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The effects of prior exposure to music on a subsequent memory task Yokota, Hiroko 1992

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THE EFFECTS OF PRIOR EXPOSURE TO MUSIC ON ASUBSEQUENT MEMORY TASKbyHIROKO YOKOTAB.Ed., Nara University of Education, Japan, 1989A THESIS SUBMI’UI’ED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAAUGUST 1992© Hiroko Yokota, 1992In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.Department of 4The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate______________________DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTThis study investigated the effects of prior exposure tomusic on subsequent brain hemispheric arousal levels. FortyJapanese subjects performed a one—digit—number memorizingtask using a dichotic listening method. The task consistedof: (1) a free report condition--- in which the subjectsreported as many numbers as they remembered with both ears,and (2) a directed report condition --- in which they wereto attend to an assigned ear in memorizing numbers. Thenthe subjects were randomly assigned to listen to eithermusic played by western musical instruments or to the samemusic but played with Japanese musical instruments. Thisprocedure was conducted to activate either the righthemisphere or the left hemisphere of the brain. After theexposure to the assigned music, the subjects worked on thesame one—digit—number memorizing task.A 2x2x2 ANOVA revealed that in both the free report andthe directed report conditions, there was a main effect fortest (pretest, posttest), and for ear (left ear, right ear).However, there was no main effect for the kind of music.The results indicate that prior activation of either theleft or the right hemisphere through music listening furtherinduces cerebral arousal levels. The finding implies aiipotential use of music listening in educational andtherapeutic situations.Supervisor ApprovalDr. Allen E. ClingmaniiiTABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract iiTable of Contents ivList of Tables viList of Figures viiAcknowledgements viiiChapter 1. PROBLEM 11.1 Listening Activity in Music 11.2 Necessity of Basic Research on MusicListening 3Chapter 2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 92.1 Overview of Hemispheric Specializationand Music 92.2 The effects of Concurrent Exposure toMusic on Cognitive Activities 132.3 The Effects of Prior Exposure to Musicon Subsequent Cognitive Activities .... 15Chapter 3. METHODOLOGY 183.1 Background Theory of the Methodology 183.2 Population 213.3 Sample 223.4 Materials and Apparatus 233.5 Procedure 243.6 Data Collection 283.7 Data Analysis 28Chapter 4. RESULTS 304.1 Free report Data 304.2 Directed Report Data 36Chapter 5. DISCUSSION 405.1 Free Report Condition 405.2 Directed Report Condition 47Chapter 6. IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY AND SUGGESTIONS .... 516.1 Implications 516.2 Suggestions 53References 57ivAppendix A CONSENT SHEET.61B AUDITORY TEST SHEET 63C NUMBER MEMORIZING TASK 65D INSTRUCTION FOR THE TASK 68E A SUMMARY OF THE PILOT STUDY 74VLIST OF TABLESTable 1: Means (Standard Deviation) in Total Numbersof Correct Digits Reported in the Free ReportCondition 30Table 2: 2x2 ANOVA for Total Numbers of Correct DigitsReported in the Free Report Condition 31Table 3: Means (Standard Deviation) in Total Numbersof Correct Digits with the Left Ear and the RightEar in the Free Report Condition 33Table 4: 2x2x2 ANOVA for Total Numbers of CorrectDigits Reported with the Left Ear and the RightEar in the Free Report Condition 34Table 5: Means (Standard Deviation) in the TotalNumbers of Correct Answers Reported with the LeftEar and the Right Ear in the Directed ReportCondition 37Table 6: 2x2x2 ANOVA for Total Numbers of CorrectAnswers Reported with the Left Ear and the RightEar in the Directed Report Conditio-n 38viLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1: Total Numbers of Correct Digits Reportedin the Free Report Task 32Figure 2: Total Numbers of Correct Digits Reportedwith the Left Ear and the Right Ear in theFree Report Task 35Figure 3: Total Numbers of Correct Answers Reportedwith the Left ear and the Right Ear in theDirected Report Task 39viiAcknowledgements“The man who thinks he knows something does not yet knowas he ought to know.” (1 Corinthians 8:2)Special thanks are expressed to the subjects whoparticipated in this study, for their time and effort. ToYoshi, Steve H. and other friends who helped me find thesesubjects, I wish to express my sincere appreciation fortheir co—operation.To my family in Japan, who have kept encouraging me, Ialso say thank you.I am indebted to Dr. Allen Clingman, Dr. HaroldRatzlaff, and Dr. Rita Watson, for their constant supportand valuable advice.My deep appreciation is also expressed to Sujatha andRandy for proof—reading the manuscript.To all my friends, especially, Akosua, Sandy and SteveE., I say thank you for sharing both exciting and laborioustimes throughout the conduct of the research.I also express my deep gratitude to Tomo for mentalsupport.viii1CHAPTER 1. PROBLEM1.1 LISTENING ACTIVITY IN MUSICIt came to pass, when the evil spirit from God was uponSaul, that David took an harp, and played with his hand;so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spiritdeparted from him. (I Samuel, 16:23)Music listening has become a major part of the lifestyleof a very large number of people due to the wide—spread useof equipment for the recording and reproduction of music(Konecni, 1982). People listen to music while eating,walking, or even while engaging in cognitive activities,such as studying. Bloom (1987) stated “though students donot have books, they most emphatically do have music.Nothing is more singular about this generation than itsaddiction to music” (p. 68). They choose certain kinds ofmusic to listen to depending on where they are, what theyare doing, whom they are with, and what kind of mood theyare in. According to Konecni (1979), people listen to musicin order to optimize their mood; when people were asked tolisten to different kinds of music and an aversive tone,they chose to listen to the aversive tone earlier and thefavorable music later in order to offset the impact of theaversive stimulation. People also listen to different kindsof music depending on a slight mood change during theprocess of stress management in every day life (Yokota,1992). In addition, Konecni and Sargent-Pollock (1976)reported that people who were made to engage in work which2involved a considerable amount of information processingshowed a strong tendency to avoid listening to a complicatedmelody when given the choice of listening to either a simpleor a complicated melody. They noted that the subjects optedfor the less demanding additional stimulus, the simplemelody, since the complicated melody is more difficult toprocess than the simple melody.These studies indicate that listening to music is a partof everyday life, and people know from their experiences howmusic changes their mood and affects the cognitive activityin which they are concurrently engaged.Applications of music listening are reported intherapeutic settings as well. However, studies have not yetprovided us sufficient proof of the efficacy of musiclistening in therapy. For example, studies havedemonstrated the facilitative effects of background music onthe accuracy of a performance task in psychotic children(Burleson, Center & Reeves, 1989), in retarded adults(Sterlight, Deutsch & Siegel, 1967), and on work orientedbehavior in mentally handicapped adults (Groeneweg & Stan,1989). Those studies clearly report how background musicaffects one’s performance of the tasks, however, they didnot discuss what caused these effects. Music was alsosuccessfully used as a contingent positive reinforcement foremotionally and/or behaviorally disturbed children in order3to correct their undesirable behaviors (Mccarty, McElfresh,Rice & Wilson, 1978: Wilson, 1976). However, in thosestudies, music listening was simply used as one of positivereinforcements, and thus the stimulus did not necessarilyhave to be music as long as the stimulus was pleasant to asubject. Other studies have reported that music listeninghelps neurotic patients release anxiety and recover fromdepression (Murai, 1987, 1988; Taniguchi & Ohara 1991).However, it is not known how long the effects weremaintained in those two studies. Moreover, in Murai’sstudies (1987, 1988), the criteria in determining whetherthere was an effect or not was vague.Thus, in those studies, the investigations describedonly how music affects us, but not y. In other words,they imply, but do not prove the efficacy of music listeningin clinical settings. Research which would explain thecauses of the effects is necessary, since the authorbelieves that an idea which is based on mere empiricalknowledge is limited in its applicability. In order todevelop the applicability of an idea, the support of solidtheory is crucial.1.2. NECESSITY Q BASIC RESEARCH ON MUSIC LISTENINGIn a practical setting, a practitioner seeks informationfor understanding phenomenon, solving problems, allocating4sources to meet changing conditions and/or needs in othersettings and developing and/or planning a new program.There are many sources for the practitioner to rely on:personal experience, tradition, and advice and/or opinionfrom an expert. However, those sources are not necessarilystable in all situations, thus limited in theirapplicability to new settings. The most reliableinformation to which the practitioner should refer is,probably, a theory which is related to the problem.According to McMillan and Schumacher (1989), a theory is “ aset of interrelated constructs and propositions that specifyrelations among variables to explain and predict phenomena(Kerlinger, 1986)” (p. 7). A theory is abstract, general,and explanatory, since it is a principle which is applicableto explain various phenomenon.A theory is established based on findings from research.“Research is a systematic process of collecting information(data) for some purposes” (McMillan & Schumacher, 1989, p.8), which provides valid information and knowledge.Research is conducted in order to advance knowledge and toimprove a practice. Concerning educational problems,McMillan and Schumacher (1989) have said “If one plans toimprove education, the first step is to have validinformation and knowledge about education. ..Informationderived from authority, philosophy, tradition, or personalexperience is less likely to be objective and reality-5based... Research—based information is most likely to definethe problem carefully and to reflect the complexity ofeducational process” (p. 24). Thus, a practice is dependenton research in its validity and reliability of application.There are three types of research: basic, applied, andevaluation research. According to McMillan and Schumacher(1989), the purposes of basic research is “ to add to ourknowledge of basic principles and scientific laws,” and “ toadvance further scientific inquiry and methodology andindirectly, the methodology of applied science” (p. 18).Applied research is aimed at “testing the usefulness ofscientific theories and determining empirical and analyticalrelationship within a given field. ... and adding to theresearch-based knowledge in the given field” (p. 19).Evaluation research is conducted in order to “ assess themerit and worth of a particular in terms of the valuesoperating at the sites” (p. 20). Those three types ofresearch interact and complement each other in order todevelop a stronger relationship between a theory and apractice.The level of applicability of finding, that isgeneralizability, of basic research is abstract; in otherwords, the finding from basic research is more general andthus more applicable than the other two types of research.In an applied research, generalizability is less than that6of basic research and thus only applicable in a relatedfield. The generalizability of evaluation research is leastgeneral of these three types of research; a finding isapplicable only to a concrete and a specific practicalsituation. Thus, the more practical a research becomes(from basic to evaluative), the less applicable the researchbecomes. Therefore, a valid and reliable theory which isapplicable in various settings cannot be established withoutbasic research.This discussion may be applied to the previous studieson the efficacy of music listening in practical settings.Even though many studies have examined this topic, asreviewed in the previous section of this chapter, thefindings from those studies were insufficient to induce ageneralized theory about the efficacy of musical listeningin clinical settings. As has been indicated, those studieslack reliable evidence about the causes of the effects. Inaddition, all of those studies are applied research; thus,generalizability of findings are more limited in a relatedfield. Particularly, some of the studies were case studiesusing only one patient (e.g., Murai, 1987, 1988), therefore,the external validity of the findings are limited.Sometimes a lack of basic research causes otherproblems, such as misunderstanding, or misuses of practice.7For example, in Japan, the lack of basic research on theeffects of music causes serious problems with the use ofmusic in clinical settings. In Japan, “music therapy”itself has not yet been recognized by any officialinstitute, and inevitably, there are no registered musictherapists. Nevertheless, some music educators,psychologists, and psychiatrists use music in the treatmentof their patients, and label such treatment “music therapy.”They call themselves “music therapist,” even though theyhave neither learned systematically what music therapy is,nor trained as a therapist. Most of their practices do notoriginate from a solid theory about the efficacy of music intreatment but from personally induced empirical knowledge.As Gibson (1987) has suggested, scientific research iscrucial in order to improve this situation. A solid theorywhich is based on fundamental research would make usabilitywider and prove its efficacy. Inevitably, the applicabilityof music in therapy could be recognized through issuing acertificate for “music therapy,” thus, validating the title,“music therapist.”Therefore, basic research is necessary in terms of thefollowing two purposes: (1) to establish a theory and thusto improve practice, and consequently (2) to rectify themisuse and misunderstanding of practice and consequentproblems, if any exist.In order to make a contribution to the aforementionedtwo purposes, basic research will be conducted on theeffects of music listening on one’s cognitive activities——why does music enhance or interfere with other activities?In the next chapter, literature related to this questionwill be reviewed.89CHAPTER 2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDYIn the present study, basic research will be conductedparticularly focusing on the relationship between cognitiveactivities and music from an educational point of view forthe following reasons. The first reason is being implied inBloom’s report, “today, a very large proportion of youngpeople between the ages of ten and twenty live for musicit is their passion; nothing else excites them as it does;they cannot take seriously anything alien to music” (p. 68).Thus, there is a necessity to examine what kinds of effectmusic has on children’s cognitive activities. The otherreason is that there seems to be a therapeutic implicationof music for mentally handicapped children to enhance theirlearning abilities, as reviewed in the previous chapter.In this chapter, hemispheric specialization andprocessing of cognitive activities and music will bediscussed. Based on the discussion, the effects ofconcurrent exposure to music on other activities, and theeffects of prior exposure to music on subsequent activitieswill be discussed.2.1. OVERVIEW OF HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION AND MUSICThe early reports about the human brain’s hemisphericspecialization were done through clinical settings. Broca10in 1861 (Boring, 1950) and Wernick in 1871 (Gardener, 1975)found that left hemisphere-damaged patients who were right-handed suffered aphasia, while right hemisphere-damagedpatients did not. Kimura (l961a, b) reported that a lefttemporal lobotomy caused the decline of language abilities.Other studies reported the right hemisphere’s superiorityfor visual and spatial abilities (Bogen, 1969; Levy &Trevarthen, 1972), for perception of complex visual stimuli(Levy, 1980; Nebes, 1974), for interpreting emotionalstimuli and expressing emotion (Tucker, 1981; Sackheim, Gur& Saucy, 1978). It has also been demonstrated that the righthemisphere has much fewer abilities in language skills thanthe left hemisphere (Gazzaniga & Sperry, 1967). Thesestudies were done through the investigation of split-brainpatients who received an operation to cut the corpuscallosum which connects the two hemispheres. Those findingshave been confirmed by other studies involving normalpeople. Measuring blood flow level in the brain duringvarious task performance, Gur et al (1982) found that theleft hemisphere is dominant for verbal task processing,while the right hemisphere is dominant for the spatial taskprocessing. Those results were further confirmed whenPhelps and Mazziotta (1985) reached the same results usingPositron Emission Tomography (PET) for measuring thesubjects’ brain activation level during the task. Thus, thehemispheres of the brain are involved differently inprocessing various sorts of information.11Focusing on the processing of music in the brain,Mimer (1962) found that scores on the timbre and tonalmemory subtests of the Seashore Measure of Musical Talentswere depressed by a right temporal lobotomy but not by aleft temporal lobotomy. This finding was confirmed innormal subjects by Kimura (1964). She examined thedifference between the processing of spoken digits and theprocessing of melodies in right—handed normal subjects usinga dichotic method. The principle behind this method is thefact that the human’s auditory pathway is more stronglyconnected to the counterlateral hemisphere than to theisolateral hemisphere; the right ear is connected morestrongly to the left hemisphere than to the righthemisphere, and the left ear is connected more strongly tothe right hemisphere than to the left hemisphere. In thismethod, two different stimuli are presented to each earsimultaneously in order to cause a competition between earsin processing information. The premise is that thecounterlateral hemisphere to the ear that successfullyperceives the information is dominant for processing theinformation. Using this method, she found that on the digittest, the score for the right ear was significantly higherthan for the left ear, while on the melodies tests, thescore for the left ear was significantly higher than for theright ear; that is, the left hemisphere was more dominantfor the verbal tasks, and the right hemisphere was more12dominant for the non-verbal task (music) in right-handedpeople. These results corresponded with her previousstudies on brain-damaged-patients (Kimura, 1961a, b).Some other researchers, however, reached contradictoryresults. According to Gordon (1975), as a person becomescomfortable with the dichotic task, left hemispheresuperiority increases. Peretz, Morais and Bertelson (1987)reported the superiority shift to the left hemisphere fromthe right hemisphere when analytic tasks are involved in themelody recognition task. Bever and Chiarello (1974)demonstrated left hemisphere dominance for musicalrecognition in musically sophisticated children. Gates andBradhsaw (1977) reported the notion of music inducedinvolvement of both hemispheres. Hodges and Bartlett (1990)summarized these variations in the results as follows:“generally speaking, the right hemisphere appears todemonstrate an advantage in processing melodic materials;however, a shift towards left hemisphere dominance may occuras the listening task becomes more analytic or as thelistener becomes more musically sophisticated (p. 10).” Itmay be possible to conclude that in general, music isprocessed in the right hemisphere as long as more holisticperception is being employed in the music processing.Whereas, when more analytical perception is being employedin such a way that one tends to pay attention to the13detailed part of music, it is processed in the lefthemisphere.2.2. THE EFFECTS OF CONCURRENT EXPOSURE TO MUSIC ONCOGNITIVE ACTIVITIESBased on the discussion in the previous section, theeffects of concurrent exposure to music on other activitieswill be reviewed.Many studies have been done on the relationship betweencognitive activities and the music which is being played inthe background. Some studies reported that background musichas a positive effect on non—verbal tasks such as memorizingpictures (Stainback, Stainback & Hallohan, 1973), spatialtask (Miller & Schyb, 1989). On the other hand, music hasnegative effects on people’s, particularly females’,performance on tests of their verbal abilities, especiallywhen the music is unfamiliar (Etaugh & Michaels, 1975;Etaugh & Ptasnik, 1982; Fogelson, 1973). Other studiesreported that listening to familiar music has no effect onsolving math problems (Wolfe, 1983). These results seem toindicate that, as Miller and Schyb (1989) have concluded, ingeneral, the right hemisphere’s activities, such as spatialorientation and math problem solving, are positivelyinfluenced by concurrent exposure to music, while the lefthemisphere’s activities, such as verbal tasks, are14negatively influenced. A reason for unfamiliar music’snegative influences on the left hemisphere’s activitieswould be that unfamiliar music requires more analyticalprocedure (more left hemispheric procedure) in order to beperceived and processed than familiar music does. Since themusic is new information, this requirement for lefthemispheric information processing may interfere with theleft hemisphere’s activities.As can be seen, there seem to be three factors whichdetermine whether the effect of concurrent exposure to musicon cognitive activity is positive or negative. The firstis the kind of task--whether the task is more lefthemispheric or more right hemispheric in nature. The secondfactor is the music background of people——whether they aremusically naive or sophisticated; in other words, theirattitude in listening to music--whether they listen to itanalytically or synthetically. The third factor is the kindof music——whether the music is familiar or unfamiliar to thelistener. The core idea which is common to these threefactors is that the left hemisphere is dominant for moreanalytical processing, and the right hemisphere is dominantfor more synthetic processing. Thus, positive and/ornegative effects of concurrent exposure to music oncognitive activities could be attributed to interactionsbetween the right and left hemispheres’ specializations.152.3. THE EFFECTS OF PRIOR EXPOSURE MUSIC SUBSEQUENTCOGNITIVE ACTIVITIESIn the previous section, the effects of concurrentexposure to music on cognitive activities were reviewed,based on the relationship between hemispheric specializationand music. What follows is a discussion as to whether priorexposure to music also affects cognitive activities.Even though many studies have been conducted on theeffects of concurrent exposure to music, few studies havebeen done on prior exposure to music. Probably, Morton,Kershner and Siegel’s (1990) is the only one which dealswith that topic. They examined music’s effects on memoryand attention using a verbal dichotic listening task(monosyllabic digits). They reported that prior exposure tomusic enhanced memory capacity (number of digits reported)and reduced distractibility. They concluded that thisresult supports either (1) the Heilman and Van Den Abell’sstudy (1979) which states that the right hemisphere’sactivation causes the arousal of both hemispheres, or (2)the notion of music induced involvement of both hemispheres(Gates & Bradsaw, 1977).However, there seems to be a serious weakness which mayhave affected the validity of Morton, Kershner and Siegel’sstudy (1990). They used the song, “The Wall” by Pink Floyd,16as the musical stimulus. This stimulus contains twovariables——words and melody. In listening to the song, thewords are processed in the left hemisphere as verbalstimuli, while the melody is processed in the righthemisphere as a nonverbal stimulus. As Phelps and Mazziotta(1985) reported, music with words activates both the leftand the right hemispheres. Thus, in Morton, Kershner andSiegel’s study (1990), the musical stimulus was notsufficiently controlled to infer the conclusion which theymade.Therefore, the purpose of the present study was toexamine whether Morton, Kershner and Siegel’s finding (1990)is still valid in a setting in which musical stimuli arecontrolled. In other words, does music, which activates theright hemisphere, play a role in causing the activation ofboth hemispheres? If so, is the left hemisphere’sactivation induced by the right hemisphere’s mediating rolein cerebral activation comparable with the activationinduced by the left hemisphere alone? Would not the lefthemisphere activation cause the activation of bothhemispheres?In the present study, the right hemisphere and the lefthemisphere will be activated by music respectively, and theeffects will be compared. The hypotheses are as follows;priming of the right hemisphere would induce bothhemispheres’ activation, while priming of the lefthemisphere would induce only the left hemisphere’sactivation.1718CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY3.1. Background Theory The MethodologyIn order to activate each of the right and the lefthemispheres respectively, Tsunoda’s findings (1987) wereapplied in the present study.He examined the difference in cerebral processingmechanism for musical sounds between Japanese and non—Japanese people using the “key-tapping--method “ (Tsunoda,1987). The underlying principle of this method is thedelayed auditory feedback (DAF) effect. People operate a“loop” of vocalizing sounds and hear the sounds which theymake when speaking. Therefore, if there is any delaybetween making and hearing, they “ are observed to havedifficulties maintaining their normal speech performance dueto a delayed auditory feedback of their voice “ (Tsunoda,1987, p. 96), and they start to stammer. Tsunoda has appliedthis effect to his hemispheric study. In the key-tappingmethod, the subjects were required “to tap an electrical keyaccording to a prescribed rhythmic pattern and to listenintensively to the synchronous sound feedback of the key—tapping delivered in short tones to one ear. ... while thesubjects are performing this requirement, a delayed feedbackof the key-tapping is delivered to the opposite ear in a0.15 to 0.4 second delay.” They are still asked to “19concentrate their attention to the synchronous feedback andignore the delayed feedback” (Tsunoda, 1987, P. 96) in orderto create a condition of intense auditory competition.Then, the experimenter starts to increase the loudness ofthe delayed feedback until the subject is no longer able tofollow the synchronous sound feedback because of theinterference of the delayed auditory feedback (that is, aDAF effect occurs). Next, “ ... the channels are reversedand the same investigation is performed. The ear whichrequires a higher intensity of delayed feedback before thedisturbance of accurate tapping is considered dominant overthe opposite ear for the perceptual processing of thatspecific sound” (Tsunoda. 1987, p. 97).A sound stimulus exposed to subjects by this method isso short (such as 0.05 second or 0.07 second) that thesubjects are not able to recognize what the sound stimulusis. This short exposure to stimulus contains threebenefits. First, an experimenter is able to examine thehemispheric dominance for a sound without causing subjects’bias for the sound stimulus. Second, since unlike adichotic listening test a subject does not need to vocalizein reporting what they hear, this method is applicable topeople who have problem with speaking. Third, anexperimenter is able to investigate a hemispheric dominancefor a sound which cannot be vocalized (for example, sound offalling rain).20Using this key-tapping-method, Tsunoda (1987) found thatin the non—Japanese speaker, the nonverbal hemisphere isdominant for any kind of instrumental music. In theJapanese speaker, however, even though the nonverbalhemisphere (the right hemisphere in right handed people) isdominant for music which is played by western musicalinstruments, such as the violin, flute or piano, the verbalhemisphere (the left hemisphere in right-handed people) isdominant for music which is played by Japanese traditionalmusical instrument, such as koto, shakuhachi, or shamisen.Tsunoda attributed this phenomenon to the difference betweenthe Japanese language and other languages. In the Englishlanguage, for example, consonant sounds are more stressedthan vowel sounds in articulation in order for words to beunderstood. On the contrary in the Japanese language,consonants are less stressed than vowels; vowel sounds aremore important than consonant sounds. Therefore, when aJapanese speaker hears a vowel, the vowel is automaticallyswitched to the verbal hemisphere to be processed, even ifthe sound of the vowel is too short (such as 0.05 second or0.07 second) for a person to recognize it is a vowel. Aswell, when he or she hears a consonant, it is automaticallyswitched to the nonverbal hemisphere. The results in non—Japanese speakers are the opposite of those in Japanesespeakers.21This characteristic of the Japanese language causes thedifference in music processing between music played withwestern musical instruments and music played with Japanesetraditional musical instrument in a Japanese speaker. Thesound structure which a Japanese traditional musicalinstrument makes is acoustically very similar to that ofvowels in the Japanese language (Tsunoda, 1985). Therefore,when a Japanese speaker hears the sound made by a Japanesetraditional musical instrument, the sound is automaticallyswitched to the verbal hemisphere for processing. Thosefindings were replicated by other studies (Kikuchi andTsunoda, 1986; Kikuchi, 1986, 1987) using the evokedpotentials method.In the present study, music which was played andrecorded using two different kinds of musical instruments——Western and Japanese——will be used for Japanese speakers toactivate either their left hemisphere or their righthemisphere respectively.3.2. The PopulationThis study was designed to involve people who met bothof the following criteria: (1) people whose first languageis Japanese, and (2) people who are initially right-handed.People who were initially left-handed during their earlychildhood, and forced to switch the hand preference were22excluded. The generalization of the findings from the studywill be applicable to these people.3.3. The SampleThe sample of 40 subjects (16 males and 24 females) wasdrawn from the population. They ranged in age from 18 to 39years. They participated in the experiment with theirconsent (Appendix A).Hearing was tested with a Beltone Model 119 Audiometer,set at 20 db, and only subjects with equivalence in hearingin both ears, 125Hz — 8000Hz range (speech range), wereselected (Appendix B).In order to control for other priming effects, thesubjects had been asked not to listen to music, not to smokeor smell cigarettes, and not to put on or smell perfume, andnot to drink alcohol for 180 minutes prior to theexperiment. This is because hemisphere dominance inJapanese people is easily affected by smelling perfume,smoking, or drinking alcohol. After these have beenexperienced, the left hemisphere deals with the stimuliwhich are supposed to be processed in the right hemisphere;as a result, a right ear (the left hemisphere) advantageoccurs for a while ——— from 90 to 180 minutes (Tsunoda,1979)233.4. Materials and ApparatusThe task was composed of 8 trials of one—digit—numbers,which contained four bursts of two pairs of numbers persecond in one cluster with an eight—second interval betweentrials. The numbers were recorded in the Japanese languageby a female native Japanese speaker (the author) in analoguesound on a cassette tape. The tape was prepared at theBullfrog Recording Company Ltd, Vancouver, British Columbia.The music selected was the first four minutes of “TheFall” from Vivaldi’s “The Four Seasons,” Concerto No. 1 in Emajor, La Primavera (p. 241), f—22, Allegro, for the reasonbeing that “The Fall” contains less staccato than otherpieces in “The Four Seasons.” Staccato would cause extraactivation of the right hemisphere since the sound made bystaccato contains inharmonic sound structures which aresupposedly processed in the right hemisphere. Two versionsof this music, one played with Japanese traditional musicinstruments and the other played with western musicalinstruments were prepared: the koto version, (“The KotoVivaldi”) played by the New Koto Ensemble of Tokyo, and achamber orchestra version played by the Southwest GermanChamber Orchestra. Both versions were played forapproximately four minutes based on the following reasons.The first reason was that four minutes exposure to music was24equivalent to the music stimulus used in the Morton,Kershner and Siegel’s study (1990); even though they playedthe musical stimuli, Pink Floyd’s “The Wall” for fiveminutes instead of four minutes, the instrumental part ofthe music is about four minutes. The second reason was thatmost music which people are familiar with in their dailylives is approximately four minutes long. The third reasonwas that four minutes of exposure to music was assumed to bea maximum length of time that most subjects could tolerate;it would be particularly so in the case of classical music,since it is assumed that classical music is not as preferredas popular music is by people who belong to the population.Both number—memory—task and music were reproduced on aSony CF 5-D500 tape recorder through earphones.3.5. PROCEDUREThe subjects were randomly assigned to one of the twofollowing groups: Japanese musical instrumental versionlistening group (JMV group), or western musical instrumentsversion listening group (WNV group). Each group contained 8males and 12 females.The subjects in both groups first worked on a pretest ofone-digit-number memory tasks using the dichotic listeningmethod, and then listened to the assigned music. Then they25performed a posttest which contained the same memory taskbut in a different order from the pretest. This reorderingwas implemented to avoid causing a practice effect.Both pretest and posttest consisted of three conditions:(1) free report (“orally report as many digits as youremembered hearing during the interval between trials”), (2)directed right ear report (“orally report the digits youhear with the right ear during the intervals betweentrials”), and (3) directed left ear report (“orally reportthe digits you hear with the left ear during the intervalbetween trials”).In the free report, the subjects were allowed to reportthe numbers which they remembered hearing in any order.They were instructed not to attend to the preferred ear, butto attend to both ears and try to catch both numbers fromboth ears. Moreover, they were instructed not to simplyguess the answers, but to report the numbers which they weresure of hearing.In the directed reports, the subjects were asked tocompletely repeat the numeric serial as dictated on thetape. For example, when the tape said “3—6—4—2,” the reportmust be “3—6—4—2.” Oral report, instead of a writtenreport, was implemented to let the subjects engage in a lessloaded verbal activity, and to avoid showing the previous26answers (numbers) which might act as cues to remembering newnumbers. Both in the free report and the directed report,the subjects were instructed not to orally repeat tothemselves, out loud, what they were hearing while thenumbers were being given. This instruction was given inorder to avoid providing verbal feedback which would causeextra left hemisphere activation.The task was administered first in a free—reportcondition followed by one warm—up trial. Then it wasconducted in directed report conditions (Appendix C).Half of the subjects in each group worked on the freereport in the initial earphone condition (the right channelof the earphone in the right ear, and the left channel inthe left ear), in both the pretest and the posttest. Theother half of the subjects worked in the earphone—reversedcondition (the right channel in the left ear and the leftchannel in the right ear) in both of those tests. Thisprocedure was implemented for counterbalance.Half of the subjects in each group worked on thedirected left ear report first and then worked on thedirected right ear report in both the pretest and theposttest. The other half of the subjects worked on thedirected right ear report first and then performed thedirected left ear report in both tests. For both the27directed left and the directed right reports, the samechannel of the earphone was used for the attending ear. Forexample, a subject, who worked on the directed left earreport with the left channel in the left ear and the rightchannel in the right ear, was asked to switch the channel ofthe earphone between ears on the next right ear report——theleft channel in the right ear and the right channel in theleft ear. This procedure was implemented to administer bothdirected reports under the same condition in sound.While listening to the assigned music, the subjects wereallowed to relax and enjoy the music freely. They were alsoinstructed not to listen analytically to the assigned music,and not to do intentional logical and/or verbal activities,such as thinking about a paper, assignments, or homework.This instruction was given in order to control a disturbingeffect which would cause extra activation of the lefthemisphere.The experiment lasted approximately 10 minutes. Thewhole procedure was administered in an individual setting ina quiet room only in the afternoon in order to control time—of-day effect. The whole instruction was given in theirfirst language, Japanese, by a native Japanese speaker(Appendix D).283.6 Data CollectionA subject and the experimenter sat down at a tablefacing each other, and the subject orally reported thedigits which he or she remembered hearing. The digitsreported were recorded on a sheet held by the experimenteron her lap instead of on the table, so as to prevent thesubject from watching the digits as they were written andthus receiving feedback. All subjects were treatedanonymously. Age, gender, hand—preference and the resultfrom an auditory test were also recorded.3.7. Data AnalysisIn the free report condition, the correct digitsreported with each of the left and the right ears werecounted for each of eight trials. And then, the sum of theleft ear report and the right ear report was computed forthe eight trials in each subjects. The sum of the correctdigits reported with the left ear and the right earrespectively throughout the eight trials were computed foreach subject. Then the means and the standard deviationswere calculated in order to conduct an analysis of varianceon the total number of correct digits reported with each earin the free report data.29In the directed report condition, correct digitsreported in the identical order as was on the tape werecounted as the correct answer. The total numbers of correctanswers for each of the left ear report and the right earreport were counted, and the means and the standarddeviations in the sample were calculated. Based on thesedata, an analysis of variance was computed.These procedures were planned based on the results fromthe pilot study (Appendix E).30Chapter 4. RESULTS4.1. Free Report DataMeans and standard deviations in the total numbers ofcorrect digits reported are presented in Table 1. A 2x2ANOVA was computed for the total numbers of correct digitsreported in the free report condition (see Table 2). TheKind of Music (Japanese instrumental version, Westerninstrumental version) was the between—groups variable, whileTest (pretest, posttest) was the within-groups variable thatwas treated as a repeated measure.TablelMeans (Standard Deviations) in Total Numbers of CorrectDigits Reported in the Free Report ConditionKind of MusicJapanese Western TotalType pretest 43.70 43.25 43.475of (6.74) (4.72) (5.747)Test posttest 45.90 45.30 45.600(6.54) (7.24) (6.819)Note. Maximum score = 64.0031Table 22x2 ANOVA for Total Numbers of Correct Digits Reported inthe Free Report ConditionSource SS df MS F PMusic(M) 5.5125 1 5.51250 0.08 0.775Test(T) 90.3125 1 90.31250 5.93 0.020MT 0.1125 1 0.11250 0.01 0.932Error(M) 2516.8750 38 66.23355Error(T) 579.0075 38 15.23882Total 3191.8200 79There was a main effect for the test which revealed asignificantly higher report in the posttest than in thepretest (Figure 2). There was no main effect for Kind ofMusic.Means and standard deviations in the total numbers ofcorrect digits reported with the left ear and the right earare shown in Table 3. A 2x2x2 ANOVA was computed for thetotal numbers of correct digits reported with the left earand with the right ear in the free report condition (Table4). Kind of Music was a between—groups variable, while Test(pretest and posttest) and Ear (the left, the right) were3246.045.444.844.2Meon 43.6Score42.441.841240.640.0Pretest PostestNote: Meamum=64Figure 1. Total numbers of correct digits reportedin the free report task33within—group variables. There was a main effect each forEar and Test, which indicated that the right ear report wassignificantly higher than the left ear report both in thepretest and the posttest (Figure 2). There was no maineffect for Kind of Music.Table 3Means (Standard Deviations) in Total Numbers of CorrectDigits with the Left Ear and the Right Ear in the FreeReport ConditionKind of MusicJapanese Western Total24 . 15(3.07)25.20(3.94) (3.78)24.100(3.795)24.950(3.816)EarLeft earType pretestofTest posttestRgiht earType pretestofTest posttest19.65 19.10 19.375(3.88) (3.34) (3.585)21.20 20.25 20.725(4.34) (4.78) (4.529)24.05(4.49)24.70Note. Maximum score = 32.0034Table 42x2x2 ANOVA for Total numbers of Correct Digits Reportedwith the Left Ear and the Right Ear in the Free ReportConditionSource SS df S F PMusic(M) 2.025 1 2.02500 0.06 0.807Ear(E) 801.025 1 801.02500 46.94 0.000Test(T) 48.400 1 48.40000 6.34 0.016ME 11.025 1 11.02500 0.65 0.427MT 0.000 1 0.00000 0.00 1.000ET 2.500 1 2.50000 0.45 0.509MET 1.600 1 1.60000 0.28 0.507Error(M) 1264.250 38 33.26974Error(E) 648.450 38 17.06447Error(T) 290.100 38 7.63421Error(MET) 213.400 38 5.61579Total 3282.775 15935RI htEarMernScore 210 LeftEar1I17V 170U. Iprete3t posti estNote: Maximum=32Figure 2. Total numbers of correct digits reported withthe left ear and the right ear in the free report task364.2. DIRECTED REPORT DATACorrect digits reported in the correct order (e.g., whenthe tape said “3-6-4-2,” the answer should be “3-6-4-2”)were counted as the correct answer in the directed reportdata treatment. Means and standard deviations are presentedin Table 5. A 2x2x2 ANOVA was computed on the correctanswer reported (Table 6). The independent variables wereKind of Music (Japanese version, Western version), Ear (theleft, the right) and Test (pretest, posttest). The variableKind of Music was a between—groups variable, and thevariables of Ear and Test were within—group variables. Therewas a main effect each for Ear and Test. In addition, therewas an interaction between Test and Ear. There was no maineffect for Kind of Music. These results indicated thatthere was a significant difference between the left earreport and the right ear report in the pretest, however, thedifference was affected by the factor of Test (pretest,posttest); as a result, the main effect for Ear was lost inthe posttest (Figure 3).37Table 5.Means (Standard Deviations) in the Total Numbers of CorrectAnswers Reported with the Left Ear and the Right Ear in theDirected Report ConditionKind of MusicJapanese Western TotalLeft earType pretest 6.90 6.75 6.825of (1.41) (1.59) (1.483)Test posttest 7.50 7.20 7.350(0.69) (1.58) (1.210)EarRight earType pretest 7.75 7.80 7.775of (0.55) (0.52) (0.530)Test posttest 7.65 7.80 7.725(0.81) (0.52) (0.079)Note. Maximum score = 8.0038Table 62x2x2 ANOVA for Total Numbers of Correct Answers Reportedwith the Left Ear and the Right Ear in the Directed ReportConditionMS F PSource SS dfMusic(M) 0.15625 1 0.15625Ear(E) 17.55625 1 17.55625Test(T) 2.25625 1 2.25625ME 1.05625 1 1.05625MT 0.00625 1 0.00625ET 3.30625 1 3.30625MET 0.15625 1 0.15625Error(M) 96.03750 38 2.52370Error(E) 39.63750 38 1.04309Error(T) 14.98750 38 0.39441Error(MET) 19.78750 38 0.520720.0616.835.721.010. 026.350.300.8050. 0000.0220.3210.9010. 0160. 587Total 194.94375 159398.07.7 flight EarLeft EarMean 65Score6.25.95.65.35.0Pretest PostestNote: Maximum = 8.00Figure 3. Total numbers of correct answers reported withthe left ear and the right ear in the directed report task40CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION5.1 FREE REPORT CONDITIONThere was a significant difference between the pretestand the posttest in the total numbers of correct digitsreported in both the JMV group and the WNV group (see Table2). In fact, from a record of individual comments from thesubjects after the experiment, most of them reported thatthe task performance became easier in the posttest. Onlytwo of the subjects (one male in the JMV group and onefemale in the WMV group) reported that it became harder inthe posttest. However, the scores in the posttest in thosetwo subjec-ts were still imp-roved.-Table 4 indicates that the right ear mean recall ofnumbers was significantly higher than the left ear for bothtests (the pretest and the posttest). This resultcorresponded with Kimura’s studies (1961a, b) that the lefthemisphere (the right ear) is dominant for processing verbalinformation in right-handed people. In the present study,this left hemisphere’s dominance for the processing of thetask was not affected by exposure to music, let alone by twokinds of music. In other words, the left hemispheresdominance was maintained even after exposure to music eitherJapanese musical instrumental version or Western musicalinstrumental version.41Concerning the factor Kind of Music, there was nosignificant difference. In both groups, there seems to havebeen a treatment effect by exposure to music——no matterwhich of the two kinds of music was played. However, theseresults may be insufficient to be attributed solely to atreatment effect. The first reason for this insufficiencyis that the present study did not include a control group inwhich subjects received no treatment in order to examinewhether the results are due to a treatment effect or not.Another reason is that the total numbers of correct digitsreported (by both the left ear and the right ear) do notdemonstrate the difference between the score of the left earimprovement and the score of the right ear improvement.Thus, there is a possibility that the laterality of the leftear report and the right ear report, between the pretest andthe posttest, could be different between the JMV group andthe WMV group. To deal with the former issue, a furtherstudy which includes a control group is required.Therefore, the discussion is limited to the latter issue,that is, the laterality in the left ear report (the righthemisphere’s involvement) and the right ear report (the lefthemisphere’s involvement) between the pretest and theposttest in the two groups.In the WNV group, one possible reason for the left earscore improvement in the posttest over the pretest is thatthe right hemisphere’s activation by exposure to music,42which was played with a western musical instrument, inducedactivation in both hemispheres. This interpretationsupported Heilman and Van Den Abell’s finding (1979) thatthe right hemisphere’s activation plays a role in inducingcerebral arousal level. For further investigation, a t—Testwas computed for the number of the correct digits reportedwith the right ear in the very first trial of the posttestin the WNV group and the JMV group. It was assumed that thevery first trial in the posttest was most greatly affectedby the exposure to music, since the first trial in theposttest was conducted immediately after listening to music(approximately 10 seconds after the music). In addition,after the second trial, previous trials might haveinfluenced the subsequent trials (practice effects). Theresult from the t—Test shows that there was no significantdifference in the right ear report between the WMV group andthe JMV group (t = 0.34, > .05). This result indicatesthat the left hemisphere’s activation induced by the righthemisphere’s mediating role in cerebral arousal, wascomparable with the arousal induced by left hemisphere’sactivation alone. Concerning the left ear’s report, theimprovement would be due to the right hemisphere’sactivation by exposure to music played with Western musicalinstruments.In the JMV group, the exposure to music could havefunctioned as a priming effect on the left hemisphere, and43as a result, the right ear’s report would have been improvedin the posttest. In order to examine whether the left earreport in the JMV group was comparable with that of the WMVgroup, a t—Test was computed on the number of correct digitsreported with the left ear in the very first trial of theposttest in the WMV and in the JMV groups. The resultindicates that there was no significant difference betweenthose two groups (t = 0.64, p > .05). This result seems toindicate that the left hemisphere’s activation also played amediating role in inducing cerebral arousal level; as aresult, the right hemisphere’s activation induced by theleft hemisphere was comparable with that induced by theright hemisphere alone. This finding was also supported bya few pomments made by the subjects of the JMV group afterthe experiment. Two subjects in this group individuallystated that “ ... after listening to music, I realized thatit became easier to remember the numbers with my left ear.Those numbers with the left ear still stayed in a group onmy mind even though I did not try to do it ... the numberscame into the ear by a cluster of four numbers, andremained. Concerning the numbers with the right ear, Istill had to try to remember the four numbers one—by—one,even though the right channel sounds clearer than the leftchannel. “ Since the comment was made by only two subjects,such a response cannot be regarded as representative of allof the subjects in the JMV group. However, the comment isstill notable for the following points. First of all, both44of those subjects were females, and the scores were thefirst and the third highest in the whole group (57 and 51out of 64: the mean score in this group, 45.90). Moreover,none of the subjects in the NW? group made the same comment.Another noteworthy point is that this comment seems to implythat the numbers heard with the left ear were processed in acompletely right hemispheric way (that is, holistically).The statement, “... the numbers came into the ear by acluster of four numbers, and remained...” seems to indicatethat the subjects perceived the numbers as a group insteadof remembering the numbers one by one. These points couldimply that there is a gender difference in the lefthemisphere’s mediating role in inducing cerebral activation.In addition, the activated right hemisphere, which isinduced by the left hemisphere’s mediating role in thecerebral arousal level, might work in a “more righthemispheric” way for processing information. Additionalinvestigations are required for the further understanding ofthose points.Another possible reason for the identical improvement ofboth ear reports in both groups is a practice effect. Thesubjects in both groups could have got used to dealing withthe task, and as a result, the score was improved in theposttest. In addition, since the subjects performed theposttest approximately only five minutes after the pretest(in which four minutes were for exposure to music), the45pretest performance itself might have induced an activationof the hemispheres. It is also likely that Type II errorcaused this lack of significant difference between thegroups. The procedure and the materials used in the presentstudy might have prevented a discovery of a hidden realdifference. If the exposure to music was for a longerlength of time, at an increased volume, and through speakersinstead of earphones, a difference in effects of kind ofmusic might have been found.Moreover, it is also possible that the improvement ofboth ears’ scores was due to a combination of those twoeffects—the effect of music and the effect of practice. Infact, ten out of forty subjects (four out of twenty in theJMV group, six out of twenty in the WMV group) stated that“... after listening to music, it became easier to catchnumbers. “ This statement did not indicate why it becameeasier——whether it was due to the exposure to music, or thepractice of the tests--. However, it is still interestingto note that the change was not only objectively evidencedby the score improvement, but also subjectively suggested bythe subjects.Finally, the author would like to discuss the lack ofsignificant difference between the groups from another pointof view that the procedure was appropriate but the premiseitself, which was used as a part of the methodology, is46invalid. In the present study, the Tsunoda finding (1987)was applied for methodological convenience so as to activatethe left hemisphere and the right hemisphere by exposure tomusic respectively. In other words, the present study wasconducted based on the notion that the Tsunoda’s finding wasvalid, and thus it was simply presumed that the lefthemisphere or the right hemisphere in Japanese speakerswould be independently activated by music played with eitherthe Japanese musical instruments or western musicalinstruments. Thus it was presumed that subsequenthemispheric arousal would be induced differently between theJMV group and the WHy group. In the present study, thisissue of the difference in the perception of the two kindsof music was not the purpose of the investigation, rather itwas applied to a part of the methodology for convenience.Therefore, it is beyond the scope of the present study toargue about the validity of the issue--whether the two kindsof music were actually processed in the differenthemispheres or not. However, the result that there was nomain effect for kind of music indicates a possibility thatthe Tsunoda’s finding itself is doubtful--there might not beany difference in perception of the Japanese musicalinstrumental version and the Western musical instrumentalversion.475.2. DIRECTED REPORT CONDITIONThe significant difference between the right ear reportand the left ear report in the pretest indicates the lefthemisphere’s dominance for the task. This result concurswith Kimura’s studies (l961a, b). The difference betweenthe ears in the pretest, however, lost its magnitude in theposttest. Table 6 and Figure 3 show that in the posttestthe left ear report was improved, while the right ear reportremained unchanged. This interaction between test and earwas statistically significant.What does this interaction mean? Why was only the leftear report improved, while the right ear report was not?Why did this interaction occur both in the JMV group and theWNV group in the same way——there was no main effect forkinds of music--?Concerning the left ear report improvement in the WNVgroup, the right hemisphere could have been activated byexposure to music played with western musical instruments,and as a result, the subsequent report might have beenimproved. While in the JMV group, the activated lefthemisphere (by exposure to music played with Japanesetraditional musical instruments) might have induced theother hemisphere’s arousal level, as in the case of the freereport condition as discussed. However, it would also be48possible that a practice effect caused this improvement inboth groups. As discussed in the case of the free reportcondition, since the present study did not include a controlgroup it is impossible to simply attribute the left ear’simprovement in both the groups to the effect of music.Again, to investigate this issue, a further study whichincludes a control group is required. Another possibilityof inducing the left ear improvement is that a combinationof these two factors——the effects of music and practice——would have caused this result.In the case of the right ear report, there was nosignificant difference between the pretest and the posttestin both groups. The most likely cause for this lack ofdifference is a ceiling effect. The maximum score in thedirected test was 8.00. In the pretest of the directed-leftear report, 19 out of 40 subjects scored 8.00. and the meanfor this group was 6.825. In the posttest, 27 out of 40subjects attained 8.00, and the mean for this was 7.350.While in the directed-right ear report 33 out of 40 subjectsobtained 8.00 in both tests, and the mean score for this was7.775 and 7.728 for the pretest and the posttestrespectively. In the posttest, these results indicate thatthe task was too easy for the subjects; the maximum scoreobtained does not reflect the maximum of the subjectsability. If the task was more difficult than that of thepresent study, the score in the pretest and the posttest may49well differ; the score in the pretest may be lower than thatof the present study, and the score in the posttest may wellbe higher than that in the pretest. In addition, if itoccurred, there may not be interaction between Ear and Test;the left ear report and the right ear report may have beenimproved in a parallel fashion.Regarding the result that there was no significantdifference between the two kinds of music, one possiblereason is a Type II error, as pointed out in the case of thefree report results. Music exposure under differentconditions might cause a difference for the effects of kindof music.However, as has been argued in the case of the freereport condition, it is also possible that the differentmusic did not activate the different hemispheres. This wouldbe contradictory to the assumption that kind of musicaffects hemispheric arousal. And inevitably, the subsequentmemory task was affected in an identical manner in both theJNV and the WMV groups.In summary, the results from the free report task wouldbe attributed to the following: the right and the lefthemispheres’ mediating roles in inducing cerebral activationby each kind of music, the practice effect, or a combinationof those two. In the directed report task, the results50would be due to the left and the right hemisphere’smediating role in inducing cerebral activation, practiceeffect, or a combination of all of those causes. In boththe free and the directed report tasks, there could havebeen a Type II error. In addition, it is also possible thatthe two kinds of music were processed in an identical mannerin both hemispheres. This would contradict Tsunoda’sfinding (1987), and thus result in the lack of significantdifference between the JMV group and the WMV group.51CHAPTER 6. IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY AND SUGGESTIONS6.1 IMPLICATIONSUp to the previous chapter, the discussion involved thefindings from the present study. What follows is adiscussion of these findings in terms of practical settings.In chapter II (page 9), the two reasons for focusing on therelationship between cognitive activities and music from aneducational point of view in this study were stated. Thesewere: (1) the necessity of an investigation of the effectsof music on children’s cognitive activities in theireveryday lives, and (2) the possibility of therapeuticimplication of music.Concerning those two issues, the findings from thepresent study indicate the following.Regarding the first issue, the findings imply twopossibilities. First of all, they indicate the necessity ofconsideration of the priming effect of music in devising acurriculum at school. When teachers make a schedule, theymight have to take into account the order of the subjects ofwhat they are going to teach. For example, they would beable to apply the priming effects induced by a prior Musicclass on a subsequent Math class in order for the studentsto work on the task more efficiently. Since prior exposure52to music activates the right hemisphere and inevitablyinduces the other hemisphere’s arousal, time schedules couldpositively affect the students’ performances. Moreover, itcould be more effective to listen to music than to work onanother cognitive activity (such as reading a book ofEnglish literature simply in order to activate the lefthemisphere) before performing an anxiety—producing cognitiveactivity. This is because a certain kind of music causesmental relaxation as we experience it in daily life as wellas hemispheric activation. Listening to music might bringtwo benefits for a student, namely to release anxietyand to perform more effectively on the subsequentcognitive task.As well, the findings from the study have implicationsfor the second issue, music in therapeutic situations.Morton, Kershner, and Siegel (1990) have discussed that “...if information processing may be enhanced by music—inducedarousal, then there is clearly a potential strategic rolefor music in education and therapeutic settings. The valueof a music—induced memory capacity ... increase is obvious.Children with short-term memory difficulties, whether due tohypoarousal, anxiety, or personality, may benefit fromexposure to music prior to certain tasks that require theshort—term memory process. The key for facilitative music—induced effects may be prior exposure rather than concurrentexposure to music” (p. 204-205). The left hemisphere’s53arousal induced by the right hemisphere’s activation byexposure to music might help learning disabled people toenhance their left hemispheric abilities. Since music alsoeasily catches the attention of mentally handicapped people(Sternhight, Deutsch & Seigel, 1967) and they seem to enjoyexposure to music, it would become an efficient treatment intherapy.However, these implications would not be regarded aspractically applicable in the actual clinical setting untilfurther investigations have been done on both the internaland external validities and the duration of the effects ofthe present study.6.2. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIESThere are a few suggestions for future studiesconcerning internal and external validities, and theduration of the effects in the present study.In order for the internal validity of the study tobecome solid, a further study will be required: a studywhich includes a control group, and in which a directed—report task is more difficult than in the present study soas to avoid the ceiling effect. Also, a study is neededusing the Solomon four—group design in order to control thepossibility of the effects of a pretest’s influence on the54results. In addition, studies which are conducted ondifferent samples are also needed in order to strengthen theexternal validity. Besides this, to examine the possibilityof a Type II error in the present study, additionalinvestigations under different conditions are necessary,such as, a study in which musical exposure is longer,louder, or in which a subject listens to music reproduced byother media, such as speakers in a room instead ofearphones. Further studies which examine the duration ofthe effects and the external validity of the duration arealso required; namely, for how long would the cerebralactivation which is induced by the left or the righthemisphere’s mediating rolelas-t? Would those effects lastfor the same duration? Would there be any differences inthe duration depending on age, gender, educationalbackground, kinds of music or the individual’s musicalsophistication?These future basic studies which examine internal andexternal validities and duration of the effects are crucial,since such inquiries are requisite in order to establish atheory. On the other hand, development of basic researchindirectly stimulates applied and evaluative research, andas a result, enhances the practical applicability of musiclistening.55Finally, the author would like to mention the issue ofthe application of another’s finding to an important part ofthe methodology as a premise and its distractibility ininterpreting the data. In the present study, one ofTsunoda’s findings was applied for convenience in order toactivate the left hemisphere and the right hemisphererespectively by exposure to different kinds of music. Themethodology was based on the assumption that his finding wasvalid and applicable to the present study. Even though thefindings were confirmed by some other studies (such asKikuchi and Tsunoda, 1986; Kikuchi, 1986, 1987), it was notnecessarily replicated in the sample of the present study.This uncertainty distracted the interpreting of the resultthat there was no significant difference between the twokinds of music, since the data obtained from the presentstudy were insufficient to argue the internal and theexternal validities of Tsunoda’s finding. For futureresearch, the researcher suggests that so as to activateeach hemisphere respectively, (1) a well confirmed and moretheorized principle of hemispheric activation be applied, or(2) a preliminary study be conducted prior to the maininvestigation, which ensures the replicability of the theoryon a drawn sample.Music is associated to other mood—optimizers, such asdrugs and alcohol and has been influencing social mini—movements and subculture (Konecni, 1982). 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Positron emissiontomography: Human brain function and biochemistry.Science, a, 799—809.Sackheim, H.A., Gur, R.C., & Saucy, M.C. (1978). Emotionsare expressed more intensely on the left side of theface. Science, 202, 434—436.Stainback, S., Stainback, W.C., & Hallohan, D.P. (1973).Effects of background music on reading. ExceptionalChildren, Q, 109-110.Sternlight, M., Deutsch, M.R., & Siegel, L. (1967).Influence of music stimulation upon the functioning ofinstitutionalized retardates. Psychiatric QuarterlySupp., il, 323—329.Taniguchi, A., & Ohara, K. (1991). Shinkeisho no ongakuryoho. Morita Ryoho Gakkai Zasshi, 2(2), 149-155.Tsunoda, T. (1979). Difference in the mechanism of emotionin Japanese and Westerner. Psychotherapy andPsychosomatics, 31(1—4), 367—372.Tsunoda, T. (1985). The Japaaese Brain. Tokyo:Taishukan shotenTsunoda, T. (1987). The difference in the cerebralprocessing mechanism for musical sounds between Japaneseand non—Japanese and its relation to mother tongue.Contemporary Music Review, 1, 95-117.Tucker, M.D. (1981). Lateral brain function, emotion, andconceptualization. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 19—46.Wilson, C.V. (1976). The use of rock music as a reward inbehavior therapy with children. Journal of MusicTherapy, 13(1), 39—48.Wolfe, D.E. (1983). Effects of music loudness on taskperformance and self—report of college—aged students.Journal of Research in Music Education, , 191-201.Yokota, H. (1992). The effects of two stages of stressmanagement process on musical preferences in extrovertedand introverted students. Educational Insights (inpress).61Appendix AConsent sheet(Original in Japanese)62Visual and Performing Ails in EducationTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAFaculty of Education, 2125 Main MallVancouver, BC Canada V6T 1 Z4Phone: (604) 822-5367, (604) 822-5281Fax: (604) 822-6501MASTER OF ARTS ThESISMUSIC IN THE BRAIN: “ThE EFFECTS OF PRIOR EXPOSURETO MUSIC ON A SUBSEQUENT MEMORY TASK”Experimenter: Hiroko Yokota Advisor: Dr. Allen E. ClingmanM.A. candidate Co-ordinatorMusic Education Music EducationUniversity of British Columbia University of British ColumbiaTel. 822-5278 Tel. 822-5281Our daily life is surrounded by music; we listen to music while walking, eating, or studying.How does the brain process music? How are such concurrent activities influenced bymusic? This study is designed to find an answer to these questions.In this experiment, you will be assigned randomly to listen to music, or no music by theexperimenter. After you have listened to the assigned music (or no music), you will heartwo one-digit numbers simultaneously from the right and the left ears (e.g., “2” through theright ear, and “6” through the left ear). What I would like you to do is to report as manynumbers as possible, based on the numbers that you have heard. The experiment will takeapproximately 15 minutes. (More detailed instructions will be given right before you beginto work on the actual task.) You will experience no discomfort.You are allowed to ask any questions about the experimental procedure. Theexperimenter will answer any inquiries concerning the procedures to be followed.This is neither an IQ test nor a personality inventory. The results will be kept confidential.Your name will not appear anywhere in the study. Your performances in this experimentwill not be used in other studies.You also have the right to refuse to participate in this experiment, and to withdraw yourparticipation. Such refusal or withdrawal will not jeopardize further treatment of you.If you agree to participate in the experiment under the above-mentioned conditions, pleasegive your signature below:I acknowledge receipt of a copy of this form and understand the purpose and procedureof this experiment. And I agree to participate in the experiment under the above-mentioned conditions.(signature by the subject)Thank you very much for your cooperation.63Appendix BAuditory test sheetIZ;•Li,.-1 C, n.C)HEACUNaTHflESIOLDLEVEL(DECIBELS)•:.lbLUbJ—.0000000b00002i!]I-a I3m C M z‘4 a ‘-4•.0o . C 0•065Appendix CNumber memorizing task66<WARN-UP TRIAL>LEFT EAR/RIGHT EAR8 53 76 91 2<PRETEST>(1) FREE REPORT TASK (2) DIRECTED REPORT TASKLEFT / RIGHT LEFT / RIGHT LEFT /RIGHT3 8 9 5 5 94 2 6 1 1 61 9 4 3 3 45 6 0 8 8 01 4 3 8 8 38 0 9 1 1 96 2 7 0 0 73 7 4 5 5 41 7 6 2 2 63 4 7 0 0 75 6 9 1 1 90 8 3 5 5 35 9 3 2 2 31 0 6 7 7 66 3 9 5 5 97 8 0 1 1 05 7 1 6 6 18 3 8 0 0 89 1 5 9 9 5o 2 3 7 7 3o 2 2 0 0 25 4 3 7 7 38 9 9 1 1 91 7 6 5 5 68 1 4 0 0 46 5 6 5 5 69 4 1 7 7 12 3 8 9 9 87 6 4 5 5 40 9 3 2 2 32 1 6 7 7 61 4 8 0 0 8These numbers are arbitrarily drawn from the random—number—table.67<POSTTEST>(1) FREE REPORT TASK (2) DIRECTED REPORT TASKLEFT/RIGHT LEFT/RIGHT LEFT/RIGHT7 6 3 8 8 3o 9 1 1 92 1 7 0 0 78 4 4 5 5 41 7 6 2 2 63 4 7 0 0 75 6 9 1 1 9o 8 3 5 5 33 8 2 0 0 24 2 3 7 7 31 9 9 1 1 95 6 6 5 5 68 1 1 6 6 16 5 8 0 0 89 4 5 9 9 52 3 3 7 7 35 7 4 0 0 48 3 6 5 5 69 1 1 7 7 1o 2 8 9 9 85 9 4 5 5 41 0 3 2 2 36 3 6 7 7 67 8 8 0 0 8o 2 9 5 5 95 4 6 1 1 68 9 4 3 3 41 7 0 8 8 01 4 3 2 2 38 0 6 7 7 66 2 0 5 5 03 7 9 1 1 9These were arbitrarily reordered series of the pretest,using the random—number—table.68Appendix DInstruction for the task69INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TASK(given in Japanese)You will be asked to perform a one-digit-numbermemorizing task.Look at the instruction figures ( see the attachedfigure).You will hear four pairs of two different one-digit-numbers simultaneously. That means you will hear eight one—digit-numbers in total. After those numbers, there will bean eight—second pause. What you are supposed to do is,remember as many numbers as possible, and then report thenumbers which you have remembered hearing during the pause.You are allowed to report the numbers in any order.Do you understand?There are three points which you need to keep in mind.First, you need to attend to both ears. Do not try topick up numbers with the preferred ear, but focus equally onboth sides and remember as many numbers as possible, please.Second, you have to report only those numbers which youare sure of hearing. Please do not guess.Third, you must not repeat the numbers out loud toyourself.I will let you work on a warm—up trial.<WARN-UP TRIAL>Please get ready to start when you have heard “Let usbegin,” in a female’s voice at the very beginning of thetape.After a few seconds, you will hear four pairs of number.Please try to remember as many numbers as possible with bothears, and report orally what you have heard.Do you have any questions?Put on the earphones, please.performance on the warm—up trial70Did you get an idea what the task is like?<FREE REPORT: PRETEST>Let us move to the main task.The main task contains eight trials.You will hear an instruction, “Let us begin.” Then, youwill hear four pairs of one—digit—numbers on the firsttrial. After each trial, there is an eight—second—pause inorder for you to report the numbers which you have heard.There will be no instruction between trials, therefore, beprepared to work on the next trial after you have reportedthe numbers.After the eight trials, there will be the instruction,“Take off the earphones, please. “ Then you need to followthe instruction.Do you have any questions?performance of the free report task forapproximately three minutes<DIRECTED REPORT 1: PRETEST>Let us move to the next task.As the previous task, in this next task, you will hearfour pairs of two different one—digit—numbers simultaneouslyby a second interval in the next task. This time, however,I would like you to focus on the left (or the right) earonly, and report the numbers which you have heard with theear. You need to repeat the complete series as you haveheard. For example, if the tape says “1—2—3—4,” then youhave to report “1—2—3—4.” You are not allowed toarbitrarily reorder the series, such as “2—1—4—3.”You must not repeat the numbers to yourself out loud.The task contains eight trials in total. After theeight trials, you will hear the instruction, “Take off theearphones.” Please follow the instruction, when you hearit.Do you have any questions?performance of the directed report task: pretestwith the left(right) ear71<DIRECTED REPORT 2: PRETEST>Please reverse the earphones.In the next task, you will be asked to perform the sametask as the previous one. This time, however, you need tofocus on the other ear, the right (left) ear. And again,you need to repeat the numbers in the exact same order asyou have heard.The task contains eight trials.performance of the directed report task: pretestwith the right (left) ear<MUSIC LISTENING>Thank you very much.You are going to have a four—minute break now. You willbe listening to music during the break. The music is not apart of the number—memorizing task, but simply for a break.Therefore, you can relax yourself, and enjoy it. Please donot think about something difficult or complex, such as yourpaper or homework. Just put yourself at ease, but becareful not to fall asleep.After the break, you will perform the one-digit-numbermemorizing task in the same way as you have worked before.The first task is, again, to report the numbers which youhave heard with both ears. You are allowed to report thenumbers in any order.After the music has stopped, you will hear four pairs oftwo different one—digit numbers in the same way as theprevious tasks in this experiment. Remember as many numberswith both of your ears as possible and report the numbersduring the intervals between trials.Please do not listen to the preferred ear only but payattention on both sides. Report the numbers which you aresure of hearing, and do not guess. You are not allowed torepeat the numbers to yourself out loud.There will be no instruction after the music.Therefore, get prepared to perform the task immediatelyafter the music has stopped.Do you have any questions?Reverse the earphones and put them on, please.72music listeningfree report task: posttest<DIRECTED REPORT 1: POSTTEST>Let us work on the next task.This time, you will be asked to attend with the right(left) ear and report the numbers in exactly the same orderas you have heard.Do you have any questions?performance of directed report: posttest with theright (left) ear<DIRECTED REPORT 2: POSTTEST>Please reverse the earphone.Now move to the next task.This time, you need to attend with the left (right) ear,and report the numbers you have heard with the ear.performance of directed report: posttest with theleft (right) earThank you very much for your co—operation.r4100x74Appendix EA summary of the pilot study75A SUMMARY OF THE PILOT STUDYPURPOSE OF THE STUDYTo check the adequacy of the methodology beforeconducting the main investigation.SUBJECTSSubjects were 7 Japanese university students (2 malesand 5 females), with a mean age of 21.13 years. They wereright-handed in writing, throwing a ball, using chopsticks,and scissors. None of them had hearing problems.They had been asked not to listen to music prior to theexperiment on the assigned day.PROCEDUREThe subjects were randomly assigned to the two followinggroups: Japanese musical instruments version listening group(JMV) group, Western musical instruments version listeninggroup (WMV group). The subjects in all groups first workedon a pretest on a one—digit—number memory task in a dichoticlistening method. They then listened to the assigned music,and performed a posttest on the same memory task.The music selected was the first three and half minutesof Vivaldi’s “The Four Seasons,” Concerto No.1 in E major,76La primavera (p. 241). F - 22, Allegro. For the JMV group,the koto version of this piece was played, and for the WMVgroup, a chamber orchestra version was played.The task was composed of eight trials of one-digit-numbers, which contain four burst of two pairs of numbersper second in one cluster with an eight—second intervalbetween trials.Both the pretest and the posttest consisted of threeconditions: (a) free report (“orally report as many numbersas you remembered hearing, during the interval between thetrials”), (b) directed right ear report (“orally report thedigits you hear with the right ear during the intervalbetween trials”), and (c) directed left ear report (“orallyreport the digits you hear with the left ear during theinterval between trials”). The free report was conducted tolet the ears compete with each other in a number memory taskin order to determine which ear is dominant over the other.The directed reports were conducted to check selectiveattention occurring in each ear. This would help to checkother priming effects on both ears.The task was administered first in a free reportcondition followed by one warm-up trial. Then it wasadministered in directed report condition. In the pretestand the posttest, the same trials were used in an earphone—reversed condition. Half of the subjects worked on the77pretest in the initial condition (the right channel of theearphone in the right ear, and the left channel in the leftear), and the other half of the subjects worked in anearphone—reversed condition (the right ear channel in theleft ear, and the left channel in the right ear). Inposttest, the conditions were reversed. These procedureswere implemented to offset any difference in sound betweenchannels, and to avoid causing a practice effect. Tocounterbalance the directed report task, one half of thesubjects in each group were instructed to attend to theright ear and to report the right ear numbers, and the otherhalf were instructed to attend to the left ear and to reportthe left ear numbers. The selective listening order wasreversed in each group in the pretest and the posttest.The numbers were recorded in the Japanese language usinga female voice in analogue sound. The tape was prepared atthe Media Service at the University of British Columbia,using a Sony Stereo Cassette Deck TC—FX21O, Technics SL—B202, and Realistic Stereo Mixing Console.The dichotic tape was played on a Sony CF5-D500 taperecorder through earphones. The whole procedure wasadministered in an individual setting in a quiet room on aweekday.78RESULTS<FREE REPORT CONDITION>The mean number of correct digits reported and thestandard deviation were calculated for the pretest and theposttest (table 1), and the Laterality Index was computed(table 2).Table 1Mean Number of Correct Digits Reported on the DichoticListening Task for the Free Report ConditionTreatmentJMV group(n = 3)pretest (•)posttest ()WNV group(n = 4)pretest ()posttest ()left earright ear15.63 (1.53)19.33 (2.31)22.33 (2.89)22.00 (2.64)21.75 (2.75)21.50 (1.73)26.25 (3.86)25.00 (4.97)Note. Maximum score = 3279Table 2Mean and Standard Deviation for the Laterality Index for theFree Report for JMV group and WMV groupTreatmentJMV group WMV group(n = 3) (ii = 4)pretest N 15.50 9.25s 10.26 3.77posttest N 6.33 6.75S 10.60 8.66Note. The laterality Index: A score or ear advantage,computed as f(Rc- Lc) / (Rc + Lc)] x 100. In this index,Rc = right ear correct report, Lc = let ear correct report.Using this index, a positive number indicates a right earadvantage (REA) while a negative number indicates a left earadvantage (LEA).<DIRECTED REPORT CONDITION>The mean number of correct digits and the standarddeviation were calculated for the pretest and the posttest(Table 3).80Table 3Mean Number of Correct Digits Reported on the DichoticListening Task for the Directed ReportTreatmentJMV group WMV group(n = 3) (ii = 4)pretest () pretest ()posttest () posttest ()left ear 29.33 (4.62) 32.00 (0.00)31.67 (0.58) 32.00 (0.00)right ear 31.00 (1.00) 32.00 (0.00)32.00 (0.00) 32.00 (0.00)Note. Maximum score = 32.00In the free report task, a notable difference in meansbetween the JMV group and the WNV group on the pretest(Table 2) implies a possibility that other uncontrolledvariables may have caused the priming effects. Concerningthe results from the directed report task, selective81attention successfully occurred in the subjects in the WMVgroup, but not in the JMV group. The initial purpose ofadministration of the directed report was to check otherpriming effects. However, since a successful selectiveattention does not necessarily reflect the priming effects,the task for this purpose would be inappropriate.Based on these results, the following additionalprocedures were implemented in the main investigation.(1) In order to control other priming effects, thesubjects will be instructed to refrain from wearing orsmelling perfume, smoking cigarettes, or drinking alcohol,since hemisphere dominance in Japanese people is easilyaffected by such substances (Tsunoda, 1979).(2) The subjects will be tested on their hearing abilitywith an audiometer prior to the experiment, and only thesubjects with equivalent hearing in both ears will beselected.(3) A more difficult directed task than that used inthis pilot study will be administered in order to examinethe unattended ear’s distractibility by the attended ear.(4) The same channel will be used in the pretest and theposttest in order to administer the tasks under the samecondition of hearing in the pretest and the posttest forboth the free report and the directed report task.82(5) In order to avoid causing a practice effect in theposttest, the same cluster of numbers will be provided as inthe pretest, but in a different order.(6) The tape will be prepared at a recording studio byprofessional engineers so as to ensure balance in soundlevel between channels and clearity of sound.REFERENCESTsunoda, T (1979). Difference in the mechanism of emotionin Japanese and Westerner. Psychotherapy andPsychosomatic, 31 (1—4), 367—372.

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