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A structural analysis of George Enescu’s Piano sonata in D major, op. 24, no. 3 Kvarnstrom, Jonas Erik 1992

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A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF GEORGE ENESCU’S PIANO SONATAIN D MAJOR, OP. 24, NO. 3ByJONAS ERIK KVARNSTROMB.Mus., The University of Victoria, 1983M.Mus., The University of Victoria, 1986A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFLLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCI’OR OF MUSICAL ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(School of Music)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standarSiTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAMay 1992© Jonas Erik Kvarnström, 1992c4CnDctOcnUIZiQDHctF—rnjQrOjL\jt:0(DODiOD’ODiH0U)CD(DZDiDi-HZCDU1iZZZZHZti•ctCDCD’CD00CD’Q-DictCfl(flct0ZIU)HOQU)DiwHIIC)U)HHCDCDOctHOHOrtt—0DiOCl)SCDI—CDHQ.U)H,CDOH•QOCflH0l-CD-ZQ.iDiOPJZOCi)cnPi’1.CI)U)tJ02<ZHDi(DOCIH.QZ-HeCDHII0DiDiflDlCt-ctOs-(ri-i-CtHHU)0ct0ZQHflHU)cttfl0Hf--DiOCDH-i-U)OCflCDDi-DlCJZPi(DHO<CDZDiHct-U)DiC!)Q<Z(Ds(DsrtZO<PJHOOrtOC)Q.(D<CDci-H(Dcti-IQ.CDU)HOZH-HZO00HHU)OCDDiHH<O•CD’tci-CDOI-h‘.Q0f-”0ctZn-OZNCnHctDiZ.IH0—flHCIjci-.HDlCDCDDl’ct-CDZctZOO(Df-nt-CD(DZc-t-CD(DHHCD‘Q.O0OZHNHOctcHU)<HU)QHDI-I1-”O.H.QCD’0(DCflOH•ZH0(Ds(DCI)HHI-ICnSctni-QU)JCDU)CD0CDOHCDCDDi-0•OH0OO00F-”HHCI)CDZZU)OOH-ZCD’HZ<--WCDL-’.HOLJ.U)0Q.CDci-<H0HO-CDHHHSPJ(DZH—Dl(DCflZQOOCD0(l)’OH.iU)H.-HHO’Q.<ZHZOSHfrhH’ct.DCDsQ.H<5O0H0H(DOCDO’DiU)Ok)Q-CDHCDOU)<O-HZZ’Ql-ICl)HCl)U)CDci-CDOw<OHHOC-i---ctø<U)CflCDsCDHctHHO0.CDCDZI(D’.OOHOXU)HZOCD’HHCDOCtctHHDiDinISU)0HCtHHU)0’OHHCtU-CDCD—i.rsJZDiH•-JCDLQci-ctDiO(D’Q.CDHDiZO0CCtH0ZU)OU)CDH-PJZc-i-O-<Cl)ICH(tDictQjQ.DIHH0Cn<ZCD-•(!)tiPJ0OU)CD(DO’0------0<CL].ZM0Z1-40CD00HHCDHLJ.ZOct5HOHHOOZHU)(DCHO(DDJCJ)-SHU)SHDi5OCD-Zt’J<ZctOCDCDC!)CD3•HOO<0OQ.HHHZflH-><HHCZO5U)..O0ZHOHi-JH‘HDiCQjHHCDHS<HHU)HHO•WH(D(J)<Di(DCDsO0-Cl)U’CDr’JDi><O0Cn-U)5CDCnOHCDCJ)(Ds>OOHZZMU)-—iCi)5CDSHU)•MOHOctCDsHDiDH0Di-(DHO•DiOC—J<HD)I-Di’Hici-HZHO’ODIHH00HOWHH(DsHCDSD)Cl)ZHDiSHO0CDC1CD—Cl)HHZ0DiCI-f-ctZHOHiOHZOHDiHP)ctOCD-(DsOCDCDc-tODiHDiH5<H,QOOHCDOZGcOHhhOOH0ZOOCl)DiHHZ•CDZHC!)HHHiOCl)HQOHOZ—1-.iH0Q.0HDiHHZDiHOOZOQUJ.5DiH-‘..DDIDiHOCDCDCD‘.050(l)WU)ci-•Ic-iI’JDiI—l0•—-•-CD0’PJO‘ZCZ0HDiWO.(I)CD.<HHDi-Z•OctflU)H•ci-0: S—3(J H CD CD“alabertI I I I- I IJParis, le 27 Fvrier 1991Monsieur JONAS KVARNSTROM401, 1414 WEST 73RD AVENUEVANCOUVER, B.C -N/Ref. : NQ/AB V6P 3E8Monsieur,Nous accusons reception de votre Iettre du 15/2/1991..Nous vous accordons l’autorisation non exclusive gra—cieuse dans les limites évoquées dans ledit courrier.Quant aux Op..24 n°1 et n°2 les EDITIONS SALABERT n’ensont pas l’éditeur.L’Op.24 n°1 est édité par les EDITIONS ENOCH.L’Op.24 n°2 est inédit.Nous vous prions de croire, Monsieur, en l’expressionde nos sentiments distingués.NELLY QUERChef du Service Juridique22. RUE CHAUCHAT ADRESS TELEGRAPHFQUE SALABERT AS-09F 7flflg PbJt’cc J 6 N E iJonas Kvarnstr/imKiuwer Academic101-Philip Assinippi Pk.Norwell, Massachusetts02061Vancouver, April 26, 1991Dear Sir/Madam:In partial fulfillment of the Doctor of Musical Arts Degree atthe University of British Columbia 1 am writing a dissertationon George Enescu’s Piano Sonata in D Major, Op. 24, No.3.Excers of “Rumanian Folk Music by Bela Bartok, Vol.1 - InstruiEal’e1odies”, Ed._Be12.jmin Suchoff (1967), will be used asexamples in my anaisof cu’s work.It is my understanding that you represent the Publisher of “Rumanian Folk Music...”, Martinus Nijhoff, in the North Americanmarket. I would like to ask for your permission to print thesemusic examples in my document, which will only be deposited inU.B.C.’s Main Library for academic, non—commercial use.As the success of my dissertation depends strongly on the useof Folk Music examples, I would greatly appreciate your replyat your earliest convenience.Thank you very much for your time.Sincerely,,7Jonas Kvarnstrom401- 1414 West 73rd Avenue • Vancouver, B.C. V6P 3E8 (604) 261-6300II’1vvIacademicpublishersSpuiboulevard 50P.O. Box 173300 AA DordrechtThe NetherlandsTelex: 29245Telefax: (0)78-334254Telephone (central): (0)78-334911Bankers: ABN Bank, DordrechtAccount Number 51.34.52.206Postal Cheque Account Number 4447384Chamber of Commerce DordrechtCommercial Register Number 51097Telephone (direct): (0)78-Date 23 May 1991334 210Mr. J. Kvarnstrom401-1414 West 73rd Ave.VANCOUVER, B.C. V6P 3E8CANADADear Mr. Kvarnstrom,With reference to your request (copy herewith) to reproduce material on whichKluwer Academic Publishers control the copyright, I confirm that you have ourpermission, free of charge, for the use indicated in your enquiry.In all cases, including those where the original copyright notice cites the name ofanother, we request that you add this statement:Reprinted by permission of Kiuwer Academic Publishers.With kind regarii&-.(Mrs.) Odt Kiers’PolsRights and PermissionsEnd.Kiuwer academic publishers B.V. incorporating:ft Reidl Pijhlishinn flnmrnv Mrtn flr W Ink ,rrD D...In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.Department of LJSL(.The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate )1vth 3; )qtDE-6 (2/88)11AbstractGeorge Enescu (188 1-1955) is known primarily today in conjunction with the world ofviolin playing. Celebrated as a violin virtuoso throughout the capitals of Europe and NorthAmerica in the first half of this century, and later admired as a teacher of luminary talentssuch as Yehudi Menuhin, Arthur Grumiaux, and Ida Haendel, Enescu exerted aconsiderable influence on the developments of the international music scene. This wasnowhere more apparent than in Paris and Bucharest, cities in which Enescu spent most ofhis life active as performer, conductor, and composer. As his career progressed, Enescudedicated an increasing amount of time and energy to composition, producing animpressive list of works, many of which were of monumental proportions.Contemporary with Bartok and Kodály, Enescu found himself caught in the current ofnationalism that asserted itself in Europe during the first decades of the twentieth century.Seeking a personal, expressive idiom in which he could fuse the musical elements of bothWestern tradition and his native Rumanian folk heritage, Enescu experimented with diversecompositional trends and styles. Expanding the reaches of tonality with heightenedchromaticism, in which microtonal as well as modal inflections were both to playsignificant roles, Enescu’s idiom evolved into a highly plastic language, comprising a greatvariety of stylistic characteristics. In order to assimilate the heterogeneous elements intoone unified expression, Enescu relied on traditional compositional techniques such assonata form, cyclic thematic structure, and motivic development.The focus of this paper is to examine to what extent these compositional techniques areincorporated into his work and to direct attention to those elements, i.e., both structural andnon-structural, that were most distinctive of Enescu’s musical style. Owing to itsconcentration of key stylistic elements and its stature as perhaps the most accomplishedpiano composition in Enescu’s output, the Sonata for Piano in D Major, Op. 24, No. 3(1934) will serve as model for this analytical study.Chapter One provides by way of an introduction a brief overview of the formative yearsin Enescu’s life and defines the position of the Sonata within the complete ceuvre.Chapters Two, Three, and Four constitute the main body of the paper and containanalyses of each of the Sonata’s three movements. In these chapters discussion revolvesaround the more significant structural features of the work such as the overall cyclic design,simultaneously examining the methods Enescu employs to integrate folk inflectionthroughout the Sonata.illChapter Five comprises the summary. The most significant features of the Sonata arerecapitulated and parallels to numerous other works are drawn, in an attempt to present theSonata as a culmination of Enescu’ s compositional style.ivTable of ContentsAbstract iiList of Figures VAcknowledgements vi1 Introduction 12 Structural Analysis: First Movement 53 Second Movement 144 Third Movement 255 Summary 38Addendum 42Bibliography 44VList of Figures2.1 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, first movement, mm. 1-5 6-7Bela Bartok: Rumanian Folk Music, p. 402, #4862.2 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, first movement, mm. 46-58 8-9Bela BartOk: Rumanian Folk Music, p. 590, #7282.3 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, first movement, mm. 75, 89-90, 97-99 92.4 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, first movement, mm. 112-114, 105/146. 10-112.5 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, first movement, mm. 169-17 1, 232-239. 12-132.6 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, first movement, mm. 33-34, 133-137.... 12-132.7 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, first movement, mm. 249-25 1, 256-261 133.8 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, second movement, mm. 1-5 153.9 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, second movement, mm. 14-23 16-173.10 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, second movement, mm. 24-29, 39-4 1 183.11 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, second movement, mm. 45-46 193.12 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, second movement, mm. 5 1-52 203.13 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, second movement, mm. 63-68 213.14 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, second movement, mm. 75-77 223.15 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, second movement, mm. 84, 90 234.16 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 1-3, 18-32 26-274.17 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 44-49, 57-59, and203-206 27-284.18 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 69-72, 218, 263 . . 28-294.19 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 84-88, 109-115... 29-304,20 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 139-143, 188-194.... 314.21 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 185, 165 324.22 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 229-23 1 324.23 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 285, 289-290, and294-295 334.24 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 306-322 35-364.25 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 339-343 364.26 George Enescu: Sonata in D Major, third movement, mm. 35 1-354 37viAcknowledgementsI am indebted to many whose guidance and support played a crucial role in the writing ofthis document. In particular, I would like to thank Professors Douglas Finch, VeraMicznik, John Roeder, Robert Rogers, Jane Coop, and Robert Silverman for theirassistance.To my wife Hildegard, for her continual support and understanding, I am forever grateful.Permission to reprint excerpts from George EnescutsPiano Sonata in D Major, Op. 24,was kindly granted by Salabert Editions.Permission to reprint excerpts from Bela Bartok’s Rumanian Folk Music was kindlygranted by Kiuwer Academic Publishers.1Chapter OneIntroductionComposed in the year 1934, the Sonata in D Major, Op. 24, No. 3 was the last workfor piano solo that Enescu wrote and represents a point of culmination in his pianisticoutput. Among the works written in the period following the completion of his mostambitious work, the opera Oedipe (1932), the D Major Sonata contains perhaps the mostvivid display of structural plasticity and unity. The concept of unity had absorbed Enescuincreasingly since ca. 1910, at which time he had begun work on Oedipe. Confronted withthe problems of organizing the vast spectacle of Sophocles’ drama in musical terms,Enescu developed a complex network of motivic and thematic material whose dynamicdevelopment and evolution throughout the opera would parallel the physical events of theepic. This was to influence the formal plan of the Sonata, where a continuous filament ofthematic and motivic material assists in unifying the diverse characters of the threemovements. Based on his experiences with Oedipe, Enescu turned his attention more andmore to the transformative potential of thematic material in an effort to extend the scope ofhis musical structures. This indeed becomes a focal point in the slow movement(Andantino cantabile) of the D Major Sonata. Commenting on the Sonata’s affinity withOedipe in a letter to his librettist Edmond Fleg, Enescu writes:Je me console aussi en me réfugiant dans la composition: une nouvelleSonate pour piano seul en est le temoignage fraIchement sorti de l’Oedipe. (Iconsole myself also by seeking refuge in composition: a new Sonata forpiano solo bears the fresh imprint of Oedipus.! All translations are mineunless otherwise stated)(Cosma 1974, 330)Inherent in the interwoven thematic language of the Sonata is an underlying cyclicalelement, whose most dramatic expression takes place in the coda of the final Allegromovement. At this point the first theme of the first movement returns together with theopening D Major tonality. In order to prepare the event as a logical outcome in the arch-likeplan of the Sonata, Enescu reintegrates music from previous movements increasingly as thework progresses. Concurrent to this is a gradual disintegration of formal clarity. This canbe seen in the move away from the first movement’s sonata form plan and clear tonalorganization, to an increasingly chromatic and modal idiom in the latter two movements.The intricacy of structure displayed in the Sonata can perhaps be partly understood in light2of the great scope of Enescu’s musical education, and of his diverse and cosmopolitancareer as performer, conductor, teacher and composer.Born 1881 in Liveni-VIrnav, Moldavia, Enescu displayed early on a prodigious talenton both violin and piano. His musical propensity prompted his parents to secure himfurther studies at both the Vienna and Paris Conservatories in the 1880’s and 1890’s.Enrolled in violin, piano, chamber music, history and composition classes, the youngEnescu immersed himself in all aspects of the musical arts, learning assiduously fromdistinguished teachers such as Josef Helimesberger, Robert Fuchs, André Gédalge, JulesMassenet and Gabriel Fauré. In particular, the counterpoint classes of Gédalge proved tobe of enormous influence on Enescu’s development. Gédalge’s instillment of rules ofmusical structure with simultaneous emphasis on original and personal expressionimpressed itself upon Enescu. It was, however, not until the latter 1890’s that Enescu wasable to develop his already considerable skills as composer and to win widespreadrecognition. This came with the premiere of his first major work, the Rumanian Poem forOrchestra. Op. 1, on February 6th, 1898, in Paris during one of the Colonne Concerts.The immediate popularity accorded the event inspired Enescu to exhibit more of hisnationalistic side. This resulted in the composition of the Rumanian Rhapsodies Nos. 1and 2 in 1901-1902. However, despite their imaginative use of orchestral colour andRumanian folk inflections, the rhapsodies remain largely episodic pieces, far removed fromthe more serious, penetrating style that Enescu had already displayed in the Sonata No. 2for Violin and Piano of 1899. In this latter work, the tendency towards an interwoven,cyclic thematic structure is already discernible, a trait that would distinguish many ofEnescu’s compositions.In the years leading up to the First World War, Enescu worked within variouscompositional trends and traditions. His “particular aptitude to accumulate and combinediverse elements” (Firca 1970, 4), enabled him to integrate a number of styles into onecommon, expressive language. He incorporated neo-Baroque elements in his Suite No. 2for Piano of 1903, naming the four movements Toccata- Sarabanda - Pavana- Bourrée.With this work Enescu admitted to having been influenced by the suites and pianocollections of Claude Debussy. Enescu also emulated the large-scale proportions ofWagner’s music dramas in his First Symphony in E Flat Major of 1905, and modelled hissong cycle Sept Chansons de Clement Marot of 1907- 1908 on pre-existing French cycles.All this experimentation was ultimately to lead to a coherent synthesis of sophisticatedchromaticism and Rumanian folk music. The realization of this synthesis emerged fully inthe works of the 1920’s. The Sonata No. 3 for Violin and Piano of 1926 representsperhaps the first full-bodied expression of the mature style. In this sonata Enescu displays3a masterly integration of the ‘parlando rubato’ style, so characteristic of the Rumanian‘doin&, a song of either a vocal or instrumental nature based on extemporization. Theexotic colourings throughout the sonata result from the employment of both modal andquarter-tone elements, whose interpretation is closely linked with the string instrument’scapacity for varied pitch delivery. The rich and intricate ornamentation of the improvisatorystyle found throughout the sonata foreshadows much of the writing in the D Major PianoSonata as well as that of the late works.The Rumanian folk element was as much a part of Enescu’s compositional psyche aswas the cyclic thematic structure. Although he drew inspiration from both the authenticfolk music (i.e. peasant songs) and the Lautari-type folklore (Rumanian gypsy music),Enescu favored the latter due to its rich assimilation of melodies and dances from diversegeographic regions (Tudor 1957, 30). It was not until later in his life that Enescuacquainted himself more intimately with authentic Rumanian folk music. Despite hisawareness of the differences between the two sources, Enescu saw little value in pursuingauthenticity as a vehicle for originality. He incorporated those features of the folk musicthat seemed appropriate to his own needs. He expounds:Do not be obsessed by the idea of artistic progress. Do not seek for a newlanguage; seek your own language, that is, the means of expressing exactlywhat is within you. Originality is attained only by those who do not seek it.(Tudor 1957, 30)The inclusion of the folk element in the central themes of the D Major Sonata representsan ideal that Enescu strove towards in his constant fusing of heterogeneous materials toform one common, homogeneous language. By utilizing certain melodic and rhythmiccharacteristics of Rumanian folk melodies in the themes, Enescu is able to disseminateelements of the folk idiom; (i.e., modality, monody, heterophony, etc.) throughout thework.Although recent musicological activity has somewhat rekindled interest in Enescu andhis works, close examinations of specific compositions are lacking. Most of the literatureon Enescu is of Rumanian origin and unfortunately leans towards a general discussion ofnationalistic tendencies within his work, neglecting the more penetrating issues of structureand form. This holds true for the D Major Sonata. Besides two somewhat problematicdiscussions on the Sonata’s modal tendencies and overall national character (Firca 1965;Zottoviceanu 1971), there remains only one other article pertaining to the work, StefanNiculescu’s essay, “Sonata a Ill-a pentru pian de Georges Enescu” in the sixth volume of“Muzica” of 1956. This essay, however, was unobtainable, despite efforts to have it4forwarded out of Rumania by Professor Tanasescu, a member of the European PianoTeachers Association.My discussion will centre on the more significant structural aspects of the Sonata, suchas the thematic content and its role within the overall cyclical plan. Further discussion willrevolve around the folk element in the Sonata, examining its ramifications on the work as awhole. This will hopefully lead to a clear understanding of the Sonata’s dramaticimplications and character, which might offer the performer valuable insight tointerpretative possibilities.Each movement is accorded an individual chapter, in which an introductory synopsisprefaces the ensuing analysis. Chapter Five comprises a summary of the work’sexamination and attempts to draw parallels to other works within Enescu’s ceuvre. Anaddendum containing a chronological listing of Enescu’s works follows the fmal chapter.5Chapter 2First Movement: Vivace con brioOpening the sonata with great elan and rhythmic impetus, the Vivace functions as anexpository vehicle to the Andantino and Allegro movements on many levels. First andforemost, it provides the thematic substance from which the latter movements borrow andin turn further develop. It is in effect the thematic depository of the sonata. Equallyimportant is the Vivace’s casting in a sonata form plan, in which the tonality of D Major isprojected as tonal base for the entire sonata. Although the Andantino and in particular, theAllegro movements move away from the tonal coherence of the Vivace, the imprint of thesonata form plan can be felt in their sectional articulations and recapitulatory gestures.Beyond this, the Vivace also presents the Rumanian folk idiom, whose multifacetedcharacter marks both latter movements with augmenting intensity, as the prevalence ofmodal inflections increases. These are some of the more salient features of the firstmovement, whose discussion will uncover many interconnecting relationships throughoutthe work.Though schematic- analyses for the Andantino and Allegro movements remain to bepresented in a coherent fashion, observations on the Vivace movement as cited in chapterten of the Enescu-Monografie (Zottoviceanu 1971,741) present the following breakdown:Exposition: First theme area: mm. 1-20Transition: mm. 2 1-45Second theme area: mm. 46-74Closing statement: mm, 75-96Development: mm. 97-168Recapitulation: First theme area: mm. 169-188Transition: mm. 189-191Second theme area: mm. 192-210Closing statement: mm. 211-231Coda: mm. 232-2626The divisions given here are without exception accentuated by the appearance of eitherthe first or second theme, and mark significant points of arrival in the movement’strajectory. In keeping with the traditional dictates of sonata-allegro form, the first themearea defmes the tonic D Major. Although initially appearing in a modal context, the secondtheme is subsequently drawn into a tonal sphere and defines the dominant A Major by wayof its dominant, E Major. This is subsequently reinforced with a restatement of the firsttheme in A Major in the closing of the exposition. A return to the tonic D Major with arearticulation of the first theme, signals the commencement of the development. Theremaining portion of the development consists of a significant recall of both first andsecond themes within an Eb Major orientation, which persists throughout the development.The development therefore acts at the same time as a form of false recapitulation, The realrecapitulation clearly reaffirms the tonic D Major. A reinforcement of the tonic ensues inthe concluding coda. Thus, the formal characteristics and use of tonalities within themovement are quite conventional. Yet, the formal model here bears more similarities to thepre-classical sonata form such as cultivated by Scarlatti, than to the classical Beethovenianmodel. The most significant aspect of the Vivace, however, is that it provides the thematicmaterials, “the generating nucleus” (Cosma 1972, 19) of the entire sonata. This brings usto an examination of the two themes.With the opening theme which hereinafter will be referred to as the giocoso theme (asmarked in score), Enescu captures the Rumanian folk idiom with an unmistakable referenceto Rumanian dance melody (Figure 2.1). Distinct similarities exist between Enescu’stheme and one of the authentic folk melodies collected by Bela Bartok in the years 1908-1917 (Bartok 1967,402). Both the theme and BartOk’s recorded melody share a scalar andtriadic contour, whose orientation speaks clearly of D Major. Both melodies accentuate thetriadic structure through repetition, and the falling scalar motion is thus restated.Conceived rather as motivic cells, the melodies express an economy of substance whichbecomes a focal point in the giocoso theme.P116 GEORGE ENESCUVivace con brio(’ 1T) op. 24 nr. 3. ---- ;4__,_-PIANO pf gocoso—F F — --r LILI LI74’86-.Cont.’d from previous page.Figure 2.1: First movement, mm. 1-5. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Used byPermission of the Publisher. Bartok excerpt: p. 403. © 1967 Martinus Nijhoff. Used byPermission of Kiuwer Academic Publishers.Combining both the melodic and haniionic aspects of the D Major triad in a presentationof linear and vertical events, Enescu is able to expand the potential of the simple, openingcell. Linking the right-hand triads together with an alternating AS and G5 that is alreadypresent in the falling fifth, the cellular nature of the theme expands outward to a three-measure statement. Commencing in m. 4 the procedure is repeated on the dominant A.Referred to as “Enescian undulation” by Zottoviceanu, the shifting A-G structure (m. 1)receives special emphasis in the hiccup effect caused by the juncture of the 6/8 and 2/8meters (Zottoviceanu 1971, 741). Precisely here at this juncture, the iambic meter of thebasic 6/8 meets with the 2/8 extension (the tied D Major triad of the right hand), resulting ina suspension of the iambic meter. This in turn facilitates the rearticulation of the D Majortriad and falling fifth at the outset of m. 2.Placed in alternation with the events of the right hand, the left-hand rising motion froma third to full triad, counteracts the falling motion of the right hand and promotes the equaldistribution of an eighth note pulse. By breaking down the iambic meter of the right handinto individual eighth note entities, Enescu might very well be underscoring an octosyllabicline, itself a prevalent feature of Rumanian folk verse. Brailoiu refers to this syllabiccharacter of the rhythm as ‘syllabic giusto’ (Alexandru 1980, 112). The giusto element isoften associated with a defined rhythmic character such as found in the giocoso theme.Diametrically opposed to the syllabic rigidity of the first theme is the ‘parlando rubato’character of the second theme, which hereinafter will be referred to as the dolce rusticotheme (Figure 2.2). Entailing a freer rhythmic structure in the vein of a recitativo, theparlando rubato element can most often be found in the Rumanian ‘doina’, a song ofessentially lyrical nature, based on extemporization (Alexandra 1980, 50). As well, thedoinas frequently use modal scales as a basis, where a fluctuating fourth degree, i.e. eithernatural or sharpened, is particularly common. The augmented fourth or tritone A4-D#5 inm. 48 and 53 of the dolce rustico theme reflects this, and is furthermore an active agent inoooCD .I—CD.’I-’CDELrr1P0MCDI—p-..CD ——-I-CDCD.I-ti.—.)0rj0‘I-$‘CDCD-UiCD>CD0Oo-ELTCDCD0,41CD0oCD•CDUiaCDWNC’D0XCt’‘-.0c’cm0CDCDac,_ 0ImQCDCDI—ViUiVi0—‘-4.0cm00CDCD•CDCD‘-‘bi-(t’000L‘ r r(I.— qll4v9D’o— r——Cont.’d from previous page.Figure 2.2: First movement, mm. 46-58. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Used byPermission of the Publisher. BartOk excerpt: p. 590. © 1967 Martinus Nijhoff. Used byPermission of Kiuwer Academic Publishers.Although the dominant key is thus concealed throughout the second theme area, itsclear articulation at the outset of the exposition’s closing statement in m. 75 draws thepreceding E Major orientation into context (Figure 2.3). The affirmation of A Major bygiocoso material recalls mm. 5-7, at which point the principal theme was reiterated on thedominant. It is furthermore a logical decision in that the ionian identity of the giocosotheme forces the D# of the augmented fourth to naturalize, negating the prolongation of EMajor. However, the fluctuating fourth degree continues to appear, as is succinctlyexemplified in the shifting accidentals on D3 in m. 89, at which point the falling fifth of thegiocoso theme meshes with the augmented fourth structure of the dolce rustico theme. Thepersistence of the raised fourth/lydian characteristic throughout the closing statement issuch that it finally impacts upon the giocoso material and the D Major tonality in mm. 97.This marks the commencement of the development section.T1 r—1LLr”p —97 ii_— ppL JFigure 2.3: First movement, mm. 75, 89-90, 97-99. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A..Used by Permission of the Publisher.Although the return of the D Major tonality is muted dynamically as though to avertattention (see ppp marking in m. 97), Enescu reinforces the significance of the event not.•;* $- -w.—L._____— tac75 bpuI-.-,10only through the aforementioned thematic articulation, but also through register. Byinserting a Dl at the outset of m. 97, Enescu extends the lower range of the Vivace’sregistral palette. Until now, the G#l that announced the arrival of the dolce rustico themein m. 46 (Figure 2.2), represented the lowest point in the movement. Furthermore, boththe G#l and Dl initiate pedal points that demarcate arrival points in the Vivace’s tonal plan.This is particularly evident in the instance of the Dl that appears immediately following theprotracted Al pedal tone of the exposition’s closing statement (mm. 89-96, Figure 2.3).The shift from the dominant A Major back to the tonic D Major is here clearly exposed.The development section’s most significant feature is the false recapitulatory gesturethat commences in m. 112 with a near complete recall of the first theme area (see Figure2.4). Although an Eb Major orientation dominates throughout the development, a motiontowards the tonic D Major in a reappearance of the second theme is apparent (m. 146-,Figure 2.4). The rustico theme now presents itself as a C# phrygian or D lydian, in atransposition down a fifth from the G# phiygian/A lydian of mm. 46-51 of the exposition(Figure 2.2). Notice the C#l (m. 146) that overrides the Dl of m. 97 as the lowest point inthe movement. The transposition of the rustico theme down a fifth of course parallels theshift from A Major to D Major found at the juncture of the exposition’s closing statementand development. The move towards the tonic in the rustico theme together with the recallof large amounts of thematic material, would seem to justify labeling the development as atype of pre-recapitulation, however, the elusiveness of an outright affirmation of the tonicand the general transitional nature of the development dispel any sense of completerecapitulation.The choice of Eb Major as dominant tonality in the development can be understood as aNeapolitan colouring of the tonic. Positioned between the D Major of the exposition andrecapitulation, Eb Major can be perceived as an upward undulation of the tonic, indeed as aprojection of the undulating, melodic line of the giocoso theme. This impression issupported by the flux between D Major and Eb Major that is found throughout thedevelopment. Moreover, Eb Major is strongly related audibly to the D# pitch whichoutlines the modal thtone A-D# both in G# phrygian and in A lydian. Eb Major can thusalso be interpreted as a tonal embodiment of the pitch D#, a relationship which underscoresthe classical organic unity prevalent in the entire sonata.8”E.Z”””Ji r 1J F J .-M:=L F-: ----L{ poco tFanquallo . ios)1 05L!( fi1i fr_i. F i< p fLolc,.s3. amcbil—j19—‘—C;S.__146 zjnf;.):—€ _—-LCont’d from previous page.Figure 2.4: First movement, mm. 112-114, 105, 146. © Editions Salabert S.A.. Used byPermission of the Publisher.Paralleling the concealment of the dominant A Major in the dolce rttico theme and themasking of the development with a false recapitulation, Enescu deemphasizes therecapitulation’s beginning in m. 169 through muted dynamic markings and diminution(Figure 2.5). Stripping away the rigid, rhythmic webbing of the right and left hands, hefrees the giocoso theme of its syllabic structure. This enables the improvisatory nature ofthe theme’s reappearance to unfold uninhibited. Employing the contour of the theme as ascaffolding for the rapid figurations, Enescu continues to vary the giocoso material throughembeffishment and diminution until the onset of the coda in m. 232 (Figure 2.5). At thispoint the headlong momentum of the recapitulation reaches a brief stasis on a D pedal, overwhich the fluctuating third of the A triad of mm. 4-5 (Figure 2.1) impresses itself on thetonic triad, i.e. F#6-F6 in mm. 233-234. The respite on the D pedal is, however, shortlived and gives way to a sequential descent, whose intervallic composition is linked to aparticular manifestation of the giocoso theme.This manifestation or rather manipulation is first exposed in mm. 33-34, where theundulating A-G melodic line of the theme is pushed upwards a half step to Bb, only to fallimmediately to G, a minor third below. This ushers in a C Major sonority in m. 34, whosenegation of the tonic’s leading tone reflects the fluctuating, modal personality of thetransition between the giocoso and dolce rustico themes. The transitional function of theseevents is key to understanding their inclusion in sequential passages in the movementwhich function as links between articulation points. One such instance occurs in the midstof the development in mm. 133-137 (Figure 2.6). Here the ascending minor secondfollowed by descending minor third can be traced in the upper voice of the right hand, i.e.D4-Eb4-C4-Db4-Bb3. Emanating from a preceding D articulation that truncates the recallof the first theme area in Eb, the brief sequential application of the rising and falling motionconnects through to a reassertion of the Eb orientation in m. 137. In the aforementionedsequential descent in the coda commencing in m. 235, a chain of the ascending minor11a teinpo.= 104) tranq.)7to. —ocjqOCDCciC)C)O CDo o CD C),-,o-CDj—’-.CDCDijOCDCl,-coC) CDCD p0 0crQod-I-..CDCDr-II r13P.*.razz136—’.):L J L JCont.’d from previous page.Figures 2.5 and 2.6: First movement, mm. 169-171, 232-239, 33-34, 133-137. © 1939Editions Salabert S.A.. Used by Permission of the Publisher.In keeping with the emphasis piaced on the giocoso theme throughout the recapitulationand in particular, the coda, the concluding measures of the movement dedicate themselvesto a final rendering of the theme. First appearing in mm. 249-251, and then later in mm.256-26 1, the triadic structure and descending scalar motive of the theme are consolidatedinto one entity, as if frozen in a moment of stasis (Figure 2.7). Its subtle and gradual decayin the form of sympathetic vibrations, generated by an emphatic ascending fifth in the lefthand of m. 256, concludes the coda with a fitting reference to the falling fifth that openedthe movement..= 112)(.. io ) (J. too) in tempo (J116.. (s.) (.,J (•) (•g .. IFigure 2.7: First movement, mm. 249-251, 256-261. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A..Used by Permission of the Publisher.14Chapter ThreeSecond Movement: Andantino cantabileThe Andantino movement plays a pivotal role in the sonata’s dramatic and thematicconception. As well as functioning as the traditional slow movement, the Andantinoconcerns itself with extending and transforming thematic material already exposed in theVivace movement. Enescu utilizes the dolce rustico theme of the Vivace as the centraltheme for the Andantino, and generates two thematic sub-segments that we will refer to asthe first and second thematic extensions. There is thus surprising diversity within thethematic material despite the movement being monothematic. The transformation of thedolce rustico theme in the thematic extensions reflects in general the transformed characterof the theme itself, in its move from a much faster tempo in the Vivace to that of theAndantino. The slower tempo allows the theme a rhythmic freedom that is essential to the‘parlando rubato’ idiom, which characterizes so much of the movement..Although Niculescu is cited to have discerned features of the ‘lied form’ in theAndantino’s formal plan, he acknowledges at the same time numerous features that point tothe movement being cast in some semblance of sonata form (Zottoviceanu 1971, 744).This latter view has particular appeal in regards to the overall conception of the sonata,where tonal coherence normally associated with sonata form gradually breaks down as thework progresses (see Chapter Five). Despite variances within the form - such as thedevelopment returning in the midst of the recapitulation - the sections are arranged inintelligible articulations:Exposition: Theme: mm. 1-8, 8-13Thematic extension 1: mm. 14-19Thematic extension 2: mm. 20-23Development: Section 1: mm. 24-38Section 2: mm. 39-44Section 3: mm. 45-59Recapitulation: Theme: mm. 60-62Thematic extension 1: mm. 63-6715Recapitulation cont. ‘d:Development: mm. 68-79Thematic extension 2: mm. 80-83Coda: mm. 84-101The movement commences in B Major with the exposition of the rustico theme and thetwo extensions. A fugal texture announces the beginning of the development in the midstof which a B flat structural point comes to the fore (m. 39). The recapitulation asserts itselfwith a clear B Major articulation coupled with the rustico theme. Following therecapitulation of the first extension, the B flat structural point returns and disrupts therecapitulation (m. 68). This ushers in material associated with the development. Thereturn of developmental process rearticulates a tonal conflict between B Major and A minorthat underlies the movement’s plan, and does so with climactic vehemence. With theappearance of the second extension B Major is reinstated. This is, however, cut short byan intervening A structural point (m. 82) which leads into the concluding coda section. Theinterplay between B Major and A minor- the latter ultimately leading into the D aeolian atthe outset of the Allegro * becomes a constant point of meditation in the coda. The stepwisedescending link of structural points, B-Bb-A, that characterizes the shift from B Major to Aminor throughout the movement, finds its most compressed expression in the latter half ofthe coda.The movement opens with the dolce rustico theme (Figure 3.8):(2’J))Andantino cantabileç) 7. 1 my 1oIcc,penseroso,.Impoco ad Lib —I- -I.Figure 3.8: Second movement, mm. 1-5. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Used byPermission of the Publisher.I__i16Accompanying the transformative influence of the tempo reduction are numerousalterations of the theme that will in part necessitate a reexamination of the theme’sexposition in the Vivace. First and foremost, the tonic-dominant relationship exposed inthe underlying pedal clusters of the two portions of the theme in the Vivace (i.e. A Major-EMajor), is again embodied in the B Major-F# Major orientations of mm. 1-2 and 3-5respectively. Significant here is the reflection of the tonal shift in the central augmentedfourth, whose change from E5-A#5 in mm. 1-2, to B4-E#5 in mm. 3-5, marks a departurefrom the constancy of the A4-D#5 in the Vivace. Retained also are the octave articulationswhich initiate both segments of the theme (mm. 1 and 3). Whilst the G# and E octaves inthe Vivace defined the dominant by way of its dominant, E Major, the D# and B octavesnow defme the tonic B Major in the Andantino. With the repetition of the theme in mm. 8-13, a harmonic background is added at which point the inferred shift from tonic todominant of the preceeding monodic setting is amplified. This leads directly into the firstthematic extension.Commencing on the dominant in m. 14, the extension projects an ascending scalarmotion that initially appears to differ from the theme’s structure (Figure 3.9). However,upon closer examination it unveils several characteristics that link it to the dolce rusticotheme. The extension’s motion from dominant to tonic is similar to the theme. Centralhere is again the shifting E#-E that either indicates or negates the presence of the F# Majortonality. The ascending A#4-B5 melodic outline, straddling mm. 14-16, reflects the shiftfrom dominant to tonic, signalling a brief arrival on tonic harmony at the apex of B5 at theclose of m. 16. The therein exposed interval of a minor second/ninth also plays asignificant role in the thematic identity of the final Allegro. Understood as anembellishment, the B5 colours the A#4-A#5 ascent as an upper neighbour, which is indeedsupported by the undulating motion between A#5 and B5 that sets in mm. 16-17. Thisundulation can furthermore be seen as an expansion of the A#5-B5 shake and the upwardresolution to the B5 of the E4-A#4 tritone in mm. 1-2. Akin to the A5-G5 undulation ofthe Vivace’s giocoso theme, the A#-B flux is now highlighted dramatically within thecontext of the rising, scalar motion of the extension.I.. _I L17Figure 3.9: Second movement, mm. 14-23. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Used byPermission of the Publisher.Overlapping with the close of the first extension, the second extension exposes an overttriadic structure that is of immediate contrast to the disjunct contour of the rustico theme(Figure 3.9). Numerous elements in the second extension, however, point to the rusticotheme. Among these are a renewed emphasis on the leading tone/tonic, A#JB, in themelodic contour of mm. 22-23. Amplifying the frequency of the triplet element found bothin the theme and in the first extension, the second extension sets up a rocking motion thatdoes much to propel the ascending line forward to the same apex of B5 in m. 22 (seepositioning of B5’s in mm. 3 and 16). The underlying shift from the tonic B Majorthrough to the dominant and back to the tonic, is disturbed by the appearance of A and Enaturals in m. 22, that momentarily negate both tonic and dominant tonalities to assert the Aorientation (by way of its dominant, E Major) that will eventually override the tonic BMajor.These are then the three segments of the continuous filament that constitute the thematicbody and exposition. Progressing from the monodic setting of the opening to the tieredpolyphony of the second extension, the basic thematic substance unravels to revealpotentialities that expand the thematic language of the movement and of the sonata. TheAndantino’s exposition is therefore the most concentrated expression of thematic generationin the entire work. Enescu’s ability to transform and extend the scope of his thematicmaterial is here displayed.Cont.’d fmm previous page18The development commences with a distinctly fugal texture, utilizing the melodic line ofthe first extension as centrepiece. The opening measures are set monodically, as if incontemplation of the exposition’s monodic opening. The accumulated growth towards theend of the exposition is thus effectively disbanded, enabling a new beginning to bearticulated. Commencing in the right hand of m. 24, the first extension reappears overtonic B Major harmony (1.h.) that lingers on from the close of the second extension(Figure 3.10). An E#4 in m. 25, however, signals a shift to the dominant F# Major. AB#4 in m. 29 reveals a shift to C# Major - the dominant of the dominant - that accompaniesa rearticulation of the extension’s melody. Thus, while the passage displays the typicalfugal statements of the subject, it departs tonally from the tonic-dominant-tonic structure,by giving the third statement also at the fifth. The emphatic, ascending motion of the firstextension lends itself ideally to the horizontal nature of the fugal texture, as does itsheterophonic nature, already exemplified in the parallel dialogue of the right and left handsin mm. 18-19.trnpn (.-(O>molto tranq..Ppp_!•I_t-— .r—__________________‘“—.4 tI ‘ I— L’ .Sr jEP 3_— I j- —ThEFigure 3.10: Second movement, mm. 24-29, 3941. © 1939 Editons Salabert S.A.. Usedby Permission of the Publisher.p19The ascending motion of the first extension is equally suited to the rise in register thataccompanies the fugal dialogue to the next sectional articulation in the development (Figure3.10). Commencing in m. 39, there is a brief section marked nostalgico, that recalls mm.3-4 of the rustico theme with special emphasis on the augmented fourth. The sectionachieves a feeling of stasis with its constant reiteration in the bass and in the alto voice ofthe Bb. This Bb ostinato changes enharmonically to an A# which serves (through a briefdetour around a G tonal center) as a kind of leading tone to B, which serves as the centralostinato note at the outset of the next section in the development (m. 45, see Figure 3.11).This shows again the structural significance Enescu has given to these two pitches, i.e. Band Bb.In the third section of the development beginning in m. 45, the B(5) functions more asa melodic ostinato, over frequently changing tonal centres. An increased compression ofthematic elements can also be found in this section. Most pervading among these elementsis the rhythmic personality of the second extension, whose alternating triplet and dottedrhythm is integrated in the right hand of mm. 45-46 (Figure 3.11). The double thirds thatare so distinctive of the second extension’s triadic nature, now emphasize the undulatingmotion of the right hand in m. 46. The static undulations stem from the preceding section(m. 41, Figure 3.10). This also applies to the augmented fourth, A4-D#5 and diminishedfifth, F#4-C5 in the alto voice of mm. 45-46, that accompany the B5 ostinato note.a tepo.. 8O)gneno lento—----.. .jeenza rigor.zC s isi1z45 pprnJsterLosotranq.) - .2 2. ?—. — 3 _—-Figure 3.11: Second movement, mm. 45-46. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Used byPermission of the Publisher.Although the terse fugal nature of the development’s opening (mm. 24-38) ceases uponreaching the Bb ostinato of section 2, imitative elements in the form of heterophonicdialogue persist throughout the development. One such instance occurs in mm. 51-52,where the falling and rising contour of the rustico theme (mm. 1-2) is recalled for the firsttime since its exposition (Figure 3.12). Initially announced in the F# octave articulation ofthe right hand, the thematic material is embellished with the grace note figures that have20permeated so much of the movement. In m. 51 the embeffishment once again ornamentsthe central augmented fourth G4-C#5. The tenor voice of the left hand reiterates the samemelodic line, although somewhat displaced. The left hand line is largely unembellished.The dialogue in these measures provides an interesting contrast to the morehomophonically-styled mm. 45-46, that opens and characterizes much of thedevelopment’s third section.Figure 3.12: Second movement, mm. 5 1-52. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Used byPermission of the Publisher.The recapitulation and its climactic rupture has already been discussed in the synopsisaccompanying the schematic diagram of the movement (p. 15), however, there remains aneed to examine how and why the rupture takes place. The move away from the reinstatedB Major tonality begins with the recapitulation of the first thematic extension. Theplacement of the first extension on the dominant F# Major is disturbed by the appearance ofan A 4 in m. 64 (Figure 3.13). This ushers in an augmented fourth, A4-D#5, whose overtpresence in the first extension marks a departure from the extension’s presentation in theexposition. This change destabilizes B Major’s hold, yet at the same time underscores thefirst extension’s relationship to the rustico theme through the association of the augmentedfourth. The lowering of the A# also causes a semitone depression of the extension’sremaining melodic line. This initiates an A4 ostinato that runs through mm. 65-67. Itssimilarity to the Bb and B ostinati of the development emphasizes some structuralsignificance. Owing to the overall semitone depression and promotion of the A pitch, theextension’s ascending line now correspondingly peaks on BbS, retaining its original scopeof a minor ninth. This is significant in that the Bb pitch is now emphasized together withthe A pitch. The tonal ramifications are that Bb complements the Andantino’s concluding Aminor orientation in preparing the D aeolian that opens the Allegro movement. Theincreased frequency of the Bb pitch from this moment on assists therefore in the overriding00CDCD0hDCD0C12o-$G••0;CI)0.-0D-‘CDCDCDBU°B0-CD(DC)t11-‘--,0CD0(j•2UUHC) CD0-‘I-,.-0:00022both rupture and climax involve material from the first extension? The points thesequestions make perhaps play an important part in Enescu’s decision to extend the breadthof the recapitulation.The truncation of the first extension in m. 68 is indeed related to the climax.Similarities between the truncated extension and the climactic recall of the extension in mm.75-77 (Figure 3.14) might support the view that the first extension does in fact extendthrough to the recapitulation of the second extension (mm. 80-83) in some manner or form.Paralleling the semitone lowering of the extension in mm. 64-67, the lowering of an Eb3 toD3 on the third eighth of m. 75 ushers in an augmented fourth, D3-G#3 (Figure 3.14).This involves an enharmonic reinterpretation of the melodic line, moving away from abrief, inner voice Bb ostinato (mm. 74-75) back to B Major. Owing to the semitonedepression, the first extension’s ascending line peaks on E (E5-E6) at the close of m. 76.The E octave then participates in an A minor chord at the opening of m. 77 (r.h.), against aB Major seventh chord in the left hand. This marks the first instance that the A pitch isgiven such an emphatic tonal dimension. Up until this point in the movement, the brief Aostinati have been the sole indications of the movement’s tonal outcome. The significanceof the vertical superimposition of the A minor sonority with the B Major seventh chord isemphasized with the movement’s soleffmarldng.Figure 3.14: Second movement, mm. 75-77. ©Permission of the Publisher.1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Used by23Despite the impact of the A minor sonority in m. 77, B Major regains its hold with therecapitulation of the second extension (mm. 80-82). This, however, is short lived and BMajor relinquishes its role as governing tonality at an increasingly rapid rate in nearing themovement’s close. The stages of its annexation by A minor/D aeolian forms the basis ofthe concluding coda.The coda opens in m. 84 with a wash of sonority, whose subdued dynamic contrastseffectively with the explosive force of the climax (Figure 3.15). Measure 1 of the rusticotheme is recalled in the right hand and in the descending portion of the left hand. Thedescending, ascending contour of the theme last appeared in the left hand of mm. 76-77.Its appearance in m. 84 bears the imprint of the movement’s tonal flux, but does so verysubtly. Embedded within the A minor sonority that opens the measure in the right hand,the theme no longer projects B Major. Enescu, however, manipulates the intervallicconstellation of the theme in order to hint at B Major. This he does by inserting a D#6 inthe ascending portion of the theme, whose combination with the F#6 of the augmentedfourth and the B octave (BO/Bi) of the left hand fonms a B Major triad.\ “-.._l I__i l_I I_Figure 3.15: Second movement, mm. 84 and 90. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Usedby Permission of the Publisher.The subtlety of the coda’s portrayal of central tonal and thematic issues is nowherebetter exemplified than in m. 90 (Figure 3.15). The Andantino’s B-Bb-A linear movementis exposed in the left hand’s bass line B-Bb-A, as well as in the triadic movement of the3 —9:{‘? LI190__I —-, I :__J_.. - .________24right hand. The melodic manipulation of mm. 33-34 in the Vivace reappears in the midst ofthe right hand triads (i.e. C Major sonority, see Figure 2.6), and serves as a linlcing gesturebetween the B Major and A minor triads. The triadic grace-note figure in the left hand ofm. 90 (A-E-C-E-C; first appeared in mm. 17-18 of the first extension) will also serve as alink to the central theme of the Allegro.25Chapter FourThird Movement: Allegro con spiritoAlthough the forward projection of the Andantino’s first extension into the final Allegromovement acts to unify the themes of both movements and indeed of the entire sonata, aheightened sense of fragmentation, in the form of interruptive cyclical references, disruptsthe thematic evolution of the Allegro and renders it the least coherent of all threemovements. Working solely with the material of the previous movement’s first extension,Enescu presents three major articulations of a single theme which at all times retains anaeolian identity amidst shifting tonal orientations. The articulations trace through a Dminor-A minor-B minor tonal plan, whose motion towards the ultimate D Major of the codais central to the movement’s and indeed, Sonata’s dramatic plan. The coda constitutes notonly the conclusion of the movement but of the entire sonata in its emphatic rendering ofthe Vivace’s D Major tonality together with both giocoso and dolce rustico themes.The divisions within the movement are as follows:Section A: mm. 1-83Section B: mm. 84-228Section C: mm. 229-305Coda: mm. 306-354As already stated at the conclusion of the aforegoing chapter, the opening measures ofthe Allegro are in essence a continuation of the Andantino’s final stage. The potential of thetriadic cell’s grace-note embellishment from m. 90 is reexamined, and finds itself now asan impetus-generating device in the movement’s dance character (see Figure 4J6).Although this initial germ of the central theme is interrupted in mid-stream by a reference tothe Andantino, its placement at the head of the movement provides the crucial link betweenthe Allegro’s theme and the first extension of the Andantino. As well, the germinalstatement’s focus on A - the dominant tone of the D minor tonality - foreshadows the A4pedal tone that extends through the first, integral presentation of the theme in mm. 18-27(Figure 4.16). At this point the D minor tonality impresses itself upon the thematicmaterial, placing the initial phrygian flavour of the germ into a D aeolian context. Thetheme’s kinship to the first extension of the second movement now becomes mostFTc’0 ij0r*.CD‘.-I CD CDaQZC’)CDCD00jUCD CD CDCDcic0 0 0L’.)27Cont.’d from previous page.Figure 4.16: First movement, mm. 69-70. Third movement, mm. 1-3, 18-32. © 1939Editions Salabert S.A.. Used by Permission of the Publisher.The extension is reiterated in full in the theme’s first appearance (mm. 18-27) within thetoccata-like rhythm of the movement, which is soon to be upset by yet another reference tothe past. With an interjection of a B Major sonority at the outset of m. 28, the B-Bb-Atonal shift of the Andantino is recalled, much in the vein of that movement’s m. 90 (Figure4.16). This is particularly noticeable in the falling, triadic motion of mm. 30-32. Thedrunken quality arising from the coffision of the theme’s duple meter with the triplets of m.28 further accentuates the interjection and effectively derails the headlong momentum of thetheme. The arpeggiated triplet quarter notes of m, 28 are also active in the flashbackinggesture by recalling mm. 69-70 of the Vivace, at which point the arpeggiated triplets firstappear. This five-measure interjection is representative of many of the interruptiveflashbacks found throughout much of the movement.The subtlety by which Enescu reintegrates material of the Andantino and Vivace into theAllegro extends itself also to specific sonorities such as the C Major chords of mm. 48-50,58-59, and 203-206 (Section B) where it receives a vehement articulation (Figure 4.17).As noted in Chapter Two, the C Major sonority marked a brief resting point in the melodicline of the giocoso theme, involving a manipulation of the theme’s undulating A5-G5 line(mm. 33-34, Figure 2.6). The sonority’s placement as a momentary goal within thetrajectory of the Allegro theme, parallels the setting of the sonority’s first appearance in theVivace._eeo$ta7(J J J jj[L tr ‘C- -JC’)d00b....BCD0CDcnCD0CD0BB‘CDCDCDCDCD0-cø,oBmCD:0CDQ%aCDCDZOCDC)0I:-._I-.CD,CD,.CDCD0,CDBCDCD0CD:::.‘•_,CD00<00CDC’00QBCDCDCDCD,.0C1Qi—CD_CDCDCDC.:0010.9-,-.b-,..C10 B 0c#i1[000tFh0P.•0CD‘)•CDCDC)0CD0CD•.CD0CDcmCDCD-00P..CD0C.)=CDCDCD.CDC.’)CD CDCD‘CDC.)•0‘‘0CC.)0..8•CDCDCD0•‘CD—•.,..CD--•c cP-sCDCD0•CDCDeq.0_CDCDCDCDrjO2o•0a”••<•- CDOOhrI 0 :liv]Liii30‘Cont.’d from previous page.Figure 4.19: Third movement, mm. 84-88, 109-115. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A..Used by Permission of the Publisher.Concurrent to the forward projection of the thematic cell in Sections B and C - resultingin an increasing frequency of ascending progressions-are attempts to reintroduce the DMajor tonality of the Vivace by way of its giocoso theme. The first attempt takes place inmm. 139-140, and is followed by the second in m. 191 (Figure 4.20). Both attempts areoverridden by the persistence of the cell’s A minor orientation and rising motion, althougha distinct evolution between the two attempts points to a clear motion towards the D Majortonality.--In the first attempt, the falling fifth of the theme appears in the right hand of m. 137 as adescending tonic pentachord in Eb minor, and then in the left hand of m. 139 as AM-GbFb-Eb-Db4. The rhythmic dissimilarity of the latter to the falling triplet sixteenth figure ofthe original motive averts any real attention; however, a reiteration of the falling fifth motivein the right hand of m. 140 renders a more striking effect. While retaining the dottedrhythm of m. 139, the motive distorts its outline of a fifth, enabling a tritone to enter. Theresulting A5-G-F-E5-Bb4 recalls the intervallic makeup of the initial five notes of the dolcerustico theme (mm. 47-48 / Vivace, G#5-F#-E-D#-A4 - see Figure 2.2). Despite thesignificance of this superimposition of thematic material, it is ultimately the presence of theextended Bb pedal in the bass, that causes the distortion of the falling motive by way ofgravitational pull. The focus on Bb within the D minor orientation, albeit weak, reassertsthe D minor/aeolian of the movement’s opening in an attempt to move away from the Aminor/aeolian of the thematic cell.The latter attempt of m. 191 is considerably more successful in presenting the fallingfifth motive in that it adheres to the rhythmic identity of the original. Notice here that theaugmentation is simply a magnification of the meter, i.e.: 6/8 + 2/8 in m. 1 becomes 6/4 +2/4 in m. 191. Furthermore, the motive is now placed in its thematic context and we hear—______) : rpio0°-J1_I-..CD CDCD‘-CDo=00 0CDC. CD,CDo•CD_••0,o CD-CDCDCDCD0 CDCD-‘CD•j2I..’-CDE.CDoC))•-4.0•CD—0c:’xl h —0 z- c 6 ‘0 fl’sH I-,:. CDCD‘CD—CD•J0CDCD-“—I.-’•CD0c,0CDi0—•-CDr+ CDCD oCD0CD •-‘0c•2CDI-.•tn•000-I-I‘t•“\0‘—0‘L)32minor orientation with the Bb key signature in m. 165, which in turn reinterprets theoriginal A aeolian of the cell as a D aeolian. The shift to a D orientation is of course linkedto the appearance of the giocoso theme in m. 191, as is the triplet rhythm that initiates withthe Bb4-Bb5 octave in m. 185. As well as emphasizing the undulation on the A octave, aswas the case on the A# octave in the Andantino’s first extension, the onset of the tripletshastens the rhythmic activity towards the giocoso appearance of m. 191. Beyond this, thetriplet rhythm itself plays a significant role in the movement in that it is foremost associatedwith material from either the Vivace or Andantino, and is therefore conspicuous in thenumerous references/flashbacks that interrupt the forward gait of the Allegro.— a tempo-132’ma ma,r.__________-Ii R5 -9: i1 IFigure 4.21: Third movement, mm. 165 and 185. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Usedby the Permission of the Publisher.Of major significance in the tonal evolution towards D Major, is the next majorarticulation of the Allegro theme in D Major’s relative minor key of B minor, that opensSection C in m. 229 (Figure 4.22). Although the aeolian identity of the theme as well as itspedal structure is retained, numerous elements in the material undergo alteration. Couchedin subdued dynamic markings as a dolce cantabile, the theme takes on a meditativecharacter that contrasts sharply with the theme’s rhythmic vitality in Sections A and B.Moving away from the non legato and staccato secco articulations of its first twopresentations, the theme now emphasizes a legato articulation, whose expressive freedomis augmented by a reduction in the tempo to 104=half note. By reducing the forward driveof the theme’s motoric energy, Enescu is able to alleviate the accumulated tension ofSection B and simultaneously reveal another dimension of the theme’s character.a tempo ( t04)piá tranquillo(sapra)1..Figure 4.22: Third movement, mm. 229-23 1. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Used byPermission of the Publisher.33The calm and resolution of Section C’s opening disappears, however, with thereassertion of the original tempo (132=half note) and motor rhythm of the dance. As well,the ascending motion of the thematic cell that dominated the latter half of Section B nowreturns. Reaching a platform on an A pedal in m. 285, the ascending scalar motion ceasesmomentarily, only to be resumed in m. 297 at which point it leads into the Coda (Figure4.23). The prolonged activity on or around A that prefaces the final attempt at an arrival onD (minor) in m. 295 - i.e. prior to the triumphant D Major of the Coda - reinforces A’s rolewithin the D tonality rather than within the aeolian context of the thematic cell. Its functionas a dominant is accentuated by the appearance of an A Major triad in the left handfigurations of m. 289-290, which are themselves akin to the undulating A minorfBb minortriads of mm. 30-32 (see Figure 4.16). Now subservient to the approaching D Majortonality, the original A minor and Bb minor triads change to major, whereby the alterationsto C# and D natural in particular promote the prominence of the D orientation.Although the falling fifth motive of the giocoso theme can be discerned in the lefthand’s scalar descent in m. 295 (i.e. A2-G-F-E-D2), its participation in the D articulation isfar less significant than that of m. 191. The motive’s presence is weakened through adeliberate avoidance of its rhythmic identity and fixed triadic contour. This is done perhapsin order to increase the dramatic impact of the coda’s opening, where the giocoso themeoccupies both right and left hands.2 1 2 1— — I-—pescoate.JL4fza=._mf 289)—-—, -p-. :.. . p* :--_r — -,.— — 0 -— — — —an p0cc. Legato•—JFigure 4.23: Third movement, mm. 285, 289-290, 294-295. © 1939 Editions SalabertS.A.. Used by Permission of the Publisher.34Opening with a vehement D Major chord in m. 306, the Coda presents the giocosotheme in its most compact and condensed form (Figure 4.24). Appearing in its originaltempo (notice the equal augmentation in both note value and tempo from Vivace movement)and rhythmic guise, the theme’s triadic nature now becomes a focal point for the left handaccompaniment. Compressing the falling fifth motive into a vertical entity much like inmm. 249-25 1 of the Vivace’s coda (see Figure 2.7), Enescu reemphasizes the terseness ofthe largely motivic theme. The unified expression of both hands extends as well to the AG-A undulation, which further accentuates the interplay of the 6/4 and 2/4 meters.Although these efforts project a conclusive rendering of the giocoso theme and D Majortonality, a violent interjection of an A minor sonority in the midst of m. 308 truncates anddestabilizes the gesture. Stemming from the open, thadic shellof the A4-E5 in the righthand of m. 3 in the Vivace - whose positioning in the theme corresponds exactly to the Aminor interjection of the Allegro’s coda - the A minor intrusion pulls us back to the Aminor/aeolian of the Allegro’s B Section and thematic cell. As well, the interjection triggersa chain of cyclical events that in sheer breadth, overshadow the opening giocoso statement.As the second degree in an ascending D lydian that initiates with the D4-D5 at thecommencement of m. 306, thern E4-E5 of the A minor chord is instrumental in leadingdirectly to a sequential reiteration of the dolce rustico theme commencing in m. 313 (Figure4.24).Initiated on the fourth degree of the D lydian as a G#5-G#6 octave in m. 313, andsubsequently on the fifth degree (A5-A6) in m. 315 with two final reiterations on the sixthdegree (B5-B6) in mm. 3 18-322, the recurrence of the dolce rustico theme clearlydominates the coda’s cyclical character. The underlying pbrygian/lydian pedal cluster ofthe theme’s first appearance in the Vivace (mm. 46-50) is again inferred in the A/Bbconglomerate of the left hand in mm. 315-317. Interesting here is the reappearance of theBb in this context, whose presence throughout the Coda projects the D minor/aeolian ratherthan the D Major orientation.Reserving the sonata’s firstfflmarlcing for the last two reiterations of the rustico themein mm. 318-322, Enescu recalls the B Major/A minor conflict of the Andantino asexpressed in the mm. 84-86 of that movement’s coda. The intensity of the flashback is duenot only to the positioning of the material on the highest point of the rising D lydianprogression (i.e. as a B5-B6 octave), but also to the altered placement of the B and A focalpoints at the outset of m. 318. Opposite to m. 84 in the Andantino where the B (B Major)of the left hand undermined the A (A minor) of the right hand, the B now serves as an(A)-* bL [4IiL rHis 1 , H I!L rII L•UjrE• )Vr(/I-::rJ‘V(A)H “4—V-bV IIIbVV1Ih_ If:V:3Ilb lb I-sLIJ0-/b,_V)WLjL r—1”g\‘CrthvII*vis iv 4V’14V-w 0L is—,s—4bCDcm>c13• I Cl) CD 0 I>•‘D8•Q.CD.Q.0Cl)ç)CD—CDNZCl)0Cl)a.CDcmCD-CD CD_C)CD3cC#) C))E.••CDCDOQC.)C)q9.S.-.0-CDCDCD)CDCDi-..CD5cC)CD0CDCl)CDCD5S.aCDCDocrQ•ICD0+Cl)I)1%)CDCD—<CD•0C)00gCl)CD zI-”1.15):1.mDCDCD<cnCl)•.Cl)CD-•C)QOCD5CDOqi0.._0.-‘I-”•i-Ii .. I-fl C Ii0 B I.C..0•• it37However, even in this passage the modal and chromatic elements that have persistentlyundermined the projection of the D Major tonality throughout the Coda, continue, albeitnow only as fleeting inflections. Against the tonic D Major harmony in the left hand (m.341) where the triadic character of the giocoso theme is conspicuously present, accidentalssuch as C natural and G# (heard especially within the last appearance of ‘extension 1’material superimposed in the right hand, mm. 341-342) impart a continuing modalinflection to D Major without seriously threatening the staying power of the tonality (Figure4.25). The restlessness extends through to the final measures of m. 35 1-354, where thesustained hold of a seemingly conclusive D minor chord in mm. 352 is broken by the fmalaffirmation of the sonata’s opening and closing tonality.Figure 4.26: Third movement, mm. 351-354. © 1939 Editions Salabert S.A.. Used byPermission of the Publisher.38Chapter FiveSummaryThrough the preceding examination of the D Major Sonata, op. 24, a number offeatures central to Enescu’s compositional technique have been revealed. Among these andof primary importance, is the concept of cyclical structure. Although most prevalent inthe final Allegro movement, the cyclical principle pervades the entire Sonata by way of itsthematic material. This occurs due to the exhaustive generative technique that Enescuapplies to both giocoso and dolce rustico themes, through which nearly all events in theSonata are influenced. The constant transfiguration of the themes and their fracturing intosmaller, motivic cells such as in the isolation of the first extension’s ascending motion inSection B of the Allegro, extends the size and breadth of the thematic body and introduces amyriad of interconnecting relationships throughout the Sonata. The frequency of recurringevents increases as the Sonata progresses, and can be seen as an outcome of the gradualdisintegration of the sonata form plan, whose hold on the tonal organization of the work’sfabric begins to falter even as early as the Andantino movement. In an attempt to achievean outcome and final synthesis of the Sonata’s. thematic and tonal elements in the Allegro,Enescu utilizes cyclical structures concurrent with a forward projection of the thematicmaterial. The Allegro therefore looks backward as well as forward. This is nowhere moreapparent than in the appearances of the giocoso theme throughout the Allegro. Perceivedon one level as a recurring thematic element, it assists in unifying the final movement withthe preceding ones. On another level, somewhat more significant, it is responsible forreintroducing the Vivace’s D Major tonality and ultimately, the final Coda section, wherethe cyclical nature of the entire work culminates.Cyclical structures manifested themselves in numerous other works of Enescu. In theString Ouartet in D Major. Op. 22. No. 2, a cyclic succession is at all times present,particularly noticeable at the conclusions of the movements where the thematic material ofthe ensuing movements is prefaced. This was also apparent between the Andantino andAllegro movements in the D Major Sonata, where the triadic, grace note figure of the firstextension foreshadows the opening of the Allegro in the Andantino’s Coda. Similar to thecyclical Allegro movement in the Sonata, the Quartet’s final movement culminates in arecall of the central thematic body. The Symphony No. 2 in A Major. Op. 17, whose threemovements are laid out in a broad sonata form, heightens its unity through a number ofcyclical elements that run through the course of the work.39The interplay between cyclical structures and sonata form such as in the D MajorSonata can also be found in other works. As early as in the String Octet in C Major. Op. 7of 1900, and as late as the Chamber Symphony for twelve Solo Instruments. Op. 33 of1954, Enescu experimented with large sonata form structures spanning several movements,in which the fmal movement recapitulates the thematic and tonal events of the work. Theprinciple of exposition and recapitulation as an opening and concluding device became astaple characteristic in Enescu’ s compositional style, and gradually emancipated itself fromthe traditional tonal obligations of the sonata form. Cyclical structure offered him much ofthe unity found in the sonata form, yet allowed him greater freedom and manoeuvrability inmoulding the tonal and modal aspect of his work. Enescu sought freedom within thediscipline of form. He writes:A symphony or a quartet have neither subject nor action nor issue; you mustwait until you have finished it so as to find out if you have been logical. Inone word-and here lies the principal difference between music and painting- you work without a model or, more precisely, you invent the model asyou are composing, before reproducing it. (Tudor 1957, 55)Although Enescu approached the tonal dictates of the sonata form freely and extended- the flexibility of the form, he held true to the concept of thematic homogeneity. It wasthis dimension of his compositional vocabulary that garnered most of his attention andchallenged the fertility of his creative imagination. By continually transfiguring histhematic material as with the giocoso and dolce rustico themes in the Sonata, Enescu wasable to avoid musical stagnation yet retain a high degree of homogeneity. Changes intempo, underlying harmony and articulation, further aided in the promotion of anevolutionary character. This is exemplified in the overall development of the Sonata’sdolce rustico theme, whose presence throughout the work dominates all other elements.The process of evolution begins at the outset of the Andantino, where a tempo reductionfrom the Vivace reveals for the first time the intensely, expressive nature of the rusticotheme. As if to avoid recognition, Enescu immediately moulds the theme into two newsub-themes, i.e. the extensions 1 and 2. This in turn prepares for further thematicmutation in the Allegro, where the first extension is redesigned to suit that movement’sdance character. The distillation of the first extension’s ascending nature into the thematiccell presents yet a further stage in the transfiguration process. Cosma refers to this aspectof Enescu’s thematic process as “a permanent mutation of the plasma [...] confined withinthe frame of the principle ‘unity in diversity” (Cosma 1973, 19-20).40The mutational aspect of the thematic material was of great interest to Enescu. It wasthis aspect that enabled him to achieve the unified diversity within the D Major Sonata. Thechoice of thematic material therefore held singular importance for Enescu, and occupied agreat deal of his energy. He expounds:Très souvent, le theme n’est pas un point de depart, mais un aboutissement.Un theme, c’est déjà un matériau, l’uvre est déjà en route, alors que saconception lointaine est a la fois beaucoup plus longue et singulièrementplus nébuleuse. (Very often, the theme is not a point of departure, but aculmination. A theme is afready material, the work is already underway,although its overall conception is at the same time much more distant andsingularly more nebulous)(Enescu in Gavoty 1955, 156)The determinative aspect of the giocoso and dolce rustico themes is a central issue in theD Major Sonata. With very little exception, the themes dominate all discourse throughoutthe work. This becomes increasingly apparent in the Andantino and Allegro, where thedolce rustico theme and its transfiguration occupies the greater portion of the movements.The role playing of the themes is equally interesting, in that each contributes in a specificfashion to the unity of the sonata. The rustico theme provides the most pervasive linkbetween the three movements by sheer presence, whereas the giocoso theme concerns itselfwith the assertion of the D Major tonality. This latter aspect is most obvious in the Coda ofthe Allegro, where the final reappearance of the giocoso theme contributes great dramaticimport to the reinstatement of the D Major tonality.Cyclic structure, thematic homogeneity and mutation were all very important aspects ofEnescu’s compositional craft. The most distinctive aspect of his creative talent lay,however, in his ability to combine these structural elements with the inflections of theRumanian folk music.Enescu realized early on in his career that folk music in its original form would not lenditself well to his compositional needs. He writes:I consider that folklore is perfect in itself. Its use in symphonic worksweakens and dilutes t. I believe that every composer should seekinspiration by his own means. (Tudor 1957, 36-37)This resulted in the formation of a personal language that drew its inspiration from theRumanian folk music, preserving the intonational folklore elements. It was in essence adistillation of the pure folk form. Moulded to his own structural and evolutive principles,the folk element became a hybrid of Rumanian and Western influences. Wherever41possible, Enescu adhered to the characteristics of the original material. Dance melodiessuch as that of the giocoso theme were accordingly placed within lively tempi, marked by a‘giusto’ character. Melodies such as that of the dolce rustico theme, whose context ofteninvolved a textual dimension, were placed in slower tempi for reasons of articulation. Itwas in the slower tempi that the ‘parlando rubato’ idiom, the most distinctive element of theRumanian folk music, came to the fore. Owing to its intensely expressive character andwealth of ornamentation, the parlando rubato idiom became the most prominent feature inEnescu’s assimilation of the Rumanian folk music. This in part explains the breadth ofprojection of the dolce rustico theme throughout the Sonata. As well, the improvisatorynature of the parlando rubato idiom also provided an ideal basis for Enescu’s constantrefiguring of the thematic substance. His attraction to the idiom resulted in a succession ofcompositions spanning his entire creative output. Notable among the piano works are thePavana of the Piano Suite No. 2 in D Major. Op. 10, and the final movement, the Andantemolto espressivo of the Piano Sonata No. 1 in F# minor. Op. 24. No. 1, both of which canbe seen as forerunners to the Anclantino movement of the D Major Sonata.The structural techniques and integration of folk element found in the Piano Sonata in DMajor, Op. 24, establish significant features of Enescu’s compositional style. The relativeconstancy of these features throughout his creative output enlarges the scope of thisexamination, and leads to a comprehensive understanding of Enescu’s overall musicalexpression.42AddendumLIST OF WORKSOp.’-Op. 2 -Op.3-Op. 4Op.5-Op. 6 -Op.7-Op.8-Op.9Op. 10-Op.llOp. 12 -Op. 13-Op. 14 -Op. 15-Op. 16-Op. 17-Op. 18-Op.19-Op. 20-Op.21-Rumanian Poem for Orchestra (1897)Sonata No. 1 for Violin and Piano in D Major (1897)Suite No. 1 in the Old Style for Piano (1897)Three Melodies to Verses by Jules Lemaltre and Sully Prudhomme (1897)Variations on an Original Theme for two Pianos (1899)Sonata No.2 for Violin and Piano in f minor (1899)Octet for four Violins, two Violas and two Cellos (1900)Symphonie Concertante for Cello and Orchestra (1901)Suite No. 1 for Orchestra in C Major (1903)Suite No. 2 for Piano (1903)Rumanian Rhapsody No. 1 in A Major for Orchestra (1901)Rumanian Rhapsody No. 2 in D Major for Orchestra (1902)Two Intermezzi for String Orchestra (1903)First Symphony in E Flat Major (1905)Dixtuor for Wind Instruments (1906)Seven Melodies to Verses by Clement Marot (1907-1908)Quartet No. 1 in D Major for Strings and Piano (1911)Second Symphony in A Major (1913)Pièces Jmpromptues for Piano (1915-1916)Three Melodies to Verses by Fernand Gregh (1915-1916)Suite No. 2 for Orchestra (1915)Third Symphony in C Major with Organ, Piano and Choir (1919)43Op. 22-Op. 23-Op. 24-Op. 25-Op. 26-Op. 27-Op. 28 -Op. 29-Op.30-Op.31-op. 32-Op.33-String Quartet No. 1 in E Flat Major (1921)String Quartet No. 2 in D Major (1952)Oedipus, a lyrical tragedy in four Acts and six Scenes, libretto by EdmondFleg (1932)Piano Sonata No. 1 in f sharp minor (1924)Piano Sonata No.2 in e flat minor (1937?) *Piano Sonata No.3 in D Major (1934)Sonata No. in Rumanian Folk Style for Violin and Piano (1926)Sonata No. 1 for Cello and Piano in f minor (1898)Sonata No.2 for Cello and Piano in C Major (1935)“Village” Suite No. 3 for Orchestra (1938)“Impression d’enfance,” Suite for Violin and Piano (1940)Quintet in a minor with PianoQuartet No. 2 in d minor with Piano (1945)“Vox Mans,” Symphonic Poem (unfinished) (1950)Concert Overture for Orchestra (1948)Chamber Symphony for twelve Solo Instruments (1954)* Although this work has appeared in lists such as that included in AndreiTudor’s “Enescu” (1957), it was never published. In fact, it seems unlikelythat it was ever written.44BibliographyAlexandru, Tiberiu. Rumanian Folk Music. Bucharest: Musical Publishing House 1980.Bartók, Bela. Rumanian Folk Music. Vol. 1-Instrumental Melodies. Ed. BenjaminSuchoff. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1967.Cosma, Octavian-Lazar. “The Thematic Process in Enescu’s Creation,” in Enesciana 1: LaPersonnalité Artistigue de Georges Enesco - Travaux de la PremIere Session Scientifiguedu Centre d’Etudes Georges Enesco. Bucharest: Editura Academiei Republicii SocialisteRomânia, Sept. 1973: 19-23.Cosma, Viorel, critical editor. Correspondence-Georges Enescu. Bucharest: EdituraMuzicala a Uniunii Compozitorilor, 1974.Enescu, Georges. “De la Musique Roumaine.” La Revue Musicale. numéro spéciale (JulyAugust 1931): 158-159.Firca, Clemansa Liliana. “Stylistic Features in George Enescu’s Piano Music,” in Studii sicercetari de istoria artei. seria teatru-muzica-cinematografle 12/ 1 (Bucharest 1965): 39-54.Firca, Clemansa Liliana. “Transfiguration de Certains Styles Européens a travers laMusique de Georges Enesco,” in the Revue Roumaine d’Histoire de 1’Art. Série Théâtre.Musigue. Cinema, Vol. 7. 1970. 3-7.Gavoty, Bernard. Les Souvenirs de Georges Enesco. Paris: Flammarion, 1955.Niculescu, Stefan. “Pensées sur Georges Enesco” in Enesciana 1 ibid..171-174.Suchoff, Benjamin, editor. Bela BartOk Essays. London: Faber & Faber, 1976.Tudor, Andrei. Enescu. Bucharest: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1957.45Voicana, Mircea, editor. George Enescu. A Monograph. Bucharest: Editions de l’Academiede la République Socialiste de Roumanie, 1971. Articles by Clemansa Firca, AlfredHoffman, Mircea Voicana, and Elena Zottoviceanu.Voicana, Mircea. “Das Problem des Stils und die Entfaltung der schopferischenPersönlichkeit des Komponisten Enescu,” in Enesciana 1 ibid.. 13-17.Zottoviceanu, Elena. “Concordances Esthétiques aux environs de 1900 a propos de laMonodie Enescienne,” in Enesciana 1 ibid..25-30.Zottoviceanu, Elena. See Chapter 10 of George Enescu. A Monograph ibid.339-876,THE UNIVERSiTY OF BRiTISH COLUMBIASCHOOL OF MUSICRecital HallFriday, May 1, 19922:30 p.m.DOCTORAL RECITAL*JONAS KVARNSTROM, pianoPiano Sonata No.4 in E flat Major, Op. 7 Ludwig van Beethoven(1770-1827)Allegro molto e con brioLargo, con gran espressioneAllegroPoco Allegretto e graziosoGaspard de la Nuit Maurice Ravel(1875-1937)OndineLe GibetScarbo- INTERMISSION -Fantasy and Fugue in a minor, BWV 944 J.S. Bach(1685-1750)Sonata for Piano, Op. 26 Samuel Barber(1910-1981)Allegro energicoAllegro vivace e leggeroAdagio mestoAllegro con spirito* In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree with a major inPiano Performance.Reception to follow in the faculty lounge.

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