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The effect of environmental print reading on the literacy development of kindergarten children Salewski, Wanda Cecile 1995

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THE  EFFECT OF  ENVIRONMENTAL PRINT READING ON THE LITERACY DEVELOPMENT OF KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN by WANDA CECILE SALEWSKI B. Ed, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE  FACULTY OF EDUCATION  Department o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming -^o t h e ^ r e ^ u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1995 © W a n d a C e c i l e S a l e w s k i , 1995  In presenting this  thesis  in partial  fulfilment  of the requirements  for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further  agree that permission for extensive  copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted department  or  by his or  her  representatives.  It  is  by the head of my  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  ^Wv^/k  31 l ^ S T . )  ABSTRACT This  study  examined  l i t e r a c y programs of study was t o  the  use  of  environmental  kindergarten c h i l d r e n .  print  in  the  The purpose o f  the  i n v e s t i g a t e whether a treatment u s i n g environmental  l o g o s would e f f e c t  a t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g between the r e a d i n g of  environmental p r i n t and c o n v e n t i o n a l p r i n t . The sample  of  68  k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n was  drawn from two  elementary s c h o o l s i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, each e n r o l l i n g two morning k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s . The c l a s s e s i n each s c h o o l were randomly a s s i g n e d to c o n t r o l or experimental groups. A 20 item logo i n v e n t o r y and C l a y ' s Word T e s t administered posttest  all  scores.  different context,  to  subjects The  logo  presentations  of  and context f r e e .  supporting,  in  order to  inventory each  generate  was  logo,  full  for  the  context,  for  participated  each  of  of  and three  partial  Each context v a r i e d i n the amount of  experimental  group  presentation. consisted  p r e s e n t a t i o n of two l o g o s , a pocket c h a r t a c t i v i t y , activity  were  pretest  comprised  environmental cues i n c l u d e d i n the  Treatment  (1979)  the  eight  sessions.  The  of  the  and a j o u r n a l control  group  i n s t o r y t e l l i n g and r e l a t e d j o u r n a l a c t i v i t i e s  for  the same number of s e s s i o n s as the experimental group. Analysis  of  variance  and  subsequent  t-tests  resulted  in  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t mean g a i n s c o r e s f o r the experimental group over  the  control.  This  treatment  effect  p r o v i d e d evidence  support o f the use of environmental p r i n t r e a d i n g i n the programs o f young c h i l d r e n . ii  in  literacy  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  T a b l e o f Contents  i i i  L i s t of Tables  v  Acknowledgement  vi  Chapter One  INTRODUCTION Language and L i t e r a c y Development Components o f Emergent L i t e r a c y Development The Role o f Environmental P r i n t Purpose o f the Study D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  Chapter Two  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Graphic Awareness i n Environmental P r i n t Reading Environmental P r i n t Reading, a L i n k t o Conventional Reading Environmental P r i n t Reading, I n e f f e c t i v e as a L i n k t o C o n v e n t i o n a l Reading The Use o f Environmental P r i n t i n Instruction  1 2 5 7 9 9 11 11 18 23 33  Chapter Three  DESIGN Student P o p u l a t i o n P i l o t Study Procedure Pretests Method Posttests Design and A n a l y s i s Limitations  36 36 37 38 38 39 41 42 42  Chater Four  FINDINGS A n a l y s i s o f Logo Inventory and Word T e s t Frequency o f Response Types by Context Summary  44 45 52 55  iii  Chapter F i v e  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Conclusions Environmental P r i n t Awareness S u c c e s s f u l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Logos i n F u l l Context I n s t r u c t i o n w i t h Environmental P r i n t P r e r e q u i s i t e S k i l l s Required f o r Conventional Reading Implications Theoretical Curricular I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Parents Future Research  Bibliography  56 56 57 58 59 62 63 63 64 65 66 68  Appendix 1  P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Logos by Context  72  Appendix 2  P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Contexts  73  Appendix 3  C l a y ' s Word T e s t (1979)  74  iv  LIST OF TABLES  Table  Page  1  P r e t e s t Comparison Scores by Context f o r Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups  46  2  Logo Inventory P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Mean Scores  47  3  Mean Gain Scores by Context f o r Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups  48  Percentage o f P r e t e s t Response Types  50  4  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Nothing worth accomplishing i s achieved without the a s s i s t a n c e of  others.  In  Ungerleider,  Dr.  this  endeavor  Jim Anderson, Dr.  C r a i g f o r t h e i r guidance refine  my  thoughts  and  about  a n a l y s i s , and the combination Recognition  I  i s a l s o due  wish  thank  Dr.  Frank E c h o l s , and  support literacy of the to  to  the  i n h e l p i n g me  Dr.  Charles Sydney  challenge  development,  and  statistical  two. teachers  and  w i l l i n g l y shared t h e i r time and classrooms w i t h me  children  who  i n order that I  might e x p l o r e some of my b e l i e f s about emergent l i t e r a c y . To my  husband, M i c h a e l ,  and  my  children,  Alyson  and  Chloe,  your unwavering support, p a t i e n c e , and understanding have made the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e .  vi  CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION  R e c e n t l y t h e r e has been a dramatic s h i f t i n t h e understanding  o f how l i t e r a c y develops and how, i n f a c t ,  l e a r n t o read.  children  F o r many y e a r s , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t formal  r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n should not begin u n t i l a c h i l d had reached the mental age o f 6 1/2 (Morphett t h i s age requirement  & Washburne, 1931). Because o f  the notion of "reading readiness"  f l o u r i s h e d . In most k i n d e r g a r t e n and b e g i n n i n g Grade One classrooms,  c h i l d r e n were taught a s e r i e s o f s e q u e n t i a l r e a d i n e s s  s k i l l s t h a t were thought instruction.  t o be e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s o f r e a d i n g  C h i l d r e n were i n v o l v e d i n a v a r i e t y o f s k i l l  b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t focused mainly on a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , l e t t e r naming, and f i n e motor development. these b u i l d i n g b l o c k s were i n p l a c e , formal r e a d i n g  Once  instruction  could begin. The b e l i e f i n an a p p r o p r i a t e m a t u r a t i o n a l age and r e a d i n e s s f o r r e a d i n g ignored t h e f a c t t h a t c h i l d r e n possess  knowledge  about l i t e r a c y b e f o r e they even come t o s c h o o l (Teale & Sulzby, 1986). Although without  few c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o read c o n v e n t i o n a l l y  some formal s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n , most c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e an  understanding  o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g through d a i l y l i v i n g and  i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h p r i n t i n t h e i r environments. While  shopping  w i t h p a r e n t s a t t h e g r o c e r y s t o r e , u s i n g t h e TV Guide t o l o c a t e 1  f a v o u r i t e shows, or s h a r i n g s t o r y times, c h i l d r e n , develop  an  awareness of p r i n t and i t s f u n c t i o n s . "Emergent l i t e r a c y " as the l a t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e has been called,  i m p l i e s t h a t "growth i n w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g comes from  w i t h i n the c h i l d and as the r e s u l t of environmental (Teale and Sulzby, 1986,  p.xx). L i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g can  i n i t i a t e d by the a d u l t or by the c h i l d ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of p r i n t . contends  stimulation" be  independent  The emergent l i t e r a c y p e r s p e c t i v e  t h a t l i t e r a c y develops or emerges a t a v e r y young  as c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t w i t h p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s ,  friends  age,  and  r e l a t i v e s i n the world around them. For the most p a r t , the n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s an u l t i m a t e time f o r l i t e r a c y t o develop has been c h a l l e n g e d . I t i s now  a w i d e l y h e l d b e l i e f among educators t h a t  l i t e r a c y development begins a t home and i s a g r a d u a l  and  continuing process.  Language and L i t e r a c y Development  Some t h e o r i s t s suggest t h a t t h e r e are many s i m i l a r i t i e s between language and l i t e r a c y development.  Both language and  l i t e r a c y have a s t r o n g s o c i a l component, and as such are p a r t of everyday  life.  importance stating,  Harste, Burke, and Woodward (1984) m a i n t a i n the  of the s o c i a l aspect o f both l i t e r a c y and language by "Language, whether o r a l or w r i t t e n , i s a s o c i a l  of some complexity.  event  Language d i d not develop because o f the  e x i s t e n c e of one language user but of two" 2  (Harste e t a l . ,  1984,  p.28).  There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n use language and  l i t e r a c y because they are motivated t o communicate; however, the e x t e n t t o which language and l i t e r a c y development p a r a l l e l  each  o t h e r i s not so c l e a r . Although not i n n a t e , language develops n a t u r a l l y as c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r s and t r y t o make sense o f t h e i r w o r l d (Goodman & Goodman, 1979). From b i r t h , c h i l d r e n a r e surrounded by language.  I t i s t h e v e h i c l e f o r communicating meaning t h a t  enables them t o p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n t h e world.  Indeed,  c h i l d r e n develop language through t h e i r attempts t o communicate. Language l e a r n i n g i s not the focus o f i n t e r a c t i o n s but r a t h e r i s embedded i n t h e p u r s u i t o f o t h e r ends.  C h i l d r e n do not speak,  argue, o r q u e s t i o n t o l e a r n about language.  They p a r t i c i p a t e i n  o r a l language a c t i v i t i e s t o express a need, prove a p o i n t o r t o f i n d out something Two  (Halliday,  1973).  s c h o o l s o f thought c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t e d n e s s o f  l i t e r a c y and language development e x i s t . The f i r s t m a i n t a i n s t h a t the development development  o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s t h e  o f o r a l language (Goodman & Goodman, 1979;  Bissex,  1980; H a r s t e , Woodward, & Burke, 1984; Holdaway, 1984). In f a c t , Welton, 1989,  states that,  " C h i l d r e n grow i n t o r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g the same way they develop o r a l language. When they are immersed i n an environment t h a t r e q u i r e s , uses, and demonstrates t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f p r i n t , c h i l d r e n e x p l o r e , i n v e n t , c r e a t e , and try out p r i n t r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s " (p.57). In such a l i t e r a t e environment, w r i t t e n language i s f u n c t i o n a l and has many uses.  C h i l d r e n encounter w r i t t e n language 3  before  developing  a need t o communicate beyond f a c e - t o - f a c e s i t u a t i o n s .  They see books, s i g n s , logos, and p r i n t e d c o n t a i n e r s . c e r e a l boxes and STOP s i g n s .  They read  They s c r i b b l e l e t t e r s and j o i n i n  the r e a d i n g o f f a v o u r i t e s t o r i e s .  These a c t i v i t i e s and o t h e r  d a i l y encounters w i t h p r i n t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e b a s i s o f l i t e r a c y development. The  second s c h o o l o f thought a s s e r t s t h a t l i t e r a c y and  language development a r e not a l i k e i n s o f a r as some s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n and s k i l l development a r e necessary develop.  f o rliteracy to  Donaldson (1984) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e  between l e a r n i n g t o speak and understand o r a l language and l e a r n i n g t o read and w r i t e .  The f a c t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f  c h i l d r e n do not l e a r n t o read and w r i t e on t h e i r own p r o v i d e s evidence  t o t h i s claim.  Donaldson maintains  that during the  t r a n s m i s s i o n o f speech, t h e l i n k between language and i t s source is clear.  The same, however, i s not t r u e f o r w r i t t e n language.  W r i t t e n language i s impersonal by both space and time. a c t i o n s t h a t support  According  from i t s author  t o Donaldson, t h e presence o f  o r imply meaning i s another aspect o f speech  t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s understanding language.  and i s separated  and d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from w r i t t e n  W i t h i n t h e s i t u a t i o n a l context t h a t speech occurs,  t h e r e e x i s t many a c t i o n s o r c l u e s t h a t a r e c r u c i a l t o b r e a k i n g the code and d e v e l o p i n g understanding.  Because speech i s a v e r y  p e r s o n a l , u s e f u l t o o l , c h i l d r e n a r e h i g h l y motivated t o communicate.  A t a v e r y young age, c h i l d r e n p l a y a c t i v e r o l e s i n  d i a l o g u e s w i t h o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r mothers. 4  Although t h e  speech may  not be c o n v e n t i o n a l , c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s i n t e r a c t  through p e r s o n a l encounters.  With w r i t i n g , however, i t s  communicative f u n c t i o n i s not as obvious and i t i s not as e a s i l y produced  by young c h i l d r e n .  In f a c t , even a t the age of f o u r ,  many c h i l d r e n l a c k the motor s k i l l t o e f f i c i e n t l y writing.  produce  T h i s l i m i t s the v a l u e o f w r i t i n g f o r them and  prevents  them from a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n w r i t i n g events.  Components of Emergent L i t e r a c y Development  Much of the r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n the area o f emergent l i t e r a c y has focused on how  young c h i l d r e n become c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a d e r s .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , r e s e a r c h e r s have i n v e s t i g a t e d how  print  awareness, l e t t e r naming a b i l i t y , and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f environmental p r i n t c o n t r i b u t e t o the process o f l e a r n i n g t o read.  Before c h i l d r e n are a b l e t o read, they must develop  understanding o f why 1986).  people read and what they read  an  (Kontos,  To t h i s end, c h i l d r e n must develop an awareness o f p r i n t ,  an a b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between w r i t t e n language pictures.  and  S t u d i e s by Lavine (1977), H i e b e r t (1981), and Kontos  and Huba (1983) p r o v i d e d evidence t h a t young c h i l d r e n b e g i n t o develop p r i n t awareness by the age of t h r e e . have some understanding of the purpose d i s t i n g u i s h between p i c t u r e s and p r i n t .  Even 3-year-olds  of p r i n t and are a b l e t o There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  i n c r e a s e i n p r i n t awareness p r i o r t o grade one,  and  this  awareness i s seen as "a p r e c u r s o r of a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h 5  one  l e t t e r from another, which,  i n t u r n , preceded knowledge o f  letter/sound relationships"  (Kontos, 1986,  p.60).  As the development of p r i n t awareness i s an important step i n l i t e r a c y development, so too i s the a c q u i s i t i o n of l e t t e r naming a b i l i t y .  I t i s a w i d e l y accepted t h a t l e t t e r naming  a b i l i t y p l a y s an important r o l e i n l a t e r r e a d i n g success (Mason, 1980;  E h r i , 1985;  Nurss, 1979;  Chall,1967; T i z a r d ,  1993).  Because l e t t e r names f o r the most p a r t c o n t a i n the sound t h a t a l e t t e r symbolizes, c h i l d r e n can more e a s i l y make sound/symbol a s s o c i a t i o n s once they know the l e t t e r names. a b i l i t y may  be c r i t i c a l  L e t t e r naming  i n l e a d i n g c h i l d r e n from b e i n g c o n t e x t -  dependent r e a d e r s t o g r a p h i c - r e l i a n t r e a d e r s (Read, f a c t , knowledge of l e t t e r s "may  1975).  In  p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n w i t h the  f o u n d a t i o n f o r b e g i n n i n g t o p r o c e s s g r a p h i c cues i n p r i n t e d words" ( E h r i , 1987,  p.13).  Because much of c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g o c c u r s through i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h people i n t h e i r environments,  the  awareness and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of environmental p r i n t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one component of l i t e r a c y development.  Environmental  p r i n t , as i t has come t o be known, r e f e r s t o " p r i n t found i n the n a t u r a l environment 1991,  p.219).  of the c h i l d "  ( K i r k l a n d , A l d r i d g e , & Kuby,  This includes t r a f f i c signs, logos, l a b e l s  o t h e r p r i n t items t h a t c h i l d r e n would encounter i n t h e i r lives.  and daily  At a v e r y young age, many c h i l d r e n are aware o f and  i d e n t i f y p o p u l a r s i g n s and logos i n t h e i r environments.  can  In f a c t ,  environmental p r i n t c o u l d be a v a l u a b l e f a c i l i t a t o r o f l i t e r a c y 6  development i n t h a t  "logos used t o a d v e r t i s e products w i t h b o l d  and c o l o r f u l symbols f e a t u r i n g p r i n t e d words i n d e s i g n  formats,  make an i n d e l i b l e impression upon c h i l d r e n ' s memories s t a r t i n g a t a v e r y young age" (Wepner, 1985, p.633). c l a i m t h a t environmental  There i s a l s o some  p r i n t has a f a r r e a c h i n g e f f e c t and  c o u l d be used e f f e c t i v e l y i n r e a d i n g programs f o r h i g h - r i s k children.  Even c h i l d r e n from lower socioeconomic  homes t h a t do  not c o n t a i n a v a r i e t y o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s have c o n s i d e r a b l e experience w i t h p r i n t and a r e exposed t o i t i n t h e i r environments through t e l e v i s i o n , b i l l b o a r d s and s t o r e s ( A l d r i d g e fie Rust, 1987; Anderson Se Stokes,  1984) .  Regardless o f t h e i r backgrounds,  whenever c h i l d r e n see t h e McDonald's logo and say "hamburger", they a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n l i t e r a c y  learning.  Given t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p r i n t t h a t i s meaningful c h i l d appears  to a  t o f a c i l i t a t e b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g  (Goodman fie Altwerger, 1981; Wepner, 1985; S t r i c k l a n d , 1990) seems p o s s i b l e t h a t environmental  p r i n t c o u l d be used t o f o s t e r  l i t e r a c y development and l e a d t o c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a d i n g . f a m i l i a r environmental  i t  Use o f  p r i n t c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e l i n k from home t o  s c h o o l and would b u i l d upon what c h i l d r e n a l r e a d y know about literacy.  The Role o f Environmental  Print  Because t h e beginning o f s c h o o l might be an a n x i e t y p r o d u c i n g s i t u a t i o n f o r some c h i l d r e n , i n c l u s i o n o f something 7  f a m i l i a r , something t h a t has a l r e a d y been a p a r t o f t h e i r might ease t h e adjustment and f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g . B r i g g s and Richardson, between environmental  According t o  1993, "the g r e a t e r t h e correspondence l e a r n i n g s and s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e more  l i k e l y t h a t t r a n s f e r w i l l take p l a c e " (p.224). t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s environmental and as such,  lives,  They  maintain  o u t i n g s a r e r i c h sources o f p r i n t  should be used t o enhance i n s t r u c t i o n .  In t h e i r own  environments, c h i l d r e n a r e exposed t o some form o f w r i t t e n language and a r e taught t h a t r e a d i n g i s meaningful. Richardson  B r i g g s and  a l s o maintain t h a t some c h i l d r e n e n t e r s c h o o l w i t h a  s i g h t word v o c a b u l a r y  c o n s i s t i n g o f words t h a t they have  encountered d u r i n g d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s .  I t should be p o s s i b l e t o  c a p i t a l i z e and b u i l d on t h i s i n i t i a l knowledge o f l i t e r a c y when formal i n s t r u c t i o n begins a t s c h o o l . Recent s t u d i e s i n t h e area o f environmental p r o v i d e d a d i v e r g e n t body o f evidence e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f environmental conventional reading. arisen.  The f i r s t  p r i n t have  concerning t h e  p r i n t r e a d i n g as a p r e c u r s o r t o  There a r e two main i s s u e s t h a t have  i s s u e d e a l s with whether, and t o what extent,  c h i l d r e n a r e a t t e n d i n g t o g r a p h i c s when i d e n t i f y i n g print.  environmental  Are c h i l d r e n r e a d i n g t h e words o r a r e they simply  the environment?  reading  The second i s s u e r e f e r s t o t h e p r o c e s s o f how  c h i l d r e n come t o i d e n t i f y p r i n t .  I s t h e r e a sequence i n l e a r n i n g  how t o use v i s u a l and g r a p h i c cues and i s t h i s sequence c o n t i n g e n t on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a s e t o f p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s ?  8  Purpose of the Study  The purpose of t h i s study i s t o determine whether environmental p r i n t r e a d i n g f a c i l i t a t e s l i t e r a c y development i n young c h i l d r e n .  That i s t o say, i s t h e r e a t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g  between the r e a d i n g of environmental p r i n t and c o n v e n t i o n a l print?  I f c h i l d r e n are a b l e t o i d e n t i f y environmental  print  items i n f u l l context, w i l l they be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y these same items i n a p a r t i a l c o n t e x t or p r i n t o n l y c o n t e x t a f t e r w i t h the items i n a pocket c h a r t and a j o u r n a l  working  activity?  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  For the purpose o f t h i s study, the f o l l o w i n g terms and d e f i n i t i o n s were used: 1.  environmental p r i n t :  environment  p r i n t t h a t occurs n a t u r a l l y i n the  ( i . e . b i l l b o a r d s , s t o r e and t r a f f i c s i g n s , package  labels). 2.  logos:  b o l d , c o l o u r f u l symbols f e a t u r i n g p r i n t e d words i n  d e s i g n formats t h a t are used t o a d v e r t i s e p r o d u c t s . 3.  emergent l i t e r a c y :  young c h i l d r e n . Sulzby a.  the development of r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i n  T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , as d e s c r i b e d by T e a l e and  (1986), maintains t h a t : l i t e r a c y development begins p r i o r t o formal i n s t r u c t i o n  9  b.  r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g develop c o n c u r r e n t l y and interrelatedly  c.  l i t e r a c y develops through f u n c t i o n a l ,  real-life  activities d.  c h i l d r e n l e a r n about w r i t t e n language through  social  i n t e r a c t i o n s with adults, e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r parents e.  c h i l d r e n v a r y i n terms of how  they pass through  the  d i f f e r e n t stages of l i t e r a c y development 4.  f u l l context:  environmental  w i t h i n the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g  p r i n t items were photographed  ( i . e . the McDonald's s i g n and  the  r e s t a u r a n t were photographed t o g e t h e r ) . 5.  p a r t i a l context:  the p r i n t was  f u l l c o n t e x t photographs.  c u t out o f a d u p l i c a t e s e t of  The environmental  context  was  e l i m i n a t e d , w h i l e the c o l o u r and s t y l i z e d p r i n t o f the l o g o s were retained. 6.  context free:  the p r i n t t h a t was  p a r t i a l c o n t e x t s i t u a t i o n s was symbolic, or c o l o u r cues.  embedded i n the f u l l  presented without any c o n t e x t u a l ,  Black upper-case  l e t t e r s were p r i n t e d  on white c a r d s . 7.  s i g h t word:  a word memorized or r e c o g n i z e d as a whole,  r a t h e r than by i t s p a r t s blended t o g e t h e r t o form the whole (Goodman, 1973,  and  p.650).  10  CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Graphic Awareness i n Environmental  P r i n t Reading  Being aware o f and r e a d i n g p r i n t i n t h e environment i s an important  s t e p i n l e a r n i n g t o read.  Although  not y e t reading  c o n v e n t i o n a l l y , c h i l d r e n develop knowledge about l i t e r a c y  through  exposure t o and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p r i n t i n t h e i r environments ( H i e b e r t , 1978; Mason, 1980; Goodman & A l t w e r g e r ;  1981; Harste,  Burke, & Woodward, 1982; McGee, Lomax, & Head, 1988).  This  knowledge o f w r i t t e n language " c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s and p r e c u r s o r s t o r e a d i n g s k i l l s " p.1233).  ( H i e b e r t , 1978,  Mason (1980) i d e n t i f i e d t h e v a l u e o f s i g n and l a b e l  r e a d i n g when she s t a t e d , " I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g s c h o o l who a r e a b l e t o read words from c e r e a l boxes, restroom doors, s t o r e f r o n t s , and t r a f f i c s i g n s have an important advantage over o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n l e a r n i n g words and r e a d i n g stories"  (p. 206). She maintained  t h a t s i g n and l a b e l  reading  was not t o t a l l y u n l i k e s i g h t word l e a r n i n g and t h a t s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e two should be examined. Many environmental  p r i n t s t u d i e s have focused on how  a c c u r a t e l y c h i l d r e n c o u l d i d e n t i f y words i n t h e environment and t o what extent those responses reduced.  Goodman and Altwerger  changed as t h e context was (1981) c a r r i e d out an e x t e n s i v e  study c o n s i s t i n g o f s i x p r i n t awareness t a s k s w i t h a s m a l l number 11  of p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .  Because o f the s m a l l sample s i z e ,  e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the study was  a f f e c t e d and  not be g e n e r a l i z e d t o l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s . s c o r i n g guides such,  the  findings could  The procedures  and  f o r each o f the t a s k s were c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , and  c o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d .  as  Because the study examined c h i l d r e n ' s  awareness o f p r i n t based on s i x d i f f e r e n t components, i t d i d p r o v i d e an i n depth a n l y s i s of some c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge o f print. One  component of t h i s study examined p r e s c h o o l e r ' s responses  t o environmental  p r i n t items.  The c h i l d r e n were shown l a b e l s  from household items and s t r e e t s i g n s i n f u l l context, context, and context f r e e . the c o n t e x t decreased, (37%, 19%,  1.5%).  Goodman and Altwerger  partial  found t h a t as  so d i d the number o f a p p r o p r i a t e responses  They a l s o found t h a t i n the t h i r d  task,  c o n t e x t f r e e item p r e s e n t a t i o n , c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y the 5-yearolds,  began l e t t e r naming, c o u n t i n g and sounding out i n an  e f f o r t t o i d e n t i f y something t h a t they knew.  In a d d i t i o n t o a  marked change i n the number of a p p r o p r i a t e responses, an observable change i n behavior. c h i l d r e n became f i d g e t y , and  As the c o n t e x t  there  was  decreased,  l o s t i n t e r e s t i n the t a s k .  They  appeared t o have a much s h o r t e r a t t e n t i o n span when asked t o i d e n t i f y words t h a t had no meaning f o r them.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the  p r e s c h o o l e r s c o n s i s t e n t l y p o i n t e d t o p r i n t when asked "where does it  say t h a t " even though t h e i r responses were i n a p p r o p r i a t e .  A c c o r d i n g t o Goodman and Altwerger,  t h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  c h i l d r e n had an awareness " t h a t the p r i n t communicates the 12  message, whether o r not they know what the p r i n t s a y s " (p. 10). M i n d f u l o f the u b i q u i t y o f p r i n t i n the environment, H i e b e r t (1978) f e l t t h a t , "Although most young c h i l d r e n do not know how to  r e a d i n a formal sense, they may  have a c q u i r e d knowledge about  what w r i t t e n languaguage r e p r e s e n t s as a r e s u l t o f exposure t o i t i n t h e i r environments" (p.1231).  In a study s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f  Goodman and A l t w e r g e r (1981), H i e b e r t i n v e s t i g a t e d the changes t h a t o c c u r r e d i n p r e s c h o o l e r ' s knowledge o f w r i t t e n language. For  t h i s study, 40 c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d from t h r e e s e p a r a t e  day-care c e n t e r s . of  The sample s i z e o f 40 w i t h 20 c h i l d r e n i n each  t h e two groups, was  l a r g e enough t o ensure s t a t i s t i c a l  power.  Three d i f f e r e n t day-care c e n t e r s were used i n an e f f o r t t o f i n d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample. or the  There was, however, no mention o f whether  not s u b j e c t s were randomly s e l e c t e d , thereby somewhat l i m i t i n g g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s . H i e b e r t examined the c h i l d r e n s ' responses t o t e n words i n  environment and i s o l a t i o n c o n t e x t s . of  initials.  Three o f t h e words were s e t s  S l i d e s were shown t h a t d i s p l a y e d the words i n t h e i r  environment o r w r i t t e n i n l a r g e lowercase l e t t e r s as a t r a d i t i o n a l reading task.  The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e l o g o items was  done i n two s e p a r a t e s e s s i o n s , s e v e r a l days a p a r t , i n an attempt to  p r e v e n t a s s o c i a t i o n between the two c o n t e x t s .  Based on t h e  use o f r e a d i n g miscues t o analyze c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g , H i e b e r t examined  and coded i n c o r r e c t r a t h e r than c o r r e c t responses.  Response  e r r o r s were coded i n terms o f whether o r not they made  sense g i v e n the s t i m u l u s , i f they c o n s i s t e d o f s t r i n g s o f words, 13  o r i f t h e r e was  no response.  An i n t e r r a t e r agreement o f 98%  was  e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f e r r o r s . H i e b e r t found t h a t the 4-year-olds i d e n t i f i e d more words than the 3-year-olds, but t h a t both groups made the same t y p e s of errors.  In c o n t e x t , most of the e r r o r s were meaning r e l a t e d ,  whereas out of c o n t e x t the m a j o r i t y of e r r o r s were e i t h e r no response or meaningless g i v e n the s t i m u l i . was  The f a c t t h a t t h e r e  a g r e a t e r number of meaningful e r r o r s and c o r r e c t  responses  i n c o n t e x t p r o v i d e d evidence t h a t young c h i l d r e n knew how on and use the environment  t o g i v e meaning t o w r i t t e n  to rely  language.  Because many o f the e r r o r s were s i n g l e words, r a t h e r than s t r i n g s o f words, both i n c o n t e x t and out, H i e b e r t concluded t h a t the c h i l d r e n were b e g i n n i n g t o develp word-to-word between spoken and w r i t t e n language.  I t was  correspondence  somewhat s u r p r i s i n g  t h a t the words composed of l e t t e r names were not i d e n t i f i e d more f r e q u e n t l y than the o t h e r words, g i v e n the b e l i e f t h a t  letter  name knowledge i s an important p r e r e q u i s i t e t o l e a r n i n g t o read. Harste, Burke, and Woodward (1981) conducted a  comprehensive  study t o examine what 3, 4, 5, and 6-year-old c h i l d r e n knew about print.  In o r d e r t o c r e a t e - a sample t h a t was  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  the l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n and t o t e s t s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g i d e a s as t o how  r e a d i n g develops, Caucasian and Negro c h i l d r e n from a wide  v a r i e t y o f socio-economic groups who s e t t i n g s were i n c l u d e d .  l i v e d i n suburban  and  urban  The study c o n s i s t e d of seven components,  each designed t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about a d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t o f c h i l d r e n ' s awareness of p r i n t . 14  One  component, the environmental p r i n t t a s k , examined  c h i l d r e n ' s responses t o p r i n t i n environment, settings. to  l o g o , and  isolation  Twenty environmental logos were s e l e c t e d and p r e s e n t e d  students i n d i v i d u a l l y .  Because a l l 20 l o g o items i n each  c o n t e x t were p r e s e n t e d on subsequent days, t h e r e i s a chance t e s t i n g was  somewhat o f a t h r e a t t o the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f the  study.  There may  testing  sessions.  In  have been a c a r r y over o f l e a r n i n g between the  o r d e r t o s c o r e the responses, a taxonomy was  based on the semantic, s y n t a c t i c , g r a p h i c and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the response. l e s s than 96% was In  that  the environment  developed  temporal  An i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y  o f no  established across a l l categories of a n a l y s i s . and logo s e t t i n g s , over 60% o f c h i l d r e n ' s  responses were c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g attempts t o read.  In the  i s o l a t i o n s e t t i n g , however, the frequency o f a p p r o p r i a t e responses dropped t o 29%.  Harste e t a l . a l s o found t h a t  single  words comprised the m a j o r i t y o f attempts t o read i n a l l t h r e e settings.  Because over 60% o f c h i l d r e n ' s attempts t o read  g r a p h e m i c a l l y i n the environment  s e t t i n g approximated,  t o some  degree, the p r i n t e d word, they concluded t h a t c h i l d r e n were s e n s i t i v e t o g r a p h i c cues when responding t o environmental p r i n t . In  a l o n g i t u d i n a l study which i n v e s t i g a t e d the l i t e r a c y  experiences of kindergarten c h i l d r e n , B r a i l s f o r d  (1985) conducted  an i n - d e p t h examination o f the l i t e r a c y development children.  of s i x  U s i n g an environmental p r i n t t a s k adapted from Goodman  (1981) and a shared book t a s k adapted from C l a y (1979) and Doake 15  (1981),  she i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e h i g h p r i n t aware c h i l d r e n and  low p r i n t aware c h i l d r e n who  became the focus o f her  These s i x c h i l d r e n were observed on an everyday  three  study.  e x t e n s i v e l y as they f u n c t i o n e d  b a s i s i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s .  The environmental  p r i n t t a s k was  conducted  on two  separate  o c c a s i o n s , September and February,  and c o n s i s t e d o f the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of 20 environmental  logos t h a t were found i n the  community.  As i n the p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d study by Harste, Burke and  Woodward, the environmental  logos were presented  i n three  s e t t i n g s , w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of context i n each. were then scored a c c o r d i n g t o how exact p r i n t on the logo.  Responses  a c c u r a t e l y they r e p l i c a t e d  Based on the r e s u l t s of the  the  entire  c l a s s , B r a i l s f o r d found t h a t c h i l d r e n o f f e r e d more responses  to  the f u l l context c o n d i t i o n than t o the p a r t i a l c o n t e x t , and i n t u r n , more responses p r i n t only.  t o the p a r t i a l context c o n d i t i o n than t o  There was,  exact responses  however, a s l i g h t drop i n the number of  i n the f u l l context c o n d i t i o n on the p o s t t e s t .  T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t as c h i l d r e n developed  more l i t e r a c y  awareness, they r e l i e d more on the symbols and p r i n t than on the pictures.  Upon c l o s e r examination  of the r e s u l t s o f the s i x  " f o c u s " c h i l d r e n , B r a i l s f o r d d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the responses p r i n t aware c h i l d r e n . produced more responses p r i n t aware q h i l d r e n .  a  of the h i g h and  low  P r i m a r i l y , the h i g h p r i n t aware c h i l d r e n t o the p r i n t o n l y context than the  low  The h i g h p r i n t aware c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o  s u c c e s s f u l l y use g r a p h i c s i n order t o r e c o n s t r u c t meaning. In 16  f a c t many o f t h e i r responses, a t t e n t i o n t o graphics  although n o t exact,  i n d i c a t e d an  ( i . e . Woodwards f o r Woolco and Canada Post  O f f i c e f o r Canada P o s t ) .  I t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e low p r i n t aware  c h i l d r e n had c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e p r i n t o n l y  context  and were unable t o p r o v i d e an exact response t o any o f t h e items. They r e l i e d mainly  on v i s u a l cues and were unable t o i n t e r p r e t  g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n once i t was d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d .  These r e s u l t s  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n do a t t e n d t o g r a p h i c s i n environmental  p r i n t items, however, t h i s a t t e n t i o n t o g r a p h i c s  appears t o be c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e c h i l d r e n ' s own l e v e l o f l i t e r a c y development. The  extent t o which t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e environmental  print  t a s k c o u l d be g e n e r a l i z e d t o a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n was a f f e c t e d mainly by t h e s m a l l sample s i z e .  Although  t h i s t a s k was  a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e e n t i r e c l a s s o f 20 c h i l d r e n , and mention was made o f how t h e i r r e s u l t s compared t o , o r d i f f e r e d from, those o f the s i x focus c h i l d r e n , t h e d i s c u s s i o n focused mainly responses o f t h e s i x focus c h i l d r e n .  on t h e  As w e l l , t h e data f o r t h e  whole c l a s s was analyzed o n l y i n terms o f raw s c o r e s and percentages.  There was no f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s done t o  determine s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The study was, however, r i c h i n  d e s c r i p t i o n and p r o v i d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e l i t e r a c y development o f s i x c h i d r e n . Based on t h e f i n d i n g s o f these s t u d i e s , t h e r e i s a growing body o f evidence  i n support o f t h e view t h a t young c h i l d r e n do  a t t e n d t o g r a p h i c s when r e a d i n g environmental 17  print.  The i s s u e  still  remains, however, as t o how environmental  leads t o conventional  Environmental  print  reading  reading.  P r i n t Reading, a L i n k t o Conventional  In an e f f o r t t o l i n k environmental  Reading  p r i n t reading t o  c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a d i n g , Mason, 1980, determined t h e e x i s t e n c e o f "a n a t u r a l h i e r a r c h y o f knowledge development i n l e a r n i n g t o read words" (p.203).  She f e l t t h a t parents were  important  c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y development and t h a t " c h i l d r e n who a r e guided by parents t o a t t e n d t o l e t t e r s , s i g n s , and  l a b e l s and a r e g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o read, s p e l l , and p r i n t  words, l e a r n some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l rudiments o f r e a d i n g even b e f o r e going t o k i n d e r g a r t e n "  (Mason, 1980, p. 203). I t would  seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t c h i l d r e n c o u l d l e a r n some o f t h e conventions  o f r e a d i n g through s i g n and l a b e l  reading.  F o r t y c h i l d r e n from t r a d i t i o n a l , m i d d l e - c l a s s homes and t h e i r p a r e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n Mason's study.  Based on p a r e n t s '  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a t t h e beginning and end o f t h e s c h o o l year and on o b s e r v a t i o n s and a s e r i e s o f t a s k s t h a t o c c u r r e d throughout t h e s c h o o l year a t a u n i v e r s i t y operated p r e s c h o o l , Mason e s t a b l i s h e d a developmental framework o f how c h i l d r e n came t o a c q u i r e word knowledge.  In t h e f i r s t l e v e l o f word knowledge, c o n t e x t  dependency, c h i l d r e n were o n l y a b l e t o read l a b e l s o r s i g n s . They r e c o g n i z e d words i n context and attended t o v i s u a l r a t h e r than l e t t e r cues.  Although  these c h i l d r e n c o u l d r e c o g n i z e upper 18  and  lower case l e t t e r s , they c o u l d not i d e n t i f y p r e v i o u s l y  l e a r n e d words once t h e l e t t e r case was changed.  The next  v i s u a l r e c o g n i t i o n , i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n who c o u l d read l a b e l s , and a few s h o r t words out o f context.  level,  signs,  These c h i l d r e n  c o u l d o f t e n i d e n t i f y t h e i n i t i a l consonant o f words even i f they c o u l d not read t h e e n t i r e word c o r r e c t l y (they would say t o p f o r tip).  Letter-sound  a n a l y s i s was t h e t h i r d l e v e l i n t h e  development o f word knowledge.  C h i l d r e n who were a t t h i s  level  were a b l e t o sound out m u l t i s y l l a b i c words whether i n o r out o f context.  They were a c q u i r i n g r u l e s and e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r  deciphering  letter-sound patterns.  These c h i l d r e n were r e a d i n g  by themselves and l e a r n i n g t o read new words a t a r a p i d r a t e . Before  c h i l d r e n reached t h e context dependent l e v e l and were  a b l e t o i d e n t i f y environmental p r i n t , t h e r e seemed t o e x i s t a natural hierarchy of l e t t e r reading a c t i v i t i e s .  Within  this  developmental framework, r e c i t i n g l e t t e r s , s a y i n g l e t t e r names, p r i n t i n g l e t t e r s , and r e c o g n i z i n g one's own name were  behaviors  common t o most c h i l d r e n b e f o r e r e a d i n g environmental p r i n t . Based on t h i s o r d e r i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s , and  i t would seem t h a t  label  s i g n r e a d i n g c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e development o f  conventional  reading, p r o v i d e d  t h a t c h i l d r e n had p r i o r  experience  w i t h l e t t e r s and l e t t e r sounds. Mason's f i n d i n g s suggested t h a t r e a d i n g l a b e l s and s i g n s i n the environment was an e s s e n t i a l component o f c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y development. observable  Reading environmental p r i n t was one o f t h e  s k i l l s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d young c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y 19  development j u s t p r i o r t o b e i n g a b l e t o i d e n t i f y words out of context.  As d i d B r i g g s and Richardson  (1993), Mason drew a  p a r a l l e l between the c o n v e n t i o n a l l e a r n i n g of s i g h t words and i d e n t i f y i n g p r i n t i n the environment.  She contended t h a t i n both  cases, the words were i n t r o d u c e d i n context, as a whole and t h e r e c o u l d be a t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g between s i g n and r e a d i n g and the l e a r n i n g of s i g h t words. the f a c t t h a t r e a d i n g environmental  p r i n t was  not " r e a l "  r e a d i n g serve as p r e c u r s o r s t o more s k i l l e d r e a d i n g " p.221).  label  Mason d i d not d i s p u t e  however she f e l t t h a t " l e t t e r knowledge, p r i n t i n g and  1980,  that  reading;  sign (Mason,  A c c o r d i n g t o Mason, l e t t e r knowledge and  sign  r e a d i n g p r o v i d e d c h i l d r e n w i t h g u i d e l i n e s f o r experimenting  with  simple r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g t a s k s . Because o f the homogeneity of the sample, the f i n d i n g s of Mason's study cannot be extended t o o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s . were, however, supported C h i Square a n a l y s i s was  They  by a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . c a r r i e d out based on the frequency  responses t o the m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n n a i r e items  parent's  In terms of the d e s i g n of the  some t h r e a t t o i t s i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y e x i s t s .  of  and  c o r r e l a t i o n s between c h i l d r e n ' s word r e a d i n g l e v e l and responses were c a l c u l a t e d .  study,  A practice effect  based on repeated t e s t i n g throughout the year may  have p o s i t i v e l y  a f f e c t e d the s c o r e s oh the f i n a l t a s k s . In a developmental model s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Mason (1980), Lomax and McGee (1987) p o s t u l a t e d a f i v e component model comprised of the p r i n t - r e l a t e d concepts 20  A  l e a d i n g t o word-reading  acquisition.  The f a c t t h a t the model i s developmental  and has  f i v e components i m p l i e d t h a t p r i n t concepts may have a number o f dimensions  and may develop i n some sequence.  of t h i s model, concepts about p r i n t ,  The f i r s t  component  i n v o l v e d an awareness t h a t  p r i n t was d i f f e r e n t than p i c t u r e s and was meaningful.  At t h i s  stage a c h i l d would have some knowledge o f t h e conventions o f r e a d i n g and would be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y p r i n t embedded i n environmental  context.  The next two components, g r a p h i c and  phonemic awareness, i n c l u d e d a t t e n t i o n t o the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f l e t t e r s and words and the a b i l i t y t o segment words i n t o phonemic segments.  Grapheme-phoneme  correspondence  knowledge was the f o u r t h component, c o n s i s t i n g o f how  children  used t h e i r knowledge o f l e t t e r names and sounds t o b l e n d and decode words.  The f i f t h component, word r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ,  i n v o l v e d a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o read words i n a more t r a d i t i o n a l sense,  in isolation.  In o r d e r t o t e s t t h i s model 18 measures o f w r i t t e n language knowledge and word r e a d i n g a b i l i t y were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 81 children,  r a n g i n g i n age from t h r e e t o s i x .  Lomax and McGee  found t h a t a l l o f the c h i l d r e n had a g r e a t d e a l o f knowledge about p r i n t .  In f a c t , c h i l d r e n as e a r l y as t h r e e y e a r s o f age,  were e x p e r t environmental  p r i n t readers and were b e g i n n i n g t o  r e c o g n i z e what c o u l d be read.  They c o u l d a l s o d i s c r i m i n a t e  between l e t t e r s and c o u l d name over one t h i r d o f t h e alphabet letters.  As the age o f the c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d , so t o o d i d t h e i r  understanding o f the f i v e p r i n t components. 21  I t was not t h e case,  however, t h a t one component was mastered b e f o r e c h i l d r e n moved on to  the next.  At a l l age l e v e l s , t h e r e was  evidence o f i n c r e a s i n g  awareness and understanding of even the e a r l y d e v e l o p i n g abilities. Thus, although Lomax and McGee's model of  word-reading  a c q u i s i t i o n d e s c r i b e s the growth of l i t e r a c y knowledge somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y than Mason, c o r e s i m i l a r i t i e s do e x i s t .  Both  a n a l y s e s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d words o n l y i n context.  C h i l d r e n then developed a g r e a t e r awareness o f  g r a p h i c s and an a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y some phoneme-grapheme correspondences.  F i n a l l y , they became competent a t d e c i p h e r i n g  m u l t i s y l l a b i c words i n i s o l a t i o n . As w i t h many of the a f o r e mentioned  s t u d i e s , the r e s u l t s o f  the Lomax and McGee study cannot be w i d e l y g e n e r a l i z e d , g i v e n t h a t the sample was was  drawn from a s i n g l e s c h o o l .  In t h i s case, i t  a p r i v a t e s c h o o l and a l l the p a r e n t s had consented t o t h e i r  c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study.  A comprehensive  b a t t e r y of  formal and i n f o r m a l instruments were used t o a s s e s s each of the f i v e components of c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge of w r i t t e n  language.  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between measures were then c a l c u l a t e d and the data were determined t o f i t b e s t a f i v e component model. Although the study appears t o examine t h o r o u g h l y c h i l d r e n ' s word knowledge based on a number of measures, t h e r e i s no mention the time frame o r method o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g the t a s k s .  This could  pose some t h r e a t t o the e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the study.  22  of  The  a b i l i t i e s t h a t have been i d e n t i f i e d by Mason and Lomax  and McGee as e x e m p l i f y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s awareness and understanding o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a t v a r i o u s stages i n t h e i r development, i n d i c a t e t h a t environmental development o f l i t e r a c y .  p r i n t r e a d i n g i s important  There i s , however, some c o n t r o v e r s y , as  t o t h e v a l u e o f environmental  p r i n t r e a d i n g and t h e extent t o  which i t c o n t r i b u t e s t o c o n v e n t i o n a l  Environmental  reading.  P r i n t Reading. I n e f f e c t i v e as a L i n k t o Conventional  The  t o the  r o l e o f environmental  Reading  p r i n t r e a d i n g , b e l i e v e d by many  r e s e a r c h e r s t o be t h e forerunner o f c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a d i n g , i s being challenged.  A c c o r d i n g t o some r e s e a r c h e r s ,  identification  of p r i n t f r e q u e n t l y seen i n t h e environment does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o context f r e e r e a d i n g  ( E h r i , 1987; Masonheimer, Drum, &  E h r i , 1984; G o o d a l l , 1984; R i c h g e l s , McGee, Hernandez, & W i l l i a m s , 1987).  While t h e n a t u r a l view o f l i t e r a c y development  contends t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o read through repeated f a m i l i a r p r i n t i n i t s environmental  exposure t o  context, and t h a t c h i l d r e n  g r a d u a l l y l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e p r i n t t h a t i s d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d , an a l t e r n a t i v e view suggests t h a t c e r t a i n p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s a r e necessary  f o r c h i l d r e n t o develop  into conventional  readers.  Proponents o f t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e view m a i n t a i n t h a t c h i l d r e n a t t e n d t o g r a p h i c s o n l y a f t e r they have a c q u i r e d some l e t t e r and word knowledge s k i l l s . 23  Goodall  (1984)  e m p h a t i c a l l y expressed the view  that  environmental p r i n t r e a d i n g d i d not c o n t r i b u t e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a d i n g when she s t a t e d t h a t , " s k i l l s  used i n r e a d i n g  environmental p r i n t are not n e c e s s a r i l y p a r t o f a h i e r a r c h y of word knowledge s k i l l s "  (p.482).  In a study o f twenty  4 and  5-  y e a r - o l d s she examined whether t h e i r responses t o environmental p r i n t items were based on c o n t e x t or g r a p h i c cues.  The  children  were shown s l i d e s of 15 of the most commonly i d e n t i f i e d environmental p r i n t items i n two c o n t e x t s . f u l l environment,  was  a photograph  of the p r i n t item taken as i t  occured n a t u r a l l y i n the environment. reduced environment,  The f i r s t c o n t e x t ,  The second c o n t e x t ,  c o n t a i n e d o n l y p r i n t and maintained the same  c o l o u r and s t y l e of l e t t e r s . surrounding environment border around the p r i n t .  In the second c o n t e x t the  was masked, thereby c r e a t i n g a b l a c k In the f i r s t c o n d i t i o n , almost 70% of  the responses were c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o r r e c t and i n d i c a t e d t h a t even v e r y young c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y words i n the environment.  In c o n d i t i o n two,  the number of c o r r e c t  responses  dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y t o o n l y 30%, w i t h almost 50% of responses c o n s i s t i n g of no response or "I don't know".  As w e l l as  o b s e r v i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l change i n the number o f c o r r e c t responses, G o o d a l l a l s o noted a change i n response types f o r c o n d i t i o n two.  She found t h a t c h i l d r e n tended t o l i s t p r e v i o u s l y  c o r r e c t responses and t r i e d t o r e l a t e c o l o u r and l e t t e r forms t o products.  They a l s o o f t e n made r e f e r e n c e t o " n i g h t " , when  p r e s e n t e d w i t h the masked backgrounds of c o n d i t i o n two 24  stimuli.  These o b v i o u s l y meaningless responses  l e d G o o d a l l t o conclude  t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were not making any attempt t o examine t h e s t i m u l u s when f a c e d w i t h environmental context.  p r i n t items i n reduced  She a l s o p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e 4-year-olds used d i f f e r e n t  s t r a t e g i e s than t h e 5-year-olds when presented w i t h t h e v a r i o u s stimuli. In s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t G o o d a l l argued q u i t e s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t t h e v a l u e o f environmental  p r i n t r e a d i n g , some  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be made b e f o r e a c c e p t i n g h e r f i n d i n g s .  There  were two f a c t o r s , s c o r i n g and a n a l y s i s o f data t h a t c o u l d pose t h r e a t s t o t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e study.  I n terms o f t h e  s c o r i n g o f t h e data, responses were c o n s i d e r e d t o be e i t h e r o r wrong.  Given t h e sample responses  right  that Goodall provided,  t h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n as t o t h e c o n s i s t e n c y and c r i t e r i a used t o r a t e responses.  F o r example, when " f o r s a l e " was presented and  the c h i l d responded " a u c t i o n " , t h e response was c o n s i d e r e d t o be correct.  I n t h e case o f "LEGO",  however, t h e c h i l d responded  w i t h " t o y s " and t h e response was c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n c o r r e c t . Because t h e r e d i d not appear t o be a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between r i g h t and wrong answers, t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s i s questionnable.  As f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e data, G o o d a l l used  o n l y raw s c o r e s t h a t had been converted t o percentages.  There  appeared t o be no s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s done t o determine significance. Perhaps t h e s t r o n g e s t demonstration  of children's  i n a t t e n t i o n t o g r a p h i c cues when i d e n t i f y i n g environmental 25  print  appears i n a study by Masonheimer, Drum, and E h r i  (1984).  They  c i t e d a number of s t u d i e s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s performance on environmental the c o n t e x t was  p r i n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y removed (Goodman & Altwerger,  Burke, & Woodward, 1982;  H i e b e r t , 1978;  1981;  Ylisto,  Harste,  1967).  o f these s t u d i e s , p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were presented w i t h environmental  logos, within varying contexts.  The  when  In each familiar  f a c t t h a t the  c h i l d r e n were a p p a r e n t l y r e a d i n g the environment and not  the  p r i n t , l e d these r e s e a r c h e r s t o q u e s t i o n whether o r not environmental  p r i n t r e a d i n g would s u c c e s s f u l l y l e a d c h i l d r e n  context free reading. may  into  Masonheimer, e t a l . contended t h a t t h e r e  be s k i l l s t h a t c h i l d r e n must a c q u i r e b e f o r e they c o u l d be  f r e e of t h e i r r e l i a n c e on environmental  cues.  To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , Masonheimer, e t a l . examined p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o read environmental  194  p r i n t , both i n  and out of context, and i d e n t i f y l e t t e r a l t e r a t i o n s i n these same words. The s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study came from d i v e r s e e t h n i c and socio-economic  backgrounds and were a l l c o n s i d e r e d t o be  "environmental  p r i n t experts".  That i s t o say, they a l l  r e c o g n i z e d e i g h t of the t e n logos most f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d the e n t i r e group.  by  The c h i l d r e n were then i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g  expert, n o v i c e , and p r e r e a d e r s based on t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of primer words.  The  f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the performance o f the  r e a d e r s d i f f e r e d from t h a t of the p r e r e a d e r s f o r each of the environmental  print-reading tasks.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of environmental  In the f i r s t t a s k , the  p r i n t items, 26  prereaders  i d e n t i f i e d words o n l y i n f u l l environmental  context.  Readers, on  the o t h e r hand, were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e p r i n t items both i n and out o f c o n t e x t .  In an e f f o r t t o determine  t o what e x t e n t  c h i l d r e n would a t t e n d t o o r i g n o r e l e t t e r s i n f a m i l i a r the s u b j e c t s were then asked t o i d e n t i f y any a l t e r e d P r e r e a d e r s were unable t o do so even when asked  labels,  letters.  i f t h e r e was  something wrong w i t h t h e l a b e l o r i f t h e r e was a mistake. P r e r e a d e r s ' responses were based p r i m a r i l y on c o n t e x t , n o t t h e altered graphics.  On t h e same t a s k , readers p o i n t e d t o t h e  a l t e r e d l e t t e r s and d e t e c t e d changes when t h e l a b e l s were p l a c e d s i d e by s i d e .  I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t r e a d e r s and  p r e r e a d e r s used d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s when i d e n t i f y i n g environmental  print.  Prereaders focused on t h e environment,  whereas r e a d e r s focused on the g r a p h i c s .  Masonheimer e t a l .  suggested t h a t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f environmental does n o t move c h i l d r e n i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g .  print  alone  They maintained  t h a t because c h i l d r e n d i d not have t o l o o k p a s t t h e most obvious cue, t h e environment, they would not " n a t u r a l l y " graphics.  attend t o the  They a l s o maintained t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n  such as l e t t e r mastery, t h a t c h i l d r e n needed t o possess d e v e l o p i n g a g r e a t e r awareness o f g r a p h i c s . Masonheimer e t a l . ,  skills, before  According t o  " i f youngsters a r e not f a m i l i a r w i t h alphabet  l e t t e r p a t t e r n s w i t h i n words, p r i n t e d words w i l l not be d i s t i n g u i s h e d as separate o p t i c f e a t u r e s and w i l l not e n t e r memory as symbols f o r meanings"  (p.269).  27  For many reasons, t h i s study i s hard t o c h a l l e n g e . survey sampling procedure produced  The  a sample t h a t was, by and  large, representative of the population of preschoolers.  Race,  income l e v e l , and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e were a l l c o n s i d e r e d when choosing t h e s u b j e c t s .  The f a c t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n  attended  d i f f e r e n t p r e s c h o o l s reduced t h e chance o f e r r o r based on a s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l program.  F o r both t a s k s , Masonheimer, e t  a l . chose c h i l d r e n who c o u l d i d e n t i f y e i g h t out o f t e n l a b e l s . T h i s was done t o produce a homogeneous sample t h a t was was most l i k e l y t o be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y l a b e l s out o f c o n t e x t .  The  i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h i s study was most adequate w i t h d i f f u s i o n of treatment and t e s t i n g b e i n g t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e t h r e a t s . D i f f u s i o n o f treatment,  o r s h a r i n g what they had j u s t done, and  t e s t i n g , a t t e n d i n g t o l e t t e r s because o f t h e l e t t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k , were p o s s i b l e , but weak t h r e a t s , based upon the poor performances by a l l t h e p r e r e a d e r s .  A p p r o p r i a t e data  a n a l y s e s , ANOVAS, were used and r e s u l t s f o r each independent and dependent v a r i a b l e were presented and d i s c u s s e d .  The sample  s i z e s f o r each o f t h e two t a s k s were l a r g e enough t o g i v e t h e study s t a t i s t i c a l power.  The o n l y weakness o c c u r r e d i n a s m a l l  c e l l s i z e , s i x , f o r t h e group o f r e a d e r s . Based on t h i s r a t h e r impressive body o f evidence, t h e use o f l o g o s o r environmental  p r i n t i n emergent l i t e r a c y  classrooms  c o u l d not be supported.  Even a f t e r having s e l e c t e d t h e c h i l d r e n  most l i k e l y t o succeed,  from a l a r g e group o f s u b j e c t s , t h e r e was  no i n d i c a t i o n whatsoever t h a t t h e expert logo r e a d e r s would soon 28  be a b l e t o make t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o context f r e e r e a d i n g . researchers  Other  (McGee, Lomax, & Head, 1988), however, contended t h a t  the degree o f d i f f i c u l t y between logo r e c o g n i t i o n i n and out o f c o n t e x t was t o o g r e a t f o r c h i l d r e n t o move e a s i l y from one t a s k to the other.  Because o f t h i s , they f e l t t h a t Masonheimer, E h r i ,  and Drum's l a c k o f support be  f o r environmental  p r i n t reading could  challenged. There a r e a number o f s t u d i e s t h a t l e n d support t o  Masonheimer, E h r i , and Drum's view t h a t c h i l d r e n do not become s k i l l e d a t p r o c e s s i n g g r a p h i c cues through exposure t o environmental 1988;  p r i n t alone  ( E h r i , 1987; McGee, Lomax, & Head,  R i c h g e l s , McGee, Hernandez, & W i l l i a m s , 1987).  Although  the r e s e a r c h does not c o n c l u s i v e l y i n d i c a t e how o r what s k i l l s enable c h i l d r e n t o move from u s i n g v i s u a l o r c o n t e x t u a l cues t o g r a p h i c cues, t h e r e i s evidence t h a t c e r t a i n s k i l l s o r knowledge are r e q u i r e d b e f o r e c h i l d r e n can make t h i s t r a n s i t i o n .  Based on  the f i n d i n g s o f a number o f o r i g i n a l s t u d i e s , E h r i concluded  that  c h i l d r e n needed t o have a mastery o f l e t t e r s b e f o r e b e i n g a b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y process g r a p h i c cues.  In f a c t , she s t a t e d t h a t , "a  knowledge o f l e t t e r s p r o v i d e s c h i l d r e n with t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r b e g i n n i n g t o process g r a p h i c cues i n p r i n t e d words" ( E h r i , 1987, p. 13). T h i s s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e seemingly c r u c i a l r o l e o f alphabet knowledge i n l i t e r a c y development r e i n f o r c e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t l e t t e r naming a b i l i t y a t t h e beginning o f t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r s o f r e a d i n g success a l s o maintained  o f f i r s t grade i s one  ( C h a l l , 1967).  Ehri  t h a t not o n l y d i d c h i l d r e n need t o know t h e 29  alphabet, they a l s o r e q u i r e d some formal i n s t r u c t i o n o f i t s d i s t i n c t i v e l e t t e r forms and sounds, from environment  to print  i n o r d e r t o make t h e s h i f t  reliance.  In a study u s i n g mainly f u n c t i o n a l p r i n t items r a t h e r than environmental p r i n t items, McGee, Lomax and Head (1988) determined t h a t "knowledge o f l e t t e r names alone does not e x p l a i n c h i l d r e n ' s s h i f t t o a t t e n d i n g t o p r i n t as a s t r a t e g y f o r r e a d i n g " (p. 116). F u n c t i o n a l p r i n t items such as a g r o c e r y l i s t , a newspaper arid a telephone book were used because  the written  language which appeared on those items was not as p r e d i c t a b l e as t h a t o f environmental p r i n t items.  McGee, Lomax, and Head a l s o  f e l t t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s responses t o f u n c t i o n a l p r i n t items would d i s p l a y a g r e a t e r range o f knowledge o f w r i t t e n  language.  For t h i s study, t h e sample was composed o f 81 m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d r e n , aged t h r e e t o s i x , who attended a p r i v a t e preschool/elementary s c h o o l .  The p a r e n t s o f these c h i l d r e n  agreed t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e study.  Literacy  instruction  f o r a l l c h i l d r e n was based on a t r a d i t i o n a l phonics approach used commercial series.  that  r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s programs and b a s a l r e a d i n g  The c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d on t h r e e measures, l e t t e r name  knowledge, environmental and f u n c t i o n a l p r i n t r e a d i n g and word recognition.  Responses from t h e environmental and f u n c t i o n a l  p r i n t r e a d i n g t a s k were coded i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s based on c r i t e r i a t h a t had been developed i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h (Harste, Burke,  & Woodward, 1981).  Scores from t h e word r e a d i n g a b i l i t y  t a s k then determined whether t h e c h i l d r e n were nonword r e a d e r s , 30  n o v i c e word readers o r expert word r e a d e r s .  McGee, Lomax, and  Head found t h a t n o v i c e word reader's a t t e n t i o n t o g r a p h i c d e t a i l was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than t h a t o f t h e expert word r e a d e r s , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e novice word readers had n e a r l y p e r f e c t l e t t e r name knowledge.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s study r e l a t e d  mainly  t o t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y and i n c l u d e d s e l e c t i o n , m a t u r a t i o n and testing.  C o r r e c t procedures  o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and Tukey  p o s t hoc were used i n a n a l y z i n g t h e data.  The t h r e a t o f  s e l e c t i o n e x i s t e d because t h e sample group was composed o f v o l u n t e e r s from one p r i v a t e s c h o o l w i t h one p a r t i c u l a r method o f instruction.  As a group, they might have d i f f e r e d from t h e  p o p u l a t i o n i n terms o f m o t i v a t i o n , socioeconomic l e v e l o f l i t e r a c y development.  background, and  The t h r e a t o f maturation  was  based on t h e f i n d i n g s t h a t a l l t h e expert readers were t h e o l d e s t , whereas a l l t h e nonword readers were t h e youngest. D i f f e r e n c e s between these two groups may have been due t o age, r a t h e r than reader d i f f e r e n c e s .  Because a l e t t e r naming t a s k was  given p r i o r t o the p r i n t reading task, c h i l d r e n ' s a t t e n t i o n t o p r i n t and l e t t e r s may have been i n f l u e n c e d .  Responses may have  r e s u l t e d from t h e l e t t e r naming t a s k , thus i m p l i c a t i n g t e s t i n g as a threat to internal  validity.  A study by R i c h g e l s , McGee, Hernandez and W i l l i a m s  (1987)  c o r r o b o r a t e d t h e f i n d i n g s o f McGee, Lomax, and Head t h a t n o v i c e and e x p e r t word readers had v e r y d i f f e r e n t responses  to stimuli  w h i l e a t t h e same time having comparable l e t t e r name knowledge. The  sample f o r t h i s study was composed o f 59 k i n d e r g a r t e n 31  c h i l d r e n who were randomly s e l e c t e d from a l l the k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n i n two s c h o o l s . i n two s e s s i o n s .  The c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y  Each s e s s i o n i n v o l v e d naming l e t t e r s ,  spelling  words from p i c t u r e s , r e a d i n g preprimer and primer word l i s t s and i d e n t i f y i n g environmental  and f u c t i o n a l p r i n t items.  c h i l d r e n were c a t e g o r i z e d as nonreaders,  The  novice readers, or  e x p e r t readers depending on t h e i r score from t h e word r e a d i n g task.  Although  t h e sample s i z e was l a r g e enough t o ensure  s t a t i s t i c a l power and the c h i l d r e n were randomly s e l e c t e d , the a c t u a l d e s i g n o f the t a s k may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s . Because t h e q u e s t i o n s used t o e l i c i t responses environmental  on t h e  and f u n c t i o n a l p r i n t r e a d i n g t a s k i n d i c a t e d t h a t  the c h i l d r e n should a t t e n d t o the g r a p h i c s t h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n as t o t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f r e s u l t s .  I t appears,  however, t h a t not  a l l c h i l d r e n were aware o f the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t something c o u l d be read.  Based on a comparison o f r e s u l t s between t h i s study and  McGee, Lomax, and Head (1988), cued responses  a g r e a t e r percentage  o f grapheme-  o c c u r r e d o n l y f o r the n o v i c e and e x p e r t r e a d e r s .  R i c h g e l s , McGee, Hernandez and W i l l i a m s found t h a t although t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the s c o r e s o f t h e n o v i c e and expert readers f o r the l e t t e r naming t a s k , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on t h e i n v e n t e d s p e l l i n g task.  T h i s l e d them t o b e l i e v e t h a t perhaps i t was the  knowledge o f l e t t e r - s o u n d correspondences,  r a t h e r than  l e t t e r naming, t h a t i n f l u e n c e d the s h i f t t o g r a p h i c s . stated: 32  simple They  i f the c h i e f d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t E x p e r t s do and Novices do not know how t o use l e t t e r / s o u n d correspondences, then i t c o u l d be argued t h a t s o u n d / l e t t e r knowledge - and not merely letter-name knowledge - i s a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n c h i l d r e n ' s p a y i n g g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o g r a p h i c d e t a i l s (p.83) In s h o r t , these f i n d i n g s may  be seen as evidence t h a t  minimizes, t o a g r e a t extent, the r o l e o f environmental r e a d i n g i n l i t e r a c y development.  print  However, s i n c e environmental  p r i n t o c c u r s n a t u r a l l y i n the environments of a l l c h i l d r e n  and  can be i d e n t i f i e d i n c o n t e x t by c h i l d r e n as young as t h r e e y e a r s of age,  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n u s i n g environmental  print  c o u l d h e l p c h i l d r e n make the l e a p from b e i n g c o n t e x t r e a d e r s , t o graphic readers.  While environmental p r i n t r e a d i n g might not  " n a t u r a l l y " lead to conventional reading, i t could provide educators w i t h a v a l u a b l e t o o l f o r l e a r n i n g .  The Use of Environmental P r i n t i n I n s t r u c t i o n  Very few s t u d i e s have a c t u a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d the use o f environmental p r i n t items i n r e a d i n g / w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . (1985) conducted a study w i t h 20 p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t h a t  Wepner involved  u s i n g environmental p r i n t items i n a j o u r n a l - l i k e a c t i v i t y .  The  c h i l d r e n were g i v e n i d e n t i c a l p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s , e i g h t weeks a p a r t , i n which they were asked t o i d e n t i f y 20  environmental  l o g o s , as w e l l as words and sentences i n i s o l a t i o n .  During the  i n t e r v e n i n g time p e r i o d , the c h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d i n t o groups, c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l . 33  two  The experimental group  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a language experience type a c t i v i t y , they each made a logo book. environmental  They were g i v e n logos o f v a r i o u s  p r i n t items t o g l u e i n t o t h e i r books, and were then  asked t o t a l k about the l o g o s . own  i n which  The c h i l d r e n e i t h e r wrote t h e i r  logo sentences, or had the sentences s c r i b e d f o r them,  depending on a b i l i t y . As expected,  The c o n t r o l group r e c e i v e d no  i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h logos l e d the  instruction.  experimental  group t o i d e n t i f y a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number o f l o g o s on the p o s t t e s t than on the p r e t e s t . r e c o g n i z e d was  a l s o noted f o r the word/sentence i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  component o f the p o s t t e s t . was  An i n c r e a s e i n the number of items  Whereas word and sentence r e c o g n i t i o n  v e r y l i m i t e d f o r a l l c h i l d r e n on the p r e t e s t , on the  p o s t t e s t , some of the 3-year-olds c o u l d read f o u r t o s i x of the words and a l l of the 4-year-olds c o u l d read f o u r o f the  five  sentences, made up of words t h a t were used i n the logo books. The c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n were not a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e any of the words o r  sentences.  The study was  a t r u e p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t c o n t r o l group d e s i g n  w i t h random assignment of c h i l d r e n t o e i t h e r the c o n t r o l o r experimental group.  A sample s i z e of 20 and group s i z e s o f 5  however were too s m a l l t o g i v e the treatment  any power.  the p r e s c h o o l e r s a l l came from m i d d l e - c l a s s , two parent the sample was  Because families,  probably not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p o p u l a t i o n of  p r e s c h o o l e r s and as such the r e s u l t s c o u l d not be g e n e r a l i z e d . Another l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t a p r a c t i c e e f f e c t based on  34  treatment  and p r e t e s t / p o s t t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may  have a f f e c t e d the  results. Based on her f i n d i n g s , Wepner concluded t h a t l i n k i n g f a m i l i a r environmental  logos w i t h p e r s o n a l l y rewarding  f a c i l i t a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y development.  print  Through the use of  l o g o s , c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o experience success a t r e a d i n g and were a b l e t o l i n k the r e a l world w i t h the p r i n t e d page.  She  also  f e l t t h a t w i t h repeated exposure " c h i l d r e n should be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e the unadorned words from the logo book i n v a r i e d contexts"  (Wepner, 1985,  p..2.38).  T h i s b e l i e f i n a gradual d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n o f p r i n t , i s deeply r o o t e d i n a " n a t u r a l i s t i c " view of l i t e r a c y development. H e r e i n l i e s the dilemma, w i t h d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r study.  Whereas l i t e r a c y development may  not occur n a t u r a l l y , i t  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t f a m i l i a r , h i g h l y m o t i v a t i n g environmental c o u l d be used s u c c e s s f u l l y t o f a c i l i t a t e b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g development.  35  logos  CHAPTER 3 DESIGN  Student P o p u l a t i o n  T h i s study took p l a c e i n two  elementary s c h o o l s i n  Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the f a l l o f the 1993-94 s c h o o l year.  Because the d e s i g n of the study n e c e s s i t a t e d having  c o n t r o l and an experimental  group i n each o f two  s c h o o l s , s e l e c t i o n of s c h o o l s was  a  different  based on the number o f  k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s e n r o l l e d i n each, as w e l l as the time of t h a t these c l a s s e s were i n s e s s i o n .  day  To c o n t r o l f o r any  d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t might e x i s t between c h i l d r e n who k i n d e r g a r t e n i n the morning and those who  attend  a t t e n d i n the  a f t e r n o o n , o n l y morning k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s were c o n s i d e r e d . In the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e t h a t had two morning k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s .  Of these  schools  three  s c h o o l s , two v o l u n t e e r e d t o take p a r t i n the study and  one  d e c l i n e d because of the p r a c t i c a of p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s t h a t overlapped  the time frame of the  The two  study.  s c h o o l s t h a t v o l u n t e e r e d and were s e l e c t e d d i f f e r e d  i n terms of l o c a t i o n , socioeconomic  s t a t u s and percentage o f  E n g l i s h as Second Language students  i n the c l a s s e s .  G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , one  s c h o o l was  located i n a high  r e g i o n of the c i t y whereas the other was c l a s s area.  The  former was  s i t u a t e d i n a middle  comprised mainly 36  socioeconomic  of  Causasian  students who spoke E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. of  The m a j o r i t y  students i n t h e l a t t e r s c h o o l were A s i a n , Japanese, and V i e t  Namese and spoke languages  o t h e r than E n g l i s h as t h e i r  first  language. P r i o r t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s study, none o f t h e c l a s s e s had been exposed t o formal r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n .  A l l of the  c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d doing j o u r n a l s and language e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as l i s t e n i n g t o poems and s t o r i e s , t o f o s t e r development.  stories,  literacy  F o r t h e purpose o f t h i s study, one c l a s s a t each  s c h o o l was randomly assigned as t h e c o n t r o l w h i l e t h e o t h e r was a s s i g n e d as t h e treatment group. i n two c o n t r o l groups comprised  T h i s random assignment r e s u l t e d o f 15 students each and two  treatment groups o f 19 students each.  The sample was composed o f  33 males and 35 females, w i t h an age range o f 4 y e a r s 10 months to  5 y e a r s 10 months.  P i l o t Study  A p i l o t study was conducted w i t h t e n c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age from 4 y e a r s 5 months t o 5 years 1 month i n order t o determine which environmental children.  logos were most e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d by young  The c h i l d r e n were presented w i t h t h i r t y l o g o s i n f u l l  c o n t e x t and were asked,  "What does t h i s say?".  Based on t h e i r  responses, t h e twenty most f r e q u e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d l o g o s were s e l e c t e d t o be used i n t h e study.  37  Procedure  Pretests  A logo i n v e n t o r y comprised  o f t h e 20 most f r e q u e n t l y  i d e n t i f i e d l o g o s was administered t o experimental and c o n t r o l children  (see Appendix 1 ) .  The i n v e n t o r y was g i v e n t o each c h i l d  i n d i v i d u a l l y and took approximately  15 minutes p e r c h i l d .  Logos  were p r e s e n t e d one a t a time i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s :  full,  p a r t i a l , and context f r e e  (see Appendix 2 ) .  In t h e f u l l  context  s i t u a t i o n , each logo was photographed i n i t s n a t u r a l environment, g l u e d onto a 4"x 6" cardboard c a r d and then p r e s e n t e d .  For the  p a r t i a l c o n t e x t items, a d u p l i c a t e s e t o f f u l l c o n t e x t logo photographs was used.  P r i n t t h a t was embedded i n t h e f u l l  c o n t e x t photographs was c u t out and then mounted onto 4 x 6" H  cardboard c a r d s .  In t h i s context, t h e surrounding  environmental  c l u e s were removed w h i l e the o r i g i n a l c o l o u r and s t y l i z e d of  t h e l o g o s were r e t a i n e d .  In t h e t h i r d p r e s e n t a t i o n , c o n t e x t  f r e e , each logo was presented as b l a c k manuscript x 6" cardboard c a r d . "What does t h i s say?". determine contexts.  l e t t e r s on a 4"  For each context, t h e c h i l d r e n were asked The logos were then randomly s e l e c t e d t o  an order o f p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r each o f t h e t h r e e Given the random order o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e l o g o s were  a l l p r e s e n t e d i n order o f d e c r e a s i n g amount o f c o n t e x t . to  print  say, a l l twenty f u l l context logos were p r e s e n t e d  38  That i s  first,  f o l l o w e d by t h e p a r t i a l context  logos and l a s t l y t h e context  free  logos. The  s c o r i n g o f each logo item i n each c o n t e x t was based on a  four point r a t i n g scale s i m i l a r t o that of B r a i l s f o r d  (1985).  R a t i n g s were assigned as f o l l o w s : 3 p o i n t s - exact response ( i e . "Lego" f o r LEGO) 2 p o i n t s - p a r t i a l o r extended response, i n c l u d e s some o f the p r i n t from t h e logo  ( i e . "Lego b l o c k s " f o r  LEGO) 1 point  - g e n e r i c response ( i e . " b l o c k s " f o r LEGO)  0 p o i n t s - no response o r " I don't know" In a d d i t i o n t o t h e logo i n v e n t o r y , C l a y ' s Word T e s t was a l s o administered  (1979)  i n d i v i d u a l l y t o a l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n both  p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s i t u a t i o n s (see Appendix 3 ) .  This test  c o n s i s t e d o f 15 primer words commonly r e c o g n i z e d by c h i l d r e n i n the i n i t i a l stages o f l i t e r a c y development.  Each item was scored  as b e i n g r i g h t o r wrong.  Method  F o l l o w i n g t h e p r e t e s t s , c l a s s e s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r t h e treatment o r t h e c o n t r o l groups.  The  experimental  groups r e c e i v e d e i g h t treatment s e s s i o n s , two s e s s i o n s p e r week over a f o u r week p e r i o d .  The s e s s i o n s were each 30 minutes i n  d u r a t i o n and took p l a c e i n t h e morning between 9:00 a.m. and 11:30  a.m.  Each treatment o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e s s i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 39  culminating journal a c t i v i t y .  A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f each s e s s i o n ,  two new logos were presented t o t h e e n t i r e group. p r e s e n t a t i o n was determined  The o r d e r o f  by t h e p r e t e s t r e s u l t s i n t h a t logos  were p r e s e n t e d i n order o f d e c r e a s i n g frequency o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e most f r e q u e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d logo. The  format o f each s e s s i o n was whole group i n s t r u c t i o n  f o l l o w e d by an i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y .  F i r s t , t h e c h i l d r e n were  p r e s e n t e d w i t h a r i d d l e o r a s i m i l a r m o t i v a t i n g a c t i v i t y i n an attempt  t o match t h e i r experiences w i t h t h e logos t h a t were t o be  presented.  A sample r i d d l e would be: " You can e a t here.  name s t a r t s w i t h an M. I?"  I have golden arches o u t s i d e .  My  What am  Once t h e c h i l d r e n had answered t h e r i d d l e s , they were then  shown t h e l o g o s .  A d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w e d which l e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e  pocket c h a r t a c t i v i t y .  For t h i s a c t i v i t y , the c h i l d r e n created  sentences r e l a t e d t o each l o g o .  These sentences were then  s c r i b e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r , d i s p l a y e d i n t h e pocket c h a r t , and read aloud c h o r a l l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y .  The c h i l d r e n were then  asked t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c words through t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e pocket c h a r t c a r d s .  I t was a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e logo words  were s p e l l e d out and t h e c h i l d r e n were made aware o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r s t h a t comprised  each word.  The s e s s i o n then s h i f t e d from whole group i n s t r u c t i o n t o an individual activity.  Each c h i l d was g i v e n a sample o f each o f  the l o g o s t h a t had been presented and a j o u r n a l .  The l o g o s were  t o be g l u e d i n t o t h e j o u r n a l s accompanied by p i c t u r e s , words, o r 40  sentences depending on the c h i l d ' s own a b i l i t y . unable t o w r i t e f o r themselves, t h e r e s e a r c h e r  I f c h i l d r e n were s c r i b e d any words  or sentences t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n wanted t o accompany t h e i r drawing. The  treatment s e s s i o n s continued  d u r a t i o n o f t h e study.  i n t h e same manner f o r t h e  A t t h e end o f t h e f o u r week p e r i o d , t h e  c h i l d r e n had been exposed t o s i x t e e n d i f f e r e n t logos and had c r e a t e d j o u r n a l p i c t u r e s and sentences f o r each one. At t h e same time, t h e c o n t r o l group p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e same number o f s e s s i o n s o f equal d u r a t i o n as the experimental group.  S i m i l a r t o t h e treatment s e s s i o n s ,  each  s e s s i o n f o r t h e c o n t r o l groups began w i t h a whole c l a s s a c t i v i t y f o l l o w e d by an i n d i v i d u a l j o u r n a l a c t i v i t y . with the researcher class discussion.  The s e s s i o n s began  r e a d i n g a s t o r y t h a t was then f o l l o w e d by a Depending on t h e s t o r y , some type o f w r i t t e n  a c t i v i t y was undertaken w i t h t h e c l a s s as a whole, i n order t o f u r t h e r develop t h e c h i l d r e n ' s understanding o f t h e s t o r y l i n e . The  c h i l d r e n were then g i v e n j o u r n a l s and were asked t o draw o r  w r i t e about p a r t o f t h e s t o r y . the r e s e a r c h e r  As w i t h t h e experimental group,  s c r i b e d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i f they were unable t o  w r i t e themselves.  A t t h e end o f t h e f o u r week p e r i o d , t h e  j o u r n a l s were sent home.  Posttests .  A f t e r t h e treatment p e r i o d , a l l t h e c h i l d r e n , c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l , were g i v e n  posttests. 41  The p o s t t e s t s r e p l i c a t e d  the p r e t e s t s i n both format and  administration.  As  i n the  p r e t e s t s , the p o s t t e s t s i n c l u d e d t h r e e components r e l a t e d t o logo i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  one  component r e l a t e d t o word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  Design and  T h i s study was design.  The  based on a p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t c o n t r o l group  f o u r dependent v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d t h r e e  i n v e n t o r i e s and use  Analysis  one  of logos, was  word t e s t (Clay, 1979).  the independent v a r i a b l e .  d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each group. variance scores  was  The  treatment,  Means and  of  performed t o determine whether the mean p r e t e s t 2 and  treatment  4) d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each other.  A series  o f follow-up t - t e s t s were a l s o done t o a n a l y z e the v a r i a n c e the p o o l e d means of the c o n t r o l group (groups 1 and and  the  standard  An a n a l y s i s  o f the f o u r groups ( c o n t r o l groups 1 and  groups 3 and  logo  the treatment group (groups 3 and  of  2 combined)  4 combined).  Limitations  The  f o l l o w i n g may  be considered  t o be l i m i t a t i o n s o f  the  study: 1.  Because the sample was  kindergarten  composed o f i n t a c t groups o f  c h i l d r e n from two  randomly s e l e c t e d , i t may  d i f f e r e n t schools  not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  42  and was of  the  not  population morning.  2.  o f c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d k i n d e r g a r t e n  i n the  T h i s may a f f e c t t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r e s u l t s .  Based on t h e design  control-group  design,  o f t h e study, t h e p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t  t h e use o f independent t - t e s t s t o  a n a l y z e t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means o f t h e experimental and t h e c o n t r o l groups c o u l d r e s u l t i n s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t do n o t r e a l l y e x i s t between t h e two groups. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a Type 1 e r r o r should be taken i n t o account i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s .  3.  Because o f a p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t p r a c t i c e e f f e c t and t h e  question  used t o e l i c i t responses i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e  c h i l d r e n should  attend t o the graphics,  testing i s a  p o s s i b l e t h r e a t t o t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e study.  4.  Experimenter b i a s and d i f f u s i o n o f treatment a r e a l s o  p o s s i b l e , y e t weak t h r e a t s t o i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y .  CHAPTER FOUR  FINDINGS  A logo i n v e n t o r y and C l a y ' s Word T e s t  (1979) were  a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 68 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n t o t e s t the  hypothesis  t h a t a t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g would occur between the r e a d i n g of environmental  p r i n t and c o n v e n t i o n a l p r i n t .  Both measures were  u t i l i z e d i n o r d e r t o generate p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s . R e s u l t s of the logo i n v e n t o r y i n d i c a t e d t o what extent, i f any, g a i n s e x i s t e d a c r o s s t h r e e c o n t e x t s o f logo C l a y ' s Word T e s t was treatment  identification.  administered t o determine whether or not  w i t h logos would r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s on a more  " t r a d i t i o n a l " r e a d i n g t e s t , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f primer words as presented  i n conventional p r i n t .  The data from these two measures were analyzed i n t h r e e ways.  F i r s t , t o determine whether o r not t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean g a i n s c o r e s of the c o n t r o l experimental  groups, analyses of v a r i a n c e and subsequent t - t e s t s  were conducted.  T h i s procedure  was  done i n o r d e r t o determine  whether the d i f f e r e n c e i n experimental was  and c o n t r o l group means  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l .  were analyzed t o examine response the c o n t e x t was responses  and  reduced.  t r e n d s t h a t may  Then, the data have emerged as  In order t o do so, f r e q u e n c i e s o f  by context were c a l c u l a t e d . 44  Because the sample of k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n was two  drawn from  d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s , t h e r e were o r i g i n a l l y f o u r d i s t i n c t groups  of s u b j e c t s .  In each s c h o o l t h e r e was  c o n t r o l group.  one experimental  Given t h a t the sample was  c l a s s e s o f c h i l d r e n and was  comprised o f  and  one  intact  not randomly s e l e c t e d , the p r e t e s t  s c o r e s o f the logo i n v e n t o r y and C l a y ' s Word T e s t compared u s i n g analyses of v a r i a n c e .  T h i s was  (1979) were  done t o determine  whether s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between the f o u r groups (see T a b l e 1).  Because the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e r e s u l t e d i n no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups, the f o u r groups were c o l l a p s e d i n t o two. one  experimental  Upon c o l l a p s i n g the f o u r groups i n t o  and one c o n t r o l , t h e r e were no  d i f f e r e n c e s between the two  two,  significant  groups on the p r e t e s t s c o r e s f o r each  o f the t h r e e c o n t e x t s of logo i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  (see Table 2 ) .  e x i s t e n c e of two  advantageous i n t h a t  groups r a t h e r than f o u r was  the sample s i z e of each c e l l was  The  greater.  A n a l y s i s of Logo Inventory  and Word T e s t  The t - t e s t r e s u l t s f o r the logo i n v e n t o r y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean g a i n s c o r e s o f the experimental  and c o n t r o l groups a c r o s s a l l c o n t e x t s  logo p r e s e n t a t i o n (see Table 3). f r e e , c h i l d r e n i n the experimental  From f u l l context t o  context  group showed s u b s t a n t i a l g a i n s  over the c o n t r o l group between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s . f u r t h e r examination  of the g a i n s c o r e s of the experimental 45  of  Upon group,  Table 1 Pretest Comparison Scores bv Context for Experimental and Control Groups  Group  n  Mean Pretest Score  Experimental 1  19  25.52  12.45  Full  Experimental 2  19  29.31  10.46  Context  Control 1  15  23.80  9.77  Control 2  15  29.86  6.79  Experimental 1  19  15.42  14.87  Partial  Experimental 2  19  12.10  13.12  Context  Control 1  15  12.66  9.79  Control 2  15  15.33  12.26  Experimental 1  19  5.94  9.38  Context  Experimental 2  19  4.78  11.44  Free  Control 1  15  3.66  7.13  Control 2  15  6.60  13.69  Experimental 1  19  2.73  3.55  Word  Experimental 2  19  3;00  7.48  Test  Control 1  15  2.80  4.87  Control 2  15  6.00  9.62  Context  46  Standard Deviation  F Probability  .274  .809  .875  .461  Table 2  Logo Inventory Pretest and Posttest Mean Scores  Context  Group  Mean Pretest Score  Mean Posttest Score  Full Context  Control Experimental  26.83 27.42  31.03 37.26  4.20 9.84  Partial Context  Control Experimental  14.00 13.76  17.46 27.18  3.46 13.42  Context Free  Control Experimental  5.13 5.36  7.83 12.94  2.70 7.58  47  Difference  Table 3  Mean Gain Scores bv Context for Experimental and Control Groups  Context  Group  n  Mean Gain Score  Standard Deviation  t Value Probability*  Full  Experimental  38  9,84  6.74  .000  Context  Control  30  4.20  4.85  Partial  Experimental  38  13.42  8.73  Context  Control  30  3.46  6.09  Context  Experimental  38  7.57  7.98  Free  Control  30  2.70  4.46  Word  Experimental  38  1.42  2.97  Test  Control  30  1.50  4.36  * Separate Variance Estimate  48  .000  .002  .933  it  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e h i g h e s t g a i n s c o r e was made i n  the p a r t i a l context s i t u a t i o n , 13.42.  The lowest g a i n s c o r e was  made i n t h e t h i r d logo p r e s e n t a t i o n , context f r e e . the s c o r e was 7.57.  The f i r s t  In t h i s  logo p r e s e n t a t i o n , f u l l  case  context,  r e s u l t e d i n a g a i n score o f 9.84. One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s f i n d i n g i s t h a t because the c h i l d r e n were exposed t o environmental  p r i n t i n t h e world  around them, they c o u l d not h e l p but become aware o f l o g o s .  As a  r e s u l t , on t h e logo i n v e n t o r y , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t they r e c o g n i z e d t h e g r e a t e s t number o f logos i n t h e context most c l o s e l y resembling Because t h e f u l l  t h e logo as i t appeared i n t h e environment.  context s i t u a t i o n was a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r t o them,  a c e i l i n g e f f e c t o c c u r r e d and t h e c h i l d r e n d i d not make t h e greatest gains i n t h i s The  context.  f a c t that the greatest gains occurred i n the p a r t i a l  c o n t e x t s i t u a t i o n p r o v i d e s support f o r a treatment Before treatment,  effect.  t h e c h i l d r e n were aware o f environmental  logos  and were a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e them; however, they may have been f o c u s i n g mainly on t h e environmental a t t e n d i n g t o t h e g r a p h i c cues.  cues and were n o t r e a l l y  Support  f o r t h i s inference i s  based upon t h e f a c t t h a t as t h e context decreased, p r e t e s t scores  (see Table 4 ) .  so t o o d i d t h e  Because t h e treatment h i g h l i g h t e d ,  both o r a l l y and v i s u a l l y , t h e l e t t e r s t h a t were embedded i n each logo d i s p l a y , t h e c h i l d r e n became i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f t h e r o l e of  t h e g r a p h i c s i n conveying meaning.  treatment  I t i s possible that the  enabled t h e c h i l d r e n t o move one s t e p f u r t h e r a l o n g t h e 49  Table 4 Percentage of Pretest Response Types  Response Types  Full Context  Partial Context  Context Free  Exact  28.2%  17.5%  6.9%  Partial or Extended  12.6%  3,7%  1.9%  Generalized  26.8%  8.8%  1.7%  33.2%  70.0%  89.5%  No Response or Incorrect Response  Note.  Total possible number of responses for each context is 1360  50  continuum o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s . environmental  Although  still  r e l y i n g on  c l u e s , t h e c h i l d r e n became b e t t e r a b l e t o focus  t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on t h e g r a p h i c s i n t h e logo d i s p l a y s . In t h e t h i r d logo p r e s e n t a t i o n , context f r e e , d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between t h e experimental  significant  and c o n t r o l groups,  thereby p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r support f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e treatment. C l a y ' s Word T e s t (1979) was thought^ t o be an e x t e n s i o n o f the logo i n v e n t o r y i n t h a t , i f c h i l d r e n i n t h e treatment  group  c o u l d make s i g n i f i c a n t mean score g a i n s i n t h e t h i r d c o n t e x t o f logo i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i t might be p o s s i b l e f o r them t o make s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s on a t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g t e s t t h a t i n v o l v e d identifying a t-test  primer words i n i s o l a t i o n .  A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and  f o r t h e word t e s t r e s u l t e d i n no s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s f o r  the treatment  group over t h e c o n t r o l group.  Perhaps t h e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f primer words as r e q u i r e d by t h e word t e s t and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f logo words on t h e logo i n v e n t o r y were n o t comparable t a s k s .  Although both t a s k s i n v o l v e d t h e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f words w r i t t e n i n standard p r i n t without any s u p p o r t i n g c o n t e x t u a l cues,  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e word t e s t was  too d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e c h i l d r e n and was t o o f a r removed from t h e t a s k o f logo i d e n t i f i c a t i o n even i n a context f r e e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were unable t o b r i d g e t h e gap between r e a d i n g logo words i n i s o l a t i o n and r e a d i n g primer words p r o v i d e s  51  f u r t h e r support t o t h e c l a i m t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a d i n g does not o c c u r n a t u r a l l y , but r a t h e r r e q u i r e s c e r t a i n p r e r e q u i s i t e  skills.  Frequency o f Response Types by Context  Because t h e c o d i n g system o f response c a t e g o r i e s adopted f o r t h i s study was determined by t h e amount o f g r a p h i c involvement p r e s e n t i n each response, the frequency o f response types p r o v i d e s some i n d i c a t i o n as t o t h e e x t e n t t o which c h i l d r e n a r e a t t e n d i n g t o t h e g r a p h i c s w h i l e r e a d i n g environmental l o g o s . s c o r i n g o f responses i n v o l v e d a f o u r p o i n t s c a l e adapted Brailsford  (1984).  The  from  R a t i n g s were a s s i g n e d as f o l l o w s :  3 p o i n t s - exact response  ( i e . "Lego" f o r LEGO)  2 p o i n t s - p a r t i a l o r extended response, i n c l u d e s some o f the  p r i n t from t h e logo ( i e . "Lego b l o c k s " f o r  LEGO) 1 point  - g e n e r i c response  ( i e . " b l o c k s " f o r LEGO)  0 p o i n t s - no response o r " I don't know" Based on t h e p r e t e s t frequency o f response t y p e s , t h e r e was a dramatic decrease i n t h e percentage o f exact and p a r t i a l o r extended responses as the c o n t e x t was s y s t e m a t i c a l l y removed (see Table 4).  The percentages o f exact and p a r t i a l o r extended  response types were combined because these response c a t e g o r i e s r e q u i r e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o i n c l u d e a l l o r some o f t h e p r i n t  from  the  logo d i s p l a y s .  In t h e f i r s t c o n d i t i o n , f u l l c o n t e x t , 41% o f  the  responses were exact, p a r t i a l o r extended, whereas i n t h e 52  t h i r d c o n d i t i o n , context f r e e , o n l y 9% were o f t h i s type. a d d i t i o n t o t h i s decrease g r a p h i c involvement, unacceptable  i n responses  In  c o n t a i n i n g some element o f  t h e r e was a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n  responses.  These i n c l u d e d responses  t h a t made no  sense g i v e n t h e s t i m u l u s , " I don't know  responses,  answer.  type  11  The percentage  o f t h i s response  and no  was 33.2% i n f u l l  c o n t e x t , 70% i n p a r t i a l context, and 89.5% i n c o n t e x t  free.  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were i n c r e a s i n g l y s u c c e s s f u l a t i d e n t i f y i n g environmental removed.  less  logos as t h e c o n t e x t was  I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t they were r e l y i n g on  c o n t e x t cues r a t h e r than g r a p h i c cues i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e environmental  print.  As t h e context was removed, t h e r e were o t h e r responses and b e h a v i o r a l t r e n d s t h a t emerged.  In the t h i r d context,  context  f r e e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f logo items, many o f t h e c h i l d r e n were unable to  use t h e g r a p h i c s e f f e c t i v e l y once t h e o t h e r cues had been  removed.  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n responses  i n t h e o t h e r two c o n t e x t s . response of  t h a t were n o t g e n e r a l l y seen  L e t t e r naming was a predominant  t h a t c h i l d r e n made i n an e f f o r t t o make some sense out  t h e p r i n t t h a t was i n f r o n t them.  Although  naming t h e f i r s t  l e t t e r o f t h e logo item was evidence t h a t c h i l d r e n were a t t e n d i n g to  t h e g r a p h i c s , i t was not a s u c c e s s f u l s t r a t e g y f o r d e r i v i n g  meaning from t h e s t i m u l u s .  Another common occurrence was t h e  r e p e t i t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y c o r r e c t responses. c h i l d r e n s a i d , "Lego" i n response  t o t h e LEGO logo and were  c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h i s was a c o r r e c t response, 53  F o r example, i f  they would be  i n c l i n e d t o o f f e r Lego again when presented w i t h o t h e r logo displays.  Here again, c h i l d r e n r e a l i z e d t h a t p r i n t  carried  meaning although they were unable t o s u c c e s s f u l l y decode t h e g r a p h i c s i n order t o c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y t h e logo items.  Clearly,  the t h i r d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l o g o s , context f r e e , proved t o be t o o c h a l l e n g i n g f o r some c h i l d r e n .  Whereas t h e c h i l d r e n  always t r i e d t o p r o v i d e a response  almost  t o t h e logo items i n t h e f i r s t  two  c o n t e x t s , t h e p r i n t o n l y context seemed t o p r e s e n t a b a r r i e r  for  some o f them.  Upon p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r i n t o n l y context,  some o f t h e c h i l d r e n simply r e f u s e d t o respond s a y i n g " I don't know how t o read". sounding  o r responded by  Those who d i d respond by  out t h e logo words o f t e n came up w i t h nonsense words  t h a t had no meaning. responses  There were no n o n s e n s i c a l words g i v e n as  i n e i t h e r t h e f u l l o r p a r t i a l context o f logo  presentation. Besides t h e emergence o f d i f f e r e n t response c o n t e x t f r e e logo i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k , s p e c i f i c  types t o t h e behaviors  appeared t h a t were not p r e v a l e n t i n t h e o t h e r c o n t e x t s o f logo presentation.  With t h e s y s t e m a t i c removal o f environmental  came an i n c r e a s e i n f r u s t r a t i o n f o r some c h i l d r e n . respond  cues  Unable t o  c o r r e c t l y t o t h e g r a p h i c cues, these c h i l d r e n became  f i d g e t y and q u i c k l y l o s t i n t e r e s t i n t h e t a s k a t hand.  They  e x h i b i t e d a much s h o r t e r a t t e n t i o n span and appeared t o be uncomfortable  because o f t h e i r obvious  print.  54  inability to interpret  Summary  The r e s u l t s of t h i s study o f f e r support f o r Wepner's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t environmental p r i n t r e a d i n g c o u l d be an important t o o l i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y programs.  Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e i s the  f a c t t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h environmental p r i n t r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o n t r o l and experimental groups a c r o s s a l l c o n t e x t s of logo p r e s e n t a t i o n .  The c h i l d r e n i n  the experimental group i d e n t i f i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l o g o s than the c o n t r o l group as a r e s u l t of the treatment. In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s f i n d i n g , p r e s e n t r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those found elsewhere i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  This investigation  has found t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of environmental p r i n t decreases d r a m a t i c a l l y as the c o n t e x t i s removed.  I t has  also  e x p l o r e d the c l a i m t h a t r e a d e r s and nonreaders d i f f e r i n how respond t o environmental p r i n t .  they  While no d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s  can be drawn r e l a t e d t o t h i s component of the study, t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t readers and nonreaders d i f f e r i n t h e i r responses t o environmental p r i n t . Thus, t h i s study p r o v i d e s evidence of the v a l u e of environmental p r i n t r e a d i n g and supports some o f the p r e v i o u s l y h e l d n o t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p r i n t awareness i n young c h i l d r e n .  55  CHAPTER FIVE  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  Conclusions  T h i s study was designed t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether t h e r e would be a t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g between t h e r e a d i n g o f environmental p r i n t and c o n v e n t i o n a l p r i n t .  I t was proposed t h a t a treatment  i n v o l v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h environmental l o g o s c o u l d h e l p b r i d g e the gap between environmental p r i n t r e a d i n g and s t a n d a r d p r i n t reading.  C o n c l u s i o n s r e l a t e t o two w i d e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i s s u e s i n  the area o f emergent l i t e r a c y : p r i n t awareness i n young c h i l d r e n and t h e r o l e o f environmental p r i n t .  Based on p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s ,  the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn: 1.  C h i l d r e n a r e aware o f environmental p r i n t and t h e f a c t  t h a t i t c a r r i e s meaning. 2.  C h i l d r e n a r e most s u c c e s s f u l a t i d e n t i f y i n g  environmental logos when they a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a f u l l context s i t u a t i o n .  As t h e c o n t e x t decreases so t o o does t h e  number o f c o r r e c t responses. 3.  I n s t r u c t i o n t h a t i n v o l v e s environmental p r i n t i s  e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n develop from c o n t e x t r e l i a n t r e a d e r s , those who u t i l i z e mainly environmental and c o n t e x t  56  cues t o d e c i p h e r p r i n t , t o g r a p h i c r e l i a n t r e a d e r s , who  r e l y mainly on the  4.  C h i l d r e n may  those  letters.  require certain prerequisite s k i l l s  b e i n g a b l e t o read c o n v e n t i o n a l l y .  before  These s k i l l s might  i n c l u d e knowledge of l e t t e r names, phoneme-grapheme r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and l e t t e r c l u s t e r p a t t e r n s as w e l l as  an  a b i l i t y t o combine phonemes i n order t o produce words t h a t make sense.  Environmental  P r i n t Awareness  T h i s study p r o v i d e s evidence t h a t c h i l d r e n are aware of environmental  p r i n t and  i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r conveying meaning.  On  the p r e t e s t , a l l of the c h i l d r e n , c o n t r o l and experimental, were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y some of the logos i n f u l l c o n t e x t . b e i n g aware of environmental  As w e l l as  p r i n t , the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s  study  a l s o knew t h a t meaning c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o the logo d i s p l a y s across a l l contexts.  As the amount o f context p r e s e n t i n the  logo d i s p l a y s decreased,  c h i l d r e n had t o s h i f t from c o n t e x t  r e l i a n c e t o g r a p h i c r e l i a n c e i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y the l o g o s . s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t most of the c h i l d r e n were unable c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y the logos once the context was c o n t i n u e d t o o f f e r responses.  to  removed, they  These responses were u s u a l l y  g e n e r i c v e r s i o n s of the l o g o s , p r e v i o u s l y c o r r e c t responses l e t t e r names.  In  or  For example, when presented w i t h the Safeway logo  c h i l d r e n might have responded w i t h s t o r e , McDonalds, o r S. 57  Although t h e c h i l d r e n were not h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l a t decoding and u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v i n g meaning from t h e g r a p h i c s , t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e a t p r o v i d i n g responses and t h e types o f responses  offered,  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were aware t h a t p r i n t c a r r i e d meaning. Hiebert  (1978), McGee, Lomax, and Head (1988), Goodman and  A l t w e r g e r (1981), and Harste, Burke, and Woodward (1984) support t h i s f i n d i n g and b e l i e v e t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s responses t o environmental p r i n t i n d i c a t e an awareness o f g r a p h i c s .  S u c e s s f u l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Logos i n F u l l  Context  Because t h e h i g h e s t frequency o f c o r r e c t responses o c c u r r e d i n t h e f u l l c o n t e x t p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t can be s a i d t h a t these c h i l d r e n , who were mainly nonreaders, were a b l e t o use c o n t e x t e f f e c t i v e l y t o i d e n t i f y t h e logo d i s p l a y s .  They were most  s u c c e s s f u l a t r e a d i n g environmental p r i n t when t h e p r i n t  itself  was embedded i n a d i s p l a y c o n t a i n i n g a v a r i e t y o f c l u e s ( i . e . s u r r o u n d i n g environment,  c o l o u r , and s t y l i z e d p r i n t ) .  As t h e  c o n t e x t decreased, however, t h e c h i l d r e n became l e s s p r o f i c i e n t a t i d e n t i f y i n g t h e logo d i s p l a y s .  Other r e s e a r c h e r s (Goodman &  A l t w e r g e r , 1981; G o o d a l l , 1984; H i e b e r t , 1978; Masonheimer, E h r i , & Drum, 1984; Y l i s t o ,  1967; McGee, Lomax, & Head, 1988)  c o r r o b o r a t e d these f i n d i n g s and found t h a t c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o make sense o f w r i t t e n language when i t was p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n i t s environmental context, but were not as s u c c e s s f u l when t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c l u e s were removed. 58  Given t h e f a c t t h a t many o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s and o t h e r s t u d i e s were unable t o i d e n t i f y environmental were p r e s e n t e d  logos when they  as p r i n t only, t h e q u e s t i o n remains as t o whether  repeated exposure t o g r a d u a l l y d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d p r i n t leads t o conventional reading.  Researchers  d i v i d e d i n terms o f t h e v a l u e o f environmental precursor t o conventional  environmental are c l e a r l y  p r i n t r e a d i n g as a  reading.  I n s t r u c t i o n with Environmental  Print  By f a r , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h a t treatment  w i t h environmental  logos can  e f f e c t a t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g between context r e l i a n t r e a d i n g and graphic r e l i a n t reading.  T h i s does not mean t h a t c h i l d r e n w i l l  be a b l e t o read c o n v e n t i o n a l l y once they can i d e n t i f y environmental  l o g o s ; however, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n  w i t h environmental  p r i n t can h e l p c h i l d r e n f u r t h e r develop  g r a p h i c awareness.  Through r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and s p e l l i n g  f a m i l i a r logo words, c h i l d r e n can be made aware o f t h e p r i n t embedded i n t h e logo d i s p l a y s . environmental of  This i n t e r a c t i o n with  p r i n t , may u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o a g r e a t e r awareness  and a b i l i t y t o decode g r a p h i c s i n order t o d e r i v e meaning from  print. To a g r e a t e x t e x t , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s study r e f u t e Masonheimer, Drum, and E h r i ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t environmental r e a d i n g does not l e a d t o c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a d i n g . 59  print  Moreover, t h i s  study has demonstrated t h a t environmental  p r i n t r e a d i n g combined  w i t h m e d i a t i o n i s an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n  develop  a l o n g the l i t e r a c y continuum as o u t l i n e d by Mason (1980). mediation, c h i l d r e n are a b l e t o l e a r n meaningful logo words i n much the same way  With  environmental  as they l e a r n s i g h t words.  Present f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Mason's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t n a t u r a l stages o f development e x i s t as c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o read words.  Mason has i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e l e v e l s t h a t c h i l d r e n  through on t h e i r way  pass  t o d e v e l o p i n g word r e a d i n g competency.  These l e v e l s , d e f i n e d by the type of words t h a t the c h i l d r e n are a b l e t o read and the s t r a t e g i e s t h a t they appear t o be u s i n g t o decode words, are context dependency, v i s u a l r e c o g n i t i o n , and letter-sound analysis.  C h i l d r e n who  are c o n t e x t dependent are  o n l y a b l e t o read s i g n s and l a b e l s i n the environment and perhaps t h e i r own  name.  At t h i s l e v e l ,  "children attend to o v e r a l l  v i s u a l cues r a t h e r than t o l e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n " (Mason, 1980, 217).  p.  Once c h i l d r e n are competent a t i d e n t i f y i n g words i n  c o n t e x t , they then move on t o the v i s u a l r e c o g n i t i o n l e v e l .  At  t h i s l e v e l , they are a b l e t o i d e n t i f y a few t h r e e l e t t e r words out o f c o n t e x t and o f t e n p r o v i d e words t h a t b e g i n w i t h the same i n i t i a l consonant as the words t h a t they were p r e s e n t e d w i t h . These c h i l d r e n are beginning t o a t t e n d t o the g r a p h i c s i n a v i s u a l d i s p l a y and are l e a r n i n g t o analyze words i n t o t h e i r letters.  At the l e t t e r - s o u n d a n a l y s i s l e v e l , c h i l d r e n are a b l e  t o sound out and read m u l t i s y l l a b i c words and are a b l e t o read s t o r i e s by  themselves. 60  While most o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study were a t t h e context dependent l e v e l and c o u l d i d e n t i f y environmental they were presented  logos o n l y when  i n f u l l o r p a r t i a l c o n t e x t s , t h e r e were a few  c h i l d r e n who were b e g i n n i n g t o o r who c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e logo words out o f c o n t e x t .  The c h i l d r e n who were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a t  Mason's v i s u a l r e c o g n i t i o n l e v e l were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y a few logos  ( i e . STOP, 7-up, A & W), o f f e r e d responses t h a t began w i t h  the same consonant as t h e o r i g i n a l logo d i s p l a y s ( i e . t h e c h i l d s a i d "Wendy's" when presented w i t h White S p o t ) , o r named t h e l e t t e r s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e logo d i s p l a y s .  Only 3 c h i l d r e n out o f  the e n t i r e sample o f 68 were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a t t h e l e t t e r - s o u n d a n a l y s i s l e v e l and c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y sound out m u l t i s y l l a b i c logos and words. Although  t h e t h r e e c o n t e x t s o f logo p r e s e n t a t i o n used i n  t h i s study do not correspond  e x a c t l y t o Mason's t h r e e l e v e l s , i t  can be s a i d t h a t i n both cases c h i l d r e n move a l o n g a continuum i n d e v e l o p i n g word r e a d i n g knowledge.  I n i t i a l l y children  rely  h e a v i l y on context t o a t t r i b u t e meaning t o a g r a p h i c d i s p l a y . They then move t o a more r e f i n e d a t t e n t i o n t o g r a p h i c s and f i n a l l y t o v e r y s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n t o phoneme-grapheme relationships.  In t h i s study t h e g r e a t e s t g a i n was made i n  i d e n t i f y i n g logos t h a t were presented i n p a r t i a l c o n t e x t .  This  p r o v i d e s evidence t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h logos can be used t o move c h i l d r e n away from b e i n g t o t a l l y dependent on c o n t e x t .  To some  e x t e n t , t h i s f i n d i n g i s congruent w i t h Mason's c l a i m t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t s h i f t i n word r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o c c u r r e d between c o n t e x t 61  dependency and v i s u a l r e c o g n i t i o n .  I n both cases, t h e most  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t was found when c h i l d r e n made t h e i n i t i a l t r a n s f e r from context r e l i a n t t o g r a p h i c r e l i a n t r e a d i n g .  P r e r e q u i s i t e S k i l l s Required F o r Conventional Reading  Present f i n d i n g s a r e a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e view t h a t c h i l d r e n may r e q u i r e c e r t a i n p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s b e f o r e b e i n g a b l e t o read c o n v e n t i o n a l l y .  Because t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e g a i n s made by t h e experimental group over the c o n t r o l group on C l a y ' s Word T e s t , i t can be concluded t h a t treatment w i t h logos alone was not s u f f i c i e n t t o move c h i l d r e n e n t i r e l y from context r e l i a n t t o g r a p h i c r e l i a n t r e a d i n g . researchers, E h r i , Ehri,  Other  1987; G o o d a l l , 1984; Masonheimer, Drum, and  1984; R i c h g e l s , McGee, Hernandez, and W i l l i a m s , 1987;  m a i n t a i n t h a t environmental  p r i n t r e a d i n g alone w i l l not  a u t o m a t i c a l l y enable c h i l d r e n t o make t h e s h i f t t o c o n v e n t i o n a l reading.  Based on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study, however, i t may be  t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h environmental  p r i n t f a c i l i t a t e s the  development o f word r e a d i n g competencies as o u t l i n e d by Mason (1980) .  62  Implications  Theoretical  U n l i k e most o f t h e p r e v i o u s environmental  p r i n t research  t h a t has focused mainly on c h i l d r e n ' s responses t o environmental p r i n t i n t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s , t h i s study has undertaken t h e use o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h environmental treatment of  p r i n t as t h e treatment.  Because  r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t mean g a i n s a c r o s s a l l c o n t e x t s  logo p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g t h e o r e t i c a l  implication  t h a t h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n a t t e n d t o p r i n t i n environmental f o s t e r l i t e r a c y development.  l o g o s can  Given t h a t c h i l d r e n q u i t e commonly  b e g i n t o r e c o g n i z e s i g h t words as they l e a r n t o read, t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f environmental to  logo words, which has been  compared  t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f s i g h t words, may be a v a l u a b l e s t e p p i n g  stone from c o n t e x t r e l i a n t r e a d i n g t o g r a p h i c r e l i a n t r e a d i n g . Moreover, environmental  p r i n t , could i n fact provide a v e h i c l e  f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f o t h e r reading, s k i l l s and knowledge t h a t would enable c h i l d r e n t o make t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o c o n v e n t i o n a l reading. To r e i t e r a t e , t h i s does not imply t h a t c h i l d r e n w i l l move n a t u r a l l y from environmental r e a d i n g ; however, environmental  p r i n t reading t o conventional  i t does p l a c e v a l u e on t h e r o l e o f  p r i n t i n t h e l i t e r a c y development o f young  children.  63  Curricular  Because educators s t r i v e t o p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n w i t h meaningful c u r r i c u l a , i t i s o n l y l o g i c a l t h a t language and  literacy  a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o environmental p r i n t be i n c l u d e d i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y programs.  F a m i l i a r environmental p r i n t t h a t  have seen r e p e a t e d l y i n t h e i r environments  children  can be used  e f f e c t i v e l y t o b r i d g e the gap from home t o s c h o o l .  In f a c t , i t  i s b e l i e v e d t h a t b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g programs should i n c l u d e words t h a t have p e r s o n a l meaning t o the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d 1983) .  (Hiebert,  I n c l u s i o n of p e r s o n a l l y chosen environmental p r i n t  can h e l p c h i l d r e n f e e l ownership t h e i r own  of the c l a s s as c o n t r i b u t o r s t o  l i t e r a c y programs ( K i r k l a n d , A l d r i d g e , & Kuby,  1991).  These environmental p r i n t items s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r o r a l w r i t t e n language  items  and  development.  S i n c e i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h environmental p r i n t appears t o f a c i l i t a t e l i t e r a c y development, t h e r e i s a need t o d i s c o v e r how the r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g of environmental p r i n t can b e s t be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the l i t e r a c y programs o f young c h i l d r e n .  The  f o l l o w i n g are some suggestions f o r u s i n g environmental p r i n t i n the classroom. 1. j o u r n a l ; As o u t l i n e d i n t h i s study, c h i l d r e n would g l u e environmental logos i n t o a b o o k l e t and would then draw, w r i t e , or have sentences/words 2.  logo b u l l e t i n board;  s c r i b e d f o r them.  With the h e l p of p a r e n t s , c h i l d r e n  would c u t environmental logos out o f books, papers, napkins, 64  or o t h e r items t h a t c o n t a i n e d p r i n t found i n t h e i r environments.  These logos would then be brought t o s c h o o l  and posted on a b u l l e t i n 3.  board.  pocket c h a r t s t o r i e s ; U s i n g sentence  t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n have brought  frames and l o g o s  i n , logo s t o r i e s would be  created. ( i e . I e a t a t McDonald's. I e a t a t D a i r y Queen. I e a t a t A & W. But, I don't e a t a t The Bay.) A f t e r b e i n g read c h o r a l l y , c h i l d r e n would then c r e a t e , read, and/or w r i t e t h e i r own s t o r i e s u s i n g t h e same sentence frame. 4.  logo alphabet;  u s i n g environmental  Alphabet cards o r p o s t e r s would be made logos ( i e . M - McDonalds, W - White  Spot) ( K i r k l a n d , A l d r i d g e , & Kuby; 1991).  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Parents  Because c h i l d r e n know much about p r i n t b e f o r e coming t o school, parents play a v i t a l r o l e i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s formative language and l i t e r a c y development.  Although d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s may  appear t o be i n c i d e n t a l , t h e l e a r n i n g t h a t occurs i s not.  With  an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f t h e v a l u e o f i d e n t i f y i n g p r i n t i n t h e environment, parents c o u l d enhance t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y development by p o i n t i n g out t h e p r i n t on l a b e l s , having  65  children  i d e n t i f y t h e p r i n t , and naming t h e l e t t e r s o f v a r i o u s environmental p r i n t d i s p l a y s .  I f done i n a p o s i t i v e manner,  these a c t i v i t i e s should h e l p c h i l d r e n develop g r e a t e r p r i n t awareness, alphabet name knowledge, and perhaps even word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a b i l i t y b e f o r e coming t o s c h o o l .  F u t u r e Research  There i s a heed t o extend t h e c u r r e n t body o f knowledge r e l a t e d t o t h e r o l e o f environmental p r i n t i n t h e development o f p r i n t awareness and word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n among young There i s a l s o a need t o determine c h i l d r e n ' s  children.  e x i s t i n g knowledge  of p r i n t and t o d e s i g n l i t e r a c y programs t h a t b u i l d on what they a l r e a d y know. T h i s study found t h a t was e f f e c t i v e i n f u r t h e r i n g  i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h environmental p r i n t l i t e r a c y development, t h e r e f o r e  f u t u r e s t u d i e s c o u l d be conducted t o examine whether o r not these r e s u l t s are g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o other populations. i n t e r e s t i n g t o explore the effectiveness i n s t r u c t i o n on ESL and S p e c i a l that  I t would be  o f environmental p r i n t  Needs c h i l d r e n .  I t i s very  likely  f a m i l i a r environmental p r i n t items c o u l d be used  successfully these  t o f o s t e r t h e language and l i t e r a c y development o f  children. F u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e a l s o necessary t o determine t h e s k i l l s  and  knowledge t h a t  c h i l d r e n need i n order t o make t h e s h i f t t o  conventional reading.  What e x a c t l y 66  i s i t that  enables  children  t o r e l y on and i n t e r p r e t g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y ? C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h suggests  that l e t t e r  naming a b i l i t y may not  account f o r t h e f a c t t h a t some c h i l d r e n read w h i l e o t h e r s do not (McGee, Lomax, & Head, 1988).  I t has been suggested  that the  a b i l i t y t o use invented s p e l l i n g i s a b e t t e r determiner o f conventional reading a b i l i t y W i l l i a m s , 1987). letter  ( R i c h g e l s , McGee, Hernandez, &  I f i t i s phoneme-grapheme awareness and not  name knowledge t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s readers from nonreaders,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e use o f environmental  p r i n t t o develop  awareness would be o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e f i e l d .  this  Future s t u d i e s  should p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n s i g h t as t o how c h i l d r e n become c o n v e n t i o n a l readers and how i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h environmental can f a c i l i t a t e t h a t development.  67  print  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l d r i d g e , J . T . & Rust, D. (1987). A beginning reading strategy. Academic T h e r a p y . 2 2 ( 3 ) , 323-326. Anderson, A . B . & Stokes, S . J . (1984). 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Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan, Ann Arbor.  71  APPENDIX 1  PRESENTATION OF LOGOS BY CONTEXT  ^( a.  APPENDIX 1  Full Context  Partial Context  Context Free  Sun Maid Raisins  Pepsi  McDonalds  STOP  Coke  Burger King  Sun Rype Apple Juice  Cheerios  Dairy Queen  Dairyland Milk  Dairy Queen  7-up  McDonalds  STOP  White Spot  Shell  White Spot  Cheerios  7-up  A & W  STOP  Pepsi  Safeway  Dairyland Milk  Lego  Oreo  Shell  The Bay  Burger King  Oreo  Burger King  Chevron  A & W  Oreo  The Bay  Jello  Safeway  Lego  Lego  Dairy Queen  Jello  Sun Maid Raisins  Chevron  Sun Maid Raisins  Sun Rype Apple Juice  White Spot  7-up  Safeway  Coke  Sun Rype Apple Juice  The Bay  Cheerios  Shell  Coke  Jello  Dairyland Milk  Pepsi  A & W  McDonalds  Chevron  72  APPENDIX 2  PRESENTATION OF CONTEXTS  ?2i  APPENDIX 2  Full  Context  Partial  Context  Context  Free  APPENDIX 3  CLAY'S WORD TEST (1979)  f3 SL  APPENDIX 3 Word T e s t  I Mother are here me shouted am with car children help not too meet away  

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