c t i o n as a complex and c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  examining the future of a  i n isolation, but  system of i n t e r r e l a t e d events,  Events t h a t appear u n r e l a t e d  often e l i c i t  c h a n g e i n t h e u r b a n phenomena o f i n t e r e s t .  3  conditions a  Nevertheless,  n o t a l l e v e n t s c a n be s t u d i e d .  p o t e n t i a l l y important  i s s u e s w h i c h w i l l n o t be s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l  a r e as f o l l o w s : " b i g box" r e t a i l Gate B r i d g e ,  Three  stores, the future of the Lions  a n d t h e f u t u r e o f a Low L e v e l R o a d i n t h e D i s t r i c t  of North Vancouver.  O u t l i n e d below i s a b r i e f  account of t h e i r  potential significance. Large s c a l e r e t a i l the r e t a i l  industry.  retailers,  like  o u t l e t s h a v e become a s i g n i f i c a n t  Many o f t h e s e l a r g e f o r m a t , o r " b i g b o x "  to locate i n industrially  l a n d c o s t s and p r o p e r t y surrounding are l i k e l y  trend i n  tax.  Marine Drive t o consider  zoned l a n d due t o l o w e r  B e c a u s e much o f t h e l a n d  i s zoned i n d u s t r i a l ,  many s u c h  retailers  l o c a t i o n s on o r n e a r M a r i n e D r i v e .  p a r t i c u l a r note i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r a l a r g e - s c a l e r e t a i l e r t o l o c a t e on t h e F u l l e r t o n F i l l area"  ( H a r r i s 1994, 1 1 ) .  s i t e south  and e a s t  I f a " b i g box" r e t a i l  locate i n close p r o x i m i t y t o the Marine Drive have a p r o f o u n d i m p a c t on t h e n a t u r e The  f u t u r e o f t h e L i o n s Gate B r i d g e  "Of ...  of the study  o u t l e t were t o  c o r r i d o r i t would  of the street. a n d a Low L e v e l  road  could  a l s o have a d r a m a t i c  i m p a c t on M a r i n e D r i v e .  Essentially,  developments of t h i s  sort w i l l  volume and f l o w  along  impact t r a f f i c  t h e s t r e e t and t h u s have an impact on t h e c r e a t i o n o f a  pedestrian-oriented  environment. 4  METHODOLOGY This thesis Specifically,  employs f i e l d r e s e a r c h a s t h e method o f a n a l y s i s . two case s t u d i e s  were c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o g a i n a n  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what makes a m i x e d - u s e c o m m e r c i a l function  well.  As t h i s type o f f i e l d r e s e a r c h t y p i c a l l y  more q u a l i t a t i v e t h a n q u a n t i t a t i v e include  corridor  extensive s t a t i s t i c a l  yields  d a t a , t h e t h e s i s does n o t  analysis.  p e r f o r m e d a s t h e r e a r e no " t y p i c a l "  Two c a s e s t u d i e s  commercial  were  corridors.  Instead, each e x e m p l i f y matchless c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i c t a t e d by surroundings, h i s t o r y , things. The  Further,  and p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s ,  among  other  they a r e dynamic.  two V a n c o u v e r s t r e e t s u s e d a s case s t u d i e s  between L a r c h and C o l l i n g w o o d S t r e e t s ; between 63rd and 7 0th Avenues  and, G r a n v i l l e  (See F i g u r e O n e ) .  chosen as a n example o f a s u c c e s s f u l  Street  B r o a d w a y was  s t r e e t , w h i l e G r a n v i l l e was  chosen as an example o f a l e s s s u c c e s s f u l  5  a r e : Broadway  street.  Figure  1:  Location  Map:  Broadway,  Granville  and  Marine  Drive  STRUCTURE AND OVERVIEW The  t h e s i s comprises f i v e chapters.  This introductory  s i m p l y o u t l i n e s t h e c o n t e x t and framework f o r C h a p t e r two, pertaining patterns  fell  into disuse with  theintroduction of land use  This includes  a look  growth, and l i v a b i l i t y  The c h a p t e r t h e n  the  dictated a re-birth  a t household  o f mixed land use p a t t e r n s  has t r i g g e r e d  outlines  formations,  and a f f o r d a b i l i t y i s s u e s .  c h a p t e r two e x p l o r e s how i n c r e a s e d patterns  I t e x p l o r e s how m i x e d - u s e  p r e s s u r e s and s o c i e t a l changes t h a t  the b e n e f i t s  analysis.  reviews t h e l i t e r a t u r e  early i n d u s t r i a l period.  of t h e c o n c e p t . regional  for Mixed-use,  t o the m i x i n g o f l a n d uses.  zoning i n the various  The Case  chapter  areoutlined.  Next,  Finally,  acceptance o f mixed-use  recent i n t e r e s t i n mixed  commercial  corridors. Chapter three,  Vancouver's  study research and f i n d i n g s . "recreate"  Commercial  corridors,  outlines  case  I n a n a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e how t o  t r a d i t i o n a l streets, thediscussion  f o c u s e s on  l e a r n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c i r c u m s t a n c e o f Broadway and Granville Street.  This discussion  number o f f a c t o r s t h a t street.  Initially,  involves  theexamination of a  come t o b e a r o n t h e f u n c t i o n i n g  commonalties a r e discussed.  each s t r e e t i s explored,  o f each  Following  this,  paying p a r t i c u l a r attention t o history, 7  c u r r e n t and f u t u r e u s e , p l a n n i n g movement p a t t e r n s , study  and d e s i g n  f i n d i n g s , and hence,  mixed-use listed  p o l i c y , zoning,  considerations.  extraction,  integral  the l i s t  Finally,  case  "the requirements of a s u c c e s s f u l  commercial s t r e e t " a r e o u t l i n e d .  as b e i n g  surroundings,  t o success.  N i n e components a r e  Despite  being  a  simplified  o f f e r s i n s i g h t s i n an easy t o u n d e r s t a n d  format. C h a p t e r f o u r , Recreating  Marine  Drive?,  studies the p o t e n t i a l  of c r e a t i n g a c o n d i t i o n s i m i l a r t o Broadway's a l o n g A n a l y s i s echoes studies.  This  the format used f o r the previous allows  realistic  s t r e e t s and M a r i n e D r i v e . Marine Drive's evolved  current  specific  commercial c o r r i d o r .  explores  "revitalization."  Keeping i n mind s p e c i f i c  issues regarding p o t e n t i a l  the t h e s i s suggests abandoning  toward r e v i t a l i z i n g Marine D r i v e . approach u t i l i z i n g Marine D r i v e  Further,  i t emphasizes  how  c o n d i t i o n came t o b e , a n d why i t h a s n o t  Last, t h i s chapter  urban system, c e n t r e d  Vancouver's  information explains  i n t o a p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d mixed  constraints,  Drive.  two c a s e  comparisons between  Background  Marine  Instead,  i s s u e s and efforts  directed  i t s u g g e s t s an  a s a component o f more a  around the cross  s t r e e t Pemberton Avenue.  t h a t c o n d i t i o n s w i l l change v e r y  8  complex  slowly.  Chapter  five,  P o l i c y Recommendations,  suggests p o l i c y  initiatives  t h a t m i g h t be a d o p t e d b y t h e D i s t r i c t  Vancouver.  Several  of  North  of the p o l i c y recommendations c o u l d  p r o f o u n d i m p a c t s , a f f e c t i n g more t h a n j u s t c o n d i t i o n s Marine D r i v e . are  T h u s , a r e a s w h e r e f u r t h e r s t u d y may  outlined next.  future  The  complex n a t u r e of the t o p i c  study.  9  have  on o r  be  near  required  necessitates  CHAPTER TWO: THE CASE FOR MIXED-USE  INTRODUCTION The  concept of mixing  l a n d u s e s i s n o t new.  As Lewis  Mumford i l l u s t r a t e s i n h i s 1 9 6 1 b o o k , The C i t y i n H i s t o r y , a s e a r l y a s 480 BC u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t s w e r e d e f i n e d b y m i x e d l a n d u s e patterns.  I n t e g r a l t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the Greek P o l i s , f o r  e x a m p l e , was a l a n d s c a p e and  theaters  (159).  Nonetheless,  the p r a c t i c e o f m i x i n g history.  comprised o f market p l a c e s ,  gymnasiums,  despite i t s early existence,  l a n d uses has f a l l e n  into disuse i n recent  T h i s c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t w o phenomena: t h e p r a c t i c e  of l a n d u s e zoning,  and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancements w h i c h  i n c r e a s e d f r e e d o m o f movement.  enabled  T h e s e phenomena, e a c h r e i n f o r c e d  by t h e o t h e r , h a v e c r e a t e d a m o n o t o n o u s a n d a r t i f i c i a l l y segregated  urban landscape,  void of v i t a l i t y ,  unresponsive  s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s , and e c o l o g i c a l l y u n s u s t a i n a b l e . land use patterns, i f l e f t vital  unaltered, w i l l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f communities.  i s becoming m a g n i f i e d steps necessary  a n d more s e v e r e ,  to correct i t .  i s beginning  t o recognize  O n l y now, when t h e p r o b l e m a r e we w i l l i n g  concepts  the i l l s 10  The c u r r e n t  s e v e r e l y undermine t h e  I n attempting  c u r r e n t p r o b l e m we a r e b o r r o w i n g  t o new  t o take t h e  t o ameliorate the  from the past.  of current land use  Society  segregation,  and i s thus attempting  t o r e c r e a t e once paramount  mixed l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s o f development.  THE ILL EFFECTS OF ZONING TRIGGER A RESPONSE Zoning developed i n the e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l  p e r i o d as a  r e a c t i o n t o t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f heavy i n d u s t r i a l and residential discordant  functions. land uses.  I t began as a l e g i t i m a t e t o o l However, i t q u i c k l y a d o p t e d a  f u n c t i o n a n d became a t o o l short,  i t evolved  economic  t o segregate  "social  a s a means t o l e g i t i m i z e  social  entities."  In  e t h n i c and s o c i o -  segregation.  Segregation  was f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d b y t e c h n o l o g i c a l  advancements i n t h e f i e l d industrial  of personal  movement.  p e r i o d , t h e r i c h were c a p a b l e  I n the early  of putting only  l a t e r a l d i s t a n c e s between themselves and t h e poor. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n technology between d i f f e r e n t  the s e g r e g a t i o n  progressed  marginal  However, a s  so too d i d the d i s t a n c e  segments o f s o c i e t y .  of s o c i e t y c u l m i n a t e d  North  t o separate  The p h y s i c a l  segregation  w i t h t h e advent o f t h eautomobile.  Today  o f l a n d u s e s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s i s a way o f l i f e i n  America. The  literature  North American c i t i e s  indicates that current sterile.  zoning  Few s t o p t o c o n s i d e r 11  i s making t h e enormous  i m p a c t z o n i n g h a s o n t h e way we c o n d u c t o u r d a y t o d a y l i v e s . Because i t a f f e c t s t h e placement and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e p l a c e s we l i v e , paramount. segregate  work, s h o p , a n d r e c r e a t e , z o n i n g ' s  Moreover, because c u r r e n t  zoning p o l i c i e s  l a n d u s e s a n d r e l a t e d human a c t i v i t i e s ,  of e x i s t e n c e a r e b e i n g  fundamentally  role i s  altered.  b e n e f i t s o f community and c o n v e n i e n c e  generally  basic  patterns  We a r e l o s i n g t h e  a n d t h e p a t t e r n s o f human  existence are being unnecessarily fractured. Zoning a l s o determines the value  of a p i e c e o f l a n d by  e s t a b l i s h i n g what c a n o r c a n n o t o c c u p y e a c h p a r t i c u l a r p a r c e l . The  "commodification"  arrange space.  o f l a n d h a s a m a s s i v e i m p a c t o n t h e way we  Q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e c r e a t i o n o f community, o r  l i v a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e now b e i n g regarding p r o f i t .  asked a f t e r  We a r e n o t t h i n k i n g h a r d  enough about t h e  i n t e g r i t y and importance o f people and p l a c e s . i s not r e a l l y an e x p r e s s i o n but  an e x p r e s s i o n  schemes c a n p r o v i d e fact alone w i l l segregation,  "So  [development]  a b o u t what we t h i n k a b o u t human  of t h e monetary system"  F o r t u n a t e l y , many d e v e l o p e r s  questions  life,  (Wagner 1 9 9 4 , B l ) .  a r e d i s c o v e r i n g that mixed use  g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n from f i n a n c i a l  risk.  This  not s o l v e t h e c u r r e n t problems of imbalance and  however.  C h a n g e s a r e now b e i n g  are becoming d i s e n c h a n t e d  r e a l i z e d as people  w i t h land use segregation. 12  This  disenchantment attributes,  i s c o u p l e d w i t h a r e a l i z a t i o n o f m i x e d u s e ' s many-  a n d a d e s i r e b y many t o s e e k new l i f e s t y l e s .  PRESSURES AND CHANGES DICTATE A RE-BIRTH OF MIXED USE A t t r i b u t e s o f mixed use a r e being r e - d i s c o v e r e d because has  rendered  our urban environments  are unprecedented  sterile.  Equally  zoning  important  p r e s s u r e s and changes.  Changing household  s i z e s a r e m a k i n g new t y p e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l  a c c o m m o d a t i o n s more i m p o r t a n t .  Moreover, as i s evidenced by  l i t e r a t u r e regarding environmental  degradation, people a r e  b e c o m i n g aware o f t h e u n s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f c u r r e n t l a n d u s e patterns. policies,  Suburban s p r a w l , p e r p e t u a t e d by c u r r e n t l a n d u s e i s b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d a s a n i n e f f i c i e n t way o f  accommodating r e g i o n a l growth, and  f i n i t e land resources.  a r e now b e i n g a l l a y e d . density housing  exacerbating problems o f p o l l u t i o n  Further, misconceptions  The l i t e r a t u r e  indicates that higher  forms a r e emerging n o t o n l y as a response t o  a f f o r d a b i l i t y issues, b u t as a l i f e s t y l e preference Richmond 1991).  Many p e o p l e now c h o o s e t o l i v e  accommodations i n o r d e r t o l i v e thus decrease  about d e n s i t y  (City of  i n higher density  c l o s e r t o work a n d s e r v i c e s , and  commuting t i m e and i n c r e a s e l e i s u r e t i m e .  f a m i l y homes a r e p r e f e r r e d b y f i r s t 13  time buyers,  Multi  empty n e s t e r s ,  and  s p e c i a l needs households  (UDI  continue to increase i n size,  1993).  t h e r e must be  o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o them. standard of l i v i n g ,  people  necessary  changes.  lifestyle  now  As  these  groups  suitable  housing  I n o r d e r t o accommodate a  appear w i l l i n g  t o make  high  the  Household formation A v a i l a b l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n s a r e no who  may  l o n g e r meet t h e n e e d s o f a l l  p o t e n t i a l l y o c c u p y them.  Region changing  demographic trends are making t r a d i t i o n a l  of s i n g l e f a m i l y housing households, steadily,  those  less important.  comprised  o f one  from f o r t y - o n e percent  nine percent  In the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n  of the t o t a l  o r two  The  people,  of the t o t a l  i n 1993  r i s e of  As  a s t u d y done b y  the Greater  age  fifty-  14) .  smaller  o f t h e most  formation over the past  d e c a d e s has b e e n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t all  to  Vancouver  D e v e l o p m e n t S e r v i c e s D e p a r t m e n t e x e m p l i f i e s , "one s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s of household  increased  i n 1961  Smaller households are d i c t a t i n g the p r o v i s i o n of dwelling units.  smaller  has  (GVRD A u g u s t 1993,  forms  two  i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p e n s i t y among  groups t o occupy apartment accommodations"  V a n c o u v e r D e v e l o p m e n t S e r v i c e s 1984,  3).  This i s f u r t h e r  emphasized by a r e c e n t Urban Development I n s t i t u t e 14  (Greater  survey,  which  i n d i c a t e s t h a t "based suggest geared  on d e m o g r a p h i c t r e n d s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o  t h a t o n l y a b o u t 25 p e r c e n t o f new h o u s i n g n e e d s t o be t o f a m i l i e s , m o s t l y a s s i n g l e f a m i l y homes"  Regional growth: p o p u l a t i o n and  (UDI 1 9 9 3 , 1) .  pollution  Many o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f m i x e d u s e a n d i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t y are misunderstood,  however, as a t o o l  f o r regional  management t h e y a r e g a i n i n g w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t  growth  (UDI 1993) .  P e o p l e i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d r e a l i z e t h a t p a s t forms o f development, i f p e r p e t u a t e d , w i l l  e x a c e r b a t e problems such as  p o l l u t i o n and t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l understand  land.  They  t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a more c o m p a c t m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n .  T h i s was e x e m p l i f i e d i n a November 1992 c o n f e r e n c e , Communities".  Most c o n f e r e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t  "Shaping our  that  growth  s h o u l d be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e a l r e a d y u r b a n i z e d a r e a s o f t h e B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a and t h e d e v e l o p i n g communities East Sector  ( i . e . C o q u i t l a m and Maple Ridge)  of the North  and N o r t h  Surrey.  T h e s e s e n t i m e n t s w e r e e c h o e d b y V a n c o u v e r i t e s , who s t a t e d are not opposed t o p o p u l a t i o n growth bulge i s absorbed  "as l o n g a s t h e p o p u l a t i o n  by dense nodes o f h o u s i n g "  These a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t  revelations.  15  they  ( G r i f f i n 1994, B2) .  The L o w e r M a i n l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o g r o w b y s e v e n t y p e r c e n t , r e a c h i n g n e a r l y t h r e e m i l l i o n b y 2 021 Sept. 1993).  This growth w i l l  p o l l u t i o n problems.  create unprecedented  (GVRD  traffic  and  F o r example, p r o j e c t i n g t h e c u r r e n t Lower  M a i n l a n d t r a v e l p a t t e r n s , where s e v e n t y t h r e e p e r c e n t o f a l l j o u r n e y s t o w o r k a r e made b y t h e p r i v a t e a u t o m o b i l e 1991,  19), road v e h i c l e s w i l l  1993).  r e a c h two m i l l i o n  People i n the r e g i o n w i l l  slower i n order to perform d a i l y  have t o t r a v e l  (D'Amour  (GVRD S e p t . f u r t h e r and  activities.  E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f a l l a t m o s p h e r i c p o l l u t i o n i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d c u r r e n t l y comes f r o m m o b i l e s o u r c e s - i . e . a u t o m o b i l e s and t r u c k s  ( C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r T a s k F o r c e 1990, 1 7 ) .  I n 1985  r e s u l t e d i n 308,000 t o n e s o f c a r b o n m o n o x i d e e m i s s i o n s 1993).  this  (GVRD  O b v i o u s l y , as t h e r e g i o n grows, and t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d  s e p a r a t i o n between workplace, l e v e l s of p o l l u t i o n w i l l  shopping,  increase.  r e c r e a t i o n a n d homes,  Where p e o p l e l i v e  w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n has i m p o r t a n t r a m i f i c a t i o n s on c o n g e s t i o n a n d v e h i c l e e m i s s i o n s , a n d must be adjusted.  16  and work  traffic  appropriately  Affordability Adjustments  t o our p a t t e r n s of development are a l s o  as r e s p o n s e s t o a f f o r d a b i l i t y c o n c e r n s . neighbourhoods  are c o s t l y .  burgeoning problem  Essentially,  low  Several studies i l l u s t r a t e  density  the  of r i s i n g l a n d c o s t s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d .  The  cost of land,  now  a c c o u n t s f o r more t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e  r e q u i r e d when b u i l d i n g a s i n g l e f a m i l y home,  accommodation p r i c e . G i v e n t h e new  arising  total  T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h i s has n o t been t h e  r e a l i t y we  are forced to decrease land p a r c e l  i n order to decrease the purchase p r i c e of r e s i d e n t i a l This s i t u a t i o n necessitates higher density  f o r d r a s t i c c h a n g e s i n t h e way  we  development.  a r r a n g e and  Increased d e n s i t i e s are required. new  development,  c a n be p r o b l e m a t i c  existing residents perpetuates urban  c o n f i g u r e space.  Residential  Increased densities i n e x i s t i n g  areas are v i r t u a l l y always  (Spaxman 1 9 8 6 ) .  New  development  s p r a w l i s an u n d e s i r a b l e o p t i o n .  g a i n s c a n be made t h r o u g h r e d e v e l o p m e n t  which  infill  from  which Thus, most  intensifies  l a n d by a d d i n g a mix  s h o p p i n g , w o r k i n g and r e c r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 17  through  residential  confronted with opposition  of c u r r e n t l y u n d e r u t i l i z e d urban  the need  T h e s e c a n be a c h i e v e d  o r redevelopment.  sizes  units.  The p r e s s u r e s and c h a n g e s o u t l i n e d a b o v e i l l u s t r a t e  infill,  case.  the  use  of housing,  T h i s can  be  a c c o m p l i s h e d by corridors.  re-creating  t r a d i t i o n a l mixed use  Borrowing from the  t o c r e a t e an  past,  e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h has  high densities,  an  e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l and  commercial  t h i s v i s i o n can i n t r i c a t e mix c h a r a c t e r , and,  be of  developed land  uses,  benefits  the  pedestrian.  THE  BENEFITS OF As  and  was  equity  MIXED  outlined, are  pressures related  mounting.  most i n d i v i d u a l s ask:  USE  t o a d o p t a new  corridors,  why  do  pattern  of  s u c h as M a r i n e D r i v e ,  countless  People are use.  M i x e d use  We  prompt must  attractive? wish to  see  transformed i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l The  answer i s s i m p l e :  mixed-use  benefits. b e g i n n i n g to c o n s i d e r the  attributes  development can  o n l y economic  o f f e r not  r e d u c t i o n s i n p o l l u t i o n , but  increased personal safety,  Further,  health  by  inhabitants  increased access to  of  mixed savings  services,  improved s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n ,  increased d i v e r s i t y . of  not  existence.  North Vancouver r e s i d e n t s  s t y l e mixed commercial s t r e e t s ? offers  pollution,  Nonetheless, t h i s alone w i l l  what e l s e makes m i x e d - u s e d e v e l o p m e n t  Specifically,  and  to population,  i t can  help to  offering a better  life. 18  and  improve the  overall quality  mental of  Revisiting Traditional  Concepts  These q u a l i t i e s a r e b e i n g r e v i s i t e d t h r o u g h a r e t u r n t o traditional planning principles.  Traditional  Main Streets,  which  were o n c e i n t e g r a l  t o the functioning of North American v i l l a g e s ,  acting  and c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s , a r e once a g a i n becoming  as p h y s i c a l  important. streets  Basic q u a l i t i e s are being rediscovered.  promise a l i f e  Essentially, community  which i s simpler,  slower, and  offer  shops, o f f i c e s ,  and e n t e r t a i n m e n t  community i n t e r a c t i o n  opportunities, They o f f e r  -- o r a t l e a s t  more  and t h e y a r e f r i e n d l y t o  T h e y a r e p l a c e s w e r e one c a n s a f e l y  t o shop, w o r k o r r e c r e a t e . the street  style  as they a r e i n h a b i t e d by p e o p l e  o f d i v e r s e age g r o u p s a n d i n c o m e l e v e l s , pedestrians.  traditional  a compact g a t h e r i n g o f h o u s i n g ,  a l l o w i n g one t o e a s i l y p r e f o r m d a i l y t a s k s .  on  into  streets.  mixed-use s t r e e t s  intriguing  safer.  t h e y work t o t r a n s f o r m c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r s  Apart from the obvious emotional appeal,  groceries,  These  and e a s i l y  walk  They work t o p u t t h e p e d e s t r i a n b a c k n e x t t o i t ( B o o k o u t 1 9 9 2 , 24) .  19  Calthorpe and  Duany, P l a t e r - Z y b e r k  T r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s have g a i n e d the many. the  Integral  p l a y e r s i n the  "neotraditional"  C a l i f o r n i a p l a n n e r P e t e r C a l t h o r p e and  A n d r e s Duany and  Elizabeth  helped focus discussions concepts.  Plater-Zyberk.  on  the  Neo-traditionalists  the  support  movement  of include  architect  team  These i n d i v i d u a l s  of have  importance of t r a d i t i o n a l w i s h t o c h a n n e l new  growth  into  compact, t i g h t l y woven c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h h o u s i n g , o f f i c e s ,  and  stores  101) .  within  The  w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e of  principles  stressed  p l a n n i n g concepts which are  by  each o t h e r  (Bressi  n e o t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s are  gaining  in  applied new  (TOD's).  to e x i s t i n g communities, or  cities.  transit  Developments  E s s e n t i a l l y , a TOD  station.  Since public  access i s convenient,  the  can  TOD be  s i z e of  at a h i g h d e n s i t y ,  commercial areas are  knit  principles  of can  used to create  be whole a  t r a n s i t w o r k s b e s t when p e d e s t r i a n these communities i s l i m i t e d  community i s d e s i g n e d a r o u n d the  of b u i l d i n g s  concept  i s a s m a l l town c e n t r e d around  easy w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e to a t r a n s i t s t a t i o n The  basic  popularity.  P e t e r C a l t h o r p e i s b e s t known f o r what h i s Transit-Oriented  1992,  and  together.  20  (Bressi  station.  1992,  102) .  It includes  ensures that  by  a  mix  residential  and  Calthorpe L e o n K r i e r , who traditional 1992, 1 0 3 ) .  draws i n s p i r a t i o n f r o m t h e u r b a n d e s i g n  theorist  i n h i s book Urban Space a d v o c a t e s t h a t  s t r e e t s a r e t h e b a s i s o f community  design  He c l o s e l y f o l l o w s K r i e r ' s a r g u m e n t  n e c e s s i t i e s of urban l i f e  should  (Bressi  that a l l  be a c c e s s i b l e b y f o o t  within  mixed-use communities. K r i e r ' s t h i n k i n g a l s o a p p e a r s t o h a v e i n f l u e n c e d Duany a n d Plater-Zyberk.  This  team p r o m o t e s what t h e y t e r m T r a d i t i o n a l  Neighbourhood Developments a t t r i b u t e s of Calthorpe's housing,  (TND's). TOD's.  TND's e c h o many o f t h e  They e m p h a s i z e a m i x o f  shops e t c . i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y  t o one a n o t h e r .  They  s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t t r a d i t i o n a l A m e r i c a n s m a l l town i n b o t h f u n c t i o n and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e . longing f o r Disneyland simple  nostalgia.  s m a l l towns  Duany, P l a t e r - Z y b e r k  feel  that  a  s t y l e M a i n S t r e e t s i l l u s t r a t e s more t h a n  I t shows t h a t p e o p l e d e s i r e t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f  (Duany 1992, 9 9 ) .  P u t t i n g the concepts to  use  People are r e c o g n i z i n g the a t t r i b u t e s of mixed-use promoted by C a l t h o r p e ,  Duany, P l a t e r - Z y b e r k  being  and o t h e r s .  Many  u n d e r s t a n d t h e economic b e n e f i t s , and a r e b e g i n n i n g  to realize  t h e many q u a l i t a t i v e b o n u s e s o f f e r e d b y t r a d i t i o n a l  style  21  now  mixed  use  developments.  Benefits  b e t t e r o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of  include  a better  sense of p l a c e  and  a  life.  Economic a t t r i b u t e s Increased density, cheaper.  In high  utilities  are  incurred. lower. 1-2). for  o f f e r e d by m i x e d - u s e s c e n a r i o s ,  density  developments the  a b o u t 55 p e r c e n t l o w e r t h a n t h o s e  O p e r a t i n g and  maintenance costs  E n e r g y c o n s u m p t i o n a l s o t e n d s t o be Higher density  f o r roads  r e s i d e n t i a l and  In the  for u t i l i t i e s less  b e n e f i t s of h i g h Nevertheless,  d e n s i t y m i x e d use  ( N e a l e 1991, are  a c c e p t a b l e l a n d use a l s o be  identified  priced  1).  The  economic  indisputable.  s i n g l e handedly l e a d to a profound r e t r o f i t t i n g of an  i n t e g r a l r o l e i n the  patterns.  a t t r a c t i v e using  not  space.  creation  of  Economically v i a b l e options  i n t a n g i b l e measures s u c h as  place."  22  1990,  Vancouver,  these a t t r i b u t e s , although important, w i l l  People's emotions p l a y  also  opportunities  C i t y of  as an a r e a w h e r e s u b s t a n t i a l numbers o f m o d e r a t e l y created  are  (MacDonald  commercial zones have been  c o n d o m i n i u m u n i t s c o u l d be  and  traditionally  development o f f e r s e x c e l l e n t  m a k i n g h o u s i n g more a f f o r d a b l e .  mixed use  costs  is  "sense  must of  Sense of p l a c e The s e n s e o f a n u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t  refers to the " c l a r i t y  w h i c h i t c a n be p e r c e i v e d and i d e n t i f i e d " concept i s best analyzed  (Lynch  a r e shaped by t h e s p a t i a l  q u a l i t y o f a p l a c e , as w e l l as t h e c u l t u r e ,  131).  for different  form and  temperament, s t a t u s ,  and c u r r e n t purpose o f t h e o b s e r v e r  The e x p e r i e n c e  1 9 8 1 , 1 3 1 ) . The  as an i n t e r a c t i o n between a p e r s o n and a  p l a c e whereby p e r c e p t i o n s  experience,  (Lynch 1981,  o f a n y one p l a c e i s l i k e l y t o b e d i f f e r e n t  observers.  P l a c e s w h i c h have a s t r o n g e r sense, q u i t e s i m p l y , w h i c h h a v e some f o r m o f i d e n t i t y .  d e s i g n does c r e a t e a sense o f p l a c e .  be p a i d t o f o r m a n d d e s i g n unique,  P h y s i c a l form  However,  t h i s c o n c e p t i s n o t r e c e i v i n g enough a t t e n t i o n .  as p l a n n e r s ,  developers,  threatened  by those i n  and a r c h i t e c t s a r e  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y b u i l d i n g meaningless places  ( W a l t e r 1 9 8 8 , 2) .  Because d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g p h y s i c a l d e s i g n a f f e c t live,  we must h a v e a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  memorable  a t t e n t i o n must  c h a r a c t e r o f i t s own.  Many a r g u e s o c i e t y i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g control,  to  i n order t o ensure t h a t a p l a c e has a  or at.least particular,  Some f e e l  a r e those  I d e n t i f y allows people  r e c a l l a p l a c e a s b e i n g d i s t i n c t and memorable. and  with  place. 23  t h e way  people  o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a  In  recent history,  inappropriate.  t h e m i x i n g o f l a n d u s e s was  M i x e d use d i s t r i c t s were seen as c h a o t i c ,  such were n o t c o n s i d e r e d good u r b a n p l a c e s . Jacobs o u t l i n e s ,  However, a s  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  a c o m p l e x and h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d f o r m o f o r d e r "  Jane  (1961, 2 2 2 ) .  Thus,  our quest t o a l l e v i a t e t h e p e r c e i v e d chaos of mixed use  sameness o f s i n g l e u s e l a n d s c a p e s c a n n o t e l i c i t place.  Lacking i n s i g n i f i c a n t variation,  placeless,  as  they represent  h a v e c r e a t e d m o n o t o n o u s e n v i r o n m e n t s w h i c h we now  of  and  the " i n t r i c a t e m i n g l i n g of d i f f e r e n t uses i n  c i t i e s are not a form of chaos.  in  deemed  a n d become d e e p l y c o n f u s i n g .  and d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t order t o c r e a t e atmospheres health"  ( J a c o b s 1961,  living,  s h o p p i n g , w o r k i n g and  deplore.  The  a strong  sense  these landscapes are  P e o p l e need  t h e i r movement.  o f "buoyancy,  we  variations Thus,  friendliness  in  and  9 ) , we must m i n g l e b u i l d i n g s u s e d f o r recreating.  The a d o p t i o n o f m i x e d u s e d e v e l o p m e n t  p a t t e r n s d o e s n o t mean  we h a v e t o a b a n d o n a t t r i b u t e s o f s i n g l e u s e l a n d s c a p e s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which e l i c i t b e i n g s h o u l d be e n h a n c e d . personal 39).  S i n g l e f a m i l y homes o f t e n  "identity, privacy,  These  a s t r o n g sense o f p l a c e and  s e c u r i t y and c o n t r o l "  well-  allow  (UDI  1993,  f e a t u r e s c a n be o f f e r e d q u i t e s i m p l y i n h i g h e r  d e n s i t y mixed use environments through the use of s i n g l e 24  family  d e s i g n f e a t u r e s such as b a l c o n i e s , bay windows, dormers,  lofts,  f i r e p l a c e s and t h e l i k e .  L i v a b i l i t y and q u a l i t y of As Sue C r o w h u r s t  life  illustrates  D e s i g n and S o c i a l L i f e " ,  i n her a r t i c l e  a l i v a b l e environment  "Urban Space  provides occasions  and p l a c e s f o r p e o p l e t o e x p e r i e n c e s a t i s f y i n g a n d e n j o y a b l e c o n t a c t s , and f e e l  l i k e members o f a c o m m u n i t y  According to t h i s c r i t e r i o n t r a d i t i o n a l neighborhoods landscapes,  (1990,  single  a r e f a i l i n g as l i v a b l e p l a c e s .  2) .  family Low  density  s e g r e g a t e d b y l a n d u s e , do n o t p r o v i d e a m p l e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e o p l e t o meet a n d f o s t e r a s t r o n g s e n s e o f community.  Thus, p e o p l e l i v i n g  a l i e n a t e d and l o n e l y . old.  i n such landscapes o f t e n  feel  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h e young o r  Physical constraints,  r e s u l t i n g from an environment  assumes t h e u s e o f a u t o m o b i l e s f o r m o b i l i t y ,  which  tend t o ghettoize  these people. Traditional  s t y l e mixed-use s t r e e t s ,  o f f e r l i v a b l e environments,  on t h e o t h e r hand,  and a good o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f l i f e .  They c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n e i g h b o u r s a n d f r i e n d s t o meet a n d socialize.  Further,  they b r i n g a d i v e r s e c r o s s - s e c t i o n of  individuals together, allowing increased social 25  interaction.  Mixed commercial  corridors provide  f o r y o u n g a n d o l d , women a n d  men, a n d f o r a v a r i e t y o f e t h n i c a n d s o c i o e c o n o m i c generate o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r expression  and e x p l o r a t i o n .  they allow b e t t e r access t o t h e v a r i o u s amenities r e q u i r e d by a d i v e r s e group In short, t r a d i t i o n a l to create  communities.  s t y l e mixed  This  their claims. opportunity Moreover,  and s e r v i c e s  commercial  c o r r i d o r s work  and s a f e t y o f t h i s style  c o r r i d o r s a r e seen as (  I t i l l u s t r a t e s how t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s  f o r crime prevention  People  type of  Evidence from t h e l i t e r a t u r e  i t emphasizes  Moreover,  e x p l a i n s t h e i r magnetism.  F o r some, t r a d i t i o n a l  vivacious sanctuaries.  They  of people.  are a t t r a c t e d t o t h e v i b r a n c y community.  groups.  supports a l l o w more  through increased s u r v e i l l a n c e .  how m i x e d u s e t r a d i t i o n a l  bustle with a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s  throughout  style  streets  t h e day.  RE-BIRTH OF AN OLD CONCEPT One may q u e s t i o n the b e n e f i t s o f mixed evolution,  why we h a v e t a k e n s o l o n g t o r e - d i s c o v e r uses.  The f a c t i s , d e s p i t e  t h e renewed a c c e p t a n c e  of t r a d i t i o n a l  i t s slow style  mixed-use  c o r r i d o r s has been e v o l v i n g f o r almost as l o n g as t h e d i v e r g e n c e toward l a n d use s e g r e g a t i o n . long-standing  ideas  The c o n c e p t  i s based  t h a t have been implemented, 26  o n a number o f  f o r g o t t e n , and  now  seem t o be  relevant again.  Examples of p a s t  ideas include:  E b e n e z e r Howard's G a r d e n C i t y movement, w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d r e j e c t i o n o f s u b u r b a n s p r a w l , and sufficient  "mixed use"  importance  o f p h y s i c a l and  environments;  cities;  an a f f e c t i o n f o r s e l f  Jane Jacobs'  n o t i o n s on  functional diversity  A n d r e s Duany's n e o - t r a d i t i o n a l  p r i n c i p l e s ; and  Peter Calthorpe's  guidelines  1993,  (UDI  a  the  i n urban  town p l a n n i n g  transit-oriented  development  79).  CONCLUSION As  i s evidenced  by t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e r e a r e p r e s s u r e s  change i n o u r p a t t e r n s o f l a n d u s e environmental concerns changing.  concerns  and  development.  a r e b e c o m i n g more i m p o r t a n t ,  a r e b e c o m i n g more p o i n t e d , and P e r h a p s e v e n more i m p o r t a n t ,  a l s o changing.  People  household  Currently, affordability  formations  c r e a t e d when v a r i o u s  Furthermore,  c o m m u n i t i e s and n e i g h b o r h o o d s .  They d e s i r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o  surprise,  socialize with others.  as humans a r e s o c i a l  animals.  27  are  life.  a c t i v i t i e s are mixed together.  meet, i n t e r a c t and  are  l i f e s t y l e preferences  a r e demanding a h i g h q u a l i t y of  They d e s i r e t h e i n c r e a s e d c o n v e n i e n c e  for  t h e y want  friendlier  T h i s s h o u l d come a s  no  In short, mixed use commercial c o r r i d o r s a r e b e i n g recognized  a s a means t o meet t h e demands o f t o d a y ' s s o c i e t y a n d  t a c k l e the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h past  28  land use p a t t e r n s .  CHAPTER THREE: VANCOUVER'S MIXED COMMERCIAL CORRIDORS  INTRODUCTION T r a d i t i o n a l mixed-use commercial s t r e e t s e x e m p l i f y of a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s t h e q u e s t i o n becomes: how c a n we c r e a t e  a means  (See F i g u r e T w o ) .  Thus,  "new" m i x e d - u s e  c o m m e r c i a l s t r e e t s w h i c h embody t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l mixed-use c o r r i d o r s ?  The o b v i o u s  approach i s t o look a t e x i s t i n g  m i x e d c o m m e r c i a l s t r e e t s t o d i s c e r n how t h e y f u r t h e r , whether they can be r e c r e a t e d . o b j e c t i v e o f t h e next  two c h a p t e r s .  came t o b e , a n d  This i s p r e c i s e l y the  This chapter  Vancouver commercial c o r r i d o r s as case s t u d i e s .  e x p l o r e s two Chapter  Four  examines t h e M a r i n e D r i v e C o r r i d o r i n N o r t h Vancouver t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t i t c a n work a s a t r a d i t i o n a l mixed-use commercial  The interest  corridor.  a t t r i b u t e s o f mixed commercial c o r r i d o r s have  sparked  i n t h e p l a n n i n g community and i n t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver t h i s current process Plan.  style  i s best  i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e  o f amending t h e Lower C a p i l a n o O f f i c i a l  Those i n v o l v e d e x p r e s s  interest 29  In  Community  i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of  r e c r e a t i n g the Marine D r i v e a significant evolution  strip.  This  s h i f t i n street character;  recreation  best described  from a s t r i p mall' to a t r a d i t i o n a l  district.  30  i s to  commercial  as  include an  shopping  Figure 2: Examples of Traditional style mixed use commercial streets  Ambleside, West Vancouver 31  The be  c u r r e n t Marine  superseded  Drive O f f i c i a l  by t h e new  C a p i l a n o OCP)  Community P l a n perpetuates  (which  a long-  standing North Vancouver p l a n n i n g p o l i c y t h a t r e c o g n i z e s c o r r i d o r as an a u t o m o b i l e - d e p e n d e n t  strip.  People  are  q u e s t i o n i n g whether or not t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s s t i l l One  of the D i s t r i c t ' s  requirements corridor.  necessary  The  now  current o b j e c t i v e s i s to determine  f o r a s u c c e s s f u l mixed-use  the  commercial  f u l f i l m e n t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e must i n c l u d e an of o t h e r mixed-use commercial  specifically,  i t should include a d e t a i l e d understanding  and p r e s e n t p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s , c u r r e n t r o l e and  historical  f u n c t i o n of each  strips.  Vancouver commercial  strips  More of  circumstances,  past  and  the  street.  With t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n mind, t h i s t h e s i s w i l l  Figure  the  appropriate.  understanding  Collingwood,  will  explore  two  -- West B r o a d w a y b e t w e e n L a r c h  and  and G r a n v i l l e S o u t h b e t w e e n 6 3  Three).  32  r d  and  70  t h  Avenue  (See  33  Because t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n personal  o f success o r f a i l u r e h i n g e s on  j u d g m e n t , s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a a s t o what c o n s t i t u t e s a  s u c c e s s f u l u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p must b e e s t a b l i s h e d . criteria utilized  The  i n this thesis r e f l e c t s attributes the D i s t r i c t  of N o r t h Vancouver wishes t o a c h i e v e a l o n g Marine D r i v e . successful  street i sdefined  as an a t t r a c t i v e ,  pedestrian  f r i e n d l y , mixed-use commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l s t r i p . l i v e l y a n d a c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e day. strong  sense o f community and p l a c e .  perpetuated by higher  density  time, i t i s a " l i v a b l e "  Further,  Yet,  It i s  i t elicits  I t has an urban  development.  A  a  feel,  a t t h e same  environment.  THE CASE STUDIES Broadway and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t characteristics.  A brief retail  exemplify  and p l a n n i n g  w i l l p r e c e d e t h e more d e t a i l e d c a s e  a number o f s i m i l a r policy  discussion  studies.  RETAILING PATTERNS Patterns  of r e t a i l  a c t i v i t y evolve over long periods  through v a r i e d conditions. the  Past decisions  a r e o f t e n unique, as  s c a l e and context o f urban problems a r e c o n t i n u a l l y 34  o f time  changing.  Thus,  each of Vancouver's  c o m m e r c i a l s t r e e t s e x e m p l i f i e s a number  of p e e r l e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Broadway  and  G r a n v i l l e have commonalties. E a r l y mixed-use  c o m m e r c i a l s t r e e t s were c o n f i n e d by  modes o f a v a i l a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  The  the  advent of e l e c t r i c  street  c a r s c o n t r i b u t e d most t o t h e i n d i c a t i v e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y pattern.  I n Vancouver,  the B r i t i s h Columbia S t r e e t Car a i d e d i n  the c r e a t i o n of important o u t l y i n g s t r i p s of commercial development.  S u c h s t r i p s owe  t h e i r existence to the s t r e e t car,  d e v e l o p i n g a n d e v o l v i n g as m e r c h a n t s and a t m a j o r These  located along the line-ways  intersections.  "unplanned" Vancouver  e s s e n t i a l l y as r e q u i r e d . mixed l a n d use p a t t e r n .  c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s grew  Consequently, they exemplify a genuine Despite textural differences,  commercial s t r i p s have e v o l v e d i n t o c l a s s i f i a b l e fit  up  i n t o a commercial h i e r a r c h i c a l p a t t e r n .  This  these  entities pattern  i n c l u d e s t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s b a s e d on t h e r a n g e o f g o o d s s e r v i c e s a n d t h e s i z e o f s e r v i c e d a r e a -- r e g i o n a l , l o c a l centres  which  and  district,  and  ( A r b o u r 1979, 4 ) .  L o c a l c e n t r e s a r e t h o s e w h i c h p r o v i d e c o n v e n i e n c e goods r e q u i r e d b y n e a r b y r e s i d e n t s on a d a y t o d a y b a s i s . g e n e r a l l y house g r o c e r y s t o r e s , d r y c l e a n e r s , 35  They  and d r u g s t o r e s ,  and  s e r v i c e l e s s t h a n 10,000 p e o p l e w i t h i n a r a d i u s one  half  f u n c t i o n as district.  centres  a retail  are and  Such c e n t r e s  variety stores, often contain libraries.  and  those which, i n a d d i t i o n t o the service centre  f o r the  usually include  large  some s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s .  facilities  s u c h as  These c e n t r e s  theaters,  are g e n e r a l l y  Regional centres a c t as  metropolitan  serve a d i s t i n c t  a focal point  area.  They a r e  larger, usually serving radius.  100  District  l a r g e r than l o c a l  second o n l y  to the  radius.  therefore  a l l examples of r e g i o n a l  commercial centres.  urban a r t e r i a l s ,  and  l a r g e amounts o f  These c e n t r e s  business  considerably  s p a c e and  can  be  are  a t t r a c t an  traditional  36  infrequent  Park  considered  broken  comprise establishments that  mile  centres.  those which f u n c t i o n p r i m a r i l y  t h o s e w h i c h f u n c t i o n as  Urban a r t e r i a l s  these  the  central  Granville Street  or  centres  Normally  segment o f  s t u d y , B r o a d w a y and  additional categories:  streets.  mile  function.  are  also  community c e n t r e s ,  M e t r o t o w n i n B u r n a b y , O a k r i d g e i n V a n c o u v e r , and  In t h i s  two  centres  - 300,000 p e o p l e w i t h i n a f o u r  R o y a l i n West V a n c o u v e r a r e  district  residential  for a large  i n c o m m e r c i a l i m p o r t a n c e , and  above,  supermarkets,  s e r v i c i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30,000 p e o p l e i n a one  district  approximately  mile.  District  centres  of  into as shopping  require  clientele.  Traditional customers  shopping s t r e e t s ,  who w a l k t o shop,  on t h e o t h e r hand, n o r m a l l y  generally arriving directly  ( D a v i e s 1984, 6 3 ) . The s t r o n g e s t d i s t r i c t elements  of both function,  v a r i e t y and comparison  f r o m home  centres include  r e l y i n g on c o n v e n i e n c e  urban appeal and d i u r n a l a c t i v i t y ,  attract  s t o r e s t o add  and l a r g e r s t o r e s t o add  shopping.  Broadway and G r a n v i l l e f u n c t i o n p r i m a r i l y as t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s , y e t h a v e some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s urban a r t e r i a l s .  Each s t r e e t ' s c u r r e n t l e v e l  indicative of  o f s u c c e s s depends  l a r g e l y o n t h e b a l a n c e s t r u c k b e t w e e n t h e s e two c o m p o n e n t s .  PLANNING POLICY Because b o t h case s t u d i e s a r e w i t h i n t h e C i t y o f jurisdiction,  Vancouver's  t h e y s h a r e a common p l a n n i n g p o l i c y h i s t o r y .  most s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e  r e s u l t e d from  increasing  development p r e s s u r e on t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f V a n c o u v e r l a t e 1980's.  The  i n the  Demand f o r h o u s i n g u n i t s i n t h e b u i l t u p a r e a s o f  t h e c i t y was b e g i n n i n g t o o u t w e i g h  supply.  Thus, C i t y C o u n c i l  r e q u e s t e d a n e x p l o r a t i o n o f ways t o i n c r e a s e h o u s i n g opportunities within the c i t y .  The r e s u l t a n t r e p o r t  identified  t h r e e ways o f i n c r e a s i n g h o u s i n g c a p a c i t y w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g p u b l i c c o s t and l i m i t i n g t h e i m p a c t s on e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i t i e s . 37  Included  i n the l i s t  was a p r o p o s a l t o make b e t t e r u s e o f t h e c i t y ' s  e x i s t i n g mixed-use  c o m m e r c i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l C-2 z o n e s b y a d d i n g a  s u b s t a n t i a l number o f h o u s i n g u n i t s a b o v e c o m m e r c i a l s h o p s . t h a t e n d , i n J u l y 1989 C i t y C o u n c i l r e m o v e d F.S.R. to  r e s i d e n t i a l u s e i n t h e C - l a n d C-2 z o n e s  To  disincentives  (Neale 1991, 1 ) .  I n i t i a t i o n o f t h e 1989 p o l i c y was n o t i n t e n d e d t o r e v i t a l i z e f a l t e r i n g urban commercial s t r i p s . response t o housing shortages.  Instead,  i t emerged as a  Nonetheless, t h e i n i t i a t i v e had  i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r many u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s . h e l p e d p r o t e c t and shape  s e v e r a l Vancouver  streets.  This p o l i c y g r e a t l y strengthens a d e s i r a b l e mixed p a t t e r n by making "Previously, of  residential  4 1 ) . Thus,  land use  i t e a s i e r t o add r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s t o a s t r e e t . s p a c e was c a l c u l a t e d a t 2.5 t i m e s t h a t  commercial space i n f l o o r space c a l c u l a t i o n s "  1990,  I t has  (Hulchanski  developers found i t e c o n o m i c a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e t o  create r e s i d e n t i a l units,  and s u c c e s s f u l  commercial  streets  r i s k e d a p o t e n t i a l l y undesirable mix of land uses  characterized  by an o v e r e m p h a s i s o f c o m m e r c i a l space.  initiative  The 1989  removed t h e " c o n s t r a i n t f r o m t h e Z o n i n g S c h e d u l e s o t h a t residential space"  space  [was] c a l c u l a t e d a t t h e same r a t e a s c o m m e r c i a l  ( H u l c h a n s k i 1990, 4 1 ) .  I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h i s  38  could  add  5500 h o u s i n g u n i t s i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s  downtown ( N e a l e 1 9 9 1 ,  outside of  5).  T h i s z o n i n g a d j u s t m e n t h a s l e d t o some p r o b l e m s . the i n i t i a l  Several of  d e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s u n d e r t h e new p o l i c y h a d  s i g n i f i c a n t design problems concerning n o i s e and d a y l i g h t i n g o f i n t e r i o r rooms  (Neale 1991).  A study by Neale,  A r c h i t e c t s c i t e s t h a t i t was v i r t u a l l y  Staniszkes,  Doll  impossible t o achieve the  a l l o w a b l e F.S.R. l i m i t w i t h i n t h e b u i l d i n g e n v e l o p e .  Hence, t h e  s t u d y recommended a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e maximum a l l o w a b l e residential  F.S.R.  T h i s recommendation has y e t t o be a c t e d upon;  however, i t i s i m p o r t a n t ,  and s h o u l d be kept  i n m i n d when  suggesting p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n f o r North Vancouver  District.  VANCOUVER'S COMMERCIAL STREETS WEST BROADWAY (Between L a r c h and Collingwood S t r e e t s )  39  TRUTCH  ST. M  s  • 8  II-,.  •i  Sr.  t  •  _i" _  i I  M  _  IJklalL&l  o n —  J.  -  i-  V  Rid  S  VI  I.  i/  I -si  € |k V  "  "  -  -6Ahft0b«rVA---ST -i  1^  ft  «ri  ,  . Ub .  J!* t n » * l . " 'it.lt™. ,  3  p  "III" II.,*  V|  ^ infill  •  m  MI  5*  II s= I  pi  * iM*^i  1. H i s t o r y Broadway's growth began i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s Development  i n t h e K i t s i l a n o a r e a was e n h a n c e d  century.  i n 1909 when  p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s , c o n v i n c e d BC E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y Company t o r u n a s t r e e t c a r l i n e down F o u r t h A v e n u e t o A l m a S t r e e t 87).  As a r e s u l t ,  ( D a v i s 1976,  w i t h i n a y e a r t h e a r e a n o r t h o f F o u r t h Avenue  t o t h e b e a c h was c o m p l e t e l y d e v e l o p e d . By t h e e a r l y 1 9 1 0 ' s B r o a d w a y was b e g i n n i n g t o t a k e s h a p e . street car line, of the s t r e e t , Trafalgar.  w h i c h g r e a t l y enhanced  the commercial  A  vitality  h a d been e x t e n d e d west on Broadway t o n e a r  However, d e s p i t e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t ,  r e m a i n e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p , c o n c e n t r a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l development The n e x t i m p e t u s t o d e v e l o p m e n t  around  F o u r t h Avenue  and a t t r a c t e d it.  came i n 1932 w i t h t h e  completion of the Burrard Street bridge  ( D a v i s 1 9 7 6 , 8 7 ) . By t h e  1930's B r o a d w a y was l i t t e r e d w i t h c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e s , a n d began t o resemble t h e u r b a n commercial s t r i p w h i c h e x i s t s a l b e i t a t a more l o c a l  scale.  By 1945 K i t s i l a n o was u n d e r g o i n g immense c h a n g e . development  today,  Increased  a n d l a n d u s e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n came w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f  a new G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t b r i d g e w h i c h b r o u g h t t r o l l e y b u s e s t o t h e area  (Sun, May 1 9 9 0 ) .  Z o n i n g was c h a n g e d 41  to allow f o r the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p a r t m e n t s , and  the present  higher d e n s i t y apartment d i s t r i c t s s t r e e t s began t o take  2.  Current Use  and  t r a v e r s e d by u r b a n  an i m p o r t a n t and  p l a c e i n the h i e r a r c h y of  acts both  as a s p e c i a l t y s h o p p i n g  Although  F o u r t h A v e n u e , B r o a d w a y has  a t t r a c t s both  as a l o c a l  as i t s n o r t h e r n  counterpart,  become a f a s h i o n a b l e s t r e e t .  Street-  c o f f e e s h o p s h a v e c r e a t e d an a t m o s p h e r e t h a t local,  s u c h as S t a r b u c k s  and more d i s t a n t r e s i d e n t s .  Coffee  Coffee  a t 2902 West B r o a d w a y , a n d  a t 2699 West B r o a d w a y h a v e a i d e d i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f ambiance.  shopping  district.  p e r h a p s not as p o p u l a r  s i d e c a f e s and  commercial  Activity  Vancouver's urban s t r e e t s , and  form of  shape.  West B r o a d w a y has  street,  Kitsilano  These shops are q u i c k l y becoming the  Grabba Jabba this  community  gathering places f o r neighbourhoods l i k e K i t s i l a n o . t a k e n on a r o l e s i m i l a r t o t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h whereby t h e y r e p r e s e n t and meet p e o p l e  a p l a c e where l o c a l  f r o m t h e community  B r o a d w a y has  a l i v e l y and  (See  r e s i d e n t s can  Figure  i s a n o t a b l y h i g h l e v e l of p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y , The 42  They have  P u b l i c Houses, gather  Five).  d i v e r s e c h a r a c t e r and  a p p e a r s b u s y t h r o u g h o u t t h e day.  shops  and  feel.  There  the s t r e e t  environment i s congenial  and non t h r e a t e n i n g .  Moreover, the e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r ,  emphasized  by a p l e t h o r a o f Greek r e s t a u r a n t s , h e l p s e s t a b l i s h a u n i q u e i d e n t i t y and sense o f p l a c e .  43  Grabba Jabba Coffee House, located on West Broadway, Vancouver  4-4-  3. Future Trends The  mixed-use p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n which  c h a r a c t e r i z e s West B r o a d w a y i s e x p e c t e d  currently  to intensify  f u t u r e , p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t o f c u r r e n t z o n i n g . and  C-2C1 e n s u r e  i n the  The z o n e s C-2C,  t h a t new d e v e l o p m e n t s e r v e s t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e  present land use p a t t e r n . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t Broadway w i l l more i m p o r t a n t r o l e a s a d i s t r i c t  b e g i n t o t a k e on a  commercial  shopping  c o r r i d o r as  more m i x e d - u s e d e v e l o p m e n t s c o n t i n u e t o a d d s h o p s a n d r e s i d e n c e s . However, d e s p i t e i n c r e a s e d c o m m e r c i a l it  i s u n l i k e l y Broadway's p o p u l a r i t y as a s h o p p i n g  will  4.  and r e s i d e n t i a l  surpass  Planning  activity,  destination  F o u r t h Avenue's.  Policy  P l a n n i n g p o l i c y f o r West B r o a d w a y h a s f o c u s e d o n p r e s e r v i n g the p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s which area's h i s t o r y .  a l r e a d y e x i s t e d as a p r o d u c t  Policy initiatives  have  characteristically  r e s u l t e d from t h e e f f o r t s o f merchants and commercial owners.  of the  property  Such e f f o r t s have prompted C i t y P l a n n e r s t o d e v e l o p  c a r e f u l and r e s p o n s i v e p o l i c i e s enhancement o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l  t h a t a i d i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n and  strip. 45  More t h a n two "revitalization" and  shop o w n e r s .  d e c a d e s ago,  in April  a c t i o n s were r e q u e s t e d The  o f 1970,  the  first  by Broadway's m e r c h a n t s  West B r o a d w a y M e r c h a n t s and  Owners  C o m m i t t e e made a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o C i t y C o u n c i l r e q u e s t i n g i n i t i a t i o n of a b e a u t i f i c a t i o n p r o j e c t f o r the area City Planning, study 1976  and  1976).  T h i s a c t i o n prompted b o t h a  the appointment of a d e s i g n  e f f o r t s had  e s c a l a t e d , and  consultant  planning  the  (Vancouver feasibility  i n 1972.  By  s t a f f were busy w o r k i n g  on a p l a n f o r West B r o a d w a y . The  new  p l a n i n i t i a t e d measures d e s i g n e d  to ensure  p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h i s unique commercial d i s t r i c t . emphasized the through the The  Moreover, i t  s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n t e n s i f y i n g the e x i s t i n g  i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n c r e a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l  central planning  i s s u e i n 1976  was  units.  After this  determined the d e s i r a b l e elements i n terms of use, p a r k i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s were d e c i d e d i s s u e a t an e a r l y s t a g e s h o u l d be  upon.  The  density  r e s o l u t i o n of  i n the p l a n n i n g process  r e p l i c a t e d when a t t e m p t i n g  pattern  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  t h e r o l e o f t h e West B r o a d w a y c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p .  and  the  was  of was  and this  appropriate,  to create a plan  for  Marine Drive. Planning as a d i s t r i c t  s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t Broadway f u n c t i o n e d w e l l  s h o p p i n g c e n t r e , and 46  the  function should  be  further  enhanced.  I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h i s i t was  c u r r e n t C-2 uses,  and  z o n i n g must be  The  the  residential commercial  success.  component was To  t h i s end  deemed i n t e g r a l  t h e 1976  t o Broadway's  plan proposed  i n t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e Broadway's r e s i d e n t i a l  first policy  e n c o u r a g e d new The  component.  of "excess"  commercial land to r e s i d e n t i a l .  second p o l i c y  suggested  component.  thus would not o n l y supplement the  support market, but h e l p c o n c e n t r a t e a r e a i n t o a more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c o r e  the  T h i s was  p l a c e at the f r i n g e s of the main c o n c e n t r a t i o n of and  two  development t o i n c l u d e a  residential  activity,  that  bay.  A residential  policies  r e w o r k e d t o encourage  t o h e l p keep the i n f i l t r a t i o n of g e n e r a l  business at  continued  determined  rezoning  to  take  commercial residential  the remaining  commercial  (Vancouver C i t y  Planning,  1976) . As g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s  c a n be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e  f u n c t i o n i n g of a commercial s t r i p ,  the p o l i c i n g  i n f i l t r a t i o n on B r o a d w a y was  deemed i m p o r t a n t .  uses are n o r m a l l y automobile  o r i e n t e d and  outside the d i s t r i c t  for single  healthy  of such General  an business  draw c u s t o m e r s  purpose t r i p s .  An  from  example might  i n c l u d e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a l a r g e supermarket which,  i f not  handled  economic  p r o p e r l y , can have a d e t r i m e n t a l impact 47  on t h e  v i a b i l i t y of adjacent food s t o r e s , and on the c o n t i n u i t y and ambiance of the commercial s t r i p  (Vancouver C i t y Planning,  1976).  Supermarket chains o f t e n wish to p r o v i d e l a r g e areas of p a r k i n g between the sidewalk and the s t o r e .  T h i s does not h e l p c r e a t e an  urban o r i e n t e d p e d e s t r i a n environment, but r a t h e r breaks  up  the  c o n t i n u i t y of r e t a i l frontage which i s c o n s i d e r e d to be of great importance to s u c c e s s f u l shopping Planning, 1976).  Thus, the p l a n suggested  r e s u l t s achieved through uses.  (Vancouver C i t y the r e i n f o r c e m e n t  of  c a r e f u l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n a l  I t a l s o i n c l u d e d a more e x p l i c i t  specific  5.  streets  uses and frontage and b u i l d i n g  zoning schedule  outlining  setbacks.  Zoning Current zoning f u l f i l s the o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n the  plan.  The West Broadway commercial s t r i p ,  Collingwood,  comprises  two  zones: C-2C,  "core area" zone, whereas C-2C1 zone.  The  two  between L a r c h  and C-2C1.  f u n c t i o n s as a " f r i n g e  zones are designed  and is a  area"  to work i n c o n j u n c t i o n to  produce a mixed-use p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d urban The  C-2C  1976  strip.  i n t e n t of these zones, as o u t l i n e d by the Vancouver C i t y  Planning Department, i s as f o l l o w s :  48  C-2C  (core area) The  i n t e n t of t h i s Schedule i s to p r o v i d e f o r a wide range  of goods and personal  s e r v i c e s , to m a i n t a i n commercial a c t i v i t i e s  s e r v i c e s that r e q u i r e c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s to serve  l a r g e r neighbourhoods, d i s t r i c t s or communities and encourage c r e a t i o n of a pedestrian-oriented shopping area by  to  district  i n c r e a s i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l component  l i m i t i n g the amount of o f f i c e C-2C1  and  and  use.  ( f r i n g e area) The  i n t e n t of t h i s Schedule i s to p r o v i d e f o r a wide range  of goods and personal  s e r v i c e s , to m a i n t a i n commercial a c t i v i t i e s  and  s e r v i c e s that r e q u i r e c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s to serve  l a r g e r neighbourhoods, d i s t r i c t s or communities and encourage c r e a t i o n of a d i s t r i c t the r e s i d e n t i a l component and  shopping area by  to  increasing  l i m i t i n g the amount of  office  use. Note the s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e between these zones. is virtually identical, stronger  pedestrian  intent  except the core area zone c r e a t e s  orientation.  T h i s i s important.  suggests that i n t e n s e p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d only be  Their  s u c c e s s f u l l y maintained over small  Evidence  commercial s t r i p s  can  l a t e r a l distances.  r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s , Vancouver Planners c r e a t e d 49  a  two  zones,  and  In  t h u s were a b l e t o b u i l d upon t h e n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g p a t t e r n core/periphery C-2C  and  i n t e n s i t y of a c t i v i t y a l o n g  C-2C1  vary  essential  f o r the  Thus, C-2C1  success  t h e C-2C1  zone p e r m i t s  c o m m e r c i a l c o n t i n u i t y and environment i f p e r m i t t e d Regulations  u s e s , and  strip. more u s e s  parking  d r i v e i n r e s t a u r a n t s , and t o b r e a k up  t a k e away f r o m t h e o v e r a l l i n the core  maximum f r o n t a g e  t o b o t h zones. a t 15.5  m  pedestrian  and  For example, b o t h zones s e t  (50 f t ) . T h i s r e g u l a t i o n e n s u r e s  f o r b o t h zones are o n l y p e r m i t t e d  shopping c o u r t y a r d or other  where a p e d e s t r i a n  A d d i t i o n a l l y , permitted  p u r e l y r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s , and  3.0  F.S.R s 1  uses.  or  regulate F.S.R's  f o r p u r e l y o f f i c e uses, f o r a l l other  50  a  pedestrian  conforming b u i l d i n g s .  e x c e e d 1.2  the  Moreover, b u i l d i n g  feature which b e n e f i t s a  a g a i n s t e x c e s s i v e l y l a r g e o r non f o r b o t h zones can not  motor  area.  diverse streetscape at a pedestrian scale.  character i s provided.  uses.  the  c r e a t e d t o p r o j e c t a p a r t i c u l a r ambiance  streetscape apply  uses.  a t t r i b u t e s deemed  ( t h e p e r i p h e r a l zone) g e n e r a l l y p e r m i t s  v e h i c l e r e p a i r shops, b o t h of which tend  setbacks  to approved  of a p e d e s t r i a n commercial  s u c h as m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g , m a n u f a c t u r i n g Further,  Broadway.  s l i g h t l y with regards  This i s to ensure the core area maintains  of  1.5  for  6.  Surroundings The  immediate surroundings of a mixed-use commercial  d i c t a t e the  s t r e e t ' s success to a l a r g e degree.  sufficient population short distance. of surrounding  The  d e n s i t i e s are  r e s i d e n t s are  generally prescribe  the  c o m p o s i t i o n and  however,  c o m m e r c i a l e n t i t i e s and  relationship with  to i n the  the  City for planning  from Burrard  those l i v i n g  e x p o s e s new  E n g l i s h Bay  t o Alma S t r e e t s .  According  As  tenants,  ( S t a t s Can  1991).  c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e s as  consumers.  51  waterfront was  alluded  characterized  t o c e n s u s f i g u r e s many o f  of r e s i d e n t s are  a r e l a t i v e l y mobile neighbourhood an a t t r i b u t e t o l o c a l  other  and  i n K i t s i l a n o ' s l o w - r i s e apartments are  B e c a u s e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70%  success  Kitsilano's  " H i s t o r y " s e c t i o n , K i t s i l a n o c a n b e s t be  as an a p a r t m e n t d i s t r i c t .  and  amenities.  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes, s t r e t c h from the t o 1 6 t h A v e n u e and  they  Further,  West B r o a d w a y i s l o c a t e d i n s o u t h K i t s i l a n o . b o u n d a r i e s , as d e f i n e d by  status  type of commercial  r e s i d e n t i a l uses r a t h e r than o v e r a l l success. the  relatively  socioeconomic  also important;  i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by  Essentially,  required within a  e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and  strip  renters. Kitsilano is This  can  i t continually  be  The n e i g h b o u r h o o d districts  h a s a number o f p r i m a r y  r a n g i n g f r o m RS-1  (multiple dwellings), industrial  zones.  zoning  ( o n e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s ) t o RM  and i n c l u d i n g b o t h commercial  and  To t h e n o r t h o f t h e B r o a d w a y c a s e  a r e b o t h RT-2 a n d RT-7 z o n e s .  These d i s t r i c t s  study  area  are intended to  p e r m i t t w o - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s a n d , i n some i n s t a n c e s , l o w d e n s i t y m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y housing.  To t h e s o u t h o f B r o a d w a y i s a RS-1S  zone.  i s i n t e n d e d t o be p r i m a r i l y a  The RS-1S d i s t r i c t  family residential d i s t r i c t ; two  family dwellings.  percent  Currently this district  h a s o n l y 47.5  ( S t a t s Can 1 9 9 1 , 4 4 ) .  f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s i s expected The K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t s  to persist.  a d j a c e n t and d i r e c t l y  surrounding the  s t u d y a r e a have s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r  than those t y p i c a l  f o r much o f K i t s i l a n o .  shoppers  it  Given  that  densities local  c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f Broadway's c l i e n t e l e ,  assuming people  are w i l l i n g  i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t West B r o a d w a y d r a w s s u b s t a n t i a l l y  necessary  and  t o walk approximately e i g h t t o t e n  (roughly 8 blocks) i n order t o o b t a i n convenience  the lower d e n s i t y areas.  area  The g r o w t h o f  west Broadway case  minutes  permits  s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d h o u s e s -- f o r t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r  t h e a v e r a g e i s 48.8 p e r c e n t two  however, i t c o n d i t i o n a l l y  single  This suggests  f o r high density residential 52  t h a t i t may n o t be zones t o f l a n k a  goods, from  c o m m e r c i a l s t r e e t , as reasonable The  l o n g as  sufficient densities exist within  distance.  a b o v e h o l d s t r u e w i t h one  o u t l i n e d , B r o a d w a y ' s C-C2 higher  important proviso.  zoning  encourages the  density r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s along  although the  s t r e e t may  the  As  was  development  street.  draw l i m i t e d c l i e n t e l e  d e n s i t y areas beyond i t s borders,  T h i s may  e x i s t i n g zoning  from the  high  i t attracts substantial  1,500  i s capacity  i n the  future.  the  Under  f o r the p o t e n t i a l a d d i t i o n  of  a d d i t i o n a l housing u n i t s i n K i t s i l a n o ' s commercial  districts all  become more p o i n t e d there  of  Thus,  c l i e n t e l e from the h i g h d e n s i t y accommodations a b u t t i n g street.  a  new  of the  ( K i t s i l a n o Community P r o f i l e  1993,  7).  Furthermore,  p r o j e c t s c u r r e n t l y under c o n s t r u c t i o n along corridor contain a substantial residential  this  segment  component.  Surrounding socioeconomic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a i d i n the o f West B r o a d w a y .  I n t e g r a l to success i s the  disposable  income of the  population  s t r u c t u r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  people between the  a g e s t w e n t y and  Table 1). Note t h a t t h i s V a n c o u v e r as a w h o l e . Broadway as  surrounding  t h i s age  age  residents.  forty;  structure  i s an  a large proportion fifty  53  of  s i x percent  important to the  g r o u p i s most l i k e l y  and  Kitsilano's  i s seventeen percent greater  This  success  than  success  to patronize  (See for of  local  commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .  T h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y more m o b i l e  t h e i r younger o r o l d e r c o u n t e r p a r t s , prercentage and  than  and spend a l a r g e r  of t h e i r d i s c r e s i o n a r y time f r e q u e n t i n g  restuarants  the l i k e .  Table 1: K i t s i l a n o  Age S t r u c t u r e  Kitsilano  Vancouver  11%  Average Age (1986) seniors age 65+ residents age 40 to 64  21%  15% 26%  residents age 20 to 39 children under age 19  56% 12%  39% 20%  S o u r c e : Statistics C a n a d a  Average h o u s e h o l d income f o r K i t s i l a n o  residents i s greater  t h a n f o r most n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y . Kitsilano  I n 1986  r e s i d e n t s h a d an a v e r a g e h o u s e h o l d income o f $43,198.  T h i s was 3 4 % h i g h e r  t h a n t h e c i t y a v e r a g e o f $32,403  (Kits  Community P r o f i l e 1 9 9 3 , 3 ) . I n e s s e n c e , h i g h e r h o u s e h o l d translate into a higher success  o f Broadway's  l e v e l of disposable  income, a i d i n g t h e  shops.  Success i s a l s o determined by a commercial s t r i p ' s to other commercial e n t i t i e s . Collingwood,  incomes  proximity  West B r o a d w a y , b e t w e e n L a r c h a n d  fares w e l l i n t h i s regard.  54  A significant  proportion  of the  s t u d y a r e a ' s consumer t r a f f i c  associated along  with  Broadway.  the  intense  The  r e s u l t s from " s p i n  c o m m e r c i a l node l o c a t e d f u r t h e r  C e n t r a l Broadway a r e a ,  S t r e e t i n t h e w e s t and  offs"  Prince Albert Street  bounded by i n the  become a m a j o r component o f V a n c o u v e r ' s t o t a l v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e downtown CBD  Vine  east,  office  for general  has  s p a c e and  office  before  establishments  f u r t h e r w e s t on B r o a d w a y d u r i n g  which lunch,  o r a f t e r work.  T h e r e a r e no m a j o r s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s Broadway. void.  a  users.  Thus, t h i s a r e a a t t r a c t s l a r g e v o l u m e s o f p e o p l e , many o f patronize  east  l o c a t e d n e a r West  S h o p p i n g s t r e e t s , s u c h as West B r o a d w a y , f i l l  This  situation intensifies  s t r i p s i n Vancouver's west s i d e  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  the  such  retail  neighbourhoods.  7. Movement P a t t e r n s "Broadway i s a m a j o r e a s t - w e s t a r t e r i a l . . . w e s t w i t h B u r n a b y and  other  Guidelines  The  1993,  volumes, y e t  6).  in traffic  to the  east"  the  v o l u m e on  near operating  future t r a f f i c  Higher  parking.  selected streets within  55  the  traffic  capacity.  removal of c u r b s i d e  K i t s i l a n o neighbourhood suggest that  in  ( C e n t r a l Broadway  roadway r e c e i v e s moderate  i s assumed t o be  volumes would n e c e s s i t a t e Increases  points  l i n k i n g UBC  the  congestion  on  Broadway i s n o t a c o n c e r n .  Data i n d i c a t e s a 19% t r a f f i c volume  increase over the past t e n years f o r K i t s i l a n o ;  whereas,  w i d e t r a f f i c v o l u m e s i n c r e a s e d b y 3 4 % o v e r t h e same t i m e ( K i t s Community  Profile  1993,  i n d i c a t e t h a t B r o a d w a y i s i m p a c t e d b y commuter t h e r e i s a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a l amount This r e l a t i v e l y  the commercial corridor benfit  constant l e v e l  strip.  Retail  period  4).  T r a f f i c v o l u m e c o u n t s , t a k e n o n a Wednesday  2).  City  of diurnal  i n F e b r u a r y 1993, flows.  However,  t r a f f i c (See T a b l e  of a c t i v i t y greatly  benefits  establishments located along the  from a n e a r l y constant f l o w o fp r o s p e c t i v e  clientle.  Table 2 : Broadway T r a f f i c Counts  BROADWAY  TRAFFIC VOLUMES (At Trafalgar Street) East Bound 7 am - 9 am  1188  4 pm - 6 pm  1675  7 am - 6 pm  8012  24 hours  12096  7 am - 9 am 4 pm - 6 pm  1048 1725  7 am - 6 pm 24 hours  7776 11490  West Bound  Source: Traffic Management, City of Vancouver  56  B r o a d w a y i s c l a s s i f i e d as a t r u c k r o u t e ; analysis indicate that truck t r a f f i c to the  street.  The  s e r v i c e i s good a l o n g UBC,  vital  and  to the  detriment  C i t y ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  Bus  s e r v i c e t o and This  from Burnaby  characteristic is  commercial s t r i p .  invokes a pedestrian  a l t e r n a t i v e means o f a r r i v a l  Easy access  e n v i r o n m e n t by  by  offering  f o r consumers.  Design C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  I. Use a)  a serious  thus  Broadway w i t h  s u c c e s s o f any  field  route,  t o many p o i n t s b e t w e e n .  public transit  8.  i s not  c o r r i d o r i s a l s o a major t r a n s i t  p l a y i n g a p r i m a r y r o l e i n the  and  however,  and  Activity  Extent of D i v e r s i t y West B r o a d w a y f u n c t i o n s as a c o h e s i v e u n i t .  C o l l i n g w o o d and  Larch  i s , i n a s e n s e , a homogenous  composed p r i m a r i l y o f s m a l l  scale commercial  Nonetheless, taken at a smaller Store  frontages  f r o n t awnings are Despite  s c a l e , the  are g e n e r a l l y smaller  stores exemplify  Between  enterprises.  strip  than f i f t y  unique a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s .  i s also  57  t h i s has  the  diverse.  f e e t , and Further,  a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t s h a p e s and  l o o k i n g somewhat c o n t r i v e d ,  capsule,  many store  colours.  e f f e c t of  adding  t o the v i s u a l d i v e r s i t y of  the  i s f u n c t i o n a l l y homogenous, and  b)  Residential  street.  In short,  West B r o a d w a y  v i s u a l l y diverse.  Units  More r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s a b u t West B r o a d w a y t h a n G r a n v i l l e South.  O c c u r r i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y at Macdonald S t r e e t  Trafalgar,  and  u n i t s above, d e f i n e  g r o u n d f l o o r c o m m e r c i a l and  the  street  since  the  Lot  t w e n t y , and  a c r e t o more t h a n one  similarities c o m m e r c i a l on  i n h e i g h t and the  Average d e n s i t y b e f o r e 1991)  h u n d r e d and  located  i s approximately ninety  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.8  architectural style  densities  m a s s i n g , and  for projects  FSR  The  the  feet  from l e s s than ten.  with  an  i n the  exclusive  use  study area  u n i t s per  acre.  r e s i d e n t i a l component o f  The 58  fifty  of scape.  (and  built  The  average  these  projects  o v e r a l l f l o o r space r a t i o of  (Neale 1991).  to  Nonetheless,  ground f l o o r perpetuate a u n i f i e d s t r e e t  f l o o r space r a t i o f o r the i s r o u g h l y 2.0  a l o n g t h i s segment  f r o n t a g e s range from l e s s than e i g h t y  o v e r t h r e e h u n d r e d and u n i t s per  four  residential  e a r l y 1980's.  developments range i n s i z e , c o n f i g u r a t i o n , density.  to  scape.  the mixed-use r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s  o f West B r o a d w a y w e r e b u i l t  and  East  a g a i n west of T r u t c h t o W a t e r l o o S t r e e t ,  story buildings, with  Most of  and  mixed-use r e s i d e n t i a l  developments a l o n g Broadway between L a r c h  and  Collingwood  excess of t h r e e hundred r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s t o the commercial  c)  add  in  otherwise  street.  Parking Curbside  area.  The  integral  parking  i s permitted  r e t e n t i o n o f on  t h r o u g h o u t the Broadway  study  s t r e e t p a r k i n g a l o n g Broadway i s  component t o i t s c o n t i n u e d  success.  Evidence  suggests  t h a t o n c e on s t r e e t p a r k i n g i s removed, e v e n i f o n l y d u r i n g hours, the f e a s i b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g friendly traditional The parking  style street i s greatly  " p e n e t r a t i o n " r a t e f o r those i s c o n s i d e r a b l y lower  parking.  The  m o t o r i s t s and  peak  pedestrian  diminished.  s t r e e t s without  curb  t h a n f o r s t r e e t s w i t h on  side  street  l o c a t i o n o f p a r k i n g must r e s p o n d t o t h e demands o f pedestrians.  N a t u r a l l y , most m o t o r i s t s w i s h  p a r k as c l o s e t o t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n as parking exists,  those  c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p may  who  may  If  b u f f e r b e t w e e n t h e r o a d w a y and  sidewalk.  safer for pedestrians. 59  inadequate  for  (Vancouver P a r k i n g  s t r e e t p a r k i n g i s the  to  urban  i n s t e a d patronize shopping malls  A n o t h e r a d v a n t a g e t o on  sidewalk  i s possible.  p r e f e r t o s h o p on an  s o l e reason of p a r k i n g convenience  makes t h e  a  an  the  Study).  c r e a t i o n of  This roadside  a  buffer  d)  Nodes A w e l l - d e f i n e d node e x i s t s a t M a c d o n a l d S t r e e t and  west t o T r u t c h .  This  of development.  However, t h e  node i s due C i t y of  results partially continued  extends  from h i s t o r i c a l  patterns  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of  p r i m a r i l y to e x p l i c i t p o l i c y actions  t a k e n by  this the  Vancouver.  West B r o a d w a y ' s s u c c e s s owes much t o t h e h e i g h t e n e d l e v e l a c t i v i t y at Macdonald. c o m m e r c i a l and strong  The  residential  sense of p l a c e  an a l m o s t c o n s t a n t  and  node h o u s e s t h e most l a n d u s e s , and  as  of  intensive  such creates  an u n m i s t a k a b l y u r b a n f e e l .  b u s t l e of a c t i v i t y which s i g n i f i e s  p a r t i c i p a n t t h a t t h e y have r e a c h e d a d e s t i n a t i o n of  a  There i s to  the  importance.  II. Street Level a)  S t r e e t T r e e s , S t r e e t F u r n i t u r e , L a n d s c a p i n g and As  mid  a r e s u l t of a b e a u t i f i c a t i o n p r o j e c t f i r s t 1 9 7 0 ' s ; West B r o a d w a y i s w e l l endowed w i t h  s t r e e t t r e e s and of the  the  study area.  like. This  Mature s t r e e t t r e e s  the  c a n s and  roadway. bike  initiated  t r e e s and  flank both  between  S t r e e t f u r n i t u r e i n c l u d i n g benches,  l o c k ups  i s found at v a r i o u s 60  in  the  street furniture,  i s a c c e n t u a t e d i n some l o c a t i o n s  g r a s s or shrubbery at the base of the and  Lighting  sides by  sidewalks  garbage  l o c a t i o n s along  the  strip.  Ornamental l i g h t i n g ,  r e m i n i s c e n t of t u r n of t h e century-  lamp s t a n d a r d s , l i n e s t h e s t r e e t .  Further, the sidewalks  crosswalks are f i n i s h e d w i t h i n t e r l o c k i n g paving stones textured concrete. unified  street  and  and  These p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h e l p c r e a t e a  scape.  b) G e n e r a l C o m m e r c i a l / O f f i c e General commercial  uses  Uses  tend to d i s r u p t the c o n t i n u i t y  p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d urban  streets.  l o t s or s e r v i c e bays,  thus discourage people  and  of  They o f t e n i n t r o d u c e p a r k i n g from w a l k i n g  l e n g t h e n i n g the d i s t a n c e between " p e d e s t r i a n " uses.  by  Moreover,  t h e y v i s u a l l y d i s r u p t an o t h e r w i s e u n i f i e d d i s p l a y o f r e t a i l  uses  making the s t r e e t l e s s a p p e a l i n g . O f f i c e uses a t grade  have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t .  g e n e r a l l y do n o t n e e d a g r a d e on p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c  The retail  or t h i r d  level.  rely  These t y p e s of  uses  floor.  Broadway s t u d y a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by uses a t ground  uses  l e v e l l o c a t i o n as t h e y don't  f o r t h e i r well being.  a r e b e s t l o c a t e d on t h e s e c o n d  Such  Service stations,  predominately r e p a i r shops  and  o f f i c e s a r e l i m i t e d i n number and g e n e r a l l y do n o t d i s r u p t  the  a t m o s p h e r e and  such  f u n c t i o n i n g of the s t r e e t .  Some a n o m a l i e s ,  as t h e P e t r o C a n a d a s e r v i c e s t a t i o n on t h e s o u t h w e s t 61  corner of  M a c d o n a l d and Nonetheless,  Broadway, f r a c t u r e the p e d e s t r i a n n e t w o r k  slightly.  i t a p p e a r s t h a t when s u c h u s e s a r e a n o m a l i e s  their  effect i s diluted.  c) P e d e s t r i a n The  Environment  c o n d i t i o n of a s t r e e t ' s p e d e s t r i a n environment i s  to i t s success  as a c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r .  t h e l e v e l o f c o m f o r t and and  p a r k i n g and  Of u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e i s  safety afforded to users.  sun p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i d e  a p e d e s t r i a n amenity.  e f f e c t i v e crosswalks  integral  Rain,  wind  Further,  help to create a safe  street  pedestrian  environment. West B r o a d w a y has Awnings, c a n o p i e s ,  a congenial  and  and  safe pedestrian  colonnaded facades,  t r e e s a l l o w r a i n and pleasant  and  sun p r o t e c t i o n .  s a f e atmosphere by  bus  s h e l t e r s , and  Curbside  reducing  environment.  parking provides  a i r and  noise  a  pollution  p r o v i d i n g a p h y s i c a l b u f f e r between moving t r a f f i c  pedestrians.  street  and  S a f e t y i s f u r t h e r enhanced t h r o u g h the p r o v i s i o n of  well-marked crosswalks.  S e v e r a l of the c r o s s w a l k s  pedestrian controlled signals.  T h o s e w h i c h do n o t ,  effectively despite this deficiency. g e n e r a l l y slows along crossing pedestrians.  Automobile  t h i s segment o f B r o a d w a y The  have function  traffic and  will  stop  abundance of p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y 62  for  acts  as a s e l f  f u l f i l l i n g prophecy.  automobile  traffic  t o slow,  Pedestrian a c t i v i t y  forces  w h i c h i n t u r n , c r e a t e s a more  a p p r o p r i a t e p e d e s t r i a n e n v i r o n m e n t and  attracts  people.  Broadway's p e d e s t r i a n environment i s f u r t h e r enhanced physical characteristics shopping  s u c h as t h e l i m i t e d d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n  o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  d) V i e w s and  by  the abundance of s i d e w a l k d i s p l a y s .  Topography  Broadway's t o p o g r a p h y s l o p e s g e n t l y .  At  i t s eastern  edge,  from Larch t o Macdonald, t h e r e i s a s l i g h t g r a d i e n t c r e a t i n g a plateau beginning  at the boundary of the study  which c o n t a i n s the core of the study area. until to  beyond the study area's  s l o p e g e n t l y upward a t Alma  area,  district  T h u s , one  can  atmosphere.  Buildings  south.  west a r e o b s t r u c t e d by n a t u r a l  see o n l y t h e m i x e d - u s e d  of the  flat  street.  c e n t r e d around Macdonald s t r e e t .  v i s i t o r ' s experience  "bowl"  Broadway remains  w h i c h abut t h e s t r e e t b l o c k v i e w s t o t h e n o r t h and  inclines.  a  w e s t e r n boundary, where i t b e g i n s  These f e a t u r e s h e l p c r e a t e a " v i l l a g e "  F u r t h e r , v i e w s t o t h e e a s t and  and  place.  63  This  commercial intensifies  a  III.  B u i l d i n g Form  The  character,  h e i g h t , and  important r o l e i n d e f i n i n g  s e t b a c k of b u i l d i n g s  an  area or  street.  play  an  Consistency  building height,  s e t b a c k and  design helps to v i s u a l l y t i e a  street together,  creating  i d e n t i f i a b l e entity, rather  an  c o l l e c t i o n of u n r e l a t e d  parts.  of c o r n e r b u i l d i n g s  o p e n s p a c e b e t w e e n and  buildings be a  and  i s important.  created,  can  be  The  proper  than  to the  a  appointment  i n front  of  degree to which a c o h e s i v e u n i t  directly correlated  can  o v e r a l l success  of  street. Broadway's b u i l d i n g s  to buildings  have a c o n s i s t e n t  which abut the  s t r e e t are  establishments, personalized materials, and  Moreover, the  in  awning c o l o u r s  function  add  form.  design.  d i v e r s i t y and  life  was  predominantly  through v a r i a t i o n s  and  As  in  alluded  retail  building  Subtle variations  to the  s t r e e t . One  The  ground  continuity. c h a r a c t e r of  the  street  o f e n c l o s u r e p r o v i d e d b o t h by buildings. f o r m , and trees.  form  of  B r o a d w a y ' s most r e m a r k a b l e a t t r i b u t e s i s i t s e x c e p t i o n a l floor  in  Street  influenced  mature s t r e e t t r e e s  by  and  enhanced t h r o u g h the  strongest street walls 64  are  use  c r e a t e d when  the  sense  mixed-use  enclosure i s best achieved through  i s only marginally  The  i s further  building of  street  buildings  front the street d i r e c t l y , forming strong well-defined (Neale 1991, 3 8 ) .  edges  However, e f f e c t i v e l y s t r o n g s t r e e t w a l l s  a l s o be c r e a t e d b y more r e c e n t p o d i u m d e v e l o p m e n t s . developments g e n e r a l l y  have t h e f i r s t  can  These  and sometimes second  floors  f r o n t i n g t h e s t r e e t , and subsequent s t o r i e s s t e p p e d back t o form a continuous w a l l  at that point  type of development, t e r r a c e d  ( N e a l e 1 9 9 1 , 38) .  buildings,  generally  Another  recent  c r e a t e s weaker  street d e f i n i t i o n . Broadway's s t r e e t w a l l and r e s u l t a n t D e s p i t e some t e r r a c e d  projects  the street wall  v i r t u a l l y throughout the study area. best i n the "core" area. service  street  Street  e n c l o s u r e i s good. i s retained  wall definition i s  A n o m a l i e s , such as t h e P e t r o  Canada  s t a t i o n a t t h e s o u t h west c o r n e r o f Macdonald and  Broadway, do e x i s t . only occasional,  However, s u c h b r e a k s i n t h e s t r e e t w a l l , i f  do n o t impede t h e o v e r a l l  65  effect.  GRANVILLE STREET SOUTH (Between 63rd and 7 1 s t Avenues) -(See F i g u r e S i x ) 1. H i s t o r y Granville's h i s t o r y i svery d i f f e r e n t some o f V a n c o u v e r ' s more t r a d i t i o n a l  from Broadway's.  shopping s t r e e t s ,  S o u t h d i d n o t become a c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e u n t i l Thus,  i t s f o r m a t i v e development  Unlike  Granville  the late  1970's.  p a t t e r n was d i c t a t e d b y t h e  automobile. G r a n v i l l e South i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e neighbourhood o f Marpole.  T h i s c o m m u n i t y was f i r s t  settled i n the 1860'S;  however,  the original  c o m m u n i t y was n o t c e n t r e d a r o u n d  street.  I n s t e a d , M a r p o l e was d e f i n e d b y t h e w a t e r f r o n t  housed s a w m i l l s , s h i n g l e m i l l s , Community P r o f i l e  and g r a v e l companies  which  (Marpole  1993, 1 ) . B y t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s M a r p o l e was one o f  Vancouver's major i n d u s t r i a l  centres.  I n i t s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s M a r p o l e was l i k e a s m a l l virtually  Granville  i s o l a t e d from Vancouver by brush.  town,  T h i s began changing  b y 1902 when t h e CPR c o n s t r u c t e d a r a i l w a y t o c a r r y c a n n e r y employees enhanced  t o their jobs.  Following this,  by t h e development  g r o w t h was f u r t h e r  o f a BC e l e c t r i c  ( D a v i s 1976, 90) .  66  tram l i n e  i n 1905  OE OS  a:  QE  CE  a  2  f  S  9  4 *  C091  u  GG  a 3  8  s  X1L  J«1  8 Lw,tii»s  L  £  8  »  avstUA,  £  9Z 91  -9W  S  /  Ik  •SI  *3AV  AH3AV  £95Z  \ V  | ,4*  -3AV  I  1  W  »  JL  !W  H  I  •aa  3NldVIAi  3AV M»0Z 8  +ri3i±N3A3S-  ft h  I 3 E  v  S  S  v  —  OIoth81  4*  7  6  i  an afii~»« it. 4l  S  8  rt  cn prt  !  <D 7STJI  i  a  £ 6  w Hff »> ft H0 0  30\Tld  ll  wwr*  it , t r , » r t f  :  ijRh-h  H .  I n  3-0  T-D  01  gi *  >  n a>  20C6 "w -  iJi  *:a J « LIT 3  6  -  8 - 8  o o 5  ,J^~W£S£«S  1  1 Sw |»mru *l >  © 1 1  (OH A V A L  6  T-D  w z  I l\  I  0  V  co  II  •3AVl  e  B  9;  zn  6  j  E (DI i ai c*-lH o r  A;  H1H0I3-A1XIS  1  > m  H1N3A3S-A1XIS t-itrr i t  5  ?  fe Sfo»tWA TJ 5.  1  «  CO  B  K  P  4  * '3AV  K  S  C  S  1  C  K  K  HlXIS-AiXIS  0051 /i«6  t-ab 8  O > S3 H  .1  m ZD to  co  52  si m z o  tr  X  3-D  to  a  a  HJJIJrALXIS  •3AV  a  a  a: | cc  I-SH  2t  *  6  8  2  v  8  t - o i.  a  •3AV  a  a  tx  HldDOd-AlXIS  09  R a p i d g r o w t h b e g a n i n M a r p o l e a f t e r W o r l d War more t h a n 50  II.  "By  s t o r e s t h r i v e d a l o n g H u d s o n S t . and M a r i n e  1950 Dr.,  s e r v i n g n o t o n l y t h e a r e a on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e r i v e r , (Richmond r e s i d e n t s as w e l l ) " was  transformed  bridge.  i n 1957  Business  ( D a v i s 1976,  w i t h the opening  By  This  o f t h e Oak  situation  Street  i n M a r p o l e waned a s t h e c o m m u n i t y f o u n d  d i v i d e d by a m a j o r a r t e r y w h i c h c a u s e d b o t h dislocation.  90).  but  s o c i a l and  itself  commercial  t h e e a r l y 1960's t h e f e e l of t h e community  changed d r a m a t i c a l l y .  T h i s was  f u r t h e r emphasized by  had  the  r e z o n i n g of l a n d s t o the s o u t h of 70th Avenue from s i n g l e f a m i l y housing age  t o apartments,  which d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d the  community's  structure. I n 1975  prompting  the A r t h u r L a i n g B r i d g e opened t o a i r p o r t a shift  i n commercial a c t i v i t y  to G r a n v i l l e  traffic, South.  T h i s s i g n i f i e d the b e g i n n i n g of a hoped f o r t u r n i n g p o i n t . council i n i t i a t e d a planning process  i n order to address  and h e l p amend c o m m e r c i a l d e f i c i e n c i e s . r e v i t a l i z a t i o n has anticipated.  as a p r o d u c t  changes  Unfortunately,  not m a t e r i a l i z e d t o the e x t e n t  Created  City  first  of the times, G r a n v i l l e  South  e x e m p l i f i e s a l a n d use p a t t e r n t h a t c a t e r s t o the a u t o m o b i l e . m a s s i v e r o a d w a y , an a b u n d a n c e o f e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e s u r f a c e p a r k i n g l o t s and  s i n g l e land-use  zoning c h a r a c t e r i z e the 68  area.  A  As was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r ,  these  congenial urban/pedestrian  2.  Current Use and The  features are not conducive t o a  environment.  Activity  r o l e o f G r a n v i l l e South i s s i m i l a r t o Broadway's,  on a c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r s c a l e . as d i s t r i c t  shopping centres.  not  functioning favourably  has  evolved  albeit  Both s t r e e t s f u n c t i o n p r i m a r i l y  However, G r a n v i l l e i s c u r r e n t l y  i n t h i s regard.  Instead, G r a n v i l l e  i n t o what c o u l d b e t e r m e d a c o n v e n i e n c e r e t a i l  T h i s e v o l u t i o n was d i c t a t e d b y h i s t o r i c a l  circumstances  strip.  whereby  G r a n v i l l e grew up a s a m a j o r a u t o m o b i l e a r t e r y a t a t i m e when planning  f o r t h e a u t o m o b i l e was p a r a m o u n t .  A l i m i t e d s e l e c t i o n o f c o n v e n i e n c e s t o r e s now c h a r a c t e r i z e G r a n v i l l e south. passing  These e n t e r p r i s e s g e n e r a l l y s u r v i v e by l u r i n g  commuter t r a f f i c .  d e f i n e d b y i t s many g e n e r a l  Granville's character i s further businesses,  such as gas s t a t i o n s .  T h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s do n o t p r o m o t e p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y a l o n g t h e street.  Instead,  they  tend  t o c r e a t e a "one s t o p "  atmosphere  u r g i n g p e o p l e t o a r r i v e b y a u t o m o b i l e f o r one p u r p o s e , a n d s p e n d little  time comparison shopping o r v i s i t i n g .  P h y s i c a l elements of the streetscape help t o f u r t h e r d e f i n e the area's c h a r a c t e r and f e e l .  The w i d t h 69  of G r a n v i l l e and t h e  t r a f f i c volumes i n h i b i t t h e a r e a i s p l a g u e d by form of p a r k i n g . and  s t r e e t ' s o v e r a l l appeal.  Moreover,  an o v e r a b u n d a n c e o f o p e n s p a c e i n  Such f e a t u r e s  cohesiveness of the  3.  the  tend to d i m i n i s h  the  the urban  appeal  street.  Future Trends No  f u t u r e changes are  convenience f u n c t i o n w i l l  e x p e c t e d on G r a n v i l l e .  l i k e l y remain paramount.  l i m i t a t i o n s to urban/pedestrian  to a l l e v i a t e t r a f f i c  the  congestion  along  this  virtually The  assumed t h a t  scope of  future conditions w i l l  the this remain  unchanged.  current  path of p l a n n i n g  r e t e n t i o n of the  s t a t u s quo  initiatives also signifies  i n Marpole.  Planning  i n the  e a r l y 1980's, have been abandoned i n f a v o u r  70  a  initiatives,  spawned i n an a t t e m p t t o r e v i t a l i z e G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t 1970's and  a  redirect  However, as  e x p l o r a t i o n of such developments i s beyond the  that  will  s u c h as  T r a i n l i n k t o Richmond, f o r example, c o u l d  i t i s being  large  corridor  Thus, t h i n g s  f u t u r e of G r a n v i l l e ' s commercial area.  thesis,  As  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n developments  u n d o u b t e d l y have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . f u t u r e Sky  street's  environments r e s u l t to a  d e g r e e f r o m t r a f f i c v o l u m e s , any help  The  late  o f more  current planning issues. expected  4.  for Granville  Planning  T h u s , z o n i n g c h a n g e s a r e no  Street.  Policy  C u r r e n t l y , p l a n n i n g f o r the Marpole City Hall.  longer  In the l a t e  p a i d to Marpole  and  1970's and  area i s not a p r i o r i t y  e a r l y 1980's a t t e n t i o n  the G r a n v i l l e South  commercial  at the time i n c l u d e d the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of  corridor,  commercial  viability,  b u s i n e s s a r e a , z o n i n g , and  concerns  S t r e e t problems:  to address  three s p e c i f i c  image, b u s i n e s s m i x ,  more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  the p o t e n t i a l  and  of  ( A r b o u r 1979,  G i v e n t h e i s s u e s t h a t were i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t , p o l i c i e s were d e v e l o p e d  Z o n i n g was  the iv).  planning  Granville  traffic.  Zoning,  f o r c r e a t i n g a zone  and  which  encourages mixed r e s i d e n t i a l uses w i t h i n the commercial not e x p l o r e d .  Issues  the  prospects f o r expansion  traffic  was  strip.  addressed  at  core  was  d i s c u s s e d ; however, such d i s c u s s i o n s  g e n e r a l l y f o c u s e d on i s s u e s r e v o l v i n g a r o u n d t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n general business to the area's important  core.  Because t h i s  of  i s an  i s s u e i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t z o n i n g d i s c u s s i o n s were  not expanded t o i n c l u d e a l o o k a t the p o t e n t i a l residential units.  Had  abandoned, and h a d new  for increased  the p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s not  been  z o n i n g been c r e a t e d , G r a n v i l l e South 71  may  h a v e f a r e d b e t t e r as a l i v e l y c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r .  However,  g i v e n t h e h e a v y t r a f f i c , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t G r a n v i l l e w o u l d have s u c c e e d e d t o t h e  same e x t e n t  as  P l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s were i n i t i a t e d staff. and  These i n i t i a t i v e s  Broadway.  by V a n c o u v e r C i t y  were q u i c k l y e n d o r s e d by  were r e c e i v e d f a v o u r a b l y b y M a r p o l e ' s m e r c h a n t s  residents.  Unlike i n i t i a t i v e s  f o r G r a n v i l l e represented  c r e a t e a new  and  i s an i m p o r t a n t  city council, and  f o r Broadway, w h i c h f o c u s e d  p r e s e r v i n g the e x i s t i n g p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s of the initiatives  Planning  street,  an a m b i t i o u s  on the  attempt  to  d r a m a t i c a l l y enhanced commercial d i s t r i c t . p o i n t as  This  i t q u i t e c l o s e l y r e p l i c a t e s events  t r a n s p i r i n g at Marine Drive. Discussions culminated  and  study  of the G r a n v i l l e South commercial  w i t h the r e l e a s e of the Marpole P l a n i n O c t o b e r  This p l a n emphasized the importance of keeping Marpole's main shopping area,  o u t l i n e d no means t o e i t h e r a m e l i o r a t e f l u x o f commuter t r a f f i c .  Further,  i m p r o v e t h e a r e a ' s image and The  the s t r e e t ' s core  1979.  G r a n v i l l e South  as  d e s p i t e the heavy t r a f f i c volumes.  T r a f f i c p r o b l e m s w e r e o u t l i n e d as a c o n c e r n ;  Vancouver."  strip  however,  o r accommodate t h e  p l a n a l s o d e f i n e d and  72  massive  t h e p l a n o u t l i n e d ways t o  p r o m o t e i t as t h e  commercial area.  policies  "gateway  o u t l i n e d ways t o  This  i s an  important  to retain concept,  and t h u s m e r i t s c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n .  Much o f  Granville's  l i m i t e d s u c c e s s c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o a t t e m p t s made a t strengthening the area's core.  5 . Zoning G r a n v i l l e ' s current zoning r e f l e c t s Vancouver  City Planner's  abandonment o f t h e s t r e e t ' s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n ,  and t h u s  v i r t u a l l y unchanged s i n c e t h e l a t e 1970's.  Granville's  c o m m e r c i a l a r e a i s c u r r e n t l y c o m p r i s e d o f two 1.  C-l i s usually reserved f o r small scale  e n t e r p r i s e s such as c o r n e r s t o r e s ,  remains  z o n e s : C-2,  and  C-  commercial  and t h u s e m p h a s i z e s  the  i n c l u s i o n of small s c a l e commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h i s  zone  d o e s n o t a l l o w f o r a w i d e r a n g e o f g o o d s a n d as s u c h d o e s n o t g e n e r a l l y spawn c o m p a r i s o n s h o p p i n g . district  C-2  i s a g e n e r a l commercial  zone w h i c h a l l o w s f o r a r a n g e o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s ,  w e l l as d w e l l i n g u s e s .  as  I t i s t h e z o n i n g s c h e d u l e m o s t commonly  a p p l i e d t o Vancouver's  urban commercial s t r e e t s ,  functions quite well.  N o n e t h e l e s s , a s was  and  i l l u s t r a t e d by  Broadway c a s e s t u d y , s c h e d u l e s w h i c h e m p h a s i s  certain  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n b e t t e r accommodate a n p e d e s t r i a n  73  essentially the  desired environment.  The  i n t e n t o f t h e s e z o n e s , as  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t i s as C-l  i n t e n t of  the  Vancouver  district)  t h i s Schedule i s to provide f o r  small-scale  convenience commercial establishments,  catering  the  consisting  n e e d s o f a l o c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d and  of r e t a i l  s a l e s and  city  follows:  ( s m a l l - s c a l e commercial The  o u t l i n e d by  certain limited service  to provide f o r dwelling  typically  primarily  functions,  uses designed compatibly  to  and  with  commercial uses.  C-2  (general commercial The  i n t e n t of  o f g o o d s and  district)  t h i s Schedule i s to p r o v i d e f o r a wide services,  personal services  that  to maintain commercial a c t i v i t i e s require  l a r g e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , and designed compatibly with The  difference  o u t l i n e d i n the Granville Street  to  serve  uses  z o n e s and  the  ones  discussed  h a n d l i n g of r e s i d e n t i a l d w e l l i n g s .  t o the  l e s s a t t e n t i o n was  paid  As on  p r o m o t i o n of mixed r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s .  T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d by  the  previously  C-2C  and  commercial uses.  "Policy" section,  discussed  central locations  to provide f o r d w e l l i n g  b e t w e e n t h e s e two  e a r l i e r r e l a t e s to the  range  zoning schedules. z o n e encourages 74  Whereas the  the  creation  of  a  was  p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n b y increasing component, t h e C-2  the area's  zone s i m p l y provides  a r e deemed c o m p a t i b l e .  f o r d w e l l i n g uses  The C-2  success of  zone.  F o r example,  i n f i l t r a t i o n of both f i n a n c i a l  C-2  allows  the  i t a l l o w s f o r s e r v i c e s such as a u c t i o n h a l l s , These  f o r t h e C-2C  zone.  zone a r e l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e  F o r example,  c a n n o t e x c e e d 3.00,  p u r e l y r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s t h a t c a n n o t e x c e e d 2.50.  street.  that f o r the  i n t h e C-2  Unlike  p u r e l y r e s i d e n t i a l uses are p e n a l i z e d l e s s  zoning schedule.  C-2  except f o r  B r o a d w a y ' s z o n e , t h e r e a r e no r e s t r i c t i o n s on p u r e l y o f f i c e Additionally,  not  zone; however i n  F.S.R's a r e a g a i n l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e  z o n e t h e F.S.R  food  than those  zone c o m m e r c i a l u s e r s c a n n o t have a f r o n t a g e  In t h i s  fast  frontage r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r  c o m m e r c i a l u s e r s a r e n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e C-2  e x c e e d s 50 f e e t .  offices.  u s e s do  the c r e a t i o n of a p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d urban  R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e C-2  zone.  potential  i n s t i t u t i o n s and g e n e r a l  r e s t a u r a n t s and m o t o r v e h i c l e r e p a i r s h o p s .  t h e C-2C  has  street.  u s e s t h a n t h e C-2C  encourage  and  each  zone g e n e r a l l y accommodates a w i d e r r a n g e o f  Moreover,  which  This i s a meaningful d i s t i n c t i o n ,  c o n s i d e r a b l e r a m i f i c a t i o n s on t h e o v e r a l l commercial  residential  uses.  severely  B o t h t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s make i t e a s i e r  75  f o r d e v e l o p e r s t o p r o d u c e p r o j e c t s w h i c h b r e a k up t h e o f an u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l  6.  continuity  street.  Surroundings G r a n v i l l e South i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e community o f M a r p o l e .  M a r p o l e e x t e n d s n o r t h f r o m t h e N o r t h Arm  of the F r a s e r R i v e r t o  5 7 t h Avenue, and i s bounded by Angus D r i v e t o t h e west Ontario S t r e e t t o the east.  The  and  n o r t h e r n segment o f t h e a r e a i s  p r i m a r i l y c o m p r i s e d o f s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l homes, w h e r e a s t h e a r e a b e t w e e n 7 0 t h A v e n u e a n d M a r i n e D r i v e i s made up e x c l u s i v e l y of apartments.  The  dedicated to i n d u s t r i a l uses. significant  area south of Marine D r i v e i s Additionally,  there are  commercial areas w i t h i n Marpole: G r a n v i l l e  between'63rd and 7 1 s t S t r e e t s , and Southwest G r a n v i l l e a n d Oak  Streets.  almost  two South  Marine D r i v e between  Granville's surroundings c l o s e l y  r e p l i c a t e those found around Marine D r i v e i n N o r t h As i s t h e c a s e f o r K i t s i l a n o ,  Vancouver.  t h e M a r p o l e n e i g h b o u r h o o d has  number o f p r i m a r y z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s  r a n g i n g from o n e - f a m i l y  d w e l l i n g s t o c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l  zones.  d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e two n e i g h b o u r h o o d s  The m o s t n o t a b l e i s the percentage of  l a n d d e v o t e d t o m u l t i - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and i n d u s t r i a l W h i l e K i t s i l a n o i s a l m o s t v o i d o f any i n d u s t r i a l 76  a  uses.  activity,  in  e x c e s s o f 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d a r e a o f M a r p o l e t h i s purpose.  For m u l t i - f a m i l y zones  the opposite holds  I n e x c e s s o f 50 p e r c e n t o f K i t s i l a n o i s z o n e d apartment,  i s dedicated to  e i t h e r duplex  yet o n l y a very small p o r t i o n of Marpole  multi-family.  Thus, a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n base,  true.  like  i s zoned the  l o c a t e d p r o x i m a t e t o Broadway, i s not a v a i l a b l e t o  or  one  Granville  South. F u r t h e r , a s was  o u t l i n e d i n the "Zoning" s e c t i o n ,  z o n i n g does not encourage  the development of h i g h e r d e n s i t y  r e s i d e n c e s above commercial  shops.  Hence t h e r e a r e f a r f e w e r  r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s t h a t a c t u a l l y abut results i n a smaller "local" Marpole's Kitsilano's.  socioeconomic  the s t r e e t .  clientele  than K i t s i l a n o .  c o n d i t i o n s are d i f f e r e n t  - 39)  has  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , t h i s may  i n Marpole  i n t h e number o f s e n i o r s .  3) .  makes up  As t h i s  on.  from  of young  adults  increased, i t i s s t i l l  e x p l a i n i n g t h e g r e a t e r s u c c e s s of Broadway.  and now  also  A s s u m i n g t h e s e p e o p l e a r e among t h e m o s t  to patronize l o c a l  trend, emerging  This  f o r b u s i n e s s e s t o draw  Although the area's percentage  ( t h o s e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s 20  Granville's  lower likely  be a f a c t o r i n Another  significant  s i n c e t h e 1970's, has b e e n an i n c r e a s e T h i s group  h a s e x p a n d e d b y 25 p e r c e n t ,  17 p e r c e n t o f M a r p o l e ' s  p o p u l a t i o n (See  segment o f s o c i e t y i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s m o b i l e 77  Table than  t h e i r younger c o u n t e r p a r t s ,  and i s o f t e n c o n s t r a i n e d by f i x e d  incomes, t h i s t o o c o u l d h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e l i m i t e d  success of  Granville.  Table 3: Marpole Age S t r u c t u r e  Marpole  Vancouver  seniors age 65+  17%  residents age 40 to 64 residents age 20 to 39  24% 42% 17%  15% 26% 39%  Average Age (1986)  children under age 19  20%  Source: Statistics Canada  A v e r a g e h o u s e h o l d i n c o m e f o r M a r p o l e r e s i d e n t s i n 1986 was $31,585, 3% l e s s t h a n t h e c i t y a v e r a g e o f $32,403 a n d 3 7 % l e s s t h a n t h e K i t s i l a n o a v e r a g e o f $43,198 1993, The  ( M a r p o l e Community  Profile  i s i n competition  with a  3) . G r a n v i l l e South commercial s t r i p  number o f c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e s . Shopping Centre  Most i m p o r t a n t  (a r e g i o n a l c e n t r e )  shopping c e n t r e ) .  Both of these  confine the a e r i a l  extent  are the Oakridge  and K e r r i s d a l e (a d i s t r i c t  c e n t r e s have market a r e a s  of Marpole.  Further,  "the s l i g h t l y  higher p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n t h e Marpole market area by  the fact that there  which  i s negated  i s v i r t u a l l y no p o p u l a t i o n t o t h e s o u t h o f  78  the r e t a i l  core, i n the i n d u s t r i a l  the r i v e r "  (Arbour  1979,  area between M a r i n e D r i v e  and  9).  7. Movement P a t t e r n s G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i s a major north-south an i m p o r t a n t  high t r a f f i c  p r i m a r i l y t o commuter f l o w s .  and  i n Richmond o r o t h e r s o u t h e r n  other northern suburbs  i n Richmond o r t o the  (Arbour  1979,  traffic  t r a v e l l i n g to the U n i t e d S t a t e s Border.  high t r a f f i c  Additionally,  v o l u m e s c o u l d be  Granville  streets,  and  l i m i t i n g use  As was  i f transit  Moreover,  south  alluded were  of the A r t h u r L a i n g B r i d g e  Nonetheless,  developments, G r a n v i l l e ' s t r a f f i c  who  improving  R i c h m o n d commuters c o u l d h e l p t o f u r t h e r m i t i g a t e congestion along G r a n v i l l e .  who  i s a f f e c t e d by  alleviated  improved from Vancouver t o Richmond. arterial  attributed  s u b u r b s and w o r k i n V a n c o u v e r ,  t h o s e r e s i d e n t s o f V a n c o u v e r and  15).  volumes,  The  These f l o w s i n v o l v e b o t h p e o p l e  work a t t h e a i r p o r t o r e l s e w h e r e  to,  performing  r o l e i n Vancouver's t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network.  roadway r e c e i v e s e x t r e m e l y  live  arterial,  traffic  despite these  w i l l undoubtedly  by  potential  remain heavy.  T r a f f i c v o l u m e s on G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s o u t h o f 6 3 r d A v e n u e h a v e i n c r e a s e d by 39% c i t y wide t r a f f i c  over the l a s t ten years. i n c r e a s e d by  34% 79  over  On  t h e o t h e r hand,  t h e same t i m e p e r i o d ,  and  Kitsilano traffic P r o f i l e 1993, Traffic to  o n l y 19%  counts,  taken  on a Monday i n F e b r u a r y o f 1992  v o l u m e s , and  (See T a b l e 4 ) .  As  illustrate  the Broadway s i t u a t i o n , Contrary  flows.  commuter  However, u n l i k e  t h i s a c t s as a d e t r i m e n t  rather than  to the assumption t h a t i n c r e a s e d  stimulates business, reach  a p a t t e r n of  The  e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t once t r a f f i c  resultant congestion  and  l i m i t a t i o n s on  p a r k i n g f o r c e s h o p p e r s t o p a t r o n i z e more e a s i l y locations.  80  an  traffic  a c e r t a i n p o i n t they g e n e r a l l y l e a d to r e d u c t i o n s  business.  attest  i s the case f o r Broadway, G r a n v i l l e i s  subject to s u b s t a n t i a l d i u r n a l t r a f f i c  asset.  ( M a r p o l e Community  4) .  high t r a f f i c  flows  i n c r e a s e d by  volumes in  retail  turns  accessible  and  Table 4 : G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t T r a f f i c  Counts  GRANVILLE STREET  TRAFFIC VOLUMES (At 63rd Avenue) South Bound  2147 3453  7am - 9am 4pm - 6pm 7am - 6pm 24 hours  14382 21816  North Bound 4022  7am - 9am 4pm - 6pm 7am - 6pm  2664 15314  24 hours  21820  S o u r c e : Traffic M a n a g e m e n t , City of V a n c o u v e r  G r a n v i l l e i s both a t r u c k and t r a n s i t route.  Field  analysis  s u g g e s t s t h a t b e n e f i t s o f f r e q u e n t b u s s e r v i c e may b e o u t w e i g h e d by  t h e l a r g e volumes o f t r u c k  pollution.  traffic  Overall, d i s b e n f i t s of thecorridor's high  volumes exceed t h e m a r g i n a l b e n e f i t s form o f h i g h  8.  and r e s u l t a n t a i r and n o i s e traffic  o f f e r e d t o merchants i n t h e  e x p o s u r e and good s e r v i c e b y t r a n s i t .  Design C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  I. Use and A c t i v i t y a)  Extent of D i v e r s i t y G r a n v i l l e i s more d i v e r s e  t h a n Broadway.  a r g u e d t h a t d i v e r s i t y adds v i t a l i t y  A l t h o u g h i t c a n be  t o a street, theopposite i s  a l s o t r u e . G r a n v i l l e s u f f e r s from a l a c k of c o h e s i o n f u n c t i o n and function,  form.  and  Each s i d e of the s t r e e t p e r f o r m s a  operates  a l m o s t as a s e p a r a t e  entity.  tend not  t o t r a v e r s e the roadway t o v i s i t d i f f e r e n t  do a l o n g  Broadway.  b)  in  distinct  Pedestrians shops as  they  Residential Units V e r y few m i x e d r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s a b u t G r a n v i l l e  commercial d i s t r i c t . the area's  local  Nonetheless,  clientele,  and  s t i m u l a t e commercial  some o f t h e n e w e r d e v e l o p m e n t s  l o c a t e d a t west 6 6 t h Avenue) have a mix residential  South's  Additional units could p o t e n t i a l l y  However, g i v e n t h e h i g h t r a f f i c v o l u m e s t h i s  c)  both  increase  business.  seems u n l i k e l y . (such as t h e  of commercial  building  and  uses.  Parking Curbside  p a r k i n g has  d u r i n g peak hours  been s t r i p p e d a l o n g G r a n v i l l e  (7-9am and  v o l u m e s t h i s a p p e a r s t o be suggests  that t o t a l  3-6pm).  a reasonable  the h i g h  solution.  traffic Evidence  r e m o v a l o f c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g c a n be  d e t r i m e n t a l to l o c a l merchants. i t becomes v i r t u a l l y  Given  Once p a r k i n g has  impossible to reintroduce. 82  Street  very  been s t r i p p e d Nonetheless,  e v e n t h e r e m o v a l o f p e a k h o u r p a r k i n g h a s a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on f u n c t i o n i n g of a commercial s t r e e t . remain t h o s e where t r a f f i c volumes curbside  the  The most s u c c e s s f u l s t r e e t s a r e low enough t o s u s t a i n  parking.  d) Nodes The G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t c o m m e r c i a l a r e a i s c o n s i d e r a b l e than Broadway's.  shorter  At G r a n v i l l e South, commercial a c t i v i t y  extends  f o r o n l y s e v e n b l o c k s , w h e r e a s a t West B r o a d w a y t h e r e i s commercial a c t i v i t y  f o r ten blocks.  Further,  s a v e a two  i n t e r r u p t i o n o f m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s between L a r c h and Streets,  block  Vine  t h e Broadway commercial c o r r i d o r a c t u a l l y e x t e n d s f o r  more t h a n f o r t y b l o c k s b e t w e e n A l m a a n d F r a s e r S t r e e t s .  This  c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t where t h e s e v e n  block  commercial s t r i p e x i s t s i n almost complete G i v e n t h e above c i r c u m s t a n c e ,  isolation.  t h e r e i s no i d e n t i f i a b l e  f o r the G r a n v i l l e South commercial area.  E s s e n t i a l l y the  f u n c t i o n s as a u n i t ,  observable  d e f i n e d by a b a r e l y  core/periphery pattern.  83  node area  II.  Street  Level  a) S t r e e t T r e e s , S t r e e t F u r n i t u r e ,  L a n d s c a p i n g and  Lighting  S t r e e t t r e e s e x t e n d from 7 0 t h Avenue n o r t h t o 6 3 r d Avenue. They h e l p m i t i g a t e t h e w i d e o p e n f e e l  that results  extreme w i d t h of the c o r r i d o r .  i s a notable lack  There  b e n c h e s a n d o t h e r s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e on G r a n v i l l e Furthermore,  street lighting i s s t r i c t l y  n o t h i n g t o improve  from  the of  South.  utilitarian,  and  does  o v e r a l l ambiance of the a r e a .  b) G e n e r a l C o m m e r c i a l / O f f i c e U s e s The G r a n v i l l e s t u d y a r e a s u f f e r s f r o m a n o v e r a b u n d a n c e o f general commercial stores.  The  uses  s u c h as s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s a n d  a r e a ' s S a f e w a y , as a n e x a m p l e , h a s  up t h e c o r r i d o r , b o t h v i s u a l l y a n d  functionally,  grocery  s e v e r e l y broken through  p o s i t i o n i n g of a l a r g e p a r k i n g l o t f r o n t i n g the s t r e e t . abundance o f " m i n i m a l l s " , h o u s i n g c o n v e n i e n c e like,  have had a s i m i l a r  s t o r e s and  the An the  effect.  c) P e d e s t r i a n E n v i r o n m e n t The p e d e s t r i a n e n v i r o n m e n t  at G r a n v i l l e South  t h r e a t e n i n g t h a n t h a t on West B r o a d w a y . from h i g h t r a f f i c  volumes.  i s more  This results  primarily  P e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g s a r e n o t as 84  well  marked, a r e n o t p e d e s t r i a n c o n t r o l l e d , width of the s t r e e t ) . travels  are longer  Moreover, v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c  faster along Granville  few p e d e s t r i a n s b o t h e r  t h a n Broadway.  to cross the  Some o f t h e l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s displays.  and  Nevertheless,  these  As  (due  to  the  generally a  consequence,  street.  have awnings and  sidewalk  f e a t u r e s are l e s s abundant than  on  Broadway.  d) V i e w s and Granville  Topography South's commercial d i s t r i c t  south a f f o r d i n g o b s e r v e r has  v i e w s of the Richmond a r e a .  an e n d l e s s v i e w up  not a s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e , area's  t o p o g r a p h y may  B e c a u s e an o b s e r v e r and  be  the  can see  Looking  "endless" v i s t a s both sense of e n c l o s u r e .  as v i s u a l e n c l o s u r e i s a n o t a b l e  characteristic.  85  from  appeal.  to the  This i s urban  an  Although  "open" f e e l w h i c h r e s u l t s to i t s overall  the  north,  the i n c l i n i n g S t r e e t .  a hindrance  s o u t h , h e / s h e f e e l s no  significant,  slopes gently to  north  the  I I I . B u i l d i n g Form The  c o l l e c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s a l o n g G r a n v i l l e S o u t h do n o t  create a strong street w a l l .  A s was d i s c u s s e d , a s t r o n g  street  w a l l r e s u l t s when b u i l d i n g s h a v e s i m i l a r h e i g h t s a n d s e t b a c k s . Granville fails  i n t h i s r e g a r d due t o a n o v e r a b u n d a n c e o f  surface parking.  This problem i s perpetuated  of s i n g l e s t o r y b u i l d i n g s , "pedestal" style  b y t h e v a s t number  a n d t h e more r e c e n t a d d i t i o n o f  buildings.  Because o f t h e c o r r i d o r ' s e x c e s s i v e w i d t h , introduce t a l l e r buildings t o the street.  i t seems p r u d e n t t o  Such b u i l d i n g s c o u l d  have t h e e f f e c t o f b r i n g i n g t h e s t r e e t ' s edges c l o s e r and  thus add t o the area's  together,  sense o f e n c l o s u r e and urban  appeal.  CONCLUSIONS This chapter  i l l u m i n a t e s numerous a s p e c t s  concerning the  f u n c t i o n i n g o f urban mixed-use commercial s t r e e t s . knowledge g a i n e d  through  Much o f t h e  t h e s t u d y o f Broadway a n d G r a n v i l l e  S t r e e t c a n b e u t i l i z e d when a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e a " f o r m u l a f o r success"  f o r Marine D r i v e i n North Vancouver.  these case  s t u d i e s a l s o demonstrate, matchless  create both advantages and disadvantages These p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e d i f f i c u l t 86  N e v e r t h e l e s s , as circumstances  f o r urban to alter.  streets. Hence,  although the  " c r e a t i o n " of s u c c e s s f u l mixed-use  commercial  s t r e e t s i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y o u t o f t h e h a n d s o f P l a n n e r s , t h e y must r e l y h e a v i l y on c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e y o n d t h e i r c o n t r o l . directed planning i n i t i a t i v e s the G r a n v i l l e case  c a n h a v e an e f f e c t .  study i l l u s t r a t e s ,  Properly However,  as  P l a n n e r s a r e f o r c e d t o work  w i t h i n l i m i t e d c o n f i n e s , s o m e t i m e s t o no  avail.  Components necessary f o r success C e r t a i n components a r e n e c e s s a r y  f o r the success  of  commercial  s t r e e t s , w h i l e others, although important, p l a y a secondary I have c o m p i l e d a b r i e f order f o r a commercial i m p o r t a n t , and  list  of t h i n g s which  s t r e e t to succeed.  c a n be u s e d a s a c h e c k l i s t  p r e s e n t and what i s l a c k i n g a l o n g M a r i n e  how  are these c o n d i t i o n s achieved?  achieved f o r Marine  Drive?  And,  are r e q u i r e d i n  This l i s t  is  to determine Drive.  however, a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t such a l i s t  begs.  More For  what i s important, example:  c a n t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s be  These q u e s t i o n s form t h e c r u x of  inquiry.  87  role.  this  The Requirements of a S u c c e s s f u l Mixed-use Commercial 1.  Sufficient Residential  Density  2. C o n t i n u i t y i n S t r e e t L e v e l R e t a i l 3 . On S t r e e t 4.  Street are  Activity  Parking  M e r c h a n t a n d Community I n v o l v e m e n t a n d C o o p e r a t i o n  5. An I d e n t i f i a b l e Node o f A c t i v i t y 6.  Pleasant  7. T r a n s i t  and l i v e l y  Atmosphere  Service  8. I d e n t i t y  Case Study F i n d i n g s O u t l i n e d below a r e the s a l i e n t p o i n t s  from preceding  Given the t h r u s t of t h i s paper, those p o i n t s to the " r e c r e a t i o n " of Marine Drive  that  sections.  c a n be a p p l i e d  are outlined.  a)History One o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n g r e d i e n t s the  time of a s t r e e t ' s development.  Broadway, w h i c h d e v e l o p e d b e f o r e generally exemplify pattern.  f o r success r e l a t e s t o  Those c o r r i d o r s , such as  the advent of t h e automobile  a more i n t e n s e  and a u t h e n t i c  mixed-use  Because these s t r e e t s developed as a spine  f o r the l o c a l neighbourhood, r e s i d e n t i a l development 88  of a c t i v i t y generally  surrounds the c o r r i d o r , g i v i n g i t a s u b s t a n t i a l l o c a l base.  consumer  Furthermore, they are g e n e r a l l y v o i d of the vast  surface  p a r k i n g l o t s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e more r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d corridors. Developments i n t h e c i t y ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network a l s o p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n the current functioning of a street. example, development o f t h e A r t h u r Lang b r i d g e undesirable  c r e a t e d an  c o n d i t i o n f o r G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t by g e n e r a t i n g  volumes o f t h r o u g h t r a f f i c . momentous d e v e l o p m e n t , it  For  massive  Save t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t o f a n e q u a l l y  ( f o r example a Sky T r a i n l i n k t o Richmond)  i s u n l i k e l y G r a n v i l l e S o u t h w i l l become a p e d e s t r i a n  friendly  commercial c o r r i d o r .  b) C u r r e n t The  Use  c u r r e n t r o l e o f an urban s t r e e t i n t h e c i t y - w i d e  p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t  part i n i t s success.  context  S t r e e t s , such as  G r a n v i l l e , which c u r r e n t l y f u n c t i o n as i n t e g r a l v e h i c u l a r corridors are not l i k e l y street  High t r a f f i c  candidates  volumes render  fora traditional these  shopping  corridors threatening  and u n a t t r a c t i v e . The  current success  o f c o f f e e shops, e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g  Broadway, e x e m p l i f i e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s u c h 89  establishments.  People  r e q u i r e p l a c e s t o meet and  socialize.  Although  only a  small d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the e f f e c t s of such  establishments  c a n n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d .  ramifications  the o v e r a l l  They have i m p o r t a n t  f u n c t i o n i n g of a s t r e e t .  The  absence of  such  establishments along G r a n v i l l e diminishes i t s o v e r a l l  c) F u t u r e The  case  studies i l l u s t r a t e  e x e m p l i f i e d by  commercial  Planning  t h e enormous momentum o f  study,  even s e v e r a l y e a r s  zones,  and The  reinforce  existing  c r e a t i o n of  f o r e x a m p l e , r e t a i n e d and  Broadway's  enhanced  and  Nevertheless,  emphasizing  the  encouraging  r e s i d e n t i a l development, s t o p p i n g the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of  t h e y may  of  Policies  s t r e e t ' s e x i s t i n g c h a r a c t e r by e f f e c t i v e l y  businesses,  was  street.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are very e f f e c t i v e . distinct  As  not n e c e s s a r i l y r e c r e a t e a s u c c e s s f u l mixed-  Planning P o l i c i e s which preserve  two  current  Past patterns d i c t a t e f u t u r e trends.  the G r a n v i l l e case  i n t e n s i v e work w i l l  d)  appeal.  Trends  l a n d use p a t t e r n s .  use  on  general  a core/periphery pattern.  a l t h o u g h t h e s e p o l i c i e s worked f o r Broadway,  p r o v e l e s s e f f e c t i v e when a p p l i e d t o d i f f e r e n t 90  streets.  P o l i c i e s concerning mixed-use commercial thoroughfares necessarily interchangeable. acted l i k e a springboard unfortunate.  Broadway's s u c c e s s  a p p e a r s t o have  f o r G r a n v i l l e ' s development.  The p o l i c i e s  are not  f o r Broadway d e v e l o p e d  This i s  o v e r many  years  as a r e s u l t o f p r o a c t i v e e f f o r t s b y M e r c h a n t s , members o f t h e community a n d P l a n n e r s .  They were d e s i g n e d  t o perpetuate  s p e c i f i c r o l e f o r Broadway, i l l u m i n a t e d by i n i t i a l most a p p r o p r i a t e .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , p o l i c i e s  perceived shortcomings Broadway e x p e r i e n c e .  s t u d i e s as  for Granville  emerged a s t h e r e s u l t o f e f f o r t s b y C i t y P l a n n e r s . created i n a r e l a t i v e l y short time  a  They were  frame as a r e a c t i o n t o  of the street, H i s t o r y suggests  and borrow h e a v i l y from t h e i t may h a v e b e e n more  a p p r o p r i a t e t o b e g i n by s t u d y i n g G r a n v i l l e ' s r o l e i n t h e c i t y context, paying  close a t t e n t i o n t o the s t r e e t ' s p a r t i c u l a r  circumstance.  e)  Zoning The  z o n i n g c r e a t e d f o r Broadway has p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l .  a p p l i c a t i o n o f two z o n e s i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m i x e d - u s e corridors.  The  commercial  S u c h a scheme c r e a t e s a f i n e r t e x t u r e , a n d a l l o w s  more r e s p o n s i v e  results.  the nuances o f d i f f e r e n t  "Blanket"  zones a r e l e s s r e s p o n s i v e t o  commercial c o r r i d o r s . 91  Although  o b v i o u s l y more a t t r a c t i v e b l a n k e t z o n e s s h o u l d be  f r o m an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o i n t o f  avoided,  as t h e y do n o t  c r e a t i o n of i d e n t i f i a b l e nodes of  view,  a l l o w f o r the  activity.  Core a r e a zones s h o u l d encourage the i n c l u s i o n of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t uses.  However, i t s h o u l d a l s o s t i p u l a t e t h e e x c l u s i o n  of g e n e r a l commercial b u s i n e s s . Broadway's c o r e a r e a .  Witness  the success  of  T h i s c o n d i t i o n would not e x i s t  i f general  c o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were a l l o w e d t o p r o l i f e r a t e . impact  of such e s t a b l i s h m e n t s  i s l e s s severe  core, the i n c l u s i o n of t h i s type of a c t i v i t y p e r i p h e r a l zone.  Allowing general business  i n areas  the  outside  i s acceptable i n the outer  o f t e n a i d s i n t h e o v e r a l l draw o f an u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l  f)  As  the  i n the  zone  street . 1  Surroundings The  surroundings  s u c c e s s more t h a n any  o f an u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r other variable.  of a s t r e e t ' s surroundings  The  most i m p o r t a n t  i s the p o p u l a t i o n base.  mixed-use commercial s t r e e t s t o succeed,  dictate  In order f o r  t h e r e must be  s u f f i c i e n t p o p u l a t i o n base w i t h i n a reasonable  element  a  distance.  G e n e r a l b u s i n e s s e s i n c l u d e t h i n g s s u c h as l a r g e S u p e r m a r k e t s , Banks, and Service Stations. A l t h o u g h not a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e c o r e a r e a , g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s can h e l p t o draw c o n s u m e r s f r o m f a r t h e r a f i e l d . 1  92  A l t h o u g h no  q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s w e r e done i n t h i s r e g a r d ,  case s t u d i e s proximity  s u g g e s t two  things  of a p o p u l a t i o n  First,  as  concerning the necessary s i z e  i l l u s t r a t e d by  the  s u c c e s s of Broadway, s i z a b l e  not  suffice.  This  a t G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t where the district  an  unparalleled  Anomalous p o c k e t s of h i g h d e n s i t y  d e v e l o p m e n t may  d i r e c t l y to the  and  base.  m u l t i f a m i l y areas l o c a t e d nearby create advantage.  the  residential  i s e v i d e n c e d by  the s i t u a t i o n  e f f e c t s of h a v i n g a h i g h  s o u t h a r e n e g a t e d by  the  density  fact that  the  r e s i d u a l of the neighbourhood i s comprised of e i t h e r s i n g l e family or i n d u s t r i a l Second, w i t h  districts.  regards to proximity,  Broadway's s i t u a t i o n  suggests that a s i z a b l e p o p u l a t i o n  base need not  adjacent t o the  be  distance  --  s t r e e t , but  that being  the  corridor.  accessible population  the  success of a s t r e e t .  base, but  Age  most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s . y o u n g a d u l t s and  walking Further,  importance of r e s i d e n t i a l  These r e s i d e n c e s  Socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s  located  located within  approximately eight blocks.  Broadway s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s l o c a t e d on  should  be  add  not  much n e e d e d d i u r n a l  only  the  units an e a s i l y  activity.  a l s o p l a y a r o l e i n the o v e r a l l  s t r u c t u r e and  disposable  income are  A neighbourhood w i t h a predominance  high disposable  i n c o m e s i s an 93  asset.  the of  Nonetheless,  a mix  o f i n h a b i t a n t s i s deemed d e s i r a b l e .  L o c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o employment c e n t r e s and centres i s s i g n i f i c a n t . it  i s located adjacent  competing  shopping  West B r o a d w a y ' s s i t u a t i o n i s u n i q u e t o t h e s e c o n d most i m p o r t a n t  as  commercial  c e n t r e i n G r e a t e r Vancouver, the C e n t r a l Broadway C o r r i d o r .  This  r e l a t i o n s h i p c r e a t e s p e e r l e s s advantages f o r west Broadway.  As  the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t study e x e m p l i f i e s , t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s not matched t h r o u g h  high v i s i b i l i t y .  Although  h i g h volumes  commuter t r a f f i c u t i l i z e G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , o n l y a percentage The shopping  small  stop.  l o c a t i o n of commercial s t r e e t s i n r e l a t i o n t o l a r g e centres i s important.  the success 1 0 t h Ave,  Some o f B r o a d w a y ' s s u c c e s s  of o t h e r west s i d e shopping  and D u n b a r ) c a n be  centres located w i t h i n t h i s l i m i t e d success  a t t r i b u t e d to the l a c k of segment o f t h e c i t y .  Moreover,  Nonetheless,  s t r e e t s s u c h as K e r r i s d a l e ( a l s o l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e  competition from shopping  Hence, a l t h o u g h  c e n t r e s does not  success.  94  a r r e s t the  the  to shopping  "shadow" a  Ave,  shopping  o f G r a n v i l l e c a n be p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d  Oakridge) have p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l .  (and  s t r e e t s s u c h as 4 t h  competition from Oakridge Shopping Centre.  for  of  of  detriment, potential  g) Movement  Patterns  I n t e g r a l t o a s t r e e t ' s p o t e n t i a l success t r a f f i c which i t r e c e i v e s . f o r two m a i n r e a s o n s .  High t r a f f i c volumes a r e d e t r i m e n t a l  First,  removal of c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g . patrons  i s t h e volume o f  h i g h volumes n e c e s s i t a t e t h e T h i s makes i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r  t o s t o p and shop, and e l i m i n a t e s an e s s e n t i a l p h y s i c a l  b a r r i e r between p e d e s t r i a n s  a n d commuter f l o w s .  Second,  v o l u m e s make t h e s t r e e t t h r e a t e n i n g a n d d i f f i c u l t  to cross.  H i g h v o l u m e c o r r i d o r s do o f f e r one b e n e f i t t o m i x e d streets: public transit.  Major a r t e r i a l s  of Vancouver's t r a n s i t network. such as G r a n v i l l e , Nonetheless,  high  commercial  form an i n t e g r a l  Points along  a major  are easily accessible to transit  i t c a n be c o n v i n c i n g l y a r g u e d t h a t  part  arterial,  users.  shopping  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , n e e d n o t be l o c a t e d o n m a j o r t h o r o u g h f a r e s ,  as  s t r e e t s which c r o s s a r t e r i a l s a r e j u s t as e a s i l y accessed  by  transit  users.  h) D e s i g n Cohesiveness i s important Nonetheless, success. Surface  i n b o t h form and f u n c t i o n .  textural variations are integral  Long facades parking,  to a streets  and s i n g l e use b u i l d i n g s c r e a t e monotony.  general  office/commercial 95  uses a t grade  level  and  excessive b u i l d i n g setbacks  the "core a r e a . " at  grade,  s h o u l d be a v o i d e d ,  A continuous w a l l of commercial  especially  establishments  w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s on t h e u p p e r f l o o r s h a s  most s u c c e s s f u l .  Essentially,  these design  in  proven  characteristics  d e f i n e west Broadway. Beautification efforts, furniture,  and  the l i k e ,  i n the form of s t r e e t t r e e s ,  are important.  not r e v i t a l i z e a s t r e e t which  How  Do  We  i s not  street  However, t h e y a l o n e  can  functioning properly.  Achieve D e s i r e d C o n d i t i o n s ?  Evidence  suggests  mixed-use commercial  t h a t t h e b e s t way street  to "create" a successful  i s to strengthen e x i s t i n g  c o n d i t i o n s on t h o s e s t r e e t s w h i c h  favourable  are c u r r e n t l y f u n c t i o n i n g w e l l .  This i s a rather dismal revelation.  Such a f i n d i n g  suggests  c u r r e n t l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s a r e a f i x e d c o n d i t i o n we  should  to  case.  endure i n d e f i n i t e l y .  Nonetheless,  this  O b v i o u s l y t h i s i s not the  study c o n v i n c i n g l y demonstrates  between the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  i t i l l u s t r a t e s the poignant  promotion.  power of  the  Historical  o f t e n d i c t a t e what t h e f u t u r e w i l l 96  expect  distinction  evolution verses  "naturally occurring" evolutionary process. circumstances  a  that  hold.  Hence,  when s t u d y i n g w h e r e t o p r o c e e d  w i t h s t r e e t s such as M a r i n e  one must b e g i n b y g a i n i n g a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n the s t r e e t ' s e v o l u t i o n .  of the forces involved  K n o w i n g what s h a p e d t h e c o r r i d o r  b e t t e r a l l o w one t o b u i l d on t h e " n a t u r a l " e l e m e n t s w h i c h lend themselves determine  Drive  to manipulation.  Following this,  best  i t i s important  how s u c c e s s f u l l y one c a n a p p l y t h e v a r i o u s  techniques  that aided i n the "creation" of other s u c c e s s f u l commercial corridors.  97  will  CHAPTER FOUR: RECREATING MARINE DRIVE  INTRODUCTION Case s t u d y  f i n d i n g s suggest that n o t a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  c o r r i d o r s a r e appropriate p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d shopping p r e c i n c t s . Nevertheless, success  given thed e s i r a b i l i t y  o f such a c o n d i t i o n , and t h e  o f u r b a n commercial c o r r i d o r s such a s Broadway,  the p o t e n t i a l a l o n g Marine D r i v e i s v a l i d .  studying  This chapter  will  explore Marine Drive's f u t u r e .  THE MARINE DRIVE STUDY The  Marine Drive i n q u i r y w i l l  characteristics.  begin with a look a t e x i s t i n g  Background i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l  t h e c u r r e n t M a r i n e D r i v e c o n d i t i o n came t o be, evolved  h e l p e x p l a i n how a n d why i t h a s n ' t  i n t o p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d commercial s t r e e t .  study w i l l  explore thep o t e n t i a l  developer's  perspective.  the study w i l l  This d i s c u s s i o n w i l l  f o r f u t u r e development from a  Last, u t i l i z i n g  explore s p e c i f i c  Next, t h e  t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n ,  issues regarding  revitalization.  i l l u m i n a t e how t h e s u c c e s s f u l  revitalization  a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e s a n abandonment o f e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d at  reshaping  theMarine Drive c o r r i d o r .  revitalization  Instead,  specifically  successful  e f f o r t s must r e c o g n i z e M a r i n e D r i v e a s a n i n t e g r a l 98  component o f a n u r b a n s y s t e m c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e P e m b e r t o n A v e n u e Marine D r i v e i n t e r s e c t i o n ,  and e x t e n d i n g s o u t h a l o n g  F u r t h e r , one must r e c o g n i z e t h e l i m i t e d s c a l e o f success.  Specific conditions dictate  n e i g h b o u r h o o d may  must be v i e w e d a s t o o l s  the p o l i c y  for pedestrian-  Hence, any r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  t o guide f u t u r e development.  a t and n e a r M a r i n e D r i v e w i l l outline  potential  t h a t t h e Lower C a p i l a n o  n o t be an a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n  o r i e n t e d commercial c o r r i d o r .  Pemberton.  change s l o w l y .  implications  of these  99  efforts  Conditions  Chapter f i v e  findings.  will  MARINE DRIVE (Between McKay Avenue and C a p i l a n o Road) -(See F i g u r e Seven) 1.  History In  at  order t o f u l l y  u n d e r s t a n d M a r i n e D r i v e one must f i r s t  t h e development o f t h e N o r t h Shore.  Marine D r i v e ' s c u r r e n t  p a t t e r n i s d i c t a t e d by i t s r o l e i n t h e N o r t h Shore The  first  N o r t h Shore  context.  s e t t l e m e n t was M o o d y v i l l e a t what i s now  the base o f L o n s d a l e Avenue.  Development g e n e r a l l y  c o n c e n t r i c l y f r o m t h i s w a t e r f r o n t saw m i l l .  expanded  B y 1893 t h e t o w n  s i t e t h a t e x i s t e d more o r l e s s d e f i n e d t h e p r e s e n t L o w e r area  look  ( H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e 1983,  A3).  E a r l y developments  e n t r e n c h e d a p a t t e r n on t h e N o r t h Shore.  Lonsdale quickly  With Lonsdale ast h e  a r e a ' s hub, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s b e g a n t o r a d i a t e o u t w a r d . f e r r y s e r v i c e was o f f e r e d t o V a n c o u v e r .  By 1906 t r a m  lines  extended up L o n s d a l e , up Grand B o u l e v a r d , and west t o w a r d D r i v e -- t h e n c a l l e d R o b s o n S t r e e t  ( D a v i s 1990,  C a p i l a n o S t r e e t C a r L i n e had begun t o s t i m u l a t e  A  Marine  3 7 ) . B y 1912 t h e residential  development i n t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g Marine D r i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Pemberton H e i g h t s and Lower C a p i l a n o  100  neighbourhoods.  Figure 7 : Marine Drive S i t e and S i t u a t i o n  lot  Map  By  1909  West V a n c o u v e r h a d  f e r r y s e r v i c e was Ambleside.  developed  a l s o b e g u n t o grow, a n d t o run between Vancouver  T h u s , M a r i n e D r i v e was  b e t w e e n t h e two  developing  a private and  becoming e s t a b l i s h e d as a  communities.  I n 1925,  with  link  the  opening of the Second Narrows b r i d g e , Marine D r i v e developed tourist orientation  (NVD  c a b i n s became t h e norm.  files).  Tea  h o u s e s , BBQ's a n d  T h i s f u n c t i o n i s now  75).  the L i o n s Gate b r i d g e opened  Road.  (Davis  1990,  M a r i n e D r i v e q u i c k l y became a m a j o r t r a f f i c a r t e r y .  S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r t h e r o a d was i n t e g r a l bus  between L o n s d a l e paramount.  i m p r o v e d and  b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e  and A m b l e s i d e t h e a u t o m o b i l e  T h u s , i t comes as no  n a t u r a l l y developed  into  an  continued  was  link"  becoming  s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e c o r r i d o r has  f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d by  d e v e l o p m e n t o f West V a n c o u v e r ' s P a r k R o y a l later,  "main  as an a u t o - o r i e n t e d c o m m e r c i a l  M a r i n e D r i v e ' s p a t t e r n was  1 9 5 0 ' s , and  developed  route.  As M a r i n e D r i v e was  The  vacation  generally confined  to the western p o r t i o n of Marine D r i v e at C a p i l a n o I n November 1938  a  strip. the  Shopping centre i n the  C a p i l a n o M a l l i n the C i t y of N o r t h  Vancouver.  development of h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l uses  b o t h A m b l e s i d e and  Lonsdale  has  entrenched  the e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n ,  e n a b l i n g M a r i n e D r i v e ' s h i s t o r i c o r i e n t a t i o n a s an 102  at  auto-oriented  strip  to i n t e n s i f y .  continued uses.  I n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s and  to provide  Now,  i n the  space f o r l a n d - e x t e n s i v e  1990's, N o r t h  and  urban a r t e r i a l . "  I t i s best The  and  are  auto-oriented commercial  m a j o r i t y of m o t o r i s t s g e n e r a l l y use  high v i s i b i l i t y  unattractive for pedestrians.  s t r e e t s u f f e r s f r o m an o v e r a l l l a c k o f v i s u a l uncoordinated  landscaping.  Nonetheless,  r o l e as a c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p  are  the  primary  heavy t r a f f i c volumes,  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  c o n f u s i n g and  Marine  Commercial e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t  Large surface parking l o t s ,  a l a c k of cohesion  i t unpleasant  Planners  c l a s s e d as a " d i s t r i c t  r e q u i r e l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d and  and  auto o r i e n t e d  role.  t o f u n c t i o n as an  D r i v e as a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r .  land users.  Drive  Activity  Marine Drive continues commercial s t r i p .  and  Vancouver D i s t r i c t  q u e s t i o n i n g the l e g i t i m a c y of t h i s  2 . Current Use  1980's M a r i n e  c o r r i d o r , making Moreover,  appeal.  the  I t has  a  a r r a y o f s i g n s , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e and t h e c o r r i d o r p l a y s an i n the North  Eight) .  103  indispensable  Shore c o n t e x t  (See  Figure  Figure 8: Marine Drive; A District Commercial Artery  Marine Drive looking East from Capilano Road  Automobile oriented establishments located along Marine Drive  I o4-  3. Future Trends The  f u t u r e of the M a r i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r depends l a r g e l y  l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s and surrounding  areas.  I f a new  "Low  the treatment  on  of  L e v e l Road " were c r e a t e d  help a l l e v i a t e Marine Drive t r a f f i c ,  and/or proximate  higher  d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s were c r e a t e d , p o r t i o n s o f corridor likely  would develop  p e d e s t r i a n p r e c i n c t s over  time.  Nevertheless,  potential  for retail  development a l o n g Marine D r i v e d u r i n g the next ( C o r i o l i s 1988, The  commercial growth  or s e r v i c e twenty  most l i k e l y  prospect  f o r t h e M a r i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r i s an T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e some  m i x e d - u s e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s and  an  p e d e s t r i a n environment i n p a r t i c u l a r areas  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of under  specific  conditions.  T h i s w i l l be  years  16).  o v e r a l l r e t e n t i o n o f t h e s t a t u s quo.  2  the  a s more i n t e n s e m i x e d - u s e  f o r e c a s t s suggest t h a t even under h i g h p o p u l a t i o n scenarios there i s l i t t l e  to  2  discussed  i n more d e t a i l  105  in  a  later  section.  the  4.  Planning  Policy  Planning p o l i c i e s  f o r M a r i n e D r i v e have l o n g r e c o g n i z e d  s t r e e t ' s o r i e n t a t i o n toward l a n d - e x t e n s i v e  the  automobile-oriented  commercial uses,  and have g e n e r a l l y p r e s c r i b e d a r e t e n t i o n o f  this condition.  Nonetheless,  overriding interest and  t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n i s coupled  in "revitalizing,"  " b e a u t i f y i n g " the c o r r i d o r .  or at least  with  "intensifying"  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , notions of  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been p l a g u e d  by n e g l e c t .  long standing i n t e r e s t s i n r e v i t a l i z a t i o n juxtapose  c o r r i d o r i n favour of other commercial areas.  Drive  This condition  e x i s t s p a r t l y b e c a u s e many o f M a r i n e D r i v e ' s  perceived  d e f i c i e n c i e s r e s u l t from a r b i t r a r y M u n i c i p a l  boundaries.  to address the s t r e e t ' s d e f i c i e n c i e s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y concentrated  on p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s ,  to r e p a i r Marine Drive's v i s u a l  image.  that, d e s p i t e extensive involvement  I t i s important  t o note  b y members o f t h e L o w e r  This i s quite d i f f e r e n t  by  from the  s i t u a t i o n a t West B r o a d w a y w h e r e i n i t i a t i v e s w e r e f o u n d e d b y M e r c h a n t s a n d Community  members.  106  have  attempting  C a p i l a n o n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , most p o l i c i e s h a v e b e e n i n i t i a t e d professional planners.  The  the  i n i t i a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s t h a t t u r n t h e i r b a c k s on t h e M a r i n e  P o l i c i e s developed  an  A 1961  "Marine  D r i v e and L o w e r P e m b e r t o n " s t u d y  an e a r l y r e c o g n i t i o n o f M a r i n e  Drive's character.  s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t image c a n n o t corridor w i l l automobile cannot  c o n t i n u e t o grow and  uses  be  illustrates  The  transformed,  study  and  the  expand i n the d i r e c t i o n  of  ( i v ) . I t emphasizes the f a c t t h a t Marine  compete w i t h L o n s d a l e A v e n u e o r P a r k R o y a l , a n d  Drive  suggests  t h a t i t complement t h e s e f u n c t i o n s v i a an a u t o - o r i e n t a t i o n , "tying"  t h e two  centres together.  echo t h e s e f i n d i n g s and  the C o r i o l i s  Marine and  --  report  see  "Marine  (1988).  More r e c e n t c o m m e r c i a l  studies  D r i v e C o r r i d o r Study"  (1982),  The  1961  D r i v e ' s purpose i s very u s e f u l ,  improved  and  study a l s o e x p l a i n s s h o u l d be  i n order t o b e t t e r serve the p u b l i c .  r e c e n t s t u d i e s echo t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s .  1980's s t u d i e s w e r e b e i n g p e r f o r m e d  Again,  However, i n t h e  Drive."  t o "determine  T h e s e e x p l o r e d ways t o g u i d e  improve the c o r r i d o r ' s v i s u a l appearance.  how  encouraged more  last  d e c a d e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n c a m p a i g n s h a v e become more p o i n t e d .  Marine  thus  By  the  the f u t u r e of  f u t u r e growth  and  These s t u d i e s  g e n e r a l l y p r e s c r i b e d improvements t o p h y s i c a l elements  of  the  street. Despite recent interest  i n the c o r r i d o r , Marine  historically  s u f f e r e d f r o m c o m p l a c e n c y and n e g l e c t .  f u n c t i o n was  deemed u n c h a n g e a b l e and 107  Drive  has  Because i t s  appropriate, p o l i c i e s  have  g e n e r a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o r r e v i t a l i z a t i o n other North Vancouver n e c e s s a r i l y bad,  District precincts.  This i s not^  a s more i n t e n s i v e e f f o r t s w o u l d  proven f r u i t l e s s .  I t i s worthy  of  of mention  have  likely  as i t h e l p s  explain  the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . I n t h e e a r l y 1980's N o r t h V a n c o u v e r a commercial was  activity  alluded to, this  "imbalance" "imbalance"  Municipal Boundaries.  District  discerned that  e x i s t e d on t h e N o r t h S h o r e . e x i s t s o n l y as a p r o d u c t  3).  commercial  Thus, a l t h o u g h i n market terms cores already e x i s t  (Coriolis  the North  Shore's  i n a "normal" p a t t e r n ,  s e r v i n g the N o r t h Shore p o p u l a t i o n , i n M u n i c i p a l terms Vancouver  District  i s deficient  i n commercial  r e s u l t s because the three commercial Mall,  space.  commercial  the C i t y of North Vancouver.  statistics  illustrate  space p e r c a p i t a .  North  centres Park Royal, Capilano  c e n t r e s serve N o r t h Vancouver  yet D i s t r i c t commercial  and  adequately  This  and L o n s d a l e Avenue/Quay, a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e  o f West V a n c o u v e r  of  M u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s do n o t m a t c h t h e  e c o n o m i c o r t r a d e a r e a b o u n d a r i e s on t h e N o r t h S h o r e 1988,  As  District  District  These residents  a d e f i c i e n t amount o f  C r e a t i n g another commercial  along Marine D r i v e i g n o r e s market r e a l i t i e s  108  well,  and  centre  is unrealistic.  N o n e t h e l e s s , D i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t i e s f o u n d i t p r u d e n t t o a c t on this perceived r e a l i t y . market  A l t h o u g h t h i s c o n d i t i o n may  terms, i t c r e a t e s a r e a l problem i n terms of  tax c o l l e c t i o n .  I n an a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t t h e  s t u d y was  ways o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e D i s t r i c t ' s  false i n  commercial  commercial  " d e f i c i e n c y , " a n d more i m p o r t a n t l y i n c r e a s e t h e c o m m e r c i a l t a x b a s e , a 1982  be  District's  commissioned  to determine  commercial space.  This study  s u g g e s t e d t h a t e f f o r t s w e r e b e t t e r c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e a r e a e a s t o f t h e Seymour R i v e r , growth.  a s i t was  e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e most  rapid  Thus, p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s were once a g a i n r e d i r e c t e d ,  Marine Drive r e t a i n e d i t s status The  and  quo.  c r e a t i o n o f "Town C e n t r e s " i n t h e l a t e  1970's and  early  1980's a l s o h a d a n e f f e c t on t h e d i r e c t i o n o f M a r i n e D r i v e . p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e prompted  fairly  i n t e n s e development  This  a t Lower  L o n s d a l e , among o t h e r p l a c e s , a n d t h u s made i t v i r t u a l l y impossible t o e s t a b l i s h a major c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s Marine  along  Drive.  The  amount a n d t y p e o f c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y a l o n g M a r i n e  D r i v e i s g e n e r a l l y the p r o d u c t of market  forces.  The  corridor's  present form r e s u l t s from i t s l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o N o r t h populations, patterns.  the a r e a ' s geography,  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  I t i s not the r e s u l t of r e s t r i c t i v e p o l i c i e s . 109  Shore trading Policy,  t h u s f a r , has s u p p o r t e d t h e s t a t u s quo, n e i t h e r h i n d e r i n g n o r advancing development.  Thus,  any f u l l  scale transformation at  t h i s p o i n t w o u l d be b r e a k i n g new g r o u n d a n d w o u l d unprecedented p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s . Official  require  R e c e n t amendments t o t h e  Community P l a n a t t e s t t o a n e m e r g i n g d i v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n  r e a l i t y and t h e c u r r e n t p l a n . p o l i c i e s a n d make c h a n g e s where  I t h a s come t i m e t o r e v i e w c u r r e n t required.  5. Zoning Z o n i n g o f 1928 h a s b e e n l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g conditions along Marine Drive. development  For a period of twenty-four years  a l o n g t h e c o r r i d o r was d i r e c t e d b y t h e 192 8  zoning by-law.  T i t l e d a B u s i n e s s "A" d i s t r i c t ,  this  interim  zoning  governed a shallow "ribbon" form of commercial development.  In  1951 a b y - l a w was p a s s e d w h i c h e l i m i n a t e d much o f N o r t h Vancouver's r i b b o n commercial zoning except a l o n g Marine D r i v e (Planning and P r o p e r t y , August, 1961).  The c o r r i d o r h a s r e t a i n e d  t h i s form of development. By t h e m i d 1 9 8 0 ' s a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a t e a n d s c a l e o f development prompted  t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f Marine D r i v e as a  development p e r m i t a r e a .  T h i s was a l e g i t i m a t e a p p r o a c h , a n d h a s  afforded Planners greater d i s c r e t i o n . 110  I t has not,  however,  h e l p e d t o a d d more p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y t o t h e c o r r i d o r . t h e f a c t t h a t 1983  zoning allowed f o r r e s i d e n t i a l uses  commercial, l i t t l e  of t h i s s o r t of development  Despite above  exists.  This  r e s u l t s because t h e implemented z o n i n g d i d not d e a l enough w i t h n o i s e p o l l u t i o n and o t h e r r e l a t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s o f mixed-use of  forms  development. With the e x c e p t i o n of the Capilano T r i a n g l e , which i s  d e s i g n a t e d a C-4  T o u r i s t C o m m e r c i a l Zone, M a r i n e D r i v e i s  c o m p r i s e d o f t h e g e n e r a l c o m m e r c i a l z o n e s C-2 zones a r e , as t h e t i t l e Thus, u n l i k e t h e C-2C  states,  and C-2C1  a n d C-3.  These  "general" commercial zones. zones d e v e l o p e d f o r Broadway,  t h e y do n o t " e n c o u r a g e t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d district,"  n o r do t h e y " e n c o u r a g e t h e c r e a t i o n o f a  shopping a r e a by i n c r e a s i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l l i m i t i n g t h e amount o f o f f i c e  space"  district  component  and  (C-2C z o n i n g S c h e d u l e ) .  T h i s i s not t o suggest t h a t c a r b o n c o p i e s o f Broadway's and C-2C1  z o n e s be e s t a b l i s h e d a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e .  As  i l l u m i n a t e d by the case s t u d i e s , b l i n d l y t r a n s f e r r i n g  was policies  t h a t h a v e p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l i n one p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n a n o t h e r , e a c h w i t h u n i q u e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , may anticipated results.  In fact,  not  C-2C  to  create  evidence suggests that  currently  M a r i n e D r i v e m i g h t n o t be an a p p r o p r i a t e c o r r i d o r f o r V a n c o u v e r ' s 111  C-2C  and  the North quo  C-2C1  zones.  Given  the l e g i t i m a c y of i t s c u r r e n t use  Shore c o n t e x t , the p r o s p e c t s  i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , and  r e s i d e n t i a l areas, unrealistic.  of r e t a i n i n g the  the d e n s i t y of  status  surrounding  transformations at a l a r g e s c a l e are  Zoning  currently  changes w h i c h encourage mixed-use  r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s s h o u l d be  encouraged i n s p e c i f i c  s p e c i f i c a l l y on o r n e a r P e m b e r t o n A v e n u e .  areas,  Once a n o d e o f  a c t i v i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d (which c o u l d t a k e decades) t h e n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of l a r g e r segments of M a r i n e D r i v e can In order to f a c i l i t a t e segments o f t h e c o r r i d o r ,  the f u t u r e conversion of  specific.  commercial.  C u r r e n t l y t h e OCP  the c o r r i d o r should i l l u s t r a t e  This i s unfortunate.  As  especially  the Broadway case  p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r a t h e r than use. commonly r e f e r r e d t o as i m p a c t  these  that  c o n s i s t e n c y i n f u n c t i o n and  112  "solution."  study  stipulate  T h i s type of  or performance zoning,  p a r t of Marine D r i v e ' s  design  District  should begin to explore zoning options which  undoubtedly  larger  stipulates  e x e m p l i f i e s , a m i x i n g of f u n c t i o n s i s d e s i r a b l e . Planners  begin.  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s must e n c o u r a g e t h e m i x i n g o f u s e s ,  (1984, 3 - 1 ) .  a  the c u r r e n t general zoning r e g u l a t i o n s  must be made more d e t a i l e d and  r e s i d e n t i a l and  in  is  zoning,  6.  Surroundings M a r i n e D r i v e i s s u r r o u n d e d p r i m a r i l y by  r e s i d e n t i a l p r e c i n c t s as w e l l as a l i g h t surroundings  echo those  s u f f e r s many o f t h e The  single family  industrial  of G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t .  same p r o b l e m s  (See  area.  Thus, M a r i n e  Figure  community.  The  boundaries of t h i s area  from the Upper L e v e l s Highway t o the w a t e r f r o n t , Avenue t o t h e C a p i l a n o  River.  This area  is a  m a n i f e s t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a g e o g r a p h i c one. b o u n d a r i e s a r e d e f i n e d by M u n i c i p a l b o r d e r s  Drive  Nine).  Marine Drive C o r r i d o r i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the  Capilano"  These  "Lower  extend and  roughly  f r o m McKay  political The  and  e a s t and the  west  northern  boundary by a roadway. Marine Drive precincts.  The  l o c a t e d to the  single family  residential  most p r o x i m a t e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a r e south;  Pemberton H e i g h t s northwest.  i s s u r r o u n d e d by  Lower C a p i l a n o ,  adjacent  and  b e y o n d t h i s t o t h e n o r t h ; and  N o r g a t e and  most s t a b l e o f t h e s e  Pemberton H e i g h t s  neighbourhoods.  Norgate, t o the  Glenaire to  are the l a r g e s t  o f m o d e s t , y e t more e x p e n s i v e ,  experiencing Recently,  some p r e s s u r e s  and  has  homes.  and  Pemberton  Lower C a p i l a n o  begun t o change  some l a r g e r homes h a v e b e e n i n t r o d u c e d 113  the  Norgate i s g e n e r a l l y  c o m p r i s e d of m o d e r a t e l y p r i c e d "wartime" h o u s e s , and Heights  north;  on  is  character. smaller  lots.  Nonetheless,  house p r i c e s i n Lower C a p i l a n o can  considered moderate. h i g h e r p r i c e d homes  still  Glenaire i s a small enclave ( M a r i n e D r i v e OCP  1984,  be  o f newer,  6-1).  The  f u t u r e of  t h e M a r i n e D r i v e C o r r i d o r d e p e n d s l a r g e l y on t h e t r e a t m e n t these proximate  r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods.  Some a r e a s  accommodate h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e f o r a c t i v e , p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d commercial Beyond N o r g a t e t o the s o u t h , o f Lower C a p i l a n o a broad  and  light  areas  underdeveloped,  industrial. area,  on t h e N o r t h S h o r e . housing  i n the southeastern p o r t i o n  storage  are  and  This area, l o o s e l y defined i s one The  of s i x main  light  area i s c u r r e n t l y  a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f l a n d e x t e n s i v e  u s e s such as r a i l  y a r d s , w a r e h o u s i n g , l u m b e r y a r d s and  station  1988,  (Coriolis  potential  ( p r i m a r i l y e a s t of Pemberton Avenue) t h e r e  the Pemberton/Welch i n d u s t r i a l industrial  must  corridor.  range of uses i n c l u d i n g commercial,  w a r e h o u s i n g , and  of  8) .  114  a  transit  as  Figure 9: Marine Drive Surroundings  The  Lower C a p i l a n o n e i g h b o u r h o o d  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a  g r e a t e r t h a n a v e r a g e number o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s a n d a s m a l l e r a v e r a g e number o f c h i l d r e n  (See T a b l e 5 ) .  than  Notice the  s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e age s t r u c t u r e o f L o w e r C a p i l a n o a n d Granville.  A s was a l l u d e d t o i n t h e G r a n v i l l e c a s e s t u d y ,  type of neighbourhood  this  age s t r u c t u r e may b e a d e t r i m e n t t o t h e  functioning of a l i v e l y  commercial  Table 5 : Lower C a p i l a n o Age  corridor.  Structure  Lower Capilano  North Vancouver 11% 31%  residents age 20 to 39  17% 32% 33%  children under age 19  19%  24%  Average Age (1991) seniors age 65+ residents age 40 to 64  34%  Source: Statistics Canada, NVD  Annual median income f o r employed  r e s i d e n t s o f Lower  C a p i l a n o was $23,300 p e r p e r s o n i n 1990 (NVD Q u i c k F a c t s 1993) . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a twenty p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s i n c e 1985, however, i t i s l o w e r t h a n median incomes  f o r t h e N o r t h Shore as a whole.  116  7. Movement P a t t e r n s Marine D r i v e i s a major Shore.  As d e f i n e d by t h e D i s t r i c t  arterial" of  e a s t west a r t e r i a l  on t h e N o r t h  o f North Vancouver,  a  "major  i s any roadway t h a t c a r r i e s l a r g e volumes o f a l l t y p e s  t r a f f i c m o v i n g a t medium t o h i g h s p e e d s w i t h a c c e s s t o  a b u t t i n g p r o p e r t i e s b e i n g a second  function  (ND L e a 1990,  9) .  M a r i n e D r i v e , e a s t o f C a p i l a n o Road, h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d an a r e a o f c o n c e r n f r o m a t r a f f i c i m p a c t  stand point.  This  r e s u l t s p r i m a r i l y because t h e c o r r i d o r i s h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d commuter r o u t e . neighbourhoods  P e o p l e who l i v e  i n central North  a n d commute t o V a n c o u v e r ,  as  as a  Shore  o r more w e s t e r n  North  Shore d e s t i n a t i o n s such as Park R o y a l , u s e t h e c o r r i d o r 3  extensively. Shore  F u r t h e r , commuters t r a v e l l i n g  east t o c e n t r a l  l o c a t i o n s such as C a p i l a n o M a l l and L o n s d a l e Avenue/Quay  use t h e c o r r i d o r .  This r a i s e s concern because Marine D r i v e i s  c u r r e n t l y a t i t s u l t i m a t e development w i t h i n t h e a v a i l a b l e of  North  way (ND L e a 1988,  right  5 ) . Thus, t h e i m p a c t o f i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c  volumes c a n n o t be h a n d l e d b y s t r e e t w i d e n i n g o r u p g r a d i n g .  More  P a r k R o y a l i s t h e m a j o r g e n e r a t o r o f t r i p s f r o m N o r t h V a n c o u v e r t o West Vancouver. O t h e r c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s g e n e r a t e a s m a l l number o f t r i p s i n c o m p a r i s o n (ND L e a 1988, 22) . 3  117  sophisticated t r a f f i c the  management t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be  future to optimize Two  congestion  traffic  v o l u m e s --  s i g n i f i c a n c e of these developments they are beyond the  will briefly alert The  c r o s s i n g w i l l be  discussed  of the  two  refurbished or recreated  --  This  e i t h e r by  The  or increase  w i t h i n the  traffic,  as a f u n c t i o n o f l o c a l  Road" i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r c o u l d Marine Drive.  road, u t i l i z i n g  v i s i t e d by  I  The  utilize  a r i g h t o f way  will  the  remain  q u a n d a r y whose  decrease  Level commuter  of c r e a t i n g a  on N a t i v e  l o c a l p l a n n e r s numerous t i m e s .  the  traffic  c r e a t i o n o f a "Low  prospects  118  five  growth.  significantly  The  Gate  next  likely  second development i n v o l v e s a p o l i t i c a l  along  Lions  r e b u i l d i n g or r e p l a c i n g  destined  outcome i s c u r r e n t l y u n c e r t a i n .  traffic  scope  relatively  suggests that Marine Drive  v o l u m e s , g e n e r a t e d by b r i d g e constant  Despite  However,  developments i s  I t appears that a f u t u r e c r o s s i n g w i l l  existing bridge.  Road."  in detail.  Recent events i n d i c a t e t h a t the  e x i s t i n g r i g h t o f way  level  Level  a  r e a d e r t o p o t e n t i a l outcomes.  outcome o f one  easy to p r e d i c t .  years.  the  be  the  the development of  the  w i l l not  "Low  to  Burrard  t h e s i s and  a new  tied  new  of t h i s  I n l e t c r o s s i n g , and  in  conditions.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n developments are d i r e c t l y  f u t u r e of Marine D r i v e ' s  required  land,  I f such a  low  have been development  were to proceed,  the r o l e of Marine D r i v e as a commuter c o r r i d o r  would change d r a m a t i c a l l y .  However, i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t a low  l e v e l road w i l l be c r e a t e d i n the next f i v e t o ten y e a r s . There i s no way Bridge or Low  of knowing the f u t u r e of the L i o n s Gate  L e v e l Road.  Nonetheless,  i t appears,  at l e a s t i n  the near f u t u r e , that Marine D r i v e ' s commuter t r a f f i c will  remain constant or i n c r e a s e .  Thus, any  volumes  recommendations  r e g a r d i n g the " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n " of Marine D r i v e should assume t h i s as a g i v e n parameter. As was flows.  o u t l i n e d , Marine D r i v e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  I t i s very  important  commuter  t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between the  p a t t e r n and o v e r a l l volume of t r a f f i c  along t h i s  corridor.  T r a f f i c counts taken along Marine D r i v e i n d i c a t e a r e d u c t i o n i n o v e r a l l t r a f f i c volumes, and modest twenty-four counts.  Twenty-four hour volume counts  hour  traffic  f o r Marine D r i v e are  roughly comparable t o those found on West Broadway -- where t r a f f i c volumes have not been a detriment to development. However, i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t r a f f i c volumes, and t r a f f i c congestion, i s h i n d e r i n g development p o t e n t i a l Marine D r i v e .  along  T h i s r e s u l t s because Marine D r i v e r e c e i v e s  s u b s t a n t i a l peak hour commuter t r a f f i c , d i u r n a l flows  resultant  (See Table 6 ) .  and l a c k s i n c o n t i n u a l  A l s o , g i v e n market c o n d i t i o n s and 119  geography, Marine D r i v e serves as a conduit f o r commuters to get to other d e s t i n a t i o n s .  T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y the case  along  G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , yet to a much l a r g e r degree -- t r a f f i c volumes are approximately  45% lower on Marine D r i v e .  120  Table 6 : Marine D r i v e T r a f f i c  Counts  Thursday  Saturday  7am - 9am  1200  535  4pm - 6pm 7am - 6pm 24 hours  2992 8769 12550  2741 7858 11322  7am - 9am 4pm - 6pm  2001  768  2492 9307  2368 8124 11002  MARINE DRIVE TRAFFIC COUNTS (At McKay Avenue) East Bound  West Bound  7am - 6pm 24 hours  12194  Source: Traffic and Eng. NVD Note: Traffic counts are for the week of January 19,1994.  8.  Design C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  I. Use and A c t i v i t y a) E x t e n t o f D i v e r s i t y Marine Drive Drive  does n o t f u n c t i o n as a c o h e s i v e u n i t .  s u f f e r s from a l a c k o f cohesion i n f u n c t i o n ,  importantly  form.  a n d more  Evidence suggests that d i v e r s i t y i n s t r e e t  f u n c t i o n i s an asset.  However, e x t e n s i v e  f o r m makes a s t r e e t seem c h a o t i c . Drive.  Marine  Such i s t h e case f o r M a r i n e  The c o r r i d o r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  a " d i v e r s i f i e d wall/opening pattern"  121  diversity i n physical  b y what t h e D i s t r i c t (NVD, 1 9 8 4 ) .  This  terms  pattern  i s d e f i n e d by i r r e g u l a r setbacks buildings,  courtyards,  b) R e s i d e n t i a l  and an u n c o o r d i n a t e d  and p a r k i n g  sequence o f  lots.  Units  M a r i n e D r i v e has v e r y few r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s a b u t t i n g t h e street.  C u r r e n t l y there a r e perhaps four r e s i d e n t i a l  on t h e c o r r i d o r .  B e c a u s e t h i s number i s m a r g i n a l  addresses  compared t o t h e  number o f o t h e r u s e s o n t h e s t r e e t -- f u r n i t u r e a n d home i m p r o v e m e n t s t o r e s number t w e n t y two (NVD 1 9 8 4 ) , t h e s t r e e t appears t o be c o m p l e t e l y  devoid  of r e s i d e n t i a l  activity.  P o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s have p e r m i t t e d t h e development o f mixed r e s i d e n t i a l / c o m m e r c i a l p r o j e c t s f o r some t i m e . developers  c)  have n o t t a k e n  However,  the opportunity.  Parking Some s m a l l s e g m e n t s o f o n s t r e e t p a r k i n g s t i l l  Marine D r i v e .  Specifically,  exist  p a r k i n g i s found on t h e s o u t h  o f t h e s t r e e t b e t w e e n McKay a n d L l o y d A v e n u e s , a n d a g a i n McGuire and Bowser Avenues. these areas  do e x i s t .  along side  between  Peak t i m e p a r k i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r  P a r k i n g has been removed f r o m t h e  r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s t r e e t t o accommodate l e f t  hand t u r n bays.  r e m o v a l o f c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g was n o t g e n e r a l l y i n t e n d e d t o 122  The  facilitate  "through  traffic."  Instead, the replacement  c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g w i t h t u r n i n g b a y s was amount o f " d e s t i n a t i o n "  traffic  of  intended t o increase the  b y a l l o w i n g m o t o r i s t s t o more  e a s i l y access various m i n i - m a l l s .  d)  Nodes Two n o d e s o f a c t i v i t y e x i s t a l o n g t h e M a r i n e D r i v e  at  C a p i l a n o Road, a n d a g a i n a t P e m b e r t o n A v e n u e .  The  node d o e s n o t g e n e r a l l y h o u s e i n t e n s i v e l a n d u s e s .  corridor Capilano  Instead, i t  i s d e f i n e d a s a node due t o i t s d o m i n a n t t o u r i s m o r i e n t a t i o n , s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Capilano/Marine presence  Drive intersection,  of I n t e r n a t i o n a l P l a z a Apartments.  and t h e  The P e m b e r t o n node,  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s r e c o g n i z e d a s a node b e c a u s e o f t h e i n t e n s i t y of r e t a i l / s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d at t h i s l o c a t i o n .  Located  on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f M a r i n e D r i v e a t P e m b e r t o n A v e n u e a r e t h e "Modern Image P l a z a , " a n d t h e " P e m b e r t o n P l a z a . " p l a z a s house t w e n t y - e i g h t  different  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r a n g i n g f r o m Save-On dental  clinics.  123  retail  the  These  two  or o f f i c e  Foods t o s m a l l m e d i c a l  and  II S t r e e t L e v e l a) S t r e e t T r e e s ,  Street F u r n i t u r e , Landscaping  and L i g h t i n g  M a r i n e D r i v e has s t r e e t t r e e s f l a n k i n g t h e roadway f o r most of i t s e l e v e n b l o c k s .  However, i t i s n o t w e l l endowed b y s t r e e t  f u r n i t u r e such as benches, garbage cans,  and b i k e l o c k ups.  Street l i g h t i n g i s s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n . generally deficient  i n landscaping.  The c o r r i d o r i s  Small p l a n t e r s and gardens  do e x i s t i n f r o n t o f some m i n i m a l l s a n d p a r k i n g l o t s . they a r e n o t c o o r d i n a t e d and appear d i s j o i n t e d . b l o c k s h a v e v i r t u a l l y no r o a d s i d e  landscaping.  However,  Further, Marine  some  Drive  c o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m a b e a u t i f i c a t i o n scheme w h i c h a d d r e s s e d  these  deficiencies.  b) G e n e r a l  Commercial  There i s an abundance o f g e n e r a l along the Marine Drive c o r r i d o r . plagued  commercial users  Many a r g u e t h a t M a r i n e D r i v e i s  b y t h e " K i n g s w a y s y n d r o m e " -- i m p l y i n g t h e c o r r i d o r i s  comprised almost e x c l u s i v e l y of automobile shops.  located  While t h i s  i s an obvious  d e a l e r s h i p s and r e p a i r  exaggeration,  Marine Drive  does  exemplify a pattern s i m i l a r t o Kingsway s.  Approximately  eighty  of t h e t o t a l  located along  Marine  1  one h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y b u s i n e s s  Drive are either general  commercial o r o f f i c e uses. 124  Of t h e s e a t  l e a s t twenty three are automobile o r i e n t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s  (NVD  1984) .  c) P e d e s t r i a n  Environment  Development a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e n e v e r c o n t e m p l a t e d Pedestrian.  Any  developments which a i d the  e n v i r o n m e n t a p p e a r t o be  pedestrian friendly  The  attempt to create  r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e numerous.  First,  Second, l a r g e  parking l o t s create a d i s j o i n t e d pattern, f o r c i n g patrons t r a v e l e x c e s s i v e d i s t a n c e s between commercial Third, pedestrian crosswalks p e d e s t r i a n c o n t r o l l e d , and  of  the p e d e s t r i a n environment i s not  a v i s u a l l y u n a t t r a c t i v e commercial s t r i p .  F u r t h e r m o r e , due  and  a  run c o n t i n u a l l y along both s i d e s  Nonetheless,  accommodating.  standards  environment.  Pedestrian sidewalks Marine D r i v e .  pedestrian  the r e s u l t of e n g i n e e r i n g  b u i l d i n g codes, r a t h e r than a conscious  the  surface to  establishments.  are g e n e r a l l y not w e l l marked,  are  t o the width  i t is  inconveniently located. of t h e roadway, c r o s s w a l k s  long.  125  are  not  d) V i e w s a n d T o p o g r a p h y The  Marine Drive c o r r i d o r  not u n l i m i t e d  i s flat.  v i s t a s along the street.  Mckay A v e n u e t h e s t r e e t  i s straight.  (roughly the D i s t r i c t boundaries) "view c o r r i d o r . "  Nonetheless,  there are  Between C a p i l a n o Road and At these  the street  two p o i n t s  turns, ending the  Views t o t h e n o r t h a r e b l o c k e d by an  " e s c a r p m e n t r a n g i n g i n v e r t i c a l h e i g h t f r o m a b o u t 10 m e t e r s t o o v e r 60 m e t e r s " and  ( H a r r i s Hudema 1994, 3 - 4 ) . W i t h  the l i m i t e d east-west  view c o r r i d o r ,  of e n c l o s u r e a l o n g t h e Marine D r i v e  t h e escarpment  there i s a c e r t a i n  sense  corridor.  I I I . B u i l d i n g Form As  i s t h e case  buildings  for Granville Street,  the c o l l e c t i o n of  a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e do n o t c r e a t e a s t r o n g s t r e e t  This r e s u l t s because b u i l d i n g h e i g h t s a r e t y p i c a l l y Also, b u i l d i n g setbacks  one s t o r y .  are not continuous.  T h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no " a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o h e s i o n " corridor.  wall.  along the  That i s t o say t h a t t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e o f t h e  street's buildings  varies  significantly.  126  9. The Developer's P e r s p e c t i v e I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r one t o e x p l o r e t h e e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s o f "revitalizing" if  Marine D r i v e .  t h e economic r e a l i t y  n o t be a c h i e v e d .  Case s t u d y a n a l y s i s i s m e a n i n g l e s s  i s such t h a t t h e d e s i r e d c o n d i t i o n can  D e v e l o p e r s must be w i l l i n g  t o buy i n t o t h e i d e a  b e f o r e i t c a n become a r e a l i t y . Evidence s u g g e s t s t h a t N o r t h Shore market c o n d i t i o n s a r e favourable f o r t h e a d d i t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s t o commercial shopping c o r r i d o r s .  Higher d e n s i t y apartment  demand o n t h e N o r t h S h o r e  condominiums a r e i n  f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons.  i m p o r t a n t l y , demand i s b e i n g p r o m p t e d b y a d e c r e a s e household  s i z e a n d a l a r g e number o f b o t h f i r s t  empty n e s t e r s ( S t r a t e g i c 1 9 9 3 ) . f u t u r e s u p p l y o f apartment on t h e N o r t h S h o r e  Most i n overall  time byers and  Further, i t i s hypothesised that  condominiums w i l l  ( S t r a t e g i c 1993).  fall  s h o r t o f demand  Nevertheless, other North  S h o r e p r e c i n c t s a r e g e n e r a l l y more a t t r a c t i v e t h a n M a r i n e for  high density residential  Drive  development.  TRENDS, CONSTRAINTS AND ISSUES a) Trends As was o u t l i n e d , creating lively,  there i s a growing  societal  p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d commercial 127  interest i n  streets.  This  t r e n d i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n t h e Lower C a p i l a n o A r e c e n t Lower C a p i l a n o r e s i d e n t s s u r v e y , of  1994, i l l u s t r a t e s  development.  t h e v a l u e they see i n t h i s  D r i v e ' s commercial  an a u t o d e p e n d e n t g e n e r a l c o m m e r c i a l shopping  s p e c i a l t y shops residents l i k e respondents  local  role transformed  (NVD).  c o r r i d o r t o a more  I t also illustrates  that the m a j o r i t y of  t h e i d e a o f a m i x e d - u s e s c e n a r i o -- 6 4 % o f  f e l t m i x e d - u s e d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d be a p o s i t i v e i f  Thus, D i s t r i c t  (NVD).  Planners i n t e r e s t  p e d e s t r i a n environment along Marine However, e v i d e n c e  from t h i s  i n creating a  study suggests  changes, c o n d i t i o n s a l o n g M a r i n e  lively  Drive i s legitimate. t h a t i t i s premature.  the c o r r i d o r i s b e g i n n i n g t o undergo  significant  Drive dictate that a f u l l  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the c o r r i d o r can not take p l a c e a t t h i s Nonetheless,  from  c o r r i d o r o f f e r i n g more " p e o p l e p l a c e s " a n d  adequate p a r k i n g were p r o v i d e d  Although  i n the f a l l  type of  The s u r v e y i l l u s t r a t e s a d e s i r e among  r e s i d e n t s t o see Marine  traditional  conducted  neighbourhood.  scale time.  s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n now t o e n c o u r a g e a n  a p p r o p r i a t e course of development.  By b u i l d i n g o n t h e c o r r i d o r ' s  a t t r i b u t e s p l a n n e r s a n d c i t i z e n s c a n b e g i n t o make inroads toward  f u t u r e development.  12 8  significant  b)  Constraints Recall  use  f o r a moment " t h e  commercial s t r e e t " l i s t  G r a n v i l l e case s t u d i e s . as  As  requirements of  generated from the was  outlined,  a successful Broadway  this list  can  and be  a c h e c k l i s t t o d e t e r m i n e what i s l a c k i n g a l o n g M a r i n e  In order to f a c i l i t a t e  analysis  I have r e c r e a t e d  o n l y t h i s time I have n o t e d w h i c h of at Marine  2. C o n t i n u i t y Street  i n Street  list  bellow,  requirements are  lacking  Density  Level  lacking  Retail Activity  lacking  Parking  4 . M e r c h a n t and  lacking  Community I n v o l v e m e n t  present  I d e n t i f i a b l e Node o f A c t i v i t y  6. P l e a s a n t and 7. T r a n s i t  present/lacking  L i v e l y Atmosphere  lacking  Service  present  8. L o c a t i o n Which L i m i t s  Excessive Competition  lacking  9 .Identity  The  Drive.  Marine D r i v e ' s C o n d i t i o n :  1. S u f f i c i e n t R e s i d e n t i a l  5 . An  used  Drive.  Requirements and  3.On  the  the  mixed-  above l i s t  lacking  illustrates  the  order f o r Marine Drive to function 129  magnitude of w e l l as  change r e q u i r e d  a lively  pedestrian  in  corridor.  Some o f t h e " r e q u i r e m e n t s " l i s t e d a b o v e a r e o b v i o u s l y -  more i m p o r t a n t t h a n o t h e r s .  Nonetheless, a l l of the conditions  l i s t e d above a r e d e s i r a b l e .  The l a c k o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i s  l a r g e l y the product of a unique h i s t o r y .  P o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s can  h e l p t o d i c t a t e f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s , y e t must r e c o g n i z e c o n s t r a i n t s and l i m i t a t i o n s . segment w i l l  As many c o n s t r a i n t s w e r e o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r ,  offer only a brief  recap of important  limitations.  The l a r g e s t d e t r i m e n t t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a l i v e l y c o r r i d o r at Marine Drive i s the l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t residential density.  commercial proximate  Pockets of high density r e s i d e n t i a l  do e x i s t o n t h e N o r t h S h o r e .  However, a s was o u t l i n e d ,  of these communities  s e r v e d by e s t a b l i s h e d  are well  this  areas  residents  commercial  c e n t r e s such as L o n s d a l e , C a p i l a n o M a l l Park R o y a l , and Ambleside.  This p a t t e r n i s deeply entrenched,  and newly c r e a t e d  r e s i d e n t i a l units generally perpetuate the pattern.  Moreover,  some p a s t s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n c r e a s i n g r e s i d e n t i a l along Marine D r i v e would not s t i m u l a t e t h e c o r r i d o r ' s activity.  densities commercial  Instead, these studies hypothesize that r e s i d e n t s of  these newly c r e a t e d u n i t s would s i m p l y p a t r o n i z e a l r e a d y established centres.  This i s a v a l i d  concern.  Nonetheless,  e v i d e n c e from t h e Broadway case s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t p e o p l e a r e w i l l i n g t o walk  i n order t o o b t a i n convenience 130  a n d some  specialty  services.  Thus, p r o x i m a t e r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s c o u l d  c e r t a i n types of Marine Drive  c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y on i s f u r t h e r p l a g u e d by  street level activity. corridor's history. functioned  as  s u c h i t has corridor, surface  This  lots.  two  function.  Marine Drive  by  low  auto dependent  These c o n d i t i o n s  virtually  c o n t i n u i t y i n the  Unfortunately,  the  street.  Further,  e f f e c t i v e " s t r e e t w a l l , " and  c o n t i n u i t y and  enclosure.  t h a t a s t r e e t f u n c t i o n as that a l l buildings provide  functions  peripheral  large  identical  which d i s r u p t  locations. 131  continuity: i n both buildings  with should  thus a sense of  a cohesive u n i t .  i t is  This  functions,  both  important  does not  imply  Nonetheless, i t  c o m p l e m e n t one  c o n t i n u i t y be  the  future.  corridor  Regarding function,  stipulates that neighbouring functions that  commercial  fails  combined  As  eliminate  near  Marine Drive  neighbouring s t r u c t u r e s , b u i l d i n g s a l o n g the  and  has  i n t e n s i t y l a n d u s e s and  W i t h r e g a r d s t o form, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t  an  the  i m p o r t a n t components t o s t r e e t l e v e l  make a p r e s e n c e on  create  continuity in  i s l a r g e l y a product of  n a t u r a l l y e v o l v e d i n t o an  p o s s i b i l i t y of s t r e e t l e v e l  regards.  a l a c k of  Drive.  a l i n k between N o r t h Shore commercial nodes.  parking  f o r m and  or near Marine  Since i t s conception,  characterized  There are  stimulate  another,  situated  at  The  a b s e n c e o f on  street parking  further constrains  Marine  D r i v e ' s p o t e n t i a l as an a t t r a c t i v e p e d e s t r i a n p r e c i n c t . parking  o f f e r s numerous a d v a n t a g e s , and  s u c c e s s o f any  commercial s t r i p .  f u n c t i o n of t r a f f i c traffic  v o l u m e and  is integral  Street parking  flow.  Quite  traffic  excessive  volumes n e c e s s i t a t e the removal of c u r b s i d e  a l s o p l a y an  important  role.  volumes a l o n g Marine D r i v e  are  the  is a direct  simply,  However, as i s e x e m p l i f i e d a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e , patterns  to  Curbside  parking.  diurnal  traffic  Although twenty four  hour  comparable t o those  along  Broadway, p e a k e d f l o w s a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e n e c e s s i t a t e t h e of p a r k i n g d u r i n g e x a c e r b a t e d by  the  rush hour.  The  situation i s further  street's physical conditions.  l a r g e e l e c t r o n i c and  Mini-malls,  home f u r n i s h i n g s t o r e s e t c . , d r a w c o n s u m e r s  from l a r g e r d i s t a n c e s by require large parking  car.  lots.  Hence, t h e s e In order  establishments  to f a c i l i t a t e  access,  hand t u r n b a y s have been added a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . bays n e c e s s i t a t e the  removal  These  removal of massive t r a c t s of curb  left turning  side  parking. Marine Drive's centres  l o c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to competing  i s a detriment  s t y l e shopping s t r e e t .  to the As  was  f u t u r e c r e a t i o n of a  commercial traditional  o u t l i n e d , N o r t h Shore  a r e w e l l s e r v i c e d by n e i g h b o u r i n g 132  commercial  residents  establishments.  From a m a r k e t p e r s p e c t i v e  Marine Drive's  p r o b l e m e x i s t s o n l y when p o l i t i c a l account.  Nevertheless,  Shore's p o p u l a t i o n w i l l reason steps  should  role i s legitimate.  A  boundaries are taken i n t o  t h e r e may come a t i m e when t h e N o r t h r e q u i r e more c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e .  For this  be t a k e n now t o d i r e c t M a r i n e D r i v e ' s  future.  I f a n d when f u t u r e g r o w t h d i c t a t e s t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n o f a pedestrian-oriented feasible,  shopping d i s t r i c t  issues regarding  properly addressed.  along Marine Drive i s  atmosphere and i d e n t i t y  Marine Drive's  t h r e a t e n i n g and unappealing.  atmosphere i s c u r r e n t l y  Further,  Both these c o n d i t i o n s are d e t r i m e n t a l . address such concerns a t t h i s p o i n t  c a n be  i t l a c k s an i d e n t i t y . However, a t t e m p t i n g  i s futile.  address t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o u t l i n e d above w i l l  Policies  also help  to  which  to create  b o t h a more i n v i t i n g a t m o s p h e r e a n d a n i d e n t i t y .  c) Issues T h r e e c e n t r a l i s s u e s emerge f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s First,  the d i s c u s s i o n leads  transforming  Marine Drive  one t o q u e s t i o n  the v a l i d i t y of  i n t o an t r a d i t i o n a l  o r i e n t e d commercial c o r r i d o r .  Instead  discussion.  style,  of asking  pedestrian-  "how c a n we  transform  Marine Drive?,"  p e r h a p s we s h o u l d  transform  Marine Drive?"  Evidence from the case s t u d i e s 133  be a s k i n g  "should  we  suggests  that f u l l  scale transformation  at t h i s time. Assuming  The  second i s s u e stems d i r e c t l y  Marine Drive  i s not a r e a l i s t i c  commercial r e s i d e n t i a l alternatives. orientation. among o t h e r  of the c o r r i d o r i s not  One  c o r r i d o r , one may  This would things.  wish to explore  possible  i n c l u d e an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d  Another a l t e r n a t i v e i s to  Third,  p o t e n t i a l consequences  of c r e a t i n g a l i v e l y ,  require increased  use,  Pemberton  commercial  the d i s c u s s i o n sheds l i g h t  c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r on o r n e a r M a r i n e D r i v e .  auto  concentrate  Evidence suggests that  residential district.  on  the  pedestrian-oriented Such a  creation  residential densities, especially i n  proximate neighbourhoods o r n o t we  first.  l o c a t i o n f o r mixed-use  o f f e r s b e t t e r p o t e n t i a l f o r a s u c c e s s f u l mixed  whether  from the  a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o b u i l d upon the c u r r e n t  e f f o r t s on P e m b e r t o n A v e n u e .  will  realistic  s u c h as N o r g a t e .  are w i l l i n g  We  must  t o l e t t h i s happen.  determine Currently,  community members h a v e made i t known t h a t t h e y do n o t w i s h t o s e e any s i g n i f i c a n t  changes  i n the area's already  neighbourhoods.  134  established  IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS R e a l i t i e s on t h e N o r t h Shore, and s p e c i f i c to Marine Drive, as a n l i v e l y , traditional  constraints related  d i c t a t e t h a t t h e c o r r i d o r c a n n o t c u r r e n t l y work  p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d mixed  style corridor.  However, t r a d i t i o n a l  small  commercial/residential  I t s present scale r e t a i l  role i s legitimate. establishments  mixed  with  h i g h e r d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s may b e a n o p t i o n a t P e m b e r t o n Avenue, c e n t r e d and  extending  around t h e Pemberton/Marine D r i v e i n t e r s e c t i o n  south  along  Pemberton.  I t must b e  recognized,  however, t h a t P e m b e r t o n i s p l a g u e d b y many o f t h e same c o n s t r a i n t s as Marine Drive,  specifically  d e n s i t i e s and commercial competition. of Pemberton Avenue w i l l use  zoning.  related to residential  Moreover, a  necessitate significant  The a r e a ' s c u r r e n t  light  industrial  transformation  changes i n l a n d zoning  r e p l a c e d b y a new z o n e p r o m o t i n g m i x e d - u s e r e s i d e n t i a l uses.  This  r a i s e s l e g i t i m a t e concerns regarding  of i n d u s t r i a l  commercial  the displacement  zoned l a n d i n N o r t h Vancouver.  N o n e t h e l e s s , Pemberton Avenue does o f f e r b e t t e r f o r success.  must b e  The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e n u m e r o u s .  First, i t  e x p a n d s o n a n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g node o f a c t i v i t y . because t h e roadway runs n o r t h - s o u t h  i t receives  opportunity  Second,  smaller  v o l u m e s , a n d d o e s n o t r e c e i v e s u b s t a n t i a l commuter f l o w s . 135  traffic Thus  t h e s t r e e t has  r e t a i n e d i t s curb  side parking.  Third,  Pemberton  Avenue's c u r r e n t p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s c o n d u c i v e t o the of a t r a d i t i o n a l  s t y l e shopping s t r e e t .  the makings of a d e f i n e d s t r e e t w a l l , surface parking l o t s . exist along  Fourth,  P e m b e r t o n and  i n c l u d e : The  has  establishments  a conducive topographical p r o f i l e .  design  consideration.  t h e n o r t h end I t must be Avenue w i l l  Nevertheless,  already  the  Pemberton Moustache  a small consideration,  i s encouraging. Again,  Fifth, this  the  Pemberton  is a  small  the escarpment l o c a t e d at  of Pemberton a i d s i n c r e a t i n g a sense of recognized  large  Examples  Pemberton,- The  P e m b e r t o n ; and  Although  has  i s not p l a g u e d by  some " m e e t i n g p l a c e s "  a t 135  Marine Drive.  of these  street already  n e a r b y on M a r i n e D r i v e .  S t a t i o n N e i g h b o u r h o o d Pub  success  and  C a c t u s C l u b C a f e a t 1598  C a f e a t 1265  The  creation  that the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of  u l t i m a t e l y t h r e a t e n the c h a r a c t e r of the  r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods, e s p e c i a l l y Norgate.  enclosure.  Pemberton surrounding  In order  for  s u c h a scheme t o s u c c e e d , p o r t i o n s o f t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d must transformed  into higher density precincts.  suggest t h a t h i g h e r d e n s i t y development w i l l required i n North when t h i s has lively  Current  growth  eventually  pedestrian corridor.  Pemberton Avenue t r u l y In order 136  to ensure t h a t  trends  be  S h o r e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s s u c h as N o r g a t e .  t r a n s p i r e d can  be  Only  f u n c t i o n as this  a  development t a k e s an a p p r o p r i a t e form, future potential. which accentuate sensitive future  a u t h o r i t i e s must  recognize  N e x t , t h e y must d e v i s e p r o a c t i v e p o l i c i e s current favourable conditions, while expansion.  137  encouraging  CHAPTER FIVE: POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS  EXISTING POLICIES E x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s have f a i l e d t o c r e a t e a mixed-use  pedestrian  o r i e n t a t i o n a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e f o r two main r e a s o n s .  First,  past  and p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e c o r r i d o r a s an a u t o o r i e n t e d c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p .  Evidence suggests that  this  i s both v a l i d and p r a c t i c a l g i v e n the circumstances. Nonetheless,  i tflies  "revitalizing"  i n the face of e f f o r t s directed a t  the corridor  ( i f the term " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n " i s  t a k e n t o n e c e s s i t a t e a change i n s t r e e t c h a r a c t e r ) .  A change i n  character n e c e s s i t a t e s that p o l i c e s which recognize t h e c o r r i d o r ' s c u r r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n as a p p r o p r i a t e be a b o l i s h e d . The  second reason f o r t h e c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s '  an i n t e n s e , m i x e d - u s e more c o m p l e x .  form o f development  Failure results,  not been p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d .  failure  along Marine Drive i s  i n p a r t , because  Evidence from t h i s  I n o t h e r words,  the problem has  study suggests  t h a t t h e " r e a l " p r o b l e m stems f r o m t h e p l a c e m e n t boundaries.  to realize  of Municipal  the problem i s a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  manifestation, not a r e s u l t of Marine D r i v e ' s d e f i c i e n c i e s .  As  was o u t l i n e d , M a r i n e D r i v e ' s r o l e i s l e g i t i m a t e when v i e w e d i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e N o r t h Shore.  N o r t h Shore r e s i d e n t s a r e 138  a d e q u a t e l y s e r v e d by a complex  network  of commercial  Furthermore, N o r t h Shore p a t t e r n s o f h i g h d e n s i t y development  a l r e a d y have e s t a b l i s h e d nodes.  precincts.  residential  When v i e w e d f r o m a  l a r g e r s c a l e , Marine D r i v e p r o v i d e s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e r o l e as a traffic  c o n d u i t and auto o r i e n t e d commercial s t r i p .  i d e n t i f y i n g t h e c o r r i d o r as i n e f f i c i e n t ,  Thus,  and i n need o f  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n ignores important r e a l i t i e s .  IMPLICATIONS Current l i t e r a t u r e  i n d i c a t e s t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f mixed-use  commercial/residential traditional  style corridors.  However, i t  d o e s n o t e l a b o r a t e o n how, when, o r w h e r e s u c h a c o n d i t i o n c a n , o r s h o u l d be a c h i e v e d . sufficient Social,  P l a n n e r s must b e g i n t o e s t a b l i s h  lore regarding this  form o f l a n d use and development.  e n v i r o n m e n t a l and economic  l e a r n more.  H a v i n g expanded  p r e s s u r e s d i c t a t e t h a t we  t h e knowledge  b a s e , we c a n b e g i n t o  create p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s which b e t t e r address problems and concerns. Policy initiatives  t h a t s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n a r e a f u n c t i o n o f  the mosaic o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o n s t r a i n t s which e x i s t p a r t i c u l a r commercial s t r e e t .  f o r each  Thus, b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o  f o r m u l a t e p o l i c i e s one must f i r s t 139  d e t e r m i n e what c a n  realistically The  be  expected i n each p a r t i c u l a r  situation.  s i t u a t i o n at Marine Drive d i c t a t e s that a s u c c e s s f u l  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c o r r i d o r f r o m an a u t o o r i e n t e d strip  commercial  t o an p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r i s u n l i k e l y  at t h i s time.  However, e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t f u t u r e demand  warrant a gradual transformation  should begin  i n t e r s e c t i o n and, Pemberton.  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Pemberton Avenue.  may  This  a t the M a r i n e D r i v e / P e m b e r t o n Avenue  as demand w a r r a n t s ,  Once t h i s p r e c i n c t has  extend south  along  become e s t a b l i s h e d , a  p e n e t r a t i o n of mixed-use development c o u l d b e g i n b o t h e a s t  and  west a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . Although citizens'  this  situation generally reflects  d e s i r e s , i t comes w i t h one  progression w i l l  Planners'  word of w a r n i n g .  r e q u i r e r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i f i c a t i o n on,  b o t h P e m b e r t o n A v e n u e and Assuming t h i s  local  The and  near,  Marine Drive.  "cost" i s bearable,  p o l i c i e s which r e a l i s t i c a l l y  one  must b e g i n  address the c u r r e n t  concerns w h i l e d i r e c t i n g a f u t u r e course.  to  adopt  situation  and  O u t l i n e d below are  number o f p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n the D i s t r i c t  of North  and  Vancouver.  140  a by  POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE STUDY Due  t o the nature  o f t h i s segment o f t h e T h e s i s ,  Recommendations a n F u t u r e Study" form.  will  T h i s i s done t o f a c i l i t a t e  be p r e s e n t e d  i n bullet  r e a d a b i l i t y and t o a l e r t t h e  reader t o t h e f a c t t h a t each p o l i c y i s important right.  "Policy-  i n i t s own  T a k e n t o g e t h e r t h e y r e p r e s e n t a more h o l i s t i c  Nonetheless,  approach.  i t i s l e g i t i m a t e t o e x t r a c t a n y number o f  recommendations. Some p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e f u t u r e s t u d y , o t h e r s do n o t .  Thus, "Areas f o r F u t u r e  Study"  will  whereas  be o u t l i n e d  i n a s e c t i o n a t t h e end.  RECOMMENDATIONS •  Marine Drive's current o r i e n t a t i o n should continue recognized as l e g i t i m a t e i n the near f u t u r e . expansion  t o be  However,  o f t h e c o r r i d o r ' s auto o r i e n t a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be  encouraged.  •  There s h o u l d be an o v e r a l l Marine Drive  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of usealong the  corridor.  141  M a r i n e D r i v e s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d a s a m a j o r e a s t corridor,  primarily  west  m e e t i n g t h e n e e d s o f commuter f l o w s .  Evidence suggests that t h i s c o n d i t i o n w i l l  persist  i n the  future.  Efforts  s h o u l d be made t o e n c o u r a g e r e d e v e l o p m e n t  Pemberton Avenue.  Redevelopment  s h o u l d emphasis a mix of  commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s .  Moreover, i t s h o u l d  on t h e e x i s t i n g node o f d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h e x i s t s Drive/Pemberton Street  Residential segments  It  along  expand  at the Marine  intersection.  densification  s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d i n some  o f t h e Lower C a p i l a n o n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e i s a demand f o r c o n d o m i n i u m  a p a r t m e n t s on t h e N o r t h  Shore.  However, t h i s demand  will  l a r g e l y be "consumed" b y o t h e r N o r t h S h o r e p r e c i n c t s , p r o a c t i v e p o l i c i e s are adopted t o a t t r a c t Lower  Two  unless  such development  to  Capilano.  d i s t i n c t z o n e s s h o u l d be c r e a t e d i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t  u s e on P e m b e r t o n and M a r i n e D r i v e . 142  These  zones s h o u l d  land echo  those  c r e a t e d f o r West B r o a d w a y i n t h a t t h e y e m p h a s i z e a  periphery style  The N o r t h  of  core  development.  S h o r e s h o u l d be v i e w e d a s a n " u r b a n s y s t e m " when  attempting to formulate  solutions to specific  problems.  The c o n c e p t o f " m i x e d - u s e "  s h o u l d be e x p a n d e d  t o i n c l u d e mixed  c o m m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l  uses.  Official  The  current  Community P l a n f o r t h e a r e a r e c o g n i z e s o n l y m i x e d and i n d u s t r i a l u s e s a s " m i x e d - u s e "  commercial  developments.  D e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d w h i c h o u t l i n e b u l k , m a s s i n g , and s e t b a c k s .  "Terraced,"  or  accepted  "stepped"  d e v e l o p m e n t s s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d a n y w h e r e a l o n g  either  Pemberton Avenue o r M a r i n e D r i v e .  C o m m e r c i a l u s e s s h o u l d be p r o m o t e d Pemberton Avenue and M a r i n e D r i v e . important  i n the "core" area.  residential  at grade l e v e l  This i s e s p e c i a l l y  Generally, office  u s e s s h o u l d be l o c a t e d on t h e u p p e r  143  along  and floors.  •  Current b e a u t i f i c a t i o n e f f o r t s Drive.  These e f f o r t s  Avenue.  should continue along  Marine  s h o u l d a l s o be e x t e n d e d t o Pemberton  This should include a formal street  tree planting  program, combined w i t h t h e development o f s t a n d a r d s  f o r street  furniture.  AREAS FOR FUTURE STUDY •  A s i t i s recommended t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i f i c a t i o n o c c u r i n Lower C a p i l a n o , a s t u d y s h o u l d b e u n d e r t a k e n  t o determine  w h i c h p r e c i n c t s c o u l d b e s t accommodate t h i s .  Particular  a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g Avenue, s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e l i g h t  •  industrial  areas  bordering  Norgate.  The N o r t h  Shore market i s a l r e a d y f a i r l y w e l l  commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .  enable  served by  i f any p a r t i c u l a r  f o r expansion.  Planners t o determine  and areas  Hence i t i s recommended t h a t a  study be p e r f o r m e d t o determine markets o f f e r p o t e n t i a l  Pemberton  niche  This i n f o r m a t i o n would  what t y p e o f m i l i e u m i g h t  s u i t e Pemberton Avenue.  144  best  The u s e o f two d i s t i n c t point a l i s t Thus,  z o n e s i s deemed a p p r o p r i a t e .  o f p e r m i t t e d u s e s f o r each zone i s l a c k i n g .  a s t u d y s h o u l d b e c o m m i s s i o n e d t o d e t e r m i n e what e a c h o f  t h e two z o n e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e . 2C1,  At this  The B r o a d w a y z o n e s , C - 2 C a n d C-  c a n be r e f e r r e d t o f o r g u i d a n c e .  Evidence from t h i s t h e s i s suggests that Marine D r i v e w e l l when v i e w e d i n t h e N o r t h S h o r e c o n t e x t .  functions  A problem  o n l y when M u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d .  exists  Hence,  amalgamation o f t h e N o r t h Shores' M u n i c i p a l i t y i s suggested as an a r e a o f f u t u r e s t u d y .  A l t h o u g h t h i s has been  s t u d i e d on  p r i o r o c c a s i o n s , new d e v e l o p m e n t s n e c e s s i t a t e t h a t i t b e revisited.  The i m b a l a n c e i n c o m m e r c i a l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l  which e x i s t s between  the D i s t r i c t  uses  and C i t y i s e x p e c t e d t o  i n t e n s i f y as a r e s u l t o f c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h a t Lower L o n s d a l e . Another area of p o t e n t i a l  s t u d y c o u l d f o c u s on t h e p o t e n t i a l  c r e a t i o n o f a n o v e r r i d i n g a u t h o r i t y s u c h a s t h e GVRD.  Unlike  t h e GVRD, t h i s a u t h o r i t y w o u l d h a v e t o h a v e more t h a n a d v i s o r y powers.  "Big box r e t a i l e r s "  pose a s i g n i f i c a n t  success o f a mixed-use  threat to the future  commercial p r e c i n c t a t e i t h e r 145  Pemberton  or Marine  Drive.  undertaken  T h u s , i t i s recommended  t o determine  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  r e t a i l i n g i n the D i s t r i c t  of North  O f f i c e uses a r e an i m p o r t a n t street,  p r o v i d i n g proximate  tend t o break explore this  street level situation  which p a r t i c u l a r level.  of t h i s  type of  t o a mixed  work o p p o r t u n i t i e s . continuity.  However,  should  attempting to discern  a g e n c i e s and  financial  a c c e p t a b l e a t grade?  uses are important. i n some d e t a i l  The to  where t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r  u s e s a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e l y  A s t u d y done b y N e a l e ,  Staniszkes,  Dole  s t u d y as a s p r i n g b o a r d ,  design issues  s t u d i e d i n the Pemberton/Marine D r i v e  Context.  g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d t o g u a r d design  problems. 146  addition  determine located.  a r c h i t e c t s found  some p r o j e c t s a l o n g B r o a d w a y w e r e m a r r e d b y d e s i g n  undesirable  they  uses are not a p p r o p r i a t e l y l o c a t e d a t grade  o f t h e s e u s e s s h o u l d be s t u d i e d  this,  commercial  A future study  i n more d e t a i l ,  Community a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l  Using this  be  Vancouver.  ingredient  F o r example: a r e t r a v e l  institutions  that a study  that  problems. s h o u l d be  Stemming against  from  BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n R,E. e d . 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