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"Working a great hardship on us" : First Nations people, the state and fur conservation in British Columbia… Ireland, Brenda Marie 1995

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"WORKING A GREAT HARDSHIP ON US": FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE, THE STATE AND FUR CONSERVATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BEFORE 1935 by BRENDA MARIE IRELAND B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  o f Calgary,  1991  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in , THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE ^STUDIES  ( D e p a r t m e n t o.f. H i s t o r y ) We a c c e p t t K i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A P R I L 1995 1  © Brenda. M a r i e I r e l a n d , 1995  In  presenting  degree freely  at  the  available  copying  of  department publication  this  of  in  partial  University  of  British  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  or for  her  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6  (2/88)  study.  I further  purposes  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  of  of  Columbia, I  scholarly  permission.  Department  fulfilment  be  It not  is be  that  the  for  an  Library shall  permission for  granted  by  understood allowed  advanced  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT  D i v e r g e n t v a l u e s and. approaches t o l a n d and r e s o u r c e use and f u r c o n s e r v a t i o n c r e a t e d c o n f l i c t s between a b o r i g i n a l and nona b o r i g i n a l peoples which have remained l a r g e l y hidden i n h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s . T h i s study o f the.compulsory registration  trap line  system implemented i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1925  examines these c o n f l i c t s ; t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l arid a d m i n i s t r a t i v e issues related, to f u r conservation that contributed, to the d i s p u t e s ; and t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s o b j e c t i o n s t o f u r management schemes t h a t v a l i d a t e d w h i t e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s and r e s t r i c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n s and access t o i m p o r t a n t sources o f food.' s u p p l i e s . A l t h o u g h F i r s t N a t i o n s people spoke • p e r s u a s i v e l y about a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s and j u s t i c e , t h e i r v o i c e s remained l a r g e l y unheard and. unheeded. L e g a l l y disempowered and w i t h o u t p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t , F i r s t Nation's p e o p l e were m a r g i n a l i z e d , removed from l a n d s they had o c c u p i e d and used, s i n c e 'time immemorial.'  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  Abstract  ' i i  Table o f Contents  i i i  Acknowledgement  iv  INTRODUCTION  • 1  Chapter One  F i r s t Nations Responses to NonAboriginal Fur Management Techniques Prior to the Trap Line Registration System  4  Chapter Two  Implementation of the Trap Line Registration System  27  Chapter Three  Treaty -8 and Trap Line Registration: Trust and Treaty Negated  57  CONCLUSION  88  Endnotes  92  Bibliography Appendices  '  •  12.1 131  iii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS >  I would and  like  t o a c k n o w l e d g e P r o f e s s o r s A u t h u r Ray,  J u l i e Cruikshank f o r t h e i r guidance  Dianne Newell  and support. A s p e c i a l  t h a n k y o u t o my c h i l d r e n , M a r k a n d S h a r l a P e a r c e , my m o t h e r , Phyllis  Ireland,  and John  Rutherdale f o r b e l i e v i n g  i n me when I  d o u b t e d m y s e l f . Y o u g a v e me' s t r e n g t h when I n e e d e d i t m o s t .  I would  like  t o -thank Hugo and M a g g i e G e i s e r f o r t h e i r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d s u p p o r t a s w e l l a s t h e i r comments o n t h e d r a f t . Thank y o u M a r l e n e  L e g a t e s and A l D r e h e r  f r i e n d s h i p and encouragement. A l i f e  l o n g debt  first  f o r your i s owed t o  P a u l e t t e Regan f o r t h e g e n t l e p r o d d i n g t h a t  k e p t me on t r a c k . H e r  v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e a n d comments' t h r o u g h o u t  t h i s whole p r o c e s s  made i t a l l b e a r a b l e . A n d t h a n k y o u P e t e r A l e x c e e f o r w a l k i n g me t h r o u g h more c o m p u t e r c r i s e s t h a n I c a r e , t o  admit.  I c l o s e b y t h a n k i n g t h e C r e a t o r f o r g i v i n g me l i f e , , l o v e a n d courage.  iv  INTRODUCTION  The B r i t i s h North American Act p l a c e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f , aboriginal  lands  and i n t e r e s t s under  w i l d l i f e management a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n responsibilities.  federal jurisdiction, were a s s i g n e d  This c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i v i s i o n  provincial  o f powers  e s t a b l i s h e d a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l vacuum i n t o w h i c h F i r s t r i g h t s and i s s u e s f e l l . responsibilities obligations,  British  Columbia, t r e a t y  t h e f e d e r a l government l e f t u n c h a l l e n g e d  game l a w s t h a t - i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e h u n t i n g ,  system.  1  provincial  t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g  peoples.  I n 1925, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a registration  Nations  In spite of i t s constitutional  and, i n n o r t h e a s t e r n  r i g h t s o f F i r s t Nations  while  implemented  Based,  a compulsory t r a p  o s t e n s i b l y , upon F i r s t  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e l a n d and i t s resources,  trap  line  Nations line  r e g i s t r a t i o n s r e p l a c e d an u n r e s t r i c t e d a n d u n o r g a n i z e d  trapping  s y s t e m t h a t p r o m o t e d o v e r - e x p l o i t a t i o n . The p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m i n c o r p o r a t e d c l o s e b e a v e r s e a s o n s w h i c h 'proved . i n e f f e c t i v e in addressing  long term c o n s e r v a t i o n  c o n c e r n s a n d f a i l e d t o meet  the needs o f b o t h n o n - a b o r i g i n a l and a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s .  Claims  to territories utilized  f o r generations  by F i r s t  p e o p l e , . a s w e l l a s a b o r i g i n a l management t e c h n i q u e s , i n the. development  Nations,  were  ignored  of trapping" regulations i n c l u d i n g the trap  1  line registration encroachment  system. F i r s t N a t i o n s ' o b j e c t i o n s t o w h i t e  upon t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s and t h e e n a c t m e n t  game l a w s t h a t r e s t r i c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n s w e r e  of  also  d i s r e g a r d e d . C l o s e beaver seasons caused p a r t i c u l a r h a r d s h i p , especially  for northern aboriginal  p e o p l e , and t h e s e  motivated strong opposition expressed i n p e t i t i o n s officials.  closures  t o government  F i r s t Nations people refused t o observe complacently  the  disintegration  the  a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s and d i s r u p t i o n  livelihoods.  o f t h e i r way  of l i f e  and v e h e m e n t l y  of  result,  their  But F i r s t N a t i o n c o n c e r n s a n d o b j e c t i o n s w e r e  d i s r e g a r d e d by s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s .charged by constitution  protested  to protect aboriginal  the  l a n d s and i n t e r e s t s .  As  F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e s were m a r g i n a l i z e d , p u s h e d o f f  territories theirs  In the f i r s t  t o use s i n c e t i m e  chapter, t h i s essay w i l l  immemorial.  examine t h e  intense  o p p o s i t i o n of F i r s t N a t i o n s people t o c l o s e beaver seasons dramatically affected their the  a  pre-1925  provincial  which prompted registration  l i v e s and l i v e l i h o o d s .  f a i l u r e of  attempts to conserve fur-bearing animals  the development  system w i l l  of a compulsory t r a p  be s t u d i e d . The  .acknowledge  and a d d r e s s t h e r i g h t s  p e o p l e . The  role  of Indian Agents system w i l l  line  second chapter, w i l l  examine t h e f a i l u r e o f the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n  trap l i n e registration  The  which  system to  and needs o f F i r s t N a t i o n s i n the implementation of the a l s o be e x a m i n e d  as w i l l  the  2  f a i l u r e of Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s t o p r o t e c t a b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s even i n the T r e a t y 8 a r e a o f n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The t h i r d c h a p t e r w i l l f o c u s on t h e T r e a t y 8  a r e a t o demonstrate t h a t even though F i r s t N a t i o n s  traditional  h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g v o c a t i o n s had been guaranteed,  t h e r e was  no  g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n o f F i r s t N a t i o n s l a n d s and i n t e r e s t s here i n n o n - t r e a t y areas o f the p r o v i n c e . Together, comparative  than  the c h a p t e r s are a  study between a f e d e r a l l y n e g o t i a t e d t r e a t y a r e a  the n o n - t r e a t y areas o f B r i t i s h /Columbia.  The paper  and  concludes  t h a t , i n s p i t e o f s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s , F i r s t N a t i o n s groups were f o r c e d o f f . t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s and had t h e i r  livelihoods  i r r e v o c a b l y d i s r u p t e d as game r e g u l a t i o n s which i n v a l i d a t e d  First  N a t i o n s r i g h t s were implemented t o support n o n - a b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s . In the T r e a t y 8 a r e a o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  this  was  a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h ' t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s through an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t f a i l e d t o protect F i r s t Nations  interests.  3  CHAPTER ONE  The Pre-1925 P r o v i n c i a l Trapping System and F i r s t Nations Responses  By  1900, w i l d l i f e  preserve  seemed t o be u n d e r s e i g e a n d demands t o  l a n d and w i l d l i f e  culminated  i n the establishment  of  p a r k a r e a s as w e l l as l e g i s l a t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n measures t o p r o t e c t c e r t a i n animal  s p e c i e s and m i g r a t i n g b i r d s b o t h i n t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s and. C a n a d a . C o n s e r v a t i o n perception  that wilderness  beauty and resources.  r e g u l a t i o n s addressed, t h e  a r e a s were b e i n g  The f i r s t  and m a i n t a i n  r e c r e a t i o n " o f t h e gentleman's  By  sport.  the exploitation of t h e " h e a l t h y and manly  1  comparison, the p r o t e c t i o n o f f u r - b e a r i n g animals  •received l i t t l e Indians,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Trapping  groups were v e r y  and., t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n  different  from those  p a r t i c i p a t e d , i n t h e 'gentlemen's s p o r t . ' As a r e s u l t , trapping system evolved and  that threatened  fur-bearing  t h e f u r t r a d e . Any p e r s o n c o u l d c l a i m a t r a p p i n g  p r o v i d i n g the trapper purchased a firearms the a p p r o p r i a t e badge.  2  Indians  and trapping  was' t h e v o c a t i o n o f  s e t t l e r s and i t i n e r a n t p r o s p e c t o r s  concerns of these  of both  game p r o t e c t i o n l a w s w e r e e n a c t e d  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1859 t o p r e v e n t . c e r t a i n , b i g game a n i m a l s  fast depleted  who  a haphazard populations territory,  l i c e n c e and r e c e i v e d  a n d m i l i t i a men on d u t y were  4  exempt f r o m t h e l i c e n s i n g p r o v i s i o n . P r o s p e c t o r s miner's c e r t i f i c a t e  and farmers  issued l i c e n c e s free of charge.  hunting  having  a-free  on t h e i r own l a n d s  were  W h i t e t r a p p e r s m o v i n g i n t o an  3  a r e a t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e f u r t r a d e a p p r o p r i a t e d F i r s t ' N a t i o n s traditional territories, licence,  b u t , a s l o n g a s t h e y made t h e r e q u i r e d ,  t h e y were p r o t e c t e d by law. White t r a p p e r s used  wasted the animal  carcasses  beaver stocks decreased  5  and trapped  t o alarming  breeding  levels,  c l o s e beaver seasons t o promote p o p u l a t i o n  In  1896 t h e p r o v i n c i a l  government e n a c t e d  stock.  6  the province  poison,  4  When enacted  regeneration.  the f i r s t  close  on b e a v e r , m a r t e n a n d l a n d o t t e r i n h e a v i l y t r a p p e d  areas.  Responding t o concerns about t h e i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n  season 7  between  f r e e - t r a d e r s and e s t a b l i s h e d f u r t r a d i n g companies, as w e l l as the averse  a f f e c t s o f m i n e r s and p r o s p e c t o r s  population, trapping  The 1905  t h e government i n t r o d u c e d , measures t o r e g u l a t e  and a d d r e s s c o n s e r v a t i o n  first  upon t h e f u r - b e a r i n g  concerns.  p r o v i n c e w i d e c l o s e b e a v e r s e a s o n was l e g i s l a t e d i n  a n d i m p o s e d a s i x y e a r m o r a t o r i u m on b e a v e r t r a p p i n g . The  law p r o h i b i t e d , anyone n o t o n l y f r o m t a k i n g , k i l l i n g the animal,  b u t a l s o from p o s s e s s i n g  year p e r i o d beginning  In  British  the f i r s t  untanned p e l t s ,  day o f August,  Columbia, as elsewhere,  and t r a p p i n g  1905.  for a six 8  d e c i s i o n s about t h e p r o t e c t i o n  5  of f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s were made w i t h o u t e i t h e r the nature  clearly  understanding-  of a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s or F i r s t  Nations  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the. l a n d and. w i l d l i f e . Northern,  hunting  t e r r i t o r i e s of F i r s t Nations  groups were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and  q u i c k l y a p p r o p r i a t e d by n o n - a b o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s and r e s o u r c e developers  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , road and r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  f o r e s t r y and v i l l a g e development.  9  T h i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n was  v a l i d a t e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l Game Act which s u p p o r t e d a t r a p p i n g system t h a t d i s r u p t e d a b o r i g i n a l r e s o u r c e  management s t r a t e g i e s .  Under c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c l a n o r p h r a t r i c management systems, t h e a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p i n g techniques  utilized, several t r a c t s of  s c a t t e r e d t e r r i t o r y i n r o t a t i o n . Breeding  s t o c k were not t r a p p e d ,  and areas would be l e f t vacant f o r a few y e a r s t o a l l o w population rejuvenation.  1 0  A b o r i g i n a l w i l d l i f e management  approaches were s i m i l a r t o a g r a r i a n land, r o t a t i o n systems i n t h a t I n d i a n s managed t h e i r t r a p l i n e s much l i k e farmers c u l t i v a t e d their  The  fields.  1 1  S e c r e t a r y f o r t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s e x p l a i n e d , t h e  a b o r i g i n a l s t r a t e g y as one i n which . . . experienced. Indian, h u n t i n g f a m i l i e s have been accustomed t o have s e v e r a l t r a p l i n e s , o f which o n l y one i s t r a p p e d d u r i n g a. p a r t i c u l a r season, o r s e r i e s o f seasons w h i l e t h e o t h e r s a r e l e f t u n d i s t u r b e d f o r f u t u r e seasons i n o r d e r t h a t the fur. may be r e p l e n i s h e d . T h i s , i n o t h e r words, i s a r o t a t i o n system which i s an economic d e v i c e s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e t o r o t a t i o n of crops. 12  6  S t r a t e g i c plans  for wildlife  game a n d e n h a n c e h u n t i n g a b o r i g i n a l hunting big  business:  p r o t e c t i o n were d e s i g n e d t o p r e s e r v e  and t r a p p i n g  and. t r a p p i n g v o c a t i o n s .  l i c e n c e and t o u r i s t  returns. Conservation  was  This  great  game s a n c t u a r y  expected t o y i e l d  British of the ,  natural  resource  a "tremendous revenue f o r t h e p e o p l e . "  r e v e n u e was g e n e r a t e d a t t h e e x p e n s e o f F i r s t  p e o p l e . W h i t e e n c r o a c h m e n t upon I n d i a n territories  was  treasury  t o ensure  Under p r o p e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h i s  1 3  ensure  B i g game h u n t i n g  revenues expanded  l a w s were i n t r o d u c e d  Columbia's s t a t u s as "the l a s t continent."  revenues r a t h e r than  hunting  1 4  Nations  and t r a p p i n g  d i s r u p t e d h a r v e s t i n g methods t h a t b a l a n c e d human  needs and a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s .  The i m p a c t o f w h i t e t r a p p e r s  upon  a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e and. f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s was s u m m a r i z e d i n a report  submitted  from t h e F o r t George and L u c e r n e D i s t r i c t s i n  M a r c h , 1924. The L u c e r n e d e t a c h m e n t o f f i c e r trappers Dyk, had  and r e p o r t e d  'no I n d i a n s '  F o r t George D i s t r i c t , lost  their  trapping  i n his district.  reported, that Indians  territories  had been o p e r a t i n g  C o n s t a b l e Van  i n the d i s t r i c t  through non-compliance  t h e Game Act, b u t n o t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y trappers  l i s t e d 24. w h i t e  with  600 n o n - a b o r i g i n a l  i n t h e D i s t r i c t , u n d e r 250 t r a p  line  l i c e n c e s . The s a m e - r e p o r t n o t e d t h a t t h e m a r t e n , f i s h e r a n d o t t e r populations  had decreased by n i n e t y percent  s i n c e t h e 1911-12  season w h i l e beaver had d e c r e a s e d by s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t 1915-16.  15  Yet, the o f f i c e r  made no a p p a r e n t c o r r e l a t i o n  since between  7  the increase i n white trappers and the decrease  i n fur-bearing  populations.  I n s t e a d o f a s s e s s i n g t h e impact o f w h i t e t r a p p e r s on b o t h  First  N a t i o n s i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e game p o p u l a t i o n , t h e p r o v i n c e i m p o s e d a system t o monitor and conserve t h e beaver p o p u l a t i o n . Although b i g game a major  (moose, d e e r , b e a r , m o u n t a i n  g o a t a n d sheep)  constituted  food source f o r northern a b o r i g i n a l people, these  were n o t always p r o c u r a b l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a b u n d a n t , became t h e c r u c i a l , food. In a d d i t i o n ,  animals  b e a v e r , w h i c h was  and, sometimes o n l y , a v a i l a b l e  t h e a n i m a l p e l t s were e s s e n t i a l  exchange  commodity.  A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e ' s r e l i a n c e on w i l d l i f e influenced the creation of w i l d l i f e i m p l e m e n t t h e s e l a w s were v e h e m e n t l y  as a f o o d s o u r c e  seldom  l e g i s l a t i o n and attempts t o opposed, b y F i r s t  Nations  p e o p l e d e t e r m i n e d t o p r o t e c t t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s and livelihoods. resource,  1 6  Beaver  c o n t i n u e d t o be a f a v o u r i t e a n d i m p o r t a n t  e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e n o r t h w e r e t h e a n i m a l was t r a p p e d  as much f o r f o o d a s f u r . I n t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f F i r s t p e o p l e , t h e c l o s e seasons were t h e government's  Nations  ineffective  e f f o r t s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h d e c i m a t e d w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s caused, b y n o n - a b o r i g i n a l h u n t e r s a n d t r a p p e r s . The s o l u t i o n  seemed  straight  f o r w a r d , t o t h e I n d i a n s : keep n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s o u t o f  8  t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s w h i c h h a d b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y managed, f r o m time  immemorial.  F i r s t Nations i n defending  p e o p l e s . w e r e s t r o n g a d v o c a t e s o n t h e i r own. b e h a l f t r a d i t i o n a l hunting  a n d t r a p p i n g m e t h o d s . They  a d a m a n t l y p r o t e s t e d , e n c r o a c h m e n t on t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y . sent p e t i t i o n s and l e t t e r s t o government o f f i c i a l s , P r i m e M i n i s t e r and. G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l , Affairs  territories.  t o hunting,  resented  f i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g r i g h t s and  outside  had developed  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l a n d and. w i l d l i f e a n d '  interference. Regulations  r e q u i r e m e n t s were r e f u t e d , a n d I n d i a n s  imposing  and- t r a p p e r s .  an E l d e r f r o m t h e S t . M a r y ' s Band, E a s t  reminded t h e Governor General  licensing  complained, about t h e  wasteful p r a c t i c e s o f non-aboriginal hunters  I n 1915,  recognition of  The a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s a r g u e d t h e y  e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t  including the  o r Department o f I n d i a n  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and agents r e q u e s t i n g  p r i o r i t y claims  They  o f an 1895 m e e t i n g  Kootenay i n w h i c h an  agreement between t h e government and t h e Windermere a n d Tobacco P l a i n s Indians  h a d b e e n r e a c h e d . The E l d e r o b j e c t e d  imposition o f permits  f o r Indian hunters  to the  that contravened  this  agreement.  On 2 5 t h o f t h i s month t h e r e was a m e e t i n g i n f o r t [ s i c ] S t e e l e a b o u t Game h u n t i n g a n d I t o o k y o u r w o r d a n d p l a c e d i t b e f o r e t h e Game Werden [ s i c ] and. he k i c k e d i t , a n d want t o p u t my h e a r t t o what B r y a n W i l l i a m s [ P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden] s a i d , when y o u came t o W i n d e r m e r e on S e p t e m b e r 18 95 y o u g i v e 9  me the. l a w a b o u t t h e h u n t i n g and. y o u g i v e t h e l a w t o M r . G a l b r i t h o u r e g e n t [ s i c ] , when he came b a c k he t o o k t h e a g r e e m e n t a n d s i t on i t a n d when t h i s new l a w came he p u t i t b e f o r e u s and t o l d u s t o t a k e i t , i t s t h i s p e r m i t what B r y a n W i l l i a m s o f f e r , us I n d i a n s we d o n t want t o t a k e i t , we • s o o n e r want t h e l a w o f 1 8 9 5 , a n d a n o t h e r t h i n g when we h u n t and k i l l i t we a r e a r r e s t e d a n d h a v e t o p a y f i n e [ s i c ] . 1 7  I n 1916, t h e C h i e f and b a n d members f r o m Spuzzum s u b m i t t e d letter  t o t h e I n d i a n A g e n t c o n d e m n i n g game r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t  r e s t r i c t e d a b o r i g i n a l hunting letter  a c t i v i t i e s . The A g e n t f o r w a r d e d t h e  t o t h e Deputy Superintendent  Spuzzum b a n d , a s t h e o r i g i n a l immemorial,' claimed provincial  of Indian A f f a i r s .  inhabitants of the land since  ownership o f the w i l d l i f e  rights to wildlife  The  revenue. At i s s u e f o r t h e F i r s t  g r o u p were t h e f e e s c o l l e c t e d , b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t f o r  hunting  l i c e n c e s w h i c h were n o t s h a r e d  o f t h e l a n d and. w i l d l i f e  resources.  complained that r e c r e a t i o n a l hunters resources  w i t h t h e a b o r i g i n a l owners  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e band, members wasted t h e w i l d l i f e  b y d i s c a r d i n g most o f the. c a r c a s s ,  trophy  heads. I n c o n t r a s t , the I n d i a n s  animal  and wasted n o t h i n g .  the Southeastern  1 8  complained b i t t e r l y  part of the  of Indian Agencies f o r  n o t e d i n 1919 t h a t t h e I n d i a n s  about f i n d i n g  d i s c a r d e d by w h i t e  claiming only the  used every  The I n s p e c t o r  Inspectorate  'time  and challenged,  Nations  animals  a  carcasses  trappers  of fur-bearing  a f t e r t h e p e l t s had. b e e n  removed—a p r a c t i c e foreign to a b o r i g i n a l  people.  1 9  P r o v i n c i a l game l a w s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d , a n d s u p p o r t e d , s u c h r  wasteful 10  p r a c t i c e s without understandably  respect  f o r a b o r i g i n a l needs a a d r i g h t s  a b h o r r e d by t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s  A b o r i g i n a l people,  supported  2  had always preserved t h e  i n c l u d i n g f u r - b e a r i n g animals.,  that presented  peoples.  by I n d i a n Agents throughout t h e  p r o v i n c e , °- i n s i s t e d t h a t I n d i a n s wildlife,  were  them a s m a l i c i o u s  and d i s p u t e d  killers.  Although  reports  I n d i a n s and  t h e i r a g e n t s a r g u e d t h a t a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e were n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r wanton s l a u g h t e r and o v e r - t r a p p i n g ,  c l o s e b e a v e r s e a s o n s were  i m p o s e d on a b o r i g i n a l a n d n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s  This  alike^  i m p o s i t i o n provoked s t r o n g p r o t e s t from F i r s t  c o m m u n i t i e s . I n May o f 1906, t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t for B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , A.W.  Nations  of Indian  Affairs  Vowel1, noted t h a t t h e complaints  a g a i n s t t h e game l a w s were ... l o u d a n d w i d e s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n c y t h e I n d i a n s c o n s i d e r i n g i n many i n s t a n c e s t h a t p r o m i s e s made t o them i n e a r l y days a r e n o t respected, t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e y w o u l d be a l l o w e d t o e n j o y t h e same p r i v i l e g e s a s w e r e a l w a y s open t o t h e i r f a t h e r s i n r e g a r d t o h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and. t r a p p i n g u p o n Government l a n d s i . e . l a n d s • t h a t w e r e n o t owned, b y p r i v a t e p a r t i e s o r o t h e r w i s e a l i e n a t e d , f r o m t h e Crown. 21  Lobbying emphatically against general,  t h e c l o s e s e a s o n s a n d game l a w s i n  I n d i a n s p e t i t i o n e d government o f f i c i a l s .  I n 1905 t h e  C h i e f s o f t h e S t u a r t Lake, Stoney Creek and F r a s e r Lake submitted  a p e t i t i o n t o the Superintendent  complaining  that the province  of Indian  tribes  Affairs  was e n d e a v o u r i n g t o t a k e away t h e  11  Indian's  l i v e l i h o o d thereby  t h r e a t e n i n g them w i t h s t a r v a t i o n . The  C h i e f s reminded t h e Superintendent responsibilities a  o f t h e Department's  t o I n d i a n p e o p l e s by . d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r o v i n c e as  ' c r u e l stepmother' and a s k i n g  the•Department o f Indian  Affairs  t o a c t a s a 'good f a t h e r ' . By e n a c t i n g a. c l o s e b e a v e r s e a s o n , t h e p r o v i n c e was ' a n n i h i l a t i n g to t h e Indians  r i g h t s o f immemorial date'  by t h e i r a n c e s t o r s .  transmitted  The C h i e f s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t  t h e b e a v e r was t h e i r o n l y l i v e l i h o o d a s b i g game a n i m a l s d e c i m a t e d by f i r e s big  a n d were a n u n r e l i a b l e f o o d  game was p l e n t i f u l ,  2 2  The C h i e f s a r g u e d  s h o u l d be e x e m p t e d f r o m t h e c l o s e b e a v e r  because t h e Indians interest.  Even i f  the leaders noted that the costs of  a m m u n i t i o n a n d weapons were p r o h i b i t i v e . their territory  source.  S u r v i v a l was t h e u l t i m a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n  to the Superintendent  upon n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s b y r e m o v i n g t h i s  Chiefs argued that the Indians  motive.  always been p r o t e c t e d .  its  own " ... c i r c u i t ' w h e r e t h e y  explained  inflicting  s t a p l e . The beaver  Each f a m i l y group t r a d i t i o n a l l y had [did] t h e i r hunting  [ u n d e r s t o o d ] t h a t i t [was] i n t h e i r  in succession  was  had. n a t u r a l l a w s b y w h i c h  had  not destroyed,  season  o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t h a t t h e b e a v e r was t h e i r  s o l e means o f l i v e l i h o o d a n d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e  [was]  that  h a d t h e i r own l a w s d i c t a t e d b y s e l f -  I n 1 9 0 5 , t h e C h i e f s o f bands i n t h e F o r t S t . James a r e a  misery  had been  and they  i n t e r e s t t o s e e t h a t t h e game  t o t h a t e f f e c t we n e v e r h u n t [ e d ] two y e a r s  on t h e same s t r e a m s . "  2 3  12  The  C h i e f s o f t h e S t e l l a and Stoney Creek I n d i a n bands  out  t o the M i n i s t e r of Indian A f f a i r s  be  i n 1909 t h a t " ... we  will  r e d u c e d t o s e r i o u s s t r a i g h t s [ s i c ] a n d be i n d a n g e r o f  starvation, support."  2 4  as a p a r t  from t h e salmon t h e Beaver a r e our main  I f t h e government would n o t r e s c i n d t h e c l o s e b e a v e r  season, t h e C h i e f s requested for  pointed  cultivation,  establishment  In t h e i r  seeds and a g r i c u l t u r a l  as w e l l as f e r t i l e  of a local  1919 e f f o r t  Indian  agricultural  implements  lands and the  agency.  to gain recognition f o r aboriginal rights,  t h e C h i e f s o f t h e Burns^ L a k e Band c o m p a r e d I n d i a n  trapping  methods w i t h t h o s e  o f the white  that t h e 'standard  r u l e ' among I n d i a n s was t o c o n s e r v e t h e b e a v e r  while white  trappers  t r a p p e r s . The C h i e f s p o i n t e d o u t  t o o k b e a v e r i n d i s c r i m a n t l y . The l e t t e r  e x p l a i n e d how b e a v e r w e r e t r a p p e d r o t a t i o n with breeding  i n 'three o r f o u r ' areas i n  s t o c k p r o t e c t e d . The C h i e f s b e l i e v e d t h a t  t h e b e s t way t o c o n s e r v e t h e b e a v e r was t o h a v e e x c l u s i v e trapping rights assigned were d e c i m a t i n g  t o the Indians  the stocks.  2 5  They s u m m a r i z e d F i r s t  concerns from around the province bever  The  by s t a t i n g :  trappers  Nations  " I n l o c k i n g up t h e  [ s i c ] You a r e l o c k i n g t h e b r e a d o u t o f o u r camp We  as m u t c h on t h e b e v e r food".  because white  depend  [ s i c ] as t h e f a r m e r depends on h i s c r o p f o r  2 6  C h i e f s a n d Headmen o f t h e S t u a r t L a k e I n d i a n A g e n c y i n a  13  l e t t e r t o t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s the Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  i n 1919 'humbly' a s k e d  of' I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o " ... l o o k  into  t h e m a t t e r o f t h e Game Laws o f B.C. i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r i g h t s o f the  I n d i a n s . The l e a d e r s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e i r t r a p l i n e s w e r e  being  g r a d u a l l y s t o l e n away f r o m them b y " t h e w h i t e  trappers.  We t r a p t o p r e s e r v e t h e Game a n i m a l s a n d t h e h i s t o r y o f o u r t r a p p i n g i n t h e p a s t w i l l b e a r o u t t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . . The w h i t e t r a p p e r s m e t h o d s s a n c t i o n e d b y t h e l a w s o f B.C. a r e e x t e r m i n a t i n g c e r t a i n animals, p a r t i c u l a r l y beaver and t h i s i s w o r k i n g a g r e a t h a r d s h i p on 'us. 27  The  C h i e f o f t h e F o r t George I n d i a n Band sent  Governor General  a petition to the  i n O c t o b e r o f 1919 r e q u e s t i n g  that the federal  g o v e r n m e n t i n v e s t i g a t e p r o v i n c i a l Game Laws i n r e l a t i o n , t o aboriginal rights. "loyal  The C h i e f p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e I n d i a n s  were  s u b j e c t s o f K i n g G e o r g e " and- c l a i m e d , t h e r i g h t t o t r a p a l l  game a n i m a l s  without  restriction.  We p o i n t t o h i s t o r y a n d t h a t r e c o r d ' w i l l show t h a t we h a v e a l w a y s t r a p p e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e game. Now we a r e t o l d t h a t we must n o t t r a p B e a v e r . T h i s i s a b i g h a r d s h i p on us a n d o u r f a m i l i e s ' w i l l s u f f e r t h i s w i n t e r . A l s o we a r e p r o h i b i t e d f r o m c a t c h i n g s a l m o n w h i c h was o u r r i g h t i n y e a r s gone b y . 2 8  L e a d e r s from t h e K i t s u m k a l u m and K i t s e l a s bands p r o p o s e d be  given c o n t r o l over t r a p p i n g because t h e i r  taught  them" how t o manage t h e r e s o u r c e .  forefathers had  2 9  M i s s i o n a r i e s a l s o p e t i t i o n e d government o f f i c i a l s Indians.  Reverend Coccola  of Indian A f f a i r s ,  informed  Indians  Frank Pedley,  on b e h a l f o f Deputy M i n i s t e r  i n O c t o b e r 1907 t h a t t h e c l o s e b e a v e r  season  14  would cause h a r d s h i p  f o r t h e I n d i a n s as t h e r e w e r e no d e e r  c a r i b o u i n t h e S t u a r t L a k e a r e a and 'backbone' o f t h e I n d i a n ' s  In  Reverend Morice,  the beaver c o n s t i t u t e d the  livelihood.  a l e t t e r to the p r o v i n c i a l  or  Premier  3 0  dated  23 J a n u a r y ,  O..M.I. q u o t e d t h e C h i e f o f t h e No.  2  1920, reserve  near P r i n c e George i n d e l i n e a t i n g t h e d i r e consequences o f a c l o s e beaver  season.  We a r e now v e r y m i s e r a b l e h e r e . We a r e d e b a r r e d , f r o m t r a p p i n g b e a v e r ; h e n c e we h a v e n o t h i n g t o l i v e on. T h e r e f o r e a s k i n o u r names t h a t we be a l l o w e d , t o k i l l moose, d e e r and c a r i b o u , and h e l p us t h a t way. Our c o u n t r y i s a most w r e t c h e d one, b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no s a l m o n i n i t . Sometimes we a r e two d a y s a t a t i m e w i t h o u t e a t i n g a t a l l . Do t e l l t h e G o v e r n m e n t t h a t ; t o e x p o s e t o them o u r c r i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n . T e l l them a l s o t h a t t h e I n d i a n A g e n t has n o t [ s e t ] f o o t on t h i s p l a c e f o r t h e l a s t two y e a r s , and t h a t he d o e s n o t h i n g f o r u s . P r a y , t e l l them a l l t h a t , t o o . 3 1  Morice  then informed the Premier  t h a t two  b a n d women had d i e d o f  malnutrition.  In e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o the Hudson Bay  Company o f f i c i a l s  restrictions I n an a t t e m p t  1905  b e a v e r moratorium.,  d e l i n e a t e d the impact  w o u l d h a v e on t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s  the t r a p p i n g  groups of the  north.  to demonstrate that l e g i s l a t e d , c o n s e r v a t i o n  methods, at l e a s t  f o r I n d i a n s , were u n n e c e s s a r y ,  s o l i c i t o r s d e s c r i b e d the F i r s t Nations  company  approach t o conservation..  [The] b e a v e r i t s e l f i s a m p l y p r o t e c t e d by t h e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s , who r e g a r d , t h i s a n i m a l as t h e i r p r i n c i p a l resources f o r a l i v e l i h o o d . D i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the country f r o m t i m e i m m e m o r i a l h a v e by m u t u a l c o n s e n t , o r 15  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , been a l l o t t e d t o t h e v a r i o u s C h i e f s and headmen o f t r i b e s who o n l y , e i t h e r k i l l - a l i m i t e d number f o r t h e m s e l v e s , o r p e r m i t o t h e r s on t h e i r r e s e r v e s t o k i l l a. l i m i t e d number. T h i s p r a c t i c e h a s s c r u p u l o u s l y o b s e r v e d [ s i c ] , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t f o r many y e a r s p a s t i n t h e o u t l y i n g p o r t i o n s o f the Province which s t i l l are only i n h a b i t e d b y I n d i a n s t h e r e h a s been, no a p p a r e n t d i m i n u t i o n o f B e a v e r , t h e B e a v e r b e i n g one o f t h e c h i e f i t e m s o f h i s l i v e l i h o o d . T h e r e i s no o t h e r a n i m a l , w h i c h c a n t a k e i t s p l a c e a s an a r t i c l e o f f o o d o r i n r e s p e c t o f i t s c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e as f u r . 3 2  The  lawyers  concluded, by s t a t i n g t h a t w h i t e  e n c r o a c h m e n t upon  I n d i a n t e r r i t o r y would l e a d t o t r o u b l e and they' p r e d i c t e d t h a t O r d e r s i n C o u n c i l a n d e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r s w o u l d be i n e f f e c t i v e r e p l a c e m e n t s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e l a w s a n d c u s t o m s t h a t hadgoverned past  The  c o n s e r v a t i o n methods.  I n d i a n Agent from H a z e l t o n  arguing that they  caused, g r e a t  33  opposed t h e c l o s e beaver  seasons,  hardship.  I w o u l d l i k e t o i m p r e s s on t h e D e p a r t m e n t t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f a f f a i r s [ c l o s e beaver season] has had a v e r y m a r k e d e f f e c t on t h e g e n e r a l l i f e o f t h e I n d i a n f o r n o t o n l y do t h e y make u s e o f t h e s k i n of. t h e b e a v e r b u t t h e I n d i a n s a l s o u s e s t h e meat a s t h e i r s t a p l e w i n t e r f o o d , . . . 34  In.  S e p t e m b e r o f 192.3, G e o r g e S. P r a . g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n  Agencies,  Kamloops, d e f i n e d t h e I n d i a n s  as t h e "best  preservers  of t h e f u r t r a d e " and a c c u s e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l , government o f b e i n g largely responsible f o rthe extermination of the fur-bearing animals. abusive fur  I n P r a g n e l l ' s e s t i m a t i o n , l e g i s l a t i o n both white  supported,  t r a p p i n g m e t h o d s a n d r e f l e c t e d an i g n o r a n c e  bearing animals  and t h e a c t u a l prime t r a p p i n g  season.  of the 3 5  16  The  s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n from Indians i n t h e n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s  s u p p o r t e d b y Hudson B a y o f f i c i a l s , of  Indian A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s ,  c l o s e beaver Stikine,  exemptions  as w e l l as m i s s i o n a r i e s ,  secured  f o r t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s groups i n t h e  L a i r d a n d P e a c e R i v e r d r a i n a g e a r e a s b e t w e e n 1905 - 1907  and a g a i n i n 1912 - 1 3 . extended  I n d i a n Agents and Department  3 6  The 1905 - 1907 e x e m p t i o n  was n o t  a f t e r 1907 b e c a u s e t h e b o u n d a r y l i n e b e t w e e n t h e exempt  and non-exempt a r e a s was i m p o s s i b l e t o p a t r o l a n d I n d i a n s of  south  t h e l i n e would t r a d e i n t h e n o r t h . A t o t a l p r o v i n c e wide  c l o s u r e b e g a n i n 1907 a n d t o p r e v e n t p e l t s f r o m b e i n g o u t s i d e t h e p r o v i n c e t h e P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden  sold  solicited  a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e N o r t h West M o u n t e d P o l i c e i n W h i t e h o r s e a n d t h e C h i e f Game Warden i n A l b e r t a . enforcement isolation, of  In s p i t e o f these  i n t h e P e a c e R i v e r D i s t r i c t was d i f f i c u l t  efforts, due t o t h e  immense s i z e o f t h e t e r r i t o r y a n d i n a d e q u a t e  enforcement  Although  3 7  numbers  staff.  Indians p e t i t i o n e d , a g a i n s t c l o s e beaver  seasons,  they  a l s o p r o t e s t e d w h i t e e n c r o a c h m e n t a n d d e f i e d p r o v i n c i a l game r e g u l a t i o n s by removing beaver In  houses,  t r a p s from white t r a p l i n e s , d e s t r o y i n g  and s e t t i n g  fires  t o d e t e r whites from t r a p p i n g .  two c a s e s , I n d i a n s from t h e H a z e l t o n a r e a were p r o s e c u t e d and  f o u n d g u i l t y o f i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h a l i c e n s e d w h i t e " t r a p p e r and. t h e sentences to  ranged  f r o m a f i n e o f $25.00 o r one month h a r d  labour  a f i n e o f $200.00 a n d 1 month h a r d l a b o u r p l u s c o s t s o r 4  17  months h a r d  Extensive  labour.  3 8  t r a p p i n g b y n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s was p l a c i n g t h e  l i v e s and l i v e l i h o o d s o f t h e C a r r i e r p e o p l e s ' a t  risk  f o r c i n g them  t o d i s r e g a r d game r e g u l a t i o n s a n d engage i n d r a s t i c m e a s u r e s . I n his area  1918 r e p o r t , t h e C o n s t a b l e |  f o r t h e South F o r t  George/Hazelton  r e m i n d e d h i s s u p e r i o r s t h a t t h e I n d i a n s were t h e o r i g i n a l  i n h a b i t a n t s and t h a t " t h e i r decedents n o t u n n a t u r a l l y "nourish a b e l i e f t h a t a l l game i s t h e i r s and. e v e r y e n c r o a c h m e n t on v e s t e d Hazelton  District  Game I n s p e c t o r  rights."  3 9  whiteman's t r a p l i n e an  One r e a s o n t h e C a r r i e r o f t h e  o p p o s e d game l a w s was e x p l a i n e d b y t h e C h i e f  i n 1920 when he r e p o r t e d t h a t w h i t e  I n d i a n t r a p p e r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i l l e g a l beaver.  than-  trapping of  4 0  Although  c l o s e beaver seasons and l e g i s l a t e d  measures proved inadequate i n a d d r e s s i n g l e a v i n g management of. t h e r e s o u r c e  were a v e r s e  t o grant  r e l u c t a n t t o grant believe the Indians  conservation  conservation  issues,  under, t h e c o n t r o l o f  a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s was n o t c o n s i d e r e d .  Although  rather  Game D e p a r t m e n t  game, c o n c e s s i o n s - t o I n d i a n s  officials  a n d were even  c l o s e season exemptions because they  d i d not.  r e l i e d on b e a v e r . a s a n e s s e n t i a l f o o d  t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l Game C o n s e r v a t i o n  Dr. A.R. B a k e r , h a d a " g r e a t  source. Board,  deal, o f sympathy f o r t h e I n d i a n s a n d  w i s h [ e d ] t o s e e them p r o p e r l y t r e a t e d , " he was d e t e r m i n e d t o p u t  18  a stop t o t h e beaver s l a u g h t e r .  B a k e r was n o t c o n v i n c e d districts  4 1  that the Indians i n the northern  s u f f e r e d f o r want o f b e a v e r meat f o r food.. B a k e r  e s t i m a t e d t h a t , d u r i n g 1919, only k i l l e d  over  t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e r e g i o n had n o t  f i v e thousand beaver b u t a l s o had been  responsible for the i l l e g a l  shipment o f 'probably  twenty thousand' p e l t s out o f t h e p r o v i n c e . evidence  Baker had t o support  4 2  fifteen to .  What s u b s t a n t i v e  h i s claims i sunclear, but i f h i s  e s t i m a t i o n s were b e l i e v e d t h e l o s t  revenues i n r o y a l t i e s and  t a x e s would have been c o n s i d e r a b l e and n o t beyond t h e n o t i c e o f government  By  officials.  1921 t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e b e a v e r c o n s e r v a t i o n management  s t r a t e g i e s i m p l e m e n t e d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t was  apparent.  A Royal Commission e s t a b l i s h e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l l e g a t i o n s o f mismanagement a g a i n s t the: C h a i r m a n o f t h e Game Board,  D r . A.R. B a k e r ,  operated beavers border tax  publicized the i l l e g a l  Conservation fur. t r a d e t h a t  b e t w e e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d A l b e r t a . The p e l t s o f caught by I n d i a n s f o r f o o d were b e i n g  shipped across the  a a d s o l d i n A l b e r t a t o a v o i d payment of. b o t h t h e r o y a l t y  and t r a d e r s ' l i c e n c e f e e s .  4 3  I n 1920 t h e Game  Conservation  B o a r d C h a i r m a n h a d d e t e r m i n e d , t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e B o a r d " ... had  not i n t e r f e r e d with the Indian r i g h t s t o . k i l l  we f o u n d  f o r food,  ...  t h a t t h e b u y e r s were p e r s u a d i n g , t h e I n d i a n s t o k i l l  19  illegally  f o r the trade."  4 4  The d a i l y p a p e r s i n V a n c o u v e r a n d V i c t o r i a  followed the Royal  C o m m i s s i o n t e s t i m o n y w h i c h f o c u s s e d a t t e n t i o n upon t h e t r a p p i n g i s s u e s i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n s e c t o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e . The I n d i a n s o f t h i s r e g i o n w e r e condemned b o t h decimating District,  f o r d e p l e t i n g b i g game s t o c k s a n d  t h e b e a v e r p o p u l a t i o n . I n t h e immense P e a c e R i v e r where game l a w e n f o r c e m e n t , was c o m p l i c a t e d b y T r e a t y 8  guarantees,  game e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r s  c l a i m e d t h a t i t was  practically  impossible to deter i l l e g a l  trapping, especially i n  beaver. ... [ T ] h e I n d i a n s a r e t h e w o r s e o f f e n d e r s i n B e a v e r , l a r g e l y because t h e y u s e the.Beaver f o r food, and t h e y [ I n d i a n s ] a r e a l w a y s h a r d t o c a t c h , a n d i n a D i s t r i c t l i k e , t h i s were [ s i c ] t h e I n d i a n i s a t r e a t y I n d i a n , when -caught "What'? he k i l l s a B e a v e r o u t o f s e a s o n on a p l e a t h a t he must h a v e f o o d , a n d i n many c a s e s he won't be l y i n g e i t h e r , what s h a l l he do w i t h t h e s k i n ? d e s t r o y i t ? no he w i l l n o t do t h a t , he w i l l h i d e i t t i l l t h e Season opens, and then s e l l i t . 4 5  The i l l e g a l  trade r a i s e d concern  that settlers,  p r o s p e c t o r s and  p l a c e r - m i n e r s w o u l d be f o r c e d t o a b a n d o n t h e i r v o c a t i o n s i f t h e beaver, s t o c k , was s e r i o u s l y d e p l e t e d . S u g g e s t i o n s ' t h a t m e a s u r e s be a d a p t e d t o p r o t e c t b e a v e r a s an a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e ' s  food  source  w e r e r e j e c t e d . When t h e M.L..A. f o r O m i n e c a , A.M. Manson, attempted  'to h a v e t h e I n d i a n s f r o m t h e N o r t h e r n  part ofthe  p r o v i n c e e x e m p t e d f r o m t h e 1920 c l o s e b e a v e r season., in  i s o l a t e d r e g i o n s where w h i t e  especially  t r a p p e r s had n o t encroached and  where t h e b e a v e r were p l e n t i f u l due t o n a t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n  20  m e t h o d s , h i s m o t i o n was d e f e a t e d .  4 6  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n t r a p p i n g s y s t e m was w i d e spread- and. t h e s y s t e m ' s i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s m o t i v a t e d recommendations f o r improvement from b o t h a b o r i g i n a l sources. submitted British  I n J u n e 1920, H.S. G a l l o p o f I n v e r m e r e , B.C.  a p r o p o s a l f o r change t o t h e D e p u t y A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l o f  C o l u m b i a . G a l l o p c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g game l a w s  were u n s y s t e m a t i c , wildlife  a b o r i g i n a l and non-  expensive  and inadequate  i n managing t h e  w h i c h he d e f i n e d a s one o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s  greatest  n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . To p r o t e c t t h e game a n d f u r b e a r i n g  animals  and p r o v i d e t h e p r o v i n c e w i t h s t e a d y r e v e n u e , G a l l o p p r o p o s e d a l i c e n s e d t r a p p e r system which would a s s i g n s p e c i f i c areas t o t r a p p e r s , encourage c o n s e r v a t i o n and permit  licensed holders t o  ' p o l i c e ' h i s own a r e a . I n t h e n o r t h e r n d i s t r i c t s , I n d i a n s ^ d e p e n d on. H u n t i n g areas  for a living,  s h o u l d be s e t a s i d e f o r t h e i r e x c l u s i v e u s e ,  no T r a p p e r s  In  and Trapping  L i c e n c e s h o u l d be i s s u e d . "  Conservation  suitable  and over  from t h e Fort  t h a t t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e Game  Board,'A.R. Baker,  d i s c u s s t h e c r e a t i o n o f an I n d i a n  trapping region with the Indian Chiefs of the northern D e s c r i b i n g t h e l a r g e numbers o f b e a v e r k i l l e d ' i l l e g a l manipulators,'  which  4 7  S e p t e m b e r o f 1 9 2 1 , I n d i a n A g e n t W.J. M c A l l a n  F r a s e r Agency r e q u e s t e d  "where t h e  interior.  for the benefit of  i n t h e r e g i o n , McAllan argued t h a t  21  " [ p j u t t i n g t h e e n t i r e t r a p p i n g o f b e a v e r i n t o t h e hands o f Indians  ...  [was]  t h e b e a v e r and  As  t h e o n l y way  secure  t o c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n ,  the revenue t o the  e n c r o a c h m e n t upon h u n t i n g and  intensified,  Province."  trapping  By  l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d s be trapping use.  4 9  1923  4 8  territories  Kamloops, n o t e d  for  I n d i a n l e a d e r s were r e q u e s t i n g  reserved for t h e i r exclusive hunting  and  I n a s p e c i a l r e p o r t on t r a p p i n g i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, George P r a g n e l l ,  Inspector of Indian  Agencies,  t h a t , because the I n d i a n s were n e i t h e r a b l e  retain traditional  lands nor m a i n t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l  methods, t h e y were r e q u e s t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  to  trapping  of a t r a p  r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m . "They [ t h e I n d i a n s ] c o n t e n d e d t h a t  line  they  w h e r e p r e v i o u s l o n g u s a g e shows a p r o p r i e t a r y c l a i m  s h o u l d have f i r s t trappers l i v i n g  chance of r e g i s t r a t i o n ,  i n the d i s t r i c t s  t r a p p e r s from o u t s i d e l a s t . " recommended t h a t i f t h i s l a n d s h o u l d be themselves  preserve  s e c u r i n g a. l i v i n g became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t  F i r s t Nations people.  themselves,  the  5 0  that regular white  s h o u l d come n e x t ,  The  s y s t e m was  Kootenay Indians not v i a b l e then  s e t a s i d e f o r I n d i a n t r a p p i n g and  and  that  had a block  that  Indians  would a s s i g n l i n e s w i t h i n the area. P r a g n e l l  the F i r s t Nations  of  supported  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n of. a r e g i s t e r e d s y s t e m t o  replace the "present  promiscuous method."  51  T h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were r e j e c t e d b y t h e I n s p e c t o r o f  Indian  2 2  A g e n c i e s f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , W.E. all  provincial  had  equal  Ditchburn.  Indian Agents, Ditchburn  r i g h t s with white  from p u r c h a s i n g  In h i s c i r c u l a r  p o i n t e d out t h a t  l i c e n c e s . He  Agents to p a c i f y I n d i a n f e a r s about l o s i n g ' t h e i r l a n d s by a s s u r i n g them t h a t as l o n g as t h e y t o t h e Game r e g u l a t i o n s t h e y  experience the  had  n e e d h a v e no  task f o r the  proven p r o v i n c i a l  s u b s i s t e n c e and  Indians  t r a p p e r s e v e n though, t h e y were exempt  trapping or hunting  h a v e b e e n a most d i f f i c u l t  to  advised  the  traditional  c o n s i s t e n t l y adhered  concern.  5 2  T h i s must  Indian Agents  laws inadequate  in  c o n s e r v a t i o n needs o f the F i r s t  since  addressing Nations  people.  N e i t h e r G a l l o p ' s nor McAllan's areas  be  exclusively reserved  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e Game Act. allowed  first  recommendations t h a t f o r a b o r i g i n a l use The  E c o n o m i c f a c t o r s and  and  was  request  to  r i g h t s , when c o n s i d e r e d ,  A f t e r W o r l d War p r i c e s climbed  1, e x c e p t and  rights  also excluded  i n the  aboriginal usufruct  were i n v a l i d a t e d o r  ignored.  f o r a b r i e f d e c l i n e i n 1921-1922, f u r  remained h i g h u n t i l  attracted non-aboriginal trappers to a v o c a t i o n . As  be  conservation concerns d i r e c t e d  t h e c r e a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e measures and  Nations  were  o p t i o n t o r e g i s t e r because o f p r i o r use  a p p e a r s not t o have been c o n s i d e r e d legislation.  Indian's  northern  1930 . S t a b l e p r i c e s 53  predominantly  knowledge o f the l u c r a t i v e n a t u r e  First of the  fur  23  i n d u s t r y expanded,  government o f f i c i a l s  imposing taxes t o b r i n g coffers. MLA  I n 1920,  a n d MLAs a d v o c a t e d  some o f t h e p r o f i t s  into  a d a p t i n g t h e recommendations  f r o m K a m l o o p s a n d D r . A. R. B a k e r , C h a i r m a n  C o n s e r v a t i o n Board, t h e government imposed  government  o f F.W. Anderson, o f t h e Game  a ( r o y a l t y t a x on f u r s  t h a t w o u l d c r e a t e an e s t i m a t e d r e v e n u e o f 80 t o 100 t h o u s a n d dollars.  Initial  5 4  e s t i m a t e s were e x a g g e r a t e d b u t as revenues  d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f u r t r a d e i n c r e a s e d f r o m $5,291.39 i n 1920 t o $60,594.18 i n 1 9 2 4  concern about t h e d e p l e t i o n o f f u r - b e a r i n g  55  animals i n t e n s i f i e d .  R e p o r t s such as t h a t s u b m i t t e d by C o n s t a b l e  E d w a r d F o r f a r f r o m t h e Hudson Hope D e t a c h m e n t i n A p r i l  192 4  p r o v o k e d t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e Game C o n s e r v a t i o n B o a r d . The f u r c a t c h h a s b e e n g o o d , t o o g o o d , t h e r e h a s b e e n f a r more f u r c a u g h t t h a n t h e i n c r e a s e w i l [ s i c ] i n a n y way make up f o r , we a r e k i l l i n g t h e Goose t h a t , l a y s t h e g o l d e n e g g , t h e B e a v e r r e t u r n s a r e good,- d e c e i t f u l l y good, a s t h e h u n t • has b e e n c a r r i e d i n many l o c a l i t i e s t o t h e p o i n t o f e x t e r m i n a t i o n , i t i s a s w e l l f o r Game C o n s e r v a t o r s t o remember t h a t c l o s e s e a s o n s w i l l n o t b r i n g b a c k Game when the seed h a s been caught o u t . 5 5  Continued i n t e r e s t  i n t h e economic  a s p e c t s o f t h e t r a d e and'"  demands f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e b e a v e r p r o m p t e d  the Attorney  G e n e r a l t o p r o p o s e amendments t o t h e Game A c t , e f f e c t i v e t h a t would  impose  a compulsory t r a p l i n e  registration  Designed as a c o n s e r v a t i o n s t r a t e g y , t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n 'aliens'  i n 1925,  system. restricted  from t r a p p i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e and r e q u i r e d a l l t r a p  l i n e s be r e g i s t e r e d w i t h t h e t r a p p e r who w o u l d a c t b o t h a s h a r v e s t e r and c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t .  In return,  t h e t r a p p e r w o u l d be  24  protected was  f r o m t r a p l i n e e n c r o a c h m e n t . The  t o put  " ...  the  f u r i n d u s t r y b a c k on t h e b a s i s o f  i n t h e d a y s when I n d i a n s it  [was]  fur."  The  recalled,  always endeavoured to conserve the  Act  prevailing  d i d most o f t h e t r a p p i n g . The  Indians, country's  5 7  i d e a t h a t an e f f e c t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n  with t r a d i t i o n a l H.G.  i n t e n t i o n of the  a b o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e s was  P o l l e y , the Conservative  presenting  s y s t e m had  Attorney  r e i t e r a t e d i n 1929  General,  amendments t o f u r t h e r d e f i n e t r a p  responsibilities,  originated  who,  by  in  line  noted:  I t i s e v i d e n t . t h a t the a n c i e n t I n d i a n s o f the e a r l y days were l e s s p r o l i f i g a t e [ s i c ] i n t h e m a t t e r o f h u n t i n g f u r b e a r i n g game, t h a n a r e t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s , t h e w h i t e man. Under u n w r i t t e n ^ l a w s w h i c h p r e v a i l e d among t h e I n d i a n s t h e r e was a s o r t o f t r a p l i n e i n v o g u e , m a i n t a i n e d by d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s , and t h e r i g h t s o v e r w h i c h were r e s p e c t e d , and by w h i c h t h e game o f t h e c o u n t r y was k e p t up i n t h e m a t t e r o'f supply. 5 8  Using  traditional  f o r the t r a p l i n e  F i r s t Nations registration  r e g i s t r a t i o n of. l i n e s was  c o n s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d s as a. b a s i s s y s t e m was  a paradox.  The  a f o r e i g n concept to a b o r i g i n a l  t r a p p e r s . The  s y s t e m was. i m p l e m e n t e d t o a d d r e s s c o n f l i c t s  F i r s t Nations  and  white  trappers  and  to introduce a  management s t r u c t u r e t h a t c o u l d be m o n i t o r e d by officers.  The  c e r t a i n area  i d e a was and  to provide  c r e a t e an  exchange f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  between  conservation  game e n f o r c e m e n t  a sense of ownership t o a  exclusive right to harvest for conservation.  The  furs in  Indian's  system  25  "  ...  was  b a s e d on  rotational  freedom of access,  f l e x i b l e use,  and  c o n s e r v a t i o n , w h i c h meant t h a t some a r e a s  u n t r a p p e d f o r s e a s o n s on e n d . " the w i l d l i f e Restricting  5 9  T h i s a p p r o a c h was  i n a g i v e n area, not hunting a c t i v i t i e s  just  the  went  applied to a l l  fur-bearing  to a single resource  in selected  areas w h i l e opening hunt seasons f o r s p e c i f i c a n i m a l s areas  was  a f o r e i g n and  aboriginal  The  in a l l  u n s u s t a i n a b l e management t e c h n i q u e  for  people.  l e g i s l a t e d conservation system supported  r e c r e a t i o n r a t h e r than  sustenance.  W h i t e men  p l e a s u r e or t o supplement t h e i r e x i s t i n g d i e t augment e x i s t i n g s u r v i v e and  animals.  e c o n o m i c e n d e a v o u r s . The  t h e y had  o n l y one  hunting  hunted e i t h e r and  5 0  c o n f r o n t a t i o n and  to  to  They  game r e g u l a t i o n s .  p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a t t e m p t t o meet t h e n e e d s o f d i v e r g e n t g r o u p s i n one  for  they trapped  Indians hunted  vocation—trapping.  t h e r e f o r e vehemently opposed r e s t r i c t i v e  for  The  two  management s t r u c t u r e g u a r a n t e e d  confusion.  26  CHAPTER TWO  Implementation of the Trap Line Registration System  T h e r e were t h r e e main d i f f i c u l t i e s implementation Nations  of the trap line  people:  process,  associated with the  r e g i s t r a t i o n system f o r  c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s t o compliance, t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n  and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s t r u c t u r e o f both t h e f e d e r a l ;  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  The.registered  trap line  a n d t h e p r o v i n i c a l Game B o a r d .  system repudiated  hundreds o f years o f  a b o r i g i n a l p r i o r r i g h t use and s u c c e s s f u l w i l d l i f e F i r s t Nations  t r a p p e r s were e x p e c t e d t o c o m p l y w i t h  r e g i s t r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s and l i c e n s i n g deficiences with'the skills  First  management. elaborate  requirements despite  their  Euro-Canadian language, l i t e r a c y and mapping  t h a t were e s s e n t i a l f o r f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . A l l  a p p l i c a n t s r e g i s t e r i n g a t r a p l i n e were e x p e c t e d t o f u r n i s h " ... a t r u e and c o r r e c t g e o g r a p h i c a l  description of his line."  1  Unable  to t r a n s f e r t h e i r geographical  knowledge o f t h e t e r r i t o r y t o t h e  white  Indian e f f o r t s t o sketch the  man's m a p p i n g t e c h n i q u e ,  r e q u i r e d i n d i v i d u a l t r a p l i n e s w e r e deemed, i n a d e q u a t e ,  ignorant  r  and  childish,  "just  little  scratches."  2  Aboriginal  of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y resources wildlife  understandings  t o t h e l a n d and i t s  c o u l d n o t be m o u l d e d i n t o t h e c o n c e p t o f r e g u l a t e d conservation.  C u l t u r a l ' d i f f e r e n c e s and language b a r r i e r s  )  27  made c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e c o m p u l s o r y r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m e x t r e m e l y difficult.  Because t h e b a s i c b a r r i e r s t o r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r F i r s t p e o p l e were i g n o r e d  and t h e i r  Nations  fundamental needs d i s r e g a r d e d ,  the  p o l i c y t h a t was d e v e l o p e d e n s u r e d t h e t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m w o u l d be i n e q u i t a b l e . T r a p p i n g a r e a s w e r e q u i c k l y r e g i s t e r e d by. a s t u t e ,  aggressive  white trappers  3  who u n d e r s t o o d  t h e p r o c e s s and were u n r e s t r i c t e d by language o r c u l t u r a l barriers.  Once c l a i m e d  by a white t r a p p e r ,  a r e a s were e a s i l y  t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m one t o a n o t h e r b y n o m i n a t i o n o f a s u c c e s s o r through settlement  o f an e s t a t e .  4  Section  41 o f t h e Game Act  s t i p u l a t e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s under which a t r a p p e r successor the  to trap h i s l i n e .  The t r a p p e r  or  c o u l d nominate a  had t o have a d h e r e d t o  game r e g u l a t i o n s , o p e r a t e d t o c o n s e r v e t h e f u r , a n d h a v e  become estate  1  incompacitated  by i l l n e s s o r o t h e r w i s e . '  c o u l d nominate a successor  t r a n s f e r s were s u b j e c t  The  trapper's  i n case o f d e a t h and a l l  to approval  A l t h o u g h t h e Act s t i p u l a t e d t h a t  5  b y t h e Game C o m m i s s i o n e r . ' i n c a p a c i t a t i o n ' was t h e  criteria  u n d e r w h i c h l i n e s c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t h i s was n o t  followed  and t h e a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r l i n e s through s a l e  added  a d d i t i o n a l monetary value  t o t h e l i n e s beyond f u r r e t u r n s .  T h e r e were no r e g u l a t i o n s  regarding  trapper  could  sell  the sale of trap l i n e s but a  h i s t r a p s , equipment, and t r a p p i n g  cabins t o  28  anyone he w i s h e d . The t r a p p e r d i s p o s i n g o f h i s l i n e t h e game o f f i c e r n o m i n a t i n g t h e p u r c h a s e r nominee met t h e c r i t e r i a o f b e i n g licenced trapper , 6  from p u r c h a s i n g  then wrote t o  as s u c c e s s o r .  I f the  a n a t i o n a l i z e d r e s i d e n t and a  t h e t r a n s f e r was a p p r o v e d . I n d i a n s w e r e exempt  l i c e n c e s , y e t a l i c e n c e was r e q u i r e d t o q u a l i f y  f o r nomination as a t r a p l i n e  successor.  combined w i t h t h e ease w i t h which white l i n e s t o other non-aboriginal trappers  This  7  ' c a t c h 22'  trappers transferred effectively  kept  lines  f r o m r e v e r t i n g t o t h e Game D e p a r t m e n t f o r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  f o rF i r s t Nations use.  I n d i a n A g e n t s c o u l d p u r c h a s e t h e $2.50 E x t r a S p e c i a l Licence  so t h a t Indians  c o u l d t r a p a l i n e a c q u i r e d by t h e  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . officials' line  Firearms  8  But t h i s  failed to alleviate  c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e r e v e n u e s l o s t when a w h i t e  reverted to the Indians.  game  trap  In. 1938 t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n  A f f a i r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l game d e p a r t m e n t s h o u l d n o t be penalized f o r p e r m i t t i n g the sale of white trappers  and s u p p o r t e d  on I n d i a n t r a p p e r s .  the  fees from t h e Indians  9  Firearms  I n d i a n A g e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o c o l l e c t whenever p o s s i b l e .  1 0  t r a p p e r s were f u r t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e d  lack of understanding  f o r Indian  t h e l e v y i n g o f t h e $10.00 S p e c i a l  Fee  F i r s t Nations  trap lines  because o f t h e  game a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h a d a b o u t a b o r i g i n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o l a n d and w i l d l i f e .  Provincial  regulations  29  l e g i s l a t e d conservation  a n d r e s t r i c t e d management t e c h n i q u e s t o  the Euro-Canadian concept o f t r a p p i n g only t h e s u r p l u s  animals  f r o m t h e l i n e a s a w h o l e . A n I n d i a n e n d e a v o u r i n g t o manage t h e beaver according  to traditional  a b o r i g i n a l methods o f u t i l i z i n g  several areas i n r o t a t i o n r i s k e d l o s i n g a l l o r part o f h i s l i n e for  under-utilization.  The o n l y e v i d e n c e t h e Game  Inspector  r e q u i r e d t o r e s c i n d , a n d r e a s s i g n t r a p p i n g a r e a s was s w o r n affidavits utilized.  stipulating  an I n d i a n t r a p p i n g a r e a h a d n o t b e e n  fully  1 1  O t h e r f a c t o r s b e s i d e s , r e g u l a t i o n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s made t h e implementation northern  of the registration  system p a r t i c u l a r l y  arduous i n  d i s t r i c t s . . By O c t o b e r 1 9 2 5 , when t h e d i r e c t i v e was  r e c e i v e d most o f t h e t r a p p e r s w e r e a l r e a d y on t h e t r a p l i n e s a n d not  a v a i l a b l e t o r e g i s t e r t h e i r areas u n t i l  officials 1930,  13  had d i f f i c u l t y  the spring.  1 4  and p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s  Constables  the process.  as w e l l as surveyed  1 8  and t h e process  responsibilities e s p e c i a l l y those  1 9  assigned  lands.  1 6  i n s t a n c e s , game  of aboriginal harvesting  was a l s o d e l a y e d t o law enforcement  i n remote a r e a s .  registration.  In other  1 7  o f f i c e r s erred through ignorance  influenced  1 5  over  who m i s u n d e r s t o o d o r m i s i n t e r p r e t e d t h e r e g u l a t i o n s  further complicated  practices,  Game  s e c u r i n g a p p r o p r i a t e maps, e v e n i n  a n d c o m p o u n d i n g t h i s p r o b l e m was t h e c o n f u s i o n  district  1 2  2 0  by t h e e x t e n s i v e officers  S t a f f turnovers  also  2 1  30  In c e r t a i n cases, white t r a p p e r s  received  b e c a u s e w a r d e n s w e r e awkward w i t h  or h o s t i l e towards  B a s e d upon c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d by aboriginal t r a p p e r s e f f o r t s judged i n f e r i o r  to that  I n d i a n s were d e s c r i b e d  The trap  ignorant,  divided into five largest region,  For  "D"  the  i n t o organized  and  g r a n t e d Game A c t use.  the  and  the  purposes the province  province  north  I I ] . The  area north was  of,  further and  of p a r a l l e l  concessions r e l a t e d to securing  was  food  Indians  53  or  were  for  2 5  D i v i s i o n was  d i v i d e d , i n t o f o u r d i s t r i c t s : Peace R i v e r ,  R u p e r t , H a z e l t o n and  Prince  further divided, i n t o three S t . J o h n and  of law  2 4  organizational  unorganized t e r r i t o r i e s  farmers i n unorganized, t e r r i t o r i e s  Fort  liars.  p r o v i n c i a l Game Act  D i v i s i o n , encompassed the The  be  a c t u a l implementation of  administrative  53th p a r a l l e l .  2 2  and  2 3  game d i v i s i o n s [see A p p e n d i c e s I. and  a p p r o x i m a t e l y , the  "D"  illiterate  the  designed to administer  f e d e r a l Indian Act.  personal  l i n e u s a g e could-  of t h e i r white counterparts, as  Indians.  officials,  r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m w e r e compounded by  structures  divided  non-aboriginal  to,prove trap  d i f f i c u l t i e s associated' with line  p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment  enforcement  George.  2 6  The  administrative  Hudson H o p e  27  Fort  St.  sectors:  John a r e a  Prince was-  Fort. Nelson,  detachments under the  supervision  officers.  31  B e t w e e n 1923 and. 1932, provincial  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o f t h e Indian Act i n t h e  i n s p e c t o r a t e was u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n  Commissioner f o r B r i t i s h two  C o l u m b i a . The p r o v i n c e ' was d i v i d e d i n t o  inspectorates with the office  Agencies f o r the Southeast p r o v i n c e was d i v i d e d i n t o Skeena, B e l l a C o o l a ,  of the Inspector of Indian  Inspectorate  16 I n d i a n A g e n c i e s :  Kwawkewlth,  Okanagan, Queen C h a r l o t t e , S t i k i n e ,  S t u a r t L a k e , V a n c o u v e r , West C o a s t , 2 8  Babine and Upper  Cowichan, Kamloops, Kootenay,  L y t t o n , New W e s t m i n i s t e r ,  River.  l o c a t e d i n K a m l o o p s . The  W i l l i a m s L a k e and. S k e e n a  The n o r t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e ' p r o v i n c e was l a r g e l y  excluded, from t h e B r i t i s h Columbia I n s p e c t o r a t e because o f i t s d e s i g n a t i o n as a t r e a t y area.'  The  Treaty  8 a r e a was a d m i n i s t e r e d  A f f a i r s o f f i c e s a t Regina,  from Department o f I n d i a n  Saskatchewan u n t i l  1932 a n d t h e n  to theA l b e r t a Inspectorate at Calgary, A l b e r t a .  2 9  moved  This  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e removed t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m the. p r o v i n c i a l The who, to  ensuing  i s o l a t i o n was e x p r e s s e d  i n requesting permission  Indian A f f a i r s  Inspectorate.  b y t h e I n d i a n A g e n t i n 1937  from Department o f f i c i a l s  i n Ottawa  ' s t r a i g h t e n out' t r a p l i n e d i s p u t e s as a s p e c i a l agent,  noted:  I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t ' t o e x p l a i n what I f e e l . We a r e away o u t i n t h i s i s o l a t e d corner o f . B r i t i s h Columbia under t h e A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e . We h a v e n e a r b y no p e r s o n b e l o n g i n g t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t w i t h whom we c a n c o n f e r - o n o c c a s i o n ; nobody w i t h whom I c a n d i s c u s s t h e A f f a i r s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o r t h e i r p l a n s . I h a v e no o p p o r t u n i t y o f h a v i n g i n s i d e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d h e l p me i n d e a l i n g w i t h P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t s . T h i s t r a p l i n e b u s i n e s s up- h e r e i s a l o n e f i g h t . , 32  1  and t h e Game C o m m i s s i o n a n d I n s p e c t o r V a n Dyk know t h a t h a v e me i n a b a r r e l .  they  3 0  The  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  seemed u n c e r t a i n o f t h e most  e f f e c t i v e way t o a d m i n i s t e r T r e a t y intensified the isolation  8 a n d made d e c i s i o n s t h a t  f o r the. I n d i a n s  f o r t h e Game a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . I n an e f f o r t requirements o f the Indians portion of Treaty  and confused  t h a t -the a p p r o p r i a t e  Indian Agent's o f f i c e , h i s p e r p l e x i t y . "This  the. n o r t h e r n  t o .the S t i k i n e A g e n c y u n d e r t h e  d i r e c t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n Agent a t Telegraph •requesting  C r e e k i n 1.932.. I n  f i l e s be t r a n s f e r r e d .to t h e  t h e p r o v i n c i a l Game C o m m i s s i o n e r i sthe f i r s t  3 1  c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s d e c i s i o n was t h a t t h e T r e a t y  the northern  p o r t i o n o f the t r e a t y area  under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n Inspectorate, Post.  3 2  o f t h e S t i k i n e Agency, B r i t i s h  8 Indians  (Peace' R i v e r D i s t r i c t )  8 Indians i n  (Liard District)  b u t were c l a s s i f i e d a s b e l o n g i n g  The T r e a t y  i n the southern  continued  expressed  i n t i m a t i o n t h a t I have had  t h a t M r . H a r p e r Reed's A g e n c y e x t e n d e d s o f a r E a s t . "  The  the issue  t o address t h e support  i n the Fort Nelson area,  8 was a s s i g n e d  both  were  Columbia  t o the L i a r d  p o r t i o n o f the area  t o be. a d m i n i s t e r e d  by t h e I n d i a n  Agent i n Grouard, A l b e r t a , i n t h e A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e  u n t i l 1934.  when an a g e n c y was e s t a b l i s h e d a t F o r t S t . J o h n . ' A l l administrative aspects  r e l a t e d t o t h e Peace. R i v e r  remained p a r t o f t h e A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e  until  District  1938 when t h e  I n d i a n Agent a t F o r t S t . John r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n  t o deal  33  d i r e c t l y w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia Indian issues.  Inspectorate  on t r a p  line  3 3  P o l i c i e s adopted by t h e Department  of Indian A f f a i r s  i s s u e s i n t h e Peace R i v e r ' D i s t r i c t  of Treaty  applicable to the rest of the province. recommendation  t o address  8 were n o t always  I n 1938, under  o f t h e F o r t S t . John I n d i a n Agent, t h e Department  approved t h e i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f band l i n e s and t h e l e v y i n g o f provincial concluded Indians  game l i c e n c e f e e s on I n d i a n s . A g e n t Brown h a d t h a t t h e b e s t way t o p r e v e n t  'bolshevik'"  3 4  f r o m r a i d i n g b a n d r e g i s t e r e d l i n e s was t o h a v e t h e l i n e s  divided into family or individual  l i n e s t h a t c o u l d be more  c l o s e l y m o n i t o r e d , b y t h e Game W a r d e n s .  The  "young  35  I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D.M.  objected  MacKay,  t o A g e n t Brown's r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e  C o m m i s s i o n e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l game b o a r d s h o u l d be reimbursed f o rl o s t  r e v e n u e when w h i t e  trap lines reverted to •  I n d i a n s , he q u e s t i o n e d , t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f making, t h i s a. g e n e r a l l y applied policy.  "At l e a s t  seventy-five percent  c o u l d n o t o r w o u l d n o t p a y , and. t h e D e p a r t m e n t  of our Indians w o u l d e i t h e r have  t o assume t h e o b l i g a t i o n o r f a c e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e wholesale  c a n c e l l a t i o n of Indian t r a p l i n e s [ s i c ] . "  believed that a general  3 6  Mackay  a p p l i c a t i o n would s e t a p r e c e d e n t and  w o u l d open t h e way f o r t h e p r o v i n c e  t o levy fees  for irrigation  34  p u r p o s e s a n d on r a n g e l a n d s  The  used by Indian l i v e s t o c k .  Commissioner doubted t h a t  i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g band t r a p  would s o l v e d i s a g r e e m e n t s between t h e I n d i a n s d i f f i c u l t i e s A g e n t Brown was e x p e r i e n c i n g  lines  and noted t h a t t h e  w e r e common t o a l l  A g e n c i e s . He t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n was  'largely'  i n t h e h a n d s ' o i t h e I n d i a n A g e n t . MacKay d o u b t e d t h a t t h e F o r t S t . J o h n A g e n t " ... i n h i s e a g e r n e s s t o meet a l o c a l gave much t h o u g h t t o t h e p o s s i b l e f a r r e a c h i n g  situation,  consequences  such  r  a p o l i c y c o u l d have, o n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n d i a n s in this  province."  as a whole  3 7  A b o r i g i n a l people, h a d a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e impact t h a t t h e b a r r i e r s t o r e g i s t r a t i o n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s w o u l d h a v e on traditional trapping territories.. any  implementation of a trapping  For t h e F i r s t Nations system t h a t f a i l e d  people,  t o provide  them w i t h p r i o r i t y a c c e s s i n c i t e d f e a r s t h a t r e g i s t r a t i o n validate of non-aboriginal trapping t e r r i t o r i e s . as b e i n g game,  38  appropriation of First  Even though t h e I n d i a n s  t h e g r o u p most c r i t i c a l l y  wildlife  i n t e r e s t e d i n conserving  people that  and revenues. Trap l i n e  F i r s t Nations introduced  way o f l i f e  without  focussed  management  on b a l a n c i n g  registrations disrupted the  and c a u s e d h a r d s h i p .  challenge.  Nations  were a c k n o w l e d g e d  p r o v i n c i a l game l a w s i m p o s e d c o n s e r v a t i o n  s y s t e m s on F i r s t N a t i o n s  would  F i r s t Nations'  They w e r e n o t  adamant  opposition  35  t o t h e c l o s e b e a v e r s e a s o n s a n d game l a w s i n g e n e r a l a f t e r t h e compulsory t r a p l i n e implemented.. W h i l e w i l d l i f e policy, matter  for "First Nations,  s y s t e m was  c o n s e r v a t i o n became a. p r o v i n c i a l c o n s e r v a t i o n was a l i f e s t y l e :  a  simple  of survival.  When t h e t r a p l i n e the  registration  continued  F i r s t Nations  Division,  registration  groups i n t h e Hazelton  i n asserting priority  f o r o r secure  s y s t e m was i n i t i a l l y  rights,  r e g i s t r a t i o n because they  District  introduced,  o f "D"  " ... r e f u s e d t o a p p l y c l a i m e d t h a t t r a p p i n g was  t h e i r a n c e s t r a l r i g h t and they would not comply w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s made b y t h e w h i t e m a n .  To  39  a s s e r t ownership r i g h t s  and  h i s accomplices  invaded  i n a Hazelton a white  t r a p p i n g a r e a , an I n d i a n  t r a p p e r ' s c a b i n i n 1925 a n d  r e m o v e d f u r s b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e w h i t e  t r a p p e r had  t r e s p a s s e d upon I n d i a n t r a p p i n g grounds, t o o b t a i n them. B a s e d upon s u b m i s s i o n s  presented  by t h e accused, a n d t h e I n d i a n Agent a t  the p r e l i m i n a r y hearing, t h e J u s t i c e ' p r i o r and e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s dismissed  t h e case.  t o t r a p i n B r i t i s h Columbia,' and  The p o l i c e  laid  h e a r i n g t h e a c c u s e d was b o u n d o v e r "  ... b o l d l y [ t a k e n ]  agree t h a t I n d i a n s had  new c h a r g e s a n d a t t h e s e c o n d for trial.  The I n d i a n s h a d  t h e l a w i n t o t h e i r own h a n d s a n d c o m p e l l e d  w h i t e man t o l e t them c a r r y o f f f u r s ... . " h a n d l i n g o f t h e case motivated  both  4 0  a  The m a g i s t r a t e ' s  t h e p r o s e c u t i n g b a r r i s t e r and  36  t h e M.L.A. t o w r i t e t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s expressing outrage  at the i n i t i a l  subsequent sentence  of only  office  d i s m i s s a l and then a t t h e  'thirty  days.'  A l e t t e r t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Game C o m m i s s i o n e r i n J a n u a r y  o f 1928  f r o m a F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r i n t h e B e l l a B e l l a a r e a d e p i c t e d how powerless  he was t o keep w h i t e t r a p p e r s f r o m e n c r o a c h i n g  territory.  The I n d i a n , a n d h i s f a m i l y h a d t r a p p e d , t h e same  f o r g e n e r a t i o n s and had b u i l t But  on h i s  comfortable  cabins along the l i n e .  t h i s d i d n o t ke.ep w h i t e t r a p p e r s f r o m e n c r o a c h i n g  because  game r e g u l a t i o n s d i d n o t e x t e n d t o i s l a n d s s o t r a p l i n e s n o t be r e g i s t e r e d l i k e  area  those on t h e m a i n l a n d .  could  The a b o r i g i n a l  t r a p p e r w a n t e d p r o t e c t i o n f r o m men who moved f r o m a r e a t o a r e a d e s t r o y i n g t h e l a s t a n i m a l on t h e l i n e , u s i n g p o i s o n i f necessary.  4 1  I n A u g u s t o f 1 9 3 3 , a F i r s t N a t i o n s woman f r o m t h e C a n i m I n d i a n Band w r o t e t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n requesting assistance i n securing t r a d i t i o n a l fishing  territories  prevented  access  trap line. registering  The  Affairs,  t r a p p i n g and  f o r her f a m i l y . White-people  had not only  t o f i s h i n g areas but a l s o taken her f a t h e r ' s  She a s k e d lines.  t h a t I n d i a n s be g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e i n  4 2  Kitwancool- Indians r e s i s t e d r e g i s t e r i n g  their  trap lines f o r  37  a d i f f e r e n t but r e l a t e d reason. r e g i s t r a t i o n would confuse territory.  4 3  They f i n a l l y  They were concerned, t h a t  outstanding  complied  land claims i n t h e i r  when a s s u r e d  that  registering  t r a p l i n e s would not a d v e r s e l y e f f e c t t h e i r o l d c l a i m s .  I n 1946 t h e C a r r i e r  Indians o f Stewart  Lake p e t i t i o n e d t h e  f e d e r a l government f o r a r e t u r n o f t r a d i t i o n a l They r e q u e s t e d to ignorance  restitution  of the trap line  instances, through register  f o r lands l o s t  Indian  trapping  areas.  to white  t r a p p e r s due  r e g i s t r a t i o n process  a n d , i n some  the f a i l u r e o f Indian agents t o n o t i f y o r  lines-.  4 4  I n a d d r e s s i n g t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n on. t h e I n d i a n A c t 1946-1948, t h e C a r r i e r expressed  t h e i r d i s p l e a s u r e with both  territories animals  Indians of the non-treaty their  F r a s e r Lake  area  loss of traditional  and t h e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e s l a u g h t e r o f f u r b e a r i n g  by white hunters  and t r a p p e r s .  ... i n o l d e n d a y s the, I n d i a n s h a d a l l t h e c o u n t r y t o t h e m s e l v e s a n d c o u l d h u n t and. k i l l t h e b e a v e r a t a n y time.. They, h o w e v e r , t o o k g r e a t c a r e o f t h e b e a v e r , s o t h a t t h e r e was a l w a y s an a b u n d a n t o f [ s i c ] s u p p l y . Now t h e b e a v e r h a s b e e n p r a c t i c a l l y e x t e r m i n a t e d b y t h e u n w i s e methods o f t h e w h i t e h u n t e r s and t r a p p e r s . 4 5  A s e c o n d C a r r i e r spokesman d e s c r i b e d , how c o n s e r v a t i o n h a d b e e n t h e p r a c t i c e from 'time  i m m e m o r i a l . ' B e a v e r c o l o n i e s w e r e managed  w i t h s p e c i a l care, g i v e n t o m a i n t a i n i n g b r e e d i n g s t o c k . (  worked w e l l u n t i l  " [ t ] h e white people  k i l l e d the beaver i n d i s c r i m i n a n t l y ,  The s y s t e m  came i n , h o w e v e r , and  without  regard to the  38  preservation of the stock."  4 6  Indians, a c c u s e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l government o f e n a c t i n g  legislation  t h a t i m p e d e d r a t h e r t h a n s u p p o r t e d the. c o n s e r v a t i o n g o a l s t h e y were d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s .  4 7  In-addition,  the registered trap  line  system tended to.aggravate r a t h e r than a l l e v i a t e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r s e x p e r i e n c e d i n c o m p l y i n g w-ith t h e p r o v i n c i a l game l a w s . The I n d i a n s f r o m t h e F r a s e r Lake: A g e n c y p e t i t i o n e d t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n e f f e c t i v e and. i m p r a c t i c a l p r o v i n c i a l proven  complaining  laws which  about  superseded  aboriginal harvesting stragegies.  We c a n n o t a l w a y s c o m p l y w i t h s u b - s e c t i o n 2 o f S e c . 16 o f t h e Game A c t o f B.C. a s o f t e n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l e a v e a t r a p l i n e v a c a n t f o r two o r t h r e e y e a r s t o a l l o w t h e a n i m a l s t o i n c r e a s e , b u t b y t h e a c t we a r e c o m p e l l e d t o t r a p e v e r y l i n e b y Nov 14 i n e a c h y e a r o r r u n r i s k o f h a v i n g o u r l i n e o c c u p i e d by s o m e . o t h e r p e r s o n when i t i s l o s t t o u s f o r a l l t i m e . Sometimes we a r e s i c k a n d c a n n o t g e t o u t on t h e l i n e s we do want t o t r a p b y t h e 1 4 t h o f November a n d l a t e r when we a r e a b l e t o go o u t we s o m e t i m e s f i n d , o u r l i n e o c c u p i e d , b y w h i t e men arid i f we s e t a t r a p we a r e p u t i n j a i l o r f i n e d [sic]. 4 8  The  I n d i a n Agent from t h e S t i k i n e Agency supported t h e I n d i a n s i n  t h e i r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e Game Laws. complained about  I n a 1936 r e p o r t , t h e A g e n t  non-aboriginal trappers cleaning  f.rom I n d i a n t r a p p i n g a r e a s  animals  " ... a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h t h e a i d o f  t h e B.C. Game D e p a r t m e n t , u n d e r t h e s y s t e m o f R e g i s t e r e d T r a p lines  ....  4 9  -  F i r s t N a t i o n s r e s i s t a n c e t o w h i t e e n c r o a c h m e n t a l s o t o o k a more  39  desperate  form.  territories  F r u s t r a t e d by white  they had l e f t  t r a p p e r s who r a i d e d , t h e  t o regenerate,  Indians developed  emptive t r a p p i n g s t r a t e g y . Instead o f l e a v i n g animals trappers, the Indians trapped  a pre-  for- white  out t h e country w h i l e they had t h e  chance, knowing t h a t i f t h e y did' not,  someone e l s e w o u l d .  5 0  In  a d d r e s s i n g t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n W i l d L i f e C o n f e r e n c e i n 1936, t h e ^Secretary f o r t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  noted  that:  By i m m e m o r i a l u s a g e t h e I n d i a n s w e r e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s a n d s t i l l may be h e n c e f o r w a r d i f p r o t e c t e d . . On t h e o t h e r hand,, i f whites a r e a l l o w e d t o d e p l e t e Indian hunting grounds, t h e Indians themselves w i l l n a t u r a l l y take a l l they can, w h i l e t h e y c a n , and t h e r e i s grave danger t h a t such a s i t u a t i o n may b r i n g a b o u t i n t e n s i v e c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n w h i t e s a n d Indians, ending i n t h e v i r t u a l e x t e r m i n a t i o n o f v a l u a b l e species. 5 1  The I n d i a n s p r e - e m p t i v e from  t r a p p i n g s t r a t e g y kept white  ' s k i n n i n g t h e grounds and moving on'  5 2  b u t i t a l s o had a  negative consequence. This d i s r u p t i v e technique perceptions that Indians wantonly the implementation  of  trappers  seemed t o p r o v e  s l a u g h t e r e d game a n d j u s t i f i e d  conservation•measures.  M.L.A a n d P r o v i n c i a l  P o l i c e r e p o r t s , b a s e d more on s t e r e o t y p i c a l  a t t i t u d e s than  generated  fact,  concerns  about  wildlife  p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d s p e c i e s e x t e r m i n a t i o n . The Member o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y f r o m C o l u m b i a , John. Buckham r e l a t e d , ' i n p i c t u r e s q u e f a s h i o n ' t h e Shuswap a n d K o o t e n a y I n d i a n s d i s r e g a r d for  t h e game l a w s b y s l a u g h t e r i n g b i g game s h e e p w h o l e s a l e f o r  t h e i r meat s u p p l i e s . I n Buckham's e s t i m a t i o n t h e I n d i a n s the  ' p a l e f a c e ' game l a w s a s 'mere s c r a p s o f p a p e r . '  5 3  viewed  Speaking i n 40  t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y t h e member f o r A t l i n ,  Frank Mobley,  c l a i m e d ' t h a t even though t h e law r e q u i r e d i t , I n d i a n s r e f u s e d t o t a k e o u t game permi.ts and. ".... h a b i t u a l l y s l a u g h t e r f e m a l e a n d young d e e r f o r c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s . "  5 4  In Mobley's e s t i m a t i o n t h e  I n d i a n s were game e x t e r m i n a t o r s .  Although  t h e Game C o n s e r v a t i o n  acknowledged t h e country's  B o a r d C h a i r m a n , A.R. B a k e r ,  o r i g i n a l h a b i t a n t s had. d e v e l o p e d , w e l l -  d e f i n e d a n d e f f e c t i v e l y managed h u n t i n g d e s i g n a t e d I n d i a n s a s t h e most d i f f i c u l t B o a r d and w i l d l i f e  t e r r i t o r i e s , he problem c o n f r o n t i n g the  c o n s e r v a t i o n . I n h i s ( e s t i m a t i o n , i t was  imperative t h a t t h e Board .... f i n d ways a n d means f o r c h e c k i n g t h e w a n t o n d e s t r u c t i o n o f game b y I n d i a n s . Where f o r m e r l y t r i b e s , , h a d a m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g as t o t h e t e r r i t o r y over which t h e y s h o u l d h u n t , t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s seem t o h a v e l a r g e l y • l a p s e d , a n d t h e r e s t r a i n t on k i l l i n g game u n n e c e s s a r i l y , f o r m e r l y s e l f , i m p o s e d , h a s g i v e n away t o a p o l i c y o f k i l l i n g a l l t h e y c a n while i t l a s t s . 5 5  O c c a s i o n a l l y Game Wardens a n d P o l i c e C o n s t a b l e s reports suggesting but  these  also  submitted  I n d i a n s w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r game d e s t r u c t i o n ,  submissions  were u s u a l l y q u a l i f i e d w i t h a n e x p l a n a t i o n  b a s e d on a b o r i g i n a l n e e d s . The I n d i a n s h a d t o h u n t f o r s u r v i v a l and  game l a w s p r e s e n t e d • u n r e a l i s t i c a n d u n r e a s o n a b l e ,  restrictions.  C o n s t a b l e Vachon from C r e s t o n  o f 1918 t h a t , a l t h o u g h he was h a v i n g season.  5 6  difficult  Constable  the whites curtailing  r e p o r t e d i n November  g e n e r a l l y o b e y e d the. game  laws,  I n d i a n s who h u n t e d f o o d o u t o f  F o r f a r f r o m t h e Hudson Hope D e t a c h m e n t 41  reported i n February and  tended  to k i l l  o f 1922 t h a t t h e I n d i a n s h a d t o h u n t t o l i v e  t h e cow moose w h i c h was f a t t e r  the males w i t h the u n f o r t u n a t e c a l f p e r i s h as w e l l .  Complaints  i n January  consequence o f having  than  t h e unborn  5 7  from t h e C h i e f Constable  a t t h e F o r t S t . John  D e t a c h m e n t i n 1918 d e p i c t e d I n d i a n s a s d r a s t i c a l l y game s t o c k s b u t f a i l e d  reducing b i g  t o mention that the general p r a c t i c e i n  t h e N o r t h was t o h a v e I n d i a n s s u p p l y meat t o t h e s e t t l e r s i n trade f o r other food s t u f f s . p r a c t i c e was s t i l l  Eleven years  later,  i n 1929,  common i n t h e P e a c e R i v e r D i s t r i c t .  Monica S t o r r s noted  the  Missionary  t h e t r a d e i n h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f a Peace R i v e r  I n d i a n community as .... a s q u a l i d l i t t l e camp, a s a l l t h e I n d i a n s i n o u r d i s t r i c t a r e p r e t t y d e b a s e d , more o r l e s s l i k e G y p s i e s , a n d s p e a k h a r d l y a n y E n g l i s h . They d o n ' t do a n y s o r t o f w o r k , b u t o n l y h u n t b e a r a n d moose a n d b a r t e r t h e i r meat w i t h t h e w h i t e men f o r v e g e t a b l e s a n d b u t t e r . 5 8  S u r v i v a l r a t h e r t h a n a v i n d i c t i v e n e s s was t h e m o t i v e f o r I n d i a n s killing  game w i t h o u t  understood  r e g a r d f o r t h e game l a w s —  by t h e I n d i a n A g e n t i n t h e f i e l d b u t m i s s e d  game a n d D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  demonstrated, i g n o r a n c e  w i t h l a n d and w i l d l i f e  General  o f the- F i r s t N a t i o n s  i n h i s response  by s e n i o r  officials.  Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t , D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Affairs,  a point  of Indian relationship  .to a r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d a t  t h e N a t i o n a l Game C o n f e r e n c e i n F e b r u a r y  1.919. The r e s o l u t i o n , 42  moved b y D r . B a k e r , C h a i r m a n o f t h e B.C. Game C o m m i s s i o n e r ,  urged  the Dominion government use t h e R o y a l North-West Mounted P o l i c e or other  s p e c i a l o f f i c e r s to enforce  from i l l e g a l l y  destroying  game, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g i o n s  damage most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r e d . allegation that  Indians  game l a w s t o p r e v e n t  5 9  Without v e r i f y i n g  were w a n t o n l y d e s t r o y i n g  Indians  where Baker's/  game, S c o t t  d i r e c t e d t h e I n d i a n Agents t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e Department would not s a n c t i o n views which excluded Scott  British  opportunity  C o l u m b i a a n d Y u k o n t o " ... t a k e  t o point out t o the Indians  regulations of the province  and t h a t t h e Department w i l l  [ s i c ] s u p p o r t them i n a n y c o n t e n t i o n ;  Scott's directive petitions  sent  officials  harvesting  and e x p l a i n e d  In s u p p o r t i n g  little  i n no  o r idea, on t h e i r  part  6 0  c r e d e n c e was g i v e n  to the  t o t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s which d e t a i l e d  F i r s t Nations  trappers  reveals  every  t h a t t h e y must o b e y t h e  t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e y a r e above t h e l a w . "  the  from t h e law.  i n s t r u c t e d t h e I n d i a n A g e n t s s t a t i o n e d on t h e p r a i r i e  provinces,  wise  Indians  s t r a t e g i e s , complained about  t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b e a v e r as a f o o d  p r o v i n c i a l game r e g u l a t i o n s , s e n i o r  ignored  white source.  Department  a b o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i o n s about the l o s s o f c o n t r o l  over t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s .  I t was more e x p e d i e n t t o p r o v i d e  r a t i o n s than guarantee a v i a b l e l i v e l i h o o d — a strategy o p p o s e d by F i r s t N a t i o n s  adamantly  people.  43.  Although  some a g e n t s p r o m i s e d t o do t h e i r b e s t  enforcing  o f game l a w s ,  by d e n y i n g  to a s s i s t i n the  others throughout t h e province  responded  t h a t I n d i a n s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e c i m a t i o n o f  game a n d f u r b e a r i n g a n i m a l s .  The New W e s t m i n s t e r A g e n t  noted:  From my i n t i m a t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e I n d i a n s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s A g e n c y , a n d a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h C o n s t a b l e G r a n t , who i s c o n t i n u o u s l y w o r k i n g amongst them, I must s a y t h a t I do n o t know o f one c a s e o f w a n t o n d e s t r u c t i o n o f game o r f i s h . 6 1  The  A g e n t f r o m t h e Okanagan A g e n c y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t b o t h  and  t h e l o c a l Game C o n s e r v a t i o n  r a t h e r than  himself  A s s o c i a t i o n b e l i e v e d whites,'  I n d i a n s , were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r game d e p l e t i o n .  A t a m e e t i n g o f t h e Game C o n s e r v a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n a t V e r n o n on J u n e 2 3 r d . w h i c h I a t t e n d e d p u r p o s e l y t o h e a r t h i s p o i n t • r a i s e d , t h e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n o f t h e m e e t i n g was t h a t t h e I n d i a n i s n o t n e a r l y s o d e s t r u c t i v e t o game a s i g n o r a n t w h i t e p e o p l e who s h o o t a t e v e r y t h i n g a n d a n y t h i n g . The A s s o c a t i o n made no r e s o l u t i o n s h e r e a g a i n s t I n d i a n s a n d t h e m e e t i n g was a t t e n d e d b y t h e b e s t know s p o r t s m e n i n t h e Valley. 6 2  The  Inspector o f Indian Agencies f o r the Southeastern  Inspectorate dismissed  accusations  o f w a n t o n ' . d i s t r u c t i o n o f game  levied, a g a i n s t t h e Indians by s t a t i n g : My own o b s e r v a t i o n s h a s b e e n t h a t v e r y l i t t l e r e l i a n c e c a n be p l a c e d on many o f t h e c h a r g e s made a g a i n s t I n d i a n s f o r w a n t o n d e s t r u c t i o n o f game. By f a r t h e g r e a t e s t o f f e n d e r s i n t h i s regard a r e the whites, and;Indians complain b i t t e r l y o f f i n d i n g t h e c a r c a s s e s o f f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s t h r o w n away b y w h i t e t r a p p e r s a f t e r t h e s k i n s h a v e b e e n removed, w h i c h t h e I n d i a n never does, b u t uses t h e c a r c a s e f o r food [ s i c ] . 6 3  The  I n d i a n Agent from t h e S t u a r t Lake Agency i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e  "alleged i l l e g a l  d e s t r u c t i o n o f Game by I n d i a n s " q u e s t i o n e d t h e 44  viability  of p r o h i b i t i n g  means o f s u p p o r t beaver,  he  was  I n d i a n s f r o m t a k i n g game when no  available.  6 4  As  a means o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e  recommended t h a t w h i t e s , n o t  from t r a p p i n g  other  I n d i a n s , be p r o h i b i t e d  beaver.  The t r a p p i n g o f b e a v e r by question with the Indians years t h a t i f the animal t r a p p i n g o f i t by w h i t e s  whites i s of course always a vexed b u t I h a v e b e e n c o n v i n c e d f o r many i s t o be s a v e d f r o m e x t i n c t i o n t h e s h o u l d be p r o h i b i t e d . 6 5  A g e n t H a r o l d . L a i r d a l s o c h a l l e n g e d s i m i l a r a c c u s a t i o n s o f game d e s t r u c t i o n l a i d by t h e - P r o v i n i c a l Game Warden a g a i n s t t h e Nations peoples  o f t h e Peace R i v e r  First  District.  None o f t h e I n d i a n s , w i t h i n t h e P e a c e R i v e r B l o c k , h a v e b e e n p u n i s h e d f o r v i o l a t i n g t h e game l a w s , and. no c o m p l a i n t s w e r e made, by t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e (who a r e ex o f f i c i o game g u a r d i a n s ) e i t h e r l a s t summer o r p r e v i o u s summers. 66  L a i r d dismissed a l l e g a t i o n s t h a t the Indians k i l l e d beaver a l l y e a r a r o u n d , n o t i n g n e i t h e r t h e .meat n o r t h e f u r i s u s a b l e  during  t h e summer. The' A g e n t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d n o t bothered  t r a p p i n g an a n i m a l  t h e y c o u l d not  use.  Laird further  d i s p u t e d c l a i m s t h a t t h e I n d i a n s i n -the P e a c e R i v e r B l o c k more meat t h a n  they c o u l d use.  C a l l i n g the a c c u s a t i o n  L a i r d e x p l a i n e d t h a t I n d i a n s use killed camp.  and  'every  scrap' of the  seldom^ went h u n t i n g when f r e s h meat was  67  L o c a l I n d i a n A g e n t s had  •  a greater understanding  be  killed  'absurd' animal  still  in •  o f the needs  and  45  r i g h t s of the a b o r i g i n a l , peoples than e i t h e r the  f e d e r a l or  p r o v i n c i a l Department - of I n d i a n . A f f a i r s b u r e a u c r a t s . t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y i g n o r e d by officials  i n favour  Although  government  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or p o l i t i c a l  expediency,  I n d i a n A g e n t s o f t e n a c t e d s t r o n g l y i n p r o t e c t i n g and Indian  interests.  Empowered by  monitored both the  Although  law  Indians  the  and  I n d i a n Act-, t h e  their trap  5 8  of t h e i r l i n e s without  of the  6 9  and  and  Indians  p a r t n e r nor d i s p o s e Indian Agent.  registrations  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to compile  trap l i n e s belonged with t h e i r Agent.  Agents  lines.  enforcement o f f i c e r s accepted  I n d i a n t r a p p e r s , the  advocating  from  submit  c o u l d not  the w r i t t e n  but  7 0  they  take  Chief  could  a r b i t r a r i l y make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a b o u t I n d i a n  registrations  b o t h the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s  P r o v i n c i a l Game  Commission w i t h o u t  and  the  consultation with First.Nations  people.  I n d i a n A g e n t s c o u l d p l a y an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n s e c u r i n g maintaining agencies.  issues, registered, trap lines,  in trap line disputes.  unsuccessful  7 2  interest  7 1  and  and  in  represented.  However, t h e y w e r e m o s t ' o f t e n  i n t h e i r advocacy endeavours,  always act i n the best  to  I n d i a n wards i n t h e i r  They a c t e d as a d v o c a t e s on b e h a l f o f I n d i a n s  conservation Indians  t r a p p i n g areas f o r the  a  permission  A g e n t s were e x p e c t e d t o g u i d e t h e  C o u n c i l i n the d i v i s i o n o f band l i n e s ,  Indian  and  7 3  of I n d i a n s .  7 4  they d i d  Agents  not  approached  46  t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h v a r i e d , d e g r e e s o f commitment. T h i s was  reflected  i n how  s u c c e s s f u l I n d i a n s were i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  l i n e s u n d e r t h e Game  Act.  A comparison between the n o r t h e a s t e r n T r e a t y p r o v i n c e w i t h the northwestern t h a t I n d i a n A g e n t s had  F i r s t Nations  8 area of  region, demonstrates the  on m a i n t a i n i n g F i r s t N a t i o n s  traditional territories. Agency i n northwestern  H a r p e r Reed., a g e n t f o r t h e  British  rights believing  7 5  Although  impact of  Stikine advocated  that the S t i k i n e area s h o u l d  be  objected to prospective  changes t h a t would reduce I n d i a n t r a p p i n g areas trappers.  the  control  Columbia, c o n s i s t e n t l y  r e s e r v e d f o r a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s . He  white  trap  t o accommodate  H a r o l d L a i r d , Agent f o r the T r e a t y  8  a r e a o f n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia., s u p p o r t e d , a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g and  t r a p p i n g r i g h t s as s t i p u l a t e d i n T r e a t y  stationed, i n Grouard, British  H a r p e r Reed, s t a t i o n e d , a t T e l e g r a p h  payments.  to reduce Indian t r a p l i n e s .  initiatives  I n J u n e on  t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e was  he  1936,  of  76  Creek, worked h a r d t o  f o r t h e - I n d i a n s i n h i s a g e n c y , and  p a r t i c u l a r i l y attuned to p r o v i n c i a l  concerns  was  A l b e r t a and. v i s i t e d t h e T r e a t y 8 a r e a  C o l u m b i a o n c e a y e a r t o make t r e a t y  trap lines  8, he  secure  was that  threatened  Reed r e p o r t e d h i s ^  considering adjusting existing  lines. The Game B o a r d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e now g o i n g i n t o t h e m a t t e r o f " a r e a s " and l a t e l y seem t o t h i n k t h a t t h e I n d i a n s  47  h a v e more g r o u n d t h a n t h e y c a n t r a p . A l l t h e g r o u n d h e l d h a s b e e n R e g i s t e r e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e Game Laws, a n d a r e i n order. 7 7  Reed's d i l i g e n t British  supervision of aboriginal trap lines  C o l u m b i a was r e f l e c t e d  r e g i s t e r e d t o F i r s t Nations approximately 1934.  338  78  i n t h e number o f t r a p  Reed h a d r e g i s t e r e d 6G t r a p l i n e s b y M a r c h  population of approximately of trap lines  400,  trappers.  n o t i f i e d a white  8 0  7 9  even a f t e r  Nations  extensive  f o r r e v e r s i o n t o a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s , by  December, 1938 t h e r e w e r e o n l y Nations  lines  t r a p p e r s . With a p o p u l a t i o n o f  I n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , . w i t h a F i r s t  purchasing  i n northwest  I n 1934,  31 l i n e s r e g i s t e r e d t o F i r s t  the Inspector  o f "D" Game D i v i s i o n  t r a p p e r t h a t t h e extreme northwest p o r t i o n o f  the province  which encompassed t h e T a t s h e n s h i n i  tributaries,  Kelsall  R i v e r and Lake, B l a n s h a r d  R i v e r and. i t s and K l e h i n i  R i v e r s , was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n a s t h e w h o l e a r e a was covered  by I n d i a n t r a p  lines.  8 1  Some a g e n t s w e r e s o s u c c e s s f u l i n s e c u r i n g t r a p p i n g a r e a s f o r t h e Indians  t h a t , on o c c a s i o n , w h i t e  trappers  complained that t h e  w h o l e o f t h e t e r r i t o r i e s was b e i n g , c l a i m e d , b y t h e I n d i a n s a n d questioned  t h e f a i r n e s s o f t h e s y s t e m . I n a d i s p u t e a b o u t an  u n d e r - u t i l i z e d t r a p p i n g a r e a on P o r c h e r Martin  from t h e P r i n c e Rupert D i v i s i o n , r e p o r t e d t h e  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a white area  I s l a n d , Game Warden E.  i n Principle  trapper t r y i n g t o secure  a trapping  Channel: 48.  I know t h i s p i e c e o f g r o u n d I am t r a p p e d f o r y e a r s , even i f i t i s t h e y h a v e a l o t more g r o u n d , t h a n t r a p - b u t you know more a b o u t i A f r u s t r a t e d white  complained  c l a i m e d by  t o t h e Game  I n d i a n s not  being  t r a p p e r demanded t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t a c t i m m e d i a t e l y  t h e s i t u a t i o n was likely  8 2  t r a p p e r from Smithers  Commissioner about t r a p p i n g areas u s e d . The  a s k i n g ' f o r has n o t b e e n h e l d by an I n d i a n . B e s i d e s , i s p o s s i b l e f o r them t o t than I do.  becoming  'desperate,'  a matter  t o cause problems between t h e w h i t e and  of  as  survival  Indian trappers.  There were o v e r twenty t r a p p e r s t h a t h e l d l i c e n c e s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t a t one t i m e , b u t u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m t h e e n t i r e c o u n t r y has b e e n g i v e n o v e r t o t h e I n d i a n s . ... t h e s e t r a p p e r s w o u l d n o t o b j e c t so much i f t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d work, t h e t e r r i t o r y -which t h e y c l a i m as t h e i r own, b u t t h e y h o l d m i l e s and m i l e s o f T e r r i t o r y w h i c h t h e y n e v e r v i s i t o r s e t a trap i n . 8 3  The  t r a p p e r c l o s e d by a s k i n g t h e government t o s u p p o r t  t r a p p e r s by g i v i n g them "...  white  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a l i v i n g  at  his old calling."  P l a c e r m i n e r s were p a r t i c u l a r i l y c o n c e r n e d access  to trapping t e r r i t o r i e s  trap line  supported  a b o u t not. h a v i n g  as t h e r e v e n u e g e n e r a t e d  by  the  the p r o s p e c t i n g endeavour.  I u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o u n t r y i s a l l r e g i s t e r e d and i f t h e I n d i a n s don't r e g i s t e r then i t i s open f o r anyone e l s e but t h a t i s e v i d e n t l y n o t so h e r e . Some o f t h e I n d i a n s h e r e a r e a l s o s t a m p e d i n g a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y . Now t h i s c o u n t r y i f i t i s a n y t h i n g a t a l l i t i s a m i n e r a l c o u n t r y and i n s t e a d o f a man i n t h e m i n e r a l l i n e g e t t i n g any e n c o u r a g e m e n t i t seems t o be t h e r e v e r s e . S t i l l I r e c e i v e d w o r d f r o m t h e R u p e r t o f f i c e t h a t i t was a l l r e g i s t e r e d . 8 4  Not  understanding  a b o r i g i n a l methods o f k i n group h u n t i n g  and 49  trapping,  t h e Game Warden f r o m t h e F o r t F r a s e r  complained about t r a d i t i o n a l the  t r a p p i n g methods. I n h i s e s t i m a t i o n ,  I n d i a n s w e r e c l a i m i n g t o o much l a n d , r e g i s t e r i n g n o t o n l y t h e  a d u l t men b u t a l s o women' a n d c h i l d r e n .  The  Detachment  diligent  efforts of local  that motivated  8 5  I n d i a n A g e n t s on b e h a l f o f I n d i a n s  such c o m p l a i n t s ' were n o t r e f l e c t e d a t t h e r e g i o n a l  or n a t i o n a l l e v e l s - i n t h e Department o f A f f a i r s . protecting  Indian requirements f o r trapping areas,  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s m e r e l y authorities t o consider laws.  Instead.of senior  'urged'  provincial  I n d i a n n e e d s when i m p l e m e n t i n g game  8 6  I n 1919, J.D. M c L e a n , A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y a n d S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , the  i n t e r e s t s o f the Indians  that i f the w i l d l i f e  proclaimed  t h a t - game laws' w e r e i n  a n d must be obeyed.'  resources  were decimated,  87  He r e a s o n e d  everyone,  i n c l u d i n g t h e I n d i a n s , w o u l d s u f f e r . McLean's d i r e c t i v e  merely  r e f l e c t e d t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s ' - p o l i c y as a r t i c u l a t e d by  Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t , t h e D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  Indian A f f a i r s . Inspectors and  I n a 1919 c i r c u l a r  sent  General o f  t o a l l Indian Agents and  i n Manitoba, Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h  Columbia  t h e Y u k o n , S c o t t , s t a t e d , t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t , was i n t e r e s t e d i n  seeing  Indians  Superintendent  comply t o p r o v i n c i a l General  game l a w s .  The D e p u t y  a s k e d t h e a g e n t s "... t o t a k e  every  50  o p p o r t u n i t y t o p o i n t o u t t o t h e I n d i a n s t h a t t h e y must o b e y t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e and t h a t t h e Department wise  i n no  [ s i c ] s u p p o r t them i n a n y c o n t e n t i o n o r i d e a o n t h e i r p a r t  to the effect  W.E.  [would]  t h a t t h e y were above  the-law."  8 8  Ditchburn, the I n d i a n Commissioner o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  adamant t h a t I n d i a n s a d h e r e to" p r o v i n c i a l  game l e g i s l a t i o n .  Ditchburn found t h e Indian's b e l i e f i n p r i o r  right  'problematic'  superseded  I n h i s e s t i m a t i o n , game l a w s  g e n e r a t i o n s o f use and s p e c i a l  was  c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  claims  unwarranted.  8 9  He was c o n v i n c e d t h a t I n d i a n s c o u l d o b t a i n p e r m a n e n t s e c u r i t y f o r the use o f t r a p l i n e s i f they adhered  t o t h e laws. Trap  lines  could ... o n l y be t a k e n up f r o m y e a r t o y e a r b y I n d i a n s o r w h i t e l i c e n s e d t r a p p e r s , and t h e r e f o r e u n t i l such t i m e as g r e a t e r p r i v i l e g e s a r e g i v e n t o I n d i a n s ( w h i c h I d o u b t e v e r w i l l be. t h e c a s e ) t h e b e s t t h i n g t h e y c a n do i s t o be g u i d e d b y t h e A c t and take the n e c e s s a r y measures each year t o secure t h e l i n e s they a r e accustomed t o t r a p o v e r . 9 0  Thus, D i t c h b u r n e f f e c t i v e l y i n v a l i d a t e d about•the  loss  F i r s t Nations  concerns  o f t r a p p i n g areas and l i v e l i h o o d s .  I n 1934 t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a s s u r e d , t h e A t t o r n e y General o f B r i t i s h Columbia aboriginal  concerns  that,  i n the process of addressing  about t h e t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n  D e p a r t m e n t " ... w o u l d n o t s u p p o r t u n r e a s o n a b l e  system, t h e  demands b y t h e  51  I n d i a n s o r c o u n t e n a n c e i n a n y way b r e a c h e s of. l a w o r r e g u l a t i o n s or abuses o f p r i v i l e g e by them."  This a t t i t u d e i n both  91  i l l u s t r a t e d an i g n o r a n c e  commoa t o s e n i o r  t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  officials  a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l Game  D e p a r t m e n t . P o l i c y makers h a d no u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of First  Nations  i  rights,  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l a n d and w i l d l i f e  compliance,  o r t h e absence o f a l t e r n a t i v e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s . They i g n o r e d b o t h Agents i n t h e f i e l d and p e t i t i o n s  resources, barriers t o employment  the reports of the local  Indian  from F i r s t Nations people and  t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s . Department o f f i c i a l s  seemed i n c o g n i z a n t o f t h e  f a c t t h a t when t r a d i t i o n a l means o f m a k i n g a l i v i n g d e c l i n e d , alternative'employment essentially  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a b o r i g i n a l peoples  were  non-existent.  In s a n c t i o n i n g p r o v i n c i a l  game r e g u l a t i o n s , t h e f e d e r a l  government i g n o r e d b o t h  i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and,  in northeastern B r i t i s h  Columbia, Treaty  8 obligations.  P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s evoked c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s t o enact and e n f o r c e game p r o t e c t i o n l a w s .  S e c t i o n 9 1 ( 2 4 ) o f t h e B r i t i s h North  American Act e s t a b l i s h e d f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r b o t h and  Indians  l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r them, b u t t h e C a n a d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n gave-  provincial wildlife  and t e r r i t o r i a l  governments r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  over  c o n s e r v a t i o n . I n d i a n t r e a t i e s were n e v e r r a t i f i e d , b y  p a r l i a m e n t b u t l e g i s l a t e d by O r d e r i n C o u n c i l . L e g i s l a t i o n  52  granting  t r e a t i e s p r e c e d e n c e o v e r p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s was n o t  enacted u n t i l This  1951 when s e c t i o n '88 was added t o t h e Indian Act.  s e c t i o n read..: Subject to the terms of any treaty and any other Act of Parliament of Canada, a l l laws of general a p p l i c a t i o n from time to time in force in any province are applicable to and in respect of Indians in the province, except t o the extent t h a t such laws a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s A c t o r any order, r u l e , r e g u l a t i o n o r b y l a w made t h e r e u n d e r , a n d e x c e p t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t s u c h l a w s make p r o v i s i o n f o r a n y m a t t e r f o r w h i c h p r o v i s i o n i s made b y o r u n d e r t h i s A c t [ e m p h a s i s added] , 92  S i n c e t h e e n a c t m e n t o f S. 88, F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e i n t r e a t y a r e a s have g e n e r a l l y hunting,  trapping  treaty received  received  greater  and f i s h i n g r i g h t s .  Council  recognition 9 3  But p r i o r t o 1951, once a  a p p r o v a l i t was u s e d a s t h e l e g a l  for appropriating  a b o r i g i n a l lands f o r settlement  development w h i l e  F i r s t N a t i o n s i n t e r e s t s were  The that  o f Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s  which supported t h e supersession  and economic  ignored.  and 1985.  at either the  Affairs interpretation  o f f e d e r a l t r e a t y agreements by  p r o v i n c i a l game l a w s were d i s m i s s e d  vs.  basis  F i r s t N a t i o n s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t r e a t y a g r e e m e n t s was n e v e r  f e d e r a l or. p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . The I n d i a n  1978  of t r a d i t i o n a l  b y Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n s i n  I n b o t h t h e Simon v. the Queen a n d Kruger, et a l  the Queen d e c i s i o n s ,  J u s t i c e Dickson ruled'treaty r i g h t s  p r e c e d e n c e o v e r p r o v i n c i a l game r e g u l a t i o n s .  9 4  hold  In J u s t i c e  D i c k s o n ' s j u d g e m e n t , t r e a t i e s c o n s t i t u t e d " ... a p o s i t i v e s o u r c e  53  •of  p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t i n f r i n g e m e n t on h u n t i n g r i g h t s a n d t h e f a c t  t h a t these r i g h t s e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e T r e a t y as p a r t o f t h e general aboriginal t i t l e  d i d not negate  or minimize the  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r i g h t s p r o t e c t e d by t h e T r e a t y . "  In  9 5  d e f e n d i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f game l a w s i n t h e T r e a t y 8  area, p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s  interpreted the treaty  clause  guaranteeing t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g s u b j e c t t o regulations that  " ... f r o m t i m e t o t i m e be made b y t h e  G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e c o u n t r y ..." t o mean t h e p r o v i n c i a l government.  96  In the estimation of provincial representatives the  p r o v i n c i a l Game Act s u p e r s e d e d  f e d e r a l t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s and  t h i s v i e w was s h a r e d b y D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s administrators.  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f T r e a t y 8 was c h a l l e n g e d b y J u s t i c e J.A. McGillivray  i n h i s j u d g e m e n t o f Rex and Wesley a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n J u s t i c e J.A. J a c k s o n ' s Court o f Appeal  judgement i n t h e Northwest  Territories  i n Regina v. Sikyes [1964].  From, t h e s e t r e a t i e s and. f r o m t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s p r e c e d i n g t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e s e t r e a t i e s ..., i t i s , I t h i n k , o b v i o u s t h a t w h i l e t h e Government hoped t h a t t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y t a k e up t h e w h i t e man's way o f l i f e , u n t i l t h e y d i d , t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r p r e v i o u s mode o f l i f e with only such regulations and r e s t r i c t i o n s as would assure that a supply of game for t h e i r own needs would be maintained. The regulations that "the Government of the Country" were e n t i t l e d to make under the clause of the treaty which I quoted, were, I think, l i m i t e d to t h i s kind of regulation: C e r t a i n l y t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s who r e p r e s e n t e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t at t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e t r e a t i e s so u n d e r s t o o d i t [emphasis 54  added] . In h i s d e c i s i o n , Jackson agreed w i t h J u s t i c e M c G i l l i v r a y s view. 1  I t i s t r u e t h a t Government r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e s p e c t o f h u n t i n g are contemplated i n the Treaty but c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t Treaty i n i t s p r o p e r - s e t t i n g I do n o t t h i n k t h a t a n y o f ' t h e m a k e r s o f i t c o u l d b y a n y s t r e t c h o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n be deemed, t o h a v e c o n t e m p l a t e d a d a y when t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d b e d e p r i v e d o f a n u n f e t t e r e d r i g h t t o h u n t game o f a l l k i n d s f o r f o o d on u n o c c u p i e d Crown l a n d . 9 8  I n R. v. Horseman [1986], Madame J u s t i c e Wong's d e c i s i o n the  r i g h t s of Treaty  In a c c e p t i n g  8 Indians  Dr. A r t h u r  Ray's o p i n i o n t h a t t h e I n d i a n s  8 were engaged i n h u n t i n g and  t o hunt as a t r a d i t i o n a l  and t r a p p i n g - v o c a t i o n s  vocation. of Treaty  f o r subsistence  e x c h a n g e a t t h e t i m e o f s i g n i n g t h e t r e a t y , J u s t i c e Wong  dismissed  t h e c h a r g e t h a t Mr. Horsemen e n g a g e d i n a c o m m e r i c a l  t r a n s a c t i o n when he s o l d a g r i z z l e b e a r h i d e . the  affirmed  In her decision,  J u s t i c e f o u n d "...Mr. Horseman s o l d t h e g r i z z l y b e a r h i d e i n  a manner a n d f o r a p u r p o s e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n o f h i s ancestors—that  i s '.for t h e p u r p o s e o f s u b s i s t e n c e and  e x c h a n g e ' . "".  A l t h o u g h J u s t i c e Wong's d e c i s i o n i n t h e Horseman c a s e was. subsequently reversed and  other  b y t h e C o u r t o f Queen's B e n c h , h e r r u l i n g  c o u r t d e c i s i o n s have d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e t r e a t y  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u s e d i n t h e 1920s a n d 1930s  to,marginalize  a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s w e r e i n a c c u r a t e . B u t , b a s e d upon t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , p r o v i n c i a l game l a w s w e r e e n a c t e d t h a t v a l i d a t e d ^  55  the changing British  d e m o g r a p h i c and  economic r e a l i t i e s o f  Columbia. L e g i s l a t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n measures j u s t i f i e d  a p p r o p r i a t i o n of F i r s t Nations and  northern  replaced effective  h u n t i n g and  trapping  development concepts, implemented without  territories  strategies with unsustainable  a b o r i g i n a l c o n s e r v a t i o n schemes. G u i d e d by w e s t e r n  economic  c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e l a n d use  e v e n t u a l l y t o abandon t h e i r f a v d u r o f a more s e d e n t a r y  Treaty had  hunting  control wildlife  and  The  expected  white  Indian alike  h u n t i n g and  First  northern  gathering a c t i v i t i e s  and. c i v i l i z e d , l i f e .  8 a r e a where t r a d i t i o n a l  been  and  and  needs o f  N a t i o n s p e o p l e s . V i e w e d as t e m p o r a r y i m p e d i m e n t s t o  meant t o o r d e r and  non-  c o n s e r v a t i o n laws were d e v e l o p e d  d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e y were i g n o r e d b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e  the  in  men  even i n the  t r a p p i n g vocati.ons  guaranteed.  56  CHAPTER THREE  Treaty 8 and Trap l i n e Registrations: Trust and Treaty Negated  As miners and p r o s p e c t o r s  i n c r e a s i n g l y moved i n t o  northeastern  B r i t i s h Columbia a f t e r t h e mid 1800s, t h e s u b s i s t e n c e  balance  between a b o r i g i n a l groups and game was d i s r u p t e d . P r o c u r i n g e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r , was a h a r d s h i p  food,  i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e  i n t r u s i o n o f n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r e s p a s s e r s . By 1883 t e n s i o n s between w h i t e and t h e Dunne-za (Beaver) , Cr.ee and S l a v e y F i r s t  Nations  groups i n unceded t e r r i t o r i e s , combined w i t h numerous r e p o r t s o f the d e s t i t u t e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e l a t t e r , prompted t h e Deputy Superintendent  General  o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Lawrence Vankoughnet,  t o recommend t h e f e d e r a l government n e g o t i a t e a t r e a t y w i t h Athabasca-Mackenzie D i s t r i c t  Indians.  1  Government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , however, r e s i s t e d e n t e r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s , and t h e o n l y attempts t o p r o t e c t F i r s t  Nations  s u b s i s t e n c e l i v e l i h o o d s were made u n o f f i c i a l l y by f e d e r a l employees i n t h e Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r . Throughout t h e 1890s, Department s t a f f d i s c o u r a g e d  settlement  i n t h e Peace R i v e r  D i s t r i c t . Both W i l l i a m Pear.ce and George M. Dawson's  survey  r e p o r t s o f 1893 suggested low p r o s p e c t i n g r e t u r n s would f o r c e p l a c e r miners t o hunt and t r a p . I n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n , t h e r e s u l t i n g s c a r c i t y o f game would have d i r e consequences f o r t h e  57  I n d i a n s and  With  lead to a d i s r u p t i o n of t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n .  t h e d i s c o v e r y o f - g o l d i n t h e Y u k o n i n 1896,  F i r s t Nations I n s p e c t o r J.D.  g r o u p s and p r o s p e c t o r s  responding:  b u l l e t s as o f  starvation."  "We  may  the Indians  warning would  remained  as w e l l d i e by t h e w h i t e men's  3  The  a n i m o s i t y b e t w e e n t h e a b o r i g i n a l and  was  c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n J u n e 1898, o f ^ F o r t S t . John, B r i t i s h  wildlife  n o n - a b o r i g i n a l groups  when t h e F i r s t  Columbia, r e f u s e d  o f f i c e r s and p r o s p e c t o r s a c c e s s 'to t h e i r by d e c i m a t e d  N.W.M.P.  t o t a k e r e v e n g e upon w h i t e men  recalcitrant,  Exasperated  between  i n c r e a s e d . I n 1897,  i n t h e I n d i a n s ' e x t e r m i n a t i o n . But  people  conflict  M o o d i e t r i e d t o d i f f u s e t h e s i t u a t i o n by  the Indians that attempts end  2  Nations  police  territories.  4  s t o c k s and  appropriated  property, the Indians e s t a b l i s h e d a blockade  and p r e v e n t e d  t r e s p a s s e r s from t r a v e l l i n g  t o t h e Yukon g o l d r u s h . The  blockade  s e n t an e x p l i c i t message t o f e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s i n O t t a w a : a must be be  s i g n e d b e f o r e more w h i t e p r o s p e c t o r s and  allowed into northern  S e c u r i n g l a n d and  an  territories.  previous  a c q u i r i n g - l a n d s f o r s e t t l e m e n t was  i s s u e i n n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s . Not  a r e a was  treaty  t r a p p e r s would  s a f e t y f o r s e t t l e r s had m o t i v a t e d  t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s , but  white  not  u n t i l the m i n e r a l wealth of  the  ascertained did federal o f f i c i a l s consider negotiating  58  w i t h the F i r s t Nations r e g i o n s . The  groups of the  a b o r i g i n a l peoples  Athapaskan-Mackenzie  of northeastern B r i t i s h  were i n c l u d e d i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e s s  Columbia  to s e t t l e access  issues  r e l a t e d t o t h e K l o n d i k e G o l d R u s h . When t h e h o s t i l i t y b e t w e e n F i r s t Nations peoples overlooked,  In  and  t h e p r o s p e c t o r s c o u l d no  t h e g o v e r n m e n t r e c o n s i d e r e d i t s 'no  J u n e 1898,  longer  treaty'  the Canadian Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s  Nations  g r o u p s i n a 324,900 s q u a r e m i l e  be  policy.  5  received  Privy Council approval to enter treaty negotiations with First  the  the  [523,089 s q u a r e  kilometre] area c o n s t i t u t i n g the north h a l f of A l b e r t a , the northeast quarter of B r i t i s h S a s k a t c h e w a n , and  Columbia, the northwest  the area south  Lake i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r y later,  i n J u n e 1900,  the f i r s t  o f Hay  R i v e r and  Great  [see A p p e n d i x I I I ] . adhesion  to Treaty  corner  Slave  Two  6  8 was  the F i r s t . N a t i o n s groups o f the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t ,  of  years signed  by  British  Columbia.  Obtaining guaranteed utmost importance  h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and  to the northern  Commissioner David L a i r d assured  F i r s t Nations  r i g h t s was  groups.  the Indians t h a t  l i v e l i h o o d s w o u l d be p r o t e c t e d . The a c c o m p a n y i n g t h e T r e a t y document  fishing  Commissioners'  of  Treaty  traditional report  noted:  Our c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y was t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t t h e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g p r i v i l e g e s w e r e t o be. c u r t a i l e d . The p r o v i s i o n i n t h e t r e a t y u n d e r w h i c h t h e a m m u n i t i o n and t w i n e i s t o be f u r n i s h e d went f a r i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f q u i e t i n g t h e . f e a r s o f 59  t h e I n d i a n s , f o r t h e y a d m i t t e d t h a t i t w o u l d be u n r e a s o n a b l e t o f u r n i s h t h e means o f h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g i f l a w s w e r e t o be e n a c t e d w h i c h w o u l d make h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g s o , r e s t r i c t e d a s t o r e n d e r i t i m p o s s i b l e t o make a l i v e l i h o o d by s u c h p u r s u i t s . B u t o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e p r o v i s i o n , we h a d t o s o l e m n l y a s s u r e them t h a t o n l y s u c h l a w s a s t o h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g a s w e r e i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f I n d i a n s a n d were " found n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e f i s h and f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s w o u l d be made, a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d be a s f r e e t o hunt and f i s h a f t e r ' t h e t r e a t y as t h e y would i f t h e y never entered into i t . 7  In h i s opening  n e g o t i a t i o n speech,  Laird affirmed that the  C  Indians' t r a d i t i o n a l  f r e e d o m s w o u l d be g u a r a n t e e d  under  treaty.  " I n d i a n s h a v e b e e n t o l d t h a t i f t h e y make a t r e a t y t h e y w i l l n o t be a l l o w e d t o h u n t a n d f i s h  a s t h e y do now. T h i s i s n o t t r u e .  I n d i a n s who t a k e t r e a t y w i l l o v e r a s t h e y now a r e [ s i c ] . "  be j u s t a s f r e e t o h u n t a n d f i s h a l l 8  James A. R o s s ,  Minister of Public  Works f o r t h e T e r r i t o r i a l G o v e r n m e n t , r e i t e r a t e d L a i r d ' s "We a r e g l a d t h a t y o u u n d e r s t a n d  the treaty  Indians are fond of the free l i f e , interfere with,it."  9  promise.  i s f o r e v e r . ...  a n d we do n o t w i s h t o  These a s s u r a n c e s  were o m i t t e d i n t h e f i n a l  t r e a t y . N o n - a b o r i g i n a l o b s e r v e r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n the treaty  p r o c e s s w i t n e s s e d how t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s a d d r e s s e d  First  concerns final  by making v e r b a l guarantees  text.  never  Nations  incorporated into the  1 0  I n s p i t e o f t h e demands f o r t r e a t y , to Treaty 8 i n 1900.  1 1  o n l y 46 I n d i a n s t o o k  adhesion  In 1903 t h e I n s p e c t o r f o r T r e a t y 8 noted  t h a t t h e I n d i a n s a t F o r t S t . .John were ...  v e r y independent  and cannot  be p e r s u a d e d  t o take  treaty. 60  O n l y a few f a m i l i e s j o i n e d . The. I n d i a n s t h e r e [ a t F o r t S t . J o h n ] s a i d t h e y d i d n o t want t o ' t a k e t r e a t y , a s t h e y h a d no t r o u b l e i n m a k i n g t h e i r own l i v i n g . One v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t I n d i a n t o l d me t h a t when he was b i d a n d c o u l d n o t work he would t h e n ask t h e government f o r a s s i s t a n c e ^ b u t t i l l t h e n he t h o u g h t i t was w r o n g f o r h i m t o t a k e a s s i s t a n c e when he d i d not r e a l l y r e q u i r e i t . 1 2  The  r e p o r t o f t h e 1907 I n s p e c t o r n o t e d  o n l y about h a l f o f t h e  I n d i a n s a t F o r t S t . John had t a k e n t r e a t y and r e l a t e d - t h a t t h e r e was a ' g r e a t many' I n d i a n s who were a p a t h e t i c t o .the  process.  These r e p o r t s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t , as l o n g as t h e I n d i a n s  0  1 3  could  m a i n t a i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n s , t h e r e was no n e e d t o a d h e r to Treaty  8. The r e l u c t a n c e t o t a k e t r e a t y a l s o s u g g e s t s  i n s u f f i c i e n t assurances not u n t i l agreed  were g i v e n t o j u s t i f y  s i g n i n g , a n d i t was  1966 t h a t a l l o f t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e T r e a t y .8 a r e a h a d  to reserve allocations  Securing p r o t e c t i o n from white  [see. A p p e n d i x I V a n d V ] .  encroachment and o b t a i n i n g  h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g guarantees people  that  t o take adhesion  t o Treaty  motivated  8. T h e . D u n n e - z a  First  Nations  interpretation  o f T r e a t y 8 was o u t l i n e d i n a F e b r u a r y ,  1924 P o l i c e r e p o r t  t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t .  noted:  The C o n s t a b l e  from  ... h e r e we h a v e a p o r t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e Eastern side of the Rockies, the Indians native t o it' are a t r i b e c a l l e d t h e Beaver [Dunne-za], these 'Indians a r e not s u b j e c t t o B.C. t h e y a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d b y "an I n d i a n A g e n t a p p o i n t e d from Ottawa, they a r e 'Signatory t o a Dominion T r e a t y ( T r e a t y No 8 ) , t h i s T r e a t y a s i n t e r p r e t e d b y t h e i r A g e n t t o them, and understood, by them at the time of i t s signing, g i v e n [ s i c ] t h e m t h e p r i v i l e g e t o k i l l Game o f a l l k i n d s when a n d where t h e y p l e a s e w i t h i n t h e T e r r i t o r y a s s i g n e d them ( e m p h a s i s added) . 14  61  Because o f t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , District  the Indians  of. t h e P e a c e  s t r o n g l y a d v o c a t e d f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r h u n t i n g and  trapping rights  on t h e i r own b e h a l f a n d r e f u s e d c o m p l i a n c e  t h e Game Act. P r o v i n c i a l  laws which r e s t r i c t e d  F i r s t Nations  In  people objected  with  a b o r i g i n a l hunting  p r e r o g a t i v e s were deemed a c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f T r e a t y  their  River  t o any measures t h a t  8 and t h e abrogated  rights.  a l e t t e r t o t h e Indian Agent a t Dr.ift.pile, A l b e r t a ,  December 12, 1932, t h e Headman f o r t h e E a s t  dated  End M o b e r l y  Lake  R e s e r v e c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e killing  o f female deer.  representative of Treaty  The l e a d e r r e m i n d e d t h e D e p a r t m e n t 8  guarantees.  ... when we t o o k t r e a t y we w e r e p r o m i s e d t h a t we c o u l d k i l l game w h e n e v e r we were h u n g r y , t h e i r [ s i c ] was no m e n t i o n a b o u t t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e . I want y o u t o h e l p u s i f y o u c a n t a l k , t o t h e I n s p e c t o r who i s c o m i n g n e x t summer i t i s h a r d f o r u s t o l i v e a s we h a v e v e r y l i t t l e c o u n t r y l e f t t o t r a p in [sic] . 1 5  Dr.  H.A..W. Brown was a p p o i n t e d  part-time  F o r t S t . John Agency by A p r i l , ' 1934.  15  I n d i a n Agent f o r t h e  He r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e  I n d i a n s were a d v e r s e t o a c c e p t i n g r e l i e f , . d e m a n d i n g , i n s t e a d , t h a t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g and h u n t i n g as g u a r a n t e e d u n d e r t r e a t y . complaint [sic]  1 7  The A g e n t n o t e d :  be  respected  "The b i t t e r  a g a i n was t h e t a k i n g away o f t h e i r means o f l i v l i h o o d  g u a r a n t e e d t o them u n d e r T r e a t y  country. "  rights  #8 t h a t i s , t h e i r  trapping  1 8  62  I n J a n u a r y o f 1936, had  permitted  territory  Brown commented on how  t h e Game D e p a r t m e n t  s e t t l e r s to r e g i s t e r large t r a c t s of  i n the heart  of. t h e  H a l f w a y Band's  trapping  country.  L e g a l enough you m i g h t s a y ; b u t t o me t h e s p i r i t o f t h e T r e a t y was u n q u e s t i o n a b l y t h a t t h e I n d i a n w o u l d r e t a i n • t r a p p i n g and h u n t i n g r i g h t s t o t h e s p e c i f i e d T r e a t y a r e a u n l e s s s u c h l a n d was r e q u i r e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t o r i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n e t c . These m o u n t a i n t r a p l i n e s a r e o b v i o u s l y u n f i t f o r a n y t h i n g e l s e b u t t r a p p i n g and s h o u l d h a v e b e e n r e m a i n e d i n possession of the I n d i a n . 1 3  When, t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s e n d e a v o u r e d t o p r o v i n c i a l game f e e s 1938,  the  Indians  r e s i s t e d . The  Brown b e l i e v e d t h e before  paying  When t h e their  Indians  and  and  Indians  hunters.  vocations.  F o r t S t . John Agency i n  o p p o s i t i o n was  so s t r o n g ,  Agent  existing privileges  2 0  t o o k a d h e s i o n , i t was  seek p r o t e c t i o n from the  temporary measure, but trapping  i n the  w o u l d g i v e up  licence fees.  Peace R i v e r  lands  trappers  the  from Indians  collect  to  competition  secure of  white  I n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n , t h e t r e a t y was a guarantee of t r a d i t i o n a l hunting  not  a  and  2 1  L o n g t i m e ago, n o t s u p p o s e d t o come t o B l u e b e r r y , W h i t e p e o p l e and h a l f - b r e e d g u y s . T h a t ' s what t h e y s a y t h a t . B o s s , you know, C h i e f , M a a d i y a n e s a y t h a t t o o . I n d i a n A g e n t , you know, my Dad t o l d me, t a l l guy he s a i d t h a t . J u s t l i k e a t r e a t y , T r e a t y t r a p l i n e s . G i v e him t r e a t y . Maadiyane t h e y . want t o g i v e t r e a t y . B i g B o s s he s a y t h a t I g i v e you t h a t t r a p l i n e , - t h a t ' s two r i v e r s . . . . Nobody come a r o u n d h e r e . Just, the t r e a t y I n d i a n s . 2 2  )  This understanding  was  1898  h o m e s t e a d e r s had  and  1914,  300  not  realized.  In the  s i x t e e n y e a r s between  moved i n t o t h e  Pouce Coupe 63  a r e a . G . J . Duncan, a s s i g n e d t o open t h e f i r s t  police  i n t h e a r e a i n 1914 was p e r p l e x e d b y t h e s e t t l e r s ' make a l i v i n g  from t h e i r s t r u g g l i n g  detachment  abilities to  f a r m i n g e ' n t e r p r i z e s . The  p u z z l e was s o l v e d when t h e C o n s t a b l e  r e a l i z e d t h a t .the  m a j o r i t y were engaged i n t r a p p i n g —  a l u c r a t i v e endeavour t h a t  c o u l d n e t a s much a s t h r e e t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s p e r y e a r .  I n 1915, C o n s t a b l e registration  Duncan i m p l e m e n t e d an u n o f f i c i a l  system t o prevent  registered forty eight lines  Indian trappers. Understandably, difficulty  they had operated  e a s i l y convinced  through  constant  experienced  as t h e y were n o t  24  8 was s i g n e d , a s many a s a h u n d r e d  Columbia every day. stream  f o r years  2 5  settlers  S e t t l e r s w e r e d e s c r i b e d a s a " ...  o f white, humanity p o u r i n g  i n t o t h e Peace R i v e r  from Lesser Slave Lake...  652 h o m e s t e a d s h a d b e e n f i l e d  settlers arrived  ."  26  By J u n e ,  i n t h e Pouce Coupe v a l l e y  a l o n e , a n d t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was a p p r o x i m a t e l y  When t h e f i r s t  from  P e a c e R i v e r C r o s s i n g enr.ou.te t o n o r t h e a s t e r n  country over the t r a i l 1917,  Duncan  t r a p p e r s and f o u r f o r  the Constable  t h e y s h o u l d move.  A decade a f t e r T r e a t y  British  line  e x p l a i n i n g t h e l a w a n d g e t t i n g I n d i a n s t o move  t r a p p i n g areas  passed  2 3  trap  disputes i n h i s area.  f o rwhite  vast  1200.  27  i n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t  north  o f F o r t S t . J o h n , C h i e f M u c k e t h a y a n d h i s b a n d h a d an a r e a  64  bordered  by F o r t S t . John ( s o u t h ) , N o r t h  ( e a s t ) and t h e B l u e b e r r y R i v e r  P i n e a n d Rose P r a i r i e  ( n o r t h ) . The newcomers  •  shortened  M u c k e t h a y ' s name t o M o n t n e y a n d named a ^ v i l l a g e a f t e r t h e C h i e f i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e l a n d t h a t o n c e b o r e h i s name. the  Indians of t h i s  28  By 1930,  r e g i o n h a d b e e n d i s p l a c e d a n d were  living  e i t h e r a t t h e B l u e b e r r y R i v e r o r a t t h e P i n e R i v e r i n Rose Prairie.  North  o f M u c k e t h a y ' s t e r r i t o r y was a l a r g e a r e a managed by a  tribe  c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e A p s a s s i n , W o l f , Yahey, and Cheekyass  bands  [see A p p e n d i x V I ] .  registered trap line maintain  c o n t r o l over  2 9  s y s t e m i n 1926, t h e I n d i a n s their traditional  t r a p p e r s moved i n t o a r e a s homesteads.  30  Despite  P r i o r t o the implementation  struggled to  t e r r i t o r i e s as  white  s o m e t i m e s f a r removed f r o m t h e i r  t r e a t y guarantees,  a c c e s s i n g Crown  f o r t r a p p i n g became a means o f s u p p o r t i n g t h e p r i m a r y a c t i v i t i e s of both  of the  s e t t l e r s and i t i n e r a n t  Lands  summer  prospectors.  By 1930, M u c k e t h a y ' s t e r r i t o r y h a d b e e n a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r settlement  and mechanized farmers  living  i n the area had "  removed a l m o s t a l l t r a c e s o f I n d i a n game t r a i l s ...  ."  31  North  of the Blueberry River, t r a d i t i o n a l  w e r e r e g i s t e r e d by w h i t e without  and camping  ... spots  territories  trappers leaving the a b o r i g i n a l trappers  a v i a b l e means o f m a k i n g a  living.  65  The s e t t l e r s approached  t r a p p i n g and the f u r b e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n  from an economic p e r s p e c t i v e : by the time the f u r b e a r e r s were d r i v e n t o the mountains o r b a r r e n l a n d s , the farm would be w e l l established.  3 2  The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the f u r b e a r i n g a n i m a l s was  l i t t l e consequence once the farm was  of  ' w e l l under c u l t i v a t i o n . '  good w h i t e h u n t e r , of whom always a few f i n d t h e i r way  "A  i n t o the  L a s t West f o r the w i n t e r ' s t r a p p i n g , can e a s i l y beat the I n d i a n at h i s own  game."  33  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s type o f a t t i t u d e had  dire  consequences f o r both the f u r - b e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n and the F i r s t Nations people.  Between 1920 and 1930, w h i t e encroachment i n t o the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t i n t e n s i f i e d . Denied employment i n t h e s o u t h e r n economy, w h i t e t r a p p e r s swarmed i n t o the n o r t h . At the same t i m e , p o s t war f u r market p r i c e s were h i g h and t r a p p i n g c o u l d prove v e r y profitable.  The e n s u i n g c o n f l i c t s between the a b o r i g i n a l  and  w h i t e t r a p p e r s r e p r e s e n t e d a c l a s h between s o c i a l and economic i d e o l o g i e s . Encouraged by government mandates, p r o t e c t e d by w h i t e law enforcement  o f f i c e r s , ''and d r i v e n by concepts o f e x p a n s i o n ,  l a n d ownership,  i n d i v i d u a l i s m and t h e ' a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e a l t h ,  w h i t e t r a p p e r s and s e t t l e r s moved deep i n t o the Peace and  Laird  R i v e r d r a i n a g e s y s t e m s - - t r a d i t i o n a l Dunne-za, S l a v e y and Cree territories.  A l t h o u g h the I n d i a n s were d i s p l a c e d , t h e y were h a r d l y  complacent  66  observers  of these  fundamental changes a f f e c t i n g t h e i r  decade a f t e r the s i g n i n g of T r e a t y t h e P e a c e R i v e r D i s t r i c t were s t i l l  8,  the F i r s t Nations  o b j e c t i n g to the  encroachment of w h i t e p r o s p e c t o r s , s e t t l e r s , game h u n t e r s  lives.  continued  Grande  r e g i o n s t r o u b l e d t h e B e a v e r I n d i a n s and d i s t r e s s e d t h e Saulteaux.  of  big  white  h o m e s t e a d e r s c l a i m i n g l a n d i n .the P o u c e Coupe and  Lake  groups  t r a p p e r s and  i n t o t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . M u l t i t u d e s of  A.  Prairies  Moberly  3 4  The B e a v e r s [Dunne-za] s t i l l l o o k e d upon t h e c o u n t r y as t h e i r own and upon a l l w h i t e men as u s u r p e r s . ... Now t h e B e a v e r s w e r e l o o k i n g w i t h g e n u i n e h a t r e d and a l a r m a t t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f w h i t e s who were c o m i n g e a c h y e a r i n t o t h e i r , l a n d . The s u r v e y o r s e s p e c i a l l y a r o u s e d t h e i r k e e n s u s p i c i o n s . Why w e r e t h e y m a k i n g t h e s e l i n e s and c u t t i n g down t h e B e a v e r I n d i a n s ' t r e e s ? F r e q u e n t l y , when t h e y w e r e g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e s t o r e , d i d some y o u n g f i r e b r a n d s t h r e a t e n t o c l e a n up on t h e s e i n t r u d i n g w h i t e s . 3 5  Bands o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t i m i d a t e d s e t t l e r s  but,  3 6  i n most i n s t a n c e s ,  c u l t u r a l e t h i c s r e g a r d i n g h o s p i t a l i t y d i c t a t e d peace. w e r e p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g r e s o u r c e f u l , f r i e n d l y , The  Indians taught  the mighty kill  it;  [Peace]  how  and  r e g i o n . The  " ...  t o r e s p e c t , but  you  the  not  cooperative.  r e a l l y to fear  r i v e r ; where t.o f i n d w i l d meat and when t o  t o keep f r o m f r e e z i n g , ' w h e n  n o r t h w i n d , and  W h i t e men  how  and  Indians  h a v e t o be o u t s i d e . "  i t ' s 72 b e l o w , w i t h a 3 7  Indians c o - e x i s t e d i n the i s o l a t e d  farmers  northern  augmented a g r a r i a n p u r s u i t s w i t h t r a p p i n g  w h i l e the Indians l i v e d p r i m a r i l y o f f the land: hunting, and  t r a p p i n g . The  s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l s o f t h e two  fishing  groups were  not 67  dissimilar,  b u t when t h e t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n  implemented, white territories  claims t o t r a d i t i o n a l hunting  s y s t e m was and trapping,  on Crown L a n d w e r e v a l i d a t e d a n d a b o r i g i n a l  claims  invalidated.  By  t h e time t h e t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n  in  1925,  F i r s t Nations  hunting  l e g i s l a t i o n , was i n t r o d u c e d  and f i s h i n g  t e r r i t o r i e s i n the  Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , h a d a l r e a d y been e r o d e d by t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f Crown l a n d n o t o n l y f o r s e t t l e m e n t s u c h a d e g r e e a s t o remove I n d i a n s In t h e f i r s t  year  but also for trapping t o  from t h e i r  t h e s y t e m was i n t r o d u c e d ,  were r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e Peace R i v e r a r e a , Nations  trappers.  t h e compulsory r e g i s t r a t i o n  t i m e t h e I n d i a n s were r e q u e s t i n g t o white  trappers  reverted t o Indians. men's t r a p l i n e s . Furber,  3 9  for. T r e a t y  u n t i l 1926,  8 Indians a year  s y t e m was i m p l e m e n t e d . By t h i s a m o r a t o r i u m on t h e a l l o c a t i o n '  In r e t u r n they promised t o respect  The p r o v i n c e ' s  C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r ,  request  regarding vacated  by h i s s u p e r v i s o r s . As a c o n c e s s i o n ,  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e P r o v i n c a l Game Warden m i g h t h o l d lines  lines  a n d a s k i n g t h a t v a c a n t l i n e s be  doubted t h e Indian's  w o u l d be a c c e p t e d  trap  none o f them t o F i r s t .  t o implement r e g i s t r a t i o n  i n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t d i d n o t o c c u r  of l i n e s  thirteen  lands.  3 8  Concerted e f f o r t s  after  traditional  for dispersal to either  Indian or white  the white M. lines Furber  forfeited,  candidates  with the  68  best  i n t e r e s t o f conservation i nmind.  superficial:  4 0  T h i s c o m p r o m i s e was  n o t o n l y was i t a l r e a d y t h e p r a c t i c e , b u t few l i n e s  r e v e r t e d t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden f o r t r a n s f e r .  The  F i r s t Nations  reluctant  4 1  g r o u p s o f the'' P e a c e R i v e r D i s t r i c t  to participate  i n t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n system, not o n l y  because o f t h e i r ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Treaty b a r r i e r s and a l a c k o f understanding but  were  8 assurances,  language  of the registration  a l s o because t h e ' I n d i a n Agent, H a r o l d L a i r d ,  process,  a d v i s e d them t o  i g n o r e b o t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l game l a w s a n d t h e l a w e n f o r c e m e n t officers.  L a i r d acknowledged- F i r s t N a t i o n s  r i g h t s and developed peoples  h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g  respectful relationships with the aboriginal  i n h i s agency. A l t h o u g h  Game O f f i c i a l s v i e w e d L a i r d a s an  i m p e d i m e n t t o l a w e n f o r c e m e n t , he was r e s p e c t e d b y t h e I n d i a n s b e c a u s e he was a f r i e n d l y man who 'took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n I n d i a n concerns  and recommendations.  42  A g e n t L a i r d b e l i e v e d a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s w e r e exempt provincial  laws under T r e a t y 8 guarantees.  P o l i c e r e p o r t from t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t of trap l i n e s ,  t h e Constable' noted  from  I n a F e b r u a r y , 1924 on t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n  Laird's interpretation of  T r e a t y 8. And l a s t b u t n o t l e a s t comes t h e q u e s t i o n o f I n d i a n r i g h t s , t h e I n d i a n s h e r e have o n l y o f l a t e f e l t t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e W h i t e man, a s y e t he h a r d l y r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e c o u n t r y he a n d h i s f o r e f a t h e r s have h u n t e d and t r a p p e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s i s ' r a p i d l y b e i n g t a k e n f r o m him, when R e g i s t r a t i o n a r r i v e s a n d he f i n d s t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y c l o s e d t o him, he 69  w i l l c e r t a i n l y r e s e n t i t h a v i n g been t o l d by h i s Agent t h a t •under h i s T r e a t y ( D o m i n i o n T r e a t y No 8) he c a n h u n t a n d t r a p where he l i k e s . 4 3  C o n s t a b l e F o r f a r recommended t h a t a r u l i n g on t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e Indians  claims under Treaty  complicated  the situation.  clarification  4 4  on t h e T r e a t y  8 be made b e f o r e But,  before  registration  the Constable  8 i s s u e , he r e c e i v e d  received  instructions to  implement t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n s — d i r e c t i v e s d i f f i c u l t with the f u l l  cooperation  when t h e a g e n t r e f u s e d  o f an I n d i a n  t o recognized  a d m i n i s t e r i n g p r o v i n c i a l game  laws.  agent, almost  t o execute impossible  police authority i n 4 5  In h i s e f f o r t s t o o b t a i n t r a p p i n g areas f o r t h e Indians Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t ,  C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r  subsistence was  i n d i v i d u a l t r a p l i n e s were n o t f e a s i b l e f o r t h e  needs o f a t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e h u n t i n g  t e r r i t o r y a n d s u g g e s t e d that-, o u t s i d e should  n o t be g r a n t e d  58th p a r a l l e l .  4 6  incorporated,  probably  by  b e c a u s e he  group.  i n t e r e s t e d i n l i m i t i n g white expansion i n t o Indian  settlers  requesting  of their  Furber  trapping  homesteads,  t r a p l i n e s except North of t h e  The l a t t e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n was n e v e r because s e t t l e r s would have been a l a r m e d  t h i s attempt t o r e s t r i c t  Furber sent  f o r the  F u r b e r recommended  t h a t b a n d t r a p p i n g a r e a s be r e g i s t e r e d f o r I n d i a n s realized that  further  t h e i r economic  options.  a l e t t e r t o I n d i a n A g e n t L a i r d i n J u n e 1926 assistance  i n securing  Indian trapping  territories. 70  The  Inspector b e l i e v e d t h a t , i f L a i r d demonstrated support  Game D e p a r t m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s , register.  But  L a i r d ' s support  s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n was Indians  i n the  ...  Indians  the  the  I n d i a n s w o u l d be p r e d i s p o s e d  was  not. f o r t h c o m i n g  Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t . c o u l d run w i l d ,  as  4 7  l o n g as t h e y  r u n by w h i t e  8 guaranteed the  practice their traditional  vocations.  Division,  W.  Spiller,  Inspector  a  d i d not  Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t ,  Spiller  Pouce Coupe, t o t a k e  same manner as w h i t e  r e g i s t r a t i o n s but  r e g i s t e r i n bands i f t h e y  desired.  trappers  Indians  "D"  the  be  Constable,  Indian applications i n allow Indians  to  4 9  Indian Agent,  Indians  i n the  their  hunting  and  officers.  Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t  continued  t r a p p i n g v o c a t i o n s , - i g n o r i n g game l a w s  I n one  trappers  instance, Indians  i n d i g n a n t when an a r e a r e g i s t e r e d to a white  that they  and  the  traditional and  t h e game e n f o r c e m e n t  f r o m t h e H a l f w a y Band w e r e  had  trapped  for generations  t r a p p e r t h a t t h e y b u r n e d down h i s c a b i n  i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h i s t r a p s . The  4 8  freedom t o  Commanding  informed  "  [sic]."  C o n s e q u e n t l y , w i t h the encouragement of t h e i r  f r u s t r a t i n g both the white  the  interfer  P r i n c e R u p e r t , r e a l i z e d t h a t no a s s i s t a n c e c o u l d  expected from I n d i a n Agent L a i r d .  the  not  to  In L a i r d ' s e s t i m a t i o n  L a i r d believed that Treaty  20 A u g u s t , 1927,  and  r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e A g e n t on b e h a l f o f  w i t h the t r a p l i n e s a l r e a d y being  By  for  white  trapper  finally  sold  so was and  the  71  l i n e t o t h e Department o f I n d i a n  Affairs.  5 0  The  P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden r e p o r t f o r t h e y e a r e n d i n g  31,  1926 n o t e d  that trap line  December •  r e g i s t r a t i o n i n "D" D i v i s i o n  which  i n c l u d e d t h e P e a c e R i v e r B l o c k was i n i t s ' i n f a n c y a n d a v e r y t e d i o u s p r o c e s s ' due t o " [ t ] h e f a c t , t h a t t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e p a s t have been a d v e r s e  t o r e c o g n i z i n g o u r 'Game A c t '  c r e a t e d many d i f f i c u l t i e s . " r e g i o n were d e t e r m i n e d  5 1  [which] has  The I n d i a n s i n t h e F o r t  Nelson  n o t t o r e g i s t e r b u t were f i n a l l y  convinced  o f t h e s y s t e m ' s m e r i t s b y t h e l o c a l Game Warden a n d e v e n t u a l l y complied.  5 2  But other C h i e f s i n t h e D i s t r i c t  a c t i v i t i e s without  complying  continued  t o t h e Game A c t a n d w e r e  trapping charged  w i t h t r e s p a s s i n g on r e g i s t e r e d ' l i n e s . W h e t h e r t h e t r e s p a s s was done o u t of. d e f i a n c e , o r i g n o r a n c e , i s d i f f i c u l t , t o d e t e r m i n e , b u t s'ince t h e I n d i a n s w e r e d e s t i t u t e , primary  determining  s u r v i v a l may h a v e b e e n t h e  factor.  I n May o f 1926 t h e C h i e f o f t h e B e a v e r t r i b e a t Hudson Hope r e c e i v e d a suspended sentence  f o r t r e s p a s s i n g onto a t r a p l i n e >  r e g i s t e r e d t o a .white t r a p p e r . I n . p a s s i n g j u d g e m e n t t h e M a g i s t r a t e c o n s i d e r e d t h e man's f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The. C h i e f was s o l e s u p p o r t e r , f o r a l a r g e f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g  three  a d o p t e d c h i l d r e n a n d was deemed t r u s t w o r t h y w i t h a n i n d u s t r i o u s nature. Extenuating decision.  circumstances  a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h e judge's  Because I n d i a n Agent L a i r d had a d v i s e d t h e I n d i a n s t o  72  ignore  p r o v i n c i a l game l a w s ,  the A s s i s t a n t Superintendent o f  P o l i c e recommended t h a t t h e M a g i s t r a t e  be g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o  suspend s e n t e n c e .  ill-advised.  The C h i e f h a d b e e n  5 3  I n a s i m i l a r c a s e , a n o t h e r Dunne-za C h i e f f r o m Hudson Hope r e c e i v e d a s u s p e n d e d s e n t e n c e i n 1928 a f t e r he a n d h i s b a n d w e r e c h a r g e d w i t h t r e s p a s s i n g on a r e g i s t e r e d l i n e . The C h i e f t o s t a y away f r o m t h e w h i t e t r a p p e r ' s t r a p p i n g area  The  5 4  and r e g i s t e r a  obviously not h i s t r a d i t i o n a l  area.  C o n s t a b l e i n F o r t S t . John as w e l l as t h e Chairman o f t h e  British  C o l u m b i a Game C o n s e r v a t i o n  District  Indians'  provincial requested district game  The  for himself,  territory  promised  Board were f r u s t r a t e d by t h e  ' w i l f u l and p e r s i s t e n t '  game l a w s .  Without success,  t h e I n d i a n Department p l a c e t o control the Indians  laws.  disregard f o r  t h e Game B o a r d C h a i r m a n an I n d i a n A g e n t i n t h e  and s c h o o l  them i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l  5 5  loss of traditional  F i r s t Nations  hunting  and t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s  groups o f t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t  for the  had a d i s a s t r o u s  i m p a c t on t h e p e o p l e . I n S e p t e m b e r o f . 1 9 3 2 , C h i e f S a c c o n a n d one o f the Affairs  sub C h i e f s  sent  criticizing  a letter  t o t h e Department o f I n d i a n  t h e Hudson B a y Company f o r p r o v i d i n g  relief  s u p p o r t t h a t was b o t h i n a d e q u a t e a n d d e m e a n i n g . The l e t t e r the  deplorable  c o n d i t i o n s and r e q u e s t e d  noted  an I n d i a n A g e n t be  73  a s s i g n e d t o F o r t S t . John t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e . The I n d i a n A g e n t i s 500 m i l e s [805 k i l o m e t r e s ] o r so away f r o m u s , we h a v e nobody t o t a k e c a r e o f us e x c e p t i n g t h e I n d i a n D e p t . The f u r i s g e t t i n g v e r y s c a r c e and t h e p r i c e ' low' and h a l f t h e t i m e we a r e n e a r s t a r v i n g and when t h e c o l d w e a t h e r comes a r e l i a b l e t o f r e e z e t o d e a t h . The w h i t e t r a p p e r s a r e a l l a r o u n d us and [we] do n o t h a v e much c h a n c e t o k i l l v e r y much [ s i c ] . 56  I n 1932  the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s  t r a n s f e r r e d an  I n s p e c t o r from Saskatchewan t o the  Office i n Calgary. C h r i s t i a n s o n had H a l f w a y and  5 7  By  S e p t e m b e r o f t h a t year',  determined t h a t the  so r e d u c e d as t o be  f r o m t h e Game I n s p e c t o r f o r "D"  The  the  and  5 8  i t was  Division  5 9  In  1933,  to purchase trap  I n s p e c t o r a t e , acknowledged t h a t the  lines meet  throughout the province, agencies.  Inspector of Indian Agencies,  had  the  apparent  g r o u p s o f t h e P e a c e R i v e r B l o c k . To  t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t  been  d e s t i t u t e c o n d i t i o n s of  u l t i m a t e l y extended to other  r e s u l t e d i n white  on  received reluctant permission  t h e needs o f F i r s t N a t i o n s . t r a p p e r s  the  British  t o be done t o r e c t i f y t h e s i t u a t i o n .  the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s  1933  Lake,  t h a t t h e i r t r a p p i n g g r o u n d s had  insufficient.  f o r the F i r s t Nations  M.  Indians at the Moberly  'were t h e t a l k o f t h e c o u n t r y , '  t h a t s o m e t h i n g had  In J u l y ,  Inspector  8 a r e a , w e r e u n a b l e t o make a l i v i n g  l a n d s a l l o c a t e d t o them and  p r a c t i s e was  and  Inspectorate  F o r t S t . John Reserves i n n o r t h e a s t e r n  Columbia, Treaty  Indians  reorganized  this  6 0  Alberta.  i n t e r e s t s of the  not been p r o t e c t e d . T h i s  Indians  in  had  t r a p p e r s c l a i m i n g p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the  valuable 74  t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s i n the d i s t r i c t . n e g l e c t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was  6 1  This admission  of  r e i t e r a t e d i n October, 1934  when the  S e c r e t a r y of the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s conceded that, the l a c k of Department s t r u c t u r e i n the Peace R i v e r B l o c k had d i s t r e s s f o r the I n d i a n s i n the  created  area.  When d i s c u s s i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the I n d i a n s i n the Peace River Block i n regard to trapping l i c e n s e s , [ P r o v i n c i a l Game] Commissioner B u t l e r p o i n t e d out t h a t the I n d i a n s s u f f e r e d through l a c k of I n d i a n Department o r g a n i z a t i o n . I agreed w i t h him as the l a t e Agent, Mr. L a i r d , was too f a r d i s t a n t and took no i n t e r e s t i n the m a t t e r . 62  J  The  F o r t S t . John Game Warden opposed Department of  Indian  A f f a i r s i n i t i a t i v e s to reclaim trapping t e r r i t o r i e s f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r s . Warden K e r k o f f d i s m i s s e d C h r i s t i a n s o n ' s r e p o r t d e l i n e a t i n g the d e s t i t u t e c o n d i t i o n s of the a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e i n the- Peace R i v e r B l o c k . Demonstrating both an ignorance r e g i s t r a t i o n b a r r i e r s experienced  of  by I n d i a n s as w e l l as  little  compassion, K e r k o f f complained t h a t the I n d i a n s were d i f f c u l t work w i t h because they were ' i g n o r a n t ' w i t h no u n d e r s t a n d i n g e i t h e r the language or the r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e s s .  63  to of  In h i s  e s t i m a t i o n , w h i t e attempts, t o e s t a b l i s h and manage t r a p l i n e s were r a t h e r u s e l e s s because the r e g i o n seemed o v e r r u n by who  were c o n s t a n t l y i n f r i n g i n g on w h i t e l i n e s . K e r k o f f  t h a t I n d i a n s had no u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Indians concluded  of the r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e  system and i n s t e a d of s e t t l i n g down t o operate  their lines,  caught e v e r y t h i n g on the l i n e , then moved on t o r a i d o t h e r  they lines.  Through not r e g i s t e r i n g the I n d i a n s have l o s t a l o t of t r a p p i n g a r e a and t h i s was not so n o t i c e a b l e , w h i l e t h e r e 75  was open t e r r i t o r y f o r t h e I n d i a n s t o f a l l b a c k o n , but. now the c o u n t r y i s c o v e r e d by r e g i s t r a t i o n , t h e I n d i a n w i l l have t o s t a y o n h i s l i n e a n d t r y t o do l i k e t h e W h i t e t r a p p e r . ... I n t h e F o r t S t . J o h n d i s t r i c t , t h e White-men h o l d b i g areas f o r t r a p l i n e s a n d between these a r e a s t h e I n d i a n s a r e registered. 6 4  The  Warden e v a l u a t e d , t h e  a band as b e i n g killer the  Indian's  method o f t r a p p i n g together, as  d e t r i m e n t a l and concluded  o f Game a n d n o t a c o n s e r v e r ;  t h a t ".[t]he I n d i a n  he w i l l  kill  i s a  h i s beaver, i n  summer t i m e f o r t h e meat, n o t c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e v a l u e o f  the p e l t next w i n t e r . " the value  6 5  Apparently  Kerkoff d i d not r e a l i z e  that  o f a p e l t was d e t e r m i n e d b y how h u n g r y t h e b a n d was  when t h e b e a v e r was k i l l e d .  K e r k o f f ' s l a c k o f support  f o r t h e Department o f I n d i a n  i n i t i a t i v e was c o n d o n e d b y D i s t r i c t The  Inspector-blamed  Game I n s p e c t o r T. V a n Dyk.  t h e whole o f t h e Indian's d e s t i t u t e  s i t u a t i o n on I n d i a n A g e n t L a i r d and. t h e Dyk  informed  Indians  t h e m s e l v e s . Van  Game C o m m i s s i o n e r A. B r y a n W i l l i a m s t h a t i n t h e  w i n t e r o f 192.5 - 1926 t h e I n d i a n s n o t i f i e d o f t h e new t r a p l i n e a d v i s e d t o comply w i t h o u t  Van  Affairs  Dyk m a i n t a i n e d  and t h e i r  r e g i s t r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s and  response.  t h a t i t was- d i f f i c u l t  I n d i a n t r a p p i n g a r e a s were i n s u f f i c i e n t d i s c r e d i t e d t h e 'hard ' f i f t y percent.'  I n d i a n Agent had been  t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e t o provide  a l i v i n g and  l u c k s t o r y ' d e p i c t e d by C h r i s t i a n s o n by  W i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i a t i o n , V a n Dyk n o t e d t h a t , t h e  76  C o n s t a b l e a t Hudson Hope had misrepresentation was  the  witnessed  where I n d i a n s  reality.  I n Van  had  'their passion  i l l e g a l l y by sentenced.  claimed  Dyk's e s t i m a t i o n ,  d e s t i t u t e because of i n s u f f i c i e n t because of  s e v e r a l cases  poorer catches  the  trapping  Indians  areas but  f o r d r i n k ' w h i c h was  a bootlegger  who  was  of  were  being  supplied  subsequently charged  and  6 6  Indian Agencies,•M.  Inspector  Van  Dyk's a s s e s s m e n t o f L a i r d ' s i n c o m p e t e n c e i n c o m p l y i n g  the  trap line  of  registration  s u p e r v i s i o n of the a l c o h o l . But, conditions  Indians  the  especially  i n issues  estimation,  the  territory  officials  Indians  one  been l i v i n g  them, w i t h  the  exception  [the P o l i c e ] Department  ...  ."  and  to deal with S t . John  [had]  given  67  them any  the  required  improved.  He  o f members o f t h e  Christianson expressed  department's exemplary treatment of the  the  like  encouragement  h o p e d f o r more open d i s c u s s i o n on  Because h a l f of the  wretched  " ...'more o r l e s s  t r i e d to advise  Indians  greater  Game D e p a r t m e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t  No  deep g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e  with  involving  i f c o n d i t i o n s w e r e t o be  of the  i n t h e p a s t had  the  around Fort  hunted animals:  of  need f o r  Indians- were f o r c i n g him  i t was:  more t r a p p i n g  C h r i s t i a n s o n endorsed both  s y s t e m and  i n Christianson's  of the  s i t u a t i o n as  Indians  not  rather  The  asked the  than  or staff his the  issues.  F o r t S t . J o h n b a n d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80  or  90  77  p e o p l e had.'no r e g i s t e r e d , t r a p l i n e s , in appalling conditions trappers,"  To  6 8  " ...  t h e y were d e s t i t u t e ,  c h a s e d h e r e and  there  a l l e v i a t e these circumstances,  by  white  Christianson  e n d e a v o u r e d t o s e c u r e a d d i t i o n a l t r a p l i n e s t o meet t h e needs but not  be  t h i s was  difficult  c a n c e l l e d and  w i t h the  signed  as v a l i d  existing lines  relinquishment  Game Warden K e r k o f f  spurned C h r i s t i a n s o n ' s a b o r i g i n a l people.  c o u l d be  Indians  estimation,  p r o t e c t i o n of both the white trapper Indians  transferred  and  the  Although  game was  he  areas f o r  to place  the the  the  b e t w e e n some r i v e r s w h e r e t h e y c o u l d be made t o  beyond these  Kerkoff.'s  areas.  opposition  remained strong  to the  Van  on  t o f i n d someone t h a t  deal,"  7 0  diplomatic  and  and  is willing  C h r i s t i a n s o n w r o t e t o Van  Dyk  f u r t h e r commended Van Columbia.  congenial  7 1  No  territories  are poor h e l p l e s s people i n  hands o f u n s c r u p u l o u s w h i t e men,  t o me  traditional  Dyk's u n c o o p e r a t i v e a t t i t u d e  seemed t o d i s s i p a t e . ".[The I n d i a n s ]  General of B r i t i s h  trapping  Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s e f f o r t s  but. I n s p e c t o r  Inspector  or  6 9  to r e - e s t a b l i s h aboriginal trappers  Indian  only  solution for  u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e y were p r o h i b i t e d f r o m h u n t i n g  the  could  were a p o o r t r i b e ,  attempts to r e c l a i m trapping  In K e r k o f f ' s  band's  registered trap lines  from the white trappers..  agreed that the  living  i t i s always g r a t i f y i n g  to give  them a  square  i n S e p t e m b e r 1934. Dyk  to the  Attorney  doubt C h r i s t i a n s o n ' s  r e m a r k s i n f l u e n c e d . Van  Dyk  The  v  to accept  the  78  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  I n November o f 1933, Indians  was  D r . H.A.W. Brown, c l a i m i n g i n t e r e s t  a n d a d e s i r e , t o do what he c o u l d t o s u p p o r t  volunteered 1934,  initiatives.  t o a c t as t h e r e g i o n a l I n d i a n A g e n t .  Brown h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d  7 2  them, By A p r i l ,  Agent, a n d t h e F o r t St.. J o h n A g e n c y  e s t a b l i s h e d . I n November o f 1934,  D r . Brown  informed  I n s p e c t o r V a n Dyk t h a t " i t w o u l d a p p e a r t o be n e c e s s a r y purchase back q u i t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e trappers  o f 1934,  from  white  itself."  7 3  discussed  Indian trap l i n e  needs,  t h e Game B o a r d a g r e e d t h a t I n d i a n A g e n t s w o u l d be c o n s u l t e d  before  trap line  Indian'lands.  take  little white  l i c e n c e s were g r a n t e d  Game B o a r d o f f i c i a l s  Indian complaints and  f o r us t o  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a Game B o a r d o f f i c i a l s and  amount o f t e r r i t o r y  t o enable the Indian population t o maintain  In t h e f a l l  i n the  t o prevent  e n c r o a c h m e n t on  a l s o agreed t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l l  against, wardens^through t h e Indian  appropriate  action i f necessary.  impact as t r a p l i n e s c o n t i n u e d trapper t o another without  7 4  Department  These p o l i c i e s had  t o be t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m one  consultation with the Indian  Agent.  Although to  "D" D i v i s i o n  Inspector,  T. Van- Dyk,  became l e s s  opposed  t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s purchase o f t r a p l i n e s ,  Warden K e r k o f f r e m a i n e d u n s u p p o r t i v e .  I n December o f 1934,  Game Van  79  Dyk  informed  K e r k o f f t h a t he was  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , uncooperative.  7 5  I n J u l y o f 1935,  be p e n a l i z e d f o r s e l l i n g t h e i r Indian A f f a i r s i n t e n t was  by. b e i n g  but he  to cooperate  the  suggested  that white  Lake groups a l o n e .  7 8  for First  7 7  Nations  7 3  a t o t a l o f 23  By D e c e m b e r ' o f 1938,  as  Moberly  l i n e s had  been  the Department  had  an a d d i t i o n a l e i g h t l i n e s , m a k i n g a t o t a l o f t h i r t y - o n e  trap lines  r e g i s t e r e d to F i r s t Nations  the F i r s t Nations  g r o u p s may  r e t u r n of at l e a s t a p o r t i o n of t h e i r white  [sic]."  purchased  a c q u i r e d t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e  By t h i s d a t e ,  registered to Indians  Although  had  of His  I n d i a n Agent b e l i e v e d t h a t a t l e a s t t w i c e  many w o u l d n e e d t o be  secured  trappers  Licences.  "trafficking in traplines  the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  the  the  t r a p l i n e s t o the Department  t w e n t y t r a p l i n e s ' i n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t t r a p p e r s but  with  t h e Warden r e m a i n e d '  refused S p e c i a l Firearms  to discourage  By A p r i l , 1938  expected  t r a p p e r s w e r e o p p o s e d . As  trapping areas, white  trappers  people.  8 0  h a v e b e e n p l e a s e d by  a  traditional territories,  I n d i a n s began moving back t o o l d complained.  Up t o t h e p r e s e n t t h i s t e r r i t o r y has b e e n e n t i r e l y c l e a r o f I n d i a n s . I u n d e r s t a n d i t . has a l w a y s b e e n t h e p o l i c y o f t h e [Game] D e p a r t m e n t t o keep t h e I n d i a n t e r r i t o r y s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e w h i t e s , and am w o n d e r i n g , t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r w h i t e t r a p p e r s i n t h i s v a l l e y , i f t h e r e i s any p o s s i b l e way t o g e t t h i s t e r r i t o r y again c l e a r of the I n d i a n s . 8 1  Expressing  the concerns of s e v e r a l white ' t r a p p e r s , t h i s  trapper's  80  effort  t o r e s t r i c t Indians  t o c e r t a i n areas  was s u p p o r t e d b y  Warden K e r k o f f who a r b i t r a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e B l u e b e r r y R i v e r a s the boundary between w h i t e  and Indian t r a p  lines.  A second attempt t o c o n f i n e Indians t o a s p e c i f i c east o f t h e mountains occurred Van  i n January  Dyk a s k e d t h e I n d i a n A g e n t t o r e f r a i n  8 2  trapping  o f 1937 when  Inspector  f r o m b i d d i n g on an  e x t e n s i v e l i n e b e i n g a u c t i o n e d a t e s t a t e t h a t bor.dered r e g i s t e r e d by w h i t e  area  lines  (  t r a p p e r s . The I n s p e c t o r b e l i e v e d t h a t , i f t h e  I n d i a n s were t o o b t a i n t h e t e r r i t o r y , i t w o u l d cause t r o u b l e between t h e w h i t e estimation,  and I n d i a n t r a p p e r s . I n t h e I n s p e c t o r ' s  i t was ' v e r y d e s i r a b l e ' t o keep t h e I n d i a n s  Hudson Hope a r e a on t h e E a s t r e s t r i c t i n g white maintain 8,  their  t o Crown L a n d t o e n s u r e  traditional  Game o f f i c i a l s  F i r s t Nations  Any  access  slope of the Mountains.  livelihoods  8 3  as g u a r a n t e e d under  t r i e d t o c o n t a i n th'e l i v e l i h o o d  trapping t e r r i t o r y requirements  activities of  used i n hunting,  t o meet  was r e s t r i c t e d t o  l i v i n g w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Although  8 guaranteed the Indians  access  .  to t e r r i t o r i e s customarily  t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g v o c a t i o n s throughout t h e  whole o f t h e t r e a t y a r e a , prevented  Treaty  people.  a b o r i g i n a l peoples Treaty  Instead of  Indians•could  a s s i s t a n c e e x t e n d e d b y Game D e p a r t m e n t o f f i c i a l s  F i r s t Nations  i n the  A l b e r t a Indians  8 4  .provincial  law enforcement  from e n t e r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l  officers  territories  81  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . When the. Hay L a k e s , attempted  t o enter t r a d i t i o n a l  A l b e r t a , Indians  trapping territories  i n the Treaty  8 a r e a o f B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a i n March, 1932, t h e y were a s k e d t o v a c a t e by' t h e Game Warden u n d e r S e c t i o n 6 o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l Game Act.  This section p r o h i b i t e d non-resident  in the province.  The  District  Indians from t r a p p i n g  8 5  Game Warden r e f u s e d e n t r y b a s e d upon  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Treaty  earlier  8 i n the context of p r o v i n c i a l  j u r i s d i c t i o n , and . w i l d l i f e , r e g u l a t i o n s . I n a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l i d i t y 1 of a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p i n g - r i g h t s i n the Treaty Ditchburn, in  1925,  determined,  t h a t I n d i a n s w e r e s u b j e c t t o p r o v i n c i a l game 8 6  I n 1929,  G e o r g e S. P r a g n e l l ,  Kamloops r e i t e r a t e d D i t c h b u r n ' s  determining  t h e hunting and f i s h i n g  Peace R i v e r B l o c k ,  Inspector of Indian conclusion. In  r i g h t s of Indians i n the  I n s p e c t o r P r a g n e l l had r e c e i v e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n  f r o m I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r Graham a t R e g i n a Indians i n the p r a i r i e laws.  W.E.  Indian Commissioner f o r B r i t i s h Columbia,  legislation. Agencies,  8 area,  a n d was i n f o r m e d  that  p r o v i n c e s w e r e s u b j e c t t o p r o v i n c i a l game  P r a g n e l l subsequently  i n f o r m e d V a n Dyk t h a t " ... t h e  I n d i a n s i n t h e P e a c e R i v e r B l o c k a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e B.C. Game R e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e same -way a s a r e t h e w h i t e s . "  8 7  Warden V a n Dyk's d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e Hay L a k e s I n d i a n s to  trap i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a was u l t i m a t e l y  supported  rights  by both t h e  82  provincial Attorney out  that Indians  the country'  General  a n d t h e Game C o m m i s s i o n e r who p o i n t e d  i n t h e t r e a t y a r e a were s u b j e c t t o t h e 'laws o f  as s t i p u l a t e d i n t h e T r e a t y  s u b j e c t t o p r o v i n c i a l Game L a w s .  arid w e r e , t h e r e f o r e ,  88  In. t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l game a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e Game A c t s u p e r s e d e d T r e a t y  8. A l t h o u g h  C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B.C., W.E. D i t c h b u r n ,  the Indian  agreed that  game r e g u l a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d t o I n d i a n s , A l b e r t a Indians British  the right, t o trap t r a d i t i o n a l  Columbia without  Department  restriction.  of Indian A f f a i r s ,  the decision regarding  t r a p p i n g -in B r i t i s h opinion,  9 0  Department  although  provincial  Treaty  8 gave N  territories i n  The S e c r e t a r y  of the  T.R.L. M a c l n n e s , was n o t s a t i s f i e d  w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l game o f f i c i a l ' s He q u e s t i o n e d  8 9  Section 6 of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Treaty. theAlberta- Treaty  Columbia and i n t e n d e d  to obtain  Indians  legal  t h e A c t i n g S e c r e t a r y doubted t h a t t h e  of Indian A f f a i r s  given the a t t i t u d e s expressed  could i n s i s t  upon t r e a t y r i g h t s  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l  authorities.  9 1  By. June 1932, Game C o m m i s s i o n e r B r y a n W i l l i a m s h a d c h a n g e d h i s m i n d a b o u t a l l o w i n g t h e Hay L a k e s I n d i a n t o t r a p i n B r i t i s h Columbia, n o t because o f l e g a l c l a i m s under T r e a t y  8, b u t b e c a u s e  Game Warden C l a r k ' s r e p o r t oh t h e s i t u a t i o n h a d " ... p u t t h e m a t t e r i n an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t Hay L a k e s I n d i a n s  light."  9 2  Clark reported  h a d been t r a p p i n g i n B r i t i s h  that the  Columbia f o r years  83  and  t h a t t h e i r t e r r i t o r y would not i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h a t o f t h e  province's  Indians.  He a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s  were  ... a b s o l u t e l y d e s t i t u t e a n d s t a r v i n g . They a r e i s s u e d w i t h , a v e r y s m a l l r a t i o n f r o m t h e I n d i a n D e p a r t m e n t . Some o f t h e c h i l d r e n a r e l i k e s k e l e t o n s . Some h a v e n o t h i n g f o r c l o t h i n g o n l y o l d f l o u r s a c k s . D u r i n g t h e w a r I saw l o t s o f p o o r p e o p l e , i n Germany a n d France., b u t I n e v e r h a v e s e e n a n y t h i n g l i k e we h a v e on t h e B o u n d a r y a t Hay L a k e s . I n e v e r h a d s u c h a p i t i f u l j o b i n my l i f e when I a d v i s e d t h e s e I n d i a n s t h a t o n l y B.C. I n d i a n s , a r e g i v e n t r a p p i n g p r i v i l e g e s i n B.C. The o l d p e o p l e s a t t h e r e a n d c r i e d . They t o l d me t h a t I. c o u l d n o t f i n d enough f o o d i n a n y one o f t h e i r camps t o f e e d one o f my d o g s f o r one n i g h t , w h i c h I am'sure i s t h e t r u t h . 9 3  The  Game C o m m i s s i o n e r ' s p e r m i s s i o n  to trap i n B r i t i s h  a l l o w i n g t h e Hay L a k e s  Indians  C o l u m b i a b r o u g h t to. an e n d a n y p o t e n t i a l  c o n f l i c t between t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s Commission. I n responding  t o the Indian's  living  a n d t h e Game c o n d i t i o n s as )  r e p o r t e d b y Game Warden C l a r k , t h e A c t i n g D e p u t y General  o f t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  Superintendent  informed the  p r o v i n c i a l Game C o m m i s s i o n e r t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t was.aware o f t h e circumstances  o f t h e Hay L a k e s I n d i a n ' s . B u t he j u s t i f i e d t h e  Department's i n a b i l i t y t o respond by e x p l a i n i n g t h a t .supplying r e l i e f was d i f f i c u l t 'because o f t h e - b a n d ' s Furthermore, t h e A c t i n g Deputy e x p l a i n e d , a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r r e l i e f were v e r y that unless permission  Department  l i m i t e d . a n d he p o i n t e d o u t  t o h u n t was g r a n t e d ,  L a k e s I n d i a n s w o u l d be 'most s e r i o u s . ' consequences o f n e g l e c t e d Affairs  isolation.  9 4  the plight  o f t h e Hay  U n w i l l i n g t o address the  t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s , the federal Indian  o f f i c i a l placed the responsibility  f o r the Indians'  s u r v i v a l on t h e p r o v i n c e . 84  Ultimately,  reducing Indian requirements  an a c k n o w l e d g m e n t o f a b o r i g i n a l  for relief  9 5  r i g h t s motivated the  of Indian A f f a i r s t o address white a p p r o p r i a t i o n of h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s Criticizing  throughout  r a t h e r than Department aboriginal  the province.  the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r i t s .ignorance  a b o r i g i n a l trapping requirements, Kamloops Agency  Inspector P r a g n e l l of  of the  noted:  The f a c t t h a t t h e I n d i a n s h a v e g o t t o be p r o t e c t e d b e f o r e t h e w h i t e man i n t h e i r t r a p p i n g i n t e r e s t s , d o e s n o t seem t o h a v e b e e n g r a s p e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t . A p p a r e n t l y , n o t h a v i n g had t o p e r s o n a l l y h a n d l e t h e m a t t e r o f r e l i e f t o I n d i a n s , t h e y do n o t see t h a t u n l e s s s o m e t h i n g i s . done, t h e y a r e b o u n d t o become a c h a r g e on t h e p u b l i c [ e m p h a s i s i n original ] . 96  W h i t e e n c r o a c h m e n t on t r a d i t i o n a l r a t i o n i n g and,  ultimately,  r e t u r n to the F i r s t Nations  lands n e c e s s i t a t e d expensive  the purchasing of t r a p l i n e s f o r people.  T r e a t y 8 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and Game A c t e n f o r c e m e n t s  had  profound  consequences f o r the n a t i v e s peoples  o f the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t .  D i s e m p o w e r e d by t h e I n d i a n A c t , l e f t  to the guidance  o r e v e n h o s t i l e game e n f o r c e m e n t illiteracy  and  language  barriers,  officials,  hindered  they l o s t t h e i r  of a p a t h e t i c by  traditional  l i v e l i h o o d s and b e c a u s e a l t e r n a t e v o c a t i o n s w e r e u n a v a i l a b l e , t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r s i g n i n g T r e a t y 8, t h e y w e r e one  o f t h e most  d e s t i t u t e groups i n the n a t i o n . T h e r e a r e 170 I n d i a n s i n t h e b a n d , b e l o n g i n g t o t h e B e a v e r [Dunne-za] t r i b e , and t h e y a r e c e r t a i n l y a v e r y p o o r t y p e o f I n d i a n . T h e y h a v e become d i s e a s e d , i n b r e d and t h r o u g h 85  p o v e r t y t h e y a r e s i m p l y on t h e i r l a s t l [ e ] g s . They h a v e a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g . I have n e v e r seen a band o f I n d i a n s t h a t had l e s s . , D u r i n g t h e two d a y s I s p e n t w i t h , t h e s e I n d i a n s , ... i t r a i n [ e d ] c o n t i n u a l l y , a n d I n o t i c e d t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e d i d n o t e v e n h a v e t e n t s . T h e r e w e r e o n l y two g o o d t e p e e s i n t h e w h o l e o u t f i t a n d t h e o n l y s h e l t e r t h e y h a d was a p i e c e o f c a n v a s hung o v e r w i l l o w s , u n d e r w h i c h I saw t h e o l d p e o p l e a n d c h i l d r e n h u d d l e . They w e r e v e r y p o o r l y c l a d a n d some o f t h e c h i l d r e n h a d p r a c t i c a l l y no c l o t h i n g o n . They seem t o h a v e become [ s o ] p o v e r t y s t r i c k e n t h a t t h e y h a v e n ' t e v e n a n y c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s . ... A t a m e e t i n g w i t h t h e b a n d they l a i d c o m p l a i n t about t h e i r t r a p p i n g l [ i ] n e s . That a l l t h e i r o l d t r a p p i n g g r o u n d s w e r e t a k e n up b y w h i t e men. 97  So what b e n e f i t s d i d - t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e P e a c e R i v e r o b t a i n b y s i g n i n g T r e a t y 8? U n t i l  1933, when t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n  A f f a i r s e n d e a v o u r e d t o r e c t i f y a s i t u a t i o n t h a t , s h o u l d have n e v e r happened, v e r y l i t t l e ! the people  M e a g r e r a t i o n s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o keep  f r o m v a n i s h i n g , a n d o n c e a .year, u s u a l l y i n J u l y o r  August, t h e I n d i a n Agent from Grouard,  Lesser Slave Lake, A l b e r t a  t r a v e l l e d t o F o r t S t . J o h n t o make t r e a t y p a y m e n t s . B u t government handouts had not been t h e main impetus f o r t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t 1898,  the Indians•had  t o demand t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s . I n  i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e newcomers a c k n o w l e d g e  a b o r i g i n a l o w n e r s h i p a n d r e s p e c t t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n s . I n 1900, the f i r s t  I n d i a n s o f t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t  Treaty  8 t o guarantee  later,  t h e y w e r e - s t i l l w a i t i n g f o r t h e f e d e r a l government t o  fulfil  i t s treaty obligations.  people,  their territorial  signed adhesion  the circumstances  registrations  Thirty  In the h i s t o r y of F i r s t  surrounding  i n the Treaty  rights.  to  years  Nations  the imposition of trap  line  8 a r e a c o n s t i t u t e s j u s t one more  86  e x a m p l e of. t r u s t a n d t r e a t y  negated.  87  CONCLUSION  The d e c i s i o n t o i n t r o d u c e t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n complex a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  circumstances  without  consideration f o r , l e t alone, c o n s u l t a t i o n with the a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s who w e r e u l t i m a t e l y f o r c e d o f f t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g a r e a s . Even i n t h e T r e a t y 8 a r e a where h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g v o c a t i o n s were g u a r a n t e e d ,  undesignated  Crown l a n d s w e r e  a l l o c a t e d t o non-aboriginal trappers without regard N a t i o n s r i g h t s o r needs. P r o v i n c i a l F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e were l e f t  for'First  game l a w s w h i c h m a r g i n a l i z e d  u n c h a l l e n g e d by t h e f e d e r a l  government a u t h o r i z e d by t h e B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t e r and p r o t e c t a b o r i g i n a l  North America Act t o  lands and i n t e r e s t s .  The p r o v i n c i a l e n a c t m e n t o f t h e t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n 1925 r e s t r i c t e d  F i r s t Nations access  to traditional  v a l i d a t e d n o n - a b o r i g i n a l use o f a b o r i g i n a l  territories,  l a n d s d e s i g n a t e d as  Crown L a n d , a n d , i n n o r t h e a s t e r n . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t r e a t y promises.  system i n  C o n s e r v a t i o n laws were e n a c t e d  abrogated  t o ensure not  only the p r o l i f e r a t i o n " o f the fur-bearing species, but a l s o f u r revenues. developers right  The i n t e r e s t s o f s e t t l e r s ,  p r o s p e c t o r s , and r e s o u r c e  r e c e i v e d precedence over hundreds o f years o f p r i o r  c l a i m and use. )  88  F i r s t Nations  people, e m p h a t i c a l l y r e s i s t e d measures that.  d i s r u p t e d t h e i r way o f l i f e . the t w e n t i e t h century, and  During  the f i r s t  t h r e e decades o f  Indians p e t i t i o n e d f e d e r a l representatives  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  officials  i n vehement o p p o s i t i o n  t o game r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s  t o lands and w i l d l i f e .  F i r s t Nations  people  d e f i e d game l a w s i n d e s p e r a t e  maintain c o n t r o l over b o t h ' t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l  attempts  to  t e r r i t o r i e s and  v o c a t i o n s . T h e i r e f f o r t s w e r e i g n o r e d by s e n i o r b u r e a u c r a t s  at  ('  both  t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l  levels.  L e g a l disempowerment combined w i t h language and l i t e r a c y placed F i r s t Nations  trappers at a disadvantage  e v e n a. p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l  barriers  i n maintaining  lands through  compliance  w i t h t h e Game Act. I n t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 s , t h e Department, o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s e n d e a v o u r e d t o p u r c h a s e some o f t h e l o s t t e r r i t o r i e s f o r r e v e r s i o n t o t h e I n d i a n s . T h i s was, a t b e s t , a p e r f u n c t o r y s o l u t i o n as w h i t e regions t o prevent preserves  At  t r a p p e r s were s o d e e p l y both  the establishment  entrenched  i n northern  of Indian  or reclamation of substantive t r a d i t i o n a l  hunting territories.  1  t h e 1928 I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l a n d D o m i n i o n C o n f e r e n c e on W i l d l i f e ,  a r e s o l u t i o n was u n a n i m o u s l y p a s s e d t o s e t a s i d e , practical,'  u n s e t t l e d regions e x c l u s i v e l y f o r Indians  passing, t h i s r e s o l u t i o n , remaining  'as f a r a s  wildlife  to trap. In  Canada was e n d e a v o u r i n g t o s a v e  f r o m e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , t o  89  assure  " ... t o t h e I n d i a n s , u n d e r p r o p e r  supervision, at  some happy h u n t i n g g r o u n d where t h e y may p u r s u e vocations unmolested." realized  2  This p a t e r n a l i s t i c  lost livelihoods,  and  was n o t  B r i t i s h Columbia,  lost  lost self-determination: a l l  aspects of F i r s t Nations history.  future,  sentiment  ancient  as a commitment. Empty w o r d s , empty p r o m i s e s ,  territories,  of  their  least  But t h i s h i s t o r y  i s also that  and t o develop, a v i s i o n , f o r t h e . p r o v i n c e s  i t must be u n d e r s t o o d  1  and v a l u e d by b o t h  First  Nations  non-aboriginal people.  90  Endnotes to Introduction 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Statutes of the Province of B.C., 1923. V i c t o r i a : W i l l i a m H. C u l l i n , P r i n t e r t o t h e K i n g ' s M o s t E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y . 1 9 2 3 . C h a p t e r 18, "An A c t t o amend t h e 'Game A c t ' , " S e c t i o n 12, p. 128. y  91  ENDNOTES FOR  CHAPTER  ONE  1. G e o r g i n i a B a l l , "A H i s t o r y o f W i l d l i f e Management P r a c t i c e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o 1918," MA T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1982. p. 48. 2. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1913. Victoria: W i l l i a m H. C u l l i n , P r i n t e r t o K i n g ' s M o s t E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , 1913. Sec. 9:21B ( 1 ) . p. 126. 3.Sec. 9:21B  (9)  &  ( 1 0 ) . p.  127.  4 . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 4085, F i l e 496, 658-1, P t . 5. T.R.L. M a c l n n e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n ' A f f a i r s . . • "What Canada i s D o i n g f o r t h e H u n t i n g I n d i a n s , " P r e p a r e d f o r t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n W i l d L i f e C o n f e r e n c e . W a s h i n g t o n , F e b r u a r y 3-7, 1936; See A l s o : BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 10, F i l e 2. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1928 N; A r t h u r -Neasloss t o - M r . J.H. M c M u l l i n , P r o v i n c i a l Game C o m m i s s i o n e r . J a n u a r y 16, 1928. 5 . I b i d . , V o l u m e . 6 7 3 5 , F i l e 420-3A. I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n i e s , S o u t h e a s t e r n • I n s p e c t o r a t e , V e r n o n , B.C. t o Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t . D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . J u l y 28, 1919. 6. D o u g l a s R. Hudson, " T r a p l i n e s and T i m b e r : S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c Change Among t h e C a r r i e r I n d i a n s o f N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " D o c t o r a t e T h e s i s : Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , S p r i n g : 1983. p.' 131; See A l s o : D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 5. S t i k i n e Agency Report, T e l e g r a p h C r e e k , B.C. J u n e 16, 1936; F i l e 420-3A. " S p e c i a l R e p o r t Re. T r a p p i n g , " G e o r g e S. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , K a m p l o o p s , B.C. t o t h e A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y and S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d a i n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a , September. 12, 1923. 7. B a l l , p.  49.  8. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1905. V i c t o r i a : P r i n t e r o f the K i n g ' s Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y . 1905. p. 150. 9. D. J e n n e s s , "The C a r r i e r I n d i a n s o f t h e B u l k l e y R i v e r , T h e i r . S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s L i f e , " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P a p e r s . No. 25. W a s h i n g t o n : B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y B u l l e t i n 133, 1943. p. 488. 10. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n B u r n s L a k e I n d i a n Band t o D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . A u g u s t 23, 1919. See a l s o : P e t i t i o n K i t s u m k a l u m Band t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a , November 4, 1912; F i l e 420-3C 4 . ' R e p o r t o f Mr. M a c l n n e s 92  to Dr. M c G i l l 4, 1 9 3 4 .  r e . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  October  1 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. " S p e c i a l R e p o r t Re. T r a p p i n g , " G e o r g e S. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n - A g e n c i e s , K a m l o o p s , BC. t o The A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa,- O n t . S e p t e m b e r 12, 1 9 2 3 . 1 2 . I b i d . , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 4085, F i l e 495, 658-1 P t . 5. "What Canada I s D o i n g F o r The H u n t i n g I n d i a n s , " Prepared f o r t h e North American W i l d L i f e Conference, Washington, F e b r u a r y 3-7, 1936 b y T.R.L. M a c l n n e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . See a l s o : D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. R e p o r t o f M r . M a c l n n e s t o D r . M c G i l l r e . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O c t o b e r 4, 1 9 3 4 .  ;  13. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y . S e s s i o n a l Clipping B o o k s : Newspaper A c c o u n t s o f t h e D e b a t e s . D a i l y C o l o n i s t . ( V i c t o r i a ) , Wednesday, December 3, 1 9 2 4 . See a l s o : D a i l y P r o v i n c e . ( V a n c o u v e r ) , T h u r s d a y , M a r c h 17, 1 9 2 1 ; V i c t o r i a T i m e s . T h u r s d a y , A p r i l 1 1 , 1 9 1 8 ; D a i l y 'Times. ( V i c t o r i a ) . S a t u r d a y , A p r i l 18, 1918; V i c t o r i a D a i l y T i m e s . December 1 8 , 1 9 2 3 ; The D a i l y C o l o n i s t . ( V i c t o r i a ) S a t u r d a y , F e b r u a r y 2, 1929;' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s : Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 1 9 1 8 ; Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 1 9 2 2 ; Report of the Surveyor General f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 1 9 2 4 ; Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 1 9 2 5 ; Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 1 9 2 8 ; B C A R S . A d d . MSS. 7 6 9 . E a r l K. P o l l o n , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1922 - 1 9 2 6 . J o h n M. Thomas, G u i d e t o Mr. E. F o r f a r , C o n s t a b l e , Hudson Hope, B.C., J a n u a r y 12, 1926 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 14. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y . S e s s i o n a l Clipping B o o k s : D a i l y C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) , Wednesday, December 3, 1 9 2 4 . 15. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1 0 8 5 , Box 14, F i l e 1. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , D i v i s i o n "D" D i s t r i c t , F o r t G e o r g e , L u c e r n e D e t a c h m e n t . M a r c h 2 5 , 1924;- D i v i s i o n "D", D i s t r i c t " F o r t George", P r i n c e George Detachment. March 21, 1924. 16. J e n n e s s , p .  488.  17. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a r i s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n o f A d r i a n , S t . M a r y ' s Band, E a s t K o o t e n a y , B.C. t o G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l o f C a n a d a . J a n u a r y 26, 1915.. 1 8 . I b i d . , P e t i t i o n o f Spuzzum b a n d t o I n d i a n A g e n t Graham, L y t t o n , B.C. F e b r u a r y 29, 1 9 1 6 .  93  19.Ibid., Inspector of Indian Agencies, Southeastern Inspectorate t o Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t . V e r n o n , B.C. J u l y 28, 1919. 2 0 . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. New W e s t m i n s t e r I n d i a n A g e n t ' s O f f i c e t o Duncan C. S c o t t , E s q . Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J u l y 22nd, 1919; I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , S o u t h e a s t e r n I n s p e c t o r a t e , V e r n o n , B.C. t o Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t . D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a , J u l y 28, 1919; . Okanagan A g e n c y , I n d i a n A g e n t ' s O f f i c e t o A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y a n d S e c r e t a r y , O t t a w a . J u l y 30, 1919; I n d i a n A g e n t , S t u a r t L a k e A g e n c y , F o r t F r a s e r t o The S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . J u l y 30, 1919; I n d i a n A g e n t , S t u a r t L a k e A g e n c y , F o r t F r a s e r t o The S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . J u l y 11, 1919; F i l e 420-3. A c t i n g I n d i a n A g e n t , H a r o l d L a i r d , L e s s e r S l a v e L a k e A g e n c y , G r o u a r d , A l b e r t a . A p r i l 24, 1917. 2 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. A.W. V o w e l l , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f A f f a i r s , B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , - D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n O t t a w a . May 8, 1906.  Indian Affairs,  2 2 . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3. C h i e f s o f t h e S t u a r t L a k e , S t o n e y C r e e k and F r a s e r L a k e t r i b e s t o The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , I n d i a n D e p a r t m e n t , O t t a w a . O c t o b e r 30, 1905. 23.Ibid. 2 4 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. P e t i t i o n o f C h i e f s o f S t e l l a and S t o n e y C r e e k Bands t o M i n i s t e r - o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . S e p t e m b e r 30, 1909. 2 5 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n o f t h e C h i e f s o f t h e B u r n s L a k e Band t o Mr. M a c l n n e s , D.I.A. A u g u s t , 23, 1919. 26.Ibid. 2 7 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n o f I n d i a n C h i e f s a n d Headmen f r o m S t u a r t Lake I n d i a n Agency t o Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a , n.d. 2 8 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n o f C h i e f o f F o r t G e o r g e Band t o G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l o f Canada. R e c e i v e d by D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O c t o b e r 8, 1919. 2 9 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. P e t i t i o n K i t s u m k a l u m Band t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and P e t i t i o n o f I n d i a n b a n d members o f K i t s e l a s , B.C. t o S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 94  O t t a w a . November 4, 1 9 1 2 . 3 0 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. N. C o c c o l a t o F r a n k P e d l e y , E s q . , D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O c t o b e r 1, 1907 a n d r e l a t e d correspondence. 3 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. Rev. A.E. M o r i c e , O.M.I., t o The Honourable t h e P r e m i e r , V i c t o r i a . January 23, 1920. 32.Ball,  p. 66.  3 3 . I b i d . , p. 66-67. i 3 4 . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 4.20-3A. I n d i a n A g e n t R.H. Moore t o D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , J a n u a r y 19, 1927. 3 5 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. " S p e c i a l R e p o r t Re. T r a p p i n g , " G e o r g e S. • P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , K a m l o o p s , B.C. t o t h e A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y , Department o f Indian. A f f a i r s , O t t a w a , S e p t e m b e r 12, 1 9 2 3 . 36. I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. O r d e r i n C o u n c i l . December 6, 1.907. I n d i a n A g e n t , B a b i n e a n d U p p e r S k e e n a R i v e r A g e n c y t o J . A . J . McKenna, S p e c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r . A u g u s t 19, 1 9 1 2 . 37. B a l l . ,  p. 67.  38. BCARS. P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden. GR 446. Box.'l25, F i l e 4. Report of Game Conditions, 1917 - 1919. R e p o r t o f A c t i n g C h i e f I n s p e c t o r J . B o u r n e , S o u t h F o r t G e o r g e t o Wm. G. McMynn, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e . J a n u a r y 8, 1 9 1 9 ; F i l e 6. J . B o u r n e t o Wm. G. McMynn. F e b r u a r y 14, 1.919; F i l e 4. J . B o u r n e t o Wm. G. McMynn, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e . A n n u a l R e p o r t u n d e r t h e Game A c t , J a n u a r y 8, 1 9 1 9 . 39. BCARS. P r o v i n c i a l  Game Warden.  GR 446. Box 1 2 5 , F i l e  4. Annual  Report of operations under the Game Act. 1918. C o n s t a b l e T. P a r s o n s t o Wm. G. McMynn, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t P r o v i n c i a l  P o l i c e . 1918.  40. BCARS. R e p o r t s o f t h e C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r . GR 8 0 0 : Box 3, F i l e 13. C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r t o D r . A.R. B a k e r , C h a i r m a n , Game C o n s e r v a t i o n B o a r d . J u l y 15, 1921. 41. BCARS. GR 800, Box 3, F i l e 5. R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n r e . A l b e r t R. B a k e r . Game C o n s e r v a t i o n B o a r d C h a i r m a n t o W.E. D i t c h b u r n , E s q . , C h i e f . I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , V i c t o r i a . S e p t e m b e r 9, 1 9 2 1 . ; I n d i a n A g e n t W.J. M c A l l a n , F o r t F r a s e r A g e n c y t o D r . A.R. B a k e r , C h a i r m a n Game C o n s e r v a t i o n B o a r d . S e p t e m b e r 5,- 1921.  95  4 2 . I b i d . , Dr. A.R. B a k e r t o W. E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n A g e n c i e s . 9 S e p t e m b e r 1921.  Chief  4 3 . L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly C l i p p i n g s , D a i l y Province., F e b r u a r y 18, '1920.  4 4 . L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly C l i p p i n g s , D a i l y Province. O c t o b e r 21, 1921.  Inspector  of  Wednesday  Friday,  v  45. BCARS. ADD. MSS. 769. F i l e : C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1922-1929.. E a r l K i t c h e n e r P o l l e n . B.C.P.P. "D" D i v i s i o n Report (supplement), Hudson Hope, C o n s t a b l e E. F o r f a r , November, 1922. 46. L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y C l i p p i n g s , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y W o r l d ; D a i l y C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) , Wednesday, M a r c h 24, 1920..  The  47. BCARS. B.C. A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . GR 1423, F i l e s G-95-2 - H-99-6. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1902-37. R.S. G a l l o p t o D e p u t y A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , V i c t o r i a , J u n e 16, 1920 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 48. BCARS. R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n r e . A l b e r t R. B a k e r . GR 800, Box 3, F i l e 5. I n d i a n A g e n t , W.J. M c A l l a n , F o r t F r a s e r A g e n c y t o A.R. B a k e r , C h a i r m a n , Game C o n s e r v a t i o n B o a r d . S e p t e m b e r 5, 1921. r  49. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. Special Report Re Trapping. G e o r g e S. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , K a m l o o p s , B.C. t o The A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y & S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . S e p t e m b e r 12, 1923. 50.Ibid. 51.Ibid. 5 2 . I b i d . , W.E. Ditchburn, Chief Inspector of Indian Agencies to a l l Indian Agents of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. January 27, 1923. 53.Hudson, p. 131. See A l s o : M a r t i n W e i n s t e i n , " I n d i a n Land. Use and O c c u p a n c y i n The P e a c e R i v e r C o u n t r y o f N o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia: A P r e l i m i n a r y Report," Vancouver: Union of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n C h i e f s , S e p t e m b e r , 1979. p. 59.  96  54. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y C l i p p i n g B o o k s . V a n c o u v e r D a i l y W o r l d . F r i d a y , F e b r u a r y 13, 1 9 2 0 . 55. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s : Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden f o r t h e y e a r e n d i n g December 31, 1 9 2 4 . 56. BCARS.'ADD. MSS. 769. F i l e : C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1922-1926- E a r l K i t c h e n e r P o l l e n , BCPP D i v i s i o n "D" Monthly Game Report, Hudson Hope, C o n s t a b l e Edward F o r f a r , > May 1924. 57. L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y C l i p p i n g s . V i c t o r i a D a i l y T i m e s , December 10, 1 9 2 3 .  58. I b i d . , The D a i l y C o l o n i s t 1929.  (Victoria)..  S a t u r d a y , F e b r u a r y 2,  59. Hugh B r o d y , Maps a n d Dreams. I n d i a n a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F r o n t i e r . Vancouver: Douglas & M c l n t y r e , . 1 9 8 1 . p. 87. 60. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s - , RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3.. C h i e f s o f the S t u a r t Lake, Stoney Creek and F r a s e r Lake t r i b e s t o The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , I n d i a n D e p a r t m e n t , O t t a w a . O c t o b e r 30, 1905; P e t i t i o n f r o m C h i e f s o f t h e Headman's C r e e k I n d i a n R e s e r v e , Kamloops D i s t r i c t t o W i l f r e d ' L a u r i e r , M a r c h 2 4 , 1908; P e t i t i o n o f t h e C h i e f s o f S t e l l a a n d S t o n e y C r e e k t o M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . S e p t e m b e r 30, 1 9 0 9 .  r  97  NOTES FOR CHAPTER TWO 1 . B C A R S . F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085,. Box 2, F i l e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i c e , G e n e r a l O r d e r , No. 4 3 .  9.  2 . I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 7. Game D e p a r t m e n t R e p o r t , "D" D i v i s i o n , F o r t S t . J o h n . G.M. K e r k o f f , Game Warden. 17 December., 1 9 3 3 . See A l s o : B o x 24, F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1 9 3 3 , S. Game .Department Report. C D . M u i r h e a d , Game Warden, T e l k w a D e t a c h m e n t t o The O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e G e o r g e . May 2 7 , 1933. 3. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, V o l u m e 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. M r . M a c l n n e s t o D r . M c G i l l , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a , O c t o b e r 4, 1 9 3 4 . See A l s o : BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, B o x 1, F i l e 2. Game Law E n f o r c e m e n t B r a n c h , P r i n c e G e o r g e t o E.S. B a . p t i s t e , N i c h e l , B.C. F e b r u a r y 23, 1924. ' D e p a r t m e n t i n f o r m s B a p t i s t e t h a t when r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e sytem i s e n a c t e d a n o t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be p r i n t e d i n t h e l o c a l i papers t o n o t i f y trappers. U n t i l that time t h e e x i s t i n g t r a p p i n g r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e t o be f o l l o w e d . 4. B C A R S . . F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 24, F i l e 2. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1 0 3 3 . P.: T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n t o R.H. M o o r e , I n d i a n A g e n t , V a n d e r h o o f , B.C. May 10, 1933.The I n d i a n A g e n t ' s r e q u e s t f o r l i n e d e n i e d a s l i n e w i l l e d t o s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t . See A l s o : Box 2 3 , F i l e 3. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1933, H.: J . S . C l a r k , Game Warden, F o r t N e l s o n D e t a c h m e n t t o t h e D i s t r i c t Game Warden, "D" D i v i s i o n , J u n e 16, 1932 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . Two t r a p p e r s swap l i n e s s o t h a t one c o u l d r e m a i n c l o s e t o home; B o x 25> F i l e 5. S.G. C o p e l a n d , Game Warden, P r i n c e G e o r g e t o O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n . J u n e 2 8 , 1934_. T r a p l i n e r e c e i v e d f r o m e s t a t e o f p r e v i o u s t r a p p e r ; Box 19, F i l e 4. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1932, B. :' T. V a n Dyk t o Wm. G. B r i g h t o n , O c t o b e r 5, 1 9 3 2 . P e r m i s s i o n t o a n n e x b o r d e r i n g l i n e granted.; Box. 19, F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1932, B.: T. V a n Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden t o G e o r g e B a u r i e , Nukko L a k e F u r Farm, J a n u a r y 9, 1 9 3 2 . P e r m i s s i o n t o annex p a r t o f a n o t h e r t r a p p e r s l i n e r e f u s e d a s l i n e s separated by a t h i r d r e g i s t e r e d l i n e . V a n Dyk recommends p a r t n e r s h i p ; B o x 19, F i l e 7. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 2 , D . : M r . J a n e s D a v i d s o n t o V a n Dyk, A u g u s t 19, 1 9 3 2 . L i n e t r a n s f e r r e d t o s e c o n d t r a p p e r a p p r o v e d ; Box 19, F i l e 7.. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1932, E-F. : F.A. Edmunds t o V a n Dyk, S e p t e m b e r 9, 1 9 3 2 . P e r m i s s i o n t o r e g i s t e r t r a p l i n e f o r m e r l y r e g i s t e r e d t o a n o t h e r t r a p p e r approved;. Box 22,. F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, B.: J . E . Bateman t o P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , G i s o m e , B.C., J a n u a r y 31, 1 9 3 3 . Bateman r e l e a s e s l i n e t o a n o t h e r t r a p p e r . V a n Dyk a p p r o v e d -January 3 1 , 1933; B o x 23., F i l e 6. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, K.: F . J . Koeneman t o Head Game G u a r d i a n ,  98  P r i n c e G e o r g e , O c t o b e r 4, 1 9 3 3 . T r a p p e r r e q u e s t s p a r t o f h i s l i n e be r e v e r t e d t o e x - p a r t n e r , a n d i f , t h i s was n o t a c c e p t a b l e , h e a s k s t h a t t h e w h o l e l i n e b e t r a n s f e r r e d ; B o x 2 7 , F i l e 3.. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1934. F.R. B u t l e r , I n s p e c t o r t o O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n . December 8, 1934. Trap l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n s u b m i t t e d t o I n s p e c t o r i s c a n c e l l e d a n d r e a s s i g n e d t o n o m i n a t e d s u c c e s s o r ; Box 30, F i l e 3. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1935, G. : F.R. B u t l e r t o O..C. "D" D i v i s i o n , A p r i l 16, 1935. A p p r o v a l o f t r a n s f e r o f p a r t o f a l i n e t o a n o t h e r t r a p p e r ; B o x 30, F i l e 7. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1935, K: Game Warden S.F. F a h e r t y , Pouce Coupe t o ' O . C . "D" D i v i s i o n , J u n e 14, 1935. N o t i f i c a t i o n o f c a n c e l l a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f n o m i n a t e d s u c c e s s o r . B o x 3 1 , F i l e 4. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1935, Mc.: F.R. B u t l e r t o O.C. "D" D i v i s i o n . O c t o b e r 2 2 , 1935. A p p r o v a l o f r e q u e s t t o h a v e l i n e t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r t r a p p e r ; F.R. B u t l e r t o D o n a l d M a c D o u g a l l , Hudson Hope, M a r c h 2 3 , 1935. A c k n o w l e d g e s t r a n s f e r o f l i n e t o a n o t h e r t r a p p e r ; B o x 2 2 , F i l e 2. D i s t r i c t C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , 1933. D i s t r i c t Nos 1,2,3,4.. T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r "D" D i v i s i o n t o R.H. M o o r e , I n d i a n A g e n t . May 19, 1933. N o t i f i c a t i o n t h a t r e q u e s t f o r t r a p l i n e f o r I n d i a n not a l l o w e d as l i n e w i l l e d t o t r a p p e r who gave l i n e t o a n o t h e r t r a p p e r ; B o x 22, F i l e 2. S.: V a n Dyk t o C a r l Swanson, F e b r u a r y 6, 1932. A p p r o v e d o f t r a p l i n e s a l e a g r e e m e n t d a t e d O c t o b e r 3 1 , 1931; B o x 2 3 , F i l e 6. 1933 T.: Game Warden W.L. F o r r e s t e r t o J . T u a l , C h i e f L a k e . November 27, 1 9 3 3 . l  !  F o r r e s t e r i n f o r m s T u a l t h a t a t r a p l i n e i n w h i c h he i s i n t e r e s t e d may b e c a n c e l l e d a s t h e c u r r e n t r e g i s t r a n t h a s n o t r e n e w e d h i s l i c e n c e . The Warden n o t i f i e s T u a l t h a t " ... i f t h i s l i n e i s c a n c e l l e d , y o u w i l l b e g i v e n , t h e chance t o r e g i s t e r i t . " 5. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-2 5. F.R. B u t l e r , Member - Game C o m m i s s i o n t o D r . H.A.W. Brown, I n d i a n A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n , B.C. May 14, 1 9 3 7 . 6. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , GR 1085, B o x 2 3 , F i l e 6. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, K.: F . J . Koeneman, M c B r i d e t o Head Game G u a r d i a n , P r i n c e G e o r g e . O c t o b e r 4,. 1933 and' r e l a t e d correspondence. 7 . I b i d - , B o x 29, F i l e 4. T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r Game Warden G.M. K e r k h o f f , J a n u a r y 2, 1 9 3 4 .  "D" D i v i s i o n t o  8 . I b i d . , H.A.W. Brown, I n d i a n A g e n t t o Mr. M . . C h r i s t i a n s o n , Inspector o f Indian Agencies, A l b e r t a Inspectorate. Calgary, J a n u a r y 12, 1 9 3 5 . 9.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 5. T.R.L. M a c l n n e s , S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s a n d R e s o u r c e s t o Mr.. D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B.C., V a n c o u v e r , B.C. F e b r u a r y 2 5 , 1938 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . See A l s o : BCARS., F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR • 99  1 0 8 5 , B o x 3 9 , F i l e 4 . H . A . W . Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n t o I n s p e c t o r T. V a n Dyk,' "D" D i v i s i o n . P r i n c e G e o r g e . J u n e 9,  1 9 3 7 .  .  "  1 0 , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . R G . 1 0 , Volume. 6 7 3 5 , F i l e 4 2 0 - 3 5 . T.R.L. M a c l n n e s , S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n . A f f a i r s B r a n c h , D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s a n d R e s o u r c e s t o M r . D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B.C., V a n c o u v e r , B.C. F e b r u a r y 2 5 , 1 9 3 8 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . . See A l s o : BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1 0 8 5 , Box 3 9 , F i l e 4 . D i v i s i o n a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , 1 9 3 8 . H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n t o Mr-. T-. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r "D" D i s t r i c t , P r i n c e G e o r g e , J u n e 9 , 1 9 3 7 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 3 9 , F i l e 5 - D i s t r i c t C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , 1 9 3 7 , Nos. 3 a n d 4 . H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t . F o r t S t . J o h n t o T, V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" D i v i s i o n . A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 3 7 a n d r e l a t e d correspondence. A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 3 8 and r e l a t e d correspondence. 1 1 , BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1 0 8 - 5 , B o x 3 1 , ' F i l e 7 . R e p o r t o f E. M a r t i n , Game Warden. P r i n c e R u p e r t t o O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C. J u l y 2 4 , 1 9 3 5 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . See A l s o : R e p o r t o f E. M a r t i n , Game Warden. P r i n c e R u p e r t t o O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C., December 5 , 1 9 3 5 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; R e p o r t o f E, M a r t i n , Game Warden. P r i n c e R u p e r t t o O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" d i v i s i o n , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C., S e p t e m b e r 2 6 , 1 9 3 4 a n d r e l a t e d correspondence.  1 2 , I b i d . , B o x 1 , F i l e 2 , W-.A.S, Duncan t o T, V a n Dyk, O c t o b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 . See A l s o : I b i d . , BCPP. "D" D i v i s i o n Report, C o n s t a b l e E. F o r f a r , F o r t F r a s e r , B.C., S e p t e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 2 6 ; BCARS. ADD. MSS. 7 6 9 . F i l e : Correspondence 1 9 2 2 - 1 9 2 6 . E a r l K i t c h e n e r P o l l e n , Constable E , F o r f a r t o F.R'.. B u t l e r , October 1 5 , 1 9 2 5 . . 1 3 . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s . Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden, J . H . M c M u . l l i n , 1 9 2 . 7 f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 1 9 2 6 . See A l s o : BCPA. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1 0 8 5 , B o x 3 , F i l e 8 . A. B r y a n W i l l i a m s , Game C o m m i s s i o n e r t o T., V a n Dyk, E s q ; D i s t r i c t Game Warden "D" D i v i s i o n , S e p t e m b e r 1 6 ^ 1 9 3 0 ; . B o x 1 9 , F i l e 8 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 2 , . E - F . : C D . M u i r h e a d , Game'Warden, T e l k w a D e t a c h m e n t t o D i v i s i o n a l Game S u p e r v i s o r - , T-. V a n Dyk. December 1 5 , 1 9 3 2 ; B o x 2 2 , F i l e 2 . D i s t r i c t C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , 1 9 3 3 . D i s t r i c t Nos. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r "D" D i v i s i o n t o t h e Game .Commissioner., November 2 , 1 9 3 3 . .  1 4 . . Ibid.-, Box 1 , F i l e CD. Muirhead, A p r i l  2 . BCPP "D" D i v i s i o n Report, P r i n c e 1 5 ,  George.  1 9 2 - 7 .  1 5 . I b i d . , B o x 2 , - F i l e . 8 . . J..S. C l a r k , Game Warden, F o r t N e l s o n Detachment-, Game D e p a r t m e n t , P a t r o l Report, A p r i l 2 0 , 1 9 3 2 .  1 0 0  1 6 . I b i d . , B o x 1, F i l e 2. W..A.S. Duncan, N.C.O. Pouce Coupe t o C o r p o r a l T. V a n Dyk, P r i n c e G e o r g e . O c t o b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 . 1 7 . I b i d . , Box 8, F i l e 6. W. S p i l l e r , O.C. P r i n c e R u p e r t t o C o n s t a b l e B a t c h e l o r , Hudson's Hope, B.C. J u n e 2 3 , 1928 a n d r e l a t e d correspondence. 18. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. R e p o r t o f .Mr. M a c l n n e s t o D r . M c G i l l r e . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O c t o b e r 4y 1934.. 19. BCARS. ADD. MSS. 7 6 9 . E a r l K. P o l l o n , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1 9 2 2 1.92 6. C o n s t a b l e E.. F o r f a r , BCPP. Hudson Hope D e t a c h m e n t . "D" D i v i s i o n , Annual Report. A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 4 . Forfar's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s included: assess the general l o g g i n g a n d m i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e D e t a c h m e n t ; be i n charge o f p r i s o n e r s , p o l i c e q u a r t e r , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and other a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s ; conduct s p e c i a l p a t r o l s [ c o v e r i n g hundreds o f m i l e s by h o r s e and/or canoe o r dog s l e d ] ; i n charge o f insane p a t i e n t s ; monitor cases o f d i l i g e n c e ; Mothers Pension Act; n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n ; c o n d u c t •camp i n s p e c t i o n s ; s u b m i t f i r e r e p o r t s ( c o m p l e t e d i n P e a c e R i v e r D i s t r i c t , by t h e Dominion government); complete p o o l room i n s p e c t i o n s ; c o m p l e t e e n q u i r i e s a n d a t t e n d i n q u e s t s ; m o n i t o r t h e Liquor Act; a d m i n i s t e r l a w s u n d e r t h e c r i m i n a l code a n d p r o s e c u t e , a d m i n i s t e r l a w s u n d e r t h e Indian Act, Drug Act, Game Act i n c l u d i n g r e v e n u e c o l l e c t i o n u n d e r t h e  Game Act a n d Trade Licence Act.  See A l s o : BCARS. P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden. GR 446. Box 125, F i l e 4. Report of P r o v i n c i a l Constable, J . P . S c a r l e t t , A t l i n , B.C. t o A.C. M i n t y . J a n u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 1 9 . 20. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 2 2 , F i l e 2. D i s t r i c t C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , Nos.. 1,2,3,4. N o t e [on c l o s i n g f l a p o f an e n v e l o p e ] d a t e d June 1 1 , 1932 i n i t i a l l e d J.S.C. [ J . S . C l a r k , Game Warden, F o r t N e l s o n , B.C.] t o Mr V a n Dyk ( D i s t r i c t 4 ) . The m a i l i s l e a v i n g f o r S i m p s o n , I h a v e n t t i m e t o w r i t e t h e Game Warden a t J o h n [ F o r t S t . J o h n ] r e g a r d i n g t h e e n c l o s e d a p p l i c a t i o n s . W i l l you p l e a s e t e l l h i m t h e s e I n d i a n s have made a p p l i c a t o n , f o r t h e e n c l o s e d t r a p - l i n e s . I. u n d e r s t a n d t h a t some t r a p p e r s a t J o h n i n t e n d g o i n g i n t o t h a t c o u n t r y n e x t w i n t e r . These. I n d i a n s h a v e b e e n t r y i n g t o make a p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e l a s t 2 y e a r s and I have n e v e r been a t home when t h e y were h e r e . 2 1 . I b i d . , Box 2 2 , F i l e 2.. D i s t r i c t C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , D i s t r i c t ' N o s . '1,2,3,4. H a r p e r Reed, I n d i a n A g e n t , T e l e g r a p h C r e e k , B.C. t o C.C. 101  P e r r y , E s q . I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B..C, V i c t o r i a . A u g u s t 18, 1933. See A l s o : Box 24, F i l e 9. J.H.. Cummins, Game Warden, F o r t S t . J o h n t o J . S . C l a r k , E s q . , F o r t N e l s o n , B.C. J a n u a r y 30, 1 9 3 2 . 2 2 . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4,. Mr. M a c l n n e s t o D r . M c G i l l . , Re. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O c t o b e r 4, 1 9 3 4 . See A l s o : BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , GR 1085, Box 13, F i l e 7. A. B r y a n W i l l i a m s t o T. Van Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden, P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C. A u g u s t 6, 1929. 2 3 . I b i d . , Box 2 3 , F i l e 8. C D . M u i r h e a d , Game Warden t o T. V a n Dyk, O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e George.- Game Department Report. A p r i l 20, 1 9 3 3 . v  2 4 . I b i d . , Box 8, F i l e 6. C o n s t a b l e A.T. B a t c h l o r t o t h e O.C. "D" D i v i s i o n , Game B r a n c h , P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C. Unorganized TerritoryReport. A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 8 . See A l s o : I b i d . , Box 24, F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, S.; C D . M u i r h e a d , Game Warden, T e l k w a ' D e t a c h m e n t , t o O f f i c e r Commanding, P r i n c e R u p e r t . Game Department Report. May 27. 1 9 3 3 ; Box 9, F i l e 4. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1928, H.; J . P . Brown, C o n s t a b l e . B e l l a C o o l a Detachment t o N.C.O. i n C h a r g e , P r i n c e R u p e r t D i s t r i c t . November 2 1 , 1 9 2 9 . 25. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1924. Volume 1. V i c t o r i a : C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , P r i n t e r t o t h e K i n g ' s M o s t E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , 1 9 2 4 . S. 9, C: V I . 26. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 3, F i l e 8. T. Van Dyk t o P r o v i n c i a l Game C o m m i s s i o n e r , November 15, 1 9 3 0 . 2 7 . I b i d . , Box 2 5 , F i l e 3. T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r t h e Game W a r d e n s , S e p t e m b e r 1 1 , 1 9 3 4 .  "D" D i v i s i o n t o  28. D o m i n i o n o f C a n a d a . Annual Report of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s f o r the year ending March 31, 1927. O t t a w a : F.A. A c l a n d , P r i n t e r t o t h e K i n g ' s Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , 1927. 29. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 7. M. Christianson, Inspector f o r Indian Agencies, A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o t h e Hon. G.M. S l o a n , - K . C , Attorney General, Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia, S e p t e m b e r 10, 1 9 3 4 . 30. D e p a r t m e n t ..of I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG. 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 5., H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t . F o r t S t . J o h n t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h . O t t a w a . December 19, 1 9 3 7 . 31. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . RG 1085, Box 2, F i l e 8. A. B r y a n W i l l i a m s , Game C o m m i s s i o n e r t o T. V a n Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden, P r i n c e G e o r g e , A p r i l 12, 1 9 3 2 . i  102  32. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG. 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3B.. W.E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B.C., t o Mr. T.R.L. Maclnnes, Secretary,.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. A p r i l 7, 1932. • 33. I b i d . , T.R.L. Maclnnes,. S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a t o M a j o r D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B.C., V a n c o u v e r . F e b r u a r y 25, 1938. See A l s o : H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n , t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , O t t a w a . November, 1 5 , 1938 a n d r e s p o n s e November 3 0 , 1938. 34. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, B o x 36, F i l e 5. H.A.W. Brown, M.D. I n d i a n A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n t o T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" D i v i s i o n . A p r i l 25, 1937. 35. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 5. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n , A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n t o T h e S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , O t t a w a . November 12, 1937. See A l s o : H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n . December Monthly Report. J a n u a r y 5, 1938; H.A.W. Brown, t o I n s p e c t o r T. V a n Dyk, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e G e o r g e , J u n e 9, 1937; J a s . G. Cunningham, Member - Game C o m m i s s i o n , V a n c o u v e r , t o The I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B.C., V i c t o r i a . A u g u s t 2, 1937; H.A.W. Brown t o I n s p e c t o r T. V a n Dyk, A p r i l 25, 1937 a n d r e l a t e d correspondence. 3 6 . I b i d . , D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n C o m m i s s s i o n e r f o r B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , Department o f Mines and R e s o u r c e s , O t t a w a . F e b r u a r y , 16, 1938. 37.Ibid. 3 8 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. F. P e d l e y , D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f Indian A f f a i r s t o Right Honourable S i r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r , Premier o f t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada, O t t a w a . 24 A p r i l , 1908. .39.Douglas R. Hudson, " T r a p l i n e s and T i m b e r : S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c Change Among t h e C a r r i e r I n d i a n s o f N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " D o c t o r a t e T h i s i s : Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , S p r i n g : 1983. ppp. 135-136. [ Q u o t e d f r o m F r a n k B u t l e r " F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e M a n u a l . MS. B.C. M i n i s t r y o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , . 1962]. 40.BCARS. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . GR 1323.. F i l e s G98 G98-3, R o l l 218. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1902-37. L.S. M c G i l l , B a r r i s t e r , S m i t h e r s t o D e p u t y A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , 3 A p r i l , 1925 a n d r e l a t e d correspondence. 1  103  41. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 10, F i l e 2. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1928 N.; A r t h u r N e a s l o s s t o M r . J.H. M c M u l l i n , P r o v i n c i a l Game C o m m i s s i o n e r . J a n u a r y 16,. 1928. a n d r e p o r t o f A..W. S t o n e , R i v e r s I n l e t D e t a c h m e n t . M a r c h 8, 1 9 2 8 . 42. D e p a r t m e n t of. I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A 4. P e t i t i o n o f M r s . E n g l i s h D e c k e r , C a n i m L a k e Band t o M r . M a c l n n e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , J a n u a r y 17,__1933. 43. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 2 3 , F i l e 6. T r a p line F i l e s , 1 9 3 3 . K. G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n A g e n t t o I n s p e c t o r Van Dyk, Game D e p a r t m e n t , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C. O c t o b e r 2 3 , 1 9 3 3 . 44. Hudson, p. 136 [ Q u o t e d f r o m S u b m i s s i o n . 2 1 , p p . 874-875, d a t e d . J u l y 2 3 , 1946, S p e c i a l J o i n t C o m m i t t e e on t h e I n d i a n A c t , 1 9 4 6 1948, House o f Commons a n d S e n a t e , Government o f Canada] • 4 5 . I b i d . . p. 131. 46.Ibid4 7 . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. " S p e c i a l R e p o r t Re. T r a p p i n g , " G e o r g e S. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , K a m l o o p s , BC. t o The A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y a n d S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, Ont. September 12, 1 9 2 3 . 4 8 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n o f F r a s e r L a k e I n d i a n Bands t o D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a , n.d. 4 9 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3 B.C. J u n e 16, 1936. 50.Ibid., Pragnell,  5.' S t i k i n e A g e n c y R e p o r t , T e l e g r a p h C r e e k ,  F i l e 420-3A. " S p e c i a l R e p o r t Re. T r a p p i n g , " G e o r g e S. S e p t e m b e r 12, 1 9 2 3 .  51. Xb.isL. # Volume 4085, F i l e 496, 658-1. P t . 5. T.R.L. M a c l n n e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . "What Canada i s D o i n g f o r t h e H u n t i n g Indians.." P r e p a r e d f o r t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n W i l d L i f e C o n f e r e n c e . W a s h i n g t o n , F e b r u a r y 3-7, 1936. 52. I b i d . . Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 5. H a r p e r Reed", I n d i a n A g e n t , T e l e g r a p h C r e e k , B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . J u n e 16, 1 9 3 6 . 53. L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y C l i p p i n g s , T h u r s d a y , 11 A p r i l 1 9 1 8 .  D a i l y Times  (Victoria),  54 . I b i d .  104  55. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s 1919. Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 1 9 1 8 . P. 1919. 56. P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden, GR 446, V o l . 1 2 5 , F i l e 4. BCPP. Game • R e p o r t , C r e s t o n B.C. C o n s t a b l e E. V a c h o n , 30 November 1 9 1 8 . 57. BCARS. ADD. MSS. 7 6 9 , E a r l K i t c h e n e r P o l l e n , F i l e : C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1922-1926, BCPP. R e p o r t , Hudson Hope. C o n s t a b l e E. F o r f a r , F e b r u a r y 1922. 58. M o n i c a S t o r r s , God's G a l l o p i n g G i r l : The P e a c e R i v e r D i a r i e s o f M o n i c a S t o r r s , 1929-1931. W.L. M o r t o n a n d V e r a K. F a s t , e d s . V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1979.. p. 1 7 2 . See a l s o : P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden, GR 446, Box 125, F i l e 4. C o n s t a b l e C.F. E v a n s , T e l e g r a p h Creek, t o P r o v i n c i a l • Game. Warden, W.G. McMynn, 27 November, 1 9 1 8 . I n h i s r e p o r t t o McMynn, E v a n s a r g u e d t h a t , i f t h e amendment t o the. Game A c t p r o h i b i t i n g the. s a l e o f moose meat a f t e r December 15 was s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d , i t w o u l d impose g r e a t h a r d s h i p upon the, i s o l a t e d community t h a t h a d no a c c e s s t o f r e s h meat d e l i v e r y . I t h i n k t h a t i t h a s been t h e custom i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s t o l e t an I n d i a n b r i n g i n a moose a s r e q u i r e d , a n d s e l l i t a t a p r i c e p e r pound w h i c h ,no more t h a n c o v e r s t h e e x p e n s e s o f . t h e I n d i a n . I do n o t t h i n k t h a t t h i s w o u l d d e c r e a s e t h e number o f moose i n t h e l e a s t f o r b r e e d i n g p u r p o s e s ; p r o v i d e d t h e y [ I n d i a n s ] a r e p r e v e n t e d f r o m k i l l i n g cows a n d t h e k i l l i n g o f b u l l s u n d e r one y e a r o f age. The b i g game, h u n t e r s who w e r e h e r e a t t h e commencement o f t h e p r e s e n t opens e a s o n , r e p o r t e d , t h a t moose, a n d g o a t w e r e v e r y p l e n t i f u l e v e r y w h e r e ... . 59. BCARS. GR 1323. B.C. A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , 1902-37. F i l e s G-95-2 - H-99-6. Memorandum f r o m t h e S e c r e t a r y Game C o n s e r v a t i o n B o a r d t o A.M. J o h n s o n , E s q . , D e p u t y A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , "RESOLUTION TO BE.SUBMITTED TO THE GAME CONVENTION HELD AT OFFICES OF THE COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION, F e b r u a r y 1 9 t h , 1919." 60. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t t o a l l I n d i a n A g e n t s a n d I n s p e c t o r s i n Man. S a s k . , A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a & Y u k o n . O t t a w a , J u l y 1.4, 1919.. 6 1 . I b i d . , New W e s t m i n s t e r I n d i a n A g e n t ' s O f f i c e t o Duncan C. S c o t t , Esq. Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J u l y 22, 1919. 62. I b i d . , , Okanagan Agency,, I n d i a n A g e n t ' s O f f i c e t o A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y a n d S e c r e t a r y , O t t a w a . J u l y 30, 1 9 1 9 .  105  63.Ibid., Inspector of Indian Agencies, Southeastern I n s p e c t o r a t e , V e r n o n , B.C. t o Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t . O t t a w a . J u l y 28, 1 9 1 9 . 6 4 . I b i d . , I n d i a n Agent, S t u a r t Lake Agency, F o r t F r a s e r t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . J u l y 30, 1 9 1 9 . 65'. I b i d . , I n d i a n A g e n t , S t u a r t L a k e A g e n c y , • F o r t F r a s e r t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J u l y 11, 1919. 66. I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. A c t i n g I n d i a n A g e n t , H a r o l d L a i r d . , S l a v e L a k e A g e n c y , G r o u a r d , A l b e r t a . A p r i l 24, 1 9 1 7 .  Lesser  67.Ibid. 68. BCARS.. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 9. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i c e , G e n e r a l O r d e r , No. 43. S e p t e m b e r 2, 1926. 69. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, V o l u m e 6735, F i l e 420-3 6._ D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B.C. t o F.R. B u t l e r , Member o f t h e Game C o m m i s s i o n , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. J a n u a r y 20, 1 9 3 8 . BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 30, F i l e 7. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1 9 3 5 . K. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e . Hudson B a y Company . M a n a g e r t r a p p i n g on I n d i a n t r a p l i n e . O.J. J a c k , Game Warden t o T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" Game D i v i s i o n . December 6, 1935 a n d r e l a t e d correspondence. 7 0 . I b i d . , I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r , f o r B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , Department o f M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s , Ottawa, June 15, ,1938 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 7 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3 5. H.A.W. Brown, M. D.', I n d i a n A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n , B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h . O t t a w a , November 12, 1 9 3 7 . Brown recommends t h a t b a n d l i n e s be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a n d S p e c i a l F i r e a r m s L i c e n c e f e e o f $10.00.be l e v i e d , on I n d i a n s o v e r . t h e a g e o f 21 e n g a g e d i n t r a p p i n g . Brown b e l i e v e d t h a t Game Wardens c o u l d m o n i t o r I n d i a n a n d w h i t e t r a p l i n e s equally. See A l s o : Brown t o S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , J u n e 9, 1937; Brown t o S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , A p r i l 22, 1 9 3 7 . 72.BCARS. F i s h a n d Game B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 2 3 , F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, M. G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n A g e n t , B a b i n e A g e n c y . T r a p l i n e C l a i m o f t h e Morgan F a m i l i e s , K i t w a n g a I n d i a n s . March 31, 1933 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . See A l s o : Box 14,. F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1930, A.; R.. Moore, I n d i a n A g e n t , V a n d e r h o o f , B.C. t o T h o s . V a n Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden, Prince..,George., B.C. 106-  October, l ' l , 1930 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 1 2 , F i l e 3 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 2 9 , F - G.; J . G i l l e t , I n d i a n A g e n t , M a s s e t , B.C. t o J . 'H. M c M u l l i n , E s q . , P r o v i n c i a l .Game Warden, V i c t o r i a , B.C. M a r c h 7, 1929 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 1 3 , F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 2 9 , W-X-Y-Z.; R. M o o r e , I n d i a n A g e n t , V a n d e r h o o f , B.C. t o Thomas-Van Dyk, E s q . , " C h i e f Game Warden, P r i n c e G e o r g e . December 1 0 , 1929 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 2 3 , F i l e 6. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 3 , K.; G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n A g e n t , H a z e l t o n , B.C. t o T. V a n Dyk, E s q . , D i v i s i o n a l Game I n s p e c t o r , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C. November 2 9 , 1933 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 1 0 , F i l e 7 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s . 1 9 2 8 , T - ' u . ; H a r p e r Reed, I n d i a n A g e n t , T e l e g r a p h C r e e k , B.C. t o Bob W e b s t e r , Game Warden, A t l i n . S e p t e m b e r 2 8 , 1928 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; B o x 2 4 , F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 3 , W.; H a r p e r Reed t o E. M a r t i n , E s q . , Game D e p a r t m e n t , P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C. December 3 1 , 1932 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 1,- F i l e 2 . E. F o r f a r , . C o n s t a b l e , F o r t F r a s e r Detachment. R e p o r t . September 30, 1926. 7 3 . I b i d . , Box 2 3 , F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 3 , M. G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n Agent, Babine Agency. T r a p l i n e Claim, o f t h e Morgan F a m i l i e s , K i t w a n g a I n d i a n s . M a r c h 3 1 , 1933 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . See A l s o : Box 1 4 , F i l e 5 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 0 , A.; R. M o o r e , I n d i a n A g e n t , V a n d e r h o o f , B.C. t o T h o s . V a n Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden, P r i n c e G e o r g e , B..C. O c t o b e r 1 1 , 1930 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 2 3 , F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 3 , M.; G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n A g e n t , B a b i n e A g e n c y t o T . V a n Dyk, D i v i s i o n a l Game I n s p e c t o r , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C. M a r c h 3 1 , 1933 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 1 2 , F i l e 3 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 2 9 , F -• G.; J . G i l l e t , I n d i a n A g e n t , M a s s e t , B.C. t o J . H. M c M u l l i n - , E s q . , P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden, V i c t o r i a , B.C. -March 7 , 1929 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 1 3 , F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 2 9 , W-XY-Z.; R.. M o o r e , I n d i a n A g e n t , V a n d e r h o o f , B.C. t o Thomas V a n Dyk, E s q . , C h i e f Game Warden, P r i n c e G e o r g e . December 1 0 , 1929 a n d r e l a t e d correspondence. 74. I b i d . . Box. 9, F i l e 4 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s . , 1928'. H. J . P . Brown, Constable, B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , B e l l a Coola D e t a c h m e n t t o N.C.O. i n C h a r g e , P r i n c e R u p e r t D i s t r i c t . . November 21, 1929. The I n i a n s [ s i c ] h a v e no r e s p e c t f o r t h e A g e n t , a N o r w e g i a n , who h a s b e e n h e r e f o r t h e l a s t 30 y e a r s . Once more I r e q u e s t . that a l l trappers c a l l at the Police Office b efore [ s i c ] t h e i r l i n e s a r e r e g i s t e r e d . I do n o t s e e a f r a c t i o n o f t h e Indians a p p l y i n g f o r a l i n e , and I submit t h a t t h i s I n d i a n Agent i s n o t a p r o p e r p e r s o n t o h a n d l e t h i s work. See A l s o : Box 3 7 , - F i l e 7.. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 5 , R..; A.. B r y a n W i l l i a m s , Game C o m m i s s i o n e r t o T. V a n Dyk, E s q . , D i v i s i o n a l Game S u p e r v i s o r , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C. J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1933 a n d r e l a t e d , correspondence. I n d i a n Agent C o l l i s o n s u p p o r t s a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f 107  I n d i a n t r a p l i n e b e c a u s e he h a s n o t t r a p p e d f o r two y e a r s ; Box 25, F i l e 4. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1934, A. J o e A n t o i n e , V a n d e r h o o f , B.C. t o Game D e p a r t m e n t , V i c t o r i a , B.C. O c t o b e r 30, 1934. A n t o i n e c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e Game Warden a t V a n d e r h o o f was a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n f i s c a t e a major, p a r t of. h i s t r a p l i n e f o r a w h i t e t r a p p e r ; Box 24, F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 3 , S. M a t t h e w Sam a n d R o s i e M. Sam t o A.. B r y a n W i l l i a m s , Game C o m m i s s i o n e r . A p r i l 6, 1933.. The Sams c o m p l a i n t h a t t h e Game Warden i n t h e i r a r e a h a s s o l d t h e i r t r a p l i n e t o a w h i t e man. 7 5 . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, V o l u m e 6735, F i l e 420-3, 5. H a r p e r Reed, I n d i a n A g e n t , T e l e g r a p h C r e e k , B..C. Agency's Annual'Report, y e a r e n d i n g 31 March,. 1936. J u n e 15, 1 9 3 6 . See A l s o : H a r p e r Reed, S t i k i n e Agency Report f o r Month of A p r i l 1936. 7 6 . I b i d . . F i l e 420-3A. J.D. J a c k s o n , C h a i r m a n o f t h e Game C o n s e r v a t i o n B o a r d , V i c t o r i a , B.C. t o J.D. M c L e a n , A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. November 4, 1 9 2 6 . 7 7 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3 5.. H a r p e r R e e d / I n d i a n A g e n t . A n n u a l R e p o r t , e n d i n g 31 M a r c h 1936. June 1 5 , 1936..  78. Canada, Census of Canada: Population  Agency's ,  c l a s s i f i e d according to  p r i n c i p a l origions of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , e t c . , 1931: D i v i s i o n No. 9. S u b d i v i s i o n B, S t i k i n e , L i a r d I n d i a n R e s e r v e s . 79. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e Branch.. GR 1.085, Box 2, F i l e 7. M. Christianson, Inspector of Indian Agencies, Alberta Inspectorate t o The Hon. G.M. S l o a n , K.C., A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a . S e p t e m b e r 10, 1934. 80. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, V o l u m e 6735, F i l e . 4.20-3 6. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n , t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , O t t a w a . December 2 3 , 1 9 3 8 . 81. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 2 6 , F i l e 5. T. Van Dyk t o C.C. G l e a s o n , , E s q . , Dome C r e e k , B.C. F e b r u a r y 8, 1 9 3 4 . 82.Ibid., Box 27, F i l e 4. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1934, L.; Game Warden E. M a r t i n , Game D e p a r t m e n t R e p o r t . F e b r u a r y 2 2 , 1934. 8 3 . I b i d . , Box 2 3 , F i l e 3. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 3 , H.; C o m p l a i n t o f w h i t e t r a p p e r , S m i t h e r s . , B..C. t o Game C o m m i s s i o n e r , Vancouver,B.C. O c t o b e r 24, 1 9 3 3 . ' 8 4 . I b i d . . B o x 2 7 , F i l e 7. T r a p l i n e f i l e s 1927, Mc. C o m p l a i n t f r o m L a i r d P o s t , B.C. t o The Game C o m m i s s i o n e r , V a n c o u v e r , B..C. A u g u s t 4, 1934.  108  8 5 . I b i d . , Box 1, F i l e 2. E. F o r f a r , C o n s t a b l e , D e t a c h m e n t . R e p o r t . S e p t e m b e r 3 0 , 1926.  Fort  Fraser  86. Ibid.. , Box 2 3 , F i l e 6. G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n A g e n t , H a z e l t o n , B.C. 'to I n s p e c t o r V a n Dyk, Game D e p a r t m e n t . P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C., O c t o b e r 2 3 , 1933.' S e e A l s o : Box 30, F i l e 7. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1 9 3 5 . K. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e . Hudson B a y Company M a n a g e r t r a p p i n g on I n d i a n t r a p l i n e . O.J. J a n k , Game Warden t o T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" Game D i v i s o n . December 6, 1935 a n d r e l a t e d correspondence.. 8 7 . I b i d . J.D. M c L e a n , A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y a n d S e c r e t a r y . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a t o C h i e f G e o r g e J a c k , F o r t G e o r g e , B.C. O c t o b e r 20, 1919. 88. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t , D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l t o A l l I n d i a n A g e n t s and. I n s p e c t o r s i n . M a n i t o b a , S a s k a t c h e w a n , A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d Y u k o n . J u l y 14, 1 9 1 9 . 89. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG 10, V o l . 6735, F i l e 42.0-3A. W.E. D i t c h b u r n , C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , t o The S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n . A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . J a n u a r y 26, 1923. 90. I b i d . , W.E.. D i t c h b u r n , C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , B.C. t o a l l I n d i a n A g e n c t s o f . t h e p r o v i n c e . J a n u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 2 3 . 9 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3C 4. M r . M c G i l l t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e G o r d o n Mc. S l o a n , K.C., A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a . O c t o b e r 30,'1934. 92.K. L y s y k , " I n d i a n H u n t i n g R i g h t s : C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and. t h e r o l e o f I n d i a n T r e a t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Law R e v i e w / V o l . 2, No. 3, 1 9 6 6 . p. 4 0 5 . [S.88 o f t h e Indian Act, R.S.C. 1970] 93.. David. K n o l l , " T r e a t y a n d A b o r i g i n a l H u n t i n g a n d F i s h i n g R i g h t s , " C a n a d i a n N a t i v e Law R e p o r t e r . ( 1 9 7 9 ) ; D.E. S a n d e r s , " I n d i a n H u n t i n g a n d F i s h i n g R i g h t s , " S a s k a t c h e w a n Law R e v i e w . V o l . 38, ( 1 9 7 4 ) ; K. L y s y k , " I n d i a n H u n t i n g R i g h t s : " ; P e t e r W. H u t c h i n s , "The Law A p p l y i n g t o t h e T r a p p i n g o f F u r b e a r e r s b y A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s i n Canada': 'A C a s e o f D o u b l e J e o p a r d y , " W i l d l i f e F u r b e a r e r Management a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . M i l a n Novak, e t a l , e d s ; O n t a r i o : M i n i s t r y o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , 1987 . 94.,Simon v. the Queen [1985] 2 S.C.R.. p. 4 1 3 . As n o t e d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t u n d e r S. 88 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n cannot r e s t r i c t n a t i v e t r e a t y r i g h t s . 109  If conflict arises,  t h e terms o f t h e t r e a t y  prevail.  Jacob Kruger and Robert Manuel v. the Queen. [1978] p. 114..  1 S.C.R.  I t has been u r g e d i n argument t h a t I n d i a n s h a v i n g h i s t o r i c h u n t i n g r i g h t s w h i c h t h e y h a v e n o t s u r r e n d e r e d s h o u l d n o t be p l a c e d i n a more i n v i d i o u s p o s i t i o n t h a n t h o s e who e n t e r e d i n t o t r e a t i e s , t h e terms o f which p r e s e r v e d those r i g h t s . However, r e c e p t i v e one may be t o s u c h a n a r g u m e n t on c o m p a s s i o n a t e g r o u n d s , t h e p l a i n f a c t i s t h a t S. 88 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t , e n a c t e d by t h e government o f Canada, p r o v i d e s t h a t " s u b j e c t t o t h e t e r m s o f any t r e a t y " a l l l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n from time t o time i n f o r c e i n . any p r o v i n c e a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o and i n r e s p e c t o f I n d i a n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , e x c e p t a s s t a t e d . The t e r m s o f t h e t r e a t y a r e paramount; i n t h e a t r e a t y p r o v i n c i a l laws o f g e n e r a l application apply.  95.Simon v. the Queen, p . 3 8 7 .  >  96 ..BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 7.. W.E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t o J.H. M c M u l l i n , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i c e . O c t o b e r 6, 1925. See A l s o : Box 2, F i l e 2. J.H. M c M u l l i n t o W.E.. D i t c h b u r n , E s q . O c t o b e r 5, 1 9 2 5 ; D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, V o l u m e 420-3B. A.. B r y a n W i l l i a m s , Game C o m m i s s i o n e r t o W..E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a . M a r c h 19, 1932 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 97. L y s y k , p p . 413-414. 98. I b i d .  P.. 414.  99. P e t e r W. H u t c h i n s , "The Law A p p l y i n g t o t h e T r a p p i n g o f F u r b e a r e r s . b y A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s i n Canada: A Case o f Double Jeopardy, W i l d l i f e F u r b e a r e r Management a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n i n N o r h t A m e r i c a . M i l a n Novak, e t a l , e d s . O n t a r i o : M i n i s t r y o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e , 1987.p. 4.0.  110  ENDNOTES FOR CHAPTER THREE 1. D e n n i s F.K. M a d i l l T r e a t y R e s e a r c h R e p o r t : T r e a t y E i g h t . O t t a w a : T r e a t i e s a n d H i s t o r i c a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , 1986. p. 4. 2. D a n i e l R i c h a r d , " S p i r i t a n d Terms o f T r e a t y E i g h t , " The S p i r i t o f the A l b e r t a I n d i a n T r e a t i e s . R i c h a r d P r i c e , ed., T o r o n t o : I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h on P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1979. p p . 6 1 , 66. 3 . I n s p e c t o r J.D. M o o d i e , "18 97, B l a z i n g a T r a i l To The K l o n d i k e , " P e a c e R i v e r C h r o n i c l e s . G o r d o n E. Bowes, e d . V a n c o u v e r : P r e s c o t t P u b l i s h i n g Co.,. 1963. p. 2 0 1 . 4. M a d i l l ,  p. 14.  T h i s was n o t t h e f i r s t o r o n l y b l o c k a d e s e t up b y t h e Dunneza t o p r e v e n t o u t s i d e r s f r o m e n t e r i n g t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . I n 1837 a p a r t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n f r e e m e n h a d b e e n r e f u s e d a c c e s s t o Dunne-za t e r r i t o r y . See A l s o : L e o n a r d U g a r e n k o , "The Beaver. I n d i a n s a n d t h e F u r T r a d e on t h e P e a c e R i v e r o f N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " D i s s e r t a t i o n , Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. p p . 44, 1 0 0 . 5. M a d i l l , p . 4. 6.Ibid.,  Abstract.  7 . I b i d . , p.  122.  8.Charles M a i r , Through the Mackenzie B a s i n : A N a r r a t i v e o f t h e A t h a b a s c a a n d P e a c e R i v e r T r e a t y E x p e d i t i o n o f 1899. T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B i g g s , 1908. -p. 5 8 . 9.Ibid..  p. 62.  I. 0. Rene F u m o l e a u , A s L o n g A s T h i s L a n d S h a l l L a s t : A H i s t o r y o f T r e a t y 8 a n d 11, 1879-1939. T o r o n t o : M c C e l l a n d & S t e w a r t L t d . , 1975. p p . 74-75. See A l s o : H i c k e y , L y n n , R i c h a r d L. L i g h t n i n g a n d Gordon Lee, " I n t e r v i e w s w i t h E l d e r s Program," S p i r i t o f t h e A l b e r t a I n d i a n T r e a t i e s , p p . 144 - 1 6 0 ; Hugh Conn, " I n d i a n T r e a t i e s as R e l a t e d t o t h e W i l d l i f e and F i s h e r y Resources," Brief  to the Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons i n Indian Affairs,. 1961. p. 1 3 .  I I . Canada. Sessional Paper No. 27, Report of Commissioner For Treaty No 8. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 1900.  O t t a w a , December 1 1 ,  1 2 . I b i d . , Report from Inspector f o r Treaty No. 8, O t t a w a , 5, 1 9 0 3 .  October  Ill  1 3 . I b i d . , Report of Inspector f o r Treaty No 8, O t t a w a , F e b r u a r y 5, 1907. 14. BCARS. Add MSS. E a r l K. P o l l o n , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1922 - 1926. C o n s t a b l e E. F o r f a r , Hudsons Hope D e t a c h m e n t . B r i t i s h .Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , Report re. Unprime Pur. F e b r u a r y 7, 1924. 15. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. Headman E a s t End M o b e r l y L a k e Reserve., M o b e r l y L a k e , B.C. t o I n d i a n A g e n t , D r i f t p i l e , A l b e r t a . December 12, 1932. 16. I b i d . , F i l e 4 2 0.-3 C 4. I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e , M. C h r i s t i a n s o n t o The S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . J a n u a r y 11,' 1934. See A l s o : M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e t o Dr. H a r o l d M c G i l l , D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , A p r i l 16, 1934. 1 7 . I b i d . . , H.A.W. Brown, F o r t S t . J o h n A g e n c y , Monthly Report  September 1934.  1 8 . I b i d . , H.A.W. Brown, Monthly Report of Fort St. John Agency, B.C. J u l y , 1934. 1 9 . . I b i d . , H.A.W. Brown, I n d i a n A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n t o Mr. M. Christianson, Inspector o f Indian Agencies, A l b e r t a Inspectorate. J a n u a r y 13, 1936. 2 0 . . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3 6. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t . F o r t S t . J o h n , t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n - A f f a i r s B r a n c h . December 2 3 , 1938.. 21. M a d i l l ,  p . 77  22. W e i n s t e i n ,  I n t e r v i e w w i t h J o h n Yahae,  p.  67.  23. G.J. Duncan, S t a f f - S e r g e a n t , B.C.P.P. " P e a c e R i v e r T r a p L i n e s , " The S h o u l d e r S t r a p : The O f f i c i a l J o u r n a l o f t h e F o r c e , Issued by A u t h o r i t y o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , No. 8, Summer e d i t i o n , J u n e , 1.942. p . 4 8 . 2 4 : I b i d . , p . 49 - 5 0 . 25. P h i l l i p G o d s e l l , A r c t i c T r a d e r : The A c c o u n t o f T w e n t y Y e a r s w i t h t h e Hudson's B a y Company. New Y o r k : G.P. Putnam's S o n s , 1932. p. 118. S e e a l s o : W..O. H a r p e r , "A S e t t l e r ' s F a m i l y A r r i v e s , " P e a c e R i v e r C h r o n i c l e s . G o r d o n Bowes, e d . V a n c o u v e r : P r e s c o t t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1963. p. 3 2 5 . 26. P h i l l i p H. G o d s e l l , R e d H u n t e r s o f t h e Snows. T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1932. p. 1 8 7 . 112  27. H.E. W a l k e r , "1917, A D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t R e p o r t , " R i v e r C h r o n i c l e s . G o r d o n Bowes, ed.' V a n c o u v e r : P r e s c o t t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1963. p. 350.  Peace  28. M o n i c a S t o r r s . God's G a l l o p i n g G i r l : The P e a c e R i v e r D i a r i e s o f M o n i c a S t o r r s , 1929-1931.. W..L. M o r t o n and V e r a K. F a s t , e d s . V a n c o u v e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1979. p. 291. n o t e 40. 29. W e i n s t e i n ,  pp.  30.Ibid..  34.  p.  53-55.  See A l s o : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s . R e p o r t o f G e n e r a l f o r t h e y e a r e n d i n g December 31, 1924.  Surveyor-  T h e ' P e a c e R i v e r a r e a was n o t t h e o n l y r e g i o n where t h e m a j o r i t y of white s e t t l e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the f u r t r a d e . In t h i s r e p o r t r e g a r d i n g t h e C o a s t D i s t r i c t . , i t was. n o t e d t h a t " P r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e s e t t l e r s t r a p i n t h e w i n t e r ... ." 31. C o r a V e n t r e s s , M a r g u e r i t e D a v i e s and E d i t h K y l l o . P e a c e m a k e r s o f t h e N o r t h . D a v i e s , V e n t r e s s and K y l l o , 1973. p. 248. 32. A.M. B e z a n s o n , "1907 p. 244. See  Also:  The  L a s t West," Peace R i v e r  Chronicles,  Peacemakers.  Numerous r e f e r e n c e , t o s e t t l e r s t r a p p i n g i n . P e a c e R i v e r D i s t r i c t i n d i c a t e s e x t e n t o f t r a p p i n g and s u g g e s t s d e g r e e t o w h i c h F i r s t N a t i o n s g r o u p s w e r e d i s p l a c e , pp. 23, 25, 54, 76, 84 - 90, 108, 128, 130, 136, 141, 161, 194, 220, 251, 259 - 2.61, 282, 302, 326. 33. B e z a n s o n , p.  244.  34. G o d s e l l . Red H u n t e r s o f t h e Snows, p. 214. See A l s o : 216-217, 223-224; F r e d e r i c k K. V r e e l a n d , "An E x p e d i t i o n L a u r i e r P a s s , " P e a c e R i v e r C h r o n i c l e s , p. 312. 35. G o d s e l l . A r c t i c 36. V e n t r e s s , G o d s e l l , Red  T r a d e r p.  Davies, K y l l o . Hunters of the  Ibid, to  pp..  128 P e a c e m a k e r s . pp. 54-55, 79. S e e " A l s o : Snows, pp. 216-217, 223-224.  The B e a v e r m e d i c i n e man Y e l l o w W o l f d e v i s e d a p l a n t o i n t i m i d a t e w h i t e s e t t l e r s by r a n s a c k i n g a c a b i n . He b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s might cause the s e t t l e r s t o leave the Beaver's c o u n t r y . Y e l l o w W o l f was u n a b l e t o damage t h e c a b i n b e c a u s e 113  o f a w a t c h dog, s o d e s t r o y e d t h e c o r r a l i n s t e a d a n d s t o l e two s i l v e r f o x e s . He' was c a u g h t , c h a r g e d a n d s e n t e n c e d t o 3 months h a r d l a b o u r . 37. V e n t r e s s ,  Davies,  Kyllo.  p. 2 4 8 .  38. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 7, F i l e 2. P e a c e R i v e r D i s t r i c t . F o r t S t . J o h n . 1925 - 1926. F i l e d a p p l i c a t i o n s . 3 9 . I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 7. C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r F u r b e r t.o.H.. L a i r d , I n d i a n A g e n t , G r o u a r d , A l b e r t a . J u n e 9, 1926. 40.Ibid. 4 1 . I b i d . , V o l . 2 , F i l e 2. BCPP "D" D i v i s i o n R e p o r t . C o n s t a b l e C G . B a r b e r , F o r t S t . J o h n , S e p t e m b e r 17, 1 9 2 5 . 42. L y n n H i c k e y , R i c h a r d L. L i g h t n i n g a n d G o r d o n L e e , "Interviews w i t h E l d e r s P r o g r a m , " The S p i r i t o f t h e A l b e r t a I n d i a n T r e a t i e s . R i c h a r d P r i c e , e d . T o r o n t o : I n s t i t u t e , f o r R e s e a r c h on P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1 9 7 9 . p p . 154-155. 43. BCARS. A d d MSS 7 6 9 . E a r l K. P o l l o n , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 1922-1926. C o n s t a b l e E. F o r f a r , Hudsons Hope D e t a c h m e n t , "D" D i v i s i o n , P e a c e R i v e r D i s t r i c t . R e g i s t r a t i o n o f Trap L i n e s and Guides, October 15, 1 9 2 5 . 44. BCARS. P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden. GR 446, Box 126, F i l e 1. E. F o r f a r , C o n s t a b l e , BCPP. "D" D i v i s i o n , P e a c e R i v e r D i s t r i c t , Hudsons Hope S t a t i o n . A n n u a l R e p o r t . A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 4 . See A l s o : K y l l o e t a l , P e a c e m a k e r s o f N o r t h P e a c e , p. 40. [ C o n s t a b l e E d F o r f a r ] s e t t l e d d i s p u t e s o v e r t r a p l i n e s . He p l e a d e d w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f game r e g u l a t i o n s , s i n c e t h e p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h o s e o f t h e F e d e r a l I n d i a n A c t . The I n d i a n s w e r e p e r m i t t e d b y t h e F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o h u n t when a n d where t h e y w i s h e d . B.C. s t a r t e d , r e g i s t e r i n g t r a p l i n e s i n 1925 w h i c h p r o h i b i t e d t h e I n d i a n s f r o m h u n t i n g on t h e w h i t e man's l i n e s . :  4 5. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , GR 1085, V o l . , 2, F i l e 2. BCPP "D" D i v i s i o n R e p o r t . C o n s t a b l e C G . B a r b e r , F o r t S t . J o h n , November 1 1 , 1 9 2 5 . p o s t s c r i p t . N.C.O. W.W.A. Duncan, BCPP Pouce Coupe t o Commanding "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e R u p e r t B.C. 4 6 . I b i d . Box 2, F i l e 7. C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r F u r b e r t o - H . I n d i a n A g e n t , G r o u a r d , A l b e r t a . J u n e 9, 1926.  Laird,  4 7 . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG. 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a 114  I n s p e c t o r a t e t o t h e Superintendent General, o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . November 30, 1 9 3 3 . See A l s o : BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1 0 8 5 , Box. 7, F i l e 2. F i l e d A p p l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 2 5 . 4 8 . I b i d . V o l . 2, F i l e 7. C o n s t a b l e A.T. B a t c h e l o r , N.C.O. Pouce Coupe, B.C., J u l y 10, 1927..  Hudson Hope t o  49. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1 0 8 5 , V o l . 2, F i l e 7. I n s p e c t o r Commanding "D" D i v i s i o n , W. S p i l l e r t o N.C.O. Pouce Coupe, A u g u s t 20, 1 9 2 7 . 50. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. H.A.W. Brown, M.D. I n d i a n A g e n t t o T h e . S e c r e t a r y , Department of Indian. A f f a i r s , Ottawa. F e b r u a r y 23, 1935. 51. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s . Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden f o r t h e y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 192 6 s u b m i t t e d b y J.H. M c M u l l i n . 52. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1.085, Box 2, F i l e 8. Game Department Report, "D" D i v i s i o n , P e a c e R i v e r D i s t r i c t , F o r t N e l s o n D e t a c h m e n t , s u b m i t t e d b y Game Warden J . S . C l a r k . J a n u a r y 18/ 1 9 3 5 . 53. BCARS. GR 1 3 2 3 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . F i l e s G98 G98-3, R o l l 2 1 8 . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1902 - 37. A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f B.C.P.P. t o S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f B.C.P.P. a n d A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . May 26, 1 9 2 6 . 54. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1 0 8 5 . B o x 2, F i l e 2. D i v i s i o n Game R e p o r t , P r i n c e G e o r g e . T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r . November 9, 1 9 3 3 .  "D"  55. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. Chairman/ o f Game C o n s e r v a t i o n B o a r d , V i c t o r i a M.B. J a c k s o n , t o J.D., M c L e a n , E s q . A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . November 4, 1 9 2 6 . 5 6 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3C 4. L e t t e r f r o m C h i e f S a c c o n a n d Sub C h i e f Joseph Abs F o r t S t . John t o Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . S e p t e m b e r 22, 1 9 3 2 . 5 7. BCARS., F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1 0 8 5 , B o x , 2, F i l e 7. M. Christianson, Inspector f o rIndian Agencies, A l b e r t a Inspectorate,, • Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o The Hon. G.M. S l o a n , K.C., A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S e p t e m b e r 10, 1 9 3 4 . 5 8 . I b i d . , M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a , t o D r . M c G i l l , S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , J u l y 24, 1933. 11.5  5 9 . I b i d . , T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" D i v i s i o n t o The Game C o m m i s s i o n e r , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. November 14, 1 9 3 3 . 60..Department o f I n d i a n A f . f a i r s . RG 1.0, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. A . F . M a c K e n z i e , S e c r e t a r y t o M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a . S e p t e m b e r 14, 1 9 3 4 . See A l s o : F i l e 420-3 5. R.H. M o o r e , I n d i a n A g e n t . V a n d e r h o o f , B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, Department o f Mines and R e s o u r c e s . O c t o b e r 10, 1 9 3 7 ; R.H. M o o r e , I n d i a n A g e n t , V a n d e r h o o f , B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s • a n d R e s o u r c e s . May 12, 1938; Memorandum t o Mr. M a c l n n e s . O t t a w a , F e b r u a r y 3, 1 9 3 9 . 6 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3C 4. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n Agencies, A l b e r t a Inspectorate, t o D r . M c G i l l . Department, o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . O c t o b e r 4, 1934. 62. I b i d . T.R.L. M a c l n n e s , S e c r e t a r y t o Dr.. M c G i l l , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t . Memorandum Re. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O c t o b e r 4., 1 9 3 4 . 63. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 2. "D" D i v i s i o n Game Report., F o r t S t . J o h n . G.M. K e r k o f f , Game Warden. December 17, 1 9 3 3 . 64 ..Ibid. , Box 8, F i l e 5. "D" D i v i s i o n Game D e p a r t m e n t R e p o r t , (page 1 of. 3) G.M. K e r k o f f , Game Warden. November 6, 1 9 3 3 . 65.Ibid. 66. I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 2.. "D" D i v i s i o n Game R e p o r t , P r i n c e T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r . November 9, 1 9 3 3 .  George.  67. I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e December 1, 1 9 3 3 .  7. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n t o A. B r y a n W i l l i a m s . . ,  68.Ibid., 1933.  7. C h r i s t i a n s o n t o W i l l i a m s . O c t o b e r 14,  Box 2, F i l e  6 9 . I b i d . . V o l . 2, F i l e 2. "D" D i v i s i o n Game R e p o r t , F o r t S t . J o h n , (page 2 o f 3 ) . G.M. K e r k o f f . 6 November, 1 9 3 3 . 70.Ibid., 1934.  Box 2, F i l e  7. C h r i s t i a n s o n t o V a n Dyk. S e p t e m b e r 10,  71. I b i d . , C h r i s t i a n s o n t o B.C. A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l G.M. Sloan.. S e p t e m b e r 10, 1934. A c o p y o f t h i s l e t t e r a c c o m p a n i e d a l e t t e r s e n t t o Game I n s p e c t o r V a n Dyk a l s o d a t e d S e p t e m b e r 10, 1.934. 72. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a 116  I n s p e c t o r a t e t o D r . H a r o l d W. M c G i l l , D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . November 30, 1 9 3 3 . 73. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085', B o x 2, F i l e 7. Brown t o V a n Dyk. November 30, 1 9 3 4 . 74. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . M r . M a c l n n e s , S e c r e t a r y , . Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o Dr. M c G i l l , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l , O t t a w a . R. B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O c t o b e r 4, 1934. 75. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, B o x 2, F i l e 7. I n s p e c t o r T. V a n Dyk t o Game Warden G.M. K e r k o f f , F o r t S t . J o h n , B.C., December 8, 1 9 3 4 . 7 6 . I b i d . , B o x 29, F i l e 4. D i s t r i c t C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1935. No. 1,2,3,4. Game Warden G.M. K e r k o f f t o The O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C. J u l y 6, 1 9 3 5 . 77. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG. 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 6. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t , F o r t S t . J o h n t o M r . R.A. Hoey, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f W e l f a r e a n d T r a i n i n g , I n d i a n A f f a i r s 'Branch, O t t a w a . A p r i l 28, 1 9 3 8 . 78. I b i d . , F i l e 420-3'  6. H.A.W. Brown,. I n d i a n Agent... F o r t S t .  J o h n . Agent's Report f o r Month of January 1939. n . d .  79. BCARS.. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1 0 8 5 , B o x 39, F i l e 7. D i s t r i c t C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1938, No 4. T. V a n Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" Game D i v i s i o n t o T h e Game. C o m m i s s i o n e r , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 2 3 , 1938. 80. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 67 35, F i l e 4.20-3 6. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t . F o r t S t . J o h n t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , O t t a w a . December 2 3 , 1 9 3 8 . 81. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, B o x 3 0 , F i l e 2. T r a p l i n e , F i l e s 1935, E - F. L e t t e r o f C o m p l a i n t f r o m w h i t e t r a p p e r , L i t t l e P r a i r i e , B.C. t o M r . V a n Dyk, C h i e f Game. C o m m i s s i o n e r , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C. S e p t e m b e r 2, 1 9 3 5 . 8 2 . I b i d . , Game, Warden G.M. K e r k o f f , F o r t S t . J o h n , t o Game Warden 5. F. F a h e r t y , Pouce Coupe, B.C. 20 J u n e , 1 9 3 5 . 83. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e F. R. B u t l e r , Member - Game C o m m i s s i o n , t o The I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B.C., V i c t o r i a , B.C.. J u l y 14, 1 9 3 7 . 84. M a d i l l ,  p.  128.  11>  8 5 . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, V o l u m e 6735, F i l e 420-3B. C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c ' R a i l w a y Company's T e l e g r a p h y T e l e g r a m t o D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a f r o m N.P. L ' H e u r e u x , D r i f t p i l e A l b e r t a , M a r c h 4, 1932 a n d r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 8 6'. BCARS. F i s h , a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR. 1 0 8 5 , B o x 2, F i l e 7. W.E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n - C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O c t o b e r 6, 1925. ' . '• 87'. I b i d . , B o x 2, F i l e . 8. T.. V a n Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden., D i v i s i o n "D" R e p o r t t o T h e Game C o m m i s s i o n e r , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. M a r c h 15, 1 9 3 2 . See A l s o : I b i d . , Geo. S.. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , K a m l o o p s , B.C. t o M r . V a n Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden, P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C. S e p t e m b e r 19, 1 9 2 9 . 8 8 . I b i d . , B o x 2, F i l e 7 . W.E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a t o J.H. M c M u l l i n , O f f i c e o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , B.C. P o l i c e A p r i l 1, 1932 a n d r e l a t e d •„ correspondence. 1  8 9 . I b i d . , B o x 2, F i l e 8.. W.E'.. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n . C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B.C., t o A. B r y a n W i l l i a m s , P r o v i n c i a l Game C o m m i s s i o n e r , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. M a r c h 7, 1932.. 9 0 . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, f i l e 420-3B. T.R..L. M a c l n n e s t o W.E.. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n . C o m m i s s i o n e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C. A p r i l 2 1 , 1 9 3 2 . 9 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3B. C C . P a r k e r , A c t i n g S e c r e t a r y t o N.P. L ' H e u r e u x , I n d i a n A g e n t , D r i f t p i l e , A l b e r t a . A p r i l 21,- 1 9 3 2 . 92 . . I b i d . , A. B r y a n W i l l i a m s t o W.E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r . f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V i c t o r i a . June 28,  1932.  93. BCARS. F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, B o x 2, F i l e 8. J . S . C l a r k , Game Warden. F o r t N e l s o n ' D e t a c h m e n t . Game D e p a r t m e n t . Patrol Report.. A p r i l 4, 1 9 3 2 . 94. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, V o l u m e 6735, F i l e 420-3B. A. ..S. W i l l i a m s , A c t i n g D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l t o A, B r y a n W i l l i a m s , Game C o m m i s s i o n e r , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. J u l y 7, 19-32. 9 5 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3 5. D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B. C. t o M r . F.R. B u t l e r , I n s p e c t o r , Game C o m m i s s i o n , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. J u n e 2, 1937.. See A l s o : H.A..W. Brown t o S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . M a r c h 3 1 , 1936; H.A.W. Brown, C o m b i n e d M o n t h l y r e p o r t s f o r J u l y , A u g u s t a n d S e p t e m b e r . O c t o b e r 4, 1936; H a r p e r Reed, I n d i a n A g e n t , S t i k i n e A g e n c y . A g e n t ' s R e p o r t M o n t h o f A p r i l , 1 9 3 6 ; F i l e 420-3C 4. H.A.W. Brown. J u l y 1934, M o n t h l y R e p o r t F o r t S t . J o h n A g e n c y , B.C; F i l e 420-3 6. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n A g e n t t o M r . C. P a n t 118  S c h m i d t , I n s p e c t o r I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , C a l g a r y . A p r i l 6, 1938; BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . GR 1085, Box 39, F i l e 4. H.A.W. Brown t o I n s p e c t o r T. Van Dyk, "D" Game D i v i s i o n . , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C. J u n e 9, 1937. 96. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6.735. F i l e 420-3 A. Geo. S. P r a g m e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s . K a m l o o p s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o Dr. Duncan C a m p b e l l . S c o t t , D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l , Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, Ont., F e b r u a r y 22, 1927.. 97. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e C h r i s t i a n s o n t o Mr. M c G i l l ,  Branch.. GR 1085, 24 J u l y , 1933.  Box  2,  F i l e 7.  M.  119  NOTES FOR THE CONCLUSION 1.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, V o l u m e 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. M r . M a c l n n e s , S e c r e t a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o D r . M c G i l l , D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , O t t a w a , O c t o b e r 4, 1 9 3 4 . 2.Ibid., V o l u m e 4085, F i l e 496, 658-1, P t . 5. T.R.L. M a c l n n e s , Department- o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , "What Canada I s D o i n g F o r The Hunting Indians." Prepared f o r t h e North American W i l d . L i f e C o n f e r e n c e , W a s h i n g t o n . 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" I n d i a n H u n t i n g Right's: C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and t h e R o l e o f I n d i a n T r e a t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Law R e v i e w . 2:3 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 4 0 1 - 4 2 1 .  128  M a r c h a k , P a t r i c i a M. Uncommon," B.C. M o r i c e , A.G. OMI. R e p o r t , 1905  "What Happens When Common P r o p e r t y Becomes S t u d i e s . 80 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 8 - 8 9 ) , pp. 3 - 21.•  "The C a n a d i a n Dene," A n n u a l ( 1 9 0 6 ) , pp.' 187-219.  Archaeloaical  S a n d e r s , D o u g l a s . " P r e - e x i s t i n g R i g h t s : The A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s o f Ca'nada, " i n The C a n a d i a n C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s and F r e e d o m s , s e c o n d e d i t i o n . G e r a l d A. B e a u d o i n and Ed R a t u s k n y , e d s . T o r o n t o : C a r s w e l l , 1989, pp. 707-738. 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"Durican C a m p b e l l S c o t t and t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , " i n C a n a d i a n S t o r y and H i s t o r y 1885-1985. C o l i n N i c l o l s o n and P e t e r E a s i n g w o o d , e d s . E d i n b u r g h : E d i n b u r g h U n i v e r s i t y , 1985, pp. 47- 59.. U s h e r , P e t e r . " I n d i g e n o u s Management S y s t e m s and t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f W i l d l i f e i n the Canadian N o r t h , " A l t e r n a t i v e s . XIV:1 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 7 ) , pp. 3-9.  V. Newspapers: Vancouver D a i l y World D a i l y P r o v i n c e (Vancouver) Daily Colonist (Victoria)  VI. Unpublished Sources: Ball,  G e o r i g i a n a . "A H i s t o r y o f W i l d l i f e Management P r a c t i c e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o 1918," MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1982. '  129  M u i r h e a d , C e c i l D a v i d s o n . P r i v a t e M a n u s c r i p t . BCARS. P o l l o n , E a r l K i t c h e n e r . P r i v a t e M a n u s c r i p t . BCARS.  \  Conn, Hugh R. " I n d i a n . T r e a t i e s a s R e l a t e d t o t h e W i l d l i f e a n d - F i s h e r y R e s o u r c e s , " B r i e f t o t h e JoiVit C o m m i t t e e o f t h e S e n a t e a n d House o f Commons i n I n d i a n . A f f a i r s , 1 9 6 1 . D a n i e l , R i c h a r d . " I n d i a n R i g h t s a n d H i n t e r l a n d R e s o u r c e s : The Case o f N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a . " MA t h e s i s . Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1987. Hudson, D o u g l a s R. " T r a p l i n e s a n d T i m b e r : S o c i a l a n d E c o n o m i c Changes Among t h e C a r r i e r I n d i a n s o f N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " P h . D. D i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , S p r i n g 1983. J a c k n i f e . , W i l m a . T r e a t y #8 H u n t i n g , F i s h i n g a n d T r a p p i n g : A Selected Bibliography. Treaty 8 T r i b a l Council, Treaty R e s e a r c h , 1990. S h e p p a r d , J a n i c e R. "The H i s t o r y a n d V a l u e s o f a N o r t h e r n A t h a p a s k a n I n d i a n V i l l a g e . " P h . D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , M a d i s o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n . 1983. U g a r e n k o , L e o n a r d G. "The B e a v e r I n d i a n s a n d t h e F u r T r a d e on t h e P e a c e R i v e r 1 7 0 0 - 1 8 5 0 , " P h . D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1975.' W e i n s t e i n , M a r t i n . " I n d i a n Land Use a n d Occupancy i n t h e Peace R i v e r Country o f Northern B r i t i s h Columbia." Vancouver: Union o f B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n C h i e f s , 1979.  VII.  Judicary Records:  Simon v. the Queen [1985] 2 S.C.R. Jacob Kruger and Robert Manuel v. the Queen [1978] 1 S.C.R.  130  APPENDICES  131  Appendix II Province of British Columbia  1928  Attorney General  Conservation Board  — I—  G a m e Administration  Provincial G a m e Warden • , Mgratoty  Chief G a m e Inspector  Headquarters Office and Staff Victoria, B.C.  Provincial Gam«  Gam«  Farm*  S«n<tu*rf«<  8 folding  Prodalory Anrm*lj  Enforcement j G a m e Divisions  A  B  Vancouv«f fcbnd  Sou«iEa« Uaintand  (  D  E  Northmen  SouAW«ct  Inspectors  Game Sergents arid Game Corporals  Game Wardens |  Source : British Columbia Sessional Papers Report of the Provincial Game Warden for year ending Dec. 31,1927  I8>3>  Appendix III  Source: Olive Patricia Dickason, Canada's First Nations. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1992. p. 274. 1 3 4 -  NORTHEAST BRITISH COLUMBIA Appendix IV Northeast British Columbia Indian reserves  Present Bands  Reserves  Date allocated  Saulteax  East Moberly Lake  West Moberly  Terrain  Acreage  Culture  1918  high foothills  4490  Cree  West Moberly Lake  1916  high foothills  5025  Beaver & Cree  Halfway  Halfway River  1925  low foothills  9890  Beaver  Blueberry  Blueberry River  1950  boreal forest  2383  Cree& Beaver  Doig  Doig River  1950  2473  Beaver  Beatton River*  1950  boreal forest boreal forest  Fort Nelson  1966  muskeg & river valley  444  Fontas  1966  muskeg & river valley  25  Kahntah  1966  muskeg & river valley  26  Snake River  1966  muskeg & river valley  28  Prophet River  1966  low foothills & muskeg  924  Fort Nelson  Prophet River  883  Slavey & Cree  Beaver  *Held jointly by Blueberry and Doig Bands. Source: Hugh Brody, Maps and Dreams Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre, 1981. p.31  135  Appendix V British Columbia Registered Indian Population by Residence Code for the Month Ending August 1994  N O R T H E A S T BRITISH C O L U M B I A  Type of Residence Code: 1. O n Reserve (Own Band) 2. On Reserve (Other Band) 3. O n Crown Land (Own Band)  Band Name  1  Saulteaux  293  4. On Crown Land (Other Band) 5. On Crown Land (No Band) 6. Off Reserve  2  3  4  5  6  Total  1  0  0  0  324  618  0  0  0  0  47  115  0  0  0  136  182  West Moberly  68  Halfway River  143  3  Blueberry River  143  13  0  0  0  106  262  Doig River  108  4  0  0  0  84  196  Fort Nelson  278  4  1  0  o  285  568  99  1  0  0  1  50  151  Prophet River  -  .  1  Source: B C Region Registered Indian Population by Residence Code for the Month Ending: 9408. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1994.  |3U  INDIAN BAND LAND, Pre 1926, PEACE RIVER DISTRICT Band c o n s i s t i n g o f A p s a s s i n , Cheekyass, Yahey and Wolf f a m i l i e s  Appendix VI  CHETffWD'  Source: Martin Weinstein, I n d i a n L a n d Use a n d Occupancy i n the Peace R i v e r C o u n t r y o f Northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia: A Preliminary Report. 3*7 V a n c o u v e r : U n i o n o f B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s . 1979.  

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