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Marine Drive, North Vancouver : Can it become pedestrian oriented? Sandberg, Eric Ralph 1995

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MARINE DRIVE, NORTH VANCOUVER: Can i t become p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t e d ? by ERIC RALPH SANDBERG B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1995 :© E r i c R a l p h Sandberg, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of CtmmU^lfh 'fi^jfi>Pdl ftrfhtoinj The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date kffil lb'j 1416. DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Mixed l a n d use p o l i c i e s a r e b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d as a way t o h e l p a m e l i o r a t e t h e i l l s of s i n g l e l a n d use p r e c i n c t s . P o l i c i e s w h i c h p e r p e t u a t e t h e s e p r e c i n c t s a r e i n f l e x i b l e , u n r e s p o n s i v e t o change, and a r e b e g i n n i n g t o make N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s s t e r i l e . F u r t h e r , economic and e c o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s d i c t a t e t h a t we b e g i n t o r e c o n f i g u r e u r ban space. Mixed l a n d uses and compact form must r e p l a c e s e g r e g a t i o n and urban s p r a w l . M i x e d commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l , p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d c o r r i d o r s o f f e r one way o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s i s s u e . Mixed use c o m m e r c i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l c o r r i d o r s have a t t r a c t e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e P l a n n i n g f i e l d . I n the D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver P l a n n e r s and community members w i s h t o e x p l o r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s M a r i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r i n t o a l i v e l y and a t t r a c t i v e , p e d e s t r i a n f r i e n d l y , mixed-used commercial s t r e e t . Recent amendments t o t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n suggest t h a t t h e c o r r i d o r i s u n d e r g o i n g changes. However, t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n as t o whether o r not M a r i n e D r i v e would make a v i a b l e p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d commercial c o r r i d o r . i i T h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s p o t e n t i a l f o r p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n a l o n g Marine D r i v e . Two o f Vancouver's mixed-use com m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r s were s t u d i e d i n o r d e r t o d i s c e r n t h e i n g r e d i e n t s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s . A n a l y s i s f o c u s e s on h i s t o r y and p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s , as w e l l as c u r r e n t z o n i n g and s u r r o u n d i n g developments. Next, M a r i n e D r i v e i s s t u d i e d . E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t a t t e m p t i n g t o t r a n s f o r m M a r i n e D r i v e i n t o a p e d e s t r i a n -o r i e n t e d , l i v e l y , mixed commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l c o r r i d o r i s premature, and may be d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e i n t h e f u t u r e . G e n e r a l N o r t h Shore commercial and g e o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e a r e not f a v o u r a b l e . However, i t may be p o s s i b l e t o b e g i n t r a n s f o r m i n g Pemberton Avenue (an i m p o r t a n t M a r i n e D r i v e c r o s s s t r e e t ) i n t o a p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d c o r r i d o r . Ill TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 CONTEXT 1 OBJECTIVES 3 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS 3 METHODOLOGY 5 STRUCTURE AND OVERVIEW 7 CHAPTER TWO: THE CASE FOR MIXED-USE 10 INTRODUCTION 10 THE I L L EFFECTS OF ZONING TRIGGER A RESPONSE 11 PRESSURES AND CHANGES DICTATE A RE-BIRTH OF MIXED USE . 13 Household f o r m a t i o n 14 R e g i o n a l growth: p o p u l a t i o n and p o l l u t i o n 15 A f f o r d a b i l i t y 17 THE BENEFITS OF MIXED USE 18 R e v i s i t i n g T r a d i t i o n a l Concepts 19 C a l t h o r p e and Duany, P l a t e r - Z y b e r k 20 P u t t i n g t h e con c e p t s t o use 21 Economic a t t r i b u t e s 22 Sense o f p l a c e 23 L i v a b i l i t y and q u a l i t y o f l i f e 25 RE-BIRTH OF AN OLD CONCEPT 2 7 CONCLUSION 27 CHAPTER THREE: VANCOUVER'S MIXED COMMERCIAL CORRIDORS . . . . 29 INTRODUCTION 29 THE CASE STUDIES 34 RETAILING PATTERNS 34 PLANNING POLICY 3 7 VANCOUVER'S COMMERCIAL STREETS 3 9 WEST BROADWAY 3 9 iv H i s t o r y 41 C u r r e n t Use and A c t i v i t y 42 F u t u r e Trends 45 P l a n n i n g P o l i c y 45 Zon i n g 4 8 S u r r o u n d i n g s 51 Movement P a t t e r n s 55 D e s i g n C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 57 GRANVILLE STREET SOUTH 66 H i s t o r y 66 C u r r e n t Use and A c t i v i t y 69 F u t u r e Trends 7 0 P l a n n i n g P o l i c y 71 Zon i n g 73 Su r r o u n d i n g s 76 Movement P a t t e r n s . . . 79 D e s i g n C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 81 CONCLUSIONS 86 Components n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s 87 Case Study F i n d i n g s 88 How Do We A c h i e v e D e s i r e d C o n d i t i o n s ? 96 CHAPTER FOUR: RECREATING MARINE DRIVE 98 INTRODUCTION 98 THE MARINE DRIVE STUDY 98 H i s t o r y 100 C u r r e n t Use and A c t i v i t y 103 F u t u r e Trends 105 P l a n n i n g P o l i c y 106 Zon i n g 110 Su r r o u n d i n g s 113 Movement P a t t e r n s 117 D e s i g n C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 121 The D e v e l o p e r ' s P e r s p e c t i v e 12 7 TRENDS, CONSTRAINTS AND ISSUES 12 7 IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 135 CHAPTER FIVE: POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 13 8 EXISTING POLICIES 138 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE STUDY 141 BIBLIOGRAPHY 147 V LIST OF TABLES Table 1: K i t s i l a n o Age S t r u c t u r e 54 Ta b l e 2: Broadway T r a f f i c Counts 56 Ta b l e 3: Marpole Age S t r u c t u r e 78 Ta b l e 4: G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t T r a f f i c Counts 81 Ta b l e 5: Lower C a p i l a n o Age S t r u c t u r e 116 Table 6: M a r i n e D r i v e T r a f f i c Counts 121 V i LIST OF FIGURES One: L o c a t i o n Map; Broadway, G r a n v i l l e , M a r i n e D r i v e . . . 6 Two: Examples of Mixed-use Commercial S t r e e t s 31 Three: West Broadway and G r a n v i l l e South i n C o n t e x t . . . 33 Four: West Broadway Avenue S i t e and S i t u a t i o n Map . . . . 40 F i v e : Community M e e t i n g P l a c e s ; Grabba Jabba on Broadway 44 S i x : G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t South, S i t e and S i t u a t i o n Map . . 67 Seven: M a r i n e D r i v e S i t e and S i t u a t i o n Map 101 E i g h t : M a r i n e d r i v e ; A D i s t r i c t Commercial A r t e r i a l . . . 104 Nine: M a r i n e D r i v e S u r r o u n d i n g s 115 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION CONTEXT P l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s a gr o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e concept of m i x i n g l a n d u s e s . T h i s age o l d concept i s e n j o y i n g a r e b i r t h i n t h e form of t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e mixed-use c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r s . Mixed-use c o r r i d o r s a r e compact, a t t r a c t i v e , p e d e s t r i a n f r i e n d l y , and l i v e l y mixed c o m m e r c i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s l o c a t e d w i t h i n an urban a r e a . They a r e a t t r a c t i n g i n t e r e s t as a way of r e d u c i n g a u t o m o b i l e commuting and managing r e g i o n a l growth. F u r t h e r , t h e y a r e seen by some as an U t o p i a n way of l i v i n g , o f f e r i n g a b e t t e r sense of community and i n c r e a s e d c onvenience. The mixed commercial c o r r i d o r concept has a t t r a c t e d t h e i n t e r e s t of P l a n n e r s and c i t i z e n s i n the D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t has prompted D i s t r i c t P l a n n e r s t o b e g i n e x p l o r i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e v i t a l i z i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s M a r i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r . The c o r r i d o r c u r r e n t l y f u n c t i o n s as a major e a s t west a r t e r i a l and a u t o m o b i l e dependent commercial s t r i p , h o u s i n g a u t o - o r i e n t e d commercial u s e r s . Marine D r i v e has been t a r g e t e d as an a r e a of c o n c e r n f o r two main r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e c u r r e n t p l a n , w h i c h g o v e r n s l a n d use p o l i c e s f o r the Mar i n e D r i v e a r e a , i s n e a r i n g t h e end o f i t s I intended time horizon. Second, and perhaps more in t e r e s t i n g , the scope of the current plan i s no longer responsive to emerging conditions along the corridor. The "Marine Drive O f f i c i a l Community Plan" was f i r s t adopted on February 23, 1985, and was intended to guide development for a period of f i v e to ten years. The plan has been amended several times and i s currently i n the process of being superseded by the "Lower Capilano O f f i c i a l Community Plan." The current process i s especially i n t e r e s t i n g due to the changing nature of the corridor. Recent amendments have generally resulted i n increased r e s i d e n t i a l densities and a mixing of land uses. The current plan permits such conditions, yet does not encourage them. Thus, D i s t r i c t Planners now wish to explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of redirecting the corridor's land use p o l i c i e s . New p o l i c i e s would concentrate on r e v i t a l i z i n g the corridor through an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of commercial a c t i v i t y and an increase i n mixed-use commercial/residential a c t i v i t y . The intent of t h i s thesis i s to meet a request by North Vancouver D i s t r i c t Special Projects Planner Ross Taylor f o r study and analysis of Marine Drive's p o t e n t i a l . It i s intended to help guide the D i s t r i c t ' s development of land use p o l i c i e s f o r the Lower Capilano O f f i c i a l Community Plan that r e l a t e to the 2 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f Marine D r i v e i n t o a more l i v e l y and v i b r a n t p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d commercial c o r r i d o r . OBJECTIVES The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o answer t h r e e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s : 1. I s i t a p p r o p r i a t e t o attempt t o t r a n s f o r m M a r i n e D r i v e i n t o a l i v e l y t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e commercial s t r e e t ? 2 . I f so, what s h o u l d the c o r r i d o r ' s " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n " e n t a i l ? --S p e c i f i c a l l y , what l a n d use p o l i c i e s s h o u l d t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver adopt i n t h i s r e g a r d ? 3. What can we l e a r n by s t u d y i n g o t h e r mixed-use c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r s ? SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS As i s t h e case w i t h any urban st u d y , e x a m i n i n g t h e f u t u r e of a commercial c o r r i d o r s h o u l d i n v o l v e t h e i n c l u s i o n of c o u n t l e s s v a r i a b l e s . Urban c o n d i t i o n s do not e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n , b u t f u n c t i o n as a complex system of i n t e r r e l a t e d e v e n t s , c o n d i t i o n s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Events t h a t appear u n r e l a t e d o f t e n e l i c i t a d r a m a t i c change i n the urban phenomena o f i n t e r e s t . 3 N e v e r t h e l e s s , not a l l e v e n t s can be s t u d i e d . Three p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s w h i c h w i l l n o t be s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l a r e as f o l l o w s : " b i g box" r e t a i l s t o r e s , t h e f u t u r e o f t h e L i o n s Gate B r i d g e , and t h e f u t u r e of a Low L e v e l Road i n t h e D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Vancouver. O u t l i n e d below i s a b r i e f a c c o u n t o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Large s c a l e r e t a i l o u t l e t s have become a s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d i n the r e t a i l i n d u s t r y . Many of t h e s e l a r g e format, o r " b i g box" r e t a i l e r s , l i k e t o l o c a t e i n i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned l a n d due t o l o w e r l a n d c o s t s and p r o p e r t y t a x . Because much o f t h e l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g M a r i n e D r i v e i s zoned i n d u s t r i a l , many such r e t a i l e r s a re l i k e l y t o c o n s i d e r l o c a t i o n s on o r ne a r M a r i n e D r i v e . "Of p a r t i c u l a r note i s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a l a r g e - s c a l e r e t a i l e r ... t o l o c a t e on the F u l l e r t o n F i l l s i t e s o u t h and e a s t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a " ( H a r r i s 1994, 1 1 ) . I f a " b i g box" r e t a i l o u t l e t were t o l o c a t e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e Ma r i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r i t would have a p r o f o u n d impact on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t r e e t . The f u t u r e of t h e L i o n s Gate B r i d g e and a Low L e v e l r o a d c o u l d a l s o have a d r a m a t i c impact on Ma r i n e D r i v e . E s s e n t i a l l y , developments of t h i s s o r t w i l l impact t r a f f i c volume and f l o w a l o n g the s t r e e t and thus have an impact on t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d environment. 4 METHODOLOGY T h i s t h e s i s employs f i e l d r e s e a r c h as the method o f a n a l y s i s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , two case s t u d i e s were conducted i n o r d e r t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what makes a mixed-use commercial c o r r i d o r f u n c t i o n w e l l . As t h i s t y p e of f i e l d r e s e a r c h t y p i c a l l y y i e l d s more q u a l i t a t i v e t h a n q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a , t h e t h e s i s does not i n c l u d e e x t e n s i v e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Two case s t u d i e s were performed as t h e r e a r e no " t y p i c a l " c ommercial c o r r i d o r s . I n s t e a d , each e x e m p l i f y m a t c h l e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i c t a t e d by su r r o u n d i n g s , h i s t o r y , and p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s , among o t h e r t h i n g s . F u r t h e r , t h e y a r e dynamic. The two Vancouver s t r e e t s used as case s t u d i e s a r e : Broadway between L a r c h and C o l l i n g w o o d S t r e e t s ; and, G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t between 63rd and 7 0 t h Avenues (See F i g u r e One). Broadway was chosen as an example of a s u c c e s s f u l s t r e e t , w h i l e G r a n v i l l e was chosen as an example of a l e s s s u c c e s s f u l s t r e e t . 5 F i g u r e 1 : L o c a t i o n M a p : B r o a d w a y , G r a n v i l l e a n d M a r i n e D r i v e STRUCTURE AND OVERVIEW The t h e s i s c o m p r i s e s f i v e c h a p t e r s . T h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r s i m p l y o u t l i n e s t h e c o n t e x t and framework f o r a n a l y s i s . Chapter two, The Case for Mixed-use, r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o the m i x i n g of l a n d u s e s . I t e x p l o r e s how mixed-use p a t t e r n s f e l l i n t o d i s u s e w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f l a n d use z o n i n g i n the e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d . The c h a p t e r t h e n o u t l i n e s v a r i o u s p r e s s u r e s and s o c i e t a l changes t h a t d i c t a t e d a r e - b i r t h of the concept. T h i s i n c l u d e s a l o o k a t h o u s e h o l d f o r m a t i o n s , r e g i o n a l growth, and l i v a b i l i t y and a f f o r d a b i l i t y i s s u e s . Next, the b e n e f i t s of mixed l a n d use p a t t e r n s a r e o u t l i n e d . F i n a l l y , c h a p t e r two e x p l o r e s how i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e of mixed-use p a t t e r n s has t r i g g e r e d t h e r e c e n t i n t e r e s t i n mixed co m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r s . Chapter t h r e e , Vancouver's Commercial c o r r i d o r s , o u t l i n e s case s t u d y r e s e a r c h and f i n d i n g s . I n an attempt t o d e t e r m i n e how t o " r e c r e a t e " t r a d i t i o n a l s t r e e t s , t h e d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e s on l e a r n i n g t he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c i r c u m s t a n c e o f Broadway and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i n v o l v e s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of a number of f a c t o r s t h a t come t o be a r on the f u n c t i o n i n g o f each s t r e e t . I n i t i a l l y , commonalties a r e d i s c u s s e d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , each s t r e e t i s e x p l o r e d , p a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o h i s t o r y , 7 c u r r e n t and f u t u r e use, p l a n n i n g p o l i c y , z o n i n g , s u r r o u n d i n g s , movement p a t t e r n s , and d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , case st u d y f i n d i n g s , and hence, "the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a s u c c e s s f u l mixed-use commercial s t r e e t " a r e o u t l i n e d . N ine components a r e l i s t e d as b e i n g i n t e g r a l t o s u c c e s s . D e s p i t e b e i n g a s i m p l i f i e d e x t r a c t i o n , the l i s t o f f e r s i n s i g h t s i n an easy t o u n d e r s t a n d format. Chapter f o u r , Recreating Marine Drive?, s t u d i e s t h e p o t e n t i a l of c r e a t i n g a c o n d i t i o n s i m i l a r t o Broadway's a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . A n a l y s i s echoes the format used f o r the p r e v i o u s two case s t u d i e s . T h i s a l l o w s r e a l i s t i c comparisons between Vancouver's s t r e e t s and Ma r i n e D r i v e . Background i n f o r m a t i o n e x p l a i n s how Marine D r i v e ' s c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n came t o be, and why i t has not e v o l v e d i n t o a p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d mixed commercial c o r r i d o r . L a s t , t h i s c h a p t e r e x p l o r e s s p e c i f i c i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g p o t e n t i a l " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . " K e e p i n g i n mind s p e c i f i c i s s u e s and c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e t h e s i s s u g g e s t s abandoning e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d toward r e v i t a l i z i n g M a r i n e D r i v e . I n s t e a d , i t s u g g e s t s an approach u t i l i z i n g M a r i n e D r i v e as a component o f more a complex urban system, c e n t r e d around the c r o s s s t r e e t Pemberton Avenue. F u r t h e r , i t emphasizes t h a t c o n d i t i o n s w i l l change v e r y s l o w l y . 8 Chapter f i v e , P o l i c y Recommendations, s u g g e s t s p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s t h a t might be adopted by t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver. S e v e r a l of t h e p o l i c y recommendations c o u l d have p r o f o u n d i m p a c t s , a f f e c t i n g more t h a n j u s t c o n d i t i o n s on o r n e a r Marine D r i v e . Thus, a r e a s where f u r t h e r s t u d y may be r e q u i r e d are o u t l i n e d n e x t . The complex n a t u r e of t h e t o p i c n e c e s s i t a t e s f u t u r e s t u d y . 9 CHAPTER TWO: THE CASE FOR MIXED-USE INTRODUCTION The concept of m i x i n g l a n d uses i s not new. As Lew i s Mumford i l l u s t r a t e s i n h i s 1961 book, The C i t y i n H i s t o r y , as e a r l y as 480 BC ur b a n s e t t l e m e n t s were d e f i n e d by mixed l a n d use p a t t e r n s . I n t e g r a l t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Greek P o l i s , f o r example, was a l a n d s c a p e c o m p r ised o f market p l a c e s , gymnasiums, and t h e a t e r s (159). N o n e t h e l e s s , d e s p i t e i t s e a r l y e x i s t e n c e , the p r a c t i c e of m i x i n g l a n d uses has f a l l e n i n t o d i s u s e i n r e c e n t h i s t o r y . T h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o two phenomena: t h e p r a c t i c e of l a n d use z o n i n g , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancements w h i c h e n a b l e d i n c r e a s e d freedom o f movement. These phenomena, each r e i n f o r c e d by the o t h e r , have c r e a t e d a monotonous and a r t i f i c i a l l y s e g r e g a t e d u r b a n l a n d s c a p e , v o i d of v i t a l i t y , u n r e s p o n s i v e t o new s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s , and e c o l o g i c a l l y u n s u s t a i n a b l e . The c u r r e n t l a n d use p a t t e r n s , i f l e f t u n a l t e r e d , w i l l s e v e r e l y undermine t h e v i t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of communities. Only now, when t h e pro b l e m i s becoming m a g n i f i e d and more s e v e r e , a r e we w i l l i n g t o t a k e t h e st e p s n e c e s s a r y t o c o r r e c t i t . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o a m e l i o r a t e t h e c u r r e n t p r o blem we a r e b o r r o w i n g c o n c e p t s from t h e p a s t . S o c i e t y i s b e g i n n i n g t o r e c o g n i z e the i l l s of c u r r e n t l a n d use 1 0 s e g r e g a t i o n , and i s thus a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c r e a t e once paramount mixed l a n d use p a t t e r n s of development. THE ILL EFFECTS OF ZONING TRIGGER A RESPONSE Zoning d e v e l o p e d i n th e e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d as a r e a c t i o n t o the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of heavy i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s . I t began as a l e g i t i m a t e t o o l t o s e p a r a t e d i s c o r d a n t l a n d u s e s . However, i t q u i c k l y adopted a s o c i a l f u n c t i o n and became a t o o l t o s e g r e g a t e " s o c i a l e n t i t i e s . " I n s h o r t , i t e v o l v e d as a means t o l e g i t i m i z e e t h n i c and s o c i o -economic s e g r e g a t i o n . S e g r e g a t i o n was f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancements i n the f i e l d of p e r s o n a l movement. I n t h e e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d , t he r i c h were c a p a b l e o f p u t t i n g o n l y m a r g i n a l l a t e r a l d i s t a n c e s between themselves and th e poor. However, as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y p r o g r e s s e d so t o o d i d t h e d i s t a n c e between d i f f e r e n t segments o f s o c i e t y . The p h y s i c a l s e g r e g a t i o n of s o c i e t y c u l m i n a t e d w i t h t h e advent of t h e a u t o m o b i l e . Today the s e g r e g a t i o n o f l a n d uses and i n h a b i t a n t s i s a way o f l i f e i n No r t h A m e r i c a . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t c u r r e n t z o n i n g i s making N o r t h American c i t i e s s t e r i l e . Few s t o p t o c o n s i d e r t h e enormous 1 1 impact z o n i n g has on t h e way we conduct o ur day t o day l i v e s . Because i t a f f e c t s the placement and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e p l a c e s we l i v e , work, shop, and r e c r e a t e , z o n i n g ' s r o l e i s paramount. Moreover, because c u r r e n t z o n i n g p o l i c i e s g e n e r a l l y s e g r e g a t e l a n d uses and r e l a t e d human a c t i v i t i e s , b a s i c p a t t e r n s of e x i s t e n c e a r e b e i n g f u n d a m e n t a l l y a l t e r e d . We a r e l o s i n g t h e b e n e f i t s of community and conv e n i e n c e and t h e p a t t e r n s o f human e x i s t e n c e a r e b e i n g u n n e c e s s a r i l y f r a c t u r e d . Z o ning a l s o d e t e r m i n e s the v a l u e of a p i e c e o f l a n d by e s t a b l i s h i n g what can o r cannot occupy each p a r t i c u l a r p a r c e l . The " c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n " of l a n d has a mas s i v e impact on t h e way we arrange space. Q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e c r e a t i o n o f community, o r l i v a b l e environments a r e now b e i n g asked a f t e r q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p r o f i t . We a r e not t h i n k i n g h a r d enough about t h e i n t e g r i t y and importance o f p e o p l e and p l a c e s . "So [development] i s not r e a l l y an e x p r e s s i o n about what we t h i n k about human l i f e , but an e x p r e s s i o n of the monetary system" (Wagner 1994, B l ) . F o r t u n a t e l y , many d e v e l o p e r s a r e d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t mixed use schemes can p r o v i d e g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n from f i n a n c i a l r i s k . T h i s f a c t a l o n e w i l l not s o l v e the c u r r e n t problems of i m b a l a n c e and s e g r e g a t i o n , however. Changes a r e now b e i n g r e a l i z e d as p e o p l e a r e becoming d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h l a n d use s e g r e g a t i o n . T h i s 12 disenchantment i s c o u p l e d w i t h a r e a l i z a t i o n of mixed use's many-a t t r i b u t e s , and a d e s i r e by many t o seek new l i f e s t y l e s . PRESSURES AND CHANGES DICTATE A RE-BIRTH OF MIXED USE A t t r i b u t e s of mixed use a r e b e i n g r e - d i s c o v e r e d because z o n i n g has r e n d e r e d our urban environments s t e r i l e . E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t are unprecedented p r e s s u r e s and changes. Changing h o u s e h o l d s i z e s a r e making new t y p e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l accommodations more i m p o r t a n t . Moreover, as i s e v i d e n c e d by l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n , p e o p l e a r e becoming aware o f th e u n s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f c u r r e n t l a n d use p a t t e r n s . Suburban s p r a w l , p e r p e t u a t e d by c u r r e n t l a n d use p o l i c i e s , i s b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d as an i n e f f i c i e n t way o f accommodating r e g i o n a l growth, e x a c e r b a t i n g problems o f p o l l u t i o n and f i n i t e l a n d r e s o u r c e s . F u r t h e r , m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about d e n s i t y are now b e i n g a l l a y e d . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i g h e r d e n s i t y h o u s i n g forms a r e emerging n ot o n l y as a re s p o n s e t o a f f o r d a b i l i t y i s s u e s , b ut as a l i f e s t y l e p r e f e r e n c e ( C i t y of Richmond 1991). Many p e o p l e now choose t o l i v e i n h i g h e r d e n s i t y accommodations i n o r d e r t o l i v e c l o s e r t o work and s e r v i c e s , and thus d e c r e a s e commuting time and i n c r e a s e l e i s u r e t i m e . M u l t i f a m i l y homes a r e p r e f e r r e d by f i r s t t i me b u y e r s , empty n e s t e r s , 13 and s p e c i a l needs households (UDI 1993). As t h e s e groups c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e i n s i z e , t h e r e must be s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o them. I n o r d e r t o accommodate a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , p e o p l e now appear w i l l i n g t o make t h e n e c e s s a r y l i f e s t y l e changes. Household formation A v a i l a b l e accommodations a r e no l o n g e r meet the needs of a l l who may p o t e n t i a l l y occupy them. I n t h e Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Region ch a n g i n g demographic t r e n d s a r e making t r a d i t i o n a l forms of s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g l e s s i m p o r t a n t . The r i s e o f s m a l l e r households, t h o s e c o m p r i s e d of one o r two p e o p l e , has i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y , from f o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l i n 1961 t o f i f t y -n i n e p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l i n 1993 (GVRD August 1993, 14) . S m a l l e r h ouseholds a r e d i c t a t i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s m a l l e r d w e l l i n g u n i t s . As a s t u d y done by t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver Development S e r v i c e s Department e x e m p l i f i e s , "one o f t h e most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s of h o u s e h o l d f o r m a t i o n o v e r t h e p a s t two decades has been th e s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p e n s i t y among a l l age groups t o occupy apartment accommodations" ( G r e a t e r Vancouver Development S e r v i c e s 1984, 3 ) . T h i s i s f u r t h e r emphasized by a r e c e n t Urban Development I n s t i t u t e s u r v e y , w h i c h 14 i n d i c a t e s t h a t "based on demographic t r e n d s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o suggest t h a t o n l y about 25 p e r c e n t o f new h o u s i n g needs t o be geared t o f a m i l i e s , m o s t l y as s i n g l e f a m i l y homes" (UDI 1993, 1) . Regional growth: population and p o l l u t i o n Many of the a t t r i b u t e s of mixed use and i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t y a r e m i s u n d e r s t o o d , however, as a t o o l f o r r e g i o n a l growth management t h e y a r e g a i n i n g wide s p r e a d s u p p o r t (UDI 1993) . People i n the Lower M a i n l a n d r e a l i z e t h a t p a s t forms o f development, i f p e r p e t u a t e d , w i l l e x a c e r b a t e problems such as p o l l u t i o n and t h e d e g r a d a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . They u n d e r s t a n d t h e n e c e s s i t y of a more compact m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . T h i s was e x e m p l i f i e d i n a November 1992 c o n f e r e n c e , "Shaping our Communities". Most c o n f e r e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t growth s h o u l d be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the a l r e a d y u r b a n i z e d a r e a s o f t h e B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a and the d e v e l o p i n g communities of t h e N o r t h E a s t S e c t o r ( i . e . C o q u i t l a m and Maple Ridge) and N o r t h S u r r e y . These s e n t i m e n t s were echoed by V a n c o u v e r i t e s , who s t a t e d t h e y are not opposed t o p o p u l a t i o n growth "as l o n g as t h e p o p u l a t i o n b u l g e i s absorbed by dense nodes of h o u s i n g " ( G r i f f i n 1994, B2) . These a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t r e v e l a t i o n s . 15 The Lower M a i n l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o grow by seven t y p e r c e n t , r e a c h i n g n e a r l y t h r e e m i l l i o n by 2 021 (GVRD Sept. 1993). T h i s growth w i l l c r e a t e u n p r e c e d e n t e d t r a f f i c and p o l l u t i o n problems. F o r example, p r o j e c t i n g t h e c u r r e n t Lower M a i n l a n d t r a v e l p a t t e r n s , where s e v e n t y t h r e e p e r c e n t o f a l l j o u r n e y s t o work a r e made by the p r i v a t e a u t o m o b i l e (D'Amour 1991, 19), r o a d v e h i c l e s w i l l r e a c h two m i l l i o n (GVRD Sept. 1993). P e o p l e i n the r e g i o n w i l l have t o t r a v e l f u r t h e r and s l o w e r i n o r d e r t o p e r f o r m d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . E i g h t y p e r c e n t of a l l a t m o s p h e r i c p o l l u t i o n i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d c u r r e n t l y comes from m o b i l e s o u r c e s - i . e . a u t o m o b i l e s and t r u c k s ( C i t y o f Vancouver Task F o r c e 1990, 1 7 ) . I n 1985 t h i s r e s u l t e d i n 308,000 tones of ca r b o n monoxide e m i s s i o n s (GVRD 1993). O b v i o u s l y , as t h e r e g i o n grows, and t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d s e p a r a t i o n between w o r k p l a c e , shopping, r e c r e a t i o n and homes, l e v e l s of p o l l u t i o n w i l l i n c r e a s e . Where p e o p l e l i v e and work w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n has i m p o r t a n t r a m i f i c a t i o n s on t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n and v e h i c l e e m i s s i o n s , and must be a p p r o p r i a t e l y a d j u s t e d . 16 A f f o r d a b i l i t y Adjustments t o our p a t t e r n s of development a r e a l s o a r i s i n g as responses t o a f f o r d a b i l i t y c o n c e r n s . E s s e n t i a l l y , low d e n s i t y neighbourhoods a r e c o s t l y . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e b u r g e o n i n g problem o f r i s i n g l a n d c o s t s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . The c o s t of l a n d , r e q u i r e d when b u i l d i n g a s i n g l e f a m i l y home, now a c c o u n t s f o r more t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l accommodation p r i c e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h i s has not been t h e c a s e . G i v e n the new r e a l i t y we a r e f o r c e d t o d e c r e a s e l a n d p a r c e l s i z e s i n o r d e r t o d e c r e a s e the p u r c h a s e p r i c e o f r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s h i g h e r d e n s i t y development. The p r e s s u r e s and changes o u t l i n e d above i l l u s t r a t e t h e need f o r d r a s t i c changes i n t h e way we a r r a n g e and c o n f i g u r e space. I n c r e a s e d d e n s i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d . These can be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h i n f i l l , new development, o r redevelopment. R e s i d e n t i a l i n f i l l can be p r o b l e m a t i c I n c r e a s e d d e n s i t i e s i n e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s are v i r t u a l l y always c o n f r o n t e d w i t h o p p o s i t i o n from e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t s (Spaxman 1986). New development w h i c h p e r p e t u a t e s urban s p r a w l i s an u n d e s i r a b l e o p t i o n . Thus, most g a i n s can be made t h r o u g h redevelopment w h i c h i n t e n s i f i e s t h e use of c u r r e n t l y u n d e r u t i l i z e d u r b an l a n d by a d d i n g a mix o f h o u s i n g , shopping, w o r k i n g and r e c r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h i s can be 17 a c c o m p l i s h e d by r e - c r e a t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l mixed use c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r s . B o r r o w i n g from the p a s t , t h i s v i s i o n can be d e v e l o p e d t o c r e a t e an environment which has an i n t r i c a t e mix of l a n d u s e s , h i g h d e n s i t i e s , e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l and c h a r a c t e r , and, b e n e f i t s t h e p e d e s t r i a n . THE BENEFITS OF MIXED USE As was o u t l i n e d , p r e s s u r e s r e l a t e d t o p o p u l a t i o n , p o l l u t i o n , and e q u i t y a r e mounting. N o n e t h e l e s s , t h i s a l o n e w i l l n ot prompt most i n d i v i d u a l s t o adopt a new p a t t e r n of e x i s t e n c e . We must ask: what e l s e makes mixed-use development a t t r a c t i v e ? S p e c i f i c a l l y , why do N o r t h Vancouver r e s i d e n t s w i s h t o see c o r r i d o r s , such as M a r i n e D r i v e , t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e mixed commercial s t r e e t s ? The answer i s s i m p l e : mixed-use o f f e r s c o u n t l e s s b e n e f i t s . P eople a r e b e g i n n i n g t o c o n s i d e r th e a t t r i b u t e s o f mixed use. Mixed use development can o f f e r not o n l y economic s a v i n g s and r e d u c t i o n s i n p o l l u t i o n , but i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s , i n c r e a s e d p e r s o n a l s a f e t y , improved s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , and i n c r e a s e d d i v e r s i t y . F u r t h e r , i t can h e l p t o improve t h e m e n t a l h e a l t h of i n h a b i t a n t s by o f f e r i n g a b e t t e r o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of l i f e . 1 8 R e v i s i t i n g T r a d i t i o n a l Concepts These q u a l i t i e s a r e b e i n g r e v i s i t e d t h r o u g h a r e t u r n t o t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s . T r a d i t i o n a l Main S t r e e t s , w h i c h were once i n t e g r a l t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g of N o r t h A m e r i c a n v i l l a g e s , a c t i n g as p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s , a r e once a g a i n becoming i m p o r t a n t . B a s i c q u a l i t i e s a r e b e i n g r e d i s c o v e r e d . These s t r e e t s p romise a l i f e w h ich i s s i m p l e r , s l o w e r , and s a f e r . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e y work t o t r a n s f o r m commercial c o r r i d o r s i n t o community s t r e e t s . A p a r t from t h e o b v i o u s e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l , t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e mixed-use s t r e e t s o f f e r a compact g a t h e r i n g o f h o u s i n g , g r o c e r i e s , shops, o f f i c e s , and e n t e r t a i n m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a l l o w i n g one t o e a s i l y p r e f o r m d a i l y t a s k s . They o f f e r more i n t r i g u i n g community i n t e r a c t i o n as t h e y a r e i n h a b i t e d by p e o p l e of d i v e r s e age groups and income l e v e l s , and t h e y a r e f r i e n d l y t o p e d e s t r i a n s . They a r e p l a c e s were one can s a f e l y and e a s i l y w alk t o shop, work o r r e c r e a t e . They work t o put t h e p e d e s t r i a n back on the s t r e e t -- o r a t l e a s t n e x t t o i t (Bookout 1992, 24) . 19 Calthorpe and Duany, Plater-Zyberk T r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s have g a i n e d th e s u p p o r t of many. I n t e g r a l p l a y e r s i n t h e " n e o t r a d i t i o n a l " movement i n c l u d e the C a l i f o r n i a p l a n n e r P e t e r C a l t h o r p e and t h e a r c h i t e c t team of Andres Duany and E l i z a b e t h P l a t e r - Z y b e r k . These i n d i v i d u a l s have h e l p e d f o c u s d i s c u s s i o n s on the i m p o r t a n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s . N e o - t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s w i s h t o c h a n n e l new g r o w t h i n t o compact, t i g h t l y woven communities w i t h h o u s i n g , o f f i c e s , and s t o r e s w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e of each o t h e r ( B r e s s i 1992, 101) . The p r i n c i p l e s s t r e s s e d by n e o t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s a r e b a s i c p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s which a r e g a i n i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y . P e t e r C a l t h o r p e i s b e s t known f o r what h i s c o n c e p t of T r a n s i t - O r i e n t e d Developments (TOD's). TOD p r i n c i p l e s can be a p p l i e d t o e x i s t i n g communities, o r can be u sed t o c r e a t e whole new c i t i e s . E s s e n t i a l l y , a TOD i s a s m a l l town c e n t r e d around a t r a n s i t s t a t i o n . S i n c e p u b l i c t r a n s i t works b e s t when p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s i s c o n v e n i e n t , the s i z e of t h e s e communities i s l i m i t e d by easy w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e t o a t r a n s i t s t a t i o n ( B r e s s i 1992, 102) . The community i s d e s i g n e d around the s t a t i o n . I t i n c l u d e s a mix of b u i l d i n g s a t a h i g h d e n s i t y , and e n s u r e s t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial a r e a s a r e k n i t t o g e t h e r . 20 C a l t h o r p e draws i n s p i r a t i o n from t h e u r b a n d e s i g n t h e o r i s t Leon K r i e r , who i n h i s book Urban Space a d v o c a t e s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l s t r e e t s a r e t h e b a s i s o f community d e s i g n ( B r e s s i 1992, 103). He c l o s e l y f o l l o w s K r i e r ' s argument t h a t a l l n e c e s s i t i e s of urban l i f e s h o u l d be a c c e s s i b l e by f o o t w i t h i n mixed-use communities. K r i e r ' s t h i n k i n g a l s o appears t o have i n f l u e n c e d Duany and P l a t e r - Z y b e r k . T h i s team promotes what t h e y t erm T r a d i t i o n a l Neighbourhood Developments (TND's). TND's echo many of t h e a t t r i b u t e s of C a l t h o r p e ' s TOD's. They emphasize a mix o f ho u s i n g , shops e t c . i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o one a n o t h e r . They s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t t r a d i t i o n a l A merican s m a l l town i n b o t h f u n c t i o n and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e . Duany, P l a t e r - Z y b e r k f e e l t h a t a l o n g i n g f o r D i s n e y l a n d s t y l e Main S t r e e t s i l l u s t r a t e s more t h a n s i m p l e n o s t a l g i a . I t shows t h a t p e o p l e d e s i r e t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f s m a l l towns (Duany 1992, 9 9 ) . Putting the concepts to use People a r e r e c o g n i z i n g t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f mixed-use b e i n g promoted by C a l t h o r p e , Duany, P l a t e r - Z y b e r k and o t h e r s . Many now u n d e r s t a n d t h e economic b e n e f i t s , and a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e the many q u a l i t a t i v e bonuses o f f e r e d by t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e mixed 2 1 use developments. B e n e f i t s i n c l u d e a b e t t e r sense of p l a c e and a b e t t e r o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of l i f e . Economic attr i b u t e s I n c r e a s e d d e n s i t y , o f f e r e d by mixed-use s c e n a r i o s , i s cheaper. I n h i g h d e n s i t y developments the c o s t s f o r roads and u t i l i t i e s a r e about 55 p e r c e n t l o w e r t h a n t h o s e t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n c u r r e d . O p e r a t i n g and maintenance c o s t s f o r u t i l i t i e s a r e a l s o l o w e r . Energy consumption a l s o tends t o be l e s s (MacDonald 1990, 1-2). H i g h e r d e n s i t y development o f f e r s e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r making h o u s i n g more a f f o r d a b l e . I n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver, mixed use r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial zones have been i d e n t i f i e d as an a r e a where s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of m o d e r a t e l y p r i c e d condominium u n i t s c o u l d be c r e a t e d (Neale 1991, 1 ) . The economic b e n e f i t s o f h i g h d e n s i t y mixed use a r e i n d i s p u t a b l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s , a l t h o u g h i m p o r t a n t , w i l l n ot s i n g l e h a ndedly l e a d t o a p r o f o u n d r e t r o f i t t i n g o f space. People's emotions p l a y an i n t e g r a l r o l e i n t h e c r e a t i o n of a c c e p t a b l e l a n d use p a t t e r n s . E c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e o p t i o n s must a l s o be a t t r a c t i v e u s i n g i n t a n g i b l e measures such as "sense of p l a c e . " 22 Sense of place The sense of an urban s e t t l e m e n t r e f e r s t o t h e " c l a r i t y w i t h which i t can be p e r c e i v e d and i d e n t i f i e d " (Lynch 1981, 131). The concept i s b e s t a n a l y z e d as an i n t e r a c t i o n between a p e r s o n and a p l a c e whereby p e r c e p t i o n s a r e shaped by t h e s p a t i a l form and q u a l i t y of a p l a c e , as w e l l as t h e c u l t u r e , temperament, s t a t u s , e x p e r i e n c e , and c u r r e n t purpose of the o b s e r v e r (Lynch 1981, 131). The e x p e r i e n c e o f any one p l a c e i s l i k e l y t o be d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t o b s e r v e r s . P l a c e s w h i c h have a s t r o n g e r sense, q u i t e s i m p l y , a r e t h o s e which have some form of i d e n t i t y . I d e n t i f y a l l o w s p e o p l e t o r e c a l l a p l a c e as b e i n g d i s t i n c t and memorable. P h y s i c a l f orm and d e s i g n does c r e a t e a sense o f p l a c e . However, a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o form and d e s i g n i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t a p l a c e has a unique, o r a t . l e a s t p a r t i c u l a r , c h a r a c t e r of i t s own. Some f e e l t h i s concept i s not r e c e i v i n g enough a t t e n t i o n . Many argue s o c i e t y i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d by t h o s e i n c o n t r o l , as p l a n n e r s , d e v e l o p e r s , and a r c h i t e c t s a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y b u i l d i n g m e a n i n g l e s s p l a c e s ( W a l t e r 1988, 2) . Because d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g p h y s i c a l d e s i g n a f f e c t t h e way p e o p l e l i v e , we must have a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a memorable p l a c e . 23 I n r e c e n t h i s t o r y , t h e m i x i n g of l a n d uses was deemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Mixed use d i s t r i c t s were seen as c h a o t i c , and as such were not c o n s i d e r e d good urban p l a c e s . However, as Jane Jacobs o u t l i n e s , the " i n t r i c a t e m i n g l i n g of d i f f e r e n t uses i n c i t i e s a r e not a form of chaos. On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y r e p r e s e n t a complex and h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d form o f o r d e r " (1961, 222). Thus, i n our q u e s t t o a l l e v i a t e t h e p e r c e i v e d chaos o f mixed use we have c r e a t e d monotonous environments w h i c h we now d e p l o r e . The sameness of s i n g l e use l a n d s c a p e s can not e l i c i t a s t r o n g sense of p l a c e . L a c k i n g i n s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n , t h e s e l a n d s c a p e s a r e p l a c e l e s s , and become d e e p l y c o n f u s i n g . P e o p l e need v a r i a t i o n s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t t h e i r movement. Thus, i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e atmospheres of "buoyancy, f r i e n d l i n e s s and h e a l t h " (Jacobs 1961, 9 ) , we must m i n g l e b u i l d i n g s u sed f o r l i v i n g , s hopping, w o r k i n g and r e c r e a t i n g . The a d o p t i o n of mixed use development p a t t e r n s does not mean we have t o abandon a t t r i b u t e s o f s i n g l e use l a n d s c a p e s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h e l i c i t a s t r o n g sense o f p l a c e and w e l l -b e i n g s h o u l d be enhanced. S i n g l e f a m i l y homes o f t e n a l l o w p e r s o n a l " i d e n t i t y , p r i v a c y , s e c u r i t y and c o n t r o l " (UDI 1993, 39). These f e a t u r e s can be o f f e r e d q u i t e s i m p l y i n h i g h e r d e n s i t y mixed use environments t h r o u g h the use o f s i n g l e f a m i l y 24 d e s i g n f e a t u r e s such as b a l c o n i e s , bay windows, dormers, l o f t s , f i r e p l a c e s and t h e l i k e . L i v a b i l i t y and q u a l i t y of l i f e As Sue Crowhurst i l l u s t r a t e s i n h e r a r t i c l e "Urban Space D e s i g n and S o c i a l L i f e " , a l i v a b l e environment p r o v i d e s o c c a s i o n s and p l a c e s f o r p e o p l e t o e x p e r i e n c e s a t i s f y i n g and e n j o y a b l e c o n t a c t s , and f e e l l i k e members of a community (1990, 2) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c r i t e r i o n t r a d i t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y neighborhoods a r e f a i l i n g as l i v a b l e p l a c e s . Low d e n s i t y l a n d s c a p e s , s e g r e g a t e d by l a n d use, do not p r o v i d e ample o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e o p l e t o meet and f o s t e r a s t r o n g sense o f community. Thus, p e o p l e l i v i n g i n such l a n d s c a p e s o f t e n f e e l a l i e n a t e d and l o n e l y . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h e young o r o l d . P h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s , r e s u l t i n g from an environment w h i c h assumes t h e use of a u t o m o b i l e s f o r m o b i l i t y , t e n d t o g h e t t o i z e t h e s e p e o p l e . T r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e mixed-use s t r e e t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, o f f e r l i v a b l e e nvironments, and a good o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f l i f e . They c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n e i g h b o u r s and f r i e n d s t o meet and s o c i a l i z e . F u r t h e r , t h e y b r i n g a d i v e r s e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o g e t h e r , a l l o w i n g i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . 25 Mixed commercial c o r r i d o r s p r o v i d e f o r young and o l d , women and men, and f o r a v a r i e t y of e t h n i c and s o c i o e c o n o m i c g r o u p s . They generate o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x p r e s s i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n . Moreover, they a l l o w b e t t e r a c c e s s t o t h e v a r i o u s a m e n i t i e s and s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by a d i v e r s e group of p e o p l e . I n s h o r t , t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e mixed commercial c o r r i d o r s work t o c r e a t e communities. T h i s e x p l a i n s t h e i r magnetism. P e o p l e a r e a t t r a c t e d t o t h e v i b r a n c y and s a f e t y of t h i s t y p e o f community. F o r some, t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e c o r r i d o r s a r e seen as ( v i v a c i o u s s a n c t u a r i e s . E v i d e n c e from t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t s t h e i r c l a i m s . I t i l l u s t r a t e s how t h e s e developments a l l o w more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d s u r v e i l l a n c e . Moreover, i t emphasizes how mixed use t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e s t r e e t s b u s t l e w i t h a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e day. RE-BIRTH OF AN OLD CONCEPT One may q u e s t i o n why we have t a k e n so l o n g t o r e - d i s c o v e r the b e n e f i t s of mixed u s e s . The f a c t i s , d e s p i t e i t s slow e v o l u t i o n , the renewed a c c e p t a n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e mixed-use c o r r i d o r s has been e v o l v i n g f o r al m o s t as l o n g as t h e d i v e r g e n c e toward l a n d use s e g r e g a t i o n . The concept i s based on a number o f l o n g - s t a n d i n g i d e a s t h a t have been implemented, f o r g o t t e n , and 26 now seem t o be r e l e v a n t a g a i n . Examples of p a s t i d e a s i n c l u d e : Ebenezer Howard's Garden C i t y movement, wh i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a r e j e c t i o n of suburban s p r a w l , and an a f f e c t i o n f o r s e l f s u f f i c i e n t "mixed use" c i t i e s ; Jane J a c o b s ' n o t i o n s on t h e importance o f p h y s i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l d i v e r s i t y i n u r b a n environments; Andres Duany's n e o - t r a d i t i o n a l town p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s ; and P e t e r C a l t h o r p e ' s t r a n s i t - o r i e n t e d development g u i d e l i n e s (UDI 1993, 7 9 ) . CONCLUSION As i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e r e a r e p r e s s u r e s f o r change i n our p a t t e r n s of l a n d use and development. C u r r e n t l y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l concerns a r e becoming more i m p o r t a n t , a f f o r d a b i l i t y concerns a r e becoming more p o i n t e d , and h o u s e h o l d f o r m a t i o n s a r e changing. Perhaps even more i m p o r t a n t , l i f e s t y l e p r e f e r e n c e s a r e a l s o changing. People a r e demanding a h i g h q u a l i t y o f l i f e . They d e s i r e t h e i n c r e a s e d convenience c r e a t e d when v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a r e mixed t o g e t h e r . Furthermore, t h e y want f r i e n d l i e r communities and neighborhoods. They d e s i r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o meet, i n t e r a c t and s o c i a l i z e w i t h o t h e r s . T h i s s h o u l d come as no s u r p r i s e , as humans a r e s o c i a l a n i m a l s . 27 I n s h o r t , mixed use commercial c o r r i d o r s a r e b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d as a means t o meet t h e demands o f t o d a y ' s s o c i e t y and t a c k l e the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a s t l a n d use p a t t e r n s . 28 CHAPTER THREE: VANCOUVER'S MIXED COMMERCIAL CORRIDORS INTRODUCTION T r a d i t i o n a l mixed-use commercial s t r e e t s e x e m p l i f y a means of a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d l a n d use p a t t e r n s (See F i g u r e Two). Thus, the q u e s t i o n becomes: how can we c r e a t e "new" mixed-use commercial s t r e e t s which embody t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l mixed-use c o r r i d o r s ? The o b v i o u s approach i s t o l o o k a t e x i s t i n g mixed commercial s t r e e t s t o d i s c e r n how t h e y came t o be, and f u r t h e r , whether t h e y can be r e c r e a t e d . T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y t h e o b j e c t i v e of th e next two c h a p t e r s . T h i s c h a p t e r e x p l o r e s two Vancouver commercial c o r r i d o r s as case s t u d i e s . C h a p t e r Four examines t h e Ma r i n e D r i v e C o r r i d o r i n N o r t h Vancouver t o determine whether o r not i t can work as a t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e mixed-use commercial c o r r i d o r . The a t t r i b u t e s of mixed commercial c o r r i d o r s have s p a r k e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e p l a n n i n g community and i n t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I n the D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver t h i s i s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e c u r r e n t p r o c e s s of amending t h e Lower C a p i l a n o O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . Those i n v o l v e d e x p r e s s i n t e r e s t i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of 29 r e c r e a t i n g t h e M a r i n e D r i v e s t r i p . T h i s r e c r e a t i o n i s t o i n c l u d e a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n s t r e e t c h a r a c t e r ; b e s t d e s c r i b e d as an e v o l u t i o n from a s t r i p mall' t o a t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m e r c i a l s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t . 30 Figure 2: Examples of Traditional style mixed use commercial streets Ambleside, West Vancouver 31 The c u r r e n t Marine D r i v e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n (which w i l l be superseded by t h e new C a p i l a n o OCP) p e r p e t u a t e s a l o n g -s t a n d i n g N o r t h Vancouver p l a n n i n g p o l i c y t h a t r e c o g n i z e s t h e c o r r i d o r as an automobile-dependent s t r i p . P e o p l e a r e now q u e s t i o n i n g whether o r not t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s s t i l l a p p r o p r i a t e . One of t h e D i s t r i c t ' s c u r r e n t o b j e c t i v e s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s n e c e s s a r y f o r a s u c c e s s f u l mixed-use com m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r . The f u l f i l m e n t of t h i s o b j e c t i v e must i n c l u d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of o t h e r mixed-use commercial s t r i p s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t s h o u l d i n c l u d e a d e t a i l e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a s t and p r e s e n t p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s , h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and t h e c u r r e n t r o l e and f u n c t i o n of each s t r e e t . W i t h t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n mind, t h i s t h e s i s w i l l e x p l o r e two Vancouver commercial s t r i p s -- West Broadway between L a r c h and C o l l i n g w o o d , and G r a n v i l l e South between 63 r d and 70 t h Avenue (See F i g u r e T h r e e ) . 32 33 Because t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e h i n g e s on p e r s o n a l judgment, s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a as t o what c o n s t i t u t e s a s u c c e s s f u l u r b an commercial s t r i p must be e s t a b l i s h e d . The c r i t e r i a u t i l i z e d i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f l e c t s a t t r i b u t e s t h e D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Vancouver wishes t o a c h i e v e a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . A s u c c e s s f u l s t r e e t i s d e f i n e d as an a t t r a c t i v e , p e d e s t r i a n f r i e n d l y , mixed-use commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l s t r i p . I t i s l i v e l y and a c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t the day. F u r t h e r , i t e l i c i t s a s t r o n g sense of community and p l a c e . I t has an u r b a n f e e l , p e r p e t u a t e d by h i g h e r d e n s i t y development. Y e t , a t t h e same time, i t i s a " l i v a b l e " environment. THE CASE STUDIES Broadway and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t e x e m p l i f y a number o f s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A b r i e f r e t a i l and p l a n n i n g p o l i c y d i s c u s s i o n w i l l precede the more d e t a i l e d case s t u d i e s . RETAILING PATTERNS P a t t e r n s of r e t a i l a c t i v i t y e v o l v e o v e r l o n g p e r i o d s o f time t h r o u g h v a r i e d c o n d i t i o n s . P a s t d e c i s i o n s a r e o f t e n u n i q u e , as the s c a l e and c o n t e x t of urban problems a r e c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g . 34 Thus, each of Vancouver's commercial s t r e e t s e x e m p l i f i e s a number of p e e r l e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Broadway and G r a n v i l l e have commonalties. E a r l y mixed-use commercial s t r e e t s were c o n f i n e d by t h e modes of a v a i l a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The advent of e l e c t r i c s t r e e t c a r s c o n t r i b u t e d most t o the i n d i c a t i v e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p a t t e r n . I n Vancouver, the B r i t i s h Columbia S t r e e t Car a i d e d i n the c r e a t i o n of i m p o r t a n t o u t l y i n g s t r i p s of c o m m e r c i a l development. Such s t r i p s owe t h e i r e x i s t e n c e t o t h e s t r e e t c a r , d e v e l o p i n g and e v o l v i n g as merchants l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e l i n e - w a y s and a t major i n t e r s e c t i o n s . These "unplanned" Vancouver commercial a r e a s grew up e s s e n t i a l l y as r e q u i r e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y e x e m p l i f y a genuine mixed l a n d use p a t t e r n . D e s p i t e t e x t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e s e commercial s t r i p s have e v o l v e d i n t o c l a s s i f i a b l e e n t i t i e s w h i c h f i t i n t o a commercial h i e r a r c h i c a l p a t t e r n . T h i s p a t t e r n i n c l u d e s t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s based on the range of goods and s e r v i c e s and t h e s i z e of s e r v i c e d a r e a -- r e g i o n a l , d i s t r i c t , and l o c a l c e n t r e s (Arbour 1979, 4 ) . L o c a l c e n t r e s a r e t h o s e w h i c h p r o v i d e c o n v e n i e n c e goods r e q u i r e d by nearby r e s i d e n t s on a day t o day b a s i s . They g e n e r a l l y house g r o c e r y s t o r e s , d r y c l e a n e r s , and d r u g s t o r e s , and 35 s e r v i c e l e s s t h a n 10,000 p e o p l e w i t h i n a r a d i u s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h a l f m i l e . D i s t r i c t c e n t r e s a r e t h o s e which, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above, f u n c t i o n as a r e t a i l and s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t . Such c e n t r e s u s u a l l y i n c l u d e l a r g e s u p e r m a r k e t s , v a r i e t y s t o r e s , and some s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s . D i s t r i c t c e n t r e s a l s o o f t e n c o n t a i n f a c i l i t i e s such as t h e a t e r s , community c e n t r e s , o r l i b r a r i e s . These c e n t r e s a r e g e n e r a l l y l a r g e r t h a n l o c a l c e n t r e s s e r v i c i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30,000 p e o p l e i n a one m i l e r a d i u s . R e g i o n a l c e n t r e s s e r v e a d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n . N o r m a l l y t h e s e c e n t r e s a c t as a f o c a l p o i n t f o r a l a r g e segment of t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . They a r e second o n l y t o t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t i n commercial importance, and a r e t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r , u s u a l l y s e r v i n g 100 - 300,000 p e o p l e w i t h i n a f o u r m i l e r a d i u s . Metrotown i n Burnaby, O a k r i d g e i n Vancouver, and Park R o y a l i n West Vancouver a r e a l l examples of r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s . I n t h i s s t u d y , Broadway and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t a r e c o n s i d e r e d d i s t r i c t commercial c e n t r e s . These c e n t r e s can be b r o k e n i n t o two a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s : t h o s e w h i c h f u n c t i o n p r i m a r i l y as urban a r t e r i a l s , and t h o s e w h i c h f u n c t i o n as t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s . Urban a r t e r i a l s c omprise e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h a t r e q u i r e l a r g e amounts of space and a t t r a c t an i n f r e q u e n t c l i e n t e l e . 36 T r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, n o r m a l l y a t t r a c t customers who walk t o shop, g e n e r a l l y a r r i v i n g d i r e c t l y from home (Davies 1984, 6 3 ) . The s t r o n g e s t d i s t r i c t c e n t r e s i n c l u d e elements of b o t h f u n c t i o n , r e l y i n g on c o n v e n i e n c e s t o r e s t o add urban a p p e a l and d i u r n a l a c t i v i t y , and l a r g e r s t o r e s t o add v a r i e t y and comparison s h o p p i n g . Broadway and G r a n v i l l e f u n c t i o n p r i m a r i l y as t r a d i t i o n a l shopping s t r e e t s , y e t have some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t i v e o f urban a r t e r i a l s . Each s t r e e t ' s c u r r e n t l e v e l o f s u c c e s s depends l a r g e l y on t h e b a l a n c e s t r u c k between t h e s e two components. PLANNING POLICY Because b o t h case s t u d i e s a r e w i t h i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver's j u r i s d i c t i o n , t h e y share a common p l a n n i n g p o l i c y h i s t o r y . The most s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e r e s u l t e d from i n c r e a s i n g development p r e s s u r e on t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f Vancouver i n the l a t e 1980's. Demand f o r h o u s i n g u n i t s i n t h e b u i l t up a r e a s of the c i t y was b e g i n n i n g t o outweigh s u p p l y . Thus, C i t y C o u n c i l r e q u e s t e d an e x p l o r a t i o n of ways t o i n c r e a s e h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n the c i t y . The r e s u l t a n t r e p o r t i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e ways of i n c r e a s i n g h o u s i n g c a p a c i t y w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g p u b l i c c o s t and l i m i t i n g t he impac t s on e x i s t i n g communities. I n c l u d e d 37 i n the l i s t was a p r o p o s a l t o make b e t t e r use o f t h e c i t y ' s e x i s t i n g mixed-use c o m m e r c i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l C-2 zones by a d d i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f h o u s i n g u n i t s above commercial shops. To t h a t end, i n J u l y 1989 C i t y C o u n c i l removed F.S.R. d i s i n c e n t i v e s t o r e s i d e n t i a l use i n t h e C - l and C-2 zones (Neale 1991, 1 ) . I n i t i a t i o n o f t h e 1989 p o l i c y was not i n t e n d e d t o r e v i t a l i z e f a l t e r i n g u r b a n commercial s t r i p s . I n s t e a d , i t emerged as a response t o h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e i n i t i a t i v e had i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r many urban commercial s t r i p s . I t has h e l p e d p r o t e c t and shape s e v e r a l Vancouver s t r e e t s . T h i s p o l i c y g r e a t l y s t r e n g t h e n s a d e s i r a b l e mixed l a n d use p a t t e r n by making i t e a s i e r t o add r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s t o a s t r e e t . " P r e v i o u s l y , r e s i d e n t i a l space was c a l c u l a t e d a t 2.5 t i m e s t h a t of commercial space i n f l o o r space c a l c u l a t i o n s " ( H u l c h a n s k i 1990, 4 1 ) . Thus, d e v e l o p e r s found i t e c o n o m i c a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e t o c r e a t e r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s , and s u c c e s s f u l commercial s t r e e t s r i s k e d a p o t e n t i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e mix of l a n d uses c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an overemphasis of commercial space. The 1989 i n i t i a t i v e removed t h e " c o n s t r a i n t from t h e Zo n i n g S c h e d u l e so t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l space [was] c a l c u l a t e d a t t h e same r a t e as commercial space" ( H u l c h a n s k i 1990, 4 1 ) . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h i s c o u l d 38 add 5500 h o u s i n g u n i t s i n commercial d i s t r i c t s o u t s i d e o f downtown (Neale 1991, 5 ) . T h i s z o n i n g adjustment has l e d t o some pro b l e m s . S e v e r a l o f the i n i t i a l development a p p l i c a t i o n s under t h e new p o l i c y had s i g n i f i c a n t d e s i g n problems c o n c e r n i n g n o i s e and d a y l i g h t i n g o f i n t e r i o r rooms (Neale 1991). A s t u d y by N e a l e , S t a n i s z k e s , D o l l A r c h i t e c t s c i t e s t h a t i t was v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e t h e a l l o w a b l e F.S.R. l i m i t w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g e n v e l o p e . Hence, t h e stud y recommended a r e d u c t i o n of th e maximum a l l o w a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l F.S.R. T h i s recommendation has y e t t o be a c t e d upon; however, i t i s i m p o r t a n t , and s h o u l d be kep t i n mind when s u g g e s t i n g p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n f o r N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t . VANCOUVER'S COMMERCIAL STREETS WEST BROADWAY (Between Larch and Collingwood Streets) 39 s i I J . i-t _ _i" _ Rid I -s i 1^ 3 p "II" II.,* V | TRUTCH ST. o n — - VI V I. i / II-,. Sr. € |k V " " -M • 8 • i M • S IJklalL&l -6Ahft0b«rVA---ST i--«ri M I ft ^ infill * iM*^i , . Ub . J!* t n»*l. " ' i t . l t ™ . , • m II s= I 5* p i 1. History Broadway's growth began i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y . Development i n t h e K i t s i l a n o a r e a was enhanced i n 1909 when p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s , c o n v i n c e d BC E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y Company t o r u n a s t r e e t c a r l i n e down F o u r t h Avenue t o Alma S t r e e t ( D a v i s 1976, 87). As a r e s u l t , w i t h i n a y e a r the a r e a n o r t h of F o u r t h Avenue t o the beach was c o m p l e t e l y d e v e l o p e d . By the e a r l y 1910's Broadway was b e g i n n i n g t o t a k e shape. A s t r e e t c a r l i n e , w h i c h g r e a t l y enhanced t h e commercial v i t a l i t y of the s t r e e t , had been extended west on Broadway t o n e a r T r a f a l g a r . However, d e s p i t e e a r l y development, F o u r t h Avenue remained t h e most i m p o r t a n t commercial s t r i p , and a t t r a c t e d c o n c e n t r a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l development around i t . The n e x t impetus t o development came i n 1932 w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n of the B u r r a r d S t r e e t b r i d g e (Davis 1976, 8 7 ) . By t h e 1930's Broadway was l i t t e r e d w i t h commercial e n t e r p r i s e s , and began t o resemble the urban commercial s t r i p w h i c h e x i s t s today, a l b e i t a t a more l o c a l s c a l e . By 1945 K i t s i l a n o was u n d e r g o i n g immense change. I n c r e a s e d development and l a n d use i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n came w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f a new G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t b r i d g e w h i c h brought t r o l l e y buses t o t h e a r e a (Sun, May 1990). Zoning was changed t o a l l o w f o r t h e 41 c o n s t r u c t i o n o f apartments, and the p r e s e n t K i t s i l a n o form of h i g h e r d e n s i t y apartment d i s t r i c t s t r a v e r s e d by u r b a n commercial s t r e e t s began t o t a k e shape. 2. Current Use and A c t i v i t y West Broadway has an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n t h e h i e r a r c h y o f Vancouver's urban s t r e e t s , and a c t s b o t h as a l o c a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t , and as a s p e c i a l t y s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t . A l t h o u g h perhaps not as p o p u l a r as i t s n o r t h e r n c o u n t e r p a r t , F o u r t h Avenue, Broadway has become a f a s h i o n a b l e s t r e e t . S t r e e t -s i d e c a f e s and c o f f e e shops have c r e a t e d an atmosphere t h a t a t t r a c t s b o t h l o c a l , and more d i s t a n t r e s i d e n t s . C o f f e e shops such as S t a r b u c k s C o f f e e a t 2902 West Broadway, and Grabba Jabba a t 2699 West Broadway have a i d e d i n t h e c r e a t i o n of t h i s ambiance. These shops a r e q u i c k l y becoming th e community g a t h e r i n g p l a c e s f o r neighbourhoods l i k e K i t s i l a n o . They have t a k e n on a r o l e s i m i l a r t o t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h P u b l i c Houses, whereby t h e y r e p r e s e n t a p l a c e where l o c a l r e s i d e n t s can g a t h e r and meet p e o p l e from th e community (See F i g u r e F i v e ) . Broadway has a l i v e l y and d i v e r s e c h a r a c t e r and f e e l . There i s a n o t a b l y h i g h l e v e l o f p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y , and t h e s t r e e t appears busy t h r o u g h o u t t h e day. The environment i s c o n g e n i a l 42 and non t h r e a t e n i n g . Moreover, t h e e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r , emphasized by a p l e t h o r a of Greek r e s t a u r a n t s , h e l p s e s t a b l i s h a u n i q u e i d e n t i t y and sense of p l a c e . 43 Grabba Jabba Coffee House, located on West Broadway, Vancouver 4-4-3. Future Trends The mixed-use p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n w h i c h c u r r e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s West Broadway i s e x p e c t e d t o i n t e n s i f y i n t h e f u t u r e , p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t of c u r r e n t z o n i n g . The zones C-2C, and C-2C1 ensure t h a t new development s e r v e s t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e p r e s e n t l a n d use p a t t e r n . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t Broadway w i l l b e g i n t o t a k e on a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e as a d i s t r i c t commercial s h o p p i n g c o r r i d o r as more mixed-use developments c o n t i n u e t o add shops and r e s i d e n c e s . However, d e s p i t e i n c r e a s e d commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t y , i t i s u n l i k e l y Broadway's p o p u l a r i t y as a s h o p p i n g d e s t i n a t i o n w i l l s u r p a s s F o u r t h Avenue's. 4 . Planning Policy P l a n n i n g p o l i c y f o r West Broadway has f o c u s e d on p r e s e r v i n g the p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s w h i c h a l r e a d y e x i s t e d as a p r o d u c t o f t h e are a ' s h i s t o r y . P o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y r e s u l t e d from t h e e f f o r t s of merchants and commercial p r o p e r t y owners. Such e f f o r t s have prompted C i t y P l a n n e r s t o d e v e l o p c a r e f u l and r e s p o n s i v e p o l i c i e s t h a t a i d i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n and enhancement o f the commercial s t r i p . 45 More t h a n two decades ago, i n A p r i l of 1970, t h e f i r s t " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n " a c t i o n s were r e q u e s t e d by Broadway's merchants and shop owners. The West Broadway Merchants and Owners Committee made a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o C i t y C o u n c i l r e q u e s t i n g t h e i n i t i a t i o n of a b e a u t i f i c a t i o n p r o j e c t f o r t h e a r e a (Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g , 1976). T h i s a c t i o n prompted b o t h a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y and t h e appointment of a d e s i g n c o n s u l t a n t i n 1972. By 1976 e f f o r t s had e s c a l a t e d , and p l a n n i n g s t a f f were busy w o r k i n g on a p l a n f o r West Broadway. The new p l a n i n i t i a t e d measures d e s i g n e d t o e n s u r e t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h i s u n i q u e commercial d i s t r i c t . Moreover, i t emphasized the s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n t h r ough the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n c r e a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . The c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g i s s u e i n 1976 was t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the r o l e o f t h e West Broadway commercial s t r i p . A f t e r t h i s was d e t e r m i n e d th e d e s i r a b l e elements i n terms of use, d e n s i t y and p a r k i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s were d e c i d e d upon. The r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s i s s u e a t an e a r l y s t a g e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was a p p r o p r i a t e , and s h o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d when a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e a p l a n f o r Marine D r i v e . P l a n n i n g s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t Broadway f u n c t i o n e d w e l l as a d i s t r i c t s h o p p i n g c e n t r e , and t h e f u n c t i o n s h o u l d be f u r t h e r 46 enhanced. I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h i s i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e c u r r e n t C-2 z o n i n g must be reworked t o encourage r e s i d e n t i a l uses, and t o h e l p keep th e i n f i l t r a t i o n of g e n e r a l commercial b u s i n e s s a t bay. A r e s i d e n t i a l component was deemed i n t e g r a l t o Broadway's c o n t i n u e d s u c c e s s . To t h i s end t h e 1976 p l a n p r o p o s e d two p o l i c i e s i n t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e Broadway's r e s i d e n t i a l component. The f i r s t p o l i c y encouraged new development t o i n c l u d e a r e s i d e n t i a l component. The second p o l i c y s u g g e s t e d t h e r e z o n i n g of "excess" commercial l a n d t o r e s i d e n t i a l . T h i s was t o t a k e p l a c e a t the f r i n g e s of the main c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f commercial a c t i v i t y , and t h u s would not o n l y supplement t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s upport market, but h e l p c o n c e n t r a t e t h e r e m a i n i n g c o m m e r c i a l a r e a i n t o a more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c o r e (Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g , 1976) . As g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s can be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e h e a l t h y f u n c t i o n i n g of a commercial s t r i p , t h e p o l i c i n g o f such an i n f i l t r a t i o n on Broadway was deemed i m p o r t a n t . G e n e r a l b u s i n e s s uses are n o r m a l l y a u t o m o b i l e o r i e n t e d and draw customers from o u t s i d e t h e d i s t r i c t f o r s i n g l e purpose t r i p s . An example might i n c l u d e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a l a r g e supermarket which, i f not h a n d l e d p r o p e r l y , can have a d e t r i m e n t a l impact on t h e economic 47 v i a b i l i t y of adjacent food stores, and on the continuity and ambiance of the commercial s t r i p (Vancouver C i t y Planning, 1976). Supermarket chains often wish to provide large areas of parking between the sidewalk and the store. This does not help create an urban oriented pedestrian environment, but rather breaks up the continuity of r e t a i l frontage which i s considered to be of great importance to successful shopping streets (Vancouver C i t y Planning, 1976). Thus, the plan suggested the reinforcement of results achieved through careful administration of conditional uses. It also included a more e x p l i c i t zoning schedule o u t l i n i n g s p e c i f i c uses and frontage and b u i l d i n g setbacks. 5. Zoning Current zoning f u l f i l s the objectives outlined i n the 1976 plan. The West Broadway commercial s t r i p , between Larch and Collingwood, comprises two zones: C-2C, and C-2C1. C-2C i s a "core area" zone, whereas C-2C1 functions as a "fringe area" zone. The two zones are designed to work i n conjunction to produce a mixed-use pedestrian-oriented urban s t r i p . The intent of these zones, as outlined by the Vancouver City Planning Department, i s as follows: 48 C -2C (core area) The intent of t h i s Schedule i s to provide for a wide range of goods and services, to maintain commercial a c t i v i t i e s and personal services that require central locations to serve larger neighbourhoods, d i s t r i c t s or communities and to encourage creation of a pedestrian-oriented d i s t r i c t shopping area by increasing the r e s i d e n t i a l component and l i m i t i n g the amount of o f f i c e use. C -2C1 (fringe area) The intent of t h i s Schedule i s to provide f o r a wide range of goods and services, to maintain commercial a c t i v i t i e s and personal services that require central locations to serve larger neighbourhoods, d i s t r i c t s or communities and to encourage creation of a d i s t r i c t shopping area by increasing the r e s i d e n t i a l component and l i m i t i n g the amount of o f f i c e use. Note the subtle difference between these zones. Their intent i s v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l , except the core area zone creates a stronger pedestrian orientation. This i s important. Evidence suggests that intense pedestrian-oriented commercial s t r i p s can only be successfully maintained over small l a t e r a l distances. In recognition of t h i s , Vancouver Planners created two zones, and 49 thus were a b l e t o b u i l d upon the n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g p a t t e r n o f c o r e / p e r i p h e r y i n t e n s i t y of a c t i v i t y a l o n g Broadway. C-2C and C-2C1 v a r y s l i g h t l y w i t h r e g a r d s t o approved u s e s . T h i s i s t o ensure th e c o r e a r e a m a i n t a i n s a t t r i b u t e s deemed e s s e n t i a l f o r the s u c c e s s of a p e d e s t r i a n commercial s t r i p . Thus, C-2C1 (the p e r i p h e r a l zone) g e n e r a l l y p e r m i t s more uses such as m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g , m a n u f a c t u r i n g u s e s , and p a r k i n g u s e s . F u r t h e r , the C-2C1 zone p e r m i t s d r i v e i n r e s t a u r a n t s , and motor v e h i c l e r e p a i r shops, b o t h of w h i c h t e n d t o b r e a k up t h e commercial c o n t i n u i t y and t a k e away from th e o v e r a l l p e d e s t r i a n environment i f p e r m i t t e d i n the c o r e a r e a . R e g u l a t i o n s c r e a t e d t o p r o j e c t a p a r t i c u l a r ambiance and s t r e e t s c a p e a p p l y t o b o t h zones. F o r example, b o t h zones s e t t h e maximum f r o n t a g e a t 15.5 m (50 f t ) . T h i s r e g u l a t i o n e n s u r e s a d i v e r s e s t r e e t s c a p e a t a p e d e s t r i a n s c a l e . Moreover, b u i l d i n g s e t b a c k s f o r b o t h zones a r e o n l y p e r m i t t e d where a p e d e s t r i a n o r shopping c o u r t y a r d o r o t h e r f e a t u r e w h i c h b e n e f i t s a p e d e s t r i a n c h a r a c t e r i s p r o v i d e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , p e r m i t t e d F.S.R 1s r e g u l a t e a g a i n s t e x c e s s i v e l y l a r g e o r non c o n f o r m i n g b u i l d i n g s . F.S.R's f o r b o t h zones can not exceed 1.2 f o r p u r e l y o f f i c e u s e s , 1.5 f o r p u r e l y r e s i d e n t i a l u ses, and 3.0 f o r a l l o t h e r u s e s . 50 6. Surroundings The immediate s u r r o u n d i n g s of a mixed-use commercial s t r i p d i c t a t e t h e s t r e e t ' s s u c c e s s t o a l a r g e degree. E s s e n t i a l l y , s u f f i c i e n t p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t d i s t a n c e . The e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s of s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t s a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t ; however, t h e y g e n e r a l l y p r e s c r i b e the c o m p o s i t i o n and t y p e of c o m m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l uses r a t h e r t h a n o v e r a l l s u c c e s s . F u r t h e r , s u c c e s s i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r commercial e n t i t i e s and a m e n i t i e s . West Broadway i s l o c a t e d i n s o u t h K i t s i l a n o . K i t s i l a n o ' s b o u n d a r i e s , as d e f i n e d by t h e C i t y f o r p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p urposes, s t r e t c h from the E n g l i s h Bay w a t e r f r o n t t o 16th Avenue and from B u r r a r d t o Alma S t r e e t s . As was a l l u d e d t o i n the " H i s t o r y " s e c t i o n , K i t s i l a n o can b e s t be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as an apartment d i s t r i c t . A c c o r d i n g t o census f i g u r e s many of those l i v i n g i n K i t s i l a n o ' s l o w - r i s e apartments a r e r e n t e r s . Because a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70% of r e s i d e n t s a r e t e n a n t s , K i t s i l a n o i s a r e l a t i v e l y m o b i l e neighbourhood ( S t a t s Can 1991). T h i s can be an a t t r i b u t e t o l o c a l commercial e n t e r p r i s e s as i t c o n t i n u a l l y exposes new consumers. 51 The neighbourhood has a number of p r i m a r y z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s r a n g i n g from RS-1 ( o n e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s ) t o RM ( m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s ) , and i n c l u d i n g b o t h commercial and i n d u s t r i a l zones. To t h e n o r t h of t h e Broadway case s t u d y a r e a a r e b o t h RT-2 and RT-7 zones. These d i s t r i c t s a r e i n t e n d e d t o p e r m i t t w o - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and, i n some i n s t a n c e s , low d e n s i t y m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y h o u s i n g . To t h e s o u t h of Broadway i s a RS-1S zone. The RS-1S d i s t r i c t i s i n t e n d e d t o be p r i m a r i l y a s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t ; however, i t c o n d i t i o n a l l y p e r m i t s two f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . C u r r e n t l y t h i s d i s t r i c t has o n l y 47.5 p e r c e n t s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses -- f o r the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a the average i s 48.8 p e r c e n t ( S t a t s Can 1991, 4 4 ) . The growth of two f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s i s e x p e c t e d t o p e r s i s t . The K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t s a d j a c e n t and d i r e c t l y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e west Broadway case s t u d y a r e a have s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r d e n s i t i e s t han t h o s e t y p i c a l f o r much of K i t s i l a n o . G i v e n t h a t l o c a l shoppers c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f Broadway's c l i e n t e l e , and assuming p e o p l e a r e w i l l i n g t o walk a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t t o t e n minutes ( r o u g h l y 8 b l o c k s ) i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n c o n v e n i e n c e goods, i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t West Broadway draws s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the l o w e r d e n s i t y a r e a s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i t may not be n e c e s s a r y f o r h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l zones t o f l a n k a 52 commercial s t r e e t , as l o n g as s u f f i c i e n t d e n s i t i e s e x i s t w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e d i s t a n c e . The above h o l d s t r u e w i t h one i m p o r t a n t p r o v i s o . As was o u t l i n e d , Broadway's C-C2 z o n i n g encourages th e development of h i g h e r d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s a l o n g t h e s t r e e t . Thus, a l t h o u g h t h e s t r e e t may draw l i m i t e d c l i e n t e l e from t h e h i g h d e n s i t y a r e a s beyond i t s b o r d e r s , i t a t t r a c t s s u b s t a n t i a l c l i e n t e l e from th e h i g h d e n s i t y accommodations a b u t t i n g t h e s t r e e t . T h i s may become more p o i n t e d i n t h e f u t u r e . Under e x i s t i n g z o n i n g t h e r e i s c a p a c i t y f o r the p o t e n t i a l a d d i t i o n of 1,500 a d d i t i o n a l h o u s i n g u n i t s i n K i t s i l a n o ' s c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s ( K i t s i l a n o Community P r o f i l e 1993, 7 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l l new p r o j e c t s c u r r e n t l y under c o n s t r u c t i o n a l o n g t h i s segment of the c o r r i d o r c o n t a i n a s u b s t a n t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l component. S u r r o u n d i n g s o c i o e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a i d i n t h e s u c c e s s of West Broadway. I n t e g r a l t o s u c c e s s i s t h e age s t r u c t u r e and d i s p o s a b l e income of the s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t s . K i t s i l a n o ' s p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f p e o p l e between the ages twenty and f o r t y ; f i f t y s i x p e r c e n t (See T a b l e 1 ) . Note t h a t t h i s i s s e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t g r e a t e r t h a n f o r Vancouver as a whole. T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s u c c e s s of Broadway as t h i s age group i s most l i k e l y t o p a t r o n i z e l o c a l 53 commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . They a r e g e n e r a l l y more m o b i l e t h a n t h e i r younger o r o l d e r c o u n t e r p a r t s , and spend a l a r g e r p r e r c e n t a g e o f t h e i r d i s c r e s i o n a r y time f r e q u e n t i n g r e s t u a r a n t s and the l i k e . Table 1: K i t s i l a n o Age Structure Kitsilano Vancouver Average Age (1986) seniors age 65+ 11% 15% residents age 40 to 64 21% 26% residents age 20 to 39 56% 39% children under age 19 12% 20% S o u r c e : Statistics C a n a d a Average h o u s e h o l d income f o r K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s i s g r e a t e r than f o r most neighbourhoods t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y . I n 1986 K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s had an average h o u s e h o l d income o f $43,198. T h i s was 34% h i g h e r t h a n the c i t y average of $32,403 ( K i t s Community P r o f i l e 1993, 3 ) . I n essence, h i g h e r h o u s e h o l d incomes t r a n s l a t e i n t o a h i g h e r l e v e l of d i s p o s a b l e income, a i d i n g t h e success of Broadway's shops. Success i s a l s o d e t e r m i n e d by a commercial s t r i p ' s p r o x i m i t y t o o t h e r commercial e n t i t i e s . West Broadway, between L a r c h and C o l l i n g w o o d , f a r e s w e l l i n t h i s r e g a r d . A s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n 54 of the s t u d y a r e a ' s consumer t r a f f i c r e s u l t s from " s p i n o f f s " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n t e n s e commercial node l o c a t e d f u r t h e r e a s t a l o n g Broadway. The C e n t r a l Broadway a r e a , bounded by V i n e S t r e e t i n the west and P r i n c e A l b e r t S t r e e t i n t h e e a s t , has become a major component of Vancouver's t o t a l o f f i c e space and a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the downtown CBD f o r g e n e r a l o f f i c e u s e r s . Thus, t h i s a r e a a t t r a c t s l a r g e volumes of p e o p l e , many of w h i c h p a t r o n i z e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f u r t h e r west on Broadway d u r i n g l u n c h , b e f o r e o r a f t e r work. There a r e no major s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s l o c a t e d n e a r West Broadway. Shopping s t r e e t s , such as West Broadway, f i l l t h e v o i d . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i n t e n s i f i e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such r e t a i l s t r i p s i n Vancouver's west s i d e neighbourhoods. 7. Movement Patterns "Broadway i s a major e a s t - w e s t a r t e r i a l . . . l i n k i n g UBC i n t h e west w i t h Burnaby and o t h e r p o i n t s t o t h e e a s t " ( C e n t r a l Broadway G u i d e l i n e s 1993, 6 ) . The roadway r e c e i v e s moderate t r a f f i c volumes, y e t i s assumed t o be near o p e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y . H i g h e r volumes would n e c e s s i t a t e the removal of c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g . I n c r e a s e s i n t r a f f i c volume on s e l e c t e d s t r e e t s w i t h i n t h e K i t s i l a n o neighbourhood suggest t h a t f u t u r e t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n on 55 Broadway i s not a co n c e r n . Data i n d i c a t e s a 19% t r a f f i c volume i n c r e a s e o v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s f o r K i t s i l a n o ; whereas, C i t y wide t r a f f i c volumes i n c r e a s e d by 34% o v e r t h e same ti m e p e r i o d ( K i t s Community P r o f i l e 1993, 4 ) . T r a f f i c volume c o u n t s , t a k e n on a Wednesday i n F e b r u a r y 1993, i n d i c a t e t h a t Broadway i s impacted by commuter f l o w s . However, t h e r e i s a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f d i u r n a l t r a f f i c (See T a b l e 2 ) . T h i s r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t l e v e l of a c t i v i t y g r e a t l y b e n e f i t s the commercial s t r i p . R e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e c o r r i d o r b e n f i t from a n e a r l y c o n s t a n t f l o w of p r o s p e c t i v e c l i e n t l e . Table 2: Broadway T r a f f i c Counts TRAFFIC VOLUMES BROADWAY (At Trafalgar Street) East Bound 7 am - 9 am 1188 4 pm - 6 pm 1675 7 am - 6 pm 8012 24 hours 12096 West Bound 7 am - 9 am 1048 4 pm - 6 pm 1725 7 am - 6 pm 7776 24 hours 11490 Source: Traffic Management, City of Vancouver 56 Broadway i s c l a s s i f i e d as a t r u c k r o u t e ; however, f i e l d a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e t h a t t r u c k t r a f f i c i s not a s e r i o u s d e t r i m e n t t o the s t r e e t . The c o r r i d o r i s a l s o a major t r a n s i t r o u t e , t h u s p l a y i n g a p r i m a r y r o l e i n the C i t y ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. Bus s e r v i c e i s good a l o n g Broadway w i t h s e r v i c e t o and f r om Burnaby and UBC, and t o many p o i n t s between. T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s v i t a l t o t h e s u c c e s s of any commercial s t r i p . Easy a c c e s s by p u b l i c t r a n s i t i n v o k e s a p e d e s t r i a n environment by o f f e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e means of a r r i v a l f o r consumers. 8 . Design Considerations I. Use and A c t i v i t y a) E x t e n t of D i v e r s i t y West Broadway f u n c t i o n s as a c o h e s i v e u n i t . Between C o l l i n g w o o d and L a r c h i s , i n a sense, a homogenous c a p s u l e , composed p r i m a r i l y of s m a l l s c a l e commercial e n t e r p r i s e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t a k e n a t a s m a l l e r s c a l e , t h e s t r i p i s a l s o d i v e r s e . S t o r e f r o n t a g e s a r e g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r t h a n f i f t y f e e t , and many s t o r e s e x e m p l i f y u n i q u e a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s . F u r t h e r , s t o r e f r o n t awnings a r e a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t shapes and c o l o u r s . D e s p i t e l o o k i n g somewhat c o n t r i v e d , t h i s has t h e e f f e c t o f a d d i n g 57 t o the v i s u a l d i v e r s i t y of t h e s t r e e t . I n s h o r t , West Broadway i s f u n c t i o n a l l y homogenous, and v i s u a l l y d i v e r s e . b) R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t s More r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s abut West Broadway t h a n G r a n v i l l e South. O c c u r r i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y a t Macdonald S t r e e t and E a s t t o T r a f a l g a r , and a g a i n west of T r u t c h t o W a t e r l o o S t r e e t , f o u r s t o r y b u i l d i n g s , w i t h ground f l o o r commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s above, d e f i n e t h e s t r e e t scape. Most of t h e mixed-use r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s a l o n g t h i s segment of West Broadway were b u i l t s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1980's. The developments range i n s i z e , c o n f i g u r a t i o n , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e and d e n s i t y . L o t f r o n t a g e s range from l e s s t h a n e i g h t y f e e t t o over t h r e e hundred and twenty, and d e n s i t i e s from l e s s t h a n f i f t y u n i t s p e r a c r e t o more th a n one hundred and t e n . N o n e t h e l e s s , s i m i l a r i t i e s i n h e i g h t and massing, and the e x c l u s i v e use of commercial on t h e ground f l o o r p e r p e t u a t e a u n i f i e d s t r e e t scape. Average d e n s i t y f o r p r o j e c t s l o c a t e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a (and b u i l t b e f o r e 1991) i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y u n i t s p e r a c r e . The average f l o o r space r a t i o f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l component of t h e s e p r o j e c t s i s r o u g h l y 2.0 FSR w i t h an o v e r a l l f l o o r space r a t i o o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.8 (Neale 1991). The mixed-use r e s i d e n t i a l 58 developments a l o n g Broadway between L a r c h and C o l l i n g w o o d add i n excess of t h r e e hundred r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s t o t h e o t h e r w i s e commercial s t r e e t . c) P a r k i n g C u r b s i d e p a r k i n g i s p e r m i t t e d t h r o u g h o u t th e Broadway s t u d y a r e a . The r e t e n t i o n of on s t r e e t p a r k i n g a l o n g Broadway i s an i n t e g r a l component t o i t s c o n t i n u e d s u c c e s s . E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t once on s t r e e t p a r k i n g i s removed, even i f o n l y d u r i n g peak hours, the f e a s i b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g a p e d e s t r i a n f r i e n d l y t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e s t r e e t i s g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d . The " p e n e t r a t i o n " r a t e f o r t h o s e s t r e e t s w i t h o u t c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r t h a n f o r s t r e e t s w i t h on s t r e e t p a r k i n g . The l o c a t i o n of p a r k i n g must respond t o t h e demands of m o t o r i s t s and p e d e s t r i a n s . N a t u r a l l y , most m o t o r i s t s w i s h t o p a r k as c l o s e t o t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n as i s p o s s i b l e . I f i n a d e q u a t e p a r k i n g e x i s t s , t h o s e who may p r e f e r t o shop on an u r b a n commercial s t r i p may i n s t e a d p a t r o n i z e s h o p p i n g m a l l s f o r t h e s o l e r e a s o n of p a r k i n g c o n v e n i e n c e (Vancouver P a r k i n g S t u d y ) . A n o t h e r advantage t o on s t r e e t p a r k i n g i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f a b u f f e r between the roadway and s i d e w a l k . T h i s r o a d s i d e b u f f e r makes the s i d e w a l k s a f e r f o r p e d e s t r i a n s . 59 d) Nodes A w e l l - d e f i n e d node e x i s t s a t Macdonald S t r e e t and e x t e n d s west t o T r u t c h . T h i s r e s u l t s p a r t i a l l y from h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n s of development. However, the c o n t i n u e d i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s node i s due p r i m a r i l y t o e x p l i c i t p o l i c y a c t i o n s t a k e n by t h e C i t y of Vancouver. West Broadway's s u c c e s s owes much t o t h e h e i g h t e n e d l e v e l o f a c t i v i t y a t Macdonald. The node houses the most i n t e n s i v e commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d uses, and as such c r e a t e s a s t r o n g sense of p l a c e and an u n m i s t a k a b l y u r b a n f e e l . There i s an almost c o n s t a n t b u s t l e of a c t i v i t y w h i c h s i g n i f i e s t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t h a t t h e y have r e a c h e d a d e s t i n a t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e . I I . Street Level a) S t r e e t T r e e s , S t r e e t F u r n i t u r e , L a n d s c a p i n g and L i g h t i n g As a r e s u l t of a b e a u t i f i c a t i o n p r o j e c t f i r s t i n i t i a t e d i n t h e mid 1970's; West Broadway i s w e l l endowed w i t h s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e , s t r e e t t r e e s and the l i k e . Mature s t r e e t t r e e s f l a n k b o t h s i d e s of the s t u d y a r e a . T h i s i s a c c e n t u a t e d i n some l o c a t i o n s by g r a s s o r s h r u b b e r y a t t h e base of the t r e e s and between s i d e w a l k s and the roadway. S t r e e t f u r n i t u r e i n c l u d i n g benches, garbage cans and b i k e l o c k ups i s found a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s a l o n g t h e 60 s t r i p . Ornamental l i g h t i n g , r e m i n i s c e n t of t u r n of t h e century-lamp s t a n d a r d s , l i n e s t h e s t r e e t . F u r t h e r , t h e s i d e w a l k s and c r o s s w a l k s a r e f i n i s h e d w i t h i n t e r l o c k i n g p a v i n g s t o n e s and t e x t u r e d c o n c r e t e . These p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h e l p c r e a t e a u n i f i e d s t r e e t scape. b) G e n e r a l C o m m e r c i a l / O f f i c e Uses G e n e r a l commercial uses t e n d t o d i s r u p t t h e c o n t i n u i t y of p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d u r ban s t r e e t s . They o f t e n i n t r o d u c e p a r k i n g l o t s o r s e r v i c e bays, and thus d i s c o u r a g e p e o p l e from w a l k i n g by l e n g t h e n i n g t h e d i s t a n c e between " p e d e s t r i a n " u s e s . Moreover, they v i s u a l l y d i s r u p t an o t h e r w i s e u n i f i e d d i s p l a y of r e t a i l uses making the s t r e e t l e s s a p p e a l i n g . O f f i c e uses a t grade have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t . Such us e s g e n e r a l l y do not need a grade l e v e l l o c a t i o n as t h e y don't r e l y on p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c f o r t h e i r w e l l b e i n g . These t y p e s of uses are b e s t l o c a t e d on the second o r t h i r d f l o o r . The Broadway s t u d y a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r e d o m i n a t e l y r e t a i l uses a t ground l e v e l . S e r v i c e s t a t i o n s , r e p a i r shops and o f f i c e s a r e l i m i t e d i n number and g e n e r a l l y do not d i s r u p t t h e atmosphere and f u n c t i o n i n g of the s t r e e t . Some a n o m a l i e s , such as the P e t r o Canada s e r v i c e s t a t i o n on t h e southwest c o r n e r o f 61 Macdonald and Broadway, f r a c t u r e the p e d e s t r i a n network s l i g h t l y . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t appears t h a t when such uses a r e a n o m a l i e s t h e i r e f f e c t i s d i l u t e d . c) P e d e s t r i a n Environment The c o n d i t i o n of a s t r e e t ' s p e d e s t r i a n environment i s i n t e g r a l t o i t s s u c c e s s as a commercial c o r r i d o r . Of utmost i m p o r t a n c e i s the l e v e l of c omfort and s a f e t y a f f o r d e d t o u s e r s . R a i n , w ind and sun p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i d e a p e d e s t r i a n amenity. F u r t h e r , s t r e e t p a r k i n g and e f f e c t i v e c r o s s w a l k s h e l p t o c r e a t e a s a f e p e d e s t r i a n environment. West Broadway has a c o n g e n i a l and s a f e p e d e s t r i a n e nvironment. Awnings, c a n o p i e s , colonnaded f a c a d e s , bus s h e l t e r s , and s t r e e t t r e e s a l l o w r a i n and sun p r o t e c t i o n . C u r b s i d e p a r k i n g p r o v i d e s a p l e a s a n t and s a f e atmosphere by r e d u c i n g a i r and n o i s e p o l l u t i o n and p r o v i d i n g a p h y s i c a l b u f f e r between moving t r a f f i c and p e d e s t r i a n s . S a f e t y i s f u r t h e r enhanced t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n of w e l l - m a r k e d c r o s s w a l k s . S e v e r a l of t h e c r o s s w a l k s have p e d e s t r i a n c o n t r o l l e d s i g n a l s . Those w h i c h do n o t , f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y d e s p i t e t h i s d e f i c i e n c y . A u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c g e n e r a l l y slows a l o n g t h i s segment of Broadway and w i l l s t o p f o r c r o s s i n g p e d e s t r i a n s . The abundance of p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y a c t s 62 as a s e l f f u l f i l l i n g prophecy. P e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y f o r c e s a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c t o slow, which i n t u r n , c r e a t e s a more a p p r o p r i a t e p e d e s t r i a n environment and a t t r a c t s p e o p l e . Broadway's p e d e s t r i a n environment i s f u r t h e r enhanced by p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as t h e l i m i t e d d i s t a n c e between shopping o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the abundance of s i d e w a l k d i s p l a y s . d) Views and Topography Broadway's topography s l o p e s g e n t l y . A t i t s e a s t e r n edge, from L a r c h t o Macdonald, t h e r e i s a s l i g h t g r a d i e n t c r e a t i n g a p l a t e a u b e g i n n i n g a t the boundary of t h e s t u d y a r e a , and a "bowl" which c o n t a i n s t h e c o r e of t h e s t u d y a r e a . Broadway remains f l a t u n t i l beyond th e s t u d y a r e a ' s w e s t e r n boundary, where i t b e g i n s t o s l o p e g e n t l y upward a t Alma s t r e e t . These f e a t u r e s h e l p c r e a t e a " v i l l a g e " atmosphere. B u i l d i n g s which abut th e s t r e e t b l o c k v i e w s t o t h e n o r t h and s o u t h . F u r t h e r , v i e w s t o t h e e a s t and west a r e o b s t r u c t e d by n a t u r a l i n c l i n e s . Thus, one can see o n l y the mixed-used co m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t c e n t r e d around Macdonald s t r e e t . T h i s i n t e n s i f i e s a v i s i t o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p l a c e . 63 I I I . Building Form The c h a r a c t e r , h e i g h t , and s e t b a c k of b u i l d i n g s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e f i n i n g an a r e a o r s t r e e t . C o n s i s t e n c y i n b u i l d i n g h e i g h t , s e t b a c k and d e s i g n h e l p s t o v i s u a l l y t i e a s t r e e t t o g e t h e r , c r e a t i n g an i d e n t i f i a b l e e n t i t y , r a t h e r t h a n a c o l l e c t i o n o f u n r e l a t e d p a r t s . Moreover, the p r o p e r appointment of c o r n e r b u i l d i n g s and open space between and i n f r o n t of b u i l d i n g s i s i m p o r t a n t . The degree t o w h i c h a c o h e s i v e u n i t can be c r e a t e d , can be d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e o v e r a l l s u c c e s s of a s t r e e t . Broadway's b u i l d i n g s have a c o n s i s t e n t form. As was a l l u d e d t o b u i l d i n g s w h i c h abut the s t r e e t a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , p e r s o n a l i z e d t h r o u g h v a r i a t i o n s i n b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , awning c o l o u r s and d e s i g n . S u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s i n form and f u n c t i o n add d i v e r s i t y and l i f e t o t h e s t r e e t . One of Broadway's most rema r k a b l e a t t r i b u t e s i s i t s e x c e p t i o n a l ground f l o o r c o n t i n u i t y . The c h a r a c t e r of t h e s t r e e t i s f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by t h e sense of e n c l o s u r e p r o v i d e d b o t h by mature s t r e e t t r e e s and mixed-use b u i l d i n g s . S t r e e t e n c l o s u r e i s b e s t a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h b u i l d i n g form, and i s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y enhanced t h r o u g h t h e use o f s t r e e t t r e e s . The s t r o n g e s t s t r e e t w a l l s a r e c r e a t e d when b u i l d i n g s 64 f r o n t the s t r e e t d i r e c t l y , f o r m i n g s t r o n g w e l l - d e f i n e d edges (Neale 1991, 3 8 ) . However, e f f e c t i v e l y s t r o n g s t r e e t w a l l s can a l s o be c r e a t e d by more r e c e n t podium developments. These developments g e n e r a l l y have the f i r s t and sometimes second f l o o r s f r o n t i n g t h e s t r e e t , and subsequent s t o r i e s s t e p p e d back t o form a c o n t i n u o u s w a l l a t t h a t p o i n t (Neale 1991, 38) . A n o t h e r r e c e n t type of development, t e r r a c e d b u i l d i n g s , g e n e r a l l y c r e a t e s weaker s t r e e t d e f i n i t i o n . Broadway's s t r e e t w a l l and r e s u l t a n t s t r e e t e n c l o s u r e i s good. D e s p i t e some t e r r a c e d p r o j e c t s t h e s t r e e t w a l l i s r e t a i n e d v i r t u a l l y t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y a r e a . S t r e e t w a l l d e f i n i t i o n i s b e s t i n t h e " c o r e " a r e a . A n o m a l i e s , such as t h e P e t r o Canada s e r v i c e s t a t i o n a t the s o u t h west c o r n e r of Macdonald and Broadway, do e x i s t . However, such b r e a k s i n t h e s t r e e t w a l l , i f o n l y o c c a s i o n a l , do not impede the o v e r a l l e f f e c t . 65 GRANVILLE STREET SOUTH (Between 63rd and 71st Avenues) --(See F i g u r e S i x ) 1. History G r a n v i l l e ' s h i s t o r y i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from Broadway's. U n l i k e some of Vancouver's more t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s , G r a n v i l l e South d i d not become a commercial c e n t r e u n t i l t h e l a t e 1970's. Thus, i t s f o r m a t i v e development p a t t e r n was d i c t a t e d by t h e au t o m o b i l e . G r a n v i l l e South i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e neig h b o u r h o o d o f Marpole. T h i s community was f i r s t s e t t l e d i n t h e 1 8 6 0 ' S ; however, t h e o r i g i n a l community was not c e n t r e d around G r a n v i l l e s t r e e t . I n s t e a d , Marpole was d e f i n e d by t h e w a t e r f r o n t w h i c h housed s a w m i l l s , s h i n g l e m i l l s , and g r a v e l companies (Marpole Community P r o f i l e 1993, 1 ) . By the 1930's M a r p o l e was one o f Vancouver's major i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s . I n i t s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s Marpole was l i k e a s m a l l town, v i r t u a l l y i s o l a t e d from Vancouver by b r u s h . T h i s began c h a n g i n g by 1902 when the CPR c o n s t r u c t e d a r a i l w a y t o c a r r y c a n n e r y employees t o t h e i r j o b s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , growth was f u r t h e r enhanced by t h e development of a BC e l e c t r i c t r a m l i n e i n 1905 (Davis 1976, 90) . 66 OE OS a : G  QE CE a C091 2 f S 9 u s 8 - 9 W L £ 8 V ,4* W • S I -3AV +ri3i±N3A3S-| I1 OI oth 81 a 3 X1L J«1 91 S \ » I 7 v v S 30\Tld 4* g i * it f , t r , » r t 3 E S i ! © 1 1 (OH A V A L j o r E 0 ( D I i ai c*-lH an afii~»« it. 4l wwr* : i j R h - h -5 , J ^ ~ W £ S £ « S 1 S w | »mru * l > 6 ll I 7STJI i 01 H 6 . e B 1 H1N3A3S-A1XIS £ 6 T - D 8 - 8 I V II 5.1 B 2 . 1 to * 6 t-itrr i t ? O > S3 H m ZD co 8 52 fe Sfo»tWA TJ si m z o X to « i . P 4 t - a b *3AV 8 9Z Lw,tii»s » avstUA, £ Ik AH3AV £95Z !W H 4 * / 6 JL — 3AV M»0Z 8 3 -0 20C6 -"w *:a 1 A; T - D •3AVl •aa 8 S o o I n i J i J « LIT 3 ft h n a> rt cn p-r t <D a w H-ff »> ft H-0 0 3NldVIAi > I l\ 6 w z zn co 9; H1H0I3-A1XIS * '3AV K K S C S 1 C K K > m 5 CO 3-D •3AV v 8 t - o HlXIS-AiXIS 0051 /i«6 tr a a a a a: | cc HJJIJrALXIS I-SH 2t 8 a a a tx •3AV H l d D O d - A l X I S 09 R a p i d growth began i n Marpole a f t e r World War I I . "By 1950 more th a n 50 s t o r e s t h r i v e d a l o n g Hudson S t . and M a r i n e Dr., s e r v i n g not o n l y t h e a r e a on the n o r t h s i d e of t h e r i v e r , b u t (Richmond r e s i d e n t s as w e l l ) " (Davis 1976, 9 0 ) . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was t r a n s f o r m e d i n 1957 w i t h the o p e n i n g o f t h e Oak S t r e e t b r i d g e . B u s i n e s s i n Marpole waned as the community found i t s e l f d i v i d e d by a major a r t e r y w h i c h caused b o t h s o c i a l and commercial d i s l o c a t i o n . By the e a r l y 1960's th e f e e l of t h e community had changed d r a m a t i c a l l y . T h i s was f u r t h e r emphasized by t h e r e z o n i n g of l a n d s t o t h e s o u t h of 7 0 t h Avenue from s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g t o apartments, w h i c h d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d t h e community's age s t r u c t u r e . I n 1975 t h e A r t h u r L a i n g B r i d g e opened t o a i r p o r t t r a f f i c , p r o m p t i n g a s h i f t i n commercial a c t i v i t y t o G r a n v i l l e South. T h i s s i g n i f i e d t h e b e g i n n i n g of a hoped f o r t u r n i n g p o i n t . C i t y c o u n c i l i n i t i a t e d a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n o r d e r t o a d d r e s s changes and h e l p amend commercial d e f i c i e n c i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , r e v i t a l i z a t i o n has not m a t e r i a l i z e d t o t h e e x t e n t f i r s t a n t i c i p a t e d . C r e a t e d as a p r o d u c t of t h e t i m e s , G r a n v i l l e South e x e m p l i f i e s a l a n d use p a t t e r n t h a t c a t e r s t o t h e a u t o m o b i l e . A massive roadway, an abundance of e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e s u r f a c e p a r k i n g l o t s and s i n g l e l a n d - u s e z o n i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e a r e a . 68 As was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e not c o n d u c i v e t o a c o n g e n i a l u r b a n / p e d e s t r i a n environment. 2 . Current Use and A c t i v i t y The r o l e o f G r a n v i l l e South i s s i m i l a r t o Broadway's, a l b e i t on a c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r s c a l e . Both s t r e e t s f u n c t i o n p r i m a r i l y as d i s t r i c t s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s . However, G r a n v i l l e i s c u r r e n t l y not f u n c t i o n i n g f a v o u r a b l y i n t h i s r e g a r d . I n s t e a d , G r a n v i l l e has e v o l v e d i n t o what c o u l d be termed a c o n v e n i e n c e r e t a i l s t r i p . T h i s e v o l u t i o n was d i c t a t e d by h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s whereby G r a n v i l l e grew up as a major a u t o m o b i l e a r t e r y a t a t i m e when p l a n n i n g f o r the a u t o m o b i l e was paramount. A l i m i t e d s e l e c t i o n of conv e n i e n c e s t o r e s now c h a r a c t e r i z e G r a n v i l l e s o u t h . These e n t e r p r i s e s g e n e r a l l y s u r v i v e by l u r i n g p a s s i n g commuter t r a f f i c . G r a n v i l l e ' s c h a r a c t e r i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by i t s many g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s e s , such as gas s t a t i o n s . These e n t e r p r i s e s do not promote p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y a l o n g t h e s t r e e t . I n s t e a d , t h e y t e n d t o c r e a t e a "one s t o p " atmosphere u r g i n g p e o p l e t o a r r i v e by a u t o m o b i l e f o r one purpose, and spend l i t t l e time comparison shopping o r v i s i t i n g . P h y s i c a l elements of the s t r e e t s c a p e h e l p t o f u r t h e r d e f i n e the a r e a ' s c h a r a c t e r and f e e l . The w i d t h of G r a n v i l l e and t h e 69 t r a f f i c volumes i n h i b i t the s t r e e t ' s o v e r a l l a p p e a l . Moreover, the a r e a i s p l a g u e d by an o v e r abundance of open space i n t h e form of p a r k i n g . Such f e a t u r e s t e n d t o d i m i n i s h t h e u r b a n a p p e a l and c o h e s i v e n e s s of the s t r e e t . 3. Future Trends No f u t u r e changes a r e e x p e c t e d on G r a n v i l l e . The s t r e e t ' s convenience f u n c t i o n w i l l l i k e l y remain paramount. As l i m i t a t i o n s t o u r b a n / p e d e s t r i a n environments r e s u l t t o a l a r g e degree from t r a f f i c volumes, any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n developments t h a t h e l p t o a l l e v i a t e t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n a l o n g t h i s c o r r i d o r w i l l u n d o ubtedly have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . Thus, t h i n g s s uch as a f u t u r e Sky T r a i n l i n k t o Richmond, f o r example, c o u l d r e d i r e c t the f u t u r e of G r a n v i l l e ' s commercial a r e a . However, as t h e e x p l o r a t i o n of such developments i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s b e i n g assumed t h a t f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s w i l l r emain v i r t u a l l y unchanged. The c u r r e n t p a t h of p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s a l s o s i g n i f i e s a r e t e n t i o n of the s t a t u s quo i n M a r p o l e . P l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s , spawned i n an attempt t o r e v i t a l i z e G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i n t h e l a t e 1970's and e a r l y 1980's, have been abandoned i n f a v o u r o f more 70 c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . Thus, z o n i n g changes a r e no l o n g e r e x p e c t e d f o r G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t . 4 . Planning Policy C u r r e n t l y , p l a n n i n g f o r the Marpole a r e a i s not a p r i o r i t y a t C i t y H a l l . I n t h e l a t e 1970's and e a r l y 1980's a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o Marpole and t h e G r a n v i l l e South commercial s t r i p . I s s u e s a d d r e s s e d a t the time i n c l u d e d t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c o r r i d o r , commercial v i a b i l i t y , p r o s p e c t s f o r e x p a n s i o n of t h e b u s i n e s s a r e a , z o n i n g , and t r a f f i c c o n c erns (Arbour 1979, i v ) . G i v e n the i s s u e s t h a t were i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t , p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s were d e v e l o p e d t o a d d r e s s t h r e e s p e c i f i c G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t problems: image, b u s i n e s s mix, and t r a f f i c . Z o n i n g , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i n g a zone w h i c h encourages mixed r e s i d e n t i a l uses w i t h i n t h e commercial c o r e was not e x p l o r e d . Z o n i n g was d i s c u s s e d ; however, such d i s c u s s i o n s g e n e r a l l y f o c u s e d on i s s u e s r e v o l v i n g around t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n of g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s t o t h e a r e a ' s c o r e . Because t h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t z o n i n g d i s c u s s i o n s were not expanded t o i n c l u d e a l o o k a t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n c r e a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . Had t h e p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s n ot been abandoned, and had new z o n i n g been c r e a t e d , G r a n v i l l e South may 71 have f a r e d b e t t e r as a l i v e l y commercial c o r r i d o r . However, g i v e n the heavy t r a f f i c , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t G r a n v i l l e would have succeeded t o the same e x t e n t as Broadway. P l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s were i n i t i a t e d by Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g s t a f f . These i n i t i a t i v e s were q u i c k l y endorsed by c i t y c o u n c i l , and were r e c e i v e d f a v o u r a b l y by M a r p o l e ' s merchants and r e s i d e n t s . U n l i k e i n i t i a t i v e s f o r Broadway, w h i c h f o c u s e d on p r e s e r v i n g the e x i s t i n g p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e s t r e e t , t h e i n i t i a t i v e s f o r G r a n v i l l e r e p r e s e n t e d an a m b i t i o u s a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e a new and d r a m a t i c a l l y enhanced commercial d i s t r i c t . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t as i t q u i t e c l o s e l y r e p l i c a t e s e v e n t s t r a n s p i r i n g a t M a r i n e D r i v e . D i s c u s s i o n s and s t u d y of t h e G r a n v i l l e South c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p c u l m i n a t e d w i t h the r e l e a s e of t h e Marpole P l a n i n O c t o b e r 1979. T h i s p l a n emphasized th e i m p o r t a n c e of k e e p i n g G r a n v i l l e South as Marpole's main s h o p p i n g a r e a , d e s p i t e t h e heavy t r a f f i c volumes. T r a f f i c problems were o u t l i n e d as a c o n c e r n ; however, p o l i c i e s o u t l i n e d no means t o e i t h e r a m e l i o r a t e o r accommodate t h e m a s s i v e f l u x of commuter t r a f f i c . F u r t h e r , the p l a n o u t l i n e d ways t o improve th e a r e a ' s image and promote i t as t h e "gateway t o Vancouver." The p l a n a l s o d e f i n e d and o u t l i n e d ways t o r e t a i n the s t r e e t ' s c o r e commercial a r e a . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t , 72 and thus m e r i t s c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n . Much of G r a n v i l l e ' s l i m i t e d s u c c e s s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o a t t e m p t s made a t s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e a r e a ' s c o r e . 5. Zoning G r a n v i l l e ' s c u r r e n t z o n i n g r e f l e c t s Vancouver C i t y P l a n n e r ' s abandonment of the s t r e e t ' s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , and t h u s remains v i r t u a l l y unchanged s i n c e the l a t e 1970's. G r a n v i l l e ' s commercial a r e a i s c u r r e n t l y c o m p r i s e d o f two zones: C-2, and C-1. C - l i s u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r s m a l l s c a l e c ommercial e n t e r p r i s e s such as c o r n e r s t o r e s , and t h u s emphasizes t h e i n c l u s i o n of s m a l l s c a l e commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h i s zone does not a l l o w f o r a wide range of goods and as such does not g e n e r a l l y spawn comparison s h o p p i n g . C-2 i s a g e n e r a l commercial d i s t r i c t zone w h i c h a l l o w s f o r a range of goods and s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as d w e l l i n g u s e s . I t i s t h e z o n i n g s c h e d u l e most commonly a p p l i e d t o Vancouver's urban commercial s t r e e t s , and e s s e n t i a l l y f u n c t i o n s q u i t e w e l l . N o n e t h e l e s s , as was i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e Broadway case s t u d y , s c h e d u l e s w h i c h emphasis c e r t a i n d e s i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can b e t t e r accommodate an p e d e s t r i a n e nvironment. 73 The i n t e n t o f t h e s e zones, as o u t l i n e d by t h e Vancouver c i t y P l a n n i n g Department i s as f o l l o w s : C-l (small-scale commercial d i s t r i c t ) The i n t e n t of t h i s Schedule i s t o p r o v i d e f o r s m a l l - s c a l e c o nvenience commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , c a t e r i n g t y p i c a l l y t o the needs of a l o c a l neighbourhood and c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y of r e t a i l s a l e s and c e r t a i n l i m i t e d s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s , and t o p r o v i d e f o r d w e l l i n g uses d e s i g n e d c o m p a t i b l y w i t h commercial u s e s . C-2 (general commercial d i s t r i c t ) The i n t e n t of t h i s S chedule i s t o p r o v i d e f o r a wide range of goods and s e r v i c e s , t o m a i n t a i n commercial a c t i v i t i e s and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s t h a t r e q u i r e c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s t o s e r v e l a r g e neighbourhoods, and t o p r o v i d e f o r d w e l l i n g uses d e s i g n e d c o m p a t i b l y w i t h commercial u s e s . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two zones and t h e ones d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r r e l a t e s t o t h e h a n d l i n g of r e s i d e n t i a l d w e l l i n g s . As was o u t l i n e d i n the " P o l i c y " s e c t i o n , l e s s a t t e n t i o n was p a i d on G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t t o the p r o m o t i o n of mixed r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d by the z o n i n g s c h e d u l e s . Whereas the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d C -2C zone encourages t h e c r e a t i o n o f a 74 p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n by increasing t h e a r e a ' s r e s i d e n t i a l component, th e C-2 zone s i m p l y provides f o r d w e l l i n g uses w h i c h are deemed c o m p a t i b l e . T h i s i s a m e a n i n g f u l d i s t i n c t i o n , and has c o n s i d e r a b l e r a m i f i c a t i o n s on the o v e r a l l s u c c e s s o f each commercial s t r e e t . The C-2 zone g e n e r a l l y accommodates a w i d e r range of p o t e n t i a l uses t h a n the C-2C zone. For example, C-2 a l l o w s t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n of b o t h f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and g e n e r a l o f f i c e s . Moreover, i t a l l o w s f o r s e r v i c e s such as a u c t i o n h a l l s , f a s t f o o d r e s t a u r a n t s and motor v e h i c l e r e p a i r shops. These uses do not encourage the c r e a t i o n of a p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d u r b a n s t r e e t . R e g u l a t i o n s f o r the C-2 zone a r e l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e t h a n t h o s e f o r the C-2C zone. For example, f r o n t a g e r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r commercial u s e r s a r e not a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e C-2 zone; however i n the C-2C zone commercial u s e r s cannot have a f r o n t a g e t h a t exceeds 50 f e e t . F.S.R's a r e a g a i n l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e f o r t h e C-2 zone. I n t h i s zone the F.S.R can not exceed 3.00, e x c e p t f o r p u r e l y r e s i d e n t i a l uses t h a t can not exceed 2.50. U n l i k e Broadway's zone, t h e r e a r e no r e s t r i c t i o n s on p u r e l y o f f i c e u s e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , p u r e l y r e s i d e n t i a l uses a r e p e n a l i z e d l e s s s e v e r e l y i n the C-2 z o n i n g s c h e d u l e . B o t h t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s make i t e a s i e r 75 f o r d e v e l o p e r s t o produce p r o j e c t s w h i c h b r e a k up t h e c o n t i n u i t y of an urban commercial s t r e e t . 6. Surroundings G r a n v i l l e South i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the community of M a r p o l e . Marpole extends n o r t h from the N o r t h Arm of t h e F r a s e r R i v e r t o 57th Avenue, and i s bounded by Angus D r i v e t o t h e west and O n t a r i o S t r e e t t o the e a s t . The n o r t h e r n segment of t h e a r e a i s p r i m a r i l y c o m p r i s e d of s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l homes, whereas the a r e a between 70th Avenue and M a r i n e D r i v e i s made up a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y of apartments. The a r e a s o u t h o f M a r i n e D r i v e i s d e d i c a t e d t o i n d u s t r i a l u s e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e a r e two s i g n i f i c a n t commercial a r e a s w i t h i n M a r p o l e : G r a n v i l l e South between'63rd and 71st S t r e e t s , and Southwest M a r i n e D r i v e between G r a n v i l l e and Oak S t r e e t s . G r a n v i l l e ' s s u r r o u n d i n g s c l o s e l y r e p l i c a t e t h o s e found around M a r i n e D r i v e i n N o r t h Vancouver. As i s t h e case f o r K i t s i l a n o , t h e Marpole n e i g h b o u r h o o d has a number of p r i m a r y z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s r a n g i n g from o n e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s t o commercial and i n d u s t r i a l zones. The most n o t a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e two neighbourhoods i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e of l a n d devoted t o m u l t i - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and i n d u s t r i a l u s e s . W h i l e K i t s i l a n o i s almost v o i d o f any i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y , i n 76 excess of 25 p e r c e n t of t h e l a n d a r e a of Marpole i s d e d i c a t e d t o t h i s purpose. For m u l t i - f a m i l y zones t h e o p p o s i t e h o l d s t r u e . I n excess of 50 p e r c e n t of K i t s i l a n o i s zoned e i t h e r d u p l e x o r apartment, y e t o n l y a v e r y s m a l l p o r t i o n o f M a r p o l e i s zoned m u l t i - f a m i l y . Thus, a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n base, l i k e t h e one l o c a t e d p r o x i m a t e t o Broadway, i s not a v a i l a b l e t o G r a n v i l l e South. F u r t h e r , as was o u t l i n e d i n t h e "Zoning" s e c t i o n , G r a n v i l l e ' s z o n i n g does not encourage t h e development of h i g h e r d e n s i t y r e s i d e n c e s above commercial shops. Hence t h e r e a r e f a r fewer r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s t h a t a c t u a l l y abut the s t r e e t . T h i s a l s o r e s u l t s i n a s m a l l e r " l o c a l " c l i e n t e l e f o r b u s i n e s s e s t o draw on. Marpole's s o c i o e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t from K i t s i l a n o ' s . A l t h o u g h the a r e a ' s p e r c e n t a g e of young a d u l t s (those between th e ages 20 - 39) has i n c r e a s e d , i t i s s t i l l l o w e r than K i t s i l a n o . Assuming t h e s e p e o p l e a r e among t h e most l i k e l y t o p a t r o n i z e l o c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , t h i s may be a f a c t o r i n e x p l a i n i n g the g r e a t e r s u c c e s s of Broadway. A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d , emerging i n Marpole s i n c e t h e 1970's, has been an i n c r e a s e i n the number of s e n i o r s . T h i s group has expanded by 25 p e r c e n t , and now makes up 17 p e r c e n t of M a r p o l e ' s p o p u l a t i o n (See T a b l e 3) . As t h i s segment of s o c i e t y i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s m o b i l e t h a n 77 t h e i r younger c o u n t e r p a r t s , and i s o f t e n c o n s t r a i n e d by f i x e d incomes, t h i s t o o c o u l d h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e l i m i t e d s u c c e s s o f G r a n v i l l e . Table 3: Marpole Age Structure Marpole Vancouver Average Age (1986) seniors age 65+ 17% 15% residents age 40 to 64 24% 26% residents age 20 to 39 42% 39% children under age 19 17% 20% Source: Statistics Canada Average h o u s e h o l d income f o r Marpole r e s i d e n t s i n 1986 was $31,585, 3% l e s s t h a n t h e c i t y average of $32,403 and 37% l e s s than the K i t s i l a n o average of $43,198 (Marpole Community P r o f i l e 1993, 3) . The G r a n v i l l e South commercial s t r i p i s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h a number of commercial c e n t r e s . Most i m p o r t a n t a r e t h e O a k r i d g e Shopping C e n t r e (a r e g i o n a l c e n t r e ) and K e r r i s d a l e (a d i s t r i c t s hopping c e n t r e ) . B o t h of t h e s e c e n t r e s have market a r e a s w h i c h c o n f i n e t h e a e r i a l e x t e n t of Mar p o l e . F u r t h e r , "the s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n the Marpole market a r e a i s ne g a t e d by the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no p o p u l a t i o n t o t h e s o u t h o f 78 the r e t a i l c o r e , i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a between M a r i n e D r i v e and the r i v e r " (Arbour 1979, 9 ) . 7. Movement Patterns G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i s a major n o r t h - s o u t h a r t e r i a l , p e r f o r m i n g an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n Vancouver's t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network. The roadway r e c e i v e s e x t r e m e l y h i g h t r a f f i c volumes, a t t r i b u t e d p r i m a r i l y t o commuter f l o w s . These f l o w s i n v o l v e b o t h p e o p l e who l i v e i n Richmond o r o t h e r s o u t h e r n suburbs and work i n Vancouver, and those r e s i d e n t s of Vancouver and o t h e r n o r t h e r n suburbs who work a t the a i r p o r t o r e l s e w h e r e i n Richmond o r t o t h e s o u t h (Arbour 1979, 1 5 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , G r a n v i l l e i s a f f e c t e d by t r a f f i c t r a v e l l i n g t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s B o r d e r . As was a l l u d e d t o , h i g h t r a f f i c volumes c o u l d be a l l e v i a t e d i f t r a n s i t were improved from Vancouver t o Richmond. Moreover, i m p r o v i n g a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s , and l i m i t i n g use of t h e A r t h u r L a i n g B r i d g e by Richmond commuters c o u l d h e l p t o f u r t h e r m i t i g a t e t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n a l o n g G r a n v i l l e . N o n e t h e l e s s , d e s p i t e t h e s e p o t e n t i a l developments, G r a n v i l l e ' s t r a f f i c w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y r e m a i n heavy. T r a f f i c volumes on G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s o u t h o f 6 3 r d Avenue have i n c r e a s e d by 39% o v e r the l a s t t e n y e a r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, c i t y wide t r a f f i c i n c r e a s e d by 34% o v e r the same ti m e p e r i o d , and 79 K i t s i l a n o t r a f f i c i n c r e a s e d by o n l y 19% (Marpole Community P r o f i l e 1993, 4) . T r a f f i c c o u n t s , t a k e n on a Monday i n F e b r u a r y of 1992 a t t e s t t o h i g h t r a f f i c volumes, and i l l u s t r a t e a p a t t e r n o f commuter f l o w s (See T a b l e 4 ) . As i s the case f o r Broadway, G r a n v i l l e i s s u b j e c t t o s u b s t a n t i a l d i u r n a l t r a f f i c f l o w s . However, u n l i k e the Broadway s i t u a t i o n , t h i s a c t s as a d e t r i m e n t r a t h e r t h a n an a s s e t . C o n t r a r y t o the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c s t i m u l a t e s b u s i n e s s , e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t once t r a f f i c volumes r e a c h a c e r t a i n p o i n t t h e y g e n e r a l l y l e a d t o r e d u c t i o n s i n r e t a i l b u s i n e s s . The r e s u l t a n t c o n g e s t i o n and l i m i t a t i o n s on t u r n s and p a r k i n g f o r c e shoppers t o p a t r o n i z e more e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s . 80 Table 4 : G r a n v i l l e Street T r a f f i c Counts TRAFFIC VOLUMES GRANVILLE STREET (At 63rd Avenue) South Bound 7am - 9am 2147 4pm - 6pm 3453 7am - 6pm 14382 24 hours 21816 North Bound 7am - 9am 4022 4pm - 6pm 2664 7am - 6pm 15314 24 hours 21820 Source: Traffic Management , City of Vancouver G r a n v i l l e i s b o t h a t r u c k and t r a n s i t r o u t e . F i e l d a n a l y s i s s uggests t h a t b e n e f i t s of f r e q u e n t bus s e r v i c e may be outweighed by the l a r g e volumes of t r u c k t r a f f i c and r e s u l t a n t a i r and n o i s e p o l l u t i o n . O v e r a l l , d i s b e n f i t s of t h e c o r r i d o r ' s h i g h t r a f f i c volumes exceed t h e m a r g i n a l b e n e f i t s o f f e r e d t o merchants i n t h e form of h i g h exposure and good s e r v i c e by t r a n s i t . 8 . Design Considerations I. Use and A c t i v i t y a) E x t e n t of D i v e r s i t y G r a n v i l l e i s more d i v e r s e t h a n Broadway. A l t h o u g h i t can be argued t h a t d i v e r s i t y adds v i t a l i t y t o a s t r e e t , t h e o p p o s i t e i s a l s o t r u e . G r a n v i l l e s u f f e r s from a l a c k of c o h e s i o n b o t h i n f u n c t i o n and form. Each s i d e o f the s t r e e t p e r f o r m s a d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n , and o p e r a t e s almost as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y . P e d e s t r i a n s tend not t o t r a v e r s e the roadway t o v i s i t d i f f e r e n t shops as t h e y do a l o n g Broadway. b) R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t s Very few mixed r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s abut G r a n v i l l e South's commercial d i s t r i c t . A d d i t i o n a l u n i t s c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e the a r e a ' s l o c a l c l i e n t e l e , and s t i m u l a t e commercial b u s i n e s s . However, g i v e n t h e h i g h t r a f f i c volumes t h i s seems u n l i k e l y . N o n e t h e l e s s , some of the newer developments (such as t h e b u i l d i n g l o c a t e d a t west 6 6 t h Avenue) have a mix of commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s . c) P a r k i n g C u r b s i d e p a r k i n g has been s t r i p p e d a l o n g G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t d u r i n g peak hours (7-9am and 3-6pm). G i v e n t h e h i g h t r a f f i c volumes t h i s appears t o be a r e a s o n a b l e s o l u t i o n . E v i d e n c e suggests t h a t t o t a l removal of c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g can be v e r y d e t r i m e n t a l t o l o c a l merchants. Once p a r k i n g has been s t r i p p e d i t becomes v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o r e i n t r o d u c e . N o n e t h e l e s s , 82 even the removal o f peak hour p a r k i n g has a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on t h e f u n c t i o n i n g of a commercial s t r e e t . The most s u c c e s s f u l s t r e e t s remain t h o s e where t r a f f i c volumes a r e low enough t o s u s t a i n c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g . d) Nodes The G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t commercial a r e a i s c o n s i d e r a b l e s h o r t e r than Broadway's. At G r a n v i l l e South, commercial a c t i v i t y e x t e n d s f o r o n l y seven b l o c k s , whereas a t West Broadway t h e r e i s commercial a c t i v i t y f o r t e n b l o c k s . F u r t h e r , save a two b l o c k i n t e r r u p t i o n of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s between L a r c h and V i n e S t r e e t s , t h e Broadway commercial c o r r i d o r a c t u a l l y e x t e n d s f o r more th a n f o r t y b l o c k s between Alma and F r a s e r S t r e e t s . T h i s c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t where t h e seven b l o c k commercial s t r i p e x i s t s i n almost complete i s o l a t i o n . G i v e n the above c i r c u m s t a n c e , t h e r e i s no i d e n t i f i a b l e node f o r the G r a n v i l l e South commercial a r e a . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e a r e a f u n c t i o n s as a u n i t , d e f i n e d by a b a r e l y o b s e r v a b l e c o r e / p e r i p h e r y p a t t e r n . 83 I I . Street Level a) S t r e e t T r e e s , S t r e e t F u r n i t u r e , L a n d s c a p i n g and L i g h t i n g S t r e e t t r e e s e x t e n d from 7 0 t h Avenue n o r t h t o 6 3 r d Avenue. They h e l p m i t i g a t e the wide open f e e l t h a t r e s u l t s from t h e extreme w i d t h o f the c o r r i d o r . There i s a n o t a b l e l a c k of benches and o t h e r s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e on G r a n v i l l e South. Furthermore, s t r e e t l i g h t i n g i s s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n , and does n o t h i n g t o improve o v e r a l l ambiance of the a r e a . b) G e n e r a l C o m m e r c i a l / O f f i c e Uses The G r a n v i l l e s t u d y a r e a s u f f e r s from an overabundance of g e n e r a l commercial uses such as s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s and g r o c e r y s t o r e s . The a r e a ' s Safeway, as an example, has s e v e r e l y b r o k e n up the c o r r i d o r , b o t h v i s u a l l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y , t h r o u g h t h e p o s i t i o n i n g of a l a r g e p a r k i n g l o t f r o n t i n g t h e s t r e e t . An abundance of " m i n i m a l l s " , h o u s i n g c o n v e n i e n c e s t o r e s and t h e l i k e , have had a s i m i l a r e f f e c t . c) P e d e s t r i a n Environment The p e d e s t r i a n environment a t G r a n v i l l e South i s more t h r e a t e n i n g t h a n t h a t on West Broadway. T h i s r e s u l t s p r i m a r i l y from h i g h t r a f f i c volumes. P e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g s a r e n o t as w e l l 84 marked, a r e not p e d e s t r i a n c o n t r o l l e d , and a r e l o n g e r (due t o t h e w i d t h of t h e s t r e e t ) . Moreover, v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c g e n e r a l l y t r a v e l s f a s t e r a l o n g G r a n v i l l e t h a n Broadway. As a consequence, few p e d e s t r i a n s b o t h e r t o c r o s s t h e s t r e e t . Some of t h e l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s have awnings and s i d e w a l k d i s p l a y s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e l e s s abundant t h a n on Broadway. d) Views and Topography G r a n v i l l e South's commercial d i s t r i c t s l o p e s g e n t l y t o t h e s o u t h a f f o r d i n g v i e w s of t h e Richmond a r e a . L o o k i n g n o r t h , an o b s e r v e r has an e n d l e s s v i e w up t h e i n c l i n i n g S t r e e t . A l t h o u g h not a s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e , t h e "open" f e e l w h i c h r e s u l t s from t h e a r e a ' s topography may be a h i n d r a n c e t o i t s o v e r a l l a p p e a l . Because an o b s e r v e r can see " e n d l e s s " v i s t a s b o t h t o t h e n o r t h and s o u t h , he/she f e e l s no sense of e n c l o s u r e . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t , as v i s u a l e n c l o s u r e i s a n o t a b l e u r b a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 85 I I I . Building Form The c o l l e c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s a l o n g G r a n v i l l e South do not c r e a t e a s t r o n g s t r e e t w a l l . As was d i s c u s s e d , a s t r o n g s t r e e t w a l l r e s u l t s when b u i l d i n g s have s i m i l a r h e i g h t s and s e t b a c k s . G r a n v i l l e f a i l s i n t h i s r e g a r d due t o an o v e r abundance o f s u r f a c e p a r k i n g . T h i s p r oblem i s p e r p e t u a t e d by t h e v a s t number of s i n g l e s t o r y b u i l d i n g s , and th e more r e c e n t a d d i t i o n o f " p e d e s t a l " s t y l e b u i l d i n g s . Because o f t h e c o r r i d o r ' s e x c e s s i v e w i d t h , i t seems p r u d e n t t o i n t r o d u c e t a l l e r b u i l d i n g s t o th e s t r e e t . Such b u i l d i n g s c o u l d have the e f f e c t of b r i n g i n g t h e s t r e e t ' s edges c l o s e r t o g e t h e r , and thus add t o the a r e a ' s sense of e n c l o s u r e and u r b a n a p p e a l . CONCLUSIONS T h i s c h a p t e r i l l u m i n a t e s numerous a s p e c t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f u n c t i o n i n g of urban mixed-use commercial s t r e e t s . Much o f t h e knowledge g a i n e d t h r o u g h the s t u d y of Broadway and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t can be u t i l i z e d when a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e a " f o r m u l a f o r s u c c e s s " f o r M a r i n e D r i v e i n N o r t h Vancouver. N e v e r t h e l e s s , as these case s t u d i e s a l s o demonstrate, m a t c h l e s s c i r c u m s t a n c e s c r e a t e b o t h advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s f o r u r b a n s t r e e t s . These p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a l t e r . Hence, 86 a l t h o u g h the " c r e a t i o n " of s u c c e s s f u l mixed-use com m e r c i a l s t r e e t s i s not c o m p l e t e l y out of t h e hands of P l a n n e r s , t h e y must r e l y h e a v i l y on c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . P r o p e r l y d i r e c t e d p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s can have an e f f e c t . However, as the G r a n v i l l e case s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s , P l a n n e r s a r e f o r c e d t o work w i t h i n l i m i t e d c o n f i n e s , sometimes t o no a v a i l . Components necessary for success C e r t a i n components a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f commercial s t r e e t s , w h i l e o t h e r s , a l t h o u g h i m p o r t a n t , p l a y a s e c o n d a r y r o l e . I have c o m p i l e d a b r i e f l i s t of t h i n g s w h i c h a r e r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r f o r a commercial s t r e e t t o succeed. T h i s l i s t i s i m p o r t a n t , and can be used as a c h e c k l i s t t o d e t e r m i n e what i s p r e s e n t and what i s l a c k i n g a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . More i m p o r t a n t , however, a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t such a l i s t begs. F o r example: how are t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a c h i e v e d ? And, can t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s be a c h i e v e d f o r M a r i n e D r i v e ? These q u e s t i o n s form t h e c r u x of t h i s i n q u i r y . 87 The Requirements of a Successful Mixed-use Commercial Street are 1. S u f f i c i e n t R e s i d e n t i a l D e n s i t y 2. C o n t i n u i t y i n S t r e e t L e v e l R e t a i l A c t i v i t y 3. On S t r e e t P a r k i n g 4 . Merchant and Community Involvement and C o o p e r a t i o n 5. An I d e n t i f i a b l e Node of A c t i v i t y 6 . P l e a s a n t and l i v e l y Atmosphere 7. T r a n s i t S e r v i c e 8. I d e n t i t y Case Study Findings O u t l i n e d below a r e the s a l i e n t p o i n t s from p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s . G i v e n the t h r u s t of t h i s paper, t h o s e p o i n t s t h a t can be a p p l i e d t o the " r e c r e a t i o n " of M a r i n e D r i v e a r e o u t l i n e d . a ) H i s t o r y One of the most i m p o r t a n t i n g r e d i e n t s f o r s u c c e s s r e l a t e s t o the time of a s t r e e t ' s development. Those c o r r i d o r s , such as Broadway, w h i c h d e v e l o p e d b e f o r e the advent of t h e a u t o m o b i l e g e n e r a l l y e x e m p l i f y a more i n t e n s e and a u t h e n t i c mixed-use p a t t e r n . Because t h e s e s t r e e t s d e v e l o p e d as a s p i n e o f a c t i v i t y f o r the l o c a l neighbourhood, r e s i d e n t i a l development g e n e r a l l y 88 surrounds the c o r r i d o r , g i v i n g i t a s u b s t a n t i a l l o c a l consumer base. Furthermore, t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y v o i d of t h e v a s t s u r f a c e p a r k i n g l o t s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e more r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d c o r r i d o r s . Developments i n t h e c i t y ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network a l s o p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the c u r r e n t f u n c t i o n i n g o f a s t r e e t . F o r example, development of t h e A r t h u r Lang b r i d g e c r e a t e d an u n d e s i r a b l e c o n d i t i o n f o r G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t by g e n e r a t i n g m a s s i v e volumes of t h r o u g h t r a f f i c . Save t h e announcement o f an e q u a l l y momentous development, ( f o r example a Sky T r a i n l i n k t o Richmond) i t i s u n l i k e l y G r a n v i l l e South w i l l become a p e d e s t r i a n f r i e n d l y commercial c o r r i d o r . b) C u r r e n t Use The c u r r e n t r o l e of an urban s t r e e t i n t h e c i t y - w i d e c o n t e x t p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n i t s s u c c e s s . S t r e e t s , such as G r a n v i l l e , w h i c h c u r r e n t l y f u n c t i o n as i n t e g r a l v e h i c u l a r c o r r i d o r s a r e not l i k e l y c a n d i d a t e s f o r a t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t H i g h t r a f f i c volumes r e n d e r t h e s e c o r r i d o r s t h r e a t e n i n g and u n a t t r a c t i v e . The c u r r e n t s u c c e s s of c o f f e e shops, e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g Broadway, e x e m p l i f i e s t h e importance o f such e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . 89 People r e q u i r e p l a c e s t o meet and s o c i a l i z e . A l t h o u g h o n l y a s m a l l d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the e f f e c t s o f such e s t a b l i s h m e n t s can not be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . They have i m p o r t a n t r a m i f i c a t i o n s on the o v e r a l l f u n c t i o n i n g of a s t r e e t . The absence of such e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a l o n g G r a n v i l l e d i m i n i s h e s i t s o v e r a l l a p p e a l . c) F u t u r e Trends The case s t u d i e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e enormous momentum o f c u r r e n t l a n d use p a t t e r n s . P a s t p a t t e r n s d i c t a t e f u t u r e t r e n d s . As was e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e G r a n v i l l e case s t u d y , even s e v e r a l y e a r s o f i n t e n s i v e work w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y r e c r e a t e a s u c c e s s f u l mixed-use commercial s t r e e t . d) P l a n n i n g P o l i c i e s P l a n n i n g P o l i c i e s w h i c h p r e s e r v e and r e i n f o r c e e x i s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e . The c r e a t i o n o f Broadway's two d i s t i n c t zones, f o r example, r e t a i n e d and enhanced t h e s t r e e t ' s e x i s t i n g c h a r a c t e r by e f f e c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g i n g r e s i d e n t i a l development, s t o p p i n g t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s e s , and e m p h a s i z i n g a c o r e / p e r i p h e r y p a t t e r n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a l t h o u g h t h e s e p o l i c i e s worked f o r Broadway, they may p r ove l e s s e f f e c t i v e when a p p l i e d t o d i f f e r e n t s t r e e t s . 90 P o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g mixed-use commercial t h o r o u g h f a r e s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . Broadway's s u c c e s s appears t o have a c t e d l i k e a s p r i n g b o a r d f o r G r a n v i l l e ' s development. T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e . The p o l i c i e s f o r Broadway d e v e l o p e d o v e r many y e a r s as a r e s u l t o f p r o a c t i v e e f f o r t s by Merchants, members o f t h e community and P l a n n e r s . They were d e s i g n e d t o p e r p e t u a t e a s p e c i f i c r o l e f o r Broadway, i l l u m i n a t e d by i n i t i a l s t u d i e s as most a p p r o p r i a t e . On t h e o t h e r hand, p o l i c i e s f o r G r a n v i l l e emerged as t h e r e s u l t of e f f o r t s by C i t y P l a n n e r s . They were c r e a t e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time frame as a r e a c t i o n t o p e r c e i v e d s h o r t c o m i n g s of the s t r e e t , and borrow h e a v i l y from t h e Broadway e x p e r i e n c e . H i s t o r y s u g g e s t s i t may have been more a p p r o p r i a t e t o b e g i n by s t u d y i n g G r a n v i l l e ' s r o l e i n t h e c i t y c o n t e x t , p a y i n g c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o the s t r e e t ' s p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e . e) Zoning The z o n i n g c r e a t e d f o r Broadway has p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l . The a p p l i c a t i o n of two zones i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r mixed-use commercial c o r r i d o r s . Such a scheme c r e a t e s a f i n e r t e x t u r e , and a l l o w s more r e s p o n s i v e r e s u l t s . " B l a n k e t " zones a r e l e s s r e s p o n s i v e t o the nuances o f d i f f e r e n t commercial c o r r i d o r s . A l t h o u g h 91 o b v i o u s l y more a t t r a c t i v e from an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o i n t o f view, b l a n k e t zones s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , as t h e y do not a l l o w f o r t h e c r e a t i o n of i d e n t i f i a b l e nodes of a c t i v i t y . Core a r e a zones s h o u l d encourage th e i n c l u s i o n of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t u s e s . However, i t s h o u l d a l s o s t i p u l a t e t h e e x c l u s i o n of g e n e r a l commercial b u s i n e s s . W i t n e s s t h e s u c c e s s o f Broadway's c o r e a r e a . T h i s c o n d i t i o n would not e x i s t i f g e n e r a l commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were a l l o w e d t o p r o l i f e r a t e . As t h e impact of such e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s l e s s s e v e r e i n a r e a s o u t s i d e t h e c o r e , the i n c l u s i o n of t h i s t y p e of a c t i v i t y i s a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e p e r i p h e r a l zone. A l l o w i n g g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s i n t h e o u t e r zone o f t e n a i d s i n t h e o v e r a l l draw of an u r ban commercial s t r e e t 1 . f) S u r r o u n d i n g s The s u r r o u n d i n g s of an urban commercial c o r r i d o r d i c t a t e s u c cess more t h a n any o t h e r v a r i a b l e . The most i m p o r t a n t element of a s t r e e t ' s s u r r o u n d i n g s i s t h e p o p u l a t i o n base. I n o r d e r f o r mixed-use commercial s t r e e t s t o succeed, t h e r e must be a s u f f i c i e n t p o p u l a t i o n base w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e d i s t a n c e . 1 General b u s i n e s s e s i n c l u d e t h i n g s such as l a r g e Supermarkets, Banks, and S e r v i c e S t a t i o n s . Although not a p p r o p r i a t e i n the core area, g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s can help to draw consumers from f a r t h e r a f i e l d . 92 A l t h o u g h no q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s were done i n t h i s r e g a r d , t h e case s t u d i e s suggest two t h i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y s i z e and p r o x i m i t y of a p o p u l a t i o n base. F i r s t , as i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e s u c c e s s of Broadway, s i z a b l e m u l t i f a m i l y a r e a s l o c a t e d nearby c r e a t e an u n p a r a l l e l e d advantage. Anomalous p o c k e t s of h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l development may not s u f f i c e . T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e s i t u a t i o n a t G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t where the e f f e c t s of h a v i n g a h i g h d e n s i t y d i s t r i c t d i r e c t l y t o t h e s o u t h a r e negated by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e s i d u a l of the neighbourhood i s c o m p r i s e d of e i t h e r s i n g l e f a m i l y o r i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . Second, w i t h r e g a r d s t o p r o x i m i t y , Broadway's s i t u a t i o n s uggests t h a t a s i z a b l e p o p u l a t i o n base need not be l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e s t r e e t , b u t s h o u l d be l o c a t e d w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e -- t h a t b e i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t b l o c k s . F u r t h e r , t h e Broadway s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s l o c a t e d on the c o r r i d o r . These r e s i d e n c e s add not o n l y an e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n base, but much needed d i u r n a l a c t i v i t y . S ocio-economic c o n d i t i o n s a l s o p l a y a r o l e i n t h e o v e r a l l s u c cess of a s t r e e t . Age s t r u c t u r e and d i s p o s a b l e income a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s . A neighbourhood w i t h a predominance of young a d u l t s and h i g h d i s p o s a b l e incomes i s an a s s e t . 93 N o n e t h e l e s s , a mix of i n h a b i t a n t s i s deemed d e s i r a b l e . L o c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o employment c e n t r e s and competing s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t . West Broadway's s i t u a t i o n i s u n i q u e as i t i s l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o the second most i m p o r t a n t commercial c e n t r e i n G r e a t e r Vancouver, th e C e n t r a l Broadway C o r r i d o r . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p c r e a t e s p e e r l e s s advantages f o r west Broadway. As the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s t u d y e x e m p l i f i e s , t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s not matched t h r o u g h h i g h v i s i b i l i t y . A l t h o u g h h i g h volumes of commuter t r a f f i c u t i l i z e G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e s t o p . The l o c a t i o n of commercial s t r e e t s i n r e l a t i o n t o l a r g e shopping c e n t r e s i s i m p o r t a n t . Some of Broadway's s u c c e s s (and the s u c c e s s of o t h e r west s i d e s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s such as 4 t h Ave, 10th Ave, and Dunbar) can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a c k o f s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h i s segment of t h e c i t y . Moreover, th e l i m i t e d s u c c e s s o f G r a n v i l l e can be p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o c o m p e t i t i o n from O a k r i d g e Shopping C e n t r e . N o n e t h e l e s s , s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s such as K e r r i s d a l e ( a l s o l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e "shadow" of Oakridge) have p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l . Hence, a l t h o u g h a d e t r i m e n t , c o m p e t i t i o n from s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s does not a r r e s t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s . 94 g) Movement P a t t e r n s I n t e g r a l t o a s t r e e t ' s p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s i s t h e volume o f t r a f f i c w h i c h i t r e c e i v e s . H i g h t r a f f i c volumes a r e d e t r i m e n t a l f o r two main r e a s o n s . F i r s t , h i g h volumes n e c e s s i t a t e t h e removal of c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g . T h i s makes i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r p a t r o n s t o s t o p and shop, and e l i m i n a t e s an e s s e n t i a l p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r between p e d e s t r i a n s and commuter f l o w s . Second, h i g h volumes make t h e s t r e e t t h r e a t e n i n g and d i f f i c u l t t o c r o s s . H i g h volume c o r r i d o r s do o f f e r one b e n e f i t t o mixed commercial s t r e e t s : p u b l i c t r a n s i t . M a j o r a r t e r i a l s form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of Vancouver's t r a n s i t network. P o i n t s a l o n g a major a r t e r i a l , such as G r a n v i l l e , a r e e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t r a n s i t u s e r s . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t can be c o n v i n c i n g l y argued t h a t s h o p p i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , need not be l o c a t e d on major t h o r o u g h f a r e s , as s t r e e t s w hich c r o s s a r t e r i a l s a r e j u s t as e a s i l y a c c e s s e d by t r a n s i t u s e r s . h) D e s i g n C o h e s i v e n e s s i s i m p o r t a n t i n b o t h form and f u n c t i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , t e x t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s a r e i n t e g r a l t o a s t r e e t s s u c c e s s . Long f a c a d e s and s i n g l e use b u i l d i n g s c r e a t e monotony. S u r f a c e p a r k i n g , g e n e r a l o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l uses a t grade l e v e l 95 and e x c e s s i v e b u i l d i n g s e t b a c k s s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the "core a r e a . " A c o n t i n u o u s w a l l o f commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a t grade, w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l uses on t h e upper f l o o r s has p r o v e n most s u c c e s s f u l . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e s e d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e f i n e west Broadway. B e a u t i f i c a t i o n e f f o r t s , i n t h e form of s t r e e t t r e e s , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e , and t h e l i k e , a r e i m p o r t a n t . However, t h e y a l o n e can not r e v i t a l i z e a s t r e e t w h i c h i s not f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y . How Do We Achieve Desired Conditions? E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e b e s t way t o " c r e a t e " a s u c c e s s f u l mixed-use commercial s t r e e t i s t o s t r e n g t h e n e x i s t i n g f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s on t h o s e s t r e e t s w h i c h a r e c u r r e n t l y f u n c t i o n i n g w e l l . T h i s i s a r a t h e r d i s m a l r e v e l a t i o n . Such a f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t c u r r e n t l a n d use p a t t e r n s a r e a f i x e d c o n d i t i o n we s h o u l d e x p e c t t o endure i n d e f i n i t e l y . O b v i o u s l y t h i s i s not t h e c a s e . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h i s s t u d y c o n v i n c i n g l y demonstrates a d i s t i n c t i o n between the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h e v o l u t i o n v e r s e s p r o m o t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p o i g n a n t power of t h e " n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g " e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s . H i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t e n d i c t a t e what the f u t u r e w i l l h o l d . Hence, 96 when s t u d y i n g where t o p r o c e e d w i t h s t r e e t s such as M a r i n e D r i v e one must b e g i n by g a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f o r c e s i n v o l v e d i n the s t r e e t ' s e v o l u t i o n . Knowing what shaped t h e c o r r i d o r w i l l b e t t e r a l l o w one t o b u i l d on the " n a t u r a l " elements w h i c h b e s t l e n d themselves t o m a n i p u l a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t determine how s u c c e s s f u l l y one can a p p l y t h e v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a i d e d i n t h e " c r e a t i o n " of o t h e r s u c c e s s f u l c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r s . 97 CHAPTER FOUR: RECREATING MARINE DRIVE INTRODUCTION Case s t u d y f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t not a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d s h o p p i n g p r e c i n c t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , g i v e n the d e s i r a b i l i t y of such a c o n d i t i o n , and t h e success of urban commercial c o r r i d o r s such as Broadway, s t u d y i n g the p o t e n t i a l a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e i s v a l i d . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l e x p l o r e M arine D r i v e ' s f u t u r e . THE MARINE DRIVE STUDY The M a r i n e D r i v e i n q u i r y w i l l b e g i n w i t h a l o o k a t e x i s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Background i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l h e l p e x p l a i n how the c u r r e n t M a r i n e D r i v e c o n d i t i o n came t o be, and why i t h a s n ' t e v o l v e d i n t o p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d commercial s t r e e t . Next, t h e stud y w i l l e x p l o r e the p o t e n t i a l f o r f u t u r e development from a d e v e l o p e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . L a s t , u t i l i z i n g t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n , the s t u d y w i l l e x p l o r e s p e c i f i c i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l i l l u m i n a t e how t h e s u c c e s s f u l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e s an abandonment o f e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a t r e s h a p i n g the Mar i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r . I n s t e a d , s u c c e s s f u l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n e f f o r t s must r e c o g n i z e M a r i n e D r i v e as an i n t e g r a l 98 component of an urban system c e n t r e d around t h e Pemberton Avenue Marine D r i v e i n t e r s e c t i o n , and e x t e n d i n g s o u t h a l o n g Pemberton. F u r t h e r , one must r e c o g n i z e the l i m i t e d s c a l e of p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s . S p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s d i c t a t e t h a t t h e Lower C a p i l a n o neighbourhood may not be an a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n f o r p e d e s t r i a n -o r i e n t e d commercial c o r r i d o r . Hence, any r e v i t a l i z a t i o n e f f o r t s must be viewed as t o o l s t o g u i d e f u t u r e development. C o n d i t i o n s a t and near M a r i n e D r i v e w i l l change s l o w l y . C h a p t e r f i v e w i l l o u t l i n e t h e p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s e f i n d i n g s . 99 MARINE DRIVE (Between McKay Avenue and Capilano Road) --(See F i g u r e Seven) 1. History I n o r d e r t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d M a r i n e D r i v e one must f i r s t l o o k a t the development o f t h e N o r t h Shore. M a r i n e D r i v e ' s c u r r e n t p a t t e r n i s d i c t a t e d by i t s r o l e i n t h e N o r t h Shore c o n t e x t . The f i r s t N o r t h Shore s e t t l e m e n t was M o o d y v i l l e a t what i s now the base of L o n s d a l e Avenue. Development g e n e r a l l y expanded c o n c e n t r i c l y from t h i s w a t e r f r o n t saw m i l l . By 1893 t h e town s i t e t h a t e x i s t e d more o r l e s s d e f i n e d t h e p r e s e n t Lower L o n s d a l e a r e a ( H e r i t a g e Committee 1983, A 3 ) . E a r l y developments q u i c k l y e n t r e n c h e d a p a t t e r n on the N o r t h Shore. W i t h L o n s d a l e as t h e area's hub, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s began t o r a d i a t e outward. A f e r r y s e r v i c e was o f f e r e d t o Vancouver. By 1906 tram l i n e s extended up L o n s d a l e , up Grand B o u l e v a r d , and west toward M a r i n e D r i v e -- the n c a l l e d Robson S t r e e t (Davis 1990, 3 7 ) . By 1912 t h e C a p i l a n o S t r e e t Car L i n e had begun t o s t i m u l a t e r e s i d e n t i a l development i n t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g M a r i n e D r i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Pemberton H e i g h t s and Lower C a p i l a n o neighbourhoods. 100 Figure 7 : Marine Drive Site and Situation Map lot By 1909 West Vancouver had a l s o begun t o grow, and a p r i v a t e f e r r y s e r v i c e was d e v e l o p e d t o r u n between Vancouver and Ambleside. Thus, M a r i n e D r i v e was becoming e s t a b l i s h e d as a l i n k between th e two d e v e l o p i n g communities. I n 1925, w i t h t h e opening of t h e Second Narrows b r i d g e , M a r i n e D r i v e d e v e l o p e d a t o u r i s t o r i e n t a t i o n (NVD f i l e s ) . Tea houses, BBQ's and v a c a t i o n c a b i n s became the norm. T h i s f u n c t i o n i s now g e n e r a l l y c o n f i n e d t o the w e s t e r n p o r t i o n of M a r i n e D r i v e a t C a p i l a n o Road. I n November 1938 the L i o n s Gate b r i d g e opened (D a v i s 1990, 75). M a r i n e D r i v e q u i c k l y became a major t r a f f i c a r t e r y . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r t h e r o a d was improved and d e v e l o p e d i n t o an i n t e g r a l bus r o u t e . As M arine D r i v e was b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e "main l i n k " between L o n s d a l e and A m b l e s i d e th e a u t o m o b i l e was becoming paramount. Thus, i t comes as no s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e c o r r i d o r has n a t u r a l l y d e v e l o p e d as an a u t o - o r i e n t e d commercial s t r i p . M a r i ne D r i v e ' s p a t t e r n was f u r t h e r emphasized by t h e development of West Vancouver's Park R o y a l Shopping c e n t r e i n t h e 1950's, and l a t e r , C a p i l a n o M a l l i n t h e C i t y of N o r t h Vancouver. The c o n t i n u e d development of h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s a t b o t h Ambleside and L o n s d a l e has e n t r e n c h e d t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n , e n a b l i n g M a r i n e D r i v e ' s h i s t o r i c o r i e n t a t i o n as an a u t o - o r i e n t e d 102 s t r i p t o i n t e n s i f y . I n t h e 1970's and 1980's M a r i n e D r i v e c o n t i n u e d t o p r o v i d e space f o r l a n d - e x t e n s i v e and a u t o o r i e n t e d u ses. Now, i n t h e 1990's, N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t P l a n n e r s a r e q u e s t i o n i n g t h e l e g i t i m a c y of t h i s r o l e . 2. Current Use and A c t i v i t y Marine D r i v e c o n t i n u e s t o f u n c t i o n as an a u t o - o r i e n t e d commercial s t r i p . I t i s b e s t c l a s s e d as a " d i s t r i c t c o mmercial urban a r t e r i a l . " The m a j o r i t y of m o t o r i s t s g e n e r a l l y use M a r i n e D r i v e as a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r . Commercial e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t r e q u i r e l a r g e t r a c t s of l a n d and h i g h v i s i b i l i t y a r e t h e p r i m a r y l a n d u s e r s . L a r g e s u r f a c e p a r k i n g l o t s , heavy t r a f f i c volumes, and a l a c k of c o h e s i o n a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e c o r r i d o r , making i t u n p l e a s a n t and u n a t t r a c t i v e f o r p e d e s t r i a n s . Moreover, t h e s t r e e t s u f f e r s from an o v e r a l l l a c k of v i s u a l a p p e a l . I t has a c o n f u s i n g and u n c o o r d i n a t e d a r r a y of s i g n s , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e and l a n d s c a p i n g . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e c o r r i d o r p l a y s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e r o l e as a commercial s t r i p i n t h e N o r t h Shore c o n t e x t (See F i g u r e E i g h t ) . 103 Figure 8: Marine Drive; A District Commercial Artery Marine Drive looking East from Capilano Road Automobile oriented establishments located along Marine Drive I o4-3. Future Trends The f u t u r e o f t h e M arine D r i v e c o r r i d o r depends l a r g e l y on l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n developments and t h e t r e a t m e n t o f s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . I f a new "Low L e v e l Road 2" were c r e a t e d t o h e l p a l l e v i a t e M a r i n e D r i v e t r a f f i c , and/or p r o x i m a t e h i g h e r d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l developments were c r e a t e d , p o r t i o n s o f t h e c o r r i d o r l i k e l y would d e v e l o p as more i n t e n s e mixed-use p e d e s t r i a n p r e c i n c t s o v e r t i m e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , c o m m e r c i a l f o r e c a s t s suggest t h a t even under h i g h p o p u l a t i o n growth s c e n a r i o s t h e r e i s l i t t l e p o t e n t i a l f o r r e t a i l o r s e r v i c e development a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e d u r i n g the n e x t t wenty y e a r s ( C o r i o l i s 1988, 1 6 ) . The most l i k e l y p r o s p e c t f o r the M a r i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r i s an o v e r a l l r e t e n t i o n of the s t a t u s quo. T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e some mixed-use r e s i d e n t i a l developments and an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of t h e p e d e s t r i a n environment i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s under s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s . 2 T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . 105 4 . Planning Policy P l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s f o r M a r i n e D r i v e have l o n g r e c o g n i z e d t h e s t r e e t ' s o r i e n t a t i o n toward l a n d - e x t e n s i v e a u t o m o b i l e - o r i e n t e d commercial uses, and have g e n e r a l l y p r e s c r i b e d a r e t e n t i o n of t h i s c o n d i t i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n i s c o u p l e d w i t h an o v e r r i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n " r e v i t a l i z i n g , " o r a t l e a s t " i n t e n s i f y i n g " and " b e a u t i f y i n g " the c o r r i d o r . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , n o t i o n s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been p l a g u e d by n e g l e c t . The l o n g s t a n d i n g i n t e r e s t s i n r e v i t a l i z a t i o n j u x t a p o s e t h e i n i t i a t i o n of p o l i c i e s t h a t t u r n t h e i r backs on t h e M a r i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r i n f a v o u r of o t h e r commercial a r e a s . T h i s c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s p a r t l y because many of M a r i n e D r i v e ' s p e r c e i v e d d e f i c i e n c i e s r e s u l t from a r b i t r a r y M u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s . P o l i c i e s d e v e l o p e d t o a d d r e s s the s t r e e t ' s d e f i c i e n c i e s have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s , a t t e m p t i n g t o r e p a i r M a r i n e D r i v e ' s v i s u a l image. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t , d e s p i t e e x t e n s i v e i n v o l v e m e n t by members of t h e Lower C a p i l a n o neighbourhoods, most p o l i c i e s have been i n i t i a t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s . T h i s i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h e s i t u a t i o n a t West Broadway where i n i t i a t i v e s were founded by Merchants and Community members. 106 A 1961 "Marine D r i v e and Lower Pemberton" s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s an e a r l y r e c o g n i t i o n of M a r i n e D r i v e ' s c h a r a c t e r . The s t u d y s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t image cannot be t r a n s f o r m e d , and t h e c o r r i d o r w i l l c o n t i n u e t o grow and expand i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a u t o m o b i l e uses ( i v ) . I t emphasizes th e f a c t t h a t M a r i n e D r i v e cannot compete w i t h L o n s d a l e Avenue o r Park R o y a l , and s u g g e s t s t h a t i t complement t h e s e f u n c t i o n s v i a an a u t o - o r i e n t a t i o n , t h u s " t y i n g " the two c e n t r e s t o g e t h e r . More r e c e n t c o m m e r c i a l s t u d i e s echo t h e s e f i n d i n g s -- see "Marine D r i v e C o r r i d o r Study" (1982), and the C o r i o l i s r e p o r t (1988). The 1961 s t u d y a l s o e x p l a i n s how Marine D r i v e ' s purpose i s v e r y u s e f u l , and s h o u l d be encouraged and improved i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r s e r v e the p u b l i c . A g a i n , more r e c e n t s t u d i e s echo t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s . However, i n t h e l a s t decade r e v i t a l i z a t i o n campaigns have become more p o i n t e d . By t h e 1980's s t u d i e s were b e i n g p e r f o r m e d t o "determine t h e f u t u r e of Marine D r i v e . " These e x p l o r e d ways t o g u i d e f u t u r e growth and improve the c o r r i d o r ' s v i s u a l appearance. These s t u d i e s g e n e r a l l y p r e s c r i b e d improvements t o p h y s i c a l elements o f t h e s t r e e t . D e s p i t e r e c e n t i n t e r e s t i n t h e c o r r i d o r , M a r i n e D r i v e has h i s t o r i c a l l y s u f f e r e d from complacency and n e g l e c t . Because i t s f u n c t i o n was deemed unchangeable and a p p r o p r i a t e , p o l i c i e s have 107 g e n e r a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on the development o r r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of o t h e r N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t p r e c i n c t s . T h i s i s n o t ^ n e c e s s a r i l y bad, as more i n t e n s i v e e f f o r t s would have l i k e l y p roven f r u i t l e s s . I t i s worthy of mention as i t h e l p s e x p l a i n the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . I n t h e e a r l y 1980's N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t d i s c e r n e d t h a t a commercial a c t i v i t y "imbalance" e x i s t e d on t h e N o r t h Shore. As was a l l u d e d t o , t h i s "imbalance" e x i s t s o n l y as a p r o d u c t of M u n i c i p a l B o u n d a r i e s . M u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s do not match th e economic o r t r a d e a r e a b o u n d a r i e s on t h e N o r t h Shore ( C o r i o l i s 1988, 3 ) . Thus, a l t h o u g h i n market terms t h e N o r t h Shore's commercial c o r e s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n a "normal" p a t t e r n , a d e q u a t e l y s e r v i n g the N o r t h Shore p o p u l a t i o n , i n M u n i c i p a l terms N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t i s d e f i c i e n t i n commercial space. T h i s r e s u l t s because t h e t h r e e commercial c e n t r e s P a r k R o y a l , C a p i l a n o M a l l , and L o n s d a l e Avenue/Quay, a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e D i s t r i c t of West Vancouver and the C i t y of N o r t h Vancouver. These commercial c e n t r e s s e r v e N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t r e s i d e n t s w e l l , y e t D i s t r i c t s t a t i s t i c s i l l u s t r a t e a d e f i c i e n t amount of commercial space p e r c a p i t a . C r e a t i n g a n o t h e r commercial c e n t r e a l o n g Marine D r i v e i g n o r e s market r e a l i t i e s and i s u n r e a l i s t i c . 108 N o n e t h e l e s s , D i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t i e s found i t p r u d e n t t o a c t on t h i s p e r c e i v e d r e a l i t y . A l t h o u g h t h i s c o n d i t i o n may be f a l s e i n market terms, i t c r e a t e s a r e a l p r o b lem i n terms of commercial t a x c o l l e c t i o n . I n an attempt t o c o r r e c t t h e commercial " d e f i c i e n c y , " and more i m p o r t a n t l y i n c r e a s e t h e D i s t r i c t ' s commercial t a x base, a 1982 s t u d y was commissioned t o d e t e r m i n e ways of i n c r e a s i n g the D i s t r i c t ' s commercial space. T h i s s t u d y suggested t h a t e f f o r t s were b e t t e r c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e a r e a e a s t of the Seymour R i v e r , as i t was e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e most r a p i d growth. Thus, p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s were once a g a i n r e d i r e c t e d , and Marine D r i v e r e t a i n e d i t s s t a t u s quo. The c r e a t i o n of "Town C e n t r e s " i n t h e l a t e 1970's and e a r l y 1980's a l s o had an e f f e c t on the d i r e c t i o n of M a r i n e D r i v e . T h i s p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e prompted f a i r l y i n t e n s e development a t Lower L o n s d a l e , among o t h e r p l a c e s , and t h u s made i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a major c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s a l o n g Marine D r i v e . The amount and type of commercial a c t i v i t y a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e i s g e n e r a l l y the p r o d u c t of market f o r c e s . The c o r r i d o r ' s p r e s e n t form r e s u l t s from i t s l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o N o r t h Shore p o p u l a t i o n s , the a r e a ' s geography, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r a d i n g p a t t e r n s . I t i s not the r e s u l t of r e s t r i c t i v e p o l i c i e s . P o l i c y , 109 thus f a r , has s u p p o r t e d t h e s t a t u s quo, n e i t h e r h i n d e r i n g n o r ad v a n c i n g development. Thus, any f u l l s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t would be b r e a k i n g new ground and would r e q u i r e unprecedented p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s . Recent amendments t o t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n a t t e s t t o an emerging d i v e r g e n c e between r e a l i t y and t h e c u r r e n t p l a n . I t has come t i m e t o r e v i e w c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s and make changes where r e q u i r e d . 5. Zoning Zoning of 1928 has been l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . F o r a p e r i o d of t w e n t y - f o u r y e a r s development a l o n g the c o r r i d o r was d i r e c t e d by t h e 192 8 i n t e r i m z o n i n g by-law. T i t l e d a B u s i n e s s "A" d i s t r i c t , t h i s z o n i n g governed a s h a l l o w " r i b b o n " form of commercial development. I n 1951 a by-law was p a s s e d w h i c h e l i m i n a t e d much o f N o r t h Vancouver's r i b b o n commercial z o n i n g e x c e p t a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e ( P l a n n i n g and P r o p e r t y , August, 1961). The c o r r i d o r has r e t a i n e d t h i s form of development. By the mid 1980's an i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a t e and s c a l e o f development prompted the d e s i g n a t i o n o f M a r i n e D r i v e as a development p e r m i t a r e a . T h i s was a l e g i t i m a t e approach, and has a f f o r d e d P l a n n e r s g r e a t e r d i s c r e t i o n . I t has n o t , however, 110 h e l p e d t o add more p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y t o t h e c o r r i d o r . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t 1983 z o n i n g a l l o w e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s above commercial, l i t t l e of t h i s s o r t of development e x i s t s . T h i s r e s u l t s because the implemented z o n i n g d i d not d e a l enough w i t h n o i s e p o l l u t i o n and o t h e r r e l a t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s of mixed-use forms of development. W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e C a p i l a n o T r i a n g l e , w h i c h i s d e s i g n a t e d a C-4 T o u r i s t Commercial Zone, M a r i n e D r i v e i s comprised of t h e g e n e r a l commercial zones C-2 and C-3. These zones a r e , as t h e t i t l e s t a t e s , " g e n e r a l " c ommercial zones. Thus, u n l i k e t h e C-2C and C-2C1 zones d e v e l o p e d f o r Broadway, they do not "encourage t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d d i s t r i c t , " n o r do t h e y "encourage t h e c r e a t i o n o f a d i s t r i c t s hopping a r e a by i n c r e a s i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l component and l i m i t i n g t h e amount of o f f i c e space" (C-2C z o n i n g S c h e d u l e ) . T h i s i s not t o suggest t h a t carbon c o p i e s o f Broadway's C-2C and C-2C1 zones be e s t a b l i s h e d a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . As was i l l u m i n a t e d by the case s t u d i e s , b l i n d l y t r a n s f e r r i n g p o l i c i e s t h a t have p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l i n one p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n t o another, each w i t h u n i q u e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , may not c r e a t e a n t i c i p a t e d r e s u l t s . I n f a c t , e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t c u r r e n t l y M arine D r i v e might not be an a p p r o p r i a t e c o r r i d o r f o r Vancouver's 111 C-2C and C-2C1 zones. G i v e n t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f i t s c u r r e n t use i n the N o r t h Shore c o n t e x t , the p r o s p e c t s o f r e t a i n i n g t h e s t a t u s quo i n the near f u t u r e , and t h e d e n s i t y of s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a t a l a r g e s c a l e a r e c u r r e n t l y u n r e a l i s t i c . Z o ning changes w h i c h encourage mixed-use r e s i d e n t i a l developments s h o u l d be encouraged i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s , s p e c i f i c a l l y on o r near Pemberton Avenue. Once a node of a c t i v i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d (which c o u l d t a k e decades) t h e n a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of l a r g e r segments of M a r i n e D r i v e can b e g i n . I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e f u t u r e c o n v e r s i o n o f l a r g e r segments of the c o r r i d o r , t h e c u r r e n t g e n e r a l z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s must be made more d e t a i l e d and s p e c i f i c . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e s e z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s must encourage th e m i x i n g o f u s e s , e s p e c i a l l y r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l . C u r r e n t l y the OCP s t i p u l a t e s t h a t the c o r r i d o r s h o u l d i l l u s t r a t e c o n s i s t e n c y i n f u n c t i o n and d e s i g n (1984, 3-1). T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e . As t h e Broadway case s t u d y e x e m p l i f i e s , a m i x i n g of f u n c t i o n s i s d e s i r a b l e . D i s t r i c t P l a n n e r s s h o u l d b e g i n t o e x p l o r e z o n i n g o p t i o n s w h i c h s t i p u l a t e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r a t h e r t h a n use. T h i s t y p e o f z o n i n g , commonly r e f e r r e d t o as impact o r performance z o n i n g , i s u n d o u b t e d l y p a r t of M a r i n e D r i v e ' s " s o l u t i o n . " 112 6. Surroundings Marine D r i v e i s s u r r ounded p r i m a r i l y by s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l p r e c i n c t s as w e l l as a l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l a r e a . These s u r r o u n d i n g s echo t h o s e of G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t . Thus, M a r i n e D r i v e s u f f e r s many of t h e same problems (See F i g u r e N i n e ) . The M a r i n e D r i v e C o r r i d o r i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e "Lower C a p i l a n o " community. The b o u n d a r i e s of t h i s a r e a e x t e n d r o u g h l y from the Upper L e v e l s Highway t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t , and f rom McKay Avenue t o the C a p i l a n o R i v e r . T h i s a r e a i s a p o l i t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a g e o g r a p h i c one. The e a s t and west b o u n d a r i e s a r e d e f i n e d by M u n i c i p a l b o r d e r s and t h e n o r t h e r n boundary by a roadway. Marine D r i v e i s s u r r ounded by s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l p r e c i n c t s . The most p r o x i m a t e neighbourhoods a r e N o r g a t e , l o c a t e d t o the s o u t h ; Lower C a p i l a n o , a d j a c e n t and t o t h e n o r t h ; Pemberton H e i g h t s beyond t h i s t o t h e n o r t h ; and G l e n a i r e t o t h e n o r t h w e s t . Norgate and Pemberton H e i g h t s a r e t h e l a r g e s t and most s t a b l e of t h e s e neighbourhoods. Norgate i s g e n e r a l l y comprised of m o d e r a t e l y p r i c e d "wartime" houses, and Pemberton H e i g h t s of modest, y e t more e x p e n s i v e , homes. Lower C a p i l a n o i s e x p e r i e n c i n g some p r e s s u r e s and has begun t o change c h a r a c t e r . R e c e n t l y , some l a r g e r homes have been i n t r o d u c e d on s m a l l e r l o t s . 1 1 3 N o n e t h e l e s s , house p r i c e s i n Lower C a p i l a n o can s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d moderate. G l e n a i r e i s a s m a l l e n c l a v e o f newer, h i g h e r p r i c e d homes (Marine D r i v e OCP 1984, 6-1). The f u t u r e o f the M arine D r i v e C o r r i d o r depends l a r g e l y on t h e t r e a t m e n t of these p r o x i m a t e r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods. Some a r e a s must accommodate h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a c t i v e , p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d commercial c o r r i d o r . Beyond Norgate t o the s o u t h , and i n t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of Lower C a p i l a n o ( p r i m a r i l y e a s t of Pemberton Avenue) t h e r e a r e a broad range of uses i n c l u d i n g commercial, s t o r a g e and warehousing, and l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l . T h i s a r e a , l o o s e l y d e f i n e d as the Pemberton/Welch i n d u s t r i a l a r e a , i s one of s i x main l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s on the N o r t h Shore. The a r e a i s c u r r e n t l y underdeveloped, h o u s i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of l a n d e x t e n s i v e uses such as r a i l y a r d s , warehousing, l u m b e r y a r d s and a t r a n s i t s t a t i o n ( C o r i o l i s 1988, 8) . 114 Figure 9: Marine Drive Surroundings The Lower C a p i l a n o neighbourhood i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g r e a t e r t h a n average number of s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and a s m a l l e r t h a n average number of c h i l d r e n (See T a b l e 5 ) . N o t i c e t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between the age s t r u c t u r e of Lower C a p i l a n o and G r a n v i l l e . As was a l l u d e d t o i n t h e G r a n v i l l e case s t u d y , t h i s type of neighbourhood age s t r u c t u r e may be a d e t r i m e n t t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f a l i v e l y commercial c o r r i d o r . Table 5: Lower Capilano Age Structure Lower Capilano North Vancouver Average Age (1991) seniors age 65+ 17% 11% residents age 40 to 64 32% 31% residents age 20 to 39 33% 34% children under age 19 19% 24% Source: Statistics Canada, NVD Annual median income f o r employed r e s i d e n t s of Lower C a p i l a n o was $23,300 p e r p e r s o n i n 1990 (NVD Q u i c k F a c t s 1993) . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a twenty p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s i n c e 1985, however, i t i s l o w e r t h a n median incomes f o r the N o r t h Shore as a whole. 116 7. Movement Patterns Marine D r i v e i s a major e a s t west a r t e r i a l on t h e N o r t h Shore. As d e f i n e d by the D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Vancouver, a "major a r t e r i a l " i s any roadway t h a t c a r r i e s l a r g e volumes o f a l l t y p e s of t r a f f i c moving a t medium t o h i g h speeds w i t h a c c e s s t o a b u t t i n g p r o p e r t i e s b e i n g a second f u n c t i o n (ND Lea 1990, 9) . Marine D r i v e , e a s t of C a p i l a n o Road, has been i d e n t i f i e d as an a r e a of c o n c e r n from a t r a f f i c impact s t a n d p o i n t . T h i s r e s u l t s p r i m a r i l y because t h e c o r r i d o r i s h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d as a commuter r o u t e . People who l i v e i n c e n t r a l N o r t h Shore neighbourhoods and commute t o Vancouver, o r more w e s t e r n N o r t h Shore d e s t i n a t i o n s such as Park R o y a l 3 , use t h e c o r r i d o r e x t e n s i v e l y . F u r t h e r , commuters t r a v e l l i n g e a s t t o c e n t r a l N o r t h Shore l o c a t i o n s such as C a p i l a n o M a l l and L o n s d a l e Avenue/Quay use the c o r r i d o r . T h i s r a i s e s c o n c e r n because M a r i n e D r i v e i s c u r r e n t l y a t i t s u l t i m a t e development w i t h i n t h e a v a i l a b l e r i g h t of way (ND Lea 1988, 5 ) . Thus, t h e impact of i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c volumes can not be h a n d l e d by s t r e e t w i d e n i n g o r u p g r a d i n g . More 3 Park Royal i s the major generator of t r i p s from North Vancouver t o West Vancouver. Other commercial areas generate a small number of t r i p s i n comparison (ND Lea 1988, 22) . 117 s o p h i s t i c a t e d t r a f f i c management t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d i n the f u t u r e t o o p t i m i z e c o n g e s t i o n c o n d i t i o n s . Two t r a n s p o r t a t i o n developments a r e d i r e c t l y t i e d t o t h e f u t u r e of M a r i n e D r i v e ' s t r a f f i c volumes -- t h e development of a new B u r r a r d I n l e t c r o s s i n g , and a new "Low L e v e l Road." D e s p i t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e s e developments t h e y a r e beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s and w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . However, I w i l l b r i e f l y a l e r t the r e a d e r t o p o t e n t i a l outcomes. The outcome of one of the two developments i s r e l a t i v e l y easy t o p r e d i c t . Recent e v e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e L i o n s Gate c r o s s i n g w i l l be r e f u r b i s h e d o r r e c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s . I t appears t h a t a f u t u r e c r o s s i n g w i l l l i k e l y u t i l i z e t h e e x i s t i n g r i g h t of way -- e i t h e r by r e b u i l d i n g o r r e p l a c i n g t h e e x i s t i n g b r i d g e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t M a r i n e D r i v e t r a f f i c volumes, g e n e r a t e d by b r i d g e d e s t i n e d t r a f f i c , w i l l r e m a i n c o n s t a n t o r i n c r e a s e as a f u n c t i o n of l o c a l growth. The second development i n v o l v e s a p o l i t i c a l quandary whose outcome i s c u r r e n t l y u n c e r t a i n . The c r e a t i o n of a "Low L e v e l Road" i n N o r t h Vancouver c o u l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e c r e a s e commuter t r a f f i c a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . The p r o s p e c t s of c r e a t i n g a low l e v e l r oad, u t i l i z i n g a r i g h t o f way on N a t i v e l a n d , have been v i s i t e d by l o c a l p l a n n e r s numerous t i m e s . I f such a development 118 were to proceed, the role of Marine Drive as a commuter corridor would change dramatically. However, i t seems u n l i k e l y that a low l e v e l road w i l l be created i n the next f i v e to ten years. There i s no way of knowing the future of the Lions Gate Bridge or Low Level Road. Nonetheless, i t appears, at least i n the near future, that Marine Drive's commuter t r a f f i c volumes w i l l remain constant or increase. Thus, any recommendations regarding the " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n " of Marine Drive should assume t h i s as a given parameter. As was outlined, Marine Drive i s characterized by commuter flows. It i s very important to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between the pattern and o v e r a l l volume of t r a f f i c along t h i s c orridor. T r a f f i c counts taken along Marine Drive indicate a reduction i n overall t r a f f i c volumes, and modest twenty-four hour t r a f f i c counts. Twenty-four hour volume counts for Marine Drive are roughly comparable to those found on West Broadway -- where t r a f f i c volumes have not been a detriment to development. However, i t i s hypothesized that t r a f f i c volumes, and resultant t r a f f i c congestion, i s hindering development p o t e n t i a l along Marine Drive. This results because Marine Drive receives substantial peak hour commuter t r a f f i c , and lacks i n continual diurnal flows (See Table 6 ) . Also, given market conditions and 119 geography, Marine Drive serves as a conduit for commuters to get to other destinations. This i s p r e c i s e l y the case along Granville Street, yet to a much larger degree -- t r a f f i c volumes are approximately 45% lower on Marine Drive. 120 Table 6 : Marine Drive T r a f f i c Counts MARINE DRIVE TRAFFIC COUNTS Thursday Saturday (At McKay Avenue) East Bound 7am - 9am 1200 535 4pm - 6pm 2992 2741 7am - 6pm 8769 7858 24 hours 12550 11322 West Bound 7am - 9am 2001 768 4pm - 6pm 2492 2368 7am - 6pm 9307 8124 24 hours 12194 11002 Source: Traffic and Eng. NVD Note: Traffic counts are for the week of January 19,1994. 8 . Design Considerations I. Use and A c t i v i t y a) E x t e n t of D i v e r s i t y M a r ine D r i v e does not f u n c t i o n as a c o h e s i v e u n i t . M a r i n e D r i v e s u f f e r s from a l a c k of c o h e s i o n i n f u n c t i o n , and more i m p o r t a n t l y form. E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t d i v e r s i t y i n s t r e e t f u n c t i o n i s an a s s e t . However, e x t e n s i v e d i v e r s i t y i n p h y s i c a l form makes a s t r e e t seem c h a o t i c . Such i s t h e case f o r M a r i n e D r i v e . The c o r r i d o r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by what t h e D i s t r i c t terms a " d i v e r s i f i e d w a l l / o p e n i n g p a t t e r n " (NVD, 1984). T h i s p a t t e r n 121 i s d e f i n e d by i r r e g u l a r s e t b a c k s and an u n c o o r d i n a t e d sequence of b u i l d i n g s , c o u r t y a r d s , and p a r k i n g l o t s . b) R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t s M a rine D r i v e has v e r y few r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s a b u t t i n g t h e s t r e e t . C u r r e n t l y t h e r e a r e perhaps f o u r r e s i d e n t i a l a d d r e s s e s on the c o r r i d o r . Because t h i s number i s m a r g i n a l compared t o t h e number of o t h e r uses on the s t r e e t -- f u r n i t u r e and home improvement s t o r e s number twenty two (NVD 1984), t h e s t r e e t appears t o be c o m p l e t e l y d e v o i d of r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t y . P o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s have p e r m i t t e d t h e development o f mixed r e s i d e n t i a l / c o m m e r c i a l p r o j e c t s f o r some t i m e . However, d e v e l o p e r s have not t a k e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y . c) P a r k i n g Some s m a l l segments of on s t r e e t p a r k i n g s t i l l e x i s t a l o n g Marine D r i v e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , p a r k i n g i s found on t h e s o u t h s i d e of the s t r e e t between McKay and L l o y d Avenues, and a g a i n between McGuire and Bowser Avenues. Peak time p a r k i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r these a r e a s do e x i s t . P a r k i n g has been removed from t h e remainder of t h e s t r e e t t o accommodate l e f t hand t u r n b a y s . The removal of c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g was not g e n e r a l l y i n t e n d e d t o 122 f a c i l i t a t e " t h r o u g h t r a f f i c . " I n s t e a d , t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g w i t h t u r n i n g bays was i n t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e amount of " d e s t i n a t i o n " t r a f f i c by a l l o w i n g m o t o r i s t s t o more e a s i l y a c c e s s v a r i o u s m i n i - m a l l s . d) Nodes Two nodes o f a c t i v i t y e x i s t a l o n g t h e M a r i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r a t C a p i l a n o Road, and a g a i n a t Pemberton Avenue. The C a p i l a n o node does not g e n e r a l l y house i n t e n s i v e l a n d u s e s . I n s t e a d , i t i s d e f i n e d as a node due t o i t s dominant t o u r i s m o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the C a p i l a n o / M a r i n e D r i v e i n t e r s e c t i o n , and t h e presence o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l P l a z a Apartments. The Pemberton node, on the o t h e r hand, i s r e c o g n i z e d as a node because o f t h e i n t e n s i t y of r e t a i l / s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d a t t h i s l o c a t i o n . L o c a t e d on the n o r t h s i d e o f M a r i n e D r i v e a t Pemberton Avenue a r e t h e "Modern Image P l a z a , " and the "Pemberton P l a z a . " These two p l a z a s house t w e n t y - e i g h t d i f f e r e n t r e t a i l o r o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r a n g i n g from Save-On Foods t o s m a l l m e d i c a l and d e n t a l c l i n i c s . 123 II Street Level a) S t r e e t T r e e s , S t r e e t F u r n i t u r e , L a n d s c a p i n g and L i g h t i n g Marine D r i v e has s t r e e t t r e e s f l a n k i n g t h e roadway f o r most of i t s e l e v e n b l o c k s . However, i t i s not w e l l endowed by s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e such as benches, garbage cans, and b i k e l o c k ups. S t r e e t l i g h t i n g i s s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n . The c o r r i d o r i s g e n e r a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n l a n d s c a p i n g . S m a l l p l a n t e r s and gardens do e x i s t i n f r o n t of some m i n i m a l l s and p a r k i n g l o t s . However, they a r e not c o o r d i n a t e d and appear d i s j o i n t e d . F u r t h e r , some b l o c k s have v i r t u a l l y no r o a d s i d e l a n d s c a p i n g . M a r i n e D r i v e c o u l d b e n e f i t from a b e a u t i f i c a t i o n scheme w h i c h a d d r e s s e d t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s . b) G e n e r a l Commercial There i s an abundance of g e n e r a l commercial u s e r s l o c a t e d a l o n g the Ma r i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r . Many argue t h a t M a r i n e D r i v e i s pla g u e d by t h e "Kingsway syndrome" -- i m p l y i n g t h e c o r r i d o r i s comprised almost e x c l u s i v e l y of a u t o m o b i l e d e a l e r s h i p s and r e p a i r shops. W h i l e t h i s i s an o b v i o u s e x a g g e r a t i o n , M a r i n e D r i v e does e x e m p l i f y a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o K i n g s w a y 1 s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y of the t o t a l one hundred and f i f t y b u s i n e s s l o c a t e d a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e a r e e i t h e r g e n e r a l commercial o r o f f i c e u s e s . Of t h e s e a t 124 l e a s t twenty t h r e e a r e a u t o m o b i l e o r i e n t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s (NVD 1984) . c) P e d e s t r i a n Environment Development a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e n e v e r c o n t e m p l a t e d t h e P e d e s t r i a n . Any developments which a i d t h e p e d e s t r i a n environment appear t o be the r e s u l t of e n g i n e e r i n g s t a n d a r d s and b u i l d i n g codes, r a t h e r t h a n a c o n s c i o u s attempt t o c r e a t e a p e d e s t r i a n f r i e n d l y environment. P e d e s t r i a n s i d e w a l k s r u n c o n t i n u a l l y a l o n g b o t h s i d e s of Marine D r i v e . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e p e d e s t r i a n environment i s not accommodating. The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e numerous. F i r s t , i t i s a v i s u a l l y u n a t t r a c t i v e commercial s t r i p . Second, l a r g e s u r f a c e p a r k i n g l o t s c r e a t e a d i s j o i n t e d p a t t e r n , f o r c i n g p a t r o n s t o t r a v e l e x c e s s i v e d i s t a n c e s between commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h i r d , p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s w a l k s a r e g e n e r a l l y not w e l l marked, not p e d e s t r i a n c o n t r o l l e d , and a r e i n c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d . Furthermore, due t o the w i d t h of t h e roadway, c r o s s w a l k s a r e l o n g . 125 d) Views and Topography The M arine D r i v e c o r r i d o r i s f l a t . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e r e a r e not u n l i m i t e d v i s t a s a l o n g t h e s t r e e t . Between C a p i l a n o Road and Mckay Avenue t h e s t r e e t i s s t r a i g h t . A t t h e s e two p o i n t s ( r o u g h l y t h e D i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s ) t h e s t r e e t t u r n s , e n d i n g t h e "view c o r r i d o r . " Views t o the n o r t h a r e b l o c k e d by an "escarpment r a n g i n g i n v e r t i c a l h e i g h t from about 10 meters t o over 60 meters" ( H a r r i s Hudema 1994, 3-4). W i t h t h e escarpment and the l i m i t e d e a s t - w e s t view c o r r i d o r , t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n sense of e n c l o s u r e a l o n g the Ma r i n e D r i v e c o r r i d o r . I I I . Building Form As i s the case f o r G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e do not c r e a t e a s t r o n g s t r e e t w a l l . T h i s r e s u l t s because b u i l d i n g h e i g h t s a r e t y p i c a l l y one s t o r y . A l s o , b u i l d i n g s e t b a c k s a r e not c o n t i n u o u s . There i s v i r t u a l l y no " a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o h e s i o n " a l o n g t h e c o r r i d o r . That i s t o say t h a t t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e o f t h e s t r e e t ' s b u i l d i n g s v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y . 126 9. The Developer's Perspective I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r one t o e x p l o r e t h e economic a s p e c t s o f " r e v i t a l i z i n g " M a r i n e D r i v e . Case s t u d y a n a l y s i s i s m e a n i n g l e s s i f the economic r e a l i t y i s such t h a t t h e d e s i r e d c o n d i t i o n can not be a c h i e v e d . D e v e l o p e r s must be w i l l i n g t o buy i n t o t h e i d e a b e f o r e i t can become a r e a l i t y . E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t N o r t h Shore market c o n d i t i o n s a r e f a v o u r a b l e f o r t h e a d d i t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s t o commercial shopping c o r r i d o r s . H i g h e r d e n s i t y apartment condominiums a r e i n demand on the N o r t h Shore f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , demand i s b e i n g prompted by a d e c r e a s e i n o v e r a l l h o u s ehold s i z e and a l a r g e number of b o t h f i r s t t i m e b y e r s and empty n e s t e r s ( S t r a t e g i c 1993). F u r t h e r , i t i s h y p o t h e s i s e d t h a t f u t u r e s u p p l y of apartment condominiums w i l l f a l l s h o r t o f demand on the N o r t h Shore ( S t r a t e g i c 1993). N e v e r t h e l e s s , o t h e r N o r t h Shore p r e c i n c t s a r e g e n e r a l l y more a t t r a c t i v e t h a n M a r i n e D r i v e f o r h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l development. TRENDS, CONSTRAINTS AND ISSUES a) Trends As was o u t l i n e d , t h e r e i s a gr o w i n g s o c i e t a l i n t e r e s t i n c r e a t i n g l i v e l y , p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d commercial s t r e e t s . T h i s 127 t r e n d i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n t h e Lower C a p i l a n o n e i g h b o u r h o o d . A r e c e n t Lower C a p i l a n o r e s i d e n t s s u r v e y , c o n d u c t e d i n t h e f a l l of 1994, i l l u s t r a t e s t he v a l u e t h e y see i n t h i s t y p e o f development. The s u r v e y i l l u s t r a t e s a d e s i r e among l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t o see Ma r i n e D r i v e ' s commercial r o l e t r a n s f o r m e d from an auto dependent g e n e r a l commercial c o r r i d o r t o a more t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g c o r r i d o r o f f e r i n g more "people p l a c e s " and s p e c i a l t y shops (NVD). I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s l i k e t h e i d e a of a mixed-use s c e n a r i o -- 64% o f respondents f e l t mixed-use development would be a p o s i t i v e i f adequate p a r k i n g were p r o v i d e d (NVD). Thus, D i s t r i c t P l a n n e r s i n t e r e s t i n c r e a t i n g a l i v e l y p e d e s t r i a n environment a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e i s l e g i t i m a t e . However, e v i d e n c e from t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s premature. A l t h o u g h the c o r r i d o r i s b e g i n n i n g t o undergo s i g n i f i c a n t changes, c o n d i t i o n s a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e d i c t a t e t h a t a f u l l s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the c o r r i d o r can not t a k e p l a c e a t t h i s t i m e . N o n e t h e l e s s , s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n now t o encourage an a p p r o p r i a t e c o u r s e of development. By b u i l d i n g on t h e c o r r i d o r ' s a t t r i b u t e s p l a n n e r s and c i t i z e n s can b e g i n t o make s i g n i f i c a n t i n r o a d s toward f u t u r e development. 12 8 b) Constraints R e c a l l f o r a moment "the r e q u i r e m e n t s of a s u c c e s s f u l mixed-use commercial s t r e e t " l i s t g e n e r a t e d from the Broadway and G r a n v i l l e case s t u d i e s . As was o u t l i n e d , t h i s l i s t can be u sed as a c h e c k l i s t t o d e t e r m i n e what i s l a c k i n g a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e a n a l y s i s I have r e c r e a t e d t h e l i s t b e l l o w , o n l y t h i s time I have n o t e d w h i c h of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e l a c k i n g a t Marine D r i v e . Requirements and Marine Drive's Condition: 1. S u f f i c i e n t R e s i d e n t i a l D e n s i t y l a c k i n g 2. C o n t i n u i t y i n S t r e e t L e v e l R e t a i l A c t i v i t y l a c k i n g 3.On S t r e e t P a r k i n g l a c k i n g 4 . Merchant and Community Involvement p r e s e n t 5 . An I d e n t i f i a b l e Node of A c t i v i t y p r e s e n t / l a c k i n g 6. P l e a s a n t and L i v e l y Atmosphere l a c k i n g 7 . T r a n s i t S e r v i c e p r e s e n t 8 . L o c a t i o n Which L i m i t s E x c e s s i v e C o m p e t i t i o n l a c k i n g 9 . I d e n t i t y l a c k i n g The above l i s t i l l u s t r a t e s the magnitude of change r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r f o r M a r i n e D r i v e t o f u n c t i o n w e l l as a l i v e l y p e d e s t r i a n 129 c o r r i d o r . Some of the " r e q u i r e m e n t s " l i s t e d above a r e o b v i o u s l y -more i m p o r t a n t t h a n o t h e r s . N o n e t h e l e s s , a l l o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s l i s t e d above a r e d e s i r a b l e . The l a c k of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i s l a r g e l y t h e p r o d u c t o f a unique h i s t o r y . P o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s can h e l p t o d i c t a t e f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s , y e t must r e c o g n i z e c o n s t r a i n t s and l i m i t a t i o n s . As many c o n s t r a i n t s were o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , t h i s segment w i l l o f f e r o n l y a b r i e f r e c a p of i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n s . The l a r g e s t d e t r i m e n t t o the c r e a t i o n o f a l i v e l y c o mmercial c o r r i d o r a t M a r i n e D r i v e i s the l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t p r o x i m a t e r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y . P o c k e t s of h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s do e x i s t on t h e N o r t h Shore. However, as was o u t l i n e d , r e s i d e n t s of t h e s e communities a r e w e l l s e r v e d by e s t a b l i s h e d c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e s such as L o n s d a l e , C a p i l a n o M a l l Park R o y a l , and Ambleside. T h i s p a t t e r n i s d e e p l y e n t r e n c h e d , and newly c r e a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s g e n e r a l l y p e r p e t u a t e t h e p a t t e r n . Moreover, some p a s t s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n c r e a s i n g r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s a l o n g Marine D r i v e would not s t i m u l a t e t h e c o r r i d o r ' s c ommercial a c t i v i t y . I n s t e a d , t h e s e s t u d i e s h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t r e s i d e n t s o f thes e newly c r e a t e d u n i t s would s i m p l y p a t r o n i z e a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t r e s . T h i s i s a v a l i d c o n c e r n . N o n e t h e l e s s , e v i d e n c e from the Broadway case s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t p e o p l e a r e w i l l i n g t o walk i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n c o n v e n i e n c e and some s p e c i a l t y 130 s e r v i c e s . Thus, p r o x i m a t e r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s c o u l d s t i m u l a t e c e r t a i n t y p e s of commercial a c t i v i t y on o r n e a r M a r i n e D r i v e . M a r ine D r i v e i s f u r t h e r p l a g u e d by a l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y i n s t r e e t l e v e l a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s l a r g e l y a p r o d u c t of t h e c o r r i d o r ' s h i s t o r y . S i n c e i t s c o n c e p t i o n , M a r i n e D r i v e has f u n c t i o n e d as a l i n k between N o r t h Shore commercial nodes. As such i t has n a t u r a l l y e v o l v e d i n t o an a u t o dependent co m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low i n t e n s i t y l a n d uses and l a r g e s u r f a c e p a r k i n g l o t s . These c o n d i t i o n s v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s t r e e t l e v e l c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . There a r e two i m p o r t a n t components t o s t r e e t l e v e l c o n t i n u i t y : form and f u n c t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , M a r i n e D r i v e f a i l s i n b o t h r e g a r d s . W i t h r e g a r d s t o form, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t b u i l d i n g s make a p r e s e n c e on the s t r e e t . F u r t h e r , combined w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g s t r u c t u r e s , b u i l d i n g s a l o n g th e c o r r i d o r s h o u l d c r e a t e an e f f e c t i v e " s t r e e t w a l l , " and thus a sense of b o t h c o n t i n u i t y and e n c l o s u r e . R e g a r d i n g f u n c t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t a s t r e e t f u n c t i o n as a c o h e s i v e u n i t . T h i s does not i m p l y t h a t a l l b u i l d i n g s p r o v i d e i d e n t i c a l f u n c t i o n s , N o n e t h e l e s s , i t s t i p u l a t e s t h a t n e i g h b o u r i n g f u n c t i o n s complement one a n o t h e r , and t h a t f u n c t i o n s which d i s r u p t c o n t i n u i t y be s i t u a t e d a t p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s . 131 The absence of on s t r e e t p a r k i n g f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n s M a r i n e D r i v e ' s p o t e n t i a l as an a t t r a c t i v e p e d e s t r i a n p r e c i n c t . C u r b s i d e p a r k i n g o f f e r s numerous advantages, and i s i n t e g r a l t o t h e s u ccess of any commercial s t r i p . S t r e e t p a r k i n g i s a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n of t r a f f i c volume and f l o w . Q u i t e s i m p l y , e x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c volumes n e c e s s i t a t e t h e removal of c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g . However, as i s e x e m p l i f i e d a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e , d i u r n a l t r a f f i c p a t t e r n s a l s o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e . A l t h o u g h t w e n t y f o u r hour t r a f f i c volumes a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e a r e comparable t o t h o s e a l o n g Broadway, peaked f l o w s a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e n e c e s s i t a t e t h e removal of p a r k i n g d u r i n g r u s h hour. The s i t u a t i o n i s f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e s t r e e t ' s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . M i n i - m a l l s , l a r g e e l e c t r o n i c and home f u r n i s h i n g s t o r e s e t c . , draw consumers from l a r g e r d i s t a n c e s by c a r . Hence, t h e s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r e q u i r e l a r g e p a r k i n g l o t s . I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e a c c e s s , l e f t hand t u r n bays have been added a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . These t u r n i n g bays n e c e s s i t a t e the removal of m a s s i v e t r a c t s o f c u r b s i d e p a r k i n g . Marine D r i v e ' s l o c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o competing commercial c e n t r e s i s a d e t r i m e n t t o the f u t u r e c r e a t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e s h opping s t r e e t . As was o u t l i n e d , N o r t h Shore r e s i d e n t s a r e w e l l s e r v i c e d by n e i g h b o u r i n g commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . 132 From a market p e r s p e c t i v e M a r i n e D r i v e ' s r o l e i s l e g i t i m a t e . A problem e x i s t s o n l y when p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s a r e t a k e n i n t o account. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e may come a t i m e when t h e N o r t h Shore's p o p u l a t i o n w i l l r e q u i r e more commercial space. F o r t h i s r e a s on s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n now t o d i r e c t M a r i n e D r i v e ' s f u t u r e . I f and when f u t u r e growth d i c t a t e s t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n of a p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e i s f e a s i b l e , i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g atmosphere and i d e n t i t y can be p r o p e r l y a d d r e s s e d . Marine D r i v e ' s atmosphere i s c u r r e n t l y t h r e a t e n i n g and u n a p p e a l i n g . F u r t h e r , i t l a c k s an i d e n t i t y . Both t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e d e t r i m e n t a l . However, a t t e m p t i n g t o address such concerns a t t h i s p o i n t i s f u t i l e . P o l i c i e s w h i c h address the c o n s t r a i n t s o u t l i n e d above w i l l a l s o h e l p t o c r e a t e b o t h a more i n v i t i n g atmosphere and an i d e n t i t y . c) Issues Three c e n t r a l i s s u e s emerge from t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n . F i r s t , t he d i s c u s s i o n l e a d s one t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y of t r a n s f o r m i n g M a r i n e D r i v e i n t o an t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e , p e d e s t r i a n -o r i e n t e d commercial c o r r i d o r . I n s t e a d of a s k i n g "how can we t r a n s f o r m M a r i n e D r i v e ? , " perhaps we s h o u l d be a s k i n g " s h o u l d we t r a n s f o r m M a r i n e D r i v e ? " E v i d e n c e from t h e case s t u d i e s s u g g e s t s 133 t h a t f u l l s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c o r r i d o r i s not r e a l i s t i c a t t h i s t i m e . The second i s s u e stems d i r e c t l y from t h e f i r s t . Assuming Marine D r i v e i s not a r e a l i s t i c l o c a t i o n f o r mixed-use commercial r e s i d e n t i a l c o r r i d o r , one may w i s h t o e x p l o r e p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . One a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o b u i l d upon th e c u r r e n t a u t o o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s would i n c l u d e an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d use, among o t h e r t h i n g s . A n o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o c o n c e n t r a t e e f f o r t s on Pemberton Avenue. E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t Pemberton o f f e r s b e t t e r p o t e n t i a l f o r a s u c c e s s f u l mixed c o m m e r c i a l r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t . T h i r d , t h e d i s c u s s i o n sheds l i g h t on t h e p o t e n t i a l consequences o f c r e a t i n g a l i v e l y , p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d commercial c o r r i d o r on o r n e a r M a r i n e D r i v e . Such a c r e a t i o n w i l l r e q u i r e i n c r e a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n p r o x i m a t e neighbourhoods such as N o r g a t e . We must d e t e r m i n e whether o r not we a r e w i l l i n g t o l e t t h i s happen. C u r r e n t l y , community members have made i t known t h a t t h e y do not w i s h t o see any s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e a r e a ' s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d neighbourhoods. 134 IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS R e a l i t i e s on t h e N o r t h Shore, and s p e c i f i c c o n s t r a i n t s r e l a t e d t o Marine D r i v e , d i c t a t e t h a t t he c o r r i d o r can not c u r r e n t l y work as an l i v e l y , p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d mixed c o m m e r c i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e c o r r i d o r . I t s p r e s e n t r o l e i s l e g i t i m a t e . However, t r a d i t i o n a l s m a l l s c a l e r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s mixed w i t h h i g h e r d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s may be an o p t i o n a t Pemberton Avenue, c e n t r e d around t h e Pemberton/Marine D r i v e i n t e r s e c t i o n and e x t e n d i n g s o u t h a l o n g Pemberton. I t must be r e c o g n i z e d , however, t h a t Pemberton i s p l a g u e d by many o f t h e same c o n s t r a i n t s as Mar i n e D r i v e , s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s and commercial c o m p e t i t i o n . Moreover, a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Pemberton Avenue w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n l a n d use z o n i n g . The a r e a ' s c u r r e n t l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g must be r e p l a c e d by a new zone p r o m o t i n g mixed-use r e s i d e n t i a l commercial uses. T h i s r a i s e s l e g i t i m a t e c o ncerns r e g a r d i n g t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of i n d u s t r i a l zoned l a n d i n N o r t h Vancouver. N o n e t h e l e s s , Pemberton Avenue does o f f e r b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s u c c e s s . The reaso n s f o r t h i s a r e numerous. F i r s t , i t expands on a n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g node of a c t i v i t y . Second, because t h e roadway runs n o r t h - s o u t h i t r e c e i v e s s m a l l e r t r a f f i c volumes, and does not r e c e i v e s u b s t a n t i a l commuter f l o w s . Thus 135 the s t r e e t has r e t a i n e d i t s curb s i d e p a r k i n g . T h i r d , Pemberton Avenue's c u r r e n t p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s c o n d u c i v e t o t h e c r e a t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e s h o p p i n g s t r e e t . The s t r e e t a l r e a d y has the makings of a d e f i n e d s t r e e t w a l l , and i s not p l a g u e d by l a r g e s u r f a c e p a r k i n g l o t s . F o u r t h , some "meeting p l a c e s " a l r e a d y e x i s t a l o n g Pemberton and nearby on M a r i n e D r i v e . Examples i n c l u d e : The C actus C l u b Cafe a t 1598 Pemberton,- The Pemberton S t a t i o n Neighbourhood Pub a t 135 Pemberton; and t h e Moustache Cafe a t 1265 M a r i n e D r i v e . A l t h o u g h a s m a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e success of t h e s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s e n c o u r a g i n g . F i f t h , Pemberton has a c o n d u c i v e t o p o g r a p h i c a l p r o f i l e . A g a i n , t h i s i s a s m a l l d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the escarpment l o c a t e d a t the n o r t h end of Pemberton a i d s i n c r e a t i n g a sense of e n c l o s u r e . I t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f Pemberton Avenue w i l l u l t i m a t e l y t h r e a t e n t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods, e s p e c i a l l y N o r g a t e . I n o r d e r f o r such a scheme t o succeed, p o r t i o n s of t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d must be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o h i g h e r d e n s i t y p r e c i n c t s . C u r r e n t growth t r e n d s suggest t h a t h i g h e r d e n s i t y development w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be r e q u i r e d i n N o r t h Shore neighbourhoods such as N o r g a t e . O n l y when t h i s has t r a n s p i r e d can Pemberton Avenue t r u l y f u n c t i o n as a l i v e l y p e d e s t r i a n c o r r i d o r . I n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t t h i s 136 development t a k e s an a p p r o p r i a t e form, a u t h o r i t i e s must r e c o g n i z e f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l . Next, t h e y must d e v i s e p r o a c t i v e p o l i c i e s which a c c e n t u a t e c u r r e n t f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e e n c o u r a g i n g s e n s i t i v e f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n . 137 CHAPTER FIVE: POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS EXISTING POLICIES E x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s have f a i l e d t o c r e a t e a mixed-use p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n a l o n g Marine D r i v e f o r two main r e a s o n s . F i r s t , p a s t and p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e c o r r i d o r as an auto o r i e n t e d commercial s t r i p . E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s b o t h v a l i d and p r a c t i c a l g i v e n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t f l i e s i n the f a c e of e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d a t " r e v i t a l i z i n g " t h e c o r r i d o r ( i f t h e term " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n " i s tak e n t o n e c e s s i t a t e a change i n s t r e e t c h a r a c t e r ) . A change i n c h a r a c t e r n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t p o l i c e s w h i c h r e c o g n i z e t h e c o r r i d o r ' s c u r r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n as a p p r o p r i a t e be a b o l i s h e d . The second r e a s o n f o r t h e c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s ' f a i l u r e t o r e a l i z e an i n t e n s e , mixed-use form of development a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e i s more complex. F a i l u r e r e s u l t s , i n p a r t , because t h e p r o b l e m has not been p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d . E v i d e n c e from t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t the " r e a l " p r o b lem stems from the placement o f M u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s . I n o t h e r words, t h e pr o b l e m i s a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n , not a r e s u l t of Mar i n e D r i v e ' s d e f i c i e n c i e s . As was o u t l i n e d , M a r i n e D r i v e ' s r o l e i s l e g i t i m a t e when v i e w e d i n the c o n t e x t of th e N o r t h Shore. N o r t h Shore r e s i d e n t s a r e 138 a d e q u a t e l y s e r v e d by a complex network of commercial p r e c i n c t s . Furthermore, N o r t h Shore p a t t e r n s of h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l development a l r e a d y have e s t a b l i s h e d nodes. When v i e w e d from a l a r g e r s c a l e , M a r i n e D r i v e p r o v i d e s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e r o l e as a t r a f f i c c o n d u i t and auto o r i e n t e d commercial s t r i p . Thus, i d e n t i f y i n g t h e c o r r i d o r as i n e f f i c i e n t , and i n need o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i g n o r e s i m p o r t a n t r e a l i t i e s . IMPLICATIONS C u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f mixed-use c o m m e r c i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e c o r r i d o r s . However, i t does not e l a b o r a t e on how, when, o r where such a c o n d i t i o n can, or s h o u l d be a c h i e v e d . P l a n n e r s must b e g i n t o e s t a b l i s h s u f f i c i e n t l o r e r e g a r d i n g t h i s form of l a n d use and development. S o c i a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l and economic p r e s s u r e s d i c t a t e t h a t we l e a r n more. Ha v i n g expanded t h e knowledge base, we can b e g i n t o c r e a t e p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s w hich b e t t e r a d d r e s s problems and concerns. P o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s t h a t s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n a r e a f u n c t i o n of the mosaic of o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h e x i s t f o r each p a r t i c u l a r commercial s t r e e t . Thus, b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o f o r m u l a t e p o l i c i e s one must f i r s t d e t e r m i n e what can 139 r e a l i s t i c a l l y be e x p e c t e d i n each p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . The s i t u a t i o n a t M a rine D r i v e d i c t a t e s t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the c o r r i d o r from an a u t o o r i e n t e d c ommercial s t r i p t o an p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d commercial c o r r i d o r i s u n l i k e l y a t t h i s t i m e . However, e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t f u t u r e demand may w arrant a g r a d u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Pemberton Avenue. T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d b e g i n a t t h e M a r i n e D r i v e / P e m b e r t o n Avenue i n t e r s e c t i o n and, as demand w a r r a n t s , e x t e n d s o u t h a l o n g Pemberton. Once t h i s p r e c i n c t has become e s t a b l i s h e d , a p e n e t r a t i o n o f mixed-use development c o u l d b e g i n b o t h e a s t and west a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . A l t h o u g h t h i s s i t u a t i o n g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t s l o c a l P l a n n e r s ' and c i t i z e n s ' d e s i r e s , i t comes w i t h one word of w a r n i n g . The p r o g r e s s i o n w i l l r e q u i r e r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i f i c a t i o n on, and near, b o t h Pemberton Avenue and M a r i n e D r i v e . Assuming t h i s " c o s t " i s b e a r a b l e , one must b e g i n t o adopt p o l i c i e s w hich r e a l i s t i c a l l y a d d r e s s th e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n and concerns w h i l e d i r e c t i n g a f u t u r e c o u r s e . O u t l i n e d below a r e a number of p o l i c y recommendations s u g g e s t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Vancouver. 140 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE STUDY Due t o th e n a t u r e of t h i s segment of th e T h e s i s , " P o l i c y -Recommendations an F u t u r e Study" w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n b u l l e t form. T h i s i s done t o f a c i l i t a t e r e a d a b i l i t y and t o a l e r t t h e re a d e r t o the f a c t t h a t each p o l i c y i s i m p o r t a n t i n i t s own r i g h t . Taken t o g e t h e r t h e y r e p r e s e n t a more h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t i s l e g i t i m a t e t o e x t r a c t any number o f recommendations. Some p o l i c y recommendations n e c e s s i t a t e f u t u r e s t u d y , whereas o t h e r s do n o t . Thus, "Areas f o r F u t u r e Study" w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n a s e c t i o n a t th e end. RECOMMENDATIONS • Marine D r i v e ' s c u r r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be r e c o g n i z e d as l e g i t i m a t e i n t h e near f u t u r e . However, e x p a n s i o n of th e c o r r i d o r ' s auto o r i e n t a t i o n s h o u l d not be encouraged. • There s h o u l d be an o v e r a l l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of use a l o n g t h e Marine D r i v e c o r r i d o r . 141 Marine D r i v e s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d as a major e a s t west c o r r i d o r , p r i m a r i l y m e e t i n g the needs of commuter f l o w s . E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n w i l l p e r s i s t i n t h e f u t u r e . E f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o encourage redevelopment a l o n g Pemberton Avenue. Redevelopment s h o u l d emphasis a mix o f commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s . Moreover, i t s h o u l d expand on the e x i s t i n g node of development w h i c h e x i s t s a t t h e M a r i n e Drive/Pemberton S t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n . R e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d be encouraged i n some segments of t h e Lower C a p i l a n o neighbourhood. I t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e i s a demand f o r condominium apartments on t h e N o r t h Shore. However, t h i s demand w i l l l a r g e l y be "consumed" by o t h e r N o r t h Shore p r e c i n c t s , u n l e s s p r o a c t i v e p o l i c i e s a r e adopted t o a t t r a c t such development t o Lower C a p i l a n o . Two d i s t i n c t zones s h o u l d be c r e a t e d i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t l a n d use on Pemberton and M a r i n e D r i v e . These zones s h o u l d echo 142 those c r e a t e d f o r West Broadway i n t h a t t h e y emphasize a c o r e p e r i p h e r y s t y l e of development. The N o r t h Shore s h o u l d be viewed as an "urban system" when a t t e m p t i n g t o f o r m u l a t e s o l u t i o n s t o s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s . The concept of "mixed-use" s h o u l d be expanded t o i n c l u d e mixed commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s . The c u r r e n t O f f i c i a l Community P l a n f o r t h e a r e a r e c o g n i z e s o n l y mixed c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l uses as "mixed-use" developments. D e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be implemented w h i c h o u t l i n e a c c e p t e d b u l k , massing, and s e t b a c k s . " T e r r a c e d , " o r " s t e p p e d " developments s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d anywhere a l o n g e i t h e r Pemberton Avenue o r M a r i n e D r i v e . Commercial uses s h o u l d be promoted a t grade l e v e l a l o n g Pemberton Avenue and M a r i n e D r i v e . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e " c o r e " a r e a . G e n e r a l l y , o f f i c e and r e s i d e n t i a l uses s h o u l d be l o c a t e d on the upper f l o o r s . 143 • C u r r e n t b e a u t i f i c a t i o n e f f o r t s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e a l o n g M a r i n e D r i v e . These e f f o r t s s h o u l d a l s o be extended t o Pemberton Avenue. T h i s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a f o r m a l s t r e e t t r e e p l a n t i n g program, combined w i t h t h e development of s t a n d a r d s f o r s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e . AREAS FOR FUTURE STUDY • As i t i s recommended t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i f i c a t i o n o c c u r i n Lower C a p i l a n o , a s t u d y s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e w hich p r e c i n c t s c o u l d b e s t accommodate t h i s . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o the a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g Pemberton Avenue, s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s and a r e a s b o r d e r i n g N o r g a t e . • The N o r t h Shore market i s a l r e a d y f a i r l y w e l l s e r v e d by commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . Hence i t i s recommended t h a t a stud y be performed t o det e r m i n e i f any p a r t i c u l a r n i c h e markets o f f e r p o t e n t i a l f o r e x p a n s i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would enable P l a n n e r s t o dete r m i n e what t y p e o f m i l i e u might b e s t s u i t e Pemberton Avenue. 144 The use of two d i s t i n c t zones i s deemed a p p r o p r i a t e . A t t h i s p o i n t a l i s t of p e r m i t t e d uses f o r each zone i s l a c k i n g . Thus, a s t u d y s h o u l d be commissioned t o d e t e r m i n e what each of the two zones s h o u l d i n c l u d e . The Broadway zones, C - 2 C and C-2 C 1 , can be r e f e r r e d t o f o r g u i d a n c e . E v i d e n c e from t h i s t h e s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t M a r i n e D r i v e f u n c t i o n s w e l l when viewed i n t h e N o r t h Shore c o n t e x t . A p r o b l e m e x i s t s o n l y when M u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . Hence, amalgamation o f the N o r t h Shores' M u n i c i p a l i t y i s s u g g e s t e d as an a r e a of f u t u r e s t u d y . A l t h o u g h t h i s has been s t u d i e d on p r i o r o c c a s i o n s , new developments n e c e s s i t a t e t h a t i t be r e v i s i t e d . The imbalance i n commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l uses which e x i s t s between t h e D i s t r i c t and C i t y i s e x p e c t e d t o i n t e n s i f y as a r e s u l t of c o n t i n u e d growth a t Lower L o n s d a l e . Another a r e a of p o t e n t i a l s t u d y c o u l d f o c u s on t h e p o t e n t i a l c r e a t i o n of an o v e r r i d i n g a u t h o r i t y such as t h e GVRD. U n l i k e the GVRD, t h i s a u t h o r i t y would have t o have more t h a n a d v i s o r y powers. " B i g box r e t a i l e r s " pose a s i g n i f i c a n t t h r e a t t o t h e f u t u r e s u ccess of a mixed-use commercial p r e c i n c t a t e i t h e r Pemberton 145 o r Marine D r i v e . Thus, i t i s recommended t h a t a s t u d y be un d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y of t h i s t y p e o f r e t a i l i n g i n t h e D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Vancouver. O f f i c e uses a r e an i m p o r t a n t i n g r e d i e n t t o a mixed commercial s t r e e t , p r o v i d i n g p r o x i m a t e work o p p o r t u n i t i e s . However, t h e y t e n d t o b r e a k s t r e e t l e v e l c o n t i n u i t y . A f u t u r e s t u d y s h o u l d e x p l o r e t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n more d e t a i l , a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s c e r n which p a r t i c u l a r uses a r e not a p p r o p r i a t e l y l o c a t e d a t grade l e v e l . F o r example: a r e t r a v e l a g e n c i e s and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a c c e p t a b l e a t grade? Community and i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses a r e i m p o r t a n t . The a d d i t i o n of t h e s e uses s h o u l d be s t u d i e d i n some d e t a i l t o d e t e r m i n e where t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r uses a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e l y l o c a t e d . A s t u d y done by N e a l e , S t a n i s z k e s , D o le a r c h i t e c t s f o u n d t h a t some p r o j e c t s a l o n g Broadway were marred by d e s i g n p r o b l e m s . U s i n g t h i s s t u d y as a s p r i n g b o ard, d e s i g n i s s u e s s h o u l d be s t u d i e d i n t h e Pemberton/Marine D r i v e C o n t e x t . Stemming from t h i s , g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d t o g u a r d a g a i n s t u n d e s i r a b l e d e s i g n problems. 146 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n R,E. ed. The O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y of C u r r e n t E n g l i s h . New-York: O x f o r d UP, 1985. Arbour, Ken e t a l . "A Study of the Marpole D i s t r i c t Commercial A r e a : Report on C l a s s P r o j e c t . 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