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Monotonality and chromatic dualism in Richard Strauss’s Salome Boulay, Jean-Michel 1992

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M O N O T O N A L I T Y A N D C H R O M A T I C D U A L I S M IN R I C H A R D STRAUSS 'S SALOME by J E A N - M I C H E L B O U L A Y M.A. , Eastman School of Music ofThe University of Rochester, 1984 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F P H I L O S O P H Y in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES (School of Music) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E U P C I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A October 1992 © Jean-Michel Boulay, 1992 1 4 ^ 1 National Library of Canada Acquisitions and Bibliograpinic Services Branch 395 Wellington Street Ottawa, Ontario K1A0N4 Bibliothèque nationale du Canada Direction des acquisitions et des services bibliographiques 395, rue Wellington Ottawa (Ontario) K 1 A 0 N 4 Vour (lté Votre référence Our file Notre référence The author has granted an irrevocable non-exclusive licence allowing the National Library of Canada to reproduce, loan, distribute or sell copies of his/her thesis by any means and in any form or format, making this thesis available to interested persons. L'auteur a accordé une licence irrévocable et non exclusive permettant à la Bibliothèque nationale du Canada de reproduire, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des copies de sa thèse de quelque manière et sous quelque forme que ce soit pour mettre des exemplaires de cette thèse à la disposition des personnes intéressées. The author retains ownership of the copyright In his/her thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without his/her permission. L'auteur conserve la propriété du droit d'auteur qui protège sa thèse. Ni la thèse ni des extraits substantiels de celle-ci ne doivent être imprimés ou autrement reproduits sans son autorisation. I S B N 0 - 3 1 5 - 7 9 7 7 5 - 4 C a n a d a In p resen t ing this thesis in partial fu l f i lment of the r e q u i r e m e n t s for an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at the Univers i ty of Brit ish C o l u m b i a , 1 agree that t h e Library shal l m a k e it f reely available for re fe rence and study. 1 further agree that p e r m i s s i o n fo r ex tens ive c o p y i n g of this thesis for scholar ly p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d by the h e a d of m y depa r tmen t or by his o r her representa t ives , it is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r pub l i ca t i on of this thesis for f inancial gain shall no t be a l l o w e d w i thou t my wr i t ten pe rm iss i on . D e p a r t m e n t of M u s i c The Univers i ty of Brit ish C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a Date i d D E - 6 (2/88) Abstract This study of Richard Strauss's Salome, one of the most important works of the turn of the century, concentrates on the principles of its dramatic and tonal organization and on the structural and aesthetic problems posed by the coexistence in it of different types of music. In Chapter 1, the three different types of music used in Salome are identified. Then, the technique of chromatic surrounding, which I see as the main principle underlying the tonal organization of the opera, is presented. Chapter 2 looks at the formal and tonal structures of the opera. Its first part is devoted to certain structural aspects of Oscar Wilde's play and Strauss's adaptation of it. The second part presents a complete analysis of the opera's tonal organization. This analysis attempts to show the extreme importance of chromatic surrounding for the large-scale structure of this work. Chapters consists of a detailed analysis of the scene between Salome and Jochanaan from the first part of the opera. This scene is one of the best examples of the first type of chromatic music introduced in Chapter 1. The analyses rely heavily on linear models of tonality, with the adjustments made necessary by the extreme chromaticism of this work. Many analyses also attempt to explain complex structures as transformations of more standard ones. Chapter 4 will look more closely at the relationship between octatonic structures and chromatic harmony in Salome. The discussion concentrates on two major aspects of late-tonal octatonicism: the use of alternative bass tones for the diminished seventh chord and the development of these sonorities into hexachordal and pentachordal combination chords. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the beginning of the second part of the opera, from Herod's entrance to the end of the Quintet of the Jews. This passage is a prime example of the second type of chromatic music presented in Chapter 1. Finally, Chapter 6 addresses the problem of unity created by the coexistence of different types of music in the same work. It shows the importance of chromatic surrounding in the unifying process. Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iv List of Figures vi List of Examples vii Acknowledgements x Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Chapter 2: Formal and Tonal Structure 12 2.1 Textual motives 14 2.2 Salome as a two-part structure 23 2.3 Three-part structures in Salome 29 2.4 Tonal Structure 36 2.4.1 A tonal plan for Salome 39 Chapter 3: The Salome-Jochanaan Scene 55 3.1 General form 55 3.2 From the appearance of Jochanaan to the beginning of the aria 58 3.3 The first part of the aria 61 3.4 The first transition 67 3.4.1 Octatonicism 68 3.4.2 Decorative vs. organic octatonicism 70 3.4.3 Salome's outburst 73 3.5 The second part of the aria 76 3.6 The third part of the aria 81 3.7 The coda 83 3.8 General melodic structure of the aria 85 Chapter 4: Octatonicism and Chromatic Harmony 88 4.1 The circle of fifths 88 4.2 (0 3 6 9) division of the octave 91 4.3 Alternative bass tones for the diminished seventh chord 96 4.5 Conclusions 102 Chapter 5: Herod's Entrance and the Quintet of the Jews 104 5.1 The introduction to the fh-st scene 106 5.2 Fourth scene: from the beginning to r.n. 172 111 5.3 Herod's three-part aria 119 5.4 The Quintet of the Jews 126 5.5 Large-scale structure 135 5.6 Conclusions 140 Chapter 6: The Problem of Unity 142 Bibliography 152 Appendix 1: Oscar Wilde, Salome (1891) 156 Appendix 2: Richard Strauss, Salome (1905) 194 List of Figures 2.1 Salome as a two-part form 27 2.2 Salome, r.n. 91-1229, formal scheme 29 2.3 Salome, r.n. 81-8910 formal scheme 30 2.4 5a/ome, r.n. 122l0-i409, formal scheme 31 2.5 5fl/ome, r.n. 20^-59, formal scheme 32 2.6 Salome, r.n. 155-247^, formal scheme 33 2.7 Salome, r.n. 2479-end, formal scheme 34 4.1 Generation of a chromatic progression through the circle of fifths 89 6.1 Coordination between types of chromatic music and surrounding 148 List of Examples 1.1 Salome's main motive 9 1.2 Salome, r.n. 3605-36l6 10 2.1 Salome, beginning-r.n. 59, tonal structure 41 2.2 Salome, r.n. 59-140^, tonal structure 43 2.3 Salome, r.n. 141-163'^, tonal structure 46 2.4 Salome, r.n. 164-210, tonal structure 47 2.5 Salome, r.n. 210-247^, tonal structure 49 2.6 Salome, Dance-r.n. 279, tonal structure 51 2.7 Salome, r.n. 279-314, tonal structure 52 2.8 Salome, r.n. 315-342^, tonal structure 53 2.9 Salome, r.n. 342'7-end, tonal structure 54 3.1 Chromatic surrounding in Salome's aria 58 3.2 Salome, r.n. 66-89, harmonic analysis 60 3.3 Salome, r.n. 91-95, reduction and analysis 62 3.4 Salome, r.n. 91-95, two-stage model 64 3.5 Salome, r.n.91-95, alternate interpretation 65 3.6 Salome, r.n.95-96, harmonic reduction 66 3.7 Olivier Messiaen, Vingt regards sur l'Enfant-Jésus, X V : Le Baiser de l'Enfant-Jésus 72 3.8 Olivier Messiaen, Vingt regards sur l'Enfant-Jésus, X V , hypothetical undecorated version 73 3.9 Salome, r.n. 98-102, generative model 74 3.10 Salome, r.n. 102-109, reduction and analysis 78 3.11 Salome, r.n. 102-108, hypothetical model 79 3.12 Salome, r.n. 109-110, harmonic reduction 80 3.13 Salome, r.n. 110-113, harmonic reduction 80 3.14 Salome, r.n. 113-122, reduction and analysis 81 3.15 Salome, r.n. 117^-119, reduction and analysis 82 3.16 Salome, r.n. 113-122, further analytical reduction 83 3.17 Salome, r.n. 123-140, harmonic analysis 84 3.18 Salome, r.n. 91-122, reduction and analysis 86 4.1 Chromatic cycle of fifths, C major 91 4.2 Brahms, "Immer leiser wird mein Schlummer", Op. 105/2, mm. 40-53, analytical reduction 92 4.3 Generation of a complex octatonic progression 94 4.4 Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, HI, " M i l d und leise" 95 4.5 Normal reductions of dominant ninth chords 97 4.6 Schoenberg, "Jane Grey", Op. 12/1, mm. 31-36 98 4.7 Schoenberg, "Jane Grey", Op. 12/1, mm. 32-36, harmonic analysis 99 4.8 "Double dominants" 99 4.9 Pentachordal combination chords 100 4.10 Salome, r.n. 76-774, harmonic reduction 101 5.1 Salome, r.n. 151^-1523 107 5.2 Salome, tetrachord z 108 5.3 Salome, r.n. 1529-15213, voice-leading 109 5.4 Salome, r.n. 153 110 5.5 Salome, r.n. 154 I l l 5.6 Salome, r.n. 151-158, harmonic analysis 113 5.1 Salome, r.n. 156^ 114 5.8 Salome, r.n. 154^-160, harmonic structure 115 5.9 Salome, r.n. 160-164, harmonic reduction and large-scale voice leading 117 5.10 Salome, r.n. 164-172, harmonic analysis 119 5.11 Salome, r.n. 1724-175, reduction and analysis 120 5.12 Salome, r.n. 175-176, reduction and analysis 121 5.13 Salome, r.n. 1763-1794, reduction and analysis 122 5.14 Salome, r.n. 1724-1794 outer voices 123 5.15 Salome, r.n. 179^-183, reduction and analysis 124 5.16 Salome, r.n. 183^-188, reduction and analysis 125 5.17 Salome, r.n. 188-1904, reduction and analysis 128 5.18 Salome, r.n. 190^-192, reduction and analysis 130 5.19 Salome, r.n. 188-1923, reduction and analysis 131 5.20 Salome, r.n. 1923-195, reduction and analysis 132 5.21 Salome, r.n. 195^-197, reduction and analysis 133 5.22 Salome, r.n. 197-202, harmonic reduction 134 5.23 Salome, r.n. 204-207, reduction and analysis 135 5.24 Salome, r.n. 151^-189, reduction and analysis 139 5.25 Salome, r.n. 151^-189, large-scale connections and chromatic surrounding 140 6.1 Salome, r.n. 274^-279, harmonic reduction 145 6.2 Salome, r.n. 279-286^, harmonic reduction 146 Acknowledgements I owe an enormous debt of gratitude to my advisor, William Benjamin. Without his constant support, this project would never have been completed. M y work has been deeply influenced by his profound understanding of music and his astounding theoretical insights. John Roeder, Greg Butler, and Eugene Wilson have been very helpful readers, whose critical remarks helped me clarify many aspects of this dissertation. I want to thank my parents for their incessant support over the years and for giving me their trust and confidence. Finally, I am forever grateful to my wife, Lucie, and my children, Isabelle and Jean-Christophe, for their enduring patience and love. This dissertation is dedicated to them. Chapter 1 Introduction The premiere, in 1905, of Richard Strauss's Salome sent shock waves among the German musical community. Many important musicians expressed the view that music would not remain the same after this major work and that all composers would have to react to it, favourably or unfavourably. Not only musicians, but also the op-eratic public took sides and participated in the argument. Most newspapers, general magazines, and music journals in Germany published articles, reviews, and letters from readers about the new opera. Some reactions were particularly extreme: pamphlets were published accusing Strauss of encouraging depravity and musical anarchy, ^  censors tried to cut some of the most important elements of the work,^ and fanatics even organized public protests against it. What could have triggered such an intense reaction? First of all, of course, the distinct blend of profound eroticism and extreme violence of the libretto; then, the as-sociation of these two elements with biblical characters; finally, the extraordinary complexity of the musical score, combined with the gigantism of the orchestration. Although there had been many allusions to sexual attraction in the operatic literature since Monteverdi's L'incoronazione di Poppea, very few operas (one thinks, for ex-^ For example, H . Ernstmann's infamous Salome an den deutschen Hofbuhnen. Ein Kulturhild (Emstmann 1906). 2 The work was banned at Vienna's Hofoper unti l 1918, and the first Ber l in production contained forced revisions, such as the appearance of the star of Bethlehem in the final scene. ample, of Wagner's Die Walktire) had openly referred to controversial sexual behav-iours, to what contemporary commentators called "perverse behaviours". In Salome, Herod, who has married his brother's wife after ordering his assassination, experiences unmistakable sexual attraction towards his sixteen-year-old niece. She herself lusts for Saint John the Baptist and has him beheaded after he turns her down. Finally, in a long monologue during which she addresses the prophet's head, she kisses his mouth, in a typically Freudian allusion to sexual intercourse. One is struck by the telling absence of feehngs of love in this opera, an absence that only enhances the "perversion" of the characters. Moreover, the dramatic action takes place over the consummately expressive music, saturated by loud explosions and punctuations coming from a gi-gantic orchestra. 3 One had to be totally insensitive not to react. Never in the history of music had an opera composer sought so deUberately to provoke and to charm at the same time. As set to music by Strauss, Oscar Wilde's 5a/ome juxtaposed, in a way that was as yet unheard of, moments of luxurious intensity and outbursts of riveting violence, the flamboyant colours of late nineteenth-century German chromatic tonal harmony and the grating dissonances of the most advanced music of the beginning of the twentieth cenmry. The impact of Salome on avant-garde composers was particularly strong. Ar-nold Schoenberg, for example, repeatedly declared it to be a masterpiece, a work that was worth intense study (Reich 1981, 25). Alban Berg had a very profound love for it and a deep knowledge of its score. It is known that he tried to see as many 3 It seems, however, that many listeners made a clear separation between the Hbretto and the music. Writers of contemporary reviews, after having praised the music (most of the time for its virtuosic handhng o f the orchestra), often regret that Strauss has chosen a subject that was unworthy o f h im . For example, a commentator wrote in 1907: "Oskar W i lde hat in seinem dramatischen Gedichte wohl nur die Perversitat einer Orgie woUen feiem lassen. Richard Strauss liess durch seine M u s i k aus dem Sumpfboden eine L i l i e spriessen." (Fiege 1907, 57). productions of Salome as he possibly could, even if this meant travelling to distant cities.'* Indeed, operas like Wozzeck and Lulu, like most advanced operas composed after Salome, owe much to Strauss's work. In Salome, Strauss achieved a remarkable synthesis of chromatic tonality and the most advanced techniques of motivic manipulation. This amalgam paved the way for the radical chromatic language of his next opera, Elektra. Even if Strauss later abandoned the dissonances and chromatic counterpoint of Elektra for the more classi-cal sonorities of Rosenkavalier, the harmonic techniques of the latter, and of all his following works, are intimately related to those he developed in Salome. There are three types of music in Salome. First, there is the triadic, quite tra-ditional music, mostly in a slow tempo, that is generally associated with Jochanaan and the Nazarenes. It is the music of the converted, of those who believe blindly, of those who do not ask questions. Paul Bekker, a well-known progressive critic, wrote in 1907 that the music of Jochanaan was that of a soap-box orator, an overblown "Mendelssohniade" (Bekker 1907, 126). This was also the opinion of A . Heuss, who reviewed the Leipzig premiere for the Zeitschrift der I. M. G.: Sein Jochanaan ist beinahe niedrig geschaut und derart ist auch die Musik, die oft geradezu charakterlos sich ausnimmt. Wer liesse sich einfallen, dass die sentimentalen Homerakkorde mit ihren phantasielosen Wiederholungen den rauhen Propheten, der wie ein starren Felsen inmitten eines Meeres all-gemeiner Verderbnis dasteht, charakterisieren sollen? Segelt man da nicht mitten im Liedertafelstil, der sich selbst zu einem gefiihlsseligen Terzquart-akkord aufschwingt wie weiland zu Mendelssohn's Zeiten?^ (Heuss 1906, 427-28) Private conversation with Don MacLean . ^ "H i s Jochanaan is depicted narrowly and the music, which often lacks character, fol lows su i t W h o would believe that the sentimental chords of the horns, which are unimaginatively repeated, The second type of music is mainly used to characterize Salome. Although tonal in its large-scale organization, it takes middleground and foreground detours that can become quite disorienting. It is a richly coloured music, often of octatonic charac-ter, which uses the expressive possibilities of late romantic harmony to great effect.^ One of the best characterizations of this type of chromatic music may be found in an article published in the German weekly Das Blaubuch in 1906: ... dies fijhrte — angeblich unter dem Einfluss des modemen franzosischen musikahschen Impressionismus — zu einer vollig neuen Behandlung des Or-chesters. Sie gleicht der prismatischen Zersetzung des Lichts, den flim-raemden Farbenflecken eines Monet oder Pissarro. Es ist eine Auflosung der Tonalitat, ein Neben- und Durcheinander motivischer Floskeln, ein flutender Strom freier Rhythmen, wodurch eine intensive "blendende" Wirkung, eine siidliche Glut von beriickender Faszination erzeugt wird."^ (Tiktin 1906, 34) The allusion to contemporary French music is particularly interesting and perspica-cious. A t times, the chromatic music Strauss writes for Salome indeed shares many superficial traits with that of Claude Debussy.^ Cadences are very often not completed, or tonics are presented in second inversion; the orchestra is often used for purely actually characterize the crude prophet, who stands as a rock in the middle of a sea of general depravity? Aren't we navigating in Liedertafel style, bouncing towards a four-three chord as in the times o f Mendelssohn?" A perfect example of this type of music is Salome's aria in her scene with Jochanaan. This important section of the opera w i l l be analyzed in detail in Chapter 3. "These led—admittedly under the influence of French modem musica l impressionism—to a completely new treatment of the orchestra. It duplicates the prismatic decomposition of light, the f l icker ing coloured specks of a Monet or a Pissarro. It is a liberation o f tonality, a juxtaposit ion and combination of mot iv ic clichés, a stream of free rhythms, through which is achieved an intense impression of blending, a southern glow of captivating fascination." Th is is particularly evident when the opera is sung in French, as in a recent recording of the French version prepared by Strauss in 1905, before the premiere of the German version (dir. Kent Nagano, V i r g i n Classics V C D 7 91477 -2) . The combination of Strauss's colouristic music and Wi lde 's symbolist prose (which reminds one, at times, of Maeterl inck's Pelléas et Mélisande) is utterly str iking. colouristic effects; and there are long static passages built, for example, on only one dominant ninth chord. Another striking aspect of this type of chromatic music is the particular colour of the dissonances. This was noted by Eugen Schmitz in 1907: Und wie prachtvoU sie oft klingen diese Dissonanzen! Nicht nur charakte-ristisch, sondem schôn! Die moderne Musik hat den in der Théorie noch feh-lenden Begriff der "wohlklingenden Dissonanzen" gepragt. Salome liefert einen reichen Beitrag zu dieser Frage.^ (Schmitz 1907, 50) The third type of music in Salome is also a second kind of chromatic music. This one is much more dissonant than Salome's and makes some surface use of the whole-tone scale. Normally associated with Herod and the Jews, it is characterized by extreme contrasts of register, instrumental colour, dynamics, and rhythm. it also differs from Salome's music by the important role conferred on motivic manipulation. It is this music that most appealed to progressive musicians and commentators, because of its originality and its uncompromising attitude towards language, notwithstanding (or maybe because of) its often satirical or, according to Sander Oilman (1989), antisemitic character. As F. A . Geissler wrote after the creation. Es ist eine unruhevolle Musik, in der selbst das geiibte Ohr kaum einige Male eine Tonart feststellen kann. Ein fortgesetztes Ineinanderfliessen von Ak-korden, ein steter Wechsel von Zeitmass und Vorzeichnung, eine Haufung von raffienierten Effekten der Orchestration halten zwar das Intéresse des Hôrers immer wach und bereiten ihm immer neue Ûberraschungen, lassen ihn aber " A n d how gorgeous they often sound, these dissonances! Not only characteristic, but beautiful! M o d e m music has developed the as yet unknown theoretical concept of "well-sounding dissonance." Salome contributes greatly to this issue." ' The beginning o f the second part of Salome is a good example o f this type of music . This passage is analyzed in detail in Chapter 5. andrerseits zu einera ruhigen Genusse nur fur Augenblicke kommen.ii (Geissler 1905,57) There have been very few publications devoted to theoretical discussion of the musical language of Salome. Until recent years, one found mostly guides to the opera, containing lists of leitmotives, more or less detailed studies of their deployment in the work, and complete re-tellings of the l i b r e t t o . N o r m a n H . Dinerstein's "Polychordality in Salome and Elektra: A Study of the Reinterpretation Technique" (Dinerstein 1974) was one of the first technical studies of the opera's harmonic lan-guage. As its title suggests, it is entirely focused on one technique of modulation and the use of it in the two operas. The next important publication on the musical language of Salome, a book published by Cambridge University Press in its series of opera handbooks, appeared in 1989. It contains reprints of essays by Mario Praz, Richard Elhnann, and Roland Tenschert, as well as a study of the tonal and dramatic structure by Tethys Carpenter (Carpenter 1989), an analysis of the final monologue by Craig Ayrey, a short account of the critical reception by John Williamson, and an essay by Robin HoUoway. Carpenter's text is the central one and wil l be discussed at a number of points in the following pages. Finally, in 1991, The Music Review pubUshed an ar-ticle by Edward Murphy on tonality and form in Salome (Murphy 1991). This major attempt at presenting a coherent picture of the opera's tonal structure wil l be amply discussed in Chapter 2. "It is an agitated music, in which, most of the time, even the educated ear cannot discern a specific key. A continuous succession of chords, an unrelenting variation of tempo and time signature, and a p i l ing up o f refined orchestral effects keep the listener's attention and prepare h i m for ever new surprises, but only for the briefest instants is he al lowed to catch his breadi." The most important of these are Chop 1907, Damerini 1947, G iknan 1906, Grâner 1909, Jachino 1923, Kufferath 1907, Roese 1906, Schattmann 1907, Taubmann 1908, and Ziegler 1907. The most striking aspect of the harmonic language of Salome is the coexistence of the three different types of music outlined above: the triadic music of Jochanaan and the Nazarenes and two types of chromatic music, one which makes use of octatonic colorations and numerous extravagant tonicizations and one which is more dissonant, contrasting, and motivically oriented, and which makes surface use of the whole-tone scale. By using different types of music, Strauss was able to depict the drama's quick changes of mood more closely and efficiently than i f he had used the same type of post-Wagnerian chromaticism throughout the opera. But this coexistence, which makes perfect sense dramatically speaking, also raises an important aesthetic issue: that of the linguistic unity of the work. How can a composer unify the different parts of his work if he uses an eclectic mixture of different types of music?'^ Is Salome a collage of passages of different character or is there a structural principle that integrates these various events into a coherent whole? The few excerpts from early commentaries on the opera that were quoted above show that a number of informed listeners did not think that Strauss had been successful in this regard and that the seams between the different pieces of the quilt were far too visible. However, it is my opinion that, had they repeatedly encountered the work and carefully studied its score, the unsatisfied commentators might have revised their judgments. In this study, I wil l suggest that, to lend a reasonable degree of tonal-contrapuntal unity to his opera, Strauss used a technique, not necessarily original to Salome, which I will call "chromatic surrounding". Chromatic surrounding occurs Interestingly, this question could also apply to numerous works of our postmodern era, where composers attempt an integration of different languages in works that pretend to be more than simple collages. when an important tonal event is decorated by both its chromatic neighbours. What this important tonal event is depends on the level of the structure at which chromatic surrounding is operative. A t the surface of the music, the central element can be a triad. A t a deeper level, it can be a key. For example, in a sonata movement in G major, the dominant triad (D major) can be prolonged locally by the triads (major or minor) of E-flat and C-sharp, while the development on a global level emphasizes the key of A-flat and the recapitulation repeatedly alludes to the key of F-sharp. In general, the two chromatic neighbours do not have the same structural weight. For example, if the main key is G minor and the two neighbours are F-sharp major and A-flat minor, the former may have more importance than the latter because it shares a mediant with the central key (A-sharp of F-sharp major - B-flat of G minor). In more advanced idioms, the surrounded centre of the pattern can also be present only by impUcation. Each member of the pattern can also consist of a complex of keys. In the structure described in the previous paragraph, for example, the tonic G could be grouped, in a typical late-tonal fashion, with its submediant, E-flat major, and its dominant, D major, while the lower neighbour, F-sharp, could itself be grouped with its mediant A , its subdominant B, and its dominant C-sharp. The idea of chromatic surrounding of a principal key has been discussed before in the literature. In 1968, David Lewin, in an article on inversional balance in the music of Schoenberg, gives an interesting example of inversional balance in a tonal context: I would cite the opening section of his First String Quartet, with its statements of the principal theme first in d (m. 1), subsequendy in e-flat (m. 30), subsequenfly in c-sharp (curtailed and with stretto entries, m. 54), and then, "triumphantly" doubled, back in d (m. 65). Here, Schoenberg is certainly hearing d : e-flat :: c-sharp : d as a strongly tonicizing progression. (...) One is strongly aware of the inversional balance about the tonic. (Lewin 1968,4) According to our definition, this passage would certainly also qualify as an example of chromatic surrounding. The final return to the tonal centre is, however, not obligatory. Observed from a post-tonal vantage point like Lewin's, chromatic surrounding could indeed be considered as a type of inversional balance. In this study, however, 1 wil l be more concerned with surrounding as a tonal concept. The problem of the origin and development of this late tonal concept has not been addressed yet in the literature and wil l be resolved only after an extensive inves-tigation of the repertoire. However, one could hypothesize that chromatic surrounding originated as the traditional decoration of the dominant by the lowered sixth scale-degree and the raised fourth scale-degree. This typical Phrygian decoration would then have been transferred to the tonic and used at the middleground level. In Salome, the pattern could have a motivic origin. The opera opens on Salome's main leimotive, cited here as Example 1.1. Example 1.1: Salome's main motive This motive contains an open chromatic double-neighbour figure on the dominant of C-sharp. The numerous instances of middleground surrounding that will be identified in the following pages could, then, originate from this very first characteristic figure of the work. At a slightly more remote level, chromatic surrounding may involve quickly emphasized triads, as in Example 1.2. Here, a C-sharp major triad is followed by loud D-rainor and C-minor triads. The latter wi l l be repeated for the last ten measures of the opera. Example 1.2: Salome, r.n. 360+5 - 361+6 4 1 . h . . > J . , . > 1 •e-V " ^— ^ 7 ^ n if* However, in Salome, chromatic surrounding is mainly a middleground phe-nomenon which takes place around the main key, C-sharp minor, and involves the two chromatic neighbours, C and D. The key of C is presented in both its major and minor versions, while the key of D is generally presented in the minor mode. Of these two neighbouring keys, C is by far the most important. According to this view, Salome is thus a monotonal piece in which chromatic relations are crucial but still secondary. C-sharp, which can sometimes be presented enharmonically as D-flat, is not alone at the centre of the pattern. It is grouped with its submediant A , its mediant E, its dominant G-sharp (or A-flat), and its subdorainant F-sharp. Of these four subsidiary keys, A is the most important. A l l keys in this group are associated more or less sys-tematically with Salome and the moon. This group of subsidiary keys contains Carpenter's Salome keys (see Figure 2.8, p. 53). The lower neighbour C is also grouped with four subsidiary keys: its mediant E -flat, its submediant A-flat, its dominant G and its subdominant F. As mentioned above, C, A-flat and E-flat are regularly associated with Jochanaan. The upper neighbour D does not seem to be grouped with other keys. It is nearly always associated with the Jews or Herod. This organization of keys seems to dupUcate certain aspects of the dramatic or-ganization of the libretto. Salome and the moon (the group of C-sharp) are considered central. Next in importance comes Jochanaan (the group of C), who shares some hid-den feamres (here, the mediant) with Salome, and who wil l strongly influence her be-haviour. Finally, the Jews and Herod (D minor), who also gravitate around Salome and come in strong (albeit theological) opposition with Jochanaan. The following chapters wil l attempt to answer three central questions. The first one is: "What are the means employed by Strauss to unify his work tonally and linguistically?" It will be addressed in Chapter 2, with reference both to textual matter and to tonality as described here. The second is: "What are the principal characteristics of the two types of chromatic music in Salome?' This wil l be the subject of Chapters 3 to 5. Finally, the third one is: "How do the two different types of chromatic music cohabit and interact in the opera?" Chapter 6 wi l l offer an answer to this question. Chapter 2 Formal Structure By his own report, Richard Strauss began work on the opera Salome at some point in late 1902 or early 1903. Strauss first saw Oscar Wilde's play in early 1903 (Del Mar 1986,1, 243), in a German production at the Kleines Theater in Berlin, under the direction of Max Reinhardt, with Gertrud Eysoldt in the titie role.i However, it was not the experience of this production that provided the initial stimulus for the opera project, but an earlier proposal by the Viennese poet Anton Lindner,^ whose idea it was to provide Strauss with a versified libretto based on the play. Strauss's account of these matters, and of his having rejected Lindner's offer by the time he attended of the Reinhardt production, in favour of using the original in a German translation by Hedwig Lachmann (Wilde 1934), is found in his Betrachtungen und Erinnerungen. Ich war in Berlin in Max Reinhardts "Kleinem Theater," um Gertrud Eysoldt in Wildes Salome zu sehen. Nach der Vorstellung traf ich Heinrich Griinfeld der mir sagte: "Strauss, das ware doch ein Opemstoff fur Sie." Ich konnte er-widem: "Bin bereits beim Komponieren." Der Wiener Lyriker Anton Lindner hatte mir das kostliche Stuck schon geschickt und sich erboten, mir daraus einen "Opemtext" zu machen. Auf meine Zustimmung hin schickte er mir ein paar geschickt versifizierte An-fangsszenen, ohne dass ich mich zur Komposition entschliessen konnte, bis es The German premiere of Oscar Wilde 's play took place in 1901 in Bres lau. Strauss had akeady set to music a poem by Lindner, the "Hochze i t l i ch L i e d , " Opus 37/1, in 1887. mir eines Tages aufstieg: Warum koraponiere ich nicht gleich ohne weiteres: "Wie schon ist die Prinzessin Salome heute Nacht!" Von da ab war es nicht schwer, das Stiick so weit von schonster Literator zu reinigen, dass es nun ein recht schones "Libretto" geworden ist (Mueller von Asow 1959,1, 365).3 The composer limited himself to three kinds of transformations of the text: cuts, reorderings of words in sentences,"^ and repetitions of some sentences. His personal copy of the play, which is now kept at the Strauss Archives in Garmisch Partenkirchen, contains all textoal emendations, as well as numerous indications of musical ideas: key areas, motives, and rhythms.^ In the following pages, I shall study certain structural aspects of Wilde's play and try to show their importance for the form of Strauss's opera. Despite the probable interest of other types of analyses of this play, I shall concentrate on elements that have a direct bearing on form and tonal structure. "In Ber l in I went to see Gertrud Eysoldt in Wi lde 's Salome, at M a x Reinhardt's Kle ines Theater. After the performance I met Heinrich Gri infeld, who told me: 'Strauss, that would be an opera subject for you. ' I answered: 'I am already setting it to m u s i c ' The Viennese poet, Anton Lindner, had sent me the excellent play and had proposed to turn it into an 'opera text' for me. After my assent, he sent me a couple of well-versif ied opening scenes. But I could not make up my mind on the composition, unti l , one day, the solution finally appeared to me: why not set "Wie schon ist die Prinzessin Salome heute Nacht! ' without any transformation. From then on, it was not diff icult to remove the most 'literary' passages from the play and to create a nice 'libretto'." For example, in Jochanaan's fu-st entry, Lachmann's translationhas: "Ich bin nicht wert, ihm die R iemen an seinen Schuhen zu losen." Strauss's version is less granmiatical, but easier for the listener to understand in a musical context, when the text is delivered at a much slower pace than in real conversation: "Ich bin nicht wert, ihm zu losen die R iemen an seinen Schuhen." Tenschert (1960) also notices Strauss's "disl ike of subordinate clauses." This copy of the play has been studied by Roland Tenschert (1960). In a reprint of Tenschert's article in Puffett 1989, the editor adds an enlightening postscript. 2.1 Textual Motives The pervasive use of textual motives is one of the most striking aspects of Os-car Wilde's Salome (1891). Words, expressions, phrases, or images are repeated at different moments in the play to accompany the expression of emotions and states of mind and to evoke distinctive atmospheres. This technique of repetition seems to be used deliberately, and does not appear to result from some weakness of the author's command of the French language, as has been suggested by a few English-speaking critics (Ransome 1971, Nassaar 1974). In fact, many important French writers have praised Salome. Stéphane Mallarmé, in a letter of March 1893, wrote: J'admire que tout étant exprimé par de perpétuels traits éblouissants, en votre Salome, i l se dégage, aussi, à chaque page, de l'indicible et le Songe. Ainsi les gemmes innombrables et exactes ne peuvent servir que d'accompagnement sur sa robe au geste surnaturel de cette jeune princesse, que définitivement vous évoquâtes. 6 Pierre Lot i also wrote Wilde a laudatory letter: Merci , monsieur, de m'avoir fait connaître votre Salome — c'est beau et sombre comme un chapitre de l'Apocalypse — Je l'admire profondément.'^  Finally, the symbolist writer Maurice Maeterlinck was quite pleased: Je vous prie de m'excuser. Monsieur, si les circonstances ne m'ont pas permis de vous remercier plus tôt du don de votre mystérieux, éti-ange et admirable "I marvel that, whi le everything in your Salome is expressed in constant, dazzl ing strokes, there also arises, on each page, the unutterable and the Dream. So the innumerable and precise jewels can serve only as a gown-accompaniment for the supernatural gesture o f that young princess whom you definitively evoked." (Translation from Elhnann 1987, 354). "Thank you, sir, for having introduced me to your Salome - it is fine and sombre l ike a chapter of the Apocalypse -1 admire it deeply." (Translation from Elhnann 1987, 354). Salome. Je vous ai dit merci aujourd'hui en sortant, pour la troisième fois, de ce rêve dont je ne me suis pas encore expliqué la puissance. Croyez, Mon-sieur, à mon admiration très grande (EUmann 1987, 354).^ Wilde confirms his motivic intent in a letter to Alfred Douglas, the English translator of Salome: The recurring phrases of Salome, that bind it together like a piece of music with recurring motifs, are, and were to me, the artistic equivalent of the re-frains of old ballads. (Kohl 1980, 304) One should also not forget that Wilde was, at the time when he wrote Salome in Paris, strongly influenced by Maeterlinck, Mallarmé, and other symbolists. Even a cur-sory look at a play by Maeterlinck, like La Princesse Maleine (1889) or Pelléas et Mélisande (1892),^ suffices to clarify the relationship. This "new kind of musical speech, bringing very simple Uttle words into a rhythmical texture" (Worth 1983, 57), accompanied by constant repetition, is an important characteristic of both Maeterlinck's language in general and some of Wilde's writings. As Wilde himself clearly realized, the main function of the textual motives of Salome is to unify all parts of the play. Their number and the richness of the cross-ref-erences they generate gave Strauss wonderful material which he was able to use musi-cally without extensive transformation. The following paragraphs wil l investigate some ^ "Pray excuse me, dear sir, i f circumstances have not permitted me to thank you sooner for the gift of your mysterious, strange and admirable Salome. I expressed my thanks to you today as I emerged, for the third time, from this dream whose power I have not yet explained to myself. I assure you o f my great admiration." (Translation from E lhnann 1987, 354). 9 A comparison between Strauss's and Debussy's treatments of symbolist language would be particularly revealing. 10 R ichard Ald ington mentions that "W i lde had two distinct styles of wri t ing." One was associated with aesthetic or symbolist style, " fu l l o f allusion and reminiscence and jewel led words." The other was "Ught, worldly, cynical , paradoxical, full o f laughter" (Aldington 1981, 34). of the textual motives and important symbols of the opera. Excerpts from the hbretto will be quoted in German and wil l be complemented, at times, by excerpts, in French, from parts of the play that have been cut by Strauss. An important symbol in the play, the moon, is also the first to be introduced. The stage indications already mention it: "Der Mond scheint sehr hell".^^ In the first part of the opera, beginning with the first line of the Page of Herodias, it is successively described as "eine Frau, die aufsteigt aus dem Grab", "eine Frau, die tot ist", "eine kleine Prinzessin, deren Ftisse weisse Tauben sind. Man konnte meinen, sie tanzt"'^^ "eine silbeme Blume" . i3 The moon is also "kiihl und keusch". It has, according to Salome, "die Schonheit einer Frau, die rein gebUeben is t " . i4 A t the beginning of the second part, i.e., at the entrance of Herod, Herodias, and their guests, the moon is compared to "ein wahnwitziges Weib, das uberall nach Buhlen sucht", "ein betrunkenes Weib, das durch Wolken taumelt".!^ Later in the op-era, Jochanaan prophesies that the moon shall turn red as blood. At the end of the opera, after Salome's monologue, the moon is totally obscured by the clouds after Herod has asked his men to hide it. But, suddenly, it illuminates Salome, immediately presaging Herod's ordering of her death. ^ * T h e libretto o f the opera in its German version is given in Appendix 2. Appendix 1 gives the original French version of Wi lde 's Salome. The material retained for the opera is set in bold characters. This image and the previous one are obvious references to Salome, who is also a princess and who w i l l dance later. ^3 The idea of "s i lver" is part of another complex of images, associated with the color white, to be discussed below. '^^  Here, Salome projects herself onto the moon. Wilde 's play also contains the fol lowing references to the moon: " l a main d'une morte qui cherche à se couvrir d'un l inceu l " , "une petite princesse qui a des yeux d'ambre", "elle sourit conMne une petite princesse". The moon is also cause o f mental disorder: "Ces gens-là sont fous. Ils ont trop regardé la lune." The moon is identified both with death and with Salome. There is thus an im-mediate characterization of Salome as the bringer of death, The moon, like Salome, is an erotic object that has power over men and disturbs the mind of those who look at it too much. In a way, it acquires a nearly divine character by determining the course of the action. Katharine Worth has identified three phases m the development of the image of the moon. The first one is that of the "white moon" and ends with Jochanaan's descent into the cistern. The second is that of the "red moon", colored by the blood of Narraboth and Jochanaan, while the third is the "black moon" of the end (Worth 1983, 59-60). These colours^"^ are omnipresent in the play and, in many ways, emphasize its form. The colours white, red, and black are found, for example, in the scene between Salome and Jochanaan. First, Salome tells the prophet that she loves his body. A l l the images are white: "Dein Leib ist weiss wie die Lilien auf einem Felde, von der Sichel nie beriihrt", "weiss wie der Schnee", "die Rosen im Garten von Arabiens Konigin sind nicht so weiss wie dein Leib", "nicht die Fiisse der Dammerung auf den Blattem", "nicht die Briiste des Mondes auf dem Meere", "nichts in der Welt ist so weiss wie dein Leib." A confirmation of this is given in the play in the comment of the page after Narraboth's suicide: "Je savais bien que la lune cherchait un mort, mais je ne savais pas que c'était lui qu'elle cherchait. A h ! pourquoi ne l'ai-je pas caché de la lune? S i je l'avais caché dans une caverne, elle ne l'aurait pas vu . " The second part of this sentence can also be interpreted as a premonition of Jochanaan's death. White can sometimes be replaced by yellow. Secondly, Salome talks of Jochanaan's hair. Now, the images are black: "Dein Haar ist wie Weintrauben, wie Biischel schwarzer Trauben", "wie Zedem, die grossen Zedem von Libanon", "die langen schwarzen Nachte, wenn der Mond sich verbirgt, wenn die Sterne bangen, sind nicht so schwarz wie dem Haar", "Nichts in der Welt ist so schwarz wie dein Haar." Finally, Salome's attention is devoted to Jochanaan's mouth and the images are red: "wie ein Scharlachband an einem Turm von Elfenbein", "wie ein Granatapfel, von einem Silbermesser zerteilt",'^ "die Granatapfelbliiten in den Garten von Tyrus, gliihender als Rosen, sind nicht so rot", "die roten Fanfaren der Trompeten (...) sind nicht so rot", "roter als die Ftisse der Manner, die den Wein stampfen in deren Kelter", "roter als die Ftisse der Tauben", "wie ein Korallenzweig in der Damm'rung des Meeres", "wie der Purpur", "nichts in der Welt ist so rot wie dein Mund." Here, as with the image of the moon, the three colors help emphasize instances of ternary organization. This entire passage is summarized in three sentences in Sa-lome's monologue: "Nichts in der Welt war so weiss wie dein Leib." "Nichts in der Welt war so schwarz wie dein Haar." "In der ganzen Welt war nichts so rot wie dein Mund." Another passage of the play, but not of the opera, that duplicates this organi-zation, albeit on a much smaller scale, is found when the second soldier discusses Herod's wines with the Cappadocian. One is "pourpre comme le manteau de César", the second is "jaune comme de l'or", and the third is "rouge comme le sang". One should also remember that when Herod offers pearls to Salome after his rejection of her demand of Jochanaan's head, he proposes black and red amethysts. These are quite striking superpositions o f red and white. White and yellow images are very important throughout the opera. We have al-ready mentioned that they are often associated with the moon, at least in the first part (i.e., until Herod's entrance). In fact, white images are omnipresent in the first third of the play. We have encountered the moon's (i.e., Salome's) silver feet. Narraboth soon relates this colour directly to Salome: "Wie blass die Prinzessin ist". In the play, he also talks about her small white hands, which resemble white butterflies, and then says: "elle ressemble à une fleur d'argent". When Jochanaan comes out of the cistern, Salome, who has eyes of gold under golden eyelids says that "Er ist wie ein Bildniss aus Elfenbein". In the rest of the opera, after Jochanaan's return to the cistern, white images are associated with Salome or an accessory object. First, Herod finds that Salome is pale: "Niemals hab' ich sie so blass gesehn". A little later, in Wilde's play, the king says of Salome's feet: "Vos petits pieds seront comme des colombes blanches. Us ressembleront à des petites fleurs blanches". Then, Salome demands that the head of Jochanaan be brought to her on a silver platter. When Herod refuses he offers her his white peacocks and white pearls instead. Red images make their first significant appearance in the scene between Salome and Jochanaan that has been described above. This sudden arrival is most probably a premonition of Narraboth's suicide, which follows immediately. From then on, red im-ages are well established. As soon as he enters the stage, Herod slips in blood. When he asks Salome to drink wine with him, Herod says: "Tauche deine kleinen Lippen hinein, deine kleinen roten Lippen". Then, there is Jochanaans prophecy that the moon shaU become Uke blood. In Wilde's play, talking about the roses of his crown, Herod says: "Comme ils sont rouges ces pétales! On dirait des taches de sang sur la nappe". Allusions to blood come back when Salome prepares to dance: "Elle va danser dans le sang! Il y a du sang par terre. Je ne veux pas qu'elle danse dans le sang. Ce serait d'un très mauvais présage". Later, Herod declares that the moon has become red, as was predicted by Jochanaan: " A h ! regardez la lune! Elle est devenue rouge. Elle est rouge comme du sang". During her monologue, Salome compares Jochanaan's tongue to a red viper. Finally, black images can also be found at various moments in the play. Their first appearance is very noticeable and of the utmost importance for the development of the action. It is when Salome first looks in the cistern: "Wie schwarz es da drunten ist! Es muss schreckUch sein, in so einer schwarzen Hohle zu leben. Es ist wie eine Gruft". The first feature of Jochanaan's body to be noticed by Salome is the blackness of his eyes: "Sie sind wie die schwarze Hohlen, wo die Drachen hausen! Sie sind wie schwarze Seen, aus denen irres Mondlicht flackert". This is a very arresting passage. Jochanaan's eyes are associated with the hole in which he Uves, the hole that is "Uke a tomb". Thus, in the prophet's eyes, one can read a premonition of his own death, which is to occur in his p r i s o n . - p h g image becomes even more forceful when one re-members that what condemns Jochanaan to his death is in fact his refusal to look at Salome. Then comes the central part of Salome's three-part address discussed above. In the second part of the opera, black images return in Jochanaan's prophecy: "Es kommt ein Tag, da wird die Sonne fmster werden wie ein schwarzes Tuch". A little later, Herod compares the angel of death to a large black bird that he cannot see. The arm that comes out of the cistern with the head of Jochanaan is also black, ac-cording to the stage directions. Later, after Salome's great monologue, a large black For more on the importance of the gaze in this opera, see Kramer 1990. cloud passes in front of the moon and hides it completely. As mentioned above, this wi l l trigger Herod's decision to have Salome killed by his guards. The opera contains many sentences reminiscent of "refrains of old ballads". The first one is "Schreckliches kann geschehen." It appears in that form right at the beginning of the opera and is associated with the page's fears. It is then transformed to "Schreckliches wird geschehen" and "Ich weiss, es wird Schreckliches geschehen". It reappears in the second part of the opera in the forms "gewiss wird Unheil iiber einen kommen" and "es wird Unheil geschehen". Finally, it comes back in its original form near the end. Another such recurring idea is that of "the beating of the wings of the angel of death". It is mentioned by Jochanaan ("Ich hore die Flugel des Todesengels im Palaste rauschen"), and then by Herod: "Ich sage euch: es weht ein Wind, und in der Luft hore ich etwas, wie das Rauschen von macht'gen Flugehi. Hdrt ihr es nicht?" The themes of "looking at" and "being looked at" are ubiquitous in the opera and appear at strategic moments. A t the beginning, it is Narraboth who looks at Sa-lome, and the page who asks him to stop looking at her. When Salome enters, she complains of the fact that Herod looks at her continuously "mit seinen Maulwurfsaugen unter den zuckenden Udem" . When she tries to convince Narraboth to let her see Jochanaan, she promises to look at him: "morgen friih werde ich unter den Muss'linschleiem dir einen BUck zuwerfen, Narraboth, ich werde dich ansehn, kann sein, ich werde dir zulacheb. Sieh mich an, Narraboth, sieh mich an". Jochanaan ac-cuses Herodias of having given herself up unto the lust of her eyes: "Wo ist sie, die sich hingab der Lust ihrer Augen". Salome's first comment on Jochanaan's physical appearance is about his eyes that are "wie die schwarze Hohlen, wo die Drachen hausen", akeady cited above as a black image. In fact, when Salome sees Jochanaan, "it is love at first sight, as in Wilde's favourite Romeo and Juliet" (Worth 1983, 59). When Jochanaan first notices Salome, he speaks, in a variation of the image akeady given above, of "ihren Goldaugen unter den gleissenden Lidem". Then, just before killing himself, Narraboth enjoins Salome not to look at Jochanaan: "sieh diesen Mann nicht an". When Jochanaan descends into the cistern he says to Salome: "Ich wil l dich nicht ansehn". In the second part of the opera it is Herod who looks at Salome, and Herodias who tells him not to do so. When Herod slips in Narraboth's blood and sees the corpse, he says: "Ich wUl ihn nicht sehn". Later, in the Quintet of the Jews, there is a whole discussion on whether Jochanaan has really seen God. When Herod asks Sa-lome to dance for him, it is because he wants to look at her. One of the most striking passages of Salome's monologue involves this image, a fantastic instance of synes-thesia: "wenn ich dich ansah, horte ich geheimnisvoUe Musik" . Fmally, the monologue ends with: "Hâttest du mich angesehn, du hattest mich geliebt." Another repetition, this one of primary importance for our understanding of form, is found at the beginning of the second part. The first dialogue between Herod and Herodias is strikingly similar to the exchange between Narraboth and the page at the beginning of the opera. It is accompanied by the repetition of the sentence "Niemals hab' ich sie so blass gesehn." It is uttered by Narraboth in the first part of the opera and by Herod in the second (Cohen 1978, 164). This is a very important paral-lelism, probably used as a signal to the listener that the action is, in a way, starting once again from the beginning. One can conclude that textual motives have four main roles in this opera. First, they help announce future developments. This is, for example, the role of the recurring "Schreckliches kann geschehen" and its transformations. Second, they gradually develop and enrich the emotional content of an image. This is what happens, for example, with allusions to the moon. Third, as in the case of the multiple allusions to the gaze, they establish a complex network of cross-references. Finally, textual motives function as signals for formal breaks at different levels of the structure. The best example of this is certainly the treatment of colour images. AU of these purposes are musically relevant and have their musical equivalent. Since the nineteenth century it has been commonplace for a composer to use a specific idea (a chord, a key area, a melodic design, a progression, etc.) for cross-referencing purposes. Moreover, the constant repetition of formulas and images already gives a specific rhythmic shape to the text that wil l enhance, or sometimes contradict, the rhythm created by the small-scale formal structure of the music. 2.2 Salome as a two-part structure Salome can be understood as possessing a two-part form in which the two parts have similar structures. The first part ends with Jochanaan's descent in the cistern, while the second begins with the entrance of Herod, Herodias, and their guests and ends with Salome's death. Many features corroborate this interpretation. At least two characters of the first part are not active in the second. Jochanaan, who makes some interventions in the second part, is nevertheless never present on stage. His case is closed. Nothing he says can change the set course of events. Narraboth, of course, has killed himself, while the page of Herodias, although he remains on stage for the second part, does not intervene anymore. Narraboth and the page are essential links in a "chain of unaccompUshed desire" (Shewan 1977, 135): the page longs for Narraboth, a character who has a higher rank than himself in the social hierarchy. The page is distressed by the fact that his beloved longs for Salome. But, of course, Salome is an untouchable and it is absolutely impossible for Narraboth's dreams ever to materiahze. Narraboth is also conscious of Salome's fragility, and tells her not to look at Jochanaan. Finally, Salome is overwhelmed by her passion for Jochanaan, she is "intoxicated by the sound of his voice and hypnotised by the look of h im" (Shewan 1977, 135). The prophet rejects her and refuses to abandon his religious visions.^o Since this chain, which is of primary importance for the development of the plot in the first part, is broken by Narraboth's death and Jochanaan's descent into the cistern, it is now nearly impossible for Wilde to continue in the same direction. I would suggest that he decided to model the second part on the first and to start once again from the beginning.^i The first part (Cohen calls it the "anticipatory plot") can be divided into four sections, which can be called, if one adopts Aristotle's terminology, exposition, de-But are Jochanaan's visions religious? I agree with Shewan's conclusion that "his self-esteem is unattractive, almost blasphemous (...). W i th his bombast, his priggishness, and his prurient anatomisation o f Herodias, he can hardly be taken seriously as the voice of the new spiritual k ingdom." This is certainly Strauss's interpretation of the character. The music he gives Jochanaan is so pompous and of such an inferior quality, that it is impossible to take the character seriously. Jochanaan is not a prophet anymore, he is a "soap-box orator" (Shewan 1977, 136). A s the great German crit ic, Paul Bekker, wrote in 1907, it is impossible to "hear this music and remain serious". It is a "Mendelssohniade: 'Wer hat dich, du schôner Wa ld ' " (Bekker 1907, 126). 21 Phi l ip Cohen has suggested a s imilar interpretation (Cohen 1978, 164-76). velopment, peripety, and catastrophe. The exposition presents the context of the plot, introduces all the main characters (if only by allusion), and gives some anticipatory clues about the continuation of the play.22 It runs from the beginning to the entrance of Salome. The development is somewhat analogous to the development of sonata forms in traditional music theory and runs from Salome's entrance to Narraboth's order to let Jochanaan come out of the cistem.^^ jy^Q principal motifs are extended, modified, and repeated, and the plot is gradually clarified and brought to a climax, the coming of which becomes more and more evident. The "Schreckliches kann geschehen" of the introduction has become "Schreckliches wird geschehen". Salome becomes gradually more interested in Jochanaan and demands to see him, first of the guards, who refuse, then thrice of Narraboth, who finally accepts. Then comes the peripety, i.e., the reversal of situation, with Jochanaan's entiy, accompanied by his "geheimnisvoUe Musik" (r.n. 659). PQJ- Salome it is, as was mentioned already, "love at first sight". The section contains Salome's three-part aria referred to above and Jochanaan's strong rejection. For Narraboth, who has violated a strict prohibition, and who is now completely forgotten by Salome, there is only one issue: death. The catastrophe begins with Narraboth's suicide. According to Cohen, Nar-raboth, by committing suicide, "thwarts his desire in the very process of trying to gratify it" (Cohen 1978, 165). Then, in an action that contiibutes to the unification of Thus the importance given to the formula "Schreckliches kann geschehen". I am talking only about the dramatic structure of the plot, not about the musical structure. 1 do not believe that there exists an identity between the two at this level. both parts of the opera, Jochanaan returns to his cistern. His fate is sealed. As in all tragedy, there is no hope left. The three orchestral interludes of the opera (including Salome's dance) are important to the clarification of structure. As shown in Figure 2.1, they either precede the peripety or separate the two parts. In the second part, the introduction presents Herod and Herodias. Herod, for-mally replacing Narraboth, feels a strong desire for Salome, at whom he looks con-stantly. Herodias, Uke her page in the first part, does not want him to do so. She is a cynic, whUe her daughter, Jochanaan, Nartaboth, and her page are dreamers. Herod is caught between them (Shewan 1977, 137), in his role as central character. The development begins with the Quintet of the Jews. The action buUds up: Herodias asks that Jochanaan be sUenced; Herod refuses to take any action against the prophet, for whom he has great respect; and Herod, in exact paraUeUsm with what hap-pened in the first part (where Salome had demanded to see Jochanaan), thrice demands a dance from Salome. During this last passage, Herodias, as her page had done with Narraboth in the first part, enjoins her daughter not to accept. After Herod has prom-ised to give her anything she may want, Salome accepts and performs the dance of the seven veils. Herod has his wish fulfiUed. Salome's dance thus has in the second part a stiuctural role equivalent to that of the first orchesti-al interlude in the first part. The peripety comes when Salome asks for the head of Jochanaan. Here, we have a total reversal of the situation: Herod is no longer the central character and this role is taken by Herodias, who now has her wishes fulfiUed. Herod becomes "Herodias's thrall". She is the ugly, the uninteresting, the perfect example of the "materialists and critics of imagination whom Wilde repeatedly condemns throughout his criticism, short stories, and fairy tales" (Cohen 1978, 176). Now, Salome may have the head of Jochanaan. Part I (beginning - r.n. 141) exposition (beginning - 20^) - presentation of the context - introduction of all main characters - presentation of anticipatory clues - Narraboth and the Page development (20^ - 59) - repetition and modification of main motives - intensification towards the climax orchestial interlude peripety (65^-126) - Jochanaan's entry and scene between Salome and Jochanaan catastrophe (126-141 ) - Nartaboth's suicide - Jochanaan's return to the cistern orchestral interlude Part II (r.n. 151^-end) exposition (1516- 18810) - Herod and Herodias development (188^l - 247^) - Quintet of the Jews - Jochanaan's prophecies and Herodias's rage - Herod's demands for a dance Salome's dance peripety (254^-361^) - Salome asks for the head of Jochanaan and gets it catastrophe (361^ - end) - Salome's death Figure 2.1: Salome as a two-part form After Salome's great monologue, which parallels her three-part scene with Jochanaan, comes the catastrophe, Herod's ordering of her execution. Like Narraboth, Herod has to annihilate his desire. The former had chosen suicide, the latter chooses to k i l l the object of his love. Both men are also acting out of fear of having overstepped a bound: Narraboth against Herod's orders and Herod against the divine law (in allowing Jochanaan to be murdered and his body abused). Tethys Carpenter (1989, 90-91) does not divide Salome into two parts. She sees rather a five-part structure. Her Parts 1 and 2 correspond to the exposition and development of our Part I (see Figure 2.1). Her Part 3 combines the peripety and the catastrophe. For her, Narraboth's suicide is of no dramatic importance and is not even worth mentioning. The catastrophe is given the role of Coda to Part 3. Carpenter's Part 4 is a mixture of the exposition, the development, the Dance, and part of the pe-ripety of our Part II. Finally, her Part 5 is a combination of the second part of the pe-ripety (Salome's monologue) and the catastrophe. Carpenter is led to this segmentation by her complete focus on the ternary structures that wil l be discussed in the following section. These ternary structures are of course very important, but I consider them as organizations of a more local charac-ter than the two-part plan discussed here. Moreover, as wi l l be seen below. Carpenter's decision to include so much material in her Part 4 causes her to miss two larger ternary structures that are much less intricate and quite simpler to perceive than those she identifies in her Table 1. While she correctly states that "the concision of Strauss's l i -bretto seems to have been designed to emphasize Wilde's most formal, rather than his most 'musical', devices", her suggestion of a "clear use of symmetry" is not strongly supported by the structural analysis of her Table 1 (Carpenter 1989, 89). The two-part model presented in Figure 2.1, however, has the distinct advantage of stressing this "clear use of symmetry" in structural organization. Edward Murphy (1991) does not discuss the dramatic structure per se but seems to conceive of it also as a five-part organization: four scenes and the monologue, which he calls "Finale". We wil l return to Murphy's analysis when we discuss the tonal structure specifically. 2.3 Three-part structures in Salome A n aspect of the construction of Salome that should already have caught the at-tention of the careful reader is the widespread use of three-part structures. One of them, the three-part aria of Salome in the first half of the opera, has already been dis-cussed above. Figure 2.2 gives a schematic picture of this passage.24 I Salome: "Ich bin verliebt in deinen Leib, Jochanaan!" Jochanaan: "Zuriick, Tochter Babylons!" Salome: "Dein Leib ist grauenvoll." II Salome: "In dein Haar bin ich verUebt, Jochanaan." Jochanaan: "Zuriick, Tochter Sodoms!" Salome: "Dein Haar ist grassUch." III Salome: "Deinen Mund begehre ich, Jochanaan." Jochanaan: "Niemals!" Figure 2.2: Salome, r.n. 91 - r.n. 122^, formal scheme The three-part aria is preceded by another three-part passage, which serves as a kind of introduction to it. The passage begins when Jochanaan first notices the pres-ence of Salome and asks: "Wer ist dies Weib, das mich ansieht?" A schematic presen-24 Carpenter (1989, 90-91) also cal ls this three-part structure "ar ia " . tation of it is given in Figure 2.3. It is an A B A design. In the first section, Jochanaan questions and Salome answers. In the third, the roles are exchanged: Salome questions and Jochanaan answers. I Jochanaan: "Wer ist dies Weib, das mich ansieht?" Salome: "Ich bin Salome" II Jochanaan: "Zuriick, TochterBabylons!" Salome: "Sprich mehr, Jochanaan." Narraboth: "Prinzessin!" Salome: "Sprich mehr, Jochanaan." III Salome: "Sag' mir, was ich tun soil?" Jochanaan: "Tochter Sodoms, komm mir nicht nahe!" Salome: "Wer ist das, des Menschen Sohn?" Figure 2.3: Salome, r.n. 81 - r.n. S9^^, formal scheme The design of the passage that immediately follows the aria is not ternary, but in five parts, as shown in Figure 2.4. Each section begins with Salome's "Lass mich deinen Mund kiissen, Jochanaan." The first time, Jochanaan does not answer, but Narraboth commits suicide. Each time after this, Jochanaan's refusal takes a different shape. In the opera, Jochanaan is given the last word. He leaves the stage immediately after his last " D u bist verflucht!", which is followed by the orchestral interiude (140^ -155). In Wilde's play, however, it is Salome who has the last word, since she adds an-other "I wi l l kiss thy mouth, Jochanaan; I wil l kiss thy mouth." The whole passage has the effect of a coda before Jochanaan's return to the cistem.26 Carpenter also identifies the general ternary structure of this passage. Carpenter, who also calls this passage "coda", does not present any detailed segmentation of it. I Salome: "Ich wi l l deinen Mund kiissen, Jochanaan." Narraboth's suicide II Salome: "Lass mich deinen Mund kiissen, Jochanaan." Jochanaan: " W k d dich nicht bange, Tochter der Herodias?" III Salome: "Lass mich deinen Mund kiissen, Jochanaan." Jochanaan: "Tochter der Unzucht" IV Salome: "Lass mich deinen Mund kiissen, Jochanaan." Jochanaan: "Sei verflucht!" V Salome: "Lass mich deinen Mund kiissen, Jochanaan." Jochanaan: "Ich wi l l dich nicht ansehn." Figure 2.4: Salome, r.n. 122^0- r.n. 140^, formal scheme Two other instances of ternary organization have been alluded to already, albeit only in passing. In the first one, Salome asks Narraboth to let Jochanaan come out of the cistern. Her demand is repeated thrice, and always begins on the same words. The first time, she argues that she has always been kind towards Narraboth, but he answers by repeating Herod's orders. The second time, Salome promises to let fall for him "a littie green flower". This time, Narraboth finds it very difficult to refuse. The third time, she promises to look at him the following day. Narraboth finally surrenders and orders the guards to let Jochanaan come outside. This whole section can also be seen as belonging to the third part of a three-part structure which begins with Salome's entrance and ends with the fuMUment of her wish to see Jochanaan, as shown in Figure 2.5. In the first section, Salome comes out onto the terrace, reacts to what is happening inside the palace, and comments on the moon. In the second, she hears the voice of Jochanaan and asks questions about him. The passage described in the preceding paragraph constitutes the second part of the third section.27 I Salome's entrance and comments a) "Warum sieht mir der Tetrarch fortwahrend so an?" b) Comments on the guests c) "Wie gut ist's, in den Mond zu sehn." II Salome hears Jochanaan and asks questions III Salome demands to see Jochanaan a) She addresses the guards b) She addresses Narraboth 1) Salome: "Du wirst das fur mich tun, Narraboth." Narraboth: "Der Tetrarch hat es ausdrucklich verbo-ten" 2) Salome: "Du wirst das fiir mich tun, Nartaboth." Nartaboth: "Prinzessin, ich kann nicht" 3) Salome: "Du wirst das fiir mich tun, Nartaboth." Nartaboth: "Lass den Propheten herauskommen." Figure 2.5: Salome, r.n. r.n. 59, formal scheme In the second part, Herod asks Salome to dance for him. Here also the demand is repeated thrice. The first and second demands are shorter than in the passage studied above. The text of the first one is simply "Tanz fiir mich, Salome", while that of the second is "Salome, Tochter der Herodias, tanz fiir mich". The third demand, however, is much more developed and complex than in the first part. It is intertupted by ques-tions from Salome and interjections by Herodias. Even the voice of Jochanaan can be heard, superimposed on that of Herod. Here again, this passage concludes a larger three-part section which begins with the entrance of Herod and Herodias and ends with the fulfillment of Herod's wish to see Salome dance for him, as shown in Figure 2.6. The main character of the first section is Herod. This section contains an embedded three-part form in which Herod tries to Carpenter also identifies a ternary structure here, but her segmentation seems to differ sl ightly from that o f Figure 2.5. attract Salome. The second section concentrates on the Jews and their dispute about Jochanaan. It is also organized in a ternary fashion: Quintet of the Jews, Nazarenes' ac-count of the Messiah's arrival, and verbal attack of Jochanaan on Herodias. The third section has been described in the preceding paragraph.^s I Herod a) Slips in Narraboth's blood and comments on Salome b) Tries to attract Salome 1) Herod: "Salome, komm, trink Wein mit mir." Salome: "Ich bin nicht durstig, Tetrarch." 2) Herod: "Salome, koram, iss mit mir." Salome: "Ich bin nicht hungrig, Tetrarch." 3) Herod: "Salome, komm, setz dich zu mir." Salome: "Ich bin nicht miide, Tetrarch." c) Jochanaan's intervention, dispute between Herodias and Herod II The Jews a) Quintet of the Jews b) Nazarenes c) Jochanaan's attack on Herodias III Herod's demand a) Herod: "Tanz fiir mich, Salome." Salome: "Ich habe keine Lust zu tanzen, Tetrarch." b) Herod: "Salome, Tochter der Herodias, tanz fiir mich." Salome: "Ich wi l l nicht tanzen, Tetrarch." c) Herod: "Salome, Salome, tanz fiir mich." Herod's promise. Salome: "Ich wi l l fur dich tanzen." Figure 2.6: Salome, r.n. 160 - r.n. 247^, formal scheme The segment of the opera which follows Salome's dance can also be analyzed as a three-part form: Salome's demand (247^ - 298), Jochanaan's death (298 - 350^), and This is interpreted differently by Carpenter. Section l a o f Figure 2.6 is for her an introduction. lb is identif ied in her Table 1 as A . Then she integrates Ic with II in a section B . The last answer of Salome is integrated in a Coda . Salome's death (350^ - end). The middle part is by far the longest one, while the last part is the shortest. Figure 2.7 gives a schematic representation of the entire segment I Salome's demand a) Introduction 1) Herod's question 2) Beginning of Salome's answer 3) Repetition of Herod's question b) The head of Jochanaan 1) Salome: "Den Kopf des Jochanaan." Herod's refusal 2) Salome: "Ich achte nicht auf die Stimme raeiner Mut-ter." Herod: "Ich weiss, ich habe einen E id geschworen." 3) Salome: "Ich verlange von dir Den Kopf des Jochanaan." Herod's refusal and discussion with Herodias c) Herod's offers 1) Emerald, followed by Salome's demand 2) Peacocks, followed by Salome's demand 3) Jewels, followed by Salome's demand II Jochanaan's death a) Herod: "Man soil ihr geben, was sie verlangt!" b) Salome waits for the head of Jochanaan 1) Talks to herself 2) Addresses the page 3) Addresses the soldiers c) Salome's monologue 1) Rage and frustration 2) Love Herod's interruption 3) Grief III Salome's death Figure 2.7: Salome, r.n. 247^ - end, formal scheme The first part is essentially a dialogue between Herod and Salome, with the par-ticipation of Herodias. It begins with an inti-oduction in which Herod asks Salome what she wants in return for her dance. Then Salome asks, thrice, for the head of Jochanaan, while Herod tries to dissuade her. Herodias, of course, encourages her daughter. Finally, Herod offers different rewards: an emerald, white peacocks, and jewels. The first section of the second part begins with Herod's "Man soil ihr geben, was sie verlangt! Sie ist in Wahrheit ihrer Mutter K ind ! " His ring of death is taken by Herodias, who gives it to the executioner. The section ends on the by now familiar re-frain, "gewiss wird Unheil Uber einen kommen". During the second section, Salome waits anxiously for the head of Jochanaan. The third section consists in Salome's great monologue, in which she addresses the head of Jochanaan. Figure 2.7 shows how the monologue can also be analyzed as a three-part form. First, Salome releases her rage and frustration. Then, "the poison is out, and she can move into a stiller, sadder music, through the imagery of the past recreating the Jochanaan who might have loved her" (Worth 1983, 69). This outburst is interrupted by Herod who, disgusted by Salome's behaviour and frightened by what might now happen, prepares to leave. Finally, she confronts her own feelings and her pain. In a way, it could easily be the end of the opera. The third and final part, the catastrophe, is very short. The moon shines on Sa-lome, and Herod orders that she be executed. The soldiers crush her beneath their shields.29 This is where my segmentation and Carpenter's differ totally. She does not mention the general ternary organization and many of the smaller-scale ones. She only identifies sections Ic and IIc of Figure 2.7. 2.4 Tonal structure Notwithstanding a very high level of complexity, the tonal structure of Salome is organized around the key of C-sharp minor. Of secondary importance are the keys of C major and D minor and their closely related keys. Some models of the tonal structure have already been offered in the literature, most importantly by Carpenter (1991) and Murphy (1991). Carpenter's discussion of the tonal structure mainly relies on the assignment of particular keys to characters or ideas: "It is evident that as well as leitmotives each character or group of characters also has its own key areas" (Carpenter 1991, 93). D minor is used by the Jews, Herod appears "to a background of C major" (94) and often uses keys "apparently at random" (94), Jochanaan's music "also centres on C, usually settling into A-flat or E-flat major" (94), and "Salome's music has as its centre C-sharp", itself coupled with A major and, eventually, C-sharp major . This coupling of C-sharp and A is, according to Carpenter, "Strauss's first attempt at a 'progressive' to-nality" (95).30 Carpenter also proposes a more general model for the tonal plan in her Exam-ple 2, reproduced here as Figure 2.8. Her discussion of this figure is worth quoting at length. His underlying plan is remarkably symmetrical (...). Jochanaan's A-flat and E-flat balance around his central C, Salome's A and E around her C-sharp. By Salome's fmal "transfiguration" at the end of the opera, C namral and C-sharp Carpenter seems to forget that Also sprach Zarathustra was composed in 1896. - eventually C minor and C-sharp major - are juxtaposed without preparation, clarifying the widely differing tonal events earlier in the opera into their funda-mental opposition. (Carpenter 1991, 96-97) Jochanaan/cistem E-flat E Salome/Herodias Jochanaan/Herod C C-sharp Salome Jochanaan A-flat A Salome Figure 2.8: Carpenter's underlying tonal plan When Carpenter looks at middleground structure, however, this plan is declared not "an entirely satisfactory solution to the problem of large-scale tonal coherence" since "there are certain areas which seem to bear no relation to either referential centre" (97). No alternative explanation is offered. Finally, one sometimes gets the impression that although Strauss had an extraordinary ear for a 'telling' modulation or sonority (...) his sense of key across a wider space was limited; there is a peculiar dissociation between immediate effect and assumed continuity, or between one type of continuity and another. (Carpenter 1991, 101) Later, Carpenter sums up her analysis of tonal structure in the following way. By employing a systematically organised tonal background in Salome, Strauss may have hoped to get round these problems, but acmally he compounds them, for his background is bitonal and C and C-sharp must, for dramatic reasons, be deliberately opposed. Because the opposition is insoluble, he is unable to create either a self-contained structure — with resolution — or any real sense of dramatic progression. (Carpenter 1991, 107) As will soon become clear, I disagree with these conclusions and I intend to offer a coherent, simple model of large-scale continuity in Salome. I beUeve that the background structure of the opera is monotonal, not bitonal, and that key successions are governed by dynamic, evolutive processes. In his analysis of tonality and form in Salome, Edward Murphy tries "to present the form of the four Scenes" and "to point out the tonal relationships that apply to the principal characters and events and how they play a critical role in the total or-ganization of the opera" (Murphy 1991, 215). Murphy considers the four Scenes as important structural units and does not entertain the possibility that Strauss organized his opera across scenic boundaries. The most important element of Murphy's analysis is a succession of five tables that enumerate chronologically the succession of tonal centres. The most important keys (generally those that are clearly associated with characters) are highlighted with a wedge and the "ambiguous" stretches are assigned a question mark. The tables offer no model for the particular key successions or any indication of the role of voice-leading in larger-scale organization. Murphy mainly describes what is going on in the piece and tries to find traditional models of formal organization that fit this description, without trying to understand the logic of the general plan itself. The following excerpts from his conclusions demonstrate this limitation. Scene One, a five-part rondo, establishes C-sharp minor (...) as the funda-mental tonal centre for Salome and the opera. This same form and key (...) are also responsible for providing the second part of the finale at the end of the last Scene with overall balance and symmetry. (...) The finale is a grand recapitulation of what has come before. The ternary first part features fun-damental C-sharp minor as well as A major, G-sharp minor, E-flat minor and C minor, all with the appropriate relationships to text, hi the five-part Rondo second part, some of these same keys (C minor, E-flat minor and C-sharp minor) as well as C-sharp major, A-flat major, E major, the fateful mixture C-sharp minor, E-flat minor and C minor and the metaphor tritone E-f lat—A are all recalled. (...) The drama, however, properly closes in Death key C minor as Salome meets her own doom. (Murphy 1991,230) There is no indication of why Strauss would have used all these keys, except for expressing "the appropriate relationship to the text". Murphy's analysis is thus even less concerned than is Carpenter's with demonstrating hierarchical tonal coherence. Both authors describe the programmatic associations of keys and show their recurrence in an overall tonal plan, but neither offers a syntactic explanation for this particular distribution of keys. Of course, Strauss used key areas as part of the complexes of leitmotives attached to characters and actions in Salome, but, being a soUdly, traditionally trained craftsman, he had to organize his work in some way, no matter how untraditional, at levels deeper than the foreground. As explained in Chapter 1, I believe that he did so by using chromatic surrounding. 2.4.1 A tonal plan for Salome As was mentioned already in Chapter 1, the opera is in the key of C-sharp minor. A l l other important keys can be related to this central tonic either as subsidiary keys, as chromatic neighbours, or as subsidiary keys of the chromatic neighbours. When he uses it, Strauss seems to treat chromatic surrounding as a pattern. This means that when the music proceeds from the centre, C-sharp (or from a key belonging to its group), to one of the neighbour keys (or to a key belonging to the group of one of the chromatic neighbours), one wi l l expect a move to the other chromatic neighbour (or to a key belonging to its group) in the near future. This expectation can be frustrated or realised, but the tension nevertheless exists. Chromatic surrounding is thus used in a dynamic fashion to organize the temporal unfolding of the work. In the following analysis, I shall be using a combination of bass-line graphs and graphic representations of chromatic surrounding. The bass lines of Examples 2.1 to 2.9 are not Schenkerian bass Unes. A good middleground Schenkerian bass line can normaUy be "heard", in the sense that one can infer from it the harmony that it supports. M y bass-line graphs cannot be used in this way, mostly because they are abstracted from a very chromatic surface: many tortuous connections between chromatically related tonics are simply not accounted for or are too non-standard to be inferred from the sole bass line. Moreover, these examples consist for the most part of actual bass notes presented in the score and not necessarily of roots or tonics, a fact which compUcates the interpretation of certain cadences, since many tonics are presented in inversion. The bass lines should thus be used in conjunction with the graphic representations of surrounding that accompany them. It is also important to mention that what determined the choice of these bass notes over other possible candidates was not necessarily their surface weight, but rather what seemed to be their large-scale tonal importance or their particular dramatic role. Example 2.1 is a bass-line graph of the section from the beginning of the opera to the first orchestral interlude (i.e., the interlude that precedes Jochanaan's entry). C-sharp and its subsidiary keys are notated in half notes or quarter notes and the two chromatic neighbours are notated in eighth notes. The most important cadences are indicated below the staff When a cadence involves chromatic displacement, i.e. the replacement of a tonic by its upper or lower chromatic neighbour, this is indicated by a + or a - sign. The letters at the bottom of the example indicate the tonics of the most important key areas, or chords that are particularly emphasized (in the context of the tonal model outUned in Chapter 1). C-sharp and its group are given the middle line. while the lower Une is assigned to C and its group and the upper one to D. It is therefore possible to visualize chromatic surrounding as it unfolds in time. Example 2.1: Salome, beginning - r.n. 59, tonal structure 4 8* 86 107 11 145 19 205 23* 2 8 ' 299 31 34 3 5 ' 359 1 1 1 ' ' S T L V ij L_Y u | V i | i _ v Li (Ek) C V i , (A) (A) (E t ) After the exposition of the tonic in the first measures of the opera, the music moves to the upper chromatic neighbour D at r.n. 4, when the soldiers mention the Jews that attend Herod's banquet. This arrival of D-minor is marked by the first presentation of many of the Jews' motives and by a change of orchestral colour (oboes and E-flat clarinet, fortissimo). After a chain of descending fifths, the music comes back momentarily to C-sharp at 8^, with Narraboth's second allusion to Salome. C and A-flat distinguish Jochanaan's first intervention in the opera (at 11). They also complete the first presentation of large-scale chromatic surrounding in the work. The three members of the chromatic surrounding pattern have thus appeared at dramatically crucial points: the begining of the opera, the first allusion to Herod and his court, and the prophet's first intervention. C-sharp returns when Narraboth notices that Salome is leaving the banquet. However, the princess does not appear in C-sharp but in its subsidiary key, A major (at 20^). The A-major passage contains two interesting middleground presentations of one of the most important motives in the opera: the melodic tritone A-E-f lat (see Example 2.1) .3 i A t 29^, when Salome alludes to the moon, the music moves back to D-flat (enharmonic equivalent of C-sharp). Jochanaan's second intervention marks the return of C and the beginning of a second surrounding pattern. The expected D-minor completion of this pattern takes place at 35^ with the Slave's interruption and Salome's refusal to come back to the banquet (where many Jews are present). Once again, the three members of the chromatic surrounding pattern have emphasized musically three important dramatic events: Salome's entry, Jochanaan's second intervention (the one that arouses Salome's interest), and the entry of the Slave (and his reference to the banquet, and thus to Herod and the Jews). After Salome's refusal, the music suddenly returns to C-sharp. It will remain in this region for the rest of the scene, except for some excursions in the region of C: Jochanaan's use of F and G (at 40 and 41^, respectively), two allusions to the cistern in E-flat minor (at 45^ and 52), and one cadence in C under the First Soldier's "wir diirfen nicht tun, was ihr von uns begehrt" (at 471^). The first allusion to the cistern is particularly interesting: it is preceded by a dominant of D and one expects a cadence in that key, which would be quite surprising dramatically, since D minor is constantly associated with Herod and his entourage. Instances o f this motive and of a few of its transpositions are identified in the fo l lowing examples by brackets above the staff. Example 2.2 shows how the first orchestral interlude is organized around a third example of chromatic surrounding. It begins in A (the key of Salome's arrival on stage) and quickly moves towards C and E-flat, two keys consistently associated with Jochanaan. The pattern is completed at 63 with an emphatic statement of the dominant seventh of D. But the resolution of this dominant is displaced chromatically to E-flat in order to create another tritone motive. Example 2.2: Salome, r.n. 59 - 140+9, tonal structure 59 60 6<}^\f 62 63 65 66 ÔT* 68 6S« 6 9 " 7 )5 73 74 76 785 7315 80 8 0 ' 83 85 8 9 ' ' 9 l ' I V I , ( A V - ^ ^D\> ^ ^ _ ^ ^ ^ D l » (A) C | . , ^ c c<^<^- c<cZZ^ 9 1 ' 9 4 " 9 6 1 0 : ' I 0 2 109 113 114 1225122'" 125 I I S ' I M ^ I272 l2T '1293 l30 132 134 134'<'135 135 "136 1375139' 140 ' l _ V j i _ V j L V J L V J I V II Db^- ( E ) — D l . (G) D Dl . (E) (Eb) C (Eb) (Ab) V / B V / B k I V I l l V I v / B k iffi Db B'(F<t) Jochanaan enters in his characteristic key of C major. The move to B major at 66 marks a temporary chromatic shift of the tonal centre from C-sharp to C and the beginning of a chromatic surrounding pattern around this new centre.^^ j i ^ s central 32 This shift o f center is mirrored in Example 2.2 by a change in the notation. In the second measure of the first l ine, members of the C group o f keys are notated in quarter notes and members of the C-sharp and B groups are notated in eighth notes. role conferred to C is dramatically motivated, since Jochanaan now becomes the centre of attention. The surrounding pattern around C is completed just before 69, with the strong cadence in D-flat/C-sharp that concludes Jochanaan's statement. This chromatic surrounding pattern is thus also linked to the evolution of the drama. The D-flat major triad of 68^0 prepares for Salome's short intervention of the following measure, confirming the association between that key and the princess. After Salome's question and Narraboth's answer, the music immediately returns to C for Jochanaan's next contribution, at 69^. C remains the central key until 71^, which marks the beginning of the descending fifths progression C-sharp-F-sharp-B. At the end of this progression (76), Salome sings "Er ist schreckUch" over a B-major triad, initiating a second surrounding pattern around C. This surrounding pattern is completed with the strong cadence in D-flat/C-sharp just before 79 (under the word "moon"). C-sharp and its subsidiary key A major govern the ensuing passage, which is the only real dialogue between Salome and Jochanaan in the opera (from 79 to 91). The F-sharp major harmony at 89^ is used as a pivot to move from C-sharp to B, with the subdominant becoming the dominant. The resolution on B finally comes at 91, which marks the beginning of Salome's three-part aria. This succession of C-sharp and B is analyzed in Example 2.2 as a third specimen of surrounding of C, but with an absent centre. This third example of surrounding also differs from the first two because both neighbours seem to have equal importance. In the first two surroundings, C-sharp was given much more weight than B, a key that has a very limited role in the opera as a whole. Here, however, the absence of the centre C seems to have required an equal treatment for both neighbours. Salome's three-part aria and its coda (until the second orchestral interlude, which marks the separation between the two parts of the opera) are mainly oriented towards C-sharp.^^ The first part of the aria goes from B major to F-sharp major. The latter key permits a return to C-sharp/D-flat for the second part of the aria, at 102. The third part of the aria is in E major, the mediant of C-sharp. The coda (from 122^0 to 1409) gravitates around D-flat, its dominant A-flat, and C-sharp. Its beginning is marked by a local surrounding pattern: the coda begins on the dominant D-flat with Salome's "Ich wil l deinen Mund kiissen", followed, when Narraboth decides to ki l l himself (125), by a very strong E-flat minor triad, and, immediately following the latter, by a dominant of D. After this, there are only two short excursions outside the C-sharp realm (at 132 and 136). This section also contains many large-scale examples of the tritone motive, this time transposed to D-f lat-G, D-A-flat, and F - B . These are identified by brackets in Example 2.2.34 This long stretch of music organized around the tonic C-sharp and without important surrounding could have been motivated by the previous shift of centre towards C. It is as if Strauss needed to re-stabilize the music and to re-affirm C-sharp as the real tonic of the work. Dramatically, this section also releases some of the tensions that have been accumulating in the three-part aria. Example 2.3 shows how the second orchestral interlude (the first measure of the example) can be analyzed in C-sharp minor. There is another specimen of chromatic surrounding: at 143^^, where one of Jochanaan's motives is presented over a marked dominant of D, itself connected by voice leading to the tonic of C minor 33 In the second line o f Example 2.2, the notation returns to its original state: the C-sharp area is notated in quarter notes, the C and D areas in eighth notes. 34 Salome's three-part aria, its introduction, and its coda are analyzed in detail in Chapter 3. (1448). This C is prolonged by a chain of minor thirds: C-E-flat-F-sharp. F-sharp is then connected chromatically to the dominant of C-sharp minor. The final resolution comes at 148'^. Example 2.3: Salome, r.n. 141 - 163+7, tonal structure 141 142'0 14310 1448 145 147 148' 151 152^ 154'» 156 157 159 161^ 163' i ^ v , . i > i - i t ^ i i H r o 1 . . '—' rTlS^. i.,h,it> , 1 . - I C j J — - ( E ) < 4 ^ C « — C c The second part of the opera begins at the barline dividing Example 2.3 into two segments. 35 After a quick move to the dominant of C at 152^, the music reaches D minor at the beginning of the fourth scene (154^), introducing important motives associated with the Jews. This arrival completes another surrounding pattern. As shown in Example 2.3, D is then prolonged by another chain of minor thirds ( D - F - G -sharp-B). Inserted into this chain, there is a strong presentation of the C-major triad in first inversion to accompany Herodias's interruption at 156^. This C-major triad (Herodias) can be interpreted as part of a chromatic surrounding pattern which includes the above-mentioned D (cortesponding with the arrival on stage of Herod and his court) and, at the end of Herod's answer to Herodias, the centre E (subsidiary of C-sharp), represented by its dominant triad (itself the end of the minor-third chain). This dominant of E is prolonged until its return at 1615. The music then moves to C, followed by its dominant at 163^. The passage from 151 to 207 is analyzed in detail in Chapter 5. As in the first part of the opera, C then becomes a temporary centre, although for a shorter period of time. After of C at 164, the bass reaches C, harmonized by a diminished-seventh chord, at 166^. This C is then confirmed as stable at 167, but here the triad is in first inversion. As shown in Example 2.4, the next important tonicization comes at 171^. This time it is F-sharp minor, a member of the C-sharp group of keys, that is emphasized, after a descending bass line E-E-f lat-D-C-sharp and an authentic cadence. F-sharp is then reinterpreted as VA^ in E and followed by the dominant and the tonic of the latter key, at the beginning of Herod's short three-part aria. The C-sharp area has not been left yet. The last element of the surrounding pattern around C comes at the end of the first section of Herod's aria (175), thus at another structural articulation, with the authentic cadence in B major, lower chromatic neighbour of C. Example 2.4: Salome, r.n. 164 - 210, tonal structure 164 166 1 67 169 170 V — - | ^ 17l3 172 • > • 1 724 175 1763 1777 1794 igQS 1823 1^32 155 1356 ^T' ' ^ l ; ^ ^ — J ^ r I'-^ .N 1 « q m) (E) (Ab) G 188 189 1903 I9 i2 i923 193 1944 1952 (A) a 2022033 2072094 210 • D -Eb (Eb) C The second part of Herod's aria begins in F (at 176^) and ends in that key (at 179^), after a short excursion to the dominant, C (at 177^). We are thus back to the centre of the surrounding pattern. C-sharp is then regained through its submediant. The tonic is reached at the end of the third part of Herod's aria (1832). This C-sharp is also chromatically surrounded: Jochanaan's mtervention ("Sieh, die Zeit ist gekom-men") leads to C (185^) and D minor is presented at 189, marking the beginning of the Quintet of the Jews. Once again, the members of the chromatic surrounding pattern have been placed at important articulation points. This Quintet has a very important role in the tonal structure of the opera. While in the first part Strauss had used a temporary centre C for an important section emphasizing Jochanaan, here, in the second part, he organizes another long section, this one emphasizing the Jews, around a temporary centre D.36 One could thus see a very large-scale chromatic surrounding pattern involving C-sharp, the main key of the opera, the temporary C centre of the first part and this temporary D centre of the second part. The tonic D of the Quintet is first decorated by C-sharp at the close of the Second Jew's contribution (19l2). The second time C-sharp appears as lower neighbour (in the form of the dominant of D-flat, at the end of the Third Jew's intervention), however, it initiates a chromatic surrounding pattern that wil l be completed from 207 to 208^ with the dominant of E-flat. In Example 2.4, the key of E-flat is interpreted as a pivot in an absti-act "modulation" between the area of D and that of C. This is why, in the second line of Example 2.4, diere is a passage where D is notated as a quarter note. There follows another stabilizing section, albeit more chromatic than the previous one, which took place between 102 and 141 (see Example 2.5). First, D-flat is reached through C (210) and A-flat (2118) during the Nazarenes' retelling of the Messiah's story. Second, Jochanaan, from his cistern, utters a number of dramatic prophecies. Here, the music is highly chromatic, but it still belongs to the C-sharp/D-flat area. It starts in E minor (at 215^) and ends in D-flat major at the end of Herodias's first interruption ("du duldest es, dass er die schmahe, die dein Weib ist"). The second part of Jochanaan's prophecies brings the music to A-flat minor through another presentation of the tritone motive (second bracket above the staff in Example 2.5). Example 2.5: Salome, r.n. 210 - 247+8, tonal structure 2 : t l 21 l82 l2S213 " ' 214 2 I 5 2 I 5 ' 2 I 6 2 21732195 220 221^ 222 223 ' 225 227 2 2 9 2 3 0 ' 231 ' '242* 243 244 246 I 1 S^'?L, . • i i ^ , L . . 7 - 1 h - i . - . i . ' • ^ ^ p i , . n - ' •'• ^ - i , . - - l ' ^ - ' p ' y - ^ : p I ,bn V,, V II.IPVIVm V i , " " ( A t ) Db (E) Db (A) (F(t) (F|?)A C ( A b ) (F) (Eb) C (Eb) This is followed by Herod's first "Tanz fiir mich, Salome", which, as indicated by the first bracket below the staff in Example 2.5, begins a cadential movement in F. Herod does not have time to finish: he is immediately interrupted by Herodias and Sa-lome. His second attempt ("Salome, Tochter der Herodias, tanz fiir mich") cadences in A minor (225) and is followed by a chromatic passage. The next clear cadence occurs between 229 and 230^. It is a dominant-tonic progression in E-flat minor, the key that accompanies Herod's oath and may thus be termed the opera's key of death. This cadence in E-flat minor marks a departure from the area of C-sharp towards the area of C. C becomes the tonic at 231^ (under Herod's "Konigreich"). From 233 to 243, it is prolonged chromatically in a very complex passage that reflects Herod's mental instabihty. A t 243, the dominant triad in second inversion accompanies Salome's "Ich wiU fiir dich tanzen". Then, at 244, it goes back to the tonic triad in second inversion. The bass note G is held until 245^, where it descends to E-flat through a passing F. E -flat is decorated by its dominant at 246. The music then seems to be going towards the key of F-sharp, but this key is not conflrmed since the dance begins immediately, in A minor. To sum up what happens in the passage analyzed in Example 2.5, one can say that, first, there is a stabilization of D-flat (C-sharp). Then follows a very chromatic stretch of music in which are inserted tonal markers. These can be quick cadences (complete or incomplete), emphasized chords, or pedals. These markers refer constantiy to the areas of C-sharp and C. In a certain way, therefore, there is not one general tonic for this chromatic passage but two candidates that are treated on a nearly equal footing. The dance is in three parts, all strongly anchored in the C-sharp area: the outer sections are in A minor and the inner one is in C-sharp (first minor, then major). As shown in Example 2.6, it is followed by a connecting passage that leads to the domi-nant of G at 253. The resolution of this chord is displaced chromatically to A-flat, which becomes the dominant of D-flat. The latter tonic finally arrives at 253^. This arrival on D-flat, under the last word of Herod's "meine Reichtiimer gehoren dir", marks the beginning of the first chromatic surrounding pattern since the end of the Quintet of the Jews. D-flat major first progresses to E major (under Salome's "den Kopf des Jochanaans"). Herod's first hurried refusal brings the music to D minor (at 255^), the key in which Salome reminds Herod of his oath. Herod's next intervention begins with a cadence in E-flat minor, subsidiary key to C and the last member of the surrounding pattern. Example 2.6: Salome, Dance - r.n. 279, tonal structure Dance 24« 24Ç|3 ISC'* 2 5 2 ' 253 2545 255 255 ' 257 257 ' 260S 261 262 267 270 '3 274 '2765 278 279 F Î T — 1 4 ' 7 r ^ -[m] 1 V I (A)C#(A> Dl Herod's intervention ends on the dominant of E-flat (260^). His next entry, at 262, begins on the dominant of C-sharp, resolved deceptively to E major at 262^. There follows a chromatic passage that ends on an E-flat minor triad at 267. This triad is then followed by a dominant-tonic progression in C major. Herod's offer of an emer-ald then brings the music to E-flat major (27013). The introduction to Herod's second offer (his peacocks) emphasizes the dominant seventh of A major, subsidiary key of C-sharp (at 2749).37 The next cadence, in E-flat major, comes at 278, at what seems to be the end of the second offer. But the harmonic progression does not stop here: the 3'^  The passage from 274^ to 286 is analyzed in detail in Chapter 6. E-flat major triad is reinterpreted as b l l in D minor and is followed by a dominant-tonic progression in that key. We therefore have another example of chromatic surrounding, this time involving two subsidiary keys. Interestingly, these two keys are A and E-flat, the two members of the ever-present tritone motive in its original transposition. The D-minor cadence at 279 initiates a new surrounding of C-sharp/D-flat (see Example 2.7). C comes at 284 and D-flat at 286^, with the beginning of Herod's third offer (jewels). Salome's renewed demand for Jochanaan's head at 297 brings back E-flat minor. Herod finally acquiesces, bringing the music to D minor (at 300) in still another chromatic surrounding of the main key. Example 2.7: Salome, rn. 279 - 314, tonal structure 279 280 28152822 284 286 287 289 290 291 292293 29711 304» 313'' D vs. -(E\>)--(E\>) C D is held as a pedal in the bass until 304^, where it moves up to E-flat. The latter is also held as a slightly decorated pedal for quite a long time. A t 313, i.e. just before Jochanaan's head is brought on stage, the music presents a striking superim-position of C and C-sharp. This verticalization of the two main conflicting tonics of the opera creates maximal tonal tension for the beginning of Salome's monologue. This tension wil l dissipate only at 315^, with the resolution to the C-sharp minor triad under the words "ich werde ihn jetzt kiissen". Examples 2.8 and 2.9 show that Salome's monologue remains centred on C-sharp (and its subsidiary keys A , G-sharp, and F-sharp) throughout The first important excursion outside this region takes place at 329^, when Salome says "Nun wohl! Ich lebe noch, aber du bist tot und dein Kopf gehort mir". Here the music goes towards C and A-flat minor. The second move towards C, at 342"^, is part of a chromatic surrounding of C-sharp. It accompanies the words "Hâttest du mich gesehn, du hattest mich geliebt". C-sharp is brought back to harmonize the words "Ich hungre nach deinem Leib". The final member of the surrounding, D, is reached at 345^, under the words "Was soli ich jetzt tun, Jochanaan?" Example 2.8: Salome, r.n. 315 -342+7 , tonal structure 315322 324 325 326 328 329 330 ' 332''333 335 337 3393 34 1 3 4 2 ' c t ( G j t ) After this D-minor triad, the bass line moves chromatically to the dominant of C-sharp. E-flat is reached at 345"^, E (presented as the root of the dominant seventh chord in the key of A) at 346^, F at 347, F-sharp (spelled as G-flat) at 347^, G at 347^0^ and G-sharp at 348 (under the words "du hâttest mich geUebt"). From 350^ to 358 Strauss prolongs a diminished seventh chord. This passage contains Herod's interruption of the monologue. What follows is the fmal cadence of the opera. First, the subdominant of C-sharp is presented at 358, then the dominant at 359, and, finally, the major tonic at 360^. Example 2.9: Salome, r.n. 342+7 - end, tonal structure 342' ' 344 3455 348 350* 358 359 ^Y'— ,.-1 ->—'TF q 1 ^ D — (A) c # — ( F # > — -^ C Tonally speaking, the opera could close with this cadence. But Strauss still has to set Salome's death sentence. To do so, he decides to very quickly recapitulate what has been one of the main organizing forces in the opera: chromatic surrounding. At 361^ there is a D-minor triad and the dominant of C , which is itself presented in the next measure. The opera ends in C minor. The tonal structure of Salome has thus been shown to rely on two main featores: the conflict between a main tonic (C-sharp) and an aspiring tonic (C) and the surrounding of the main tonic by its two chromatic neighbours. Sole reliance on a "double-tonic" theory would give a particularly static view of the work's structure. The introduction of the concept of chromatic surrounding in the analysis of this structure permits a much more dynamic view of the unfolding of the piece over time. Chapter 3 The Salome-Jochanaan Scene 3.1 General form The aria that marks the encounter between Salome and Jochanaan in the third scene is without any doubt one of the major sections of the opera and one of the prime examples of the type of chromatic music associated with Salome. The aria itself extends from the third measure of 91 to the tenth measure of 122. It is preceded by a long introduction that begins with Jochanaan's entrance (ninth measure of 65) and is followed by a coda that ends with Jochanaan's return to his cistern (ninth measure of 140). Strauss, in accordance with Wilde's text, divides the aria into three parts, sepa-rated by transitional passages. First (91^-96), Salome declares that she loves Jochanaan's body ("Ich bin verliebt in deinen Leib, Jochanaan!") and demands to touch it. In the first transition (96-101^), Jochanaan refuses, triggering a violent reaction from Salome ("Dein Leib ist grauenvoU"). Second (101^-109), Salome shifts her at-tention to Jochanaan's hair ("In dein Haar bin ich verliebt, Jochanaan") and demands to touch it. In the second transition (109-113), Jochanaan refuses once again, eliciting Salome's violent response ("Dein Haar ist grasslich!"). Finally (113-122^), and climactically, Salome declares her love for Jochanaan's mouth ("Deinen Mund begehre ich, Jochanaan") and demands to Iciss it. This is followed by a shortened transition (122^-1229), marking Jochanaan's renewed refusal and leading directly into the coda. The music of this aria is also exemplary of that of the first part of the opera, i.e., before the entrance of Herod and his court. Although highly chromatic at times, it remains unquestionably tonal, even if the general tonal direction often remains particularly ambiguous. The main problem here is not, as in so much music of the turn of the century, a lack of clear cadential definition of a tonal centre, but rather the great number of such cadences, creating an extremely variegated pattern of tonal centres that resists easy and convincing hierarchization. Carpenter (1989, 97-8), in an attempt to find as much evidence as possible for an organization around the two keys of C and C-sharp (and their upper and lower thirds), sees the entire third scene in C major. However, her Example 3 and her very short discussion of the scene do not offer sufficient rationale for this interpretation, which therefore remains puzzling. It is of course true that the scene begins with a clear statement of the C-major triad, but this does not justify an ascription of C as global tonic. Rather, it is by way of noticing a gravitation around the keys of B and C-sharp/D-flat, and thus in terms of a concept of chromatic surrounding, as explained in Chapters 1 and 2, that the choice of C as tonal centre takes on real meaning. We have seen in Chapter 2 that chromatic surrounding may be observed at deep levels of the structure. The following analysis wi l l show that this phenomenon is also found at levels that are less remote from the surface. The first part of the aria (913) is written in B major, the lower chromatic neighbour of C. It ends (at 94 ' l ) on a cadence in the key of the dominant (F-sharp), followed by a short codetta ending (at 96) on a cadence in A major (which has already often been associated with C-sharp). As can be seen in Example 3.2, B major is strongly prefigured in the introduction. A major, a key consistently associated with Sa-lome, is alluded to at 69 and 80, where the music echoes Salome's entrance at the beginning of Scene 2 (20^). The first transition (from 96 to 101^) brings the music to the dominant of the dominant of B , in the form of the key of D-flat major, itself the key of the second part of the aria and the upper chromatic neighbour of C. Ending in D-flat (at lOT^^), this section is also followed by a short codetta, which cadences in G major, the dominant of C, at 109. After briefly alluding to the key of A-flat (functioning as the upper chromatic neighbour of G) at 110, the second transition soon becomes extremely chromatic. Strauss leads the music to the dominant of E major (at 113), thus preparing for the third part of the aria, a closed structure in E major, the subdominant of B . The ensuing short codetta leads, at 122^, to E's upper chromatic neighbour F (which is also the subdominant of C) . The coda to the whole section begins on the dominant of D-flat (at 122^^) and moves up sequentially to the dominant of E (at 127^). This is followed by a contrasting section beginning in A-flat at 130 (Jochanaan's sermon), fmally leading to a conclusion in D-flat/C-sharp (at 140^). Example 3.1 presents a schematic interpretation of the tonal structure of the aria. It also shows how Strauss uses chromatic surrounding around C as a structural principle. ^  Another, more Lewin ian , interpretation would state that the key structure is governed by "wedging" towards E (for more on "wedging-to-E", see L e w i n 1987, 124-29). If one includes the small Example 3.1: Chromatic surrounding in Salome's aria 91 codeda transition II codetta transition in codetta sermon and conclusion 95 96 102 108 1 09 113 122 1 23 141 I wi l l now present summary discussions of the outer sections of the scene and more detailed analyses of each formal division of the aria. Some of the problems en-countered during this analysis w i l l lead into discussions of broader technical questions. 3.2 From the appearance of Jochanaan to the beginning of the aria Jochanaan's appearance on stage is marked by a motive of majestic character. Harmonically, this motive, which is called "Jochanaan, der Bussprediger" by Taubmann codettas, the first part of the aria begins in B and ends in A ; the second one starts in D-flat (+ 2 semitones) and ends in G (- 2 semitones); the third part is slightly irregular since it starts in E (+ 3 semitones) to end in F (- 2 semitones). (1907) and which wUl reappear later in the third scene as well as in the rest of the work, is characterized by an enharmonic modulation to the lower chromatic neighbour. As can be seen at the beginning of Example 3.2, the music moves from the tonic of C major to the tonic of B major, by means of an enharmonic reinterpretation of the dominant seventh chord on G , the dominant of C, as a German sixth chord in the key of B.2 Motion between semitonally related keys thus immediately acquires motivic character. The arrival of B major is marked by a presentation of a very important motive, generally called "prophet" motive. The first six notes of the "Bussprediger" motive reappear melodically in the bass at 67 and permit a repetition of Jochanaan's "prophet" motive in E-flat minor (see the bracketed notes in Example 3.2). This passage is followed, at 68, by the next harmo-nized presentation of the complete "Bussprediger" motive, this time in D and D-flat major, after an authentic cadence in D major. The triumphant C major that had marked the beginning of the scene (65^) has now been surrounded by its two chromatic neigh-bours, B (66) and D-flat (68^). At this point, B begins to acquire structural weight. The music cadences in that key at 76, after an elaborate sUpping from C minor. The cadence is followed by tonicizations of E-flat minor and D, the upper thirds of B. This triggers another presentation of the "Bussprediger" motive in D and D-flat at 78^. Taking note of these tonal events, the introduction to the aria can be interpreted as a closed structure in B major. This key is repeatedly emphasized: at the opening of the scene for the In a l l analytical reductions presented in this dissertation, accidentals apply unti l they have been cancelled by a natural sign, a barhne, or a change of system. presentation of Jochanaan's prophet motive, at 76 for Salome's "Er ist schrecklich", at 83^ for Jochanaan's "Zuriick, Tochter Babylons!", and at the begiiming of the aria. Other important keys are C-sharp (or D-flat), D, E-flat, and A . The latter (even, some-times, as a simple chord) is consistently attached to Salome. Examp le 3.2: Salome, r .n. 66 - 89, harmonic analysis 66 67 C: 1 V B: bV I V I I V D: Cj l/Dl. : 68 69 70 71 73 74 (iii) k V I V V I V bV I V I I.VI a [V] iv 76 77 78 79 80 B : I E t : D: A : (C)-m iv yi 1 i V b V I V I D [V] V I A 83 85 86 87 89 C : V A : V B : V Cjt/Dl.: Fjt/Gl. : A k V I 6 5 4 3 V I V V vi V vi (Q-(B) (B) Example 3.2 also shows how Strauss uses large-scale harmonizations of the chromatic scale to create transitional passages. The first instance of this technique is found between 69'* and 71^; the second, which shares some of the first one's motives, between 83^ and 85. Here, the chromatic scales are operative below the surface and organize sizeable sections of music. A t other places, Strauss uses the chromatic scale as a unifying feature of the surface. This is clearly the case at the opening of the opera, where two chromatic scales (the first one from G-sharp5 to D5, the second one from E5 to D7) are layered over the rest of the music from ra. 1 to m. 29. Middleground harmonizations of the chromatic scale are also the most important unifying technique in the second type of chromatic music used in the opera (i.e., that associated with Herod and the Jews), as w i l l be seen in Chapter 5. Quite often, modulations are abrupt and created through apparently unsystematic successions of dominants, enharmonic reinterpretations of diminished-seventh chords, chromatic displacements of tones of resolution, and reinterpretations of double-dominant harmonies. The two latter techniques wil l be discussed in detail later in this chapter. A t 89, the music finally reaches the dominant of B . This dominant is then prolonged for 19 measures, until 912. Its resolution to the tonic at 91^ marks the beginning of Salome's three-part aria. 3.3 The first part of the aria The first part of the aria begins in B major at 91^ and ends in the key of the dominant, F-sharp major, at 9 4 l l . Although its first 19 measures are tonally conven-tional, consisting of an alternation of tonic and dominant harmonies, the music that follows presents one of the most typically Straussian ways of transforming simple background progressions into complex surface ones. As can be seen in the reduction of Example 3.3, at 9?P the VA^ harmony of the previous measure is suddenly transposed to the upper semitone, effecting a tonal shift towards G major, a key that is immediately confirmed by two dominant-tonic motions. Strauss then treats the harmony sequentially: the G-major harmony of 93^ is equivalent to the B-major harmony of 93; it goes first to the minor supertonic, then to V/V (or dominant of D). Once again, he transposes this dominant abruptly to the upper semitone (dominant of E-flat) at 94^. There follows a chain of such transpositions, involving the dominants of E (94^) and F (94^). The latter resolves to its tonic in second inversion, but only temporarily, since Strauss reinterprets the F enharmonically as E-sharp and transforms the harmony into a dominant of F-sharp. The latter finally resolves to its tonic for the final cadence. Examp le 3.3; Salome, r .n. 91 - 95 , reduction and analysis 9 2 ^ 93 94 i _ ^ F — J B: I (V) I (V) I i i V A ' V G ; V I (V) I i i V A ' Fft: V/D V/Eb V/El lV/F V I As shown by the long stems in the upper staff of Example 3.3, the whole can be interpreted as a large-scale arpeggiation of a B-raajor triad in the upper voice.^ A t 93^, an inner voice is projected to a high B which covers the structural upper-voice D-sharp. From 938 to 94^, the high B is decorated by its lower neighbours A and B-flat and by its upper neighbour C, while, as shown in the Example, the structural upper voice twice ascends chromatically to E-sharp (the first time spelled as F), leading tone of the final F-sharp. A t 94^0, both upper voices are connected by the descending line B - A -sharp-G-sharp-F-sharp. The tonal logic of this passage can be explained more clearly with the help of a two-stage model like the one shown in Example 3.4. Example 3.4a gives the most basic interpretation. It is entirely in B major and accounts for all large-scale connections. The third scale degree in B major, D-sharp, is decorated by its lower chromatic neighbour, D-natural, itself harmonized, through mixture, by the lowered sixth scale degree. In Example 3.4b, the tonic harmony of 3.4a is followed by V/V and V/bVI. Then, the bVI harmony of 3.4a, I in the key of G, is followed, sequentially, by its own V/V and V/bVI. The latter chord is then transposed thrice upwards by semitone to reach the dominant of F-sharp. Example 3.4c, which is equivalent to Example 3.3, permits the comparison with the actual reaUzation, which makes use of many registral displacements. This arpeggiation involves B (92), D-sharp (93), and F-sharp (94^^). A less orthodox, but sti l l interesting interpretation would see an arpeggiation involv ing B (92), D-sharp (93), the high covering B (93 )^, and F-sharp (941 )^. The resulting B -D-sharp -B -F - sha rp is, o f course, one of the main motives of the opera and is also presented at the beginnmg of this passage (92). Example 3.4: Salome, r.n. 9 1 - 9 5 , two-stage model bvi r V A ' V b. M i t 1 ' j — 1t« LJ^^\,^> fats . f l f • t l t I ' ^ l r i ' ^ up r — B : I VA? [V]I>VI V A ' V G : V 1 V A ' V/b VI V/E V/F sequence c. 92 93 94 1 J ^ m» r i r • In* • j w " * * — \.u\-^ „ = w B : I G : (V) I (V) I _ — ^ i i V A ' [V]1.VI V I (V) I i i V A ' V A V I V A ' V/El iV/F V 1 ' Example 3.5 offers another interpretation of the same passage. Here, the VA^ in B connects by chromatic voice exchange to the major-minor seventh chord in first inversion on D. Cadences involving as predominant a major-minor seventh chord on the thkd scale degree are frequent in Salome. Finally, the bass D (the lowered sbcth scale degree in F-sharp) descends to C-sharp at the same time as F is reinterpreted enharmonically as E-sharp. This interpretation expresses clearly the rising structural voice B-D-sharp-F-sharp mentioned above. Example 3.5: Salome, r.n. 91 - 9 5 , alternate interpretation 9 2 5 P 3 ^< 94 •m r I — ' B: I (V) I (V) I i i V A ' I I W V A ' V We thus have two concurrent models of this passage. The analyst should not necessarily have to choose between these two interpretations. It is in a large measure because of the great complexity and high level of ambiguity of its tonal relationships, combined with subtle uses of syntactic double entendre, that this passage achieves its particular effect. The models presented in Examples 3.4 and 3.5 have definite advantages for analysis. They permit a better understanding of the composition of chromatic passages. Complex successions of harmonies, involving many different keys in equivocal relationships, can be reduced to simpler, more standard tonal progressions. Actual complex surfaces are thus interpreted as tiansformations of simpler backgrounds. This approach confronts the analyst with two major problems. First, it is theoretically possible to show that any passage is a transformation of any other, i f enough transformations are introduced. Second, it is often very difficult to tell if a passage has really been organized in such a way. However, i f the analyst is able to use basic musical transformations, such as transposition, or parenthetical interpolation, to derive a simpler model that preserves the sense of the original, the model's use should constitute a basis for interesting and vahd interpretation of the surface. In the case of the passage just described, only two transformations, transposition at the upper semitone and interpolation by mixture, have been invoked. Example 3.6 gives a harmonic reduction of the short coda that follows the cadence in F-sharp major and of the first part of the subsequent transition. The music is brought to a cadence in A major, Salome's key of the introduction, at 96. This is done by transposing the F-sharp major triad (V in the key of B and bVI in the key of B -flat) down by one semitone, introducing a D-sharp to create an German-sixth chord (which is enharmonically equivalent to a dominant seventh chord in the key of B-flat, the latter acting as a kind of transitional key) and resolving it on a cadential 6/4 in A major. Example 3.6: Salome, r.n.95 - 96, harmonic nsduction iPhh 1 l i C • 1 — • r r = *-r 1" B: V Bb : I. VI V A : bV I V I 3.4 The first transition Jochanaan's part of the first transition begins with the tonic of A major, followed by a linear 4/2 chord that leads chromatically into the dominant ninth chord of F-sharp. This dominant is reinterpreted as a German sixth of F, which resolves to a C-major triad, the dominant of F. The following outburst by Salome (98) is the most intensely chromatic and tonally ambiguous event thus far. Motives are piled one upon the other over a succession of chromatic sonorities and a potentially functional bass Une. After an upbeat C, the bass distorts the opening interval of the "Bussprediger" motive, moving deceptively to F-sharp (instead of G), and creating both a motivic tritone and a very clear example of chromatic displacement of an expected tone. This technique, which can be applied to one note, to a whole chord, or even to an entire phrase, has long been recognized as a typical Straussian device, especially at cadences; here the distortion is both of an established motive (descending fourths) and of an expected V-I cadence (in F major). Tenschert (Tenschert 1925) gives a number of examples of this technique.'^ Notwithstanding its highly chromatic character, this passage can be explained in tonal terms. However, in order to come to terms with its complexities, we wil l have to Three o f Tenschert's examples of chromatic displacement come from Salome. They involve measures 102^-102^, 360^-361, and 361^-361^. H is examples are of surface phenomena. Salome, however, is f i l led with such displacements, not only at the surface, but somethnes also at deeper structural levels, as shown in the second part of Chapter 2. A few surface occurrences have already been noticed. In example 3.2, they are indicated by a square bracket over the staff. The transpositions observed in the first part of die aria can also be understood as deceptive resolutions o f this type. investigate, in some detail, a very interesting aspect of tum-of-the-century tonal harmony. 3.4.1 Octatonicism Salome's outbursts between the first and second sections of the aria on the one hand, and the second and third on the other, have a very distinctive octatonic flavour. For most musicians today, the words "octatonic" and "octatonicism" evoke the music of Stravinsky, Scriabin, and Messiaen. To these names, probably because of recent writings on the subject, some may add Liszt and Rimsky-Korsakov. Octatonicism has been approached either historically or in a sui generis fashion. The confrontation between these two views of octatonicism has been growing ever since the publication, in 1983, of Pieter van den Toom's book on the music of Stravinsky (van den Toom 1983). In his book, van den Toom, building on a theory developed by Arthur Berger (Berger 1972), studied multiple facets of Stravinsky's octatonicism. He did not, however, specify the source of these practices, and thus implied that Stravinsky's use of the octatonic collection was totally original. In 1985, Richard Taruskin published his "Chemomor to Kashchei: Harmonic Sorcery; or, Stravinsky's Angle" (Taruskin 1985), in which he attributed the shared paternity of octatonicism to Liszt and Rimsky-Korsakov. Taruskin, in order to show that nineteenth-century composers were interested in symmetric divisions of the octave, also cited examples from Beethoven's Sixth Symphony and from a few works of Schubert. In another article (Taruskin 1987), Taruskin expanded on his theory of Russian origins for octatonicism, citing examples by Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin, and Steinberg. Van den Toom's response (van den Toom 1987) attempted to cast doubt on Taruskin's "historical" approach. Van den Toom simply refused to consider any octatonic practice prior to Stravinsky as worth mentioning. He finally argued that theorists do not need historical justification and base their judgments solely on their hearing and understanding. However, the problem of finding an origin—be it historical, geographical, or structural—for octatonicism still remains interesting. Another approach to the problem may be found in a recent essay by Allen Forte on Liszt's experimental idiom. Forte analyzes many passages of distinctive octatonic character, writing that this aspect of Liszt's music is "relevant to further research," and adding that "study of the experimental music with effective analytical method may illuminate certain facets of the more traditional diatonic music... where we find structures supposedly endemic to the experimental idiom appearing in the traditional language" (Forte 1987, 223-24). This is also the case with many other composers of the second part of the nineteenth century, Strauss among them. To understand the development of octatonicism, one has to realize that the "octatonic sound" was something that probably existed long before Stravinsky and Rimsky-Korsakov and in regions quite remote from Moscow or Saint-Petersburg. Indeed, the octatonic aspects of some tonal music of the beginning of this cenmry may be shown to have their origin in features inherent to traditional tonal harmony as practiced by composers of the first half of the nineteenth cenmry. Chapter 4 will present some aspects of octatonicism that are of special importance in Salome. Here, two main categories of tonal octatonic practice wiU first be identified. Then, an analytical model for Salome's outburst w i l l be presented. 3.4.2 Decorative vs. organic octatonicism It is possible to divide tonal octatonic practices into two general categories. The first wi l l be called "decorative" and the second "organic". A specimen of decorative octatonicism is shown in Example 3.7. It is the be-ginning of Olivier Messiaen's fifteenth Regard sur I'Enfant-Jésus, "Le Baiser de l'Enfant-Jésus". The excerpt is clearly in F-sharp major. The underlying harmony is very simple and consists of only four scale steps: I, V , IV, and II. Example 3.8 is a hypothetical rewriting of the passage without octatonic decorations. A comparison between Examples 3.7 and 3.8 shows how the fundamental har-monies are coloured (or ornamented) by means of the octatonic collection. Messiaen uses the three possible forms of that collection, which he calls "second mode à transpositions limitées", with their specific spellings: (C, C-sharp, D-sharp, E, F-sharp, G , A , A-sharp) is used with the tonic harmony (as in measures 1, 3, 5, 11, 13, and 15); its transposition up a semitone, (C-sharp, D, E , E-sharp, G, G-sharp, A-sharp, B) is used with the dominant (as in measures 2, 4, and on the last beat of 14); and its transposition up a whole tone, (C, D, D-sharp, E-sharp, F-sharp, G-sharp, A , B), with the dominant preparations (as in measures 12 and 14). A n example of organic chromaticism wil l be presented below. The division of octatonic practice into two categories has a number of distinct theoretical advantages. For example, the controversy about the "origin" of octatonicism would most probably benefit from a careful examination of the type of octatonic writing used in the examples discussed by van den Toom and Taruskin. One would probably realize that many of these examples, especially the early Russian ones, are instances of decorative octatonicism and should not be included in the same discussions as examples of octatonicism of an organic type. Because of its limited theoretical interest, decorative octatonicism wil l not be examined in greater detail here. The theoretical discussion of Chapter 4 will concentrate, rather, on instances of octatonicism which are of stmctural importance and which are the result of the appUcation of some standard tonal procedure or of a transformation of it. This is what could be called organic octatonicism. Salome's outburst is a very interesting example of this phenomenon. Example 3.7: OHvier Messiaen, Vingt Regards sur l'Enfant-Jésus, X V : Le Baiser de l'Enfant-Jésus J J . J J I l - - | - , „ 1 „ 1 1 pp pp ^ r F f F ^ U r fttf r -2 à 1 1 1 1 PPP s — ' PPP P > PP — ^ f t ' ^ i pp ^ h r - i < — 1 -r 7 - — P r 12 M P ^ m) si. ' Example 3.8: Ol iv ier Messiaen, Vingt Regards sur l'Enfant-Jésus, X V , hypothetical undecorated version m m pp pp ppp ppp J r j -PP PP pp , hr p rf g= IT ' " r A " * 1—1 'J ppp y/ 12 m 13 > m m p pp T to PP 3.4.3 Salome's outburst Salome's outburst in the first transition of her three-part aria is a good example of organic octatonicism. It can be interpreted as the result of a series of simple transformations applied to a standard tonal model. The octatonic sonorities and connections are thus quite different from the surface decorations of the example by Messiaen. Example 3.9: Salome, 98 - 102, generative mode l \i \ , 1 , 1 il L J J , , J t . S > Ci ^ H * — 1 — J b. L \J . • 1 ^ J 7J 1 J T L J J J u f f U * — 1 ^ ^ L N • \ B L—j_[ ZSi J iî J ^ • 98 99 100 101 102 \l J , 1 1 . 1 • ^ = . ^ - ^ ^ = t s c D E " 1 t i i ^ — ^ ^ ^ • A n interpretation of the harmony of Salome's outburst is given in Example 3.9. 3.9a is a sequence that connects the dominant of D-flat major and its tonic. In 3.9b, the minor triads of 3.9a are enhanced with added sixths, the C-major triad is presented in its first inversion and the fmal dominant seventh in second inversion, for voice-leading reasons. In Example 3.9c, two chromatic neighbors are added to each of the four-tone chords created in 3.9b and only the bass E of the C-raajor triad is preserved. The chord pairs labeled A and B are hexachordal octatonic subsets. The first one (labeled A) contains two notes of the diminished seventh chord (C, E-flat, F-sharp, A) and the entire (D, F, A-flat, B), while the other (labeled B) contains two notes of (D, F, A-flat, B) and the entire (D-flat, E , G , B-flat). Note also that, within chords A and B, the displacing chords are Tg-related to those they displace, a hallmark of octatonicism. In the next transformational stage, the first three bass notes are moved one position to the right, the G is deleted, and the E is moved two positions to the left Finally, the first sonority receives a bass G-flat. The result, which is also Strauss's harmony for the passage, is shown in figure 3.9d. The last move, i.e., the addition of the new bass note G-flat, has two advantages: it respects the general intervallic pattern of the bass and creates an octatonic combination chord (G-flat, E-flat, G , B-flat, D-flat) (labeled C).^ But the moves in the bass have generated other such combination chords. The chord over A-flat (labeled D) has two elements of (D, F, A-flat, B) and three of (C, E-flat, F#, A) , while the chord over the held E (labeled E) has two elements of (D-flat, E , G , B-flat) and three of (D, F, A-flat, B) . It is particularly interesting to note the thoroughness with which Strauss explores the possibilities of such combinations: he never uses the same consti-uction twice. The beginning of this transition was analyzed in an altogether different manner by German musicologist Herbert Windt in 1924 (Windt 1924, 648-49). Windt interprets For more on octatonic combination chords, see Chapter 4. the first two chords (and, seemingly, the entire transition) in F major. His analysis is worth quoting at length. Da ist im Grunde allés reines F-dur. Aus den Quarten des aufsteigenden Jochanaan-Motivs ergibt sich des Material des allerersten Akkordes im ersten Takt: die Quartenfolge a, d, g, c, f. Bis auf g alteriert Strauss allé Tone des F-dur um einen Halbton aufwârts, also ais, dis, g, cis, fis. Dire Umkehrung ergibt also Quinten aufwârts: fis, cis, g, dis, ais. Zu dem Auftakt c wirkt der unvermittelte Einsatz dieses alterierten Akkordes derart fremd und uberraschend (...). (Windt 1924, 648)^ Windt thus sees the fu-st chord as an alteration of a chord in fourths, itself a ver-ticalization of Jochanaan's fourths motive. Interestingly enough, this astonishing interpretation also uses transformations. However, those are certainly not simple tonal transformations and the resulting picture, which is actaally not very far from recent atonal theory, does not seem to suit the general tonal context of this particular work. 3.5 The second part of the aria The second part of the aria is a tonally closed structure in D-flat major. It begins at 102, ends at 108, and is 62 measures long. Although the large-scale tonal structure Basical ly , everything is in pure F major. The fourths of Jochanaan's motive furnish the material for the first chord of the first measure: the fourth-chain A , D , G , C, F. Except for G , Strauss transposes a l l members of F major by a semitone upwards: A-sharp, D-sharp, G , C-sharp, F-sharp. The inversion of this produces ascending fifths: F-sharp, C-sharp, G , D-sharp, A-sharp. After the upbeat C, the sudden arrival of this altered sonority seems foreign and astonishing. remains traditional, the surface of the music is in constant flux, as if expressing, at times, an inability to concentrate for more than a few measures on a specific key area. The first surprise comes at 102^, with the appearance of a D-major triad in a D-flat major context. Then, at 103^, there is an abrupt motion towards A major, followed by tonicizations of A-flat (1048), G-flat (105^), C (106), and D (107^). The music is cadencing repeatedly, and Strauss complicates matters by inserting some very ambiguous chordal successions (see 10613-14 and \01^-^^). However, the listener does not hear the music as dissonant and one feels that there is unity to this passage. The main problem confronting the analyst is thus to discover the internal logic of this apparently haphazard structure. Example 3.10 offers an interpretation of the structure of the middle section of the aria. The D-major triad mentioned above is explained as a harmonization of the upper chromatic neighbour of D-flat. The tonicization of A is reached through a chromatic voice exchange between outer voices and the reinterpetation of the B-flat major triad (1034) as the Neapolitan.^ On a larger scale, A harmonizes C-sharp, the enharmonic equivalent of the tonic D-flat, which is being prolonged throughout this passage. A-flat (104^) and C (106) harmonize the lower neighbour of D-flat. The diminished-seventh chord of 106^3 ^nd the triad of lOô^^ are harmonizations of the lower and upper neighbours of D in the bass, respectively. D itself harmonizes the upper chromatic neighbour of D-flat. D and B-f lat thus have analogous functions, being the Neapolitans of D-flat and A , respectively. The combination of C (106) and D (107) forms a substitute for the tonic by chromatic surrounding. The larger tonal motion is thus the following: I (102) -V(1048) - 1 (replaced by its chromatic neighbours C and D) - V (10712) - 1 (iQ-jUy Example 3.10: Salome, r .n. 102 - 109, reduct ion and analysis 102 103 104 105 106 ° » * d . m—^—1 ' —jta^T—; ËtS" D k A k : A : G b : C: w V b l l 106 V vi i i V I i i 107 J ^ - ^ III V [ 108 • I V] V ' r vi n i V I 109 ^•^ C: D: D l , : G : I i i [V] [V] i i i V i t V I I V I ^ V I To understand the generation of the numerous chromatic relationships in this passage, we wil l once again have recourse to a hypothetical standard model. One such model is given as Example 3.11. Its harmonic organization is perfectly traditional. If we compare Strauss's music and this model, we realize that, once again, the composer has used simple transpositional operations. First, triad A of the model is locally transposed at the upper semitone. Second, the third of triad B becomes major. Third, from triad C to chord D, a longer span of music is transposed at the upper semitone. Fourth, from chord E to triad F, everything is transposed at the lower semitone. Example 3.11: Salome, r .n. 102 - 108, hypothetical mode l 102 103 104 105 106 B C D i l F(vi V ) I V v i i i Db Ab Gb Db : 106 107 I " 7 i i [V] i i i i III V I [V] V 108 J * Ï F 1"^  ''''lA 1 i i m V I vi A comparison of Examples 3.10 and 3.11 demonstrates, in effect, that Strauss was using his technique of chromatic surrounding at a large-scale level. First, an entire section is transposed up to an upper chromatic neighbour. Second, another sizeable span of music is transposed to the lower chromatic neighbour. The small coda tonicizes G at 109. As shown in Example 3.12, this G then be-comes the root of an altered dominant chord, which resolves deceptively, by means of chromatic displacement, to a C-sharp minor triad in first inversion (109^). The C-sharp minor triad, after having been reinterpreted enharmonically as iv in the key of A-flat, moves to a cadential 6/4 chord (109^), which moves deceptively to the dominant sev-enth in third inversion, itself followed by the tonic (A-flat) at 110. Example 3.12: Salome, r.n. 109 - 110, harmonic reduct ion chromatic displacement For Salome's second outburst, Strauss reuses the first transition's material with sUght variations. A comparison of Examples 3.13 and 3.9d wUl show that he omits the resolution of chord A , the bass B-flat, and moves immediately from the dominant of D-flat to the dominant seventh of E (at 113), the key of the third part of the aria. We thus have another instance of a lU^-V^-I cadence, this time in E major. Examp le 3.13: Salome, r.n. 1 1 0 - 1 1 3 , harmonic reduction 110* 111 112 113 3.6 The third part of the aria The third part of the aria does not present any major problem of tonal structure. It begins and ends in E major and keeps to that key most of the time, as can be seen in Example 3.14. One can notice an instance of chromatic displacement between 116 and 117, when a major-minor seventh chord on D resolves to a dominant on G-sharp (instead of G). The allusion to G major at 116 harmonizes a chromatic passing tone between D-sharp and C-sharp. The G-major triad of 120^-121^ harmonizes the lower chromatic neighbour of the leading tone D-sharp. Examp le 3.14: Salome, r .n. 113 - 122, reduction and analysis 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 T ' ' — f E: V (V) »• V [ii V] V I iv i i V V : G : I V I C#: V i The reduction of Example 3.14 is not very detailed for the passage going from 117^ to 119. Example 3.15 affords a better look at this interesting transition. Examp le 3.15: Salome, r .n. 117+8 - 119, reduction and analysis 1178 1179 11710 1182 1183 1184 1186 ^ 1 119 u M A d \ 1 \ \ \ \ \—H r 'r t —If*-—fffr* 1*' • r r The different voices are quite difficult to follow at times because of numerous octave displacements. The example shows the progression without these displacements, reducing the music to a three-voice texture. Note values emphasize the sequential structure. The upper voice goes down from B to an inner voice G through a passing tone A . The rest of the passage regains the original B chromatically. This voice remains clear, since it is covered only once, at 118" .^ The middle voice starts on E and ends on G-sharp. Octave displacements are the rule. The lower voice connects C and E through D. Example 3.16 is a further reduction of the third part of the aria. The tonic E is prolonged for the entire unit. A descending fourth E - B operates the connection be-tween the upper voice and an inner voice. The C-sharp of this descending line is itself prolonged by a descending fourth C-sharp-G-sharp. Example 3.16: Salome, r.n. 113 - 122, further analyt ical reduction 113 rMA i t ^ 114 115 116 1 L ^ I km ^ ^ 17 118 L r J 1 1 , 120 122 —r- r — ^ P f - T p ' p r — H •f E : V I ^ f j i > r ; | vi r V I IV i i V I The passage analyzed in Example 3.16 is followed by a short coda tonicizing F. This note, F, w i l l become the starting point for the last section of the scene. 3.7 The coda The final section of the third scene begins (at 12210) and ends (at 140^) in D-flat/C-sharp, the main key of the opera. Strauss moves quickly through the dominants of D-flat (12211), D (1254), E-flat (1272), and E (1277). Each dominant is introduced by a diminished seventh chord. In Example 3.17, two triads that have been inserted by the composer into this sequence have been put in brackets to reflect their parenthetical character. E-flat minor accompanies Narraboth's "Ich kann es nicht ertragen!"; C minor marks his suicide. It is very interesting that Strauss uses triads that are completely outside the general progression but that are nevertheless related by chromatic voice leading or common tone in one of the parts to the harmonies around them. The dominant of E is connected to the dominant of G (1293) chromatic motion in the bass. A diminished seventh chord then leads to a very much emphasized dominant of A-flat. This dominant then resolves to its tonic. A t 133, the harmony mms abruptly, by chromatic displacement, to E, dominant of A . Another diminished seventh chord is used to get back to the dominant of E-flat at 134^. Chromatic displacement is then invoked twice in a row, the first time to reach the dominant of B , the second time the dominant of B-flat. Other instances of chromatic displacements are indicated by brackets in Example 3.17. Examp l e 3.17: Salome, r.n. 123 - 140, harmonic analysis 123 125 126 127 128129 130 131 132133 134 135 D b : V5 D: E b : E : G : A b : A : B b : B : °7 V3 , "7 V °7 V °7 V5 V "7 V< 3 ' I tv i V m 6 5 V* ' \f> 3 136 138 139 140 C: D b : D: I E : F: G b : G: B b : B : V I "1 V t °7 °1 V V ' i The main key of D-flat/C-sharp is reaffirmed through a new statement of the Bussprediger motive between 135 and 136. The following music (between 136 and 139) alludes to a great number of key areas and is, at the middleground, rather unstable. Strauss finally regains the tonic for Jochanaan's return to the cistern and the beginning of the orchestral interlude which wil l make the transition between the two main parts of the opera. 3.8 General melodic structure of the aria It is now possible to provide a melodically-based overview of the tonal structure of the three-part aria as a whole. If we go back to the analyses of Examples 3.4, 3.10, and 3.14, and to our discussion of the transitions, there emerges a picture that is reflected in Example 3.18. In the context of a chromatically surrounded C, which seems the most plausible interpretation for this scene, the upper-voice B of the beginning of the first part (92) is a seventh scale degree. This B goes quickly to D-sharp (93), which wil l remain the most important tone until F-sharp is reached at 95. But this F-sharp is only covering the primary melodic line, which goes to C-sharp at 96. This C-sharp is decorated by its lower chromatic neighbour C (98) and is regained, through Salome's first outburst, as D-flat at the beginning of the second part (102). During the second part, this D-flat is surtounded by its two chromatic neighbours. It then moves chromatically to D (109), E-flat (110) which becomes D-sharp (113), and E (114), the third scale degree of both C major and C-sharp minor. E is prolonged throughout the third part of the aria. Example 3.18: Salome, r .n. 92 - 122, reduction and analysis 92 93 95 96 98 102 108 f—^— r 'T^T ^ 108 109 110 113 114 117 120 122 If we now try to integrate the two outer sections of the third scene (see Exam-ples 3.2 and 3.17), we see that B has been presented at the outset of the scene and that the music has gravitated around it chromatically. The coda (see section 3.7) begins on F, upper neighbour of E , and a secondary Une is brought up to A-flat (132). This secondary line is then brought down chromatically to F (136), which is still active at 140^. It finally moves down to E, third scale degree of C-sharp minor, at the beginning of the orchestral interlude. Notwithstanding numerous chromatic extravagancies and tonal detours, this music can be shown to exhibit a reasonable degree of tonal unity in theory. It is also my impression that this unity can be experienced by listeners. Chromatic dis-placements, transpositions, and surroundings are most often heard as shadings of a fundamental tonal area. Moreover, because, in this music, half-step related keys can at times substitute for one another functionally, the Ustener is meant to confound the two, as would clearly not be the case in earlier music, and thus is bound to be less disoriented than would normally be expected by the numerous detours on the tonal road. Chapter 4 Octatonicism and Chromatic Harmony In this chapter, different ways of projecting the octatonic collection in a tonal context wi l l be explored. We wiU then concentrate on an important stage in the development of the theoretical awareness of octatonic phenomena in chromatic tonaUty. This discussion wil l lead to an investigation of some sonorities of octatonic character often found in the music of the turn of this century, including Salome. 4.1 The circle of fifths Root movement by descending fifth (or by ascending fourth) characterises pro-gressions of structural harmonies in tonal music. Especially important in this regard is the way of connecting a tonic chord to another tonic chord by the diatonic circle of fifths (I-rV-vii-iii-vi-ii-V-I). A chromatic version of this progression is also possible, one which goes through the enth-e circle of fifths, with major triads on I, IV, bVII, b i l l , bVI, b l l , #IV, VII, III, V I , II, V , and 1. In a recent article, Richard Cohn presents a very interesting example of this progression, taken from the second movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (Cohn 1991).i Figure 4.1 offers a four-stage model for the generation of this progression. C C C F Bb Eb Ab Db F# B E A D G C c F Bb Eb Ab Db F# B E A D G C c F Bb Eb Ab Db F# B E A D G C C D Eb F F# G# A B C A Bb C Db D# E F# G E F G Ab A# B C# D E C F Bb Eb Ab Db F# B E A D G C C C D Eb Eb F F# F# G# A A B C G A Bb Bb C Db C# D# E E F# G G E F F G Ab Ab A# B B C# D D E C F Bb Eb Ab Db F# B E A D G C Figure 4.1 : Generation of a chromatic progression through the circle of fifths The fo l lowing model has been developed after a long discussion with Prof. Cohn in 1987. The idea of such a model was partly proposed by h im . In stage 1, the roots of the triads are given to the bass and the tonic is assigned to one of the three other voices, in this case to the soprano. In stage 2, one distributes the three different dkninished-seventh chords (set 4-28) among the three upper voices, each voice receiving a different version of 4-28 and the notes being put in their re-spective columns, as determined by the bass voice. In stage 3, a leading tone (B) is generated in the soprano. The notes of the diminished-seventh chord (B, D, F, G#) are then distributed to this voice so that they always precede the notes that were already set in stage 2. The process is repeated in the alto (where B-flat is given a leading tone A) and tenor (where F is given the leading tone E). Finally, in stage 4, the blanks are filled by repeating the notes to their left (one should not forget that the last column is identical to the first one). Each column of the final matrix is an instance of set 3-11 (the triad) and each row a version of set 8-28, the octatonic collection. This model is not only intellecmaUy satisfying, it is also very interesting musi-cally, since it offers us a chromatic circle of fifths of major triads with the smoothest voice leading possible. In general, any attempt to write such a progression while pre-serving a smooth voice leading wil l result in the projection of the three possible octa-tonic scales.2 In Example 4.1, the soprano projects the collection (C, D, E-flat, F, G -flat, A-flat, A , B), the alto the collection (C, D-flat, E-flat, E , F-sharp, G , A , B-flat), and the tenor the collection (C-sharp, D , E, F, G , A-flat, B-flat, B) . Since the octatonic scale is the result of the union of two diminished-seventh chords and since there are three different such tetrachords (x, y, and z), there are only three different octatonic scales (x+y, x+z, y-i-z). Example 4.1: Chromatic cycle o f fifths, C major l iJ J J 1 I l l s a H = M i t f^g f i T T n r T [' T r r I I V I .VI I m i b v i m #IV V I I III V I II V 1 We now have a standard tonal progression with an accidental but distinctive octatonic character. There remains to be seen, however, how it can be used in musical situations. Because of its sequential nature, and because the fundamental melodic directions of tonal music are descending while these models have ascending lines, it should be encountered mostly in secondary events of connective character. This is exactly the case for the passage from Beethoven's Ninth Symphony presented by Cohn. In this excerpt, Beethoven uses part of the progression of Example 4.1 to go from the tonic of C major to the dominant of E minor. This example shows us that generation of the octatonic collection can be achieved through a perfectly normal harmonization of the circle of fifths and that com-posers were already using such tonal schemes at the beginning of the nineteenth century. European musicians did not have to wait for Glinka, Borodin, Mussorgsky or Rimsky-Korsakov to generate occurrences of the octatonic collection. 4.2 (0 3 6 9) division of the octave Elementary tonal-harmonic progressions possessing octatonic character can be generated by means of a division of the octave into four equal parts. The most simple of these progressions consists of a succession of four triads (major or minor) at a dis-tance of a minor third. Such successions may be found both at the surface and at the middleground. They are used nearly always as prolongational tools. This is the case, for example, with the closing measures of Johannes Brahms's song "Immer leiser wird mein Schlummer," Op. 105/2, mentioned by van den Toom (1987). As can be seen in the analytical reduction of Example 4.2, Brahms, who has be-gun his song in C-sharp minor, tonicizes scale-step III at measure 41. There follows a succession of second-inversion major triads with the roots G, B-flat, and D-flat. The latter is treated as a cadential 6/4 chord. Finally, the song ends in the parallel key, D-flat major. Scale-step i n is thus part of a n i -V - I cadence in C# (D-flat) major-minor. Example 4.2: Brahms, "Immer leiser wird mein Schlummer", Op. 105/2, mm. 40 - 53, analytical reduction 41 47 4< ) —• 1^^ . i i j * — I t * — b « 1 b|j ' \m • m ^ ^ - ^ S T - ^ 6 6 6 an (Dl.): [V] 111 1 4 V* ' I One can use a simple and concise expression to describe the content of each chord of the progression in terms of two source diminished-seventh chords. For ex-ample, if X is the ordered collection (E, G, B-flat, D-flat) and y the ordered collection (F, A-flat, B, D), then the contents of each chord of the progression can be determined by the expression yi+hyi+2}'0 • i ^ 3 . The subscripts represent order numbers and the addition operation is performed modulo 4. Thus, for example, the first chord wil l contain the first element of x and the second and third elements of y and the third chord wil l contain the third element of x and the fourth and first elements of y. This notation can be used with many other progressions of the same type. For example, a succession of four minor triads at a distance of a minor third can be notated {Xj, X i+ i , y i+2 } ,0? iT3 . A similar succession of dominant seventh chords can be notated {Xi, yi+i,yi+2. y i + 3 } ' 0 ? i ^ 3 -A succession of four minor triads with an added sixth (or half-diminished sev-enth chords) can be expressed as {xj, Xj.^ 1, Xj+3, yi+2}> 0 ? i » 3. Finally, a succession of four French-sixth chords wi l l translate as {Xj, Xi+2, y i + i , y i + 3 } , 0 r i r 3 . Many other similar progressions, not all of them usable in a tonal context, may be generated in this way, and elements of different progressions can be combined. Let us now see how two of the progressions described above can be combined and give rise to new octatonic possibUities. Examples 4.3a and 4.3b give two rising progressions of four major triads at a distance of a minor third. One begins on the root A-flat and goes through C-flat, D, and F, while the other begins on E-flat and continues with F-sharp, A , and C. The total collection for the first progression is (C, D , E-flat, F, F-sharp, G-sharp, A , B) . That for the second is its transposition down two semitones, (C, D-flat, E-flat, E , F-sharp, G , A , B-flat). Example 4.3: Generation of a complex octatonic progression a. . 1 1 1 B5 ^ b. \l J J J J II ^ ii ^ 4 l i i J J ,u 1 J J iJ H —^—^— d. 1 —X ^ g r 1 h F = \Z f ' Example 4.4: Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, ID, " M i l d und leise" hold er off - net, seht ihr, Freun- de. sah't ihr's nicht? Im - mer É m Example 4.3c shows how the two progressions can be combined by interlock-ing. One can now decide to create a situation somewhat analogous to that of the Beethoven excerpt mentioned above and project the third octatonic collection, (C-sharp, D, E , F, G, A-flat, B-flat, B), in the upper voice. In order to do so, the triad on C-flat is interpreted as a bVI chord resolving to a new dominant triad on B-flat (as in the first system of Example 4.3d) and the triad on D becomes a bVI chord resolving on a new dominant triad on C-sharp (as in the second system of Example 4.3d). The rest of the original progression remains unchanged. We thus have created the soprano hne A-flat, B-flat, B , C-sharp, D, E, F. The total collection of that Une is an instance of the only seven-element subset of the octatonic collection (set 7-31). Example 4.4 gives the beginning of the Liebestod from the third act of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde. It is also a realization of Example 4.3d. 4.3 Alternative bass tones for the diminished seventh chord In the nineteenth chapter of his Harmonielehre, "Some additions and schematic presentations to round out the system," Arnold Schoenberg mentions a recurring har-monic device found in much music of the turn of the century, "especially in that of Richard Strauss": the use of notes from one diminished seventh chord as alternative bass tones for another diminished seventh chord (Schoenberg 1978, 366-67). This of course generates dominant ninth chords with lowered sixth scale degrees in four different keys. Although these dominant ninth chords may either resolve in a normal manner to their respective tonics, as shown in Example 4.5 (Schoenberg 1978, 381-82), or be connected within one progression " i f after each of the four we imagine a sufficiently long pause or an event that makes the reinterpretation possible" (Schoenberg 1978, 366), one may also regard the four bass notes and the diminished seventh chord as a total entity. Schoenberg writes: If we think it faster, however, or imagine the reinterpretation as direct, with no intermediary, then we wi l l see how it is possible to play together with one diminished seventh chord a voice that consists of the four tones of a different diminished seventh chord. Example 4.5: Nonnal resolutions of dominant ninth chords m =1 Schoenberg also mentions the possibility of inserting the notes of the upper diminished seventh chord between those of the lower one to form a scale. The result of this procedure is of course the octatonic scale. He also alludes to the possibility of having the third possible diminished seventh chord as an accompaniment to the octatonic scale, thus allowing for the presentation of the aggregate. One can find a foreground instance of this technique in one of the songs from Schoenberg's Op. 12, "Jane Grey". Example 4.6 reproduces measures 31-36 of that song. A n analytical reduction of the passage is given as Example 4.7. Here, Schoenberg uses an entire cycle of dominant-ninth chords (on F-sharp, A , E-flat, and C) to prolong the dominant of F. The latter is presented on the second half of measure 32, and the prolonging ninth chords from measures 33 to 36. It is interesting to note that the vocal line from measure 34 is built on the same octatonic scale as the accompaniment, with the exception of only one note: the A-flat on the last beat of measure 35. Example 4.6: Schoenberg, "Jane Grey", Op. 12/1, mm. 3 1 - 3 6 ?/ « , 3 , die jun - -i>p ge Ko ni - - gin Grey. T ' P Der Hen - -1 c Î • s [ P ^ • 36 h K 1 kr>,r aW ihm ihr Ant - litz schien, er wein - -i i J . ^1 — — ^ L^_^_J ^ ' j t J ^ i ' — p 1^ Ï • Example 4.7: Schoenberg, "Jane Grey", Op. 12/1, mm. 32 - 36, hannonic analysis 32 33 F: V B: D: AI.: Another surface example of this practice has been encountered at the beginning of the third scene of Salome. A t 78^, the diminished seventh chord (B-flat, C-sharp, E , G) receives the successive bass notes E-flat, C, and A . The latter then becomes the root of a dominant seventh chord in the key of D. These bass notes are beamed in Example 3.2. Let us now expand on this basic idea and have two notes of the lower dimin-ished seventh chord presented simultaneously with the upper one. The results are "double-dominants", or dominants in two keys, at a distance of either a minor third or a tritone, as in Example 4.8. The example shows hexachordal double dominants in G/E, G/D-flat, G/B-flat, E/D-flat, E/B-flat, and D-flat/B-flaL Example 4.8: "Double dominants" m If we now delete the minor ninth of one of the two superimposed ninth chords, we get a sonority consisting of a major-minor seventh chord and a note belonging to the lower diminished seventh chord, or, following another point of view, a sonority consisting of three notes of one diminished seventh chord and two notes of another one, as in Example 4.9. Example 4.9: Pentachordal combination chords - 1 » — r t V — 1 1 rU ^ —1 r > 1 1^4X1— ••• ^ — ' 4 * — —0 1 The note which does not belong to the dominant seventh chord may be pre-sented either as an added note or as a new bass. In the first case, as long as the two semitonally related elements of the sonority are not presented as a minor ninth, the root of the major-minor seventh would normally be understood as the root of the pen-tachord, with potential to function as a dominant. In the second case, the extra note's potential to become a dominant is realized only if the composer chooses to resolve the sonority accordingly. Of course, the fmal interpretation wil l rely mostiy on voice leading. A l l these sonorities are instances of important six- and five-note subsets of the octatonic collection. They are used by Strauss at different places in the third scene, in-cluding the transition between the first and second part of Salome's aria . For example, chords A and B of Example 3.9 belong to the same family of sonorities as those of Example 4.8. Chord A consists of the entire (C-flat, D, F, A-flat) and the two notes E -flat and G-flat; chord B consists of the entire (D-flat, F-flat, G , B-flat) and the two notes F and A-flat. Chords C, D, and E of the same example are pentachordal combination chords. A magnificent example of utilization of these sonorities is found between 76^ and 774, under Salome's words: "Seine Augen sind vor allem das SchreckUchste. Sie sind wie die schwarzen Hohlen, wo die Drachen hausen!" A harmonic reduction of this passage is given in Example 4.10. Example 4.10: Salome, 76 - 77+4, harmonic reduction 76 7 6 1 5 766 7 6 ? 7 6 9 7 7 7 7 3 7 7 4 At 766, the chord (E-flat, G, B-flat, D-flat), which was reached through chro-matic voice-leading, receives the bass F-sharp. This is of course an instance of a pentachordal combination chord such as those found in Example 4.9. It contains three members of (G, B-flat, D-flat, E) and two of (F-sharp, A , C, E-flat).^ As shown in Example 4.10, B-flat, G , and D-flat are held for the following measures. On the downbeat of 76"^, the note A is added to F-sharp and E-flat to form a hexachordal sonority of the type presented in Example 4.8. A t 76^, the held (C-sharp, G , A-sharp) In Example 4.10, the notes of the two source diminished seventh chords have been notated on different staves for clarity's sake. is combined with (B-sharp, D-sharp, F-sharp) to create another hexachordal sonority. From 77 to 77^, another hexachordal "double dominant" sonority is held. The only note of the bass diminished seventh chord that remains to be used is D-sharp. It comes at 77^, but this time one of the diminished seventh chords, (F-double sharp, A-sharp, C-sharp, E) , is complete and the sonority is a dominant ninth chord in the key of G -sharp. This type of sitoation is repeated at 81^. There, one finds a dominant ninth chord in the key of C. At 813, this is transformed into the combination chord (D-flat, E , F, A-flat, C-flat),4 itself held for two measures. A t 817, the ninth chord of 812, this time with a bass E , is reached through chromatic voice leading. 4.5 Conclusions It should by now be clear that traditional chromatic tonal procedures can create a great variety of octatonic situations. Before the second half of the nineteenth century, most composers were unaware of, or unattracted by these octatonic possibiUties. However, as the century progressed and as interest in symmeùical organization grew, octatonic patterns and harmonic structures came to be used more and more consciously. This trend reached its apogee in the works of Stravinsky and Bartok. Wi th a suspension D . In Salome, Strauss seems to have realized that the octatonic patterns that kept surfacing in the type of progressions that he was using could be used more deliberately in order to create a very special type of chromatic sound. This sound was quite different from that of the other symmetrical collection that he knew, i.e., the whole-tone scale. The composer seems to have decided to use octatonic chromatic tonaUty mainly for the characterization of Salome's world (this is why Herod's attempts to seduce his niece often use this type of music), reserving other types of chromaticism, as outUned in Chapter 1, for Herod and the Jews. Chapter 5 Herod's entrance and the Quintet of the Jews This chapter analyzes a large segment of the music that opens the second part of the opera, extending from Herod's entrance through the quintet of the Jews. This segment has been chosen for detailed analysis because it is most representative of a second type of chromaticism in Salome, associated with Herod and, more generally, with the Jews. While it is musically and dramatically only the first half of a larger section that extends through Salome's dance, the segment treated here is more concentrated chromatically than the rest of the section, which contains long diatonic interventions by Jochanaan and the Nazarenes. The excerpt wil l be divided into medium-length passages which wil l in turn be analyzed in detail. Then, a picture of the general organization of these 414 measures wi l l be drawn. The second type of chromatic music, which Paul Bekker called "the summit" of the opera (Bekker 1907, 126), is much more chromatic than that described in Chapter 3. A t times, it is as if the roles had been reversed to create a tonally coloured chromatic music. Bekker's comments are particularly interesting. Der Tetrarch ist die Krone des Werkes. Er bedeutet selbst fiir Strauss etwas vollig Neues. Diese neurasthenische Wetterfahne ist ein Unikum impressionistischer Kunst, ein bis jetzt beispielloser Versuch, allé Ner-venzuckungen in einem musikahschen Spiegel zu fangen, Tonarten und Rhythmen kapriziôs durcheinanderzuschiitteln und aus dissonierenden Formlosigkeiten einen neuen Stil zu bUden.^ Bekker considers this music to be the best in the opera, which he deems a mu-sical failure. For him, the music of Salome is often too sweet and lusty for the text that it sets, while the music of Jochanaan is really bad. Sander Oilman correctly associates the music of Herod with that of the Jews: "Throughout the scene, Strauss makes every effort to forge a sense of musical identity between Herod and the Jews." (Gihnan 1989, 320) According to Oilman, the association is clarified by the fact that four of the five Jews, Uke Herod, have high tenor voices and that aU respond "with jarring dissonance to the comforting diatonicism" of Jochanaan's music. The voice of Herod, Uke that of the Jews, often breaks. According to Oilman, In Strauss's opera the break is signified by the nature of the musical voices. Herod is thus as much of a Jew as is the disputatious quintet, his discourse signifying his incestuous sexuaUty. Strauss's audience would have heard in the high-pitched, breaking voice an audible sign of the Jews' difference, a sign that would have been understandable given the 'perverted' nature of the sexuaUty represented on stage. (322)^ There is no doubt that Strauss's intent, in the "Jewish" music, was to parody and to mock. In order to do so, he borrowed many technical devices from the musical avant-garde of the time, particularly techniques of motivic generaUzation: motives become more abstract and can be presented as chords or as lines; they can also be transposed or, sometimes, inverted. However, despite the extreme chromaticization of the language and the abrupt juxtaposition of opposed materials, Sti-auss remained true to what seems to have been his beUef: that composers must have completely The Tetrarch is the crown o f the work. For Strauss, this means something completely new. This neurasthenic weather vane is a unique example of impressionist art, an original attempt to mirror musica l ly a l l twitches, to shake together c ^ r i c i o u s l y keys and rhythms, and to create a new style from disonnant formlessness. But the fact remains that many enlightened listeners of the time, l ike Bekker , seem to have preferred the "Jewish" music of Herod to any other in the opera. G ihnan would certainly explain this as a perfect example of Jewish self-hatred (for more on this, see G ihnan 1986). internalized the techniques that have been bequeathed them by tradition. He thus, maybe partly unconsciously, continues to use traditional tonal ways of unifying his music. This idea, which I will try to substantiate in the following pages, is one that, to my knowledge, has not yet been recognized or demonstrated analytically. 5.1 The introduction to the fourth scene The second part of Salome begins at r.n. 151^, after an orchestral interlude, with a presentation of Salome's principal motive (labeled x in Example 5.1) by the contrabassoon, in C-sharp minor, the main key of the opera. The interlude has just closed with many reaffirmations of that key. There is thus no tonal caesura between interlude and scenic action. Motive x consists of an arpeggiation of a minor triad in which the fifth is decorated by its upper and lower chromatic neighbours. This double-neighbour figure can be construed as a surface presentation of chromatic surrounding, a technique which has been discussed already in previous chapters. Here, as is often the case with chromatic surrounding in Salome, the two neighbours do not have equal importance. It seems that F double-sharp is given more weight than A , since it unmediately recurs (this tune spelled as G) at the top of the quasi-gUssando at 1518, 15110, and 15112. it also becomes the lowest note after 152, where it prepares the motion towards E-flat (153). The tonic chord of C-sharp is immediately coloured octatonically by the suc-cessive introduction of G , A-sharp, and B. The referential collection is thus (C-sharp, D, E, F, G, G-sharp, A-sharp, B) , of which only a six-note subset (C-sharp, E , G, G-sharp, A-sharp, B), an instance of set 6-27, is presented. Example 5.1: Salome, r.n. 151+6 - 152+3 | i ) : i tA»- [-1 11—a gi ^«^^ ^«-^ ^«^^ •e-z : — Z ° ' J J J J ^ J L — L L J-é ^ y -This octatonically coloured C-sharp soon gives way to a new motive (labeled y in Example 5.1) derived from the whole-tone scale (here. A , B , C-sharp, D-sharp, F, G). The transition from the octatonic genus to the whole-tone world is remarkably .subtle. Indeed, only the last note of y. A , does not belong to the referential octatonic collection. Strauss exploits a characteristic of all forms of the octatonic and whole-tone collections: their intersection is always the same tetrachordal collection, set 4-25. hi this passage, the common notes are G, B , D-flat, and F. This tetrachord can be in-terpreted as the union of two tritones at a distance of 4 semitones. In this passage, one of the tritones, G and D-flat, is clearly prominent, because of its vertical presentation. One can now see how, in the last eleven measures, Strauss has been able to move with subtlety from the octatonically and chromatically coloured tonal music of the end of the first part (discussed in Chapter 3) and of the interlude, which is associ-ated dramatically with Salome and Jochanaan, to that of Herodes and his court (mainly the Jews). Motive y is exposed three times. The third time it is immediately followed by a presentation of another central motive of the opera, that of the falling fourths. The extension of the whole-tone arpeggio to the C at 152^ gives birth to another motive, which I shall call z. Motive z is a form of set type 4-19. Tonally, this collection can be understood as either a minor triad with an added major seventh or, as in the present case, as an augmented triad with an added major seventh. The second form is, of course, the result of an inversion of the first form (see Example 5.2). Motive z will acquire an important role in the following music. Example 5.2: Salome, tetrachord z ' -e-II z . U z' The arrival of C in the bass at 152^ transforms the held C-sharp into a potential suspension. As shown in Example 5.3, this transformation may be interpreted as taking place in two stages. A t first, C is heard as dissonant against a consonant C-sharp. The roles are tiien reversed. The suspension C-sharp resolves to D on the third beat of 152*1. This D is consonant with the bass G . When the bass moves upwards to A-flat, D is also transformed into a suspension, and the combination of the two notes is heard as a tonicizing tritone. D finally resolves to E-flat at 1521^. Example 5.3: Salome, r.n. 152+9 - 152+13, voice-leading diss. cons. diss. — Y ' • 9-diss. cons. 1 • C vs. C#- falling 4ths From 153 to 153^, two tetrachords are unfolded: the diminished-seventh (E-flat, G-flat, A , C) and motive z (E-flat, G-flat, B-flat, D). Tetrachord z is presented in inversion (T3I ) , as shown in Example 5.4, in the context of a D-minor embellishment of an E-flat minor triad. The B-flat of motive z is decorated in a very characteristic fashion by C-flat and A . This reminds one of the chromatic surrounding of Salome's motive. Example 5.4: Salome, r.n. 153 At 153^, the D becomes an appoggiatura, which resolves once again to E-flat in the following measure. This D is harmonized by an E-flat minor triad, creating a ver-ticaUzation of motive z at the same pitch-class level as in the melody. With this reso-lution enters, for the first time, the theme associated with Salome's demand of Jochanaan's head, in E-flat minor. This theme is a transformation of a melodic idea presented at \22^^? The last three notes (A, B , and C-sharp) are harmonized, at 154, by a verticaUzation of motive y at the original pitch level (see Example 5.5). Interest-ingly, this whole-tone harmony does not sound foreign to the E-flat minor context, probably because of the fact that E-flat belongs to the same whole-tone scale and is the only note missing to complete the hexachord. This melodic idea, which accompanies the Salome's "Ich w i l l deinen M u n d ki issen", begins with the same characteristic rhythm and the same interval o f an ascending minor third. In reworking this idea into the new motive for "Ich w i l l den K o p f des Jochanaans", Strauss estabUshes a direct l ink between Salome's frustrated desire for Jochanaan and her murderous obsessions. Example 5.5: Salome, r.n. 154 (02468A) Immediately following this, there is, in the bass, another instance of z, at the original pitch level. Its last note, C, is held with the last note of the theme, C-sharp. The situation of 152^ is thus duplicated. One should remember that this persistent ambiguity between C-sharp and C is also operative at the deepest background of the opera's tonal structure. It has been shown in Chapter 2 that these two keys are con-stantly placed in opposition and that either C or C-sharp can be treated as a dissonance that can resolve to the other member of the couple. 5.2 Fourth scene: from the beginning to r.n. 172 The next event, at 154^, prepares the entrance of Herod, Herodias, and their guests. It is a new presentation of the first motive of the Jews, which has already been exposed twice in the first part, at 4 and 26. For Oilman, this motive is "one of the themes characterizing Jewish discourse, depicting it as aggressively argumentative. Strauss is hardly subtle in his musical representation, associating the Jews' leitmotif with one particular instrumental sonority, the thin, whining sound of the oboe." (Oilman 1989, 318). This motive always outUnes a D-minor triad, decorated by tetrachord z (through neighbour-note motions). Here, Strauss colours the D-minor triad by holding C-sharp in the tenor voice as a suspension. This creates another instance of motive z. The D-minor triad can be seen to belong to a complex middle-ground progression going from the tonic of C-sharp minor to its dominant through an important excursion in C, a progression which extends from r.n. 151^ to 158^. A schematic presentation of this progression is given in Example 5.6. The C-sharp of 151^ is held as suspension over an altered dominant of C at 152^. At 152^ , it ascends to D. The next two steps in the ascending Hne, E-flat and F, are reached at 153 and 154, respectively. F is harmonized by a whole-tone harmony that has a double function: it can be a dominant in both C and D. The first possibihty is confirmed at 154^, the second at 154^. From that measure, the music is governed by a dual tonic C/D, with embedded whole-tone passages (boxed in Example 5.6). D-minor against C-sharp seems to answer symmetrically the C against C-sharp of 154^ and to complete another example of chromatic surrounding. At 155^, the bass moves to B-flat under a V/iv harmony in C. This dominant resolves to iv at 156. The next harmony, at 156^, brings the music back towards the C-sharp area. As shown in Example 5.6, the upper voice continues an arpeggiation of the C-sharp minor triad. But C is still active, and the next chord in the progression is a tonic harmony in that key. Example 5.6: Salome, r.n. 151 - 158, harmonic analysis 151" 1523 15211 153 154 1542 154* 1547 154» 155 155' 156 1563 156? i t * — u ^ - ^ - ^ ^ D: " V " i a : i " i i " C: " V " " V " I 'T "r *r f *• " iv7 VII V fV] iv I This passage is in itself governed by chromatic surrounding. From the centre C-sharp, the music moves first to the lower chromatic neighbour C, over which is superimposed the upper chromatic neighbour D. Finally, C-sharp is reached through melodic arpeggiation of its tonic triad and a i v - V U - V progression, coloured by an echo of C. Herod's first intervention (155) is built on the whole-tone scale on C, which had ah-eady been presented at 1547. addition of a frozen passing tone B in the bass creates a new instance of motive z (E-C-A- f la t -B ) . The C-major triad of 156^ to 156^ elaborates the progression towards in C-sharp (see Example 5.6) and, as was mentioned previously, participates in the chromatic surrounding of the tonic. The major triad on the leading tone is an important pre-dominant chord in Salome. For example, it wil l assume primary importance from 180 to 183. It can be construed as the symmetrical image of b l l around the tonic. In fact, in many cases the two chords are interchangeable. A t 156^, VI l6 of C-sharp goes to V'^. The latter is prolonged for 17 measures, while Herod comments on the moon. The idea of Example 5.7a is repeated three times. Closer examination of this movement from a dominant-seventh chord on G -sharp to a minor triad on B and back to the dominant-seventh chord permits the unravelling of hidden connections with earlier sections of the opera, especially with the music associated with the moon and Salome. As shown in Example 5.7b, the combination of the soprano and bass voices clearly indicates an octatonic origin. The referential collection is (D, D-sharp, F, F-sharp, G-sharp, A , B , C). Moreover, both the combination of the first two chords and that of the second and third, are instances of set 7-31, the only heptachordal subset of the octatonic collection. A n examination of the text clarifies this intrusion of octatonic material in Herod's whole-tone music. Herod has been asking about Salome and has just located her. He now suddenly comments on the moon, thus estabhshing another link between it and Salome. Actually, Herod's last observation, "Es sieht aus, wie ein wahnwitziges Weib, das iJberaU nach Buhlen sucht", seems to apply to Salome herself, or at least to Herod's erotic vision of her. Example 5.7: Salome, r.n. 156?octatonic succession a. 3 ' 1 7-7-31 1 ' 7-31 ' b. A comparison between the octatonic collection of 151 and this one unveils the common diminished-seventh chord D-F-G-sharp-B. Retrospectively, and looking ahead, many harmonic features of the passage seem to be organized around this par-ticular chord. From the D-minor triad at r.n. 154^ (the D is not the bass note but is clearly the harmonic root) to the F root at 156, followed by the dominant seventh on G-sharp at 156^, the dominant seventh on D at 159, and the B-major triad transformed into a dominant-seventh chord (V^/E ) at 160, every harmonic event in the passage participates in a deployment of the common diminished-seventh chord: D-F-G-sharp-B. This is shown in Example 5.8. Moreover, from 156^, there is a clear example of one of the octatonic techniques mentioned in Chapter 4: the use of alternative bass tones for a diminished-seventh chord (see Example 5.8). The two C-major passages, from 156^ to 156^ and from 158"^ to 158*0, have the effect of parentheses and are both associated with Herodias. Example 5.8: Salome, r.n. 154+4 - 160, harmonic structure 154'* 156 156'' 159 159^ "I ' T i l ' = ^ The dominant-seventh chord on D at 159 is decorated (through neighbour-note motions) by an added-sixth chord. It is interesting to note that this chord contains as a subset the B-minor triad, which had been used previously to decorate the dominant-seventh on G-sharp. As collections, the dominant-seventh on D and the added-sixth chord on B are related by inversion: C A F-sharp D F-sharp D B G-sharp The section from 160^ to 164 seems rather different from what has preceded it. Multiple repetitions of a motive, at a fixed pitch-class level, effect a transition from V^/E at 160 to V/C at 163^. This motive is particularly interesting: it contains three instances of interval-class 5 (F-sharp-B, A - D , E-flat-B-flat), which reminds one of the falling fourths motive, as well as motive z (F-sharp, D, E-flat, B-flat). A t r.n. 160^, the upper diminished-seventh chord of Example 5.8 (D-sharp, F-sharp, A , C) becomes a pedal, while the chord formerly outlined by the roots (D, F, G-sharp, B) participates in melodic activity. The melodic line seems to be built around both duninished-seventh chords (thus around one form of the octatonic collection), with the addition of B-flat. It is interesting to note that B-flat is an axis of symmetry around which one diminished-seventh chord may be inverted into the other: C Eb F# A Bb Bb B D F Ab A reduction of the harmony of this passage is given in Example 5.9. The minor triads on E-flat (160^) and G (161^) are temporary voice-leading resolutions, the former of the diminished-seventh chord (C, E-flat, F-sharp, A) of 160^, the latter of the neighbour diminished-seventh chord (C-sharp, E , G, B-flat) of 161^. Theh- main function is to harmonize the upper chromatic neighbour of A , which is prolonged from 160 to 161^. They also link two presentations of the dominant-seventh chord in E by dividing the octave into three equal parts. The major-minor seventh chord on B-flat at 161^ is also a voice-leading chord, that harmonizes the lower chromatic neighbour of A . When A is regained at 161"^, the bass moves to the upper fifth of the governing B , F-sharp. The voice that carries A is then led chromatically towards C. The harmonic progression establishes C as tonic. The two diagonal lines between iv^ and the dominant of the dominant of C in Example 5.9 show a possible interpretation of the underlying voice leading. A t 162^, A is restated as the upper note (second syllable of Herod's "seltsam"). The dominant of the dominant is not resolved immediately. Instead, the music is led deceptively towards G-sharp (thus towards the C-sharp area). The resolution comes only at 1637, fortissimo, with Herod's exclamation: "Fort mit ihm." Example 5.9: Salome, r.n. 160 - 164, harmonic reduction and large-scale voice leading 160 160^ 160* 161^ 161- 161' 16r g It i — — E : V C: V i .•6 i j - p . - •— 1 „ . h = q ^ c: m i v « [V] We thus have here another instance of the incessant conflict between C-sharp and C. Close examination of text setting reveals the reason for the excursion towards the C-sharp area between 162*0 and 1635. At 160, Herod has shpped in Narraboth's blood and has identified the corpse. The dominant of the dominant harmonizes the words: "Der junge Syrier, er war sehr". The music changes course in the direction of Salome's tonal area exactiy when Herod says "schon". This continues with "Ich errinnere mich, ich sah seine schmachtenden Augen, wenn er Salome ansah". A t 164 there is a new interruption, marked harmonically by the abrupt return to the dominant of C and motivically by the use of chromatic scales and low chords. Herod complains about a cold wind and hears the beating wings of the angel of death. This section extends to 172^ and brings the music back towards the C-sharp area. A reduction and harmonic analysis is offered as Example 5.10. This example shows that the dominant of C is brought to the tonic through a series of voice-leading chords that allow Strauss to harmonize the passing tones G-sharp (165^), A (1664), and B (166" )^ on his way from G to C. The E-minor triad of 166^ has been put between brackets because of its parenthetical character. It also fittingly accompanies one of Herodias's angry interruptions."* The C of the upper voice is then decorated by the upper third and brought to C-sharp at 170^. This C-sharp is harmonized by a cadence in F-sharp minor, the subdominant of C-sharp. It should not be surprising that this tonic of F-sharp is immediately reinterpreted as a subdominant and brought to the dominant of the main key of the opera when the upper hne reaches D-sharp. This dominant of C-sharp is then reinterpreted as the third scale degree in E . The excerpt closes with a III-V-I cadence in E major, interrupted once by Herodias. The upper line finally reaches E. A Uiad o f E-flat minor has been omitted at 164^. It plays no role in the underlying progression (it acœmpanies an interruption by Herodias), but is related to the first chord of Example 5.10 by semitonal voice leading: G goes to G-flat, D to E-flat, and B to B-flat. Example 5.10: Salome, r.n. 164 - 172, harmonic analysis 164 165^ 166 lôô"* 166 ' ' 167 168^ 169 169^ 170 170^ 170' ' 171^ 171* 171^ 172 Xll'^ .1 C: V I F#: \>W V i C#: iv V E : III V I Strauss has once again been very careful in his text setting. The connecting chords between the dominant and the tonic of C harmonize Herod's description of his vision of the angel of death. The tonic is reached with the words: "Jetzt hOre ich es nicht mehr." There is thus an idea of resolution in both the text and the music. When the music gets more chromatic again at 168^, the vision comes back: "Horch! Hort Du-es nicht?" The return of the C-sharp area with the tonicization of F-sharp accompanies, appropriately, Herod's shift of attention towards Salome: "Ich bin nicht krank, aber deine Tochter ist krank zu Tode." 5.3 Herod's three-part aria We now come to one of the three-part sections described in Chapter 2. Herod first asks Salome to drink wine with him. This first part begins in E major and ends in the key of the dominant, B major. After Salome's refusal, Herod asks her to eat with him. This part is tonally closed in F major. The third demand, that Salome sit next to Herod, is much shorter than the first two. It consists of only one phrase, in A major. Since the inner logic of the tonal plan for this section is not immediately trans-parent, closer examinations of Herod's interventions and of the connective passages seem in order. Here, as in the scene analyzed in Chapter 3, the details will often unveil many unobvious connections that impart a certain level of continuity to the music. The first part of Herod's "aria" (to use Murphy's term) begins at 172^ in a very clear E major. As shown in the analytical graph of Example 5.11, the first tone of Herod's line is the tonic. It initiates a rising melodic hne E - F-sharp (172^) - G (173). Each one of these three notes marks the beginning of a transposition of a four-note motive (beamed in Example 5.11). The G at 173 is harmonized by a C-major triad (bVl in E major), which then moves by descending fourth to G major (WD). The phrase is then brought to a close with dominant-tonic progression. The dominant harmonizes A , upper neighbour of G . This A finally resolves to G-sharp. This G-sharp belongs to the melodic Une set out earUer. Example 5.11: .Sa/ome, r.n. 172+4- 175, reduaion and analysis 172* 173 173* 174 175 i I i E : B : I (V) r -b v i b in V ' I IV V There foUows a presentation of motive x in E. The last note of motive x, E , is then brought back to G-sharp by chromatic motion. The tonic harmony under this G -sharp is used as a pivot to modulate to the dominant. The cadential 6/4 harmonizes D-sharp (third scale degree of B major), which resolves to C-sharp. These two notes belong to a middleground hne which goes from the E of the beginning to the first scale degree B of 175. Example 5.12: Salome, r.n. 175 - 176, reduction and analysis 175 176 1 J/ hh - . J J , , . ^ 1 ^ ^ " Î l>< i f * f 1 1 • • • BÏ T m 9 B : I I T — — — — — . , _ 4L . E k V 2 i ^ F: V ' ' I The connective passage that follows is analyzed in Example 5.12. The B is held as a pedal in the upper voice during a presentation of motive x in B, followed by a chromatic motion from B to D-sharp. The upper-hne B is then brought upwards chromatically to F. The C is harmonized by a dmiinished-seventh chord which initiates a very short tonicization of E-flat minor. After a passing tone C-sharp, the line reaches D, leading-tone of the following note, E-flat. E is accompanied by the dominant-seventh chord of F. The last note of the line, F, is harmonized by the tonic. This progression from the minor triad on E-flat to the major-minor seventh chord on C possesses a very characteristically octatonic sound. Indeed, the resulting hexachordal collection is (G-flat, G , B-flat, C, E-flat, E). Only A and C-sharp are missing to complete the octatonic coUection. Example 5.13: Salome, r.n. 176+3 - 179+4, reduction and analysis 176^ 177 1776 178 179 1 7 9 * — ^^ .^  -^ -g n • • F: I (V) I (V) C: 1 \ '^r r I V v i P / I V i i V I 6 , I T V V ^ I The second part of the aria (see Example 5.13) begins with the arrival on F at 1763. Over a tonic pedal, Strauss writes two I-V-I progressions. The second one harmonizes a recall of the line from C to F of the connective passage just described (see the stemmed C - D - E - f l a t - E - F line in Example 5.13). The tonic is then reinterpreted as the subdominant in the key of C. This initiates a perfect authentic cadence in that key. The F5 of 1775 is brought, at 177^, to G5. The final tonic of the C-major cadence brings the soprano back to the middle-voice C5, which had been so clearly emphasized from 177 to 177^. The G5 at 177^ seems to belong to the same line as the E of 172^. It will be recalled that the E5 of the beginning of the aria had been brought down to B4 at 175 (see Example 5.11). Then, during the connective passage, that B4 had been reconnected to the E5 and the latter brought up to F5 (Example 5.12). It is this line which now reaches G5. Looking ahead, we can see (in Example 5.13) that G5 is restated just before 179, where it is brought chromatically up to A5. Finally the A5 is connected, chromatically and by registral transfer, to the F4 of 179^. The whole simation is clarified in Example 5.14. Example 5.14: Salome, r.n. 172+4 - 179+4, outer voices I After the cadence in C, the music is brought back in F major. C5 is connected chromatically (over a chromatic descending bass) to the G5 - A-flat - A discussed in the preceding paragraph. There follows a perfect authentic cadence in F major. The second connective passage begins with a prolonged A-minor triad in the upper voices, over a pedal F, itself decorated chromatically (see Example 5.15). There follows a rapid tonicization of G-flat, to accompany Herodias's "Meine Tochter und ich stammen aus kônighchem Blut." G-flat is reinterpreted enharmonically as the subdominant of C-sharp and followed by b l l and V in that key. This dominant har-mony marks the beginning of Herod's third demand. Example 5.15: Salome, r.n. 179+5 - 183, reduction and analysis 179*180 181 1 182 183 G b (F«): C | : i i i V I IV b l l As mentioned above, this third demand lasts for only one phrase. It is entirely in A major. The most striking element of this phrase is the use of an F-sharp major triad at 182^. This chord is most probably used for purposes of tone painting. The text is: "Du soUst auf dem Thron deiner Mutter sitzen" and the F-sharp major triad is placed under "Mutter". This textual reference to Herodias is harmonized by the very triad that has just been tonicized when Herodias herself was alluding to her royal extraction. Interestingly enough, the harmonies of 182^ and 182^ create a hexachordal subset of the octatonic collection: (F-sharp-G-A-A-sharp-C-sharp-E). The final passage of this section of the opera is once again of connective char-acter and presents another instance of the conflict between C-sharp and C. Salome's answer to Herod's third demand brings us back to her main key, C-sharp minor, with motive X exposed in the bass (see Example 5.16). A t 183^ Herod starts a sentence on the dominant seventh of F-sharp, but stops in the middle because he has forgotten what he was going to ask. Strauss sets the text: "Was wunsche ich denn? Ich habe es vergessen" with a parenthetical B-minor triad. Then Herod begins to remember what he had to say and the music, in an absolutely fascinating way, starts moving again in what sounds hke its original direction. Interpreted in the context of F-sharp, the major-minor seventh chord on G is b l l , a chord that has often been used as predominant in this opera. This chord also prepares for what is coming, i.e., for Jochanaan's interruption. Example 5.16: Salome, r.n. 183+2 - 188, reduction and analysis 183^ 184 185 186 187 188 w 7^ fa^;#itjf J 1 octat. / L ftm m " '••If * I h , . - ^ ^ M , J ^^^^ 1 X Cjt: i FIJ: V 1,0 A : b v i b v i V " I " C : [III V ] b I I I V I Since Herod's sentence (and musical phrase) wil l never be brought to a convincing conclusion, one is forced to hypothesize about what Herod actually wanted to say. The harmonic setting may help in this endeavor. I would suggest that Strauss imagined that Herod forgot what he had to say because he was still reflecting on Herodias's last remark: "Du siehst wie sie dich achtet." Since the composer had just used F-sharp twice to accompany Herodias's interjections, he may have decided to aUude to F-sharp here in another subtle example of tone painting. Herod is suddenly interrupted by the voice of Jochanaan. The prophet, as has been the case before in the opera, sings a phrase that starts in E-flat and ends in C major. This interruption is connected musically to what has preceded it by the upper-voice E-flat, which continues the line that contained the C-sharp of 183^. Strauss then brings the music back towards A major, which had been left at 183, through a descending bass line (actoally, another octatonic hexachordal subset). The dominant triad harmonizes the upper-hne second scale degree. The final resolution to the first scale degree is transferred to the bass. A t the same tkne the harmony moves to D minor for dramatic reasons: the Jews begin their quintet. 5.4 The Quintet of the Jews The quintet of the Jews occupies a special place in Salome. It is one of the very rare closed numbers in the opera and probably its only moment of humour. According to Oilman, The quintet consists, for comic effect, of four high tenors and a low bass. Strauss, as he notes in a letter written in 1935 to Stefan Zweig, caricatures the five Jews as well as Herod, but within a German rather than a British mode of representation. The overt topic of their debate is whether or not Jochanaan has seen (or perhaps even is) the Messiah. A quintet of contradictory themes is presented that borders on unintel-Ugibility, a cacophony that is musically 'avant-garde' and also characterizes the Jews' discourse. This cacophony clearly contrasts with the opera's two other principal modes of musical discourse, the shimmering, chromatic world of Salome and the firm diatonicism of Jochanaan. Unlike them, the Jews argue and do not make sense, hence their music is 'out of key.' This point is made particularly clear when their musical language is set against that of Jochanaan and his followers. (Gihnan 1989,319-20) It is true that the quintet sounds rather "cacophonie" and "avant-garde" when compared to the rest of the opera , with the exception, of course, of Herod's music of the type that preceded his short three-part aria. However, here too it will be possible to show that Strauss uses traditional techniques of tonal unification in order to shape his music. It seems that even in a sathical context such as this one, he was not able to forget that he was first and foremost a traditional composer. Some early commentators may have been aware of this aspect of the quintet. R. M . Breithaupt, for example, was dissatisfied with the lack of unity in the opera. He saw it as a "mosaic" without very much "organic" unity and liked only two sections of it, mainly because he felt in them the unity that was lacking elsewhere: the beginning and the quintet of the Jews (Breithaupt 1907,493). The passage from 188 to 189 has the character of an introduction. It sets an exchange between Herod and the First Jew and establishes the key of D minor, as well as certain important surface harmonic features of the quintet. The D-minor triad of 188 is connected to its upper chromatic neighbour E-flat minor by means of the dominant of the latter. This dominant is created by one of Strauss's most common chromatic voice-leading devices: the ti-ansformation of a tone into both its upper and lower chromatic neighbours. Here, the note A of the D-minor triad is transformed into B-fiat and A -flat of the following chord. The arrival of the E-flat minor triad in root position under the word "Gott" creates a tritone A-E-f lat in the bass (bracketed in Example 5.17). This tritone, which has already been presented on numerous occasions in the opera, will become one of the most important motives in the quintet. In Example 5.17, the E-flat minor triad is analyzed as bii, a minor alteration which can be used as a dominant preparation. In the structural upper voice, the C-sharp of 188^^ the B of 188^3 ^^^à the A of the same measure continue the descending whole-tone pattern initiated by the movement of F (188) to E-flat (188^0) xhe A marks the return to the D-minor triad in second inversion and the creation of another middleground specimen of the tritone E-flat-A, now in the upper voice. This time, the D-minor triad is connected direcfly to the E-flat minor tiiad, which itself leads to the dominant seventh. This harmonic progression creates twice the motivic tritone in the bass. The E-flat minor triad is enriched by a suspension D in order to present another instance of motive z, under the word "Gott". Example 5.17: Salome, r.n. 188 - 190+4, reduction and analysis 188 189 190 1 1 r^r ' 6 5 D: i [ V J b i i i b i i V C#: i V * 3 VI The tonic D in the upper voice at 189 belongs to the same hne as the F and E-flat mentioned above. This is indicated in Example 5.17 by the long stems attached to these three notes. The music that follows in this intervention of the First Jew is a good example of the type of writing used by Strauss in the quintet. The harmonies often seem as ambiguous as the logic of their succession seems dubious. It is this type of complexity that has led to traditional comments on this passage: "a rejection of all rules of harmony and counterpoint that has no equivalent in the entke repertoire" (Chop 1907, 71), "a drastic counterpoint (...) of cacophonies" (Schattmann 1907, 98). However, as can be seen in Example 5.17, Strauss takes great care to unify his material. Thematically, the motive D -C - sha rp -A -F is tetrachord z and has been a very important element of the music analyzed above.^ Contrapuntally, the inner-voice A of the D-minor triad at 189 is connected to the upper-voice E-flat (another tritone!) at 189^. This E-flat is itself the upper chromatic neighbour of the upper-voice D at 189. The upper Une then It is probably here that the intimate connection between the musica l characterization of Herod and that of the Jews to which G ihnan referred in the passage quoted above becomes absolutely unmistakable. returns quickly to A (a tritone down). When it comes back up again, it reaches D-flat, the lower chromatic neighbour to D, before returning to D at 190. The tonic D has thus been surrounded chromatically. The D of 190 is harmonized by a cadential 6/4, which resolves to the dominant triad at 190^ while the upper hne descends to C-sharp. The C-sharp of the upper line is transferred to the bass-line C at the beginning of the Second Jew's intervention. The upper line now has an F-sharp, which can be interpreted as the upper semitone of the F of 188 (see Example 5.18). The bass hne C is grouped melodicaUy with a low F-sharp for motivic reasons: Strauss continues to use tritones as often as possible. Then C descends to B , itself treated as the first note of a motivic tritone. A t the same time the inner-voice A4 initiates a chromatic motion towards B4. The harmonic motion from a French sixth chord on C to a B-major triad begins a movement towards the area of C-sharp. The inner-voice hne A-A-sharp-B is repeated from 190"^. A-sharp is replaced by B-flat, which is part of an E-flat mmor triad. This triad is probably used by Strauss for tone paintmg, since it once again accompanies the words "Gott gesehen hat". This time, the line is continued until it reaches C-sharp. The C of 191 is reinterpreted enharmonically as the leading-tone of C-sharp, to which it resolves over an authentic cadence. A t the same time, the high F-sharp of 190^ is brought up to G-sharp. The enigmatic A of the Second Jew at 192 (enigmatic because it is sung without harmonic support, immediately after a C-sharp minor harmony) is in fact the continuation of this upper-hne G-sharp. The D4 of the orchestral punctuation is itself the continuation of the inner-voice C-sharp5 of the preceding tonic triad. Example 5.18: Salome, r.n. 190+5- 192, reduction and analysis 1 r f r ^ 90^ 191 i ^ ^ ^ i ^ — — 1 n . . . - r - ' — ^ , . 4 - — ' " 1 octatonic C#: [Fr.6] V/III b l l V i I): III " V " i The orchestral punctuation is particularly interesting. Despite its non-functional character, it brings the music effectively back to D minor. Its general sonority is also similar to that of other harmonic progressions encountered in the previous sections. As can be seen in Example 5.18, it is motivically related to what preceded by two examples of motive z. One is created melodically in the bass, while the other is presented harmonicaUy. It should be no surprise by now that the harmonic version of z accompanies the first word of the Third Jew: "Gott". This chord is also interesting because it precedes immediately the tonic triad. One should remember that the E-flat minor triad had been used previously as a predommant harmony. Here, it replaces the dominant after a predominant HI. It is difficult to speculate on possible reasons for this tritone substitution, but it is plausible that Strauss was led to replace the standard A major by E-flat because of the great importance that had been granted this particular tritone in the preceding phrases, and because E-flat had been consistentiy associated with God in previous passages (cf. 188*0, 188*4 1896, as weU as Jochanaan's pro-nouncement at 1844). The orchestral punctuation is also of octatonic character. Acmally, with the sole exception of the note B-flat, the entire punctuation is governed by a hexachordal subset of the collection (D, E-flat, F, G-flat, A-flat, A , B, C). Example 5.19 clarifies the inner workings of the somewhat intricate voice-leading governing the passage from 188 to 1923. one can see that one of the lines that starts from the F5 at 188 goes down to E-flat, then to a chromatically surrounded D, and to C-sharp before it is transferred to the bass C. This C is then carried upwards chromatically to D for the beginning of the Third Jew's intervention. The F5 of 188 is also decorated at the upper minor third (F-sharp at 190^, G-sharp at 191^). On a third level, it remains active for the entire passage. Example 5.19: Salome, r.n. 188 - 192+3, reduction and analysis 188 189 190 191 192 -4* U L J - . ^ LJ^ 1 The orchestral punctuation is followed by the Third Jew's intervention. From the tonic of D, the music is led towards the lowered second scale degree, tonicized at 1927, and coloured by a suspension D in order to create motive z (see Example 5.20). The E-flat minor triad is used as a predominant and is followed by a dominant seventh chord. The motion from bii to V creates a motivic tritone E-flat-A in the bass. The music returns immediately to E-flat minor, but this time the triad, which is once again enriched by D (upper chromatic neighbour of C-sharp) and which accompanies the word "Gott", is reinterpreted in D-flat (C-sharp) minor. The dominant of D-flat is reached at 193. Example 5.20 shows how the upper-line F5 of 192^ is connected me-lodically to E-flat5 (1927), c-sharp5 (192^), and C (193). This C is decorated by its upper chromatic neighbour C-sharp (reinterpreted as D-flat at 194). The dominant of D-flat is followed deceptively by an F-sharp minor triad (iv). Then, Strauss arpeggiates a B-major triad in the bass. This triad is the dominant of III in C-sharp minor. It is foUowed at 194^ by a diminished seventh chord, which finally resolves to E (III of C -sharp) in the following measure. Superimposed over this E-major triad, one finds both C and E-flat. These two notes can be explained as an overlapping of the Fifth Jew's intervention, which begins with a C-minor triad. The vocal E-flat4 at 194^ once again sets the word "Gott". The remainder of the Fifth Jew's intervention is sequential in nature and is analyzed in Example 5 . 2 0 as a chromatic voice leading passage, connecting to another presentation of the orchesti-al punctoation. This time there is no melodic presentation of motive z, but the octatonic char-acter of the punctuation is preserved. Once again, the harmonic version of motive z is used as a substitute (at the tritone) for the dominant. Also, one can hear the punctua-tion as organized around the motivic tritone E-f lat-A, as shown by brackets in Exam-ple 5 . 2 0 . A t 1 9 5 2 , the punctoation ends on D major instead of the expected D minor. Example 5.20: Salome, r.n. 192+3 - 195, reduction and analysis 192^ 193 194 195 r ^ '1 1 octatonic B major • ' — D: i a : III " V " I i i V iv [°7] i n The section from 195^ to 197 is sung by the First Jew and remains in D. Ex-ample 5.21 shows how the major tonic of that key is connected to the submediant by a voice-leading pattern in contrary motion. The D-sharp minor triad at 196^ is the meeting point of the outer voices and is treated as the enharmonic equivalent of E-flat minor, since it sets once again the word "Gott". A t a larger level, the F-sharp5 of 195^ goes to F (196^), E-flat (196^), C-sharp (same measure) and D (197). The cadence duplicates that of 188l3_i89 (gge Example 5.17). The passage contains another ex-ample of the association between E-flat and God at 196^. Example 5.21: Salome, r.n. 195+2 - 197, reduction and analysis 195^ 196 197 ^ — r i r r j i ^ J 1 • ^ — D: I (\>u) [vii°] V I i b i i V i At 197, the Second Jew enters in counterpoint to the First Jew. The remaining three w i l l enter progressively and the texture wi l l soon grow to an amazingly dense web of contradictory lines. The five singers use mainly material from their previous solo interventions. Most of the orchestra also participates in this confused reexposition of previously exposed motives. In the vocal parts as well as in the orchestra, what is not borrowed from previously exposed material is simply created by Unearization of the underlying harmonic progression. This harmonic "carpet", which can be observed in Example 5.22, is presented by strings, reinforced at times by some wind instruments. From 197 to 2016, the harmony prolongs the tonic of D minor. The bass is descending chromatically from D to G and then by whole tones from G to E-flat, upper chromatic neighbour of D. Each change of bass note is marked by a presentation of the melodic version of motive z. Over this bass hne, the tonic triad is transformed into different harmonies connected by common notes and stepwise motions. The chord over E-flat, b l l in D, is foUowed by a transformation of the orchestral punctuation at 2016. The puncmation ends on a D major triad. Example 5.22: Salome, r.n. 197 - 202, harmonic reduction 197 198 199 200 201 201* D: i b n III " V " I This D major triad is prolonged for six measures and is then foUowed by an-other, more radical, transformation of the punctuation, this time in F major. This move towards the thh-d scale degree had been prepared carefuUy by Strauss during the preceding measures, during which the tonic had been prolonged mainly by an alterna-tion between D and F in the bass. A t 204, Herodias intervenes loudly and asks for the sUencing of the Jews. But Herod is quite absorbed in the discussion and quickly re-vives it. Example 5.23, an analytical reduction of the section from 204 to 207, shows how Strauss uses the F-major triad as a predominant and cadences, after a number of voice-leading chords that have the function of harmonizing passing tones, in D minor. In Example 5.23, the tonic triad has been put between brackets because it is, as is often the case in post-Wagnerian music, represented only by the note D in the vocal part. Example 5.23: Salome, r.n. 204 - 207, reduction and analysis 204 205 206 207 1 J J - l ^ . T : : v. v ^^ 4 ^'i- ^  D: m V B b : This cadence is follov " 6 i V I ved by a series of harmonies in descending thirds which have the function of connecting the tonic of D minor to iiA'^ in the same key. Strauss, who now needs to lead the music towards Jochanaan's intervention (i.e. towards E-flat and C) uses chromatic voice-leading to connect F with A (leading tone of B-flat) in the upper voice and D with F (dominant of B-flat) in the bass. The goal harmony is the dominant of B-flat. The latter fmally resolves to its tonic at 207. 5.5 Large-scale structure The section of the opera analyzed in this chapter has always been considered by commentators and analysts as one of the most resistant to generally accepted models of tonal behaviour. It is certainly quite disconcerting at times, especially since, as we have seen earlier, Strauss clouds the tonality on purpose. However, detailed analysis has already enabled us to identify a high level of continuity in this music. The means that are used to achieve this continuity may often be non-standard, but they can normally be understood as transformations of traditional methods. At the surface, many connections are estabhshed by motives. Most prominent in this section are tetrachord (0148), our motive z, Salome's main motive (our motive x), linear presentations of tritones in the bass, and triads or notes associated with spe-cific characters or words. Tetrachord z is most clearly associated with the Jews. We have seen that one of their principal motives is a linear presentation of this tetrachord. It is also found regularly as a vertical structure. Motive X is used by Strauss to accompany Salome's interventions or allusions to her. Tonally, it generally brings the music back to C-sharp minor. Among the ref-erential sonorities or notes, the most prominent are certainly E-flat and its minor triad, which are associated, during the entke quintet, with the word "Gott" or with references to God. The C-sharp minor triad is nearly always associated with Salome, while the F-sharp major triad is at one point repeatedly hnked to Herodias. Finally, the Jews' key is D minor, while that of Jochanaan is C (often paired with E-flat). Some of these associations have been mentioned frequenfly in the literature and are generaUy the only ones analysts identify as unifying devices in this passage. In my view, however, it is quite unhkely that Strauss, who was without doubt one of the most skiUed composers of his time, not only in matters of orchestration but also in his handling of chromatic tonal harmony, decided to abandon completely for about three hundred measures his strong sense of tonal sti-ucturing, a skill that is so proficientiy used in the tone poems that preceded Salome. Going back to the analyses of shorter passages presented in the preceding pages in order to draw a general picture of the entire section, one is immediately struck by the apparently haphazard distribution of key areas. This highly chromatic music seems to cadence all the time. In that respect, it is not too different from Salome's music of the type analyzed in Chapter 3. Close study of the underlying counterpoint wil l reveal, however, very interesting continuities between passages that seem unrelated at first glance. Example 5.24 gathers some of the analytical data of the preceding pages in a general picture of the section of the opera that goes from the entrance of Herod and his court to the beginning of the quintet of the Jews. The model offerred in Example 5.24, conti-ary to those regularly found in the literature on Salome, invokes a limited number of keys, only four, to explain the entire section. Progression in each of the four keys is nearly always complete, at least up to the dominant. Harmonies that are not analyzed are interpreted as voice-leading chords having no functional role at this level of the structure. Example 5.24 also shows the limited importance of the bass line for the large-scale unification of the section: the bass line mainly possesses a cadential function and concentration on it alone would not reveal how Stiauss thought of the section as a whole;^ rather, it is in the upper voices that persuasive Unear continuities may be found. Example 5.24 identifies a number of these, semi-chromatic tines at different levels of structure. Some are surface phenomena, like that between B4 at 175 and D5 at 1763. Others cover as many as 113 measures, Uke that from C-sharp4 at 151^ to B4 at 163^. ^ This is, 1 think, one of the two main problems of Carpenter's analysis of the large-scale tonal structure of the opera (see her Example 3 in Carpenter 1989, 98-99), the other one being that her discussion of large-scale relationships seems to rely on key associations for dramatic purposes and treatment of leitmotives rather than on a detailed study of local connections and organization. Although Example 5.24 is quite useful for the identification of contrapuntal connections, there remains the problem of finding the underlying logic of the large-scale tonal organization of the passage. Further reduction of the material wiU disclose an organization around three main key areas: C-sharp and its two chromatic neigh-bours, C and D. C-sharp can be replaced by its substitute A , as has akeady been done many times in the opera, especially at Salome's entrance (see Chapter 2), and principal keys can be decorated semitonaUy or at the third. From C-sharp the music moves first towards C. This C is then decorated by E and B . Following this, there is a return to the area of C-sharp minor, replaced this time by its relative major A . Finally the music moves to D minor with the qumtet of the Jews. Strauss has thus produced another, gigantic instance of chromatic surrounding. This is shown at the bottom of Exam-ple 5.25. E xa mp l e 5.24: Salome, r.n. 151+6 - 189, redurt ion and analysis ISl*^ 152^' 153 154 iv V l l V iv I 161 ' 162^ 1 6 2 * 163'' 1 6 5 ^ 166* 167 170 170 " 171" 172 172" E : q t : i v C: V [V] i v [V] in V 1 [V] i v V 172* 174 175 176^ 177* 179 1 7 9 " 180 181 183 E : I=[rV V] V C|: [V] IV b l l m VI c: v n IV V 1 [IV v ] rv v i 183^ 185 187 188 189 I J l I J .>) - r - = Ë ^ 1 = ^ I " r T - ^ ' - ^ b p r T ^ f D : ' i q t : VI i v/rv C: V b i l l V I [bvi VI "V b i i i " V i Example 5.25: Salome, r.n. 151+6- 189, large-scide connections and chromatic surrounding ISl*" 156'' 162^ 163'' 167 172" 177' 183 189 • .^grT^ i^iJ.f-lJjT'lWl ^ «p—V -^ T •—" r if-'T^ D: V i V i C|: i V VI C: I. VI V I VII V 1 A: V 1 III V i ç:^—...^^szzzzzizz::z:::::::—" > A B The musical notation clarifies large-scale connections of Example 5.24. There are two main upper lines that are active either together or in alternation. One can also see in Example 5.25 that Strauss's fondness for reinterpretation of dominants or tonics as either bVI, n i , or V U of a new key is also observable in middleground progressions. 5.6 Conclusions Our study of this prime example of the second type of chromatic language in Salome has revealed that Strauss is particularly consistent in his use of tonal tech-niques. First, most of the modulations in this section are carried out in ways that re-semble those of Salome's three-part aria. Second, although this passage is far more contrasted and, notwithstanding the middleground progressions identified above, more chromatic than Salome's aria, it also cadences regularly in many different, seemingly unrelated keys. Third, here too, large-scale chromatic lines unify the section. Fourth, chromatic surrounding is used as the most important technique of tonal unification. Chapter 6 The problem of unity As we have seen in the previous chapters, Salome is not written in one unified musical language, but instead makes use of at least three identifiable idioms. This is an important characteristic of the work, one that is not found regularly in other operas of the period, and one that lends it its particularly innovative character, hi Chapter 1, it was mentioned that this coexistence, in Salome, of different types of music raised, in the mind of many informed contemporary commentators, the important issue of the unity of the work. It is of course not surprising that musicians who strongly believed in the organic character of the work of art have been disconcerted by such a catholic use of different types of music. However, in a time such as ours, when artists try to integrate in their works different historical and geographical influences as weU as different types of languages, examination of the problem of unity in Salome becomes of particular importance. The following pages wil l present an analysis of a short passage from the section of the opera that immediately follows the Dance of the Seven Veils, in which there is an exceptionally successful unification of divergent materials. After her dance, Salome asks for the head of Jochanaan. Herod is terrorized at the prospect of ordering the kilhng of a prophet, an act that could arouse the wrath of God. A t 269, Herod offers her an emerald. After his offer is turned down, Herod (at 274) seems to prepare himself for a second offer. The music is led to the dominant of A major (274^), sub-sidiary key of C-sharp. This marks the begimiing of the passage on which I shall now concentrate. This passage, which runs from 274^ to 286^, is, once again, exemplary for its juxtaposition and combination of the two types of chromatic music outUned in the preceding chapters. The use of these types of music is dictated by the text. Herod's panicked refusals, Salome's stubborn reiterations of her demand, and Herodias's wild encouragements to her daughter are set to the type of music studied in Chapter 5. Most striking here are the extreme contrasts of dynamics, register, and timbre, as well as the rapid succession of motives. Herod's offer to Salome, however, uses the type of music studied in Chapters, most probably because of its enticing and sensuous character. The whole passage is unified by chromatic surrounding. ^  The arrival at the dominant of A major at 274^ marks the beginning of a chro-matic surrounding pattern. For a short moment, Herod forgets what he was about to say. While he tries to remember, the tonal motion stops and the music consists of a prolongation of the major-minor seventh chord on E through arpeggiation of the bass and chromatic neighbour-note motions: G-sharp and B are decorated by their lower chromatic neighbours G and B-flat. The resulting succession of a major-minor seventh chord on E and a G-minor triad creates set (013479), a hexachordal subset of the octatonic collection. A t 275^, Herod remembers what he was going to say and the bass line moves chromatically from G-sharp to a German sixth chord in A major (276). As shown in Example 6.1, this chord is not resolved normally: the bass F is raised chromatically to F-sharp and a new bass note B is added to form a major triad. The progression of the first measure of 276 creates another hexachordal subset of the * The large-scale tonal movements and chromatic surroundings of this passage are shown in Examples 2.6 and 2.7. octatonic collection, set (013679). The B-major triad, which marks the beginning of Herod's second offer to Salome, is transformed into a major-minor seventh chord (an indication of a tonic E) at 276^, under the word "Pfauen". On the thkd beat of that measure, the bass moves up to C-namral. In the next measure, another German sixth chord, this time in the key of E , is once again resolved deceptively and in a manner essentially sequential to the progression at 276. As indicated in Example 6.1, the succession of the last chord of 276^ and the German sixth chord in E creates an instance of set (0134679), the only heptachordal subset of the octatonic collection. The deceptive resolution is particularly interesting: instead of going down by semitone to B , the bass moves up to C-sharp, bass note of an F-sharp major triad in second inversion. The bass note C-sharp completes the octatonic collection that had been expressed by the previous two harmonies. The F-sharp major triad is then connected by a passmg tone to a major-minor seventh chord in first mversion in the key of B at 2768. Up to now, the music has thus moved, in a strongly octatonic context, by ascending fifths from A major to E and B . The 6/5 chord of 276^ is now decorated (through chromatic voice leading) by an E-flat major triad (see Example 6.1). The octatonic scale of the previous measures is not abandoned, since this succession creates set (013469), another of its hexachordal subsets. The E-flat major triad, which prepares for the future arrival of E-flat as tonic, is then transposed down by semitone and transformed into a major-minor seventh chord (on D). There follows a repeated alternation between the latter and a B-major triad, creating another instance of hexachord (013469), confirming the fact that both the key of B and the octatonic universe have not been left yet. A t 277^, the B-major triad is reinterpreted as bVI in the key of E-flat. The music then cadences in that key, under the words "in der ganzen Welt". E-flat, subsidiary key of C and second step in the chromatic surrounding pattern, has now been confirmed, creating at the same time a large-scale presentation of the important tritone A-E-f lat . Example 6.1 : Salome, r.n. 274+9 - 279, harmonic reduction 274S (013479) 276 (013679) 2766 (0134679) (013679) # 1 s^t i | i « H ^tr i). ; It-*? ^ ' k' îl^ t ,Z1 <1 0 ^ ' 1 1 A : V E : B : Ger. 6 (0134679a) Ger. 6 277 (013469) (013469) I 1 ( 278 (013469) (0134679) V V A ' V 279 , b * U fry B : V E k D: I (0134679a) I, V I V I V I As shown in Example 6.1, the tonic of E-flat is then led by chromatic voice leading to the dominant of D at 278^. The beginning of this motion is also very strongly octatonic. The repeated succession of a major-minor seventh chord on E-flat and a major triad on C at 278^ and 278^—a transposition at T 9 (a typical octatonic operator) of what happened at 276^ and 276^—creates hexachord (013469), the addition of a major triad on F-sharp at 278^ creates the heptachordal subset of the octatonic collection, and the arrival of the F-sharp minor triad on the second beat of 278^ completes the presentation of the entire collection. The dominant of 278^ then resolves to its tonic. This cadence marks the end of the chromatic surrounding pattern initiated at 274^. It also closes Herod's second offer to Salome, a passage which, with its quick tonicizations, chromatic displacements, and numerous octatonic progressions strongly resembles the type of music studied in Chapter 3. Example 6.2: Salome, r.n. 279 - 286+3, harmonic reduction Following Herod's offer, Salome repeats her demand over a pedal D (with E-flat as part of a triU). Example 6.2 shows how her E-major arpeggio on the word "Jochanaan", which clashes dramatically with the sustained D/E-flat, is then verticaUzed at the beginning of Herodias's mtervention. This intervention is characterized by a chromatic succession of dissonant sonorities {emphasized fortissimo by the bass drum) which have the middleground tonal function of connecting between the D-major triad at 279 and its first inversion at 280^. At the same time, the clarinets, English horn, and trumpet present extremely dissonant interjections. The whole clearly belongs to the type of chromatic music described in Chapter 5. From 2815 to 282, as Herod mentions that Jochanaan may be a holy man, an A -flat major triad is implied. A-flat major, it wiU be remembered, has been the Icey of Jochanaan's sermon in his scene with Salome (see Chapter 3), and the recall of this par-ticular sonority in this context is quite teUing. The A-flat major triad, b V l in C, then moves to the dominant of that key at 282^. This dominant fmally resolves to the tonic at the end of Herod's intervention (284), after a short chromatic passage. The resolution to C, coming after the cadence on D at 279, is indicative of another chro-matic surrounding pattern, of which only one element, the centre C-sharp, is still miss-ing. At 284^, Salome once again asks for the head of Jochanaan, this time over a pedal C (trilled with D-flat). Herod's reply uses the whole-tone scale, motive z of Chapters (0148), and rapid chromatic scales to set " A h ! Du willst nicht auf mich horen." Tonally speaking, these five measures, as is so often the case in tiiis type of chromatic music, work as a parenthesis which does not fulfill any clear tonal function. However, superimposed on the loud chromatic interjections and the rapid scales, there are, in the horns and some of the woodwinds, repeated allusions to a major-minor seventh chord on D. This seventh chord is given prominence when harmonic direction is reintioduced at 285, i.e., when Herod sings "Sei ruhig Salome". As shown in Example 6.2, the major-minor seventh chord on D is followed by another chord of the same type, this time on G-sharp. The latter is transformed into a dominant-ninth chord on A-flat at 286. This succession of two major-minor seventh chords at a distance of a tritone (as seen in Chapter 4, Tg is an important octatonic operator) creates a hexachordal subset of the octatonic collection, set (013679). The final resolution to D-flat, at the beginning of Herod's third offer to Salome (286^), marks the completion of the second surrounding pattern. Figure 6.1 shows the temporal distribution of types of chromatic music and chromatic surrounding patterns. One is struck by the exact correspondence between the two elements: the arrival at D , which marks the end of the first chromatic surrounding, also signals the passage from one type of chromatic music to the other, and the cadence in C marks the end of material belonging solely to the second type of chromatic music. Figure 6.1: Coordination between types of chromatic music and surrounding Even if this passage is characterized by the juxtaposition and, for a few measures, superimposition of different types of music, many factors contribute to create an impression of unity. First, chromatic surrounding, because it is so intimately related to the distribution of music types, unites the passage as a whole. Also, because the different elements of the patterns are not too distant in time, they are more easily perceived than some of the broader instances of similar patterns discussed in Chapter 2. Second, there are many instances of motivic repetition in this passage. For example, the succession of a major-minor seventh chord on E and a minor triad on G (three semitones above) at 2752-275^ is mirrored by the succession of a major-minor seventh chord on F-sharp and a minor triad on E-flat (three semitones below) at 276^-276^. The melodic line of the first violins at 277, i.e. in the first octatonic section, reappears (transformed but still identifiable) at 281, in the midst of the section in the second type of chromatic music. Also, the fact that the major-minor seventh chord on D, which marks the return to octatonic material at 285, is actually present four measures earlier (at 284^), contributes to the unification of the two types of music. Third, some unifying factors are of dramatic origin. In the first, mostiy octatonic section, Herod speaks with Salome's type of music. Then, it is Salome's turn to speak in what was formeriy Herod's (and the Jews') idiom. This exchange has dramatic justification: Herod is hying to seduce his niece and must tiy to enter her voluptuous world if he wants to succeed. At the same time, Salome, by asking for the head of Jochanaan, has abandoned her inoffensive fantasy world by assuming the role of a unscrupulous autocrat, someone who can ask for anything, even the life of a prophet, hi so doing, Salome assumes the role of her uncle and is burdened, at the same time, by his anxieties. She thus adopts his kind of music. Since each type of music is presented in the wrong voice, the musical effect is one of tentative reconcihation. Finally, there is an important rhythmic factor that contributes to the unity of the passage: the brevity and clashing juxtaposition of its two main parts emphasize the extreme dramatic tension and the rapid evolution of events. This would not be the case if the two sections had been longer and connected by some sort of transitional passage. It should now be clear that this passage successfully addresses the problem of unity that was described at the beginning of this Chapter. However, it can safely be said that it is quite exceptional in this regard. There are not many other examples in Salome of passages where different music types are so closely juxtaposed, where the boundaries between music types are so clearly delineated, and where music types are exchanged between protagonists. The aesthetic problem remains. For example, nearly every time Jochanaan starts to sing, the music seems to stop: the harmonic rhythm slows down dramaticaUy, longer note values are used, and the phrases become much longer. This type of contrast is not necessarily problematic. For example, it can mtroduce an interesting and refreshing change of pace. The problem hes in the fact that, in this opera, it is constantiy repeated, accompanied by a change in the type of music as well: the harmony becomes much more triadically oriented and the progressions, although not necessarily diatonic, become less ambiguous in their use of chromatic relationships. One could add that, although chromatic surrounding is often a unifying factor in Salome, it is regularly observed in very long sti-etches of music, where the possibihties of perception are drastically reduced. One is thus left with confMcting sections and a great number of modulations that do not immediately seem to follow a general plan. One could ask if Strauss, once he selected Wilde's play as libretto, had any other option than to hve with these conflicts and try to organize them into a varied and interesting piece of music. The tragedy is organized around the conflicts among three irreconcilable worlds: first, Jochanaan's world of rigid reUgious vision and pompous self-righteousness; second, Herod's world of extreme neurotic guilt, associated with the Jews' pointless sophistry; and third, Salome's world of ingenuous but profound sensuality becoming corrupted into the most appalling cruelty. The communication among these three worlds is nearly impossible, and Strauss decided to emphasize their irreconcilability by using three different types of music. Also, the meeting of these three worlds produces an absurd situation, which at times threatens to transform the tragedy into a farce, an ambiguity that may be reinforced by the structural double entendre between two- or three-part form. A t any rate, Strauss decided not to have the three worlds interact more in musical terms than they do in Wilde's play. It was perhaps the only way to retain the latter's atmosphere and to avoid transforming this tragedy of the absurd into a morality play centred on Jochanaan. Bibliography Aldington, Richard (ed.). \9SL The Portable Oscar Wilde. New York: V ik ing Press. Aldwel l , Edward and Carl Schachter. 1989. Harmony and Voice-Leading. Second ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Asow, E. H . Mueller von. 1959-74. Richard Strauss: Thematisches Verzeichnis. 3 vols. Wien: Doblinger. 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Chez Pétrouchka: Harmony and Tonahty chez Stravinsky. 19th-century Music 10/3: 265-86. Taubmann, Otto. 1908. Salome: Textbuch mitAngabe der Leitmotive, der fiihrenden Orchesterinstrumente, der betreffenden Seitenzahlen in Partitutr und Klavier-Auszug sowie Hinzufugung von Notenbeispielen im Anhang. Berlin: Fiirstner. Tenschert, Roland. 1925. Die Kadenzbehandlung bei Richard Strauss. Zeitschrift fUr Musikwissenschaft 8/3: 161 -82. Tenschert, Roland. 1960. Richard Strauss' Opemfassung der deutschen ubersetzung von Oscar Wildes Salome. Richard-Strauss-Jahrbuch 1959-60: 99-106. Tiktin, W. 1906. Strauss Triumphator. Das Blaubuch 2: 32-35. Van den Toom, Pieter C. 1983. The Music of Igor Stravinsky. New Haven: Yale University Press. Van den Toom, Pieter C. 1987. Tamskin's Angle. In Theory Only 10/3: 27-46. Wilde,Oscar. 1934. Salome. Ûbertragung von Hedwig Lachmann. Leipzig: Insel-Verlag. Windt, Herbert. 1924. Richard Strauss und die Atonalitat. Die Musik 16: 642-53. Worth, Katharine. 1978. The Irish Drama of Europe from Yeats to Beckett. London: Athlone Press of the University of London. Ziegler, Eugen von. 1907. Richard Strauss in seinen dramatischen Dichtungen: Guntram, Feuersnot, Salome. Munchen: Ackermann. APPENDIX 1 Oscar Wilde 5a/om^'(1891) Une grande terrasse dans le palais d'Hérode donnant sur la salle de festin. Des soldats sont accoudés sur le balcon. À droite, i l y a un énorme escalier. À gauche, au fond, une ancienne citerne entourée d'un mur de bronze vert. C l a i r de lune. L E JEUNE SYRIEN Comme la princesse Salome est belle ce soir! LEPAGED'HÉRODIAS Regardez la lune. La lune a l'air très étrange. On dirait une femme qui sort d'un tombeau. Elle ressemble à une femme morte. On dirait qu'elle cherche des morts. L E JEUNE SYRIEN Elle a l'air très étrange. EUe ressemble à une petite princesse qui porte un voile jaune, et a des pieds d'argent. Elle ressemble à une princesse qui a des pieds comme des petites colombes blanches... On dirait qu'elle danse. L E P A G E D'HÉRODL^S Elle est comme une femme morte. Elle va très lentement Bruits dans la salle de festin. PREMIER SOLDAT Quel vacarme! Qui sont ces bêtes fauves qui hurlent? SECOND SOLDAT Les juifs. Ils sont toujours ainsi. C'est sur leur religion qu'ils discutent. PREMIER SOLDAT Pourquoi discutent-ils sur leur religion? SECOND SOLDAT Je ne sais pas. Ils le font toujours... Ainsi les pharisiens affirment qu'il y a des anges et les sad-ducéens que les anges n'existent pas. PREMIER SOLDAT Je trouve que c'est ridicule de discuter sur de telles choses. L E JEUNE SYRIEN Comme la princesse Salome est belle ce soir! LEPAGED'HÉRODIAS Vous la regardez toujours. Vous la regardez trop. II ne faut pas regarder les gens de cette façon... Il peut arriver un malheur. L E JEUNE SYRIEN Elle est très belle ce soir. PREMIER SOLDAT Le tétrarque a l'air sombre. SECOND SOLDAT Oui, il a l'air sombre. PREMIER SOLDAT D regarde quelque chose. SECOND SOLDAT n regarde que lqu 'un. PREMIER SOLDAT Qui regarde-t-il? SECOND SOLDAT Je ne sais pas. L E JEUNE SYRIEN Comme la princesse est pâle! Jamais je ne l'ai vue si pâle. Elle ressemble au reflet d'une rose blanche dans un miroir d'argent. L E P A G E D'HÉRODIAS Il ne faut pas la regarder. Vous la regardez trop! [Il peut arriver un malheur.] PREMIER SOLDAT Hérodias a versé à bo i re au tétrarque. L E CAPPADOCIEN C'est l a reine Hérodias, celle-là q u i porte l a mitre noire semée de perles et qu i a les cheveux poudrés de b leu? PREMIER SOLDAT O u i , c'est Hérodias. C'est l a f e m m e d u tétrarque. SECOND SOLDAT L e tétrarque a ime beaucoup le v i n . I l possède des v ins de trois espèces. U n vient de l'île de Samothrace, q u i est pourpre c o m m e l e manteau de César. LECAPPADOCŒN Je n'ai j ama i s v u César. SECOND SOLDAT U n auû-e qu i v ient de l a v i l l e de C h y p r e , qu i est jaune c o m m e de l 'or. L E C A P P A D O C I E N J 'aime beaucoup l 'or. SECOND SOLDAT E t le troisième qu i est u n v i n s i c i l i en . C e vin-là est rouge c o m m e le sang. L E NUBIEN L e s d i eux de m o n pays a iment beaucoup l e sang. D e u x fois par an nous l eur sacr i f ions des jeunes hommes et des vierges : c inquante jeunes hommes et cent vierges. M a i s i l semble que nous ne l eu r donnons j ama i s assez, car i l s sont très durs envers nous. L E C A P P A D O C I E N Dans m o n pays i l n'y a pas de d i eux à présent, les R o m a i n s les ont chassés. D y e n a qu i disent qu' i ls se sont réfugiés dans les montagnes, mais j e ne le cro is pas. M o i , j ' a i passé trois nuits sur les montagnes, les cherchant, partout. Je ne les ai pas trouvés. E n f i n , j e les ai appelés par leurs noms et i l s n'ont pas p a m . Je pense qu ' i l s sont morts. PREMIER SOLDAT L e s Jui fs adorent u n d i eu qu 'on ne peut pas vo i r . L E CAPPADOCIEN Je ne peux pas comprendre ce la. PREMIER SOLDAT E n f i n , i l s ne cro ient qu 'aux choses qu 'on ne peut pas vo i r . C e l a me semble absolument ridicule. LA V O K D ' I O K A N A A N Après mol viendra un autre encore plus puissant que moi. Je ne suis pas digne de délier la courroie de ses sandales. Quand il viendra, la terre déserte se réjouiera. E l l e fleurira c omme le l ys . [Quand il viendra,] les yeux des aveugles verront le jour, et [Quand il viendra,] les oreilles des sourds seront ouvertes... L e nouveau-né mettra sa m a i n sur le n i d des dragons, et mènera les l i ons pas leurs crinières. SECOND SOLDAT Faites-le taire. Il dit toujours des choses absurdes. PREMIER SOLDAT M a i s n o n ; c'est un saint homme. Il est très doux aussi. Chaque jour je lui donne à manger. Il me remercie toujours. L E CAPPADOCIEN Qui est-ce? PREMIER SOLDAT C'est un prophète. L E CAPPADOCIEN Quel est son nom? PREMIER SOLDAT lokanaan. L E CAPPADOCIEN D'où vient-il? PREMIER SOLDAT Du désert, où i l se nourr issai t de sauterelles et de m ie l sauvage. D était vêtu de p o i l de chameau, et autour de ses re ins i l portait une ceinture de cu i r . S o n aspect était très farouche. Une grande foule [de disciples] le suivait II avait même des d isc ip les . L E CAPPADOCIEN De quoi parle-t-il? PREMIER SOLDAT N o u s ne savons jamais . Que lque fo i s , i l dit des choses épouvantables, ma is il est impossible de le comprendre. Peut-on le voir? PREMIER S O L D A T Non. Le tétrarque ne le permet pas. L E JEUNE SYRIEN L a princesse a caché son visage derrière son éventail! Ses petites mains blanches s'agitent c omme des co lombes qu i s'envolent vers leurs co lombiers . E l l e s ressemblent à des papi l lons blancs . E l l e s sont tout à fait c o m m e des pap i l l ons b lancs . L E PAGE D'HÉRODIAS M a i s qu'est-ce que c e l a vous fait? P o u r q u o i l a regarder... I l peut arr iver u n malheur . L E CAPPADOCIEN montrant la citerne Que l l e étrange p r i s on ! SECOND SOLDAT C'est une ancienne citerne. L E C A P P A D O C I E N U n e ancienne c i terne ! C e l a do i t être très malsa in . SECOND SOLDAT M a i s non . P a r exemple , l e frère d u tétrarque, son frère aîné, le p remie r mar i de l a reine Hérodias, a été enfermé là-dedans pendant douze années. I l n'en est pas mort . A l a fin i l a f a l lu l'étrangler. L E CAPPADOCIEN L'étrangler? Q u i a osé faire ce la? SECOND SOLDAT montrant le bourreau, un grand nègre Celui-là, N a a m a n . L E C A P P A D O C I E N D n 'a pas eu peur? SECOND SOLDAT M a i s non. L e téttarque l u i a envoyé l a bague. Que l l e bague? S E C O N D S O L D A T L a bague de l a mort. A i n s i , i l n 'a pas eu peur. L E C A P P A D O C I E N Cependant , c'est terrible d'étrangler u n ro i . PREMIER S O L D A T Pourquo i ? L e s ro is n'ont qu 'un cou , c o m m e les autres honunes. L E C A P P A D O C I E N I l me semble que c'est terrible. L E J E U N E S Y R I E N Mais la princesse se lève! Elle quitte la table! Elle a l'air très ennuyée. Ah! elle vient par ici. Oui, elle vient vers nous. C o m m e e l le est pâle. Jamais j e ne l 'a i vue si pâle... L E P A G E D'HÉRODL\S Ne la regardez pas. Je vous prie de ne pas la regarder. L E J E U N E S Y R I E N Elle est comme une colombe qui s'est égarée... E l l e est c o m m e u n narcisse agité du vent... E l l e ressemble à une fleur d'argent. Entre Salome S A L O M E Je ne resterai pas. Je ne peux pas rester. Pourquoi le tétrarque me regarde-t-il toujours avec ses yeux de taupe sous ses paupières tremblantes?...C'est étrange que le mari de ma mère me regarde comme cela. Je ne sais pas ce que ce la veut d i r e . . . A u fait, s i , j e le sais. L E J E U N E S Y R I E N V o u s venez de quitter le fest in, pr incesse? S A L O M É Comme l'air est frais ici! Enfin, ici on respire! Là-dedans il ya des Juifs de Jérusalem qui se déchirent à cause de leurs ridicules cérémonies, et des Barbares q u i bo i vent toujours et jettent l eur v i n sur les dal les , et des Grecs de S m y m e avec leurs yeux peints et leurs joues fardées, et leurs cheveux en spirales, et des Égyptiens, silencieux, subtils, avec leurs ongles de jade et l eurs manteaux bruns, et des Romains avec leur brutalité, leur lourdeur, leurs gros mots. Ah! que je déteste les Romains! C e sont des gens c o m m u n s , et i l s se donnent des airs de grands seigneurs. L E J E U N E S Y R I E N N e vou lez -vous pas vous asseoir, pr incesse? L E P A G E D'HÉRODIAS Pourquoi lui parler? Pourquoi la r^arder?...Oh! il va arriver un malheur. S A L O M É Que c'est bon de voir la lune! Elle ressemble à une petite pièce de monnaie. On dirait une toute petite fleur d'argent Elle est froide et chaste, la lune...Je suis sûre qu'elle est vierge... Elle a la beauté d'une vierge... Oui, elle est vierge. Elle ne s'est jamais souillée. Elle ne s'est jamais donnée aux hommes, comme les aud-es déesses. L A V O I X D ' I O K A N A A N Il est venu, le Seigneur! Il est venu, le Fils de l'homme. Les centaures se sont cachés dans les rivières, et les sirènes ont quitté les rivières et couchent sous les feuilles dans les forêts. S A L O M É Qui a crié cela? S E C O N D S O L D A T C'est le prophète, princesse. S A L O M É Ah! le prophète. Celui dont le tétrarque a peur? S E C O N D S O L D A T Nous ne savons rien de cela, princesse. C'est le prophète lokanaan. L E J E U N E S Y R I E N Voulez-vous que je commande votre litière, princesse? Il fait très beau dans le jardin. S A L O M É Il dit des choses monstrueuses, à propos de ma mère, n'est-ce pas? S E C O N D S O L D A T Nous ne comprenons jamais ce qu'il dit princesse. S A L O M É Oui, il dit des choses monstrueuses d'elle. Entre un esclave L ' E S C L A V E Princesse, le tétrarque vous prie de retourner au festin. S A L O M É Je ne retournerai pas. L E J E U N E S Y R I E N Pardon, princesse, mais si vous n'y retourniez pas, i l pourrait arriver un malheur. S A L O M É Est-ce un vieillard, le prophète? L E J E U N E S Y R I E N Princesse, il vaudrait mieux retourner. Permettez-moi de vous reconduire. S A L O M É Le prophète...est-ce un vieillard? P R E M I E R S O L D A T Non, princesse, c'est un tout jeune homme. S E C O N D SOLDÂT On ne le sait pas. D y en a qui disent que c'est Élie? S A L O M É Qui est ÉUe? S E C O N D S O L D A T Un très ancien prophète de ce pays, princesse. L ' E S C L A V E Quelle réponse dois-je donner au tétrarque, de la part de la princesse? L A V O I X D ' I O K A N A A N Ne te réjouis pas, terre de Palestine, parce que la verge de celui qui te frappait a été brisée. Car de la race du serpent il sortira un basilic, et ce qui en naîtra dévorera les oiseaux. S A L O M É Quelle étrange voix! Je voudrais bien lui parler. P R E M I E R S O L D A T J'ai peur que ce soit impossible, princesse. Le tétrarque ne veut pas qu'on lui parle. Il a même défendu au grand prêtre de lui parler. S A L O M É Je veux lui parler. PREMIER S O L D A T C'est impossible, princesse. Je le veux. L E JEUNE S Y R I E N En effet, princesse, i l vaudrait mieux retourner au festin. S A L O M É Faites sortir le prophète. L'esclave sort P R E M I E R S O L D A T Nous n'osons pas, princesse. S A L O M É s'approchant de la citerne et y regardant Comme il fait noir là-dedans! Cela doit être terrible d'être dans un trou si noir! Cela ressemble à une tombe. Aux soldats Vous ne m'avez pas entendue? Faites-le sortir! Je veux le voir. S E C O N D S O L D A T Je vous prie, princesse, de ne pas nous demander cela. S A L O M É Vous me faites attendre. PREMIER S O L D A T Princesse, nos vies vous appartiennent, mais nous ne pouvons pas faire ce que vous nous de-mandez... Enfin, ce n'est pas à nous qu'il faut vous adresser. S A L O M É regardant le jeune Syrien Ah! L E P A G E D'HÉRODL\S Oh! qu'est-ce qu'il va arriver? Je suis sûr qu'il va arriver un malheur. s'approchant du jeune Syrien Vous ferez cela pour moi, n'est-ce pas, Narraboth? Vous ferez cela pour moi? J'ai toujours été douce pour vous. N'est-ce pas que vous ferez cela pour moi? Je veux seulement le re-garder, cet étrange prophète. On a tant parlé de lui. J'ai si souvent entendu le tétrarque parler de lui. Je pense qu'il a peur de lui, le tétrarque. Je suis sûre qu'il a peur de lui...Est-ce que vous aussi, Narraboth, est-ce que vous aussi vous en avez peur? L E J E U N E S Y R I E N Je n'ai pas peur de lui, princesse. Je n'ai peur de personne. Mais le tétrarque a formellement défendu qu'on lève le couvercle de ce puits. S A L O M É Vous ferez cela pour moi, Narraboth, et demain quand je passerai dans ma litière sous la porte des vendeurs d'idoles, je laisserai tomber une petite fleur pour vous, une petite fleur verte. L E J E U N E S Y R I E N Princesse, je ne peux pas, je ne peux pas. S A L O M É souriant Vous ferez cela pour moi, Narraboth. Vous savez bien que vous ferez cela pour moi. Et de-main quand je passerai dans ma htière sur le pont des acheteurs d'idoles, je vous regarderai à travers les voiles de mousseline, je vous regarderai, Narraboth, je vous sourirai, peut-être. R^ardez-moi, Narraboth. Regardez-moi. Ah! vous savez bien que vous allez faire ce que je vous demande. Vous le savez bien, n'est-ce pas?...Moi, je le sais bien. L E J E U N E S Y R I E N faisant un signe au troisième soldat Faites sortir le prophète...La princesse Salomé veut le voir. S A L O M É Ah! L E P A G E D'HÉRODIAS Oh! comme la lune a l'air étrange! On dirait la main d'une morte qui cherche à se couvrir avec un Unceul. L E JEUNE SYRIEN E l l e a l 'a i r très étrange. O n d i ra i t une petite pr incesse q u i a des y eux d 'ambre. A travers les nuages de mousse l ine , e l le sourit c o m m e une petite princesse. Le prophète sort de la citerne. Salomé le regarde et recule. l O K A N A A N OÙ est celui dont la coupe d'abominations est déjà pleine? Où est celui qm' en robe d'argent mourra un jour devant tout le peuple? Dites-lui de venir, afin qu'il puisse enten-dre la voix de celiu qui a crié dans les déserts et dans les palais des rois. SALOMÉ De qui parle-t-il? L E JEUNE SYRIEN On ne sait jamais, princesse. l O K A N A A N Où est celle qui ayant vu des hommes peints sur la muraille, des images de Chaldéens tracées avec des couleurs, s'est laissée emporter à la concupiscence de ses yeux, et a envoyé des ambassadeurs en Chaldée? SALOMÉ C'est de ma mère qu'il parle. L E JEUNE SYRIEN Mais non, princesse. S A L O M É Si, c'est de ma mère. l O K A N A A N OÙ est celle qui s'est abandonnée aux capitaines des Assyriens, q u i ont des baudr iers sur les reins, et su r l a tête des tiares de différentes cou leurs? Où est celle qui s'est abandonnée aux jeunes hommes d'Egypte qu i sont vêtus de l i n et d 'hyacinthe, et portent des bouc l i e rs d'or et des casques d'argent, et qui ont de grands corps? D i t e s - lu i de se lever de l a couche de son impudicité, de s a couche incestueuse, a f in qu'el le puisse entendre les paroles de ce lu i qu i prépare l a vo ie d u Se igneur ; a f in qu'el le se repente de ses péchés. Quo iqu ' e l l e ne se repent ira j ama i s , m a i s restera dans ses abominat ions , dites-lui de venir, car le Seigneur a son fléau dans la main. SALOMÉ Mais il est terrible, il est terrible. L E JEUNE SYRIEN Ne restez pas ici, princesse, je vous en prie, S A L O M É Ce sont les yeux surtout qui sont terribles. On dirait des trous noirs laissés par des flambeaux sur une tapisserie de Tyr. On dirait des cavernes noires où demeurent des dragons, des cavernes noires d'Egypte oîi les dragons trouvent leur asile. On dirait des lacs noirs troublés par des lunes fantastiques...Pensez-vous qu'il parlera encore? L E JEUNE SYRIEN Ne restez pas ici, princesse! Je vous prie de ne pas rester ici. S A L O M É Comme il est maigre aussi! il ressemble à une mince image d'ivoire. On dirait une image d'argent. Je suis sûre qu'il est chaste, autant que la lune, n ressemble à un rayon d'argent. Sa chair doit être très froide, comme de rivoire...Je veux le regarder de près. L E JEUNE SYRIEN Non, non, princesse! S A L O M É Il faut que je le regarde de près. L E JEUNE SYRIEN Princesse! Princesse! l O K A N A A N Qui est cette femme qui me regarde? Je ne veux pas qu'elle me regarde. Pourquoi me re-garde-t-elle avec ses yeux d'or sous ses paupières dorées? Je ne sais pas qui c'est Je ne veux pas le savoir. Dites-lui de s'en aller. Ce n'est pas à elle que je veux parler. S A L O M É Je suis Salomé, fille d'Hérodias, princesse de Judée. l O K A N A A N Arrière! Fille de Babylone! N'approchez pas de l'élu du Seigneur. Ta mère a rempli la terre du vin de ses iniquités, et le cri de ses péchés est arrivé aux oreilles de Dieu. S A L O M É Parle encore, lokanaan. Ta voix m'enivre. Princesse! Princesse! Princesse! S A L O M É Mais parle encore. Parle encore, lokanaan, et dis-moi ce qu'il faut que je fasse. l O K A N A A N Ne m'approchez pas, fille de Sodome, mais couvrez votre visage avec un voile, et mettez des cendres sur votre tête, et allez dans le désert chercher le fils de l'homme. S A L O M É Qui est-ce, le Fils de l'homme? Est-il aussi beau que toi, lokanaan? l O K A N A A N Arrière! Arrière! J'entends dans le palais le battement des ailes de l'ange de la mort L E JEUNE SYRIEN Princesse, je vous supplie de rentrer! l O K A N A A N A n g e d u Se igneur D i e u , que fais-tu i c i avec ton g la ive? Q u i cherches-tu dans cet i m m o n d e pa-la is? . . .Le j o u r de c e lu i qu i mour ra en robe d'argent n'est pas venu. S A L O M É lokanaan. l O K A N A A N Q u i par le? S A L O M É lokanaan! Je suis amoureuse de ton corps. Ton corps est blanc comme le lys d'un pré que le faucheur n'a jamais fauché. Ton corps est blanc comme les neiges qui couchent sur les montagnes, c o m m e les neiges qu i couchent sur les montagnes de Judée, et descendent dans les vallées. Les roses du jardin de la reine d'Arabie ne sont pas aussi blanches que ton corps. Ni les roses du jardin de la reine d 'A rab i e , d u j a rd in parfumé de l a re ine d 'A rab i e , ni les pieds de l'aurore qui trépignent sur les feuilles, ni le sein de la lune quand elle couche sur le sein de la mer ...Il n'y a rien au monde d'aussi blanc que ton corps. Laisse-moi toucher ton corps! l O K A N A A N Arrière, fille de Babylone! C'est par la femme que le mal est entré dans le monde. Ne me parlez pas. Je ne veux pas t'écouter. Je n'écoute que les paroles du Seigneur Dieu. S A L O M É Ton corps est hideux. II est comme le corps d'un lépreux. II est comme un mur de plâtre où les vipères sont passées, comme un mur de plâtre où les scorpions ont fait leur nid. Il est comme un sépulcre blanchi, et qui est plein de choses dégoûtantes. Il est horrible, il est horrible ton corps!...C'est de tes cheveux que je suis amoureuse, lokanaan. Tes cheveux ressemblent à des grappes de raisins noirs qui pendent des vignes d'Édom dans le pays des Édomites. Tes cheveux sont comme les cèdres du Liban, comme les grands cèdres du Liban qui donnent de l'ombre aux lions et aux voleurs qui veulent se cacher pendant la journée. Les longues nm"ts noires, les nuits où la lune ne se montre pas, où les étoiles ont peur, ne sont pas aussi noires. Le silence qui demeure dans les forêts n'est pas aussi noir. Il n'y a rien au monde d'aussi noir que tes cheveux... Laisse-moi toucher tes cheveux. l O K A N A A N Arrière, fille de Sodome! Ne me touchez pas. Il ne faut pas profaner le temple du Seigneur Dieu. SALOMÉ Tes cheveux sont horribles. Ils sont couverts de boue et de poussière. On dirait une couronne d'épines qu'on a placée sur ton front On dirait un noeud de serpents noirs qui se tortillent autour de ton cou. Je n'aime pas tes cheveux...C'est de ta bouche que je suis amoureuse, lokanaan. Ta bouche est comme une bande d'écarlate sur une tour d'ivoire. Elle est comme une pomme de grenade coupée par un couteau d'ivoire. Les fleurs de gre-nade qui fleurissent dans les jardins de Tyr et sont plus rouges que les roses, ne sont pas aussi rouges. Les cris rouges des trompettes qui annoncent l'arrivée des rois et font peur à l'ennemi ne sont pas aussi rouges. Ta bouche est plus rouge que les pieds de ceux qui foulent le vin dans les pressoirs. Elle est plus rouge que les pieds des colombes qui de-meurent dans les temples et sont nourries par les prêtres. EUe est plus rouge que les pieds de celui qui revient d'une forêt où il a tué un Uon et vu des tigres dorés. Ta bouche est comme une branche de corail que des pêcheurs ont trouvée dans le crépuscule de la mer et qu'Us réservent pour les rois...! EUe est comme le vermillon que les Moabites trouvent dans les mines de Moab, [le vermillion des rois] et que les rois leur prennent EUe est comme l'arc du roi des Perses qui est peint avec du vermiUon et qui a des comes de corail. Il n'y a rien au monde d'aussi rouge que ta bouche... Laisse-moi baiser ta bouche. l O K A N A A N Jamais, fille de Babylone! Fille de Sodome! Jamais. SALOMÉ Je baiserai ta bouche, lokanaan. Je baiserai ta bouche. L E JEUNE SYRIEN Princesse, princesse, toi qui es comme un bouquet de myrrhe, toi qui es la colombe des co-lombes, ne regarde pas cet homme, ne le regarde pas! Ne lui dis pas de telles choses. Je ne peux pas les souffrir... Princesse, princesse, ne dis pas ces choses. SALOMÉ Je baiserai ta bouche, lokanaan. [Je baiserai ta bouche, lokanaan.] L E JEUNE SYRIEN Ah! // se tue et tombe entre Salomé et lokanaan L E PAGE D'HÉRODIAS L e jeune S y r i e n s'est tué! L e j eune capitaine s'est tué! D s'est tué, c e lu i q u i était m o n a m i ! Je l u i avais donné une petite boîte de par fums, et des boucles d 'orei l les faites en argent, et maintenant i l s'est mé! A h ! n'a-t i l pas prédit qu 'un malheur al lait arriver?.. .Je l ' a i prédit moi-même et i l est arrivé. Je savais b i e n que l a lune cherchai t i m mort, mais j e ne savais pas que c'était l u i qu'el le cherchait. A h ! pourquo i ne l 'ai-je pas caché de l a lune? S i j e l 'avais caché dans une caverne, e l le ne l 'aurait pas v u . PREMIER SOLDAT Pr incesse, le j eune capitaine v ient de se mer. SALOMÉ Laisse-moi baiser ta bouche, lokanaan. l O K A N A A N N'avez-vous pas peur, fille d'Hérodias! N e vous ai-je pas d i t que j ' a va i s entendu dans le palais l e battement des ai les de l 'ange de l a mort, et l 'ange n'est-i l pas venu? SALOMÉ Laisse-moi baiser ta bouche, [lokanaan]. l O K A N A A N Fille d'adultère, il n'y a qu'un homme qui puisse te sauver. C 'est c e lu i dont j e t 'ai parlé. Allez le chercher. Il est dans un bateau sur la mer de Galilée, et il parle à ses disciples. Agenouillez-vous au bord de la mer, et appelez-le par son nom. Quand il viendra vers vous, et il vient vers tous ceux qui l'appellent, prosternez-vous à ses pieds et demandez-lui la rémission de vos péchés. SALOMÉ Laisse-moi baiser ta bouche, [lokanaan]. l O K A N A A N Soyez maudite, fille d'une mère incestueuse, soyez maudite. SALOMÉ [Laisse-moi baiser ta bouche, lokanaan.] Je baiserai ta bouche , l okanaan . l O K A N A A N Je ne veux pas te regarder. Je ne te regarderai pas. Tu es maudite, Salomé, tu es maudite. [Tu es maudite.] Il descend dans la citerne. SALOMÉ Je baisera i t a bouche , l okanaan , j e baiserai ta bouche . PREMIER SOLDAT D faut fa ire transporter l e cadavre a i l l eurs . L e tétrarque n 'a ime pas regarder les cadavres , sauf les cadavres de ceux qu ' i l a m e s lui-même. LEPAGED'HÉRODL^S D était m o n frère, et p lus proche qu 'un frère. Je l u i a i donné une petite boîte q u i contenait des parft ims, et une bague d'agate qu ' i l portait toujours à l a m a i n . L e so i r nous nous p romen ions au bord de l a rivière et pa rm i les amandiers , et i l me racontait des choses de son pays, n par la i t toujours ttès bas. L e son de sa v o i x ressembla i t au son de l a flûte d 'un j oueur de flûte. A u s s i , i l a imait beaucoup à se regarder dans l a rivière. Je l u i ai fait des reproches pour ce la . SECOND SOLDAT V o u s avez ra i son ; i l faut cacher l e cadavre . D ne faut pas que l e téttarque le vo ie . PREMIER SOLDAT L e téfrarque ne v i e n d r a pas i c i . n ne v ient j ama i s sur l a terrasse. H a frop peiu- d u prophète. Entrée d'Hérode, d'Hérodias et de toute la cour. HÉRODE Où est Salomé? Où est la princesse? Pourquoi n'est-elle pas retournée au festin comme je le lui avais commandé? Ah! la voilà! HÉRODL\S Il ne faut pas la regarder. Vous la regardez toujours! HÉRODE La lune a l'air étrange ce soir. N'est-ce pas que la lune a l'air très étrange? On dirait une femme hystérique, une femme hystérique qui va cherchant des amants partout E l l e est nue aussi . E l l e est toute nue. L e s nuages cherchent à l a vêtir, ma is e l le ne veut pas. E U e se montre toute nue dans le c i e l . Elle chancelle à travers les nuages comme une femme ivre... N'est-ce pas qu'e l le chance l le c onune une f emme i v re? E l l e ressemble à une f emme hystérique, n'est-ce pas? HÉRODIAS Non. La lune ressemble à la lune, c'est tout Rentrons... V o u s n'avez rien à faire i c i . HÉRODE Je resterai! Manassé, mettez des tapis là. Allumez des flambeaux. A p p o r t e z les tables d ' ivo ire , et les tables de jaspe. L ' a i r est i c i délicieux. Je boirai encore du vin avec mes hôtes. A u x ambassadeurs de César i l faut faire tout honneur. HÉRODL\S C e n'est pas à cause d'eux que vous restez. Oui, l'ai est délicieux. Viens, Hérodias, nos hôtes nous attendent. Ah! j'ai glissé! J'ai glissé dans le sang! C'est d'un mauvais présage. C'est d'un très mauvais présage. Pourquoi y-a-t-il du sang ici?...Et ce cadavre? [Qui est ce cadavre, ici? Qui est ce cadavre?] Que fait ici ce cadavre? Pensez-vous que je sois comme le roi d'Egypte qui ne donne jamais un festin sans montrer un cadavre à ses hôtes? Enfin, qui est-ce? Je ne veux pas le regarder. PREMIER SOLDAT C'est notre capitaine, seigneur. C'est le jeune Syrien que vous avez fait capitaine i l y a trois jours seulement. HÉRODE Je n'ai donné aucun ordre de le tuer. SECOND SOLDAT Il s'est tué lui-même, seigneur. HÉRODE Pourquoi? Je l'ai fait capitaine! SECOND SOLDAT Nous ne savons pas, seigneur. Mais i l s'est tué lui-même. HÉRODE Cela me semble étrange. Je pensais qu'il n'y avait que les philosophes romains qui se maient. N'est-ce-pas, Tigellin, que les philosophes à Rome se ment? TIGELLIN D y en a qui se ment, seigneur. Ce sont les stoïciens. Ce sont des gens très grossiers. Enfin, ce sont des gens très ridicules. Moi, je les trouve très ridicules. HÉRODE Moi aussi. C'est ridicule de se tuer. TIGELLIN On rit beaucoup d'eux à Rome. L'empereur a fait un poème satirique contre eux. On le récite partout. HÉRODE Ah! il a fait un poème satirique contre eux? César est merveilleux. E peut tout faire...C'est éû-ange qu'il se soit tué, le jeune Syrien. Je le regrette. Oui, je le regrette beaucoup. Car il était beau. E était même très beau. E avait des yeux ttès langoureux. Je me rappelle que je l'ai vu regardant Salomé d'une façon langoureuse. En effet, j 'ai trouvé qu'il l'avait un peu trop regardée. D y en a d'autres q u i l a regardent trop. HÉRODE S o n père était r o i . Je l 'a i chassé de son royaume. E t de sa mère q u i était re ine vouz avez fait une esclave, Hérodias. A i n s i , i l était i c i c o m m e tm hôte. C'était à cause de c e l a que je l 'avais fait capitaine. Je regrette qu ' i l so i t mor t . . .En f in , pourquo i avez-vous laissé le cadavre i c i ? D faut l 'emporter a i l l eurs . Je ne v eux pas l e voir. . . Emportez-le... On emporte le cadavre. Il fait froid ici. Il y a du vent ici. N'est-ce pas qu'il y a du vent? HÉRODIAS Mais non. Il n'y a pas de vent HÉRODE Mais si, il y a du vent..Et j'entends dans l'air quelque chose comme un battement d'ailes gigantesques. Ne l'entendez-vous pas? HÉRODIAS Je n'entends rien. HÉRODE Je ne l 'entends p lus moi-même. M a i s je l 'a i entendu. C'était le vent sans doute. C 'est passé. M a i s non, j e l 'entends encore. Ne l'entendez-vous pas? C'est tout à fait comme un battement d'ailes. HÉRODIAS Je vous d is qu ' i l n'y a r i en . Vous êtes malade. Rentrons. HÉRODE Je ne suis pas malade. C'est votre fille qui est malade. E l l e a l ' a i r très malade , votre fille. Ja-mais je ne l'ai vue si pâle. HÉRODIAS Je vous ai dit de ne pas la regarder. HÉRODE Versez du vin. On apporte du vin. Salomé, venez boire un peu de vin avec moi. J 'a i un v i n i c i q u i est exqu i s . C'est César lui-même qui me l'a envoyé. Trempez là-dedans vos petites lèvres rouges et ensuite je viderai la coupe. Je n'ai pas soif, tétrarque. HÉRODE Vous entendez comme elle me répond, votre fille. HÉRODMS Je trouve qu'elle a bien raison. Pourquoi la regardez-vous toujours? HÉRODE Apportez des fruits. On apporte des fruits. Salomé, venez manger du fruit avec moi. J'aime beaucoup voir dans un fruit la morsure de tes petites dents. Mordez un tout petit morceau de ce fruit, et ensuite je mangerai ce qui reste. S A L O M É Je n'ai pas faim, tétrarque... HÉRODE à Hérodias Voilà comme vous l'avez élevée, votre fille. HÉRODL^S Ma fille et moi, nous descendons d'une race royale. Quant à toi, ton grand-père gardait des chameaux! Aussi, c'était un voleur! HÉRODE T u mens ! HÉRODMS T u sais b i e n que c'est l a vérité. HÉRODE Salomé, viens t'asseoir près de moi. Je te donnerai le trône de ta mère. S A L O M É Je ne suis pas fatiguée, tétrarque. HÉRODIAS Vous voyez bien ce qu'elle pense de vous. HÉRODE Apportez...Qu'est-ce que je veux? Je ne sais pas. Ali! ali! je m'en souviens... L A VOIX D l O K A N A A N Voici le temps! Ce que j'ai prédit est arrivé, dit le Seigneur Dieu. Voici le jour dont j'avais parlé. HÉRODL\S Faites-le taire. Je ne veux pas entendre sa voix. Cet homme vomit toujours des injures contre moi. HÉRODE Il n'a rien dit contre vous. Aussi, c'est un très grand prophète. HÉRODIAS Je ne crois pas aux prophètes. Est-ce qu'un homme peut dire ce qui doit arriver? Personne ne le sait. Aussi, i l m'insulte toujours. Mais je pense que vous avez peur de lui... Enfin, je sais bien que vous avez peur de lui. HÉRODE Je n'ai pas peur de lui. Je n'ai peur de personne. HÉRODUS Si, vous avez peur de lui. Si vous n'aviez pas peur de lui, pourquoi ne pas le livrer aux Juifs qui depuis six mois vous le demandent? U N JUIF En effet, seigneur, il serait mieux de nous le livrer. HÉRODE Assez sur ce point Je vous ai déjà donné ma réponse. Je ne veux pas vous le livrer. C'est un homme qui a vu Dieu. UN JUIF Cela, c'est impossible. Personne n'a vu Dieu depm's le prophète Élie. Lui, c'est le dernier qui ait vu Dieu. En ce temps-ci. Dieu ne se montre pas. 11 se cache. Et par conséquent il y a de grands malheurs dans le pays. UN A U T R E JUIF Enfin, on ne sait pas si le prophète Élie a réellement vu Dieu. C'était plutôt l'ombre de Dieu qu'il a vue. UN TROISIÈME JUIF Dieu ne se cache jamais. Il se montre toujours et dans toute chose. Dieu est dans le mal comme dans le bien. U N QUATRIÈME JUIF Il ne faut pas dire cela. C'est une idée très dangereuse. C'est une idée qui vient des écoles d'Alexandrie où on enseigne la philosophie grecque. Et les Grecs sont des gentils. Ils ne sont même pas circoncis. U N CINQUIÈME JUIF On ne peut pas savoir comment Dieu agit, ses voies sont très mystérieuses. Peut-être que ce que nous appelons le mal est le bien, et ce que nous appelons le bien est le mal. On ne peut rien savoir. Le nécessaire c'est de se soumettre à tout Dieu est très fort II brise au même temp les faibles et les forts. D n'a aucun souci de personne. L E PREMIER JUIF C'est vrai cela. Dieu est terrible. D brise les faibles et les forts, comme on brise le blé dans un mortier. Mais cet homme n'a jamais vu Dieu. Personne n'a vu Dieu depuis le prophète Élie. HÉRODLVS Faites-les taire. Ils m'ennuient HÉRODE Mais j'ai entendu dire qu'Iokanaan lui-même est votre prohète Élie. UN JUIF Cela ne se peut pas. Depuis le temps du prophète Élie il y a plus de trois cents ans. HÉRODE n y en a qui disent que c'est le prophète Élie. U N NAZARÉEN Moi, je suis sûr que c'est le prophète Élie. LA V O K D ' I O K A N A A N Le jour est venu, le jour du Seigneur, et j'entends sur les montagnes les pieds de Celui qui est le Sauveur du monde. HÉRODE Qu'est-ce que cela veut dire? Le Sauveur du monde? TIGELLIN C'est un dtre que prend César. Mais César ne vient pas en Judée. J'ai reçu hier des lettre de Rome. On ne m'a rien dit de cela. Enfin, vous, Tigell in, qui avez été à Rome pendant l'hiver, vous n'avez rien entendu dire de cela? TIGEULIN E n effet, seigneur, je n'en ai pas entendu parler. J'explique seulement le titre. C'est un des titres de César. HÉRODE D ne peut pas venir. César. D est goutteux. On dit qu'il a des pieds d'éléphant. Aussi i l y a des raisons d'Etat. Celui qui quitte Rome perd Rome, n ne viendra pas. Mais, enfin, c'est le maître. César. D viendra s'il veut. Ma is je ne pense pas qu'il vienne. L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN Ce n'est pas de César que le prophète a parlé, seigneur. HÉRODE Pas de César? L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN Non, seigneur. HÉRODE De qui donc a-t-il parlé? L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN Du [Le] Messie qui est venu. U N JUIF Le Messie n'est pas venu. L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN Il est venu, et il fait des miracles partout HÉRODL\S Oh! oh! les miracles. Je ne crois pas aux miracles. J'en ai vu trop. Au page Mon éventail. L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN Cet homme fait de véritables miracles. A ins i , à l'occasion d'un mariage qui a eu lieu dans une petite ville de Galilée, une ville assez importante, il a changé l'eau en vin. Des personnes qui étaient là me l'ont dit. Aussi il a guéri deux lépreux qui étaient assis devant la porte de Capharnaiim, seulement en les touchant. L E SECOND NAZARÉEN Non, c'étaient deux aveugles qu'il a guéris à Capharnaiim. L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN Non, c'étaient des lépreux. Mais il a guéri des aveugles aussi, et on l'a vu sur une montagne parlant avec des anges. U N SADDUCÉEN Les anges n'existent pas. U N PHARISIEN Les anges existent, mais je ne crois pas que cet homme leur ait parlé. L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN D a été V U par une foule de passants parlant avec des anges. U N SADDUCÉEN Pas avec des anges. HÉRODIAS Comme ils m'agacent ces hommes! Ils sont bêtes. Es sont tout à fait bêtes. Au page E h bien! mon éventail. Le page lui donne l'éventail. Vous avez l'air de rêver. D ne faut pas rêver. Les rêveurs sont des malades. Elle frappe le page avec son éventail. L E SECOND NAZARÉEN Aussi i l y a le miracle de la fille de Jaïr. L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN Mais oui, c'est très certain cela. On ne peut pas le nier. HÉRODIAS Ces gens-là sont fous. Ds ont trop regardé la lune. Dites-leur de se taire. HÉRODE Qu'est-ce que c'est que cela, le miracle de la fille de Jaïr? L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN La fille de Jafr était morte. Il l'a ressuscitée. HÉRODE Il ressuscite les morts? L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN Oui, seigneur. Il ressuscite les morts. HÉRODE Je ne veux pas qu'il fasse cela. Je lui défends de faire cela. [Ce serait affreux si les morts revenaient] Je ne permets pas qu'on ressuscite les morts. D faut chercher cet homme et lu i dire que je ne lu i permets pas de ressusciter les morts. Où est-il à présent, cet homme? L E SECOND NAZARÉEN Il est partout, seigneur, mais il est très dificile de le trouver. L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN On dit qu'il est en Samarie à présent U N JUIF On voit bien que ce n'est pas le Messie, s'il est en Samarie. Ce n'est pas aux Samaritains que le Messie viendra. Les Samaritains sont maudits. Ds n'apportent jamais d'offrandes au Temple. L E SECOND NAZARÉEN Il a quitté la Samarie il y a quelques jours. Moi, je crois qu'en ce moment-ci il est dans les environs de Jérusalem. L E PREMIER NAZARÉEN Mais non, i l n'est pas là. Je viens justement d'arriver de Jérusalem. On n'a pas entendu parler de lui depuis deux mois. HÉRODE Enfin, cela ne fait rien! Ma is il faut le trouver et lui dire de ma part que je ne lui permets pas re ressusciter les morts. Changer de l'eau en vin, guérir les lépreux et les aveugles...il peut faire tout cela s'il le veut. Je n'ai rien à dire contre cela. E n effet, je trouve que guérir les lépreux est une bonne action. Mais je ne permets pas qu'il ressuscite les morts...Ce serait terrible, si les morts reviennent L A VOIX D ' IOKANAAN Ah! l'impudique! la prosdmée! A h ! la fille de Babylone avec ses yeux d'or et ses paupières dorées! Voici ce que dit le Seigneur Dieu. Faites venir contre elle une multitude d'hommes. Que le peuple prenne des pierres et la lapide... Faites-le taire! L A VODC D ' IOKANAAN Que les capitaines de guerre la percent de leurs épées, qu'ils l'écrasent sous leurs bou-cliers. HÉRODIAS Mais, c'est infâme. [Il doit se taire, il doit se taire!] L A V O K D ' IOKANAAN C'est ainsi que j'abolirai les crimes de dessus la terre, et que toutes les femmes appren-dront à ne pas imiter les abominations de celle-là. HÉRODUS Vous entendez ce qu'il dit contre moi? Vous le laissez insulter votre épouse? HÉRODE Mais il n'a pas dit votre nom. HÉRODIAS Qu'est-ce que cela fait? Vous savez bien que c'est moi qu'il cherche à insulter. Et je suis votre épouse, n'est-ce-pas? HÉRODE Oui, chère et digne Hérodias, vous êtes mon épouse, et vous avez commencé par êtte l'épouse de mon frère. HÉRODL^S C'est vous qui m'avez arrachée de ses bras. HÉRODE E n effet, j'étais le plus fort...Mais ne parlons pas de cela. Je ne veux pas parler de cela. C'est à cause de cela que le prophète a dit des mots d'épouvante. Peut-être à cause de cela va-t-il arriver un malheur. N'en parlons pas...Noble Hérodias, nous oublions nos convives. Verse-moi à boire, ma bien-aimée. RempUssez de vin les grandes coupes d'argent et les grandes coupes de verre. Je vais boire à la santé de César. Il y a des Romains ic i , i l faut boire à l a santé de César. TOUS César! César! HÉRODE Vous ne remarquez pas comme votte fille est pâle. Jamais je ne l'ai vue su pâle. HÉRODIAS D ne faut pas la regarder. L A VODC D ' IOKANAAN En ce jour-là le soleil deviendra noir comme un sac de poil, et la lune deviendra comme du sang, et les étoiles du ciel tomberont sur la terre comme les figues vertes tombent d'un figuier, et en ce jour-là, les rois de la terre auront peur. HÉRODIAS Ah! ah! Je voudrais bien voir ce jour dont i l parle, où l a lune deviendra commme du sang et où les étoiles tomberont sur l a terre comme des figues vertes. Ce prophète parle comme un homme ivre...Mais je ne peux souffrir le son de sa voix, [je hais sa voix.] Ordonnez qu'il se taise. HÉRODE Mais non. Je ne comprends pas ce qu'il a dit, mais cela peut êtte un présage. HÉRODL^S Je ne crois pas aux présages. E parle comme un homme ivre. HÉRODE Peut-être qu'il est ivre du vin de Dieu! HÉRODIAS Quel vin est-ce, le vin de Dieu? De quelles vignes vient-U? Dans quel pressoir peut-on le ttouver? HÉRODE i l ne quitte plus Salomé du regard Tigellin, quand tu as été à Rome dernièrement, est-ce que l'empereur t'a parlé au sujet...? TIGELLIN A quel sujet, seigneur? HÉRODE A quel sujet? A h ! je vous ai adressé une quesdon, n'est-ce-pas? J'ai oubUé ce que je voulais savoir. HÉRODLAS Vous regardez encore ma fille. Il ne faut pas la regarder. Je vous ai déjà dit cela. V o u s ne dites que cela. HÉRODIAS Je le redis. HÉRODE E t l a restauration d u T e m p l e dont o n a tant parlé? Est -ce qu 'on v a faire que lque chose? O n dit, n'est-ce-pas, que l e vo i l e d u sancmaire a d isparu? HÉRODIAS C'est to i q u i l 'apr is . T u par les à tort et à travers. Je ne veux pas rester i c i . Rentrons . HÉRODE Salomé, dansez pour moi. HÉRODIAS Je ne veux pas qu'elle danse. SALOMÉ Je n'ai aucune envie de danser, tétrarque. HÉRODE Salomé, fille d'Hérodias, dansez pour moi. HÉRODL\S La i s s e z - l a t ranqui l l e . HÉRODE Je vous ordonne de danser, Salomé. SALOMÉ Je ne danserai pas, tétrarque. HÉRODUS riant Voilà comme elle vous obéit! HÉRODE Qu'est-ce que c e l a me fait qu'e l le danse o u non? C e l a ne me fait r ien. Je suis heureux ce soir. Je suis très het ireux. Jamais je n'ai été s i heureux. PREMIER SOLDAT D a l'air sombre, le tétrarque. N'est-ce pas qu'il a l'air sombre? SECOND S O L D A T D a l'air sombre. HÉRODE Pourquoi ne serais-je pas heureux? César, qui est le maître de tout, m'aime beaucoup. D vient de m'envoyer des cadeaux de grande valeur. Aussi i l m'a promis de citer à Rome le roi de Cappadoce qui est mon ennemi. Peut-être à Rome i l le crucifiera. D peut faire tout ce qu'il veut, César. Enfin, i l est le maître. A ins i , vous voyez, j 'a i le droit d'être heureux. A u fait, je le suis. Je n'ai jamais été si heureux. D n'y a rien au monde qui puisse gâter mon plaisir. L A VOIX D ' IOKANAAN Il sera assis sur son trône. Il sera vêtu de pourpre et d'écarlate. Dans sa main il portera un vase d'or plein de ses blasphèmes. Et l'ange du Seigneur Dieu le frappera. Il sera mangé des vers. HÉRODL\S Vous entendez ce qu'il dit de vous. D dit que vous serez mangé des vers. HÉRODE Ce n'est pas de moi qu'il parle. D ne dit jamais rien contre moi. C'est du roi de Cappadoce qu'il parle, du roi de Cappadoce qui est mon ennemi. C'est celui-là qui sera mangé des vers. Ce n'est pas moi. Jamais i l n'a rien dit contre moi, le prophète, sauf que j ' a i eu tort de prendre comme épouse l'épouse de mon frère. Peut-êfre a-t-il raison. E n efiet, vous êtes stérile. HÉRODL\S Je suis stérile, moi? Et vous dites cela, vous qui regardez toujours ma fille, vous qui avez voulu la faire danser pour votte plaisir. C'est ridicule de dire cela. M o i j 'a i eu un enfant. Vous n'avez jamais eu d'enfant, même d'une de vos esclaves. C'est vous qui êtes stérile, ce n'est pas moi. HÉRODE Taisez-vous! Je vous dis que vous êtes stérile. Vous ne m'avez pas donné d'enfant, et le prophète dit que notre mariage n'est pas un vrai mariage. Il dit que c'est un mariage incesmeux, un mariage qui apportera des malheurs...J'ai peur qu'il n'est raison. Je suis sûr qu'il a raison. Mais ce n'est pas le moment de parler de ces choses. E n ce moment-ci, je veux être heureux. A u fait je le suis. Je suis ttès heureux. D n'y a rien qui me manque. HÉRODIAS Je suis bien content que vous soyez de si belle humeur, ce soir. Ce n'est pas dans vos habimdes. Mais i l est tard. Renfrons. Vous n'oubliez pas qu'au lever du soleil nous allons tous à la chasse. Aux ambassadeurs de César i l faut faire tout honneur, n'est-ce-pas? S E C O N D S O L D A T Comme i l a l'air sombre, le tétrarque. P R E M I E R S O L D A T Oui, i l a l'air sombre. H É R O D E Salomé, Salomé, dansez pour moi. Je vous supplie de danser pour moi. Ce soir je suis triste. Oui, je suis très triste ce soir. Quand je suis entré ici, j'ai glissé dans le sang, ce qui est d'un mauvais présage, et j'ai entendu, je suis sûr que j'ai entendu un battement d'ades dans l'air, un battement d'ailes gigantesques. Je ne sais pas ce que cela veut dire... Je sm's triste ce soir. Ainsi dansez pour moi. Dansez pour moi, Salomé, je vous en supplie. Si vous dansez pour moi vous pourrez me demander tout ce que vous voudrez et je vous le donnerai. Oui, dansez pour moi, Salomé, et je vous donnerai tout ce que vous me demanderez, fût-ce la moitié de mon royaume. S A L O M É se levant Vous me donnerai tout ce que je demanderai, tétrarque? HÉRODLAS Ne dansez pas, ma fille. HÉRODE Tout, fût-ce la moitié de mon royaume. SALOMÉ Vous le jurez, tétrarque? HÉRODE Je le jure, Salomé. H É R O D U S Ma fille, ne dansez pas. S A L O M É Sur quoi jurez-vous, tétrarque? H É R O D E Sur ma vie, sur ma couronne, sur mes dieux. Tout ce que vous voudrez, je vous le donnerai, fût-ce la moitié de mon royaume, si vous dansez pour moi. Oh! Salomé, Salomé, dansez pour moi. S A L O M É Vous avez juré, tétrarque. HÉRODE J'ai juré, Salomé. S A L O M É Tout ce que j e vous demandera i , fut-ce l a moitié de votre ryaume? HÉRODIAS Ne dansez pas, ma fille. HÉRODE Fût-ce la moitié de mon royaume. Comme reine, tu serais très belle, Salomé, s ' i l te p la isa i t de demander l a moitié de m o n royaume. N'est-ce pas qu'el le serait très be l le c o m m e reine?... Ah! il fait froid ici! Il y a un vent très froid, et j'entends...Pourquoi est-ce que j'entends dans l'air ce battement d'ailes? Oh! on dirait qu'il y a un oiseau, un grand oiseau noir, qui plane sur la terrasse. Pourquoi est-ce que je ne peux pas le voir, cet oiseau? Le battement de ses ailes est terrible. C'est un vent froid...Mais non, il ne fait pas froid du tout Au contraire, il fait très chaud. D fa i t t rop chaud. J'étouffe. Versez-moi l'eau sur les mains. Donnez-moi de la neige à manger. Dégrafez mon manteau. Vite, vite, dégrafez mon manteau... Non. Laissez-le. C'est ma couronne qui me fait mal, m a couronne de roses. O n dira i t que ces fleurs sont faites de feu. E l l e s ont brûlé m o n front Il arrache de sa tête la couronne, et la jette sur la table. Ah! enfin, je respire. C o m m e i l s sont rouges ces pétales! O n dira i t des taches de sang sur l a nappe. C e l a ne fait rien. I l ne faut pas trouver des symbo les dans chaque chose qu 'on voit . C e l a rend l a v ie imposs ib l e . D serait m i eux de dire que les taches de sang sont aussi be l le que les pétales de roses. D serait beaucoup m i e u x de dire ce la . . .Ma is ne par lons pas de ce la . Maintenant je suis heureux. Je suis ttès heureux. J 'a i le dro i t d'être heureux, n'est-ce-pas? Vo t r e fille v a danser pour m o i . N'est-ce pas que vous allez danser pour moi, Salomé? V o u s avez p romis de danser pour m o i . HÉRODUS Je ne veux pas qu'elle danse. SALOMÉ Je danserai pour vous, tétrarque. HÉRODE V o u s enfrendez ce que dit vofre fille. E l l e v a danser pour m o i . V o u s avez b i en ra ison, Salomé, de danser pour m o i . E t , après que vous aurez dansé, n 'oubl iez pas de me demander tout ce que vous voudrez . Tou t ce que vous voudrez j e vous le donnera i , fut-ce l a moitié de m o n royaume. J 'a i juré, n'est-ce pas? Vous avez juré, tétrarque. H É R O D E Et je n'ai jamais manqué à ma parole. Je ne suis pas de ceux qui manquent à leur parole. Je ne sais pas mentir. Je suis l'esclave de ma parole, et ma parole c'est l a parole d'un roi. Le roi de Cappadoce ment toujours, mais ce n'est pas un vrai roi. C'est m lâche. Aussi i l me doit de l'argent qu'il ne veut pas payer. D a même insulté mes ambassadeurs. D a dit des choses très blessantes. Mais César le crucifiera quand i l viendra à Rome. Je suis sûr que César le cmcifiera. Sinon i l mourra mangé des vers. Le prophète l 'a prédit. E h bien! Salomé, qu'attendez-vous? S A L O M É J'attends que mes esclaves m'apportent des parfums et les sept voiles et m'ôtent mes sandales. Les esclaves apportent des parfums et les sept voiles et ôtent les sandales de Salomé. H É R O D E A h ! V O U S allez danser pieds nus! C'est bien! C'est bien! Vos petits pieds seront comme des co-lombes blanches. Ds ressembleront à des petites fleurs blanches qui dansent sur un arbre...Ah! non. El le va danser dans le sang! Il y a du sang par terre. Je ne veux pas qu'elle danse dans le sang. Ce serait d'un très mauvais présage. HÉRODIAS Qu'est-ce que cela vous fait qu'elle danse dans le sang? Vous avez bien marché dedans, vous... H É R O D E Qu'est-ce que cela me fait? A h ! regardez l a lune! El le est devenue rouge. El le est rouge comme du sang. A h ! le prophète l 'a bien prédit. D a prédit que la lune deviendrait rouge comme du sang. N'est-ce pas qu'il a prédit cela? Vous l'avez tous entendu. L a lune est devenue rouge comme du sang. Ne la voyez-vous pas? HÉRODL\S Je le vois bien, et les étoiles tombent comme des figues vertes, n'est-ce-pas? Et le soleil devient noir comme un sac de poil , et les rois de la terre ont peur. Ce la au moins on le voit. Pour une fois dans sa vie le prophète a eu raison. Les rois de la terre ont peur...Enfin, rentrons. Vous êtes malade. On va dire à Rome que vous êtes fou. Rentrons, je vous dis. L A V O I X D ' I O K A N A A N Qui est celui qui vient d'Édom, qui vient de Bosra avec sa robe teinte de pourpre, qui éclate dans la beauté de ses vêtements, et qui marche avec une force toute-puissante? Pourquoi vos vêtements sont-ils teints d'écarlate? HÉRODL^S Rentrons. La voix de cet homme m'exaspère. Je ne veux pas que ma fille danse pendant que vous la regardez comme cela. Enfin, je ne veux pas qu'elle danse. Ne te lève pas, mon épouse, ma reine, c'est inutile. Je ne rentrerai pas avant qu'elle ait dansé. Dansez, Salomé, dansez pour moi. HÉRODIAS Ne dansez pas, ma fille. S A L O M É Je suis prête, tétrarque. Salomé danse la danse des sept voiles. H É R O D E Ah! c'est magnifique, c'est magnifique! Vous voyez qu'elle a dansé pour moi, votre fille. Approchez, Salomé! Approchez, afin que je puisse vous donner votre salaire. Ah! je paie bien les danseuses, mol. T o i , j e te paierai b i en . Je te donnerai tout ce que tu voudras. Que veux-tu, dis? S A L O M É s'agenouillant Je veux qu'on m'apporte présentement dans un bassin d'argent.. H É R O D E riant Dans un bassin d'argent? Mais oui, dans un bassin d'argent certainement Elle est char-mante, n'est-ce-pas? Qu'est-ce que vous voulez qu'on vous apporte dans un bassin d'argent ma chère et belle Salomé, vous qm' êtes la plus belle de toutes les filles de Judée? Qu'est-ce que vous voulez qu'on vous apporte dans un bassin d'argent? Dites-moi. Quoi que cela puisse être, on vous le donnera. Mes trésors vous appartiennent Qu'est-ce que c'est Salomé? S A L O M É se levant La tête d'iokanaan. H É R O D L \ S A h ! c'est b i en dit, m a f i l l e . H É R O D E Non, non. C'est bien dit, ma fille. HÉRODE Non, non, Salomé. Vous ne me demandez pas cela. N'écoutez pas votre mère. Elle vous donne toujours de mauvais conseils. Il ne faut pas l'écouter. SALOMÉ Je m'écoute pas ma mère. C'est pour mon propre plaisir que je demande la tête d'Iokanaan dans un bassin d'argent. Vous avez juré, Hérode. N'oubliez pas que vous avez juré. HÉRODE Je le sais. J'ai juré par mes dieux. Je le sais bien. Mais je vous supplie, Salomé, de me de-mander autre chose. Demandez-moi la moitié de mon royaume, et je vous la donnerai. Mais ne me demandez pas ce que vous m'avez demandé. SALOMÉ Je vous demande la tête d'Iokanaan. HÉRODE Non, non, je ne veux pas. SALOMÉ Vous avez juré, Hérode. HÉRODIAS Oui, vous avez juré. Tout le monde vous a entendu. Vous avez juré devant tout le monde. HÉRODE Taisez-vous. Ce n'est pas à vous que je parle. HÉRODUS Ma fille a bien raison de demander la tête de cet homme. Il a vomi des insultes contre moi. n a dit des choses monstrueuses contre moi. On voit qu'elle aime beaucoup sa mère. Ne cédez pas, ma fille. Il a juré, il a juré. HÉRODE Taisez-vous. Ne me parlez pas...Voyons, Salomé, il faut être raisonnable, n'est-ce pas? N'est-ce pas qu'il faut être raisonnable? Je n'ai jamais été dur avec vous. Je vous ai toujours aimée...Peut-être, je vous ai trop aimée. Ainsi, ne me demandez pas cela. C'est horrible, c'est épouvantable de me demander cela. Au fond, je ne crois pas que vous soyez sérieuse. La tête d'un homme décapité, c'est une chose laide, n'est-ce pas? Ce n'est pas une chose qu'une vierge doive regarder. Quel plaisir cela pourrait-il vous donner? Aucun. Non, non, vous ne voulez pas cela...Ecoutez-moi un instant J'ai une émeraude, une grande émeraude ronde que le favori de César m'a envoyée. Si vous regardiez à fravers cette émeraude vous pourriez voir des choses qui se passent à une distance immense. César lui-même en porte une tout à fait pareille quand i l va au cirque. Mais la mienne est plus grande. Je sais bien qu'elle est plus grande. C'est la plus grande émeraude du monde. N'est-ce pas que vous vouiez cela? Demandez-moi cela et je vous le donnerai. S A L O M É Je demande la tête d'iokanaan. H É R O D E Vous ne m'écoutez pas, vous ne m'écoutez pas. Enfin, laissez-moi parler, Salomé. S A L O M É La tête d'iokanaan. H É R O D E Non, non, vous ne voulez pas cela. Vous me dites cela seulement pour me faire de la peine, parce que je vous ai regardée pendant toute la soirée. Eh bien! oui. Je vous ai regardée pendant toute la soirée. Votre beauté m'a troublé. Votre beauté m'a terriblement ttoublé, et je vous ai trop regardée. Mais je ne le ferai plus. Il ne faut regarder ni les choses ni les personnes. Il ne faut regarder que dans les miroirs. Car les miroirs ne nous montrent que des masques...Oh! oh! du vin! J'ai soif...Salomé, Salomé, soyons amis. Enfin, voyez...Qu'est-ce que je voulais dire? Qu'est-ce que c'était? Ah! je m'en souviens!...Salomé! Non, venez plus près de moi. J'ai peur que vous ne m'entendiez pas...Salomé, vous connaissez mes paons blancs, mes beaux paons blancs, qui se promènent dans le jardin entre les myrtes et les grands cyprès. Leurs becs sont dorés, et les grains qu'ils mangent sont dorés aussi, et leurs pieds sont teints de pourpre. La pluie vient quand ils crient, et quand ils se pavanent la lune se montre au ciel. Es vont deux à deux entre les cyprès et les myrtes noirs et chacun a son esclave pour le soigner. Quelquefois ils volent à ttavers les arbres, et quelquefois ils couchent sur le gazon et autour de l'étang. E n'y a pas dans le monde d'oiseaux si merveilleux. E n'y a aucun roi du monde qui possède des oiseaux aussi merveilleux. Je suis sûr que même César ne possède pas d'oiseaux aussi beaux. Eh bien! je vous donnerai cinquante de mes paons. Es vous suivront partout, et au miheu d'eux vous serez comme la lune dans un grand nuage blanc..Je vous les donnerai tous. Je n'en ai que cent, et il n'y a aucun roi du monde qm' possède des paons comme les miens, mais je vous les donnerai tous. Seulement i l faut me déher de ma parole et ne pas me demander ce que vous m'avez demandé. // vide la coupe de vin. S A L O M É Donnez-moi la tête d'iokanaan. HÉRODIAS C'est bien dit, ma fille! Vous, vous êtes ridicule avec vos paons. H É R O D E Taisez-vous. Vous criez toujours. Vous criez comme une bête de proie. E ne faut pas crier comme cela Votre voix m'ennuie. Taisez-vous, je vous dis... Salomé, pensez à ce que vous faites. Cet homme vient peut-être de Dieu. Je suis sûr qu'il vient de Dieu. C'est un saint homme. Le doigt de Dieu l'a touché. Dieu a mis dans sa bouche des mots terribles. Dans le palais, comme dans le désert. Dieu est toujours avec lui . . . A u moins, c'est possible. O n ne sait pas, mais i l est possible que Dieu soit pour lui et avec lu i . Aussi peut-être que s'il mourait, i l m'arriverait un malheur. Enf in, i l a dit que le jour où U mourrait, i l arriverait un malheur à quelqu'un. Ce ne peut être qu'à moi. Souvenez-vous, j 'a i glissé dans le sang quand je suis entré ic i . Aussi j 'a i entendu un battement d'ailes gigantesques. Ce sont de fès mauvais présages. Et i l y en avait d'autres. Je suis sûr qu'il y en avait d'autres, quoique je ne les aie pas vus. E h bien! Salomé, vous ne voulez pas qu'un malheur m'arrive? Vous ne voulez pas cela. Enfin, écoutez-moi. SALOMÉ Donnez-moi la tête d'Iokanaan. HÉRODE Vous voyez^  vous ne m'écoutez pas. Mais soyez calme. Moi, je suis très calme. Je suis tout à fait calme. Écoutez. J'ai des bijoux cachés ici que même votre mère n'a jamais vus, des bijoux tout à fait extraordinaires. J'ai un collier de perles à quatre rangs. On dirait des lunes enchaînées de rayons d'argent. On dirait cinquante limes captives dans un filet d'or. Une reine l 'a porté sur l'ivoire de ses seins. Toi , quand tu le porteras, tu seras aussi belle qu'une reine. J'ai des améthystes de deux espèces. Une qui est noire comme le vin. L'autre qui est rouge comme du vin qu'on a coloré avec de l'eau. J'ai des topazes jaunes comme les yeux des tigres, et des topazes roses comme les yeux des pigeons, et des topazes vertes comme les yeux des chats. J'ai des opales qui brûlent toujours avec une flamme qui est très froide, [je vous les donnerai tous.] des opales qui attristent les esprits et ont peur des ténèbres. J'ai des onyx semblables aux prunelles d'une morte. J'ai des sélénites qui changent quand la lune change, et deviennent pâles quand elles voient le soleil. J'ai des saphirs grands comme des oeufs et bleus comme des fleurs bleues. L a mer erre dedans, et l a lune ne vient jamais troubler le bleu de ses flots. J'ai des chrysolithes et des béryls, j'ai des chrysoprases et des rubis, j'ai des sardonyx et des hyacinthes, et des chalcédoines, et je vous les donnerai tous, mais tous, et j'ajouterai d'autres choses. L e roi des Indes vient justement de m'envoyer quatre éventails faits de plumes de perroquet, et le roi de Numidie une robe faite de plumes d'autruche. J'ai un crystal qu'il n'est pas permis aux femmes de voir et que même les jeunes hommes ne doivent regarder qu'après avoir été flagellés de verges. Dans un coffret de nacre j'ai trois turquoises merveilleuses. Quand on les porte sur le front on peut imaginer des choses qui n'existent pas, et quand on les porte dans la main on peut rendre les femmes stériles. Ce sont des trésors de grande valeur. Ce sont des trésors sans prix. Et ce n'est pas tout. Dans un coffret d'ébène, j 'ai deux coupes d'ambre qui ressemblent à des pommes d'or. S i un eimemi verse du poison dans ces coupes, elles deviennent comme des pommes d'argent. Dans un coffiet incrusté d'ambre, j 'a i des sandales incrustées de verre. J'ai des manteaux qui viennent du pays des Sères et des bracelets garnis d'escarboucles et de jade qui viennent de l a ville d'Euphrate...Enfin, que veux-tu, Salomé? Dis-moi ce que tu dérsires et je te le doimerai. Je te donnerai tout ce que tu demanderas, sauf une chose. Je te donnerai tout ce que je possède, sauf une vie. Je te donnerai le manteau du grand prêtre. Je te donnerai le voile du sanctuaire. L E S J U I F S Oh! Oh! [Oh!] S A L O M É Donnez-moi la tête d'iokanaan. H É R O D E s'affaissant sur son siège Qu'on lui donne ce qu'elle demande! C'est bien la fîlle de sa mère! Le premier soldat s'approche. Hérodias prend de la main du tétrarque la bague de la mort et la donne au soldat qui l'apporte immédiatement au bourreau. Le bourreau a l'air effaré. Qui a pris ma bague? Il y avait une bague à ma main droite. Qui a bu mon vin! Il y avait du vin dans ma coupe. Elle était pleine de vin. Quelqu'un l'a bu? Oh! je suis sûr qu'il va arriver un malheur à quelqu'un. Le bourreau descend dans la citerne. A h ! pourquo i ai-je donné m a parole? L e s ro is ne do ivent j ama i s donner l eu r parole. S ' i ls ne l a gardent pas, c'est terr ib le . S ' i l s l a gardent, c'est terr ible auss i . HÉRODLAS Je trouve que ma fille a bien fait H É R O D E Je suis sûr qu'il va arriver un malheur. S A L O M É Elle se penche sur la citerne et écoute. Il n'y a pas de bruit Je n'entends rien. Pourquoi ne crie-t-il pas, cet homme? Ah! si quelqu'un cherchait à me tuer, je crierais, je me débattrais, je ne voudrais pas souf-frir...Frappe, frappe, Naaman. Frappe, je te dis...Non, je n'entends rien. Il y a un silence affreux. Ah! quelque chose est tombé par terre. J'ai entendu quelque chose tomber. C'était l'épée du bourreau. Il a peur, cet esclave! Il a laissé tomber son épée. Il n'ose pas le tuer. C'est un lâche, cet esclave! Il faut envoyer des soldats. Elle voit le page d'Hérodias et s'adresse à lui. Viens ici. Tu a été l'ami de celui qui est mort, n'est-ce pas? Eh bien, il n'y a pas eu assez de morts. Dites aux soldats qu'ils descendent et m'apportent ce que je demande, ce que le tétrarque m'a promis, ce qui m'appartient Le page recule. Elle s'adresse aux soldats. Venez ici, soldats. Descendez dans cette citerne, et apportez-moi la tête de cet homme. Les soldats reculent. Téttarque, tétrarque, c o m m a n d e z à vos soldats de m'apporter l a tête d ' i okanaan. Un grand bras noir, le bras du bourreau, sort de la citerne, apportant sur un bouclier d'argent la tête d'iokanaan. Salomé la saisit. Hérode se cache le visage avec son manteau. Hérodias sourit et s'évente. Les Nazaréens s'agenouillent et commencent à prier. Ah! tu n'as pas voulu me laisser baiser ta bouche, lokanaan. Eh bien, je la baiserai main-tenant Je la mordrai avec mes dents, comme on mord un fnut mûr. Oui, je baiserai ta bouche, lokanaan. Je te l'ai dit n'est-ce pas? Je te l'ai dit Eh bien, je la baiserai mainte-nant..Mais pourquoi ne me regardes-tu pas, lokanaan? Tes yeux qui étaient si terribles, qui étaient si pleins de colère et de mépris, ils sont fermés maintenant Pourquoi sont-ils fermés? Ouvre tes yeux! Soulève tes paupières, lokanaan. Pourquoi ne me regardes-tu pas? As-tu peur de moi, lokanaan, que tu ne veux pas me regarder?...Et ta langue qui était comme un serpent rouge dardant des poisons, elle ne remue plus, elle ne dit rien maintenant lokanaan, cette vipère rouge qui a vomi son venin sur moi. C'est étrange, n'est-ce pas? Comment se fait-il que la vipère rouge ne remue plus?... Tu n'as pas voulu de moi, lokanaan. Tu m'as rejetée. Tu m'as dit des choses infâmes. Tu m'as traitée comme une courtisane, comme une prostituée, moi, Salomé, fille d'Hérodias, princesse de Judée! Eh bien, lokanaan, moi je vis encore, mais toi tu es mort et ta tête m'appartient Je puis en faire ce que je veux. Je puis la jeter aux chiens et aux oiseaux de l'air. Ce que laisseront les chiens, les oiseaux de l'air le mangeront..Ah! lokanaan, tu as été le seul homme que j'aie aimé. Tous les auttes hommes m'inspirent du dégoût. Mais toi, [lokanaan,] tu étais beau. Ton corps était une colonne d'ivoire sur un socle d'argent C'était un jardin plein de colombes et de lys d'argent C'était une tour d'argent omée de bouchers d'ivoire. II n'y avait rien au monde d'aussi blanc que ton corps. H n'y avait rien au monde d'aussi noir que tes cheveux. Dans le monde tout entier, il n'y avait rien d'aussi rouge que ta bouche. Ta voix était un encensoir qui répendait d'étranges parfums, et quand je te regardais j'entendais une musique étrange! Ah! pourquoi ne m'as-tu pas regardée, lokanaan? Derrière tes mains et tes blasphèmes to as caché ton visage. Tu as mis sur tes yeux le bandeau de celui qui veut voir son Dieu. Eh bien, tu l'as vu, ton Dieu, lokanaan, mais moi, moi...tu ne m'as jamais vue. Si tu m'avais vue, tu m'aurais aimée. M o i je t'ai vu, lokanaan, et je t'ai aimé. Je t'aime encore, lokanaan. Je n'aime que toi...J'ai soif de ta beauté. J'ai faim de ton corps. Et ni le vin ni les fruits ne peuvent apaiser mon désir. Que ferai-je, lokanaan, maintenant? N i les fleuves ni les grandes eaux ne pourraient éteindre ma passion. J'étais une princesse, to m'as dédaignée. J'étais une vierge, to m'as déflorée. J'étais chaste, to as remph mes veines de feu...Ah! ah! pourquoi ne m'as-tu pas regardée, lokanaan? Si tu m'avais regardée, tu m'aurais aimée. Je sais bien que to m'aurais aimée, et le mystère de l'amour est plus grand que le mystère de la mort. D ne faut regarder que l'amour. HÉRODE Elle est monstrueuse, ta fille, elle est tout à fait monstrueuse. Enfin, ce qu'elle a fait est un grand crime. Je suis sûr que c'est un crime contre un dieu inconnu. HÉRODIAS J'approuve ce que ma fille a fait et je veux rester ici maintenant HÉRODE se levant Ah! l'épouse incestueuse qm' parle! Viens! Je ne veux pas rester ici. Viens, je te dis. Je suis sûr qu'il va arriver un malheur. [Je suis sûr qu'il va arriver un malheur.] Manassé, Issa-char, Ozias, étdgnez les flambeaux. Je ne veux pas regarder les choses. Je ne veux pas que l es choses me regardent. Éteignez les flambeaux. Cachez la lune! Cachez les étoiles! Cachons-nous dans notre palais, Hérodias. Je commence à avoir peur. Les esclaves éteignent les flambeaux. Les étoiles disparaissent. Un grand nuage noir passe devant la lune et la cache complètement. La scène devient tout à fait sombre. Le tétrarque commence à monter l'escalier. L A VOIX D E SALOMÉ Ah! j'ai baisé ta bouche, lokanaan, j'ai baisé ta bouche. Il y avait une acre saveur sur tes lèvres. Était-ce la saveur du sang?...Mais peut-être était-ce la saveur de l'amour. On dit que l'amour a une acre saveur...Mais qu'importe? Qu'importe? J'ai baisé ta bouche, lokanaan, j'ai baisé ta bouche. Un rayon de lune tombe sur Salomé et l'éclairé. HÉRODE se retournant et voyant Salomé, aux soldats Tuez cette femme! Les soldats s'élancent et écrasent sous leurs boucliers Salomé, fille d'Hérodias, princesse de Judée. RIDEAU APPENDIX 2 Richard Strauss Salome (1905) Eine grosse Terrasse im Palast des Herodes, die an den BankettsaaJ stosst. Einige Soldaten lehnen sich iiber die Briismng. Rechts eine machtige Treppe, links i m Hintergrund eine alte Cisteme mit einer Einfassung aus griiner Bronze. Der Mond scheint sehr hell. E R S T E S Z E N E N A R R A B O T H Wie schôn ist die Prinzessin Salome heute Nacht! P A G E Sieh die Mondscheibe, wie sie seltsam aussieht. Wie eine Frau, die aufsteigt aus dem Grab. N A R R A B O T H Sie ist sehr seltsam. Wie eine kleine Prinzessin, deren Fusse weisse Tauben sind. Man konnte meinen, sie tanzt. P A G E Wie eine Frau, die tot ist. Sie gleitet langsam dahin. Larm im Bankettsaal E R S T E R S O L D A T Was fiir ein Aufruhr! Was sind das fiir wilde Tiere, die da heulen? ZWETTER S O L D A T Die Juden. Sie sind inuner so. Sie streiten iiber ihre Religion. E R S T E R S O L D A T Ich fmde es lâcherlich, iiber solche Dinge zu streiten. N A R R A B O T H Wie schôn ist die Prinzessin Salome heute abend! P A G E Du siehst sie immer an. D u siehst sie zuviel an. Es ist gefahrlich, Menschen auf diese Art anzusehn. Schreckliches kann geschehen. Sie ist sehr schôn heute Abend. Der Tetrarch sieht finster drein. Ja, er sieht finster drein. Au f wen blickt er? Ich weiss nicht. N A R R A B O T H E R S T E R S O L D A T ZWETTER S O L D A T E R S T E R S O L D A T ZWETTER S O L D A T N A R R A B O T H Wie blass die Prinzessin ist! Niemals habe ich sie so blass gesehn. Sie ist wie der Schatten einer weissen Rose in einem sUbemen Spiegel. P A G E Du musst sie nicht ansehn. D u siehst sie zuviel an. Schreckliches kann geschehn. S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N Nach mir wird einer kommen, der ist starker als ich. Ich bin nich wert, ihm zu lôsen die Riemen an seinen Schuhen. Wenn er kommt, werden die verodeten Statten frohlocken. Wenn er kommt, werden die Augen der Blinden den Tag sehn. Wenn er kommt, die Ohren der Tauben geôffnet. ZWETTER S O L D A T Heiss' ihn schweigen! E R S T E R S O L D A T Er ist ein heil'ger Mann. ZWETTER S O L D A T Er sagt immer lacherliche Dinge. E R S T E R S O L D A T Er ist seht sanft. Jeden Tag, den ich ihm zu essen gehe, dankt er mir. Wer ist es? E in Prophet. Wie ist sein Name? Jochanaan. Woher kommt er? EDM C A P P A D O C I E R E R S T E R S O L D A T E I N C A P P A D O C I E R E R S T E R S O L D A T E I N C A P P A D O C I E R E R S T E R S O L D A T Aus der Wuste. Eine Schar von Jiingem war dort immer um ihm. E I N C A P P A D O C I E R Wovon redet er? E R S T E R S O L D A T Unmôglich ist es, zu verstehn, was er sagt. E I N C A P P A D O C I E R Kann man ihn sehn? E R S T E R S O L D A T Nein, der Tetrarch hat es verboten. N A R R A B O T H Die Prinzessin erhebt sich! Sie verlasst die Tafel. Sie ist seht erregt. Sie kommt Iiierher. P A G E Sieh sie nicht an! N A R R A B O T H Ja, sie kommt auf uns zu. P A G E Ich bitte dich, sieh sie nicht an! N A R R A B O T H Sie ist wie eine verinte Taube. Salome tritt ein Z W E I T E S Z E N E S A L O M E Ich w i l l nicht bleiben. Ich kann nicht bleiben. Warum sieht mich der Tetrarch fortwahrend so an mit seinen Maulwurfsaugen unter den zuckenden L idem? Es ist seltsam, das der Ma im meiner Mutter mich so ansieht. Wie siiss ist hier die Luft. Hier kann i ch atmen. D a drinnen sitzen Juden aus Jerusalem, die einander uber ihre nârrischen Gebrâuche in Stiicke reissen. Schweigsame, list'ge Aegypter und brutale, ungeschlachte Rômer mit ihrer plumpen Sprache. O wie ich diese Rômer basse! P A G E Schreckliches wird geschehen. Warum siehst du sie so an? S A L O M E Wie gut ist es, i n den Mond zu sehn! Er ist wie eine silbeme Blume, kuhl und keusch. Ja, wie die Schônheit einer Jungfrau, die rein geblieben ist. STIMME DES J O C H A N A A N Siehe, der Herr ist gekommen, des Menschen Sohn ist nahe. S A L O M E Wer war das, der hier gerufen hat? ZWETTER S O L D A T Der Prophet, Prinzessin. S A L O M E Ah, der Prophet! Der, vor dem der Tettarch Angst hat? ZWETTER S O L D A T Wir wissen davon nichts, Prinzessin. Es war der Prophet Jochanaan, der hier rief. N A R R A B O T H Beliebt es Euch, das ich Eure Sânfte holen lasse, Prinzessin? Die Nacht ist schôn im Garten. S A L O M E Er sagt schreckliche Dinge uber meine Mutter, nicht wahr? Z W E I T E R S O L D A T Wir verstehen nie, was er sagt, Prinzessin. S A L O M E Ja, er sagt schreckliche Dinge iiber sie. EiN S K L A V E Prinzessin, der Tetrarch ersucht Euch, wieder zum Fest hineinzugehn. S A L O M E Ich wi l l nicht hineingehn. 1st dieser Prophet ein alter Mann? N A R R A B O T H Prinzessin, es ware besser, hineinzugehn. Gestattet, dass ich Euch fiihre. S A L O M E 1st dieser Prophet ein alter Mann? E R S T E R S O L D A T Nein, Prinzessin, er ist ganz jung. S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N Jauchze nicht, du Land Palastina, weil der Stab dessen, der dich schlug, gebrochen ist. Deiui aus dem Samen der Schlange wird ein Basil isk kommen, und seine Brut wird die Vogel verschhngen. S A L O M E Welch' seltsame Stimme. Ich mochte mit ihm sprechen. Z W E I T E R S O L D A T Prinzessin, der Tetrarch duldet nicht, dass irgendwer mit ihm spricht. E r hat selbst dem Hohenpriester verboten, mit ihm zu sprechen. S A L O M E Ich wiinsche mit ihm zu sprechen! Z W E I T E R S O L D A T Es ist uiunôghch, Prinzessin. S A L O M E Ich wi l l mit ihm sprechen. Bringt diesen Propheten heraus! Z W E I T E R S O L D A T Wir diirfen nicht, Prinzessin. S A L O M E tritt an die Cisterne heran und blickt hinunter Wie schwarz es da drunten ist! Es muss schrecklich sein, i n so einer schwarzen Hohle zu leben. Es ist wie eine Gruft. Habt ihr nicht gehort? Bringt den Propheten heraus! Ich mochte ihn sehn! E R S T E R S O L D A T Prinzessin, wir diirfen nicht tun, was Dir von uns begehrt. S A L O M E einen Blick aufdenjungen Syrier werfend Ah ! P A G E O, was wird geschehn? Ich weiss, es wird SchreckUches geschehn. S A L O M E tritt an den jungen Syrier heran Du wirst das fiir mich tun, Narraboth, nicht wahr? Ich war dir immer gewogen. D u wirst das fiir mich tun. Ich mochte ihn bloss sehn, diesen seltsamen Propheten. Die Leute haben so viel von ihm gesprochen. Ich glaubem der Tetrarch hat Angst vor ihm. N A R R A B O T H Der Tetrarch hat es ausdriicklich verboten, dass irgendwer den Deckel zu diesem Brunnen aufhebt. S A L O M E D u wirst das fiir mich tun, Narraboth, und morgen, wenn ich in meiner Sanfte an dem Torweg, wo die GotzenbUder stehn, vorbeikomme, werde ich eine kleine Blume flir dich fallenlassen, ein kleines griines Bliimchen. N A R R A B O T H Prinzessin, ich kann nicht, ich kann nicht. S A L O M E lachend Du wirst das fiir mich mn, Narraboth. Du weisst, dass du das flir mich mn wirst. Und morgen friih werde ich unter den Muss'linschleiem dir einen BUck zuwerfen, Narraboth, ich werde dich ansehn, kann sein, ich werde dir zulacheln. Sieh mich an, Narraboth, sieh mich an. A h ! wie gut du weisst das du mn wirst, um was ich dich bitte! Wie du es weisst! Ich weiss, du wirst das tun. N A R R A B O T H giht dem dritten Soldaten ein Zeichen Lasst den Propheten herauskommen. Die Mnzess in Salome wiinscht ihn zu sehn. S A L O M E A h ! Der Prophet kommt aus der Cisterne. Salome sieht ihn an und weicht langsam zuruck D R I T T E S Z E N E J O C H A N A A N Wo ist er, dessen Siindenbecher jetzt voU ist? W o ist er, der eines Tages im Angesicht alien Volkes in einem Silbermantel sterben wird? Heisst ihn herkommen, auf dass er die Stimme dessen hore, der in der Wuste und in den Hausem der Konige gekundet hat. S A L O M E Von wem spricht er? N A R R A B O T H Niemand kann es sagen, Prinzessin. J O C H A N A A N Wo ist sie, die sich hingab der Lust ihrer Augen, die gestanden hat vor buntgemalten Mannerbildem und Gesandte ins Land der Chaldaer schickte? S A L O M E Er spricht von meiner Mutter. N A R R A B O T H Nein, nein, Prinzessin. S A L O M E Ja, er spricht von meiner Mutter. J O C H A N A A N Wo ist sie, die den Hauptleuten Assyriens sich gab? W o ist sie, die sich den jungen Mannern der Aegypter gegeben hat, die in feinen Leinen und Hyacinth-gesteinen prangen, deren Schilde von Go ld sind und die Leiber wie Riesen? Geht, heisst sie aufstehn vora Bett ihrer Greuel, vom Bett ihrer Blutschande; auf dass sie die Worte Dessen vemehme, der dem Herm die Wege bereitet, und ihre Missetaten bereue. Und wenn sie gleich nicht bereut, heisst sie herkommen, denn die Geisel des Herm ist in seiner Hand. S A L O M E Er ist schrecklich. Er ist wirkl ich schrecklich. N A R R A B O T H Bleibt nicht hier, Prinzessin, ich bitte Euch ! S A L O M E Seine Augen sind vor allem das Schrecklichste. Sie sind wie die schwarze Hôhlen, wo die Drachen hausen! Sie sind wie schwarze Seen, aus denen irres Mondlicht flackert. Glaubt ihr, dass er noch einmal sprechen wird? N A R R A B O T H Bleibt nicht hier, Prinzessin, ich bitte euch, bleibt nicht hier. S A L O M E Wie abgezehrt er ist! E r ist wie ein Bildniss aus Elfenbein. Gewiss ist er keusch wie der Mond. Sein Fleisch muss sehr kiihl sein, kiihl wie Elfenbein. Ich môchte ihn nâher besehn. N A R R A B O T H Nein, nein, Prinzessin. S A L O M E Ich muss ihn nâher besehn. N A R R A B O T H Prinzessin! Prinzessin! J O C H A N A A N Wer ist dies Weib, das mich ansieht? Ich wi l l ihre Augen nicht auf mir haben. Warum sieht sie mich so an, mit ihren Goldaugen unter den gleissenden Lidem? Ich weiss nicht wer sie ist. Heisst sie gehn! Z u ihr w i l l ich nicht sprechen. S A L O M E Ich bin Salomé, die Tochter der Herodias, Prinzessin von Judâa. J O C H A N A A N Zuriick, Tochter Babylons! Komm dem Envahi ten des Herm nicht nahe! Deine Mutter hat die Erde erflillt mit der We in ihrer Liiste, und das unmass ihrer Siinden schreit zu Gott. S A L O M E Sprich mehr, Jochanaan, deine Stimme ist wie Musik in meinen Ohren. N A R R A B O T H Prinzessin! Prinzessin! Prinzessin! SALOME Sprich mehr, sprich mehr, Jochanaan, und sag mir, was ich tun soU. J O C H A N A A N Tochter Sodoms, komm mir nicht nahe! Vielmehr bedecke dein Gesicht mit einem Schleier, streue Asche auf deinen Kopf, mach dich auf in die Wiiste und suche des Menschen Solui! S A L O M E Wer ist das, des Menschen Sohn? 1st er so schôn wie du, Jochanaan? J O C H A N A A N Weiche von mir! Ich hôre die Flugel des Todesengels im Palaste rauschen. S A L O M E Jochanaan! N A R R A B O T H Prinzessin, ich flehe, geh hinein! S A L O M E Jochanaan! Ich bin verliebt in deinen Leib, Jochanaan! Dein Leib ist weiss wie die L i l i en auf einem Felde, von der Siebel nie beriihrt. Dein Leib ist weiss wie der Schnee auf den Bergen Judaas. Die Rosen i m Garten von Arabiens Kônigin sind nicht so weiss wie dein Leib, nicht die Rosen i m Garten ser Kônigin, nicht die Fusse der Dâmmemng auf den Blâttem, nicht die Briiste des Mondes auf dem Meere. Nichts in der Welt ist so weiss wie dein Leib. Lass mich ihn beriihren, deinen Leib. J O C H A N A A N Zuriick, Tochter Babylons! Durch das Weib kam das Unheil in die Welt. Sprich nicht zu mir. Ich wi l l dich nicht anhôm! Ich hôre nur auf die Stimme des Herm, meines Gottes. S A L O M E Dein Leib ist grauenvoll! E r ist wie der Leib eines Aussâtzigen. E r ist wie eine getiichte Wand, wo Nattem gekrochen sind; wie eine getiinchte Wand, wo Skorpione ihr Nest gebaut, er ist wie ein ubertuchtes Grab voll widerhcher Dinge. Er ist grâsslich, dein Leib ist grâssUch. In dein Haar bin ich veriiebt, Jochanaan. Dein Haar ist wie Weintrauben, wie Buschel schwarzer Trauben, an den Weinstôcken Edoms. Dein Haar ist wie Zedem, die grossen Zedem von Libanon, die den Lôwen und Râubem Schatten spenden. Die langen schwarzen Nâchte, wenn der Mond sich verbirgt, wenn die Sterne bangen, sind nicht so schwarz wie dein Haar. Des Waldes Schweigen... Nichts in der Welt ist so schwarz wie dein Haar. Lass mich es beriihren, dein Haar! J O C H A N A A N Zuriick, Tochter Sodoms! Beriihre mich nicht! Entweihe nicht den Tempel des Herm, meines Gottes! S A L O M E Dein Haar ist grâsslicii! Es Starrt vor Staub und Unrat. Es ist wie eine Domenkrone auf deinen Kopf gesetzt. Es ist wie ein Schlangenknoten gewickelt um deinen Hais. Ich liebe dein Haar nicht. Deinen Mund begehre ich, Jociianaan. Dein Mund ist wie ein Scharlachband an einem Turm von Elfenbein. Er ist wie ein Granatapfel, von einem Silbermesser zerteilt. Die Granatapfelbluten in den Gârten von Tyrus, gltihender als Rosen, sind nicht so rot. Die roten Fanfaren der Trompeten, die das Nah'n von Kôn'gen kiinden und vor denen der Feind erzittert, sind nicht so rot wie dein roter Mund. Dein Mund ist roter als die Fiisse der Manner, die den Wein stampfen in deren Kelter. E r ist roter als die Fiisse der Tauben, die in den Tempeln wohnen. Dein Mund ist wie ein Korallenzweig in der Dâmm'rung des Meeres, wie der Purpur i n den Gruben von Moab, der Purpiu- der Kônige. Nichts in der Welt ist so rot wie dein Mund. Lass mich ihn kiissen, deinen Mimd. J O C H A N A A N Niemals, Tochter Babylons, Tochter Sodoms! Niemals! S A L O M E Ich wUl deinen Mund kiissen, Jochanaan! Ich wi l l deinen Mund kiissen. N A R R A B O T H Prinzessin, Prinzessin, die wie ein Garten von Myrrhen ist, die die Taube aller Tauben ist, sieh diesen M a n nicht an. Sprich nicht solche Worte zu ihm. Ich kaim es nicht ertragen. S A L O M E Ich w i l l deinen Mund kussen, Jochanaan. Ich wiU deinen Mund kussen. (Narraboth ersticht sich und fallt tot zwischen Salome und Jochanaan) Lass mich deinen Mund kussen, Jochanaan. J O C H A N A A N Wird dir nicht bange, Tochter der Herodias? S A L O M E Lass mich deinen Mund kussen, Jochanaan! J O C H A N A A N Tochter der Unzucht, es lebt nur einer, der dich retten kaim. Geh, such ihn, such ihn! Er ist in einem Nachen auf dem See von Galilâa und redet zu seinen J i ingem. Knie nieder am Ufer des Sees, ruf ihn an und rufe ihn beim Namen. Wenn er zu dir kommt, und er kommt zu alien, die ihn mfen, dann biicke dich zu seinen Fiissen, dass er dir deine Siinden vergehe. S A L O M E Lass mich deinen M imd kiissen, Jochanaan. J O C H A N A A N Sei verflucht, Tochter der blutschânderischen Mutter. Sei verflucht! S A L O M E Lass mich deinen Mund kiissen, Jochanaan! J O C H A N A A N Ich wi l l dich nicht ansehn. D u bist verflucht, Salome. D u bist verflucht. D u bist verflucht. D u bist verflucht. (Ergeht wieder in die Cisteme hinab) V I E R T E S Z E N E Herodes, Herodias und der ganze Hoftreîen ein. H E R O D E S Wo ist Salome? W o ist die Prinzessin? Wamm kam sie nicht wieder zum Bankett, wie ich ihr befohlen hatte? A h ! D a ist sie! H E R O D I A S Du sollst sie nicht ansehn. Fortwâhrend siehst du sie an! H E R O D E S Wie der Mond heute nacht aussieht! 1st es nicht ein seltsames Bi ld? E r sieht aus wie ein wahnwitziges Weib, das uberall nach Buhlen sucht. Wie ein beùomkenes Weib, das durch Wolken taumelt. H E R O D I A S Nein, der Mond ist wie der Mond, das ist ailes. W i r wollen hineingehn. H E R O D E S Ich wUl hier bleiben. Manassah, leg Teppiche hierher! Ziindet Fackeln an! Ich wi l l noch Wein mit meinen Gasten ùinken! A h ! Ich bin ausgeghtten. Ich bin in Blut geureten, das ist ein bôses Zeichen. W a m m ist hier Blut? Und dieser Tote? Wer ist dieser Tote hier? Wer ist dieser Tote? Ich wdl ihn nicht sehn. E R S T E R S O L D A T Es ist unser Hauptmann, Herr. H E R O D E S Ich erUess keinen Befehl, dass er getôtet werde. ERSTER S O L D A T E r hat s i c h selbst getôtet, He r r . HERODES Das scheint mir seltsam. Der junge Syrier, er war sehr schôn. Ich erinn're mich, ich sah seine schmachtenden Augen, wenn er Salome ansah. Fort mit ihm. Es ist kalt hier. Es weht ein Wind. Weht nicht ein Wind? HERODIAS Nein, es weht kein Wind. H E R O D E S Ich sage euch: es weht ein Wind, und in der Luft hôre ich etwas, wie das Rauschen von macht'gen Flugeln. Hôrt ihr es nicht? HERODIAS Ich hôre nichts. H E R O D E S Jetzt hôre ich es nicht mehr. Aber ich habe es gehôrt, es war das Wehn des Windes. Es ist voriiber. Horch! Hôrt ihr es nicht? Das Rauschen von macht'gen Flugeln. HERODIAS Du bist krank, wir wollen hineingehn. H E R O D E S Ich bin nicht krank. Aber deine Tochter ist krank zu Tode. Niemals hab' ich sie so blass gesehn. HERODIAS Ich habe dir gesagt, du sollst sie nicht ansehn. H E R O D E S Schenkt mir Wein ein! Es wird Wein gebracht. Salome, komm, trink Wein mit mir, einen kôstlichen Wein. Câsar selbst hat ihn mir geschickt. Tauche deine kleinen Lippen hinein, deine kleinen roten Lippen. dann wi l l i ch den Bêcher leeren. S A L O M E Ich bin nicht durstig, Tetrarch. HERODES Hôrst du, wie sie mir antwortet, diese deine Tochter? HERODL\S Sie hat recht. Warum starrst du sie immer an? Bringt reife Friichte! Es werden Friichte gebracht. Salome, komm, iss mit mir von diesen Friichten. Den Abdmck deiner kleinen weissen Zahne auf einer Fmcht seh' ich so gem. Beiss nur ein wenig ab, nur ein wenig von dieser Fmcht, dann wi l l ich essen, was iibrig ist. S A L O M E Ich bin nicht hungrig, Tetrarch. H E R O D E S Du siehst, wie du diese deine Tochter erzogen hast! H E R O D I A S Meine Tochter und ich stammen aus kônigUchem Blut. Dein Vater war Kameltreiber, dein Vater war ein Dieb und ein Râuber obendrein. H E R O D E S Salome, komm, setzt dich zu mir. D u sollst auf dem Thron deiner Mutter sitzen. S A L O M E Ich bin nicht miide, Tetrarch. H E R O D U S D u siehst, wie sie dich achtet. H E R O D E S Bringt mir. . . was wiinsche ich denn? Ich habe es vergessen. A h ! A h ! Ich erinnere mich. S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N Sieh, die Zeit ist gekommen, der Tag, von dem ich sprach, ist da. H E R O D I A S Heiss' ihn schweigen! Dieser Mensch beshimpft mich! H E R O D E S Er hat nichts gegen dich gesagt. Ûberdies ist er ein sehr grosser Prophet. H E R O D I A S Ich glaube nicht an Propheten. Aber du, du hast Angst vor ihm. H E R O D E S Ich habe vor niemandem Angst. HERODIAS Ich sage dir, d u hast Angst vor itun. Warum lieferst d u ihn nicht den Juden aus, die seit Monaten nach ihm schreien? ERSTER J U D E Wahrhaftig, Herr, es ware besser, ihn in unsere Hânde zu geben. H E R O D E S Genug davon! Ich werde i im nicht in eure Hânde geben. E r ist ein heil'ger Mann. E r ist ein Mann, der Gott geschaut hat. ERSTER J U D E Das kann nicht sein. Seit dem Propheten Elias hat niemand Gott gesehn. E r war der letzte, der Gott von Angesicht geschaut. In unseren Tagen zeigt sich Gott nicht. Gott verbirgt sich. Darum ist grosses Ûbel uber das Land gekommen, grosses Ûbel. ZWETTER J U D E In Wahrheit weiss niemand, ob Elias in der Tat Gott gesehen hat. Môghcherweise war es nur der Schatten Gottes, was er sah. DRTFTER J U D E Gott ist zu keiner Zeit verborgen. Er zeigt sich zu alien Zeiten und an alien Orten. Gott ist in Schlimmen ebenso wie im Guten. VIERTER J U D E D u solltest das nicht sagen, es ist eine sehr gefâhrliche Lehre aus Alexandria. Und die Griechen sind Heiden. F U N F T E R J U D E Niemand kann sagen, wie Gott wirkt. Seine Wege sind sehr dunkel. Wie kônnen nur unser Haupt unter seinen Wi l l en beugen, denn Gott ist sehr stark ERSTER J U D E D u sagst die Wahrheit. Furwahr, Gorr ist furchtbar. Aber was diesen Menschen angeht, der hat Gott nie gesehn. Seit dem Propheten Elias hat niemand Gott gesehn. Er war der letzte... (usw.) ZWETTER J U D E In Wahrheit weiss niemand,... (usw.) Gott ist furchtbar, er bricht den Starken in Stucke, den Starken wie den Schwachen, denn jeder gUt ihm gleich. Môglicherweise... (usw.) DRTTTER J U D E Gott ist z u keiner Zeit verborgen... (usw.) VBERTER J U D E D u solltest das nicht sagen,... (usw.) Sie sind nicht einmal beschnitten. Niemand kann sagen, wie Gott wirkt, denn Gott ist sehr stark Er bricht den Starken wie den Schwachen in Stiicke. Gott ist stark. FtJNFTER J U D E Niemand kann sagen, wie Gott wirkt,... (usw.) Es kann sein, dass die Dinge, die wir gut nennen, sehr sclil imm sind, und die Dinge, die wir schlimm nennen, selir gur sind. W i r wissen von nichts etwas. HERODIAS Heiss' sie schweigen, sie langweilen mich. HERODES Doch hab' ich davon sprechen horen, Jochanaan sei in Wahrheit euer Prophet Elias. E R S T E R J U D E Das kann nicht sein. Seit den Tagen des Propheten EUas sind mehr als dreihundert Jahre vergangen. E R S T E R N A Z A R E N E R M i r ist sicher, dass er der Prophet El ias ist. E R S T E R J U D E Das kann nicht sein... (usw.) Dm ANDEREN J U D E N Keineswegs, er ist nicht der Prophet Elias. HERODES Heiss sie schweigen! S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N Siehe, der Tag ist nahe, der Tag des Herm, und ich hôre auf den Bergen die Schritte Dessen, der sein wird der Erlôser der Welt? HERODES Was soil das heissen, der Erlôser der Welt? ERSTER N A Z A R E N E R Der Messias ist gekommen. E R S T E R J U D E Der Messias ist nicht gekommen. E R S T E R N A Z A R E N E R Er ist gekommen, und alientiialben mt er Wunder. Be i einer Hochzeit in Galilâa hat er Wasser in Wein verwandelt. E r heilte zwei Aussatzige von Capernaum. ZWEITER N A Z A R E N E R Durch blosses Beruhren! E R S T E R N A Z A R E N E R Er hat auch Blinde geheilt. Man hat ihn auf einem Berge i m Gesprâch mit Engeln gesehn! HERODIAS Oho! Ich glaube nicht an Wunder, ich habe ilu-er zu viele gesehn! E R S T E R N A Z A R E N E R Die Tochter des Jairus hat er von den Toten erweckt. H E R O D E S Wie, er erweckt die Toten? E R S T E R UND ZWEITER N A Z A R E N E R Jawohl. E r erweckt die Toten. H E R O D E S Ich verbiete ihm das zu mn. Es ware schrecklich, ween die Toten wiederkâmen! W o ist der Mann zur Zeit? E R S T E R N A Z A R E N E R Herr, er ist iiberall, aber es ist schwer, ihn zu finden. H E R O D E S Der Mann muss gefunden werden. ZWETTER N A Z A R E N E R Es heisst, in Samaria weile er jetzt. E R S T E R N A Z A R E N E R Vor ein Paar Tagen verliess er Samaria, ich glaube, im Augenblick ist er in der Nahe von Jerusalem. H E R O D E S So hôrt: Ich verbiete ihm, die Toten zu erwecken! Es mùsste schrecklich sein, wenn die Toten wiederkâmen! S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N O, iiber dieses geile Weib, die Tochter Babylons. So spricht der Herr, unser Gott. H E R O D I A S Befiehl ihm, er soil schweigen. S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N Eine Menge Menschen wird sich gegen sie sammeln, und sie werden Steine nehmen und sie steinigen! H E R O D I A S Wahrhaftig, es ist schandhch! S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N Die Kriegshauptieute werden sie mit ihren Schwertem durchbohren, sie werden sie mit ihren Schilden zermalmen! H E R O D I A S Er soil schweigen, er soU schweigen! S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N Es ist so, dass ich aile Verruchtheit austilgen werde, dass ich aile Weiber lehren werde, nicht auf den Wegen ihrer Greuel zu wandeln! H E R O D I A S Du hôrst, was er gegen mich sagt, du duldest es, dass er die schmâhe, die dein Weib ist? H E R O D E S Er hat deinen Namen nicht genannt. S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N Es kommt ein Tag, da wird die Sonne finster werden wie ein schwarzes Tuch. Und der Mond wird werden wie Blut, und die Sterne des Himmels werden zur Erde fallen wie unreife Feigen vom Feigenbaum. Es kommt ein Tag, wo die Kôn'ge der Erde erzittem. H E R O D I A S Ha, ha! Dieser Prophet schwatzt wie ein Betrunkener. Aber ich kann der Klang seiner Stimme nicht ertragen, ich basse seine Stimme. Befiehl ihm, er soU schweigen! H E R O D E S Tanz fiir mich, Salome. HERODIAS Ich wi l l nicht haben, dass sie tanzt. S A L O M E Ich habe keine Lust zu tanzen, Tetrarch. H E R O D E S Salome, Tochter der Herodias, tanz fiir mich! S A L O M E Ich w i l l nicht tanzen, Tetrarch. H E R O D E S D u siehst, wie sie dir gehorcht. S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N E r wird auf seinem Throne sitzen, er wird gekleidet sein in Scharlach und Purpur. Und der Engel des Herm wird ihn damiederschlagen. Er wird von den Wiirmem gefiressen werden. H E R O D E S SaJome, SaJome, tanz fiir mich, ich bitte dich. Tch bin ttaurig heute nacht, drum tanz fiir mich. Slome, tanz fiir mich! Wenn du fiir mich tanzest, kannst du von mir begehren, was du willst. Ich werde es dir geben. S A L O M E Wil lst du mir wirkl ich ailes geben, was ich von dir begehre, Tettarch? H E R O D L \ S Tanze nicht, meine Tochter. H E R O D E S AUes, ailes, was du von mir begehren wirst, und war's die Halfte meines Kônigreichs. S A L O M E Du schwôrst es, Tetrarch? H E R O D E S Ich schwôr' es, Salome. S A L O M E Wobei willst du das beschwôren, Tettarch? H E R O D E S Bei meinem Leben, bei meiner Krone, bei meinen Gôttem. H E R O D I A S Tanze nicht, meine Tochter! H E R O D E S O Salome, Salome, tanz fiir mich! S A L O M E Du hast einen E id geschworen, Tettarch. H E R O D E S Ich habe einen E id geschworen. HERODLAS Meine Tochter, tanze nicht. H E R O D E S Und war's die Hâlfte meines KOnigreichs. D u wirst schôn als Kônigin, unermesslich schôn. A h ! Es ist kalt hier. Es weht ein eisiger Wind, und ich hôre... warum hôre ich in der Luft dieses Rauschen von Flûgeln? A h ! Es ist doch so, als ob ein ungeheurer, schwarzer Vogel iiber die Terrasse schwebte? Warum kann ich ihn nicht sehn, diesen Vogel? Dieses Rauschen ist schreckUch. Es ist ein schneidender Wind. Aber nein, er ist nicht kalt, er ist heiss. Giesst mir Wasser iiber die Hânde, gebt mir Schnee zu essen, macht mir den Mantel los. Schnell, schnell, macht mir den Mantel los! Doch nein! Lasst ihn! Dieser Kranz driickt mich. Diese Rosen sind wie Feuer. A h ! Jetzt kann ich atmen. Jeyzt bin ich gli icklich. WiUst du fur mich tanzen, Salome? H E R O D I A S Ich wiU nicht haben, dass sie tanze! S A L O M E Ich wiU fur dich tanzen. S T I M M E DES J O C H A N A A N Wer ist Der, der von Edom kommt, wer ist Der, der von Bosra kommt, dessen Kle id mit Purpur gefârbt ist, der in der Schônheit seiner Gewânder leuchtet, der mâchtig in seiner Grosse wandelt, warum ist dein Kle id mit Scharlach befleckt? H E R O D I A S Wir woUen hineingehen. Die SUmme dieses Menschen macht mich wahnsinnig. Ich wiU nicht haben, dass meine Tochter tanzt, wahreng er immer dazwischenschreit. Ich wUl nicht haben, dass sie tanzt, wahrend du sie auf solche Art ansiehst. M i t einem Wort: Ich wUl nicht haben, dass sie tanzt. H E R O D E S Steh nicht auf, mein Weib, meine Kônigin. Es wird die nichts helfen, ich gehe nicht hinein, bevor sie getanzt hat. Tanze, Salomé, tanz fur mich! HERODIAS Tanze nicht, meine Tochter! S A L O M E Ich bin bereit, Tetrarch. Salome tanzt den Tanz der sieben Schleier. HERODES A h ! Herrl ich! WundervoU! Wundervoll ! Siehst du, sie hat flir mich getanzt, deine Tochter. Komm her Salome, komm her, du sollst deinen Lohn haben. Ich wiU dich kôniglich belohnen. Ich wUl dir ailes geben, was dein Herz begehrt. Was willst du haben? Sprich! S A L O M E Ich môchte, dass Sie mir gleich in einer Silberschussel... H E R O D E S In einer SUberschûssel... Gewiss doch - in einer Silberschussel. Sie ist reizend, nicht? Was ist's, das du in einer Silberschussel haben môchtest, o susse, schône Salome, du, die schôner ist als aile Tochter Judâas? Was sollen sie dir in einer Silberschussel bringen? Sag es mir! Was es auch sein mag, du sollst es erhalten. Meine Reichtiimer gehôren dir. Was ist es, das du haben môchtest, Salome? S A L O M E Den Kop f des Jochanaan. HERODES Nein, nein! HERODL^S A h ! Das sagst du gut, meine Tochter. Das sagst du gut! H E R O D E S Nein, nein, Salome; das ist es nicht, was du begehrst! Hôrt nicht auf die Stimme deiner Mutter. Sie gab dir immer schlechten Rat. Achte nicht auf sie. S A L O M E Ich achte nicht auf die Stimme meiner Mutter. Z u meiner eignen Lust wi l l ich den Kop f des Jochanaan in einer Silberschussel haben. Du hast einen E i d geschworen, Herodes. D u hast einen E id geschworen, vergiss das nicht! H E R O D E S Ich weiss, ich habe einen E i d geschworen. Ich weiss es woii l . Be i meinen Gôttem habe ich es geschworen. Aber ich beschwôre dich, Salome, verlange etwas andres von mir. Verlange die Hâlfte meines Kônigreichs. Ich wi l l sie dir geben. Aber verlange nicht von mir, was deine Lippen verlangten. S A L O M E Ich verlange von dir den Kop f des Jochanaan. H E R O D E S Nein, nein, ich wi l l ihn dir nicht geben. S A L O M E Du hast einen E id geschworen, Herodes. HERODLA.S Ja, du hast einen E i d geschworen. AU haben es gehôrt. H E R O D E S Sti l l , Weib, zu dir spreche ich nicht. HERODLAS Meine Tochter bat recht daran getan, den Kop f des Jochanaan zu verlangen. E r bat mich mit Schimpf und Schande bedeckt. M a n kann sehn, dass sie ihre Mutter hebt. G ib nicht nach, meine Tochter, gib nicht nach! Er bat einen E id geschworen. H E R O D E S StiU, sprich nicht zu mir! Salome, ich beschwôre dich: sei nich trotzig! Sieh, ich habe dich immer heb gehabt. Kann sein, ich habe dich zu Ueb gehabt. Darum verlange das nicht von mir. Der Kop f eines Mannes, der vom Rumpf getrennt ist, ist ein iibler A n b h c L Hôr, was ich sage! Ich habe einen Smaragd. Er ist der schônste Smaragd der ganzen Welt. Den willst du haben, nicht wahr? Veriang ihn von mir, ich wi l l ihn dir geben, den schônsten Smaragd. S A L O M E Ich fordre den Kop f des Jochanaan! HERODES Du hôrst nicht zu, du hôrst nicht zu. Lass mich zu dir reden, Salome! S A L O M E Den Kopf des Jochanaan. H E R O D E S Das sagst du nur, um mich zu quâlen, weil i ch dich so angeschaut habe. Deine Schônheit hat mir verwirrt. Oh ! Oh ! Bringt We in ! M i c h diirstet! Salome! Salome! Lass uns wie Freunde zueinander sein! Bedenk dich! A h ! Was woUt ich sagen? Was war's? A h ! Ich weiss es wieder! Salome, du kennst meine weissen Pfauen, meine schônen weissen Pfauen, die im Garten zwischen den Myrten wandeln. Ich wi l l sie dir aile, aUe geben. In der ganzen Welt lebt kein Kônig, der solche Pfauen hat. Ich habe bloss hundert. Aber aile wi l l ich dir geben. S A L O M E Gib mir den Kop f des Jochanaan! H E R O D L ^ S Gut gesagt, meine Tochter! H E R O D E S Stil l , Weib! Du kreichest wie ein Raubvogel. H E R O D I A S Und du, du bist lâcherlich mit deinen Pfauen. H E R O D E S Deine Stimme peinigt mich. StUl, sag' ich dir! Salome, bedenk, was du tun wUlst. Es kann sein, dass der Mann von Gott gesandt ist. E r ist ein heil'ger Mann. Der Finger Gottes hat ihn beriihrt. Du môchtest nicht, dass mich ein Unheil trifft, Salome? Hôr jetzt auf mich! S A L O M E Ich wi l l den Kop f des Jochanaan! H E R O D E S A h ! Du willst nicht auf mich hôren. Sei mhig, Salome. Ich, siehst du, bin ruhig. Hôre: Ich habe an diesem Ort Juwelen versteckt, Juwelen, die selbst deine Mutter nie gesehen hat. Ich habe ein Halsband mit vier Reihen Perlen, Topase, gelb wie die Augen der Tiger. Topase, hellrot wie die Augen der Waldtaube, und griine Topase, wie Katzenaugen. Ich habe Opale, die immer funkeln, mit einem Feuer, kalt wie Eis. Ich wi l l sie dir aile geben, aile! Ich habe Chrysolithe und Berylle, Chrysoprase und Rubine. Ich habe Sardonyx und Hyacinthsteine und Steine von Chalcedon. Ich wiU sie dir aile geben, aile und noch andre Dinge. Ich habe einen Kristall , in den zu schaun keinem Weibe vergônnt ist. In einem Permutterkâstchen hahe ich drei wimderbare Tûrkise: wer sie an seiner Stime U"âgt, kann Dinge sehn, die nicht wirkl ich sind. Es sind unbezahlbare Schâtze. Was begehrst du sonst noch, Salome? Ai les, was du verlangst, w i l l ich dir geben, nur eines nicht: nur nicht das Leben dieses einen Mannes. Ich wUl dir den Mante! des Hohenpriesters geben. Ich wi l l dir den Vorhang des AUerheiligsten geben. D I E J U D E N Oh! Oh ! Oh! Gib mir den Kop f des Jochanaan! H E R O D E S Man soil ihr geben, was sie veriang! Sie ist in Wahrheit ihrer Mutter K ind ! Der erste Soldat tritt naher. Herodias zieht dem Tetrarchen den Todesring vom Finger und giebt ihn dem Soldaten, der ihn auf der Stelle dem Henker iiberbringt. Der Henker sieht erschrocken drein. H E R O D E S Wer bat meinen Ring genommen? Ich hatte einen Ring an meiner rechten Hand. Wer hat meinen Wein getrunken? Es war Wein in meinem Bêcher. Er war mit Wein gefuUt. Es bat ihn jemand ausgetrunken. Oh ! gewiss wird Unheil iiber einen kommen. HERODLAS Meine Tochter bat rech getan! H E R O D E S Ich bin sicher, es wird ein Unheil geschehn. S A L O M E lehnt sich iiber die Cisterne und horcht Es ist kein Laut zu vemehmen. Ich hôre nichts. Warum schreit er nicht, der Mann? A h ! Wenn einer mich zu tôten kame, ich wàirde schreien, ich wiirde mich wehren, ich wiirde es nicht dulden! Schlag zu, schlag zu, Naaman, schlag zu, sag ich dir! Nein, ich hôre nichts. Es ist eine schreckUche Stil le! A h ! Es ist etwas zu Boden gefallen. Ich hôrte etwas fallen. Es war das Schwert des Henkers. E r bat Angst, dieser Sklave. E r hat das Schwert fallen lassen! E r traut sich nicht, ihn zu tôten. Er ist eine Memme, dieser Sklave. Schickt Soldaten bin! zu dem Pagen Komm hierher, du warst der Freund dieses Toten, nicht? Wohlan, ich sage dir: es sind noch nicht genug Tote. Geh zu den Soldaten und befiehl ihnen, hinabzusteigen und mir zu holen, was ich verlange, was der Tetrarch mir versprochen bat, was mein ist. Der Page weicht zuriick, sie wendet sich den Soldaten zu. Hierher, ihr Soldaten, geht ihr in die Zisteme hinunter und holt mir den Kopf des Mannes! Teuarch, Tetrarch, befiehl deinen Soldaten, dass sie mir den Kop f des Jochanaan holen. Ein riesiger schwarzer Arm, der Arm des Henkers, streckt sich aus der Cisteme heraus, auf einem silbemen Schild den Kopf des Jochanaan haltend. Salome greift darnach. Herodes verhiillt sein Gesicht mit dem Mantel. Herodias fâchelt sich zu und lâchelt. Die Nazarener sinken in die Kniee und beginnen zu beten Ah , du woUtest mich nicht deinen Mund kiissen lassen, Jochanaan! Wohl , ich werde ihn jetzt kiissen! Ich wi l l mit meinen Zâhnen hineinbeissen, wie man in eine reife Frucht beissen mag. Ja, ich wi l l ihn jetz kussen, deinen Mund, Jochanaan. Ich hab es gesagt. Hab ich's nicht gesagt? Ja, ich hab es gesagt. A h ! A h ! Ich wiU ihn jetzt kiissen. Aber wamm siehst du mich nicht an. Jochanaan? Deine Augen, die so schrecklich waren, so voUer Wut und Verachtung, sind jetzt geschlossen. Warum sind sie geschlossen? Ôffne doch die Augen, so hebe deine Lider, Jochanaan! Warum siehst du mich nicht an? Hast du Angst vor mir, Jochanaan, dass du mich nicht ansehen willst? Und deine Zunge, sie spricht kein Wort, Jochanaan, diese Scharlachnatter, die ihren Geifer gegen mich spie. Es ist seltsam, nicht? Wie kommt es, dass diese rote Natter sich nicht mehr riihrt? Du sprachst bôse Worte gegen mich, gegen mich, Salome, die Tochter der Herodias, Prinzessin von Judâa. Nun wohl ! Ich lebe noch, aber du bist tot, und dein Kopf, dein Kop f gehôrt mir! Ich kann mit ihm tim, was ich wUl. Ich kann ihn den Hunden vorwerfen und den Vôgeln der Luft. Was die Hunde ubriglassen, sollen die Vôgel der Luft verzehren. A h ! A h ! Jochanaan, Jochanaan, du warst schôn. Dein Le ib war eine Elfenbeinsâule auf silbemen Fiissen. Er war ein Garten voiler Tauben in der Silberli l ien Glanz. Nichts i n der Welt war so weiss wie dein Leib. Nichts in der Welt war so schwarz wie dein Haar. In der ganzen Welt war nichts so rot wie dein Mund. Deine Stimme war ein Weihrauchgefâss, imd wenn ich dich ansah, hôrte ich geheimnisvolle Musik. A h ! Warum hast du mich nicht angesehn, Jochanaan? Du legtest iiber deine Augen die Binde eines, der sein Gott schauen wollte. Wohl , du hast deinen Gott gesehn, Jochanaan, aber mich, mich hast du nie gesehn. Hâttest du mich gesehn, du hâttest mich geliebt! Ich diirste nach deiner Schônheit. Ich hungre nach deinem Leib. Nicht Wein noch Àpfel kônnen mein Veriangen stillen. Was soli ich jetzt tun, Jochanaan? Nicht die Fluten, noch die grossen Wasser kônnen diese briinstige Begehren lôschen. Oh ! Warum sahst du mich nicht an? Hâttest du mich angesehn, du hâttest mich geliebt. U n d das Geheimnis der Liebe ist grosser als das Geheinmis des Todes. HERODES Sie ist ein Ungeheuer, deine Tochter. Ich sage dir, sie ist ein Ungeheuer! HERODIAS Meine Tochter hat recht getan. Ich môchte jetzt hier bleiben. HERODES A h ! D a spricht meines Bruders Weib! Komm, ich wi l l nicht an diesem Orte bleiben. Komm, sag ich dir! Sicher, es wird Schreckliches geschehn. W i r wollen und ins Palast verbergen, Herodias, ich fange an, zu erzittem. Manassah, Issachar, Ozias, lôscht die Fackeln aus. Verbergt den Mond, verbergt die Sterne! Es wird Schreckliches geschehn! Die Sklaven lôschen die Fackeln aus. Die Sterne verschwinden. Eine grosse Wolke zieht iiber den Mond und verhilllt ihn vôllig. Die Bilhne wird ganz dunkel. Der Tetrarch beginnt die Treppe hinaufzusteigen. S A L O M E A h ! Ich habe deinen Mund gekusst, Jochanaan. A h ! Ich habe ihn gekusst, deinen Mund, es war ein bitterer Geschmack auf deinen Lippen. Hat es nach Blut geschmeckt? Ne in ! Doch es schmeckte vielleicht nach Liebe. Sie sagen, dass die Liebe bitter schmecke. A l l e in was mt's? Was mt's? Ich habe deinen Mund gekiisst, Jochanaan. Ich habe ihn gekusst, deinen Mund. Ein Strahl des Mondlichts fàllt auf Salome und beleuchtet sie. HERODES sich umwendend M a n tote dieses W e i b ! Die Soldaten sturzen vor und zermalmen Salome, die Tochter der Herodias, Prinzessin von Judaa, unter ihren Schilden. 

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