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The priest in The Temple: the relationship between George Herbert’s English poetry and The Country parson Allen, Matthew 1993

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THE PRIEST IN THE TEMPLE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GEORGE HERBERT'SENGLISH POETRY AND THE COUNTRY PARSONbyMATTHEW CRAIG ALLENB.A.(Hons.), The University of British Columbia, 1984M.A., Queen's University (Kingston), 1986A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHYinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESDepartment of EnglishWe accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAJuly, 1993© Matthew Craig Allen, 1993(Signature)Department of EnglishIn presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate^ 31 August 1993DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACT:This dissertation describes the relationship between George Herbert's twoprincipal works, The Temple (1633) and The Country Parson (1651). The introductiondiscusses the main problems faced by readers of The Temple: its paradoxical religiousstatements, its apparent lack of unity, its variable poetic voice, and its place in literaryhistory. Chapter 1 argues that The Temple and The Country Parson arecomplementary: that they may have been written together and consideredcompanionpieces, that they are similar in form and content, and that they should beread together. Chapter 2 places The Country Parson in the genre of the clericalmanual, and explains its distinctive form as the influence of various kinds ofrenaissance prose, including the essay, the professional handbook, the courtesy book,the prose character, and the moral resolve. Chapter 3 provides the first thoroughanalysis of the prose style of The Country Parson, a style which may be looselycharacterized as a combination of Ciceronian and Senecan attributes, but is betterthought of as "Anglican" or "poetic." Chapters 4 and 5 apply The Country Parson tothe problems faced by readers of The Temple, and describe the Anglican spirituality,pastoral voice, and coherence of The Temple, along with its proper place in literaryhistory.TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract ^  iiTable of Contents ^  iiiPreface ^  ivIntroduction:^The Parson and the Critics ^  1Notes: Introduction  27Chapter 1:^The Accidental Separation of The Country Parson and The Temple ^  33Notes: Chapter 1  59Chapter 2:^The Genre of The Country Parson^ 64Notes: Chapter 2 ^  99Chapter 3:^The Style of The Country Parson ^  103Notes: Chapter 3 ^  129Chapter 4:^George Herbert's Anglican Spirituality ^ 132Notes: Chapter 4 ^  171Chapter 5:^The Priest in The Temple ^  184Notes: Chapter 5 ^  220Appendix I:^Four Kinds of Renaissance Prose ^  226Notes: Appendix I ^  238Appendix II:^Ciceronian and Senecan Prose Style ^ 241Appendix II: Notes ^ 245Appendix III:^The Influence of Sidney, Bacon, and Donne ^ 247Appendix III: Notes ^  252Bibliography ^  2531. Notable editions of Herbert's Works ^ 2542. Primary Materials ^  2553. Religious History  2615. Criticism ^  272-iv-PREFACE:If studious, copy fair, what time hath blurr'd;Redeem truth from his jawes..."Perirrhanterium," 86-87George Herbert (1593-1633) lived a colourful, concentrated, and saintly life.He was born into an aristocratic family on the Welsh border. Edward, Lord Herbertof Cherbury, George's older brother, held great wealth and power. George's mother,Magdalene Herbert (later Lady Danvers), was renowned for her beauty, intellect, andpiety. George was a gifted student: first at Westminster School when LancelotAndrewes was dean of the cathedral, then at Trinity College, Cambridge, under Dr.Whitgift, along with such notable contemporaries as Nicholas Ferrar, Giles Fletcher,and Barnabas Oley.In 1615, Herbert was awarded the M.A. Later, in recognition of his unusualgifts, he was elected Major Fellow, appointed Praelector (Reader) in Rhetoric, andeventually made University Orator. During his tenure, Herbert wrote Latin poems,orations, epistles, and polemics; he compiled a book of proverbs, which he translatedfrom foreign languages; and he began his English poems.Izaak Walton, Herbert's principal seventeenth-century biographer, probablyover-dramatizes Herbert's desire for court preferment, his dwindling hopes with thedeath of James I, and his consequent determination to seek humble service as a parishpriest. Herbert was always devout, even if he did cherish too high an opinion of "hisparts and personage" as a young man. He began to study divinity shortly after hecompleted his M.A., and he was probably discouraged from seeking further public-v-office more by his experiences as a member of parliament and by his opposition to theforeign policy of Charles I than by his lack of influence at court.Nonetheless, Herbert did enter the church. In 1626, he was ordained deacon byJohn Williams, Bishop of Lincoln. He spent a large part of his small meansrebuilding Leighton Church, and was briefly a canon of Lincoln Cathedral and residentchaplain to the Earl of Danby. But Herbert is remembered largely for his selflessservice as a country parson at Bemerton, near Salisbury, during the last three years ofhis life. It was at Bemerton that Herbert wrote most of his poetic book, The Temple,as well as his prose manual for fellow clergymen, A Priest to the Temple or The Country Parson. And it was Herbert's cure of Bemerton which was held up as anexample to the restoration Church of England by Izaak Walton and Barnabas Oley.Herbert's literary influence has been variable but persistent. The Temple, ameticulously-crafted sequence of some 160 poems, has always had its admirers. ButHerbert's short, discursive Country Parson has had less of a following. Also,Herbert's popularity has varied with changing literary tastes and fashions.The Temple, published posthumously in 1633, was highly popular in the earlyseventeenth century, and imitated by Vaughan and Crashaw. However, later in thecentury, Dryden singled out The Temple for abuse in Mac Flecknoe (11. 203-210), andits influence diminished as neo-classicism became dominant. During the eighteenthcentury, Herbert's poems were prized for their piety rather than their style, and werefrequently paraphrased in non-conformist hymnals. By the nineteenth century,Herbert's poems were generally thought to be quaint and obscure, though they wereadmired by Coleridge, and influenced Emily Dickinson and Gerard Manley Hopkins.In the early twentieth century, Herbert's poetry was rediscovered with that of the other-vi-metaphysicals, largely through Sir Herbert Grierson's anthology and his introductoryessay. Herbert was embraced as a fellow modern by Eliot and Auden, Ford MadoxFord, and Aldous Huxley. Herbert's critical standing began a slow but steady rise, sothat few would now question T.S. Eliot's appraisal of Herbert as a major poet.The Country Parson made an untimely appearance at the beginning of theInterregnum, as part of The Remains of George Herbert (1651). In 1671, BarnabasOley published The Country Parson with an inflammatory anti-Puritan preface. TheCountry Parson remained popular throughout the Restoration and into the eighteenthcentury, but was usually published separately from The Temple. During thenineteenth century, The Country Parson was largely the province of clerics. By thetwentieth century, The Country Parson had almost ceased to be read: it seemed tooquaint to be much help in the parish and too tedious and specialized to be of anyliterary interest.My own acquaintance with The Country Parson was accidental, arising from acasual observation by one of my professors that the prose and poetry of GeorgeHerbert probably had more in common than was generally supposed. I have sincebecome convinced that The Country Parson is the best commentary upon The Temple,and vice versa. The present study is an effort to provide a fuller historical context forboth works, to "copie fair, what time hath blurr'd."I wish to express my sincere thanks to those who have helped with this project,particularly to Professors P. G. Stanwood, Lee M. Johnson, and Mark Vessey; to myparents, Barbara and Terry Allen; and to my wife, Beth. I could not have completedthis project without their perceptive advice and unflagging support. I also wish toexpress my appreciation for the life and work of George Herbert himself. If I can-vii-help to "redeem truth from the jaws of time" in this quartercentenary of Herbert'sbirth, it will be but a small repayment for the many hours of pleasure which he hasgiven me, and for his persistent efforts to "rhyme me to good."INTRODUCTION: THE PARSON AND THE CRITICSLord, how can man preach thy eternall word?("The Windows," 1. 1)The connection between The Country Parson  (1651) and The Temple (1633) isnot immediately apparent. On first impression, Herbert's brief, practical, andprescriptive manual for Caroline divines seems far-removed from the subtledistinctions and delicate lyricism of his poetry. Yet the different audiences andpurposes of the works may mask their subtle similarities in form and content. Uponcloser examination, one begins to notice that The Temple and The Country Parson explore such common themes as the psychology of sin and grace, the attractions andhazards of religious employment, the proper language of worship, and the meaningbehind church ritual. One may observe that Herbert's prose is characteristically clear,compact, and deceptively plain, recalling his poetry. And one may sense in bothworks an eclectic and rhetorical approach to traditional materials. These similarities inform, content, and artistic method raise the possibility that The Country Parson mighthelp to explain what is otherwise confusing about The Temple.Readers of Herbert's poetry are certainly in need of such interpretive aid, forThe Temple continues to pose fundamental problems. Five problems come to mind:1) the apparently incoherent form of The Temple, 2) the nature of its implied poeticmethod, 3) the apparent contradictions of its implied religious and political views, 4)the character of its distinctive voice, and 5) the uncertain place it occupies in literaryhistory. Specifically, are the three sections of The Temple and the poems whichcomprise them isolated entities or parts of a coherent whole? Should we read-2-Herbert's poems as the plain heart-felt praise advocated in the "Jordan" poems, or aselusive statements of a complex and contradictory inner life? Do Herbert's poemsembody Laudian sacramentalism and loyalty to the king, or Calvinism and allegianceto parliament? Does Herbert belong to the "school of Donne" or to the "tribe ofBen"? This chapter describes these perennial problems faced by readers of TheTemple, suggests how The Country Parson might help to resolve such problems, andbegins to explain why the best commentary on the poetry has often been overlooked.The first problem facing any reader of The Temple is its apparent lack of unity.The form of The Temple seems incoherent for several reasons. First, the three mainsections of The Temple are so distinctive as to seem unrelated. Second, no obviousstructure or ordering principle unifies the profusion of verse forms in the middlesection. Third, sudden shifts and reversals of logic sometimes make individual lyricsseem incoherent.The reader first encounters the relatively plain and didactic "Church-porch."Apart from "Superliminare," its 470 lines are divided into structually identical six-linestanzas such as these:Lie not; but let thy heart be true to God,Thy mouth to it, thy actions to them both:Cowards tell lies, and those that fear the rod;The stormie working soul spits lies and froth.Dare to be true. Nothing can need a ly:A fault, which needs it most, grows two thereby.Flie idlenesse, which yet thou canst not flieBy dressing, mistressing, and complement.If those take up thy day, the sunne will crieAgainst thee: for his light was onely lent.God gave thy soul brave wings; put not those feathersInto a bed, to sleep out all ill weathers.("Perirrhanterium," 73-84)Touches of wit such as the pun here on "sunne" (son) and the play on feathers hint at-3-the ingenuity and imagination of the lyrics. But many readers find the admonitions of"The Church-porch" a strange and tiresome prologue to the poetic riches of "TheChurch."'The middle section of The Temple comprises some 160 poems, almost all ofwhich are short lyrics. Poems such as "Vertue" demonstrate the subtle wit and sinceredevotion, the remarkable command of tone and stanzaic structure, the musical anddomestic imagery, for which Herbert is justly admired:Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright,The bridal! of the earth and skie:The dew shall weep thy fall to night;For thou must die.Sweet rose, whose hue angrie and braveBids the rash gazier wipe his eye:Thy root is ever in its grave,And thou must die.Sweet spring, full of sweet dayes and roses,A box where sweets compacted lie;My musick shows ye have your closes,And all must die.Onely a sweet and vertuous soul,Like season'd timber, never gives;But though the whole world turn to coal,Then chiefly lives.For many readers, lyrics such as this not only epitomize Herbert's art, but buildtoward the triumphal conclusion of "The Church" in "Death," "Dooms-day,""Judgement," "Heaven," and "Love (III)."To many, "The Church Militant" seems to be a dreary appendage following theartistic and spiritual apotheosis of "Love (III)." "The Church Militant" does seem atvariance with the rest of The Temple and is sometimes dismissed as a separate andinferior work. 2 Although "The Church-porch" and "The Church" discuss and portray-4-immediate spiritual progress, "The Church Militant" provides an ironic historicalsurvey of such progress. After the profusion of lyric form and perspective in "TheChurch," the rhyming couplets and narrative of "The Church Militant" seemmonotonous:Sinne did set out of Eastern Babylon,And travell'd westward also: journeying onHe chid the Church away, where e're he came,Breaking her peace, and tainting her good name.At first he got to Egypt, and did sowGardens of gods, which ev'ry yeare did growFresh fine deities . . . (11. 103-109)The separateness of "The Church Militant" is also suggested by the blank pagesbetween it and "The Church" in the manuscripts. 3 Still, most commentators assumethat the three main sections of The Temple form a coherent whole, and continue tosearch for an ordering principle. For example, Carnes and Tye suggest that TheTemple is unified by the meaning of its title: that its sections correspond to the porch,mid-temple, and holy of holies in the Hebraic temple or to the complex allegoricalmeaning of a temple in renaissance iconography. Lewalski and Stambler respectivelyequate the unity of The Temple with that of the Bible (Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, theSong of Songs, and Revelation) and a volume of courtly love poetry. Sherwooddescribes the continuity provided by "a quickening sense of self," and Patrides alludesto a "eucharistic structure." Stewart and Martz suggest that "The Church Porch"serves as preparation for the active Christian life which they feel Herbert portraysrespectively in "The Church" and "The Church Militant." Although observations suchas these help us to begin to organize the bewildering diversity of form in The Temple and point to an over-arching design, Herbert's overall purpose remains obscure.'Herbert's plan or purpose is least obvious in "The Church." The lyrics are so-5-meticulously crafted that one naturally expects them to be as carefully arranged, yetthe spiritual progress which they portray often seems halting and tentative. Forinstance, the tranquil reflections of "The Pearl" are immediately followed by the bitterrecriminations of "Affliction (IV)," and the contrition of "Confession" leads to"Giddinesse" rather than repose. While some readers feel that Herbert's ordering ofthe poems reflects the complex pattern of the Christian life, others see "The Church"as a collection of isolated poems rather than a coherent whole. 5Individual poems also raise problems of formal coherence. Despite theirappearance of simplicity and their claims of self-evident truth, Herbert's poems areoften complex and sometimes confusing. The titles of poems such as "The Water-course," "Love-joy," and "Clasping of hands" seem only tangentially related to theirsubjects. Poems such as "The Collar" and "The Glimpse" surprise the reader by theirsudden reversals of logic. And poems such as "Prayer (I)" and "The Answer" arefamous for their enigmatic conclusions. Modern commentators, who tend to regardthe lyric as an essentially private mode, have increasingly emphasized the complexityand elusiveness of Herbert's poetic art. Some even contend that the lyrics are self-defeating or opaque. Yet the meaning of poems such as "The British Church" and"The Pilgrimage" seems comparatively self-evident, and Herbert's seventeenth-centuryreaders felt that his poems were clear enough to teach to school children and to sing inchurch.°The question of the unity of The Temple, particularly the integrity or coherenceof the lyrics, hinges on the relative values which Herbert attached to complexity andclarity. Did Herbert mean to communicate clearly for the general good, or to record asubtle personal experience? Such a consideration of Herbert's purposes brings us to-6-the second serious problem facing the reader of The Temple, the character of thepoetic method which the lyrics themselves imply.Although the lyrics discuss Herbert's ostensible poetic method, the voice'sstatements are somewhat misleading. The "Jordan" poems advocate a plain,perspicuous style. Here, the voice disparages ingenuity and obscurity ("catching thesense at two removes") as well as ornamentation ("quaint words and trim invention").We are told that those who serve God best "plainly say, My God, My King," for"There is in love a sweetnesse readie penn'd." But poems such as "The Forerunners,""The Posie," and "Trinitie Sunday" are more equivocal in their dismissal of wit.'Certainly, a poem such as "Prayer (I)" is neither plain nor perspicuous, though it doeshelp us to grasp something of the nature of prayer:Prayer, the Churches banquet, Angels age,Gods breath in man returning to his birth,The soul in paraphrase, heart in pilgrimage,The Christian plummet sounding heav'n and earth;Engine against th' Almightie, sinners towre,Reversed thunder, Christ-side-piercing spear,The six-daies world transposing in an houre,A kinde of tune, which all things heare and fear;Softnesse, and peace, and joy, and love, and blisse,Exalted Manna, gladnesse of the best,Heaven in ordinarie, man well drest,The milkie way, the bird of Paradise,Church-bels beyond the starres heard, the souls blond,The land of spices; something understood.Helpful as Herbert's implicit descriptions of his poetic method in poems such as"Jordan" may be, the voice's statements require corroboration or correction fromanother source.One source is Herbert's death-bed description of his poetry, according to IzaakWalton's Life of Herbert (1670). Herbert's reported description of The Temple as "a-7-picture of the many spiritual conflicts that have past betwixt God and [his] Soul before[he] could subject [it] to the will of Jesus" is almost universally accepted because it isnot only believable but apt. 8 Many of Herbert's poems, most notably "The Collar"and the "Affiction" sequence, do portray great spiritual struggle leading to eventualrepose. Many, such as "The Altar" and "Trinitie Sunday," also rely in part on visualimpressions. Yet the joyful and liturgical qualities of poems such as "Praise (II)" and"Love (HI)" suggest something beyond a "picture of spiritual conflicts."Several recent studies have attempted to clarify Herbert's poetic methodthrough linguistic analysis. 9 Heather Asals has described the process of "equivocalpredication," which Herbert uses to portray the mingling of the physical and thedivine, particularly in the eucharist. Todd and Pahika have compared Herbert'sconcept of language with Saint Augustine's--an important consideration sinceHerbert's last will and testament mentions "St. Augustines workes." Cook and Elskyhave related Herbert's attitude to nature and his use of concrete poetry to changes inrenaissance technology and linguistic thought. These studies are valuable, both fortheir glimpses of Herbert's artistic method and for their assumption that his methodbelongs to a tradition. Todd and Pahllca may well be right to place Herbert's poeticmethod in the tradition of "Augustinian linguistics." If such is the case, however, weshould consider the possible influence not only of Augustine's ambitious theoreticalwork, On Christian Doctrine, but of his practical treatise, On the Catechizing of the Uninstructed, which often recalls The Country Parson.Herbert's familiarity with classical rhetoric, on which he lectured atCambridge, itself suggests that his artistic purposes and methods were not asindividual and personal as his death-bed remarks about spiritual struggle have led-8-many to believe. The second half of Herbert's statement in Walton's Life is actually aperemptory instruction to Nicholas Ferrar to read The Temple, "and then, if he canthink it may turn to the advantage of any dejected poor Soul, let it be made publick: ifnot, let him burn it." 10 Here, the passion of personal utterance and the necessaryclarity of public discourse find their proper proportion. Herbert's pictures of spiritualconflicts are intended for the good of others. This clear conjunction of artistic andpastoral intention leads us toward The Country Parson, in which Herbert describes thearts of instruction and worship.The extent to which we conceive of Herbert's poems as personal or publicutterances is ultimately a religious question, for we are implying that he is either anindividual Christian pilgrim or a pastor of a flock. But the third serious problemfacing Herbert's readers is the apparent contradiction of the religious and politicalviews implied in The Temple. Although few would question Joseph Summers'observation that Herbert's poetry and religion are "intimately and inextricablyinterrelated," the character of Herbert's religious experience has been hotly disputed."The religious experience portrayed in The Temple often appears to be deeplycatholic: that is, rooted in the traditions, prayers, and sacraments of the church. Forthe speaker of "H. Baptisme (I)," for instance, redemption is apparently conferredsacramentally, a process conveyed by the traditional imagery of the water springingfrom Christ's side:As he that sees a dark and shadie grove,Stayes not, but looks beyond it on the side;So when I view my sinnes, mine eyes removeMore backward still, and to that water flie,Which is the heav'ns, whose spring and ventIs in my deare Redeemers pierced side.0 blessed streams! either ye do prevent-9-And stop our sinnes from growing thick and wide,Or else give tears to drown them, as they grow.In you Redemption measures all my time,And spreads the plaister equall to the crime.You taught the Book of Life my name, that soWhat ever future sinnes should me miscall,Your first acquaintance might discredit all.As Clements and Boman note, Herbert's perspective is sometimes so catholic as toseem medieval. 12 Rosemond Tuve's study of "The Sacrifice" takes this view,emphasizing the liturgical and iconographical background of Herbert's poetry. LouisMartz also emphasizes the catholicism of Herbert's thought by suggesting theinfluence of Counter-Reformation meditative techniques.Quite often, however, the religion portrayed in The Temple seems decidedlyreformed. One is often aware of a voice which seems to speak directly to God, andwhose assurance seems to derive exclusively from the promises of scripture. This isthe voice of "Judgement":Almightie Judge, how shall poore wretches brookThy dreadfull look,Able a heart of iron to appall,When thou shalt callFor ev'ry mans peculiar book?What others mean to do, I know not well;Yet I heare tell,That some will turn thee to some leaves thereinSo void of sinne,That they in merit shall excell.But I resolve, when thou shalt call for mine,That to decline,And thrust a Testament into thy hand:Let that be scann'd.There thou shalt finde my faults are thine.Halewood, Strier, Veith, and Lewalski naturally take lyrics such as this as evidence of-10-a strongly-reformed perspective."But it is hazardous to evaluate the relative importance of Herbert's catholic andreformed thought on the basis of his lyrics alone. At one extreme, some criticsdescribe an affinity for Roman ritual and theology which is difficult to reconcile withhis censure of Roman Catholicism in "The British Church." At the other extreme,some describe a preoccupation with harsh Calvinist doctrines that belies the serenity of"Easter" or the practical devotion of "Praise (I)." 14 Although individual lyrics such as"Anagram" and "The Water-course" are said to prove Herbert's religious views, thesepoems are subject to conflicting interpretations." Also, extreme interpretationsoverlook Herbert's typically Anglican inclusiveness and moderation.Although Herbert's poems sometimes assume or imply doctrine, they aretypically devotional and pastoral rather than doctrinal and contentious. 16 Herbert'sirenicism and devotion are particularly striking in a poem such as "To all Angels andSaints," which discusses prayers to the saints and adoration of the Blessed VirginMary--stock subjects of religious controversy:Not out of envie or maliciousnesseDo I forbear to crave your speciall aid:I would addresseMy vows to thee most gladly, Blessed Maid,And Mother of my God, in my distresse.All worship is prerogative, and a flowerOf his rich crown, from whom lyes no appealAt the last houre:Therefore we dare not from his garland steal,To make a posie for inferiour power.Although then others court you, if ye knowWhat's done on earth, we shall not fare the worse,Who do not so;Since we are ever ready to disburse,-11-If any one our Masters hand can show. (11. 6-10,21-30)Although Herbert's perspective here is broadly reformed, his tone is respectful andsympathetic, for his main concern is charity and worship rather than controversy.The paradoxes and inconclusiveness of Herbert's religious thought is onlycomplicated by the implied political statements of the lyrics. During Herbert'slifetime, politics and religion were virtually inseparable. We also know that Herbert'searly aspirations of courtly advancement were unfulfilled, and that he served inparliament. As Singleton and Schoenfeldt have shown, Herbert often adopts courtlymotifs and language." The suppliant at court is portrayed most obviously in "Love(III)," but this motif may also inform a poem such as "Redemption":Having been tenant long to a rich Lord,Not thriving, I resolved to be bold,And make a suit unto him, to affordA new small-rented lease, and cancel' th' old.In heaven at his manour I him sought:They told me there, that he was lately goneAbout some land, which he had dearly boughtLong since on earth, to take possession.I straight return'd, and knowing his great birth,Sought him accordingly in great resorts;In cities, theatres, gardens, parks, and courts:At length I heard a ragged noise and mirthOf theeves and murderers: there I him espied,Who straight, Your suit is granted, said, & died.Despite its basic dependence upon biblical allegory, this poem appears to reflecttemporal concerns by its depiction of a desperate tenant whose suit is only heardaccidentally at the last moment by an exiled monarch in evil company. But, whileHerbert's poems may imply political meaning, they provide no clear statement ofallegiance. For example, Herbert's portrayal of the royal prerogative in "Redemption"might equally suggest a desperate desire for royal recognition, a criticism of political- 12-patronage, or a plea for greater parliamentary power.The traditional assumption that Herbert's poetry reflects a mild religio-politicalconservatism has recently been challenged. Herbert was long considered to be theretiring Anglo-Catholic priest portrayed in Walton's Life, a staunch upholder of thetraditions of the church and a quiet supporter of the crown.' Recent scholarship hassuggested the contrary view that despite outward conformity, Herbert harbouredPuritan sympathies--a hostility to the traditions of the church and the bishops and kingwho enforced them. But as Higham and Fincham have shown, there were many subtlegradations of political and religious thought in the early seventeenth century. To besure of Herbert's allegiances, we would need the explicit statement of belief that wemight find in a treatise rather than the vague political implications of a poem such as"Redemption."The fourth serious problem which the reader encounters in The Temple is whatSingleton calls "the enigma of the voice." 20 Traditionally, Herbert's poetic voice hasbeen considered to be as impassioned and personal as John Donne's. Such adescription certainly fits the ragged declarations which open "The Collar" ("I stuck theboard, and cry'd, No more. / I will abroad"), and explains the "inner tension" and "anall-pervasive consciousness of the self" which Bush and Patrides identify withHerbert's poetry. Herbert's voice is often characterized as "the private voice of aChristian pilgrim," with God as the primary audience and human readers as thesecondary one, "overhearing" the exchange. Some commentators interpret the lyricsstill more personally, as "representations of the self" or "spiritual autobiography." ButHerbert's voice is not always impassioned and personal.Singleton describes a bewildering variety of voices in The Temple. 21 I would-13-rather say that Herbert has a remarkable ability to vary a single voice which retains itspoise and composure despite the violent emotion it sometimes expresses. For instance,the passionate opening of "Affliction (IV)" recalls the tempests of "The Collar":Broken in pieces all asunder,Lord, hunt me not,A thing forgot,Once a poore creature, now a wonder,A wonder torte d in the spaceBetwixt this world and that of grace.My thoughts are all a case of knives,Wounding my heartWith scattered smart,As watring pots give flowers their lives.Nothing their furie can controll,While they do wound and pink my soul.(11. 1-12)But unlike "The Collar," the urgency of the voice is moderated here by theregularity of the stanzas. Though still in the first person as the poem begins, the voiceof "Affliction (V)" is composed and generalizing:My God, I read this day,That planted Paradise was not so firm,As was and is thy floting Ark; whose stayAnd anchor thou art onely, to confirmAnd strengthen it in ev'ry age,When waves do rise, and tempests rage.Herbert's voice is still more serene and concerned with public matters in poems suchas "Perirrhanterium," "Vertue," and "Prayer (I)" which we have considered already.And a careful study of poems such as "Affliction (V)" reveals the subtle movementfrom the personal ("I") to the public ("we" and "our").^The final problem facingHerbert's readers is the uncertain place of The Temple in literary history. Herbert haslong been considered one of "the school of Donne," an association which is partlybiographical. Walton makes much of the relationship between Donne and the Herbert-14-family, and the literary-historical association was strengthened when Donne andHerbert were jointly "discovered" by Sir Herbert Grierson in this century. 22 GeorgeWilliamson suggested that Herbert was carrying on the sacred side of "the Donnetradition." Joan Bennett described Herbert as a disciple of Donne in her influentialstudy, Five Metaphysical Poets, and T. S. Eliot asserted that "Herbert is closer in spiritto Donne than to any other of the school of Donne."Herbert's poetry certainly owes something to Donne's. Herbert's poem"Death" seems to be patterned on Donne's "Death be not proud," and "The ChurchMilitant" suggests Donne's "Satyre III" as F. E. Hutchinson has observed. As we havejust seen, the voice of "The Collar" is reminiscent of Donne's voice in the Songs and Sonets, and the conceits of "Prayer (I)" rival any of Donne's for colour and ingenuity.Critics rightly praise Herbert for the Donnian qualities of impassioned lyricism,conversational tone and diction, and "an ability to record the moment of experiencewith dramatic immediacy." 23 But Herbert's poetry also has a polish, composure, andself-conscious craftsmanship which recall Ben Jonson's Epigrams and Underwood.There have always been suggestions that Herbert's voice was somewhat publicand his style something like Jonson's. In 1648, George Daniel described Herbert as"Horace in voice"; in 1651, Henry Delaune mentioned Jonson and Herbert together asinfluences; and in 1657, Joshua Poole included Herbert in his neoclassical anthology,The English Parnassus. In this century, Hutchinson has observed certain neoclassicalqualities in Herbert's poetry, such as "coherence, craftsmanship, and ingenuity withoutobscurity." Bush has remarked upon Herbert's "deep classicism: his muscular density,precision, and deceptive simplicity; a concern for subordinating details to an evolving,unified whole." Joseph Summers has drawn our attention to Herbert's affinities with-15-Jonson, and Dick Higgins has described the classical tradition which informs Herbert'spattern poems.The conventional view of a "school of Donne" and a "tribe of Ben" hasoccasionally been challenged. 24 Joseph Summers would rather speak of Herbert as an"heir" of Donne and Jonson, who might emulate some stylistic traits and reject others.Anthony Low has suggested that Herbert is more of a "devotional" than a"metaphysical" poet, although the distinction between the two is not entirely clear.Michael Schoenfeldt has also challenged the literary-historical categories by describingthe interplay of the personal and the public in the rituals of renaissance courtshipwhich he sees in poems such as "Love (III)." Despite these alternative views, Herbertis still generally regarded as a metaphysical poet, so that even those who acknowledgesome of the public qualities of The Temple tend to regard the work primarily as "abook of private devotions."The instinct to provide a context for the lyrics by placing Herbert in a traditionis surely sound. By themselves, the lyrics can neither account for the rich and variedtexture of The Temple nor solve the problems which I have just described. And, sinceindividual poems can be interpreted in conflicting ways, we must turn elsewhere forguidance to valid interpretation. Janis Lull, Stanley Stewart, and ChristopherHodgkins have recently provided essential historical and bibliographic context. 25Janis Lull provides a bibliographical context for The Temple. Lull's study isparticularly important for the question of unity because any cogent argument for unityrests on the recognition of the intentionality which she minutely examines.Without the principle of intention, readers are free to follow Palmer and order thepoems however they see fit. 26 Lull corroborates and extends Amy Charles' earlier-16-study of the Williams manuscipt, and shows in more detail how Herbert ordered thelyrics of "The Church" so that the reader would make a complicated pilgrimage toeventual consolation. Lull shows that Herbert's revisions of the poems in "TheChurch" indicate a move away from the personal to a more universal voice. Shefurther suggests that the poems are designed to train the reader in scripturalinterpretation and to demonstrate submission to God. These conclusions suggest theimportance of The Country Parson in which Herbert fully describes the process ofcommunicating consolation, the proper use of the public voice, and the best way tointerpret scripture and submit one's self to God's will.Stanley Stewart's insights are both historical and bibliographical. He explainsHerbert's connections with the nearby Little Gidding community headed by NicholasFerrar, Herbert's eventual literary executor. Stewart describes the misunderstood highchurch Anglican piety of Little Gidding. He also suggests how the Little Giddingcommunity directly affected the form and content of The Temple, both through itsbiblical Harmonies and its preparation of the Bodleian manuscript. And Stewartchronicles and explains the textual changes which non-conformists made to the poemsof The Temple when they were included in seventeenth century and later hymnals.While I am not convinced that Herbert's religious experience can be so completelyidentified with that of Little Gidding, Stewart provides a much-needed corrective tothe view of Herbert as an extreme protestant.Christopher Hodgkins provides a useful discussion of Herbert's attitude towardcivil and ecclesiastical authority. Hodgkins capably describes the alliance between theCaroline court and the bishops, the "crisis of authority" which resulted from growingpuritan opposition, and Herbert's possible desire to steer a middle course between-17-Puritanism and Laudianism. It is difficult to know which era actually formedHerbert's churchmanship and conception of government: the Elizabethan period of hisyouth, the Jacobean period of his later education and public service, or the Carolineperiod of his pastoral life. But I would certainly affirm Hodgkins' view that we needto consult The Country Parson as well as The Temple to determine the religio-politicalperspective which shapes Herbert's poetry.The Country Parson has not been entirely overlooked in this regard. Althoughsome commentators express reservations about the relevance of Herbert's discussion ofparish life to his poetic art, many tacitly acknowledge the relevance of The Country Parson to The Temple.27 The Country Parson is sometimes mentioned, either asbiographical background or in support of an interpretation of a poem. Louis Martzand John Tobin include The Country Parson in their recent editions of The Temple,which perhaps implies that the prose might help the reader to interpret the verse.More specifically, Helen Vendler mentions that "Herbert rarely forgot in his poetry theadvice he gave to the parson preaching"; and Leah Marcus attributes the plainness ofHerbert's poetry to this advice.Sometimes readers describe the pastoral qualities of The Temple withoutnecessarily identifying them as such or referring to The Country Parson. 28 Forexample, the late John Mulder suggests that Herbert's poetic voice "plays differentparts to suit different stages or occasions," an implicit acknowledgement of therhetorical discernment which Herbert recommends in The Country Parson.  RichardHughes discusses Herbert's "rhetorical world view," and notes that "it certainly doesnot produce a wooden or unoriginal art." Blau suggests that "Herbert thought of 'TheChurch-porch' as a sort of sermon based on practical divinity or casuistry, and that its-18-purpose, like that of all sermons, was to prepare its auditors for the prayers of 'TheChurch." Ostriker describes Herbert's ability to vary his voice to capture hisauditors' ears, just as he creates pictures to capture their eyes; and she rightly assertsthat he does not seek novelty itself, but the ability to appeal to "all sorts andconditions of men." Harman sees that Herbert's poems "consider the ways in whichpersonal stories can be rewritten as biblical stories," implicitly acknowledging thepastor who writes them. Without ascribing them to any pastoral purpose, Bennettnotes Herbert's ability to provide consolation in distress, as well as his "exquisite tact"and "subtle emotional management" in The Temple.In addition to such implicit recognition of Herbert's broadly pastoral style,some commentators have drawn attention to aspects of his poetry which suggest theparticular offices of a priest. 29 Tuve describes liturgical or catechetical influences onthe style of "The Sacrifice," and notes that poems such as "Praise (I)," "Whitsunday,"and "Easter Wings" are "surprisingly more meaningful if read as the utterances ofHerbert not only as 'any Christian' but consciously in his character as priest andpreacher." Diana Benet observes that the poems in The Temple are fundamentallydidactic, differing only in extent, and notes that "the priesthood is in harmony with thepersonality we discern behind The Temple." She further describes the importance ofHerbert's religious vocation to the art of poems such as "Praise (I)" and "ThePriesthood." Stanley Fish sees Chapter 21 of The Country Parson, "The ParsonCatechizing," as a "theoretical context" for poems such as "Jesu" and "Love-joy." AndTerry Sherwood has suggested that the "prayerful art" of The Temple presupposes anart of prayer. Such useful observations deserve to be explored further.The Country Parson provides a detailed consideration of such matters as the art-19-of prayer, yet Herbert's pastoral manual has received little scholarly attention."Although there are numerous reliable modern editions of the poetry, they rarelyinclude the prose. The standard literary histories of the period do not discuss TheCountry Parson at much length. Many of the articles published in the George HerbertJournal mention The Country Parson, but few discuss it in detail. The threeanthologies of Herbert criticism which have emerged in recent years include betweenthem only one essay which directly concerns The Country Parson. Sidney Gottlieb's"Survey of Contemporary Research" (1980) refers only briefly to The Country Parson,and only 63 of the 1453 entries in Roberts' comprehensive Annotated Bibliography ofModern Criticism (1905-1984) refer to The Country Parson at all. Individual poemssuch as "The Altar," "The Sacrifice," and "Love (III)" have received at least as muchattention.While such neglect may be unfortunate, it is understandable. As I suggestedearlier, the differences in the audience and purpose of The Country Parson and TheTemple mask their fundamental similarity in form and content. On the surface, TheCountry Parson does not appear to be of great literary interest. Some connectionbetween Herbert's two principal works may seem so obvious that it does not meritresearch. Also, Izaak Walton has made it difficult to see The Country Parson as atreatise by treating the work as a journal which he freely incorporated into his Life ofHerbert.31 Even so discerning a reader as T. S. Eliot was therefore encouraged to readThe Country Parson simply as an adjunct to Walton's Life, and this remains the usualcritical approach. Hutchinson, for example, assumes that The Country Parson is "forHerbert's own use and an autobiographical document." And Mason, Ellrodt, andBottrall also read The Country Parson essentially as autobiography.-20-The scholarly methods dominant until recently may also have contributed to theneglect of The Country Parson. New criticism trained scholars in the close reading oflyric poetry, a method of interpretation less suited to long discursive poems or prose,and largely unconcerned with the cultural conditions informing the author's purposes.Of course, many new critics employed eclectic methods; still, the influence of newcriticism probably helps to account for the lack of interest in Herbert's long poems, inThe Country Parson, or in their rhetorical strategies.Recent changes in scholarly methods, which have broadened the definition ofliterature and encouraged political analysis, may have contributed to a renewed interestin The Country Parson. During the last two decades, several dissertations have begunto explore the form and content of The Country Parson.' Kollmeier (1976) hassuggested that The Country Parson is a cross between the professional handbook andthe prose character, that it portrays a golden world set apart from contemporary affairs,and that it betrays aristocratic prejudices. Malcolmson (1983) has suggested that TheCountry Parson subverts the courtesy book genre in order to attack the court and tohelp Herbert to fashion a new (priestly) self during his rustication. Wolberg (1987)has argued that The Country Parson is an Anglican response to the advent of puritanpreaching manuals, and that it imitates continental courtesy books. And most recently,Hodgkins has suggested that The Country Parson is a clerical manual for conformingpuritans and is anti-Laudian in form and content. These studies are important, notonly because they acknowledge a definite connection between Herbert's verse andprose, but because they begin to describe the general form of The Country Parson.Yet more work is needed, both to fully describe the genre and style of The Country Parson and to apply Herbert's discussion of clerical life to the problems facing readers-21-of The Temple.My own view is that The Country Parson is the best commentary upon TheTemple and vice versa. Generally speaking, The Country Parson tells us a great dealabout the artistic methods and goals which inform The Temple; conversely, TheTemple helps us to understand the singular structure and style of The Country Parson.This relationship of the works acknowledges both the obvious difference and thesubtle conjunction of the audiences and purposes of The Temple and The Country Parson. The Temple has always attracted clerical readers such as the Wesleys, andThe Country Parson has sometimes attracted laymen such as Izaak Walton. Moreimportantly, it suits Herbert's purpose to slyly instruct readers of The Temple while heoffers aesthetic pleasures, and to aesthetically satisfy the readers of The Country Parson while he instructs them. With Herbert, the concerns of the pastor and the poetare usually mingled.Throughout this study, I assert that Herbert's poetry not only expressespersonal devotion but implies a pastoral effort to instruct readers and draw them intocommunal worship. Occasionally, I suggest that the poetry betrays the specific actionsor concerns of a priest, someone who ceremonially represents man to God and God toman. Although we can date few of his poems with any precision, there is reason tobelieve that Herbert wrote and revised his English poems throughout his adult life, ashis religious vocation developed. 33 The sonnets from Walton's Life of Herbert, theaccompanying letter to Magdalene Herbert (1609), and the poems of the earlyWilliams manuscript suggest that Herbert began writing poetry at Cambridge, longbefore he became an Anglican priest in 1630. But as early as 1617, Herbert speaks ina letter to Sir John Danvers of "setting foot in Divinity to lay the platform of [his]-22-future life." In 1619, Herbert confirms his desire for religious employment despite hisuniversity duties, in another letter to Danvers. mHerbert's nascent pastoral perspective is also evident in his extensivetheological studies, and in the curiously formal advice, consolation, and instructionwhich he offers to his mother in her illness of 1622. By 1624, Herbert had obtainedpermission for ordination to the diaconate, though he deferred his ordination while hewas in parliament. The Temple itself reflects Herbert's progress toward full religiousemployment and his related search for a sincere art of praise, as Diana Benet hasshown.35 But the pastoral concerns and perspective which developed as Herbert wroteand revised his poetry find their fullest expression in The Country Parson and explainmuch of what is otherwise confusing about The Temple.Given this conjunction of pastoral and artistic purposes, why do The Country Parson and The Temple now seem to be such unrelated works? I address this questionin chapter 1 of the present study by attempting to reconstruct the publishing history ofthe works. I suggest that The Country Parson  and The Temple may have been writtenat about the same time and that Herbert may have intended to publish them together,but that The Country Parson  was published nineteen years after The Temple becausedeath, disagreement, and political strife intervened. The prose became associated withthe clerical reforms of the restoration, the poetry with the metaphysical movement andthe Anglicanism of the earlier seventeenth century. Hence the dichotomy betweenpriest and poet, prose and poetry. While the scenario I propose is conjectural, thereare indications that Herbert's first readers saw more compatibility between TheI^,7Temple and The Country Parson than modern readers do. Attempting to put myself inthe place of Herbert's first readers, I describe various similarities in the form, content,-23-and method of the two works. For example, the same imagery, tone, and speechpatterns are found in both The Country Parson and The Temple. Both works minutelydescribe the life of faith and appropriate attitudes and methods of worship. Bothworks are also organized in a similar loose and allusive manner, and are best read bythe method of "diligent collation" which Herbert describes in The Country Parson.Chapters 2 and 3 represent the core of my original research. Here, I considerThe Country Parson itself, as a preliminary to its critical application. In chapter 2, Iexamine the distinctive form of The Country Parson. Previous research has suggestedthat The Country Parson belongs in the genre of either the courtesy book, theprofessional handbook, or the prose character. I argue that Herbert clearly intended towrite a clerical manual: a work in the ancient tradition of writings by senior clergy toinstruct their inexperienced brethren in clerical duties and conduct. Because the genreprescribed no set form, I suggest that Herbert was free to draw upon various kinds ofrenaissance prose, including not only the courtesy book, the professional handbook,and the prose character, but also the etiquette book, the essay, and the moral resolve.(Appendix I describes these kinds of renaissance prose, as well as the tradition ofpatristic, medieval, and reformation clerical manuals.) Herbert's blending of variouskinds of renaissance prose explains the distinctive form of The Country Parson anddraws our attention to an eclectic attitude to literary tradition which also shapes TheTemple.In chapter 3, I undertake the first thorough analysis of the style of The Country Parson. Previous commentators have usually described Herbert's prose style as"Senecan" and have sometimes suggested the influence of Donne, Bacon, or Sidney.But the style of The Country Parson, like that of The Temple, is not the result of a-24-single literary fashion, much less the influence of a single author. My analysis ofHerbert's diction, syntax, and figurative language reveals that the style of The Country Parson, like that of The Temple, is variable and rhetorically controlled. The prose--like the poetry--is not well served by the conventional literary historical categories.The style of The Country Parson may be described loosely as a compromise betweenthe curt "Senecan" and the ornate "Ciceronian" styles. But we come closer toHerbert's purposes by describing the style of The Country Parson as "poetic" or"Anglican." For Herbert seeks to convey in a poetic manner the experience of whathe describes, in order to prepare his readers for the rigors of rural parish life. AndHerbert reproduces the speech patterns and phrases of The Book of Common Prayerbecause he wishes to instill a sense of both the beauty and utility of Anglican ritual.(Appendix II and III discuss respectively the dubious distinction between Ciceronianand Senecan prose, and the slight possible influence of Sir Philip Sidney's Apology for Poetry (1595), Sir Francis Bacon's The Advancement of Learning  (1605), and JohnDonne's Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions  (1624).)Chapter 4 begins to address directly the problems facing the readership of TheTemple by describing Herbert's Anglicanism, as it is revealed in The Country Parson.This chapter is crucial, for it reveals Herbert's habit of mind which comprehends andmoderates the truth represented in opposite extremes. Such a process ofcomprehension informs both the implied religious and political views of The Temple,and explains the opposing opinions of Herbert's many insightful commentators.Specifically, I suggest that Herbert's religious life was both "protestant" and"catholic," but moderately so. In my view, The Country Parson describes a reformedcatholicism which is typical of the "classical period" of Anglicanism from Richard-25-Hooker (1554-1600) to Jeremy Taylor (1613-1667). The spirituality of this tradition isbest understood, not in terms of doctrinal distinctions and ecclesiastical parties but interms of a shared experience of the liturgy, a common attitude to the Christian life,and a characteristic approach to religious questions. Herbert's classical Anglicanspirituality -- as it is described in The Country Parson -- is not as radical,introspective, ascetic, or retiring as many critics of the poems contend. On thecontrary, Herbert advocates a willing conformity to church discipline and a respect forcivil authority, together with a joyful participation in all aspects of human life.Chapter 5 addresses the remaining problems typically encountered by thereadership of The Temple: its apparent lack of unity, its variable voice, and its placein literary history. With respect to the problem of unity, I suggest that Herbert'spastoral persona, purposes, and methods contribute to the continuity of The Temple.Specifically, I argue that the three sections of The Temple are connected by the poeticvoice's persistent efforts to "rhyme us to good," and that the discursive, lyric, andnarrative modes which give the sections their characteristic forms correspond to themethods and goals of catechism, worship, and preaching in The Country Parson. Isuggest that the perplexing order of the poems in "The Church" may reflect Herbert'sdesire to model Christianity for his readers as he did for his parishioners. And Idescribe how the complexity and obscurity of individual poems is limited by strategiesthat promote the clear and persuasive communication which Herbert advocates in TheCountry Parson.I also explain how Herbert's discussion of the parson's voice and methodsmight help to resolve the related problems of Herbert's poetic voice and place inliterary history. Although many modern readers think of the religious lyric as a-26-private mode of expression, I describe a range of poems in The Temple whose voiceand concerns are more or less public or private. Often, apparently urgent andspontaneous personal effusions subtly lead the reader into shared experience andgeneral reflections, as in "Affliction (V)." Such rhetorical finesse recalls The CountryParson which describes the public art of controlled passion and calculated disclosure,and the need to minister differently to different people.Finally, I address the problem of Herbert's uncertain place in literary history.The fact that Herbert's voice may be simultaneously as urgent and personal asDonne's and as composed and public as Jonson's partly explains the difficulty offitting The Temple into the conventional scheme of literary history. I describe further"metaphysical" and "neoclassical" attributes of Herbert's poetry. But I also suggestthat Herbert's poetic method appears to look back to the Elizabethan period andforward to the restoration and eighteenth century. The Country Parson draws ourattention to a preoccupation with public concerns, rhetorical goals, and courtlyentertainments which suggest an affinity with the poetic practice advocated byPuttenham, Gascoigne, and Sidney in the sixteenth century. On the other hand,Herbert's use of rhyming couplets and verse satire anticipates the style of Dryden andPope.-27-NOTES: INTRODUCTIONFor discussion of the modern aversion to "The Church Porch," see C. A.Patrides, ed., The English Poems of George Herbert  (London: Dent, 1974), 15, andJoseph H. Summers, The Heirs of Donne and Jonson (New York: Oxford UniversityPress, 1970), 89. All quotations from Herbert's works are taken from the edition of F.E. Hutchinson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1941) and will be indicated parentheticallyby page or line number. (CP = The Country Parson).2 Martz describes "The Church Militant" as an "appendix" to "The Church"and Patrides discusses the critical tendency to feel that "The Church Militant" does notbelong with the rest of The Temple. See Louis L. Martz, The Poetry of Meditation: AStudy in English Religious Literature of the Seventeenth Century (New Haven: YaleUniversity Press, 1962), and Patrides above.3 In the early Williams manuscript, five blank pages separate "The Church"and "The Church Militant"; in the later Bodleian manuscript, the sections are separatedby one blank page. Fish exaggerates the importance of this problem, as he argues forthe indeterminacy of the text. See F. E. Hutchinson, The Works of George Herbert,textual notes 190, and Stanley Fish, The Living Temple: George Herbert and Catechizing (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), 9-10.4 See D.G.B. Tye, "The Unity of George Herbert's The Temple," (Ph.D. dins.,University of Lancaster, 1975), 184; Valerie Carnes, "The Unity of George Herbert'sThe Temple: A Reconsideration," Essential Articles for the Study of George Herbert's Poetry, ed., John R. Roberts (Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1979), 375; Annabel M.Endicott-Patterson, "The Structure of George Herbert's The Temple: AReconsideration," Essential Articles, 351-52; Elizabeth Stambler, "The Unity ofHerbert's Temple," Essential Articles, 329-331; Barbara Kiefer Lewalski, Protestant Poetics and the Seventeenth-Century Religious Lyric (Princeton: Princeton UniversityPress, 1979), 290-305; Terry Sherwood, Herbert's Prayerful Art (Toronto: Universityof Toronto Press, 1989), 144; C.A. Patrides, The English Poems of George Herbert,18; Louis L. Martz, The Poetry of Meditation, 289-290, and Stanley Stewart, George Herbert (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1986), 88.5 Singleton suggests that The Temple "resists interpretations of coherence";Martz takes the opposite view, that "The Church" demonstrates the complex pattern ofthe Christian life described in "H. Scripture (II)"; Summers states that "instead ofbeing 'about religion,' the poems [in "The Church") are the reflections and creationsof a religious life." See Marion White Singleton, God's Courtier: Configuring aDifferent Grace in George Herbert's Temple  (New York: Cambridge University Press,1987), 1; Louis L. Martz, The Poetry of Meditation,  296, and Joseph H. Summers, TheHeirs of Donne and Jonson, 97.6 Fish, Harman, and Schoenfeldt describe respectively "self-consumingartifacts," "collapsing poems," and "deeply unstable utterances"; likewise, Singleton-28-describes "a continually rewritten text" and "configurations of entanglement."However, Patrides observes that in the seventeenth century, many of Herbert's poemswere sung as hymns and that "Perirrhanterium" was taught to school children andbecame so popular that it became proverbial. Stewart also discusses Herbert's poemsas hymns, but notes that the words were sometimes changed. See Stanley Fish, Self-Consuming Artifacts: the Experience of Seventeenth-Century Literature (Berkeley:University of California Press, 1970); Barbara L. Harman, Costly Monuments: Representations of the Self in George Herbert's Poetry  (Cambridge: HarvardUniversity Press, 1982); Michael Schoenfeldt, Prayer and Power: George Herbert and Renaissance Courtship (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991); Marion WhiteSingleton, God's Courtier; C. A. Patrides, ed., George Herbert: The Critical Heritage (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1983), 6-7, 12, and Stanley Stewart, George Herbert.' Although the voice apparently bids enchanting and embroidered languagefarewell in "The Forerunners" (9-11), his concluding salutation expresses reservation("If you go...").^"Wits" are left to contest with one another while the voice letshis invention rest in "The Posie," yet the posie is itself a subtle double-entendre ("Lessthen the least / Of all Gods mercies, is my posie still"). "Trinity Sunday" seems tooffer a straightforward denunciation of wit (8-10), but Herbert excludes "TrinitySunday" from his final manuscript of The Temple.8 See Izaak Walton, "The Life of Mr. George Herbert," Walton's Lives, ed.,A. H. Bullen (London: George Bell, 1884), 318. Summers' description of Herbert'suse of "heiroglyphs" draws upon the notion of "pictures of spiritual struggle." SeeJoseph H. Summers, George Herbert: His Religion and Art (Cambridge: HarvardUniversity Press, 1954).9 See Heather Asals, Equivocal Predication: George Herbert's Way to God (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981); Richard Todd, The Opacity of Signs: Acts of Interpretation in George Herbert's "The Temple" (Columbia: University ofMissouri Press, 1986); William H. Pahlka, Saint Augustine's Meter and George Herbert's Will (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1987); Elizabeth Cook,Seeing Through Words: The Scope of Late Renaissance Poetry  (New Haven: YaleUniversity Press, 1986); Martin Elsky, Authorizing Words: Speech, Writing, and Printin the English Renaissance (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989).1° See note 8 above. I discuss these passages from Walton's Life in chapter 1.11 See Joseph H. Summers, George Herbert: His Religion and Art, 11 andGene Veith, "The Religious Wars in George Herbert Criticism: ReinterpretingSeventeenth-Century Anglicanism," George Herbert Journal,  11 (1988): 19-37.12 See Rosemond Tuve, A Reading of George Herbert (Chicago: University ofChicago Press, 1952; rept. 1982), 24, 136-38; Louis L. Martz, The Poetry ofMeditation, 2nd ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962), 3, 10, 148; A. L.Clements, "Theme, Tone, and Tradition in George Herbert's Poetry," Essential Articles -29-for the Study of George Herbert's Poetry, ed., John R. Roberts, 34; Margaret Bottrall,George Herbert (London: John Murray, 1954), 83, 90.13 See William W. Halewood, The Poetry of Grace: Reformation Themes and Structures in English Seventeenth-Century Poetry  (New Haven: Yale University Press,1970); Richard Strier, Love Known: Theology and Experience in George Herbert's Poetry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983); Gene Veith, Jr., Reformation Spirituality: The Religion of George Herbert  (Cranbury, N.J.: Associated UniversityPresses, 1985); Barbara K. Lewalski, Protestant Poetics and the Seventeenth-Century Religious Lyric (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979).14 Wiam Halewood, The Poetry of Grace, 89-90, 96, 102, 110-111; RichardStrier, Love Known, 175, 206, 217; Gene Veith, Reformation Spirituality, 35; StanleyStewart, George Herbert, 80; Rosemond Tuve, A Reading of George Herbert (Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1952; rept. 1982), 24, 136-138; Louis Martz, The Poetry of Meditation, 3, 10, 148; A. L. Clements, "Theme, Tone, and Tradition in GeorgeHerbert's Poetry," Essential Articles, 34; Margaret Bottrall, George Herbert (London:John Murray, 1954), 83, 90.15 Lewalski and others feel that "The Water-course" proves Herbert's belief indouble-predestination, and that he was therefore an extreme Calvinist. Yet thestatement that "God Salvation gives to man, as he sees fit {Salvation" (1. 10)Damnationmerely indicates that God is man's judge, not that man is predestined to heaven orhell. The conceit is partly controlled by rhyme and may be meant to suggest theshape of a waterfall. In the context of the earlier "Baptisme" poems, the waterimagery of "The Water-course" might imply the mystical washing away of sin duringbaptism. See Barbara K. Lewalski, Protestant Poetics and the Seventeenth-Century Religious Lyric, 4, 25, 286, and Gene Veith, Reformation Spirituality. Conversely,Stewart offers "To all Angels and Saints" and "Anagram" as proof of Herbert'sextreme catholicism. See Stanley Stewart, George Herbert, 76-79.16 The stridency of "The British Church" is the exception to the rule, asHerbert's most perceptive critics have realized. See Helen C. White, The Metaphysical Poets: a Study in Religious Experience  (New York: AMS Press, 1936; rept. 1956),166; Diana Benet, Secretary of Praise: The Poetic Vocation of George Herbert,  15;Mark Taylor, The Soul in Paraphrase: George Herbert's Poetics  (The Hague: Mouton,1974), 117.17 See Michael Schoenfeldt, Prayer and Power: George Herbert and Renaissance Courtship (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991) and MarionWhite Singleton, God's Courtier: Configuring a Different Grace in George Herbert's `Temple' (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987).18 Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church, and Society in the Works ofGeorge Herbert" (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1988), 1. The contrary view,that Herbert is a conforming Puritan is put forth by Doerksen, Malcolmson, and Veith.See Daniel W. Doerkson, "Too Good for Those Times': Politics and the Publication-30-See Daniel W. Doerkson, "'Too Good for Those Times': Politics and the Publicationof George Herbert's The Country Parson," Seventeenth Century News  49 (1-2): 10-13and Christina Malcomson, "Society and Self-Definition in the Works of GeorgeHerbert," (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1983).19 See Florence Higham, Catholic and Reformed: A Study of the Anglican Church 1559-1662 (London: SPCK, 1962) and Kenneth Fincham, Prelate as Pastor: theEpiscopate of James I (Oxford: Clarendon, 1990).20 Marion White Singleton, God's Courtier: Configuring a Different Grace in George Herbert's 'Temple,' 1; Terry Sherwood describes the sense of a conversationoverheard in Herbert's poetry; see his Herbert's Prayerful Art (Toronto: University ofToronto Press, 1989), 30-31.21 See Marion Singleton, God's Courtier, 30, and Sharon C. Seelig, TheShadow of Eternity: Belief and Structure in Herbert, Vaughan, and Traherne (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1981). L.D. Needs sets out to solve theconfusion of voices, but describes a confusing multiplicity of voices herself. See"Proving one God, one Harmonie': The Persona of George Herbert's The Temple andits Poetic Legacy," (Ph.D. diss., University of York, 1983), 1, 4, 8.22 See H. J. C. Grierson, ed., Metaphysical Lyrics and Poems of the Seventeenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon, 1921), George Williamson, The Donne Tradition: A Study in English Poetry From Donne to the Death of Cowley(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1930), Joan Bennett, Five Metaphysical Poets 3rd ed. (Cambridge, 1964), vii; T.S. Eliot, George Herbert (London House: LongmansGreen, 1962), 29.23 See C.A. Patrides, ed., George Herbert: The Critical Heritage  (London:Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1983), 7; Douglas Bush, English Literature in the Early Seventeenth Century, 1600-1660, Oxford History of English Literature 5, 2nd ed. rev.(New York: Oxford University Press, 1962), 144-45; F.E. Hutchinson, ed., The Works of George Herbert, xlix; Joseph Summers, The Heirs of Donne and Jonson,  15, 89-93;Dick Higgins, George Herbert's Pattern Poems in Their Tradition  (New York:Unpublished Editions, 1977).24 See Joseph Summers, The Heirs of Donne and Jonson, 15; Anthony Low,"Metaphysical and Devotional Poets," George Herbert and the Seventeenth-Century Religious Poets, ed., Mario A. Di Cesare, 221-232; Michael Shoenfeldt, Prayer and Power, 12-13.25 See Janis Lull, The Poem in Time: Reading George Herbert's Revisions of"The Church" (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1990), Stanley Stewart, George Herbert (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1986), and Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church,and Society in the Works of George Herbert" (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago,1988).-31-26 Palmer is notorious as an editor of Herbert's works for rearranging thepoems in The Temple to create a pessimistic pseudobiography. See George HerbertPalmer, ed., The English Works of George Herbert, 3 vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin,1905).27 For such reservations, see Heather Asals, Equivocal Predication: George Herbert's Way to God, 13-14; Sidney Gottlieb, "George Herbert Today: A Survey ofContemporary Research," Cahiers Elisabethains: Etudes sur la Pre-Renaissance et la Renaissance Anglaises 18 (1980): 39; C.A. Patrides, The English Poems of George Herbert, 10, 13; Helen Vendler, The Poetry of George Herbert  (Cambridge: HarvardUniversity Press, 1975), 2. See also, Louis L. Martz, ed., George Herbert and Henry Vaughan (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), John Tobin, ed., The CompleteEnglish Poems (London: Penguin, 1991), and Leah Marcus, "George Herbert and theAnglican Plain Style," 'Too Rich to Clothe the Sunne': Essays on George Herbert,  ed.,Claude Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press,1980), 181.28 John R. Mulder, "The Temple as Picture," 'Too Rich to Clothe the Sunne',3-4; Richard Hughes, "George Herbert's Rhetorical World," Essential Articles, 113;Sheridan D. Blau, "The Poet as Casuist: Herbert's 'Church-Porch'," 415; AliciaOstriker, "Song and Speech in The Metrics of George Herbert," Essential Articles,300-301, 303, 306-309; Barbara Leah Harman, Costly Monuments: Representations ofthe Self in George Herbert's Poetry,  35-36; Joan Bennett, Five Metaphysical Poets, 60-61, 65, 68.29 See Rosemond Tuve, A Reading of George Herbert, 25, 37, 151, 157, 190;Diana Benet, Secretary of Praise: The Poetic Vocation of George Herbert,  3, 32, 34-36, chap. 9; Stanley Fish, The Living Temple, 14.; Terry Sherwood, Herbert's Prayerful Art, 4.3o ^Edmund Miller and Robert Di Yanni, eds. 'Like Season'd Timber': New Essays on George Herbert  (New York: Peter Lang, 1987), John R. Roberts, ed.,Essential Articles for the Study of George Herbert's Poetry  (1979), Claude Summersand Ted-Larry Pebworth, 'Too Rich to Clothe the Sunne': Essays on George Herbert(1980), Sidney Gottlieb, "George Herbert Today--A Survey of ContemporaryResearch," Cahiers Elisabethains: Etudes sur la Pre Renaissance et la Renaissance Anglaises 8 (1980):29-41, John R. Roberts, ed., George Herbert: An Annotated Bibliography of Modern Criticism, 1905-1984, 2nd ed. rev. (Columbia: University ofMissouri Press, 1984).31 See T.S. Eliot, George Herbert, 14; F.E. Hutchinson, ed., The Works ofGeorge Herbert, xxxvi-xxxviii; Kenneth Mason, George Herbert Priest and Poet (Oxford: SLG Press, 1980), 9; Robert Ellrodt, "George Herbert and the ReligiousLyric, "Essential Articles," 4; Margaret Bottrall, George Herbert, 76, 79.32 See Harold H. Kollmeier, "'A Mark to Aim At': Genre and Sensibility inGeorge Herbert's The Country Parson" (Ph.D. disc., State University of New York,-32-Stony Brook, 1976), Cristina Malcolmson, "Society and Self-Definition in the Worksof George Herbert" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1983), KristineA. Wolberg, "'All Possible Art': George Herbert's The Country Parson" (Ph.D. diss.,Notre Dame University, 1987), Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church, and Societyin the Works of George Herbert" (Ph.d. diss., University of Chicago, 1988; nowpublished as a book under the same title).33 As Lull observes, we can only infer the history of the transmission ofHerbert's poems from his own hand to the printer. But whether Herbert wrote andrevised the balance of The Temple at Wiltshire (as Charles thinks), or at Bemerton (asHutchinson thinks), Herbert was ordained deacon or priest and engaged in pastoralduties at the time of his greatest poetic activity. See F. E. Hutchinson, ed., The Works of George Herbert, xxvi-xxxviii; Amy Charles, A Life of George Herbert (Ithaca:Cornell University Press, 1977), 82, 127, 138, 159; Janis Lull, The Poem in Time, 11.This evidence will be considered at length in chapter 1.34 For the sonnets from Walton's Life and the various letters I refer to, seeF. E. Hutchinson, ed., The Works, 206-207, 369-374.35 See Diana Benet, Secretary of Praise: The Poetic Vocation of George Herbert (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1984), especially chapters 4 and 5.-33-CHAPTER 1: THE ACCIDENTAL SEPARATIONOF THE COUNTRY PARSON AND THE TEMPLE "The Country Parson is, of course, thebook by which Herbert is best known."--Anonymous (1862)Most twentieth-century readers understandably regard The Temple as Herbert'sreally important work, the crown of his literary achievement. The Country Parson seems comparatively unimportant, a brief autobiographical reflection inspired byHerbert's professional activity. But, as the first part of this chapter suggests, thecomposition and publishing history of the works tells a different story. Herbertapparently considered The Country Parson to be at least as important as The Temple,and may have regarded the works as companionpieces. There is reason to believe thatThe Temple and The Country Parson  were composed together and intended for jointpublication. My reconstruction of the events leading up to and immediately followingHerbert's death in 1633 suggests that The Country Parson only came to be publishednineteen years after The Temple because of strange circumstances outside Herbert'scontrol. Some of Herbert's first readers and editors seem to have noticed therelationship between The Country Parson and The Temple. But once the works were.^.physically separated, they remained separate in the minds of many readers, and thedissociation of the works only increased with time. Since both of the "little books"which Walton mentions have been lost, we cannot be absolutely sure of eitherHerbert's purposes or the events of his last days. But whatever Herbert intended, thesecond part of this chapter suggests that The Country Parson and The Temple areintimately related, both in form and content. Indeed, Herbert's principal works may be-34-thought of as a long and happily married couple whose identity and character are sointerwoven that the one really cannot be properly appreciated without the other.The Country Parson, like The Temple, has always been subject to thebiographical fallacy.' Until recently, most commentators assumed that, in the words ofF. E. Hutchinson, The Country Parson was "autobiographical and intended forHerbert's own use." Even recent commentators, who are preoccupied with the socialconcerns addressed in The Country Parson, tend to over-emphasize Herbert's personalobjectives of professional development and "self-fashioning." The assumption thatThe Country Parson is mainly a diary or private rule of life may derive from a naivereading of Izaak Walton's Life of Herbert (1665). According to Walton, Herbert madecertain resolutions during his induction to St. Andrew's church at Bemerton:...his friend Mr. Woodnot [Arthur Woodnoth] looked in at the churchwindow, and saw him lie prostrate on the ground before the altar; atwhich time and place--as he after told Mr. Woodnot--he set some rulesto himself, for the future management of his life; and then and theremade a vow to keep them. 2Sometime later, so that "time might not insensibly blot them out of his memory,"Walton says that Herbert "set down his rules, then resolved upon, in that order as theworld now sees them printed in a little book called 'The Country Parson" (298).Walton describes The Country Parson as a book of rules, and uses The Country Parson as a source for his Life.' But we need not blur the distinction between Herbert's lifeand writing because Walton did; nor should we regard The Country Parson merely asa personal rule of life, for Herbert makes his larger purpose clear.In his preface to The Country Parson ("The Author to the Reader"), Herbertstates that although he has "resolved to set down the form and character of a truepastor that [he] may have a mark to aim at," he also intends his treatise for others:-35-The Lord prosper the intention to my selfe, and others, who may notdespise my poor labours, but add to those points, which I haveobserved, untill the Book grow to a compleat Pastorall. (p. 224)In the first two chapters of The Country Parson, Herbert declares his intention toaddress all Church of England priests, whether they are found in universities, noblehouses, or country cures. In his preface to the first edition, Barnabas Oley emphasizes"the great profit" of The Country Parson to "the clergy reader." 4 And Walton himselfelaborates Oley's recommendation, describing The Country Parson as "a book so fullof plain, prudent, and useful rules that the Country Parson that can spare twelve pence,and yet wants it, is scarce excusable; because it will both direct him what he ought todo, and convince him for not having done it" (p. 262). To assume that The Country Parson was strictly for Herbert's own use is to overlook both the more important halfof Herbert's stated intention and the testimony of Oley and Walton.Much of The Temple was probably composed at about the same time as TheCountry Parson. As we have already seen, Herbert's letters suggest that he began tocompose The Temple as early as 1614, while he was still at Cambridge. 5 "TheChurch-porch" may be the earliest poem, perhaps written with his younger brotherHenry in mind; "The Collar" and "The Church Militant" may have been written shortlyafter. But these early beginnings should not obscure the fact that most of the poemsin The Temple were composed, and many were revised, later on.According to Amy Charles, Herbert probably wrote English poems throughoutmost of his adult life. 6 Although individual poems cannot be dated with muchaccuracy, the early Williams manuscript contains only 70 of the 160 poems includedin the later Bodleian manuscript and the first edition.' F. E. Hutchinson, who hassifted the textual evidence most extensively, believes that Herbert revised many of his-36-earlier poems and wrote most of his later ones while he was at Bemerton. 8 IfHutchinson is correct, then The Temple and The Country Parson were definitelycomposed together, for The Country Parson was undoubtedly written at Bemertonduring the last few years of Herbert's life. Herbert's preface to The Country Parson bears his name and the year 1632, the year before his death and the posthumouspublication of The Temple. 9 If the two works were composed at the same time, onewould naturally expect The Country Parson and The Temple to share some aspects ofstyle and theme, as indeed they do.Amy Charles suggests that Herbert wrote many of his poems in the periodbetween Cambridge and Bemerton. But Charles bases her assumption on the hecticlife which Herbert supposedly led at Bemerton: hence, she states that Herbertcomposed the balance of his poetry during "the last uninterrupted leisure he wouldknow.' Herbert certainly did expend himself for his congregation at Bemerton;however, we should not conclude either that Herbert enjoyed no leisure at Bemerton,or that he could not write poetry amid the bustle of parish life. Despite the devotionto duty which Herbert advocates in The Country Parson, his essential duties wouldhave been more circumscribed than those of a modern parish priest. Herbert probablyhad no more than 300 parishioners to attend, and he had a curate and a wife to assisthim with his parish duties!' Herbert had always been able to write creatively despitethe demands of public and professional life, and much of his poetry obviously arisesfrom the routine of parish life: daily offices, sermons, the eucharist, and the feasts andseasons of the church calendar.But whether The Country Parson was written just after The Temple or alongwith it is something of a moot point. We can expect the works to illuminate one-37-another because they were written at about the same time and probably reflect similarconcerns. As I suggested earlier, Herbert's pastoral perspective was evident even atCambridge. As Hutchinson and Charles observe, Herbert wrote most of his poemswhile he was either a deacon or a priest. So it is only reasonable to assume that TheTemple might relfect Herbert's pastoral purposes, despite its general audience andaesthetic delights.Herbert's famous deathbed remarks to Edmond Duncon, which I alluded toearlier, emphasize Herbert's pastoral intention. Although critics usually quoteHerbert's remarks to Duncon as proof that Herbert's poems are personal utterances,such an inference is not really warranted. According to Walton, Duncon (aneighbouring priest) visited Herbert about three weeks before Herbert died, and wassurprised to note Herbert's deteriorating physical condition. Herbert asked Duncon toconvey The Temple manuscript to Ferrar, saying:'Sir, I pray deliver this little book to my dear brother Ferrar, and tellhim, he shall find in it a picture of the many spiritual conflicts that havepassed betwixt God and my soul, before I could subject mine to the willof Jesus my Master: in whose service I have now found perfectfreedom. Desire him to read it; and then, if he can think it may turn tothe advantage of any dejected poor soul: let it be made public; if not,let him burn it; for I and it are less than the least of God's mercies.'There is little reason to doubt Walton's account of this transaction, for Walton reliesupon Duncon's testimony and writes during Duncon's lifetime, and because Walton'sstatement is corroborated by a letter written by John Ferrar (Nicholas's son)." Herbertapparently appoints Nicholas Ferrar as a sort of literary executor, and describes hispoems as a "picture of [his] spiritual conflicts." But Herbert also instructs Ferrar to letthe pastoral value of The Temple determine its literary merit. "If he can think it mayturn to the advantage of any dejected poor soul, let it be made public; if not, let him-38-burn it."Although the second half of Herbert's statement is rarely mentioned, it calls fora virtual reversal of current assumptions about The Temple. We are prompted toconsider the public meaning and importance of Herbert's private utterances. We arealso called to reconsider the pre-eminence which we have accorded The Temple in theHerbert canon, for Herbert evidently considered The Country Parson to be at least asimportant as The Temple. It is difficult now to know whether Herbert valued TheCountry Parson for its literary merit, for its practical utility, or both. Still, the prefaceto The Country Parson  asserts the value of the prose without the (albeit ritual)hesitation of the dedication of The Temple; and the tone of The Country Parson issometimes confident to the point of stridency. If anything, Herbert was moreconcerned to publish his pastoral treatise than his poetry, for he commends his book ofpoems to Duncon almost as an afterthought. Yet The Temple went to press withinmonths of Herbert's death in 1633, while The Country Parson was only published in1651 -after a hiatus of nineteen years. This curious turn of events deserves someexplanation.Walton mentions two "little books." Judging by subsequent events, these bookswere probably manuscripts of the works we know as The Temple and The Country Parson. Walton's identical terms suggest the compatibility of The Temple and TheCountry Parson: that in their original form, they were similar in format, andcomplementary in content. What happened to these two little books after Herbert'sdeath is a tangled story.The book of poetry described by Walton cannot be the Bodleian manuscript forseveral reasons. The Bodleian manuscript is in folio (hardly a "little" book), it is-39-written in a Little Gidding hand, and it bears the inscription: "The original of Mr.George Herbert's Temple, as it was first licenced for the press." 14 According toHutchinson and Charles, the original little book of poems was probably taken byDuncon to Little Gidding, where it was copied by Ferrar's daughters (under hissupervision) to produce what we know as the Bodleian manuscript. Ferrar then tookthis manuscript to Cambridge for licensing and printing. Hence, Hutchinson bases hisedition of The Temple on the Bodleian manuscript textually, although he relies on thefirst edition for layout and incidentals. I5 The transmission of the second "little book"is less clear. Walton states that...this book [The Country Parson] fell into the hands of [Herbert's]friend Mr. Woodnot; and he commended it into the trusty hands of Mr.Barnabas Oley, who published it with a most conscientious andexcellent preface; from which I have had some of those truths, that arerelated in this life of Mr. Herbert. (298)Oley did take The Country Parson to the printer and added a preface, but not until1652. The question is, what happened to The Country Parson during the nineteenyears between Herbert's death and its eventual publication?Walton's assertion that Woodnoth gave the book to Oley is somewhatquestionable. Arthur Woodnoth, a business agent of the Herberts and Ferrars, wasstaying at Bemerton rectory during the last weeks of Herbert's life. 16 As the executorof Herbert's will, he may have received The Country Parson then or sometimepreviously. However, in the preface to the second (1671) edition of The Country Parson, Oley states that it was Duncon, not Woodnoth, who took The Country Parson to the stationer for printing. One would expect Oley to remember from whom he hadreceived The Country Parson, though Walton did not alter his statement in 1674-1675reissues of his Life of Herbert!'-40-This conflicting testimony might be explained in several ways. First of all,Walton's language is more figurative than literal. Walton only says that The Country Parson "fell into the hands of [Herbert's] friend Mr. Woodnot": he does not say howor when Woodnoth received the book. Herbert may have given The Country Parson to Woodnoth directly. Herbert may have given both The Country Parson and TheTemple to Duncon at the same time. Or Woodnoth may have left The Country Parson to Duncon when he died in 1650. Let us briefly consider each possibility.Herbert could have given The Country Parson to Woodnoth anytime betweenits completion in 1632 and his death in 1633. We know that Woodnoth stayed in theBemerton rectory with the Herberts, during the last three weeks of Herbert's life whenHerbert ordered his last affairs. Herbert had just given Duncon his little book ofpoetry. Walton's death bed tableau indicates that Herbert sent his wife and nieces intothe next room because they were "weeping to an extremity," leaving only "Mr.Bostock" (Herbert's lawyer) and Woodnoth at Herbert's bedside (322). With Bostockas witness, Herbert gave his Will to Woodnoth, his executor, with instructions for thecare of his wife and nieces. Perhaps Herbert also gave The Country Parson toWoodnoth at that moment. If so, Herbert's widow would have been left out of thetransaction, but Woodnoth would have considered it a sacred trust, and wouldprobably have resented any interference. Such circumstances would account forsubsequent events.Perhaps Walton is simply mistaken in detail. As Hutchinson suggests, Dunconmay well have received both little books at the same time." Such an eventuality iscertainly consistent with Herbert's characteristic thoroughness and tidiness. If he didgive both books to Duncon at the same time, Herbert clearly intended to publish The-41-Country Parson and The Temple together, perhaps as companion-pieces in one volumelike Robert Herrick's Hesperides and Noble Numbers (1648). Such an arrangementwould imply that The Country Parson and The Temple were compatible: that theirdifferent concerns, styles, purposes, and audiences somehow converged.Finally, Duncon may have received The Country Parson indirectly fromWoodnoth. Daniel Doerksen considers this possibility "closer to the truth" than thesupposition that Duncon received The Country Parson directly from Herbert. But theletter which Doerksen offers as evidence is not as conclusive as he believes it to be,for it merely states that "Mr. George Herbert...left a booke stiled [the] CountryParson: [which] his Executor Mr. Woodnoth...was desirous (according to the authorspurpose) to get printed, but for a while wanted [Herbert's widow's] consent."' Theletter provides further proof that The Country Parson did "fall into the hands ofHerbert's friend Mr. Woodnoth"; but like Walton's Life, the letter does not say how orwhen.Nonetheless, the letter which Doerkson discusses is important. For althoughthe efforts of his agents to publish The Country Parson at the same time as TheTemple implies Herbert's intention to do so and Herbert's conception of the works ascompanion-pieces, the letter provides direct testimony about Herbert's intention.Woodnoth was trying to have The Country Parson published "according to the author'spurpose." The letter also suggests that Woodnoth's efforts caused contention amongthose involved, because "for a while" Woodnoth "wanted the consent of [Herbert'swidow]" to publish The Country Parson. Such contention certainly became evident inthe 1630s.Amy Charles's carefully researched portrait of Woodnoth suggests that he was-42-probably a difficult person to deal with. Although he was a successful goldsmith, hebecame tired of trade, yet maintained a shop. Although he contemplated thepriesthood, he did not take holy orders. Although he managed the business affairs ofHerbert's stepfather, Woodnoth was unsatisfied with the result. Although he declinedto manage Herbert's affairs, Woodnoth agreed to act as his executor. And although heacted as a sort of purchasing-forwarding agent for Ferrar's religious community atLittle Gidding, Woodnoth did not live in community, despite his close familyconnection. One has the sense of divided loyalties, of someone likely to be capriciousand easily nettled. Not the ideal executor, perhaps, but one imagines that Herbert--apastor even on his death bed--was offering his weaker friend a last mark ofencouragement and regard.Charles thinks it likely that Herbert gave Woodnoth instructions about thedisposition of his writings. As the executor of Herbert's estate, Woodnoth would havefelt a proprietary interest in the publication of all Herbert's works; yet Ferrar hadpossession of The Temple, and considered himself Herbert's literary executor.According to Doerksen, while Ferrar was seeing to the publication of the poems inCambridge, Woodnoth was probably making parallel arrangements for their printingwith Philemon Stephens in London. 2° The rivalry between the London and theuniversity printers in the early seventeenth century is well known; unfortunately,Woodnoth's loyalties were to London while Ferrar's were to the university. But thiswas to prove merely the first of a series of historical accidents, which artificiallyproduced the separate publishing histories of The Country Parson and The Temple,and the consequent perception that they were disparate works.According to Charles, although Ferrar may have originally intended to publish-43-The Temple and The Country Parson together as "companion volumes," he was unableto do so because of licensing problems. 21 The Temple was easily approved, despitea suspect couplet in "The Church Militant." Ferrar may have grown over-confidentafter the easy publication of The Temple, and foreseeing no problems or wanting abrief respite before publishing The Country Parson,  he submitted another work forlicensing--Hygiasticon: Or, The right course of preserving Life and Health into extreme old Age, which contained Herbert's translation of "A Treatise of Temperanceand Sobriety." Ferrar's timing could hardly have been worse: Laud had just beenappointed Archbishop of Canterbury (1633), sectarian tensions were growing, andcensorship was therefore becoming more strict. Despite its innocuous title, the censorswould not approve Hygiasticon.Ferrar's strategy proved disastrous, for the wrangle about Hygiasticon forestalled publication of The Country Parson and prompted a falling out betweenFerrar and Woodnoth. Duncon and the Herbert family then became involved, andallegations were hurled on all sides. Woodnoth continued to attempt to arrange thepublication of The Country Parson, but his efforts were hampered by the recalcitranceof the quarrelling parties, the death of Ferrar (1637), and the remarriage of Herbert'swidow (1638). The country soon became engulfed in civil war (1642-1649), whichmade publication all but impossible. Arthur Woodnoth died immediately after the war(1650), without having published The Country Parson. Presumably, Duncon finallytook The Country Parson to Oley, who managed to get it published with ananonymous preface in 1651--nineteen years after Herbert had written it, and eighteenyears after Herbert had intended it to be published.A series of historical accidents had put asunder what should have remained-44-joined together. During the eighteenth century, a false dichotomy arose. Herbert'ssubstantial, popular, poetic book naturally became associated with the earlyseventeenth century in which it appeared, particularly with the undivided Anglicanchurch and the metaphysical movement. The Temple was seen as a great literaryaccomplishment, the work of a consummate artist. However, Herbert's slight prosetreatise did not prove as popular as his poetry; nor was it associated with the earlyseventeenth century, but with the Interregnum when it appeared and with theRestoration when it gained acclaim. Inevitably, The Country Parson  came to be seenas the plodding work of a parish priest for other priests, rather than as the imaginativework of a poet which might be read with interest by a wide audience.Unfortunately, this false dichotomy continues to obscure the value and meaningof both works, but such was not always the case. There is some evidence thatHerbert's early readers saw past the prose/poetry, public/private, priest/poetdichotomies which vex modern Herbert criticism. And I would suggest that we tooshould attempt to recapture the undivided attitude of Herbert's early readers, if we arefully to understand and to appreciate his work.Even the titles of his works indicate the seventeenth-century perception of acontinuity between Herbert's verse and prose. Although both manuscripts of thepoems bear headings ("The Church-porch," "The Church," and "The Church Militant"),neither manuscript bears a title. Ferrar supplied the title, "The Temple," as well as thesubtitle, "Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations." 22 The subtitle has encouragedquestionable assumption that Herbert's poems are urgent personal effusions rather thancomposed public statements. But Ferrar's title justly captures the architectural conceitof the work, as well as its liturgical and pastoral qualities.-45-Herbert also appears to have left his prose work untitled.' Although Oleymight have chosen any title he fancied, he was probably guided by a desire tocharacterize the work and to honour what he knew of Herbert's intentions. Like thesubtitle of The Temple, the subtitle of the prose work (also provided by Oley) hasexerted undue influence, partly because it is echoed in the chapter headings. Hence,most people probably know Herbert's principal prose work by its subtitle, "TheCountry Parson," when the title of the work is actually "A Priest to the Temple." Ithas been suggested that Oley coined his title and subtitle, in order to capitalize uponthe popularity of Herbert's poetry and the prose character genre. 24 This suggestionseems unlikely because of the nineteen-year lapse after the publication of The Temple,and because Oley was driven by literary, religious, and political motives--notmercantile considerations. Oley may have been following Herbert's stated intention,as he entitled the work. But the least we can infer is that Oley understood thatHerbert's prose work somehow complemented The Temple, for the title "A Priest tothe Temple" clearly associates the two works. Richard Crashaw implied a similarassociation of works when he entitled his poetic book Steps to the Temple (1646).I would suggest that for Ferrar the implied association was pastoral: that hesaw that the prose described the familiar priest of the Temple. Ferrar's statement inhis preface to the first edition of The Temple that "[Herbert] betook himself to theSanctuarie and Temple of God, choosing rather to serve at Gods Altar then to seek thehonour of State-employments" implies that "The Temple" is largely a vocationalmetaphor." If both Ferrar and Oley assumed that Herbert's pastoral purposes infusedand connected his verse and prose, it would seem reasonable to test their assumptionourselves.-46-We would be in good company. Another early biographer of Herbert, JohnAubrey (1626-1697), mentions The Country Parson and The Temple almost in thesame breath, and seems to understand that they were artificially separated. 26 The sadstory of the publication of The Country Parson might well have become commonknowledge, particularly after Oley's mention of Woodnoth and Duncon in his prefaceto the second edition.The conception of The Temple and The Country Parson as companionpieces isconsistent with renaissance poetics which assumed that verse and prose were twobranches of the same discourse rather than contrary modes of expression.' In ADefence of Ryme (1602), for example, Samuel Daniel refers to both verse and proseas "poetry." In Anacrisis (1624), William Alexander praises Sidney as a poet for theprose Arcadia. In his Sessions of the Poets  (1637), Sir John Suckling includes thosewho wrote "either in Verse or Prose." And in both Conversations with Drummond (1619) and Discoveries (1641), Ben Jonson stipulates that a writer does not have towrite in verse in order to be a poet.But whether or not Herbert's seventeenth-century readers regarded The CountryParson and The Temple as companion-pieces, Herbert's first readers were probablymore aware of the public purpose and style of his poetry than modern readers tend tobe. The fact that Herbert's lyrics were immediately put to music by John Jenkins(1592-1678) suggests a ready awareness of the public character of what we have cometo regard as personal utterances. 28 That the couplet, "A verse may find him who asermon flies / And turn delight into a sacrifice," was so frequently quoted during theseventeenth century as to become proverbial is testimony to the widely recognizedpastoral purpose of Herbert's poetry. Crashaw's Steps to the Temple (1646)-47-acknowledged Herbert's pastoral aim in The Temple, and Joseph Beaumont furtherrecognized Crashaw's indebtedness to Herbert. Seventeenth-century readers were somuch aware of the public purpose and style of The Temple that some apparentlythought of Herbert as a neoclassical poet, rather than a follower of Donne. 29One cannot tell the extent to which Herbert's first readers approached hispoetry through his prose. However, their awareness of the pastoral purpose and publicstyle of The Temple at least suggests that they saw less discrepancy between the proseand verse than the modern reader does. Some connection between The Country Parson and The Temple was apparently felt, despite the separate publication of theverse and prose. Ironically, the separate publication of The Country Parson and TheTemple throughout the eighteenth century actually worked to Herbert's advantage.The connection between the works was now lost: Herbert's reputation was preserved,however, for eighteenth-century critics generally admired his prose style even thoughthey sometimes derided his poetry. 39In the nineteenth century, The Country Parson  and The Temple began to bepublished together. Robert Chambers still spoke for many when he declared in hisEncyclopedia of English Literature  (1844) that "Herbert's poetry alone would not havepreserved his name, and that he is indebted for the reputation he enjoys, to hisexcellent and amiable character...rand] to his prose work, the 'Country Parson'." 31Editors of the numerous editions of Herbert's collected works usually emphasized thepiety or utility of The Country Parson, rather than its style or connection with thepoetry. However, one reviewer with a particularly good grasp of publishing historydid venture to suggest that The Country Parson "was conceived in its author's mind asa companion volume to 'The Temple'."32-48-Even when it appeared with The Temple, The Country Parson was oftenmistaken for a quaint autobiography. 33 Defending The Country Parson from chargesof affectation in 1854, R.A. Willmot argued that The Country Parson was solely forHerbert's own use. In 1905 and 1918, Palmer suggested that Herbert "kept hisintellectual interests alive" among the rustics with "his beautiful notebook." Herbertgained popularity from the 1930s on, partly because his works were published togetheras well as separately. However, there is still more than a little of the belief that TheCountry Parson is a quaint, unliterary journal behind Hutchinson's assertion that TheCountry Parson is for Herbert's use only and that "he unconsciously portrays himself"in its pages, and in Charles's statement that "The Country Parson expanded asHerbert's experience grew." But The Country Parson is eminently public andprescriptive, and quite "poetic" in its structure, its speech rhythms, its use of figurativelanguage, and its tendency to exemplify what it describes--characteristics I will discussat length in chapter 3.One rarely finds explicit nineteenth- or twentieth-century statements about theconnection between The Temple and The Country Parson. Austin Warren'sinterjection, "But surely The Country Parson  provides the best commentary on TheTemple" is a happy exception. 34 But one does sometimes discover tacit recognitionthat The Country Parson is poetic. For instance, the anonymous nineteenth centurycommentator mentioned previously says of The Country Parson:The literary merits, too, of the book are great. There is no fine writingin it; there are no grand passages.But the language throughout is choice,scholarlike, and equable; singularly simple, exact, and terse; above all, itis in perfect keeping with the ideas to be conveyed."This could equally be a description of The Temple. Likewise, in Shelburne Essays -49-(l906), Paul Elmer More suggests that The Country Parson is "still attractive to thelay reader" because of its great "sincerity of aim" and its "fine simplicity"--because ofits poetic qualities, in other words.The poetry also has prose-like qualities. Although modern critics have beenpreoccupied with Herbert's short lyric poems, previous readers were much taken withHerbert's long discursive ones. "The Church-porch" and "The Church Militant" arenow almost universally criticized for their weight of content and lack of formalvariety. But one cannot argue that Herbert developed ingenuity and subtlety after hewrote these early poems, when sophisticated lyrics such as "Love (III)" occur in theWilliams manuscript, and discursive poems such as "The Sacrifice" and "Providence"occur throughout The Temple. While many of Herbert's poems are complex and"metaphysical" in style, others are so simple and plain as to seem "prosaic." Consider,for instance, the straight-forward quatrains of "Providence" or the simple narrative of"Love unknown":We all acknowledge both thy power and loveTo be exact, transcendent, and divine;Who dost so strongly and so sweetly move,While all things have their will, yet none but thine.("Providence," 29-32)Walkt by my self abroad, I saw a largeAnd spacious fornace flaming, and thereonA boyling caldron, round about whose vergeWas in great letters set AFFLICTION.The greatnesse shew'd the owner. So I wentTo fetch a sacrifice out of my fold,Thinking with that, which I did thus present,To warm his love, which I did fear grew cold.("Love unknown," 25-32)Such verses would lose little if they were written as sentences. Of course, Herbert'spoetry is rarely prosaic in the pejorative sense of being bland or boring, but it is-50-sometimes prosaic in the literal sense of the word--it tends toward prose.The general compatibility between the plainer poetry of The Temple and poeticprose of The Country Parson should alert us to the possibility of more specific formalconnections between the works. And indeed, even a brief consideration of the styleand structure of The Country Parson and The Temple suggests a number ofsimilarities.David Novarr has drawn attention to "the tone of sweetness and reasonablenesswhich distinguishes The Country Parson." 36 Chapters such as "The Parson'sCourtesie" (chap. 11), "The Parson's Charity" (chap. 12), and "The Parson's Mirth"(chap. 27) are particularly notable for their sweet and reasonable tone. But TheCountry Parson is not naively or uniformly sweet and reasonable: discord and struggle,sadness and strife are portrayed powerfully, although these disturbing and destructiveforces are balanced and subsumed by grace. For example, the parson is often sadbecause he is forced to witness "God dishonoured every day, and man afflicted":Neverthelesse, he sometimes refresheth himselfe, as knowing that naturewill not bear everlasting droopings, and that pleasantnesse of dispositionis a great key to do good; not onely because all men shun the companyof perpetual! severity, but also for that when they are in company,instructions seasoned with pleasantnesse, both enter sooner, and rootdeeper. (Chap. 27, 267:33-268:5)The tone of The Temple is balanced and modulated in a similar manner. Suchwinsome poems as "Man," "Praise (II)," and "Love (III)" are characteristic of Herbert.But even bleak and impassioned poems such as "Affliction (IV)" and "The Collar" aregoverned by a highly reasonable formal order, and eventually attain quiet joyfulrepose.Apart from its characteristic tone and variety of form, Herbert's poetry is-51-generally appreciated for its understated wit, simple diction, domestic metaphors, andspiritual insight. The Country Parson shares these traits to a significant extent, as in"The Parson as a Father" or in this passage from "The Parson's eye" which describescovetousness:More particularly, and to give one instance for all, if God have givenme servants, and I either provide too little for them, or that which isunwholesome, being sometimes baned meat, sometimes too salt, and sonot competent nourishment, I am Covetous. I bring this example,because men usually think, that servants for their mony are as otherthings that they buy, even as a piece of wood, which they may cut, orhack, or throw into the fire, and so they pay them their wages, all iswell. (chap 26, 265: 19-27)The Country Parson, is particularly rich in figurative language (especially metaphor),in sound effects, and in epigrammatic conclusions--poetic qualities which I wish toconsider briefly.Figurative language abounds in The Country Parson. For instance, in chapter 34("The Parson's Dexterity in Applying of Remedies"), Herbert advises the CountryParson to encourage his parishioners "to labour still to be as fervent in ChristianDuties as they remember themselves were, when affliction did blow the Coals...of coldand careless devotion"(280: 18-21). The chapters of The Country Parson, like thepoems of The Temple, are in fact often best remembered for such domestic metaphors.For instance, chapter 9 ("The Parson's State of Life"), is made memorable byHerbert's juxtaposition of "the sunshine and noon of prosperity" and "the coldmidnight storms of persecution and adversity"--two eminently poetic conceits.Herbert's sound effects give The Country Parson a certain poetic quality.Sometimes, Herbert imitates actual speech in The Country Parson, as he does in hispoems:-52-Alas, why do you thus? you hurt your selfe, not me;he that throws a stone at another, hits himselfe... (269: 12-14)Come, say they, we have nothing to do, lets go tothe Tavern, or to the stews, or what not. (274: 12-14)At other times, Herbert uses alliteration--either to draw our attention to passages ofparticular importance or to emphasize connected ideas--just as he would in his poems:Countrey people...think that all things come by a kind of naturallcourse; and that if they sow and soyle their grounds, they must havecorn; if they keep and fodder well their cattel, they must have milk andCalves... (270: 25-38)Now a prophesie is a wonder sent to Posterity, least they complaine ofwant of wonders. It is a letter sealed and sent, which to the bearer isbut paper, but to the receiver and opener is full of power. (282: 35-38)Because of such sound effects as these, one often "hears" The Country Parson as muchas one reads it, just as one hears such Herbert poems as "Conscience" or "Praise (II)."Herbert's chapters also display the powerful, epigrammatic closing lines forwhich his poems are famous. One thinks, for instance, of the pointed advice whichconcludes chapter 29 ("The Parson with his Church Wardens"). After much discussionof the role of the wardens in parish politics and much recommendation of diplomacy,the parson is finally advised toDo well, and right, and let the world sink. (270: 23)Such arresting and memorable statements recall the conclusions of "The Collar" and"Love (HI)."The structure of The Country Parson  also reminds one of The Temple. Likethe poems in The Temple, the chapters in The Country Parson appear largely self-contained. But like the poems--for instance, those in the "Affliction" or "Praise"-53-sequence--the chapters should not be taken out of context because they refer back andforth and depend upon one another for meaning. For example, the opening of chapter34 refers to the previous chapter (279: 2-4). The severity of "The Parson Punishing"and "The Parson's Condescending" (chap. 25 and 35) must be balanced by thekindness of "The Parson's Courtesie" and "The Parson's Charity" (chap. 11 and 12).And duties described in "The Parson on Sundays" (chap. 8) are amplified insubsequent chapters.Although The Country Parson does not have the tripartite form of The Temple,correspondences do suggest themselves. The concluding chapters of The Country Parson discuss "the military state of Christian life" (chap. 33 and 34), recalling "TheChurch Militant." And both The Country Parson and The Temple culminate in prayerand praise, with "L'Envoy" and the "Parson's Prayers" respectively.Such correspondences in the style and structure of The Country Parson and TheTemple indicate the compatibility of the works, if not their design as companion-pieces. The content of the works provides further internal evidence of theirconnectedness. The Country Parson not only echoes the imagery and phrasing of TheTemple, it explains difficult lines and clarifies Herbert's literary purpose in the poetry.The Country Parson also provides a possible hermeneutic for The Temple, and overtstatements of the religious and political views implied in the verse--something whichwill be explored further in chapter 4.One is often aware that Herbert's principal works share imagery and phrases.For instance, the well-known images of the altar and the worm of conscience fromThe Temple reoccur in chapters 4 and 30 of The Country Parson. The Parson isadvised to approach scripture with fearful joy, for "there he sucks and lives" (chap. 4,-54-228:33), recalling the voice's joyful interjection in "The Holy Scriptures r:Oh Book! infinite sweetnesse! let my heartSuck ev'ry letter... (11. 1-2)The unfortunate who is "disseized of his own inheritance" in The Country Parson (chap. 12, 244:30) recalls the presumption of the voice in "Submission" who would"disseize thee of thy right" (1. 12). And the Parson's "sermons ready penn'd" (chap.33, 278:24) naturally recall the poet's lines ("sweetness readie penn'd") of "Jordan(II)" (1. 17).Occasionally, The Temple provides a gloss for The Country Parson. Forinstance, Wolberg and others have criticized Herbert for his alleged worldlypragmatism in The Country Parson. 37 Herbert's enthusiastic description of theparson's approach to his congregation on Sunday as that of a shopkeeper on marketday is somewhat startling, despite the prevalence of mercantile metaphors in the NewTestament. But such similes are analogical, like the simile of the poet as a shootingstar in Herbert's poem, "Star." To take such similes over-literally is to mistakeHerbert's meaning, something we learn from The Temple.Conversely, The Country Parson often provides a valuable commentary uponThe Temple. For instance, the peculiar urgency which informs "Charms & Knots" isnone other than the urgent exercise of charity which is commended to the Parson(chap. 12, 244). Herbert's description of the gay gravity and spare luxury appropriateto church furnishings (chap. 13) helps us to appreciate the aesthetic advocated in the"Jordan" poems. The liturgical form and sober dignity of poems such as "Miserie"and "Mortification" is explained by Herbert's insistence upon decent and orderlyworship (chap. 13). The process described in "The Parson Comforting" (chap. 15) is-55-put into practice in "The Dawning" and "Jesu." The "young and unwary spirits"described in The Country Parson, chapter 18, are those for whom "Perirrhanterium"and "Super-liminare" are most intended. And the relatively plain and discursive verseof "Providence" and "The Church Militant" may reflect that "set and laboured andcontinued speech" which is described in The Country Parson, chapter 21 (257:25).The Country Parson often adds markedly to our appreciation of the poetry.The many legal and medical metaphors of the poems gain greater meaning, once theParson's legal and medical duties are described (chap. 23). The principle of notstinting one's servant at the table (chap 26, 265:19-27) adds another dimension to thedynamics of "Love (III)." The limits of clerical learning which are described in TheCountry Parson (chap. 26, 266:1-5) explain Herbert's uncharacteristic criticism oflearning in "Divinitie." The extensive and discerning discussion of gluttony in TheCountry Parson (chap. 26, 266: 6-18) enlarges our awareness both of the pressingproblem of dietary excess mentioned in "Perirrhanterium" and "The Size." Theparson's technique of offering "instructions seasoned with pleasantness" (chap. 27,268:1) helps us to appreciate the singular quality of Herbert's poetic voice, whichremains somehow sweet and winning even when it is protesting and preaching. Andthe close consideration of the psychology of doubt and repentance in The Country Parson (chap. 33) helps us to analyze the complex motions of the soul in such poemsas "Repentance," "Affliction (I)," and "Unkindnesse."As helpful as The Country Parson is as a local commentary, however, it maybe more valuable for the light which it sheds upon the general purposes and practiceswhich inform his poetry. Whatever his intentions, an author's expository prose oftendoes illuminate his poetry for modern readers. Several renaissance examples suggest-56-themselves. Sidney's Defence of Poesie helps us to understand the ChristianPlatonism and poetic methods which inform Astrophel and Stella. Donne's linguisticreflections in his Sermons help us to appreciate the curious language of his Songs and Sonets. And Milton's educational, religious, and political tracts add to ourunderstanding of the great themes of Paradise Lost. Although it is difficult to knowwhether Sidney, Donne, or Milton intended their works to be read this way, suchreadings are surely valuable.If one were to take a similar approach to Herbert's works, as I believe weshould, one would assume that Herbert's pastoral purposes are not only described inThe Country Parson  but worked out in The Temple. Such a reading would see themain dynamic of The Temple as "how Gods goodness strives with mansrefractorinesse," to use a phrase from The Country Parson (272:5-7). The readershipof The Temple, like the congregation described in The Country Parson, might bethought of as somewhat flagging or refractory, and therefore in need of constant andskillful pastoral care. The poet would act like the parson who orders his life that hemight tell his audience, "I sat daily with you teaching in the Temple" (CP, chap 3,228:1). Like the parson, the poet would seek "to multiply and build up theknowledge [of salvation] to a spiritual Temple" for the sake of his audience (chap. 11,255:4-5). Indeed, Herbert's repeated reference to the "Temple" in his prose might beseen as an invitation to read The Country Parson not only as a pastoral manual forCaroline priests but also as an ars poetica for The Temple.The approach I advocate would help to explain the surprising variety of poeticform in The Temple, as I indicate in chapter 5. Briefly, Herbert's profusion of poeticform would be explained chiefly as the pastoral effort to adapt his mode of discourse-57-to suit a variety of people and situations discussed in The Country Parson. Forexample, the plain moralism of "The Church Porch" might serve to correct thewayward, in the manner of "The Parson in Sentinell" (chap. 18). The serenity of"Man" and the joyfulness of "Praise (II)" might encourage the sad or faint-hearted, asin "The Parson Comforting" (chap. 15). And the skillful merriment of "Heaven" mightdraw wits and revellers into "The Church," in accordance with the winning ways of"The Parson on Sundays" (chap. 8).Such a pastoral reading of the works also points to a possible hermeneutic forThe Temple. Herbert discusses biblical hermeneutics in "The Parson's Knowledge,"and Lewalski and others have suggested that the organization of The Temple is likethat of the Bible. 38 I would suggest that, like the Old Testament and the NewTestament, The Country Parson and The Temple are interpreted best by the process of"diligent collation" which Herbert describes in The Country Parson (229:4-9). To readeither work properly, its parts must be compared and balanced like the verses andbooks of the Bible: "The Collar" and "The Priesthood" culminate in "Aaron," and "TheParson arguing" (chap. 24) leads to "The Parson Blessing" (chap 36). But TheCountry Parson and The Temple also inform one another in a manner which recallsthe Old Testament and the New. Like the Old Testament, The Country Parson provides rules of priestly conduct and tells the story of an unruly people. Like theNew Testament, The Temple emerges from and fulfills what went before, and employsadmonition, enigmatic parable, and prophetic narrative. Yet, like the Old Testamentand New Testament, both The Country Parson and The Temple will remain somewhatobscure until they are diligently compared or "collated."Finally, the approach I suggest would help us to evaluate the religious and-58-political views implied in the poetry, a matter which I discuss at length in chapter 4.As we saw earlier, many recent commentators have attributed the introspective qualityof Herbert's poetry either to extreme protestant beliefs or to counter-reformationmeditative techniques. Although these interpretations may be useful, they should bebalanced by the teaching of The Country Parson, particularly its specifically Anglicanbeliefs and values and its criticism of the "strange doctrines" of "Papists" and"Schismaticks" (chap. 24). Some commentators have also suggested that Herbert'spoems depict social graces, political ambitions, and amorous intrigues which eithercurry favour with or condemn the Caroline court. As we saw earlier, poems such as"Redemption" do employ courtly motifs, though their political meaning is unclear.Poems such as "Jordan (I)," Unkindnesse," and "Frailtie" may be informed by thelanguage and conventions of renaissance courtship. But as I will show in thefollowing chapter, a careful reading of The Country Parson suggests that somecommentators may have mistaken good manners, pastoral dignity, and agreeablenessfor courtly aspirations, and have over-emphasized the importance of courtly love inThe Temple.-59-NOTES: CHAPTER 11 The "biographical fallacy" is a new critical term for the tendency to confusethe disclosures of the author and his literary persona. For such biographical readings ofThe Country Parson, see F.E. Hutchinson, ed., The Works of George Herbert (Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1941), xxxvi-xxxviii; Harold Kollmeier, "'A Mark to Aim At': Genreand Sensibility in George Herbert's Country Parson" (Ph.D. diss., SUNY, StonyBrook, 1976), iii-iv, 52-53; Cristina Malcolmson, "Society and Self-Definition in theWorks of George Herbert" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1983), 5,61.2 A.H. Bullen, ed., Walton's Lives of Dr. John Donne, Sir Henry Wooton, Mr. Richard Hooker, Mr. George Herbert, and Dr. Robert Sanderson, 2nd ed. (London:George Bell and Sons, 1884), 293. All subsequent references will be to this edition,and will be indicated parenthetically by page number.3 For a discussion of Walton's use of The Country Parson, see David Novarr,The Making of Walton's Lives (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1958), 338-339.See Barnabas Oley, "A Prefatory View of the Life of Mr. George Herbert"(1651), George Herbert: The Critical Heritage, ed. C.A. Patrides (Boston: Routledgeand Kegan Paul, 1983), 73-78.5 See Amy Charles, A Life of George Herbert (Ithaca: Cornell UniversityPress, 1977), 78, 82, and F.E. Hutchinson, The Works of George Herbert, 476.6 Lull reminds us that the history of the composition and transmission ofHerbert's poems remains a matter of speculation. See Amy Charles, A Life of George Herbert, 127, and Janis Lull, The Poem in Time: Reading George Herbert's Revisions of "The Church" (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1990), 11.There are 164 or 169 poems in the Bodleian manuscript, depending uponwhether "Superliminare," "Good Friday," "Easter," "Love (I and II)," and "H.Scriptures" are considered individual poems or pairs of poems. The Williamsmanuscript contains 77 poems altogether, but "The H. Communion," "Love," "TrinitySunday," "Even-song," "The Knell," and "Perseverance" do not appear in either theBodleian manuscript or the first edition. See F. E. Hutchinson, ed., Works, lii-liii,200-205.8 See Works, xxxvi-xxxviii. Herbert spent only the last three years of his lifeat Bemerton.9 See F.E. Hutchinson, ed., Works, 223, 556.1° Charles suggests that Herbert may have revised his poems at Bemerton, butthat he wrote most of his poems previously; Lull accepts Charles's reasoning that therigors of parish life would have prevented the writing of poems at Bemerton. See A-60-Life, 138, and The Poem in Time, 11.11 For a comparison of George Herbert's parish during the seventeenth centuryand as it is now, see the Reverend John Owen, "A Sermon Preached at St. John'sChurch (Bemerton), 15 July 1990," Cross-Bias 1990: 3. Chapters 10 and 34 of TheCountry Parson suggest that Herbert's wife shared in his ministry to a remarkableextent.12 See A. H. Bullen, ed., Life of Herbert, 318. The phrase "perfect freedom"suggests that Herbert is framing his remarks in the terms of the second collect in theAnglican service of Morning Prayer, in which the priest and congregation pray to God"which art author of peace, and lover of concord, in knowledge of whom standeth oureternal life, whose service is perfect freedom." The phrase is an important one inAnglican circles, and Herbert frequently shows his Anglicanism in The Country Parsonby expressing himself in the terms of the Prayer Book. See John E. Booty, ed., TheBook of Common Prayer, 1559: The Elizabethan Prayer Book (Washington: FolgerShakespeare Library, 1976), 59.13 David Novarr suggests that Walton's rendition of Herbert's words to Dunconmay rely upon Ferrar's introduction to the first edition of The Temple, but that Waltonalso consulted the Herbert family. See The Making of Walton's Lives (Ithaca: CornellUniversity Press, 1958), 226-327, 341-343. Charles notes that Walton's informationabout the end of Herbert's life is more reliable than his other assertions, and thatWalton's account of the transmission of the little book of poetry is corroborated by aletter by John Ferrar, Nicholas's son (Life, 182).14 See F.E. Hutchinson, ed., Works, 1, lxx-lxxvii and Amy Charles, A Life,181-186.15 Hutchinson bases the text of his edition on the Bodleian manuscript, becauseit represents Herbert's nearest intention. Hutchinson uses the early Williamsmanuscript to corroborate the Bodleian where it differs from the first edition, andrecords these variants in the notes. Hutchinson corrects twenty-eight errors in theBodleian manuscript in this way, none of them more than single words or syllables.Hutchinson follows the first edition for the layout of the poems and incidentals(spelling, punctuation, capitals, and italics), because the first edition is closer to theWilliams than the Bodleian manuscript in this regard, and because Thomas Buck, anear contemporary of Herbert's at Cambridge and an excellent printer, set the firstedition (Works, lxx-lxxiv). Charles concurs with Hutchinson's editorial principles(Life, 182). Mario A. Di Cesare has recently questioned Hutchinson's choice of thefirst edition for format.16 For a discussion of Woodnoth as executor and biographical source, see A. H.Bullen, ed., Life of Herbert, 319-322; Amy Charles, A Life, 167-171, 177-179; DavidNovarr, The Making of Walton's Lives, 305, 307.17 See F.E. Hutchinson, ed., Works, 556. Novarr acknowleges that Walton may-61-not have been able to remember the details of what Woodnoth had said aboutHerbert's induction to Bemerton and The Country Parson manuscript, when he cameto write his Lives. Nonetheless, Novarr believes that Walton remembered the gist ofwhat Woodnoth had said. See The Making of Walton's Lives, 332, 514-515.18 F.E. Hutchinson, ed., Works, 556; see also, Daniel Doerksen, "'Too Good forThose Times': Politics and the Publication of The Country Parson," Seventeenth-Century News, 49 (Spring-Summer, 1991): 10.19 See Doerksen, "Too Good for Those Times," 11, and Charles, A Life, 167-169, 78.20 See Doerksen, "'Too Good for Those Times," 11, and Amy Charles, A Life,178-79.21 The suspect couplet is:Religion stands on tip-toe in our land,Readie to passe to the American strand. (11. 235-236)Walton describes the censor's concern over these lines, a matter whichCharles discusses in A Life, 187.22 See F.E. Hutchinson, ed., Works, li; Amy Charles, A Life, 185-86.23 The full title of the work is, A Priest to the Temple, or The Country Parson: His Character and Rule Of Holy Life. For a discussion of the contributions of Ferrarand Oley to the subtitles and titles of Herbert's works, see F. E. Hutchinson, Works,liii and Amy Charles, A Life, 157, 185-87.On the influence of the prose character on Oley's title, see Charles above.Though neither explains quite how Herbert does it, both Kollmeier and Malcolmsonassume from the subtitle that Herbert incorporates a prose character into The Country Parson. See Harold Kollmeier, "'A Mark to Aim At': Genre and Sensibility in GeorgeHerbert's Country Parson (Ph.D. diss., State University of New York, Stony Brook,1976), v, and Cristina Malcolmson, "Society and Self-Definition in the Works ofGeorge Herbert" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1983), 27. I discussHerbert's use of the prose character in the following chapter.25 See C.A. Patrides, ed., The Critical Heritage (London: Routledge and KeganPaul, 1983), 59-60.26 Aubrey says that Herbert wrote "[A book of] Sacred Poems, called 'TheChurch,' printed [at] Cambridge, 1633; [and] a Booke entitled 'The Country Parson,'not printed till about 1650." Aubrey pairs these two works, among the others hementions; and Aubrey's statement that The Country Parson was "not printed till about1650" suggests that it might have been printed much earlier. See Oliver Lawson Dick,ed., Aubrey's Brief Lives (London: Secker and Warburg, 1949), 137.27 See James Harry Smith and Ed Winfield Park, eds., The Great Critics: An Anthology of Criticism, 3rd ed. (New York: Norton, 1951), xvi, 244, 261; Sir PhilipSidney, A Defence of Poetry, ed., J.A. Van Dorsten, 2nd ed. (Toronto: OxfordUniversity Press, 1971), 27; J. E. Spingarn, ed. Critical Essays of the Seventeenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908), 1:187, 191.28 For discussions of seventeenth century musical arrangements of The Temple and of the modem view of the poems as impassioned personal utterances, see C.A.Patrides, ed., The Critical Heritage, 3, 35-36.29 "Perirrhanterium," 11. 5-6: see The Critical Heritage, 2, 6-12. Patrides findssuch statements as Daniel's "surprising" (7), because Patrides considers Herbert to be ametaphysical poet. The notion that Herbert was viewed as a neoclassical poet is mine.30 For a discussion of Herbert's contemporary and later reputation withparticular reference to the poetry, see F.E. Hutchinson, Works, xlvii. AlthoughPatrides expresses doubt about the popularity of the prose in the eighteenth century(Heritage, 19), Hutchinson describes various eighteenth-century editions of the prose(Works, lxiii-lxx).31 See C. A. Patrides, ed., The Critical Heritage, 182.32 See especially the introductions to the Jerdan (1853), Pickering (1850), andWillmott (1859) editions, together with the anonymous essay in The Christian Remembrancer (1862) written in response to these editions: The Critical Heritage, 24,47n., 96n., 182-246.33 The notorious editor, George Herbert Palmer, rearranged the poems of TheTemple to create a pseudobiography of disillusionment. Charles's suggestion that TheCountry Parson was expanded as Herbert's experience grew implies a journal or diary,a work without a Sidnean "fore-conceit" or literary model. See C. A. Patrides, ed.,The Critical Heritage, 33-34, 216-217, 294; F. E. Hutchinson, Works, xxxvi-xxxviii;Amy Charles, A Life, 159-160.Although extemely apt, this remark is somewhat tangential to Warren's maintopic. See The Critical Heritage, 351.35 This anonymous commentator also says that The Country Parson is"inexhaustible in its suggestiveness": an allusive or figurative quality suggests poetry.See The Critical Heritage, 244, 303.36 See The Making of Walton's Lives, 325.37 See Harold Kollmeier, "'A Mark to Aim At': Genre and Sensibility inGeorge Herbert's Country Parson" (Ph.D. diss., State University of New York, StonyBrook, 1976), 154-166 and Kristine Wolberg, "'All Possible Art': George Herbert's-63-The Country Parson" (Ph.D. diss., Notre Dame University, 1987), 82-107.38 Lewalski suggests that the lyrics in "The Church" belong to the Psalm genreand that "The Church Militant" is modelled on Revelation. Lull mentions the pertinentpassage from The Country Parson and notes that the poems in "The Church" requirecollation. And Stewart speculates that Herbert's emphasis on collation might derivefrom the biblical Harmonies of Little Gidding. See Barbara Lewalski, Protestant Poetics and the Seventeenth-Century Religious Lyric (Princeton: Princeton UniveristyPress, 1979), 300-301, 304-305; Janis Lull, The Poem in Time, 13-14; StanleyStewart, George Herbert (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1986), 61. For a further discussion ofHerbert's use of the Bible, see my chapter 4 and Chana Bloch, Spelling the Word: George Herbert and the Bible (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985).39 Michael Schoenfeldt, Prayer and Power: George Herbert and Renaissance Courtship (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991) and Marion White Singleton,God's Courtier: Configuring a Different Grace in George Herbert's Temple (NewYork: Cambridge University Press, 1987) as well as Malcolmson and Wolberg (notes24 and 37 above).-64-CHAPTER 2: THE GENRE OF THE COUNTRY PARSON The first qualification for judging any piece ofworkmanship from a corkscrew to a cathedral is toknow what it is--what it is intended to do andhow it is meant to be used.C.S. Lewis, A Preface to Paradise LostThe Country Parson is so distinctive that one naturally wonders what Herbertthought he was writing. Although many readers have mistaken The Country Parson fora diary of parish life, Herbert's purpose was more public and practical. The Country Parson is really a clerical manual--a work traditionally written by and for clergymen,which describes their pastoral duties and encourages them to lead exemplary lives.Such a work was urgently needed by the Anglican clergy of the 1630s, who may havebeen university educated but had little formal training for pastoral ministry. Herbertcharacteristically drew upon various kinds of prose, some of which are described morefully in appendix I. As I will demonstrate in this chapter, the organization of TheCountry Parson reflects both the essay and the professional handbook. The openingand closing sentences of its chapters suggest the essay and the moral resolve. Thepervasive idealism and concern with decorum may be attributed in part to theinfluence of the courtesy and etiquette book. But Herbert's prose, like his poetry, is adistinctive blend of many influences and forms.Recent efforts to find a literary antecedent or to place The Country Parson in agenre have been useful but misguided. Kollmeier (1976) concluded that Herbert triedto write a handbook like Dalton's Country Justice (1619), but failed because he was-65-temperamentally unsuited to such mundanity and could not help contaminating thegenre with a prose character.' Malcolmson (1983) placed The Country Parson in thecourtesy book genre, but concluded that Herbert was subverting the genre--andtherefore attacking the court--by interpolating a "character of holiness." 2 Wolberg(1988) argued that Herbert was writing an Anglican response to Puritan preachingmanuals by modelling The Country Parson on a sixteenth-century Italian courtesybook, Guazzo's Civil Conversation. 3 Although these studies have suggested Herbert'sindebtedness to various prose forms and have indicated a relation between the form ofThe Country Parson and Herbert's religious and political sympathies, these studieshave mistaken Herbert's intention and have conflated form and genre."Genre" literally means a "kind" or "type" of literature, and is commonlyequated with form and technique. 4 It is in this sense that we speak of the traditionalpoetic "genres" of epic, drama, and lyric.' Although such generic distinctionsrecognize differences in form, they traditionally follow from the author's fundamentalpurpose.° Hence, when we speak of "the genre"--the broad categories of dramatic andnon-dramatic poetry, and of fictional and non-fictional prose--we mean not onlydifferent forms, but also a fundamental choice in the mode of expression. The authormust decide whether he will use one voice or many, whether he will describe orportray action, whether he wishes to inform or to move his audience. We should,therefore, not attempt to categorize The Country Parson generically according to itsform, as previous genre studies have done; rather, we should reconsider Herbert'spurpose.Also, for the sake of precision, we should distinguish between "genre," "kind,"and "form." The Country Parson clearly belongs to the genre of non-fictional prose;-66-the question is, what kind of non-fictional prose did Herbert choose to write? Herberthad four principal kinds of non-fictional prose to choose from: conduct literature,clerical manuals, professional handbooks, and a new kind of non-fictional prosecomprised of the essay, the prose character, and the moral resolve. Each kind of non-fictional prose might take various literary forms, but it would have a particularpurpose and would imply certain beliefs and values.'Herbert's reading suggests a familiarity with all four kinds of prose. Herbert'sremarks in The Country Parson indicate that he read widely and attentively. "TheParson's Accessary Knowledge" recommends a catholic and eclectic course of study:The Countrey Parson hath read the Fathers also [in addition to theScriptures], and the Schoolmen, and the later Writers, or a goodproportion of all . . . (CE chap. 5, 229: 31-33).And "The Parson's Knowledge" recommends that the aspiring country parson "hathone Comment at least upon every book of Scripture" and suggests that he "compile abook and body of Divinitie which is the storehouse of his Sermons" (229:27-230:2).Surely such advice reflects Herbert's own reading and his practice of keeping acommonplace book.Other sources confirm the impression that Herbert read widely and retainedwhat he read. For instance, we know from Walton and from the allusions in Herbert'spoetry that Herbert was steeped in the Bible and the Prayer Book. Herbert's will alsomentions "the Comment[ary] of Lucas Brugensis uppon the Scripture" and "Augustinesworkes" (382: 19,21). Herbert translated Cornaro's Treatise of Temperance and Sobrietie and wrote extensive notes on Valdesso's Considerations (291-320). Herbertmentions Saint John Chrysostom and the Roman historians in "The Parson's Dexterity-67-in Applying Remedies" (chap. 34, 282: 21-22); he mentions the Fathers again in "TheParson in reference" (chap. 19, 253: 6). Herbert refers specifically to two professionalmanuals, Michael Dalton's Country Justice (1619) and John Fernelius's Practice ofPhysick . . . [and] Select Medicinal Counsels (c. 1600) in "The Parson'sCompletenesse" (chap. 23, 260:2, 261:5). Herbert may also allude to an Italiancourtesy book in "The Parson's Surveys" (chap. 32, 275: 26). We know of Herbert'sliterary friendship with Sir Francis Bacon, from his Latin poems, from his letters (pp.435-437), and from Bacon's dedication of his Translation of Certaine Psalmes (1625). 8We also know that over fifty of Herbert's "outlandish" proverbs are from StephanoGuazzo's Civil Conversation (1581), though Herbert may have gleaned them throughan intermediary such as John Florio's Second Frutes (1591). 9On the basis of such references and remarks, we may safely assume thatHerbert had some acquaintance with patristic and medieval clerical manuals, withconduct literature, with professional handbooks, with Bacon's essays, and with thecharacter--either in its seventeenth-century form or from Roman history. Although wecannot be sure that Herbert read the moral resolve, his reading was wide enough toencourage such a view. Still, it is one thing to assume that Herbert read a particularbook, and quite another thing to assume that The Country Parson belongs to thatbook's genre because of similarities in form or content--a common mistake of muchrecent genre criticism.Genre cannot be determined on the basis of form, as some critics contend.' °By nature, literary form is inconsistent and accretive. For example, Nicholas Breton,author of the conventional characters The Good and the Badde (1616), also wroteCharacters Upon Essaies, Morall and Divine (1615), a fusion of the prose character-68-and essay forms!' Montaigne is cited in defence of La Galerie des Peintures (1663),which suggests a link between the expository essay and fictive prose. 12 The beginningof Owen Feltham's Resolves: Divine, Morall, Political (1623) strongly reminds one ofa courtesy book; however, the work generally follows essay form. Sir WilliamCornwallis's Essays (1606) are essay-like in length and opening, and often in subject,but are less allusive than most essays and plainly owe something to the resolve in theirendings. Feltham, "the prince of resolve writers," was probably inspired by DanielTuvill's Essays (1608-09) to write his Resolves, and therefore could not decidewhether to call his work "essays" or "resolves."' Richard Brathwait's EnglishGentleman (1630) is a model courtesy book--abstract, learned, extensive, andidealistic--but it ends with a prose character. And what is perhaps most important forour consideration of The Country Parson, clerical manuals are extremely various inform, and are sometimes written in verse as well as prose.Many works of the same kind have different forms, and many works of similarform have radically different purposes and audiences, tones and values. For instance,although Lord Burghley's Certain Precepts (1561), Sir Walter Raleigh's Instructions (c. 1630), and Francis Osborne's Advice to a Son (1656) are all etiquette books, theyvary greatly in form. And despite their obvious diversity of purpose and audience,George Herbert's Country Parson, Niccolo Machiavelli's Prince (c. 1532, trans. 1640),Henry Peacham's Complete Gentleman (1622), Sir Francis Bacon's Essays (1597,1625), John Fernelius's Physick (c. 1600), and Joseph Hall's Characters of Virtues and Vices (1608), are all notable for their short chapters, strong opening sentences, andpointed advice.Nor can genre be determined on the basis of content, as some critics of The-69-Country Parson allege. 14 All the books I have mentioned are "educative," broadly-speaking, and most deal with public affairs: they are therefore bound to have much incommon. They frequently prescribe an educational program, discuss virtue andreligion, advocate discernment in dealing with various types of people, and describethe exercise of authority, the art of apt speech, the need for liberality, and the fact ofingratitude and criticism. These topics emerge naturally from the experience of publiclife, whether one is a statesman, a gentleman, a professional, or a priest. Ideas alsoaccumulate as we move from one work to another. For instance, Elyot recommendsErasmus's Institution of a Christian Prince. Tuvill freely incorporates Machiavelli andGuazzo, Montaigne and Bacon, Hooker and the Bible. 15 And Cleland assimilatesElyot, Ascham, Mulcaster, and Montaigne!' We might, therefore, seem to hearMachiavelli or Ascham when we read Herbert; but that does not mean that TheCountry Parson is Machiavellian or that Herbert is bent on describing the idealschoolmaster. 17Since genre can only be determined on the basis of an author's purpose, it isunfortunate that Herbert's purpose has so often been mistaken. Both Walton and Oleyassumed that Herbert intended to write a kind of diary--a purely personal record ofparish events and professional reflections! 8 Many modern commentators haveunwittingly perpetuated this misconception. As we have already seen, F. E. Hutchinsondescribed The Country Parson as "an autobiograpical document for Herbert's ownuse." 19 And, like Hutchinson before them, Stewart and Bottrall treat The Country Parson as "background" to The Temple." The Country Parson may be "valuable forits picture of a rural clergyman in Seventeenth-Century England"; it may even vergeon "spiritual autobiography" at times. 21 But The Country Parson is certainly not-70-intended to be a diary, nor does it much resemble one.There are moments of particular self-revelation in The Country Parson, just asthere are in The Temple. Herbert seems to describe his own personality and habitswhen he observes that the parson's principal temptations are "Spiritual pride andImpurity of heart" and that in turmoil the parson must "throw himself down at thethrone of grace. Q 22 He seems accidentally to slip into the first person, as he describesthe parson's domestic arrangements in "The Parson in his house":For it is as unnatural to do any thing, that leads me to a sicknesse, towhich I am inclined, as not to get out of that sicknesse, when I am in it,by any diet. (chap. 10, 242: 36-38)Herbert clearly states that a parson's advice (including his own, one presumes) shouldderive from his own personal experience (chap. 33, 278:25-29). But drawing uponone's own experience or unintentionally revealing one's character, as novelists andpoets frequently do, is different from writing a diary.Those who mistakenly believe that Herbert intended to write a diary frequentlymisunderstand the structure of The Country Parson. A diary, whether it is well-writtenor not, is by nature episodic, rambling, and inchoate. A manual, unless it is verybadly-written indeed, must be progressive, clearly-focussed, and complete. YetWolberg seems to be describing a diary when she says that:Rather than a focussed argument . . . The Country Parson is a series ofshort, casually linked, self-contained discourses reflecting on thepastor's life in a familiar, even intimate tone. There is little urgencyhere, no public voice, and no obviously apparent order or thesis. 23Miller, too, might well be describing a diary entry, when he declares that Herbert"does not attempt to be clear," as if Herbert has no audience but himself in TheCountry Parson. 24 But, as we shall see, the style of The Country Parson is in fact-71-clear to the point of perspicuity, and this eminently public work does indeed have "adefinite order and thesis."Of course, "definite order" need not mean a tightly-organized or highly-concrete structure. Herbert leaves room for elegant variation, perhaps following hisown advice to the parson "in journey":. . . hee begins good discourses, such as may edify, interposingsometimes some short, and honest refreshments, which may make hisother discourses more welcome, and lesse tedious. (chap. 17, 251: 3-6)Although the thirty-seven chapters of The Country Parson are much alike, they are notentirely uniform. For example, chapter 11 ("The Parson's Courtesie") is particularlypithy: it is half the length of the following chapter ("The Parson's Charity"), butpointed and discerning. Chapter 13 ("The Parson's Church") is unusually detailed,dense and highly-organized. Chapter 26 ("The Parson's eye") is profuse: long andabstract, often boring but occasionally vivid. Herbert's preface ("The Authour to theReader"), composed in long complex sentences, is notably elegant and aural--thenatural expression of a precise mind speaking aloud. The two prayers at the end ofThe Country Parson ("The Authour's Prayer before Sermon" and "A Prayer afterSermon") are comparatively short, effusive, and again highly aural. Yet like thevarious poems and sections of The Temple, the chapters, preface, and prayers of TheCountry Parson are much more alike than not; they work together effectively, and oneis conscious throughout of an overarching plan or purpose.Still, it is not surprising that generations of readers have failed to apprehendthat purpose, and have continued to read The Country Parson as autobiography.Walton hopelessly muddied the waters by drawing so heavily upon The CountryParson for his Life of Herbert. 25 Also, the title page of The Country Parson has led-72-unsuspecting readers astray. The first edition reads:A PRIESTTo theTEMPLE,OR,The Countrey P- ARSONHISCHARACTER,ANDRule of Holy Lire.The AIIT H 0•12R 3G.H.LON DON,?noted by T. Maxey for T. Gartbroait, at thelittle North door of S'^t61 a:(ed., Hutchinson, 23)Readers of this title page may easily be left with the impression that The Country Parson is principally about Herbert's "character" and "holy life" --that it is a diary oran autobiography. The title page leaves room for other errors as well. Several of thegenre studies mentioned have concluded from the title page that The Country Parson isa prose character, and Stanley Stewart has concluded that The Country Parson is akind of monastic rule.' But such was not Herbert's intention. As Amy Charles hasshown, the subtitle is Barnabas Oley's, not Herbert's. 27 And as stanzas 23 and 24 of-73-"Perirrhanterium" suggest, Herbert subscribed to a rule of life not in the RomanCatholic sense of monastic order but in the Anglican sense of good and reasonableself-governance.'In fact, Herbert intended to write a clerical manual. According to his signedpreface, Herbert wrote The Country Parson not just as an exercise in personal devotionor as a "mark to aim at" professionally, but also that his colleagues might have aguide:The Lord prosper the intention to my selfe, and others, who may notdespise my poor labours, but add to those points, which I haveobserved, untill the Book grow to a compleat Pastorall. (p. 224)Herbert further emphasizes his clear intention to speak to all Anglican priests by hisblanket definition of the priesthood in chapter 1, and by his descriptions of the variouskinds of priests to whom his remarks pertain in chapter 2. If Herbert seems toconceive of The Country Parson as a personal rule of life in the oft-quoted opening ofchapter 28, one must also note that in the same passage Herbert implicitlyrecommends his rule to his colleagues in "the [clerical] profession" (268: 9-13). Thus,when Kollmeier contends that Herbert's "primary and most obvious intention ispersonal" whatever the "public uses" of The Country Parson, he reverses Herbert'spurpose. Herbert's statement in the preface, his references to his colleagues, hisdetermination to publish the work, and his extreme prescriptiveness indicate hisintention to write a clerical manual.Clerical manuals, which are written by and for clergy, provide bothencouragements to personal sanctity and advice concerning pastoral duties such aspreaching and catechizing. For a precise and accomplished craftsman such as Herbert,the decision to write a clerical manual was an ambitious one. The Country Parson -74-would take its place in a 1200 year-old tradition including such notable works as SaintAugustine's On Catechizing of the Uninstructed (A.D. 400), Gregory the Great'sPastoral Rule (A.D. 590-604), and Richard Baxter's The Reformed Pastor (1656). Thetradition also encompassed a bewildering variety of forms, but prescribed none. 29 Tohis credit, although The Country Parson has much in common with clerical manualssuch as those of Augustine and Gregory, Herbert's work is distinctive and probablyunique. For Herbert combines considerable practical instruction in parochialadministration with a striking pbrtrayal of a parish priest--a potent exemplar ofpersonal sanctity and social harmony, though not a "character," strictly speaking.The distinctive quality of The Country Parson cannot be adequately explainedas the subversion of one kind of prose, much less as the failure to write another. It isbest explained as the enrichment of the clerical manual by the addition of aspects ofform available in other kinds of prose. The essay provides Herbert with vividopenings, titles, and a principle of organization; the professional handbook provides acase-study format and ensures accessibility; conduct literature provides lessons inetiquette and portrays an idealized realm; the prose character conveys priestly virtueand satirizes non-conformists; the moral resolve provides an emotionally-convictingconclusion. Such a strategy tells us much about Herbert's religion and art. His artisticmethod in The Country Parson is like his method in The Temple. Herbert assimilatesmuch diverse traditional material, and transforms it, creating something new, beautifuland distinctive, not unmindful of public function but imbued with a strong personalpresence. This method, with its implicit concern for utility, discernment, inclusiveness,and personal expression in a public context, is a powerful artistic reflection ofHerbert's Anglican spirituality.-75-The structure of The Country Parson probably owes something to both theessay and the professional handbook. Collections of essays--brief, learned and oftencolourful reflections on public affairs--became popular with the publication of SirFrancis Bacon's Essays (1597). Robert Johnson was one of Bacon's many imitators,and his essays may also have been known to Herbert. Professional handbooks werecomprehensive reference works which physicians, magistrates, and others mightquickly consult to determine accepted professional practice. Herbert mentions two suchhandbooks in the Country Parson: Michael Dalton's Country Justice (1619) and JohnFernelius's Practice of Physic (c. 1600). These two kinds of prose, the essay and theprofessional handbook, are probably inter-related. For instance, Bacon and Ferneliusconceived of their respective essays and handbook as "counsels": particular advicegiven in the public domain." Herbert, too, is determined to offer counsel to hiscolleagues: advice on everything from church furnishings to the qualities of a goodwife. But if The Country Parson began as a series of short essays, it was later givensomething of the shape of a handbook.The Country Parson is too comprehensive and finished a work to be the simpletranscription of Herbert's resolutions before the altar at his induction to St. Andrew'sat Bemerton, as Walton would have us believe. 31 Walton's statement does suggest,however, that The Country Parson may have begun as a commonplace book such asthe one Herbert recommends to his fellow priests. Personal musings were transformedto public works by essayists in just this way. 32The Country Parson suggests a collection of essays in other ways as well. First,the chapters are self-contained, loosely organized, and invite individual reading, likeessays in a collection. But, unlike a collection of essays, The Country Parson still-76-seems to be a coherent whole. Such a form nicely conveys Herbert's implicit Anglicanbelief that individual expressions must be limited by a greater good. Implicitly, Puritanclerical manuals such as Richard Baxter's The Reformed Pastor (1656) make thecontrary claim: their relentless divisions and subdivisions emphasize isolated sectionsof the work and limit our sense of the whole, exemplifying individualism and schism.Like Bacon's Essays, The Country Parson presents a persuasive mix of broad adviceand sharp distinctions." Some of Herbert's chapters are devoted to typical essaysubjects such as education, marriage, and travel. 34 And even something as simple asHerbert's use of chapter headings--"The Parson a Father," "The Parson's Library," and"The Parson preaching," for instance--may reflect the essay-writer's use of titles.Occasionally, The Country Parson  seems to be modelled directly on the essayform. Although The Country Parson is typically concrete and concise, Herbertoccasionally dilates or becomes abstract. Chapter 1, "Of a Pastor," is wholly abstract,though it is notably short. Chapter 26, "The Parson's eye," is both unusually long andunusually abstract, involving a prolonged discussion of virtues and vices which bringsthe essay to mind:There are some vices, whose natures are alwayes deer, and evident, asAdultery, Murder, Hatred, Lying, &c. There are other vices, whosenatures, at least in the beginning, are dark and obscure: asCovetousnesse, and Gluttony. So likewise there are some persons, whoabstain not even from known sins; there are others, who when theyknow a sin evidently, they commit it not. It is true indeed, they are longa knowing it, being partial to themselves, and witty to others whoshall reprove them from it. A man may be both Covetous, andIntemperate, and yet hear Sermons against both, and himselfe condemnboth in good earnest . . . (264: 5-16)Although Herbert eventually descends to concrete example and particular advice inchapter 26, he rarely does so in chapter 30. "The Parson's Consideration of-77-Providence" (chap. 30) is just that, a parson's consideration of providence in theabstract, and stands alone in The Country Parson as a self-sufficient essay.Most important of all, perhaps, The Country Parson resembles a collection ofessays in its opening lines. Bacon is justly famous for the vivid, memorable openingsof his essays:'What is Truth ?' said jesting Pilate; & would not stay for an answer.("Of Truth")He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune; for theyare impediments to great enterprises, either of vertue or mischiefe.("Of Marriage and the Single Life")Robert Johnson's essays are also notable for their openings, though they are notparticularly notable in other respects:Education is a good and continual manuring of the mind . . . (Essay 3)Affability is like music which is made by a judicial correspondence of asharp and flat . . . (Essay 10)But the opening lines of Herbert's chapters are no less colourful and well-turned thanBacon's and Johnson's. One thinks particularly of the openings of "The Parsonpreaching" and "The Parson's Library" (chapters 7 and 33), or of the followingopenings of "The Parson's Charity" and "The Parson's eye":The Countrey Parson is full of Charity; it is his predominant element.For many and wonderful) things are spoken of thee, thou great Vertue.(chap. 12)The Countrey Parson at spare times from action, standing on a hill, andconsidering his Flock, discovers two sorts of vices, and two sorts ofvicious persons. (chap. 26)The openings of chapters 1, 7-10, 16 and 37 are also particularly well-crafted andmemorable, reminding one of the essay.Though Herbert apparently adopted aspects of the essay, The Country Parson -78-also diverges from the essay in form and content. Bacon's Essays are notable for theirdialogue or debate with aphorisms chosen from his reading, for their free quotationfrom the Bible and the classics, for their sometimes wandering logic, and for theirdetached prudential tone. 35 Herbert's chapters are well-developed logically, seldomallusive, and comparatively warm in tone. Johnson's Essays are much more pragmaticthan The Country Parson. Essay 15 quotes Machiavelli, and describes a shamelesslyMachiavellian currying of favour which is the antithesis of the self-sacrifice and moralintegrity which Herbert describes in The Country Parson. But such divergences merelysuggest that The Country Parson is more than a collection of essays.The Country Parson owes much to the professional handbook. In chapter 23,"The Parson's Completenesse," Herbert argues, rather surprisingly, that a priest mustnot only be a pastor to his parishioners, but a lawyer and physician as well (250: 29-35). He then recommends some quick but comprehensive references to aid the parsonin these specialized tasks, notably Dalton's Justice of the Peace and Fernelius'sMethod of Physick (260: 2, 261: 7). Fernelius is recommended not only for hispracticality, but also because "he writes briefly, neatly, and judiciously" (261:6). Onecould hardly have a better description of Herbert's own style in The Country Parson,and judging by this comment, Fernelius probably influenced Herbert in large ways andsmall.Several small influences suggest themselves. Fernelius may help us tounderstand Herbert's frequent recourse to proverbs and homely similes in The Country Parson:. . . by these [methods] hee keeps his body tame, serviceable, andhealthfull; and his soul fervent, active, young, and lusty as an eagle.(chap. 9, 237: 26-27)-79-Man would sit down at this world, God bids him sell it, and purchase abetter: Just as a Father, . . . hath in his hand an apple, and a piece ofGold under it . . . (chap. 30, 272: 6-8)For example, Fernelius concludes his handbook by saying:But to discourse over-long and over-accurately to an Artist, were tobring Owls to Athens, or Coals to New-Castle, according to theProverb.The influence of Fernelius's Physick may also help to explain Herbert's preoccupationwith diet and indigestion in The Country Parson.' Fernelius's handbook providedanother model for Herbert's strong opening statements, and probably contributed to theoften-prescriptive tone of The Country Parson.But The Country Parson resembles Fernelius's Physick most in its penchant fordetailed advice and in its case-study progress. The title page of the 1678 edition ofJohannes Fernelius's Practice of Physick, as it was then called, explains the plan of thework:The disease is propounded to Fernelius by another Physician on behalfof his Patient, an outlandish person.The dialogue form of the work may have encouraged Herbert to compose a series oftalks for his junior clerical colleagues, and indeed The Country Parson is stilloccasionally read aloud at clerical retreats or in seminaries. 37 Fernelius's cases arelabelled according to the situation discussed. So, for example, Counsel 7 is entitled"Of the Falling Sickness" and Counsel 62 is entitled "For a Swelling of the Spleen."Fernelius's opening sentences frequently declare an opinion or enunciate a principle:The truth is, these bald patches when they are not contracted by anysickness, nor through fault of any Humor, but from the first rise andfeed, they hardly admit any cure. (Counsel 1)As Lawyers from the Knowledge of the Fact understand what is Law-80-and Right in the Case, so must we fetch the whole way of our Curefrom the right knowledge of the Disease. (Counsel 7)One is then given considerable practical advice in a compressed, highly-organizedform. In Counsel 4, "For a noble Matron vexed with the Tooth-ache," for example, weare to follow precise steps which are enumerated ("first . . . the day after . . . meanwhile . . . "). Fernelius's closing statements are usually, and often literally,prescriptive, as in Counsels 27 and 62.The organization of The Country Parson frequently recalls the "case-study"progress of Fernelius's Physick outlined above. The headings of some of Herbert'schapters describe common parish problems, notably "The Parson arguing," "TheParson punishing," "The Parson in Contempt," and "The Parson with his Church-Wardens" (chaps. 24 & 25 and 28 & 29). The opening sentence of a chapter usuallyenunciates a pastoral principle which is then expounded and applied in variouscircumstances, as in "The Parson Comforting":The Countrey Parson, when any of his cure is sick, or afflicted withlosse of friend, or estate, or any ways distressed, fails not to afford hisbest comforts, and rather goes to them, then sends for the afflicted,though they can and otherwise ought to come to him. (chap. 15, 249)The length of discussion is generally proportional to the importance and complexity ofthe topic, and digressions are rare. Herbert apparently aims at a business-like clarity,an exactness which comes in part from carefully-martialled detail, judging by hisremarks in "The Parson Surveys":. . . it will not be amisse in this exceeding usefull point to descend toparticulars: for exactnesse lyes in particulars. (chap. 32, 275: 17-19)Like Fernelius, Herbert often enumerates his advice as he considers a case. In chapter28, for instance, Herbert enumerates several steps for the country parson to follow, to-81-prevent himself from being held in contempt:This he procures, first by his holy and unblameable life . . . Secondly,by a courteous carriage . . . Thirdly, by a bold and impartial reproof.. .(268: 20-30)Such advice suggests the remedies prescribed by Fernelius. And like Fernelius's casestudies, Herbert's chapters typically conclude with a strong summary statement, oftenasserting the importance of the pastoral principle discussed, as in "The Parson inCircuit" which describes the priest's regular visitation of his parishioners:Wherefore neither distaineth he to enter into the poorest Cottage, thoughhe even creep into it, and though it smell never so lothsomly. For bothGod is there also, and those for whom God dyed: and so much therather cloth he so, as his accesse to the poor is more comfortable then tothe rich.. .(chap. 14, 249: 4-9)Like Fernelius, Herbert provides a wealth of specific practical advice in TheCountry Parson, particularly in such chapters as:The Parson praying (chap. 6)The Parson preaching (chap. 7)The Parson's Courtesie (chap. 11)The Parson's Church (chap. 13)The Parson Comforting (chap. 15)The Parson in Sentinell (chap. 18)The Parson Catechizing (chap. 21)The Parson in Sacraments (chap. 22)The Parson's Completenesse (chap. 23)."The Parson's Church" is perhaps the best example of such a chapter. Reading it, onelearns exactly what to do in order to furnish and decorate a church appropriately, aswell as what values adhere to such a task; however, theological abstractions are almostcompletely absent. The question is what to do, and we are told with becoming brevityand extreme practicality:CHAP. XIII.The Parson's Church.THe Countrey Parson hath a speciall care of his Church,that all things there be decent, and befitting his Nameby which it is called. Therefore first he takes order, that allthings be in good repair; as walls plaistered, windows glazed,s floore paved, seats whole, firm, and uniform, especially thatthe Pulpit, and Desk, and Communion Table, and Font beas they ought, for those great duties that are performed inthem. Secondly, that the Church be swept, and kept cleanewithout dust, or Cobwebs, and at great festivalls strawed,io and stuck with boughs, and perfumed with incense. Thirdly,That there be fit, and proper texts of Scripture every wherepainted, and that all the painting be grave, and reverend,not with light colours, or foolish anticks. Fourthly, That allthe books appointed by Authority be there, and those not25 tome, or fouled, but whole and clean, and well bound; andthat there be a fitting, and sightly Communion Cloth of finelinnen, with an handsome, and seemly Carpet of good and costlyStuffe, or Cloth, and all kept sweet and clean, in a strong anddecent chest, with a Chalice, and Cover, and a Stoop, or Flagon;20 and a Bason for /limes and offerings; besides which, he hatha Poor-mans Box conveniently seated, to receive the charity of wellminded people, and to lay up treasure for the sick and needy. Andall this he doth, not as out of necessity, or as putting a holinessin the things, but as desiring to keep the middle way between25 superstition, and slovenlinesse, and as following the Apostlestwo great and admirable Rules in things of this nature: Thefirst whereof is, Let all things be done decently, and in order:The second, Let all things be done to edification, i Con 14. Forthese two rules comprize and include the double object of30 our duty, God, and our neighbour; the first being for thehonour of God; the second for the benefit of our neighbor.So that they excellently score out the way, and fully, andexactly contain, even in externall and indifferent things,what course is to be taken; and put them to great shame, whodeny the Scripture to be perfect.-83-The organization of The Country Parson probably owes something to MichaelDalton's Country Justice (1619) as well as Fernelius's Physick. Like Dalton, Herbertfaced the task of providing educated but inexperienced professionals with the basics ofgood practice in a rural setting. And it would have been only natural for Herbert toconsult Dalton's work, which he respected, as he considered the shape of his own.Herbert would need to explain the general principles of pastoral care; but since thereader would also want to consult the manual for specific advice as particularproblems arose, such information should be accessible. Dalton begins his work withgeneral principles of law and jurisprudence, which is followed by an alphabetically-organized compendium of practical advice, a discussion of various statutes, and adetailed index. Although The Country Parson is not as accessible as The Country Justice, the two works are organized along similar lines.The organization of The Country Parson as a whole is much like theorganization of its parts. For example, in "The Parson's Church" quoted above,Herbert moves from the general to the particular, from the abstract to the concrete,from what is most important to what is least important. The opening sentence statesthe principle: "The Countrey Parson bath a speciall care of his Church, that all thingsthere be decent, and befitting his Name by which it is called" (246: 1-3). Herbertapplies this principle in the rest of the chapter, but always discussing first things first.All things must be decent, but the parson must make sure that the church isstructurally sound before he worries about its decoration:Therefore first he takes order, that all things be in good repair; as wallsplaistered, windows glazed, floore paved, seats whole, firm, anduniform, especially that the Pulpit, and Desk, and Communion Table,and Font be as they ought, for those great duties that are performed inthem. (246: 3-8)-84-The first section of The Country Parson is likewise most abstract but mostimportant: for no priest can be much good at what he does unless he has first graspedwhat he is supposed to be. The country parson is required to be a pastor, "the Deputyof Christ for the reducing of Man to the Obedience of God" (chap. 1, 255: 1-2). Thepractice of reducing the congregation to obedience is then described in progressivedetail, again putting first things first. The parson's first duties are praying, preaching,and conducting Sunday services; once the parson has mastered these duties, he canturn his attention to his church 'wardens and his parishioners' devotion to folk customs(chaps. 6-8; 29, 35-36). One moves from discussions of prayer in the abstract, todiscussions of prayer technique, to the actual prayers which conclude The Country Parson. This movement from the general to the specific, from what is most importantto what is least important, is one reflection of the order of Dalton's Country Justice.More specifically, Herbert follows Dalton in devoting his introductory chaptersto defining the profession, including its various kinds of practitioners, theirqualifications and necessary knowledge (chaps. 1-5). The middle part of The Country Parson, like the middle part of the Country Justice, describes general professionalpractice. We progress from what the priest does on Sunday (chaps. 6-8), to what hedoes at home (chaps. 9-12), to his general role in the parish as comforter and father,(chaps. 15-16), to a consideration of particular offices such as catechizing andcelebrating the eucharist (chaps. 21-22). The last part of The Country Parson, like thelast part of the Country Justice, is even more specific. We begin with advice onspecific situations such as "The Parson in mirth," "The Parson with his Church-wardens," and "The Parson blessing" (chaps. 27, 29, 36). And we end by considering aparticular text, as Dalton considers his statutes: in Herbert's case, "The Authour's-85-Prayer before Sermon" and "A Prayer after Sermon" (288-290).Despite its wealth of good advice, The Country Parson is not as comprehensiveas Dalton's Country Justice, though the curious conclusion to Herbert's preface seemsto embrace Dalton's ideal:The Lord prosper the intention to my selfe, and others, who may notdespise my poor labours, but add to those points, which I haveobserved, untill the Book grow to a compleat Pastorall. (224)Nor is The Country Parson as accessible as the Country Justice: for although Herbertworks from the general to the specific and includes headings, he does not divide hiswork into sections, organize his middle section alphabetically, or supply an index. Butwhen one understands that Herbert was intending to write a clerical manual instead ofa professional handbook, these divergences are strengths, not the weaknesses thatKollmeier alleges them to be. 38By definition, a handbook must be comprehensive and highly accessible, amanual less so. Herbert shaped what might have been a series of tangentially relatedessays into a practical form, designed to meet the basic needs of the emergentprofessional. But he was equally concerned to create something which wasaesthetically pleasing and which embodied the ideal of an undivided and inclusivechurch. "The Parson's Church" suggests how firmly Herbert believed in the beauty ofholiness, an idea which had particular currency in the early seventeenth-centuryChurch of England. 39 Herbert's beautifully crafted prose and careful blending ofliterary traditions make The Country Parson a work of art as well as a treatise on theart of work. Herbert's refusal to divide his work into sections exemplifies his concernthat the Church of England should not be divided into factions or broken by schism.His invitation to his fellow clergymen to complete what he started "untill the Book-86-grow to a compleat Pastorall" is itself a plea for unity and an inducement to conformto the ways of the established church.Because Herbert supports the existing religious and political hierarchy, severalcritics have assumed that The Country Parson is modelled on a courtesy book. 4°Courtesy and etiquette books prescribe correct courtly behaviour, and suggest the bestmeans of advancement at court. Such works vary considerably in form and content,from Niccolo Machiavelli's short, pragmatic treatise on getting and keeping power(The Prince, c. 1532) to Baldassare Castiglione's leisurely dialogue concerning courtlyideals (The Courtier, 1528) to Henry Peacham's practical guide to manners anddeportment (The Complete Gentleman, 1622). Some ideological readings of TheCountry Parson suggest a Machiavellian quest for power, a preoccupation with mereappearances, a preference for Aristotelean rather than Christian virtues, and acondescending attitude to the lower classes.' As we have seen, The Country Parson does discuss common courtesy book topics such as education (chap. 5), eloquence(chap. 6), courtesy (chap. 11), and liberality (chap. 12); but then so do Bacon's Essays and Augustine's Christian Doctrine. Although Herbert's country parson might seemauthoritarian by modern standards, the idea of reducing a congregation to obedience iscommon to clerical manuals, and some--such as Gregory the Great's Pastoral Rule- -make Herbert's occasional recourse to church authority seem mild.The parson might seem Machiavellian in "The Parson's Courtesie" and "TheParson's Charity" (chaps. 11-12), but such manipulation only shows his biblicaldetermination to "make his Parish good, if not the best way, yet any way" and to "givelike a Priest" rather than a social worker (244: 1-5, 255: 30-38). Herbert's parson ishighly conscious of appearances when he prays, but this does not mean that he is-87-insincere. He employs facial and hand gestures and manipulates his voice to provokethe congregation's devotion, but only "that being first affected himself, hee may affectalso his people" (chap. 6, 231: 12-13). Herbert's parson is "temperate, bold, [and]grave in all his wayes," perhaps suggesting classical virtue; but he is also "holy [and]just"--above all, holy--epitomizing Christian virtue (chap. 3, 227: 1-3). Despite the titleof chapter 35, "The Parson Condescending," the parson cares for the lower classeswithout condescension. Herbert occasionally disparages rural ignorance, small-mindedness, or churlishness; but his harshest criticism is reserved for indolent andconceited gentry and immoral "gallants" (chaps. 6, 32). The parson is most at homewith the poor, for whom he sacrifices himself and seeks justice (chaps. 14, 22).If The Country Parson draws upon conduct literature, it is more reminiscent ofetiquette books than courtesy books. For instance, Galateo is much the same length asThe Country Parson and considers similar topics, particularly domestic arrangementsand discourse. But Galateo is most notable for such basic--and often crude--etiquetteas not letting one's servants scratch themselves while they are serving at table, notlaying one's nose on a cup someone else must drink from, and not falling asleep incompany (20, 24, 26). Such basic etiquette emerges in The Country Parson, where thepeople are enjoined to. . . do all in a strait, and steady posture, as attending to what is done inthe Church, and every one, man, and child, answering aloud both Amen,and all other answers, which are on the Clerks and peoples part toanswer; which answers also are to be done not in a hudling, orslubbering fashion, gaping, or scratching the head, or spitting even inthe midst of their answer .. .(chap. 6, 231: 26-32)The furnishing of the parson's church also suggests a kind of etiquette, though more ofthe kind found in Peacham's Complete Gentleman, an etiquette book much like The-88-Country Parson in its form and tone. Peacham's directions are far more elevated thanthose in Galateo, and Peacham provides his reader with much detailed and practicaladvice, just as Herbert does in The Country Parson.'If The Country Parson  does owe anything to a courtesy book such as TheCourtier, it is idealism: the description of the perfect gentleman--in Herbert's case, theclerical gentleman--and of the perfect kingdom. Castiglione intended "to form, inwords, the perfect courtier"(I.xii). Herbert may have learned to form his cleric fromhistory or prose characters; butlike Castiglione, Herbert is adept at creating repose inchapters such as "The Parson's Church." In Herbert's case, the repose is more godlyand less sumptuous than the court of Urbino. But Herbert's goal is much likeCastiglione's,creating, in a fiercely--and sometimes bloodily competitive world--anoasis of tranquility where the beauty of man's great culturalachievements may be enjoyed."Herbert does not create an oasis for the appreciation of art and literature, but he doescreate a tranquil atmosphere undisturbed by Papists and Puritans in which the devoutmay appreciate the teaching and ceremonies of the English Church. This Anglicanideal of unruffled devotion amid civil peace was what gave The Country Parson itsgreat propaganda value in the Restoration."Herbert's ideal country parson was much recommended as a model to theRestoration clergy by Walton and Oley. Indeed, the country parson's example is vividand memorable, and Herbert's clerical manual is distinctive largely for this reason.Herbert does not merely tell us what a priest should do, or even what he should be;Herbert shows us. He provides a picture of serene virtue in God's service, perhaps asa counterpart to the "picture of spiritual struggle" in The Temple. Although The-89-Country Parson is not a prose character per se, one finds touches of the characterscattered throughout.The prose character was a brief, witty character sketch of a representativesocial type. Collections of such characters were popular in the early seventeenthcentury, most notably Joseph Hall's Characters of Virtues and Vices (1608), ThomasOverbury's Characters (1614), and John Earle's Microcosmographie (1628). Theparson himself is a sort of diffuse character. Like John Earle's "Grave Divine,"Herbert's country parson is learned, pious, obedient, just, skilled, and temperate. LikeEarle, Herbert builds his prose character by summary statements of personal virtue andprofessional competence. Earle's divineknowes the burden of his calling and hath studied to make his shoulderssufficient: for which he hath not been hasty to launch forth of his portthe University . . . The ministry is his choyce, not refuge, and yet thePulpit not his itch, but feare. His discourse there is substance, not allRhetorique, and he utters more things then words . . . In matters ofceremonie hee is not ceremonious, but thinkes hee owes that reverenceto the Church to bow his judgement to it, and make more conscience ofschisme, then a Surplesse. Hee esteemes the Churches Hierarchy, as theChurches glory, and however we jarre with Rome, would not have ourconfusion distinguish us . . . Hee is a maine pillar of our Church,though not yet Deane nor Canon, and his life our Religions bestApologie: His death is his last sermon, where in the pulpit of his bedhee instructs men to die by his example. 45In the preface to The Country Parson, Herbert declares his intention to "set down theForm and Character of a true Pastour." He then gradually builds up a picture of anideal priest by the deft use of chapter headings and opening sentences:CHAP. HI. The Parsons Life.The Countrey Parson is exceeding exact in his Life, being holy, just,prudent, temperate, bold, grave in all his wayes.CHAP. VI . The  Parson praying.-90-The Countrey Parson, when he is to read divine services, composethhimselfe to all possible reverence; lifting up his heart and hands, andeyes, and using all other gestures which may expresse a hearty, andunfeyned devotion.CHAP. VII. The Parson preaching.The Countrey parson preacheth constantly, the pulpit is his joy and histhrone . . .CHAP. X. The Parson in his house. The Parson is very exact in the governing of his house, making it acopy and modell for his Parish.By scattering further summary statements about the parson's personal virtue andprofessional competence throughout The Country Parson,  Herbert gradually builds upthe character of the ideal parson (chaps. 1-2, 8-10, 16, 20, 26-28).That Herbert's character is diffuse, not compressed into a single paragraph likeEarle's, is further evidence of Herbert's ability to adapt various prose forms in TheCountry Parson. This form probably appealed to Herbert because he wanted toemphasize the importance of character (holiness) as well as professional competence,as we might gather from his statement that "the character of [the parson's] Sermons isHoliness" (233: 23), and from Herbert's concern with the inner man in "Aaron." Sosuccessful was Herbert's character of holiness that it became inseparable from Herberthimself. Partly because the character of the country parson provided the nucleus ofWalton's "Holy Mr. Herbert," generations of readers mistook The Country Parson forbiography. The wisdom of their misreading was that they were gripped by thecharacter Herbert shaped.But as Earle's "Grave Divine" indicates, the character provided an additionalformal device which recommended conformity to church authority--another strong-91-indication of Herbert's conservative Anglicanism. The prose character also presentedan apt vehicle for Herbert's gentle criticism of his colleagues--as well as dissentersand trouble-makers--and for the unvarnished portrayal of rural life awaiting theaspiring country parson.The counterpart of Earle's "Grave Divine" is his discerning and gently-criticalportrait of "A Young raw preacher":His backwardnes in the University hath set him thus forward . . . Hiscollections of study are the notes of sermons, which taken up at S.Manes, he utters in the Countrey . . . he reads onely what hee getswithout books . . . His prayer is conceited, and no man remembers hisCollege more at large . . . He preaches but once a yeare; though twiceon Sunday: for the stuffe is still the same, onley dressing a little altered46. . .We encounter such wit and counterpoint not infrequently in The Country Parson.Consider, for instance, Herbert's gentle jibe at Lancelot Andrewes's (1555-1626)"crumbling" method of preaching:. . . the other way of crumbling a text into small parts, as, the Personspeaking, or spoken to, the subject, and object, and the like, hath neitherin it sweetnesse, nor gravity, nor variety, since the words apart are notScripture , but a dictionary, and may be considered alike in all theScripture. (chap. 7, 235: 5-10)Here we see Herbert at his poetic best, crumbling his own description into small jerkybits. He enjoys another moment of wry humour at the expense of young theologians,who worry about scholastic distinctions when they would be better prepared for theministry by observing the ways of country folkwhich while they dwell in their bookes, they will never finde; but beingseated in the Countrey, and doing their duty faithfully, they will soondiscover: especially if they carry their eyes ever open, and fix them ontheir charge, and not on their preferment. (chap. 26, 266: 1-5).And a note of asperity creeps into Herbert's witty criticism of obsequious resident-92-chaplains:They who do not [reprove], while they remember their earthly Lord, domuch forget their heavenly . . . and shall be so farce from that whichthey seek with their over-submissivenesse, and cringings, that they shallever be despised.(chap. 2, 226: 31-36)Herbert seems to adopt somewhat of Overbury's method as his charactersbroaden to social satire. Overbury's character of a Puritan is a witty tirade whichnicely exposes the weaknesses of the extreme Protestant position:. . . his firery zeal keeps him continually costive, which withers himinto his own translation . . . any thing that that law allowes, butmarriage and March beere, hee murmures at...give him advice, you runinto traditions, and urge a modest course he cryes out councels. Hisgreatest care is to contemne obedience . . . 47Overbury not only refutes Puritan theology here, but he also makes the Puritan appeardisagreeable and flighty. Perhaps because he wishes to preserve the ideal of peaceableAnglican devotion, Herbert does not present vivid characters of odious and divisivenon-conformists. But Herbert caricatures the beliefs of "Papists" and "Schismaticks" in"The Parson arguing" (chap. 24), much as Overbury does above. And, having madethe traditional Anglican distinction between "things necessary" and "thingsadditionary," Herbert provides a character of over-scrupulosity which is particularlyrelevant to those with "Papist" or "Puritan" inclinations:Now it so happens, that the godly petitioner upon some emergentinterruption in the day, or by over-sleeping himself at night, omits hisadditionary prayer. Upon this his mind begins to be perplexed, andtroubled, and Satan, who knows the exigent, blows the fire,endeavouring to disorder the Christian, and put him out of his station,and to inlarge the perplexity, untill it spread, and taint his other dutiesof piety, which none can perform so wel in trouble as calmness.(chap. 31, 272:29-273:3)Like Hall, Overbury, and Earle, Herbert offers concise descriptions of the-93-virtues and vices of numerous walks of life and estates. For example, we have thesolid and virtuous newly-married land-owner:The marryed and house-keeper hath his hands full, if he do what heought to do. For there are two branches of his affaires; first, theimprovement of his family; by bringing them up in the fear and nurtureof the Lord; and secondly, the improvement of his grounds, bydrowning, or draining, or stocking, or fencing, and ordering his land tothe best advantage both of himself, and his neighbours. (chap. 32, 275:20-26)And, shortly after, we are treated to a defence of the office of Justice of the Peace,despite its abuses, and are presented with a telling character of the privileged butunstable young blood (276: 18-25; 276:10-277:24). Indeed, like the character writersmentioned above, Herbert seems somewhat to favour the judiciary and to despair ofthe gentry. Consider, for instance, the character of the haughty and conceitedsquirearchy which Herbert interpolates in "The Parson praying":If there be any of the gentry or nobility of the Parish, who somtimesmake it a piece of state not to come at the beginning of service withtheir poor neighbours, but at mid-prayers, both to their own loss, and oftheirs also who gaze upon them when they come in, and neglect thepresent service of God, he by no means suffers it, but after divers gentleadmonitions, if they persevere, he causes them to be presented: or if thepoor Church-wardens be affrighted with their greatness, not-withstanding his instruction ... he presents themhimself . . . (chap. 6, 232:7-17)Herbert is usually more sympathetic to his rustic parishioners. Occasionally, hedescribes them in unsavory terms, as when they huddle and slubber and spit in church.But such accounts must be put into their historical context," and must be weighedagainst Herbert's neutral characterizations:Countrey people live hardly, and therefore as feeling their own sweat,and consequently knowing the price of mony, are offended much withany, who by hard usage increase their travell. (chap. 3, 227: 12-15)The Countrey Parson considering the great aptnesse Countrey people-94-have to think that all things come by a kind of naturall course; and thatif they sow and soyle their grounds, they must have corn; if they keepand fodder well their cattel, they must have milk, and Calves; labours toreduce them to see Gods hand in all things . . . (chap. 30, 270: 24-29)Although he may occasionally express his pastoral frustration, Herbert's main concernseems to be to present a realistic picture of rural life to the aspiring rural clergyman.The prose character may also have influenced the form of The Country Parson in more subtle ways. Overbury's character of the Puritan works partly by association,for it is followed by "A Whore" and "A very Whore"--a particularly cuttingassociation, since the Puritans often called the Roman Catholic Church the "Whore ofBabylon." Herbert uses this same sort of associative wit more kindly in The Country Parson by juxtaposing his brief discussion of "The Parson's Courtesy" with his muchmore extensive discussion of "The Parson's Charity" (chaps. 11-12). Charity isobviously more important than courtesy for the country parson. Besides its tightargument, Earle's character of "A Young raw preacher" has a strong opening andclose: "A Young raw preacher is a bird not fleg'd . . . Next sunday you shall have himagain." Such techniques provide a round finished quality to the prose character--aquality which most of Herbert's chapters share, though their neat conclusions may owesomething to the moral resolve as well.The moral resolve was a new prose form which enjoyed a brief popularity inthe early seventeenth century. In addition to his prose characters, Joseph Hallpublished a book of resolves (1605), as did Danel Tuvill (1622) and Owen Feltham(1628). The resolve was highly metaphysical and moralistic, and allowed amplepersonal reflection. Resolves often discussed public questions, and were sometimes ofessay length, but differed from the essay in their moralism and pointed conclusions-95-which sought to convince others. The poor modern equivalent might be a New Year'sresolution, which someone not only made for himself but also tried to convince hisfriends to make.The resolve may have contributed to the sense of finality which the chapters ofThe Country Parson often demonstrate. After all, Herbert not only wanted to give hischapters a finished quality; his intention to make better priests demanded that hemove his colleagues and win their cooperation. The closing of Feltham's fifth resolvewhich discusses human suffering conveys something of the tone and effect of themoral resolve: "He that dyes dayly, seldome dyes dejectedly." The same sense offinality and moral certainty is often evident in Herbert's closing sentences:They who for the hope of promotion neglect any necessary admonition,or reproofe, sell (with Judas) their Lord and Master.(chap. 2)As he opened the day with prayer, so he closeth it, humbly beseechingthe Almighty to pardon and accept our poor services, and to improvethem, that we may grow therein, and that our feet may be like hindesfeet ever climbing up higher, and higher unto him. (chap. 8)One thing is evident, that an English body, and a Students body, aretwo great obstructed vessels, and there is nothing that is food, and notphisick, which doth lesse obstruct, then flesh moderately taken; as beingimmoderately taken, it is exceeding obstructive. And obstructions arethe cause of most diseases.(chap. 10)So the Countrey Parson, who is a diligent observer, and tracker of Godswayes, sets up as many encouragements to goodnesse as he can, both inhonour, and profit, and fame; that he may, if not the best way, yet anyway, make his Parish good. (chap. 11)Such closing sentences as these are not only artistically apt but also emotionallyeffective.Herbert's more subtle conclusion of the whole book also recalls the resolve. In-96-the final chapters, the parson dexterously applies all sorts of remedies (chap. 34); hethen makes peace with the country customs of his parish and wins his parishioners togood (chap. 35); he blesses the faithful (chap. 36); he suffers the inevitable detractions(chap. 37). Then he closes with prayer: "The Authour's Prayer before Sermon," and"A Prayer after Sermon" which ends:Grant this dear Father, for thy Son's sake, our only Saviour: To whomwith thee, and the Holy Ghost, three Persons, but one most glorious,incomprehensible God, be ascribed all Honour, and Glory, and Praise,ever. Amen.While the parson prepares to take his leave and we prepare to take ours, he subtlydraws us into a sense of community and worship. In this sense, we are convinced andmade to participate--a technique which may owe something to the resolve.Yet if Herbert employed elements of the resolve, he did so selectively. Thenormal temper of the resolve was one of contemptus mundi, a sentiment rare in TheCountry Parson and at odds with Herbert's Anglican spirituality. 49 The normal temperor tone of The Country Parson, even more than that of The Temple, is more like"Man" than "The Collar." But then Herbert was not writing resolves in the normalsense, any more than he was simply writing essays or characters, as he composed TheCountry Parson.If one had to choose, The Country Parson is arguably more catholic thanprotestant, more like Augustine's practical catechetical guide than abstract Puritanpreaching manuals. But like the English Church, The Country Parson is ultimatelyboth and neither. The Country Parson demonstrates an affinity with both the reformedand catholic aspects of the Christian tradition, for it discusses liturgy and thesacraments as well as catechizing and preaching. But there is a warmth and-97-inclusiveness manifest in the character of the priest and the church, which is unusualin either Protestant or Roman clerical manuals. One also finds in The Country Parson the strong and distinctively Anglican sense that the parson, and therefore the church, isintegrated into society, and that the whole created order--nature and all humanendeavour--is inherently good.Herbert's selective use of various prose forms in The Country Parson alsoreflects his Anglicanism. Like his poems, and like Anglican spirituality, The Country Parson is notably unsystematic and undoctrinal, valuing--but not imposing--order.What makes Herbert's clerical manual distinctive is its blend of the practical and theabstract, its gradual picture of the ideal parson, and the way in which its chapters maybe appreciated separately but form a coherent whole--an implicit plea for church unity.And as the form of The Country Parson embodies the principle of unity,Herbert memorably captures that ideal in his description of parish life. The occasionalPapist or Puritan may be found on the fringes, but the vast majority of the parish fromthe squire to the farmer are members of the congregation. The parson quietly andgladly conforms to church discipline, and loves the church's ceremonies and traditions.But Kollmeier and Hodgkins are wrong to think that Herbert is merely tryingto capture, or recapture, an Anglican golden age.5° Rather, he is capturing thecharacteristically Anglican attitude in all ages. The Country Parson demonstrates whatMarshall describes as the typically Anglican attitude to history: "a simultaneousappreciation of traditions and an open criticism of the past." 51 This attitude guidesHerbert's artistic method, his balancing of innovation and tradition. He is willing topreserve and make edifying use of received tradition, but he is not bound by it. 52 Hecan therefore draw freely upon new prose forms as he works in the ancient literary-98-tradition of the clerical manual. He can choose from the prose character, the essay, themoral resolve, the courtesy and etiquette books, and the professional handbook thoseelements which seem useful, and recombine them in a way which he finds good.-99-NOTES: CHAPTER 21 See Harold Kollmeier, "'A Mark to Aim At': Genre and Sensibility inGeorge Herbert's Country Parson" (Ph.D. diss., State University of New York, StonyBrook, 1976), 8-9.2 Christina Malcolmson, "Society and Self-Definition in the Works of GeorgeHerbert" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1983), 6-9.3 Kristine A. Wolberg, "All Possible Art': George Herbert's The Country Parson" (Ph.D. diss., Notre Dame, 1987), 34, 57.4 C. Hugh Holman, ed., A Handbook to Literature, 2nd ed. (New York:Odyssey, 1960), 211.5 Alex Preminger, ed., Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 2nd ed.(Princeton: Princeton University Press), 307-309.6 For Plato, the choice was between description and mimicry (Republic 3,392); for Aristotle, the principal choice was similar--relating and displaying events(Poetics 3, 1-2)--though he later mentions choices between objectivity and subjectivity,and between celebrating man's achievements and condemning his folly.' See appendix I, which describes the four kinds of prose that Herbert wasable to draw upon as he composed The Country Parson. There I suggest the valuesand assumptions of each kind of prose.8 For more on Herbert's literary association and affinity with Francis Bacon,see Joseph Summers, George Herbert: His Religion and Art (Cambridge: HarvardUniversity Press, 1954), 11, 195; Michael Schoenfeldt, Prayer and Power: George Herbert and Renaissance Courtship  (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), 234-36.9 See John L. Lievsay, Stephano Guazzo and the English Renaisssance (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1961), 141-142. "The Italian"suggests Guazzo or Florio (CP 275:26).19 See Siegfried Wenzel, "Notes on the Parson's Tale," Chaucer Review 16(1982):248.11 Breton's work consists of fifty character sketches tending toward definition,with epigrammatic openings, arranged in a strict social hierarchy. "A Good Man" and"A Holy Man" (nos. 26 and 50) remind one of Herbert's country parson.12 David Nichol Smith, ed., Characters From the Histories and Memoirs of the Seventeenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon, 1918), xxvii.13 John L. Lievsay, The Seventeenth-Century Resolve: A Historical Anthology-100-of a Literary Form (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1980), 81.14 Kristine Wolberg, "'All Possible Art'," 75, 82; Aristotle takes the oppositeview--that content does not determine genre--in the Poetics, 1, 8.15 John L. Lievsay, ed., Daniel Tuvill: Essays Political and Moral (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1971), xv.16 James Cleland, The Institution of a Young Noble Man, (Oxford: JosephBarnes, 1607), 1:xxxvii, xl.17 Kristine Wolberg accuses Herbert of Machiavellianism in "'All PossibleArt'," 89-93.18 See Harold Kollmeier, "'A Mark to Aim At'," iii-iv.19 The Works of George Herbert (Oxford: Clarendon, 1941), xxxvi-xxxviii.20 See Stanley Stewart, George Herbert (Boston: Hall, 1986) and MargaretBottrall, George Herbert (London: Murray, 1954).21 Margaret Bottrall, George Herbert, 76, 79; James Thorpe, "Outlandish Proverbs and The Country Parson," Illustrious Evidence, ed. Earl Miner (Berkeley:University of California Press, 1975), 34-5.22 Chap. 9, 238: 2-3, chap. 22, 257: 30-33: these passages recall Walton'sstatement in his Life that Herbert had "too great regard for his parts and personage"when he was at Cambridge and Walton's description of Herbert's prostration beforethe altar at his induction to St. Andrew's at Bemerton.23 Wolberg, 74.24 See Edmund Miller, Drudgerie Divine: The Rhetoric of God and Man in George Herbert (Salzburg: Universität Salzburg, 1979), 228.25 See David Novarr, The Making of Walton's Lives (Ithaca: CornellUniversity Press, 1958).26 See Stewart's discussion of George Herbert's spirituality and that of theLittle Gidding Community: he suggests that The Country Parson reflects their (semi-monastic) "rule."27 A Life of George Herbert (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977), 157, 185-87.2s The supplementary instruction to the Anglican catechism states that "everyChristian man or woman should from time to time frame for himself a Rule of Life in-101-accordance with the precepts of the Gospel and the faith and order of the church". Theinstruction further describes such a rule, but the principle is the good ordering of lifewhich ought to apply to all Christians rather than a specific set of rules for the clergyor those belonging to religious orders.29 See appendix I for a description of the various forms of clerical manuals.3° The respective titles of Bacon's and Fernelius's works are The Essayes orCounsels Civill and Mora11 and The Practice of Physick . . . randl Select Medicinal Counsels: the mention of "counsels" suggests a mutual purpose or conception.31 See A. H. Bullen, ed., Walton's Lives, 2nd ed. (London: Bell, 1884), 293.32 See Douglas Bush, English Literature in the Early Seventeenth-Century, 2nded. (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1962), 203. Bush gives Ben Jonson's Timber asan example of a commonplace book that gives rise to essays.33 Christopher Morley, ed., The Essays of Sir Francis Bacon (New York:Heritage Press, 1944), 4, 58, 163.34 Chapters 3-4, 9, and 17 respectively. Bacon's "Of Marriage" and "OfTravaile" are similar in subject to Herbert's "The Parson's State of Life" and "TheParson in Journey."35 See Michael Kiernan, ed., Sir Francis Bacon: The Essayes or Counsels Civil and Morall (Oxford: Clarendon, 1985), xx, xli-xliii. Morley describes the tone ofBacon's Essays as "iced vermouth" (vi).36 In chapter 10, Herbert is much taken up with the sort of digestivedifficulties which Fernelius considers in Counsel 28, "Of a Windy pain in theStomack."37 For example, see Kenneth Mason, George Herbert: Priest and Poet  (Oxford:SLG Press, 1980).38 Kollmeier, 60, 140.39 The biblical concept of "the beauty of holiness" is to be found in 1Corinthians 16:29 and Psalms 29:2, 96:9. But Lancelot Andrewes popularized this ideain Herbert's time and developed its aesthetic aspects: holiness was beautiful in itself,but it was also fitting for holy things to be beautiful. The two ideas fuse in "TheParson's Church."ao Wolberg, 80-81.41 See Wolberg, 93-96 and Michael Schoenfeldt's Prayer and Power. Courtesybooks usually advocate classical virtue, though some advocate Christian virtues as-102-well. On the Aristotelean virtues in Spenser, Elyot, and Ascham, see W. E. Henley,ed., The Book of the Courtier, Done into English by Sir Thomas Hoby (1561)(London: Nutt, 1900), xii.42 See Virgil B. Heltzel, ed., The Complete Gentleman (Ithaca: CornellUniversity Press, 1962), xiii. The similar titles of Peacham's, Dalton's, and Herbert'seminently practical works suggest a coincidence of purpose.u J. R. Woodhouse, A Reassessment of the Courtier (Edinburgh: EdinburghUniversity Press, 1978), 196.44 Kollmeier, 12-60, provides a comprehensive discussion of the political usesof Walton's Life and Herbert's Country Parson during the Restoration.45 See Helen C. White et al., eds., Seventeenth-Century Verse and Prose, 2nded. (New York: Macmillan, 1971), 1:184.46 See John Earle, "Microcosmographie, or A Peece of the World Discovered,"Essayes and Characters (London: Blout, 1628).47 Edward F. Rimbault, ed. The Miscellaneous Works in Verse and Prose ofThomas Overbury (London: Reeves, 1890), 80.48 Modern readers such as Kollmeier (164-165), Wolberg (75-77), andSchoenfeldt (Power and Prayer) are apt to criticize Herbert for his sometimesunpleasant references to the poor and rustic. But such indictments do not makesufficient allowance for the squalor of churches and the rural poor which one notes insuch contemporary documents as Laud's visitation records.49 See John L. Lievsay, ed., The Seventeenth-Century Resolve: A Historical Anthology of a Literary Form (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1980), 3.5° See Kollmeier, 95 and Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church, andSociety in the Works of George Herbert," (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1988),4-5.51 See Ann Herndon Marshall, "Godly Decorum: Anglican Approaches toHistory, Imitation, and the Arts in the Sermons of John Donne and Selected Works ofGeorge Herbert" (Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1987), iii.52 Ibid., 52.-103-CHAPTER 3: THE STYLE OF THE COUNTRY PARSON I Joy deare Mother, when I viewThy perfect lineaments and hueBoth sweet and bright.Beautie in thee takes up her place,And dates her letters from thy face,When she doth write."The British Church," 1-6.Prose style is notoriously difficult to characterize. And yet, when we read TheCountry Parson, we encounter a mode of expression which we recognize ascharacteristic of Herbert, yet subtly different from that in The Temple. In this chapter,I offer a full description and plausible explanation of Herbert's prose style, somethingwhich has never been done. Although Herbert's prose style can be described, itcannot easily be classified: for Herbert's prose style is as eclectic as his poetry, andthe conventional categories of literary history fit his prose no better than his poetry.Appendix II and III provide, respectively, detailed discussions of the conventionaldistinction between "Ciceronian" and "Senecan" prose, and of the possible literaryinfluence of Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Francis Bacon, and John Donne. But for the mostpart, The Temple is the best commentary on The Country Parson, and vice versa. Aswe saw in chapter 2, Herbert drew upon various kinds of prose to create the uniqueform of his clerical manual. The same principle applies in microcosm, for Herbert'ssentences are variously "Baroque," "Ciceronian," and "Senecan." But none of theseterms is wholly adequate--and the terms "grand style" and "Anglican plain style" arewholly inadequate--either to describe the stylistic merits of The Country Parson or toexplain the origin of Herbert's style.'-104-Although Herbert's prose is often "Senecan" in the general sense of beingwitty, brief, and epigrammatic, Herbert is not merely imitating Seneca. His chiefinfluence is the Prayer Book, and much else which distinguishes his prose style canonly be called "poetic." 2 Herbert's chief concern is effectiveness, and The Country Parson is typically plain and prescriptive. But like Herbert's poems, his prose doesnot sacrifice art to plainness. Herbert writes beautifully to convey the beauty ofAnglican ceremony; he writes poetically to demonstrate the clerical techniques whichhe describes; and he writes in the style of the Prayer Book to convey the experience offaithful membership in the Church of England.By "style," I mean chiefly the way in which individual sentences are written.In particular, I am concerned about such characteristics as sentence length and clarity,simplicity and naturalness of diction, neatness and directness of expression, thereplication of actual speech patterns, the use of epigrams and proverbs, and othermanifestations of wit. Renaissance prose is commonly classified according to thesecharacteristics, and characterizations of The Country Parson must be therefore judgedaccordingly. But I am also interested in less tangible characteristics such asconcentration, perceptiveness and candor, the use of figurative language, thememorable quality of certain lines, and structural wit. Such characteristics define themore "poetic" aspects of Herbert's prose style. Finally, I am interested in theparticular qualities of Prayer Book prose: the multiplication of terms, an alliterativerhythm, balance and inclusiveness, and a dignified tone. Such characteristics makeHerbert's prose style demonstrably "Anglican."Herbert's prose style has been sadly neglected and frequently misunderstood.Until recently, neglect was the rule. For example, Margaret Bottrall and Stanley-105-Stewart both devote a chapter to the content of The Country Parson without so muchas mentioning its style. Those critics who do mention the style of The Country Parson offer vague, sometimes contradictory, and often dismissive characterizations. 3 TheCountry Parson is usually described as "plain" or "Senecan" prose, and occasionally as"courtly" or "Baroque" or "Anglican" prose. 4Most critics underestimate the subtle and sophisticated style of The Country Parson, much as The Temple was once thought to be the simple effusions of a pioussoul. Such oversight often arises from Herbert's remark in "The Parson preaching"that "the character of [the parson's] sermon is Holiness; he is not witty, or learned, oreloquent, but Holy," and from Herbert's subsequent criticism of Lancelot Andrewes'smetaphysical preaching style (chap. 7, 233, 235). George Williamson and W. FraserMitchell took Herbert's remarks as a unilateral denunciation of wit in favour of thenew vogue of plainness. 5 Douglas Bush assumed that Herbert spurned wit in favour ofa plain style in The Country Parson. 6 And more recently, Hodgkins has characterizedThe Country Parson as "straight-forward didactic prose."' But two objections must beraised. First, to say Herbert's style is "plain" or "not witty" is to say very little.Second, Herbert does not condemn wit altogether, just witty sermons preached tounlearned countryfolk; nor does he equate holiness with plainness.Kristine Wolberg has raised the alternative possibility that Herbert's style mightbe ornate, despite his pronouncements in "The Parson preaching." But Wolberg'ssuggestion rests more on inference than on analysis. Arguing that The Country Parson belongs in the courtesy book tradition, she characterizes its tone as "aristocratic" andits diction as "courtly," reasoning that "as an aristocrat himself, it is not surprising thatHerbert would write like one." 8 In fact, as we shall see shortly, Herbert writes more-106-like a gentleman than a courtier because of his audience and purpose. Although he isan aristocrat by birth, Herbert must develop a prose style suitable to the emergingprofessional class whom he is addressing and to the constraints imposed in writing amanual.'Since it means little to say that The Country Parson is "plain" or "courtly"--particularly when such characterizations are unsupported by thorough stylistic analysis--one naturally turns to established (and alternative) literary-historical categories.Some clearly do not fit The Country Parson. The Baroque is one such category, if weaccept Croll's definition:Expressiveness rather than formal beauty was the pretension of the newmovement, as it is of every movement that calls itself modern. Itdisdained complacency, suavity, copiousness, emptiness, ease, and inavoiding these qualities sometimes obtained effects of contortion orobscurity, which it was not always willing to regard as faults. Itpreferred the forms that express the energy and labor of minds seekingthe truth, not without dust and heat, to the forms that express acontented sense of enjoyment and possession of it. 1°Although the term "baroque" may say more about the organization and tone of a workthan its diction and syntax, Croll's definition does point to the conservatism of TheCountry Parson. Consider the opening of chapter 7, for instance:The Countrey Parson preacheth constantly, the pulpit is his joy and histhrone: if he at any time intermit, it is either for want of health, oragainst some great Festivall, that he may the better celebrate it, or forthe variety of the hearers, that he may be heard at his returne moreattentively. (232: 20-24)What could be more suave, more easy, more contented, or less obscure?Debora Shuger's recent description of a "Christian grand style" in Renaissanceprose is another dubious help. The grand style consists of "affective oratory onmatters of greatest public concern"; "passion" and "orality" are its hallmarks!' The-107-Country Parson frequently addresses matters of great public concern, including theceremonies of the Church of England and the necessity of obedience to religious andcivil authorities. Occasional passages in The Country Parson,  together with its prefaceand prayers, are passionate and highly aural. But if we conclude that The Country Parson is written in the grand style, we are still far from describing its style with anyaccuracy. For, by Shuger's criteria, most Elizabethan, Jacobean, and Caroline divineswrite in the grand style, despite their obvious stylistic differences!' And if the grandstyle can be either "periodic, full, and rhythmic" or "brief and austere," such adescription contributes little to our analysis, for one of the most fundamental questionswe must ask is whether the average sentence in The Country Parson is full or brief."In fact, The Country Parson  is comprised of sentences of variable length andcomplexity, achieving a stylistic via media between Ciceronianism and Senecanism.The closing sentences of the chapters are often short and incisive:And justice is the ground of Charity. (chap. 23)Do well, and right, and let the world sinke. (chap. 29)This distinction may runne through all Christian duties, and it is a greatstay and setling to religious souls. (chap. 31)The chapters occasionally open with curt sentences (12 and 36) or with long, complexones (3 and 21); however, the typical opening sentence is of moderate length andaxiomatic (15 and 16). In the main body of the chapters, one finds occasional run-onsentences, such as previous description of the impolite rural congregation (chap. 6,231: 20ff.). One also finds the occasional series of short declarative sentences in TheCountry Parson (chap. 7, 258: 1-20; chap. 31, 273: 3-15). Although his sentencesbecome long and complex when he expresses intricate ideas (262:31-263:7), Herbert-108-usually provides relief. A short sentence follows a long one (chap. 7, 232:30-233: 6;chap. 25, 284:27-285:1; cf. chap. 16). And a long sentence might be made easier tograsp by the enumeration of points (chap. 21, 255:1-8), or by dividing it in half (chap.22, 257: 26-30; chap. 26, 266: 18-23). Syntactically, even though the ligatures ofHerbert's sentences are sometimes loosened, they are rarely loose, so that hissentences remain easy to follow despite their complexity (chap. 22, 259: 10ff). Suchstrategies show Herbert striving to make his manual clear and readable.Though it is almost always clear, The Country Parson is not always luminous,for manuals need not be scintillating. In "The Parson preaching," Herbert stringstogether a plethora of biblical allusions, and his subsequent disquisition on personalpiety becomes tedious and verbose (chap. 7, 234: 11-20; chap. 9, 237:13ff). Suchpassages do make dry reading, but they are also rare, and The Country Parson is oftenquite engaging. Sometimes, Herbert's style seems surprisingly modern because of histendency to use parallelism, to put the main thought first, and to write in the activevoice (chap. 22, 258: 1-20). Often, Herbert's style is as graceful as it is clear, as inthe conclusion of chapter 34, "The Parson's Dexterity in applying Remedies":And all may certainly conclude, that God loves them, till either theydespise that Love, or despaire of his Mercy: not any sin else, but iswithin his Love; but the despising of Love must needs be without it.The thrusting away of his arme makes us onely not embraced. (283)Such a passage suggests Herbert's desire both to convince and to inform, combiningthe purposes of the high and low styles.One is certainly aware of particularly high or "Ciceronian" moments in TheCountry Parson. One thinks of the amplification and deflation, the complexity andprolixity, of such a passage as this from "The Authour's Prayer before Sermon":-109-Misery and sin fill our days: yet art thou our Creatour, and we thywork: Thy hands both made us, and also made us Lords of all thycreatures; giving us one world in our selves, and another to serve us:then dids't thou place us in Paradise, and wert proceeding still on in thyFavours, untill we interrupted thy Counsels, disappointed thy Purposes,and sold our God, our glorious, our gracious God for an apple. 0 writeit! 0 brand it in our foreheads for ever: for an apple once we lost ourGod, and still lose him for no more; for money, for meat, for diet: Butthou Lord, art patience, and pity, and sweetnesse, and love; therefore wesons of men are not consumed. (288: 12-22)This passage might even be called "Baroque," given its earnest and euphoric tone, itssense of conversation and inquiry, its occasional ejaculations and pervasive wit. Butthese effects are much rarer and more muted in the main body of The Country Parson.One is usually much more aware of a certain compactness, of a neatness anddirectness, of a precise and felicitous choice of words. For instance, consider thefollowing passages in which Herbert discusses catechizing, celebrating the eucharist,and eliminating covetousness from the congregation:And this is an admirable way of teaching, wherein the Catechized willat length finde delight, and by which the Catechizer, if he once get theskill of it, will draw out of ignorant and silly souls, even the dark anddeep points of Religion. Socrates did thus in Philosophy, who held thatthe seeds of all truths lay in every body, and accordingly by questionswell ordered he found Philosophy in silly Trades-men. (chap. 21, 256:16-23)The Countrey Parson being to administer the Sacraments, is at a standwith himself, how or what behaviour to assume for so holy things.Especially at Communion times he is in a great confusion, as being notonly to receive God, but to break, and administer him.(chap. 22, 257: 26-30)Nay, to descend yet more particularly, if a man hath wherewithall tobuy a spade, and yet hee chuseth rather to use his neighbours, and wearout that, he is covetous. Nevertheless, few bring covetousness thus low,or consider it so narrowly, which yet ought to be done, since there is aJustice in the least things, and for the least there shall be a judgment.Country people are full of these petty injustices, being cunning to makeuse of another, and spare themselves. . .(chap. 24, 265: 27-35)-110-In passages such as these, Herbert seems to be taking the advice he gives to the parsonwho is catechizing: "to presse and drive [knowledge] to practice . . . by pithy andlively exhortations" (chap. 21, 255: 1-8). For lack of a better term, his style is"Senecan": neat, direct, and precise.Yet Herbert's diction is not uniformly simple and common, as one mightexpect if The Country Parson were uniformly Senecan. Although Herbert does sorarely, he does sometimes employ polysyllabic Latinate diction. For instance, in "TheParson Blessing," Herbert uses long, unfamiliar words to suggest a preoccupation withfashion and to distinguish between two courses of action, "reproof" and "refutation":The Countrey Parson wonders, that Blessing the people is in so littleuse with his brethren: whereas he thinks it not onely a grave, andreverend thing, but a beneficial also. Those who use it not, do so eitherout of niceness, because they like the salutations, and complements, andformes of worldly language better; which conformity andfashionableness is so exceeding unbefitting a Minister, that it deservesreproof, not refutation: Or else, because they think it empty andsuperfluous. (chap. 36, 285: 1-9)Herbert achieves his effect by implicitly contrasting the unfamiliar Latinate wordswhich come to predominate with the simpler Anglo-Saxon words of its opening. Inhis choice of diction, as in the length and complexity of his sentences, Herbert usuallytends toward simplicity for the sake of clarity. But Herbert's willingness to vary hisstyle for effect suggests that his style is neither "Senecan" nor "Ciceronian," but ajudicious mix of opposing qualities designed to create a particular effect. Often,Herbert aims at a simple clarity, which suggests self-evident truth. But sometimes, asin the example above, his intention is more "poetic" in the sense that it conveys theexperience which it describes.Herbert's word choice is, above all, discerning and decorous. He shows a-111-fondness for domestic similes and metaphors in The Country Parson, much as he doesin The Temple. Thus, fasting and prayer keep the parson's soul "lusty as an eagle";"God is his own immediate paymaster, rewarding all good deeds to their fullproportion" (chap. 9, 237: 27; chap. 20 254: 20-21). Although Herbert's dictionoccasionally descends from the common to the coarse, it usually does so for effect.We have already seen the example of the unfortunate rural congregation "hudling,""slubbering," "gaping," and "scratching" through divine service (chap. 6). Herbert'sdescription of indigestion is similarly coarse:For it is certaine, that a weak stomack being prepossessed with flesh,shall much better Brooke and bear a draught of beer, then if it had takenbefore either fish, or rootes, or such things; which will discover it selfeby spitting, and rheume, or flegme. 14Herbert's diction is also notably common, as he reproduces the typical questions andanswers of rural catechism (chap. 21, 257: 1-7). But one usually notices not so much aproponderance of one kind of word, long and unusual or short and common, but thedirectness, precision, and decorum of Herbert's diction. For example, considerHerbert's description of the parson's speaking voice and comportment, when he readsthe services:. . . no Sermon moves them so much to a reverence . . . as a devoutbehaviour in the very act of praying. Accordingly his voyce is humble,his words treatable, and slow; yet not so slow neither, as to let thefervency of the supplicant hang and dy between speaking, but with agrave liveliness, between fear and zeal, pausing yet pressing, heperformes his duty.(chap. 6, 231: 14-23)It is difficult to imagine a more precise statement, or a more definitive, rhythmic, andgraceful one. With a poet's sense of decorum, Herbert reproduces the definitive,rhythmic, and graceful style of The Book of Common Prayer as he describes how the-112-parson should read divine services.The reading of divine service suggests an aural and public quality, which iscertainly one aspect of the style of The Country Parson, though one aspect only. As Ihave already observed, the preface reads like a well-mannered speech, and the prayersare effusively aural. But from time to time, one also comes across highly auralpassages in the chapters. The passage quoted above from "The Parson praying" isremarkable for its careful syncopation of speech rhythms. Chapter 7, "The Parsonpreaching," contains several lively and highly aural passages, including sampleapostrophes to aid preaching, and a notable interjection describing the delights of 2Corinthians (233: 32-37, 234: 17-22). Herbert also demonstrates catecheticaltechnique by describing a dialogue in "The Parson Catechizing":. . . the Parson once demanded after other questions about mans misery;since man is so miserable, what is to be done? And the answerer couldnot tell; He asked him again, what he would do, if he were in a ditch?This familiar illustration made the answer so plaine, that he was evenashamed of his ignorance; for he could not but say, he would hast outof it as fast as he could. Then he proceeded to ask, whether he couldget out of the ditch alone, or whether he needed a helper, and who wasthat helper.(chap. 21, 257:1-10; see also 226:5-15)Less obviously, Herbert provides sample correctives in "The Parson in Sentinell":"Your meaning is not thus, but thus; or, So farr indeed what you say is true, and wellsaid; but this will not stand" (chap. 18 252:11-2). In chapter 28, he portrays theparson reasoning proverbially with a contemptuous parishioner: "Alas, why do youthus? you hurt your selfe, not me; he that throws a stone at another, hits himself . . ."(269: 12-4). In chapter 32, he uses imagined dialogue to illustrate the dangers ofidleness:-113-. . . For when men have nothing to do, then they fall to drink, to steal,to whore, to scoffe, to revile, to all sorts of gamings. Come, say they,we have nothing to do, lets go to the Tavern, or to the stews, or whatnot. (274:10-14)These examples of imagined dialogue are rhetorically restrained, and provide aheightened realism--a "case study" practicality which suggests the influence of theprofessional handbook. So, even though The Country Parson is sometimes aural--aquality usually associated with the Ciceronian style--it tends somewhat towardSenecanism in the plainness and practicality of its aurality. But Herbert is not merelybeing moderate or eclectic: he is striving for an almost poetic decorum or mimesis, forhis manual will be most effective if it demonstrates what it describes.The Country Parson is often epigrammatic or proverbial. Chapter 4 opens witha proverb:The Countrey Parson is full of all knowledg. They say, it is an illMason that refuseth any stone: and there is no knowledge, but, in askilfull hand, serves either positively as it is, or else to illustrate someother knowledge. (228: 14-17)The epigrammatic conclusions of chapters 2, 24, and 29 have been quoted earlier.Chapter 30 also ends epigrammatically:. . . Man would sit down at this world, God bids him sell it, andpurchase a better: . . . So is the carnall and wilfull man with the wormof the grave in this world, and the worm of Conscience in the next.(272: 6-14)In the body of the chapters, advice is sometimes summarized epigrammatically, as inchapters 7 and 34:For there is no greater sign of holinesse, then the procuring, andrejoycing in anothers good. (234: 9-10)If we would judg ourselves, we should not be judged; and if we wouldbound our selves, we should not be bounded. (280: 30-32).-114-But Herbert's penchant for epigrams and proverbs is not so much evidence ofSenecanism as evidence of Herbert's dexterity as a manual writer. The use ofepigrams and proverbs has several obvious advantages for the clerical manual. Theirappeal to common experience and accepted wisdom bolsters the writer's argument.They make the writer's good advice more memorable. The generality of the proverbprovides an easy point of departure, and the weight and concentration of the epigramprovides closure. Herbert may sound like Seneca, just by writing well.Herbert may also be witty without necessarily being Senecan. There aremoments of eloquent understatement and gentle point in The Country Parson. Onethinks of Herbert's tongue-in-cheek advice about domestic diplomacy in chapter 9, ofhis delicate puns on "heavenly" dispositions in chapter 26, and of his ironic depictionof fractious posterity in chapter 34:. . . he gives [his wife]. . . halfe at least of the government of the house,reserving so much of the affaires, as serve for a diversion for him; yetnever so giving over the raines, but that he sometimes looks how thingsgo, demanding an account, but not by the way of an account. (238:36-239:3)When he deals with any that is heavy, and carnall; he gives him thosefreer rules: but when he meets with a refined, and heavenly disposition,he carryes them higher, even somtimes to a forgetting of themselves,knowing that there is one, who when they forget, remembers for them. . . (267:17-21)Now a prophesie is a wonder sent to Prosterity, least they complaine ofwant of wonders. It is a letter sealed, and sent, which to the bearer isbut paper, but to the receiver, and opener, is full of power. (282:35-38)Such a suave facility with words, such discerning distinctions, can only be called"wit." By definition, the Senecan style is "witty"; however, a strong vein of wit alsoruns through The Temple and Outlandish Proverbs.It would seem, then, that Herbert's sentences are neither Senecan nor-115-Ciceronian. They are characteristically clear and readable and somewhat plain. ButHerbert blends elaborate and aural "Ciceronian" prose with brief, witty "Senecan"prose according to his purpose, a purpose which is often quite poetic. Indeed, thepoetic qualities of The Country Parson may be its most distinctive qualities. Onethinks in particular of its concentration, its candor and perceptiveness, its many vividexpressions, and its memorable pronouncements.One continually has the feeling that much has been packed into a small space,but packed in such a way as to produce compactness rather than clutter. Suchconcentration and tidiness often reminds one of Herbert's poems. The chapters of TheCountry Parson are comfortably read in a sitting, but dense enough to be individuallysatisfying. Characteristically, little could be added to, or taken from, Herbert'ssentences; without seeming cramped, they tend towards a charged brevity. Theopening sentence of chapter 4, for instance, reminds one of a headline: "The CountryParson is full of knowledge" (228: 14). Its closing sentence is economical withoutbeing terse:Wherfore he hath one Comment at least upon every book of Scripture,and ploughing with this, and his own meditations, he enters into thesecrets of God treasured in the holy Scripture. (229: 27-30)Somehow, Herbert sounds gracious while being businesslike, as in his admonitionsthat:The Countrey Parson is sincere and upright in all his relations.(chap. 19, 252: 24-25)Likewise he welcomes to his house any Minister, how poor or meansoever, with as joyfull a countenance, as if he were to entertain somegreat Lord. (chap. 19, 253: 18-20)Chapter 13, "The Parson's Church," is particularly remarkable for its-116-compression. Some of its compression comes from detail. The church is to be"swept, and kept cleane without dust, or Cobwebs, and at great festivalls strawed, andstuck with boughs, and perfumed with incense" (246: 8-10). Even Herbert's longsentences have a sense of spareness and tidiness about them. Consider, for example,Herbert's call to vigilance in "The Parson in Sentinell":The Countrey Parson, where ever he is, keeps Gods watch; that is, thereis nothing spoken, or done in the Company where he is, but comesunder his Test and censure: If it be well spoken, or done, he takesoccasion to commend, and enlarge it; if ill, he presently lays hold of it,least the poyson steal into some young and unwary spirits, and possessethem even before they themselves heed it. (chap. 18, 252:1-7)There is a satisfying fullness here, but it is a fullness derived from the development ofan idea, not the generation of rhetorical tropes and figures. Its clauses are carefullysubordinated, not merely piled one on another. One has the feeling, common toreaders of Herbert's poems, that there is no more to be said, yet neither can anythingbe taken away without a loss of meaning.Allied to its concentration, one of the most singular and impressive qualities ofThe Country Parson is its perceptiveness and candor. The Country Parson does notmerely prescribe liturgical and homiletic technique; it describes the subtle and well-mannered handling of people to which the parson ought to aspire. "The Parson'sCourtesie," "The Parson's Charity," and "The Parson Punishing" are particularly richin this respect (chaps. 11, 12, 25). But one is often struck elsewhere by the justice orperceptiveness of Herbert's assessments, or by the shrewdness of his counsel.Sometimes his counsel has a steely tone, as in the meting out of terror and love to hishousehold in due proportion to their stations, or in the passage about country people's"petting injustices" quoted previously (chap. 10, 241: 7-11; chap. 26, 265:34).-117-Although such passages frequently depict unvarnished human nature, a note of simpleacceptance often underlies the businesslike statement of fact:[The country parson] is very circumspect in all companyes, both of hisbehaviour, speech, and very looks, knowing himself to be bothsuspected, and envyed. (chap. 9, 237:13-15). . . Countrey people are drawne, or led by sense, more then by faith, bypresent rewards, or punishments, more then by future [ones].(chap. 20, 254: 31-34)The Countrey Parson perceiv[es] that most, when they are at leasure,make others faults their entertainment and discourse, and that even somegood men think, so they speak truth, they may disclose anothers fault. . . (chap. 37, 286: 29-32)Sometimes, such statements are more remarkable for their perceptiveness andcandor than for their eloquence (chap. 28, 269: 5-15; chap. 35, 284: 15-16, 33-35).However, they often provide a pleasing amalgam of incisiveness, wit, and candor.One thinks, for instance, of Herbert's comparison of Sunday and weekdaycomportment, or of the parson's politic recourse to committee:The Countrey Parson upon the afternoons in the week-days, takesoccasion sometimes to visite in person, now one quarter of his Parish,now another. For there he shall find his flock most naturally as theyare, wallowing in the midst of their affairs: whereas on Sundays it iseasie for them to compose themselves to order, which they put on astheir holy-day cloathes, and come to Church in frame, but commonlythe next day put off both. (chap. 14, 247: 1-10)Yet when ever any controversie is brought to him, he never decides italone, but sends for three or four of the ablest of the Parish to hear thecause with him, whom he makes to deliver their opinion first; out ofwhich he gathers, in case he be ignorant himself, what to hold; and sothe thing passeth with more authority, and lesse envy. (chap. 23, 260:7-13)Although the deftness of such counsel may recall the speaker's intellectual agility inThe Temple, much of the pleasure of The Country Parson lies in such explicit anddetailed comments about public life as these. Yet The Country Parson  should remind-118-us not so much of another side to Herbert as of another side to The Temple--its publicand discursive qualities.Sometimes Herbert's pastoral advice is particularly striking and vivid. Forinstance, the parson warns his parishioners to. . . take heed, lest their quiet betray them (as it is apt to do) to acoldnesse, and carelesnesse in their devotions, but to labour still to beas fervent in Christian Duties, as they remember themselves were, whenaffliction did blow the Coals. (chap. 34, 280: 17-21)The imagery continues, as "sparkes of such thoughts now and then break forth"(281:13). And to save his parishioners from atheism, the parson finally "dives untothe boundless Ocean of Gods Love and the unspeakable riches of his lovingkindnesse" on their behalf (283:5-9). Often, a striking metaphor enlivens an otherwisemundane passage. We have already met the grisly "worm of conscience," and seenthe parson "ploughing" along with his scriptural notes and "breaking" God toadminister him (chaps. 4, 22, 30). Occasionally, Herbert's metaphors become effusive,as in "A Prayer after Sermon":O Lord! thy blessings hang in clusters, they come trooping upon us!they break forth like mighty waters on every side. And now Lord, thouhast fed us with the bread of life: so man did eat Angels food .. .(290:6-9)More often, the parson's admonitions and policieS are couched quietly in domesticmetaphor, recalling "Praise (III):"Those that he findes in the peaceable state, he adviseth to be veryvigilant, and not to let go the raines as soon as the horse goes easie.(chap. 34, 280: 14-16)If there be any ill in the custome, that may be severed from the good,he pares the apple, and gives them the clean to feed on. (chap. 34,283:32-284:1)But quiet or dramatic, such language has an imaginative potency which recalls-119-Herbert's poetry and is all the more striking because it occurs in a manual.Partly because of its figurative language, The Country Parson is not onlyinformative, but often memorable. Certain phrases and statements stick in one's mind,perhaps because of a particularly apt choice of words (chap. 34, 280: 28-30; chap. 36,286: 15-18). Sometimes, a passage is more memorable for its clarity and grace (chap.17, 251: 24-33), or for its neatness and precision (chap. 24, 262:19ff). Sometimes, apassage is memorable for all of these reasons. And certain chapters of The CountryParson also stand above the rest, just as some poems--"Man," "Aaron," and "Love(III)," for instance--stand above the rest of the poems in The Temple. One thinks, forinstance, of Herbert's touching and vivid portrait, "The Parson a Father," and of hischarming cameo, "The Parson in Mirth":CHAP. XVI.The Parson a Father.THe Countrey Parson is not only a father to his flock,but also professeth himselfe throughly of the opinion,carrying it abotit with him as fully, as if he had begot hiszo whole Parish. And of this he makes great use. For by thismeans, when any sinns, he hateth him not as an officer, butpityes him as a Father: and even in those wrongs whicheither in tithing, or otherwise are done to his owne person,hee considers the offender as a child, and forgives, so heeIs may have any signe of amendment; so also when after manyadmonitions, any continue to be refractory, yet hee giveshim not over, but is long before hee proceede to disinherit-ing, or perhaps never goes so far; knowing, that some arecalled at the eleventh houre, and therefore hee still expects,_ 0 and waits, least hee should determine Gods houre of coming;which as hee cannot, touching the last day, so neither touch-ing the intermediate days of Conversion.-120-CHAP. XXVII.The Parson in mirth.THe Countrey Parson is generally sad, because heeknows nothing but the Crosse of Christ, his mindebeing defixed on it with those nailes wherewith his Masterwas: or if he have any leisure to look off from thence, he 30meets continually with two most sad spectacles, Sin, andMisery; God dishonoured every day, and man afflicted.Neverthelesse, he somtimes refresheth himselfe, as knowingthat nature will not bear everlasting droopings, and thatpleasantnesse oldispo-sition. is a great key to do good; notonely because all men shun the company of perpetuallseverity, but also for that when they are in company, in-structions seasoned with pleasantnesse, both enter sooner,s and roote deeper. Wherefore he condescends to humanefrailties both in himselfe and others; and intermingles somemirth in his discourses occasionally, according to the pulseof the hearer.These chapters are indeed memorable, and such memorability has always beenassociated with the best poetry.Although one remembers particular passages of The Country Parson such asthose above, one is also left with a powerful overall impression of Herbert's Anglicanspirituality. Herbert not only portrays the Church of England at its best through hischaracter of the ideal country parson, he composes The Country Parson in an Anglicanstyle, to which critics occasionally allude. Thus, Marcus mentions the efforts ofwriters such as Cosin and Hall and Herbert to instill a childlike devotion to the Churchof England through a plain style. 15 Kollmeier mentions the "Anglican sensiblity" ofThe Country Parson. 16 And Bottrall, who may unintentionally recall the rhythms ofthe Prayer Book, remarks upon "the reasonable, courteous, and quiet disquisitions ofThe Country Parson."' Such allusions as these suggest a common feeling that thestyle of The Country Parson is Anglican, but fail to explain how.Herbert's style is Anglican because it reproduces the style of the Book of-121-Common Prayer.' Undoubtedly, Herbert was deeply influenced by the style of thePrayer Book: it necessarily informed his thoughts and feelings in daily worship. ButHerbert does not adopt the style of the Prayer Book in The Country Parson unconsciously. As the author of a specifically Anglican clerical manual, Herbert isconcerned both to instruct the clergy in Anglican worship and to inspire their willingconformity to its rites and discipline. He writes in the style of the Prayer Book bothto demonstrate its use and attractions, and to draw his readers into the experience ofthe liturgy, much as the poetic voice in The Temple seeks to instruct the reader and todraw him towards "the Church's mystical repast."The Book of Common Prayer has several stylistic attributes which deserve ourparticular attention. C.S. Lewis describes the Prayer Book's "coupling together ofsynonymous or nearly synonymous words," its "strongly supported rhythm," its"deliberative, sober, and majestic tone," and its "air of finality."' The qualities whichLewis mentions are obvious in such well-known prayers as the Second Collect ofMorning Prayer and the Prayer of Humble Access in the Holy Communion service:O God, which art author of peace, and lover of concord, in knowledge ofwhom standeth our eternal life, whose service is perfect freedom: Defend usthy humble servants in all assaults of our enemies, that we, surely trusting inthy defence, may not fear the power of any adversaries; through the might ofJesu Christ our Lord.We do not presume to come to this thy table (0 merciful Lord) trustingin our own righteousness, but in thy manifold and great mercies. Webe not worthy so much as to gather the crumbs under thy table, but thouart the same Lord, whose property is always to have mercy. Grant ustherefore (gracious Lord) so to eat the flesh of thy dear Son JesusChrist, and to drink his blood, that our sinful bodies may be made cleanby his body, and our souls washed through his most precious blood, andthat we may evermore dwell in him, and he in us. 2°The sense here of balance and comprehensiveness, of practicality and enduring beauty,is the literary embodiment of Anglicanism. 21 Such qualities are prominent in The-122-Country Parson. The multiplication of terms is the most obvious Prayer Book qualityof The Country Parson. The Prayer Book often doubles or triples terms, as in itsexhortation to lead "a godly, righteous, and sober life." The Prayer Book occasionallyemploys multiple terms, as in its proclamation of Christ's "full, perfect, and sufficientsacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world, once offered." 22We have already met such a multiplication of terms in the descriptions of the parson's"tame, serviceable, and healthful body" and of his sermon, which is "not witty, orlearned, or eloquent, but Holy." We have met an ironic multiplication of terms in thecongregation's "hudling, slubbering, gaping, and scratching." We see a similarmultiplication of terms in another somewhat despairing description of country people"which are thick, and heavy, and hard to raise to a poynt of Zeal, and fervency, andneed a mountaine of fire to kindle them . . ."(chap. 7, 233: 15-17). Such amultiplication of terms conveys a sense of comprehensiveness--the characteristicallyAnglican effort to include truth from whatever source--as well as a strong rhythm.One should also note a particular kind of rhythm, however. In his discussionof "religious English," Ian Robinson describes the Prayer Book's two-beat alliterativeAnglo-Saxon speech pattern. 23 This rhythm sometimes informs The Country Parson.We have already seen some examples, notably "the dark and deep points of religion"and "a Prophesie [which] is a wonder sent to Posterity, least they complaine of wantof wonders" (chap. 21, 256: 18-20; chap. 34, 282: 35-36). Similar small examplescome to mind: the advice to "dive not to deep into worldly affairs," and variouspassages in "The Authour's Prayer before Sermon" (chap. 14, 247: 24; 289: 3-7, 26-29). However, this two-beat alliterative pattern is particularly prominent in "TheParson praying":-123-The Countrey Parson, when he is to read divine services, composethhimselfe to all possible reverence; lifting up his heart and hands, andeyes, and using all other gestures which may expresse a hearty, andunfeyned devotion. This he doth, first, as being truly touched andamazed with the Majesty of God, before whom he then presentshimself; yet not as himself alone, but as presenting with himself thewhole Congregation, whose sins he then beares, and brings with hisown to the heavenly altar to be bathed, and washed in the sacred Laverof Christs blood. (chap. 6, 231: 1-10)"Heart and hands" . . . hearty and unfeyned devotion . . . touched and amazed .. .bears and brings . . . bathed and washed": such strong beats and alliteration do indeedrecall the Book of Common Prayer. And it is only fitting that we should recall thePrayer Book as Herbert describes its proper reading.The Country Parson also shares something of the "dignified, sober, andmajestic" tone of the Prayer Book. The collect at the beginning of the order for HolyCommunion suggests this tone:Almighty God, unto whom all hearts be open, all desires known, andfrom whom no secrets are hid: Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by theinspiration of thy Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee, andworthily magnify thy holy name, through Christ our Lord.24In The Country Parson there are moments of mirth and cheerfulness (252, 268). Thereis even one moment of fervour (276: 8-10). But for the most part, the tone is the"grave liveliness" which is recommended for reading divine service (chap. 6, 231: 19-20). The passages quoted previously from "The Parson's Church" aptly demonstratethis moderate, reasonable, public tone. It is prevalent again in Herbert's description ofthe parson's household, which is hospitable but spare (chap. 10, 241). One even findsa kind of composure and moderation in "The Parson arguing" and "The Parsonpunishing" (chaps. 24 and 25). However, one of the best examples of the dominanttone of The Country Parson is the opening of chapter 25:-124-The Countrey Parson is a Lover of old Customes, if they be good, andharmlesse; and the rather, because Countrey people are much addictedto them, so that to favour them therein is to win their hearts, and tooppose them therin is to deject them. (283: 27-31)A passage such as this takes us into an emotional world which accepts joy andhardship as they are mixed in everyday life, and which assumes that the establishedchurch is an integral part of society. 25According to Lewis, the Prayer Book's "air of finality" derives partly from itsfrequent use of antithesis. 26 One thinks, for instance, of the antithetical exhortation inthe marriage service which describes the seriousness of matrimony, a holy estatewhich "is not to be enterprised nor taken in hand unadvisedly, lightly, or wantonly .. .but reverently, discreetly, advisedly, soberly, and in the fear of God." 27 Herbert isforever making distinctions in The Country Parson: for example, the value of sermonsversus the value of the catechism, or the risks of devotional lapses in children versusadults (257: 20-25, 259: 2-6). Such distinctions seem simple, even when they aretheological, because they are expressed in antithesis. Sometimes the antithesis isobvious and prescriptive: the communion elements should "be of the best, not cheape,or coarse, much lesse ill-tasted, or unwholesome"; the parson's food should be "plainand common but wholesome, what hee hath is little but very good" (chap. 10, 241: 15-16; chap. 22, 258: 21-23). Sometimes, the antithesis is less obvious and moredescriptive, as in "The Parson preaching":When he preacheth, he procures attention by all possible art, both byearnestnesse of speech, it being naturall to men to think, that where ismuch earnestness, there is somewhat worth hearing; and by a diligent,and busy cast of his eye on his auditors, with letting them know that heobserves who marks, and who not; and with particularizing of hisspeech now to the younger sort, then to the elder, now to the poor, andnow to the rich. This is for you, and This is for you; for particulars evertouch, and awake more then generalls. (chap. 7, 232:30-233:6)-125-But whether Herbert's distinctions are obvious or subtle, they owe much to the style ofthe Prayer Book.Finally, The Country Parson demonstrates a balance and comprehensivenesswhich reminds one of the Prayer Book. The sentences of invitation during MorningPrayer, for instance, balance the need for continual contrition against the need forparticular confession, and mention all the purposes of Morning Prayer:Although we ought at all times, humbly to knowledge our sins beforeGod: yet ought we most chiefly so to do, when we assemble and meettogether to render thanks for the great benefits that we have received athis hands, to set forth his most worthy praise, to hear his most holyWord, and to ask for those things which be requisite and necessary, aswell for the body as the sou1.28In part, The Country Parson advocates a balanced and comprehensive ministry.Dealing with the poor and needy, the parson "opens not only his mouth, but his purseto their relief" (chap. 14, 248: 10-11). The parson also recognizes that "God in allages hath had his servants, to whom he hath revealed his Truth, as well as to him"(chap. 4, 229: 20-25). Stylistically, balance and comprehensiveness are expressed insentences which seem sometimes neoclassical in their symmetry, as in the previouslyquoted passage about the parson's blessing (285: 4-8). The parson's facility forbalanced thought and expression remains, even in moments of enthusiastic prayer(290: 5-6). However, the best examples of the balanced and inclusive style of TheCountry Parson may be Herbert's consideration of celibacy (chap. 9) and the followingpassage describing the parson's courtesy:The Countrey Parson owing a debt of Charity to the poor, and ofCourtesie to his other parishioners, he so distinguisheth, that he keepshis money for the poor, and his table for those that are above Alms.Not but that the poor are welcome also to his table, whom hesometimes purposely takes home with him, setting them close by him,and carving for them, both for his own humility, and their comfort, whoare much cheered with such friendliness. (chap. 11, 243: 6-13)-126-This is the style of a church and a churchman who strive not only to balance variousconsiderations but also to include everyone who will participate.In addition to the particular features of the Prayer Book's style which I havealready described, the Prayer Book provides a model for much of what might bethought "Senecan" or "Ciceronian" in The Country Parson. For instance, the PrayerBook is notable for its condensed or "pithy" prose, perhaps derived from the Latinepigram. 29 The most familiar passages of the Prayer Book--the collects and GeneralConfession at Morning Prayer, the Prayer of Humble Access and the EucharisticPrayer, the exhortation and vows of the marriage service, and the burial collects--arealso striking for their clarity and common diction, their vividness, and their mix oflong aural and short declarative sentences." The overall effect is one of memorablesimplicity, of something which is stylistically varied yet somehow of a piece, ofsomething which is very much like The Country Parson. Nor is the similarityunintended.The Country Parson not only assumes participation in the established church(chap. 5, 237: 21-24; chap. 13; chap. 21, 255: 17-18); in a sense, The Country Parson reproduces the experience of faithful Anglicanism, much as Jeremy Taylor does inHoly Living. The country parson not only speaks in the cadences and multiple termsof the Prayer Book, he often echoes it (235, 236, 239:12-13, 269:8, 22-23; 289: 10-11,24-29). At times, the parson actually quotes the Prayer Book directly (286:2-6), oreven amplifies it (275:30-34), and his last word is a Prayer Book formula (290: 13-16). The chapters of The Country Parson sometimes end in prayer (236: 25-30), andset prayers end the work. We are drawn progressively into the liturgy.And we are not alone. Herbert apparently recapitulates Hooker's famous-127-statement of the natural law (270: 24-32) and may allude to the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity again (281: 25-31). Herbert certainly refers to Andrewes, and addresses hisclerical colleagues directly throughout The Country Parson. We find ourselves"compassed about" with a cloud of very Anglican witnesses.Herbert draws us into the experience of Anglicanism, as we read The CountryParson, for good reason. Such a rhetorical strategy clearly suits his purpose oftraining would-be country parsons. For Herbert seeks both to teach effectively and toinspire willing conformity by demonstrating what he describes.That Herbert's prose enacts the Anglicanism it describes suggests a generalquality of exemplification, a poetic quality which may be a natural mode of Anglicanexpression. 31 The Country Parson  also has numerous particular instances ofexemplification: a highly aural chapter on speech art, which includes actual speech(232:30); the interposing of discourse as this process is being described (251: 2-6); aneat, brief, and judicious description of neat, brief, and judicious writing (262: 9-11);long and complex sentences, giving the effect of the refutatio they describe (262:31-263:7); even a pinched sound, as pinching is being described (265: 12-19). TheCountry Parson has other poetic qualities as well.The chapters of The Country Parson resemble the poems of The Temple intheir variable length and their loose and allusive ordering.' As we saw in chapterone, many passages of The Country Parson recall the poems of The Temple in theirdeceptive plainness and precision, in their domestic metaphors and frequent proverbs,and in their didactic and aural qualities. Like the poetry, the prose may includesustained imagery such as "the Father of lights" who opens eyes and the "great lightsable to dazle the eyes of the misled" in "The Parson arguing"(chap. 24, 262: 22, 263:-128-19). Also, the titles to the chapters of The Country Parson  are sometimes as startlingand enigmatic as those of The Temple. For instance, chapter 33 is entitled "TheParson's Library": we expect to meet a straight-forward description of his referencematerial, yet the chapter opens with the declaration that "The Countrey Parson'sLibrary is a holy Life." Such turns of mind and habits of style often recall TheTemple--powerful evidence that Herbert's poetry and prose are intimately connected.-129-NOTES: CHAPTER 31 See appendix II for a discussion of the limitations of the terms "Ciceronian"and "Senecan," and for the description of Renaissance prose style.2 See appendix III for a discussion of possible minor influences on Herbert'sprose style.3 See Edmund Miller, Drudgerie Divine: The Rhetoric of God and Man in George Herbert (Salzburg: Universität Salzburg, 1979), 228, 232; Kristine Wolberg,"'All Possible Art': George Herbert's The Country Parson"  (Ph.D. diss., Notre DameUniversity, 1987), 5, 75, 79; Margaret Bottrall, George Herbert (London: JohnMurray, 1954), 81; Harold Kollmeier, "'A Mark to Aim at': Genre and Sensibility inGeorge Herbert's Country Parson" (Ph.D. diss., State University of New York, StonyBrook, 1976), v, 95; Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church, and Society in theWorks of George Herbert" (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1988), 211.4 See Harold Kollmeier, "'A Mark to Aim at'," v; Cristina Malcolmson,"Society and Self-Definition in the Works of George Herbert" (Ph.D. diss., Universityof California, Berkeley, 1983), 27; George Williamson, The Senecan Amble: A Study in Prose Form From Bacon to Collier  (London, 1951), 248-49.5 See George Williamson, Philological Quarterly 15 (1937): 335 and TheSenecan Amble, 248; W. Fraser Mitchell, English Pulpit Oratory From Andrewes to Tillotson: a Study of its Literary Aspects  (1932; rept. New York: Russell & Russell,1962), 361-63.6 English Literature in the Earlier Seventeenth Century,  328."Authority, Church, and Society" (1988), 211."'All Possible Art'," 75, 78-9.9 In this respect, Herbert is more like Donne than Sidney. For a discussionof Donne's middle class professional audience, see A. Alvarez, The School of Donne (New York: Pantheon, 1961).10 See J. Max Patrick, ed., Style, Rhetoric, and Rhythm: Essays by Morris W. Croll (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966), 207-8.11 See Sacred Rhetoric: The Christian Grand Style in The English Renaissance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), 241-8.12 She includes Donne, Andrewes, Browne, Taylor, Barrow, Hall, and "a hostof lesser-known writers like John Cosin, Samuel Ward, and Mark Frank." See Sacred Rhetoric, 252.-130-13 See Sacred Rhetoric, 242.14 Chapter 10, 242: 21-25. One of the subsequent sentences in this section ismuch more "Ciceronian," with its involved, almost serpentine, syntax, and its plethoraof Latinate diction (242:38-243:4). One has the sense that Herbert is trying to be bothprecise and delicate.15 See Leah Sinanoglou Marcus, "George Herbert and the Anglican PlainStyle," in 'Too Rich to Clothe the Sunne': Essays on George Herbert,  ed. ClaudeSummers and Ted-Larry Pebworth (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1980),183-86.16 Harold Kollmeier, "'A Mark to Aim at'," 95.17 Cf. the "reasonable, holy, and living sacrifice" of the prayer aftercommunion. See Margaret Bottrall, George Herbert (London: John Murray, 1954).18 Previous efforts in this regard have been largely unsatisfactory. VanWengen-Shute barely begins to describe the importance of the Prayer Book to TheTemple as she draws our attention to various allusions. And Miller objects to the"impersonal or businesslike" tone of The Country Parson, without realizing that itstone is that of the Book of Common Prayer. See Rosemary van Wengen-Shute,George Herbert and the Liturgy of the Church of England  (Oegstgeest: Drukkerij deDempenaer, 1981); Edmund Miller, Drudgerie Divine, 219, 230-232; cf. C. S. Lewis,English Literature in the Sixteenth-Century, Oxford History of English Literature, 3,2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), 220-21.19 English Literature in the Sixteenth-Century, 216-20.20 Although Herbert would probably have used the 1604 version of the Bookof Common Prayer, I quote from the 1559 version which is identical in all essentials.See John E. Booty, ed., The Book of Common Prayer, 1559: The Elizabethan PrayerBook (Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1976), 59, 263.21 Much of what I say about the Prayer Book also applies to the AuthorizedVersion. We might consider two of its most famous passages, Ruth's speech toNaomi and the opening of Genesis. The first is written in complex sentences withnumerous tropes, the second is written in clipped parallelism. But both are notable fortheir clarity, rhythm, and simple diction. We might also consider the doubling ofterms which is common in Hebrew poetry, most often in the psalms. The overalleffect is one of beauty, precision, and power. Like the style of The Country Parson,the style of the Authorized Version is "first and foremost a style for getting somethingsaid," with beauty as a by-product. See Ian Robinson, The Survival of English (London: Cambridge University Press, 1973), 26-27. The problem is that we cannotbe certain which version of the Bible Herbert used.-131-22 See the confession in Morning Prayer and the prayer of consecration atHoly Communion, The Book of Common Prayer, 1559, ed. John Booty, 50-51, 263.23 See The Survival of English, 22-66.24 See The Book of Common Prayer, 1559, 248.25 Ibid., 276: 1-7 and 280: 7-11.26 See C.S. Lewis, English Literature in the Sixteenth-Century, 216.27 See The Book of Common Prayer, 1559, 290.28 Ibid., 50.29 Ibid., 217.39 See John E. Booty, ed., The Book of Common Prayer, 1559: The Elizabethan Prayer Book (Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1976), 50, 59-60,263, 290-91, 309.31 See Joan Webber, The Eloquent 'I': Style and Self in Seventeenth-Century Prose (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968).32 The chapters, like the poems, work in groups and occasionally refer to eachother. The Country Parson ends with a discussion of the "militant Christian life," justas The Temple ends with "The Church Militant." And, most important, "The ParsonCatechizing" and "The Parson in Sacraments" (chaps. 21-22) have a kind of literal andfigurative centrality in The Country Parson which recalls C. A. Patrides' remark that"if The Temple has any structure, it is a eucharistic one (English Poems, 18)."-132-CHAPTER 4: GEORGE HERBERT'S ANGLICAN SPIRITUALITYNo institution is more baffling to outsidersthan the Church of England, but its veryillogicality and eclecticism commend it tomany English minds .. .---Margaret Bowan, George Herbert.One who wishes to know what Anglicanism isand has not much time for study cannot dobetter than to pay attention to the life,the poems, and the prose of George Herbert.---Stephen Neill, Anglicanism.In this chapter, I draw upon The Country Parson to address some of theapparent contradictions in the religious and political views implied in The Temple. Aswe saw earlier, poems such as "Judgement" and "The H. Scriptures" imply a reformedemphasis on the promises of scripture, yet poems such as "H. Baptisme" and "Aaron"imply a catholic concern for the sacramental and liturgical life of the church. Politicalparadoxes also suggest themselves. Poems such as "The Collar" and "The Reprisall"seem highly individualistic, while poems such as "The Foil" and "Sinne (II)" addresscommon concerns. Poems such as "The Quip" and "Vanitie (II)" appear to rejectcourtly aspirations, but poems such as "Obedience" and "Love (III)" portray an almostfeudal devotion to a master or lord. The Country Parson helps to resolve suchapparent contradictions because it describes Herbert's Anglicanism whichparadoxically incorporates elements of both reformed and catholic thought, whichexpresses private concerns in common prayer, and which encourages individuality aslong as the individual respects established authority.Although they have provided valuable insights, recent discussions ofreformation theology and ecclesiastical controversy have not done justice to Herbert's-133-poetic art. Too often, Herbert's poems have been read as doctrinal statements attestingto catholic or reformed theology.' Doctrinal readings of "The Water-course" inparticular have led to the prevalent view that Herbert was an extreme Calvinist withpuritan leanings, someone at war with his own flesh and suspicious of all externalauthority. 2 But one cannot accurately infer such abstractions as double predestinationfrom Herbert's verse. Although Herbert's religious and political beliefs clearly informThe Temple, his poems do not offer definitive statements of belief. Taken together,the poems present paradoxes of the kind I describe above. Read individually, theirmeaning is sometimes indeterminate, as in "Prayer (I)." Most importantly, Herbert'spoems are more concerned with practical devotion than with abstract theology, as theconclusions of "The Collar" and "Love (III)" suggest.As Stanley Stewart observes, anomalous views of the poems can be avoided bya proper understanding of their historical context. 3 Stewart's own description of thebeliefs and practices of Nicholas Ferrar's "Arminian nunnery" at Little Gidding ishelpful in this regard, particularly in view of Herbert's friendship with Ferrar and thecommunity's preparation of the Bodleian manuscript. Hodgkins' description of thetension between enforced Laudian ceremonialism and puritan inwardness andindividualism is also helpful. A poem such as "Church-windows" may reflect suchcontroversies to some extent. But Herbert was not much given to controversy.Religious controversy is certainly rare or muted in The Temple. As we noted earlier,the tone of "To all Angels and Saints" is conciliatory. The more strident tone of "TheBritish Church" and "Church-rents and schismes" is ameliorated by a strong sense ofcelebration, and the thorny issues raised in "Aaron" are relieved of contention byHerbert's devotional emphasis. Herbert's one polemic work, Musae Responsoriae -134-(1620), is surprisingly irenic by the standard of the times.' And the focus of TheCountry Parson is typically pastoral rather than controversial.Given their devotional emphasis, Herbert's poems are best read as complexartistic reflections of his Anglican spirituality. By "spirituality" I mean the complexfusion of belief and experience involved in Herbert's particular way of living out theChristian life.5 In my view, Herbert's spirituality is best understood by ourimaginative recreation of the "classic period" of Anglicanism from Richard Hooker(1554-1600) to Jeremy Taylor (1613-1667). 6 Anglican patterns of thought and worshipoften transcended theological and ecclesiastical controversy, particularly in rural areasduring Herbert's lifetime (1593-1633). The Jacobean bishops themselves displayed aunity in diversity, for they maintained traditional public worship and devotedthemselves to pastoral care despite their evident theological differences.'Although Herbert's Anglicanism has often been acknowledged, it has neverbeen described adequately. 8 I begin my discussion by defining Anglicanism anddescribing Herbert's liturgical and pastoral practice, which I believe is "higher" (moresacramental and ceremonial) than Hodgkins suggests. I then suggest the main tenetsof Herbert's reformed catholicism. But I concentrate most on what most Anglicans ofthe period would have shared, despite their theological and ecclesiological differences:typical habits of mind, common approaches to religious questions, and prevalentattitudes towards the Christian life. Finally, because Herbert remained an individualwithin his tradition, I discuss some of the religious implications of his temperamentand vocation.First, let me clarify my terms. One must distinguish between catholicism andRoman Catholicism. By "catholic" I simply mean the universal beliefs and attitudes of-135-the pre-reformation church, as opposed to the later teaching of Rome (RomanCatholicism) which the reformers believed to contain errors. As an Anglican,Herbert's beliefs and attitudes were deeply catholic without being Roman Catholic.One must also distinguish between protestant and reformed thinking. Although theterm "protestant" was sometimes used in Herbert's day, it was loosely applied toanyone who opposed Rome theologically or politically. Later, the term came to beassociated with various non-Anglican denominations and their beliefs and practices.For the purposes of theological clarity, I speak of "reformed" thinking, by which Imean the teaching of such reformation figures as Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli.Although these reformers shared a belief in redemption by faith in the promises ofscripture, they also differed on the value of church tradition, the process of election,and the imminence of the apocalypse. 9 Using the terms in their modern sense,Herbert's thinking was reformed without being protestant.The term "Anglican" also requires explanation. Anglicanism is not really aprotestant denomination (in the modern sense of the word). Nor can one useinterchangably the terms "Anglican," "Church of England," and "Anglo-Catholic.""Anglican" and "Anglicanism" are cognates of the medieval Latin Anglicana Ecclesia,the term used by the authors of the Magna Carta and later by Bishop John Jewel toindicate the catholic church in England!' Although, as we shall see, the Anglicana Ecclesia was always distinctive, during the Middle Ages its distinctiveness was largelysubmerged in the idea of Christendom. A medieval Englishman would not havethought of himself as a member of the Church of England but as a member of the(one) catholic church. During the Reformation, however, Englishmen were forced tothink of the church in England as something apart from "the Church of Rome."-136-Theologically, England may have remained largely catholic under Henry VIII;however, it ceased to be catholic in the old sense when the sovereign and her subjectswere excommunicated by the Pope during Elizabeth's reign.Richard Hooker's translation of Anglicana Ecclesia as "the Church of England"reflects this new nationalistic and reformed constitution. A generation later, Herbertwould not have thought of the Church of England as one denomination among many,but neither would he have simply assumed that he belonged to "the church." AsHorton Davies reminds us, by the early seventeenth century those we now refer to as"Catholics," "Anglicans," and "Puritans" had developed rival conceptions of thechurch:For the Roman Catholic there was a sense of belonging to aninternational community that spanned oceans and centuries. For theAnglican there was the sense of the entire nation on its knees incommon prayer. For the Puritan there was the sense of the gathering ofseveral of the families of God, his elect."Herbert probably retained many catholic views and feelings, as "H. Baptisme"suggests. He might even have argued, as Jewel had done, that the Church of Englandwas the only unsullied expression of catholicism. But as "The British Church"indicates, Herbert felt that the Church of England was not only unique, but opposed tothe churches of Rome and Geneva.Officially, all Englishmen belonged to the Church of England unless theydeclared otherwise. There were those, particularly in the north, who retainedconsiderable allegiance to the old Roman Catholic religion. And there were others,the so-called "puritans," who felt that the Reformation had not gone far enough, andsought to purify the Church of England of its vestiges of "Popery." Yet bothminorities continued to worship in the Church of England during Herbert's lifetime,-137-and had much in common theologically with the majority of its members. Some careis therefore needed when we speak of early seventeenth-century "Anglicans."Strictly speaking, there were no Anglicans in Herbert's day, only members ofthe Church of England. The term "Anglican" came into use during the eighteenthcentury, when it became necessary to refer collectively to the various branches of theChurch of England which had been established abroad and formed the Anglicancommunion. The term "Anglicanism" was first used (perhaps by F. D. Maurice) in thenineteenth century to describe the beliefs of that communion." Because Anglicanscontinue to recognize the importance of Herbert to their tradition, it continues to beuseful to speak anachronistically of Herbert as an Anglican or of Herbert'sAnglicanism.' But in so doing, we are implicitly placing Herbert in the mainstreamof the Church of England, thereby emphasizing his differences with conformingpuritans and recusants as well as continental protestants and Roman Catholics.The fact that Herbert continues to represent "Anglicanism at its best" shouldnot obscure the differences between the Church of England in his time and ours.'During the early seventeenth century, the Church of England enjoyed a unique fusionof catholic sacramentalism and reformed evangelicalism. It also required an unusualdegree of uniformity of practice. Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century reform andrevival created separate evangelical "low church," sacramentalist "high church," andlatitudinarian "broad church" traditions. Herbert is not really an "Anglo-Catholic" asHodgkins describes him, because the term refers to a follower of the high church orOxford Movement. However, it may be useful to describe Herbert's attitudes andbeliefs as "high" or "low," as long as we acknowledge that for Herbert the one wouldnot necessarily exclude the other.-138-Anglicanism is often misunderstood; it is not simply the result of the maritaldifficulties of Henry VIII, nor is it merely a compromise between Roman Catholic andreformed belief' s Anglicanism offers an alternative to both traditions, a separate anddistinctive kind of religious experience. Although Anglicanism is sometimescharacterized as "reformed Catholicism" or "belief in the Thirty-nine Articles,"Anglicanism is not a confessional faith. Unlike Roman Catholicism and protestantism,Anglicanism does not depend upon a personality such as Calvin, a particular principlesuch as justification by faith, or a system of doctrine such as Thomism. 16 Despite theimportance of the Articles of Religion, there is no single Anglican theology, thoughAnglican theologians do recognize a theological context and tradition!' Anglicanismis really a spirituality or way of life!' a world view which derives from participationin an historically unique church. ° The distinctive character of that church shapes theparticipant's beliefs and values."The British Church" which Herbert describes in his poem had already existedfor well over a millenium. Because the church began in England during the second orthird century, some scholars even speak of "the Patristic period of Anglicanism. Q 20Three British bishops attended the Council of Arles in 314, and Christianity flourishedamong the Celts long before Gregory the Great sent Augustine of Canterbury toEngland in 597. 21 There had been one English church ever since the Synod of Whitbyin 664.22 And this church had its own special character: most notably a dislike ofauthority, an ability to tolerate opposing views, and an appreciation of the ordinaryrather than the exceptional Christian life. 23 Its Celtic-Saxon heritage contributed a mixof mysticism and practicality, and the Norman invasion brought close church-stateties.24 These characteristics were to persist. Although it adhered to Roman Catholic-1 39-doctrine throughout the medieval period, the English Church differed in practice fromRome.25 Consequently, renaissance churchmen such as Archbishop Parker, and later,James Ussher, were able to argue that the Anglo-Saxon church was a nascent Churchof England. 26Although the English Church achieved independence during the Reformation, itwas able to retain much of its medieval catholicism because of the largely politicalorigin of the English Reformation and the church's tradition of tolerance. 27 NeitherHenry VIII nor Elizabeth I thought they were establishing anything new; they assumedthat they were reforming the Church that had always existed in England. 28 And thecatholicism of the Church of England was defended during the sixteenth andseventeenth centuries by such eminent spokesmen as John Jewel, Richard Hooker,Thomas Cranmer, John Cosin, and Jeremy Taylor. 29The English Reformation was relatively conservative for other reasons as well.The harsh and radical tendencies of Calvinism were partially mitigated, first byLutheranism and then by Arminianism. 31 Also the innate practicality of the EnglishChurch led it to concern itself most with ecclesiastical and liturgical reform. Whilethe continental churches debated such theoretical questions as the nature of thesacraments and the workings of election and free will, the Church of Englandcharacteristically expressed its newly-reformed Catholicism in the Book of CommonPrayer.32Partly because of the peculiar character of the English Reformation, the Churchof England permitted considerable theological latitude but required strict conformity tochurch order during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Theologically,churchmen differed considerably over the effectiveness of the human will and the-140-working of the sacraments.33 Extreme Calvinists believed in the total depravity of manand God's limited grace; extreme Arminians believed in the efficacy of the human willand God's unlimited grace. Although sacramental theology was far from uniform,Arminians tended to have a more catholic view of the sacraments and the priesthoodthan those whose views were more reformed. 34 Yet, during Herbert's lifetime (1593-1633), the church was able to accommodate those whose theology was as reformed asAbbot's and those whose theology was as catholic as Andrewes'. 35 Suchaccommodation was possible because the church comprehended and moderated diversepoints of view, and because it emphasized common prayer instead of doctrinaluniformity.In England, religious controversy focused primarily upon matters of practicesuch as government by presbyters or bishops, the location of the altar, the wearing ofvestments, and the signing of the cross during baptism.' Herbert's practice is noteasy to characterize. Herbert has been described variously as a "Laudian" and as apuritan struggling to reconcile his beliefs with Laud's uncompromising ceremonialorder. 37 But the moderation and serenity of The Country Parson argues against suchextremes. I see little evidence of a puritanism which opposes or internalizessacrament, ceremony, and authority. Nor do I see evidence of a Laudian effort torequire complete uniformity in non-essentials.The biographical evidence suggests that Herbert's views were far from puritan.The interests of the Herbert family were closely allied with those of the crown and theestablished church.38 Walton emphasizes Herbert's conservative Anglican upbringing,his censure of Melville's Puritanism, his willing conformity, his delight in the liturgy,and his association with Nicholas Ferrar's "Arminian Nunnery."" Although the bishop-141-who ordained Herbert to the priesthood, John Davenant, was a moderate Calvinist, hemay well have taken a harsh view of puritan non-conformity.4° Herbert's first church(St. Mary's at Leighton Bromswold), which he restored, had such unpuritanfurnishings as an altar on the East wall and a screen across the chancel!' His secondchurch (St. Andrew's at Bemerton), also had a tradition of unpuritan practice, forHerbert's successors were charged by the Puritans with bowing to the altar, having analtar on the East wall, and allowing festivals. 42Herbert's practice might be described as "Arminian," in the sense that he didnot emphasize preaching at the expense of the sacraments and that he advocated aceremonial decorum. 43 The Country Parson advocates what we should now describeas "high" ceremonial practice, although it does so with restraint. For instance, theprecise but spare description of church furnishings in "The Parson's Church" paysparticular attention to the altar cloths and communion vessels, and describes the use ofincense. But Herbert follows this description with the injunction that holiness does notlie in practice:And all this he doth, not as out of necessity, or as putting a holiness inthings, but as desiring to keep the middle way between superstition andslovenlinesse . . . (246: 22-25)Herbert's desire "to keep the middle way between superstition and slovenliness"recalls the painted and naked women (Rome and Geneva) which Herbert rejects infavour of his "deare Mother" in "The British Church." But his warnings against"putting a holiness in things" suggests a traditional Anglicanism which is neitherpuritan nor Laudian.I do not think that Herbert's ceremonial moderation required him to adopt anextremely reformed position which limited the sacraments to signs and the ministry to-142-evangelism, as Hodgkins suggests.' My reading of The Country Parson indicates thatalthough Herbert was not excessively sacerdotal, he retained a "high" Anglican viewof the sacraments and the priesthood. For instance, in "The Parson in Sacraments,"Herbert speaks of "not only receiving God, but breaking and administering him,"recalling his remarks in "The Priesthood":But th' holy men of God such vessels are,As serve him up, who all the world commands:When God vouchsafeth to become our fare,Their hands convey him, who conveys their hands.0 what pure things, most pure must those things be,Who bring my God, to me! 45 (11.25.30)Again, in "The Parson Praying," Herbert speaks ofpresenting with himself the whole Congregation,whose sins he then beares, and brings with hisown to the heavenly altar to be bathed, andwashed in the sacred Laver of Christs blood. (chap. 6, 231: 7-10)Herbert unequivocally supports the signing of the cross during baptism, a practicewhich raised great Puritan objections:He willingly and cheerfully crosseth the child,and thinketh the Ceremony not onely innocent,but reverend. (258: 7-9) 46And Herbert pointedly refers to the parson in his sacramental capacity as a "priest"rather than a "minister"--another controversial point--as in his discussion of thebenediction (chap. 36, 286: 6-25).I also disagree with Hodgkins that Herbert conformed minimally or wasreluctant to appeal to ecclesiastical authority. Throughout The Country Parson,Herbert advocates obedience and uniformity. Most explicitly, Herbert states that thecountry parson "carryes himself very respectively, as to all the Fathers of the Church,so especially to his Diocesan, honouring him both in word, and behaviour, and-143-resorting unto him in any difficulty, either in his studies or in his Parish. He observesVisitations, and being there, makes due use of them, as of Clergy councels, for thebenefit of the Diocese" (chap. 19, 253: 5-11). "The Parson's state of Life" indicatesthat Herbert's conformity was sincere, even zealous, not stinting or equivocal:He therefore thinkes it not enough for him to observe the fasting dayesof the Church, and the dayly prayers enjoyned him by auctority, whichhe observeth out of humble conformity and obedience; but adds tothem, out of choyce and devotion . . . (chap. 9, 237: 21-25) 47Herbert advocates humble conformity in matters of practice large and small. Forexample, "[the country parson] useth and preferreth the Church-Catechism, partly forobedience to Authority, partly for uniformity sake, that the same common truths maybe every where professed" (chap. 21, 255: 16-19). The country parson also requireshis parishioners to kneel during prayers, something Puritans were loath to do.Nor does he scruple to "call in Authority" when necessary to enforce suchpractices (chap. 24, 263: 21-25). He instructs his church wardens in the canons andvisitation articles, and advises them that:he wisheth them by no means to spare any, though never so great; but ifafter gentle, and neighbourly admonitions they still persist in ill, topresent them . . . (chap. 29, 270: 18-21)For Herbert, obedience to the church hierarchy is almost inseparable fromrespect for the laws of the land and loyalty to the crown--a typically Anglicanperspective." For instance, Herbert notes that the office of church wardenNeither hath the place its dignity from the Ecclesiasticall Laws only,since even by the Common Statute-Law they are taken for a kinde ofCorporation . . . (269:32-270:1)Herbert grants the interests of the state a moral primacy in the opening of chapter 19:The Countrey Parson is sincere and upright in all his relations. Andfirst, he is just to his Countrey . . . (chap. 19, 252: 24-25)-144-And in chapter 32, the parson's religious duty is once again closely allied with thepreservation of the social order, recalling the "Exhortation concerning good order, andobedience to Rulers and Magistrates" from the Book of Homilies.49Some sections of The Country Parson are particularly rooted in earlyseventeenth-century church policy. For instance, Herbert's discussion of marriage andcelibacy in "The Parson's state of Life" parallels Edward VI's statute on clericalmarriage. 50 Herbert's description of correct--and incorrect--congregational behaviourin "The Parson praying" recalls the Canons of 1604 on "Reverence in Worship." 51And Herbert's notes on teaching in "The Parson on Sunday" and "The Parsoncatechizing" resemble the Canons of 1604 on "Instruction in the Faith." 52 But TheCountry Parson reflects classical Anglicanism and the ethos of the 1620s and early1630s most of all through its general lack of contention.Herbert's main concern in The Country Parson is far more pastoral anddevotional than controversial or polemical. Herbert barely mentions clericalvestments, and takes the episcopacy for granted, though much controversy surroundedboth the wearing of vestments and the system of church government. 53 Chapters suchas "The Parson's Life," "The Parson in his House," "The Parson in Circuit," and "TheParson Comforting" provide extensive, detailed discussions of the parson's godlycharacter and his provision of pastoral care, with scarcely a hint of controversy. Even"The Parson Arguing" advocates "a strict religious life" and being "voyd of allcontentiousnesse" as the best approach in controversy (263: 16-18). Indeed, Herbert'sdetermination to discuss godliness and pastoral method on any occasion sometimesresults in surprising turns of thought, as in "The Parson's Library":The Countrey Parson's Library is a holy Life: for besides the blessing-145-that that brings upon it, there being a promise, that if the Kingdome ofGod be first sought, all other things shall be added, even it selfe is aSermon.(chap. 33, 278: 11-14)Such pastoral and devotional orientation is typically Anglican, and especially typical ofthe early seventeenth century."Herbert was ordained deacon by John Williams, dean of Westminster andbishop of London, in 1624.55 Williams made him canon of Lincoln Cathedral andprebendary of Leighton Ecclesia in 1626. Herbert was ordained priest--this time byJohn Davenant--in 1627, and was rector of Bemerton under Davenant from 1630 untilhis death in 1633. 56 Herbert's generation, which had grown up in comparativereligious peace, was able to take the Elizabethan settlement for granted. There weredefinitely signs of political tension and decreasing religious toleration in the firstdecades of the seventeenth century, as Hodgkins and others have shown.57 Herbertmay have devoted himself to rural pastoral life in order to escape controversy. Butthe tone of The Country Parson suggests confidence rather than constraint. Accordingto Fincham and Higham, there was relatively little contention until William Laud waselevated to the see of Canterbury in 1633, the year of Herbert's death. FlorenceHigham describes the relatively peaceful era during Herbert's ministry:The Church was established, its personnel had improved, few emptycures were left, and the bishops who worked under Whitgift's directionwere a distinguished and devoted group. A generation had grown intoman's estate to whom the Liturgy had been known and loved sincechildhood.'Under these circumstances, it would not be surprising for Herbert to be preoccupiedwith personal sanctity and the practicalities of ministry rather than systematic theologyor controversy. The very existence of The Country Parson testifies to the dearth of-146-formal training for the Anglican ministry in the early seventeenth century. 59 Themeagreness of the provisions and furniture in "The Parson at Home" suggests thegrinding poverty in which clergymen typically lived. 60 Yet the Caroline clergy set astandard for pastoral care from birth to death which is yet to be equalled--and this in acommunion which is renowned for the extent of its pastoral theory and practice. 61Despite his theological sophistication, Herbert's beliefs were probably few andsimple. As I have shown in the previous chapter, we may assume that Herbert "readthe Fathers and the Schoolmen, and the later Writers, or a good proportion of all . . . "(chap. 5, 229). But we should also assume that abstract theology belonged to "hisyounger and preparatory times"; for the practical work of the priesthood which informsThe Temple, "all divinity may be easily reduced to . . . the Church Catechisme" (230:8-9). One could hardly imagine a more Anglican statement of belief. As "Divinitie"suggests, Herbert is not really concerned with "curious questions and divisions" in TheTemple; neither does he much develop doctrine in The Country Parson. What littleabstract theology--as opposed to practical divinity and devotion--Herbert mentions inThe Country Parson is eclectic rather than systematic, both reformed and catholic, andtherefore typically Anglican.Herbert's perspective is so obviously reformed in a poem such as "Judgement"that one easily overlooks the general catholicity of his thought and feeling in TheTemple. Herbert not only has a high notion of the sacraments and of the priesthood,surely the obvious import of "Baptisme (II)" and "Aaron," but he also speaksconstantly in his poems to common Christian experience. Poems such as "TheSacrifice," "Anagram of the Virgin Marie" and "The Pilgrimage" are so catholic as toseem almost medieval, which is why Rosemund Tuve's analysis remains persuasive.62-147-Yet Herbert's catholicism is an integral part of his Anglican spirituality, for as H.R.McAdoo observes in The Spirit of Anglicanism,. . . the Church of England always regarded the teaching and practiceof the undivided Church of the first five centuries as its criterion .. .the whole tenor of seventeenth-century writing indicated that thisundifferentiated Catholicism was the pivotal point for Anglicanthinking.'Herbert's reference in his will to the works of Augustine and his numerous referencesto him and to the other Fathers and to the primitive church in The Country Parson  alsoindicate the deep catholicism of his thinking. Indeed, this appeal to tradition and theFathers is typically Anglican, especially Arminian. M We would be safe to infer astrong belief in the doctrines of Creation and the Incarnation, for this emphasis ischaracteristic of Anglicanism, particularly of this period." Such belief pervades TheTemple, perhaps most obviously in the opening and close of "Man":My God, I heard this day,That none doth build a stately habitation,But he that means to dwell therein.What house more stately hath there been,Or can be, then is Man? to whose creationAll things are in decay.Since then, my God, thou hastSo brave a Palace built; 0 dwell in it,That it may dwell with thee at last!Till then, afford us so much wit;That, as the world serves us, we may serve thee,And both thy servants be.(11. 1-6, 49-54)Just as Herbert's incarnational thinking here is implied in devotion rather than definedby doctrine, so also it is expressed in The Country Parson by his attitude to thesacraments and his approach to pastoral care.For Herbert, God is present in the world in a special way through the-148-sacraments because of the Incarnation. In "The Parson in Sacraments," for instance,Herbert declares that "God is not only the feast but the way to it," a view whichinforms "Love (II)" (chap. 22, 257: 29-30). Because Herbert thinks incarnationally,he assumes that pastoral care should be sacramental and pervasive, as we see in "TheParson Comforting":the participation of the holy Sacrament, how comfortable, andSoveraigne a Medicine it is to all sin-sick souls; what strength, and joy,and peace it administers against all temptations, even to death it selfe . .66Herbert's doctrine of Creation is also implied or assumed rather than expounded, buthis mention of "Gods generall providence extended even to lillyes" suggests a belief inGod as sustainer of nature (249: 19-20). Herbert's statement in "The Parson in Mirth"that "nature will not bear everlasting droopings" also implies that Creation is the goodand joyful thing described in "Man."Although Herbert's deep catholicism is matched by the evangelicalism ofpoems such as "The H. Scriptures" and "The Call," it is difficult to evaluate the extentof his reformed views. Some commentators feel that Herbert has an extremeCalvinist perspective which involves a preference for a logical system, a preoccupationwith justification by faith, and a subscription to the propositions of the Synod ofDort.67 But, as we noted earlier, such claims usually rest on interpretations ofindividual poems. The prose suggests a definite, but moderate, reformed perspective.Although Herbert does allude to certain reformed doctrines, he does so only at the endof The Country Parson, and then devotionally. In "A Prayer after Sermon," heexclaims:-149-Blessed be God! and the Father of all mercy! who continueth to pour hisbenefits upon us. Thou hast elected us, thou hast called us, thou hast justifiedus, sanctified, and glorified us: Thou wast born for us, and thou livedst anddiedst for us: Thou hast given us the blessings of this life, and of a better.(290: 1-6)Here, in an explicit statement of belief, Herbert shows no inclination towards doublepredestination or other extreme Calvinist doctrines such as total depravity. Althoughthis statement does not necessarily prove that Herbert's theology was Arminian,Herbert does seem to believe in unlimited grace and in a God with whom it is possibleto be on intimate terms. 68 Because God is manifested in the flesh, Herbert emphasizesno particular doctrine, except for the fundamental Christian belief in the Incarnation.Most important of all, however, he demonstrates his Anglicanism by viewing alldoctrines relationally and by incorporating them in worship.'Like his catholic concern with creation and the Incarnation, Herbert's reformedthinking is typically implied rather than expounded in the prose as well as the verse.In The Country Parson, Herbert's reformed--but typically Anglican--approach toscripture is often evident as in "The Parson Blessing." This chapter begins, as somany of Herbert's poems do, with a devotional problem:The Countrey Parson wonders, that Blessing the people is in so littleuse with his brethren: whereas he thinks it not onely a grave, andreverend thing, but a beneficial also. (chap. 36, 285: 1-3)Herbert considers the relevant scriptural principles and apostolic example (285: 9-13).But as he carefully considers the scriptural evidence, he makes no effort to makescripture speak where it is silent (286: 26-28). Finally, he offers neither a Protestantinjunction from scripture nor a Roman Catholic one from tradition, but makes animplicit argument that the priest's blessing is not contrary to scripture, and an appeal--in the absence of definitive teaching--to reason and utility (285:15-286:2). His-150-method, which will be discussed presently, owes much to that of Richard Hooker'sLaws of Ecclesiastical Polity. But Herbert's approach to scripture is characteristicallyAnglican in other ways. In the example above, he is notably reluctant to exceed theobvious meaning of scripture or to make it speak where it is silent, an Anglican habitof mind which one also sees in Herbert's notes on Valdesso's Considerations.'Herbert also incorporates numerous scriptural references into his discourse seamlesslyin The Country Parson, especially in "The Parson Preaching," just as Cranmer does inthe Book of Common Prayer.We surely stand to learn more about Herbert's Anglican spirituality byexploring such habits of mind as these than by pursuing doctrinal distinctions whichhe steadfastly refuses to make. Certainly, for Anglicans of the period, belief did notinvolve assent to theological abstractions so much as participation in a commonliterary and religious culture. This kind of belief is implied in Herbert's invitation forus to participate in both of his literary projects. The preface of The Country Parson recalls the liturgy both in the humble prayer of the author and in his clear invitation:The Lord prosper the intention to my selfe, and others, who may notdespise my poor labours, but add to those points, which I haveobserved, untill the Book grow into a compleat Pastorall. ("TheAuthour to the Reader")The opening of The Temple is also liturgical. In "The Church-porch," the authorprovides two clear invitations to participate, the opening stanzas of "Perirrhanterium"and "Superliminare":Thou, whose sweet youth and early hopes inhanceThy rate and price, and mark thee for a treasure;Hearken unto a Verser, who may chanceRhyme thee to good, and make a bate of pleasure.A verse may finde him, who a sermon flies,And turn delight into a sacrifice.-151-Thou, whom the former precepts haveSprinkled and taught, how to behaveThy self in church; approach, and tasteThe churches mysticall repast.Then, in "The Church," the author offers a prayer:0 let thy blessed SACRIFICE be mine,And sanctifie this ALTAR to be thine.("The Altar, 11. 15-16)Because The Temple is infused with the participatory belief of the Anglican liturgy,critical efforts to reduce the meaning of Herbert's poetry to abstract systematictheology inevitably fail.The current debate about Herbert's sacramental theology rests on theologicaldistinctions which are foreign to Anglicanism, the very "curious questions anddivisions" which Herbert pointedly rejects in "Divinitie." The Prayer Book of 1559incorporated both the more Catholic communion sentence from the 1549 book, "TheBody of our Lord Jesus Christ which was given for thee, preserve thy body and soulunto everlasting life," and the more Protestant sentence from the 1552 book, "Takeand eat this in remembrance that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart byfaith, with thanksgiving. " 7I These two statements could be included withouttheological contradiction because the attitude supporting them was not one ofsystematic logic but of participation. Hooker had shifted attention from the changeswhich might or might not occur in the elements to their use by the faithful:The bread and cup are his body and blood because they are causesinstrumental upon the receipt whereof the participation of his body andblood insueth.72Hooker's attitude is devotional:. . . what these elements are in themselves it skilleth not, it is enough-152-that to me which take them they are the body and blood of Christ, hispromise in witness therof sufficeth, his word he knoweth which way toaccomplish; why should any cogitation possess the mind of a faithfulcommunicant but this, 0 my God thou art true, 0 my Soul thou arthappy! (V.lxvii.12)Such is Herbert's attitude to the sacraments. We have already seen his devotional,relational, and participatory attitude to the sacraments in "The Parson's Church" and"The Parson in Sacraments." The same attitude pertains even in the most theologicallyabstract chapter of The Country Parson,  "The Parson's Consideration of Providence"(271: 33-36). This attitude also informs the Anglican Articles of Religion."Herbert's typically Anglican attitude to the sacrament clearly informs poemssuch as "The Bunch of Grapes," "The Banquet," and "The Invitation." And whateverthe apparent Eucharistic theology of "Love Unknown," such distinctions astransubstantiation, consubstantiation, real presence, and virtualism are transcended inthe Eucharistic apotheosis of The Temple, "Love (III)." Here, as in Hooker's Laws,what matters is the relationship between God and man--not a concept but a communalact which must be experienced by the communicant:. . . let my shameGo where it doth deserve.And know you not, sayes Love, who bore the blame?My Beare, then I will serve.You must sit down, sayes Love, and taste my meat:So I did sit and eat. (11. 13-18).John N. Wall aptly describes Anglican belief, which is intrinsically related tothe liturgical life of the church:The Church of England located its source of assurance not in a doctrineor an experience of conversion or election but in its life of worshipmade possible by the Book of Common Prayer, the Bible in English,and the preaching as represented by the Book of Homilies. 74During the Reformation, the Church of England had asserted its independence by the-153-emplacement of these books by royal decree, rather than by insisting upon doctrinaluniformity." The integrity of the church was subsequently maintained by thesemeasures, particularly through the use of the Book of Common Prayer in its variousversions:Supporters and advocates of the Church of England found their sense ofidentity through that book; their opponents found their Chrisitianidentity elsewhere. As a result, the established Church could acceptdiversity in interpretation of the faith so long as the public worship ofthe Prayer Book continued, while those who found their identity in oneor other doctrinal positions demanded that the worship of the nation bebrought into line with that doctrinal position."Herbert acknowledges this process by stipulating that the parson's church must contain"all the books appointed by Authority" (chap. 6, 246: 14). He also continues theprocess by contributing a prose manual of pastoral care and a book of prayer andpraise in verse.Over time, Anglican spirituality became infused with "the restraint, the dignity,the fusion of fact and feeling" which characterizes the Book of Common Prayer:The ordinary Englishman was familiar with the Prayer Book at home aswell as in Church. It was part of the way of life which he took withhim when he left his own country. Wherever English colonists, andparticularly English ships, went, the Book of Common Prayer went also. . . With the dignity, even austerity, of the Prayer Book there goes alsoa basic simplicity which is not affected by the richness of its language.Its prayers are the expression of a filial relationship between a child andhis father--a weak, sinful, and erring child, a Father of infinite majestyand power, but still a child and a Father.'"Anglicanism is indeed so intimately related to the Book of Common Prayer as to bevirtually inseparable from it.'The Country Parson, as we have already seen, is infused with the style of thePrayer Book. Herbert often alludes to the Book of Common Prayer, and he describesits proper use at some length in chapter 6, "The Parson Praying." In chapter 32,-154-Herbert amplifies the Prayer Book injunction to "bring up children in the fear andnurture of the Lord," much as Jeremy Taylor in Holy Living (1650) amplifies thePrayer Book injunction to "lead a godly, upright, and sober life."' The Temple alsoreflects the spirituality of the Book of Common Prayer: both because it speaks withthe same tone and assumptions in poems such as "Praise (II)", and because itreplicates its liturgical patterns in poems such as "Mattens" and "Even-song," as wellas in its overall structure." But such a spirituality depends little upon declareddoctrine.We learn much about Herbert's spirituality from his approach to religiousquestions and from his attitude to the Christian life. To begin with, although Herbert'sthought is subtle, he is more concerned with common Christian experience than withreligious speculation. This concern for the ordinary unheroic Christian life ischaracteristic of Anglican spirituality.' We see Herbert's decided preference for theordinary in The Country Parson, as he describes the primitive church:He [the country parson] often readeth the Lives of the Primitive Monks,Hermits, and Virgins, and wondreth not so much at their patientsuffering, and cheerfull dying under persecuting Emperours,(though thatindeed be very admirable) as at their daily temperance, abstinence,watchings, and constant prayers, and mortifications in the times ofpeace and prosperity. (chap. 9, 237: 27-33)Herbert's valuation of the ordinary is also implied in his lengthy discussion ofdomestic arrangements and daily activities in "The Parson in his House," "The Parsonin Circuit," and "The Parson in Journey," which reflect his belief that "nothing is littlein God's service" (249: 2). Herbert is pre-eminently the poet of the ordinary: apartfrom his poems on the priesthood, Herbert writes about the ordinary experience ofChristian hope and personal failing, often using the homeliest of similes and-155-metaphors. It is altogether typical of Herbert to advise us in "Perirrhanterium" to windup our souls along with our watches, or to liken himself in "Employment (I)" to aflower in danger of being nipped in the bud. Herbert's capacity to portray commonexperience powerfully in simple, everyday terms is one reason for his enduringpopularity.Herbert's approach to religious questions reflects the traditional Anglicandistinction between things necessary to salvation and things not, a distinction mostclearly stated in Richard Hooker's Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity  (1593).82Herbert mentions "fundamental things" in "The Parson arguing" and "things necessary"in "The Parson's Library" (263: 4; 279: 15-31). But he makes the distinction mostpointedly in "The Parson in Liberty":The Countrey Parson . . . stands fast in the Liberty wherewith Christhath made us free. This Liberty he compasseth by one distinction, andthat is, of what is Necessary, and what is Additionary. (chap. 31, 272:15-21)The distinction is important pastorally, for the parson seeks to relieve hisoverscrupulous and superstitious parishioners. Although Herbert may implicitlycriticize puritanism and Roman Catholicism here, he emphasizes the freedom of hisAnglican approach. As Lancelot Andrewes once said to his students at Pembroke,"What is necessary to be known, God has made easy, and what is not easy is not sonecessary." 83 This is Herbert's attitude in "Divinitie," as he rejects "curious questionsand divisions" in favour of "those beams of truth, which onely save":Could not that Wisdome, which first broacht the wine,Have thicken'd it with definitions?And jagg'd his seamlesse coat, had that been fine,With curious questions and divisions?But all the doctrine, which he taught and gave,-156-Was cleare as heav'n, from whence it came.At least those beams of truth, which onely save,Surpass in brightnesse any flame.Love God, and love your neighbour. Watch and pray. Do as ye woulde be done unto. 0 dark instructions; ev'n as dark as day!Who can these Gordian knots undo? (9-20)Herbert's approach to religious questions is also Anglican in its rejection ofinfallibility.' The Book of Common Prayer (1559) had resolutely declared that:There was never any thing by the wit of man so well devised, or sosure established, which in continuance of time bath not been corrupted85. . .This declaration suggests that theological error and corrupt practice are inevitable, andthat the great mistake is to pretend otherwise, making correction impossible. Such isthe basis of Hooker's criticism of Calvinism and Roman Catholicism:Two things there are which trouble greatly these later times: one thatthe Church of Rome cannot, another that Geneva will not, err.'If anything, Herbert's activity as a country parson stimulated his Anglican awarenessof endemic error and corrupt practice, for he often condemns both in The Country Parson." We have already met the parson's correctives in chapters such as "TheParson Praying" and "The Parson in Liberty," and his vigilance is more evident still in"The Parson in Circuit," "The Parson's eye," and' "The Parson in Sentinell." In TheTemple, Herbert's rejection of infallibility is evident in poems such as "The Collar"which considers various unsatisfactory positions before dispensing with intellectualargument in favour of simple faith.Herbert often seeks a via media in religious questions. Speaking of "the fineaspect and fit array of "The British Church," the poetic voice rejects "outlandishlooks" because "they either painted are, / Or else undrest" (11. 7-13). Commenting-157-upon ecclesiastical practices in chapter 36 of The Country Parson,  Herbert proteststhat:In the time of Popery, the Priests Benedicite, and his holy water wereover highly valued; and now we are fallen to the clean contrary, evenfrom superstition to coldnes, and Atheism. (286: 15-18)However, Herbert is not merely seeking compromise in such circumstances; he isembracing the traditional Anglican ideal of comprehension. According to Booty,Comprehension differed from compromise in that it was not a matter ofsteering between two fierce and foreign powers, but rather ofunderstanding God's will for men in accordance with Scripture,tradition, and reason. This implied the rejection of error whatever itssource and the affirmation of truth wherever it might be found."We have already seen some evidence of Herbert's comprehension in The Country Parson in the inclusiveness of "The Author to the Reader," "The Parson's Church,"and "The Prayer After Sermon." We also see Herbert's comprehension in hisadmission of "secular" considerations in religious questions, as in "The Parson's eye,"and in "The Parson in Mirth" which weighs spiritual, humane, and pragmatic concerns(267: 9-14; 267-268). In The Temple, Herbert's comprehension is felt in such poemsas "Trinitie" and "To all Angels and Saints" in which he is particularly determined toinclude all that is true and to exclude all that is false, regardless of personal feelings.Ironically, Herbert's Anglican comprehenSion has allowed both his catholic andhis reformed views to be over-emphasized.' Far from being ambivalent orcontradictory, Herbert's poems may be most unequivocally Anglican when they seemmost vocal for Rome or Geneva. For as C.J. Stranks observes:Just as a man conscious of having two hands will find himself usingfirst one, and then the other, and sometimes both together, as the task ofthe moment dictates, so the Church of England sometimes seems toargue from a Catholic position, sometimes from a Protestant one, andsometimes from a fusion of both."-158-Herbert uses one hand and then the other when the poetic voice in "H. Baptisme (II)"makes the apparently Roman Catholic claim that one may "lay hold, and antedate /[one's] faith" through infant baptism (11. 4-5), and the apparently Protestant voice in"Judgement" relies upon adult faith in biblical promises (11. 13-15).The dexterity and inclusiveness of Herbert's thinking suggests the theologicalmethod articulated by Richard Hooker, who is sometimes referred to as the "father ofAnglicanism."' Hooker developed a method of bringing the three instruments ofscripture, reason, and tradition to bear upon questions of faith and practice withsufficient dexterity to avoid the errors of both Rome and Geneva. Extremereformation thinking emphasized scripture to the detriment of tradition and reason;extreme catholicism emphasized reason and tradition to the detriment of scripture.Hooker rejected extremism in favour of measure and restraint, advocating thedexterous application of all three instruments.' In this essentially pastoral approachto religious questions, the practitioner is not so much a metaphysician as a physician:he is not building logical systems, but deciding what to leave, to cut, and to cure.Sometimes Herbert employs his three instruments subtly, as in "The Parson inSacraments" (259: 10-25); sometimes more overtly, as the passage from "The ParsonBlessing" considered previously. This approach to religious matters contributes to thedeliberative tone of The Country Parson--that thoroughly Anglican sense of sobriety,moderation, and balance which informs Herbert's discussions of alms-giving andcorrection (248: 10-14; 251: 2-6), and reaches its zenith in his discussion of celibacy:-159-The Country Parson considering that virginity is a higher state thenMatrimony, and that the Ministry requires the best and highest things, israther unmarryed, then marryed. But yet as the temper of his body maybe, or as the temper of his Parish may be, where he may have occasionto converse with women, and that among suspicious men, and other likecircumstances considered, he is rather married then unmarried.(chap. 9, 236:33-237:5)Such an approach encourages discernment, one of a number of attitudes whichinform Anglican spirituality. Speaking of the Church of Rome, Hooker said,"Wisdome therefore and skill is requisite to knowe, what partes are sounde in thatChurch, and what corrupted (IV, vii, 8)." The Book of Common Prayer alsoemphasizes the need for discernment, resisting the temptation to be "addicted to oldcustoms" or to be "so newfangled as to innovate all things." 93 Herbert's Anglicandiscernment is particularly evident in chapter 35 of The Country Parson which wediscussed earlier. Here, Herbert asserts that "The Countrey Parson is a Lover of oldCustomes, if they be good, and harmless..[But] if there be any ill in the custome, thatmay be severed from the good, he pares the apple, and gives them the clean to feedon." 94 As Hooker said, the priest must use his skill "to know what parts of thatChurch are sound and what corrupted," to separate the succulent flesh of the applefrom its skin or spot in Herbert's metaphor. In doing so, the priest must guard hisflock against both of the temptations mentioned in the Prayer Book--"addiction to oldcustoms" and "new fangledness":Another old Custome there is of saying, when light is brought in, Godsend us the light of heaven; and the Parson likes this very well. Light isa great Blessing, and as great as food, for which we give thanks: andthose that thinke this superstitious, neither know superstition, northemselves. As for those that are ashamed to use this forme, as beingold, and obsolete, and not the fashion, he reformes, and teaches them . .. (CP, chap. 35, 284:22-31)Nor are Herbert's parishioners the only ones reformed and taught, for many of the-160-poems in The Temple school us in discernment. The "Jordan" poems which help us toseparate true and false wit, and "Church-musick" or "Church-monuments" whichprompt us to consider the spiritual value of conventional religious practice, are amongthe most obvious examples of poems which attempt to teach discernment. And "TheElixir" begins with a prayer for discernment:Teach me, my God and King,In all things thee to see,And what I do in any thing,To do it as for thee. (11. 1-4)In addition to these characteristic approaches to religious questions, we seeHerbert's Anglican spirituality in his attitudes to the Christian life. Those who over-emphasize the reformed aspect of Herbert's thinking sometimes attribute misleadingattitudes to him. He is supposed to be preoccupied with doctrine, and to oppose theauthority of church and state. 95 He is sometimes thought to reject poetry, art, wit, andreason because of "a radical conflict between flesh and spirit." 96 He is said to lackreligious assurance, to feel that bliss is a distant prospect and that God is terrible andcapricious.97 Such attitudes might seem to inform the "Jordan" poems, "The Water-course," or "The Collar." But poems such as "Man," "Praise (II)," "Sunday," and"Aaron" suggest instead the traditional Anglican attitudes of confidence, practicality,joyfulness, and integration which inform The Country Parson.As we have just seen, the distinctions Herbert makes in his discussion ofcelibacy are of a very practical nature. The English Church has always beenconcerned with the practical matters of the ordinary Christian life in its individual andpublic aspect." As John Booty reminds us, for all its erudition, Of the Laws ofEcclesiastical Polity "deals with practical matters of concern in the theological-161-controversies of Hooker's day."" In the same Anglican spirit, Cranmer begins hisDefence of the True and Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament (1550) with a statementof practical pastoral intent, and ends with a practical instruction in the worthyreceiving of the sacrament which rests on the simplest of theological distinctions.' 00Andrewes' greatest achievements, his contribution to the Authorized Version and hisPreces Privatae, are also useful and broadly accessible rather than theoretical orspecialized. 101 For all its subtlety and grace, The Temple itself throws spiritual lighton "a life of humble, even monotonous, service" focusing on the common liturgicallife of the church and everyday Christian struggles and consolations!' JeremyTaylor's Holy Living (1650) is also eminently practical as well as profoundlyreflective, offering much useful advice on such everyday matters as ordering one'stime and avoiding overindulgence at the table!" Herbert reveals his own appreciationof such practical and moral instruction in "Perirrhanterium":Beware of lust: it doth pollute and foulWhom God in Baptisme washt with his own blood.Abstain wholly, or wed. Thy bounteous LordAllows thee choice of paths: take no by-wayes.Drink not the third glass, which thou canst not tame,When once it is within thee .. .Yet, if thou sinne in wine or wantonnesse,Boast not thereof; nor make thy shame thy glorie.Take not his name, who made thy mouth, in vain:It gets thee nothing, and bath no excuse.Lie not; but let thy heart be true to God,Thy mouth to it, thy actions to them both.Flie idlenesse, which yet thou canst not flieBy dressing, mistressing, and complement.(11. 7-8, 13-14, 25-26, 49-50, 55-56, 73-74, 79-80)-162-The practical, moral admonitions of the pastor are often overlooked because of acommon preoccupation with the lyrics of "The Church" rather than with thecomparatively plain "Church Porch." Yet these injunctions not only suggest Herbert'sAnglican practicality, but they prepare the reader for the sanctified gallantry and love--and the consecrated bread and wine--of "Love (III)."The biographies of Walton and Charles as well as The Country Parson suggestthat Herbert's rural priesthood required all the practicality and discernment which hecould muster. Most of his duties were of a very humble order: roofs that neededfixing, sick people who needed tending, and officiating before a congregation whichthought nothing of "sleeping, slubbering, or spitting" in church (chap. 6, 231). ButHerbert was able to bring the characteristic Anglican concern for decency and ordereven to such basic matters. 104 In The Country Parson, such concern is most clearlymanifest in Herbert's careful description of church furnishings and communion vesselsin "The Parson's Church," and becomes explicit in his final injunction that all is to bedoneas following the Apostles two great and admirable Rules in things ofthis nature: The first whereof is, Let all things be done decently, and inorder: The second, Let all things be done to edification. (chap. 13, 246:25-28)This same concern later pervades "The Parson in Sacraments," and indeed,much of The Temple. Poems such as "The Church-floore," "Church-lock and key,""Church-monuments," and "Church-music" might seem merely quaint if one wereunaware of this underlying Anglican attitude. But these poems have been beautifullyconstructed and ordered for edification in The Temple, just as their physicalcounterparts are carefully restored and ordered in "The Parson's Church." In both-163-works, Herbert expresses a refined, controlled, public, and Anglican spirituality.To modern sensibilities, one of the most curious aspects of Herbert's Anglicanspirituality may be his preoccupation with (earthly) king and country. Herbert mightseem to stray from his religious purpose as the poetic voice slips into socialcommentary instead of "sprinkling and teaching" the reader in "Perirrhanterium":Art thou a Magistrate? then be severe:If studious, copie fair, what time hath blurr'd;Redeem truth from his jawes: if souldier,Chase brave employments with a naked swordThroughout the world. Fool not: for all may have,If they dare try, a glorious life, or grave.0 England full of sinne, but most of sloth;Spit out thy flegme, and fill thy Brest with glorie:Thy Gentrie bleats, as if thy native clothTransfus'd a sheepishnesse into thy stone:Not that they all are so; but that the mostAre gone to grasse, and in the pasture lost.("Perirrhanterium," 85-96)But such passages actually reveal Herbert's Anglican sense of the interdependence ofchurch and state. This attitude, which was latent in the medieval Ecclesia Anglicana,intensified during the Reformation when the realm and the church were jointlythreatened by Rome and Geneva, and so became coexistent in Anglican thought'sThe relationship between church and state was reciprocal: the church wasmaintained by the monarch, and the civil authorities were upheld by the church."'Hooker foresaw the threat to religion and to law and order posed by Puritan zeal, andTaylor described the realization of Hooker's fears.' Although Herbert'scircumstances allowed him less anxiety than Hooker's or Taylor's, Herbertnevertheless shared their typically Anglican assumption that the Church of Englandwas to be established "to God's glory, public peace, and the common good of men's-164-souls. 008Such an attitude would oppose both the subversiveness and the politicalambition which have lately been ascribed to Herbert. Notably, Herbert begins TheCountry Parson by saying that he speaks for his "own Nation only"; and throughoutthe work, he equates Christian duty with duty to the commonwealth (225: 20; 239: 19-23; 252: 24-25; 262: 15-18). Most explicitly, Herbert advises the parson "to discourseof such things as are both profitable and pleasant, and to raise up [his parishioner's]minds to apprehend God's blessing to [their] Church and State; that order is kept inone, and peace in the other, without disturbance or interruption of publick divineoffices" (chap. 8, 236: 18-25). In "The Parson's Surveys," he declares that "it is also adebt to our Countrey to have a Calling, and it concernes the Common-wealth, thatnone should be idle, but all busied" (274: 26-28). Although Herbert alludes to "thediseases of the time" and "nationall sin" in this chapter, he affirms England'sinstitutions (274: 6, 8). He candidly refers to the court as "the eminent place both ofgood and ill," but takes the king's dominion for granted and mentions Queen Elizabethwith reverence (277: 5-7, 31-33). He praises the judiciary, recommends parliament,and upholds the squirearchy. In typical Anglican fashion, the parson's civic andecclesiastical duties are inseparable; yet one never has the sense in The Country Parson that Herbert aspires to courtly preferment.The interests of church and state are also closely associated in The Temple,though this fact is often overlooked. The "national sin" which Herbert exposes in"Perirrhanterium" is later encountered and overcome in the lyrics. For instance, the"Employment" poems are often read as if they were expressions of personal vocationaldistress like Milton's sonnets, but Herbert argues for the social necessity of activity-165-and productiveness, and implicitly speaks against the national tendency towards sloth."The British Church" is often read as a statement of mere denominational loyalty, butthe "outlandish looks" which Herbert criticizes threaten the crown as well as theestablished church (11. 10-12). And, by implication, "Love (III)" portrays a godly king,even as it portrays a kingly God."Love (III)" also portrays a feast. It is characteristic of Herbert to allude to thepleasures of the table during the most solemn religious moment in The Temple; infact, he demonstrates his Anglicanism by doing so. Anglicanism does not divide theworld into the religious and the profane, nor has it ever encouraged asceticism.'Those who suggest that The Temple is dominated by a radical conflict between theearthly and the divine or who accuse Herbert of anti-intellectualism or philistinismsurely fail to understand his essential Anglicanism.' 1°Anglican spirituality involves an appreciation of--and a responsibility for--everything in Creation, including all human endeavour. Consequently, the wholeworld falls under the parson's care in The Country Parson. "In the Parson preaching,"he particularizes his speech to rich and poor, high and low, learned and ignorant,because all society is his province. In "The Parson in Journey," he does not scruple topray in the roads and inns, or to admonish or encourage anyone he meets. In "TheParson's Surveys," he considers it his duty to advise his parish on everything fromagriculture to marriage and education. And it is particularly telling that he carries outthese duties with that good humour and hospitality described in "The Parson in Mirth"and "The Parson's Courtesie."One of the distinguishing features of The Temple is also the cheerful minglingof what extremely reformed or Roman Catholic believers might consider worldly and-166-religious concerns. Besides their obviously religious references to scripture, prayer,and the sacraments, Herbert's poems are filled with references to commerce andarchitecture, music and agriculture, food and drink, dress and conversation. His poetryinvests everyday objects and events with religious significance, and yet there isnothing "other-worldly" in the experience:Wherefore with my utmost artI will sing thee,And the cream of all my heartI will bring thee.Sev'n whole dayes, not one in seven,I will praise thee.In my heart, though not in heaven,I can raise thee.("Praise [II]," 11. 9-12, 17-20)Such a positive, even joyful, attitude is characteristic of Anglicanspirituality. 111 Although Herbert was acutely aware of his sin, he did not share theextremely reformed view that God was terrible and remote. 112 Nor did Herbert sharethe extreme Roman Catholic view of the Christian life as heroic piety or relentlessgood works. 113 For early seventeenth-century Anglicans such as Herbert, creation wasbeautiful and God was near. The point was not to withdraw from the world in orderto work out one's salvation, but to experience the presence of God in creation and indaily life. Such an attitude emphasized the positive in human experience, andproduced a joyful, quiet piety.Herbert emphasizes the positive in The Country Parson, by suggesting theimportance of good humour in spite of irreverence and affliction in "The Parson inMirth," and by drawing attention to the "peaceable" as well as the active state of theChristian life in "The Parson's dexterity in applying Remedies" (280: 1-3). Although-167-Herbert does not shrink from struggle, he also emphasizes the positive in The Temple.The desperate struggles of "The Collar" end in child-like submission and peace, andthe bitterness of "Affliction (IV)" gives way to consolation in "Affliction (V)." Butmany of Herbert's poems are suffused with joy and peace. One thinks, for instance,of the opening of "Man" in which the poetic voice speaks with serene assurance tothe most high, a familiarity all the more striking because it assumes man's pre-eminentgoodness in the created order:My God, I heard this day,That none doth build a stately habitation,But he that means to dwell therein.What house more stately hath there been,Or can be, then is Man? to whose creationAll things are in decay.(11. 1-6)One might also think of "Providence" in which the poetic voice enumerates man'sexcellencies and celebrates the wonders of Creation as God's "Secretary of praise":Thou art in small things great, not small in any:Thy even praise can neither rise, nor fall.Thou art in all things one, in each thing many:For thou art infinite in one and all.All things that are, though they have sev'rall wayes,Yet in their being joyn with one adviseTo honour thee: and so I give thee praiseIn all my other hymnes, but in this twice.(11. 8, 41-44, 145-148)In lyrics such as these, Herbert's perspective is typically Anglican. Man is essentiallygood, creation is infused with divinity, and God is both easily approachable and nearat hand.Although I have described some of the characteristic attitudes and beliefs of theAnglicanism of Herbert's period, it is not enough just to put Herbert into his tradition.-168-If one is to describe his sprituality adequately, one must take into account Herbert'sreligious vocation: the celebrant's desire for purity as well as the effects of preaching,catechizing, and the yearly cycle of parish events.Herbert's attitude to the sacraments could not help but be shaped by hisadministration of them. "The Priesthood" and "Employment (I-II)" show the speakerencountering his feelings of inadequacy as a vessel for dispensing divine grace:But th' holy men of God such vessels are,As serve him up, who all the world commands:When God vouchsafeth to become our fare,Their hands convey him, who conveys their hands.0 what pure things, most pure must those things be,Who bring my God to me!("The Priesthood, 11. 25-30)In the conclusion of "Aaron," grace overwhelms all feelings of inadequacy:So holy in my head,Perfect and light in my Beare breast,My doctrine tun'd by Christ, (who is not dead,But lives in me while I do rest)Come people; Aaron's drest. (11. 21-25)Surely the despair and consolation which alternate in so many of Herbert's poemsreflect in part his heightened priestly experience of inadequacy and grace: his "greatconfusion, as being not only to receive God, but to break and administer him" (CP,chap. 22, 257).The priest in The Temple is constantly catechizing and preaching. The readeris "sprinkled and taught" on "The Church Porch," and the Christian faith is exploredand expounded in "The Church." The Country Parson suggests some of the effectswhich constant catechizing and preaching may have exerted upon Herbert'sspirituality. Thus, Herbert's preaching apparently gave him a profound experience ofthe "moving and ravishing texts" of scripture (CP chap. 7, 233). Poems such as "The-169-Odour," "Our Life is hid," and "The Pearl" are modeled upon these "ravishing texts."Herbert's clerical duties also provided him with a heightened awareness of "all hislusts and affections within, and the whole Army of Temptations without" (C12, chap.33, 278). The priest's intimate understanding of man's fallen nature informs many ofHerbert's finest poems, including "Love (HI)."The reader of The Temple often has the sense of being in an enclosed world.One service leads to the next, and one season to another; though the quiet issometimes interrupted by inner tempests, the world of experience is circumscribed.This atmosphere must be due at least in part to Herbert's experience of the little worldof the parish.'" The spiritual effect of parish life is difficult to evaluate, but itprobably contributed significantly to the humility and spiritual intensity socharacteristic of Herbert's poems.Finally, one must take account of the individuality of Herbert's spirituality, forhe brought his own personality to his faith and vocation. Here one might mention anumber of characteristics: his childlikeness, his extraordinary range of emotion, hisdetermination, his courtesy, his gaiety, and his extraordinary devotion. Some of thesequalities are obvious in The Temple, others less so; however, all would have affectedthe spirituality which informs his poetry. 115 For instance "The Parson in Mirth"describes "that pleasantness of disposition" which one encounters in "The Flower" and"The Call." Also, Edward Herbert's remarks about his brother suggest something ofthe interplay of devotion and tempestuousness which marks "The Collar":. . . his life was most holy and exemplary, in so much that aboutSalisbury where he lived beneficed for many years, he was little lessthan sainted: He was not exempt from passion and choler, beinginfirmities to which all our race is subject, but that excepted, withoutreproach in his actions.116-170-Lord Herbert's description of the "passion and choler" in a "most holy andexemplary" life indicates the complexity of George Herbert's spirituality. A complexfusion of belief and practice cannot be reduced to doctrine; the best we can do is toattempt to describe Herbert's tradition, acknowledging the influence of his characterand vocation. With respect to that tradition, W.H. Auden aptly described The Templeas "the finest expression we have of Anglican piety at its best."117-171-NOTES: CHAPTER 4As Gene Edward Veith observes,The religious wars of the seventeenth-century, according to someobservers, are being re-fought by twentieth-century literary critics.Once again, factions representing Catholics and Protestants,Anglicans and Puritans, are battling it out, each one struggling toattain hegemony over George Herbert .. .Although Veith mentions an Anglican faction, to date the controversy has been almostentirely over whether Herbert is "Protestant" or "Catholic," as Veith's subsequentdiscussion demonstrates. Significantly, the title of the 1986 MLA special session towhich Veith is responding is: "George Herbert's Theology: Nearer Rome or Geneva?"See "The Religious Wars in George Herbert Criticism: Reinterpreting Seventeenth-Century Anglicanism," George Herbert Journal 11 (1988): 20, and Johnson'sdiscussion in the George Herbert Journal 15 (Spring, 1992): 1-19 of theinconclusiveness of such theological interpretations (note 2). For a basic discussion ofHerbert's theology, see also Linda Post van Buskirk, "George Herbert's AnglicanTheology" (Ph.D. diss., New Mexico State University, 1979).2 "The Water-course" is cited by Lewalski and others as evidence of anextreme Calvinist belief in double predestination. But, as I indicate in myintroduction, this poem may be interpreted in various ways. Johnson has recentlydescribed the diverse interpretations of "The Water-course." See Barbara K. Lewalski,Protestant Poetics and the Seventeenth-Century Religious Lyric (Princeton: PrincetonUniversity Press, 1979), 25; Richard Strier, Love Known: Theology and Experience in George Herbert's Poetry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 87; GeneVeith, Reformation Spirituality: The Religion of George Herbert (Cranbury, N.J.:Associated University Presses, 1985), 47; Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church,and Society in the Works of George Herbert" (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago,1988), 101; Bruce A. Johnson, "Theological Inconsistency and Its Uses in GeorgeHerbert's Poetry," George Herbert Journal 15 (Spring, 1992): 1-19.3 See Stanley Stewart, George Herbert (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1986),^2.4 The term "irenic" is sometimes applied to the charitable and temperatearguments of Richard Hooker. Although Herbert ridicules puritans and Scotsmen, healso promises to be gentle and not to return Melville's insults (II, XX). Herbertallows for honest mistakes, and concludes with a prayer (XXXVI, XL). One isreminded much more of Richard Hooker's Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity than ofJohn Milton's An Apology for Smectymnuus. See Mark McCloskey and Paul Murphy,eds. The Latin Poetry of George Herbert (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1965).5 Wolf defines spirituality as "piety or devotion, the practice animatingdevotion," and acknowledges the importance of the Book of Common Prayer inshaping Anglican spirituality. Martz and Veith also discuss spirituality, though both-172-the counter-reformation meditative techniques and protestant perspectives which theydescribe respectively are essentially rigorous, anti-worldly, and individualistic, runningagainst the mainstream of Anglican spirituality. See William Wolf, Anglican Spirituality (Wilton, Conn.: Morehouse-Barlow, 1982), iv-v, 163; Urban T. HolmesIII, A History of Christian Spirituality  (New York: Seabury Press, 1980); Louis Martz,The Poetry of Meditation 2nd ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965); GeneVeith, Reformation Spirituality.6 C.F. Allison describes "the classic period of Anglicanism" in The Rise ofMoralism: The Proclamation of the Gospel From Hooker to Baxter  (Wilton, Conn.:Morehouse-Barlow, 1966), 1-27. Allison sees the beginnings of the moralisticemphasis of eighteenth-century Anglicanism in Jeremy Taylor's writings. In Anglican Spirituality, William Wolf says that Richard Hooker, John Donne, and George Herbertdemonstrate "classic Anglican spirituality" (25). William Peterson describes a parallel"classical period of Anglican pastoralia" (1603-1688) in "A Historical Essay onAnglican Pastoral Care," Anglican Theology and Pastoral Care,  ed. James E. Griffiss(Wilton, Conn.: Morehouse-Barlow, 1985), 10-11. For an imaginative recreation ofthe classic period, see P. G. Stanwood, "A Portrait of Stuart Orthodoxy," in TheSempiternal Season: Studies in Seventeenth-Century Devotional Writing  (New York:Peter Lang, 1992), 125-37.See Kenneth Fincham, Prelate as Pastor: the Episcopate of James I  (Oxford:Clarendon, 1990), 9.8 Bell observes that "Herbert was throughout the period of the 1650s regardedby Anglicans as an Anglican poet who wrote primarily for Anglicans," and Stewartnotes the contemporary view, voiced by Walton and Oley, that Herbert "was neitherPuritan nor Papist." Benet rightly describes Herbert as a "non-controversial Anglican."Asals indicates that Herbert is "a specifically Anglican (not Protestant) poet." Eliotasserts that Herbert was "from childhood a practicing and devout Anglican . . . and avigorous opponent of the Puritans and Calvinists." Auden comments that Herbert'spoetry is "the counterpart of Jeremy Taylor's prose: together they are the finestexpressions of Anglican piety at its best." Although comments such as theserecognize the distinctively Anglican quality of Herbert's work, they do not adequatelydescribe Herbert's Anglicanism. See Ilona Bell, "'Setting Foot in Divinity': GeorgeHerbert and the English Reformation," Essential Articles for the Study of George Herbert's Poetry, ed., John R. Roberts (Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1979), 63-64; StanleyStewart, George Herbert, 6; Diana Benet, Sectretary of Praise: The Poetic Vocation ofGeorge Herbert (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1984), 15; Heather Asals,Equivocal Predication: George Herbert's Way to God (Toronto: University of TorontoPress, 1981), 5; T. S. Eliot, George Herbert (London: Longman Green, 1962), 11-12;W. H. Auden, ed., Herbert: Selected Poems (London: Penguin, 1973), 9-10. Rosemaryvan Wengen-Shute begins to describe Herbert's Anglicanism in George Herbert and the Liturgy of the Church of England (Oegstgeest: Drukkerij de Kempenaer, 1981).9 Neill distinguishes between the teaching of Calvin, Luther, and Zwingli, andindicates the strong Lutheran influence in Anglicanism. Strier and Veith do not-173-this distinction. See Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Mowbray, 1977),31-32; Richard Strier, Love Known: Theology and Experience in George Herbert's Poetry, chapter 4; Gene Edward Veith, Reformation Spirituality: the Religion ofGeorge Herbert, 19.1° Hodgkins describes Herbert as an anticlerical "Anglo-Catholic"; similarly,Bell says that Herbert is an "Anglo-Catholic" like Archbishop Laud and Charles I.Bottrall and Wolberg are perplexed by the catholicity of Herbert's Anglican reformedcatholicism. According to Avis, "Ecclesia Anglicana was commonly used to refer tothe medieval English Church, and Anglicana Ecclesia occurs in the Magna Carta(1215), Quod Anglicana Ecclesia libra sit (`that the English Church shall be free')."See Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church, and Society," 1-2, 88-89; Ilona Bell,"'Setting Foot in Divinity': George Herbert and the English Reformation," Essential Articles for the Study of George Herbert's Poetry, ed. John Roberts (Hamden, Conn.:Archon, 1979), 83; Margaret Bottrall, George Herbert (London: John Murray, 1954),83,90; Kristine Wolberg, "All Possible Art': George Herbert's The Country Parson,"(Ph.D. diss., Notre Dame University, 1987), 43; Paul Avis, "What is Anglicanism,"The Study of Anglicanism, ed. Stephen Sykes and John Booty (London: SPCK, 1988),406. See also J. Robert Wright, "Anglicanism, Ecclesia Anglicana, and Anglican: AnEssay on Terminology," in The Study of Anglicanism, 424-429.11 See Horton Davies, Worship and Theology in England From Cranmer to Hooker, 1534-1603 (Princeton: University of Princeton Press, 1970) 1:132.12 According to Bouyer, the term "Anglicanism" was first coined by F. D.Maurice. See Louis Bouyer, Orthodox Spirituality and Protestant and Anglican Spirituality (New York: Seabury Press, 1982), 104.13 George Herbert is honoured as "pastor and poet" in many parts of theAnglican communion on February 27. Poems such as "Praise (II)" continue to besung throughout the Anglican communion, and Herbert has made a lasting contributionto English church architecture.14 Although this expression is W. H. Auden's, other notable Anglicans haveemphasized Herbert's quintessential Anglicanism. Some are mentioned in my firstchapter. See also Paul Elmen, The Anglican Moral Choice (Wilton, Conn.:Morehouse-Barlow, 1983), 9.15 See Urban T. Holmes, III, What is Anglicanism? (Wilton, Conn.:Morehouse-Barlow, 1982), 7, 41; and Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 4th ed. (London:Mowbrays, 1977), 34-35, 119.16 See Michael Ramsey, The Anglican Spirit, ed. Dale Coleman (Cambridge,Mass.: Cowley, 1991), 2, 17-19, 24, 425; Urban T. Holmes, HI, What is Anglicanism,viii, 7; William Wolf, Anglican Spirituality, 2-3.17 See James E. Griffiss, Anglican Pastoral Care (Wilton, Conn.: Morehouse-Barlow, 1985), 1. Cf. Ilona Bell's plea for "greater theological [i.e. doctrinal]-174-discrimination" in Herbert studies, "'Setting Foot in Divinity'," 63-66. Herbertdemonstrates the relational context of Anglican theology with respect to theodicy inThe Country Parson (chap. 30, 271: 33-36).18 Anglicans have always emphasized what the Homilies and Articles ofReligion describe as a "lively faith," as opposed to doctrine. See Paul Elmen, TheAnglican Moral Choice, 9; William Wolf, ed., The Spirit of Anglicanism: Hooker, Maurice, Temple (Wilton, Conn: Morehouse-Barlow, 1982), 175; G.R. Evans and J.Robert Wright, eds., The Anglican Tradition: A Handbook of Sources (London: SPCK,1988), xi, 141.19 This definition is now generally accepted and encompasses previousdefinitions of Anglicanism as a unique synthesis or method. See Paul Avis, "What isAnglicanism," The Study of Anglicanism, ed. Stephen Sykes and John Booty, 405,410; Michael Ramsey, The Anglican Spirit, 14-19; Urban T. Holmes, What is Anglicanism?, viii.20 See J. Robert Wright, "An Essay on Terminology," The Study ofAnglicanism, 428.21 Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Mowbray, 1977), 9.22 See Celia M. Ady, The English Church and How it Works (London: Faberand Faber, 1959), 134-54.23Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 11-12.24 Ibid., 13.25 For example, celibacy--a traditional Roman clerical requirement--was notpart of English clerical life until the late eleventh century. See Stephen Neill,Anglicanism, 13-14, 21.26 Michael Ramsey, The Anglican Spirit, 15-16.27 See A.G. Dickens, The English Reformation (New York: Schocken Books,1964), 320-323.28 Elizabeth I thanked God that neither she nor her subjects were following"any new or foreign religions, but that very religion which the primitive and Catholicchurch sanctions, which the mind and voice of the most ancient Fathers with oneconsent approve." See Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 39; and Paul Elmer More andFrank Leslie Cross, eds., Anglicanism: The Thought and Practice of the Church ofEngland, Illustrated From the Religious Literature of the Seventeenth Century (London: SPCK, 1935).-175-29 John Jewel, bishop of Salisbury under Elizabeth I, wrote An Apology ofthe Church of England (1564) in which he argued that England had not forsaken "thechurch as it was in old time" but had cleansed itself of novelties and corruption." SeeBooty's edition, p. 100. John Cosin (1594-1672) bishop of Durham, and JeremyTaylor, bishop of Down and Connor (1613-1667) also argued eloquently for thechurch's Catholicity and apostolic continuity. See The Anglican Tradition, ed. G. R.Evans and J. Robert Wright, 208, 212-215." For further discussions of the development of the English Reformation, seeA. G. Dickens, The English Reformation, and Owen Chadwick, The Reformation, 3rded. (London: Penguin, 1972).31 The Arminian teachings of bishop Lancelot Andrewes and the Cambridgescholar John Overall became influential after 1607, and the extreme Calvinistresolutions of the Synod of Dort (1619) disenchanted many who held more moderateReformed views. See Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 47, Florence Higham, Catholic and Reformed: A Study of the Anglican Church, 1559-1662 (London: SPCK, 1962), 51-52,William P. Haugaard, "From the Reformation to the Eighteenth Century" and PaulAvis, "What is Anglicanism?," The Study of Anglicanism, 11, 411.32 See Owen Chadwick, The Reformation, 3rd ed. (London: Penguin, 1972),135.33 In 1616, the Venetian Ambassador identified twelve religious parties inEngland; Neill's more sober, retrospective analysis reveals six main doctrinal divisionsalone. See Florence Higham, Catholic and Reformed: A Study of the Anglican Church, 1559-1662 (London: SPCK, 1962): 56-57; Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 139-43; Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642 (London: Hambleton, 1990),xxii-xxiv.34 See Florence Higham, Catholic and Reformed, 51.35 Lancelot Andrewes, the Arminian bishop of Winchester and Ely, isremembered chiefly for his sermons and his contribution to the Authorized Version of1611. George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury under James, is remembered for hisCalvinism and his marksmanship. Together, these eminent divines demonstrate thebreadth of early seventeenth century Anglicanism. See Stephen Neill, Anglicanism,135-137, 141.36 See Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 112, 115-116.37 Hodgkins describes Herbert as a "Puritan," Charles and Wood describe himas a "Laudian," Davies describes him as "high church," and Lea rightly describes himas a "high but uncontroversial" Anglican. See Amy Charles, A Life of George Herbert(Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977), 228-233; Horton Davies, Worship and Theology in England From Andrewes to Baxter and Fox, 1603-1690 (Princeton:Princeton University Press, 1975), 103; Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church,and Society," 6-7, 26; Kathleen Lea, ed., The Beauty of Holiness: An Introduction to -176-Six Seventeenth-Century Anglican Writers (Oxford: SLG Press, 1976), 13; ThomasWood, ed., Five Pastorals (London: SPCK, 1961) 84-85.38 See A. G. Bradley, Round About Wiltshire (London: Methuen, 1907), 312-313; and John Langton Sandford and Meredith Townsend, The Great Governing Families of England, vol 2 (1865; rept. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries, 1972),155-90.39 See Izaak Walton's Life of Mr. George Herbert (1665), (London: Nelson,1940), 241, 262-269, 275. In Musae Responsoriae, which is dedicated to James,Charles, and Lancelot Andrewes, Herbert defends infant baptism and the sign of thecross, the wearing of the suplice and the biretta, learning and liturgy.4° See Amy Charles, A Life of George Herbert, 147 and Kenneth Fincham,Prelate as Pastor: the Episcopate of James I (Oxford: Clarendon, 1990), 230-231, 258,274.41 William Page et al., The Victoria History of the County of Huntingdon (London: Saint Catherine Press, 1936), 86-92.42 Amy Charles, A Life of George Herbert, 223-28.43 For a discussion of ceremonial versus theological Arminianism, seeKenneth Fincham, The Prelate as Pastor, 5, 48, 231-240; Richard Strier, Love Known,84; Bruce Johnson, "Theological Inconsistency," George Herbert Journal 15 (1992): 3." See Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church, and Society," 88-89, 169-70as well as Ron Cooley, "Re-reading the Country Parson," English Studies in Canada (1993): 7, 10. Contrary to such views, Herbert actually saves some of his harshestcriticism in The Country Parson for those (Puritans) who "think all traditionsuperstition."45 Note Herbert's characteristically Anglican emphasis on participation andrelationship rather than on any systematic interest in doctrine, as well as the reverenceand joy which pervades his description.46 The Canons of 1604 required signing with the cross during Baptism. Fullyone-third of the canons (46 of 141) deal with such issues of practice, allowing littlecompromise; about fifty Puritan priests resigned in consequence. See FlorenceHigham, Catholic and Reformed, 41-42 and "Harmony from Dissonance," TheAnglican Tradition, 186-204.47 On Herbert's supposed non-conformity or rebellion, see Ilona Bell, "'SettingFoot in Divinity," 66; Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church, and Society," 3-9,22-25, 71; Malcolmson, "Society and Self-Definition," 3-4; Michael Schoenfeldt,Prayer and Power: George Herbert and Renaissance Courtship (Chicago: University of-177-Chicago Press, 1991), 60.48 Although church and state were most closely allied in the Renaissance, theirassociation is typical of Anglican thinking. See, Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 13;Urban T. Holmes, What is Anglicanism?,  80-87; Michael Ramsey, The Anglican Spirit, 36-39; Thomas Norton, A Catechisme or First Instruction and Learning ofChristian Religion (1570) by Alexander Nowell  (Delmar, N.Y.: Scholars' Facsimiles,1975), vi-vii, 15, 43-44; and the last three Articles of Religion (37-39), "Of CivilMagistrates," "Of Christian Men's Goods," and "Of a Christian Man's Oath."Ideological critics tend to overlook the church-state nexus in Anglican thought. SeeChristopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church, and Society," 5, 8; Michael Schoenfeldt,Prayer and Power, 29-30; Kristine Wolberg, "'All Possible Art'," 81.49 See G. R. Evans and J. Robert Wright, eds., The Anglican Tradition: A Handbook of Sources,  142.5° Ibid., 142-143.51 Ibid., 188.Ibid., 200.53 Although Herbert assumes and affirms episcopal government throughoutThe Country Parson, he begins by saying that he means to speak of priests, notbishops (chap. 2, 225: 20-22; chap. 19, 253: 5-15). Patristic manuals sometimes spoketo the episcopate as well as the pastorate. Herbert says little about vestments,stipulating only that the parson should be decently dressed; yet Herbert constantlyemphasizes conformity to church authority, and "Aaron" certainly suggests his fullacceptance of priestly vestments.54 See Urban T. Holmes, III, What is Anglicanism?, 4,57; 0. C. Edwards,"Anglican Pastoral Tradition," The Study of Anglicanism,  ed. Stephen Sykes and JohnBooty, 339; James E. Griffiss, introduction, and William H. Peterson, "A HistoricalEssay on Anglican Pastoral Care," Anglican Theology and Pastoral Care,  2-3, 7;William Wolf, The Spirit of Anglicanism, 161. •ss Amy Charles, A Life of George Herbert, 143-52.5° Ibid.57 Higham mentions Overall's promotion of Arminianism at Cambridge (c.1607), the early peace of Abbot's primacy and the later trials and executions (c. 1612),the Synod of Dort (1619), and the debate between Laud and the Jesuit Fisher (1622).William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury from 1633, was an unbending and zealousArminian. See Higham, Catholic and Reformed,  50-66.58 Ibid., 34, 49.-178-s9 Although Puritan clergy were trained to preach through their own"Exercises" and Roman priests were rigorously trained in seminaries following theCouncil of Trent, there was virtually no formal training for the Anglican priesthood inHerbert's time. Cranmer had advocated systematic training, and standards of generaleducation had risen appreciably by Herbert's time, yet there would be little formaltraining for centuries to come; hence there followed a great need for such a practicalmanual as The Country Parson. See Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 85, 110-12, 124-26.60 See Higham, Catholic and Reformed, 38.61 On the prominence of pastoral care in the Anglican tradition and thepastoral ideal achieved by the Caroline divines, see James Griffiss, Anglican Theology and Pastoral Care, 2. John Thomas McNeill comments that "no other greatcommunion has given more attention to the cure of souls, either in theory or practice";William Wolf confirms this judgment. See A History of the Cure of Souls (NewYork: Harper, 1951), 246 and The Spirit of Anglicanism, 161. On Herbert as the idealCaroline pastor, see James Griffiss, Anglican Theology and Pastoral Care, 15, andUrban T. Holmes, III, What is Anglicanism?, 57-58.62 See Rosemond Tuve, A Reading of George Herbert (Chicago: University ofChicago Press, 1952).63 H.R. McAdoo, The Spirit of Anglicanism: A Survey of AnglicanTheological Method in the Seventeenth Century (London: Adam & Charles Black,1965), v.64 See Michael Ramsey, The Anglican Spirit, 27.65 See William Patterson, "A Historical Essay," Anglican Theology and Pastoral Care, 5; John E. Booty, "Standard Divines," The Study of Anglicanism, 164;Urban T. Holmes, What is Anglicanism?, 25; Horton Davies, Andrewes to Baxter,207; William J. Wolf, The Spirit of Anglicanism, 186.66 Chap. 15, 250: 1-4. See Patterson, noted above, on the pastoral implicationsof incarnational thinking and the sacramental character of Anglican pastoral care.67 See Gene Veith, Reformation Spirituality, 35; Richard Strier, Love Known,xi; Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church, and Society," 81.68 Because Arminianism involves both a theology of grace and a particularunderstanding of prayer, sacraments, preaching, and ceremonial conformity, it is usefulto distinguish between "ceremonial" and "theological" Arminianism. See note 43.69 The Book of Common Prayer often incorporates doctrine in worship, theobvious example being the Creeds. The Articles of Religion on works, faith, andreceiving the sacrament, are clearly relational. On these propensities in Anglicanthought and practice, see Michael Ramsey, The Anglican Spirit, 18-19.-179-70 While at Bemerton, Herbert annotated Nicholas Ferrar's translation of theCastilian work, Valdesso's Considerations  (c. 1550). Herbert's reluctance to exceedscripture is evident on 315: 9-10, 319:21-320:7. On this Anglican tendency, seeNeill, Anglicanism, 80.71 See Owen Chadwick, The Reformation, 121; The Book of Common Prayer, 1559, ed. John E. Booty (Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1976), 264.72 Laws, V.lxvii. 5. All quotations from Hooker's Laws are from the FolgerLibrary edition. See Booty, "Hooker and Anglicanism," 232. Taylor's longdiscussion in Holy Living (IV.x) of the process of preparing one's self to receive thesacrament is very much in keeping with Hooker's emphasis upon participation. Cf.Donald R. Dickson's (unAnglican) systematic theological discussion in "BetweenTransubstantion and Memorialism: Herbert's Eucharistic Celebration," George Herbert Journal 11 (1987):1-l4.73 See note 69.74 John N. Wall, Transformations of the Word: Spenser, Herbert, Vaughan (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989), 5.75 See John E. Booty, The Godly Kingdom of Tudor England: Great Books of the English Reformation (Wilton, Conn.: Morehouse-Barlow, 1981), 8-12.76 Wall, Transformations of the Word, 6.C.J. Stranks, Anglican Devotion: Studies in the Spiritual Life of the Church of England Between the Reformation and the Oxford Movement  (London:SCM Press, 1961), 276.78 Some scholars actually define Anglicanism as participation in a communionwhich uses the Book of Common Prayer; others simply associate such participationwith Anglicanism. See A. M. Allchin, "Anglican Spirituality" and 0. C. Edwards,"Anglican Pastoral Tradition," The Study of Anglicanism, 315, 338; William Wolf,"Introduction," Harvey Guthrie, "Anglican Spirituality: An Ethos and Some Issues,"John E. Booty, "Contrition in Anglican Spirituality," and Daniel Stevick, "TheSpirituality of the Book of Common Prayer," Anglican Spirituality, v, 6, 25, 163, 174-177. The pervasive influence of the Prayer Book in Anglican spirituality explains theincarnational quality of Herbert's poetry, without need for recourse to Roman Catholictheology or meditative practices, for as Wall notes in Transformations of the Word:"the use of language in the Church of England is profoundly incarnational. It nolonger seeks to preserve sacred and secular spheres, to distinguish the transcendentfrom the ordinary, but to facilitate the functioning of the divine in human history."(20)79 Chap. 32, 275: 22-23, 30-36. Herbert refers to the exhortation whichbegins the marriage service, The Book of Common Prayer, 1559: The Elizabethan -180-Prayer Book, ed. John E. Booty (Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1976), 290,and does in microcosm what Taylor does in macrocosm in Holy Living; yet both showtheir Anglicanism by amplifying important passages from the Book of CommonPrayer.80 Bouyer makes the same point about Hooker's Of the Laws ofEcclesiastical Polity and Taylor's Holy Living. The liturgical patterns of The Temple have been described by P.G. Stanwood in "Time and Liturgy in Herbert's Poetry,"George Herbert Journal 5 (1981-1982): 19-30.81 See Horton Davies, From Andrewes to Baxter and Fox, 98; William Wolf,Anglican Spirituality, 4; Urban T. Holmes, What is Anglicanism, 6; "The Efficacy ofPrayer," Book of Homilies (1563-71), The Anglican Tradition, 149.82 More and Cross, Anglicanism, xxv.83 See Higham, Catholic and Reformed, 49-50. Herbert's remarks pertain inpart to the rigorous devotion which he feels is necessary to maintain his Christian stateas a priest, regular personal prayer and study as well as saying the daily offices (chap.31, 272).84 On the Anglican rejection of infallibility, see John E. Booty, "StandardDivines," The Study of Anglicanism, 164; William Chillingworth (1602-44) onfundamentals and infallibility in Answer to Charity, The Anglican Tradition, 210-11;Urban T. Holmes, What is Anglicanism?, 6.85 John E. Booty, ed., The Book of Common Prayer, 1559 (Toronto:Associated University Presses, 1976), 14. As Hales put it, "Infallibility either injudgement, or interpretation, or whatsoever, is annext neither to the See of any Bishop,nor the Councils, nor to the Church, nor to any created power whatsoever" (More andCross, xxviii).86 Laws, I. All references are to the Folger edition, and will be indicatedparenthetically.87 Despite such thoroughness, Herbert is typically Anglican in his pastoralconcern for sinfulness rather than individual sins. See John Thomas McNeill, AHistory of the Cure of Souls (New York: Harper & Row, 1951), viii-ix.88 John E. Booty, "Hooker and Anglicanism," Studies in Richard Hooker: Essays Preliminary to an Edition of His Works, ed. W. Speed Hill (Cleveland: CaseWestern Reserve University Press, 1972), 208. More and Cross illustratecomprehension with respect to the early councils, Bouyer sees Herbert'scomprehension in his architectural innovations--creating a triumvirate of prayer stall,pulpit, and altar, and Peterson sees evidence of Herbert's comprehension in the chapterheadings of The Country Parson. See Louis Bouyer, Orthodox Spirituality and Protestant and Anglican Spirituality, 125-126; William Peterson, "An Historical Essay,-181-Anglican Theology and Pastoral Care,  16; More and Cross, Anglicanism, xxiv. AsMore and Cross suggest,To the Arians, Christ was neither quite God nor quite man, butsomething intermediary which resembled the natures of both withoutbeing purely either. Against this plausible and seemingly reasonableescape between the horns of faith's dilemma . . . the Church, by theDefinition of Chalcedon, simply thrust its way through the middle bymaking the personality of the Incarnate so large as to carry with it bothnatures. Evidently....at least the principle of measure does not producea diminished or half truth, but acts as a law of restraint preventingeither one of two aspects of a paradoxical truth from excluding theother. Nor is the middle way here a mean of compromise, but a meanof comprehension.89 For example, Donald Dickson notes "the fluidity of Herbert's position inthis controversy [about his sacramental theology]," but ascribes his inconclusiveness toHerbert's art and lack of Anglican uniformity: "Herbert's Eucharistic Celebration," 1,12. Richard Strier responds to the inconclusiveness of the MLA special session byadvocating clearer doctrinal distinctions: "Getting Off the Map: Response to 'GeorgeHerbert's Theology: Nearer Rome or Geneva?', George Herbert Journal 11 (1987): 41-48.C.J. Stranks, Anglican Devotion, 270.91 See Louis Bouyer, Orthodox Spirituality, 109; H.R. McAdoo, The Spirit ofAnglicanism, 1. McAdoo draws attention to the distinctiveness of Hooker's method,and defines Anglicanism in terms of it (v, v-vi). The correct analogy for Hooker'smethod is not a three-legged stool or even three factors in an equation, for theauthority of scripture is supreme according to Articles 6, 20-21. However, as Hookerrealized, scripture is sometimes silent or unclear, and even when it speaks directly, itrequires reason to be understood and must be taught (Laws, I.vii.4, III.viii.10-14).92 John E. Booty, "Hooker and Anglicanism," in Studies in Richard Hooker,211.93 See "Of Ceremonies, Why Some Be Abolished and Some Retained," TheBook of Common Prayer, 1559, ed. Booty, 19.94 Note Herbert's use of domestic metaphor--a distinguishing feature of hispoetry.95 See the following statements about Herbert's alleged extreme Calvinism andrebellion: Barbara K. Lewalski, Protestant Poetics, 25, 286; Christopher Hodgkins,"Authority, Church, and Society," 3-9, 22-25, 71, 101; Gene Veith, Reformation Spirituality, chap. 2; Michael Schoenfeldt, Prayer and Power, 60; CristinaMalcolmson, "Society and Self-Definition," 3-4; Ilona Bell, "'Setting Foot in-182-Divinity'," 66.96 See Richard Strier, Love Known, chaps. 2 and 4; Cristina Malcolmson,"Society and Self-Definition," 3-4; Gene Veith, Reformation Spirituality, chap. 6;Kristine Wolberg, "'All Possible Art'," 66; Judith Dundas, "The Poetry of SacredWit," Yearbook of English Studies 2 (1972): 93.97 See Christopher Hodgkins, "Authority, Church, and Society," 8; MichaelSchoenfeldt, Prayer and Power, 195-96; William Halewood, The Poetry of Grace: Reformation Themes and Structure in English Seventeenth-Century Poetry (NewHaven: Yale University Press, 1970), 68; cf. Linda van Buskirk, "George Herbert'sAnglican Theology," 21.98 Practicality is the concern for the common and useful; pragmatism is thetest of use. Both terms have been applied to Anglican spirituality, notably by OwenChadwick as he describes the attitude of the English clergy (The Reformation, 135),and by More and Cross as they discuss the topics of controversy in the EnglishChurch (xxxiii-xxxv, lxxii, 6). See also Paul Elmen, The Anglican Moral Choice, 9and Horton Davies, From Andrewes to Baxter and Fox, 106.99 See "Hooker and Anglicanism," Studies in Richard Hooker, 231-232.100 The distinction is between physical food for the body and spiritual food forthe soul. See The Work of Thomas Cranmer, ed G. E. Duffield (Appleford: Sutton,1964), 1:viii, 5:xviii, 65-66, 231 ff.1°1 Theoretical and specialized knowledge were certainly needed to produce thePreces and Authorized Version; the practicality lies in the usefulness and accessibilityof the works. See Florence Higham, Reformed and Catholic, 48-52.102 See Louis Bouyer, Orthodox Spirituality, 125.1o3 ^Urban T. Holmes, A History of Christian Spirituality: An Analytical Introduction (New York: Seabury Press, 1980), 118.104 The injunctions in 1 Corinthians 14 that everything pertaining to worship bedone decently and in order are the common property of all Christians; however, theseprinciples have assumed particular prominence in Anglicanism. See the preface to theBook of Common Prayer, Hooker's Laws, III.vii.1 and Jeremy Taylor's Holy Living(ed. Stanwood), 36-37. Walton's Life of Herbert portrays Herbert's deep concerns inthis regard.105 Stephen Neill and Owen Chadwick describe this process of coalescenceadmirably in Anglicanism (chaps. 3-5) and The Reformation (chaps. 4-6).106 The monarch is "the defender of the faith," keeping the civil order requiredfor religious devotion and appointing the bishops; the articles and prayers of the-183-Prayer Books support the crown.107 Laws, IV viii 1, 4; Holy Living, ed., Stanwood, 46, 193-195, 216.108 John Gauden, Ecclesiae Anglicanae Suspiria (1659), I.i: More and Cross,Anglicanism, 13.109 See Stephen Neill, Anglicanism, 50-51, and William J. Wolf, "Anglicanismand Its Spirit," The Spirit of Anglicanism, 177-78.110 Although Anglicanism values all human endeavour, it is particularlyconducive to intellectual and literary activity. See A.M. Allchin, "AnglicanSpirituality," The Study of Anglicanism, 313-25.in Once he had responded to Roman Catholic allegations, Jewel showed thepositive nature of Anglicanism by asserting what Anglicans did believe in Part II ofhis Apology; Hooker refutes the Calvinist position, but shows the same desire toemphasize whatever is good (Laws, I.i.1). See also C.J. Stranks, Anglican Devotion,278-79.112 One thinks, for instance, of Pilgrim's apocalyptic "plight" and hisburdensome knowledge that he "walked through the wilderness of this world" in theopening of The Pilgrim's Progress, a state which his salvation early in the tale doeslittle to cure.113 One recalls the rigours of Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises or the exertions ofDowel, Dobet, and Dobest in Piers Plowman. Anglicanism is not a rigorous tradition,and the fourteenth Article of Religion condemns works of supererogation.114 Higham describes the yearly round of parish activities as it would have beenin Herbert's parish: Catholic and Reformed: A Study of the Anglican Church, 1559-1662, 70-72.115 The range of emotion in The Temple (Herbert's "inner weather," as AldousHuxley called it) is well known; his determination is evident from Walton's Life. Fordiscussions of Herbert's courtliness, see Marion Singleton, God's Courtier: Configuring a Different Grace in George Herbert's "Temple" (New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1987), and Michael Schoenfeldt, Prayer and Power: George Herbert and Renaissance Courtship (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).116 From a letter quoted by Charles, A Life of George Herbert (Ithaca: CornellUniversity Press, 1977), 176.117 See note 8.-184-CHAPTER 5: THE PRIEST IN THE TEMPLE 0 that I might some other hearts convert,And so take up at use good store:That to thy chest there might be coming inBoth all my praise, and more!"Praise (III)," 11. 39-42The Country Parson  helps us to understand not only Herbert's religious andpolitical views, but also the apparent lack of unity of The Temple, the changeablenature of Herbert's voice, and the belief that he belongs in "the school of Donne."'As we saw earlier, readers are often puzzled by the contradictory qualities of TheTemple. Although the various poems and parts of The Temple seem tenuouslyrelated, most readers rightly assume that Herbert arranged his poems as carefully as hecrafted them.2 Although Herbert's poetic voice is urgent and personal in poems suchas "Affliction (IV)," it is controlled and public in poems such as "Mans medley."Although the dramatic opening and spurned love of "The Collar" and the extravagantwit of "Prayer (I)" suggest an affinity with John Donne's Songs and Sonets (1633), theelegance, composure, and precision of poems such as "Man" and "Aaron" suggest anaffinity with Ben Jonson's Epigrammes and Underwood (1616).3 Even the mostperceptive readers are unable to resolve these strange paradoxes without the benefit ofThe Country Parson, which describes Herbert's attitude to language, his modes ofexpression, and his artistic purposes. As I shall demonstrate in this chapter, TheTemple is unified by Herbert's pastoral purpose, persona, and methods. His poeticvoice is sometimes as impassioned and personal as Donne's and at other times ascomposed and public as Jonson's because a priest must make his personal life public.And Herbert's poetry is both witty and plain, because as a priest he must be all things-185-to all men and minister differently to different people.I shall begin by discussing the unity of The Temple, the most difficult--and themost revealing--problem facing its readers. Previous commentators have occasionallysuggested that The Temple's profusion of form was somehow unified by its purpose.In the eighteenth century, Ryley suggested that we are "sprinkled and taught" on "TheChurch-porch," that "The Church" portrays the spiritual life of a "sound member" ofthe congregation, and that "The Church Militant" is a prayer for "the whole state ofChrist's Church militant here on Earth. i 4 More recently, Martz has described "TheChurch-porch" and "The Church" as contemplative preparation for the active Christianlife portrayed in "The Church Militant." 5 And Fish has suggested that poems such as"Jesu" and "Love-joy" may reflect a catechetical method.' These readings arecertainly useful, and indeed insightful. Yet, for Ryley and Martz, the purpose of "TheChurch" is essentially private. My reading extends Fish's by drawing upon TheCountry Parson to further describe Herbert's rhetorical strategy and use of publicmodes of discourse throughout The Temple.My suggestion that The Temple reflects the pastoral purposes described in TheCountry Parson does not diminish Herbert's artistry. Herbert wrote his lyrics partlyfor the artistic delight of doing so. But he obviously delighted in transforming seculartraditions to sacred ends, as the "Jordan" poems indicate. I merely suggest that weexplore Herbert's public purposes as well as his personal ones by imagining ourselvesas part of Herbert's congregation and his voice as that of his country parson's.The Country Parson tells us much about Herbert's pastoral purposes. Forexample, Herbert's ideal priest "desires to be all to his parish," to comfort hisparishioners in their various afflictions and to school them individually in their faith.-186-But to be effective, he must "fit his discourse" to his various auditors, providing "asmany encouragements to goodnesse as he can."' Whether he is preaching, catechizing,or visiting, the parson procures his auditors' attention by "particularizing his speechnow to the younger sort, then to the elder, now to the poor, and now to the rich." 8The parson speaks plainly to the plain spoken, the recalcitrant, and the unperceptive(chap. 21, 256-57).Such pastoral considerations may account for the resolute plainness of "TheChurch-porch" and "The Church Militant" as well as poems in "The Church" such as"The Sacrifice" and "Providence." The parson speaks more subtly to "those of higherquality, [for] they commonly are quick, and sensible, and very tender of reproof: andtherefore he lays his discourse so, that he comes to the point very leisurely, andoftentimes, as Nathan did, in the person of another, making them reprove themselves"(chap. 14, 248: 17-22). Such an awareness of the needs and temperament of Herbert'smore perceptive and aesthetically-sensitive auditors may explain the intricacy of hislyrics, as well as their elusive ordering and their example of a faith which is so deepand pure as to implicitly question our own. The parson also "condescends to humanefrailties both in himselfe and others; and intermingles some mirth in his discoursesoccasionally, according to the pulse of the hearer" (chap. 27, 268: 5-8). Such concernsmay account for such cheerful poetic fancies as "Paradise," which might otherwiseseem out of place in a devotional work. But one should not mistake the variety andcomplexity of The Temple for mere obscurity.Herbert's poems are rarely vague or disconsolate. Admittedly,"The Answer" isremarkable for its enigmatic conclusion ("Show me, and send me, I have one reply /Which they that know the rest, know more than I"). "Church-monuments" does-187-disintegrate and "collapse," if only to convey its theme of decay. The bitter dejectionof "Affliction (IV)" is itself unrelieved, though it is answered later. But we should notconclude that all of Herbert's poems are "deeply unstable utterances" or assume thatassurance eluded him, for his purpose in his poetry as well as his parish is "to infuse acompetent knowledge of salvation . . . to multiply and build up this knowledge to aspiritual Temple" and to comfort the afflicted by comparing "the moment of griefshere with the weight of joyes hereafter."' In fact, Herbert's pastoral purposes are mostevident in his characteristic effort to bring unstable utterances under control, as in"The Collar" and "The Storm." Here, violent emotion and tortured logic are expressedin ragged stanzas, whose turbulence is subdued and answered in the quiet regularity ofthe poems' respective endings:But as I rav'd and grew more fierce and wildeAt every word,Me thought I heard one calling, Child!And I reply' d, My Lord.("The Collar")Poets have wrong'd poore storms: such dayes are best;They purge the aire without, within the breast.("The Storm")Such a progress towards meaning and consolation recalls both the priest of TheCountry Parson who insists on "the evident decldration of meaning" and the poet ofWalton's Life of Herbert who would have his manuscript burned "unless it turn to thegood on any dejected poor soul."As a priest, Herbert is determined to communicate clearly and to comforteffectually. "To this end, [the country parson] hath thoroughly digested all the pointsof consolation" and has developed a facility for the "plain and evident declaration ofmeaning" (235: 1-2, 249: 17). Accordingly, Herbert does not sacrifice clarity to-188-artifice in The Temple, even though he retains more ingenuity and artifice than asuperficial reading of the "Jordan" poems might suggest. Sometimes, he states hismeaning so plainly that only a hint of wit remains, as in "Perirrhanterium":Abstain wholly, or wed. Thy bounteous LordAllows thee choise of paths: take no by-wayes;But gladly welcome what he doth afford;Not grudging, that thy lust hath bounds and staies.Continence hath his joy: weigh both; and soIf rottennesse have more, let Heaven go.Drink not the third glasse, which thou canst not tame,When once it is within thee; but beforeMayst rule it, as thou list; and poure the shame,Which it would poure on thee, upon the floore.It is most just to throw that on the ground,Which would throw me there, if I keep the round.(11. 13-18, 25-30)Sometimes, Herbert employs more paradox and conceits, as in "Vertue" and "The H.Communion," though not so much as to obscure meaning. Although poems such as"Clasping of hands" and "Josephs coat" involve complicated logic and spiritualanxiety, the reader is not left to wander disconsolately, for they often conclude withbold, positive statements:O be mine still! still make me thine!Or rather make no Thine and Mine.("Clasping of hands")I live to show his power, who once did bringMy joyes to weep, and now my griefs to sing.("Josephs coat")And even finely wrought lyrics such as "Love (HI)" frequently retain a characteristicsimplicity and clarity. What seems like elegant variation or artistic exuberance usuallyends up contributing to the fabric and sense of a poem. 1° The complex stanzastructure of "Mans medley", for example, aptly conveys the sense of man's double-189-nature which gives him double joy and double trouble."The Call" nicely illustrates Herbert's pastoral emphasis on communication andconsolation. Like "Prayer (I)," "Paradise," and "Coloss. 3.3," this short poem has astrength beyond its witty paradoxes, for its ingenuity is a means of communicationrather than an end in itself.Come, my Way, my Truth, my Life:Such a Way, as gives us breath:Such a Truth, as ends all strife:Such a Life, as killeth death.Come, my Light, my Feast, my Strength:Such a Light, as shows a feast:Such a Feast, as mends in length:Such a Strength, as makes his guest.Come, my Joy, my Love, my Heart;Such a Joy, as none can move:Such a Love, as none can part:Such a Heart, as joyes in love.The strength of "The Call" derives largely from Herbert's proclamation of scripture,most obviously in its opening line but also in the first lines of the second and thirdstanzas." Herbert emphasizes his joyful invitation verbally by the repetition of terms,visually by the capitalization, and vocally by the extra beat which begins each line andcreates a mystical seventh syllable.Although the ordering principle of "The Church" is unclear without the aid ofThe Country Parson,  the manuscript evidence indicates that Herbert carefully orderedhis sequence of poems. As Amy Charles suggests, Herbert "clearly had in mind thetripartite form that The Temple would follow," because both manuscripts are dividedinto the three sections of the first edition. 12 The order of the first sixteen poems andthe last nine poems remains virtually unchanged from the early Williams to the later-190-Bodleian manuscript, suggesting that Herbert always intended to lead us from theearthly grief of "The Sacrifice" to the heavenly consolation of "Judgement" and "Loveal:0.0 13Charles rightly describes Herbert's ordering of his poems as "allusive," for heclearly intends us to associate various poems in "The Church," but the order is not asobscure as Charles suggests. I4 Herbert guides our steps through The Temple by thetitles of his poems. He draws our attention to numerous sequences of poems bygiving them shared titles such as "Affliction (I-V)" or "Love (I-III)." He also includesseveral groups of poems on a single subject such as church furnishings, churchfestivals, church services, or the priesthood. And he emphasizes the connectionsbetween his poems through repeated images, themes, and rhyme schemes. 15Indeed, so carefully has Herbert ordered our progress that it is perilous to readany poem out of context. By itself, the angry outburst which opens "The Collar"demands to be taken seriously; in context, the outburst is highly ironic, for the speakermakes much of his own suffering when Christ's crucifixion has just been described in"The Bag." If one were to take "The Answer" out of context, one would have themistaken impression of personal doubt and poetic abdication--a "Fishian" Herbert (11.13-14). But the title suggests dialogue, and the context is a sequence of consolation,despair, and reconcilation ("A True Hymne," "The Answer," and "A Dialogue-Antheme.) One might also assume that Herbert spurns all earthly pleasures in "TheRose," were the pleasures it mentions not defined in the preceding poem, "TheForerunners." But Herbert's lyrics resemble his congregation: they depend upon oneanother for meaning, and the truth is present only when two or three are gatheredtogether.-191-The ordering of the poems often reflects the profound understanding of bothhuman failing and God's grace which characterizes The Country Parson.° Forexample, the desperation of "Affliction (IV)" between the resolute faith of "The Pearl"and the sublime consolation of "Man" suggests the moral of "The Parson'sConsideration of Providence," that while faith does not exempt one from suffering,suffering can increase faith. The fact that the anxiety of "Employment (II)" and"Denial" is punctuated by the festivity of "Christmas" reflects the pastoral importancegiven to festivals in "The Parson's Church." There is a touch of pastoral irony in thefact that "Sinne" occurs between "Mattens" and "Even-song," recalling Herbert'sobservation in "The Parson in Circuit" that "on Sundays it is easie for [his parishoners]to compose themselves to order, which they put on as their holy-day cloathes . . . butcommonly the next day put off both" (247: 5-10). Such organization reflects not onlythe pastor's understanding of human nature and divine intervention but his ownmethod of interpretation. "For all Truth being consonant to it self, and all beingpenn'd by one and the self-same Spirit, it cannot be, but that an industrious andjudicious comparing of place with place must be a singular help for the rightunderstanding of the Scriptures."'There are many good reasons to regard The Temple as a coherent whole,besides Herbert's careful arrangement of his poems. First, there is the bibliographicevidence. The manuscripts and the first edition bear the familiar page headings of"The Church-porch," "The Church," and "The Church Militant." And while "TheChurch Militant" is separated from "The Church" by five blank pages in the Williamsmanuscript, it is only separated by one page in the Bodleian manuscript, and is notseparated at all in the first edition. 18 Second, there is an obvious cultural argument.-192-Whatever Herbert's intention, the three sections of The Temple have becomeassociated in our cultural memory because they have always been published together.Third, the first two sections are also linked by their conceit of physical progressthrough a church. One passes through the porch, pauses at the inside door("Superliminare"), and approaches the altar. 19 Fourth, the three sections are more alikein form than is generally supposed. On occasion, "The Church-porch" is almost asimaginative, conceited, and paradoxical as the lyrics ("Perirrhanterium," 11. 79-84, 451-56). Some of the poems in "The Church"--for instance, "Grace," "Providence,""Dialogue," "The Pearl," and the second part of "Christmas"--are as didactic andunadorned as "The Church-porch." And the conceit of physical progress, the personalinterjections, the witty comments, the liturgical refrains, and the imagery and themesof "The Church Militant" all remind one of "The Church."" But the best reason toregard The Temple as a single work is the coherence provided by Herbert's pastoralpurpose, persona, and methods--all of which are described in The Country Parson.As we saw earlier, the sheer variety of Herbert's poetic forms suggests hisdesire to be all things to all men. More specifically, his purpose in his poetry as wellas his parish is "to infuse a competent knowledge of salvation in [his auditors] . . . andto multiply and build up this knowledge to a spiritual Temple" (255: 4-5). Heproposes to instruct and convince his auditors without disenchanting or tiring them, bythe process of "pausing yet pressing" them and "mingling his discourses" (231: 20).Just as the parson occasionally "intermits [preaching] against some great Festivall, thathe may better celebrate it, or for the variety of the hearers, that he may be heard at hisreturne more attentively," so festive poems such as "Easter Wings" and "Christmas"punctuate the round of instruction and petition in "The Church" (232: 20-24). And-193-just as the parson offers his auditors "instructions seasoned with pleasantness to makehis higher purposes slip the easier," so the stern moralism of "Perirrhanterium" isrelieved by occasional wit and we find ourselves amused by poetic novelties such as"Anagram" in "The Church."The priest's persona is pervasive and sometimes explicit. Even the dedicationin The Temple suggests the priestly figure, someone who desires our good and whowould accomplish this pastoral purpose through his verses:Lord, my first fruits present themselves to thee;Yet not mine neither: for from thee they came,And must return. Accept of them and me,And make us strive, who shall sing best thy name.Turn their eyes hither, who shall make a gain:Theirs, who shall hurt themselves or me, refrain.As in the "Jordan" poems, the urbane wit and finished quality of the verse belies thehumble poet and "first fruits."' We do not overhear a private prayer so much as apublic one on our behalf, one that recalls the offertory prayer in the Anglicancommunion service ("All things come of thee, 0 Lord, and of thine own have wegiven thee"). The speaker implicitly challenges us to "make a gain" from The Temple,a challenge which he makes explicitly in the verses which follow:Thou, whose sweet youth and early hopes inhanceThy rate and price, and mark thee for a treasure;Hearken unto a Verser, who may chanceRyme thee to good, and make a bait of pleasure.A verse may finde him, who a sermon flies,•And turn delight into a sacrifice.("Perirrhanterium," 11. 1-6)Herbert's pastoral purpose could hardly be more clearly stated or his priestly personabe more evident. The pleasures of The Temple are for our good, designed by thepriestly poet to lure us to the "mystical repast" portrayed in "Love (III)."-194-Herbert's pastoral purpose and persona also provides a bridge between "TheChurch" and "The Church Militant." Although the word "FINIS" follows "Love (III),"suggesting that section is finished, the persona intones the Gloria:Glory be to God on highAnd on earth peaceGood will towards men.The idea of God's glory being revealed in history is then worked out in "The ChurchMilitant," as its opening suggests:Almightie Lord, who from thy glorious throneSeest and rulest all things ev'n as one:The smallest ant or atome knows thy power,Known also to each minute of an houre:Much more do Common-weals acknowlege thee,And wrap their policies in thy decree,Complying with thy counsels, doing noughtWhich doth not meet with an eternal thought.Periodically, the voice forcefully reminds us of God's glory with an almost liturgicalrefrain: "How deare to me, 0 God, thy counsels are! / Who may with thee compare?"The sense we have of someone who creates an atmosphere of worship and representsus to God finds its final expression in "L'Envoy" and in the prayer which follows,which recall respectively "Praise (II)" and "Trinitie Sunday":King of Glorie, King of Peace,With the one make wane to cease;With the other blesse thy sheep,Thee to love, in thee to sleep.Blessed be God alone,Thrice blessed Three in one.Appropriately, the priest has the last word in The Temple as well as the first.Let us consider the pastoral purposes which inform "The Church" in moredetail. As I have suggested, the poet-priest begins to "rhyme us to good" with the-195-admonitions of "Perirrhanterium." This poem is not simply addressed to Herbert'sbrother or even to his courtly type, as is sometimes alleged. 22 For as much as"Perirrhanterium" admonishes "Gallants" and their besetting sins (drunkenness,idleness, wantonness, and affectation), no stratum of society is exempt from itswarnings.23 Whether or not modern readers enjoy its style or tone, Herbert clearlyintends everyone to benefit from such practical and timeless advice, even as the voiceof "Superliminare" instructs us:Thou, whom the former precepts haveSprinkled and taught, how to behaveThy self in church; approach, and tasteThe churches mysticall repast.Avoid, Profanenesse; come not here:Nothing but holy, pure, and cleare,Or that which groneth to be so,May at his peril' further go.Thus prepared, we immediately proceed to "The Altar," where we begin to sample"the churches mysticall repast." As we continue our progress, we enter more deeplyinto the liturgical life of "The Church" and continue to be admonished and taught.Sometimes the pastor acknowledges his joint office of poet and priest orreminds us of his purpose. The voice of "Obedience" confides:How happy were my part,If some kinde man would thrust his heartInto these lines; till in heav'ns Court of RollsThey were by winged soulsEntered for both, farre above their desert!("Obedience,"41-45)In "Bitter-sweet," the voice declares: "Since thou dost love, yet strike; / Cast down,yet help afford; / Sure I will do the like" (11. 2-4). Only a priest can stand "in Godsstead to his Parish, and dischargeth God what he can of his promises" (chap. 20, 254:-196-8-10). Occasionally, the poet implicitly takes God's place:Oh all ye, who passe by, whose eyes and mindeTo worldly things are sharp, but to me blinde;To me, who took eyes that I might you finde:Was ever grief like mine?("The Sacrifice," 1-4)Sometimes the poet explicitly assumes the role of intermediary between God and man.For instance, the voice of "Praise (III)" frankly declares his desire to convert membersof the congregation:O that I might some other hearts convert,And so take up at use good store:That to thy chest there might be coming inBoth all my praise, and more!And the voice of "The Invitation" repeatedly invites the implied congregation of "TheChurch" to the eucharist:Come ye hither All, whose tasteIs your waste;Save your cost, and mend your fare.God is here prepar'd and drest,And the feast,God, in whom all dainties are. (1-6)Indeed, this invitation echoes the exhortation and "comfortable words" before HolyCommunion ("You that do truly and earnestly repent . . . Draw near / Come unto me,all that travail and be heavy laden and I shall refresh you"). 24Most often, the voice simply assumes the conjunction of his pastoral andartistic concerns. Thus, the vocation he speaks of in "Employment (I)" is both priestlyand poetic, for his public employment involves God's praise (23-24). The samecould be said of the other poems in this sequence, "Jordan (I)" and "The Temper (I-II)." Although poetic style is the ostensible subject of these poems, Herbert speaks asa priest no less than a poet when he asks "How should I praise thee, Lord?" in "The-197-Temper (I)." The answer is also the same for both priest and poet, to "copie out .. .sweetnesse readie penn'd," though the process is not as easy as Herbert makes it seemin "Jordan (II)."Just as "the Countrey Parson is very exact in the governing of his house,making it a copy and modell for his Parish," so Herbert's poems portray arepresentative Christian life.25 Despite his anxiety and temptations, he strives fordevotion, accepts forgiveness, and finds salvation. The very difficulty andcircuitousness of his spiritual progress suggests that he is not so much a modelChristian as a modeller of Christianity. We see Herbert's pastoral desire to make hispersonal life public in order to benefit us most clearly in "The Pilgrimage," whichportrays a devout life in microcosm. We are also made aware of the priest's examplein "Providence," for the voice asks "But who hath praise enough? nay, who hath any?"to make us realize the meagreness of our praise. In quite another way as well,Herbert's pastoralism sometimes becomes tangible.Herbert is determined to build up "The Church" physically as well asspiritually.26 He describes the parson's plan of construction in "The Parson's Church,"a chapter which we considered earlier in a different context:First he takes order, that all things be in good repair; as walls plaistered,windows glazed, floore paved, seats whole, firm, and uniform,especially that the Pulpit, the Desk, and Communion Table, and Font beas they ought, for those great duties that are performed in them.Secondly, that the Church be swept, and kept cleane without dust, orCobwebs, and at great festivalls strawed, and stuck with boughs, andperfumed with incense. Thirdly, that there be fit, and proper texts ofScripture every where painted. (chap. 13, 246: 3-14)Herbert follows this plan of construction in his poetry, just as he did in thereconstruction of his first parish church in Leighton. 27 Herbert creates walls by-198-dividing The Temple into "The Church-porch" and "The Church." He conveys theconstruction of an altar, perhaps a communion table:A broken A L T A R, Lord, thy servant reares,Made of a heart, and cemented by teares:Whose parts are as thy hand did frame;No workman tool hath touch'd the same.A HEART aloneIs such as stone,As nothing butThy pow'r doth cut.Wherefore each partOf my hard heartMeets in this frame,To praise thy Name:That, if I chance to hold my peace,These stones to praise thee may not cease.O let thy blessed S A C R I F I C E be mine,And sanctifie this ALTAR to be thine.Herbert heightens the reader's sense of being in church with poems describingcorporate prayer, the administration of the sacraments, the priesthood, church festivals,and church architecture. "The Church-floore" conveys the laying of floor stones andthe sweeping of the church:Mark you the floore? that square & speckled stone,Which looks so firm and strong,Is Patience:And th' other black and grave, wherewith each oneIs checker'd all along,Humilitie:The gentle rising, which on either handLeads to the Quire above,Is Confidence:But the sweet cement, which in one sure bandTies the whole frame, is LoveAnd Charitie.Hither sometimes Sinne steals, and stainsThe marbles neat and curious veins:-199-But all is cleansed when the marble weeps.Sometimes Death, puffing at the doore,Blows all the dust about the floore:But while he thinks to spoil the room, he sweeps.Blest be the Architect, whose artCould build so strong in a weak heart.Although God is the divine architect, Herbert is also an architect in his capacity aspriest and poet. The priestly character of Herbert's poetic voice is revealed in theopening of the poem which follows "The Church-floore"; for only a priest--or someonedesperate to be a priest--would ask, "Lord, how can man preach thy eternal word?"("The Windows"). Although "The Odour" portrays the individual soul passing toheaven, it also suggests Herbert's perfuming of "The Church" with incense, as herecommends in "The Parson's Church." And, in addition to "The Odour: 2. Cor. 2.15," Herbert paints verses of scripture in "The Church" with such titles as "Coloss.3.3.: Our life is hid with Christ in God," and "Ephes. 4.30: Grieve not the holy Spirit."Nor is Herbert's construction and furnishing of "The Church" the only pastoralpractice which unifies The Temple.Herbert provides a succinct summary of pastoral practice in "The Parson onSundays." The parson begins his day with his private devotions or "ordinary prayers"as he calls them, and proceeds to his public duties:Then having read divine Service twice fully, and preached in themorning, and catechized in the afternoone, he thinks that he hath insome measure . . . discharged the publick duties of the Congregation.(235:21; 236: 6-10)He spends the afternoon visiting the sick, reconciling neighbours, and otherwiseproviding "exhortations to some of his flock by themselves, whom his Sermonscannot, or doe not reach" (236: 10-13). "At night he thinks it a very fit time, bothsutable to the joy of the day, and without hinderance to publick duties, either to-200-entertaine some of his neighbours, or to be entertained of them, where he takesoccasion to discourse of such things as are both profitable, and pleasant"  (236: 18-22).He then ends his day as he began it, with private prayer (236: 27). The variouspriestly modes and methods which Herbert mentions here and describes elsewhere inThe Country Parson--private prayer, public worship, preaching, catechizing, andentertaining--all inform the style of The Temple. 28 I shall discuss the stylisticinfluence of each mode in turn.It is tempting to suggest that each of the three main sections of The Temple reflects a single mode of expression described in The Country Parson.  "The Church-porch" does remind one of a long and moralistic sermon. There is a strong sense ofworship and ceremony in "The Church." And the recital of salvation history in "TheChurch Militant" may suggest contemporary catechisms, as Fish observes. ButHerbert incorporates various modes of expression in each section of The Temple,much as Herbert blends various kinds of prose to produce the distinctive form of TheCountry Parson. Such strategies suggest not only an innate eclecticism but also anAnglican inclusiveness.Terry Sherwood is quite right to draw our attention to the pervasiveness ofprayer in The Temple, and to suggest that such prayerful art implies an art of prayer. 29Sometimes we do indeed seem to overhear private prayer, as in the fervent conclusionof "Confession":Wherefore my faults and sinnes,Lord, I acknowledge; take thy plagues away:For since confession pardon winnes,I challenge here the brightest day,The clearest diamond: let them do their best,They shall be thick and cloudie to my breast.-201-But The Country Parson  indicates Herbert's typically Anglican concern for publicrather than private prayer, by saying only that private prayers may sometimes be addedto "the fasting dayes of the Church and the dayly [common] prayers enjoyned him byauctority" (237: 20-25). In The Temple, what seems to be private prayer usually turnsout to be public. In "The Quip," for instance, the voice repeatedly intones the words,"But thou shalt answer, Lord, for me" (11. 8,12,16,20). Although each statement seemsto be a private ejaculation, their cumulative effect is liturgical. "Prayer (II)" is almostcompletely emptied of the personal, to make room for God, whose presence is thesubject (stanzas 1-3). The poem's public declarations ("thou" and "our") vastlyovershadow its private musings ("I" and "mine"), following Herbert's injunctions onthe liturgy in "The Parson Praying." Similiarly, "Providence" progresses from thepersonal "I" to public statement "we," and includes a prayer on our behalf:Wherefore, most sacred Spirit, I here presentFor me and all my fellows praise to thee:We all acknowledge both thy power and loveTo be exact, transcendent, and divine;Who dost so strongly and so sweetly move,While all things have their will, yet none but thine. (11. 25-32)"The art of prayer" which Sherwood acknowledges is actually described byHerbert in The Country Parson, particularly in "The Parson praying" which Imentioned earlier in another context:The Countrey Parson, when he is to read divine services, composethhimselfe to all possible reverence; lifting up his heart and hands, andeyes, and using all other gestures which may expresse a hearty, andunfeyned devotion . . . .presenting with himself the whole Congregation,whose sins he then beares, and brings with his own to the heavenly altar. . . knowing that no Sermon moves them so much to a reverence,which they forget againe, when they come to pray, as a devoutbehaviour in the very act of praying . . . .Besides his example, hehaving often instructed his people how to carry themselves in divine-202-service, exacts of them all possible reverence . . . . (chap. 6, 231: 1-23)Although Herbert is concerned with inward devotion here, he is much more concernedwith its outward expression and with its pastoral effect. All manner of technique andartifice may be employed to this pastoral end, so long as the priest's devotion isgenuine. Notably, his techniques are both visual and vocal, spiritual and emotive.The parson is also concerned that his congregation be suitably instructed, so theyknow "how to carry themselves in divine service." In fact, he is prepared to go toconsiderable lengths to prompt them to respond properly to his prayers, "gently andpausably, thinking what they say; so that while they answer, As it was in thebeginning, &c. they meditate as they speak" (231: 32-34).The priest instructs the reader "how to behave [him]self in church," mostobviously in "The Church-porch." But the reader is also instructed how to pray in"The Offering":Come, bring thy gift. If blessings were as slowAs mens returns, what would become of fools?What hast thou there? a heart? but is it pure?Search well and see; for hearts have many holes.But all I fear is lest thy heart displease,As neither good, nor one: so oft divisionsThy lusts have made, and not thy lusts alone;Thy passions also have their set partitions.These parcell out thy heart: recover these,And thou mayst offer many gifts in one.There is a balsome, or indeed a bloud,Dropping from heav'n, which doth both cleanse and closeAll sorts of wounds; of such strange force it is.Seek out this All-heal, and seek no repose,Untill thou finde and use it to thy good:Then bring thy gift, and let thy hymne be this. (11. 1-4, 13-24)Herbert follows these instructions with a hymn written in the dimeters familiar from-203-"Praise (II). Q 30 He ends "The Method" with a strong admonition to pray and aproclamation of grace (29-32). "Windows" emphasizes the (liturgical) fusion of thesaid ("word") and the seen ("glass"), "Doctrine and life, colours and light.""Mortification" ends in prayer (35-36) and introduces a note of pageantry or ritual.Perhaps "Affliction (V)" best demonstates the use of multiple modes andmoods, by reflecting the liturgical technique of "The Parson praying." Although the"Affliction" poems are commonly read simply as statements of personal struggle, thevoice in "Affliction (V)" quickly moves from the personal ("I") to the corporate ("we,""us," "ours"), from despair ("tempests") to consolation ("Angels" and "relief"):My God, I read this day,That planted paradise was not so firmAs was and is thy floating Ark; whose stayAnd anchor thou art onely, to confirmAnd strengthen it in ev'ry age,When waves do rise, and tempests rage.At first we liv'd in pleasure;Thine own delights thou didst to us impart:When we grew wanton, thou didst use displeasureTo make us thine: yet that we might not partAs we at first did board with thee,Now thou wouldst taste our miserie.There is but joy and grief;If either will convert us, we are thine:Some Angels us'd the first; if our reliefTake up the second, then thy double lineAnd sev'rall baits in either kindeFurnish thy table to thy minde.Affliction then is ours;We are the trees, whom shaking fastens more,While blustring windes destroy the wanton bowres,And ruffle all their curious knots and store.My God, so temper joy and wo,That thy bright beams may tame thy bow.The striking simplicity and intimacy of the opening of this poem recalls the opening of-204-"Man" ("My God, I heard this day"). This is not only the intimacy of the devout, butof the priest whose duties require constant discourse with God. Herbert develops ananalogy between Eden (pleasure) and the Ark (tribulation), leading to the syllogism ofstanza three: "There is but joy and grief; / If either will convert us, we are thine." Butas closely argued as it is, this poem also relies upon its visual suggestions of the crossand its resolution in prayer. Here, as in a poem such as "Coloss. 3.3." ("Our life ishid . . . "), Herbert follows his advice to the parson in prayer to use visual as well asauditory effects. The reason is obvious, once one adopts the parson's perspective, forsome members of the congregation will respond most to spectacle, others to shifts inmood, still others to argument.The parson's methods are also seen in the eucharistic poems. Although TheTemple is not simply unified by a "eucharistic structure," the priest's administration ofthe sacraments provides continuity to "The Church," reflecting the centrality of theeucharist in Anglican worship. 31 Most obviously, "The Priesthood" and "Aaron"reflect the priest's hesitation over "what behaviour to assume for so holy things .. .being not only to receive God but to break and administer him" (257: 26-30).But th' holy men of God such vessels are,As serve him up, who all the world commands:When God vouchsafeth to become' our fare,Their hands convey him, who conveys their hands.O what pure things, most pure must those things be,Who bring my God to me!("The Priesthood," 25-30)The order of the poems in "The Church" sometimes conveys the celebrant'sperspective. "The Church" begins with "The Altar," a poem that recalls "the sacrificeof praise and thanksgiving" of Holy Communion in the Book of Common Prayer.'The H. Communion" is linked to "The British Church" by its concern with "fine-205-aray." "Love (I)" and "Love (H)," which describe the purification of desire, look backto "The Altar" and forward to "Love (HI)." And the implied setting of "The Dawning"is the mystical banquet of "Love (III)" and "The Altar" at which a sad heart becomesthankful and eyes are restored.Sometimes the reader is aware that he is being led to worship by the priest.For example, the priest brings the reader and worshiper under the divine gaze in "TheGlance," and then leads him to worship in "The 23d Psalme." The priest does notmerely receive the eucharist, he also celebrates it for us. For instance, Herbertfashions hieroglyphs of altars in "Marie Magdalene," not only conveying the idea ofsacrifice, but bringing us visually to the altar. Then, in "The Invitation," the poet-priest not only invites us to approach the altar ("Come ye hither All"), but also praysthat God will inform the "dainties" at the "feast":Lord I have invited all,And I shallStill invite, still call to thee:For it sees but just and rightIn my sight,Where is All, there All should be. (11. 31-36)Surely this is an exhortation or prayer, rather than a personal reflection."Herbert's pastoral modes of expression are seen in The Temple not only in itsfrequent public prayer and eucharistic worship, but in its frequent sermons."Perirrhanterium" is a sermon by Herbert's definition ("a set, and laboured, andcontinued speech"), and explores the traditional sermon topic of deadly sins andcardinal virtues. m Although "Affliction (III)" appears to be a personal discussion withGod, it is also a sermon in the sense that "a holy Life . . . even it selfe is a Sermon.For the temptations with which a good man is beset, and the ways which he used to-206-overcome them, being told to another, whether in private conference or in the Church,are a sermon" (chap. 33, 278: 11-18). The sort of sermon is exemplified by "ThePearl," in which the voice recounts past ruling desires (learning, courtliness, andsensuality), and concludes with a strong statement of faith. Poems like "The Pearl"and "The Glimpse," which are homiletic rather than devotional, seem rather pointlesswhen they are misread as personal statements.The most obvious examples of preaching in The Temple are the poems alludedto earlier as verses painted in "The Church": "Colos. 3.3 ("Our life is hid . . . ),""Ephes. 4. 30 ("Grieve not the Holy Spirit e .. )," and "The Odour" (2 Cor. 2. 15).Here, the parson ingeniously explicates and expounds his text, preaching sermons inminiature. But Herbert's preaching technique subtly informs many other poems.Some of Herbert's advice in "The Parson Preaching" is purely rhetorical: he explainsprecisely how to get and keep his auditors' wandering attention. "When he preacheth,he procures attention by all possible art," by "earnestnesse and particularizing hisspeech," by warning his auditors of the gravity of his discourse, and by telling themstories and sayings which they will remember (232:30-233:22). The Temple is full ofsuch rhetorical strategems. The earnestness of Herbert's poetic voice is well-recognized, although it is often attributed to Donne's influence or to Herbert's personaldevotion. The monotonous form of "Providence" is offset by Herbert's use of"particulars," or things which touch his audience individually, as in his mention ofchildren and parents and various activities in stanzas 11 and 12. Many of Herbert'spoems incorporate memorable sayings and a tone of "grave liveliness" (231: 19).Poems such as "Peace" and "Love unknown" also incorporate stories. The voice of"Peace," like the preacher's voice, is "not witty, or learned, or eloquent, but Holy"-207-(233: 23-24). And the voice of "Love unknown" begins by announcing his intentionto tell a story: "Dear Friend, sit down the tale is long and sad."Part of Herbert's homiletic technique is a carefully cultivated "character ofholiness."It is gained, first, by choosing texts of Devotion, not Controversie,moving and ravishing texts whereof the Scriptures are full. Secondly,by dipping, and seasoning all our words and sentences in our hearts,before they come into our mouths, truly affecting, and cordiallyexpressing all that we say; so that the auditors may plainly perceive thatevery word is hart-deep. Thirdly, by turning often, and making manyApostrophes to God, as, Oh Lord blesse my people, and teach them thispoint; or, Oh my Master, on whose errand I come, let me hold mypeace, and doe thou speak thy selfe; for thou art Love, and when thouteachest, all are Scholers. (233: 26-37)The best examples of "moving and ravishing texts" are those painted on the walls of"The Church." The parson's visual appeals to his audience suggest the hieroglyphs ofpoems such as "Affliction (V)," a well-recognized aspect of Herbert's poetic art. 35And we see the parson's apostrophes to God in such poems as "Miserie" and "Ephes.4.30." Herbert actually alludes to the preacher in stanza eight of "Miserie," and hasthe voice warn us from the pulpit that we must wake up and change our values (49-50). But the poem is given its drama mainly by the voice's expostulation, "My God"and "I mean myself." The preacher also apostrophizes with God in "Ephes. 4.30,""Weep foolish heart, / And weeping live"' (11. 8-9).Although the parson "preacheth constantly," he does not preach continuously.For while a sermon may challenge and inflame his auditors, the very elevation of hisdiscourse is sometimes a disadvantage. For "whereas in Sermons there is a kind ofstate, in Catechizing there is a humblenesse very sutable to Christian regeneration"(255: 9-10). In "The Parson Catechizing," Herbert describes in considerable detail and-208-with great psychological insight the technique of leading a catechist to the correctanswer (chap. 21, 256). He emphasizes the importance of using common, simplewords, of beginning with what the one candidate knows, and of indirectly catechizingthose who hear the catechism. Such pastoral practices pervade The Temple.Perhaps more than any other English poet besides Wordsworth, Herbertsanctifies the ordinary. In chapter 5, I showed that Herbert's Anglican spirituality isreflected in his preoccupation with the ordinary Christian life and his joy in Creation.But Herbert's use of homely metaphors and simple diction in poems such as "Vertue"and "Confession" is also governed by his pastoral purpose. For, as he says in "TheParson Catechizing," "things of ordinary use are not only to serve in the way ofdrudgery, but to be washed, and cleansed, and serve for lights even of HeavenlyTruths" (257: 13-15).We also find many examples of questions and answers in The Temple.Although poems such as "Dialogue-Antheme" and "Judgment" are usually read asinternal dialogues, they also suggest catechetical instruction. For example, "Businesse"is an intriguingly paradoxical poem, yet not so much witty as instructive. Here, thevoice interrogates the "foolish soul" who is idle spiritually despite his "busyness." Thecouplets are exhortations; the regular three line stanzas provide the answers. Thepublic quality of this poem is particularly evident if it is compared to "Dialogue," inwhich the voice speaks directly to God. "Time" provides an amusing example ofcatechetical technique, perhaps reflecting the parson's frustrations. Time is personifiedas a rather thick-headed country fellow who goes about with a dull scythe. He isexamined respectfully by the country parson, duly admonished and taught; but Timestill misses the point. As in "Businesse," the offset couplets of "Time" help to create-209-the sense of questions and answers viewed objectively. The parson's technique ofindirect catechism informs poems such as "The Method" and "Heaven." The speakerof "The Method" is outside the individual and God, yet an expert in their relationship--a priest. ("Poor heart" could be a parishioner as much as the voice's heart.) Thepowerful emotion of the poem is acceptable because we seem to overhear--yet tacitlyparticipate in--an examination. The convention of the echo poem, which might seemquaint or trivial in another's hands, is turned to good pastoral use in "Heaven." Thevoice asks questions which elicit responses that one could not altogether havepredicted. The point of the interrogation, however, is to uncover "those delights onhigh" (1. 1). The congregation--in this case, the readers--look on, intrigued by theprocess and delighted by the result, but they are also slyly instructed.In addition to such formal arts as catechizing and preaching, Herbert's pastoralpractice involves the informal art of entertaining. Herbert's ideal priest is alwayshospitable, despite his poverty, and he makes a particular point of entertaining orgoing out to dinner on Sundays (236: 18-21, 241: 10-20, 245: 5-9) The parson alsocultivates a "winning" demeanor and simple "pleasantness of disposition" (236: 16,268: 4).We have already met many examples of Herbert's charming and winsomevoice. "Man" and "Praise" show him at his light-hearted best, though the voicesometimes retains--or regains--its characteristic attractiveness even in bleak poemssuch as "The Collar." In "Even-song," the voice echoes the General Thanksgiving ofthe Book of Common Prayer in the petition for "power this day, / Both to be busy,and to play."' Yet "the power to work and the leisure to rest" often converge inHerbert, for he is most busy when he seems most playful.-210-Such would be my interpretation of Herbert's most fanciful poems. Thosecommentators most concerned with Herbert's private devotional aims understandablyfeel that he is too witty for his highly-serious religious purpose.' After all, Herbert'sTemple does house a curious array of toys and trifles: shaped poems and acrostics, ananagram, various word games ("Jesu," "Love-joy," "Paradise"). Such exercises ofpoetic fancy have led some to believe that Herbert is self-indulgent or a clandestinecourtier." In fact, such light-hearted and witty entertainments are evidence ofHerbert's pastoral shrewdness. Like Saint Paul, he is adept at addressing the worldlyas well as the devout. The parson is determined to appeal to the "young and unwaryspirits" in his parish, particularly the gallant who is most likely to be idle and scornful'(252: 6, 253:23, 259: 29, 275: 5-17).Although The Temple is, to some extent, "a compendium of literary novelties,"Herbert is not simply amusing himself nor is he experimenting for the sake merely ofexperimentation." Herbert's literary novelties are best seen as pastoral devices to win"sweet youth" by offering the "baits of pleasure" which he mentions in"Perirrhanterium" (11. 1-6). Once the youth is attracted to church, he is subtlyinstructed. The witty and paradoxical "Charms & Knots" turns out to contain usefulaxioms. "Jesu" is a word game, but a serious moral underlies the joy of playing:"That to my broken heart, he was I ease you, / And to my whole is JESU." "Love-joy" also appears to be a toy, but turns out to be a dialogue to discover meaning, andit is catechetical, as we have already seen. The diminishing acrostic-like line endingsof "Paradise" are not ends in themselves so much as witty reminders of the Cross.And even the cheerful parlor game of echoes is ingeniously designed to uncover"delights on high" in "Heaven."-211-At their simplest, poems such as "Love (In)" and "The Banquet" describe agood meal. Their sense of festivity and hospitality is, in part, a pastoral device. Thehospitality offered is not the lavish entertainment described in Ben Jonson's "ToPenshurst," but the spare luxury of George Herbert's rural parsonage. Yet "Love (HI)"and "To Penshurst" work in much the same way: we begin by admiring the feast andend by admiring the Lord who provides it.The similarity between Herbert's "Love (III)" and Jonson's "To Penshurst"suggests the related problems which I alluded to earlier: Herbert's changeable voiceand his association with Donne in literary history. Herbert's voice varies from theurgent and apparently personal utterances of "The Collar" to the composed and publicproclamations of "The British Church." And, while poems such as "Prayer (I)" areadorned with metaphysical conceits such as "reversed thunder" and "church-belsbeyond the starres," poems such as "Providence" are conspicuously plain. Herbert'spoetry is clearly not well served by the traditional literary-historical distinctionbetween "the School of Donne" writing witty and conceited poems in a personal voice,and "the Tribe of Ben" writing neoclassical poems in a plain style and public voice.Although the conventional version of literary history has been challenged by JosephSummers and others, Herbert is still praised for being Donnian, and the religious lyricsof Herbert and his contemporaries are still considered by many to be "essentiallyprivate poetry, that is, poetry that examines and focuses on the inner movements ofthought and feeling. 1141The problem is that Herbert's poetry bears only a superficial resemblance toDonne's, and that Renaissance poets such as Donne and Herbert were not inclined towrite personal poetry in the way a modern poet might. Herbert and Donne are-2 12-concerned to move their audience, not just to express their inner thoughts and feelings.And as we have seen in this chapter, Herbert also continually instructs the reader bysubtly employing catechetical, liturgical, and homiletic techniques. John Donne isfamous for his urgent and seemingly personal poetic voice, displayed at its dramaticbest in "The Canonization":For Godsake hold your tongue, and let me love,Or chide my palsie, or my gout,My five gray haires, or ruin'd fortune flout,With wealth your state, you minde with Arts improve,Take you a course, get you a place,Observe his honour, or his grace,Or the Kings reall, or his stamped faceContemplate, what you will, approve,So you will let me love. 42 (11. 1-9)The irregularity and passion of such lines suggest actual speech by drawing ourattention to the speaker himself. Herbert's voice seems as personal as Donne's in suchpoems as "The Collar":I struck the board, and cry'd, No more.I will abroad.What? shall I ever sigh and pine?My lines and life are free; free as the rode,Loose as the winde, as large as store.Shall I be still in suit?Have I no harvest but a thornTo let me bloud, and not restoreWhat I have lost with cordiall fruit? (11. 1-9)Yet we seem to hear another voice in "Man":My God, I heard this day,That none doth build a stately habitation,But he that means to dwell therein.What house more stately hath there been,Or can be, then is Man? to whose creationAll things are in decay. (11. 1-6)Urgent personal concerns have been replaced by detached public considerations.-213-Ragged lines have given way to moderate expression, and actual speech patterns havebeen dropped in favour of prepared speeches. But both aspects of Herbert's style canbe reconciled once we grasp the pastoral purpose of The Temple; for a priest'svocation requires him to make his personal life public.We have already seen the delicate coexistence of private and public utterancein "The Parson praying" and "The Parson Preaching." It is of course possible to findpoems which seem to be either very personal or very public. "The British Church" islargely public because of its national perspective and tone. The sequence of poemswhich begins with "The World" and contains "Our Life is hid," "Vanity," "Lent," and"Virtue" is strongly public and temperate. "Love-unknown," "Constancie," and "TheFoil" also have a public voice. Despite Patrides' allusion to "the all-pervasiveconsciousness of the self" in The Temple, it is actually difficult to find many poemswhich are simply personal. "Life" may be one of the few examples:I Made a Posie, while the day ran by:Here will I smell my remnant out, and tieMy life within this band.But Time did becken to the flowers, and theyBy noon most cunningly did steal away,And wither'd in my hand.My hand was next to them, and then my heart:I took, without more thinking, in good partTimes gentle admonition:Who did so sweetly deaths sad taste convey,Making my minde to smell my fatall day;Yet sugring the suspicion.Farewell deare flowers, sweetly your time ye spent,Fit, while ye liv'd, for smell or ornament,And after death for cures.I follow straight without complaints or grief,Since if my sent be good, I care not ifIt be as short as yours.-214-Here, we seem to have a simple private reflection, yet the voice addresses theuniversal concern of mutability and mortality. Indeed, the private and the publicconverge in The Temple, as they do in Anglican worship.Sometimes, poems which seem to be mere "private ejaculations" are givenpublic meaning by their context. For example, the voice in "Trinitie Sunday" ispersonal, but the context is corporate. "Vertue" is generally private but ends with thepublic application of a moral. The personal sadness of "Affliction (IV)" is temperedby its juxtapositon with the public "Man" and "The Pearl." "Unkindness" suggests aprivate conversation overheard, but is just as plausibly a prayer before thecongregation or a private word with God. 43 "Prayer (H)" is almost completely publicin emphasis, yet it retains the individual "I." "The Bunch of Grapes" has a personalbeginning, a corporate middle, and a personal end. "Praise (II)" is a personalstatement, yet this beautifully spare hymn is a vehicle for communal assent. And "AWreath" incorporates a personal statement in the highly public form of a garland and aprayer.Most often, Herbert's poems appear to be personal but they become public,leading us into common prayer or praise. The reader is gradually taken from personalreflection to public praise, for example, in the Edster sequence. We begin with thetentative question-posing private voice of "The Sinner" and "Good Friday," and movefrom the anecdote of "Redemption," to the homily of "Sepulchre" and the song of"Easter." Plural pronouns gradually replace singular ones, as we read through thesequence. Similarly, "Sinne (II)" might seem personal ("0 that I . . . "), but pluralpronouns predominate, and the poem is public in context--occurring between"Mattens" and "Even-song"--just as sin is publicly confessed in these offices.-215-"Submission" is an understated personal exchange with God alone, but it is linked intheme and imagery to the highly liturgical and public "Love (III)." What seems to bean overheard conversation in "Sion" becomes a sermon, as the struggle is implicitlygeneralized to God "struggling with [everyone's] peevish heart." The singing, multiplegroans, and wings of the last stanza create a liturgical atmosphere."Home" is a particularly telling example of Herbert's public and private person:Come Lord, my head doth burn, my heart is sick,While thou dolt ever, ever stay:Thy long deferrings wound me to the quick,My spirit gaspeth night and day.O show thy self to me,Or take me up to thee!How canst thou stay, considering the paceThe bloud did make, which thou didst waste?When I behold it trickling down thy face,I never saw thing make such haste.O show thy, & c. (11. 1-11)"Home" might be misconstrued as a private poem--a direct, individual address to God,but it is more like a psalm in which private struggles are made public and find aliturgical form. There was a move toward liturgy at the end of the previous poem("Sion"), and Herbert now emphasizes the sense of each stanza with the refrain: "0show thy self to me, / Or take me up to thee!" Herbert skillfully compels the readerto repeat this cry, though it begins as a personal one. The reader is actually "taught"the refrain because it is only written twice, and must then be recalled. Such liturgicalinstruction suggests the parson's concern to teach his congregation "to answer gentlyand pausably, thinking what they say; so that while they answer . . . they meditate asthey speak" (chap. 6, 231: 32-34). The liturgical movements of "Sion" and "Home"are put in just this kind of perspective in "The British Church" which follows.-216-The public aspects of Herbert's voice lead to the question of his place inliterary history. Although he is conventionally considered a "metaphysical" poet,Herbert may have as much in common with Jonson as with Donne:" Herbert's poemssometimes recall some of Donne's. We have already seen the dramatic opening of"The Collar," its emotional turbulence, and its ragged lines. "The Crosse" also openswith real Donnian impassioned speech: "What is this strange and uncouth thing?"Herbert's poem, "Mortification" suggests the Donnian preoccupation with death, its"winding sheets" recalling Donne's "Valediction: Forbidding Mourning." There is agenuine strain of Donnian imagination in "Ephes. 4. 30": "Marbles can weep; andsurely strings / More bowels have, then such hard things" (23-24).But the similarities between Herbert's poems and Donne's should not obscuretheir differences. For instance, "The Discharge" opens with what sounds like anallusion to Donne's "Sun Rising": "Busie enquiring heart, what wouldst thou know?'Yet Herbert's opening is pastoral, dictated not by literary influence but by the meaningof the preceding poems and the priest's intention. "Conscience" reminds one ofDonne's "Batter my heart"; however, what is for Donne a matter of personal drama isfor Herbert an occasion for sacramental assurance ("My Saviours bloud: when ever athis board/ I do but taste it, straight it cleanseth nie" (14-15). "Sinnes Round" is acheerful, demonstrative little poem, despite its morbid subject. "The Bag" turns on alurid conceit, yet for all its ingenuity, the conceit is a public one, derived fromdiplomatic service. "Death" opens with a ragged "strong line" to be proud of: "Death,thou wast once an uncouth hideous thing,/ Nothing but bones," recalling the dramaticopening of Donne's "Death be not proud."" H