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Habitat partitioning by sparrows along an elevational gradient Repasky, Richard R. 1993

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IO  SOWSA AEOGEC YMO SKYSc Ca S Ui197Mc Ca S Ui19A ESIS SUIEIIAIME OE QUIMES E GE OCOISOYiE CUY OGA SESME OOGYWe acce is esis as cooi e quisaE UI OISCOMAcem 199ic ymo sky199Iesei is esis iiaie oe quimes aaaege ae Ui oisComaI age ae a s make iee aie e a sI age aissioeeicoi ois esis scy oses may  ge e aomyme o s oeseasIis ueoacoi oicaoois esis iagais  aowewioumy weissio(Sig   me o     e Ui oisComaou Ca ^1 -1 ^ -(AACAugscies acemes a eieages a commoya iecic como eco owscies sio wou ie aee ocomoa usuay ckiI saea esesamig accou scies sio io eo a sucese c we ue  accou e sio osowswie a aeoge ie Sose osoue CaiaUSASage sows  (Amis i  ack-asows  (Aa a-eyeos  (o emas iae geosUee oesisscies occu e  cause ey eao aoccuie Scies a see oe same scies oasa e oosee (seemass ies/  meesimiy amo sow sciessugges ascies su  simisioAoscies caaage oy oui oeicusma Semeasus ooai suggesao scies a missi om  iwcois aasas aie as ioccuee measus i osi coiake  esmaom seeaaeseesia  me; aoiake s oeeia"ico eeme iwciia oeacscies we aceiaaa a aowe ge ieac Oeeees ioiake  ee we sma sugges ascieswou  mo oay siioseisioeocou  sie sio iscies a sasomeoie  a eosk is seAeaeoca sie io ia scies   simiy sa suo e eaeaA scies esca e  eei woo coa eaco eey a ke   sasie iiiwi e gasamou oco AoI coee  awcs scaee eie w ey geiaaa  so eco(1iscieseeee simices isk ee a ie same ogieyies e same o oc escies su eisimices igie ee; ( isome scies eeee iaseskwmoom o  aewas oescies eeee caseskscies su eissimices igie o scies wccomso we ssie eisimices igie eeI ao coisucas oamig aecgi aoe sk oeo gi mic use iiascies we mowi siae scies emseessugges asciessio ami sucI assee comoesis  s o coio cessa como scies muss mi soues a ey muse e amouooaie  o ae Scies oaeie kis oo aeya a ie s omic w ey ge  se omioesisI caieoua s- oaioeeme iesiaseas e su oe oaio suoi e esis oomioie s e cogy a mag ocie  eemeao iumie ese a mics oeo Iay ss commo yemo scies (moui s a use scissa ie gasm  eemeaomo u 7e oe amou oseeaie  se iay mo commoyeasmo scies (w-cwsowsack-asowscimo sw a iwemMucss owas aie  ese scies awou  eie aee oeeaiesciesiE OCOESAAC ^  iiE OCOES ^  iSOES ^  iiSOGUS ^  iACKWEMES ^  GEICO ^  1I SIO OWIE SOWS A AE-OGE O O SUCOESCA CO ^  5c a eco  ^ o ^  7eo ^ 7suc  ^ Como ^ 9Meo ^  9S si a scies   ^ 9 Coeco ^  13 ceus  ^  1Seesi c ^  1Suc ^  15e  ^  15See mes ^  15esis s ^  1sus ^  sio os ^  s oeses ^  o ^  eo ^  suc ^  37Como ^  37scussio ^  5Oessies  ^  5Oeee  ^  53 s  ^  57II GI SUCCESS A E SIO OWIEI SOWSA AA EEME ^  59Meo ^  Eemeasig ^  oiake  ^  ck  ^  mosee ck ^  Si osee ea ^  Comso ^  73sus ^  73oiake s ^  73comso ^  7scussio ^  7III EO O GIE A E SIOOWIE SOWS ^  eo gie a sao ^  Meo ^  Eemeasig ^  9aes a  coeco ^  9Asis ^  9sus ^  9osu aec gie ^  9Comso ogie s ee ^  9scussio ^  1gie a e ao eeoa eo ^  1eoa e sio oscies  ^  1IIECIC COMOA E SIOOWIE SOWSEE OM A OSUMEAOEEME ^  1ssie iees om a oaio ^  1Meo ^  113S Aa ^  113EemeaMao ^  113 Ceuses  ^  11eo ^  115moScies ^  119Sscas ^  1sus ^  1i ^  1eo ^  1moScies ^  1scussio ^  13omio ^  13eo ^  135Comoamo oegus s ^  13IGESCUSSIO ^  13Summa osus ^  13Aea eses ^  1IOGY ^  1iiSOESe 1iicoms asis osuc ^  e  Sow scies aaes ie   o wie ^  e 3eoaamo scies cauas oiosimi iseescies comsio ^  e  Simi i o osees amo sage sowsack-asows a -eyeos ^  e 5Oaiuse omic quaieas e  awcoeaowe miscssie a scmi o ^  e  gi oae ie aa ^  7e 7e acooiaoims ayies ee see ^  75e   osscasigcae associawi e oeegie  a ck   ^  99e 9se ogus s  a s- oaio  ^  1e 1 Miemoa ee ooeo ^  13e 11Scies cess ocoa eae o  ^  133iSOGUSgu 1cao os o ie weCoaca eyCaia ^  1gu  eeaas a oomoiias same  ^  1gu 3osi ce scies osows a sow oies ie  owie ^  gu  oiake s esmaom seeaaeseemassa me ^  gu 5siooses om coogi s a om cais ^  31gu  oi as a oose  co  ^  33gu 7siooses om coogi s a eio  ^  35gu  osi cscoue e sk oeo  ^  3gu 9gi cao oscies oeogo sc eai omic wii ^  gu 1 o oseeo ^  gu 11Oaie gi mic oscies ^  gu 1 sow aae a oaae ie  ioyea ^  5gu 13Maiee mesm as a ooame m ^  5gu 1 ooaoaa ^  gu 15O ock oe eemeasig  ^  gu 1 Meaa sa eooseemass ieas a oosamesi  ^ gu 17ees igi success ee ^  7gu 1 ecao eeogie a e oosi ^  gu 19Scmac eseaooo ock ieemeasig  ^  91gu oeegie a oaae sowscoumi simisees ii o ^  97gu A mi oecasaocues ^  1gu oiake  as a ooseei o scies eoy ie me qui  a si o ^  111gu i ogus s oe coue oe oaioeeme ^  1gu Si comieoe coue oe oaioeeme aSi   ^  1gu ac omieseemo aSi oe coue oe oaioeeme ^  1ACKWEMESis wo was caieouos ow e Caia me osa GameUau o MagemeUsa Wi SeiceUsSeiceUi oCaia  a Wasee SysmaM uo SisCaiaMosoese s a ais eCaose seaCeea e Coaca ey eseeeCaose seaCeeseeas aeee se oooI a AMu a s aeCaoa Cows oe Coaca ey esee ci my woeiiigs io se a eisGi y (o seasoa  o s ma  ys ie e coec Guisoeoua w ysMy ga commiee ScuWiASii  Smi a  Yeouseguie a aiceas ma ee oa ss asisCma  iie Ai ice a  Wa commeeoas oaaso ceoe esisMyemi commieeMAmso  Gass o Ma  Wiemausecommes oe esisSWee ga ie a I was suoei a Ui oCGa ows e ocwas suoe Sciees a Eie seaCouioCa gs  my suisoScu I a mucmo ass moys queso a iigswe iaaea s ee a eougeme uggi1GEICOScies acemes a eieages a sikiA moscies occuisequeesomemes wi  o oaeeeisio (e o1971MacA197 Woo 1973Ams a a1977 Eay eo ois e iokecomo i(19aueacomois sie scies acemes a eogesa ges asoamiees eescies eacscies aa com aaage uee eieacoioa gese ecisme oe com esioiiewas  Ge (19ia scussiooe siooe csuckecckae (ck 1971 Cse scies om s oeeiaace a ck (19aueais e osiowas esu oiecic como  asoacse scies coumesimio a aees isciesmogy we o sma  siceisio suoes ew wi eemes iwcesio oscies we oeeiaas iwcsuosecom weaeMacA(197 oeocaiig io w comomigsu iscies acemese esis acomois sie eosio s eseque (e o1971oaWeske 1975o19Scu19ice 1991e makis oaaea ew ao gaeayGe (19suggesascies sio mig  sic iee siooa scies mig ea uiiac  ccscs aweiuouaeGaso(19oseascies a siieeoo aeaccoi  e  oe eie  iiasciess esis was suoe e aee oe ie sio oem oa scies a eoges (Wake1951195wma(19suggesasciesoquimes mig accou e siooGagos gu s  (Geos  s amo iss asoaeacscies is ae e o a ascies sio we se sio oeio amo iss ea iecic comoas ck (19aue(see Ao ea 1977 a Scua G 19a icaoock e suggesoascies sio a siee  eieac s eise(e Sweey a o197 o a Sweey 19Wie a ey 19So 19 is es(e Ao ea 1977Scu19ice 1991 A asoeswou com sciesacasio wi sio ecomeieacIis esisI ask wc a sie e siooe sows a aeoge ie Sose osoueCaiaSage sows  (A mis i  ack-asows  (Aaa -eyeos  (o emas iae geos a ege (Weae 19 ese-y comoois aoious camig  sie e sio oese scieswe I  emasic oeacomoamig accou e sio a se comoesis oy iicyI coie aeas aoeoa suc accou scies sioIeaccaseI se esis ascies scia osi  cause eacscies is so weae a cio a so oy ae iioe ae csic i sio Uee oesisemesciesa sui e s ooa eisio a i esiooos amo I se comoesis ea e coio aa cessa como occu Comois3uike  eiscies sio ie is  sigaioswas icou s sio ie cessa coio a eseI seses usi  oeaoa eemeaOeao eseeiCe1 o aiasoeacesise oesis is iesga i wis oeacscies a com sciessio wi e sio oeioe eoesis is s com sciesuse osuy ge coaca use esca eeois uike   sie io iscies  simiees co e sucesis is iesga sc e mic aeacscies uses iiusuaa aski isis oa a aie ioeyecomoesis is s i wescies use simisouesowou  so iey occuee same AoI se comoesis  s o oi maemisesomi oaaeomiois ea measu e oee aae aosuEacoe e owi ce (i  eses eemeaeea wi o oe esese oesis is ueiCe Aicoeeme measugi aes oa e scies ieacoee ese  we use sweeacscies aces i gsoiake ie aicay occuesa wesigca aosigi a eseee icoao se geosuc esisa a osuc aaec gi aso eug su isciaosu  ecioiakesICe3 om e icoeeme a a seeoesisIeois sie sciao sciesoug  ei e ces isk ee a eissimices igiee eoesis is sagaie aea aa scies eeee simices isk ee a e ecoascies eisimices igie eee comoesis  is eaiCe A s- oaioeeme was caieou see iowas ieemiomus mi icomois    sie scies sioAioye eemeos ee owescies a cae oe e amous ooaie  o aey ie gescussio I ieg e sus oe iiace5CeISIO OWIE SOWSA AEOGE O O SUC OESCA COCse  scies oe ai sio a eieagesey oy use simio a iis ssie aeisio asic como(ck 19Sso19o1971MacA197is aso is suoe ee ascies oe oasioiaas w esumecom a ae (e Co 197 oaWeske 1975o19 Iee sucee iicas ao-is o91 scies a aeoge ie Aes aea  mi como(o197119Ai scies sio may  eiioewayse may  acie eie w a scies we sui o e oes oecis cessa oy sui oe (see  19 Isoe is oy amiiacue como iee siossie ci o eoa aoc cemegu s  (Geoss e isi aea  ssui eae sis osee (G193a o como aea   e macieisio a aeoge (Scu19 s e sossi aois scies sioe oesis s escy ioy a w ses (e Ao ea 1977Scu19Scua G 19ice 1991eses gai scies sio ca susi ecosmmi om em (e o1971Scu19 Sciessio ca com sio ecom eieac (Scu19e eco emsees a seokwe oscies ogy a w ec i coiaecscies aaes s sec iiswayso iees (a 19ca ma aue c amisciessioAugsucs a weakeaceemeao eyss o ima ioaoais esseiaai eemesIe ese sI ask wc s e sio osowswie a aeoge ie Sose oCaiaSagesows  (Amis i  ack-asows  (A a a -eyeos  (o emas wieie geos (Weae 19 I saea eses amig i e sioi o eoa suc a cue iecic comooc a ecoIs wcc mig misioI ask wec  ae eoge iways aa cois wi e esis aey misioI ackwe asi c  iemiscies aaes e esiooa oe a ac may acsimuaous oiec emeoa eoa euge me eigi acesa  agask oeoa 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eseeiao aesgeso Ie see we iie com em wi e e coecoa coueSee mes  me ke  see was coeom cais  e wieo19-Oeao we ma aee s e icai ee1 a mos we usea oeesiIoem as ey a see om a s aeey esau me gawa  ckeua seea eewmome oe wemaie cease I measui coui e moames ee1a muiyi  e  awcames we coe  me eaciia oa see was ke  e mea me asee cause a w see aea  ii  o me oa see  a scies was ke  e meaoe mea oiiasUouI was ue  measu  mes oa e scies oa see s ea a scieswe my  i eiio ea eacscies wi o eeio   emoi a commoooack-asows  e e seaso simy cou  uwI coecseeesis s I oui e meo use ecsio oscies om eaea esesSciessio a aaes su  oio e aioeio isio a i oaaeI quaieoai io wayssi ca esmaoiake Si cis a sime measu ais a esma augies cessa esee amou ooaie  gi sIake  is a mo asc measuiis mo icu  esmaI esmaiom i com aeseooims mea eoueoie   eacsciesa scies we u ia so I  ci wa scies wou eaiioccuei ouioi sio is oem was m a w misames coecom s gi oui oeica  a aa eeme(CeI oa scies as a see i wiie eoseemogies oeeimisamesSeemogy was scis oe o iicoms oe aes seemasssee(esmeioseea seewi(sesmeioe o ii17coms eseeo seesi a seesS sce sosee oa gimass  oa sciesI oea sees agaie iicom as a couca coegoau ose sees coume a sciesA sees wiie gowe cssieas oI usecomeo (see Scu19  i wee mos cauwas aqua  cc scieseeea measuasaa oego was oeagaisame si a ice esee oaasymoEaci eseemeagoaa cauom omsuames oa gisiAug oe scies eia caasymoigosi (gu I coae same sis we suicie causee go ie mosaa sees a iases ieeaoy sg aecesmaosi c emea  eiase igoaa iaseesmaosi c mo a1e oy o sciesMy esma ooiake  was seoi (1959sc equaoE Ai ei ^  E Ai w   is iake  imiigms secoAi is eoue osee  iisee secoe i is mass osee  i  imiigmsa  i is  mesee  i  isecosSeemasses (eiwe measuom e seeecoeco  mes  ( we measuie  Oy eoues (Aiwe uw I assumeem   ay  seeaaeAi =  kw  i is e i osee o  i  isee squa mea  k is a coesei sea isqua me secoIake  was cauas aoo k Wi is uo I comoai ee cau iake s usi a e oasoe es o ke e scies esca om e  yi  co sugges aeacis sasie wi e mosco Iis ieois coec e e1gu  eeaas a oomoiias sameosagesow (      ack-asow ( ^   a -eyeo(^  eais e aa oe go ois oiicoms as sc seesi a seese cues we geom sami e same sis om e coecsame (see Scu19-IIIII-II- -  -A-  -  I I      I^ 1^  ^ 3^ Same Siscies su ge cse coaeec ceI comsesoe s  co ses oom caquaa  cousio-icomsoWiosame s we usecause e  weay si  i wes ge cse coaeecom oaiI suay come sioogi swi e sioooieac e  equey sioogi s was scas e o i cue ogi seom co(ckeea 19 e siooowas esmaie s I esmae o i cue oe se om om caquaa  co SecoI esmameaosi cas a oose om cousi meic gssio(wess; ckeea 19 aeu meye siooo  cowas cau muiyi e o i cue  osi c e suisiowas sai sea i  aaa ueea io1isequey sioogi s io cowas com eequey siooaie oI cauoaae scoue e sk oeo seesis aoa eogeeaccou scies sioeac I cauaiei om  1 asce  eooas a oose om co e ieis seoe assumioaeosk aa gise om cois ay  e ge os eee  equey os gi aase a e equey ooeoe was cauas  E  w  0 is eoeeo i os gi aa se a  E is e oi ooaasee essi aowas assume occuae sasse om coa was asce e 1e moseme gaaowas assume occuae moseus se om coa wasasc e  Oeao we ay scaeee a 1Ausosi cwas cau muiyi osi caeacsami quaa e iesc  oe aase omco i wesciessio coes wi e aioeigi micI cc is oe eiicoms oaes om a  we com ae e coaes we asisqua oaeio asiseas esee  aoico secoa ge om suco ee co aiaoickiss (e 1  we scasgo oeagaii oas om e iicoms asisEacgocoaie ce75 e oe sami quaa ie asio ieye i ois wiie igooooeac iwas cauusi a scaeose aom (Cm ea 19a I emiis w e  ei oigoooiyIoce suc asgi sis o e iicomas cc  se comoesisI s see wescies s misouesI emio asc ooaisoue useoie a gimic Oaiecomsiowas cauio ways Icauoiosimi (see  197 iseescies comsiooeis measu os a mimeasu oe ee  wcameacs oacause a seescies we u ia Oaiameacs ca sc com e oes oo amoscies (iam 19 o is seemass  e amou omequi  e see Iake s a mami coumi e mosoe o a ig oeIo  simiy io amoe 1iicoms asis osucA aes oease  coa asisqua oaemeasus oe coiiCom As1^ ^ 3Eigeae 5  13oiooae ei  17 Eigeeco se  co -  - gu -3 -1 -15ck  -13 9Co(a gu1cm 31 -33 -11 cm 33 -3 -- cm 3 - -- cm 3 -15 --1 cm 37  -1-15cm 31  15cm  37 -5 cm   -5 cm   sciesscies s ees e same oa ey a ke  comIcauoes osee om seemasses keom my e coecoa om  mes measuie  I cau coeo oooes amo scies a oeoes  i weeesio we ogow i seesOaie use omic was cauusi a scmi oiwciias we cssie scies seoe succcscsogi sisis meowas usecause measus sucas oiosimi a icu wcs a is oseaese successoa scmi oacssicaoiases as e amou ooaisciese csEos a  ie aee ooaeesciesa ey wa  -1- s  is e mosciese eos woais ecis acay asew   -- cause osami eosAieooaca cau  e oee oeo aeec ce ioais ec Eos we simy e oioooeao miscssie e o Eecs oeoiscies oaecy we cau omio eoeao we om assig sciesa a scmi asis was caieou is ocess was a1mesa e meaeo amo omiases was useas e eeceoCauo we oeusi oce  SCM  (SAS I19 aes we asisqua-oaeio e asisI se esis aois mi  oi  aae agaiosuIois mi aae su  si  osuI si is acou  coi  ieeo iom eacieacyea sow si cwas usecause iioos ees i mass amo scies a cause e ss commoscies wiia co  soue mioiiesowas   a see1 mg oss imasssussio ose sows we siay o scies wi  oaeescies iuse (e Sage sows we oeeoy oeey oo a os occueoy io ack-asows wemoscommooe auaa uommoioese sus a cois wi eaieceus  om e s aacoec e e wie 1977-7ug1979- (Weae 19Weae-uuis Sage sows we ese esi oe ey ooack-asows we ese oe auaa ioIo ack-asows we ese iw m aum(Seemugm ae  wie(cemugua -eyeos we ese oy ios oeseso -  sio oscies we ue osuo oa scieswe mosaa ia si ie yeaosa ey we ayequay aa ia 3  ie seco yea(gu 3 Ie yeaosi ciowas gaaaie oeo auge ees cou  scause oe aee oicaoees iosi cwe sg  e seco yeaa we sscay sigca (A - sage sow  19 =  3  ; ack-asow   =  3  ; -eyeo   =  3  Cayoaae a es eiscies sioEsmaoiake s swea simieA e scies eeeesimiesmaiake s ia o  a e   simiy ae  Sow scies aaes (s /  / ie   owiee uee a scies ia is meaaae oa siceus o e wieo19-e wee is meaaae ooceus o  e wieo19-Sa eo (isesse yeaa cauom iiaceus os o (3 - ceuses o cause e was oy o s o ose e seco yeaacauom e mea oe o s o ieac(ceuses oA  iicas ae scies was oeeie  ceuses i (s /  / ey oo ^ Aua ^ o-eyeo   (91  57(37ack-aSow  (9 ( ( (Sage sow 11  7  gu 3osi c(mg /m  e scies osows a sowoies ie  owieCi aa ec osic yea scaseAcamea a sa eo a ssweacciSa eo 19-  a seoaoisi cwiis o cause oy o s oes Sa eo e seco yeaa seoaoamo ica s oCi coc oiack commo suommo w ae1115(  193 ( 79^ 179 ( ^ 177 (11115( ^ 1 (13519oC=IaaIamcC=19^( 42 ^ 13(  ^ 9 (9^( 42 ^ 13(  ^ 9 (9 1 ( ^ 139 ( 199 (9ey ooAuaoe sciesgass oe e oe sea co (gu osoouas  maey geciake s ae oe ie yea eciake s ie seco yeawe goeey ooaie oeeo e eoesis ec ascies eiusecause ey a sasie Coue e esise escies use e same meo esca esugges aey su simieescause e e scies esca  suy co eysu ge as cse  coas ssie sage sows a ack-asows gesigca cse coaeec ce (gu 5; o-iWiosame s sage sow S  = 1  <  1; ack-asow S  17= 117  <  1 -eyeos  soa acay geom coaeec ce (gu 5; o-iWiosame s  S  3 = 11  ocou  siee ey o-eyeos  eom coaeec osi ccse  coiowas ama  oe sicom co(gu Iee -eyeos geas om coas eecom e ai oow sio a com osio (gu 7 Sage sows a ack-asows gesgcse coaeecom oaie simiees osage sows a ack-asows gicse  cosugges ae eoesis a is ue  accou e sio oscies a e eoge scies su eo e wi e gasamou ocoa e occue -eyeosAioyis aigi om coeoai may  iqua measu osi c oia wi  cois equi  e same amou ooia sa egu  Esmaoiake s oe scies osows ie  io yea osIake s we cauom e aes mass ooim mea seei mes e uwco sea see aowe ke   coume scies (see  eciake s eyeaos a i(aa ose e seco i(e scies asagesow ( ^  ack-asow ((  ^   a -eyeo o ^ a^lIMMOMOMI..................................  =1IAuaey ooII ^ I ^ I ^ I ^  -----------3 - - - - - - -cm^ EcsCCas  -15-1 -eyoooAua -- I     I I   Sea (m  / s31gu 5siooses om coogi s (  ^  aom cais ( ^  -eyeos io ack-asows oe aua a sage sows oe ey oo oi cues we esmausi e i oockeea (19IIIsss3 _CQa  13ccaO -eyeoIIII s ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1ack-aSowI^ I^ uI I %IIu  II^ ^ ^^ ^ ^1Sage SowAsIIII% ^I0 %r ^ ^ ^ ^ ^  1o I^ IIIMse om Co(m33gu  oi as a oose  co -eyeos io ack-asows oe aua a sage sows oe ey oo e cues ie gus we usi e scaeosmooiaom wess  (ckeea 19ae u meseis    ^ ^     ^  ^   ey oo ^  o3CECEAua11--+1     ^ se  Co(m35gu 7siooses om coogi s ( ^  aoai ( ^  -eyeos io ack-asows oe aua a sage sows oe ey oo sio ogi s a om gu  osio we cau muiyi eo i cues oe se oom quaa  co(gu  meaoi (gu 5a sai so ae aa uee cue is 1 ^ ;I s  1I11 1IIi ^ 1i, 1sack-aSowA_CCa a 1C-CO-eyeo3-^^^^   1-^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1  Sage Sow aI%IIIIIIII1IIIII            - o^ ^ ^  ^ 1se om Co(m37weigi o se  comay yie e eco ausio aose om oaAus esmas oosi c e se om coceeeco oscies sio om oai (gu ees iaussi cee we maiy sigca (A sagesow  91 =  3   ack-asow a -eyeo 93 =  3  5 a  esimiy a sciesAusosi cwas gasiowooa a e scies iyeaYe oy o scies osow is aa eeoa eoi i eiscies sio a e eogesuc  Sucas omig  sie sciessio iey iee e gi aes os iways aa cau e sime measus ooa eoaI use  accommois ssiI askeie mic use gi s we emseessicisioa mig mie sio osciesgi mic use a giscies we sic e iwce scies is u (gu 9 e oy ae amig misio was ckisse i iicom asSage sows aos   i wi w cks a e e aea    gi em iauaw cky sua is commo(gu 9  we iescies is sic i usua cuasucis suc ke  e sage sows oack-asows om ow oai may  gsComo  e comoesis is cois wi e ay esi oscies sioIis ao cois wi ses oeeeescies sio a eco om e o eoa sucesesI uee comoesis  s e ese o3gu  osi cscoue sk oeoe scies osow a sow oi ie  owiee ouscis ese w osi c a e iecis scouesi c e sscs w e cis a meascouesi ca sa eoas igu 3Ci cooec oi as igu 373 ( ("- I( 0 (1 (1 ^ 73 ( ^ (I (1 ^ 7( ^ (II53( 5  (  1 (111-- .../^  ^ I/ 1^ /I I I1 /^ 11^ /^ 1 ^ ^  I35 ^ (  1 (111^ %^ e^ --  eI^ /^ %^ /i 1 I1^i^ I1 I1 II^I^ 1 I ^1^ ^ I^ %e ^ ^  ^ I 3( 5 7( 9 133 (118ai2 2Ei0c(0Ca0 2_c0 w 0  c86ey ooAuaiogu 9gi cao oscies oeogo sc e aiomic wiie iicom is aas oiasico e seco o eses iasi ee coa casi sucoe i eses iasi ckiss aey oo( ^aua(  a o(  e go ese  e ce75 e oeaca sio(see 000  %3---3- C1- 3 0% 00 1-11--3- ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ ^ ^  -1 ^^ 1^ ^3-eyeoe  II^ ^ A As 1-1 ^ 1 ^ 3A As 3-11Sage Sowa^ 1--1--3 1  3ack-aSowo coio amusesiscies a  comscies muss souesa e soues mus miScies e oaei e seescies ese a iseemogyoiosimi iseescies ese was mo geesagesows a ack-asowsa iwas w eeeacoese oscies a -eyeos (e 3 Seeo was gy coeamoscies (e  sugges aameacs oaoaye  oeooes was simiamo scies wi oy o eeio awe e mo amiees io (gu 1O oose eeio(acea  s was  ie eieCayscies s ees esame o a a iacome e scies ao oaieiuse ogi mice wassigca oaie go c micuse (gu 11 Eos ie cssicaoogi oeao usi a scmi oomicccscs ao suggesae was sigca oaimicuse (e 5 e o eo iscmi scies oe sisomicccscs was  e o e oaeecioaimicuse was comeCayese scies a iacomA soues mi?  aae was si  osuas eeciois mi (gu 1e owas e e  asi ie was a e amou ooese io eyeaosa -eyeos we aa e ayea Iaiis emi oy a sma e ooies is iie  se (eoeaea   gaagaie e  a si iemy  a iosi gai e esis oomio IescussioI coioeee sugges aois ieemie 3eoaamo scies cauas oiosimi (see 197 iseescies comsio Sa eo giises we cauusi a oacique (see MeooioSimi ie(SEack-a ^ -eyeSow ^ oSage Sow ^ 3 (1 ^ 9 (ack-aSow ^ 9 (e  Simi i o osees amo sage sowsack-asows a -eyeoso was cauas seemass see meSimi was cauas e  coeoeescies= 11 ieaccase Coeo(oack-a ^ -eyeSow ^ oSage Sow ^ 91 ( ^ 9(ack-aSow ^  (1gu 1 o (seemass /  meoseeo  sage sows(^  ack-asows ( ^  a -eyeos(^  Sees1 uua asis   As aceios3 Scsmus as  amus ecom o   sca oco Ca  samus ecom m ca   Eogomscicum 7 Scsmus as   see   Ca ige 9 Amasaus 1  Ca  s see 11 acea  seie   c  o s1  -^ ^ ^ ^ 1SeeSciesgu 11Oaie gi mic osage sows (ack-asows (    a -eyeos ( ^         ese iie coms osucgo ese e ce75e oe a sio(see Meo esis s A  ig oCo C:0 I^ I_^ 0 _K          e 5Oaiuse omic quaieas e  awcoeaowe miscssie a scmi ouse cago gi oeaoaccoi  scies oe sis omicccscs eos aeeciscies  oa Eos o53 e a eecimeamicccscs a iicaMiscssicaoScies ^ e o ^ e o^oeao ^ mamumSage sow  7ack-asow 3 55-eyeo 7 19scies com  5gu 1 sow aae a oaae ie  io yeaEaci eses a si ia si yea1 -  ^ oSi C(mg/m 5scussioi(19aueascies acemes a eieagessu om iecic como Auge a ma emes osucacemes (e ck 19o1971MacA197e esis s es I sseeses amig accou ai sio osowsi o eo suc a cuecomo owas aa oui osciesusua sugges aiis sie sciessioeois ao auike eooe sio cause a scies aea  sasom e w gicse  coa ey su  sasie same  e sucesis was c scies usegi mic awe mo wisiae scies emseesI so coio aa cessacomo e ameacs oscies oaiica acomois ieessie eeemwe my sus gai omioweiosiComois e esis moscois wi my susIscuss aea eses amig accou e sioI ao scussoeee gai comoa suggesae comoesis iswoui  mo csOessiesI coiseoc c amig  sie ioamo sciesc we coisi wi o eeio oa eogee Scies sio mig  ei oecomo oe caI coio aoc c wcwe coi Comeiecoamo c a oui e sco ois   I eiw aoc ca uike  eiiom a waa   e ese sm cause e  e a aeogea wacause e we imy s aa a ia se53iee m esis e waesis yies e ecoascies a sic e eai ao us scies siom iec wi oa eo misio (sky 1991 mo oquimes a e e sks osaoa eo(Mcma a us199Eacscies su mosaa ie w e asamou oey is e maiai mScies acay oaoay ie e omowcey eei is as(gu 13 a a scies su  mosaa ie same a ss aa eewke mewaesis i cause iec ascies su s ees e ima aao a  Amecasses aea  sma  sis e ssi aa coei wa(MacMie199cause sses ck cuaaao amig sicse-eiscies sucas sage sows a ack-asows  aaasa sciessu  ssui e esee owaOeeeMy iees a seooeaoeaeemea us eya ss coii aeemeasus mig I o oeeesugges ao eoa suc a uike  s e sio osows a ae comoesis is cois wi ee sus oaicoeeme (Ce suo my cosioaois uike  sicscies sio cause ois a aieoui osciescaEacscies was e ge ieacy occui seeOy -eyeos aceoiake s ieaey occu awe sigca gaioeSagesows a ack-asows scies eeeesmaeaos ie5gu 13Maiee mesm as a ooame mack-asows (13 geyeos (19 g ^     sage sows (17 g ^  -       a comsous-siwes ( g  ^   ascies oaoay ie e oms aa mose  emEsmas we seoaomeic o iesamec  (e aiooeaco was cauas 39M 73 w  M is  mass igi (Asc a  197; e same m w wcaioey mus s  maiaim was    11M 19 w    is  m a iges Ceiusa  M is  mass igms (Weae a 19 e  awceyeei iases as ame m cs w e s mis M 5  ikius y ge Ceius w  M is  mass (Asc19_Y  -cucCUOa -- -S.. I I^ 1^  ^ 3Aim (gC5a eeose scies ao aceoiake s ie aey occu awe sg ss aiuccueAugeees we smaey suggesaees igi a amo a mia asage sows a ack-asows a mo owsiaey wou  iowe sie eisioe icoeeme ao suoemy cosioascies eesieosk a uike   sie s e sciessio (Ce3 Sage sows a ack-asows aeee eisimices ie amou ome aey sscai e eie sugges aey eeee simices ieosk ee a aey a ke   sasie same gie  om -eyeosuoucou  comEe om e icoeeme ao weig agaie suc esise mea  wcsucas oaecsciessio a ke   ugeiiee oe a a eoske eec oese c we cauie s a gie os gi ie icoeemeose eec we sma a aea  iuicie  sicscies  si  e scies acay com? My  cay iica ascies s someoAugmy oeao oomiowe iosio oesoues oee suggesaois mi a s- oaioeeme (Ce sweas ci oaioo w osi cwas iasewi miesee es a swieie aas ogaoaae iey a aieSuca se mus seeiois miaugiis suicie ee oomiocause ace isuiwas moacysse aee oa57se wou  suggesaowas mi (e iam a i19Secoomioaea   a geemeamo guss iasSows ie agsss oA aea  omiiyea ow seeocoiyea ogseeocoe is a si oeesow aae a oaaeamo yea ow oai (iam a e1979 eco osciescomsioaa om comoeo    ue iyea ooseeocoiyea ogooseeoco(iam 19 as i ci a oaioowe eeme was ia yeaomo oai (iam a i 19 Aoe is a sicoeoeee aae os (oay as sma gsiseaamiesa oaae amo e aaas oe wosugges aomiois wisea(Scua sky 1991 Auge woi s i om e ese s sie e is cayese wiouose  sOe sis oe ee aI suggesae comoesisis a ausie eooio  sowsSoes ae ceemeaois o ssiIe aee ocss oeses aue mecsm ocomowou ace e comoesis ask oicao e ssie mecsms aeiooooieee a aie o iwcscies suea comsaaagee mecsm ocomoamo sows is mo ke   ieee oaie ae eiooo Scies s oees (gu 1aey a eec  simisioUeese coioei5comowou su iio ii eeo we e e ee asio we goe o wcscies  seesais cay e case ie ese s cause scies sees e o awe esea ey we sias ecom oai59CeIIGI SUCCESSA E SIO OWIE SOWSA AA EEMEm s a eque sciasa aace  aoeoccue cse sciesck (19aueais e osio sus om iecic como  asoamogicaees eescies  oy micoequees oess ie a ascies oug   mo wi siamo  ie aeeocoeck aume is aaem   e aea esis aio sus om scies ees ie aAugecomoesis s eque es(e o1971oaWeske 1975iam 1975o19Gaia 19Scu19 e e aesis s seom eseciy (Scu19ice 1991Ce1sciaomig su om oa iscies a aee coio iaea  (e Smiy 197 yma a Wassea19Scu19 e ao ie a ee mus eeug sicsciessioee a o se eco ome gi success esis a e ao igi a su eseeSecoeacscies su ace i gsoiake  iae  a eacscies su e w iis mossuccessagiI se gi success esis  com e e s osowscies "aae amo  ie Sose osoue CaiaSage sows  (Amis i  ack-asows  (Aa a -eyeos  (o emas s e wieie  a aeoge (Weae 19Ce1 Sage sows e ia coso ssas(ea ia-Aie s sua oe oooe ey ae se oeeogeack-asows occu e coso ssuas(oecommoscies i is [Eea sa] os [Amosiamosa] sweeus [ia ea] a cacs  [Oia  scaockyaua ae ees osma eys a oe ckywess oemouai-eyeos iaa wooa oo  (s moya  (s cai cus  caoa aau a e oeo I caieoua "aa" eeme cause e we w ooues  oee gi success oui osciescaeaaage osuca maois aoeeoiake s a e eecosec aec oaisucas oaaegeoasua suc a ssiy eosk (Ce1Ce3  measugi success ie aaI se eco om e gi successesis ae ees igi a su esee aascies su occu e  iwcey ge mossuccessyesus suo e gi success esiso sciesoiake swe  simiia e  a may acay  sg gouioe  iwceaccay occuMeoEemeasige eeme was caieou e wieo19- ie ci oeCaose seaCee  seCaia (see Weae 19S sis ie e s we caoecogicasee s aa aecoe s oe Saa sa Mouais useie s we cauom e wi s  e eemega ey we useiiay a maiaioa miosee commeiayaie smeawoswaa a misumeSows gey seasee oe guoiake s weesma oei iias gi osee y occui oegu ii oaaae aa measum m m (gu 1Iwasma   ae  couc iowooameseac1 m macou egee e oa 1oe 1ames we cowi sce acou easi  seeug e o mai ames we cowi ack ic see as e o oa i om wcoeao we maAaoaue se oe aa coga eee se a e gu ouais eee aa om a i cage aac a  equiewi a oacou  mo coe  ows we uggewi cks  es om seeki asym oescaSiiia oeacscies we icesi io a e eywe io o  oe s eac a  we ssequeiayeia we scaccoi  a sigaeemeay coee oeiwcs eeee cause oae mig ce as eeee ie aa iasesO iiaieacos eeeeeacase  seco a i ie aa (gu 15 ia cou  caieousimuaous ie e ei eemeacooseasoces igi coio yo aaoe  e s io o eia ow a sa css-osig(see Mea19 Iasi we sc mimi e momes ae aa wou moeeeme (gu 15 e aa was cai"a" w e iiawas ie Iwas emo " w ea seco iia we ie A e iia we iei"c"a ee aa was e  "a" a "  come e ia oe seco a i iia we om assig e siosequeeIias we om sigas e  seco a igu 1 ooaoaa^I/ OA ACAGE 11-  - 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AA(ckea ksum 1977 wemeA is ck  a  C is si oseeea Sa eowas cauas e squa ooaeck   Aoeeie i usea miccomogmmeas ae coe gise me awca  ga geeacck aaiaoim ma  e a e me awca  cease geck  was cauas e mocks  me sgi  a -uia ck s om e o -uia ia y weagemosee ck  I esmae oioocks amig yieee seeI coecsee om quaa aceis ogseeiSee we coecom asa e suace soiwas sc a mamum o1 cm om aaa o1 m  (see Ce1 See we assume  ee iey ma aaue cck wcsusi a ioeSi osee ea  Meamass osee ea eemeas wasesma o meoIe   osee coume s gi ie aa we comwi ioeeco oseesi seo om wi-caug sEsmas omeaseesi oai is meowe iayaicause osma same sise seco meooa way oi esess oe  A osc seesi ee was cauom owi-caug s a  oseeaaea iwas use ececomsioiMeaseesi was cauom ese eceA same osee eawas oai ais e emec amo(see Scu19  eac aei iaie aamisames weoaioy aee ia aie ssi as mig aaio gi ie aaeamo was ais o soeacoe e scies ieaca s miwi e sua= 1s ea= 1 s ese sma same sismeaseesi cou s  esma coasis omeaseesi as a ooemowi s samesugges aauiaseesma quis same siso3  5 s (gu 1I usea yesiaesma omeaseesi iwcioeeco omeaseesi oaiom e  we moeoe sis osames oaioms gi ie aae soesma omeaseesi wasi i_  ii^ I  a1 _ _ i _ S I  a(see Se a K 197w    a u  a e ioeeco oemeaa ae iseesi -  a s  a e same meaa aea issame si A a u  we esmaom miscime oaiom wi-caugs  aeiooe oc(Ce1 ey o oy ugeeco oe meaa ae oseesi eai causeey a oaiom s gi oy ieiee   a 3  wecauom e miscime oaiom s aeey geie aaeocayis meosu yie auiaseesma omeaseesi3  is seoe assumioaeacseeea aiia is aiee oeao is assumiowas susi aasis oaegu 1 oaesmas omea(aa sa eo( omeaseesiie eas a oosame siSage sow ( ^   ack-asow (  a -eyeo ( ^   Eaci eses asames omiscime om wi-caug s5 1 15   E   -coC -AI  llbObm1  111 %..0  .4 ....tb   % WA. ^ 715      ^ 13-E 13 - " 1-wcc -a1-/ 5^ 1^ 15^ Same Si71omeaseesi ea wi-caug sae iseesi wiia simiscimeoa gi was aasas e as e ae eescimesugges ae assumiois ae oseesi ie ewas esmaas0 = ^(see Se a K 197w u  is e ioeecooaes  ise same aea is same si as e a meoyieeaueasoy e esma oe si oseeea ack-asows oe ey oo ioeeco oe mea(i  a ae (o-  we e cause ack-asows eaa wi eosee oe aua Oy sma see we eaoe ey oo a asa su e same meaa ae  we smae same ae was sosma aa same oaasmiscime wou  ecessa  ie yesiaesma oe mea    wii13e oe same mea Seeoe si i we eme  oe ey oo a ey a e eugaIsu  eae  oee s ea emeI scae i  a useesame meao oeesmas omeaseesi ie ecou  oai emeosca cause  s oa scies i mi sagesows gi oe ey oo I usee measeesi ie e owi-caug s cause sage sows iae ey oo Oeao osagesows gi ie aa suggesaey a mosy  Scsmus asa  Ca  s sas ey  ie wiack-asows imiaegi io e s ma aeeacgiiasuggesaack-asows gesimiy  osea mosyuua asis augey occasioy ckeueseess1  _ I  a 7eque asage sows  eI usee measi osee ea os (7 esma i ack-asowsis esma su coea cause ioy uesmas seesi ie iwciakes we si  gs(see Ce1A seco meooesma e measi osee ie ewas emoyecause oe sma same sis associawi e yesiaesmasIe seco meo ees see oa e osis we cau eage seeaae ie e eage seeaae ieeieA sma co was ae seeai  aisioe eecois was asee osis aie coumioassumeee e ees we emuiie seeai  ece iom e ece e measi osee eaiawas e sum oseemass weige mecaaae ie esio oseesis ie a oseesis aie i wescom  coec wie io e ese eeme (seeCe1 ieysee iom caquaa oe gu a imisames coecom mises we iie scies a coueequey sio oseemass we geusi a ameic oi o(ckeea 19 e sciooa siocois oaaay ocooi  is iwc  is seesi a y is aieoaaeAae es we sca sum  1Cauo we ma oi amec oo oaae es ae same e oseesiSa eoomeaseesi was cau a oameo(Eo19 Measeesi was cauie maesca meseacme om a om same oe miscime a a om same oseequaae sa aoamo e mea was keas e sa eooseemass73ComsoComso ooiake s amo  we ma  cau 95-e coie iea oe ee imeaoiake  eeis ck oasis was kecause ck e oioocks yieiseea measeesi we coecom e sami uck soiias we oeeia maeaia a ameasusasis oaewas esmas oseesi a e oioocks ayie see we uie iiasOy o esma omeaseesi eawas aie eacscies ieac a o esma oeoioocks yiei see was ma eac ee was oyo iee oeaoooiake  a i ae eacscies ieac  we com cau 95-e coie iea oe ee eee meaees we coi a sigcaom  i  oui oe coie ieaCoie iea weamaas e meaoiake  SEsusoiake sSeeiake s i we iima  e sis oseeea ck  (e  a e acoocks ayie see (e 7wecois gsoe ey oo seeiake s e we gaioe (e 1 e oioocks ayieesee  iee oesmaiake s ocomso ooiake s eea iis iie oiake s esee (e gu 17 Esmas oseesi ma  e o e meo (e  wecoe(= 7 = 9   a cosio seoe sus a esame gass owcmeois use sus om  meo a eseeie 1 a igu 17ae I cus osus om  coecom se  oae ocai sows gi iaaa y occu seeEes a mea (SEMeo1seemass esmaom misames om s gi ie aaMeo seemass esmaomee Iake  is e ocock  a seemassEes i  a om e aascies occuesSee Meo iScies ck (cks / sSeeMassMeo1 ^ Meo(mg^ (mgSeeIake Meo1 ^ Meo(mg/s (mg/s-eyeo o 0. 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Imy woI asseesegeoa sua suceo a ieciccomo(Ce1 Sucas omig aece a os  seao eosk mig aecoiake s cause oaao eee a scai e (Mcma a us1919Ce3 we gi success su  o suca eosk a e  we iooimy soe gi successesise aa esew geo cks a aeamigiee gi successAosows ie aa se s oeyoui oe aaa e occasioy aeme aack sows iie aae i oe gi esis sugges ae eec osuc a eosk ogi success a o weak  accou ioIa se  I smo cy e esis aeosk iecou  sie io iscies a sasie a sk is secoisy isciesgie es eesugges ais is uike (Ce3ye is e comoesisMy sus suo ck (19aume asciesees iess ee a gey sma auike   sie scies sioe moscocuous camig sicsciessio is comoom ecogicay simisciesOeiicee sugges acue comois ssie amo e sciese scies s esmaees e same oa ey ge isimimic (Ce1 yoaea  mioi wie a e scies a cae oe e amou osoues aie o ae(CeIew ois eemo cs oe comoesis a sieCeIIIEO O GIEA E SIO OWIE SOWSIes iwceosic e sio oiiascies awe kw(e Weeea 19Weea Giiam 19Ao19 Moies a siao iwceoaec e sio omo aoey sciess commu sucemeey scies mig segga iey a sasie  a e sk oeois seA mogicaccsc ae a scies sa io may aceiask ioea scies may occu e  cause ey a sasie is mecsm s cei aeioie augis emoaamo m (Meuo ea 19 mss uu ees a we sui ieguck suaces a oy suiacks w e uuo ca use e  se e m Sswi smooaees a we sui smoo asuas a oy suiieguck suacesis  oao isa ee miss oemis comoeescies ause simisouesAeaseey scies mig a  sasie same (e Mieac19a ice 1991 a eocou iei comoia ey scies a eio i aie (Mieac19Some  es suggesaeomig s e sio osiam a Mis (1977sweagus  scies ause emeo oesca e e ie Scies age cse ge coa ee  ia sase a agask om co(Was 199Scies aeioom co a y away omeaacge cocsugges aey may  agask cse  coaaway om i(ma 199escies aesca e e meo may acay  sasie  aey occuI se esis aaos ieosk ee asie io amo e scies owie sows aaeoge ie Sose osoue CaiaAugey ie sage sows  (Amis i  ack-asows(Aa  a -eyeos  (o emas s  e simiy eei io woo ge co A e scies ge cse coaec oai (Ce1 I se esis (1aeacscies is sasii eeagaie aea esis ( aa scies a sasie same  I measus awcscies scaee eiegiea comqua ces igie  oiias ee usi aeemeaesuI ecaiesis (1is ue scies su eiees igie eeosome scies su iase gie wmoom o  aewas oescies su case gie cause eoskiases some scies a cs oeIcos esis ( eceiesimi ogieosimices igie wscies a moee cause ey eeee simices isk eeese eco a iiie  secoIe coue os e a o esesI ao sa ecosmmi om e eo ogie as eseous iewigie e is assume occuae eee ooiakeae amou ogie amamis suis u e sk oikie e a e sk osi (Mcma a us1919ma19eco oe eo ogie  es measu ces igie ise  ces ic asu aeceosk (e ma19am 19 eco ow gie su s  ces ioaae  esMy sus suo e ecoaoaae aec gieey aosuo e esis ascies ei simices ieosk eesugges aaos isa ee a sie io amo wie sow scieseo gie a sao se esis aeoss scies sioI seco ow eosk a gie su ce eegie  ca assesse mo iias ee acoi e amou ome aey scae eieIscies eiesame iase ocase wmoom o  ae I co aa scies  e o  simiy  e aoeo Iis caseeocaaccou eesIoe oesome scieseiaiase igie a oe a case igie wmoom o ae I co ascies   e a aeocou accou scies sioI iey sc e coms oeosk a w iaseskoe asc oeosus icoc eco ogieI aosc w coisy ices igie ee ca use ieascies ei simices ie sk oeoeec co  eosk ie o oi aackee o osco aaacka e o oesca aaackgiais esco e eec oeacoese c ogie semoe ma (19o oaack is esee aack o osco aaack is esee e amou ome quie e ace ey oe is gu aackseaack messu iweo oc aaack a ogieyecoioo oesca aaack ca esee e se omco a  aees  cois ss ke  esca om a ee iis om co Ioy o com oeosk es eeeecogie  uwccom esIaseo oaacksu su iiasegie (gu 3ima 19caseooc a esu su icasegie (gu 3a ima 19caseo oesca aaack casu ieieiaseocasegie i oe o oi aacke gie iases agaack s a cs aw aack s (gu 3ima 19A e oese c oy  eem e ecooces igieeiis icu  use oeeces igie ee make iees auw eosk es eewe scies ca eec eisimices igie s ee iey asuec simices ieoskis is e ecoaI s oaae a eosk caeocay aecgie eiis cessa  ke io accou ees ioaae ee imeacomso ogie a   use seses auaoieosk eeIgie a e a esiacese sk oi kie e is aagaie sk osi a (Mcma a us1919ma 19A  aigs eaoeosks i kiewas a  ais co gi skssao  sks ca scas o oe amou ome sgia e oimaogie is aawce cme ieosk as gie iases is ose aequaime ie o osi(Mcma a us19w mig ces ioaae aecgie? A ce ioaae ae e o osi aa ogie a is eseeas a s ie cue sc e sk osaoas a oogie(gu 1e sui ce igie s uw e saocue isse  ce igie is eecie w saocue is e eo oA case igie is eecie s oe saocue iaseswas aiase igie is eecie s cases (gu 1cause oaae su aecgieces iosu ee cou oce ces igie aa ae  eesieosk eeAeaces iosu coumask ces igie sui om ees ieoskO meoocoi ces ioaae ee is  sc eoeegie a oaae wii a easkweees igie ee a gaoss awou eecom e amou ooaieI accomisis usi ases ocoaee ocess oacay coi aoioaae is iea soe ecoom gie eo aoaae aec gieMeoe eeme was caieouia ae aa aceogeoie aa measum m m a was coucowooames cowi sce acou easi  seeug(i iCeo  cois oso s gi y occuisee we ma om a i a use esma  gie a e gio oe ogu ese e aae aa was aaia e oei gieAugeesu mig o gi s wi a see osecu om aacks ogu 1 ecao eeogie a e o osi a e sui oeeoimagie a osu(aeMcma a us19 acmi osoua-s cueseses e o osi i e iosue m e  oeaccue iicas  ooaae (1 = w oaae5 = goaae swa-s cue is e o oikie e  oeeoimaogie a osu sui om e ao cie coesi   e sigoe s s uwesaocues e ocoee wi iasigiewgie  g- =aaUCco5       w        ^  ^   w ^ g ^ 1 3 5gie ^ oAae ( g aUCC5     =asw  ^g ^ 1 3 5oAae (9ey aeme aack sows gi ie aaa e sows aea eia ogieA eecoe aa ogie su co amo ygie sees o oeaeco Imig ao o wai oaack  mi mem oa scies(e Wai 19s 19ooaack  oe oi scies (eomoa m 19  oese c we coe oeiso iia ee om eieaEemeasige eeme was caieouaccoi  a ameasus sig(gu 19 Siiia oeacscies we caug om e wi  7 ys e s ga s we usesi iouoocages a maiaioa commeiay aie miosee smeawoswa a a misumeEaciiawas o o 3mi gi iaieac is seoia was a sueoia couc seesigi a ee (Ceieye eeme was caieouio ockseaccoai e s oeacsciese ock was s e secoe sigcoea eecaeous eeee mig ogie  eu aequam os oequaeeee we sieac(gu 19 Eacye aa was mo a w cao a eso oeacscieswe ieiom oe(gu 19gii o uaesuiseaes a  coecogie was as a me aa gi   i ak sucae as was a e gu oaaa a e a gie was cauas e amou ome s gi  gi meas me s gi ss me s giis measu seogi me eus agie  a ck  (see wesmaom91gu 19Scmac eseaooo ock ieemeasig O oeacscies was sigas e  seco a i iiaoi sciesue Eac was iceio e aa ieac m wiiwsiica e oeiwciia eeeeeous eeee ieaa was equaamo we Eacye so oeacscieswe ieia om oe e eeme coisoo eemeaocks1 ^ 33^ 1 /// I^ 3 /II ^ I ^ I ^ I ^1139A^ ^ C SCIES^^ ^^ / A /  ^ COM OE/93e same gi o a iee measus a  o aesimy cause ey a esi aces ia me e I aememake o esma ogie  eac seoo mis ogiacaugis was aays ssie cause oosi ocause e geoy a s oomeSome esmas we ma om ses o ogi wcamoue   mis ocumu gi meEsmas we ma om e segme(soo  iwca  cou seewe eug i wiwas igi me ia segme oo was measuusi a miccomogmmeas ae coe egie me was i coui e moames iwce assumea gi s a  e cou  e  awce camecoeames (3ames / sI usee  awca  ckeaeiee gu oaas  ck usee as a measu oe o ogi ie ogu esee aamocks was  gi meo icuiesase wi is meo me s gi a me s ac e a oyiay iee cause s somemes assume a gi s w seea iwas oessie  i wea seewas i w a  was gieo cauiis maeassumesa  me is s giI ma a seco cauoock  aie oosi assumioaa  me was s gigieme was sucom gi me as ie esmaa  mewas aeck i  me was esmaas e mocks mese mea me oe seescies i ea Mea mes weesma oei s coume see ie (Ce1 e sus weuec e meouse esma osimiciI esee sus cauuee assumioaa  me is s gi9cause ais oy e mo asc assumioi iwcs easee wi   mesAsise goaoe asis is  i wescies eicois cesigie eeI useaasis ocoae  esma e eeigie ee eacsciese mowas  -I Ow   is gie   is ois e s oe oeeo a giea  is e iee o i eee eeiees ec e ce igie eeo A sscascoisy amo scies was ssie cause e asissueioy o iee oeaooce eacsciesa oeoeao oa scies we use esma e ee eeieesSome ge ocoie ie ieooe sus ca awom esscacoie suoui iiaAOSscay sigcaees ee seecoie ie isA se asis was caieoueacioEacasis wassic gi o iwcsees commo e o  wei ea eu awees igie we oeeee sueom ees ieosk ee eaom ees iseesSee oe si cou su ie s ogie cause ey oee ooues  scae wioucosSma see aqui   me oe oou ee giewas e see aqui e mes oemo oou gieSows usuay coumesma see oe gss  Scsmus as  oe ey ooa esee o uua asis  io95ey coumea mio oese gss scies a a i e scies  Asaceios  oe aua eI a om e ey oowi om e auaws e we e o Scsmus as a Iase  om oa  om e auawswe e oe seeAsis oe  was comica missi oeaoa iiacou  oeeea  e a sma see w gi oe auaO ouiewas om a  awas aic oo ya iwas mo Iaw oeiesgooo  oge was uieI usegeassquas gssio a e sus (see ws19 e maiaaage ogeassquas was aicou iooaoeao oiia wiouesma e m omeGeassquas is a  oassquas gssioiwce assumiooiee oeao ca  is is accomis i a weigmaiie assquas equaoascs e ae-coae sucoe e maieec aus e eomeasqua accoi  ege oieee ie  se I e assumiooieee ioo aoeao oe same iia is was ecia weigmaiiwcs y we agoa o-agoemes esei ioeao oiiaama we se e coeocoeicie eeesia oaoeaoe age coeoeeisia omse ases was 3Imay su om ces igie associawieous eeee ie aaa  mig  ous wiee me ca e seco ia a  usawi cai  e i ia Someiia we c  ge  eiia I usee meacoeoamo ases eausi se esmas eacasis o aso a si meesma su  acae  a oe ases cause9e same seoiia is useia asesSecogeassquas issei  eoie esmaooweigsa a comesma ocoeosu  mo saiiaesmassusosu aec gieo ogie agaiosu suggesagie es wi osu (gu  gie cas gi o iaseioe asessigca so ie (e A si owas oeeio asisauge os was sscay sigca (e Ie siasis (gu a  case cou  ma a oeegie a osu oe auaoey oow os  usuayOMIA c igie wi iasi gi o is coue eiui aso aiaseo sse e aosaoa aows mo me   s giA ga oeegiea o cou  aaici gie  a ck  acauom me s gi cause me is coaia e mocks musc as gie iasesis is auasc eooeese sus cause I caugie  a ck  om gi mee ga ois come cois wi eo ie s oe cuesc e sk osaoiases wi iaseoaae (gu 1Comso ogie s eeEaoosimies isciesses  ci  s umaki comso eacoe sciesese comso we ssieoy eee ey ooa e aua Comso we asieeeauaa oseaso ewe iuicie  osage sows  make e comsoaySecoe97gu oeegie a oaae sows coumisimisees ii oComso eeey ooaauaa ie  seoa comso eeauaa oa ie g seos si oye e o es a assquas gssios ia si  eyoo 77  ( ; aua"a"(   ; o  97   (^ Soes si e ei e oe acissa we  geassquas asis ocoae (see Meo sus osscaiees a ie 1 15- 1 13- aa  1-3 ^ 35 ^ 9-eyeoa^ ^ 3 ^ 35 ^ ack-aSowc ^ ^ 3 ^ 35 ^ Sage Soweo (cks / s99e   osscasigcae associawi s oAsis oCoae mo sc e oeegie a ck  iio (gu  e aea eses sweeies eom  omeagie  e ee (O AO os e om e iees oe es a uqua a e ss oiee agssios  eaca uquaO ^ o ^ Uqua ^ UquaScies ^ AO ^ S ^ Iees ^ SsAuaocomso-eyeo    ack-aSow 11 5 19 33Sage Sow 17ey ooAuacomso-eyeo 77 5 9 ack-aSow    Sage Sow    1oeegie a osu aie  -eyeos was amee  sime comso ee cause e s aea  e sugges ae ee igie oeeee ise oe quai ooaie (gu 19Comso ogie s ee we ma  se esisascies eisimices igie ee  oaae sage sows a ack-asows we mo gi oeey ooaoe aua is su sugges a scies eisimices ieosk eea aey a  ke  sasie same a agask ie oe eiis uike ascies ees ie ao ieosk ee is sie io eeese o sciesscussiooecogy s oeiig io w o a aeccisio ma  iiaamaemee siooascies ec cices ma  iia weig e ao eee skoeoa gi oes o (e Miki a e197Weea Giiam 19Giiam a ase19 a Cowie 199I usea e o gie ceices ieosk ee a so eses ow eomig iee e sioowie sow sciese esis was asow scies asio-cause e scies a sasom e iee aea was ae scies a a sasie same aaeoca sie io amo emeasis was comicacause e oie is suec a ao eee eoa sao Iwas cessa  com  oe ee aeaus aoioaaegie a e ao eeoa eois s suos e eous uesecoom gie eoagie is aec oaae (Mcma a us19ma 19 gu 1gie cio scies as ooiase e i scies eia si augsscay iigcaoeegie a osu (gu A ga oeegie a oo iscois wi eo (Mcma a us19gu 1iis ioiswi e iui aso aiaseosu aeas e aosao aowi mo me giee ogs e queso isa mi osaocues asus isuca o(gu 1ke occui? e aweis yesMcma a uss (19sime moosaosus ia mi osaocues acou yie eiea sioa ga oeegie a gi oIemo oiake was assume  ay siwi a meaa a aea e o osaowas e o aoiake  w somesIasegie cemeaoiake a e iaseeo osiI a assume eimeaoiakea miosaocues sus a es a coees (gu  gassoweiasi gie ces oiake ay ocuiayagass oweae ioiake is assume  co oaowe oio oiakeSoo  e ao eegie asaoae ie aa w cues e yie a si oeegie a oaae was ose ie aa w cues coee yie aga oas igu 1Aiui eooa ga oeegie aoo ows om e mi ocues igu Sao1gu A mi oecasaocues om e mooMcma a us(19 oiake is assume  ay sia e o osi is e o ooai ss asome soo Meaoiake ie aee ogie e eee cuesAace cues e wi iasi gie  e  oe sicasa ey coee  e gg-c,asc(as_ca_w -w ^ ggie1cues coee we o osi is g Ueis coio eoiaseoai is so gaasuiis mami saccigie me  ke aaage oi is ieomig  use coasows i a suec gsaoskacosioisuaaecause s useiis s we sio ia ie aaa may  as ie sk osaowas ii ge mi osaocues igu  ao sugges a ausie eoow ack-asows eia swiom a ga oeegie a gi o w e osma see  a siow e oe seee sows may  ecsesaow e osma see aey we w e oe seeIsoey may  esuec coee saocues w e osmasee a  e cues w e oe seeW wou is  ue ack-asows e oeo scies? ack-asows asmaeae oeo scies (mea mass 13 g 17 g a 19 g sagesows a -eyeossc a ey su  ss ke  se aa oiake  cause ey  smaeey quimeseoa e sio osciesSage sows a ack-asows eisimices igieeeis su sugges ascies  e eoeoi simiy a aeois uike  s eisioIeoso aecsciessioscies wou  simisiois cosiois cois wi eous wo oese e scies ies aae scies use simimeo  esca om aaea eyge cse woo geoaeecom e siooaie osugges ae scies su  sasie wi e gasamou1oco(Ce1 Iesa simicosiowas ce awgaie sk oeoa micuse  se s ( a ice1991 myis   ge om coaoesciesas eimaae aao e om co(comooae au ae a ese s a sascse  co a eeoesis wi eie sio oa guoscies emaey ieise  e sucas scies ause e meooesca om e ke ose oee iam a Mis (1977oma(199Wmig accou e sio oese sows ia ao ieosk ee is sie em? e is aeway iwceomig sicscies  e Scies mig segga iey eeee gaeos wey occugeeawey occuse ( 197719Sci 19 is ssi mai   s ois auike cai scies a siamo  as ecom oaisome scies a ae om  iwcois aasas aa as ose iwcey occu(Ce1 Aoaa eemessuggesaoy sma ees igi a esee a ascies mig  ec  oasio aey  iogoesio (Ceio cou su om ieciccomo(ck 19Sso19o19ice 1991 Iiceesuos is esisoes osee ie e   simiyamo scies sugges ascies s ees e same souesaieeey coume some oe same seescies eougey occu e (Ce3 oaea  mioaaea sows acae oe e amou ooaie  o ae(Ce1eiecic como eaeo is ke sie sioMo cs oe comoesis mai  1CeIIECIC COMOA E SIO OWIE SOWSEE OM A OSUMEAOEEMEceemeaee oiecic comoamo s is (see Sce19Wie 19 cause  o o oa esasca aes eemeao(e Wie ea 19 Moseeocomoee scies is seooeaoses oes imogysioa aae (see Wie 19a19es aca misaa iis sie  cee e comoesis wis (e y1973 Aiicsoe comoesis ca ace measu e quisi coioscies su oaieiuseomi souesa eacscies su e soues aie  oeIeiecoiois aescies  com soues; e i ecoio is a so soe comoesisI ese e sus oa oaioeeme caieouoguss wie ie Sose oCaiae e commoscies osows ie aa a sage sows  (Amis i  ack-asows(Amis a a  - eyeos  (o emas  e is eeaey io a aeoge (Ce1 e sciesoaeei ie s osee ey ea eisio eom wmig  ecom e ai owieoasage sows a ack-asows a ae om e iwceio e seeosismosaaese sio cou su om iecic como eieieee comooccui ese oeo sciaoosui om comoie s I ueook e ese eeme  se1comoesisI soug ee oomioa ee asoueeocou occuamo sows iey we  occu e same  eeeme ao aoeaoou  sa ecoas (iiiea caueeEmeuse c mo  sisoues asows (emeEme(maa iam 19 My sus wecois wi e esis aiecic comooccu amo sowsa suoee ecoasows a s eie s osouesey usessie iees om a oaiooaio  eccice (Wie 19so I s 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