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"Working a great hardship on us" : First Nations people, the state and fur conservation in British Columbia.. 1995

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"WORKING A GREAT HARDSHIP ON US": FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE, THE STATE AND FUR CONSERVATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BEFORE 1935 by BRENDA MARIE IRELAND B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1991 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n , THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE ^STUDIES (Department o . f . H i s t o r y ) We ac c e p t t K i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1995 1 © Brenda. M a r i e I r e l a n d , 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T Divergent values and. approaches to land and resource use and f u r conservation created c o n f l i c t s between a b o r i g i n a l and non- a b o r i g i n a l peoples which have remained l a r g e l y hidden i n h i s t o r i c a l records. This study of the.compulsory t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system implemented i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1925 examines these c o n f l i c t s ; the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l arid a d m i n i s t r a t i v e issues related, to f u r conservation that contributed, to the dispu t e s ; and the F i r s t Nations o b j e c t i o n s to f u r management schemes that v a l i d a t e d white a p p r o p r i a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l lands and r e s t r i c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l vocations and access to important sources of food.' s u p p l i e s . Although F i r s t Nations people spoke • pe r s u a s i v e l y about a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s and j u s t i c e , t h e i r v oices remained l a r g e l y unheard and. unheeded. L e g a l l y disempowered and without p o l i t i c a l support, F i r s t Nation's people were marginalized, removed from lands they had occupied and used, s i n c e 'time immemorial.' TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t ' i i Table of Contents i i i Acknowledgement i v INTRODUCTION • 1 Chapter One F i r s t Nations Responses to Non- 4 Aboriginal Fur Management Techniques Prior to the Trap Line Registration System Chapter Two Implementation of the Trap Line 27 Registration System Chapter Three Treaty -8 and Trap Line Registration: 57 Trust and Treaty Negated CONCLUSION 88 Endnotes 92 Bi b l i o g r a p h y ' • 12.1 Appendices 131 i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS > I would l i k e t o acknowledge P r o f e s s o r s A u t h u r Ray, Dianne N e w e l l and J u l i e C r u i k s h a n k f o r t h e i r guidance and s u p p o r t . A s p e c i a l thank you t o my c h i l d r e n , Mark and S h a r l a Pearce, my mother, P h y l l i s I r e l a n d , and John R u t h e r d a l e f o r b e l i e v i n g i n me when I doubted m y s e l f . You gave me' s t r e n g t h when I needed i t most. I would l i k e t o -thank Hugo and Maggie G e i s e r f o r t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and sup p o r t as w e l l as t h e i r comments on the f i r s t d r a f t . Thank you Marlene L e g a t e s and A l Dreher f o r your f r i e n d s h i p and encouragement. A l i f e l o n g debt i s owed t o P a u l e t t e Regan f o r t h e g e n t l e p r o d d i n g t h a t kept me on t r a c k . Her v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and comments' thro u g h o u t t h i s whole p r o c e s s made i t a l l b e a r a b l e . And thank you P e t e r A l e x c e e f o r w a l k i n g me thr o u g h more computer c r i s e s t h a n I care, t o admit. I c l o s e by t h a n k i n g t h e C r e a t o r f o r g i v i n g me l i f e , , l o v e and courage. i v INTRODUCTION The British North American Act p l a c e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of, a b o r i g i n a l l a n d s and i n t e r e s t s under f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , w h i l e w i l d l i f e management and c o n s e r v a t i o n were a s s i g n e d p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f powers e s t a b l i s h e d a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l vacuum i n t o which F i r s t N a t i o n s r i g h t s and i s s u e s f e l l . I n s p i t e o f i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and, i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s , t he f e d e r a l government l e f t u n c h a l l e n g e d p r o v i n c i a l game laws t h a t - i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g r i g h t s o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e s . In 1925, B r i t i s h Columbia implemented a compulsory t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system. 1 Based, o s t e n s i b l y , upon F i r s t N a t i o n s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the l a n d and i t s r e s o u r c e s , t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n s r e p l a c e d an u n r e s t r i c t e d and u n o r g a n i z e d t r a p p i n g system t h a t promoted o v e r - e x p l o i t a t i o n . The p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n system i n c o r p o r a t e d c l o s e b e a v e r seasons which 'proved . i n e f f e c t i v e i n a d d r e s s i n g l o n g term c o n s e r v a t i o n concerns and f a i l e d t o meet the needs of b o t h n o n - a b o r i g i n a l and a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s . C l a i m s t o t e r r i t o r i e s u t i l i z e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s by F i r s t N a t i o n s , p e o p l e , . a s w e l l as a b o r i g i n a l management t e c h n i q u e s , were i g n o r e d i n the. development o f t r a p p i n g " r e g u l a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the t r a p 1 l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system. F i r s t N a t i o n s ' o b j e c t i o n s t o w h i t e encroachment upon t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s and t h e enactment o f game laws t h a t r e s t r i c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n s were a l s o d i s r e g a r d e d . C l o s e beaver seasons caused p a r t i c u l a r h a r d s h i p , e s p e c i a l l y f o r n o r t h e r n a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e , and t h e s e c l o s u r e s m o t i v a t e d s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n e x p r e s s e d i n p e t i t i o n s t o government o f f i c i a l s . F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e r e f u s e d t o observe c o m p l a c e n t l y the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e i r way o f l i f e and vehemently p r o t e s t e d the a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s and d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d s . But F i r s t N a t i o n c o n c e r n s and o b j e c t i o n s were d i s r e g a r d e d by s e n i o r government o f f i c i a l s .charged by the c o n s t i t u t i o n t o p r o t e c t a b o r i g i n a l l a n d s and i n t e r e s t s . As a r e s u l t , F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e s were m a r g i n a l i z e d , pushed o f f t e r r i t o r i e s t h e i r s t o use s i n c e t ime immemorial. In the f i r s t c h a p t e r , t h i s e s s a y w i l l examine t h e i n t e n s e o p p o s i t i o n o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e t o c l o s e beaver seasons which d r a m a t i c a l l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r l i v e s and l i v e l i h o o d s . The f a i l u r e o f the pre-1925 p r o v i n c i a l a t t e m p t s t o c o n s e r v e f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s which prompted t h e development o f a compulsory t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system w i l l be s t u d i e d . The second chapter, w i l l examine t h e f a i l u r e o f the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system t o .acknowledge and address t h e r i g h t s and needs o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e . The r o l e o f I n d i a n Agents i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system w i l l a l s o be examined as w i l l t h e 2 f a i l u r e of Department of Indian A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s to p r o t e c t a b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s even i n the Treaty 8 area of northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. The t h i r d chapter w i l l focus on the Treaty 8 area to demonstrate that even though F i r s t Nations t r a d i t i o n a l hunting and trapping vocations had been guaranteed, there was no greater p r o t e c t i o n of F i r s t Nations lands and i n t e r e s t s here than i n non-treaty areas of the province. Together, the chapters are a comparative study between a f e d e r a l l y negotiated t r e a t y area and the non-treaty areas of B r i t i s h /Columbia. The paper concludes t h a t , i n s p i t e of strong o b j e c t i o n s , F i r s t Nations groups were forced o f f . t r a d i t i o n a l lands and had t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d s i r r e v o c a b l y d i s r u p t e d as game r e g u l a t i o n s which i n v a l i d a t e d F i r s t Nations r i g h t s were implemented to support non-aboriginal i n t e r e s t s . In the Treaty 8 area of B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s was accomplished with'the a s s i s t a n c e of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s through an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e that f a i l e d to p r o t e c t F i r s t Nations i n t e r e s t s . 3 CHAPTER ONE The Pre-1925 Provincial Trapping System and F i r s t Nations Responses By 1900, w i l d l i f e seemed t o be under s e i g e and demands t o p r e s e r v e l a n d and w i l d l i f e c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f park a r e a s as w e l l as l e g i s l a t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n measures t o p r o t e c t c e r t a i n a n i m a l s p e c i e s and m i g r a t i n g b i r d s b o t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and. Canada. C o n s e r v a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s addressed, t h e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s were b e i n g f a s t d e p l e t e d o f b o t h beauty and r e s o u r c e s . The f i r s t game p r o t e c t i o n laws were e n a c t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1859 t o p r e v e n t t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f . c e r t a i n , b i g game a n i m a l s and m a i n t a i n the " h e a l t h y and manly r e c r e a t i o n " o f t h e gentleman's s p o r t . 1 By comparison, the p r o t e c t i o n o f f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s and t r a p p i n g • r e c e i v e d l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T r a p p i n g was' t h e v o c a t i o n o f I n d i a n s , s e t t l e r s and i t i n e r a n t p r o s p e c t o r s and., the c o n s e r v a t i o n concerns o f t h e s e groups were v e r y d i f f e r e n t from those who p a r t i c i p a t e d , i n the 'gentlemen's s p o r t . ' As a r e s u l t , a haphazard t r a p p i n g system e v o l v e d t h a t t h r e a t e n e d f u r - b e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e f u r t r a d e . Any p e r s o n c o u l d c l a i m a t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r y , p r o v i d i n g the t r a p p e r p u r c h a s e d a f i r e a r m s l i c e n c e and r e c e i v e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e badge. 2 I n d i a n s and m i l i t i a men on duty were 4 exempt from the l i c e n s i n g p r o v i s i o n . P r o s p e c t o r s h a v i n g a - f r e e m i n e r ' s c e r t i f i c a t e and farmers h u n t i n g on t h e i r own l a n d s were i s s u e d l i c e n c e s f r e e o f c h a r g e . 3 White t r a p p e r s moving i n t o an ar e a t o c a p i t a l i z e on the f u r t r a d e a p p r o p r i a t e d F i r s t ' N a t i o n s t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s , b u t , as l o n g as t h e y made t h e r e q u i r e d , l i c e n c e , t h e y were p r o t e c t e d by law. White t r a p p e r s used p o i s o n , 4 wasted the a n i m a l c a r c a s s e s 5 and t r a p p e d b r e e d i n g s t o c k . 6 When beaver s t o c k s d e c r e a s e d t o a l a r m i n g l e v e l s , t h e p r o v i n c e e n a c t e d c l o s e beaver seasons t o promote p o p u l a t i o n r e g e n e r a t i o n . In 1896 t h e p r o v i n c i a l government e n a c t e d t h e f i r s t c l o s e season on beaver, marten and l a n d o t t e r i n h e a v i l y t r a p p e d a r e a s . 7 Responding t o co n c e r n s about t h e i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n between f r e e - t r a d e r s and e s t a b l i s h e d f u r t r a d i n g companies, as w e l l as th e a v e r s e a f f e c t s o f miners and p r o s p e c t o r s upon t h e f u r - b e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n , the government i n t r o d u c e d , measures t o r e g u l a t e t r a p p i n g and address c o n s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n s . The f i r s t p r o v i n c e wide c l o s e beaver season was l e g i s l a t e d i n 1905 and imposed a s i x y e a r m o r atorium on beaver t r a p p i n g . The law p r o h i b i t e d , anyone not o n l y from t a k i n g , k i l l i n g and t r a p p i n g t h e a n i m a l , but a l s o from p o s s e s s i n g untanned p e l t s , f o r a s i x y e a r p e r i o d b e g i n n i n g the f i r s t day o f August, 1905. 8 In B r i t i s h Columbia, as el s e w h e r e , d e c i s i o n s about t h e p r o t e c t i o n 5 of f u r - b e a r i n g animals were made without c l e a r l y understanding- e i t h e r the nature of a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s or F i r s t Nations r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the. land and. w i l d l i f e . Northern, hunting t e r r i t o r i e s of F i r s t Nations groups were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and q u i c k l y appropriated by non-aboriginal s e t t l e r s and resource developers f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , road and r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n , f o r e s t r y and v i l l a g e development. 9 This a p p r o p r i a t i o n was v a l i d a t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l Game Act which supported a trapping system that d i s r u p t e d a b o r i g i n a l resource management s t r a t e g i e s . Under c l e a r l y defined c l a n or p h r a t r i c management systems, the a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p i n g techniques u t i l i z e d , s e v e r a l t r a c t s of sc a t t e r e d t e r r i t o r y i n r o t a t i o n . Breeding stock were not trapped , and areas would be l e f t vacant f o r a few years to allo w population r e j u v e n a t i o n . 1 0 A b o r i g i n a l w i l d l i f e management approaches were s i m i l a r to a g r a r i a n land, r o t a t i o n systems i n that Indians managed t h e i r t r a p l i n e s much l i k e farmers c u l t i v a t e d t h e i r f i e l d s . 1 1 The Secretary f o r the Department of Indian A f f a i r s explained, the a b o r i g i n a l s t r a t e g y as one i n which . . . experienced. Indian, hunting f a m i l i e s have been accustomed to have s e v e r a l t r a p l i n e s , of which only one i s trapped during a. p a r t i c u l a r season, or s e r i e s of seasons while the others are l e f t undisturbed f o r future seasons i n order that the fur. may be replenished. This, i n other words, i s a r o t a t i o n system which i s an economic device s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e to r o t a t i o n of crops. 1 2 6 S t r a t e g i c p l a n s f o r w i l d l i f e p r o t e c t i o n were d e s i g n e d t o p r e s e r v e game and enhance h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g revenues r a t h e r than ensure a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g and. t r a p p i n g v o c a t i o n s . B i g game h u n t i n g was b i g b u s i n e s s : l i c e n c e and t o u r i s t revenues expanded t r e a s u r y r e t u r n s . C o n s e r v a t i o n laws were i n t r o d u c e d t o ensure B r i t i s h Columbia's s t a t u s as "the l a s t g r e a t game s a n c t u a r y o f t h e , c o n t i n e n t . " 1 3 Under p r o p e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h i s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e was e x p e c t e d t o y i e l d a "tremendous revenue f o r t h e p e o p l e . " 1 4 T h i s revenue was g e n e r a t e d a t the expense o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e . White encroachment upon I n d i a n h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s d i s r u p t e d h a r v e s t i n g methods t h a t b a l a n c e d human needs and a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s . The impact o f w h i t e t r a p p e r s upon a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e and. f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s was summarized i n a r e p o r t s u b m i t t e d from t h e F o r t George and Lucerne D i s t r i c t s i n March, 1924. The Lucerne detachment o f f i c e r l i s t e d 24. w h i t e t r a p p e r s and r e p o r t e d 'no I n d i a n s ' i n h i s d i s t r i c t . C o n s t a b l e Van Dyk, F o r t George D i s t r i c t , r e p o r t e d , t h a t I n d i a n s i n the d i s t r i c t had l o s t t h e i r t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s t h r o u g h non-compliance w i t h the Game Act, but n o t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s had been o p e r a t i n g i n the D i s t r i c t , under 250 t r a p l i n e l i c e n c e s . The same-report noted t h a t t h e marten, f i s h e r and o t t e r p o p u l a t i o n s had d e c r e a s e d by n i n e t y p e r c e n t s i n c e the 1911-12 season w h i l e beaver had d e c r e a s e d by s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t s i n c e 1915-16. 1 5 Y e t , the o f f i c e r made no apparent c o r r e l a t i o n between 7 t h e i n c r e a s e i n w h i t e t r a p p e r s and t h e de c r e a s e i n f u r - b e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n s . I n s t e a d o f a s s e s s i n g the impact o f w h i t e t r a p p e r s on b o t h F i r s t N a t i o n s i n t e r e s t s and t h e game p o p u l a t i o n , t h e p r o v i n c e imposed a system t o m o n i t o r and cons e r v e the beaver p o p u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h b i g game (moose, deer, b e a r , mountain goat and sheep) c o n s t i t u t e d a major f o o d s o u r c e f o r n o r t h e r n a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e , t h e s e a n i m a l s were not always p r o c u r a b l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , beaver, which was abundant, became the c r u c i a l , and, sometimes o n l y , a v a i l a b l e f o o d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e an i m a l p e l t s were e s s e n t i a l exchange commodity. A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e ' s r e l i a n c e on w i l d l i f e as a f o o d s o u r c e seldom i n f l u e n c e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f w i l d l i f e l e g i s l a t i o n and at t e m p t s t o implement t h e s e laws were vehemently opposed, by F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e d e t e r m i n e d t o p r o t e c t t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s and l i v e l i h o o d s . Beaver c o n t i n u e d t o be a f a v o u r i t e and i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e , 1 6 e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e n o r t h were t h e a n i m a l was t r a p p e d as much f o r f o o d as f u r . I n the e s t i m a t i o n o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e , t h e c l o s e seasons were t h e government's i n e f f e c t i v e e f f o r t s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h d e c i m a t e d w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s caused, by n o n - a b o r i g i n a l h u n t e r s and t r a p p e r s . The s o l u t i o n seemed s t r a i g h t forward, t o the I n d i a n s : keep n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s out o f 8 t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s which had been s u c c e s s f u l l y managed, from time immemorial. F i r s t N a t i o n s peoples.were s t r o n g a d v o c a t e s on t h e i r own. b e h a l f i n d e f e n d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g methods. They adamantly p r o t e s t e d , encroachment on t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y . They sent p e t i t i o n s and l e t t e r s t o government o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d i n g the Prime M i n i s t e r and. Governor G e n e r a l , o r Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and agents r e q u e s t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n of p r i o r i t y c l a i m s t o h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g r i g h t s and t e r r i t o r i e s . The a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s argued they had de v e l o p e d e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l a n d and. w i l d l i f e and' r e s e n t e d o u t s i d e i n t e r f e r e n c e . R e g u l a t i o n s i m p o s i n g l i c e n s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s were r e f u t e d , and I n d i a n s complained, about the w a s t e f u l p r a c t i c e s o f n o n - a b o r i g i n a l h u n t e r s and- t r a p p e r s . In 1915, an E l d e r from the S t . Mary's Band, East Kootenay reminded t h e Governor G e n e r a l o f an 1895 meeting i n which an agreement between the government and the Windermere and Tobacco P l a i n s I n d i a n s had been reached. The E l d e r o b j e c t e d t o the i m p o s i t i o n o f p e r m i t s f o r I n d i a n h u n t e r s t h a t c o n t r a v e n e d t h i s agreement. On 25th o f t h i s month t h e r e was a meeting i n f o r t [ s i c ] S t e e l e about Game h u n t i n g and I took your word and p l a c e d i t b e f o r e t h e Game Werden [ s i c ] and. he k i c k e d i t , and want t o put my h e a r t t o what Bryan W i l l i a m s [ P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden] s a i d , when you came t o Windermere on September 18 95 you g i v e 9 me the. law about the h u n t i n g and. you g i v e the law t o Mr. G a l b r i t h our egent [ s i c ] , when he came back he took t h e agreement and s i t on i t and when t h i s new law came he put i t b e f o r e us and t o l d us t o t a k e i t , i t s t h i s p e r m i t what Bryan W i l l i a m s o f f e r , us I n d i a n s we dont want to t a k e i t , we • sooner want t h e law o f 1895, and a n o t h e r t h i n g when we hunt and k i l l i t we are a r r e s t e d and have t o pay f i n e [ s i c ] . 1 7 In 1916, t h e C h i e f and band members from Spuzzum s u b m i t t e d a l e t t e r t o the I n d i a n Agent condemning game r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t r e s t r i c t e d a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The Agent f o r w a r d e d t h e l e t t e r t o the Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . The Spuzzum band, as t h e o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e l a n d s i n c e 'time immemorial,' c l a i m e d ownership o f t h e w i l d l i f e and c h a l l e n g e d , p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s t o w i l d l i f e revenue. At i s s u e f o r t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s group were the f e e s c o l l e c t e d , by the government f o r h u n t i n g l i c e n c e s which were not sh a r e d w i t h t h e a b o r i g i n a l owners of the l a n d and. w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s . Furthermore, the band, members complained t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l h u n t e r s wasted t h e w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s by d i s c a r d i n g most o f the. c a r c a s s , c l a i m i n g o n l y the t r o p h y heads. I n c o n t r a s t , the I n d i a n s used e v e r y p a r t o f t h e an i m a l and wasted n o t h i n g . 1 8 The I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s f o r the S o u t h e a s t e r n I n s p e c t o r a t e n o t e d i n 1919 t h a t t h e I n d i a n s c omplained b i t t e r l y about f i n d i n g c a r c a s s e s o f f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s d i s c a r d e d by w h i t e t r a p p e r s a f t e r the p e l t s had. been r e m o v e d — a p r a c t i c e f o r e i g n t o a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e . 1 9 P r o v i n c i a l game laws t h a t encouraged, and supported, such w a s t e f u l r 10 p r a c t i c e s w i t h o u t r e s p e c t f o r a b o r i g i n a l needs aad r i g h t s were u n d e r s t a n d a b l y a b h o r r e d by t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e s . A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e , s u p p o r t e d by I n d i a n Agents t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e , 2°- i n s i s t e d t h a t I n d i a n s had always p r e s e r v e d the w i l d l i f e , i n c l u d i n g f u r - b e a r i n g animals., and d i s p u t e d r e p o r t s t h a t p r e s e n t e d them as m a l i c i o u s k i l l e r s . A l t h o u g h I n d i a n s and t h e i r agents argued t h a t a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e were not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r wanton s l a u g h t e r and o v e r - t r a p p i n g , c l o s e b eaver seasons were imposed on a b o r i g i n a l and n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s a l i k e ^ T h i s i m p o s i t i o n provoked s t r o n g p r o t e s t from F i r s t N a t i o n s communities. In May o f 1906, the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, A.W. Vowel1, noted t h a t t h e c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t the game laws were ... l o u d and w i d e s p r e a d throughout the S u p e r i n t e n d e n c y t h e I n d i a n s c o n s i d e r i n g i n many i n s t a n c e s t h a t p r o m i s e s made t o them i n e a r l y days a r e not respected, t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e y would be a l l o w e d t o e n j o y t h e same p r i v i l e g e s as were always open t o t h e i r f a t h e r s i n r e g a r d t o h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and. t r a p p i n g upon Government l a n d s i . e . l a n d s • t h a t were not owned, by p r i v a t e p a r t i e s o r o t h e r w i s e a l i e n a t e d , from t h e Crown. 2 1 L o b b y i n g e m p h a t i c a l l y a g a i n s t the c l o s e seasons and game laws i n g e n e r a l , I n d i a n s p e t i t i o n e d government o f f i c i a l s . I n 1905 the C h i e f s o f the S t u a r t Lake, Stoney Creek and F r a s e r Lake t r i b e s s u b m i t t e d a p e t i t i o n t o t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s c o m p l a i n i n g t h a t the p r o v i n c e was e n d e a v o u r i n g t o t a k e away the 11 I n d i a n ' s l i v e l i h o o d t h e r e b y t h r e a t e n i n g them w i t h s t a r v a t i o n . The C h i e f s reminded t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f the Department's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o I n d i a n p e o p l e s by . d e s c r i b i n g the p r o v i n c e as a ' c r u e l stepmother' and a s k i n g the•Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o a c t as a 'good f a t h e r ' . By e n a c t i n g a. c l o s e b eaver season, t h e p r o v i n c e was ' a n n i h i l a t i n g r i g h t s o f immemorial d a t e ' t r a n s m i t t e d to the I n d i a n s by t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . The C h i e f s p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e beaver was t h e i r o n l y l i v e l i h o o d as b i g game a n i m a l s had been de c i m a t e d by f i r e s and were an u n r e l i a b l e f o o d s o u r c e . Even i f b i g game was p l e n t i f u l , t h e l e a d e r s n o t e d t h a t t h e c o s t s o f ammunition and weapons were p r o h i b i t i v e . The C h i e f s argued t h a t t h e i r t e r r i t o r y s h o u l d be exempted from the c l o s e b eaver season because t h e I n d i a n s had t h e i r own laws d i c t a t e d by s e l f - i n t e r e s t . 2 2 S u r v i v a l was the u l t i m a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n m o t i v e . In 1905, the C h i e f s o f bands i n the F o r t S t . James a r e a e x p l a i n e d t o t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t h a t t h e beaver was t h e i r s o l e means o f l i v e l i h o o d and t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e was i n f l i c t i n g m i s e r y upon n a t i v e communities by removing t h i s s t a p l e . The C h i e f s argued t h a t the I n d i a n s had. n a t u r a l laws by which beaver had always been p r o t e c t e d . Each f a m i l y group t r a d i t i o n a l l y had i t s own " ... c i r c u i t ' w h e r e t h e y [ d i d ] t h e i r h u n t i n g and they [understood] t h a t i t [was] i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t t o see t h a t t h e game [was] not d e s t r o y e d , t o t h a t e f f e c t we never hunt[ed] two y e a r s i n s u c c e s s i o n on the same s t r e a m s . " 2 3 12 The C h i e f s o f t h e S t e l l a and Stoney Creek I n d i a n bands p o i n t e d out t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n 1909 t h a t " ... we w i l l be r e d u c e d t o s e r i o u s s t r a i g h t s [ s i c ] and be i n danger o f s t a r v a t i o n , as a p a r t from the salmon the Beaver a r e our main s u p p o r t . " 2 4 I f t h e government would not r e s c i n d t h e c l o s e beaver season, t h e C h i e f s r e q u e s t e d seeds and a g r i c u l t u r a l implements f o r c u l t i v a t i o n , as w e l l as f e r t i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a l o c a l I n d i a n agency. In t h e i r 1919 e f f o r t t o g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n f o r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , t h e C h i e f s o f t h e Burns^ Lake Band compared I n d i a n t r a p p i n g methods w i t h t h o s e o f the w h i t e t r a p p e r s . The C h i e f s p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e ' s t a n d a r d r u l e ' among I n d i a n s was t o co n s e r v e t h e beaver w h i l e w h i t e t r a p p e r s took beaver i n d i s c r i m a n t l y . The l e t t e r e x p l a i n e d how beaver were t r a p p e d i n 'th r e e o r f o u r ' a r e a s i n r o t a t i o n w i t h b r e e d i n g s t o c k p r o t e c t e d . The C h i e f s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e b e s t way t o conserve t h e beaver was t o have e x c l u s i v e t r a p p i n g r i g h t s a s s i g n e d t o the I n d i a n s because w h i t e t r a p p e r s were d e c i m a t i n g the s t o c k s . 2 5 They summarized F i r s t N a t i o n s concerns from around the p r o v i n c e by s t a t i n g : " I n l o c k i n g up the bever [ s i c ] You are l o c k i n g t h e b r e a d out o f our camp We depend as mutch on the bever [ s i c ] as the farmer depends on h i s cr o p f o r f o o d " . 2 6 The C h i e f s and Headmen o f the S t u a r t Lake I n d i a n Agency i n a 13 l e t t e r t o the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n 1919 'humbly' asked the Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of' I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o " ... l o o k i n t o the m a t t e r o f t h e Game Laws o f B.C. i n r e l a t i o n t o the r i g h t s o f the I n d i a n s . The l e a d e r s c o mplained t h a t t h e i r t r a p l i n e s were b e i n g g r a d u a l l y s t o l e n away from them by"the w h i t e t r a p p e r s . We t r a p t o p r e s e r v e t h e Game a n i m a l s and t h e h i s t o r y o f our t r a p p i n g i n t h e p a s t w i l l b e ar out t h i s contention.. The w h i t e t r a p p e r s methods s a n c t i o n e d by t h e laws o f B.C. a r e e x t e r m i n a t i n g c e r t a i n a n i m a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y beaver and t h i s i s w o r k i n g a g r e a t h a r d s h i p on 'us. 2 7 The C h i e f o f t h e F o r t George I n d i a n Band sent a p e t i t i o n t o the Governor G e n e r a l i n October o f 1919 r e q u e s t i n g t h a t t h e f e d e r a l government i n v e s t i g a t e p r o v i n c i a l Game Laws i n r e l a t i o n , t o a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . The C h i e f p o i n t e d out t h a t the I n d i a n s were " l o y a l s u b j e c t s o f K i n g George" and- claimed, the r i g h t t o t r a p a l l game a n i m a l s w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n . We p o i n t t o h i s t o r y and t h a t r e c o r d ' w i l l show t h a t we have always t r a p p e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e game. Now we a r e t o l d t h a t we must not t r a p Beaver. T h i s i s a b i g h a r d s h i p on us and our f a m i l i e s ' w i l l s u f f e r t h i s w i n t e r . A l s o we are p r o h i b i t e d from c a t c h i n g salmon which was our r i g h t i n y e a r s gone by. 2 8 Leaders from t h e Kitsumkalum and K i t s e l a s bands proposed I n d i a n s be g i v e n c o n t r o l o v e r t r a p p i n g because t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s had taug h t them" how t o manage the r e s o u r c e . 2 9 M i s s i o n a r i e s a l s o p e t i t i o n e d government o f f i c i a l s on b e h a l f o f I n d i a n s . Reverend C o c c o l a i n f o r m e d Frank P e d l e y , Deputy M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , i n October 1907 t h a t the c l o s e beaver season 14 would cause h a r d s h i p f o r t h e I n d i a n s as t h e r e were no deer o r c a r i b o u i n the S t u a r t Lake a r e a and t h e beaver c o n s t i t u t e d t h e 'backbone' o f t h e I n d i a n ' s l i v e l i h o o d . 3 0 In a l e t t e r t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l P r e m i e r d a t e d 23 J a n u a r y , 1920, Reverend M o r i c e , O..M.I. quoted t h e C h i e f o f the No. 2 r e s e r v e near P r i n c e George i n d e l i n e a t i n g t h e d i r e consequences o f a c l o s e beaver season. We are now v e r y m i s e r a b l e h e r e . We a r e debarred, from t r a p p i n g beaver; hence we have n o t h i n g t o l i v e on. T h e r e f o r e ask i n our names t h a t we be allowed, t o k i l l moose, deer and c a r i b o u , and h e l p us t h a t way. Our c o u n t r y i s a most wretched one, because t h e r e i s no salmon i n i t . Sometimes we are two days a t a time w i t h o u t e a t i n g a t a l l . Do t e l l t h e Government t h a t ; t o expose t o them our c r i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n . T e l l them a l s o t h a t t h e I n d i a n Agent has not [ s e t ] f o o t on t h i s p l a c e f o r t h e l a s t two y e a r s , and t h a t he does n o t h i n g f o r us. Pray, t e l l them a l l t h a t , t o o . 3 1 M o r i c e t h e n i n f o r m e d the P r e m i e r t h a t two band women had d i e d o f m a l n u t r i t i o n . In e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e 1905 beaver moratorium., Hudson Bay Company o f f i c i a l s d e l i n e a t e d the impact t h e t r a p p i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s would have on the F i r s t N a t i o n s groups of t h e n o r t h . In an attempt t o demonstrate t h a t l e g i s l a t e d , c o n s e r v a t i o n methods, at l e a s t f o r I n d i a n s , were unnecessary, company s o l i c i t o r s d e s c r i b e d the F i r s t N a t i o n s approach t o c o n s e r v a t i o n . . [The] b eaver i t s e l f i s amply p r o t e c t e d by the I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s , who regard, t h i s a n i m a l as t h e i r p r i n c i p a l r e s o u r c e s f o r a l i v e l i h o o d . D i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y from time immemorial have by mutual consent, o r 15 u n d e r s t a n d i n g , been a l l o t t e d t o t h e v a r i o u s C h i e f s and headmen o f t r i b e s who o n l y , e i t h e r k i l l - a l i m i t e d number f o r the m s e l v e s , o r p e r m i t o t h e r s on t h e i r r e s e r v e s t o k i l l a. l i m i t e d number. T h i s p r a c t i c e has s c r u p u l o u s l y o b s e r v e d [ s i c ] , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t f o r many y e a r s p a s t i n the o u t l y i n g p o r t i o n s o f the P r o v i n c e which s t i l l a r e o n l y i n h a b i t e d by I n d i a n s t h e r e has been, no apparent d i m i n u t i o n o f Beaver, the Beaver b e i n g one o f t h e c h i e f items of h i s l i v e l i h o o d . There i s no o t h e r animal, which can t a k e i t s p l a c e as an a r t i c l e o f f o o d o r i n r e s p e c t o f i t s commercial v a l u e as f u r . 3 2 The l a w y e r s concluded, by s t a t i n g t h a t w h i t e encroachment upon I n d i a n t e r r i t o r y would l e a d t o t r o u b l e and they' p r e d i c t e d t h a t Orders i n C o u n c i l and enforcement o f f i c e r s would be i n e f f e c t i v e r e p l a c e m e n t s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e laws and customs t h a t had- governed p a s t c o n s e r v a t i o n methods. 3 3 The I n d i a n Agent from H a z e l t o n opposed t h e c l o s e beaver seasons, a r g u i n g t h a t t h e y caused, g r e a t h a r d s h i p . I would l i k e t o impress on the Department t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f a f f a i r s [ c l o s e beaver season] has had a v e r y marked e f f e c t on the g e n e r a l l i f e o f t h e I n d i a n f o r not o n l y do t h e y make use o f the s k i n of. the beaver but the I n d i a n s a l s o uses the meat as t h e i r s t a p l e w i n t e r f o o d , . . . 3 4 In. September o f 192.3, George S. P r a . g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , Kamloops, d e f i n e d t h e I n d i a n s as t h e "best p r e s e r v e r s o f the f u r t r a d e " and a c c u s e d the p r o v i n c i a l , government o f b e i n g l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e f u r - b e a r i n g - a n i m a l s . I n P r a g n e l l ' s e s t i m a t i o n , l e g i s l a t i o n b o t h supported, a b u s i v e w h i t e t r a p p i n g methods and r e f l e c t e d an i g n o r a n c e o f the f u r b e a r i n g a n i m a l s and the a c t u a l prime t r a p p i n g s e a s o n . 3 5 16 The s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n from I n d i a n s i n the n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s s u p p o r t e d by Hudson Bay o f f i c i a l s , I n d i a n Agents and Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s , as w e l l as m i s s i o n a r i e s , s e c u r e d c l o s e beaver exemptions f o r t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s groups i n the S t i k i n e , L a i r d and Peace R i v e r d r a i n a g e a r e a s between 1905 - 1907 and a g a i n i n 1912 - 13. 3 6 The 1905 - 1907 exemption was not extended a f t e r 1907 because t h e boundary l i n e between t h e exempt and non-exempt a r e a s was i m p o s s i b l e t o p a t r o l and I n d i a n s south of the l i n e would t r a d e i n the n o r t h . A t o t a l p r o v i n c e wide c l o s u r e began i n 1907 and t o p r e v e n t p e l t s from b e i n g s o l d o u t s i d e t h e p r o v i n c e t h e P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden s o l i c i t e d a s s i s t a n c e from t h e N o r t h West Mounted P o l i c e i n Whi t e h o r s e and the C h i e f Game Warden i n A l b e r t a . 3 7 In s p i t e o f t h e s e e f f o r t s , enforcement i n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t was d i f f i c u l t due t o t h e i s o l a t i o n , immense s i z e o f t h e t e r r i t o r y and inad e q u a t e numbers of enforcement s t a f f . A l t h o u g h I n d i a n s p e t i t i o n e d , a g a i n s t c l o s e beaver seasons, t h e y a l s o p r o t e s t e d w h i t e encroachment and d e f i e d p r o v i n c i a l game r e g u l a t i o n s by removing t r a p s from w h i t e t r a p l i n e s , d e s t r o y i n g beaver houses, and s e t t i n g f i r e s t o d e t e r w h i t e s from t r a p p i n g . In two ca s e s , I n d i a n s from the H a z e l t o n area were p r o s e c u t e d and found g u i l t y o f i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h a l i c e n s e d w h i t e "trapper and. the sentences ranged from a f i n e o f $25.00 o r one month h a r d l a b o u r t o a f i n e o f $200.00 and 1 month h a r d l a b o u r p l u s c o s t s o r 4 17 months h a r d l a b o u r . 3 8 E x t e n s i v e t r a p p i n g by n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s was p l a c i n g t h e l i v e s and l i v e l i h o o d s o f the C a r r i e r p e o p l e s ' a t r i s k f o r c i n g them t o d i s r e g a r d game r e g u l a t i o n s and engage i n d r a s t i c measures. I n h i s 1918 r e p o r t , | t h e C o n s t a b l e f o r t h e South F o r t G e o r g e / H a z e l t o n a r e a reminded h i s s u p e r i o r s t h a t t h e I n d i a n s were t h e o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s and t h a t " t h e i r decedents not u n n a t u r a l l y "nourish a b e l i e f t h a t a l l game i s t h e i r s and. e v e r y whiteman's t r a p l i n e an encroachment on v e s t e d r i g h t s . " 3 9 One reason the C a r r i e r o f the H a z e l t o n D i s t r i c t opposed game laws was e x p l a i n e d by the C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r i n 1920 when he r e p o r t e d t h a t w h i t e r a t h e r than- I n d i a n t r a p p e r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i l l e g a l t r a p p i n g o f b e a v e r . 4 0 A l t h o u g h c l o s e beaver seasons and l e g i s l a t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n measures p r o v e d i n a d e q u a t e i n a d d r e s s i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s , l e a v i n g management of. the r e s o u r c e under, the c o n t r o l o f a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s was not c o n s i d e r e d . Game Department o f f i c i a l s were a v e r s e t o g r a n t game, concessions- t o I n d i a n s and were even r e l u c t a n t t o g r a n t c l o s e season exemptions because t h e y d i d n o t . b e l i e v e the I n d i a n s r e l i e d on beaver.as an e s s e n t i a l f o o d s o u r c e . A l t h o u g h t h e Chairman o f the p r o v i n c i a l Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board, Dr. A.R. Baker, had a " g r e a t deal, o f sympathy f o r t h e I n d i a n s and wish[ed] t o see them p r o p e r l y t r e a t e d , " he was de t e r m i n e d t o put 18 a s t o p t o t h e beaver s l a u g h t e r . 4 1 Baker was not c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e n o r t h e r n d i s t r i c t s s u f f e r e d f o r want o f beaver meat f o r food.. Baker e s t i m a t e d t h a t , d u r i n g 1919, t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e r e g i o n had not o n l y k i l l e d o v e r f i v e thousand beaver but a l s o had been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i l l e g a l shipment o f 'p r o b a b l y f i f t e e n t o . twenty thousand' p e l t s out o f t h e p r o v i n c e . 4 2 What s u b s t a n t i v e e v i d e n c e Baker had t o support h i s c l a i m s i s u n c l e a r , but i f h i s e s t i m a t i o n s were b e l i e v e d the l o s t revenues i n r o y a l t i e s and t a x e s would have been c o n s i d e r a b l e and not beyond t h e n o t i c e o f government o f f i c i a l s . By 1921 t h e f a i l u r e o f the beaver c o n s e r v a t i o n management s t r a t e g i e s implemented by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government was app a r e n t . A R o y a l Commission e s t a b l i s h e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l l e g a t i o n s o f mismanagement a g a i n s t the: Chairman o f t h e Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board, Dr. A.R. Baker, p u b l i c i z e d t h e i l l e g a l fur. t r a d e t h a t o p e r a t e d between B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a . The p e l t s of beavers caught by I n d i a n s f o r f o o d were b e i n g s h i p p e d a c r o s s the bo r d e r aad s o l d i n A l b e r t a t o a v o i d payment of. b o t h the r o y a l t y t a x and t r a d e r s ' l i c e n c e f e e s . 4 3 In 1920 the Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board Chairman had determined, t h a t even though t h e Board " ... had not i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the I n d i a n r i g h t s t o . k i l l f o r f o o d , ... we found t h a t the buyers were persuading, the I n d i a n s t o k i l l 19 i l l e g a l l y f o r t h e t r a d e . " 4 4 The d a i l y p apers i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a f o l l o w e d t h e R o y a l Commission t e s t i m o n y which f o c u s s e d a t t e n t i o n upon t h e t r a p p i n g i s s u e s i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n s e c t o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e . The I n d i a n s o f t h i s r e g i o n were condemned b o t h f o r d e p l e t i n g b i g game s t o c k s and d e c i m a t i n g t h e beaver p o p u l a t i o n . I n t h e immense Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , where game law enforcement, was c o m p l i c a t e d by T r e a t y 8 gua r a n t e e s , game enforcement o f f i c e r s c l a i m e d t h a t i t was p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r i l l e g a l t r a p p i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n beaver. ... [T]he I n d i a n s a r e t h e worse o f f e n d e r s i n Beaver, l a r g e l y because t h e y use the.B e a v e r f o r food, and t h e y [ I n d i a n s ] a re always h a r d t o c a t c h , and i n a D i s t r i c t l i k e , t h i s were [ s i c ] the I n d i a n i s a t r e a t y I n d i a n , when -caught "What'? he k i l l s a Beaver out o f season on a p l e a t h a t he must have f o o d , and i n many cases he won't be l y i n g e i t h e r , what s h a l l he do w i t h the s k i n ? d e s t r o y i t ? no he w i l l not do t h a t , he w i l l h i d e i t t i l l t h e Season opens, and then s e l l i t . 4 5 The i l l e g a l t r a d e r a i s e d c o n c e r n t h a t s e t t l e r s , p r o s p e c t o r s and p l a c e r - m i n e r s would be f o r c e d t o abandon t h e i r v o c a t i o n s i f t h e beaver, stock, was s e r i o u s l y d e p l e t e d . S u g g e s t i o n s ' t h a t measures be adapted t o p r o t e c t beaver as an a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e ' s f o o d source were r e j e c t e d . When t h e M.L..A. f o r Omineca, A.M. Manson, attempted 'to have t h e I n d i a n s from t h e N o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e exempted from t h e 1920 c l o s e beaver season., e s p e c i a l l y i n i s o l a t e d r e g i o n s where w h i t e t r a p p e r s had not encroached and where t h e beaver were p l e n t i f u l due t o n a t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n 20 methods, h i s motion was d e f e a t e d . 4 6 D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n t r a p p i n g system was wide spread- and. t h e system's i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s m o t i v a t e d recommendations f o r improvement from b o t h a b o r i g i n a l and non- a b o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s . I n June 1920, H.S. G a l l o p o f Invermere, B.C. s u b m i t t e d a p r o p o s a l f o r change t o t h e Deputy A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l o f B r i t i s h Columbia. G a l l o p contended t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g game laws were u n s y s t e m a t i c , e x p e n s i v e and inad e q u a t e i n managing t h e w i l d l i f e which he d e f i n e d as one o f the p r o v i n c e ' s g r e a t e s t n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . To p r o t e c t t h e game and f u r b e a r i n g a n i m a l s and p r o v i d e t h e p r o v i n c e w i t h s t e a d y revenue, G a l l o p p r oposed a l i c e n s e d t r a p p e r system which would a s s i g n s p e c i f i c a r e a s t o t r a p p e r s , encourage c o n s e r v a t i o n and p e r m i t l i c e n s e d h o l d e r s t o ' p o l i c e ' h i s own a r e a . In t h e n o r t h e r n d i s t r i c t s , "where t h e Ind i a n s ^ depend on. H u n t i n g and T r a p p i n g f o r a l i v i n g , s u i t a b l e a r e a s s h o u l d be s e t a s i d e f o r t h e i r e x c l u s i v e use, and over which no T r a p p e r s L i c e n c e s h o u l d be i s s u e d . " 4 7 I n September o f 1921, I n d i a n Agent W.J. M c A l l a n from the F o r t F r a s e r Agency r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e Chairman o f t h e Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board,'A.R. Baker, d i s c u s s t h e c r e a t i o n o f an I n d i a n t r a p p i n g r e g i o n w i t h t h e I n d i a n C h i e f s o f t h e n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r . D e s c r i b i n g the l a r g e numbers o f beaver k i l l e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f ' i l l e g a l m a n i p u l a t o r s , ' i n t h e r e g i o n , M c A l l a n argued t h a t 21 " [ p j u t t i n g the e n t i r e t r a p p i n g o f b e a v e r i n t o t h e hands o f the I n d i a n s ... [was] the o n l y way t o c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n , p r e s e r v e t h e beaver and s e c u r e t h e revenue t o the P r o v i n c e . " 4 8 As encroachment upon h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s i n t e n s i f i e d , s e c u r i n g a. l i v i n g became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e . By 1923 I n d i a n l e a d e r s were r e q u e s t i n g l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d s be r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r e x c l u s i v e h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g u s e . 4 9 In a s p e c i a l r e p o r t on t r a p p i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, George P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , Kamloops, n o t e d t h a t , because the I n d i a n s were n e i t h e r a b l e t o r e t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s nor m a i n t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g methods, t h e y were r e q u e s t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system. "They [the I n d i a n s ] contended t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s , where p r e v i o u s l o n g usage shows a p r o p r i e t a r y c l a i m s h o u l d have f i r s t chance o f r e g i s t r a t i o n , t h a t r e g u l a r w h i t e t r a p p e r s l i v i n g i n the d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d come n e x t , and t h a t t r a p p e r s from o u t s i d e l a s t . " 5 0 The Kootenay I n d i a n s had recommended t h a t i f t h i s system was not v i a b l e t h e n a b l o c k o f l a n d s h o u l d be s e t a s i d e f o r I n d i a n t r a p p i n g and t h a t I n d i a n s themselves would a s s i g n l i n e s w i t h i n t h e a r e a . P r a g n e l l s u p p o r t e d the F i r s t N a t i o n s recommendation of. a r e g i s t e r e d system t o r e p l a c e t h e " p r e s e n t promiscuous method." 5 1 These recommendations were r e j e c t e d by the I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n 2 2 A g e n c i e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, W.E. D i t c h b u r n . In h i s c i r c u l a r t o a l l p r o v i n c i a l I n d i a n Agents, D i t c h b u r n p o i n t e d out t h a t I n d i a n s had e q u a l r i g h t s w i t h w h i t e t r a p p e r s even though, t h e y were exempt from p u r c h a s i n g t r a p p i n g o r h u n t i n g l i c e n c e s . He a d v i s e d the Agents t o p a c i f y I n d i a n f e a r s about l o s i n g ' t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s by a s s u r i n g them t h a t as l o n g as t h e y c o n s i s t e n t l y adhered t o the Game r e g u l a t i o n s t h e y need have no c o n c e r n . 5 2 T h i s must have been a most d i f f i c u l t t a s k f o r t h e I n d i a n Agents s i n c e e x p e r i e n c e had proven p r o v i n c i a l laws i n a d e q u a t e i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e s u b s i s t e n c e and c o n s e r v a t i o n needs o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e . N e i t h e r G a l l o p ' s nor M c A l l a n ' s recommendations t h a t n o r t h e r n a r e a s be e x c l u s i v e l y r e s e r v e d f o r a b o r i g i n a l use were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e Game Act. The I n d i a n ' s r e q u e s t t o be a l l o w e d f i r s t o p t i o n t o r e g i s t e r because of p r i o r use r i g h t s appears not t o have been c o n s i d e r e d and was a l s o e x c l u d e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n . Economic f a c t o r s and c o n s e r v a t i o n concerns d i r e c t e d the c r e a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e measures and a b o r i g i n a l u s u f r u c t r i g h t s , when c o n s i d e r e d , were i n v a l i d a t e d o r i g n o r e d . A f t e r World War 1, except f o r a b r i e f d e c l i n e i n 1921-1922, f u r p r i c e s c l i m b e d and remained h i g h u n t i l 1930 5 3. S t a b l e p r i c e s a t t r a c t e d n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s t o a p r e d o m i n a n t l y F i r s t N a t i o n s v o c a t i o n . As knowledge o f t h e l u c r a t i v e n a t u r e o f the f u r 23 i n d u s t r y expanded, government o f f i c i a l s and MLAs ad v o c a t e d i m p o s i n g t a x e s t o b r i n g some o f the p r o f i t s i n t o government c o f f e r s . I n 1920, a d a p t i n g t h e recommendations o f F . W . Anderson, MLA from Kamloops and Dr. A. R. Baker, Chairman o f t h e Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board, t h e government imposed a ( r o y a l t y t a x on f u r s t h a t would c r e a t e an e s t i m a t e d revenue o f 80 t o 100 thousand d o l l a r s . 5 4 I n i t i a l e s t i m a t e s were e x a g g e r a t e d but as revenues d e r i v e d from the f u r t r a d e i n c r e a s e d from $5,291.39 i n 1920 t o $60,594.18 i n 1924 5 5 c o n c e r n about t h e d e p l e t i o n o f f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s i n t e n s i f i e d . R e p o r t s such as t h a t s u b m i t t e d by C o n s t a b l e Edward F o r f a r from the Hudson Hope Detachment i n A p r i l 192 4 provoked t h e concerns o f the Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board. The f u r c a t c h has been good, t o o good, t h e r e has been f a r more f u r caught than the i n c r e a s e w i l [ s i c ] i n any way make up f o r , we a r e k i l l i n g t h e Goose that, l a y s t h e gol d e n egg, the Beaver r e t u r n s a re good,- d e c e i t f u l l y good, as t h e hunt • has been c a r r i e d i n many l o c a l i t i e s t o t h e p o i n t o f e x t e r m i n a t i o n , i t i s as w e l l f o r Game C o n s e r v a t o r s t o remember t h a t c l o s e seasons w i l l not b r i n g back Game when the seed has been caught o u t . 5 5 C o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e economic a s p e c t s o f t h e t r a d e and'" demands f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e beaver prompted t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l t o propose amendments t o t h e Game A c t , e f f e c t i v e i n 1925, t h a t would impose a compulsory t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system. Designed as a c o n s e r v a t i o n s t r a t e g y , t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n r e s t r i c t e d ' a l i e n s ' from t r a p p i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e and r e q u i r e d a l l t r a p l i n e s be r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the t r a p p e r who would a c t b o t h as h a r v e s t e r and c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t . I n r e t u r n , t he t r a p p e r would be 24 p r o t e c t e d from t r a p l i n e encroachment. The i n t e n t i o n o f t h e A c t was t o put " ... the f u r i n d u s t r y back on the b a s i s o f p r e v a i l i n g i n the days when I n d i a n s d i d most o f the t r a p p i n g . The I n d i a n s , i t [was] r e c a l l e d , always endeavoured t o conserve th e c o u n t r y ' s f u r . " 5 7 The i d e a t h a t an e f f e c t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n system had o r i g i n a t e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l a b o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e s was r e i t e r a t e d i n 1929 by H.G. P o l l e y , t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , who, i n p r e s e n t i n g amendments t o f u r t h e r d e f i n e t r a p l i n e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , n oted: I t i s e v i d e n t . t h a t t h e a n c i e n t I n d i a n s o f t h e e a r l y days were l e s s p r o l i f i g a t e [ s i c ] i n the m a t t e r of h u n t i n g f u r - b e a r i n g game, th a n a r e t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s , the w h i t e man. Under u n w r i t t e n ^ laws which p r e v a i l e d among the I n d i a n s t h e r e was a s o r t o f t r a p l i n e i n vogue, m a i n t a i n e d by d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s , and t h e r i g h t s over which were r e s p e c t e d , and by which the game o f t h e c o u n t r y was kept up i n t h e m a t t e r o'f s u p p l y . 5 8 U s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l F i r s t N a t i o n s c o n s e r v a t i o n methods as a. b a s i s f o r t h e t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system was a paradox. The r e g i s t r a t i o n of. l i n e s was a f o r e i g n concept t o a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s . The system was. implemented t o a d dress c o n f l i c t s between F i r s t N a t i o n s and w h i t e t r a p p e r s and t o i n t r o d u c e a c o n s e r v a t i o n management s t r u c t u r e t h a t c o u l d be m o n i t o r e d by game enforcement o f f i c e r s . The i d e a was t o p r o v i d e a sense o f ownership t o a c e r t a i n a r e a and c r e a t e an e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o h a r v e s t f u r s i n exchange f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n . The I n d i a n ' s system 25 " ... was based on freedom o f a c c e s s , f l e x i b l e use, and r o t a t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i o n , which meant t h a t some ar e a s went un t r a p p e d f o r seasons on end." 5 9 T h i s approach was a p p l i e d t o a l l t h e w i l d l i f e i n a g i v e n a r e a , not j u s t the f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s . R e s t r i c t i n g h u n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e i n s e l e c t e d a r e a s w h i l e opening hunt seasons f o r s p e c i f i c a n i m a l s i n a l l a r e a s was a f o r e i g n and u n s u s t a i n a b l e management t e c h n i q u e f o r a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e . The l e g i s l a t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n system s u p p o r t e d h u n t i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n r a t h e r than s u s t e n a n c e . White men hunted e i t h e r f o r p l e a s u r e o r t o supplement t h e i r e x i s t i n g d i e t and t h e y t r a p p e d t o augment e x i s t i n g economic endeavours. The I n d i a n s hunted t o s u r v i v e and t h e y had o n l y one v o c a t i o n — t r a p p i n g . 5 0 They t h e r e f o r e vehemently opposed r e s t r i c t i v e game r e g u l a t i o n s . The p r o v i n c i a l government's attempt t o meet the needs o f two d i v e r g e n t groups i n one management s t r u c t u r e g u aranteed c o n f r o n t a t i o n and c o n f u s i o n . 26 CHAPTER TWO Implementation of the Trap Line Registration System There were t h r e e main d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e im p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e : c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s t o co m p l i a n c e , t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e s s , and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s t r u c t u r e o f bo t h the f e d e r a l ; Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and t h e p r o v i n i c a l Game Board. T h e . r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e system r e p u d i a t e d hundreds o f y e a r s o f a b o r i g i n a l p r i o r r i g h t use and s u c c e s s f u l w i l d l i f e management. F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r s were e x p e c t e d t o comply w i t h e l a b o r a t e r e g i s t r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s and l i c e n s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s d e s p i t e t h e i r d e f i c i e n c e s w i t h ' t h e Euro-Canadian language, l i t e r a c y and mapping s k i l l s t h a t were e s s e n t i a l f o r f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . A l l a p p l i c a n t s r e g i s t e r i n g a t r a p l i n e were e x p e c t e d t o f u r n i s h " ... a t r u e and c o r r e c t g e o g r a p h i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s l i n e . " 1 Unable t o t r a n s f e r t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l knowledge o f the t e r r i t o r y t o the w h i t e man's mapping t e c h n i q u e , I n d i a n e f f o r t s t o s k e t c h the r e q u i r e d i n d i v i d u a l t r a p l i n e s were deemed, i n a d e q u a t e , i g n o r a n t r and c h i l d i s h , " j u s t l i t t l e s c r a t c h e s . " 2 A b o r i g i n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e l a n d and i t s r e s o u r c e s c o u l d not be moulded i n t o t he concept o f r e g u l a t e d w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . C u l t u r a l ' d i f f e r e n c e s and language b a r r i e r s ) 27 made compl i a n c e w i t h t h e compulsory r e g i s t r a t i o n system e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . Because the b a s i c b a r r i e r s t o r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e were i g n o r e d and t h e i r fundamental needs d i s r e g a r d e d , t h e p o l i c y t h a t was d e v e l o p e d e n s u r e d the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system would be i n e q u i t a b l e . T r a p p i n g a r e a s were q u i c k l y r e g i s t e r e d by. a s t u t e , a g g r e s s i v e w h i t e t r a p p e r s 3 who u n d e r s t o o d the p r o c e s s and were u n r e s t r i c t e d by language o r c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s . Once c l a i m e d by a w h i t e t r a p p e r , a r e a s were e a s i l y t r a n s f e r r e d from one t o a n o t h e r by n o m i n a t i o n o f a s u c c e s s o r o r thr o u g h s e t t l e m e n t o f an e s t a t e . 4 S e c t i o n 41 o f t h e Game Act s t i p u l a t e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s under which a t r a p p e r c o u l d nominate a s u c c e s s o r t o t r a p h i s l i n e . The t r a p p e r had t o have adhered t o the game r e g u l a t i o n s , o p e r a t e d t o cons e r v e t h e f u r , and have become 1 i n c o m p a c i t a t e d by i l l n e s s o r o t h e r w i s e . ' 5 The t r a p p e r ' s e s t a t e c o u l d nominate a s u c c e s s o r i n case o f death and a l l t r a n s f e r s were s u b j e c t t o a p p r o v a l by the Game Commissioner. A l t h o u g h the Act s t i p u l a t e d t h a t ' i n c a p a c i t a t i o n ' was t h e c r i t e r i a under which l i n e s c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t h i s was not f o l l o w e d and t h e a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r l i n e s t h r o u g h s a l e added a d d i t i o n a l monetary v a l u e t o t h e l i n e s beyond f u r r e t u r n s . There were no r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s a l e o f t r a p l i n e s but a t r a p p e r c o u l d s e l l h i s t r a p s , equipment, and t r a p p i n g c a b i n s t o 28 anyone he wished. The t r a p p e r d i s p o s i n g o f h i s l i n e t hen wrote t o the game o f f i c e r n o m i n a t i n g t h e p u r c h a s e r as s u c c e s s o r . I f t h e nominee met the c r i t e r i a o f b e i n g a n a t i o n a l i z e d r e s i d e n t and a l i c e n c e d t r a p p e r 6 , t h e t r a n s f e r was approved. I n d i a n s were exempt from p u r c h a s i n g l i c e n c e s , y e t a l i c e n c e was r e q u i r e d t o q u a l i f y f o r n o m i n a t i o n as a t r a p l i n e s u c c e s s o r . 7 T h i s ' c a t c h 22' combined w i t h the ease w i t h which w h i t e t r a p p e r s t r a n s f e r r e d l i n e s t o o t h e r n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s e f f e c t i v e l y kept l i n e s from r e v e r t i n g t o the Game Department f o r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n t o the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s use. I n d i a n Agents c o u l d purchase t h e $2.50 E x t r a S p e c i a l F i r e a r m s L i c e n c e so t h a t I n d i a n s c o u l d t r a p a l i n e a c q u i r e d by t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . 8 But t h i s f a i l e d t o a l l e v i a t e game o f f i c i a l s ' c oncerns about t h e revenues l o s t when a w h i t e t r a p l i n e r e v e r t e d t o the I n d i a n s . In. 1938 the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a greed t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l game department s h o u l d not be p e n a l i z e d f o r p e r m i t t i n g the s a l e o f w h i t e t r a p l i n e s f o r I n d i a n t r a p p e r s and s u p p o r t e d t h e l e v y i n g o f the $10.00 S p e c i a l F i r e a r m s Fee on I n d i a n t r a p p e r s . 9 I n d i a n Agents were i n s t r u c t e d t o c o l l e c t the f e e s from the I n d i a n s whenever p o s s i b l e . 1 0 F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r s were f u r t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e d because o f t h e l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g game a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had about a b o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o l a n d and w i l d l i f e . P r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s 29 l e g i s l a t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n and r e s t r i c t e d management t e c h n i q u e s t o the Euro-Canadian concept o f t r a p p i n g o n l y t h e s u r p l u s a n i m a l s from the l i n e as a whole. An I n d i a n e n d e a v o u r i n g t o manage the beaver a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l a b o r i g i n a l methods o f u t i l i z i n g s e v e r a l a r e a s i n r o t a t i o n r i s k e d l o s i n g a l l o r p a r t o f h i s l i n e f o r u n d e r - u t i l i z a t i o n . The o n l y e v i d e n c e t h e Game I n s p e c t o r r e q u i r e d t o r e s c i n d , and r e a s s i g n t r a p p i n g a r e a s was sworn a f f i d a v i t s s t i p u l a t i n g an I n d i a n t r a p p i n g a r e a had not been f u l l y u t i l i z e d . 1 1 Other f a c t o r s besides, r e g u l a t i o n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s made the im p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the r e g i s t r a t i o n system p a r t i c u l a r l y arduous i n n o r t h e r n d i s t r i c t s . . By October 1925, when t h e d i r e c t i v e was r e c e i v e d most o f t h e t r a p p e r s were a l r e a d y on t h e t r a p l i n e s and not a v a i l a b l e t o r e g i s t e r t h e i r a r e a s u n t i l t he s p r i n g . 1 2 Game o f f i c i a l s had d i f f i c u l t y s e c u r i n g a p p r o p r i a t e maps, even i n 1930, 1 3 and compounding t h i s p r o b lem was the c o n f u s i o n o ver d i s t r i c t 1 4 and p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s 1 5 as w e l l as s u r v e y e d l a n d s . 1 6 C o n s t a b l e s who m i s u n d e r s t o o d o r m i s i n t e r p r e t e d the r e g u l a t i o n s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d the p r o c e s s . 1 7 In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , game o f f i c e r s e r r e d t h r o u g h i g n o r a n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s , 1 8 and t h e p r o c e s s was a l s o d e l a y e d by the e x t e n s i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 1 9 a s s i g n e d t o law enforcement o f f i c e r s e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n remote a r e a s . 2 0 S t a f f t u r n o v e r s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d r e g i s t r a t i o n . 2 1 30 In c e r t a i n c a s e s , w h i t e t r a p p e r s r e c e i v e d p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t because wardens were awkward w i t h o r h o s t i l e towards I n d i a n s . 2 2 Based upon c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d by n o n - a b o r i g i n a l o f f i c i a l s , a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s e f f o r t s t o , p r o v e t r a p l i n e usage could- be judged i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e i r w h i t e c o u n t e r p a r t s , 2 3 and I n d i a n s were d e s c r i b e d as i g n o r a n t , i l l i t e r a t e l i a r s . 2 4 The d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d ' w i t h t h e a c t u a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system were compounded by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s d e s i g n e d t o a d m i n i s t e r the p r o v i n c i a l Game Act and the f e d e r a l Indian Act. For a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes t h e p r o v i n c e was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e game d i v i s i o n s [see Appendices I. and I I ] . The l a r g e s t r e g i o n , "D" D i v i s i o n , encompassed the a r e a n o r t h o f , a p p r o x i m a t e l y , the 53th p a r a l l e l . The p r o v i n c e was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s and I n d i a n s or f a r m ers i n unorganized, t e r r i t o r i e s n o r t h o f p a r a l l e l 53 were g r a n t e d Game A c t c o n c e s s i o n s r e l a t e d t o s e c u r i n g f o o d f o r p e r s o n a l u s e . 2 5 "D" D i v i s i o n was d i v i d e d , i n t o f o u r d i s t r i c t s : Peace R i v e r , P r i n c e Rupert, H a z e l t o n and P r i n c e George. 2 6 The F o r t S t . John a r e a was- f u r t h e r d i v i d e d , i n t o t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e c t o r s : F o r t . N e l s o n , F o r t S t . John and Hudson Hope 2 7 detachments under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f law enforcement o f f i c e r s . 31 Between 1923 and. 1932, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o f the Indian Act i n the p r o v i n c i a l i n s p e c t o r a t e was under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r o v i n c e ' was d i v i d e d i n t o 1 two i n s p e c t o r a t e s w i t h t h e o f f i c e o f t h e I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s f o r the South e a s t I n s p e c t o r a t e l o c a t e d i n Kamloops. The p r o v i n c e was d i v i d e d i n t o 16 I n d i a n A g e n c i e s : Babine and Upper Skeena, B e l l a C o o l a , Cowichan, Kamloops, Kootenay, Kwawkewlth, L y t t o n , New W e s t m i n i s t e r , Okanagan, Queen C h a r l o t t e , S t i k i n e , S t u a r t Lake, Vancouver, West Coast, W i l l i a m s Lake and. Skeena R i v e r . 2 8 The n o r t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f the 'province was l a r g e l y excluded, from t h e B r i t i s h Columbia I n s p e c t o r a t e because o f i t s d e s i g n a t i o n as a t r e a t y area.' The T r e a t y 8 a r e a was a d m i n i s t e r e d from Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c e s at Regina, Saskatchewan u n t i l 1932 and the n moved t o the A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e a t C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a . 2 9 T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e removed t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia from the. p r o v i n c i a l I n d i a n A f f a i r s I n s p e c t o r a t e . The e n s u i n g i s o l a t i o n was e x p r e s s e d by t h e I n d i a n Agent i n 1937 who, i n r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n from Department o f f i c i a l s i n Ottawa t o ' s t r a i g h t e n o u t ' t r a p l i n e d i s p u t e s as a s p e c i a l agent, no t e d : I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t ' t o e x p l a i n what I f e e l . We a r e away out i n t h i s i s o l a t e d c o r n e r o f . B r i t i s h Columbia under t h e A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e . We have nearby no p e r s o n b e l o n g i n g t o the Department w i t h whom we can c o n f e r - o n o c c a s i o n ; nobody w i t h whom I can d i s c u s s t h e A f f a i r s o f t h e Department or t h e i r p l a n s . I have no o p p o r t u n i t y o f h a v i n g i n s i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which would h e l p me i n d e a l i n g w i t h P r o v i n c i a l Departments. T h i s t r a p l i n e b u s i n e s s up- here i s a l o n e f i g h t . , 32 and the Game Commission and I n s p e c t o r Van Dyk know t h a t t h e y have me i n a b a r r e l . 3 0 The Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s seemed u n c e r t a i n o f the most e f f e c t i v e way t o a d m i n i s t e r T r e a t y 8 and made d e c i s i o n s t h a t b o t h i n t e n s i f i e d t he i s o l a t i o n f o r the. I n d i a n s and c o n f u s e d the i s s u e f o r t h e Game a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . In an e f f o r t t o address t h e sup p o r t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the I n d i a n s i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a , the. n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f T r e a t y 8 was a s s i g n e d t o .the S t i k i n e Agency under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the I n d i a n Agent a t T e l e g r a p h Creek i n 1.932.. I n • r e q u e s t i n g t h a t -the a p p r o p r i a t e f i l e s be t r a n s f e r r e d .to t h e I n d i a n Agent's o f f i c e , t h e p r o v i n c i a l Game Commissioner e x p r e s s e d h i s p e r p l e x i t y . " T h i s i s t h e f i r s t i n t i m a t i o n t h a t I have had t h a t Mr. Harper Reed's Agency extended so f a r E a s t . " 3 1 The consequence o f t h i s d e c i s i o n was t h a t the T r e a t y 8 I n d i a n s i n the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the t r e a t y a r e a ( L i a r d D i s t r i c t ) were under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e S t i k i n e Agency, B r i t i s h Columbia I n s p e c t o r a t e , but were c l a s s i f i e d as b e l o n g i n g t o the L i a r d P o s t . 3 2 The T r e a t y 8 I n d i a n s i n the s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the a r e a (Peace' R i v e r D i s t r i c t ) c o n t i n u e d t o be. a d m i n i s t e r e d by the I n d i a n Agent i n Grouard, A l b e r t a , i n the A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e u n t i l 1934. when an agency was e s t a b l i s h e d a t F o r t S t . J o h n . ' A l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e Peace. R i v e r D i s t r i c t remained p a r t o f t h e A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e u n t i l 1938 when t h e I n d i a n Agent a t F o r t S t . John r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n t o d e a l 33 d i r e c t l y w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n I n s p e c t o r a t e on t r a p l i n e i s s u e s . 3 3 P o l i c i e s adopted by the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o address i s s u e s i n t h e Peace R i v e r ' D i s t r i c t o f T r e a t y 8 were not always a p p l i c a b l e t o the r e s t o f the p r o v i n c e . I n 1938, under recommendation o f t h e F o r t S t . John I n d i a n Agent, t h e Department approved the i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f band l i n e s and the l e v y i n g o f p r o v i n c i a l game l i c e n c e f e e s on I n d i a n s . Agent Brown had co n c l u d e d t h a t the b e s t way t o p r e v e n t "young ' b o l s h e v i k ' " 3 4 I n d i a n s from r a i d i n g band r e g i s t e r e d l i n e s was t o have t h e l i n e s d i v i d e d i n t o f a m i l y o r i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s t h a t c o u l d be more c l o s e l y monitored, by t h e Game Wardens. 3 5 The I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, D.M. MacKay, o b j e c t e d t o Agent Brown's recommendations. A l t h o u g h t h e Commissioner b e l i e v e d t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l game b o a r d s h o u l d be re i m b u r s e d f o r l o s t revenue when w h i t e t r a p l i n e s r e v e r t e d t o • I n d i a n s , he questio n e d , the f e a s i b i l i t y o f making, t h i s a. g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d p o l i c y . "At l e a s t s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f our I n d i a n s c o u l d not o r would not pay, and. the Department would e i t h e r have t o assume t h e o b l i g a t i o n o r f a c e t h e consequences o f the w h o l e s a l e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f I n d i a n t r a p l i n e s [ s i c ] . " 3 6 Mackay b e l i e v e d t h a t a g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n would s e t a p r e c e d e n t and would open the way f o r the p r o v i n c e t o l e v y f e e s f o r i r r i g a t i o n 34 purposes and on range l a n d s used by I n d i a n l i v e s t o c k . The Commissioner doubted t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g band t r a p l i n e s would s o l v e d i s a g r e e m e n t s between the I n d i a n s and noted t h a t the d i f f i c u l t i e s Agent Brown was e x p e r i e n c i n g were common t o a l l A g e n c i e s . He t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d t h a t the s o l u t i o n was ' l a r g e l y ' i n t h e h a n d s ' o i the I n d i a n Agent. MacKay doubted t h a t t h e F o r t S t . John Agent " ... i n h i s eagerness t o meet a l o c a l s i t u a t i o n , gave much thought t o t h e p o s s i b l e f a r r e a c h i n g consequences such r a p o l i c y c o u l d have, on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n d i a n s as a whole i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . " 3 7 A b o r i g i n a l people, had a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e impact t h a t t h e b a r r i e r s t o r e g i s t r a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s would have on t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s . . For t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e , any i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a t r a p p i n g system t h a t f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e them w i t h p r i o r i t y a c c e s s i n c i t e d f e a r s t h a t r e g i s t r a t i o n would v a l i d a t e o f n o n - a b o r i g i n a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s . Even though the I n d i a n s were acknowledged as b e i n g t h e group most c r i t i c a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s e r v i n g game, 3 8 p r o v i n c i a l game laws imposed c o n s e r v a t i o n management systems on F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e t h a t f o c u s s e d on b a l a n c i n g w i l d l i f e and revenues. Trap l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n s d i s r u p t e d t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s way o f l i f e and caused h a r d s h i p . They were not i n t r o d u c e d w i t h o u t c h a l l e n g e . F i r s t N a t i o n s ' adamant o p p o s i t i o n 35 t o the c l o s e beaver seasons and game laws i n g e n e r a l c o n t i n u e d a f t e r t he compulsory t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system was implemented.. W h i l e w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n became a. p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y , f o r " F i r s t N a t i o n s , c o n s e r v a t i o n was a l i f e s t y l e : a s i m p l e m a t t e r o f s u r v i v a l . When the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system was i n i t i a l l y i n t r o d u c e d , t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s groups i n t h e H a z e l t o n D i s t r i c t o f "D" D i v i s i o n , i n a s s e r t i n g p r i o r i t y r i g h t s , " ... r e f u s e d t o a p p l y f o r o r secu r e r e g i s t r a t i o n because they c l a i m e d t h a t t r a p p i n g was t h e i r a n c e s t r a l r i g h t and t h e y would not comply w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s made by t h e whiteman. 3 9 To a s s e r t ownership r i g h t s i n a H a z e l t o n t r a p p i n g a r e a , an I n d i a n and h i s a c c o m p l i c e s i n v a d e d a w h i t e t r a p p e r ' s c a b i n i n 1925 and removed f u r s because he b e l i e v e d t h a t the w h i t e t r a p p e r had t r e s p a s s e d upon I n d i a n t r a p p i n g grounds, t o o b t a i n them. Based upon s u b m i s s i o n s p r e s e n t e d by the accused, and the I n d i a n Agent a t the p r e l i m i n a r y h e a r i n g , t h e J u s t i c e agree t h a t I n d i a n s had ' p r i o r and e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s t o t r a p i n B r i t i s h Columbia,' and d i s m i s s e d t h e case. The p o l i c e l a i d new charges and a t t h e second h e a r i n g the a c c u s e d was bound over f o r t r i a l . The I n d i a n s had " ... b o l d l y [taken] the law i n t o t h e i r own hands and co m p e l l e d a w h i t e man t o l e t them c a r r y o f f f u r s ... . " 4 0 The m a g i s t r a t e ' s h a n d l i n g o f t h e case m o t i v a t e d b o t h t h e p r o s e c u t i n g b a r r i s t e r and 3 6 the M.L.A. t o w r i t e t o the p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s o f f i c e e x p r e s s i n g o u t r a g e a t the i n i t i a l d i s m i s s a l and the n at t h e subsequent sentence o f o n l y ' t h i r t y days.' A l e t t e r t o the P r o v i n c i a l Game Commissioner i n January o f 1928 from a F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r i n the B e l l a B e l l a a r e a d e p i c t e d how po w e r l e s s he was t o keep w h i t e t r a p p e r s from e n c r o a c h i n g on h i s t e r r i t o r y . The Indian, and h i s f a m i l y had trapped, the same a r e a f o r g e n e r a t i o n s and had b u i l t c o m f o r t a b l e c a b i n s a l o n g t h e l i n e . But t h i s d i d not ke.ep w h i t e t r a p p e r s from e n c r o a c h i n g because game r e g u l a t i o n s d i d not ex t e n d t o i s l a n d s so t r a p l i n e s c o u l d not be r e g i s t e r e d l i k e those on the m a i n l a n d . The a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r wanted p r o t e c t i o n from men who moved from a r e a t o ar e a d e s t r o y i n g the l a s t a n i m a l on the l i n e , u s i n g p o i s o n i f n e c e s s a r y . 4 1 In August o f 1933, a F i r s t N a t i o n s woman from the Canim I n d i a n Band wrote t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , r e q u e s t i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n s e c u r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g t e r r i t o r i e s f o r her f a m i l y . W h i t e - p e o p l e had not o n l y p r e v e n t e d a c c e s s t o f i s h i n g a r e a s but a l s o t a k e n h er f a t h e r ' s t r a p l i n e . She asked t h a t I n d i a n s be g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e i n r e g i s t e r i n g l i n e s . 4 2 The Kitwancool- I n d i a n s r e s i s t e d r e g i s t e r i n g t h e i r t r a p l i n e s f o r 37 a d i f f e r e n t but r e l a t e d r e a s o n . They were concerned, t h a t r e g i s t r a t i o n would co n f u s e o u t s t a n d i n g l a n d c l a i m s i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . 4 3 They f i n a l l y c o m p l i e d when a s s u r e d t h a t r e g i s t e r i n g t r a p l i n e s would not a d v e r s e l y e f f e c t t h e i r o l d c l a i m s . In 1946 the C a r r i e r I n d i a n s o f St e w a r t Lake p e t i t i o n e d the f e d e r a l government f o r a r e t u r n o f t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g a r e a s . They r e q u e s t e d r e s t i t u t i o n f o r l a n d s l o s t t o w h i t e t r a p p e r s due t o i g n o r a n c e o f t h e t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e s s and, i n some i n s t a n c e s , t h r o u g h the f a i l u r e o f I n d i a n agents t o n o t i f y o r r e g i s t e r I n d i a n l i n e s - . 4 4 In a d d r e s s i n g the S p e c i a l J o i n t Commission on. the I n d i a n A c t 1946-1948, t h e C a r r i e r I n d i a n s o f t h e n o n - t r e a t y F r a s e r Lake a r e a e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h b o t h t h e i r l o s s o f t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s and t h e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e s l a u g h t e r o f f u r b e a r i n g a n i m a l s by w h i t e h u n t e r s and t r a p p e r s . ... i n o l d e n days the, I n d i a n s had a l l t h e c o u n t r y t o themselves and c o u l d hunt and. k i l l the beaver a t any time.. They, however, took g r e a t c a r e o f t h e beaver, so t h a t t h e r e was always an abundant o f [ s i c ] s u p p l y . Now the beaver has been p r a c t i c a l l y e x t e r m i n a t e d by the unwise methods o f the w h i t e h u n t e r s and t r a p p e r s . 4 5 A second C a r r i e r spokesman d e s c r i b e d , how c o n s e r v a t i o n had been the p r a c t i c e from 'time immemorial.' Beaver c o l o n i e s were managed w i t h s p e c i a l care, g i v e n t o m a i n t a i n i n g b r e e d i n g ( s t o c k . The system worked w e l l u n t i l " [ t ] h e w h i t e p e o p l e came i n , however, and k i l l e d t he beaver i n d i s c r i m i n a n t l y , w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o the 38 p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the s t o c k . " 4 6 Indians, accused t h e p r o v i n c i a l government o f e n a c t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t impeded r a t h e r than s u p p o r t e d the. c o n s e r v a t i o n g o a l s t h e y were d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s . 4 7 I n - a d d i t i o n , t he r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e system tended t o . a g g r a v a t e r a t h e r t h a n a l l e v i a t e t he d i f f i c u l t i e s F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r s e x p e r i e n c e d i n complying w-ith t h e p r o v i n c i a l game laws. The I n d i a n s from the F r a s e r Lake: Agency p e t i t i o n e d t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s c o m p l a i n i n g about i n e f f e c t i v e and. i m p r a c t i c a l p r o v i n c i a l laws which superseded proven a b o r i g i n a l h a r v e s t i n g s t r a g e g i e s . We cannot always comply w i t h s u b - s e c t i o n 2 o f Sec. 16 o f the Game A c t o f B.C. as o f t e n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l e a v e a t r a p l i n e v a c a n t f o r two o r t h r e e y e a r s t o a l l o w the a n i m a l s t o i n c r e a s e , but by the a c t we are c o m p e l l e d t o t r a p e v e r y l i n e by Nov 14 i n each year o r run r i s k o f h a v i n g our l i n e o c c u p i e d by some.other p e r s o n when i t i s l o s t t o us f o r a l l t i m e . Sometimes we are s i c k and cannot get out on the l i n e s we do want t o t r a p by t h e 14th o f November and l a t e r when we are a b l e t o go out we sometimes f i n d , our l i n e occupied, by w h i t e men arid i f we s e t a t r a p we a r e put i n j a i l o r f i n e d [ s i c ] . 4 8 The I n d i a n Agent from the S t i k i n e Agency s u p p o r t e d t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e Game Laws. In a 1936 r e p o r t , t h e Agent co m p l a i n e d about n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s c l e a n i n g a n i m a l s f.rom I n d i a n t r a p p i n g a r e a s " ... a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h t h e a i d o f the B.C. Game Department, under the system o f R e g i s t e r e d Trap- l i n e s .... 4 9 - F i r s t N a t i o n s r e s i s t a n c e t o w h i t e encroachment a l s o took a more 39 d e s p e r a t e form. F r u s t r a t e d by w h i t e t r a p p e r s who r a i d e d , the t e r r i t o r i e s t h e y had l e f t t o r e g e n e r a t e , I n d i a n s d e v e l o p e d a p r e - emptive t r a p p i n g s t r a t e g y . I n s t e a d o f l e a v i n g a n i m a l s for- w h i t e t r a p p e r s , t h e I n d i a n s t r a p p e d out t h e c o u n t r y w h i l e they had t h e chance, knowing t h a t i f t h e y d i d ' n o t , someone e l s e w o u l d . 5 0 In a d d r e s s i n g t h e N o r t h American W i l d L i f e C onference i n 1936, t h e ^Sec r e t a r y f o r the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s n o t e d t h a t : By immemorial usage t h e I n d i a n s were c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s and s t i l l may be h e n c e f o r w a r d i f protected.. On the o t h e r hand,, i f w h i t e s a re a l l o w e d t o d e p l e t e I n d i a n h u n t i n g grounds, t h e I n d i a n s themselves w i l l n a t u r a l l y t a k e a l l t h e y can, w h i l e they can, and t h e r e i s grave danger t h a t such a s i t u a t i o n may b r i n g about i n t e n s i v e c o m p e t i t i o n between w h i t e s and I n d i a n s , ending i n t h e v i r t u a l e x t e r m i n a t i o n o f v a l u a b l e s p e c i e s . 5 1 The I n d i a n s p r e - e m p t i v e t r a p p i n g s t r a t e g y kept w h i t e t r a p p e r s from ' s k i n n i n g t h e grounds and moving on' 5 2 but i t a l s o had a n e g a t i v e consequence. T h i s d i s r u p t i v e t e c h n i q u e seemed t o prove p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t I n d i a n s w a n t o n l y s l a u g h t e r e d game and j u s t i f i e d t he i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n • m e a s u r e s . M.L.A and P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e r e p o r t s , based more on s t e r e o t y p i c a l a t t i t u d e s than f a c t , g e n e r a t e d concerns about w i l d l i f e p r e s e r v a t i o n and s p e c i e s e x t e r m i n a t i o n . The Member o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly from Columbia, John. Buckham r e l a t e d , ' i n p i c t u r e s q u e f a s h i o n ' t h e Shuswap and Kootenay I n d i a n s d i s r e g a r d f o r t he game laws by s l a u g h t e r i n g b i g game sheep w h o l e s a l e f o r t h e i r meat s u p p l i e s . I n Buckham's e s t i m a t i o n t h e I n d i a n s viewed the ' p a l e f a c e ' game laws as 'mere s c r a p s o f p a p e r . ' 5 3 Speaking i n 40 the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly the member f o r A t l i n , Frank Mobley, c l a i m e d ' t h a t even though t h e law r e q u i r e d i t , I n d i a n s r e f u s e d t o ta k e out game permi.ts and. ".... h a b i t u a l l y s l a u g h t e r female and young deer f o r commercial p u r p o s e s . " 5 4 In Mobley's e s t i m a t i o n t h e I n d i a n s were game e x t e r m i n a t o r s . A l t h o u g h t h e Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board Chairman, A.R. Baker, acknowledged the c o u n t r y ' s o r i g i n a l h a b i t a n t s had. developed, w e l l - d e f i n e d and e f f e c t i v e l y managed h u n t i n g t e r r i t o r i e s , he d e s i g n a t e d I n d i a n s as the most d i f f i c u l t p roblem c o n f r o n t i n g the Board and w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . I n h i s ( e s t i m a t i o n , i t was i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the Board .... f i n d ways and means f o r c h e c k i n g the wanton d e s t r u c t i o n o f game by I n d i a n s . Where f o r m e r l y t r i b e s , , had a mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g as t o the t e r r i t o r y o v er which t h e y s h o u l d hunt, t h e s e arrangements seem t o have l a r g e l y • l a p s e d , and the r e s t r a i n t on k i l l i n g game u n n e c e s s a r i l y , f o r m e r l y s e l f - , imposed, has g i v e n away t o a p o l i c y o f k i l l i n g a l l they can w h i l e i t l a s t s . 5 5 O c c a s i o n a l l y Game Wardens and P o l i c e C o n s t a b l e s a l s o s u b m i t t e d r e p o r t s s u g g e s t i n g I n d i a n s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r game d e s t r u c t i o n , but t h e s e s u b m i s s i o n s were u s u a l l y q u a l i f i e d w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n based on a b o r i g i n a l needs. The I n d i a n s had t o hunt f o r s u r v i v a l and game laws p r e s e n t e d • u n r e a l i s t i c and unreasonable, r e s t r i c t i o n s . C o n s t a b l e Vachon from C r e s t o n r e p o r t e d i n November o f 1918 t h a t , a l t h o u g h the w h i t e s g e n e r a l l y obeyed the. game laws, he was h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t c u r t a i l i n g I n d i a n s who hunted food out o f se a s o n . 5 6 C o n s t a b l e F o r f a r from t h e Hudson Hope Detachment 41 r e p o r t e d i n Fe b r u a r y o f 1922 t h a t the I n d i a n s had t o hunt t o l i v e and tended t o k i l l t h e cow moose which was f a t t e r i n January t h a n the males w i t h the u n f o r t u n a t e consequence o f h a v i n g the unborn c a l f p e r i s h as w e l l . 5 7 C o m p l a i n t s from t h e C h i e f C o n s t a b l e a t the F o r t S t . John Detachment i n 1918 d e p i c t e d I n d i a n s as d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c i n g b i g game s t o c k s but f a i l e d t o mention t h a t the g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e i n the N o r t h was t o have I n d i a n s s u p p l y meat t o t h e s e t t l e r s i n t r a d e f o r o t h e r f o o d s t u f f s . E l e v e n y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1929, the p r a c t i c e was s t i l l common i n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t . M i s s i o n a r y Monica S t o r r s noted t h e t r a d e i n her d e s c r i p t i o n o f a Peace R i v e r I n d i a n community as .... a s q u a l i d l i t t l e camp, as a l l the I n d i a n s i n our d i s t r i c t a r e p r e t t y debased, more o r l e s s l i k e G y p s i e s , and speak h a r d l y any E n g l i s h . They don't do any s o r t o f work, but o n l y hunt bear and moose and b a r t e r t h e i r meat w i t h t h e w h i t e men f o r v e g e t a b l e s and b u t t e r . 5 8 S u r v i v a l r a t h e r than a v i n d i c t i v e n e s s was t h e m o t i v e f o r I n d i a n s k i l l i n g game w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r t h e game laws — a p o i n t u n d e r s t o o d by t h e I n d i a n Agent i n t h e f i e l d but m i s s e d by s e n i o r game and Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s . Duncan Campbell S c o t t , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , demonstrated, i g n o r a n c e o f the- F i r s t N a t i o n s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l a n d and w i l d l i f e i n h i s response .to a r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d at the N a t i o n a l Game Conference i n Fe b r u a r y 1.919. The r e s o l u t i o n , 42 moved by Dr. Baker, Chairman o f the B.C. Game Commissioner, urged the Dominion government use t h e R o y a l North-West Mounted P o l i c e or o t h e r s p e c i a l o f f i c e r s t o e n f o r c e game laws t o p r e v e n t I n d i a n s from i l l e g a l l y d e s t r o y i n g game, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g i o n s where damage most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r e d . 5 9 Without v e r i f y i n g Baker's/ a l l e g a t i o n t h a t I n d i a n s were wa n t o n l y d e s t r o y i n g game, S c o t t d i r e c t e d the I n d i a n Agents t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t the Department would not s a n c t i o n views which e x c l u d e d I n d i a n s from t h e law. S c o t t i n s t r u c t e d the I n d i a n Agents s t a t i o n e d on t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon t o " ... t a k e e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y t o p o i n t out t o the I n d i a n s t h a t t h e y must obey the r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e and t h a t the Department w i l l i n no wise [ s i c ] s u p p o r t them i n any c o n t e n t i o n o r idea, on t h e i r p a r t t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e y ; a r e above t h e l a w . " 6 0 S c o t t ' s d i r e c t i v e r e v e a l s l i t t l e c redence was g i v e n t o the p e t i t i o n s sent t o t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s which d e t a i l e d the F i r s t N a t i o n s h a r v e s t i n g s t r a t e g i e s , c o m p l a i n e d about w h i t e t r a p p e r s and e x p l a i n e d t h e importance o f beaver as a f o o d s o u r c e . In s u p p o r t i n g p r o v i n c i a l game r e g u l a t i o n s , s e n i o r Department o f f i c i a l s i g n o r e d a b o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i o n s about the l o s s o f c o n t r o l o v er t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s . I t was more e x p e d i e n t t o p r o v i d e r a t i o n s t h a n guarantee a v i a b l e l i v e l i h o o d — a s t r a t e g y adamantly opposed by F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e . 43. A l t h o u g h some agents p r o m i s e d t o do t h e i r b e s t t o a s s i s t i n the e n f o r c i n g o f game laws, o t h e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e responded by d e n y i n g t h a t I n d i a n s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e c i m a t i o n o f game and f u r b e a r i n g a n i m a l s . The New Wes t m i n s t e r Agent no t e d : From my i n t i m a t e knowledge o f the I n d i a n s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s Agency, and a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h C o n s t a b l e G r a n t , who i s c o n t i n u o u s l y w o r k i n g amongst them, I must say t h a t I do not know o f one case o f wanton d e s t r u c t i o n o f game or f i s h . 6 1 The Agent from t h e Okanagan Agency p o i n t e d out t h a t b o t h h i m s e l f and t h e l o c a l Game C o n s e r v a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n b e l i e v e d whites,' r a t h e r than I n d i a n s , were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r game d e p l e t i o n . At a meeting o f t h e Game C o n s e r v a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n a t Vernon on June 23rd. which I a t t e n d e d p u r p o s e l y t o hear t h i s p o i n t • r a i s e d , t h e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n o f t h e meeting was t h a t t h e I n d i a n i s not n e a r l y so d e s t r u c t i v e t o game as i g n o r a n t w h i t e p e o p l e who shoot a t e v e r y t h i n g and a n y t h i n g . The A s s o c a t i o n made no r e s o l u t i o n s here a g a i n s t I n d i a n s and the meeting was a t t e n d e d by t h e b e s t know sportsmen i n t h e V a l l e y . 6 2 The I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s f o r the S o u t h e a s t e r n I n s p e c t o r a t e d i s m i s s e d a c c u s a t i o n s o f w a n t o n ' . d i s t r u c t i o n of game l e v i e d , a g a i n s t the I n d i a n s by s t a t i n g : My own o b s e r v a t i o n s has been t h a t v e r y l i t t l e r e l i a n c e can be p l a c e d on many o f the charges made a g a i n s t I n d i a n s f o r wanton d e s t r u c t i o n o f game. By f a r t h e g r e a t e s t o f f e n d e r s i n t h i s r e g a r d a r e the w h i t e s , a n d ; I n d i a n s c o m p l a i n b i t t e r l y o f f i n d i n g t h e c a r c a s s e s o f f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s thrown away by wh i t e t r a p p e r s a f t e r t he s k i n s have been removed, which the I n d i a n never does, but uses t h e c a r c a s e f o r f o o d [ s i c ] . 6 3 The I n d i a n Agent from the S t u a r t Lake Agency i n d i s c u s s i n g the " a l l e g e d i l l e g a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f Game by I n d i a n s " q u e s t i o n e d t h e 44 v i a b i l i t y o f p r o h i b i t i n g I n d i a n s from t a k i n g game when no o t h e r means o f support was a v a i l a b l e . 6 4 As a means o f p r e s e r v i n g the beaver, he recommended t h a t w h i t e s , not I n d i a n s , be p r o h i b i t e d from t r a p p i n g b e a v e r . The t r a p p i n g o f beaver by w h i t e s i s o f c o u r s e always a v e x e d q u e s t i o n w i t h t h e I n d i a n s but I have been c o n v i n c e d f o r many ye a r s t h a t i f the a n i m a l i s t o be saved from e x t i n c t i o n the t r a p p i n g o f i t by w h i t e s s h o u l d be p r o h i b i t e d . 6 5 Agent Harold. L a i r d a l s o c h a l l e n g e d s i m i l a r a c c u s a t i o n s o f game d e s t r u c t i o n l a i d by t h e - P r o v i n i c a l Game Warden a g a i n s t t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e s o f the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t . None of t h e I n d i a n s , w i t h i n t h e Peace R i v e r B l o c k , have been p u n i s h e d f o r v i o l a t i n g t h e game laws, and. no c o m p l a i n t s were made, by t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e (who are ex o f f i c i o game gu a r d i a n s ) e i t h e r l a s t summer o r p r e v i o u s summers. 6 6 L a i r d d i s m i s s e d a l l e g a t i o n s t h a t t h e I n d i a n s k i l l e d b eaver a l l y e a r around, n o t i n g n e i t h e r t h e .meat nor the f u r i s u s a b l e d u r i n g t h e summer. The' Agent p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e I n d i a n s would not be b o t h e r e d t r a p p i n g an a n i m a l t h e y c o u l d not use. L a i r d f u r t h e r d i s p u t e d c l a i m s t h a t the I n d i a n s i n -the Peace R i v e r B l o c k k i l l e d more meat than t h e y c o u l d use. C a l l i n g the a c c u s a t i o n 'absurd' L a i r d e x p l a i n e d t h a t I n d i a n s use 'every s c r a p ' o f t h e a n i m a l k i l l e d and seldom^ went h u n t i n g when f r e s h meat was s t i l l i n camp. 6 7 • • L o c a l I n d i a n Agents had a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the needs and 45 r i g h t s o f the a b o r i g i n a l , p e o p l e s than e i t h e r the f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l Department - o f I n d i a n . A f f a i r s b u r e a u c r a t s . A l t h o u g h t h e i r recommendations were g e n e r a l l y i g n o r e d by government o f f i c i a l s i n f a v o u r o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y , I n d i a n Agents o f t e n a c t e d s t r o n g l y i n p r o t e c t i n g and a d v o c a t i n g I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s . Empowered by t h e I n d i a n Act-, t h e Agents m o n i t o r e d b o t h the I n d i a n s and t h e i r t r a p l i n e s . A l t h o u g h law enforcement o f f i c e r s a c c e p t e d r e g i s t r a t i o n s from I n d i a n t r a p p e r s , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o c o m p i l e and submit I n d i a n t r a p l i n e s b e l o n g e d w i t h t h e i r A g e n t . 5 8 I n d i a n s c o u l d not t a k e a p a r t n e r nor d i s p o s e o f t h e i r l i n e s w i t h o u t t h e w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e I n d i a n A g e n t . 6 9 Agents were e x p e c t e d t o g u i d e t h e C h i e f and C o u n c i l i n the d i v i s i o n o f band l i n e s , 7 0 but t h e y c o u l d a r b i t r a r i l y make recommendations about I n d i a n r e g i s t r a t i o n s t o b o t h the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and the P r o v i n c i a l Game Commission w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h F i r s t . N a t i o n s p e o p l e . 7 1 I n d i a n Agents c o u l d p l a y an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n s e c u r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g t r a p p i n g a r e a s f o r t h e I n d i a n wards i n t h e i r a g e n c i e s . They a c t e d as a d v o c a t e s on b e h a l f o f I n d i a n s i n c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s , r e g i s t e r e d , t r a p l i n e s , and r e p r e s e n t e d . I n d i a n s i n t r a p l i n e d i s p u t e s . 7 2 However, t h e y were m o s t ' o f t e n u n s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r advocacy e n d e a v o u r s , 7 3 and t h e y d i d not always a c t i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t o f I n d i a n s . 7 4 Agents approached 46 t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h v a r i e d , degrees o f commitment. T h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n how s u c c e s s f u l I n d i a n s were i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t r a p l i n e s under the Game Act. A comparison between th e n o r t h e a s t e r n T r e a t y 8 a r e a o f t h e p r o v i n c e w i t h the n o r t h w e s t e r n region, demonstrates the impact t h a t I n d i a n Agents had on m a i n t a i n i n g F i r s t N a t i o n s c o n t r o l o f t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s . Harper Reed., agent f o r t h e S t i k i n e Agency i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, c o n s i s t e n t l y a dvocated F i r s t N a t i o n s r i g h t s b e l i e v i n g t h a t the S t i k i n e a r e a s h o u l d be r e s e r v e d f o r a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s . He o b j e c t e d t o p r o s p e c t i v e changes t h a t would reduce I n d i a n t r a p p i n g a r e a s t o accommodate w h i t e t r a p p e r s . 7 5 A l t h o u g h H a r o l d L a i r d , Agent f o r t h e T r e a t y 8 a r e a o f n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia., supported, a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g r i g h t s as s t i p u l a t e d i n T r e a t y 8, he was s t a t i o n e d , i n Grouard, A l b e r t a and. v i s i t e d the T r e a t y 8 a r e a o f B r i t i s h Columbia once a y e a r t o make t r e a t y payments. 7 6 Harper Reed, s t a t i o n e d , a t T e l e g r a p h Creek, worked h a r d t o s e c u r e t r a p l i n e s f o r t h e - I n d i a n s i n h i s agency, and he was p a r t i c u l a r i l y a t t u n e d t o p r o v i n c i a l i n i t i a t i v e s t h a t t h r e a t e n e d t o reduce I n d i a n t r a p l i n e s . In June on 1936, Reed r e p o r t e d h i s ^ concerns t h a t the p r o v i n c e was c o n s i d e r i n g a d j u s t i n g e x i s t i n g l i n e s . The Game Board o f B r i t i s h Columbia a r e now g o i n g i n t o t h e m a t t e r o f " a r e a s " and l a t e l y seem t o t h i n k t h a t t h e I n d i a n s 47 have more ground than they can t r a p . A l l t h e ground h e l d has been R e g i s t e r e d i n accordance w i t h t h e Game Laws, and a r e i n o r d e r . 7 7 Reed's d i l i g e n t s u p e r v i s i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t r a p l i n e s i n northwest B r i t i s h Columbia was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e number o f t r a p l i n e s r e g i s t e r e d t o F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r s . With a p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 338 7 8 Reed had r e g i s t e r e d 6G t r a p l i n e s by March 1934. I n the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , . w i t h a F i r s t N a t i o n s p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 400, 7 9 even a f t e r e x t e n s i v e p u r c h a s i n g o f t r a p l i n e s f o r r e v e r s i o n t o a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s , by December, 1938 t h e r e were o n l y 31 l i n e s r e g i s t e r e d t o F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r s . 8 0 In 1934, t h e I n s p e c t o r o f "D" Game D i v i s i o n n o t i f i e d a w h i t e t r a p p e r t h a t t h e extreme n o r t h w e s t p o r t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e which encompassed the T a t s h e n s h i n i R i v e r and. i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , K e l s a l l R i v e r and Lake, B l a n s h a r d and K l e h i n i R i v e r s , was not a v a i l a b l e f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n as the whole a r e a was cove r e d by I n d i a n t r a p l i n e s . 8 1 Some agents were so s u c c e s s f u l i n s e c u r i n g t r a p p i n g a r e a s f o r the I n d i a n s t h a t , on o c c a s i o n , w h i t e t r a p p e r s c o m plained t h a t t h e whole o f the t e r r i t o r i e s was being, claimed, by the I n d i a n s and q u e s t i o n e d t h e f a i r n e s s o f t h e system. In a d i s p u t e about an u n d e r - u t i l i z e d t r a p p i n g a r e a on P o r c h e r I s l a n d , Game Warden E. M a r t i n from the P r i n c e Rupert D i v i s i o n , r e p o r t e d t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a w h i t e t r a p p e r t r y i n g t o se c u r e a t r a p p i n g a r e a i n P r i n c i p l e Channel: 48. I know t h i s p i e c e o f ground I am asking' f o r has not been t r a p p e d f o r y e a r s , even i f i t i s h e l d by an I n d i a n . B e s i d e s , t h e y have a l o t more ground, t h a n i s p o s s i b l e f o r them t o t r a p - but you know more about i t t h a n I do. 8 2 A f r u s t r a t e d w h i t e t r a p p e r from S m i t h e r s c o m p l a i n e d t o the Game Commissioner about t r a p p i n g a r e a s c l a i m e d by I n d i a n s not b e i n g used. The t r a p p e r demanded t h a t the Government a c t i m m e d i a t e l y as t h e s i t u a t i o n was becoming ' d e s p e r a t e , ' a m a t t e r o f s u r v i v a l l i k e l y t o cause problems between th e w h i t e and I n d i a n t r a p p e r s . There were over twenty t r a p p e r s t h a t h e l d l i c e n c e s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t a t one t i m e , but under the p r e s e n t system the e n t i r e c o u n t r y has been g i v e n over t o t h e I n d i a n s . ... t h e s e t r a p p e r s would not o b j e c t so much i f the I n d i a n s would work, the t e r r i t o r y -which they c l a i m as t h e i r own, but they h o l d m i l e s and m i l e s o f T e r r i t o r y which t h e y never v i s i t o r s e t a t r a p i n . 8 3 - The t r a p p e r c l o s e d by a s k i n g t h e government t o s u p p o r t w h i t e t r a p p e r s by g i v i n g them "... an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a l i v i n g a t h i s o l d c a l l i n g . " P l a c e r miners were p a r t i c u l a r i l y c o n c erned about not. h a v i n g a c c e s s t o t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s as t h e revenue g e n e r a t e d by the t r a p l i n e s u p p o r t e d the p r o s p e c t i n g endeavour. I u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o u n t r y i s a l l r e g i s t e r e d and i f t h e I n d i a n s don't r e g i s t e r then i t i s open f o r anyone e l s e but t h a t i s e v i d e n t l y not so h e r e . Some o f t h e I n d i a n s here are a l s o stampeding a l l over the c o u n t r y . Now t h i s c o u n t r y i f i t i s a n y t h i n g a t a l l i t i s a m i n e r a l c o u n t r y and i n s t e a d o f a man i n the m i n e r a l l i n e g e t t i n g any encouragement i t seems t o be t h e r e v e r s e . S t i l l I r e c e i v e d word from t h e Rupert o f f i c e t h a t i t was a l l r e g i s t e r e d . 8 4 Not u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o r i g i n a l methods of k i n group h u n t i n g and 49 t r a p p i n g , the Game Warden from the F o r t F r a s e r Detachment complained about t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g methods. In h i s e s t i m a t i o n , the I n d i a n s were c l a i m i n g t o o much l a n d , r e g i s t e r i n g not o n l y t h e a d u l t men but a l s o women' and c h i l d r e n . 8 5 The d i l i g e n t e f f o r t s o f l o c a l I n d i a n Agents on b e h a l f o f I n d i a n s t h a t m o t i v a t e d such c o m p l a i n t s ' were not r e f l e c t e d a t t h e r e g i o n a l o r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s - i n t h e Department o f A f f a i r s . I n s t e a d . o f p r o t e c t i n g I n d i a n r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t r a p p i n g a r e a s , s e n i o r Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s m e r e l y 'urged' p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o c o n s i d e r I n d i a n needs when im p l e m e n t i n g game l a w s . 8 6 In 1919, J.D. McLean, A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y o f the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , p r o c l a i m e d that- game laws' were i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the I n d i a n s and must be obeyed.' 8 7 He reasoned t h a t i f t h e w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s were decimated, everyone, i n c l u d i n g the I n d i a n s , would s u f f e r . McLean's d i r e c t i v e m e r e l y r e f l e c t e d t he Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s ' - p o l i c y as a r t i c u l a t e d by Duncan Campbell S c o t t , the Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . I n a 1919 c i r c u l a r sent t o a l l I n d i a n Agents and I n s p e c t o r s i n M a n i t o b a , Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon, Scott, s t a t e d , t h a t t h e Department, was i n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g I n d i a n s comply t o p r o v i n c i a l game laws. The Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l asked the agents "... t o tak e e v e r y 50 o p p o r t u n i t y t o p o i n t out t o t h e I n d i a n s t h a t t h e y must obey the r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e and t h a t t h e Department [would] i n no wise [ s i c ] s u p p o r t them i n any c o n t e n t i o n o r i d e a on t h e i r p a r t t o the e f f e c t t h a t t h e y were above t h e - l a w . " 8 8 W.E. D i t c h b u r n , the I n d i a n Commissioner o f B r i t i s h Columbia, was adamant t h a t I n d i a n s adhere to" p r o v i n c i a l game l e g i s l a t i o n . D i t c h b u r n found the I n d i a n ' s b e l i e f i n p r i o r r i g h t c l a i m s ' p r o b l e m a t i c ' I n h i s e s t i m a t i o n , game laws superseded g e n e r a t i o n s o f use and s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n was u n w a r r a n t e d . 8 9 He was c o n v i n c e d t h a t I n d i a n s c o u l d o b t a i n permanent s e c u r i t y f o r the use o f t r a p l i n e s i f t h e y adhered t o the laws. Trap l i n e s c o u l d ... o n l y be t a k e n up from y e a r t o y e a r by I n d i a n s o r w h i t e l i c e n s e d t r a p p e r s , and t h e r e f o r e u n t i l such t i m e as g r e a t e r p r i v i l e g e s a r e g i v e n t o I n d i a n s (which I doubt ever w i l l be. the case) t h e b e s t t h i n g t h e y can do i s t o be g u i d e d by t h e A c t and take the n e c e s s a r y measures each y e a r t o s e c u r e the l i n e s t h e y a re accustomed t o t r a p o v e r . 9 0 Thus, D i t c h b u r n e f f e c t i v e l y i n v a l i d a t e d F i r s t N a t i o n s concerns about•the l o s s o f t r a p p i n g a r e a s and l i v e l i h o o d s . In 1934 t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s assured, the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t , i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a d d r e s s i n g a b o r i g i n a l concerns about the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system, t h e Department " ... would not su p p o r t u n r e a s o n a b l e demands by t h e 51 I n d i a n s o r countenance i n any way breaches of. law o r r e g u l a t i o n s o r abuses o f p r i v i l e g e by them." 9 1 T h i s a t t i t u d e i l l u s t r a t e d an i g n o r a n c e commoa t o s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s i n b o t h t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and t h e p r o v i n c i a l Game Department. P o l i c y makers had no u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f F i r s t N a t i o n s i r i g h t s , r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l a n d and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s , b a r r i e r s t o co m p l i a n c e , o r the absence o f a l t e r n a t i v e employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . They i g n o r e d b o t h t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e l o c a l I n d i a n Agents i n the f i e l d and p e t i t i o n s from F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s . Department o f f i c i a l s seemed i n c o g n i z a n t o f t h e f a c t t h a t when t r a d i t i o n a l means o f making a l i v i n g d e c l i n e d , a l t e r n a t i v e ' e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s were e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . In s a n c t i o n i n g p r o v i n c i a l game r e g u l a t i o n s , t h e f e d e r a l government i g n o r e d b o t h i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and, i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, T r e a t y 8 o b l i g a t i o n s . P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s evoked c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s t o enact and e n f o r c e game p r o t e c t i o n laws. S e c t i o n 91(24) o f t h e British North American Act e s t a b l i s h e d f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v er b o t h I n d i a n s and l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r them, but the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n gave- p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l governments r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o v er w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . I n d i a n t r e a t i e s were never r a t i f i e d , by p a r l i a m e n t but l e g i s l a t e d by Order i n C o u n c i l . L e g i s l a t i o n 52 g r a n t i n g t r e a t i e s precedence o v e r p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s was not enact e d u n t i l 1951 when s e c t i o n '88 was added t o t h e Indian Act. T h i s s e c t i o n read..: Subject to the terms of any treaty and any other Act of Parliament of Canada, a l l laws of general a p p l i c a t i o n from time to time in force in any province are applicable to and in respect of Indians in the province, except t o the e x t e n t t h a t such laws a re i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s A c t o r any o r d e r , r u l e , r e g u l a t i o n o r bylaw made t h e r e u n d e r , and except t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t such laws make p r o v i s i o n f o r any m a t t e r f o r which p r o v i s i o n i s made by o r under t h i s A c t [emphasis added] , 9 2 S i n c e the enactment o f S. 88, F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e i n t r e a t y a r e a s have g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g r i g h t s . 9 3 But p r i o r t o 1951, once a t r e a t y r e c e i v e d C o u n c i l a p p r o v a l i t was used as t h e l e g a l b a s i s f o r a p p r o p r i a t i n g a b o r i g i n a l l a n d s f o r s e t t l e m e n t and economic development w h i l e F i r s t N a t i o n s i n t e r e s t s were i g n o r e d . The F i r s t N a t i o n s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t r e a t y agreements was never t h a t o f Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s a t e i t h e r the f e d e r a l or. p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . The I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which s u p p o r t e d t h e s u p e r s e s s i o n o f f e d e r a l t r e a t y agreements by p r o v i n c i a l game laws were d i s m i s s e d by Supreme Court d e c i s i o n s i n 1978 and 1985. In bo t h t h e Simon v. the Queen and Kruger, et al vs. the Queen d e c i s i o n s , J u s t i c e D i c k s o n r u l e d ' t r e a t y r i g h t s h o l d precedence over p r o v i n c i a l game r e g u l a t i o n s . 9 4 In J u s t i c e D i c k s o n ' s judgement, t r e a t i e s c o n s t i t u t e d " ... a p o s i t i v e s o u r c e 53 •of p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t i n f r i n g e m e n t on h u n t i n g r i g h t s and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e r i g h t s e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e T r e a t y as p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e d i d not negate o r m i n i m i z e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r i g h t s p r o t e c t e d by the T r e a t y . " 9 5 In d e f e n d i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f game laws i n the T r e a t y 8 a r e a , p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s i n t e r p r e t e d t h e t r e a t y c l a u s e g u a r a n t e e i n g t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g s u b j e c t t o r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t " ... from time t o time be made by t h e Government o f the c o u n t r y ..." t o mean the p r o v i n c i a l government. 9 6 In t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s the p r o v i n c i a l Game Act superseded f e d e r a l t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s and t h i s view was shared by Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f T r e a t y 8 was c h a l l e n g e d by J u s t i c e J.A. M c G i l l i v r a y i n h i s judgement o f Rex and Wesley and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n J u s t i c e J.A. Jackson's judgement i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s C o urt o f A p p e a l i n Regina v. Sikyes [1964]. From, t h e s e t r e a t i e s and. from t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s p r e c e d i n g t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e s e t r e a t i e s ..., i t i s , I t h i n k , o b v i o u s t h a t w h i l e the Government hoped t h a t the I n d i a n s would u l t i m a t e l y t a k e up t h e w h i t e man's way o f l i f e , u n t i l t h e y d i d , t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r p r e v i o u s mode o f l i f e with only such regulations and r e s t r i c t i o n s as would assure that a supply of game for t h e i r own needs would be maintained. The regulations that "the Government of the Country" were e n t i t l e d to make under the clause of the treaty which I quoted, were, I think, l i m i t e d to t h i s kind of regulation: C e r t a i n l y t h e Commissioners who r e p r e s e n t e d the Government at t he s i g n i n g o f t h e t r e a t i e s so u n d e r s t o o d i t [emphasis 54 added] . In h i s d e c i s i o n , J a c k s o n a g r e e d w i t h J u s t i c e M c G i l l i v r a y 1 s view. I t i s t r u e t h a t Government r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e s p e c t o f h u n t i n g are c o n t e m p l a t e d i n the T r e a t y but c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t T r e a t y i n i t s proper- s e t t i n g I do not t h i n k t h a t any o f ' t h e makers o f i t c o u l d by any s t r e t c h o f the i m a g i n a t i o n be deemed, t o have c o n t e m p l a t e d a day when t h e I n d i a n s would be d e p r i v e d o f an u n f e t t e r e d r i g h t t o hunt game o f a l l k i n d s f o r f o o d on uno c c u p i e d Crown l a n d . 9 8 In R. v. Horseman [1986], Madame J u s t i c e Wong's d e c i s i o n a f f i r m e d t h e r i g h t s o f T r e a t y 8 I n d i a n s t o hunt as a t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n . In a c c e p t i n g Dr. A r t h u r Ray's o p i n i o n t h a t the I n d i a n s o f T r e a t y 8 were engaged i n h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g - v o c a t i o n s f o r s u b s i s t e n c e and exchange a t t h e time o f s i g n i n g t h e t r e a t y , J u s t i c e Wong d i s m i s s e d t h e charge t h a t Mr. Horsemen engaged i n a commerical t r a n s a c t i o n when he s o l d a g r i z z l e b ear h i d e . I n her d e c i s i o n , t h e J u s t i c e found "...Mr. Horseman s o l d t h e g r i z z l y b e a r h i d e i n a manner and f o r a purpose c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the t r a d i t i o n o f h i s a n c e s t o r s — t h a t i s '.for t h e purpose o f s u b s i s t e n c e and exchange' . "". A l t h o u g h J u s t i c e Wong's d e c i s i o n i n the Horseman case was. s u b s e q u e n t l y r e v e r s e d by t h e Court o f Queen's Bench, h e r r u l i n g and o t h e r c o u r t d e c i s i o n s have d e t e r m i n e d t h a t the t r e a t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s used i n t h e 1920s and 1930s t o , m a r g i n a l i z e a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s were i n a c c u r a t e . But, based upon t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , p r o v i n c i a l game laws were ena c t e d t h a t v a l i d a t e d ^ 55 the c h a n g i n g demographic and economic r e a l i t i e s o f n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. L e g i s l a t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n measures j u s t i f i e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f F i r s t N a t i o n s h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s and r e p l a c e d e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s w i t h u n s u s t a i n a b l e non- a b o r i g i n a l c o n s e r v a t i o n schemes. Guided by w e s t e r n economic development c o n c e p t s , c o n s e r v a t i o n laws were de v e l o p e d and implemented w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the l a n d use needs o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e s . Viewed as temporary impediments t o n o r t h e r n development, t h e y were i g n o r e d because t h e y were e x p e c t e d e v e n t u a l l y t o abandon t h e i r h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n f a v d u r o f a more s e d e n t a r y and. c i v i l i z e d , l i f e . The w h i t e men meant t o o r d e r and c o n t r o l w i l d l i f e and I n d i a n a l i k e even i n t h e T r e a t y 8 a r e a where t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g vocati.ons had been guaranteed. 56 CHAPTER THREE Treaty 8 and Trap line Registrations: Trust and Treaty Negated As miners and prospectors i n c r e a s i n g l y moved i n t o northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia a f t e r the mid 1800s, the subsistence balance between a b o r i g i n a l groups and game was di s r u p t e d . Procuring food, e s p e c i a l l y during the winter, was a hardship i n t e n s i f i e d by the i n t r u s i o n of non-aboriginal t r e s p a s s e r s . By 1883 tensions between white and the Dunne-za (Beaver) , Cr.ee and Slavey F i r s t Nations groups i n unceded t e r r i t o r i e s , combined with numerous reports of the d e s t i t u t e c o n d i t i o n s of the l a t t e r , prompted the Deputy Superintendent General of Indian A f f a i r s , Lawrence Vankoughnet, to recommend the f e d e r a l government negotiate a t r e a t y with Athabasca-Mackenzie D i s t r i c t Indians. 1 Government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , however, r e s i s t e d e n t e r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s , and the only attempts t o pro t e c t F i r s t Nations subsistence l i v e l i h o o d s were made u n o f f i c i a l l y by f e d e r a l employees i n the Department of the I n t e r i o r . Throughout the 1890s, Department s t a f f discouraged settlement i n the Peace River D i s t r i c t . Both W i l l i a m Pear.ce and George M. Dawson's survey reports of 1893 suggested low prospecting returns would force p l a c e r miners to hunt and t r a p . In t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n , the r e s u l t i n g s c a r c i t y of game would have d i r e consequences f o r the 57 I n d i a n s and l e a d t o a d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n . 2 With t h e d i s c o v e r y o f - g o l d i n t h e Yukon i n 1896, c o n f l i c t between F i r s t N a t i o n s groups and p r o s p e c t o r s i n c r e a s e d . In 1897, N.W.M.P. I n s p e c t o r J.D. Moodie t r i e d t o d i f f u s e t h e s i t u a t i o n by w a r n i n g t h e I n d i a n s t h a t a t t e m p t s t o t a k e revenge upon w h i t e men would end i n t h e I n d i a n s ' e x t e r m i n a t i o n . But t h e I n d i a n s remained r e c a l c i t r a n t , r e s p o n d i n g : "We may as w e l l d i e by t h e w h i t e men's b u l l e t s as of s t a r v a t i o n . " 3 The a n i m o s i t y between the a b o r i g i n a l and n o n - a b o r i g i n a l groups was c l e a r l y demonstrated i n June 1898, when the F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e o f ^ F o r t S t . John, B r i t i s h Columbia, r e f u s e d p o l i c e o f f i c e r s and p r o s p e c t o r s a c c e s s 'to t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s . 4 E x a s p e r a t e d by d e c i m a t e d w i l d l i f e s t o c k s and a p p r o p r i a t e d p r o p e r t y , t h e I n d i a n s e s t a b l i s h e d a b l o c k a d e and p r e v e n t e d w h i t e t r e s p a s s e r s from t r a v e l l i n g t o the Yukon g o l d r u s h . The b l o c k a d e sent an e x p l i c i t message t o f e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s i n Ottawa: a t r e a t y must be s i g n e d b e f o r e more w h i t e p r o s p e c t o r s and t r a p p e r s would be a l l o w e d i n t o n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r i e s . S e c u r i n g l a n d and s a f e t y f o r s e t t l e r s had m o t i v a t e d p r e v i o u s t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s , but a c q u i r i n g - l a n d s f o r s e t t l e m e n t was not an i s s u e i n n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s . Not u n t i l the m i n e r a l w e a l t h o f the a r e a was a s c e r t a i n e d d i d f e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s c o n s i d e r n e g o t i a t i n g 58 w i t h the F i r s t N a t i o n s groups o f t h e Athapaskan-Mackenzie r e g i o n s . The a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s o f n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia were i n c l u d e d i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e s s t o s e t t l e a c c e s s i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o the K l o n d i k e G o l d Rush. When the h o s t i l i t y between the F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e s and t h e p r o s p e c t o r s c o u l d no l o n g e r be o v e r l o o k e d , the government r e c o n s i d e r e d i t s 'no t r e a t y ' p o l i c y . 5 In June 1898, the Canadian Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e c e i v e d P r i v y C o u n c i l a p p r o v a l t o e n t e r t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s groups i n a 324,900 square m i l e [523,089 square k i l o m e t r e ] a r e a c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e n o r t h h a l f o f A l b e r t a , the n o r t h e a s t q u a r t e r o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the no r t h w e s t c o r n e r o f Saskatchewan, and the a r e a south o f Hay R i v e r and Great S l a v e Lake i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r y [see Appendix I I I ] . 6 Two y e a r s l a t e r , i n June 1900, t h e f i r s t a d h e s i o n t o T r e a t y 8 was s i g n e d b y t h e F i r s t . N a t i o n s groups o f t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , B r i t i s h Columbia. O b t a i n i n g g u a r a n t e e d h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g r i g h t s was o f utmost importance t o t h e n o r t h e r n F i r s t N a t i o n s groups. T r e a t y Commissioner D a v i d L a i r d a s s u r e d the I n d i a n s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l i v e l i h o o d s would be p r o t e c t e d . The Commissioners' r e p o r t accompanying th e T r e a t y document noted: Our c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y was t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t the h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g p r i v i l e g e s were t o be. c u r t a i l e d . The p r o v i s i o n i n t h e t r e a t y under which t h e ammunition and t w i n e i s t o be f u r n i s h e d went f a r i n the d i r e c t i o n o f q u i e t i n g the .fears o f 59 the I n d i a n s , f o r th e y a d m i t t e d t h a t i t would be u n r e a s o n a b l e t o f u r n i s h t h e means o f h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g i f laws were t o be e n a c t e d which would make h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g so, r e s t r i c t e d as t o r e n d e r i t i m p o s s i b l e t o make a l i v e l i h o o d by such p u r s u i t s . But o v e r and above t h e p r o v i s i o n , we had t o s o l e m n l y a s s u r e them t h a t o n l y such laws as t o h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g as were i n the i n t e r e s t o f I n d i a n s and were " found n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e f i s h and f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s would be made, and t h a t t h e y would be as f r e e t o hunt and f i s h a f t e r ' t h e t r e a t y as th e y would i f t h e y never e n t e r e d i n t o i t . 7 In h i s opening n e g o t i a t i o n speech, L a i r d a f f i r m e d t h a t the C I n d i a n s ' t r a d i t i o n a l freedoms would be gua r a n t e e d under t r e a t y . " I n d i a n s have been t o l d t h a t i f t h e y make a t r e a t y t h e y w i l l not be a l l o w e d t o hunt and f i s h as t h e y do now. T h i s i s not t r u e . I n d i a n s who t a k e t r e a t y w i l l be j u s t as f r e e t o hunt and f i s h a l l over as th e y now a r e [ s i c ] . " 8 James A. Ross, M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works f o r the T e r r i t o r i a l Government, r e i t e r a t e d L a i r d ' s promise. "We a r e g l a d t h a t you u n d e r s t a n d t h e t r e a t y i s f o r e v e r . ... I n d i a n s a r e fon d o f the f r e e l i f e , and we do not w i s h t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h , i t . " 9 These a s s u r a n c e s were o m i t t e d i n the f i n a l t r e a t y . N o n - a b o r i g i n a l o b s e r v e r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e t r e a t y p r o c e s s w i t n e s s e d how the Commissioners a d d r e s s e d F i r s t N a t i o n s concerns by making v e r b a l g u a r a n t e e s never i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f i n a l t e x t . 1 0 In s p i t e o f the demands f o r t r e a t y , o n l y 46 I n d i a n s took a d h e s i o n t o T r e a t y 8 i n 1 9 0 0 . 1 1 In 1903 t h e I n s p e c t o r f o r T r e a t y 8 noted t h a t the I n d i a n s a t F o r t S t . .John were ... v e r y independent and cannot be persuaded t o t a k e t r e a t y . 60 Only a few f a m i l i e s j o i n e d . The. I n d i a n s t h e r e [at F o r t S t . John] s a i d t h e y d i d not want to' t a k e t r e a t y , as t h e y had no t r o u b l e i n making t h e i r own l i v i n g . One v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t I n d i a n t o l d me t h a t when he was b i d and c o u l d not work he would t h e n ask t h e government f o r a s s i s t a n c e ^ but t i l l t h e n he thought i t was wrong f o r him t o t a k e a s s i s t a n c e when he d i d not r e a l l y r e q u i r e i t . 1 2 The r e p o r t o f the 1907 I n s p e c t o r n o t e d o n l y about h a l f o f t h e I n d i a n s at F o r t S t . John had t a k e n t r e a t y and r e l a t e d - t h a t t h e r e 0 was a 'great many' I n d i a n s who were a p a t h e t i c t o .the p r o c e s s . 1 3 These r e p o r t s demonstrated t h a t , as l o n g as t h e I n d i a n s c o u l d m a i n t a i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n s , t h e r e was no need t o adher t o T r e a t y 8. The r e l u c t a n c e t o t a k e t r e a t y a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t a s s u r a n c e s were g i v e n t o j u s t i f y s i g n i n g , and i t was not u n t i l 1966 t h a t a l l o f t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e T r e a t y .8 a r e a had agreed t o r e s e r v e a l l o c a t i o n s [see. Appendix IV and V ] . S e c u r i n g p r o t e c t i o n from w h i t e encroachment and o b t a i n i n g h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g g u a r a n t e e s m o t i v a t e d F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e t o t a k e a d h e s i o n t o T r e a t y 8. The.Dunne-za i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f T r e a t y 8 was o u t l i n e d i n a F e b r u a r y , 1924 P o l i c e r e p o r t from t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t . The C o n s t a b l e noted: ... here we have a p o r t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia on the E a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e R o c k i e s , t h e I n d i a n s n a t i v e t o i t ' a r e a t r i b e c a l l e d the Beaver [Dunne-za], t h e s e 'Indians a r e not s u b j e c t t o B.C. th e y a re a d m i n i s t e r e d by "an I n d i a n Agent a p p o i n t e d from Ottawa, t h e y a r e 'Signatory t o a Dominion T r e a t y ( T r e a t y No 8 ) , t h i s T r e a t y as i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e i r Agent t o them, and understood, by them at the time of i t s signing, g i v e n [ s i c ] them t h e p r i v i l e g e t o k i l l Game of a l l k i n d s when and where t h e y p l e a s e w i t h i n t h e T e r r i t o r y a s s i g n e d them (emphasis added) . 1 4 61 Because o f t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , the I n d i a n s of. the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t s t r o n g l y a d v o c a t e d f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g r i g h t s on t h e i r own b e h a l f and r e f u s e d c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e Game Act. P r o v i n c i a l laws which r e s t r i c t e d a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g p r e r o g a t i v e s were deemed a c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f T r e a t y 8 and the F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e o b j e c t e d t o any measures t h a t a b r o g a t e d t h e i r r i g h t s . In a l e t t e r t o the I n d i a n Agent a t D r . i f t . p i l e , A l b e r t a , d a t e d December 12, 1932, t h e Headman f o r t h e East End M o b e r l y Lake Reserve c o m p l a i n e d about the i m p o s i t i o n o f a r e s t r i c t i o n on the k i l l i n g o f female deer. The l e a d e r reminded t h e Department r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f T r e a t y 8 g u a r a n t e e s . ... when we took t r e a t y we were pr o m i s e d t h a t we c o u l d k i l l game whenever we were hungry, t h e i r [ s i c ] was no mention about t h e male and female. I want you t o h e l p us i f you can t a l k , t o the I n s p e c t o r who i s coming next summer i t i s h a r d f o r us t o l i v e as we have v e r y l i t t l e c o u n t r y l e f t t o t r a p i n [ s i c ] . 1 5 Dr. H.A..W. Brown was a p p o i n t e d p a r t - t i m e I n d i a n Agent f o r the F o r t S t . John Agency by A p r i l , ' 1934. 1 5 He r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s were adver s e t o a c c e p t i n g r e l i e f , . demanding, i n s t e a d , t h a t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g and h u n t i n g r i g h t s be r e s p e c t e d as g u a r a n t e e d under t r e a t y . 1 7 The Agent not e d : "The b i t t e r c o m p l a i n t a g a i n was t h e t a k i n g away o f t h e i r means o f l i v l i h o o d [ s i c ] g u a r a n t e e d t o them under T r e a t y #8 t h a t i s , t h e i r t r a p p i n g c o u n t r y . " 1 8 62 In J a nuary o f 1936, Brown commented on how t h e Game Department had p e r m i t t e d s e t t l e r s t o r e g i s t e r l a r g e t r a c t s o f t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r y i n the h e a r t of. the Halfway Band's c o u n t r y . L e g a l enough you might say; but t o me t h e s p i r i t o f t h e T r e a t y was u n q u e s t i o n a b l y t h a t t h e I n d i a n would r e t a i n • t r a p p i n g and h u n t i n g r i g h t s t o t h e s p e c i f i e d T r e a t y a r e a u n l e s s such l a n d was r e q u i r e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t o r i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n e t c . These mountain t r a p l i n e s a r e o b v i o u s l y u n f i t f o r a n y t h i n g e l s e but t r a p p i n g and s h o u l d have been remained i n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e I n d i a n . 1 3 When, the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s endeavoured t o c o l l e c t p r o v i n c i a l game f e e s from I n d i a n s i n t h e F o r t S t . John Agency i n 1938, t h e I n d i a n s r e s i s t e d . The o p p o s i t i o n was so s t r o n g , Agent Brown b e l i e v e d the I n d i a n s would g i v e up e x i s t i n g p r i v i l e g e s b e f o r e p a y i n g t h e l i c e n c e f e e s . 2 0 When the Peace R i v e r I n d i a n s t o o k a d h e s i o n , i t was t o s e c u r e t h e i r l a n d s and seek p r o t e c t i o n from the c o m p e t i t i o n o f w h i t e t r a p p e r s and h u n t e r s . In t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n , t h e t r e a t y was not a temporary measure, but a guarantee o f t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g v o c a t i o n s . 2 1 Long time ago, not supposed t o come t o B l u e b e r r y , White p e o p l e and h a l f - b r e e d guys. That's what t h e y say t h a t . Boss, you know, C h i e f , Maadiyane say t h a t t o o . I n d i a n Agent, you know, my Dad t o l d me, t a l l guy he s a i d t h a t . J u s t l i k e a t r e a t y , T r e a t y t r a p l i n e s . G i v e him t r e a t y . Maadiyane t h e y . want t o g i v e t r e a t y . B i g Boss he say t h a t I g i v e you t h a t t r a p l i n e , - t h a t ' s two r i v e r s . . . . Nobody come around h e r e . Ju s t , t h e t r e a t y I n d i a n s . 2 2 T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g was not r e a l i z e d . In the s i x t e e n y e a r s between 1898 and 1914, 300 homesteaders had moved i n t o t h e Pouce Coupe ) 63 a r e a . G.J. Duncan, a s s i g n e d t o open the f i r s t p o l i c e detachment i n t h e a r e a i n 1914 was p e r p l e x e d by t h e s e t t l e r s ' a b i l i t i e s t o make a l i v i n g from t h e i r s t r u g g l i n g f a r m i n g e ' n t e r p r i z e s . The p u z z l e was s o l v e d when t h e C o n s t a b l e r e a l i z e d t h a t .the v a s t m a j o r i t y were engaged i n t r a p p i n g — a l u c r a t i v e endeavour t h a t c o u l d net as much as t h r e e thousand d o l l a r s p e r y e a r . 2 3 In 1915, C o n s t a b l e Duncan implemented an u n o f f i c i a l t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system t o p r e v e n t d i s p u t e s i n h i s a r e a . Duncan r e g i s t e r e d f o r t y e i g h t l i n e s f o r w h i t e t r a p p e r s and f o u r f o r I n d i a n t r a p p e r s . U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , t h e C o n s t a b l e e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y e x p l a i n i n g the law and g e t t i n g I n d i a n s t o move from t r a p p i n g a r e a s t h e y had o p e r a t e d f o r y e a r s as t h e y were not e a s i l y c o n v i n c e d t h e y s h o u l d move. 2 4 A decade a f t e r T r e a t y 8 was s i g n e d , as many as a hundred s e t t l e r s p a s s e d t h r o u g h Peace R i v e r C r o s s i n g enr.ou.te t o n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia e v e r y day. 2 5 S e t t l e r s were d e s c r i b e d as a " ... c o n s t a n t stream o f white, humanity p o u r i n g i n t o t h e Peace R i v e r c o u n t r y over t h e t r a i l from L e s s e r S l a v e Lake... ." 2 6 By June, 1917, 652 homesteads had been f i l e d i n the Pouce Coupe v a l l e y a l o n e , and the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1200. 2 7 When t h e f i r s t s e t t l e r s a r r i v e d i n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t n o r t h o f F o r t S t . John, C h i e f Muckethay and h i s band had an a r e a 64 b o r d e r e d by F o r t S t . John ( s o u t h ) , N o r t h P i n e and Rose P r a i r i e • (east) and t h e B l u e b e r r y R i v e r ( n o r t h ) . The newcomers s h o r t e n e d Muckethay's name t o Montney and named a ^ v i l l a g e a f t e r the C h i e f i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e l a n d t h a t once bore h i s name. 2 8 By 1930, the I n d i a n s o f t h i s r e g i o n had been d i s p l a c e d and were l i v i n g e i t h e r a t t h e B l u e b e r r y R i v e r o r a t t h e P i n e R i v e r i n Rose P r a i r i e . N o r t h o f Muckethay's t e r r i t o r y was a l a r g e a r e a managed by a t r i b e c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e A p s a s s i n , Wolf, Yahey, and Cheekyass bands [see Appendix V I ] . 2 9 P r i o r t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e system i n 1926, t h e I n d i a n s s t r u g g l e d t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l over t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s as w h i t e t r a p p e r s moved i n t o a r e a s sometimes f a r removed from t h e i r homesteads. 3 0 D e s p i t e t r e a t y g u a r a n t e e s , a c c e s s i n g Crown Lands f o r t r a p p i n g became a means o f s u p p o r t i n g t h e p r i m a r y summer a c t i v i t i e s o f b o t h s e t t l e r s and i t i n e r a n t p r o s p e c t o r s . By 1930, Muckethay's t e r r i t o r y had been a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t and mechanized fa r m e r s l i v i n g i n t h e a r e a had " ... removed almost a l l t r a c e s o f I n d i a n game t r a i l s and camping s p o t s ... ."31 N o r t h o f t h e B l u e b e r r y R i v e r , t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s were r e g i s t e r e d by w h i t e t r a p p e r s l e a v i n g t h e a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s w i t h o u t a v i a b l e means of making a l i v i n g . 65 The s e t t l e r s approached t r a p p i n g and the f u r bearing population from an economic p e r s p e c t i v e : by the time the f u r bearers were dr i v e n to the mountains or barren lands, the farm would be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . 3 2 The p r e s e r v a t i o n of the f u r bearing animals was of l i t t l e consequence once the farm was 'well under c u l t i v a t i o n . ' "A good white hunter, of whom always a few f i n d t h e i r way i n t o the Last West f o r the winter's t r a p p i n g , can e a s i l y beat the Indian at h i s own game."33 Unfortunately, t h i s type of a t t i t u d e had d i r e consequences f o r both the f u r - b e a r i n g population and the F i r s t Nations people. Between 1920 and 1930, white encroachment i n t o the Peace River D i s t r i c t i n t e n s i f i e d . Denied employment i n the southern economy, white trappers swarmed i n t o the north. At the same time, post war f u r market p r i c e s were high and t r a p p i n g could prove very p r o f i t a b l e . The ensuing c o n f l i c t s between the a b o r i g i n a l and white trappers represented a c l a s h between s o c i a l and economic i d e o l o g i e s . Encouraged by government mandates, pr o t e c t e d by white law enforcement o f f i c e r s , ''and d r i v e n by concepts of expansion, land ownership, i n d i v i d u a l i s m and the'accumulation of wealth, white trappers and s e t t l e r s moved deep i n t o the Peace and L a i r d River drainage s y s t e m s - - t r a d i t i o n a l Dunne-za, Slavey and Cree t e r r i t o r i e s . Although the Indians were d i s p l a c e d , they were hardly complacent 66 o b s e r v e r s o f t h e s e fundamental changes a f f e c t i n g t h e i r l i v e s . A. decade a f t e r t h e s i g n i n g o f T r e a t y 8, t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s groups of the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t were s t i l l o b j e c t i n g t o t h e c o n t i n u e d encroachment of w h i t e p r o s p e c t o r s , s e t t l e r s , t r a p p e r s and b i g game h u n t e r s i n t o t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . M u l t i t u d e s o f w h i t e homesteaders c l a i m i n g l a n d i n .the Pouce Coupe and Grande P r a i r i e s r e g i o n s t r o u b l e d the Beaver I n d i a n s and d i s t r e s s e d t h e M o b e r l y Lake S a u l t e a u x . 3 4 The Beavers [Dunne-za] s t i l l l o o k e d upon the c o u n t r y as t h e i r own and upon a l l w h i t e men as u s u r p e r s . ... Now the Beavers were l o o k i n g w i t h genuine h a t r e d and a l a r m a t the i n c r e a s i n g number o f w h i t e s who were coming each y e a r i n t o t h e i r , l a n d . The s u r v e y o r s e s p e c i a l l y a r o u s e d t h e i r keen s u s p i c i o n s . Why were t h e y making t h e s e l i n e s and c u t t i n g down the Beaver I n d i a n s ' t r e e s ? F r e q u e n t l y , when t h e y were g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r i n the s t o r e , d i d some young f i r e b r a n d s t h r e a t e n t o c l e a n up on t h e s e i n t r u d i n g w h i t e s . 3 5 Bands o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t i m i d a t e d s e t t l e r s 3 6 b u t , i n most i n s t a n c e s , c u l t u r a l e t h i c s r e g a r d i n g h o s p i t a l i t y d i c t a t e d peace. I n d i a n s were p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g r e s o u r c e f u l , f r i e n d l y , and c o o p e r a t i v e . The I n d i a n s t a u g h t how " ... t o r e s p e c t , but not r e a l l y t o f e a r the mighty [Peace] r i v e r ; where t.o f i n d w i l d meat and when t o k i l l i t ; how t o keep from f r e e z i n g , ' w h e n i t ' s 72 below, w i t h a n o r t h wind, and you have t o be o u t s i d e . " 3 7 White men and t h e I n d i a n s c o - e x i s t e d i n t h e i s o l a t e d n o r t h e r n r e g i o n . The farmers augmented a g r a r i a n p u r s u i t s w i t h t r a p p i n g w h i l e t h e I n d i a n s l i v e d p r i m a r i l y o f f t h e l a n d : h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g . The s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l s o f t h e two groups were not 67 d i s s i m i l a r , but when the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system was implemented, w h i t e c l a i m s t o t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g , t e r r i t o r i e s on Crown Land were v a l i d a t e d and a b o r i g i n a l c l a i m s i n v a l i d a t e d . By the time the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n , was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1925, F i r s t N a t i o n s h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g t e r r i t o r i e s i n the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , had a l r e a d y been eroded by the a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f Crown l a n d not o n l y f o r s e t t l e m e n t but a l s o f o r t r a p p i n g t o such a degree as t o remove I n d i a n s from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s . In t h e f i r s t y e a r t h e sytem was i n t r o d u c e d , t h i r t e e n t r a p l i n e s were r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e Peace R i v e r a r e a , none o f them t o F i r s t . N a t i o n s t r a p p e r s . 3 8 C o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s t o implement r e g i s t r a t i o n for. T r e a t y 8 I n d i a n s i n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t d i d not o c c u r u n t i l 1926, a y e a r a f t e r t he compulsory r e g i s t r a t i o n sytem was implemented. By t h i s t i m e the I n d i a n s were r e q u e s t i n g a moratorium on t h e a l l o c a t i o n ' o f l i n e s t o w h i t e t r a p p e r s and a s k i n g t h a t v a c a n t l i n e s be r e v e r t e d t o I n d i a n s . I n r e t u r n t h e y p romised t o r e s p e c t t h e w h i t e men's t r a p l i n e s . 3 9 The p r o v i n c e ' s C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r , M. Fu r b e r , doubted the I n d i a n ' s r e q u e s t r e g a r d i n g v a c a t e d l i n e s would be a c c e p t e d by h i s s u p e r v i s o r s . As a c o n c e s s i o n , F u r b e r s u g g e sted t h a t the P r o v i n c a l Game Warden might h o l d f o r f e i t e d , l i n e s f o r d i s p e r s a l t o e i t h e r I n d i a n o r w h i t e c a n d i d a t e s w i t h t h e 68 b e s t i n t e r e s t o f c o n s e r v a t i o n i n mind. 4 0 T h i s compromise was s u p e r f i c i a l : not o n l y was i t a l r e a d y t h e p r a c t i c e , but few l i n e s r e v e r t e d t o the P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden f o r t r a n s f e r . The F i r s t N a t i o n s groups o f the'' Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t were r e l u c t a n t 4 1 t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e g i s t r a t i o n system, not o n l y because o f t h e i r ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f T r e a t y 8 a s s u r a n c e s , language b a r r i e r s and a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e s s , but a l s o because t h e ' I n d i a n Agent, H a r o l d L a i r d , a d v i s e d them t o i g n o r e b o t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l game laws and t h e law enforcement o f f i c e r s . L a i r d acknowledged- F i r s t N a t i o n s h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g r i g h t s and d e v e l o p e d r e s p e c t f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s i n h i s agency. A l t h o u g h Game O f f i c i a l s viewed L a i r d as an impediment t o law enforcement, he was r e s p e c t e d by the I n d i a n s because he was a f r i e n d l y man who 'took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n I n d i a n concerns and recommendations. 4 2 Agent L a i r d b e l i e v e d a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s were exempt from p r o v i n c i a l laws under T r e a t y 8 g u a r a n t e e s . I n a Feb r u a r y , 1924 P o l i c e r e p o r t from t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t on t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n o f t r a p l i n e s , t he Constable' noted L a i r d ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f T r e a t y 8. And l a s t but not l e a s t comes t h e q u e s t i o n o f I n d i a n r i g h t s , t h e I n d i a n s here have o n l y o f l a t e f e l t t h e p r e s s u r e o f the White man, as y e t he h a r d l y r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e c o u n t r y he and h i s f o r e f a t h e r s have hunted and t r a p p e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s i s ' r a p i d l y b e i n g t a k e n from him, when R e g i s t r a t i o n a r r i v e s and he f i n d s t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y c l o s e d t o him, he 69 w i l l c e r t a i n l y r e s e n t i t h a v i n g been t o l d by h i s Agent t h a t •under h i s T r e a t y (Dominion T r e a t y No 8) he can hunt and t r a p where he l i k e s . 4 3 C o n s t a b l e F o r f a r recommended t h a t a r u l i n g on the v a l i d i t y o f the I n d i a n s c l a i m s under T r e a t y 8 be made b e f o r e r e g i s t r a t i o n f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d the s i t u a t i o n . 4 4 But, b e f o r e the C o n s t a b l e r e c e i v e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n on t h e T r e a t y 8 i s s u e , he r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s t o implement t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n s — d i r e c t i v e s d i f f i c u l t t o e x e c u t e w i t h t h e f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n o f an I n d i a n agent, almost i m p o s s i b l e when t h e agent r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e d p o l i c e a u t h o r i t y i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g p r o v i n c i a l game l a w s . 4 5 I n h i s e f f o r t s t o o b t a i n t r a p p i n g a r e a s f o r t h e I n d i a n s f o r the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r F u r b e r recommended t h a t band t r a p p i n g a r e a s be r e g i s t e r e d f o r I n d i a n s because he r e a l i z e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l t r a p l i n e s were not f e a s i b l e f o r t h e s u b s i s t e n c e needs o f a t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e h u n t i n g group. F u r b e r was i n t e r e s t e d i n l i m i t i n g w h i t e e x p a n s i o n i n t o I n d i a n t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r y and s u g g e s t e d that-, o u t s i d e o f t h e i r homesteads, s e t t l e r s s h o u l d not be g r a n t e d t r a p l i n e s except N o r t h o f t h e 58th p a r a l l e l . 4 6 The l a t t e r recommendation was never i n c o r p o r a t e d , p r o b a b l y because s e t t l e r s would have been alarmed by t h i s a t t e m p t t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r economic o p t i o n s . F u r b e r sent a l e t t e r t o I n d i a n Agent L a i r d i n June 1926 r e q u e s t i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n s e c u r i n g I n d i a n t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s . 70 The I n s p e c t o r b e l i e v e d t h a t , i f L a i r d d emonstrated s u p p o r t f o r Game Department i n i t i a t i v e s , t h e I n d i a n s would be p r e d i s p o s e d t o r e g i s t e r . But L a i r d ' s s u p p o r t was not. f o r t h c o m i n g and not a s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n was r e c e i v e d from th e Agent on b e h a l f o f t h e I n d i a n s i n the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t . 4 7 In L a i r d ' s e s t i m a t i o n " ... t h e I n d i a n s c o u l d run w i l d , as l o n g as t h e y d i d not i n t e r f e r w i t h the t r a p l i n e s a l r e a d y b e i n g run by w h i t e t r a p p e r s [ s i c ] . " 4 8 L a i r d b e l i e v e d t h a t T r e a t y 8 g u a r a n t e e d th e I n d i a n s freedom t o p r a c t i c e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n s . By 20 August, 1927, W. S p i l l e r , I n s p e c t o r Commanding "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e Rupert, r e a l i z e d t h a t no a s s i s t a n c e c o u l d be e x p e c t e d from I n d i a n Agent L a i r d . S p i l l e r i n f o r m e d t h e C o n s t a b l e , Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , Pouce Coupe, t o t a k e I n d i a n a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e same manner as w h i t e r e g i s t r a t i o n s but a l l o w I n d i a n s t o r e g i s t e r i n bands i f t h e y d e s i r e d . 4 9 C o n s e q u e n t l y , w i t h t h e encouragement of t h e i r I n d i a n Agent, th e I n d i a n s i n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t c o n t i n u e d t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g v o c a t i o n s , - i g n o r i n g game laws and f r u s t r a t i n g b o t h the w h i t e t r a p p e r s and the game enforcement o f f i c e r s . In one i n s t a n c e , I n d i a n s from the Halfway Band were so i n d i g n a n t when an a r e a t h a t t h e y had t r a p p e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s was r e g i s t e r e d t o a w h i t e t r a p p e r t h a t t h e y burned down h i s c a b i n and i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h i s t r a p s . The w h i t e t r a p p e r f i n a l l y s o l d the 71 l i n e t o t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . 5 0 The P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden r e p o r t f o r t h e y e a r e n d i n g December • 31, 1926 noted t h a t t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n i n "D" D i v i s i o n which i n c l u d e d t h e Peace R i v e r B l o c k was i n i t s ' i n f a n c y and a v e r y t e d i o u s p r o c e s s ' due t o " [ t ] h e f a c t , t h a t the I n d i a n s i n the p a s t have been adver s e t o r e c o g n i z i n g our 'Game A c t ' [which] has c r e a t e d many d i f f i c u l t i e s . " 5 1 The I n d i a n s i n t h e F o r t N e l s o n r e g i o n were d e t e r m i n e d not t o r e g i s t e r but were f i n a l l y c o n v i n c e d o f the system's m e r i t s by t h e l o c a l Game Warden and e v e n t u a l l y c o m p l i e d . 5 2 But o t h e r C h i e f s i n t h e D i s t r i c t c o n t i n u e d t r a p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t c o m p l y i n g t o the Game A c t and were charged w i t h t r e s p a s s i n g on r e g i s t e r e d ' l i n e s . Whether t h e t r e s p a s s was done out of. d e f i a n c e , o r ignorance, i s d i f f i c u l t , t o de t e r m i n e , but s'ince the I n d i a n s were d e s t i t u t e , s u r v i v a l may have been the p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r . In May o f 1926 t h e C h i e f o f t h e Beaver t r i b e a t Hudson Hope r e c e i v e d a suspended sentence f o r t r e s p a s s i n g onto a t r a p l i n e > r e g i s t e r e d t o a .white t r a p p e r . I n . p a s s i n g judgement t h e M a g i s t r a t e c o n s i d e r e d the man's f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The. C h i e f was s o l e supporter, f o r a l a r g e f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g t h r e e adopted c h i l d r e n and was deemed t r u s t w o r t h y w i t h an i n d u s t r i o u s n a t u r e . E x t e n u a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h e judge's d e c i s i o n . Because I n d i a n Agent L a i r d had a d v i s e d t h e I n d i a n s t o 72 i g n o r e p r o v i n c i a l game laws, t h e A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f P o l i c e recommended t h a t t h e M a g i s t r a t e be g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o suspend s e n t e n c e . 5 3 The C h i e f had been i l l - a d v i s e d . In a s i m i l a r case, a n o t h e r Dunne-za C h i e f from Hudson Hope r e c e i v e d a suspended sentence i n 1928 a f t e r he and h i s band were charged w i t h t r e s p a s s i n g on a r e g i s t e r e d l i n e . The C h i e f p r o m i s e d t o s t a y away from t h e w h i t e t r a p p e r ' s t e r r i t o r y and r e g i s t e r a t r a p p i n g a r e a f o r h i m s e l f , 5 4 o b v i o u s l y not h i s t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a . The C o n s t a b l e i n F o r t S t . John as w e l l as the Chairman o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board were f r u s t r a t e d by t h e D i s t r i c t I n d i a n s ' ' w i l f u l and p e r s i s t e n t ' d i s r e g a r d f o r p r o v i n c i a l game laws. Without s u c c e s s , t h e Game Board Chairman r e q u e s t e d the I n d i a n Department p l a c e an I n d i a n Agent i n t h e d i s t r i c t t o c o n t r o l t h e I n d i a n s and s c h o o l them i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l game l a w s . 5 5 The l o s s o f t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s f o r t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s groups o f the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t had a d i s a s t r o u s impact on t h e p e o p l e . I n September of.1932, C h i e f Saccon and one o f the sub C h i e f s sent a l e t t e r t o t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s c r i t i c i z i n g t h e Hudson Bay Company f o r p r o v i d i n g r e l i e f s u p p o r t t h a t was b o t h i n a d e q u a t e and demeaning. The l e t t e r n o t e d t h e d e p l o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s and r e q u e s t e d an I n d i a n Agent be 73 a s s i g n e d t o F o r t S t . John t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e . The I n d i a n Agent i s 500 m i l e s [805 k i l o m e t r e s ] o r so away from us, we have nobody t o t a k e c a r e o f us e x c e p t i n g the I n d i a n Dept. The f u r i s g e t t i n g v e r y s c a r c e and t h e p r i c e ' low' and h a l f the time we a r e near s t a r v i n g and when the c o l d weather comes ar e l i a b l e t o f r e e z e t o d e a t h . The w h i t e t r a p p e r s a r e a l l around us and [we] do not have much chance t o k i l l v e r y much [ s i c ] . 5 6 In 1932 t h e Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e o r g a n i z e d and t r a n s f e r r e d an I n s p e c t o r from Saskatchewan t o the I n s p e c t o r a t e O f f i c e i n C a l g a r y . 5 7 By September o f t h a t year', I n s p e c t o r M. C h r i s t i a n s o n had d e t e r m i n e d t h a t the I n d i a n s a t the M o b e r l y Lake, Halfway and F o r t S t . John Reserves i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, T r e a t y 8 a r e a , were unable t o make a l i v i n g on t h e l a n d s a l l o c a t e d t o them and t h a t t h e i r t r a p p i n g grounds had been so reduced as t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t . The d e s t i t u t e c o n d i t i o n s o f the I n d i a n s 'were the t a l k o f t h e c o u n t r y , ' 5 8 and i t was apparent t h a t something had t o be done t o r e c t i f y t h e s i t u a t i o n . In 1933, t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e c e i v e d r e l u c t a n t p e r m i s s i o n from the Game I n s p e c t o r f o r "D" D i v i s i o n 5 9 t o purchase t r a p l i n e s f o r the F i r s t N a t i o n s groups o f t h e Peace R i v e r B l o c k . To meet the needs of F i r s t N a t i o n s . t r a p p e r s throughout t h e p r o v i n c e , t h i s p r a c t i s e was u l t i m a t e l y extended t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s . 6 0 In J u l y , 1933 t h e I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a . I n s p e c t o r a t e , acknowledged t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f the I n d i a n s i n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t had not been p r o t e c t e d . T h i s had r e s u l t e d i n w h i t e t r a p p e r s c l a i m i n g p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the v a l u a b l e 74 trapping t e r r i t o r i e s i n the d i s t r i c t . 6 1 This admission of neglected r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was r e i t e r a t e d i n October, 1934 when the Secretary of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s conceded that, the lack of Department s t r u c t u r e i n the Peace River Block had created d i s t r e s s f o r the Indians i n the area. When d i s c u s s i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the Indians i n the Peace River Block i n regard to t r a p p i n g l i c e n s e s , [ P r o v i n c i a l Game] Commissioner B u t l e r pointed out that the Indians s u f f e r e d through lack of Indian Department o r g a n i z a t i o n . I agreed with him as the l a t e Agent, Mr. L a i r d , was too f a r d i s t a n t and took no i n t e r e s t i n the matter. 6 2 J The Fort St. John Game Warden opposed Department of Indian A f f a i r s i n i t i a t i v e s to r e c l a i m trapping t e r r i t o r i e s f o r F i r s t Nations trappers. Warden Kerkoff dismissed C h r i s t i a n s o n ' s report d e l i n e a t i n g the d e s t i t u t e c o n d i t i o n s of the a b o r i g i n a l people i n the- Peace River Block. Demonstrating both an ignorance of r e g i s t r a t i o n b a r r i e r s experienced by Indians as w e l l as l i t t l e compassion, Kerkoff complained that the Indians were d i f f c u l t to work with because they were 'ignorant' with no understanding of e i t h e r the language or the r e g i s t r a t i o n process. 6 3 In h i s e s t i m a t i o n , white attempts, to e s t a b l i s h and manage tr a p l i n e s were ra t h e r useless because the region seemed overrun by Indians who were c o n s t a n t l y i n f r i n g i n g on white l i n e s . Kerkoff concluded that Indians had no understanding of the r e g i s t e r e d trap l i n e system and i n s t e a d of s e t t l i n g down to operate t h e i r l i n e s , they caught everything on the l i n e , then moved on to r a i d other l i n e s . Through not r e g i s t e r i n g the Indians have l o s t a l o t of trapping area and t h i s was not so n o t i c e a b l e , while there 75 was open t e r r i t o r y f o r t h e I n d i a n s t o f a l l back on, but. now the c o u n t r y i s c o v e r e d by r e g i s t r a t i o n , t h e I n d i a n w i l l have t o s t a y on h i s l i n e and t r y t o do l i k e t h e White t r a p p e r . ... I n t h e F o r t S t . John d i s t r i c t , t he White-men h o l d b i g a r e a s f o r t r a p l i n e s and between t h e s e a r e a s the I n d i a n s a r e r e g i s t e r e d . 6 4 The Warden eval u a t e d , the I n d i a n ' s method o f t r a p p i n g together, as a band as b e i n g d e t r i m e n t a l and c o n c l u d e d t h a t ".[t]he I n d i a n i s a k i l l e r o f Game and not a c o n s e r v e r ; he w i l l k i l l h i s beaver, i n the summer ti m e f o r t h e meat, not concerned about t h e v a l u e o f the p e l t next w i n t e r . " 6 5 A p p a r e n t l y K e r k o f f d i d not r e a l i z e t h a t t h e v a l u e o f a p e l t was d e t e r m i n e d by how hungry t h e band was when t h e beaver was k i l l e d . K e r k o f f ' s l a c k o f support f o r t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n i t i a t i v e was condoned by D i s t r i c t Game I n s p e c t o r T. Van Dyk. The I n s p e c t o r - b l a m e d the whole o f t h e I n d i a n ' s d e s t i t u t e s i t u a t i o n on I n d i a n Agent L a i r d and. the I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s . Van Dyk i n f o r m e d Game Commissioner A. Bryan W i l l i a m s t h a t i n t h e w i n t e r o f 192.5 - 1926 the I n d i a n s and t h e i r I n d i a n Agent had been n o t i f i e d o f t h e new t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s and a d v i s e d t o comply w i t h o u t r e s ponse. Van Dyk m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i t was- d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e I n d i a n t r a p p i n g a r e a s were i n s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e a l i v i n g and d i s c r e d i t e d t h e 'hard l u c k s t o r y ' d e p i c t e d by C h r i s t i a n s o n by ' f i f t y p e r c e n t . ' Without s u b s t a n t i a t i o n , Van Dyk no t e d that, the 76 C o n s t a b l e at Hudson Hope had w i t n e s s e d s e v e r a l cases o f m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n where I n d i a n s had c l a i m e d p o o r e r c a t c h e s t h a n was the r e a l i t y . In Van Dyk's e s t i m a t i o n , t h e I n d i a n s were not d e s t i t u t e because o f i n s u f f i c i e n t t r a p p i n g a r e a s but r a t h e r because o f ' t h e i r p a s s i o n f o r d r i n k ' which was b e i n g s u p p l i e d i l l e g a l l y by a b o o t l e g g e r who was s u b s e q u e n t l y charged and s e n t e n c e d . 6 6 The I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , •M . C h r i s t i a n s o n endorsed b o t h Van Dyk's assessment of L a i r d ' s incompetence i n c o m p l y i n g w i t h the t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system and the need f o r g r e a t e r s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s e s p e c i a l l y i n i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g a l c o h o l . But, i n C h r i s t i a n s o n ' s e s t i m a t i o n , t h e w r e t c h e d c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e Indians- were f o r c i n g him t o d e a l w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n as i t was: the I n d i a n s around F o r t S t . John r e q u i r e d more t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r y i f c o n d i t i o n s were t o be improved. He asked the o f f i c i a l s o f the Game Department t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e p a s t had been l i v i n g " ...'more or l e s s l i k e hunted a n i m a l s : No one [had] g i v e n them any encouragement o r t r i e d t o a d v i s e them, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f members of t h e s t a f f o f [the P o l i c e ] Department ... ."67 C h r i s t i a n s o n e x p r e s s e d h i s deep g r a t i t u d e f o r the department's exemplary t r e a t m e n t o f the I n d i a n s and hoped f o r more open d i s c u s s i o n on t h e i s s u e s . Because h a l f o f t h e F o r t S t . John band o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 o r 90 7 7 p e o p l e had.'no r e g i s t e r e d , t r a p l i n e s , t h e y were d e s t i t u t e , l i v i n g i n a p p a l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s " ... chased here and t h e r e by w h i t e t r a p p e r s , " 6 8 To a l l e v i a t e t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , C h r i s t i a n s o n endeavoured t o s e c u r e a d d i t i o n a l t r a p l i n e s t o meet the band's needs but t h i s was d i f f i c u l t as v a l i d r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s c o u l d not be c a n c e l l e d and e x i s t i n g l i n e s c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d o n l y w i t h t h e s i g n e d r e l i n q u i s h m e n t from the w h i t e trappers.. A l t h o u g h Game Warden K e r k o f f agreed t h a t t h e I n d i a n s were a poor t r i b e , he spurned C h r i s t i a n s o n ' s a t t e m p t s t o r e c l a i m t r a p p i n g a r e a s f o r t h e a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e . In K e r k o f f ' s e s t i m a t i o n , t h e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f b o t h th e w h i t e t r a p p e r and game was t o p l a c e the I n d i a n s between some r i v e r s where t h e y c o u l d be made t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e y were p r o h i b i t e d from h u n t i n g o r t r a p p i n g beyond t h e s e a r e a s . 6 9 Kerkoff.'s o p p o s i t i o n t o the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s e f f o r t s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s on t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s remained s t r o n g but. I n s p e c t o r Van Dyk's u n c o o p e r a t i v e a t t i t u d e seemed t o d i s s i p a t e . ".[The I n d i a n s ] a r e poor h e l p l e s s p e o p l e i n the hands of u n s c r u p u l o u s w h i t e men, and i t i s always g r a t i f y i n g t o me t o f i n d someone t h a t i s w i l l i n g t o g i v e them a square d e a l , " 7 0 C h r i s t i a n s o n wrote t o Van Dyk i n September 1934. The I n d i a n I n s p e c t o r f u r t h e r commended Van Dyk t o t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 7 1 No doubt C h r i s t i a n s o n ' s v d i p l o m a t i c and c o n g e n i a l remarks i n f l u e n c e d . Van Dyk t o a c c e p t th e 78 Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n i t i a t i v e s . In November o f 1933, Dr. H.A.W. Brown, c l a i m i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e I n d i a n s and a d e s i r e , t o do what he c o u l d t o su p p o r t them, v o l u n t e e r e d t o a c t as t h e r e g i o n a l I n d i a n A g e n t . 7 2 By A p r i l , 1934, Brown had been a p p o i n t e d Agent, and the F o r t St.. John Agency was e s t a b l i s h e d . In November o f 1934, Dr. Brown i n f o r m e d I n s p e c t o r Van Dyk t h a t " i t would appear t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r us t o purchase back q u i t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t e r r i t o r y from w h i t e t r a p p e r s t o e n a b l e t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n t o m a i n t a i n i t s e l f . " 7 3 In t h e f a l l o f 1934, Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and B r i t i s h Columbia Game Board o f f i c i a l s d i s c u s s e d I n d i a n t r a p l i n e needs, and t h e Game Board agreed t h a t I n d i a n Agents would be c o n s u l t e d b e f o r e t r a p l i n e l i c e n c e s were g r a n t e d t o p r e v e n t encroachment on I n d i a n ' l a n d s . Game Board o f f i c i a l s a l s o agreed t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l l I n d i a n c o m p l a i n t s against, wardens^through the I n d i a n Department and t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n i f n e c e s s a r y . 7 4 These p o l i c i e s had l i t t l e impact as t r a p l i n e s c o n t i n u e d t o be t r a n s f e r r e d from one w h i t e t r a p p e r t o a n o t h e r w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e I n d i a n Agent. A l t h o u g h "D" D i v i s i o n I n s p e c t o r , T. Van- Dyk, became l e s s opposed t o t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s p urchase o f t r a p l i n e s , Game Warden K e r k o f f remained u n s u p p o r t i v e . I n December o f 1934, Van 79 Dyk i n f o r m e d K e r k o f f t h a t he was e x p e c t e d t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 7 5 but t h e Warden remained' u n c o o p e r a t i v e . In J u l y o f 1935, he s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h i t e t r a p p e r s be p e n a l i z e d f o r s e l l i n g t h e i r t r a p l i n e s t o t h e Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s by. b e i n g r e f u s e d S p e c i a l F i r e a r m s L i c e n c e s . H i s i n t e n t was t o d i s c o u r a g e t h e " t r a f f i c k i n g i n t r a p l i n e s [ s i c ] . " By A p r i l , 1938 the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s had p u r c h a s e d twenty t r a p l i n e s ' i n t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t 7 7 f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r s but the I n d i a n Agent b e l i e v e d t h a t a t l e a s t t w i c e as many would need t o be a c q u i r e d t o meet t h e needs o f t h e M o b e r l y Lake groups a l o n e . 7 8 By t h i s d a t e , a t o t a l o f 23 l i n e s had been r e g i s t e r e d t o I n d i a n s 7 3 By December'of 1938, t h e Department had s e c u r e d an a d d i t i o n a l e i g h t l i n e s , making a t o t a l o f t h i r t y - o n e t r a p l i n e s r e g i s t e r e d t o F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e . 8 0 A l t h o u g h the F i r s t N a t i o n s groups may have been p l e a s e d by a r e t u r n o f a t l e a s t a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s , w h i t e t r a p p e r s were opposed. As I n d i a n s began moving back t o o l d t r a p p i n g a r e a s , w h i t e t r a p p e r s complained. Up t o the p r e s e n t t h i s t e r r i t o r y has been e n t i r e l y c l e a r o f I n d i a n s . I u n d e r s t a n d i t . has always been the p o l i c y o f the [Game] Department t o keep th e I n d i a n t e r r i t o r y s e p a r a t e from the w h i t e s , and am wondering, t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r w h i t e t r a p p e r s i n t h i s v a l l e y , i f t h e r e i s any p o s s i b l e way t o get t h i s t e r r i t o r y a g a i n c l e a r o f t h e I n d i a n s . 8 1 E x p r e s s i n g t h e concerns of s e v e r a l w h i t e ' t r a p p e r s , t h i s t r a p p e r ' s 80 e f f o r t t o r e s t r i c t I n d i a n s t o c e r t a i n a r e a s was s u p p o r t e d by Warden K e r k o f f who a r b i t r a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e B l u e b e r r y R i v e r as the boundary between w h i t e and I n d i a n t r a p l i n e s . 8 2 A second attempt t o c o n f i n e I n d i a n s t o a s p e c i f i c t r a p p i n g a r e a e a s t o f t h e mountains o c c u r r e d i n Jan u a r y o f 1937 when I n s p e c t o r Van Dyk asked t h e I n d i a n Agent t o r e f r a i n from b i d d i n g on an e x t e n s i v e l i n e b e i n g a u c t i o n e d a t e s t a t e t h a t bor.dered ( l i n e s r e g i s t e r e d by w h i t e t r a p p e r s . The I n s p e c t o r b e l i e v e d t h a t , i f t h e I n d i a n s were t o o b t a i n the t e r r i t o r y , i t would cause t r o u b l e between the w h i t e and I n d i a n t r a p p e r s . In t h e I n s p e c t o r ' s e s t i m a t i o n , i t was 'very d e s i r a b l e ' t o keep t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e Hudson Hope a r e a on the Ea s t s l o p e o f t h e M o u n t a i n s . 8 3 I n s t e a d o f r e s t r i c t i n g w h i t e a c c e s s t o Crown Land t o ensure I n d i a n s • c o u l d m a i n t a i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l i v e l i h o o d s as gua r a n t e e d under T r e a t y 8, Game o f f i c i a l s t r i e d t o c o n t a i n th'e l i v e l i h o o d a c t i v i t i e s o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e . Any a s s i s t a n c e extended by Game Department o f f i c i a l s t o meet F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s was r e s t r i c t e d t o a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s l i v i n g w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A l t h o u g h . T r e a t y 8 gu a r a n t e e d the I n d i a n s a c c e s s t o t e r r i t o r i e s c u s t o m a r i l y used i n h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g v o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t the whole o f t h e t r e a t y a r e a , 8 4 . p r o v i n c i a l law enforcement o f f i c e r s p r e v e n t e d A l b e r t a I n d i a n s from e n t e r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s 81 i n B r i t i s h Columbia. When the. Hay Lakes, A l b e r t a , I n d i a n s attempted t o e n t e r t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s i n t h e T r e a t y 8 a r e a o f B r i t i s h . Columbia i n March, 1932, th e y were asked t o v a c a t e by' t h e Game Warden under S e c t i o n 6 o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l Game Act. T h i s s e c t i o n p r o h i b i t e d n o n - r e s i d e n t I n d i a n s from t r a p p i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e . 8 5 The D i s t r i c t Game Warden r e f u s e d e n t r y based upon e a r l i e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f T r e a t y 8 i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , and . w i l d l i f e , r e g u l a t i o n s . I n a s s e s s i n g the v a l i d i t y 1 o f a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p i n g - r i g h t s i n t h e T r e a t y 8 a r e a , W.E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, d e t e r m i n e d , i n 1925, t h a t I n d i a n s were s u b j e c t t o p r o v i n c i a l game l e g i s l a t i o n . 8 6 In 1929, George S. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , Kamloops r e i t e r a t e d D i t c h b u r n ' s c o n c l u s i o n . In d e t e r m i n i n g the h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g r i g h t s o f I n d i a n s i n t h e Peace R i v e r B l o c k , I n s p e c t o r P r a g n e l l had r e c e i v e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n from I n d i a n Commissioner Graham a t Regina and was i n f o r m e d t h a t I n d i a n s i n the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s were s u b j e c t t o p r o v i n c i a l game laws. P r a g n e l l s u b s e q u e n t l y i n f o r m e d Van Dyk t h a t " ... the I n d i a n s i n t h e Peace R i v e r B l o c k a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e B.C. Game R e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e same -way as are the w h i t e s . " 8 7 Warden Van Dyk's d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e Hay Lakes I n d i a n s r i g h t s t o t r a p i n B r i t i s h Columbia was u l t i m a t e l y s u p p o r t e d by bo t h the 82 p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l and t h e Game Commissioner who p o i n t e d out t h a t I n d i a n s i n the t r e a t y a r e a were s u b j e c t t o t h e 'laws o f the c o u n t r y ' as s t i p u l a t e d i n the T r e a t y arid were, t h e r e f o r e , s u b j e c t t o p r o v i n c i a l Game Laws. 8 8 In. t he e s t i m a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l game a u t h o r i t i e s , S e c t i o n 6 o f the Game A c t superseded T r e a t y 8. A l t h o u g h t h e I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B.C., W.E. D i t c h b u r n , agreed t h a t p r o v i n c i a l game r e g u l a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d t o I n d i a n s , T r e a t y 8 Ngave A l b e r t a I n d i a n s the r i g h t , t o t r a p t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n . 8 9 The S e c r e t a r y o f the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , T.R.L. Maclnnes, was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l game o f f i c i a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the T r e a t y . He q u e s t i o n e d t h e d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g the A l b e r t a - T r e a t y I n d i a n s t r a p p i n g -in B r i t i s h Columbia and i n t e n d e d t o o b t a i n l e g a l o p i n i o n , 9 0 a l t h o u g h the A c t i n g S e c r e t a r y doubted t h a t t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s c o u l d i n s i s t upon t r e a t y r i g h t s g i v e n the a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . 9 1 By. June 1932, Game Commissioner Bryan W i l l i a m s had changed h i s mind about a l l o w i n g the Hay Lakes I n d i a n t o t r a p i n B r i t i s h Columbia, not because o f l e g a l c l a i m s under T r e a t y 8, but because Game Warden C l a r k ' s r e p o r t oh t h e s i t u a t i o n had " ... put the m a t t e r i n an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . " 9 2 C l a r k r e p o r t e d t h a t the Hay Lakes I n d i a n s had been t r a p p i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r y e a r s 83 and t h a t t h e i r t e r r i t o r y would not i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h a t o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s I n d i a n s . He a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t the I n d i a n s were ... a b s o l u t e l y d e s t i t u t e and s t a r v i n g . They a r e i s s u e d with, a v e r y s m a l l r a t i o n from t h e I n d i a n Department. Some o f the c h i l d r e n a r e l i k e s k e l e t o n s . Some have n o t h i n g f o r c l o t h i n g o n l y o l d f l o u r s a c k s . D u r i n g t h e war I saw l o t s o f poor people, i n Germany and France., but I never have seen a n y t h i n g l i k e we have on t h e Boundary a t Hay Lakes. I never had such a p i t i f u l j o b i n my l i f e when I a d v i s e d t h e s e I n d i a n s t h a t o n l y B.C. I n d i a n s , a r e g i v e n t r a p p i n g p r i v i l e g e s i n B.C. The o l d p e o p l e s a t t h e r e and c r i e d . They t o l d me t h a t I. c o u l d not f i n d enough food i n any one o f t h e i r camps t o f e e d one of my dogs f o r one n i g h t , which I am'sure i s t h e t r u t h . 9 3 The Game Commissioner's p e r m i s s i o n a l l o w i n g t h e Hay Lakes I n d i a n s t o t r a p i n B r i t i s h Columbia brought to. an end any p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t between t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and t h e Game Commission. In r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e I n d i a n ' s l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s as ) r e p o r t e d by Game Warden C l a r k , t h e A c t i n g Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n f o r m e d the p r o v i n c i a l Game Commissioner t h a t t h e Department was.aware o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e Hay Lakes Indian's. But he j u s t i f i e d t h e Department's i n a b i l i t y t o respond by e x p l a i n i n g t h a t . s u p p l y i n g r e l i e f was d i f f i c u l t 'because o f the-band's i s o l a t i o n . F urthermore, t h e A c t i n g Deputy e x p l a i n e d , Department a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r r e l i e f were v e r y l i m i t e d . a n d he p o i n t e d out t h a t u n l e s s p e r m i s s i o n t o hunt was g r a n t e d , t h e p l i g h t o f the Hay Lakes I n d i a n s would be 'most s e r i o u s . ' 9 4 U n w i l l i n g t o address the consequences o f n e g l e c t e d t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s , t h e f e d e r a l I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l p l a c e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e I n d i a n s ' s u r v i v a l on t h e p r o v i n c e . 84 U l t i m a t e l y , r e d u c i n g I n d i a n r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e l i e f 9 5 r a t h e r t h a n an acknowledgment o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s m o t i v a t e d t h e Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o address w h i t e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s t h roughout t h e p r o v i n c e . C r i t i c i z i n g the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r i t s .ignorance o f a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , I n s p e c t o r P r a g n e l l o f t h e Kamloops Agency noted: The f a c t t h a t t h e I n d i a n s have got t o be p r o t e c t e d b e f o r e t h e w h i t e man i n t h e i r t r a p p i n g i n t e r e s t s , does not seem t o have been g r a s p e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government. A p p a r e n t l y , not h a v i n g had t o p e r s o n a l l y handle the m a t t e r o f r e l i e f t o I n d i a n s , t h e y do not see t h a t u n l e s s something i s . done, t h e y are bound t o become a charge on the p u b l i c [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ] . 9 6 White encroachment on t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s n e c e s s i t a t e d e x p e n s i v e r a t i o n i n g and, u l t i m a t e l y , t h e p u r c h a s i n g o f t r a p l i n e s f o r r e t u r n t o the F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e . T r e a t y 8 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and Game A c t enforcements had p r o f o u n d consequences f o r t h e n a t i v e s p e o p l e s o f the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t . Disempowered by t h e I n d i a n A c t , l e f t t o the guidance o f a p a t h e t i c o r even h o s t i l e game enforcement o f f i c i a l s , h i n d e r e d by i l l i t e r a c y and language b a r r i e r s , t h e y l o s t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l i v e l i h o o d s and because a l t e r n a t e v o c a t i o n s were u n a v a i l a b l e , t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r s i g n i n g T r e a t y 8, t h e y were one o f t h e most d e s t i t u t e groups i n the n a t i o n . There a r e 170 I n d i a n s i n t h e band, b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Beaver [Dunne-za] t r i b e , and t h e y are c e r t a i n l y a v e r y poor type o f I n d i a n . They have become d i s e a s e d , i n b r e d and t h r o u g h 85 p o v e r t y t h e y a re s i m p l y on t h e i r l a s t l [ e ] g s . They have a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g . I have never seen a band o f I n d i a n s t h a t had l e s s . , D u r i n g the two days I spent with, t h e s e I n d i a n s , ... i t r a i n [ e d ] c o n t i n u a l l y , and I n o t i c e d t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e d i d not even have t e n t s . There were o n l y two good tepees i n the whole o u t f i t and the o n l y s h e l t e r t h e y had was a p i e c e o f canvas hung o v e r w i l l o w s , under which I saw the o l d peo p l e and c h i l d r e n h u d d l e . They were v e r y p o o r l y c l a d and some o f t h e c h i l d r e n had p r a c t i c a l l y no c l o t h i n g on. They seem t o have become [so] p o v e r t y s t r i c k e n t h a t t h e y haven't even any c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s . ... A t a meeting w i t h the band th e y l a i d c o m p l a i n t about t h e i r t r a p p i n g l [ i ] n e s . That a l l t h e i r o l d t r a p p i n g grounds were t a k e n up by w h i t e men. 9 7 So what b e n e f i t s did- t h e I n d i a n s o f the Peace R i v e r o b t a i n by s i g n i n g T r e a t y 8? U n t i l 1933, when t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s endeavoured t o r e c t i f y a s i t u a t i o n t h a t , s h o u l d have never happened, v e r y l i t t l e ! Meagre r a t i o n s were d i s t r i b u t e d t o keep the p e o p l e from v a n i s h i n g , and once a .year, u s u a l l y i n J u l y o r August, t h e I n d i a n Agent from Grouard, L e s s e r S l a v e Lake, A l b e r t a t r a v e l l e d t o F o r t S t . John t o make t r e a t y payments. But government handouts had not been t h e main impetus f o r t h e I n d i a n s o f the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t t o demand t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s . In 1898, the I n d i a n s • h a d i n s i s t e d t h a t the newcomers acknowledge a b o r i g i n a l ownership and r e s p e c t t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n s . In 1900, the f i r s t I n d i a n s o f the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t s i g n e d a d h e s i o n t o T r e a t y 8 t o guarantee t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s . T h i r t y y e a r s l a t e r , t h e y w e r e - s t i l l w a i t i n g f o r the f e d e r a l government t o f u l f i l i t s t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s . In t h e h i s t o r y o f F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e , t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n s i n t h e T r e a t y 8 a r e a c o n s t i t u t e s j u s t one more 86 example of. t r u s t and t r e a t y negated. 87 CONCLUSION The d e c i s i o n t o i n t r o d u c e t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n complex a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r , l e t a l o n e , c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s who were u l t i m a t e l y f o r c e d o f f t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g a r e a s . Even i n the T r e a t y 8 a r e a where h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g v o c a t i o n s were guaranteed, u n d e s i g n a t e d Crown l a n d s were a l l o c a t e d t o n o n - a b o r i g i n a l t r a p p e r s w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r ' F i r s t N a t i o n s r i g h t s o r needs. P r o v i n c i a l game laws which m a r g i n a l i z e d F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e were l e f t u n c h a l l e n g e d by t h e f e d e r a l government a u t h o r i z e d by t h e British North America Act t o a d m i n i s t e r and p r o t e c t a b o r i g i n a l l a n d s and i n t e r e s t s . The p r o v i n c i a l enactment o f t h e t r a p l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n system i n 1925 r e s t r i c t e d F i r s t N a t i o n s a c c e s s t o t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s , v a l i d a t e d n o n - a b o r i g i n a l use o f a b o r i g i n a l l a n d s d e s i g n a t e d as Crown Land, and, i n n o r t h e a s t e r n . B r i t i s h Columbia, a b r o g a t e d t r e a t y p r o m i s e s . C o n s e r v a t i o n laws were e n a c t e d t o ensure not o n l y the p r o l i f e r a t i o n " o f t he f u r - b e a r i n g s p e c i e s , but a l s o f u r revenues. The i n t e r e s t s o f s e t t l e r s , p r o s p e c t o r s , and r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p e r s r e c e i v e d precedence over hundreds o f y e a r s o f p r i o r r i g h t c l a i m and use. ) 88 F i r s t N a t i o n s people, e m p h a t i c a l l y r e s i s t e d measures that. d i s r u p t e d t h e i r way o f l i f e . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e decades o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , I n d i a n s p e t i t i o n e d f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s i n vehement o p p o s i t i o n t o game r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s t o l a n d s and w i l d l i f e . F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e d e f i e d game laws i n d e s p e r a t e a t t e m p t s t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r b o t h ' t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s and v o c a t i o n s . T h e i r e f f o r t s were i g n o r e d by s e n i o r b u r e a u c r a t s a t (' b o t h the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . L e g a l disempowerment combined w i t h language and l i t e r a c y b a r r i e r s p l a c e d F i r s t N a t i o n s t r a p p e r s a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n m a i n t a i n i n g even a. p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s t h r o u g h c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e Game Act. I n t h e e a r l y 1930s, t h e Department, o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s endeavoured t o purchase some o f the l o s t t e r r i t o r i e s f o r r e v e r s i o n t o t h e I n d i a n s . T h i s was, a t b e s t , a p e r f u n c t o r y s o l u t i o n as w h i t e t r a p p e r s were so d e e p l y e n t r e n c h e d i n n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s t o p r e v e n t b o t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n d i a n h u n t i n g p r e s e r v e s o r r e c l a m a t i o n o f s u b s t a n t i v e t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s . 1 At the 1928 I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l and Dominion Conference on W i l d l i f e , a r e s o l u t i o n was unanimously p a s s e d t o s e t a s i d e , 'as f a r as p r a c t i c a l , ' u n s e t t l e d r e g i o n s e x c l u s i v e l y f o r I n d i a n s t o t r a p . I n pas s i n g , t h i s r e s o l u t i o n , Canada was end e a v o u r i n g t o save r e m a i n i n g w i l d l i f e from e x p l o i t a t i o n and, a t the same t i m e , t o 89 a s s u r e " ... t o the I n d i a n s , under p r o p e r s u p e r v i s i o n , a t l e a s t some happy h u n t i n g ground where t h e y may pursue t h e i r a n c i e n t v o c a t i o n s unmolested." 2 T h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c s e n t i m e n t was not r e a l i z e d as a commitment. Empty words, empty p r o m i s e s , l o s t t e r r i t o r i e s , l o s t l i v e l i h o o d s , l o s t s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n : a l l a s p e c t s o f F i r s t N a t i o n s h i s t o r y . But t h i s h i s t o r y i s a l s o t h a t of B r i t i s h Columbia, and t o develop, a v i s i o n , f o r t h e . p r o v i n c e 1 s f u t u r e , i t must be u n d e r s t o o d and v a l u e d by b o t h F i r s t N a t i o n s and n o n - a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e . 90 Endnotes to Introduction 1 . B r i t i s h Columbia. Statutes of the Province of B.C., 1923. V i c t o r i a : W i l l i a m H. C u l l i n , P r i n t e r t o t h e y K i n g ' s Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y . 1923. Chapter 18, "An A c t t o amend t h e 'Game A c t ' , " S e c t i o n 12, p. 128. 91 ENDNOTES FOR CHAPTER ONE 1. G e o r g i n i a B a l l , "A H i s t o r y o f W i l d l i f e Management P r a c t i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o 1918," MA T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1982. p. 48. 2. B r i t i s h Columbia. Statutes of British Columbia, 1913. V i c t o r i a : W i l l i a m H. C u l l i n , P r i n t e r t o K i n g ' s Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , 1913. Sec. 9:21B ( 1 ) . p. 126. 3.Sec. 9:21B (9) & (10). p. 127. 4.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 4085, F i l e 496, 658-1, P t . 5. T.R.L. Maclnnes, Department o f Indian' A f f a i r s . . • "What Canada i s Doing f o r the H u n t i n g I n d i a n s , " P r e p a r e d f o r t h e N o r t h American W i l d L i f e C o n f e r e n c e . Washington, F e b r u a r y 3-7, 1936; See A l s o : BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 10, F i l e 2. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1928 N; A r t h u r -Neasloss to-Mr. J.H. M c M u l l i n , P r o v i n c i a l Game Commissioner. J a n u a r y 16, 1928. 5 . I b i d . , Volume.6735, F i l e 420-3A. I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n i e s , S o u t h e a s t e r n • I n s p e c t o r a t e , Vernon, B.C. t o Duncan Campbell S c o t t . Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J u l y 28, 1919. 6. Douglas R. Hudson, " T r a p l i n e s and Timber: S o c i a l and Economic Change Among the C a r r i e r I n d i a n s o f N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia," D o c t o r a t e T h e s i s : Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , S p r i n g : 1983. p.' 131; See A l s o : Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 5. Stikine Agency Report, T e l e g r a p h Creek, B.C. June 16, 1936; F i l e 420-3A. " S p e c i a l Report Re. T r a p p i n g , " George S. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , Kamploops, B.C. t o t h e A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d a i n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, September. 12, 1923. 7. B a l l , p. 49. 8. B r i t i s h Columbia, Statutes of the Province of British Columbia, 1905. V i c t o r i a : P r i n t e r o f the K i n g ' s Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y . 1905. p. 150. 9. D. Jenness, "The C a r r i e r I n d i a n s o f the B u l k l e y R i v e r , T h e i r . S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s L i f e , " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers. No. 25. Washington: Bureau o f American E t h n o l o g y B u l l e t i n 133, 1943. p. 488. 10. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n Burns Lake I n d i a n Band t o Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. August 23, 1919. See a l s o : P e t i t i o n Kitsumkalum Band t o the S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, November 4, 1912; F i l e 420-3C 4.'Report o f Mr. Maclnnes 92 t o Dr. M c G i l l r e . B r i t i s h Columbia Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . October 4, 1934. 1 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. " S p e c i a l Report Re. T r a p p i n g , " George S. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n - A g e n c i e s , Kamloops, BC. t o The A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa,- Ont. September 12, 1923. 1 2 . I b i d . , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 4085, F i l e 495, 658-1 P t . 5. "What Canada I s Doing For The Hu n t i n g I n d i a n s , " P r e p a r e d f o r t h e N o r t h American W i l d L i f e C o n f e r e n c e , Washington, F e b r u a r y 3-7, 1936 by T.R.L. Maclnnes, Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . See a l s o : Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. Report o f Mr. Maclnnes t o Dr. M c G i l l r e . B r i t i s h Columbia Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . October 4, 1934. 13. B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g Books: Newspaper Accounts o f t h e Debates. D a i l y C o l o n i s t . ( V i c t o r i a ) , Wednesday, December 3, 1924. See a l s o : D a i l y P r o v i n c e . (Vancouver), Thursday, March 17, 1921; V i c t o r i a Times. Thursday, A p r i l 11, 1918; D a i l y 'Times. ( V i c t o r i a ) . S a t u r d a y , A p r i l 18, 1918; V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times. December 18, 1923; The D a i l y C o l o n i s t . ( V i c t o r i a ) S a t u r d a y , F e b r u a r y 2, 1929;' B r i t i s h Columbia S e s s i o n a l Papers: Report of the Provincial Game Warden f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 31, 1918; Report of the Provincial Game Warden f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 31, 1922; Report of the Surveyor General f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 31, 1924; Report of the Provincial Game Warden f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 31, 1925; Report of the Provincial Game Warden f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 31, 1928; ;BCARS. Add. MSS. 769. E a r l K. P o l l o n , Correspondence 1922 - 1926. John M. Thomas, Guide t o Mr. E. F o r f a r , C o n s t a b l e , Hudson Hope, B.C., January 12, 1926 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n ce. 14. B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g Books: D a i l y C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) , Wednesday, December 3, 1924. 15. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 14, F i l e 1. B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , D i v i s i o n "D" D i s t r i c t , F o r t George, Lucerne Detachment. March 25, 1924;- D i v i s i o n "D", D i s t r i c t " F o r t George", P r i n c e George Detachment. March 21, 1924. 16. Jenness, p. 488. 17. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a r i s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n o f A d r i a n , S t . Mary's Band, E a s t Kootenay, B.C. t o Governor G e n e r a l o f Canada. January 26, 1915.. 1 8 . I b i d . , P e t i t i o n o f Spuzzum band t o I n d i a n Agent Graham, L y t t o n , B.C. Fe b r u a r y 29, 1916. 93 1 9 . I b i d . , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , S o u t h e a s t e r n I n s p e c t o r a t e t o Duncan Campbell S c o t t . Vernon, B.C. J u l y 28, 1919. 20.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. New Westminster I n d i a n Agent's O f f i c e t o Duncan C. S c o t t , Esq. Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J u l y 22nd, 1919; I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , S o u t h e a s t e r n I n s p e c t o r a t e , Vernon, B.C. t o Duncan Campbell S c o t t . Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, J u l y 28, 1919; . Okanagan Agency, I n d i a n Agent's O f f i c e t o A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y , Ottawa. J u l y 30, 1919; I n d i a n Agent, S t u a r t Lake Agency, F o r t F r a s e r t o The S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J u l y 30, 1919; I n d i a n Agent, S t u a r t Lake Agency, F o r t F r a s e r t o The S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J u l y 11, 1919; F i l e 420-3. A c t i n g I n d i a n Agent, H a r o l d L a i r d , L e s s e r S l a v e Lake Agency, Grouard, A l b e r t a . A p r i l 24, 1917. 2 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. A.W. V o w e l l , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , B.C. t o The Secretary,- Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. May 8, 1906. 22.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3. C h i e f s o f t h e S t u a r t Lake, Stoney Creek and F r a s e r Lake t r i b e s t o The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , I n d i a n Department, Ottawa. October 30, 1905. 2 3 . I b i d . 2 4 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. P e t i t i o n o f C h i e f s o f S t e l l a and Stoney Creek Bands t o M i n i s t e r - o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. September 30, 1909. 2 5 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n o f the C h i e f s o f t h e Burns Lake Band t o Mr. Maclnnes, D.I.A. August, 23, 1919. 2 6 . I b i d . 2 7 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n o f I n d i a n C h i e f s and Headmen from S t u a r t Lake I n d i a n Agency t o Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, n.d. 2 8 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n o f C h i e f o f F o r t George Band t o Governor G e n e r a l o f Canada. R e c e i v e d by Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O ctober 8, 1919. 2 9 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. P e t i t i o n Kitsumkalum Band t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and P e t i t i o n o f I n d i a n band members of K i t s e l a s , B.C. t o S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 94 Ottawa. November 4, 1912. 3 0 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. N. C o c c o l a t o Frank P e d l e y , Esq., Deputy M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O ctober 1, 1907 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 3 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. Rev. A.E. M o r i c e , O.M.I., t o The Honourable the Pr e m i e r , V i c t o r i a . J anuary 23, 1920. 3 2 . B a l l , p. 66. 3 3 . I b i d . , p. 66-67. i 34.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 4.20-3A. I n d i a n Agent R.H. Moore t o Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , J anuary 19, 1927. 3 5 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. " S p e c i a l Report Re. T r a p p i n g , " George S. • P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , Kamloops, B.C. t o the A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y , Department o f Indian. A f f a i r s , Ottawa, September 12, 1923. 36. I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. Order i n C o u n c i l . December 6, 1.907. I n d i a n Agent, Babine and Upper Skeena R i v e r Agency t o J . A . J . McKenna, S p e c i a l Commissioner. August 19, 1912. 37. B a l l . , p. 67. 38. BCARS. P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden. GR 446. Box.'l25, F i l e 4. Report of Game Conditions, 1917 - 1919. Report o f A c t i n g C h i e f I n s p e c t o r J . Bourne, South F o r t George t o Wm. G. McMynn, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e . J a n uary 8, 1919; F i l e 6. J . Bourne t o Wm. G. McMynn. F e b r u a r y 14, 1.919; F i l e 4. J . Bourne t o Wm. G. McMynn, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e . Annual Report under the Game A c t , J a n u a r y 8, 1919. 39. BCARS. P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden. GR 446. Box 125, F i l e 4. Annual Report of operations under the Game Act. 1918. C o n s t a b l e T. Parsons t o Wm. G. McMynn, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e . 1918. 40. BCARS. R e p o r t s o f t h e C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r . GR 800: Box 3, F i l e 13. C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r t o Dr. A.R. Baker, Chairman, Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board. J u l y 15, 1921. 41. BCARS. GR 800, Box 3, F i l e 5. R o y a l Commission r e . A l b e r t R. Baker. Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board Chairman t o W.E. D i t c h b u r n , Esq., Chief. I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , V i c t o r i a . September 9, 1921.; I n d i a n Agent W.J. M c A l l a n , F o r t F r a s e r Agency t o Dr. A.R. Baker, Chairman Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board. September 5,- 1921. 95 4 2 . I b i d . , Dr. A.R. Baker t o W. E. D i t c h b u r n , C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s . 9 September 1921. 4 3 . L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly C l i p p i n g s , D a i l y P r o v i n c e . , Wednesday Fe b r u a r y 18, '1920. 4 4 . L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly C l i p p i n g s , D a i l y P r o v i n c e . F r i d a y , v October 21, 1921. 45. BCARS. ADD. MSS. 769. F i l e : Correspondence 1922-1929.. E a r l K i t c h e n e r P o l l e n . B.C.P.P. "D" Division Report (supplement), Hudson Hope, C o n s t a b l e E. F o r f a r , November, 1922. 46. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly C l i p p i n g s , Vancouver D a i l y World; The D a i l y C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) , Wednesday, March 24, 1920.. 47. BCARS. B.C. A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . GR 1423, F i l e s G-95-2 - H-99-6. Correspondence 1902-37. R.S. G a l l o p t o Deputy A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , V i c t o r i a , June 16, 1920 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 48. BCARS. R o y a l Commission r e . A l b e r t R. Baker. GR 800, Box 3, F i l e 5. I n d i a n Agent, W.J. M c A l l a n , F o r t F r a s e r Agency t o A.R. Baker, Chairman, Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board. September 5, 1921. r 49. Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. Special Report Re Trapping. George S. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , Kamloops, B.C. t o The A s s i s t a n t Deputy & S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . September 12, 1923. 5 0 . I b i d . 5 1 . I b i d . 5 2 . I b i d . , W.E. D i t c h b u r n , C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s t o a l l I n d i a n Agents o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. January 27, 1923. 53.Hudson, p. 131. See A l s o : M a r t i n W e i n s t e i n , " I n d i a n Land. Use and Occupancy i n The Peace R i v e r Country o f N o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia: A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t , " Vancouver: Union o f B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n C h i e f s , September, 1979. p. 59. 96 54. B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly C l i p p i n g Books. Vancouver D a i l y World. F r i d a y , F e b r u a r y 13, 1920. 55. B r i t i s h Columbia, S e s s i o n a l Papers: Report of the Provincial Game Warden f o r t h e y e a r e n d i n g December 31, 1924. 56. BCARS.'ADD. MSS. 769. F i l e : Correspondence 1922-1926- E a r l K i t c h e n e r P o l l e n , BCPP Division "D" Monthly Game Report, Hudson Hope, C o n s t a b l e Edward Forfar,> May 1924. 57. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly C l i p p i n g s . V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, December 10, 1923. 58. I b i d . , The D a i l y C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) . . S a t u r d a y , F e b r u a r y 2, 1929. 59. Hugh Brody, Maps and Dreams. I n d i a n and the B r i t i s h Columbia F r o n t i e r . Vancouver: Douglas & M c l n t y r e , . 1 9 8 1 . p. 87. 60. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s - , RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3.. C h i e f s o f the S t u a r t Lake, Stoney Creek and F r a s e r Lake t r i b e s t o The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , I n d i a n Department, Ottawa. October 30, 1905; P e t i t i o n from C h i e f s o f the Headman's Creek I n d i a n Reserve, Kamloops D i s t r i c t t o W i l f r e d ' L a u r i e r , March 24, 1908; P e t i t i o n o f the C h i e f s o f S t e l l a and Stoney Creek t o M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. September 30, 1909. r 97 NOTES FOR CHAPTER TWO 1.B C A R S . F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085,. Box 2, F i l e 9. B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e , G e n e r a l Order, No. 43. 2 . I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 7. Game Department Rep o r t , "D" D i v i s i o n , F o r t S t . John. G.M. K e r k o f f , Game Warden. 17 December., 1933. See A l s o : Box 24, F i l e 5. Trap l i n e F i l e s , 1933, S. Game .Department Report. C D . Muir h e a d , Game Warden, Telkwa Detachment t o The O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e George. May 27, 1933. 3. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. Mr. Maclnnes t o Dr. M c G i l l , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, October 4, 1934. See A l s o : BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 1, F i l e 2. Game Law Enforcement Branch, P r i n c e George t o E.S. Ba . p t i s t e , N i c h e l , B.C. Febru a r y 23, 1924. ' - Department i n f o r m s B a p t i s t e t h a t when r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e sytem i s e n a c t e d a n o t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be p r i n t e d i n t h e l o c a l i papers t o n o t i f y t r a p p e r s . U n t i l t h a t time t h e e x i s t i n g t r a p p i n g r e g u l a t i o n s were t o be f o l l o w e d . 4. BCARS..Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 24, F i l e 2. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1033. P.: T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n t o R.H. Moore, I n d i a n Agent, Vanderhoof, B.C. May 10, 1933.The I n d i a n Agent's r e q u e s t f o r l i n e d e n i e d as l i n e w i l l e d t o s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t . See A l s o : Box 23, F i l e 3. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1933, H.: J.S. C l a r k , Game Warden, F o r t N e l s o n Detachment t o t h e D i s t r i c t Game Warden, "D" D i v i s i o n , June 16, 1932 and r e l a t e d c o rrespondence. Two t r a p p e r s swap l i n e s so t h a t one c o u l d remain c l o s e t o home; Box 25> F i l e 5. S.G. Copeland, Game Warden, P r i n c e George t o O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n . June 28, 1934_. Trap l i n e r e c e i v e d from e s t a t e o f p r e v i o u s t r a p p e r ; Box 19, F i l e 4. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1932, B. :' T. Van Dyk t o Wm. G. B r i g h t o n , October 5, 1932. P e r m i s s i o n t o annex b o r d e r i n g l i n e granted.; Box. 19, F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1932, B.: T. Van Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden t o George B a u r i e , Nukko Lake Fur Farm, J a n u a r y 9, 1932. P e r m i s s i o n t o annex p a r t o f a n o t h e r t r a p p e r s l i n e r e f u s e d as l i n e s s e p a r a t e d by a t h i r d r e g i s t e r e d l i n e . Van Dyk recommends p a r t n e r s h i p ; Box 19, F i l e 7. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1932,D.: Mr. Janes Davidson t o Van Dyk, August 19, 1932. L i n e t r a n s f e r r e d t o second t r a p p e r approved; Box 19, F i l e 7.. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1932, E-F. : F.A. Edmunds t o Van Dyk, September 9, 1932. P e r m i s s i o n t o r e g i s t e r t r a p l i n e f o r m e r l y r e g i s t e r e d t o a n o t h e r t r a p p e r approved;. Box 22,. F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, B.: J.E. Bateman t o P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , Gisome, B.C., Jan u a r y 31, 1933. Bateman r e l e a s e s l i n e t o a n o t h e r t r a p p e r . Van Dyk approved -January 31, 1933; Box 23., F i l e 6. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, K.: F. J . Koeneman t o Head Game G u a r d i a n , 98 P r i n c e George, October 4, 1933. Trapper r e q u e s t s p a r t o f h i s l i n e be r e v e r t e d t o e x - p a r t n e r , and i f , t h i s was not a c c e p t a b l e , he asks t h a t the whole l i n e be t r a n s f e r r e d ; Box 27, F i l e 3.. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1934. F.R. B u t l e r , I n s p e c t o r t o O f f i c e r Commanding, l"D" D i v i s i o n . December !8, 1934. Trap l i n e r e g i s t r a t i o n s u b m i t t e d t o I n s p e c t o r i s c a n c e l l e d and r e a s s i g n e d t o nominated s u c c e s s o r ; Box 30, F i l e 3. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1935, G. : F.R. B u t l e r t o O..C. "D" D i v i s i o n , A p r i l 16, 1935. A p p r o v a l o f t r a n s f e r o f p a r t o f a l i n e t o a n o t h e r t r a p p e r ; Box 30, F i l e 7. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1935, K: Game Warden S.F. F a h e r t y , Pouce Coupe to'O.C. "D" D i v i s i o n , June 14, 1935. N o t i f i c a t i o n o f c a n c e l l a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f nominated s u c c e s s o r . Box 31, F i l e 4. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1935, Mc.: F.R. B u t l e r t o O.C. "D" D i v i s i o n . October 22, 1935. A p p r o v a l o f r e q u e s t t o have l i n e t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r t r a p p e r ; F.R. B u t l e r t o Donald MacDougall, Hudson Hope, March 23, 1935. Acknowledges t r a n s f e r o f l i n e t o an o t h e r t r a p p e r ; Box 22, F i l e 2. D i s t r i c t Correspondence, 1933. D i s t r i c t Nos 1,2,3,4.. T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r "D" D i v i s i o n t o R.H. Moore, I n d i a n Agent. May 19, 1933. N o t i f i c a t i o n t h a t r e q u e s t f o r t r a p l i n e f o r I n d i a n not a l l o w e d as l i n e w i l l e d t o t r a p p e r who gave l i n e t o ano t h e r t r a p p e r ; Box 22, F i l e 2. S.: Van Dyk t o C a r l Swanson, F e b r u a r y 6, 1932. Approved o f t r a p l i n e s a l e agreement d a t e d October 31, 1931; Box 23, F i l e 6. 1933 T.: Game Warden W.L. F o r r e s t e r t o J . T u a l , C h i e f Lake. November 27, 1933. F o r r e s t e r i n f o r m s T u a l t h a t a t r a p l i n e i n which he i s i n t e r e s t e d may be c a n c e l l e d as th e c u r r e n t r e g i s t r a n t has not renewed h i s l i c e n c e . The Warden n o t i f i e s T u a l t h a t " ... i f t h i s l i n e i s c a n c e l l e d , you w i l l be given, the chance t o r e g i s t e r i t . " 5. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-2 5. F.R. B u t l e r , Member - Game Commission t o Dr. H.A.W. Brown, I n d i a n Agent, F o r t S t . John, B.C. May 14, 1937. 6. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, GR 1085, Box 23, F i l e 6. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, K.: F . J . Koeneman, Mc B r i d e t o Head Game Gua r d i a n , P r i n c e George. October 4,. 1933 and' r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 7 . I b i d - , Box 29, F i l e 4. T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r "D" D i v i s i o n t o Game Warden G.M. K e r k h o f f , January 2, 1934. 8 . I b i d . , H.A.W. Brown, I n d i a n Agent t o Mr. M . . C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e . C a l g a r y , January 12, 1935. 9.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 5. T.R.L. Maclnnes, S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, Department o f Mines and Resources t o Mr.. D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B.C., Vancouver, B.C. Fe b r u a r y 25, 1938 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . See A l s o : BCARS., F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR • 99 1 0 8 5 , Box 3 9 , F i l e 4 . H . A . W . Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent, F o r t S t . John t o I n s p e c t o r T. Van Dyk,' "D" D i v i s i o n . P r i n c e George. June 9 , 1 9 3 7 . . " 1 0 , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . R G . 1 0 , Volume. 6 7 3 5 , F i l e 4 2 0 - 3 5 . T.R.L. Maclnnes, S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n . A f f a i r s Branch, Department of Mines and Resources t o Mr. D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B.C., Vancouver, B.C. Feb r u a r y 2 5 , 1 9 3 8 and r e l a t e d correspondence.. See A l s o : BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1 0 8 5 , Box 3 9 , F i l e 4 . D i v i s i o n a l Correspondence, 1 9 3 8 . H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent, F o r t S t . John t o Mr-. T-. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r "D" D i s t r i c t , P r i n c e George, June 9 , 1 9 3 7 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 3 9 , F i l e 5 - D i s t r i c t Correspondence, 1 9 3 7 , Nos. 3 and 4 . H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent. F o r t S t . John t o T, Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" D i v i s i o n . A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 3 7 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 3 8 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e nce. 1 1 , BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1 0 8 - 5 , Box 3 1 , ' F i l e 7 . Report o f E. M a r t i n , Game Warden. P r i n c e Rupert t o O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e George, B.C. J u l y 2 4 , 1 9 3 5 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . See A l s o : Report o f E. M a r t i n , Game Warden. P r i n c e Rupert t o O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e George, B.C., December 5 , 1 9 3 5 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Report of E, M a r t i n , Game Warden. P r i n c e Rupert t o O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" d i v i s i o n , P r i n c e George, B.C., September 2 6 , 1 9 3 4 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 1 2 , I b i d . , Box 1 , F i l e 2 , W-.A.S, Duncan t o T, Van Dyk, October 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 . See A l s o : I b i d . , BCPP. "D" Division Report, C o n s t a b l e E. F o r f a r , F o r t F r a s e r , B.C., September 3 0 , 1 9 2 6 ; BCARS. ADD. MSS. 7 6 9 . F i l e : Correspondence 1 9 2 2 - 1 9 2 6 . E a r l K i t c h e n e r P o l l e n , C o n s t a b l e E , F o r f a r t o F . R ' . . B u t l e r , October 1 5 , 1 9 2 5 . . 1 3 . S e s s i o n a l Papers. Report of the Provincial Game Warden, J.H. McMu.llin, 1 9 2 . 7 f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 1 9 2 6 . See A l s o : BCPA. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1 0 8 5 , Box 3 , F i l e 8 . A. Bryan W i l l i a m s , Game Commissioner t o T., Van Dyk, Esq; D i s t r i c t Game Warden "D" D i v i s i o n , September 1 6 ^ 1 9 3 0 ; . B o x 1 9 , F i l e 8 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1 9 3 2 , . E - F . : C D . Muirhead, Game'Warden, Telkwa Detachment t o D i v i s i o n a l Game Supervisor-, T-. Van Dyk. December 1 5 , 1 9 3 2 ; Box 2 2 , F i l e 2 . D i s t r i c t Correspondence, 1 9 3 3 . D i s t r i c t Nos. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r "D" D i v i s i o n t o the Game .Commissioner., November 2 , 1 9 3 3 . . 1 4 . . Ibid.-, Box 1 , F i l e 2 . BCPP "D" Division Report, P r i n c e George. C D . Muirhead, A p r i l 1 5 , 1 9 2 - 7 . 1 5 . I b i d . , Box 2 , - F i l e . 8 . . J..S. C l a r k , Game Warden, F o r t N e l s o n Detachment-, Game Department, Patrol Report, A p r i l 2 0 , 1 9 3 2 . 1 0 0 1 6 . I b i d . , Box 1, F i l e 2. W..A.S. Duncan, N.C.O. Pouce Coupe t o C o r p o r a l T. Van Dyk, P r i n c e George. October 23, 1925. 1 7 . I b i d . , Box 8, F i l e 6. W. S p i l l e r , O.C. P r i n c e Rupert t o C o n s t a b l e B a t c h e l o r , Hudson's Hope, B.C. June 23, 1928 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e nce. 18. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. Report o f .Mr. Maclnnes t o Dr. M c G i l l r e . B r i t i s h Columbia Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . October 4y 1934.. 19. BCARS. ADD. MSS. 769. E a r l K. P o l l o n , Correspondence 1922- 1.92 6. C o n s t a b l e E.. F o r f a r , BCPP. Hudson Hope Detachment. "D" D i v i s i o n , Annual Report. A p r i l 23, 1924. F o r f a r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d : a s s e s s t h e g e n e r a l l o g g i n g and m i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e Detachment; be i n charge o f p r i s o n e r s , p o l i c e q u a r t e r , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s ; conduct s p e c i a l p a t r o l s [ c o v e r i n g hundreds o f m i l e s by ho r s e and/or canoe o r dog s l e d ] ; i n charge o f i n s a n e p a t i e n t s ; m o n i t o r cases o f d i l i g e n c e ; Mothers Pension Act; n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n ; conduct •camp i n s p e c t i o n s ; submit f i r e r e p o r t s (completed i n Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , by the Dominion government); complete p o o l room i n s p e c t i o n s ; complete e n q u i r i e s and a t t e n d i n q u e s t s ; m o n i t o r t h e Liquor Act; a d m i n i s t e r laws under t h e c r i m i n a l code and p r o s e c u t e , a d m i n i s t e r laws under t h e Indian Act, Drug Act, Game Act i n c l u d i n g revenue c o l l e c t i o n under the Game Act and Trade Licence Act. See A l s o : BCARS. P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden. GR 446. Box 125, F i l e 4. Report of Provincial Constable, J.P. S c a r l e t t , A t l i n , B.C. t o A.C. M i n t y . J a n u a r y 21, 1919. 20. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 22, F i l e 2. D i s t r i c t Correspondence, Nos.. 1,2,3,4. Note [on c l o s i n g f l a p o f an envelope] d a t e d June 11, 1932 i n i t i a l l e d J.S.C. [ J . S . C l a r k , Game Warden, F o r t N e l s o n , B.C.] t o Mr Van Dyk ( D i s t r i c t 4 ) . The m a i l i s l e a v i n g f o r Simpson, I havent time t o w r i t e the Game Warden a t John [ F o r t S t . John] r e g a r d i n g the e n c l o s e d a p p l i c a t i o n s . W i l l you p l e a s e t e l l him t h e s e I n d i a n s have made a p p l i c a t o n , f o r t h e e n c l o s e d t r a p - l i n e s . I. u n d e r s t a n d t h a t some t r a p p e r s a t John i n t e n d g o i n g i n t o t h a t c o u n t r y next w i n t e r . These. I n d i a n s have been t r y i n g t o make a p l i c a t i o n f o r the l a s t 2 y e a r s and I have never been a t home when t h e y were here. 2 1 . I b i d . , Box 22, F i l e 2.. D i s t r i c t Correspondence, D i s t r i c t ' N o s . '1,2,3,4. Harper Reed, I n d i a n Agent, T e l e g r a p h Creek, B.C. t o C.C. 101 P e r r y , Esq. I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B..C, V i c t o r i a . August 18, 1933. See A l s o : Box 24, F i l e 9. J.H.. Cummins, Game Warden, F o r t S t . John t o J.S. C l a r k , Esq., F o r t N e l s o n , B.C. Ja n u a r y 30, 1932. 22.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4,. Mr. Maclnnes t o Dr. M c G i l l . , Re. B r i t i s h Columbia Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . October 4, 1934. See A l s o : BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, GR 1085, Box 13, F i l e 7. A. Bryan W i l l i a m s t o T. Van Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden, P r i n c e Rupert, B.C. August 6, 1929. 2 3 . I b i d . , Box 23, F i l e 8. C D . Muirhead, Game Warden t o T. Van Dyk, O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e George.- Game Department Report. A p r i l 20, v1933. 2 4 . I b i d . , Box 8, F i l e 6. C o n s t a b l e A.T. B a t c h l o r t o t h e O.C. "D" D i v i s i o n , Game Branch, P r i n c e Rupert, B.C. Unorganized Territory- Report. A p r i l 23, 1928. See A l s o : I b i d . , Box 24, F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, S.; C D . Muirhead, Game Warden, Telkwa'Detachment, t o O f f i c e r Commanding, P r i n c e R u p e r t . Game Department Report. May 27. 1933; Box 9, F i l e 4. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1928, H.; J.P. Brown, C o n s t a b l e . B e l l a C o o l a Detachment t o N.C.O. i n Charge, P r i n c e Rupert D i s t r i c t . November 21, 1929. 25. B r i t i s h Columbia. The Revised Statutes of British Columbia, 1924. Volume 1. V i c t o r i a : C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , P r i n t e r t o the Ki n g ' s Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , 1924. S. 9, C: V I . 26. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 3, F i l e 8. T. Van Dyk t o P r o v i n c i a l Game Commissioner, November 15, 1930. 2 7 . I b i d . , Box 25, F i l e 3. T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r "D" D i v i s i o n t o the Game Wardens, September 11, 1934. 28. Dominion o f Canada. Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for the year ending March 31, 1927. Ottawa: F.A. A c l a n d , P r i n t e r t o t h e K i n g ' s Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , 1927. 29. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 7. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r f o r I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o t h e Hon. G.M. S l o a n , - K . C , A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, September 10, 1934. 30. Department ..of I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG. 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 5., H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent. F o r t S t . John t o the S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch. Ottawa. December 19, 1937. 31. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. RG 1085, Box 2, F i l e 8. A. Bryan W i l l i a m s , Game Commissioner t o T. Van Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden, P r i n c e George, A p r i l 12, 1932. i 102 32. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG. 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3B.. W.E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B.C., t o Mr. T.R.L. Maclnnes, S e c r e t a r y , . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. A p r i l 7, 1932. • 33. I b i d . , T.R.L. Maclnnes,. S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa t o Ma j o r D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B.C., Vancouver. F e b r u a r y 25, 1938. See A l s o : H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent, F o r t S t . John, t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, Ottawa. November, 15, 1938 and response November 30, 1938. 34. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 36, F i l e 5. H.A.W. Brown, M.D. I n d i a n Agent, F o r t S t . John t o T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" D i v i s i o n . A p r i l 25, 1937. 35. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 5. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n , A g e n t , F o r t S t . John t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, Ottawa. November 12, 1937. See A l s o : H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent, F o r t S t . John. December Monthly Report. January 5, 1938; H.A.W. Brown, t o I n s p e c t o r T. Van Dyk, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e George, June 9, 1937; J a s . G. Cunningham, Member - Game Commission, Vancouver, t o The I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B.C., V i c t o r i a . August 2, 1937; H.A.W. Brown t o I n s p e c t o r T. Van Dyk, A p r i l 25, 1937 and r e l a t e d c o rrespondence. 3 6 . I b i d . , D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n Commisssioner f o r B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, Department o f Mines and Resources, Ottawa. February, 16, 1938. 3 7 . I b i d . 3 8 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. F. Pe d l e y , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o R i g h t Honourable S i r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r , P r e m i e r of the Dominion o f Canada, Ottawa. 24 A p r i l , 1908. .39.Douglas R. Hudson, " T r a p l i n e s and Timber: S o c i a l and Economic Change Among the C a r r i e r I n d i a n s o f N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C olumbia," D o c t o r a t e T h i s i s : Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , S p r i n g : 1983. ppp. 135-136. [Quoted from Frank B u t l e r " F i s h and W i l d l i f e Manual. MS. B.C. M i n i s t r y o f the Environment, . 1962]. 40.BCARS. B r i t i s h C o lumbia 1 A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . GR 1323.. F i l e s G98 - G98-3, R o l l 218. Correspondence 1902-37. L.S. M c G i l l , B a r r i s t e r , S m i t h e r s t o Deputy A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , 3 A p r i l , 1925 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 103 41. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 10, F i l e 2. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1928 N.; A r t h u r N e a s l o s s t o Mr. J.H. M c M u l l i n , P r o v i n c i a l Game Commissioner. January 16,. 1928. and r e p o r t o f A..W. Stone, R i v e r s I n l e t Detachment. March 8, 1928. 42. Department of. I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A 4. P e t i t i o n o f Mrs. E n g l i s h Decker, Canim Lake Band t o Mr. Maclnnes, Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , J a n u ary 17,__1933. 43. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 23, F i l e 6. Trap l i n e F i l e s , 1933. K. G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n Agent t o I n s p e c t o r Van Dyk, Game Department, P r i n c e George, B.C. October 23, 1933. 44. Hudson, p. 136 [Quoted from Submission. 21, pp. 874-875, dated. J u l y 23, 1946, S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee on the I n d i a n A c t , 1946- 1948, House o f Commons and Senate, Government o f Canada] •4 5 . I b i d . . p. 131. 4 6 . I b i d - 47.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. " S p e c i a l Report Re. T r a p p i n g , " George S. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , Kamloops, BC. t o The A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, Ont. September 12, 1923. 4 8 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. P e t i t i o n o f F r a s e r Lake I n d i a n Bands t o Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, n.d. 4 9 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3 5.' S t i k i n e Agency Rep o r t , T e l e g r a p h Creek, B.C. June 16, 1936. 5 0 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3A. " S p e c i a l Report Re. T r a p p i n g , " George S. P r a g n e l l , September 12, 1923. 51. X b . i s L . # Volume 4085, F i l e 496, 658-1. P t . 5. T.R.L. Maclnnes, Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . "What Canada i s Doing f o r the Hu n t i n g Indians.." P r e p a r e d f o r the N o r t h American W i l d L i f e C o n f e r e n c e . Washington, Fe b r u a r y 3-7, 1936. 52. I b i d . . Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 5. Harper Reed", I n d i a n Agent, T e l e g r a p h Creek, B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. June 16, 1936. 53. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly C l i p p i n g s , D a i l y Times ( V i c t o r i a ) , Thursday, 11 A p r i l 1918. 54 . I b i d . 104 55. B r i t i s h Columbia, S e s s i o n a l Papers 1919. Report of the Provincial Game Warden f o r y e a r e n d i n g December 31, 1918. P. 1919. 56. P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden, GR 446, V o l . 125, F i l e 4. BCPP. Game • Repo r t , C r e s t o n B.C. C o n s t a b l e E. Vachon, 30 November 1918. 57. BCARS. ADD. MSS. 769, E a r l K i t c h e n e r P o l l e n , F i l e : Correspondence 1922-1926, BCPP. R e p o r t , Hudson Hope. C o n s t a b l e E. F o r f a r , F e b r u a r y 1922. 58. Monica S t o r r s , God's G a l l o p i n g G i r l : The Peace R i v e r D i a r i e s of Monica S t o r r s , 1929-1931. W.L. Morton and V e r a K. F a s t , eds. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1979.. p. 172. See a l s o : P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden, GR 446, Box 125, F i l e 4. C o n s t a b l e C.F. Evans, T e l e g r a p h Creek, t o P r o v i n c i a l • Game. Warden, W.G. McMynn, 27 November, 1918. In h i s r e p o r t t o McMynn, Evans argued t h a t , i f the amendment t o the. Game A c t p r o h i b i t i n g the. s a l e o f moose meat a f t e r December 15 was s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d , i t would impose g r e a t h a r d s h i p upon the, i s o l a t e d community t h a t had no a c c e s s t o f r e s h meat d e l i v e r y . I t h i n k t h a t i t has been t h e custom i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s t o l e t an I n d i a n b r i n g i n a moose as r e q u i r e d , and s e l l i t a t a p r i c e p e r pound which ,no more than c o v e r s t h e expenses o f . the I n d i a n . I do not t h i n k t h a t t h i s would d e c r e a s e the number o f moose i n the l e a s t f o r b r e e d i n g p u r p o s e s ; p r o v i d e d t h e y [ I n d i a n s ] a r e p r e v e n t e d from k i l l i n g cows and t h e k i l l i n g o f b u l l s under one y e a r o f age. The b i g game, h u n t e r s who were here a t the commencement o f t h e p r e s e n t open- season, reported, t h a t moose, and goat were v e r y p l e n t i f u l everywhere ... . 59. BCARS. GR 1323. B.C. A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Correspondence, 1902-37. F i l e s G-95-2 - H-99-6. Memorandum from t h e S e c r e t a r y Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board t o A.M. Johnson, Esq., Deputy A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , "RESOLUTION TO BE.SUBMITTED TO THE GAME CONVENTION HELD AT OFFICES OF THE COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION, F e b r u a r y 19th, 1919." 60. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. Duncan Campbell S c o t t t o a l l I n d i a n Agents and I n s p e c t o r s i n Man. Sask., A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h Columbia & Yukon. Ottawa, J u l y 1.4, 1919.. 6 1 . I b i d . , New Westminster I n d i a n Agent's O f f i c e t o Duncan C. S c o t t , Esq. Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J u l y 22, 1919. 62. Ibid.,, Okanagan Agency,, I n d i a n Agent's O f f i c e t o A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y , Ottawa. J u l y 30, 1919. 105 6 3 . I b i d . , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , S o u t h e a s t e r n I n s p e c t o r a t e , Vernon, B.C. t o Duncan Campbell S c o t t . Ottawa. J u l y 28, 1919. 6 4 . I b i d . , I n d i a n Agent, S t u a r t Lake Agency, F o r t F r a s e r t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J u l y 30, 1919. 65'. I b i d . , I n d i a n Agent, S t u a r t Lake Agency, • F o r t F r a s e r t o the S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J u l y 11, 1919. 66. I b i d . , F i l e 420-3. A c t i n g I n d i a n Agent, H a r o l d Laird., L e s s e r S l a v e Lake Agency, Grouard, A l b e r t a . A p r i l 24, 1917. 6 7 . I b i d . 68. BCARS.. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 9. B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e , G e n e r a l Order, No. 43. September 2, 1926. 69. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 6._ D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B.C. t o F.R. B u t l e r , Member o f the Game Commission, Vancouver, B.C. Ja n u a r y 20, 1938. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 30, F i l e 7. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1935. K. Correspondence r e . Hudson Bay Company . Manager t r a p p i n g on I n d i a n t r a p l i n e . O.J. Jack, Game Warden t o T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" Game D i v i s i o n . December 6, 1935 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 7 0 . I b i d . , I n d i a n Commissioner, f o r B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, Department o f Mines and Resources, Ottawa, June 15, ,1938 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 7 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3 5. H.A.W. Brown, M. D.', I n d i a n Agent, F o r t S t . John, B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch. Ottawa, November 12, 1937. Brown recommends t h a t band l i n e s be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and S p e c i a l F i r e a r m s L i c e n c e f e e o f $10.00.be l e v i e d , on I n d i a n s o v e r . t h e age o f 21 engaged i n t r a p p i n g . Brown b e l i e v e d t h a t Game Wardens c o u l d m o n i t o r I n d i a n and w h i t e t r a p l i n e s e q u a l l y . See A l s o : Brown t o S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, June 9, 1937; Brown t o S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, A p r i l 22, 1937. 72.BCARS. F i s h and Game Branch. GR 1085, Box 23, F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, M. G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n Agent, Babine Agency. T r a p l i n e C l a i m o f t h e Morgan F a m i l i e s , Kitwanga I n d i a n s . March 31, 1933 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . See A l s o : Box 14,. F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1930, A.; R.. Moore, I n d i a n Agent, Vanderhoof, B.C. t o Thos. Van Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden, Prince..,George., B.C. 106- October, l ' l , 1930 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 12, F i l e 3 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1929, F - G.; J . G i l l e t , I n d i a n Agent, Masset, B.C. t o J . 'H. M c M u l l i n , Esq., P r o v i n c i a l .Game Warden, V i c t o r i a , B.C. March 7, 1929 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n ce; Box 13 , F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1929, W-X-Y-Z.; R. Moore, I n d i a n Agent, Vanderhoof, B.C. t o Thomas-Van Dyk, Esq.," C h i e f Game Warden, P r i n c e George. December 10, 1929 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 2 3 , F i l e 6. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, K.; G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n Agent, H a z e l t o n , B.C. t o T. Van Dyk, Esq., D i v i s i o n a l Game I n s p e c t o r , P r i n c e George, B.C. November 29 , 1933 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n dence; Box 10, F i l e 7 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s . 1 9 2 8 , T - ' u . ; Harper Reed, I n d i a n Agent, T e l e g r a p h Creek, B.C. t o Bob Webster, Game Warden, A t l i n . September 28 , 1928 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 24, F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, W.; Harper Reed t o E. M a r t i n , Esq., Game Department, P r i n c e Rupert, B.C. December 3 1 , 1932 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 1,- F i l e 2 . E. For f a r , . C o n s t a b l e , F o r t F r a s e r Detachment. R e p o r t . September 30 , 1926 . 7 3 . I b i d . , Box 23 , F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, M. G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n Agent, Babine Agency. T r a p l i n e Claim, o f the Morgan F a m i l i e s , Kitwanga I n d i a n s . March 3 1 , 1933 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . See A l s o : Box 14, F i l e 5 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1930, A.; R. Moore, I n d i a n Agent, Vanderhoof, B.C. t o Thos. Van Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden, P r i n c e George, B..C. October 11 , 1930 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e; Box 2 3 , F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, M.; G.C. Mo r t i m e r , I n d i a n Agent, Babine Agency t o T . Van Dyk, D i v i s i o n a l Game I n s p e c t o r , P r i n c e George, B.C. March 3 1 , 1933 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; Box 12, F i l e 3 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1929, F -• G.; J . G i l l e t , I n d i a n Agent, Masset, B.C. t o J . H. McMullin-, Esq., P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden, V i c t o r i a , B.C. -March 7 , 1929 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e; Box 13 , F i l e 8. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1929, W-X- Y-Z.; R.. Moore, I n d i a n Agent, Vanderhoof, B.C. t o Thomas Van Dyk, Esq., C h i e f Game Warden, P r i n c e George. December 10 , 1929 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 74. I b i d . . Box. 9, F i l e 4 . T r a p l i n e F i l e s . , 1928'. H. J.P. Brown, C o n s t a b l e , B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , B e l l a C o o l a Detachment t o N.C.O. i n Charge, P r i n c e Rupert D i s t r i c t . . November 2 1 , 1929. The I n i a n s [ s i c ] have no r e s p e c t f o r the Agent, a Norwegian, who has been here f o r t h e l a s t 30 y e a r s . Once more I r e q u e s t . t h a t a l l t r a p p e r s c a l l a t the P o l i c e O f f i c e b e f o r e [ s i c ] t h e i r l i n e s a r e r e g i s t e r e d . I do not see a f r a c t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s a p p l y i n g f o r a l i n e , and I submit t h a t t h i s I n d i a n Agent i s not a p r o p e r p e r s o n t o handle t h i s work. See A l s o : Box 37 , - F i l e 7.. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1935, R..; A.. Bryan W i l l i a m s , Game Commissioner t o T. Van Dyk, Esq., D i v i s i o n a l Game S u p e r v i s o r , P r i n c e George, B.C. J a n u a r y 17 , 1933 and r e l a t e d , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . I n d i a n Agent C o l l i s o n s u p p o r t s a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f 107 I n d i a n t r a p l i n e because he has not t r a p p e d f o r two y e a r s ; Box 25, F i l e 4. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1934, A. Joe A n t o i n e , Vanderhoof, B.C. t o Game Department, V i c t o r i a , B.C. October 30, 1934. A n t o i n e complained t h a t t h e Game Warden at Vanderhoof was a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n f i s c a t e a major, p a r t of. h i s t r a p l i n e f o r a w h i t e t r a p p e r ; Box 24, F i l e 5. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, S. Matthew Sam and R o s i e M. Sam to A.. Bryan W i l l i a m s , Game Commissioner. A p r i l 6, 1933.. The Sams com p l a i n t h a t t h e Game Warden i n t h e i r a r e a has s o l d t h e i r t r a p l i n e t o a w h i t e man. 75.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3, 5. Harper Reed, I n d i a n Agent, T e l e g r a p h Creek, B..C. Agency's Annual'Report, y e a r e n d i n g 31 March,. 1936. June 15, 1936. See A l s o : Harper Reed, Stikine Agency Report for Month of April 1936. 7 6 . I b i d . . F i l e 420-3A. J.D. J a c k s o n , Chairman o f t h e Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board, V i c t o r i a , B.C. t o J.D. McLean, A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. November 4, 1926. 7 7 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3 5.. Harper Reed/ I n d i a n Agent. Agency's A n n u a l R e p o r t , e n d i n g 31 March 1936. June 15, 1936.. , 78. Canada, Census of Canada: Population c l a s s i f i e d according to principal origions of municipalities, etc., 1931: D i v i s i o n No. 9. S u b d i v i s i o n B, S t i k i n e , L i a r d I n d i a n R e s e r v e s . 79. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch.. GR 1.085, Box 2, F i l e 7. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e t o The Hon. G.M. S l o a n , K.C., A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . September 10, 1934. 80. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e . 4.20-3 6. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent, F o r t S t . John, t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s B ranch, Ottawa. December 23, 1938. 81. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 26, F i l e 5. T. Van Dyk t o C.C. Gleason,, Esq., Dome Creek, B.C. F e b r u a r y 8, 1934. 8 2 . I b i d . , Box 27, F i l e 4. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1934, L.; Game Warden E. M a r t i n , Game Department R e p o r t . F e b r u a r y 22, 1934. 8 3 . I b i d . , Box 23, F i l e 3. T r a p l i n e F i l e s 1933, H.; Co m p l a i n t o f w h i t e t r a p p e r , Smithers., B..C. t o Game Commissioner, Vancouver,- B.C. October 24, 1933. ' 8 4 . I b i d . . Box 27, F i l e 7. T r a p l i n e f i l e s 1927, Mc. Comp l a i n t from L a i r d P o s t , B.C. t o The Game Commissioner, Vancouver, B..C. August 4, 1934. 108 8 5 . I b i d . , Box 1, F i l e 2. E. F o r f a r , C o n s t a b l e , F o r t F r a s e r Detachment. R e p o r t . September 30, 1926. 86. Ibid.. , Box 23, F i l e 6. G.C. M o r t i m e r , I n d i a n Agent, H a z e l t o n , B.C. 'to I n s p e c t o r Van Dyk, Game Department. P r i n c e George, B.C., October 23, 1933.' See A l s o : Box 30, F i l e 7. T r a p l i n e F i l e s , 1935. K. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e . Hudson Bay Company Manager t r a p p i n g on I n d i a n t r a p l i n e . O.J. Jank, Game Warden t o T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" Game D i v i s o n . December 6, 1935 and r e l a t e d correspondence.. 8 7 . I b i d . J.D. McLean, A s s i s t a n t Deputy and S e c r e t a r y . Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa t o C h i e f George Jack, F o r t George, B.C. October 20, 1919. 88. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. Duncan Campbell S c o t t , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l t o A l l I n d i a n Agents and. I n s p e c t o r s i n . M a n i t o b a , Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon. J u l y 14, 1919. 89. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG 10, V o l . 6735, F i l e 42.0-3A. W.E. D i t c h b u r n , C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , t o The S e c r e t a r y , Department o f Indian. A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J a n u a r y 26, 1923. 90. I b i d . , W.E.. D i t c h b u r n , C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , B.C. t o a l l I n d i a n Agencts o f . t h e p r o v i n c e . January 27, 1923. 9 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3C 4. Mr. M c G i l l t o t h e Honourable Gordon Mc. S l o a n , K.C., A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, V i c t o r i a . O c t o b e r 30,'1934. 92.K. Lysyk, " I n d i a n H u n t i n g R i g h t s : C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and. the r o l e o f I n d i a n T r e a t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Law R e v i e w / V o l . 2, No. 3, 1966. p. 405. [S.88 o f t h e Indian Act, R.S.C. 1970] 93.. David. K n o l l , " T r e a t y and A b o r i g i n a l H u n t i n g and F i s h i n g R i g h t s , " Canadian N a t i v e Law R e p o r t e r . (1979); D.E. Sanders, " I n d i a n H u n t i n g and F i s h i n g R i g h t s , " Saskatchewan Law Review. V o l . 38, (1974); K. Lysyk, " I n d i a n H u n t i n g R i g h t s : " ; P e t e r W. H u t c h i n s , "The Law A p p l y i n g t o the T r a p p i n g o f F u r b e a r e r s by A b o r i g i n a l P e o ples i n Canada': 'A Case o f Double Jeopardy, " W i l d l i f e F u r b e a r e r Management and C o n s e r v a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . M i l a n Novak, e t a l , eds; O n t a r i o : M i n i s t r y o f N a t u r a l R esources, 1987 . 94.,Simon v. the Queen [1985] 2 S.C.R.. p. 413. As no t e d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t under S. 88 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n cannot r e s t r i c t n a t i v e t r e a t y r i g h t s . 109 I f c o n f l i c t a r i s e s , t h e terms o f the t r e a t y p r e v a i l . Jacob Kruger and Robert Manuel v. the Queen. [1978] 1 S.C.R. p. 114.. I t has been u r g e d i n argument t h a t I n d i a n s h a v i n g h i s t o r i c h u n t i n g r i g h t s which t h e y have not s u r r e n d e r e d s h o u l d not be p l a c e d i n a more i n v i d i o u s p o s i t i o n than t h o s e who e n t e r e d i n t o t r e a t i e s , t h e terms o f which p r e s e r v e d t h o s e r i g h t s . However, r e c e p t i v e one may be t o such an argument on compassionate grounds, t h e p l a i n f a c t i s t h a t S. 88 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t , e n a c t e d by the government o f Canada, p r o v i d e s t h a t " s u b j e c t t o t h e terms o f any t r e a t y " a l l laws o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n from time t o time i n f o r c e i n . any p r o v i n c e a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o and i n r e s p e c t o f I n d i a n s i n the p r o v i n c e , except as s t a t e d . The terms o f the t r e a t y a r e paramount; i n the a t r e a t y p r o v i n c i a l laws o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n a p p l y . 95.Simon v. the Queen, p. 387. > 96 ..BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 7.. W.E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, t o J.H. M c M u l l i n , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e . October 6, 1925. See A l s o : Box 2, F i l e 2. J.H. M c M u l l i n t o W.E.. D i t c h b u r n , Esq. October 5, 1925; Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 420-3B. A.. Bryan W i l l i a m s , Game Commissioner t o W..E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . March 19, 1932 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 97. Lysyk, pp. 413-414. 98. I b i d . P.. 414. 99. P e t e r W. H u t c h i n s , "The Law A p p l y i n g t o the T r a p p i n g o f F u r b e a r e r s . b y A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s i n Canada: A Case o f Double Jeopardy, W i l d l i f e F u r b e a r e r Management and C o n s e r v a t i o n i n Norht A m e r i c a . M i l a n Novak, e t a l , eds. O n t a r i o : M i n i s t r y o f N a t u r a l Resource, 1987.p. 4.0. 110 ENDNOTES FOR CHAPTER THREE 1. Dennis F.K. M a d i l l T r e a t y R esearch R e p o r t : T r e a t y E i g h t . Ottawa: T r e a t i e s and H i s t o r i c a l Research C e n t r e , 1986. p. 4. 2. D a n i e l R i c h a r d , " S p i r i t and Terms o f T r e a t y E i g h t , " The S p i r i t o f the A l b e r t a I n d i a n T r e a t i e s . R i c h a r d P r i c e , ed., T o r o n t o : I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1979. pp. 61, 66. 3 . I n s p e c t o r J.D. Moodie, "18 97, B l a z i n g a T r a i l To The K l o n d i k e , " Peace R i v e r C h r o n i c l e s . Gordon E. Bowes, ed. Vancouver: P r e s c o t t P u b l i s h i n g Co.,. 1963. p. 201. 4. M a d i l l , p. 14. T h i s was not t h e f i r s t o r o n l y b l o c k a d e s e t up by the Dunne- za t o p r e v e n t o u t s i d e r s from e n t e r i n g t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . I n 1837 a p a r t y o f Saskatchewan freemen had been r e f u s e d a c c e s s t o Dunne-za t e r r i t o r y . See A l s o : Leonard Ugarenko, "The Beaver. I n d i a n s and t h e Fur Trade on t h e Peace R i v e r o f N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia." D i s s e r t a t i o n , York U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. pp. 44, 100. 5. M a d i l l , p. 4. 6 . I b i d . , A b s t r a c t . 7 . I b i d . , p. 122. 8.Charles M a i r , Through the Mackenzie B a s i n : A N a r r a t i v e o f the Ath a b a s c a and Peace R i v e r T r e a t y E x p e d i t i o n o f 1899. T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B i g g s , 1908. -p. 58. 9 . I b i d . . p. 62. I. 0. Rene Fumoleau, As Long As T h i s Land S h a l l L a s t : A H i s t o r y o f T r e a t y 8 and 11, 1879-1939. T o r o n t o : M c C e l l a n d & Stewart L t d . , 1975. pp. 74-75. See A l s o : H i c k e y , Lynn, R i c h a r d L. L i g h t n i n g and Gordon Lee, " I n t e r v i e w s w i t h E l d e r s Program," S p i r i t o f the A l b e r t a I n d i a n T r e a t i e s , pp. 144 - 160; Hugh Conn, " I n d i a n T r e a t i e s as R e l a t e d t o t h e W i l d l i f e and F i s h e r y R e s o u r c e s , " Brief to the Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons in Indian Affairs,. 1961. p. 13. I I . Canada. Sessional Paper No. 27, Report of Commissioner For Treaty No 8. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, December 11, 1900. 1 2 . I b i d . , Report from Inspector for Treaty No. 8, Ottawa, October 5, 1903. I l l 1 3 . I b i d . , Report of Inspector for Treaty No 8, Ottawa, F e b r u a r y 5, 1907. 14. BCARS. Add MSS. E a r l K. P o l l o n , Correspondence 1922 - 1926. C o n s t a b l e E. F o r f a r , Hudsons Hope Detachment. B r i t i s h .Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , Report re. Unprime Pur. F e b r u a r y 7, 1924. 15. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. Headman East End M o b e r l y Lake Reserve., M o b e r l y Lake, B.C. t o I n d i a n Agent, D r i f t p i l e , A l b e r t a . December 12, 1932. 16. I b i d . , F i l e 4 2 0.-3 C 4. I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e , M. C h r i s t i a n s o n t o The S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. J a n u a r y 11,' 1934. See A l s o : M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e t o Dr. H a r o l d M c G i l l , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , A p r i l 16, 1934. 17.Ibid.., H.A.W. Brown, F o r t S t . John Agency, Monthly Report September 1934. 1 8 . I b i d . , H.A.W. Brown, Monthly Report of Fort St. John Agency, B.C. J u l y , 1934. 19..Ibid. , H.A.W. Brown, I n d i a n Agent, F o r t S t . John t o Mr. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e . J a n u a r y 13, 1936. 20..Ibid., F i l e 420-3 6. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent. F o r t S t . John, t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n - A f f a i r s Branch. December 23, 1938.. 21. M a d i l l , p. 77 22. W e i n s t e i n , I n t e r v i e w w i t h John Yahae, p. 67. 23. G.J. Duncan, S t a f f - S e r g e a n t , B.C.P.P. "Peace R i v e r Trap L i n e s , " The Sh o u l d e r S t r a p : The O f f i c i a l J o u r n a l o f the F o r c e , I s s u e d by A u t h o r i t y o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , No. 8, Summer e d i t i o n , June, 1.942. p. 48. 2 4 : I b i d . , p. 49 - 50. 25. P h i l l i p G o d s e l l , A r c t i c T r a d e r : The Account o f Twenty Years w i t h t h e Hudson's Bay Company. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1932. p. 118. See a l s o : W..O. Harper, "A S e t t l e r ' s F a m i l y A r r i v e s , " Peace R i v e r C h r o n i c l e s . Gordon Bowes, ed. Vancouver: P r e s c o t t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1963. p. 325. 26. P h i l l i p H. G o d s e l l , Red Hunters o f the Snows. T o r o n t o : Ryerson P r e s s , 1932. p. 187. 112 27. H.E. Walker, "1917, A D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t R e p o r t , " Peace R i v e r C h r o n i c l e s . Gordon Bowes, ed.' Vancouver: P r e s c o t t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1963. p. 350. 28. Monica S t o r r s . God's G a l l o p i n g G i r l : The Peace R i v e r D i a r i e s o f Monica S t o r r s , 1929-1931.. W..L. Morton and V e r a K. F a s t , eds. Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1979. p. 291. note 40. 29. W e i n s t e i n , pp. 53-55. 3 0 . I b i d . . p. 34. See A l s o : B r i t i s h Columbia. S e s s i o n a l Papers. Report of S u r v e y o r - G e n e r a l f o r t h e y e a r ending December 31, 1924. The'Peace R i v e r a r e a was not the o n l y r e g i o n where the m a j o r i t y o f w h i t e s e t t l e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f u r t r a d e . In t h i s r e p o r t r e g a r d i n g the Coast D i s t r i c t . , i t was. n o t e d t h a t " P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the s e t t l e r s t r a p i n t h e w i n t e r ... ." 31. Cora V e n t r e s s , M a r g u e r i t e D a v i e s and E d i t h K y l l o . Peacemakers of t h e N o r t h . D a v i e s , V e n t r e s s and K y l l o , 1973. p. 248. 32. A.M. Bezanson, "1907 The L a s t West," Peace R i v e r C h r o n i c l e s , p. 244. See A l s o : Peacemakers. Numerous re f e r e n c e , t o s e t t l e r s t r a p p i n g in. Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t i n d i c a t e s e x t e n t o f t r a p p i n g and s u g g e s t s degree t o which F i r s t N a t i o n s groups were d i s p l a c e , pp. 23, 25, 54, 76, 84 - 90, 108, 128, 130, 136, 141, 161, 194, 220, 251, 259 - 2.61, 282, 302, 326. 33. Bezanson, p. 244. 34. G o d s e l l . Red Hunters o f t h e Snows, p. 214. See A l s o : I b i d , pp.. 216-217, 223-224; F r e d e r i c k K. V r e e l a n d , "An E x p e d i t i o n t o L a u r i e r P a s s , " Peace R i v e r C h r o n i c l e s , p. 312. 35. G o d s e l l . A r c t i c T r a d e r p. 128 36. V e n t r e s s , D a v i e s , K y l l o . Peacemakers. pp. 54-55, 79. S e e " A l s o : G o d s e l l , Red Hunters o f t h e Snows, pp. 216-217, 223-224. The Beaver m e d i c i n e man Y e l l o w Wolf d e v i s e d a p l a n t o i n t i m i d a t e w h i t e s e t t l e r s by r a n s a c k i n g a c a b i n . He b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s might cause th e s e t t l e r s t o l e a v e the Beaver's c o u n t r y . Y e l l o w Wolf was u n a b le t o damage the c a b i n because 113 o f a watch dog, so d e s t r o y e d the c o r r a l i n s t e a d and s t o l e two s i l v e r f o x e s . He' was caught, charged and sent e n c e d t o 3 months h a r d l a b o u r . 37. V e n t r e s s , D a v i e s , K y l l o . p. 248. 38. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 7, F i l e 2. Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t . F o r t S t . John. 1925 - 1926. F i l e d a p p l i c a t i o n s . - 3 9 . I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 7. C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r F u r b e r t.o.H.. L a i r d , I n d i a n Agent, Grouard, A l b e r t a . June 9, 1926. 4 0 . I b i d . 4 1 . I b i d . , V o l . 2 , F i l e 2. BCPP "D" D i v i s i o n R e p o r t . C o n s t a b l e C G . Ba r b e r , F o r t S t . John, September 17, 1925. 42. Lynn H i c k e y , R i c h a r d L. L i g h t n i n g and Gordon Lee, " I n t e r v i e w s w i t h E l d e r s Program," The S p i r i t o f t h e A l b e r t a I n d i a n T r e a t i e s . R i c h a r d P r i c e , ed. To r o n t o : I n s t i t u t e , f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1979. pp. 154-155. 43. BCARS. Add MSS 769. E a r l K. P o l l o n , Correspondence. 1922-1926. C o n s t a b l e E. F o r f a r , Hudsons Hope Detachment, "D" D i v i s i o n , Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t . R e g i s t r a t i o n o f Trap L i n e s and Gui d e s , October 15, 1925. 44. BCARS. P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden. GR 446, Box 126, F i l e 1. E. F o r f a r , C o n s t a b l e , BCPP. "D" D i v i s i o n , Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , Hudsons Hope S t a t i o n . Annual R e p o r t . A p r i l 23, 1924. See A l s o : K y l l o e t a l , Peacemakers o f N o r t h Peace, p. 40. [C o n s t a b l e Ed F o r f a r ] s e t t l e d d i s p u t e s o ver t r a p l i n e s . He p l e a d e d w i t h t h e government f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f game r e g u l a t i o n s , s i n c e the p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h o s e o f t h e F e d e r a l I n d i a n A c t . The I n d i a n s were p e r m i t t e d by the F e d e r a l government t o hunt when and where they : wished. B.C. s t a r t e d , r e g i s t e r i n g t r a p l i n e s i n 1925 which p r o h i b i t e d t h e I n d i a n s from h u n t i n g on t h e w h i t e man's l i n e s . 4 5. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, GR 1085, Vol., 2, F i l e 2. BCPP "D" D i v i s i o n R e p o r t . C o n s t a b l e C G . B a r b e r , F o r t S t . John, November 11, 1925. p o s t s c r i p t . N.C.O. W.W.A. Duncan, BCPP Pouce Coupe t o Commanding "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e Rupert B.C. 4 6 . I b i d . Box 2, F i l e 7. C h i e f Game I n s p e c t o r F u r b e r to-H. L a i r d , I n d i a n Agent, Grouard, A l b e r t a . June 9, 1926. 47.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG. 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a 114 I n s p e c t o r a t e t o the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t General, o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. November 30, 1933. See A l s o : BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box. 7, F i l e 2. F i l e d A p p l i c a t i o n s , 1925. 4 8 . I b i d . V o l . 2, F i l e 7. C o n s t a b l e A.T. B a t c h e l o r , Hudson Hope t o N.C.O. Pouce Coupe, B.C., J u l y 10, 1927.. 49. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, V o l . 2, F i l e 7. I n s p e c t o r Commanding "D" D i v i s i o n , W. S p i l l e r t o N.C.O. Pouce Coupe, August 20, 1927. 50. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. H.A.W. Brown, M.D. I n d i a n Agent t o T h e . S e c r e t a r y , Department of Indian. A f f a i r s , Ottawa. F e b r u a r y 23, 1935. 51. B r i t i s h Columbia S e s s i o n a l P a p ers. Report of the Provincial Game Warden f o r the ye a r e n d i n g December 31, 192 6 s u b m i t t e d by J.H. M c M u l l i n . 52. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n ch. GR 1.085, Box 2, F i l e 8. Game Department Report, "D" D i v i s i o n , Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , F o r t N e l s o n Detachment, s u b m i t t e d by Game Warden J.S. C l a r k . J a nuary 18/ 1935. 53. BCARS. GR 1323. B r i t i s h Columbia A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . F i l e s G98 - G98-3, R o l l 218. Correspondence 1902 - 37. A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f B.C.P.P. t o S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f B.C.P.P. and A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . May 26, 1926. 54. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085. Box 2, F i l e 2. "D" D i v i s i o n Game Re p o r t , P r i n c e George. T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r . November 9, 1933. 55. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3A. Chairman/ o f Game C o n s e r v a t i o n Board, V i c t o r i a M.B. Ja c k s o n , t o J.D., McLean, Esq. A s s i s t a n t Deputy o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. November 4, 1926. 5 6 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3C 4. L e t t e r from C h i e f Saccon and Sub C h i e f Joseph Abs F o r t S t . John t o Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . September 22, 1932. 5 7. BCARS., F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box, 2, F i l e 7. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r f o r I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a Inspectorate,, • Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o The Hon. G.M. Sl o a n , K.C., A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, September 10, 1934. 5 8 . I b i d . , M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a , t o Dr. M c G i l l , S e c r e t a r y , Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , J u l y 24, 1933. 11.5 5 9 . I b i d . , T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" D i v i s i o n t o The Game Commissioner, Vancouver, B.C. November 14, 1933. 60..Department o f I n d i a n A f . f a i r s . RG 1.0, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. A.F. MacKenzie, S e c r e t a r y t o M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a . September 14, 1934. See A l s o : F i l e 420-3 5. R.H. Moore, I n d i a n Agent. Vanderhoof, B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, Department o f Mines and Resources. October 10, 1937; R.H. Moore, I n d i a n Agent, Vanderhoof, B.C. t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, Department o f Mines•and Resources. May 12, 1938; Memorandum t o Mr. Maclnnes. Ottawa, F e b r u a r y 3, 1939. 6 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3C 4. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a I n s p e c t o r a t e , t o Dr. M c G i l l . Department, o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . October 4, 1934. 62. I b i d . T.R.L. Maclnnes, S e c r e t a r y t o Dr.. M c G i l l , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t . Memorandum Re. B r i t i s h Columbia Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . October 4., 1934. 63. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 2. "D" D i v i s i o n Game Report., F o r t S t . John. G.M. K e r k o f f , Game Warden. December 17, 1933. 64 ..Ibid. , Box 8, F i l e 5. "D" D i v i s i o n Game Department R e p o r t , (page 1 of. 3) G.M. K e r k o f f , Game Warden. November 6, 1933. 6 5 . I b i d . 66. I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 2.. "D" D i v i s i o n Game Repo r t , P r i n c e George. T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r . November 9, 1933. 67. I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 7. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n t o A. Bryan W i l l i a m s . . December 1, 1933. , 6 8 . I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 7. C h r i s t i a n s o n t o W i l l i a m s . October 14, 1933. 6 9 . I b i d . . V o l . 2, F i l e 2. "D" D i v i s i o n Game Repo r t , F o r t S t . John, (page 2 o f 3 ) . G.M. K e r k o f f . 6 November, 1933. 7 0 . I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 7. C h r i s t i a n s o n t o Van Dyk. September 10, 1934. 71. I b i d . , C h r i s t i a n s o n t o B.C. A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l G.M. Sloan.. September 10, 1934. A copy o f t h i s l e t t e r accompanied a l e t t e r sent t o Game I n s p e c t o r Van Dyk a l s o d a t e d September 10, 1.934. 72. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , A l b e r t a 116 I n s p e c t o r a t e t o Dr. H a r o l d W. M c G i l l , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . November 30, 1933. 73. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085', Box 2, F i l e 7. Brown t o Van Dyk. November 30, 1934. 74. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . Mr. Maclnnes, S e c r e t a r y , . Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o Dr. M c G i l l , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l , Ottawa. R. B r i t i s h . Columbia Game A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . October 4, 1934. 75. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 7. I n s p e c t o r T. Van Dyk t o Game Warden G.M. K e r k o f f , F o r t S t . John, B.C., December 8, 1934. 7 6 . I b i d . , Box 29, F i l e 4. D i s t r i c t Correspondence 1935. No. 1,2,3,4. Game Warden G.M. K e r k o f f t o The O f f i c e r Commanding, "D" D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e George, B.C. J u l y 6, 1935. 77. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG. 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3 6. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent, F o r t S t . John t o Mr. R.A. Hoey, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f W e l f a r e and T r a i n i n g , I n d i a n A f f a i r s 'Branch, Ottawa. A p r i l 28, 1938. 78. I b i d . , F i l e 420-3' 6. H.A.W. Brown,. I n d i a n Agent... F o r t S t . John. Agent's Report for Month of January 1939. n.d. 79. BCARS.. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 39, F i l e 7. D i s t r i c t Correspondence 1938, No 4. T. Van Dyk, I n s p e c t o r , "D" Game D i v i s i o n t o The Game. Commissioner, Vancouver, A p r i l 23, 1938. 80. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 67 35, F i l e 4.20-3 6. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent. F o r t S t . John t o The S e c r e t a r y , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, Ottawa. December 23, 1938. 81. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 30, F i l e 2. T r a p l i n e , F i l e s 1935, E - F. L e t t e r o f Complaint from w h i t e t r a p p e r , L i t t l e P r a i r i e , B.C. t o Mr. Van Dyk, C h i e f Game. Commissioner, P r i n c e George, B.C. September 2, 1935. 8 2 . I b i d . , Game, Warden G.M. K e r k o f f , F o r t S t . John, t o Game Warden 5. F. F a h e r t y , Pouce Coupe, B.C. 20 June, 1935. 83. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e F. R. B u t l e r , Member - Game Commission, t o The I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B.C., V i c t o r i a , B.C.. J u l y 14, 1937. 84. M a d i l l , p. 128. 11> 85.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3B. Canadian P a c i f i c ' R a i l w a y Company's T e l e g r a p h y Telegram t o Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa from N.P. L'Heureux, D r i f t p i l e A l b e r t a , March 4, 1932 and r e l a t e d c o r r e s p o n d en ce . 8 6'. BCARS. Fish, and W i l d l i f e B ranch. GR. 1085, Box 2, F i l e 7. W.E. D i t c h b u r n , Indian- Commissioner f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. October 6, 1925. ' . ' • 87'. I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e . 8. T.. Van Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden., D i v i s i o n "D" Report t o The Game Commissioner, Vancouver, B.C. March 15, 1932. See A l s o : I b i d . , Geo. S.. P r a g n e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , Kamloops, B.C. t o Mr. Van Dyk, D i s t r i c t Game Warden, P r i n c e George, B.C. September 19, 1929. 8 8 . I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 71. W.E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a t o J.H. M c M u l l i n , O f f i c e o f th e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , B.C. P o l i c e A p r i l 1, 1932 and r e l a t e d •„ correspondence. 8 9 . I b i d . , Box 2, F i l e 8.. W.E'.. D i t c h b u r n , Indian. Commissioner f o r B.C., t o A. Bryan W i l l i a m s , P r o v i n c i a l Game Commissioner, Vancouver, B.C. March 7, 1932.. 90.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, f i l e 420-3B. T.R..L. Maclnnes t o W.E.. D i t c h b u r n , Indian. Commissioner, V i c t o r i a , B.C. A p r i l 21, 1932. 9 1 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3B. C C . P a r k e r , A c t i n g S e c r e t a r y t o N.P. L'Heureux, I n d i a n Agent, D r i f t p i l e , A l b e r t a . A p r i l 21,- 1932. 92 ..Ibid. , A. Bryan W i l l i a m s t o W.E. D i t c h b u r n , I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r . f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a . June 28, 1932. 93. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 8. J.S. C l a r k , Game Warden. F o r t Nelson'Detachment. Game Department. Patrol Report.. A p r i l 4, 1932. 94. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3B. A. ..S. W i l l i a m s , A c t i n g Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l t o A, Bryan W i l l i a m s , Game Commissioner, Vancouver, B.C. J u l y 7, 19-32. 9 5 . I b i d . , F i l e 420-3 5. D.M. MacKay, I n d i a n Commissioner f o r B. C. t o Mr. F.R. B u t l e r , I n s p e c t o r , Game Commission, Vancouver, B.C. June 2, 1937.. See A l s o : H.A..W. Brown t o S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa. March 31, 1936; H.A.W. Brown, Combined M o n t h l y r e p o r t s f o r J u l y , August and September. October 4, 1936; Harper Reed, I n d i a n Agent, S t i k i n e Agency. Agent's Report Month o f A p r i l , 1936; F i l e 420-3C 4. H.A.W. Brown. J u l y 1934, M o n t h l y R e p o r t F o r t S t . John Agency, B.C; F i l e 420-3 6. H.A.W. Brown, M.D., I n d i a n Agent t o Mr. C. Pant 118 Schmidt, I n s p e c t o r I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , C a l g a r y . A p r i l 6, 1938; BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. GR 1085, Box 39, F i l e 4. H.A.W. Brown t o I n s p e c t o r T. Van Dyk, "D" Game D i v i s i o n . , P r i n c e George, B.C. June 9, 1937. 96. Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6.735. F i l e 420-3 A. Geo. S. P r a g m e l l , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A g e n c i e s . Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia t o Dr. Duncan Campbell. S c o t t , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Ottawa, Ont., F e b r u a r y 22, 1927.. 97. BCARS. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch.. GR 1085, Box 2, F i l e 7. M. C h r i s t i a n s o n t o Mr. M c G i l l , 24 J u l y , 1933. 119 NOTES FOR THE CONCLUSION 1.Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . RG 10, Volume 6735, F i l e 420-3C 4. Mr. Maclnnes, S e c r e t a r y , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o Dr. M c G i l l , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , Ottawa, October 4, 1934. 2.Ibid., Volume 4085, F i l e 496, 658-1, P t . 5. T.R.L. 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" Ph. D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Madison: U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n . 1983. Ugarenko, Leonard G. "The Beaver I n d i a n s and th e Fur Trade on the Peace R i v e r 1700-1850," Ph. D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1975.' W e i n s t e i n , M a r t i n . " I n d i a n Land Use and Occupancy i n t h e Peace R i v e r C o u n t r y o f N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o lumbia." Vancouver: Union o f B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n C h i e f s , 1979. VII. Judicary Records: Simon v. the Queen [1985] 2 S.C.R. Jacob Kruger and Robert Manuel v. the Queen [1978] 1 S.C.R. 130 APPENDICES 131  Province of British Columbia 1928 Attorney General I—— Appendix II Conservation Board Game Administration Provincial Game Warden • , Mgratoty Chief Game Inspector Headquarters Office and Staff Victoria, B.C. Provincial Gam« 8 folding Farm* Gam« S«n<tu*rf«< Prodalory Anrm*lj Enforcement j Game Divisions A B ( D E Vancouv«f fcbnd Sou«iEa« Uaintand Northmen SouAW«ct Inspectors Game S ar Game C ergents id orporals Game Wardens | Source : British Columbia Sessional Papers Report of the Provincial Game Warden for year ending Dec. 31,1927 I8>3> Appendix III Source: Olive Patricia Dickason, Canada's First Nations. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1992. p. 274. 1 3 4 - NORTHEAST BRITISH COLUMBIA Appendix IV Northeast British Columbia Indian reserves Present Bands Reserves Date allocated Terrain Acreage Culture Saulteax East Moberly Lake 1918 high foothills 4490 Cree West Moberly West Moberly Lake 1916 high foothills 5025 Beaver & Cree Halfway Halfway River 1925 low foothills 9890 Beaver Blueberry Blueberry River 1950 boreal forest 2383 Cree& Beaver Doig Doig River Beatton River* 1950 1950 boreal forest boreal forest 2473 883 Beaver Fort Nelson Fort Nelson 1966 muskeg & river valley 444 Slavey & Cree Fontas 1966 muskeg & river valley 25 Kahntah 1966 muskeg & river valley 26 Snake River 1966 muskeg & river valley 28 Prophet River Prophet River 1966 low foothills & muskeg 924 Beaver *Held jointly by Blueberry and Doig Bands. Source: Hugh Brody, Maps and Dreams Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre, 1981. p.31 135 Appendix V British Columbia Registered Indian Population by Residence Code for the Month Ending August 1994 N O R T H E A S T BRITISH C O L U M B I A Type of Residence Code: 1. On Reserve (Own Band) 4. On Crown Land (Other Band) 2. On Reserve (Other Band) 5. On Crown Land (No Band) 3. On Crown Land (Own Band) 6. Off Reserve Band Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total Saulteaux 293 1 0 0 0 324 618 West Moberly 68 - 0 0 0 0 47 115 Halfway River 143 3 . 0 0 0 136 182 Blueberry River 143 13 0 0 0 106 262 Doig River 108 4 0 0 0 84 196 Fort Nelson 278 4 1 0 o 1 285 568 Prophet River 99 1 0 0 1 50 151 Source: BC Region Registered Indian Population by Residence Code for the Month Ending: 9408. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1994. |3U INDIAN BAND LAND, Pre 1926, PEACE RIVER DISTRICT Band c o n s i s t i n g of Apsassin, Cheekyass, Yahey and Wolf f a m i l i e s Appendix VI CHETffWD' Source: M a r t i n W e i n s t e i n , Indian Land Use and Occupancy i n the Peace R i v e r C o u n t r y o f N o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia: A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t . Vancouver: Union o f B.C. Indian C h i e f s . 1979. 3*7

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