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Pre-service teachers’ conceptions of multiculturalism Jung, Carrie S. Y. 1992

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PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS'CONCEPTIONS OF MULTICULTURALISMbyCARRIE S.Y. JUNGB.A., The University of British Columbia, 1982A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Social and Educational Studies)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAApril 1992© Carrie S.Y. Jung, 1992In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of  Yocio% < c ► vcati-ono 5ivci eesThe University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate  6PRIL 30, ia9d,DE-6 (2/88)AbstractTeachers play an important role in implementingmulticultural curricula. This role has been acknowledgedby many writers, but none has systematically investigatedteachers' conceptions of multiculturalism.The present study is an investigative research ofpre-service teachers' conceptions of multiculturalism andthe relationship between their background characteristicsand their conceptions.A literature review identified five distinctconceptions of multiculturalism, distinct from oneanother in their views of nationhood, culturalpreservation, group relations and the role of education.Using these conceptions as a framework, the researcherdeveloped an instrument, consisting of five subscales, tomeasure conceptions of multiculturalism. The researchinstrument comprised 63 items on a four-point Likertscale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, stronglydisagree), and eight questions concerning backgroundvariables such as age, sex, program of study andancestry.The data analysis showed the instrument to beinternally consistent. An exploratory factor analysissupported the distinctiveness of the conceptionsiiidentified by the researcher. Multiple univariateanalyses showed that sex was a significant variable atp < .006 for four of the five subscales.One implication of this finding is that gender, thatis, sex roles and socialization, may, in fact, influencehow an individual conceptualizes multiculturalism.iiiTable of ContentsPageABSTRACT .	 .	 .	 .	 .	 .	 iiTABLE OF CONTENTS	 .	 .	 .	 .	 ivLIST OF TABLES .	 .	 .	 .	 .	 viI. INTRODUCTION	 .	 .	 .	 .	 1	Statement of the Problem .	.	 .	 1Background	 .	 .	 .	 .	 2Research Questions	 .	 .	 .	 6Limitations	 .	 .	 .	 .	 6II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .	.	 .	 8Interpretations of Canada's	Multiculturalism Policy . 	 .	 .	 8	Conceptions of Multiculturalism	 .	 .	 11Assimilationist Perspective	 .	 .	 11	Ethnic Specific Conception	 .	 .	 14	Promotion of Cultural Diversity	 .	 16Entrenchment of Multiculturalism	 .	 19Multiculturalism as a MoralConcern	 .	 .	 .	 21Summary	 .	 .	 .	 .	 25III. Procedures	 .	 .	 .	 .	 30	Instrumentation	 .	 .	 .	 30Subjects	 .	 .	 .	 .	 .	 32	Data Collection Procedures	 .	 .	 33	Data Analysis .	.	 .	 .	 33ivIV. Results	 .	 .	 •	 .	 37Analysis of the Five Scales 	 .	 37Factor Analysis	 .	 .	 .	 39Description of the Sample 	 .	 44Analysis of Background Variables	 .	 .	 49Group Membership	 .	 .	 53Summary of Results	 .	 .	 55V. Summary & Conclusions.	 .	 .	 57Instrumentation and Classification	of Subjects	 .	 .	 .	 57Background Factors	 .	 .	 62Summary of the Study	 .	 .	 65Limitations of the Present Study	 .	 .	 66Recommendations for Future Research 	 .	 67BIBLIOGRAPHY	 .	 .	 .	 .	 .	 70APPENDIX A: Multiculturalism Conceptions	Scale	 .	 .	 .	 .	 77List of TablesPageTable 1: Intra-scale Reliability	 .	 . 37Table 2: Correlation Matrix	 .	 . 38Table 3: Description of the Sample	. 48Table 4: Results from Multiple UnivariateAnalyses	 .	 .	 . 51Table 5: Group Membership in the fiveConceptions	 .	 .	 . 54viChapter One: IntroductionA.	 Statement of the ProblemThe present study contributes to the literaturedevoted to teacher beliefs about multiculturalism. Itgrew out of the researcher's interest in the role ofeducators in a multicultural society. It is important toassess their conceptions and preconceptions ofmulticulturalism because what teachers think mayinfluence how and what they teach in the classroom.Education is seen as one way to address issues ofliving in a plural society. Yet if teachers are toimplement multicultural education programs, they need tobe well prepared to do so. Knowing teachers' conceptionsof multiculturalism can enable teacher education programsto better prepare pre-service teachers.A number of writers (e.g. Lundgren, 1989; McLeod,1989; Ouellet, 1989) have recognized the relationshipbetween the role of the teacher and multiculturaleducation, but no one has attempted to analyze teachers'conceptions of multiculturalism. Nor is it surprisingthat there are no instruments available to measure theseconceptions. One objective of this study, therefore, wasto develop an instrument to measure conceptions ofmulticulturalism. The second objective was to describehow students in the teacher education program at the1University of British Columbia think aboutmulticulturalism. Finally, relationships betweenbackground characteristics and conceptions were examined.B.	 BackgroundMuch has been written about multicultural educationand multicultural curricula. Coombs (1986) reviews threedifferent kinds of multicultural education programs:1) curricular multicultural education, 2) proceduralmulticultural education, and 3) social multiculturaleducation. The first approach focusses on thedifferences among cultural groups; its goal is toenhance students' awareness of and respect for culturaldiversity. Procedural multicultural education requiresschools to reflect the cultural diversity of the societythey serve. This may take the form of language classesfor children whose native language is not that of theschool, classes conducted in the native language ofstudents, or schools managed by members of the culturalgroups they serve. The third kind of program is socialmulticultural education, for which the goal of socialjustice preempts that of cultural retention (Coombs,1986).McLeod (1987) has also identified three types ofmulticultural education programs: ethnic specific,problem-oriented, and cultural/intercultural. Ethnic2specific programs are those established by minoritycultural groups to resist assimilation into themainstream culture. The problem-oriented approachaddresses the needs and "problems" of non-mainstreamchildren in schools; its underlying intention is eitherassimilationist or integrationist. The cultural/intercultural model views multicultural education as anaspect of human rights education. Programs endorsingthis approach try to prepare students for life in apluralistic society (McLeod, 1989).In addition to describing underlying philosophies,other authors have described specific classroomstrategies for fostering positive relations amongcultural groups. Kehoe (1984), for example, suggestsways to assess the multicultural needs in the school andthe community and discusses classroom methodologies thatcan change ethnocentric or racist attitudes. Kehoe &Echols (1984) offer a stratagem to "reform ... thestructure and climate of the school" (p. 137). Theysuggest curricular changes such as classroom activitiesto help develop cognitive-perceptive abilities, andstructural change to dispel the assumption in theschooling system that all students come from an Anglo-Christian heritage.Both philosophy and strategy are crucial to thesuccess of any education program, but equally significant3are the people who implement the curriculum. Indescribing the teacher as "exemplary person" and as"methodologist" or "strategist" (McLeod, 1989, p. 17),McLeod underscores two very important aspects of theteacher's role. As exemplary person, the teacher bringsto the profession an "open mind", the ability torecognize his or her own biases and prejudices. As"methodologist", the teacher must consider not only thecontent, but also the processes, of teaching. How theteacher treats students is as important as the knowledgehe or she imparts. The implication for multiculturaleducation is that behaviour, and hence, human rights, areteachable concepts (McLeod, 1989). Yet, as Buchignani(1982) has pointed out,... unfortunately, teachers generally havelittle training, knowledge or interest in racerelations and some are actively prejudiced.They are also an overworked interest group,who have generally argued that racism is aproblem for students, not for them.... Thisleaves one with the difficult objective ofaddressing students through teachers who aregenerally ill equipped to do so (p. 57).Ouellet (1989), reflecting on interculturaleducation in Quebec, speaks of the teacher as an"integrator and initiator of culture in gestation" (p.3). Teacher education programs must prepare teachers toface the challenges of pluralism in the classroom.That the challenges of pluralism must be addressedin teacher education is undeniable. In his analysis of4education policies in several multicultural societies,Lundgren (1989) shows that different models of teacherpreparation produce not only different educational goalsbut also teachers with varying competence to work withmulticultural populations.Although authors such as McLeod, Ouellet andLundgren all recognize the relationship betweenmulticultural education and the role of the teacher, nonehas attempted a systematic investigation of teachers'conceptions of multiculturalism. For a teacher educationprogram to adequately prepare teachers for work in amulticultural and multiethnic society, it must addressteachers' attitudes to both cultural diversity and tostudents from backgrounds different from their own. Itneeds to know what multiculturalism means to pre-serviceteachers in order to equip them for a pluralisticsociety. In a context such as Canada, and especially,British Columbia, where the diversity of cultural andethnic backgrounds has never been so prominent, theimpact of multiculturalism on education and on teachersmust be heeded.	 Assessing teachers' conceptions andpreconceptions of multiculturalism is thereforeimportant.56C.	 Research QuestionsThe research questions of this study were:1) To what extent does the study substantiatethe conceptions of multiculturalism discussedin the literature?2) What does the instrument reveal about theextent to which pre-service teachers in theTeacher Education Program at the University ofBritish Columbia subscribe to a particularconception of multiculturalism?3)	 To what extent are background characteristicssuch as age, sex, and program of study relatedto a person's adherence to a particularconception of multiculturalism?D.	 LimitationsOne of the limitations of this study concerns theinstrument. The five conceptions were derived from theresearcher's interpretation of the literature andtherefore are not an exhaustive list.A second limitation stems from the data collectionmethod. As subjects participated on a voluntary basis,it is not known if the views of non-participants may havebeen different.Third, the four-point Likert scale used in thesurvey imposed a constraint on the ability of theresearcher to collect more detailed information for someof the items.Finally, the researcher recognizes that this studycannot be generalized to other populations of preserviceteachers. The present sample is a culturallyheterogeneous one, all studying in a large andmulticultural university.7Chapter Two: Review of the LiteratureThis section reviews two areas of literaturerelevant to the present study. It begins by describingthe different interpretations of Canada'smulticulturalism policy. The second section compares andcontrasts assumptions about multiculturalism and theirdifferent beliefs about nationhood, group relations, thepreservation of minority culture, political participationby non-charter groups, and the role of education in aplural society. From this body of literature, theresearcher identified five conceptions ofmulticulturalism. These five conceptions form theframework for the multiculturalism conceptions scale.A.	 Interpretations of Canada's Multiculturalism PolicyAt the provincial level, most governments have aformal policy concerning multiculturalism or haveestablished some initiative that recognizes theprovince's cultural and linguistic diversity (Davies,1986). In Quebec, the provincial policy stresses Frenchlanguage and culture development; multiculturalism isinterpreted as helping other cultural communitiesintegrate into Quebec society (Davies, 1986). Ineducation, the province funds programs whose primary8interest is to help non-French students integrate intothe francophone culture (Davies, 1986).In the other provinces and two territories, eachMinistry of Education has guidelines concerning at leastone of the following four areas: language programs(English as a second language training, heritage languageprograms, bilingual education), curriculum (materials ormethodologies), multicultural events or activities inschools, and the goal of fostering in students andteachers attitudes that promote multiculturalism (Davies,1986).In her survey of school districts in BritishColumbia, Davies (1985) found that board policies tend todeal with both race relations and multiculturalism.School districts that have implemented multiculturalprograms have focussed on heritage languages, arts, musicand crafts (Davies, 1985). At the board level in BritishColumbia, then, the term 'multiculturalism' refers toboth cultural celebration and human rights.Fisher & Echols' (1989) evaluation of the VancouverSchool Board's Race Relations Policy, however,illustrates the disparity between promotingmulticulturalism in theory and in practice. For example,while the board acknowledges that multiculturalism andCanadian society are inseparable, the two authors foundthat some secondary school teachers were reluctant to9introduce multicultural themes or materials in theirclass because they felt it was not relevant to their areaof specialization (p. 75). The authors also found atendency among administrators, students, staff andparents to deny that racism was a problem in the school(p. 142). Fisher & Echols conclude that this denialreflected an uncertainty about what consitutes a racistincident and a desire on the part of school members toavoid controversy (Fisher & Echols, 1989).The contrast between board policy and the findingsof Fisher & Echols' report points to multipleinterpretations of multiculturalism and conflictingexpectations for the role of education in a multiculturalsociety. The Report vividly illustrates the uncertaintyabout the meaning of multiculturalism.As federal policy, multiculturalism guaranteescultural freedom and equal treatment for all individuals.Provincial governments encourage cross-culturalrelationships among ethnic communities. Ministries ofEducation have designed pro-active intitiatives todevelop sensitivity to and awareness of culturaldifferences, encourage second and heritage languages andto promote positive intergroup relations. Yet at theschool level, one sometimes finds that confusion andhesitation are evident.1 01 1B.	 Conceptions of MulticulturalismThe following section discusses the literaturedevoted to multiculturalism and multicultural education.From this diverse body of literature, the researcheridentified five conceptions: assimilation, ethnicspecific, entrenchment of multiculturalism, promotion ofcultural diversity, and multiculturalism as a moralconcern. The labels were chosen to reflect the scope anddiversity of the related views within each conception.In constructing the multiculturalism conceptionsscale, the researcher placed the five conceptions along acontinuum.1.	 Assimilationist PerspectiveAlso referred to as the 'melting pot theory'(Porter, 1987), this conception of multiculturalismadvocates the eventual elimination of cultural diversity.It believes that minority cultural groups within asociety should abandon their past traditions in favour ofadopting or creating new ones (Porter, 1987). The theoryactually has two forms. The first calls for a creationof a new nation and a new national type. The second,known as 'assimilation', encourages minority groups toincorporate into the host society (Porter, 1987).Assimilation involves adopting the norms and valuesof society's dominant group, thereby becoming like themainstream (Li, 1990). It assumes that an individual orgroup has chosen not to maintain culturaldistinctiveness, choosing instead to belong to the largersociety (Berry, 1984). Gordon (in Young, 1979) describesseven dimensions of assimilation. 'Cultural orbehavioural assimilation' occurs when groups absorb theculture or behaviour patterns of the dominant society.'Structural assimilation' refers to entrance into theinstitutional activities and general civic life ofmainstream society. The third form is 'maritalassimilation'. A fourth pattern, 'identificationalassimilation', occurs when an individual identifiesexclusively with the mainstream society. 'Attitudereceptional assimilation' and 'behaviour receptionalassimilation' refer to the absence of prejudice anddiscrimination, respectively. The final pattern, 'civicassimilation', precludes value or power conflict. Gordon(in Young, 1979) suggests that behavioural assimilationis the most likely to occur; if accompanied bystructural assimilation, the other forms will inevitablyfollow.Underlying the assimilation perspective is a strongbelief in nationalist ideology. Thorburn (1989) callsassimilation a 'nation-building tool'. Regardingdiversity as an impediment to national unity, opponentsof cultural pluralism advocate assimilation (Kallen,121982). When mainstream society favours and encouragesassimilation by minority cultural groups, the processceases to be voluntary. In the context of EnglishCanada, such a process is known as 'Anglo-conformity'(Li, 1990).Some authors (Burnet, 1975; Porter, 1975) haveclaimed that Anglo conformity was the key to socialequality for the members of some groups. According toPorter (1975), adopting the norms and values of society'sdominant groups facilitated mobility and opportunity forminority groups; assimilation countered the inevitableclass stratification that resulted when ethnicity is anorganizing principle, a phenomenon he called the'vertical mosaic'. When ethnic origin isinconsequential, concern for individual achievement, notgroup rights, predominate, thus ensuring all members ofsociety not only occupational but also political andeconomic equality (Porter, 1975).The implications for educational institutions are toemphasize individual achievement rather than groupsolidarity (Wyatt, 1984). Rather than develop ethnicconsciousness or encourage cultural retention, publicschooling aims to help students adjust to Canadiansociety as quickly as possible (Wyatt, 1984).As an conception of multiculturalism, the'assimilation' perspective is in fact antipathic to13cultural pluralism; its main goal is the modificationand eventual absorption of minority cultures. Ignoringcultural retention and interchange, this conception ofmulticulturalism assures two of the four goals--to helpmembers of all groups to overcome cultural barriers tofull participation in Canadian society, and to assistimmigrants to acquire at least one of the two officiallanguages--enunciated in Canada's Policy ofMulticulturalism.2.	 Ethnic Specific ConceptionIn direct contrast to assimilation is separation, orwithdrawal (Berry, 1984), characterized by the voluntaryisolation of minority groups to maintain culturaldistinctiveness (Berry, 1984; Roberts & Clifton, 1990).McLeod (1984, 1987, 1989) uses the term 'ethnic specific'to highlight this characteristic.The impetus for separation comes from the desire tocounter assimilative forces from the mainstream cultureand the wish to reject interaction with other culturalgroups (McLeod, 1984). Although extreme forms of theethnic specific conception advocate total isolation,often interaction between groups does occur.In their discussion of four ideals ofmulticulturalism, Roberts & Clifton (1990) identify apattern which they label "institutionalized14multiculturalism" (p. 125). In this form ofmulticulturalism, members belonging to an ethnic grouphave internalized the group's norms and values. Culturaland social-structural conformity is both commanded andachieved (Roberts & Clifton, 1990). This rigidityillustrates the divisive intent inherent in thisconception of multiculturalism.In his examination of various theories of culturaldiversity in Canada, Mallea (1984) discusses 'politicalpluralism' and 'democratic pluralism'. Both ideologiesdescribe a society in which each cultural group functionsin relative independence of the state. According toMallea, these forms of pluralism engender not onlycultural maintenance and retention but also the sharingof economic and political power with minority groups(Mallea, 1984). Thus, both separation and interactionare fostered.An extreme expression of the 'ethnic specific'conception is 'ethnic segmentation' (Breton, in Kallen,1982), in which each group is culturally distinct andinstitutionally complete. Cultural and structuralpluralism (Kallen, 1982) characterize this view.According to critics, however, a society in whicheach ethnic group is culturally and politically completewould be 'multi-unicultural', not 'multicultural'(Porter, 1975). Kallen (1982) uses the term15'multinationhood' to describe a society in whichindependent collectivities coexist within a commonfederal framework.The educational implication of this conception is aschool system which focusses on cultural heritage andcultural preservation (McLeod, 1984, 1987). Educationalprograms may take the form of supplementary heritagelanguage classes, community festivals, or a curriculumwhich promotes cultural maintenance as well as in group/out group differentiation (McLeod, 1987).	 The moreextreme views of institutionalized multiculturalism orethnic segmentation would seek independent schools as away to maintain clear group boundaries (Roberts &Clifton, 1990).As a conception of multiculturalism, 'ethnicspecific' interprets Canada's Multiculturalism Policy asa guarantee of cultural independence. The goals ofcontributing to Canadian society, participation, culturalinterchange and official language acquisition are largelyneglected.3.	 Promotion of Cultural DiversityWhen the word 'multicultural' is used in itsdescriptive sense, it means a society consisting of amultitude of cultures (Roberts & Clifton, 1990). As anevaluative term, however, multiculturalism implies value16(Roberts & Clifton, 1990; Wilson, 1984). Theconception, 'promotion of cultural diversity', reflectsthis meaning and regards multiculturalism as a realitythat should be embraced and nurtured.This conception treats multiculturalism as an aspectof human rights, a guarantee that individuals from allethnic and cultural backgrounds will have the right todignity and fair treatment (McLeod, 1984). It emphasizesthe universality and equality of all cultures (Davies,1989; Kehoe, 1984). Its goals are to shape a societyaware of and sensitive to differences among people(Davies, 1985; Kehoe, 1982) and further, to develop inCanadians an appreciation for cultural diversity (Kehoe,1982).In education, this conception treatsmulticulturalism as an ethic that underlies all educationprograms (McLeod, 1984, 1987). More than simplyaccomodate cultural differences, this interpretation ofmulticulturalism requires the larger society to adjust toand encourage cultural diversity (McLeod, 1984). As acommitment to human rights, multicultural education meansequality of learning and success for all children(McLeod, 1984).In the 'cultural/intercultural' approach (McLeod,1987), educational programs are distinguished by theircomprehensiveness, duration, clientele, and motive or17objective (McLeod, 1987). Multiculturalism is anintegral part of subjects at all levels and grades(McLeod, 1987). School curricula stress the importanceof teaching about the underlying assumptions, values andbeliefs that produce cultures' forms of knowledge(Davies, 1989). The approach further requires thatmulticultural education address all students (McLeod,1987; Ouellet, 1989). The aim of multiculturaleducation, therefore, is "to foster understanding,acceptance, and constructive relations among people ofmany different cultures" (Kehoe, 1982, p. 2).Mirroring the same goals, Ouellet (1987) uses theterm 'intercultural education' to describe programs thatpromote "mutual understanding and communication betweenpeople of different cultural and religious backgrounds"(p. 131).As a reification of Canada's multiculturalismpolicy, 'promotion of cultural diversity' meets the fourgoals enunciated by Prime Minister Trudeau in 1971.Deeming multiculturalism as human rights ensures thatcultural groups wishing to perpetuate their traditions orcontribute to Canadian society will be encouraged to doso. The emphasis on universality and mutualunderstanding will assist groups to overcome barriers,whether linguistic or cultural, and to interact withother peoples in Canadian society.18194.	 Entrenchment of Multiculturalism'Entrenchment of multiculturalism' regardsmulticulturalism as a movement for social reform (Kallen,1982). This conception makes a distinction betweencultural pluralism and structural pluralism (Mallea,1984). Societies that consist of many cultures, such asCanada, are culturally pluralistic. Structuralpluralism, by contrast, refers to independentinstitutions among the cultural groups.	Such adistinction acknowledges that differences between groupsconcern not only culture but also power and conflict(Mallea, 1984; Young, 1979): structural pluralism isseen as a way to increase the power of minority groups(Young, 1979).According to Moodley (1983) power relations concernnot minority cultural groups, but persons occupyingminority caste status. For immigrants relegated topoorly paid occupations and marginalized by mainstreamsociety, ethnic affiliation and cultural distinctionsbecome secondary to class. The result is the emergenceof what she calls the 'new ethnicity' (Moodley, 1983,1985a). As a movement for social reform,multiculturalism needs to support the new ethnicity'sstruggle for equal access to power and status positions(Moodley, 1983).In its extreme form, structural pluralism mayresemble the ethnic specific perspective: separation ofa cultural group from general society as a way toreinforce cultural boundaries (Young, 1979). Such a viewhas been advanced by Stent (in Young, 1979), who suggeststhat cultural separation may be a necessary first step toequality in an open society.An argument for this kind of pluralism comes fromD'Oyley (1984) who writes:... the time has come for the (Canadian)(parenthesis mine) society to so define itselfthat its organizations and bureaucracies,including school systems, may be moredynamically representative, manageable, proneto redevelopment, responsive, and capable ofbeing systematically evaluated (p. 162).He proposes changing the present charter duality ofFrench and English groups to a 'hand' of Canadiansociety. Each 'finger', sharing political power with oneanother, represents one of the five main cultural/ethnicand racial groups: 1) Aboriginal 2) Anglophone 3)Francophone 4) later European and 5) later visibleminority or African/Asian (D'Oyley, 1984).Multiculturalism as a political movement regards theschool as the "crucial battleground" (Moodley, 1983, p.326) on which the struggle for social equality and racialjustice takes place (D'Oyley, 1989). The classroom is apublic place in which the realities and conflicts of thelarger society are reflected, in which the cultures,20histories and contributions of all groups must belegitimized (D'Oyley & Stanley, 1990). The goal foreducation is to promote equality of opportunity andequality of condition (Moodley, 1985b).A concomitant goal is the creation of a schoolclimate conducive to academic success for students of allbackgrounds (Young, 1979). An active role of the schoolis to support the maintenance of cultures, and where theschool is independently managed by an ethnic community,to resist the forces of assimilation (Young, 1979;McLeod, 1984) from the mainstream. Though such a goalresembles that of the ethnic specific view, in general,most advocates of education for structural pluralism arecommitted to an integrated society (Young, 1979).As an interpretation of Canada's MulticulturalismPolicy, 'entrenchment of multiculturalism' redefines andreshapes its stated goals and aspirations. More thanminority group participation and contribution,multiculturalism would change the current relationsbetween and the status of the 'others' and theFrench/English duality.5.	 Multiculturalism as a Moral Concern'Multiculturalism as a moral concern' transcends thegoals of cultural retention, interchange andappreciation. Unlike the human rights perspective, it21does not insist that all cultural values be respected.Nor does it seek equality among groups, as entrenchmentof multiculturalism does. Rather, this conceptionstresses moral principles that protect and governindividual rights in a culturally diverse society.Central to this conception is the theme of socialjustice (Coombs, 1986). According to Coombs, (1986) aculturally pluralistic society embodies the values ofequal opportunity, equal liberty, democraticinstitutions, fairness and respect for persons (p. 11).Irrespective of ethnic and cultural affiliation, such asociety supports the rights and freedoms to which allmembers are entitled.'Multiculturalism as a moral concern' espousescultural relativism over ethical relativism (Kehoe, 1979;Wright & LaBar, 1984). Cultural relativism maintainsthat individuals are entitled to choose their culturalbeliefs as long as their choices do not violate therights of others (Wright & LaBar, 1984). Accordingly,multiculturalism must examine the "moral justifiability"(p. 114) of cultural values and, further, requires thatcultural practices be subordinated to moral principles.Multiculturalism involves deciding how people of variouscultural backgrounds are to be treated and theirconflicts resolved (Wright & LaBar, 1984). It calls forequal treatment for all individuals unless relevant22differences justify unequal treatment (Wright & LaBar,1984). The conception 'multiculturalism as a moralconcern' means a society must guarantee equal opportunityand equal consideration of individual interests (Coombs,1986).The goal for a culturally plural society is twofold.First, it requires the sensitization of socialinstitutions so that they treat members of any culturalbackground in a 'culturally sensitive way' (Coombs,1986). Second, a culturally pluralistic society mustaccept that all persons have a right to choose his or hercultural beliefs (Coombs, 1986) as long as the choices donot violate the rights of other individuals (Wright &LaBar, 1984). According to this conception,multiculturalism means a society must guarantee equalopportunity and equal consideration of individualinterests (Coombs, 1986).In education, "the whats, hows and whys of humanculture" cannot be taught in a way that is "valueneutral" (Wright & LaBar, 1984, p. 116). Thus, theresponsibility of the school is to instill in studentsthe concept of social justice (Coombs, 1986;Ungerleider, 1989). One approach is social multiculturaleducation, which involves both a moral and a politicalcomponent (Coombs, 1986). As moral education, programstry to foster both belief in the freedom of association23and tolerance for diversity. Additionally, they mustemphasize that cultural differences are immaterial whenconsidering fundamental rights (Coombs, 1986) and mustencourage students to accept all cultural practicesexcept those which are unethical (Kehoe, 1982). Aspolitical education, the goal of the school is to enhancestudents' knowledge of and commitment to justice (Coombs,1986).Achievement of these goals requires that studentsacquire certain knowledge, competencies and dispositions(Wright & Labar, 1984). It also requires students todevelop the modes of reasoning that will enable them tomake judgments about how people of different backgroundsshould be treated (Wright & LaBar, 1984). Thisconception overlooks such ends as teaching about culturaltraditions or promoting intergroup relations.Wright & LaBar (1984) describe five components ofa social multicultural approach: 1) promoting goodreasoning skills, 2) developing the concept of person,3) developing the concept and sense of self worth, 4)developing the concept of society, and 5) understandingconcepts such as prejudice and stereotyping. Connors(1984) discusses a multicultural curriculum that echoessimilar goals. As action for social justice (Connors,1984), multicultural education promotes teacher andstudent inquiry into the meanings, values and objectives24of multiculturalism. Another type of educational programis the transformative curriculum (Banks, 1989), whichaims to help students develop the knowledge and skills tocritically analyze and act upon human experience fromdiverse perspectives. Ultimately, the aim of such aneducational program is to 'achieve' multiculturalismthrough student action and participation (Banks, 1989).More than advocate the Multiculturalism Policy'sgoals of cultural freedom, support for cultural groupdevelopment and commitment to intergroup harmony, thisconception stresses that acceptance of these goals is amoral obligation. In a culturally diverse society suchas Canada, opportunity, liberty, fairness and respectmust prevail. At the same time, all individuals musthave the right to choose his or her cultural affiliationand to decide whether to expand or minimize contact withother groups. The overriding concern is fair treatment,not only for members of minority cultural and ethnicgroups, but for all members in the society.C.	 SummaryInterpretations of Canada's Multiculturalism Policyhave been shaped by the divergent interests andobjectives of the cultural and ethnic groups in thiscountry. These interpretations have createdinstititutional, social and educational policies that are25sometimes conflicting and irreconciliable. Diverseconstructions of 'multiculturalism' exist. Fivefundamentally different conceptions, distinct in theirviews of nationhood, cultural preservation, grouprelations and the role of education, have beenidentified.The 'assimilation' perspective, for which a strongnational identity and national unity are main concerns,highlights the Policy's commitment to help culturalgroups contribute to Canadian society. Toassimilationists, cultural pluralism and ethnic groupaffiliation hinder the development of a Canadian identityand impede individual achievement; "melting" into thedominant culture ensures minority groups equalopportunities and quality of life. Multiculturalism is atemporary condition in society while immigrants graduallyassimilate. As such, this perspective is in realityantithetical to multiculturalism.The conception, 'multiculturalism as a moralconcern', like assimilation, denies any intrinsic valuein cultural diversity. This conception follows moralprinciples to develop educational and other socialpolicies. It supports the Multiculturalism Policy'scommitment to promote cultural pluralism, provided thatthe maintenance of cultural traditions does not infringeon the rights of any individual. Like assimilationists,26this interpretation of multiculturalism also emphasizesthe individual over the group.By contrast, the conception 'promotion of culturaldiversity' values and encourages the diverse culturaltraditions in Canada. Regarding multiculturalism as anaspect of human rights, it seeks equality for groups andfair treatment for individuals. The Policy's goals toenhance group harmony and interchange, as well as itscommitment to help groups participate in Canadiansociety, are all fundamental concerns.'Entrenchment of multiculturalism' is committed tothe Policy's goal to help minority groups overcomebarriers to full participation in Canadian society. Inaddition, it seeks a fair distribution of power andstatus positions among all groups in Canadian society.More than pursue cultural retention and maintenance, thisview seeks the empowerment of minority groups.Finally, the 'ethnic specific' conception, whichinterprets the Policy's commitment to culturalmaintenance as support for culturally and institutionallyindependent communities within Canada. In directcontrast to the assimilationist perspective, this viewencourages ethnic affiliation and resists interactionwith the dominant culture. In extreme cases, itadvocates withdrawal from the larger society.27The many interpretations of and different ways toreify Canada's Multiculturalism Policy have causedconfusion for the public in general and educators inparticular. Such a range of competing conceptionsunderscores why Canadian society has confronted pluralismin so many ways, the choice of which often reflectscurrent conflicts. Thus, employment equity, striving forequal representation among the various ethnic groups inCanada, realizes the entrenchment conception ofmulticulturalism. The current movement by the World SikhOrganization in Canada to resist the label 'Indo-Canadian' and to identify Canadians of Sikh background as'Sikh-Canadians' reflects the ethnic-specific conception.Equally, discussions of First Nations self-governmentexemplify an extreme interpretation of both the 'ethnicspecific' and 'entrenchment' conceptions. At the schoolboard level, however, multicultural policies focus oncultural celebration and cross-cultural relations,realizing yet another conception.That so many interpretations of multiculturalism doexist challenges the assumption by educational policiesthat multiculturalism is one consistent theme to whichall segments of Canadian society concede. What needs tobe recognized is that different visions of a pluralCanada exist. With this in mind, the present study usedthe five conceptions identified in the literature as a28framework to develop a multiculturalism conceptionsscale.29Chapter Three: ProceduresA.	 InstrumentationOne of the objectives of this study was to developan instrument to measure conceptions of multiculturalism.Another purpose of the study was to identify backgroundfactors that are related to conceptions ofmulticulturalism. Finally, the study tried to describehow one sample of students currently enrolled in theTeacher Education Program at the University of BritishColumbia conceptualizes multiculturalism.A review of the literature on multiculturalism andmulticultural policies in Canada identified fiveconceptions of multiculturalism. Using these conceptionsas a framework, the researcher prepared approximately 100items, focussing on the themes of nationalism,immigration, cultural preservation, education and equalopportunity. The result was one survey made up of fivesubscales. A sample item (item 63) reads: A major goalof multiculturalism is to promote positive relationshipsamong Canada's diverse groups. The response categoriesfor each item were: "Strongly agree", "Agree","Disagree" and "Strongly disagree" (see Appendix A).Colleagues of the researcher, who were instructorsof English as a Second Language at UBC's English LanguageInstitute, an institute which runs English language30programs for international students, reviewed theseitems. Their comments about the content and format ofthe scale helped the researcher revise the instrument,resulting in a 72-item scale. In addition to theseitems, the survey contained eight questions seekinginformation about the subjects' personal and academicbackground.In February, 1991, a pilot study with 29 subjectswas conducted in an undergraduate education class. Allsubjects completed the 72 randomly ordered itemsanonymously. Results from this pilot study were analyzedwith the computer program, Statistical Package for SocialSciences (NoruZis, 1988), to determine the internalconsistency of each subscale.According to J.D. Willms (personal communication,June, 1991), an acceptable reliability coefficientdepends on the type of decision to be made. Forformative decisions, a lower reliability value istolerable; with summative decisions, a more stringentCronbach's alpha is demanded. Gronlund (1985) offerssimilar guidelines for deciding the acceptability of areliability coefficient. According to him, lowreliability is tolerable when decision making is 1) ofminor consequence, 2) in its early stages, 3) reversible,4) confirmable by other data, 5) concerns groups, and 6)has temporary effects (p. 109).31The present study meets all six of Gronlund'scriteria and is not intended to inform summativedecisions in the Teacher Education Program. In assessingif items had been placed into the appropriate subscale,items with a Cronbach's alpha of .10 or higher, a figurearbritrarily chosen by the researcher, were retained inthat subscale; those lower than .10 were relocated toanother subscale where a value of .10 or greater wasobtained. Nine items were eliminated, reducing thenumber to 63, with the subscales consisting of 10 to 15items.B.	 SubjectsThe participants in this study were studentsenrolled in two of the three teacher education programsat the University of British Columbia. The University ofBritish Columbia offers a Two-Year Elementary TeacherEducation Program, a 12-month Elementary TeacherEducation Program, and a 12-month Secondary TeacherEducation Program. The researcher collected data fromstudents enrolled in the latter two programs.	 A totalof 212 people participated.Data collection took place in July, 1991, when thestudents were near the end of their teacher educationprogram. At the time of data collection, all of the pre-service teachers had completed coursework in the32theoretical bases of modern educational practice,curriculum and instruction, and communications skills, aswell as their extended practicum. Additionally, prior toentering the 12-month Elementary and 12-month SecondaryPrograms, all students had completed an undergraduatedegree.C. Data Collection ProceduresThe questionnaires were personally administered bythe researcher, during class time, with the consent ofthe instructor. At each class visit, the researcherexplained the purpose of the study and invited studentsto participate. Each test administration lastedapproximately 30 minutes.D. Data AnalysisAnalysis of the data involved two steps. The firstassessed the internal consistency of the instrument. Thesecond step explored the relationship between backgroundvariables and conceptions. Data for eight backgroundvariables were collected and analyzed using multipleunivariate analyses to identify those factors orcombination of factors that are related to conceptions ofmulticulturalism. Using the information from thisanalysis, the researcher described how this sample ofpre-service teachers conceptualizes multiculturalism.33Huberty and Morris (1989) describe four situationsjustifying the use of multiple univariate analyses ofvariance rather than a single multivariate analysis ofvariance. According to them, the use of multipleunivariate analyses of variance can be justified if a)the dependent variables are "conceptually independent"(p. 303), b) the study is exploratory in nature, c) ifsome or all of the dependent variables had been studiedin univariate contexts and d) if the study was acomparative evaluation.Conditions "c" and "d" are not applicable to thepresent study. The criterion of precedence isinappropriate as this is the first study to empiricallyexamine conceptions of multiculturalism. Similarly,condition "d" is irrelevant as the present study is not acomparative evaluation. The first two situationsdiscussed by Huberty and Morris, however, are pertinent,and both support the present researcher's decision to usemultiple univariate analyses to examine the significanceof the background variables.First, this study is clearly exploratory in nature,and hence meets the second condition. Second, thedependent variables are conceptually independent, eachsubscale being fundamentally different from the othersand measuring one distinct aspect of something called'multiculturalism'.34Each of the five scales was developed to measure oneaspect of multiculturalism. For this reason, the scalescorrelate with one another, as Pearson's test shows.However, each scale measures an aspect ofmulticulturalism that is relatively unique from oneanother.The disparate beliefs and goals among theconceptions underscore the uniqueness of the scales.Assimilation believes that minority groups should becomelike the mainstream, while the ethnic specific scaleemphasizes retention of cultural distinctiveness.Entrenchment focusses, not on cultural maintenance, buton achieving equality for minority groups. Promotion ofmulticulturalism stresses interchange and appreciation,whereas the moral scale regards multiculturalism as anethical issue.That all scales measure the same concept,multiculturalism, does not preclude conceptualindependence. Just as the two measures of intelligence,verbal and spatial ability, are intercorrelated butconceptually different, these five scales, thoughintercorrelated, are conceptually independent.v.Norusis (1988) discusses two drawbacks to usingmultiple univariate analyses over a multivariate design.The first is that multiple ANOVAs ignore theinterdependencies among the dependent variables. This35warning is not a crucial one, however, given the argumentof conceptual independence. The second objection sheraises is that multiple ANOVAs increase the probabilityof a Type I error. In the present study, this warninghas been anticipated with a more stringent alpha.36Chapter Four: ResultsA. Analysis of the Five ScalesA test for internal consistency was performed foreach scale. The Cronbach alpha for all five scalesranged from .70 to .85 (see Table 1).Table 1Intra-scale ReliabilitySubscale	 No. of items Cronbach's alphaAssimilation	 13Ethnic specific	 10Entrenchment ofmulticulturalism	 11Promotion ofcultural diversity	 14Moral Concern	 15.7995.7005.7459.8537.8280The 'assimilation' scale, consisting of 13 items,yielded an alpha of .7995. The 'ethnic specific' scalewith 10 items, yielded an alpha of .7005. For'entrenchment of multiculturalism', with 11 items, alphawas .7459. The fourth scale 'promotion of culturaldiversity', with 14 items, yielded an alpha of .8537.The final scale, 'multiculturalism as a moral concern',37was made up of 15 items, and alpha was .8280. Accordingto J.D. Willms (personal communication, June, 1991) andGronlund's (1985) criteria of acceptance for Cronbach'salpha, these coefficients are tolerable.A correlation matrix was also computed to show therelationships among the five subscales (see Table 2).Table 2Correlation MatrixAssim Ethnic Entrench PromoteTotalMoral ScaleAssimEthnicEntrenchPromoteMoralTotal Scale1.000-.2934-.4538-.5876-.4917-.26551.000.5065.4362.3574.64201.000.6901.6512.81531.000.8372.83951.000.8409 1.000Since the five subscales were constructed to measureone aspect of multiculturalism, and hence were expectedto be correlated with one another, the researcher wantedto assess the strength of the relationship among them.It was felt that 'assimilation', being antithetical to38multiculturalism, would correlate negatively with thefour 'pro-multiculturalism' scales.As expected, Pearson's correlation test showed anegative correlation between 'assimilation' and each ofthe other four scales, the strongest correlationoccurring with 'promotion of cultural diversity' (r =-.59). The other four scales correlated positively withone another, ranging from r = .35 to r = .84.B. Factor AnalysisWhile a test of internal consistency can assess eachscale's inter-item reliability and hence justify the apriori classification of items, it does not identify theinstrument's underlying constructs. To identify theseconstructs, or factors, the researcher conducted anexploratory factor analysis using a principal componentsextraction with varimax orthogonal rotation. A sixfactor solution produced variables that were clearlydistinct from one another. The researcher also attemptedan oblique rotation that yielded no results, indicatingthat the factors, unlike the scales, were notintercorrelated. Such a finding is interesting given thestrong correlations that were found among the fivesubscales using Pearson's test, indicating that thefactors and the conceptions are only crude approximationsof one another.39The varimax orthogonal rotation procedure maximizesthe tendency of each item to load highly only on onefactor and assumes that factors are distinct andunassociated with one another (Hedderson, 1987). Unlikethe test for internal consistency, however, factoranalysis is independent of how subjects respond to eachitem. Rather, factors are extracted based on thesemantic similarity among the items but ignore theirunderlying intent. Thus, item 44, which reads:"Minority ethnic and cultural groups in this countryshould encourage new immigrants to become part of theirestablished communities", was consistent with the 'ethnicspecific' scale, but fell into the Assimilation factor.The factor analysis procedure recognized the words"encourage ... to become part of ..." but failed todistinguish the inherent difference between conformity tothe majority and conformity to a minority group.Earlier, the researcher stated that a test ofinternal consistency ensured that each scale wasreliable, whereas a factor analysis could only extractcommon underlying variables, or factors, from the set ofitems. The two procedures were not intended todemonstrate perfect correspondence between factor andscale items but only to show the validity of the items.That some correspondence was found between the factors40and the conceptions identified in the literature suggeststhat the instrument is indeed valid.Parallels were found between the results of thefactor analysis and the literature review. Both thefactors and the conceptions focussed on the themes ofmorality, assimilation, cultural preservation, and grouprights. One of the factors, Benevolent Multiculturalism,had originally been identified from the literature as anindependent scale but was subsequently collapsed with the'assimilation' scale because of the small number of itemsand low internal consistency. The following is a partiallist of the six factors and a few example items:Factor one: Moral Multiculturalismitem 11. Cultural groups have the right to continuetheir cultural practices provided thatthey do not cause harm to otherindividuals.item 12. Teaching students about racism, prejudiceand discrimination is a necessary part ofa multicultural curriculum.item 67. Eliminating social injustice is essentialin a multicultural society.Factor two: Sponsored Cultural Preservationitem 23. Canada should help minority ethnic andcultural groups retain their culturaltraditions.item 43. School curricula should include thehistory and traditions of Canada's diversecultural groups.item 54. Schools with a large number of studentsfrom a minority cultural group shouldprovide linguistic instruction in English(or French) and in that group's mothertongue.41Factor three: Assimilationitem 10. Immigrants should adopt the norms ofmainstream Canadian culture.item 24. Schools should help students from minorityethnic and cultural groups assimilate intomainstream Canadian culture.item 42. To reduce the discrimination they face,immigrants should conform to mainstreamCanadian culture.Factor four:	 Benevolent Multiculturalism (after Gibson,in Young, 1979)item 34. Helping new immigrants adjust to life inCanadian society is sufficient commitmentto multiculturalism.item 56. A multicultural education program isneeded only if a school has problems withracism.item 65. Tolerating cultural differences issufficient commitment to multiculturalism.Factor five: Cultural Self-preservationitem 32. Minority ethnic and cultural groups thatwish to educate their children in theirown schools should be able to do so.item 41. Minority cultural groups have the rightto restrict the behaviour of their ownmembers as a means to preserve theirculture.item 48. Minority ethnic and cultural groups inCanada should be able to establishinstitutions that serve their own needs.Factor six: Politicization of Multiculturalism (afterMoodley, 1983)item 16. Multiculturalism means recognizingminority cultural groups as equals toCanada's two charter (English & French)groups.item 20. Governments in Canada have aresponsibility to provide job trainingprograms to help recent immigrants.item 33. Political representation among minorityethnic and cultural groups should be amajor goal in Canadian society.42The labels reflect the researcher's interpretation of thefactors. The descending order indicates each factor'srelative strength in explaining the total variance.Of the 63 items in the instrument, 28 items sharethe first factor, Moral Multiculturalism, which concernssocial justice, intergroup harmony and ethicalrelativism. This factor emphasizes society'sresponsibility to ensure fair treatment for all culturalgroups.The second most dominant factor is SponsoredCultural Preservation. The focus of this factor isofficial help to enable cultural groups to preserve theiruniqueness. Eleven items share this factor.The third factor, Assimilation, is similar to thescale of the same name. All items concern conformity tomainstream Canadian culture and modification of uniquecultural characteristics. Seven items reflect thistheme.Factor four, Benevolent Multiculturalism, reflects alaissez-faire attitude: cultural diversity is a realityneither to be denied nor affirmed. Six items belong inthis category.The fifth factor, Cultural Self-preservation,highlights the themes of retaining group distinctivenessand reinforcing group boundaries. This perspectivediffers considerably from that of moral multiculturalism43and state-sponsored multiculturalism. Five items belongin this factor.The last factor, Politicization of Multiculturalism,stresses the themes of political power and equal statusfor all groups in Canadian society. Six items share thisfactor.Factor 1 explained 20.7% of the observed variancewhile factor two accounted for 8.3%. Factors 3 and 4explained, respectively, 5.0% and 3.4%. The fifth factoraccounted for 3.0% and the final one, 2.9%. Together,these six factors explained 43.3% of the observedvariance.C.	 Description of the SampleInformation pertaining to eight background variableswas collected. These were: the subject's age, sex,current program of study (elementary or secondary),academic background, ancestry, whether the subject wasCanadian born, length of residency in Canada, and his/hersubjective evaluation of intercultural experience.Past studies have shown that certain backgroundvariables, in particular, age, sex, field of study(academic background), and intercultural experience, arerelated to conservatism, tolerance and racism (e.g.Eysenck, 1975; Feldman & Newcomb, 1969; Grabb, 1980;Nilsson & Ekehammar, 1986; Nunn, Crockett & Williams,441978; Sidanius & Ekehammar, 1980; Torney, Oppenheim &Farnen, 1975).One of the assumptions the researcher made was thattolerance was a necessary condition for acceptance ofmulticulturalism. Conservatism or intolerance might leadto rejection of multiculturalism. For this reason, thevariables birth and length of residency in Canada,expected to influence willingness to understand, tolerateor accept cultural diversity, were included.Ancestry was included as an indicator for upbringingand family culture. Finally, current program of studywas included to assess differences between students inthe elementary and the secondary programs.The sample reflected an unequal number of female andmale subjects. Two thirds (66.5%) of the 212participants were female and one third (33%) were male.One subject did not respond to this item.The age variable was divided into four categories,20-24, 25-39, 30-34 and 35+. Twenty-four percent of thesubjects fell in the 20-24 age group while 36.5% belongedin the 25-29 group. Eleven percent indicated theybelonged in the 30-34 group and 27% in the 35+ age group.Three subjects did not provide this information.Another background variable was subjects' program ofstudy. Approximately one half of the subjects, 52%, werestudents in the 12-month elementary teacher education45program while slightly more than one quarter, 27%, wereenrolled in the secondary teacher program. Three of thestudents indicated they were in the Native Indian TeacherEducation Program (NITEP). One fifth of the subjects(20%) were experienced teachers currently working fulltime in the school system. This category of subjects wasexcluded from the analysis as the researcher did not havedata on the type and amount of teaching experience theyhad.Academic background referred to the students' fieldof study prior to entering the teacher education program.Forty-eight percent of the students indicated their fieldof study was in the social sciences or humanities while21% had majored in a pure or applied science. Only 3%and 7% of the subjects indicated that they came from acommerce or fine arts background, respectively. Finally,approximately one fifth, 22%, chose the "other" category,indicating they had majored in a combination of fields orin one not mentioned above.The five categories for the ancestry variable were:African, Asian, Native, Northwestern European, and"other". The majority of subjects, 65%, indicated theywere of Northwestern European ancestry. Eleven percentindicated they were of Asian ancestry. Only one subjectchose the African category and only six subjects chose46the Native category. Twenty percent indicated theybelonged in the "other" category.The majority of the participants, 85%, were born inCanada while only 14% indicated they were foreign born.One subject did not respond to this item.Similarly, 94% of the subjects had lived in thiscountry since infancy or early childhood. Only 5% hadmoved to Canada in their teen or later years. Again, onesubject did not respond to this item.In their subjective evaluation of interculturalexperience, 9% indicated they had little or no experiencewith people of ethnic/cultural backgrounds different fromtheir own. Twenty-six percent had a moderate amount ofexperience. Sixty-five percent reported a considerableamount of intercultural experience.Table 3 shows the frequency for each variable. Someof the categories were subsequently collapsed during dataanalysis.47Table 3Description of SampleBackground variables N	 (212) %Sexfemalemaleno answerAge14170166.533.0.520 - 24 51 24.025 - 29 77 36.530 - 34 23 11.035+ 58 27.0no answer 3 1.5ProgramElementary 110 52.0Secondary 57 27.0NITEPexperienced elementary &secondary teachers3421.020.0Academic backgroundsocial sciences 101 48.0pure and applied sciences 44 21.0fine arts 14 7.0commerce 6 3.0other 47 22.0AncestryAfrican 1 .5Asian 24 11.0Native 6 3.0Northwestern European 138 65.0other 43 20.048Table 3, cont'dDescription of Sample Background variables	 N (212)	 %Canadian bornyesnono answer18130185.414.1.5Length of residency in Canadasince infancy/childhood 200 94.3since teen or later years 11 5.2no answer 1 .5Intercultural experiencelow 19 9.0moderate 55 26.0high 137 65.0no answer 1 .5D.	 Analysis of Background VariablesPrior to running the univariate analyses, some ofthe groups within the variables were collapsed due tosmall sample size. One variable, length of residency inCanada, was not included for the same reason. Theremaining seven background factors are sex, age, program,academic background, ancestry, birthplace, and amount ofintercultural experience.49The following table shows the alphas for eachvariable. Stringent application of Bonferroni suggeststhat alpha should be p 4 .006 (Huberty & Morris, 1989).Table 4 shows the results from the multipleunivariate analyses.50Table 4Results from Multiple Univariate Analyses TotalAssim Ethnic Entrench Promote Moral ScaleBackgroundvariablesSexSig of F .05 .003* .001* .002* .005* .001*F 3.88 8.87 10.37 10.27 8.09 12.32ProgramSig of F .34 .52 .54 .38 .78 .88F .97 .41 .38 .77 .08 .02AgeSig of F .02 .03 .13 .04 .42 .31F 3.52 3.11 1.94 2.89 .94 1.12AncestrySig of F .03 .55 .47 .28 .61 .84F 4.68 .37 .53 1.17 .27 .04Academic backgroundSig of F .15 .06 .02 .12 .05 .03F 2.12 3.73 5.89 2.40 4.04 4.75Canadian bornSig of F .37 .48 .53 .71 .10 .98F .80 .56 .40 .14 2.67 .00Intercultural experienceSig of F .08 .96 .32 .39 .07 .44F 2.56 .04 1.16 .94 2.63 .82* p 4, .00651SexSex was found to be significant in the four pro-multiculturalism scales, the 'ethnic specific','entrenchment of multiculturalism', 'promotion ofcultural diversity' and 'multiculturalism as a moralconcern' scales. Women were more likely than men toindicate agreement with these four scales.ProgramThe NITEP program was excluded from the analysis dueto small sample size. Experienced teachers were alsoexcluded because it is not known whether they taught atthe elementary or secondary level. No significantdifferences concerning program of study were observed inany of the scales, nor did any pattern emerge.AgeNo pattern indicating age differences could beidentified.AncestryBecause of small sample size, the African, Asian andNative categories were collapsed.52Academic backgroundDue to sample size, the social sciences andhumanities category was collapsed with fine arts, whilepure and applied sciences remained intact. The othercategories (commerce and 'other') were not used in thisanalysis for the same reason.Canadian bornNo pattern could be identified for this variable.Intercultural experienceLike the previous variable, no pattern could beidentified.E. Group MembershipTo describe the sample's conceptions ofmulticulturalism, the researcher used the computefunction of SPSS. The five scales were weighted to allowa comparison of subjects' scores on each of the fivescales, with a low score indicating stronger agreement.'Strongly Agree' was assigned the value of 1, "Agree' was2, 'Disagree' was 3 and 'Strongly Disagree' had the valueof 4. The lowest of the five scores determined groupmembership for each subject. In instances where asubject received a similar score on two or more scales,that subject was classified into the one with the lowest53score. As this occurred on a number of occasions, thismethod of determining group membership is, at best, onlya crude approximation.Of the five scales, conceptions four and five werethe most common choices among this sample (see Table 5).Fifty percent of the subjects fell into the 'moralconcern' conception. Forty-four percent of allrespondents belonged in the 'promotion of culturaldiversity' conception. 'Assimilation', 'entrenchment',and 'ethnic specific' were chosen by only a smallminority of respondents.Table 5Group Membership in the Five Conceptions Scale N	 (212) %Moral concern 106 50Promotion of cultural diversity 93 44Assimilation 8 4Entrenchment 3 1Ethnic specific 2 15455F.	 Summary of ResultsIn this exploratory look at conceptions ofmulticulturalism, five distinct conceptions wereidentified from a literature review. These were:assimilation, ethnic specific, entrenchment ofmulticulturalism, promotion of cultural diversity, andmulticulturalism as a moral concern. An instrumentconsisting of five scales was then developed to measurethese conceptions. In the first step of data analysis,the researcher attempted to ascertain if each scale andthe instrument as a whole were reliable.A test of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha)was performed. Results from this test showed high inter-item reliability for each scale. Pearson's correlationtest found intercorrelation among the scales, with anegative correlation between the assimilation scale andthe other four.The researcher also performed a factor analysis tosubstantiate the conceptual validity of the five a priorilabels. A varimax orthogonal rotation extracted sixfactors that paralleled the five conceptions. Thesewere: Moral Multiculturalism, Sponsored CulturalPreservation, Assimilation, Benevolent Multiculturalism,Cultural Self- preservation, and Politicization ofMulticulturalism. The fourth factor, BenevolentMulticulturalism, was one that had been collapsed withthe assimilation scale. The consistency in themesbetween the factors and scales was considered support forthe instrument's validity.To examine the relationship between the backgroundvariables and conception of multiculturalism, theresearcher ran multiple univariate analyses. Data foreight background factors were collected (sex, age,program, academic background, ancestry, whether thesubject was Canadian born, length of residency in Canada,and intercultural experience), but the residency variablewas not included in the analysis due to the homogeneityin responses.Using a stringent application of Bonferroni, sex wasthe only variable found to be significant. Womenconsistently showed greater acceptance for the four pro-multiculturalism scales. Though the alphas failed tomeet the more stringent criterion, the study also foundthat women were more likely than men to disagree withassimilation.Using the compute function of SPSS, the researcherdescribed how this sample of pre-service teachersconceptualizes multiculturalism. It was found that amajority of the subjects favoured the 'promotion ofcultural diversity' and 'moral multiculturalism'conceptions.56Chapter Five: Summary & ConclusionsA.	 Instrumentation and Classification of SubjectsThe present research was a study of conceptions ofmulticulturalism. Two of the objectives were, first, todevelop an instrument to measure beliefs aboutmulticulturalism, and second, to identify backgroundfactors that are associated with conceptions ofmulticulturalism among pre-service teachers studying atthe University of British Columbia.Past studies have looked at the role of teachers ina multicultural society and the importance of preparingteachers for such a context. None has looked atteachers' conceptions of multiculturalism. Yet it isgenerally accepted that what teachers think aboutmulticulturalism influences how they behave in theclassroom. If teacher education programs are to prepareteachers for the culturally diverse classroom, it isimportant to understand pre-service teachers' beliefsabout multiculturalism. The present study ascertained inan exploratory manner what conceptions pre-serviceteachers have of multiculturalism and attempted toidentify the background variables that are related tothese conceptions.Based on conceptions identified in a literaturereview, the researcher developed an instrument to measure57five conceptions of multiculturalism, each differing fromone another in philosophy and goal. These five were:'assimilation', 'ethnic specific', 'entrenchment ofmulticulturalism', 'promotion of cultural diversity', and'multiculturalism as a moral concern'.The first step in the data analysis involvedassessing the empirical validity of the instrument. Atest of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) showedhigh inter-item reliability within each scale.Pearson's correlation test showed modest to highintercorrelation among the five scales, demonstratingconsistency within the instrument. The four pro-multiculturalism scales correlated positively with oneanother but negatively with the assimilation scale. Aview which discourages pluralism and advocates surrenderof cultural distinctiveness, assimilation is antitheticalto promotion of diversity. The negative correlation (r=-.59) between these two scales is therefore notsurprising.Both 'ethnic specific' and 'entrenchment ofmulticulturalism' firmly advocate cultural retention andgroup distinctiveness. A positive and moderately strongcorrelation (r = .51) was found between the two scales.A factor analysis extracted six orthogonal factorsthat closely paralleled the five conceptions. Theconceptions were: assimilation, ethnic specific,58entrenchment of multiculturalism, promotion of culturaldiversity, and multiculturalism as a moral concern. Thesix factors were: Moral Multiculturalism, SponsoredCultural Preservation, Assimilation, BenevolentMulticulturalism, Cultural Self-preservation, andPoliticization of Multiculturalism. One of the factors,Benevolent Multiculturalism, was a conception that hadbeen identified in the literature review but subsequentlycollapsed with the assimilation scale.The 'moral concern' scale was supported by amajority of the subjects, followed by 'promotion ofcultural diversity'. The 'assimilation', 'ethnicspecific' and 'entrenchment' scales received littlesupport.Sample bias might partly explain these findings.The present sample consisted of students who experienceda common teacher preparation program and who had justreturned from an extended practicum in schools that wereethnically and culturally diverse. It is possible thattheir recent educational experiencees affected theirconceptions of multiculturalism.Moreover, the subjects were predominantly ofNorthwestern European ancestry, and almost all subjectswere Canadian born or had lived in Canada since infancy.The lack of variation in these background variables mightbe one reason for the homogeneity among their59conceptions. The small sample size for subjects ofAfrican, Asian and Native background meant that groupmembership by ancestry could not be determined.A possible explanation for the positive response to'moral multiculturalism' is its abstract nature. Itemstended to dwell on principles rather than specifyinitiatives that promote group rights or culturalmaintenance or political empowerment. The conception isone which exacts little financial commitment and requiresless personal involvement than those which requirepolitical or social action.Similarly, membership in the 'promotion of culturaldiversity' scale was high. Emphasizing appreciation ofcultures, this conception, like the one discussed above,requires little political involvement and personalcommitment.The contrast between group membership in these twoscales and the other three conceptions supported theresearcher's belief that multiculturalism as an ideologyis readily embraced by most people while state-supportedmulticulturalism, requiring financial commitment, is not.Thus, as celebration of culture or as a democraticprinciple, multiculturalism is readily accepted. It isinteresting to note that such was the finding of theSpicer Commission ("The Forum", 1991).60Research indicates that, among the middle class,attitudes toward non-economic issues tend to be moreliberal than those of working class people, but ineconomic issues, the middle class tends to be moreconservative (Eysenck, 1975). It is likely that almostall the subjects in this study come from a middle classbackground. If such is the case, it may be one reasonwhy they supported multiculturalism as a democraticprinciple but resisted it as an economic reality.'Assimilation', which believes in modifying uniquecultural characteristics in favour of the characteristicsassociated with mainstream culture, was chosen by fewsubjects, a finding expected of an educated, middle-class, and hence more tolerant, sample.Willingness to promote multiculturalism did notextend to the radical measures that 'entrenchment ofmulticulturalism' advocates. Nor did subjects supportthe 'ethnic specific' conception. Perhaps politicalempowerment of minority groups is too confrontational andreinforcement of group boundaries is too restrictive.Perhaps, too, the movement away from multiculturalism ascultural celebration and moral concern is discomfitting.The unalterable finding of the present study,however, is that, for these subjects, multiculturalismmeans appreciation for cultural diversity and passivesupport for cultural retention. As structural pluralism-61-group distinctiveness as well as equal status with thetwo charter groups--multiculturalism was rejected byvirtually all respondents.B.	 Background FactorsThe prominence of sex differences in the 'pro-multiculturalism' scales--'ethnic specific','entrenchment', 'promotion of diversity' and 'moralconcern'--duplicated previous findings that women aregenerally more tolerant and less conservative than men(e.g. Sidanius & Ekehammar, 1980; Torney, Oppenheim &Farnen, 1975). The finding from the present researchalso supported the researcher's assumption that tolerancewould be associated with willingness to acceptmulticulturalism.That women were found to be more accepting ofmulticulturalism may reflect the socialization whichgirls undergo. In general, since childhood, girls areexpected to be more nurturant, more conciliatory, andmore willing to compromise than boys. It is likely thatthese traits developed into greater tolerance fordifferences and diversity.Perhaps another explanation for the observed sexdifference stems from the inequality between sex roles.Generally forced into a 'minority' status, women may, for62this reason, be more sympathetic to the plight andconcerns of members of marginalized ethnic groups.However significant the variable sex is, itexplained only 4 to 5% of the observed variance. As noother background factors were found to be significant, itis safe to presume that factors other than the onesstudied here may explain some of the variance.Previous findings have shown that younger people aremore tolerant than older people (e.g. Eysenck, 1972;Nunn, Crockett & Williams, 1978). The finding in thisstudy, however, failed to find any age differences.Past studies have found a relationship between fieldof study and conservatism (Feldman & Newcomb, 1969;Nilsson, Ekehammar & Sidanius, 1985). Again, the presentstudy did not find this variable to be a significantpredictor.One of the expected findings in this study was thatprogram (whether Elementary or Secondary) would be asignificant predictor. The researcher had felt thatselection of teacher education program would be relatedto such traits as empathy, liberalism and nurturance. Itwas felt that teachers who chose to work with youngchildren would be higher in these traits, and hence bemore acceptant of multiculturalism. The findings fromthis study, however, did not confirm this expectation.63The researcher had expected to find interactioneffects between ancestry and variables such as length ofresidency in this country and whether or not the personwas Canadian born. Such a finding did not emerge.Almost all subjects were Canadian born and had livedin this country since infancy or early childhood. Thus,the absence of variation in these background measuresmeant that these relationships could not be testedadequately.Of the background factors studied, the researcherhad expected intercultural experience to be a stronglysignificant variable. The researcher thought thatencounters with cultural practices and beliefs differentfrom one's own would increase an individual's willingnessto accept cultural differences. However, findings fromthe present study were inconclusive and no responsepattern could be identified.Two weaknesses concerning the measurement of thisvariable are possible explanations why no relationshipwas found between intercultural experience andconceptions of multiculturalism. First, the item soughteach individuals's subjective evaluation of his or herlevel of intercultural experience. The problem ofinterpreting 'high', 'moderate' and 'low' experiencemight have contributed to the inconclusive finding.Second, the item did not ask subjects to indicate whether64their experiences were positive or negative, nor did itspecify type of interaction. More specific questions mayhave yielded some conclusive results.Since sex, the sole variable found to besignificant, explained only a very small portion of theobserved variance (ranging from 4% to 5%), it is likelythat factors other than sex are associated with one'sconception of multiculturalism. Possible variables are:social class, cultural background, upbringing, parents'attitudes toward multiculturalism, culture of the schoolsattended (atmosphere, teacher attitudes, demographics ofstudent population), type and amount of interculturalexperience, as well as context in which interculturalcontact was experienced (age, etc).C. Summary of the StudyThe present research was an exploratory study ofpre-service teachers' conceptions of multiculturalism. Apen and paper instrument for measuring conceptions ofmulticulturalism was developed from a literature reviewand administered to students enrolled in The Universityof British Columbia's Teacher Education Program. Severalanalyses were performed to determine group membership forthe subjects and to assess the effect of backgroundvariables on their conceptions of multiculturalism.65The findings from this study suggest that, for thisgroup of subjects, multiculturalism in Canada is valuedas an ideology and as celebration of cultural diversity.That most subjects identified with the 'promotion ofcultural diversity' and 'moral concern' conceptionsindicates that there is a high degree of tolerance andacceptance for multiculturalism. Yet few subjectsidentified with the 'ethnic specific' and 'entrenchmentof multiculturalism' conceptions, seeming to indicate areluctance both to grant equal status to non-chartergroups and to maintain or further cultural distinctions.It seems that multiculturalism is valued, but only assomething that enriches the Canadian mosaic. Culturalbackgrounds other than the Anglo -Christian are still notrecognized as a part of the mainstream culture.D.	 Limitations of the Present StudyThe present study could have benefitted fromimprovements in two areas, an increased sample size andrefinement of the research instrument.One weakness of the instrument was it reflected theresearcher's interpretation of the literature devoted tomulticulturalism; hence, the five conceptions that theinstrument explored do not fully represent allconceptions.66Another limitation of the research instrument becameapparent after the data analyses. Questions concerningthe background variables could have been more precise,for example the item regarding intercultural experience,which did not specify the nature of the experience.A larger sample size might have provided a moreheterogeneous group of subjects. The lack of variabilityamong subjects in the present study meant some of thebackground measures such as ancestry and length ofresidency in Canada, could not be adequately explored.Similarly, the unequal number of female and malesubjects, especially in the Twelve-month ElementaryProgram, limited the researcher's ability to drawconclusions about the variable sex.E.	 Recommendations for Future ResearchThe findings from the present study suggest thatcertain background factors are associated with anindividual's conception of multiculturalism. Futureresearch, perhaps involving personal interviews, isneeded to explore in greater detail to what extentbackground variables, and which ones, affect theseconceptions.A valuable study would be to administer scales thatmeasure subjects' level of tolerance or prejudice. This67would help assess the concurrent validity of themulticulturalism conceptions scale.The present study focussed on pre-service teacherswho were studying at a large and culturally andethnically heterogeneous university located in anethnically diverse city. As such, their perceptions andconceptions of multiculturalism were likely to have beenshaped by the social and educational experiences uniqueto this environment. A study comparing students from theUniversity of British Columbia's teacher educationprogram with pre-service teachers from a differentuniversity environment might be able to identify othervariables other that are associated with an individual'sconception of multiculturalism.A forced-choice test might be one way to determinewhich areas people are likely to be open-minded andreceptive and other areas where they are not. Such astudy might yield a more accurate picture of how peopleconceptualize multiculturalism.The present sample included experienced teacherscurrently working in the public school system. Theabsence of information about the amount and type ofexperience they had as teachers, however, meant thatteaching experience could not be treated as one of thebackground factors. Including this variable in a futurestudy would provide valuable information.68The sex difference observed in the present studysuggests that the gender socialization process thatchildren undergo affects men and women's tolerance forand acceptance of diversity. Future research couldinvestigate aspects of gender socialization thatultimately influence a person's conception ofmulticulturalism. One implication of research in thisarea is that attitude change--particularly with respectto race relations--can be achieved through education.69BibliographyAmerican Psychological Association. (1984). 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MulticulturalEducation? In K. McLeod (Ed.), Multicultural Education: A partnership. Toronto: CCMIE.73McLeod, K. (1984). Multiculturalism and MulticulturalEducation. In R. Samuda, J. Berry & M. Laferriere(Eds.), Multiculturalism in Canada: Social andeducational perspectives. Toronto: Allyn andBacon, Inc.McLeod, K. Multiculturalism and Multicultural Educationin Canada: Human rights and human rights education.Proceedings of the IAIE Conference "Education in Plural Societies: A review of international research in intergroup relations", University ofBritish Columbia,	 December 14 - 17, 1989.Mallea, J.R. (1984). Cultural Diversity in CanadianEducation: A review of contemporary developmentin multiculturalism. In R. Samuda, J. Berry & M.Laferriere (Eds.), Multiculturalism in Canada: Social and educational perspectives. Toronto:Allyn and Bacon, Inc.Mallea, J.R. (1987). Culture, Schooling and Resistancein a Plural Canada. In J. Young (Ed.), Breaking theMosaic: Ethnic identities in Canadian schooling.Toronto: Garamond Press.Mallea, J.R. (1986). Multicultural Education: Analternative theoretical framework. In K. McLeod(Ed.), Multicultural Education: A partnership.Toronto: CCMIE.Mallea, J.R. (1989). Schooling in a Plural Canada.Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters Ltd.Moodley, K. (1981). Canadian Ethnicity in ComparativePerspective: Issues in the Literature. In J.Dahlie & T. Fernando (Eds.), Ethnicity, Power andPolitics in Canada. Toronto: Methuen.Moodley, K. (1983). Canadian Multiculturalism asIdeology. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 6, 3, July,320 - 331.Moodley, K. (1985a). Education for Diversity: Issuesin multiculturalism. In K. Moodley (Ed.), Race Relations and Multicultural Education. Vancouver,BC: Centre for the Study of Curriculum &Instruction.74Moodley, K. (1985b). Ethnicity and Education:Implications of multiculturalism. In K. Moodley(Ed.), Race Relations and Multicultural Education.Vancouver, BC: Centre for the Study of Curriculum &Instruction.Nilsson, I., Ekehammar, B. and Sidanius, J. (1985).Education and Sociopolitical Attitudes.Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 29, 1- 15.Nilsson, I. & Ekehammar, B. (1986). SociopoliticalIdeology and Field of Study. Educational Studies,12,	 1, 37 - 46.Norusis, M.J. (1988). The SPSS Guide to Data Analysis for SPSSx. Chicago: SPSS, Inc.Nunn, C.Z., Crockett, H.J. & Williams, J.A., Jr. 	 (1978).Tolerance for Nonconformity: A national survey of America's changing commitments to civil liberties. San Francisco: Jossey-Boss, Inc.Ouellet, F. (1987). Intercultural Education: Teachersin-service training. In K. McLeod (Ed.),Multicultural Education: A partnership. Toronto:CCMIE.Ouellet, F. 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Sex-relatedDifferences in Socio-political Ideology.Scandinavian Journal of Psycholgoy, 21, 17 - 26.The Forum. (1991, July 1). The Province, pp. 1 - 8.Thorburn, H.G. (1989). The Political Foundations ofCanada's Pluralist Society. In O.P. Dwivedi, R.D'Costa, C.L. Stanford & E. Trepper (Eds.). Canada2000: Race relations and public policy. Ontario:University of Guelph, Dept. of Political Science.Torney, J.V., Oppenheim, A.N. & Farnen, R.F. (1975).Civic Education in Ten Countries: An empirical study. Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist & WiksellInternational.Ungerleider, C. Education for Democratic Citizenshipin Canada. Proceedings of the Canadian Society forthe Study of Education Conference, Victoria, June1989.Wilson, J.D. (1984). Multicultural Programmes inCanadian Education. In R. Samuda, J. Berry & M.Laferriere (Eds.), Multiculturalism in Canada: Social and educational perspectives. Toronto: Allynand Bacon, Inc.Wilson-Smith, A. (1990, November 12). What does CanadaWant? MacLeans. pp. 14 - 16.Wright, I. & LaBar, C. (1984). Multiculturalism andMorality. In S. Shapson & V. D'Oyley (Eds.),Bilingual and Multilingual Education: Canadian perspectives. Clevedon, England: MultilingualMatters.Wyatt, J. (1984). Implications of Multiculturalism forCurriculum. In S. Shapson & V. D'Oyley (Eds.).Bilingual and Multilingual Education: Canadian perspectives. Clevedon, England: MultilingualMatters.Young, J. (1979). Education in a Multicultural Society:What sort of education? What sort of society?The Canadian Journal of Education, 4, 3, 5 - 21.76Appendix A: Survey Instrument77CONCEPTIONS OF MULTICULTURALISMThis survey is part of a research project for an M.A.degree in the Department of Social & Educational Studies.It was developed to measure conceptions ofmulticulturalism.Your participation in this project is completelyvoluntary and anonymous. If you choose not toparticipate in this study, your standing in this courseand in the teacher education program will not be affectedin any way.The questionnaire will take no more than 20 to 30 minutesto complete.Thank you for taking the time to help me with my researchwork.Carrie Jung, M.A. StudentDepartment of Social &Educational StudiesBACKGROUND INFORMATIONThe questions in this section seek information aboutyourselves. I will be using this information to helpinterpret the data collected. Please do not leave anyquestion unanswered.Please choose the corresponding number on the answersheet.1.	 Which program are you enrolled in?12 month elementary teaching program 	 1Secondary teaching program	 2782. What is your academic background?social sciences and/or humanities	 1pure and/or applied sciences	 2commerce	 3fine arts	 4other	 53. Please indicate your sex:female	 1	 male	 24. What is your age?20 - 24	 1	 30 - 34	 325 - 29	 2	 35 +	 45. What is your ancestry?African	 1Asian	 2Native	 3Northwestern European 	 4Other	 56. Were you born in Canada?yes	 1	 no	 27. How long have you resided in Canada?since infancy	 1since childhood	 2since teenage years	 3came to Canada as an adult	 48.	 On a scale of 1 - 5, please indicate your experiencewith people of ethnic/cultural backgrounds differentfrom your own.1	 2	 3	 4	 5no intercultural	 dailyexperience at all	 contact inall kindssituationsMULTICULTURALISM CONCEPTIONS SCALEPlease read each item carefully and choose the responsewhich most closely reflects your opinion. The fourpossible choices are:1	 Strongly agree2	 Agree3	 Disagree4	 Strongly disagree9. School curricula should focus on the culture ofCanada's two charter (English and French) groups.10. Immigrants should adopt the norms of mainstreamCanadian culture.11. Cultural groups have the right to continue theircultural practices provided that they do not causeharm to other individuals.12. Teaching students about racism, prejudice anddiscrimination is a necessary part of amulticultural curriculum.13. Canada should encourage cultural groups to sharetheir cultural traditions with one another.14. Having hiring quotas is one way to ensure thatmembers of minority ethnic or cultual groups areconsidered for jobs.15. Schools should encourage children from all culturaland ethnic backgrounds to be proud of their ownheritage.16. Multiculturalism means recognizing minority culturalgroups as equals to Canada's two charter (English &French) groups.17. Institutions in Canada should make an effort tounderstand the customs of this country's diversecultural groups.18. Canadian institutions have no responsibility toensure that minority ethnic or cultural groupsreceive special consideration.7919. Minority cultural groups in this country shouldabandon their unique characteristics.20. Governments in Canada have a responsibility toprovide job training programs to help recentimmigrants.21. Immigrants who continue their cultural traditionsin this country weaken national unity.22. Canada must be willing to assist ethnic and culturalgroups achieve equal status in society.23. Canada should help minority ethnic and culturalgroups to retain their cultural tradition.24. Schools should help students from minority ethnicand cultural groups assimilate into mainstreamCanadian culture.25. School have a responsibility to help eliminatesocial injustice.26. Multicultural education must include students fromboth mainstream and non-mainstream Canadiancultures.27. Multicultural education is necessary only if thereare communication difficulties in a school.28. Political empowerment of minority ethnic andcultural groups is one way to achieve equality forthese groups.29. duplicate item30. Students should be discouraged from wearing clothingunique to their culture or religion in school.31. Schools should try to reduce the tendency of peopleto judge other groups according to their own group'sstandards.32. Minority ethnic and cultural groups that wish toeducate their children in their own schools shouldbe able to do so.33. Poltical representation among minority ethnic andcultural groups should be a major goal in Canadiansociety.8034. Helping new immigrants adjust to life in Canadiansociety is sufficient commitment tomulticulturalism.35. Becoming a part of Canadian society means adoptingthe cultural norms of mainstream Canada.36. Canada should help new immigrants learn the normsof this society.37. Canada should promote interchange among its culturalgroups.38. If there are barriers preventing members of minoritygroups from employment, the barriers should beeliminated.39. Minority ethnic and cultural groups should helptheir children develop a sense of pride in theirheritage.40. Having their own schools is one way to help minorityethnic and cultural groups to retain their ownculture.41. Minority cultural groups have a right to restrictthe behaviour of their own members as a means topreserve their culture.42. To reduce the discrimination they face, immigrantsshould conform to mainstream Canadian culture.43. School curricula should include the history andtraditions of Canada's diverse cultural groups.44. Minority ethnic and cultural groups in their countryshould encourage new immigrants to become part oftheir established communities.45. A multicultural education program should focus onthe cultural differences of other peoples.46. Cultural practices that might cause harm to otherindividuals should be modified.47. A main goal of multicultural education should beto encourage students to retain their own culture.48. Minority ethnic and cultural groups in Canada shouldbe able to establish institutions that serve theirown needs.8149. Multicultural curricula should help students fromminority ethnic or cultural groups become activeparticipants in society.50. Multicultural education is an important way tolegitimize the culture of minority ethnic andcultural groups.51. When necessary, schools should help immigrantchildren adapt to their new life in Canada.52. Minority cultural groups in Canada should preservetheir cultural traditions.53. Government hiring practices should treat membersof both minority ethnic and Canada's two charter(English & French) groups in the same manner.54. Schools with a large number of students from aminority cultural group should provide linguisticinstruction in English (or French) and in thatgroup's mother tongue.55. A main purpose of multicultural education programsis to provide information about the culturalpractices of other peopls.56. A multicultural education program is needed only ifa school has problems with racism.57. The Canadian Multiculturalism Act should support"multiculturalism" and "mutilingualism".58. Children from minority ethnic and cultural groupsshould attend schools that encourage them tomaintain their cultural practices.59. Institutions in Canada should treat the minoritycultural groups in this country as equals to the twocharter (English & French) groups.60. Canada's national identity is strengthened by itscultural diversity.61. Canadians should be tolerant of different culturalpractices.62. Multicultural education is a moral responsibility.63. A major goal of multiculturalism is to promotepositive relationships among Canada's diversecultural groups.8264. The existence of cultural diversity in a societyautomatically means it is multicultural.65. Tolerating cultural differences is sufficientcommitment to multiculturalism.66. Minority cultural groups should resist adopting thenorms of mainstream Canadian culture.67. Eliminating social injustice is essential in amulticultural society.68. It is important to respect other cultural traditionsprovided that they do not infringe on the rights ofthe individuals.69. Schools should teach children from minority ethnicgroups to feel proud of their own ethnicity.70. It is important to foster appreciation for culturaldiversity.71. To enable minority ethnic and cultural groups tofully participate in society, governments mustprovide English or French language training forthem.72. Canada needs to ensure that all ethnic and culturalgroups are treated in a culturally sensitive way.73. Minority cultural groups in this country shouldadopt the norms of mainstream Canadian society.74. Proportional political represention for minorityethnic and cultural groups is essential in Canada.75. Appreciating cultural diversity is an essentialfeature of multiculturalism.76. The main principle of multiculturalism in Canadais tolerance for people from different ethnic andcultural backgrounds.77. Canadian institutions must treat people in aculturally sensitive way.83BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION NAME:MAILING ADDRESS:Carrie S.Y. Jung105 - 130 East 15th AvenueVancouver, BCV5T 4L3PLACE AND DATE OF BIRTH:	 Hong KongDecember 24, 1964EDUCATION (Colleges and Universities attended, dates, and degrees):University of British Columbia, 1986, B.A.University of British Columbia, 1987, Diploma in Education(Teaching E.S.L)University of British Columbia, 1992, M.A.POSITIONS HELD:PUBLICATIONS (if necessary, use a second sheet):AWARDS:Complete one biographical form for each copy of a thesis presentedto the Special Collections Division, University Library.0E•5

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