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Texture in Elliott Carter’s A mirror on which to dwell Ravenscroft, Brenda 1992

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TEXTURE IN ELLIOTT CARTER'SA MIRROR ON WHICH TO DWELLbyBRENDA RAVENSCROFTB.Mus., The University of Cape Town, 1983M.Mus., King's College, London 1985A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHYinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(School of Music)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIASeptember 1992© Brenda RavenscroftIn presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of^M QS I C-.The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate  DEG • 2.3) 19, 2DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTThis study proposes a theory of texture for Elliott Carter's song cycle A Mirror on Whichto Dwell. Texture is an important structural aspect of much recent music, as is exemplifiedin Carter's music. The first chapter is introductory and discusses other textural theories,and the concept of auditory streams. It also provides background to Elizabeth Bishop andto the poems that Carter selected for the cycle, and introduces the song cycle as a whole.The second chapter outlines a textural theory based on streaming. Texture is defined ascomprising those contextually defined aspects of sound which lead one to perceive musicas consisting of distinct streams. Individual streams are defined by properties, behavioursand processes. The ways in which streams are combined, and the changes that occur in thestreams during the combinations constitute textural behaviours and processes.The third chapter presents the ways in which textural behaviours and processes canfunction. They can have symbolic functions by representing personae and actions in thetext. They can also have musical functions and thus can play a role in the delineation ofform.In the fourth chapter each song in the Mirror cycle is analyzed. Songs that are texturallyclear are analyzed first, followed by those that are more texturally complex. Because of theclose relationship between text and music in these songs, each analysis starts with adiscussion of the text before turning to the music. The main textural features of each songare presented, and then the analytical discussion focuses on form and text-setting.In the conclusion an overview of the songs is presented. The songs, although formallydiverse, are similar in many respects. In all of them Carter establishes the importantstreams, some of which have significant symbolic roles, in the opening measures. Thesongs are characterized by similar textural processes, which help to delineate the form ofthe songs and to portray musically the meaning of the text. An analysis of these songsusing the textural theory presented in this study provides insight into their form andmeaning.iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT ^ iiTABLE OF CONTENTS ^ ivLIST OF EXAMPLES  viiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ^  xiCHAPTER ONE: TEXTURE ^ 1Introduction  ^1Textural Theories ^  2Elliott Carter  14Streams ^  17A Mirror on Which to Dwell^  19Texts ^  20CHAPTER TWO: A THEORY OF TEXTURE ^  30Streams ^  301. Individual Streams ^  341.1 Properties  341.1.1 Primary Properties ^  361.1.1.1 Timbre 361.1.1.2 Register and Pitch ^  381.1.2 Secondary Properties  451.1.2.1 Registral Density ^  451.1.2.2 Attack Points  461.1.2.3 Dynamic Intensity ^  48iv1.2 Behaviours ^  511.2.1 Primary Behaviours ^  511.2.1.1 Pulse  511.2.2 Secondary Behaviours ^  561.2.2.1 Connection Behaviour ^ 561.2.2.2 Register and Pitch  581.2.2.3 Attack Density ^  611.2.2.4 Registral Density  631.2.2.5 Dynamic Intensity Contour ^ 661.2.3 Abrupt Changes in Properties  671.3 Processes ^  701.3.1 Attack Density ^  712. Combined Streams ^  792.1 Types of Combination ^  802.2 Behaviours ^  822.2.1 Composite Registral Density ^  832.2.2 Composite Dynamic Intensity Contour ^ 832.3 Processes ^  842.3.1 Composite Attack Density ^  842.3.2 Fusion ^  842.3.3 Splitting  892.3.4 Focussing ^ 922.3.5 Emulation  932.3.6 Compensation ^ 95vConclusion ^  97CHAPTER THREE: FUNCTIONS ^  98Introduction ^  981. Symbolic Functions ^  991.1 Streams Representing Personae ^  991.2 Processes Representing Actions  1022. Musical Functions ^  1062.1 Climax  1072.2 Cadence ^  1092.3 Structural Articulation ^  1132.4 Prolongation ^  116Conclusion ^  121CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSES ^  122Introduction ^  122'Insomnia'  123Text ^  123Music  127'Argument' ^  145Text  145Music ^  151'Sandpiper'  166Text ^  166Music  171'View of the Capitol' ^  193Text ^  193viMusic ^  198'Anaphora' 226Text ^  226Music 231'0 Breath' ^  256Text  256Music ^ 260CONCLUSION ^  281SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY ^  286viiLIST OF EXAMPLESExample 1: 'View of the Capitol' mm.28-29 ^  9Example 2: 'Argument' mm.17-22 ^  31Example 3: 'Sandpiper' mm.56-57  36Example 4: 'Insomnia' mm.6-7 ^  37Example 5: 'Sandpiper' mm 1-2  39Example 6: 'View of the Capitol' mm.14-15 ^  41Example 7: 'Sandpiper' mm 47-48 ^ 42Example 8: 'View of the Capitol' mm. 70-72 ^  47Example 9: 'View of the Capitol' mm.54-55  48Example 10: 'Sandpiper' mm.39-42 ^  50Example 11: 'View of the Capitol' mm.1-3  53Example 12: 'Argument' ^  54Example 13: 'Anaphora' mm 3-7 (piano stream) ^  56Example 14a: 'Argument' m.44 ^  57Example 14b: 'Argument' mm.46-47 57Example 15: 'Sandpiper' mm.51-53 (oboe stream) ^ 59Example 16: 'Argument' mm.44-51 (piano stream)  60Example 17: 'Insomnia' mm.17-24 ^  61Example 18: 'Anaphora' mm.22-23  62Example 19: 'Sandpiper' mm.9-11 ^ 64Example 20: 'View of the 'Capitol' mm.4-6 ^ 65Example 21: 'Argument' mm.31-32  67Example 22a: '0 Breath' mm.6-13 ^  69Example 22b: '0 Breath' mm.6-13 70viiiExample 23: '0 Breath' mm.35-37 ^ 72Example 24: 'Sandpiper' mm.36-50  73Example 25a: 'Anaphora' mm.38-41 ^  75Example 25b: 'Anaphora' mm.39-41 75Example 26: 'Insomnia' mm.2-5 ^ 76Example 27: 'Insomnia' mm 3-5 78Example 28: 'Argument' mm.1-5 ^  81Example 29: 'Argument' mm.27-32  86Example 30: 'Anaphora' mm.16-23 ^  88Example 31: 'Anaphora' mm 1-4 91Example 32: 'Insomnia' mm.2-5 ^ 93Example 33a: 'Sandpiper' mm.5-6  94Example 33b: 'Sandpiper' mm.7-9 ^ 95Example 34: 'Sandpiper' mm.9-13 96Example 35: 'Sandpiper' ^  100Example 36: 'Insomnia' mm.21-25 ^  103Example 37: 'Sandpiper' mm.49-53  105Example 38: 'Argument' mm.31-32 ^  109Example 39: 'Argument' mm.48-51  111Example 40: 'Insomnia' mm.13-15 ^  112Example 41: 'View of the Capitol' mm.10-13 ^  115Example 42: 'Anaphora' mm 12-19 ^  117Example 43: 'Sandpiper' mm.29-36  120Example 44: 'Insomnia' ^  130Example 45: 'Insomnia'  142Example 46: 'Argument' mm.12-14 (vocal stream) ^  156ixExample 47: 'Argument' nu-n.34-36 ^  160Example 48: 'Sandpiper' mm.2-4 (vocal stream) ^  176Example 49: 'Sandpiper' mm.1-11 ^  178Example 50: 'Sandpiper' mm 11-25  181Example 51: 'Sandpiper' mm.25-40 ^  183Example 52: 'Sandpiper' mm.40-54  185Example 53: 'Sandpiper' mm.54-65 ^  189Example 54: 'View of the Capitol'  200Example 55: 'View of the Capitol' mm.7-8 ^  206Example 56: 'View of the Capitol' mm.53-57 (piano stream) ^ 208Example 57: 'View of the Capitol' mm.14-16 ^  211Example 58: 'View of the Capitol' mm.20-22 (vocal stream) ^ 212Example 59: 'View of the Capitol' mm.28-31 ^  215Example 60: 'View of the Capitol' mm.49-50  219Example 61: 'View of the Capitol' mm.76-77 ^  223Example 62: 'Anaphora' mm.3-7 ^  235Example 63: 'Anaphora' mm.4-7 (vocal stream) ^  237Example 64: 'Anaphora' mm.24-26 (vocal stream)  241Example 65: 'Anaphora' mm.24-25 (Stream C)  ^242Example 66: 'Anaphora' mm.26-30 (oboe stream)  ^245Example 67: 'Anaphora' ^  254Example 68a: '0 Breath' mm.1-6 ^  263Example 68b: '0 Breath' mm.1-6  264Example 69: '0 Breath' mm.1-6 ^  265Example 70: '0 Breath' mm.1-45  267Example 71: '0 Breath' mm 1-6 ^  273Example 72: '0 Breath' mm.15-22  276xACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to acknowledge some of the assistance I have received from various scholarswhile working on this dissertation. Professor Jonathan Bernard of The University ofWashington discussed aspects of Carter's music with me, and the late Professor WallaceBerry of The University of British Columbia shared some of his broad knowledge of thetopic of texture with me. Professor James McCalla of Bowdoin College, Maine, kindlysent me a copy of his paper on A Mirror on Which to Dwell, and Professor Grove Powellof the English Department at The University of British Columbia read my material on thepoems and offered constructive comments. I would also like to thank my dissertationcommittee for their guidance: Professors William Benjamin, Gregory Butler and EugeneWilson. In particular I wish to thank my supervisor, Professor John Roeder, whosemusical understanding, analytical judgement and intellectual inspiration were generouslyshared in many hours of discussion.Permission to quote musical excerpts from Elliott Carter's A Mirror on Which to Dwell isgratefully acknowledged."A Mirror on Which to Dwell"By Elliott CarterCopyright © 1975 Associated Music Publishers, Inc. (BMI)Used with permissionxiCHAPTER ONE: TEXTUREINTRODUCTIONIn the past three decades theorists have come to realize the prominent role that texture playsin delineating structure in music, particularly in twentieth-century music whereconventional rhythmic, harmonic and tonal/thematic schemes are often secondary orirrelevant. Composers in whose music texture is primary range from Webern, Ives andVarese, composing in the earlier twentieth-century, to more recent composers like Ligetiand Penderecki. Existing concepts of texture and traditional terminology (such ashomophony, polyphony etc.) have proved to be inadequate in describing the role of texturein the music of these composers. A few attempts have been made to formulate texturaltheories, in which new definitions are suggested and new terms are coined, and to applythem analytically. For some repertoires these attempts are unsatisfactory for reasons thatwill be discussed later. The present study approaches the topic of texture in a different wayin order to circumvent the shortcomings of previous theories. The theory is systematicallyderived from real music; it is thus more closely related to that music, and also provides amethodical framework for analysis. It focuses on the music of Elliott Carter, in whoseworks texture plays an important structural role. The theory is based on observations of hismusic, while the analytical section applies the theory rigorously to one of his works.The first chapter of this dissertation is introductory, its function being to prepare the readerfor Chapters Two, Three and Four (the textural theory, symbolic and musical functions,and analytical applications, respectively). A critical discussion of existing theories oftexture in music is followed by a brief outline of the major differences between thesetheories and the textural theory proposed in Chapter Two. A discussion of Carter's music1in general and of his concept of musical texture leads to a survey of theories of texturalstreaming in music. Finally, the specific piece on which this study is based, theoreticallyand analytically, is introduced, with the discussion focussing on aspects of the text.TEXTURAL THEORIESLet us examine some of the most significant theories of texture. In the past two decades,three noteworthy studies on texture have been made, in which terminology and a methodfor the analysis of musical texture are developed and used consistently. The three areclosely related: Anne Hall wrote her dissertation, "Texture in Violin Concertos ofStravinsky, Berg, Schoenberg, and BartOk", 1 in 1971 under the guidance of WallaceBerry, who in turn offered a broader more extensive discussion of texture in his bookStructural Functions in Music;2 and, in a dissertation of 1986, "Texture and MusicalStructure", 3 James Mathes acknowledges his indebtedness to both Hall and Berry.Although there are minor differences between the three studies, the similarities betweenthem are fundamental enough to permit them to be discussed collectively. All three share acommon concept of texture, they use similar terminology and their methods of analysis arecomparable. The discussion that follows will focus on these three studies, and will includereferences to other textural theories when they are relevant to the current topic.Berry et al. consider texture to be a product of interlinear relations. Berry divides aspects oftexture into those which can be measured, the "quantitative" aspects, and those involving1^Anne Hall, "Texture in Violin Concertos of Stravinsky, Berg, Schoenberg, and BartOk" (Ph. D.diss., University of Michigan, 1971).21987).Wallace Berry, "Texture," in Structural Functions in Music (New York: Dover Publications Inc.,3^James Mathes, "Texture and Musical Structure" (Ph.D. diss., Florida State University, 1986).2the "interactions among textural components", which are best described in words, the"qualitative" aspects. 1 Hall and Mathes have similar categorical divisions. Textural theoriesthat do not distinguish between measurable and non-measurable aspects run into problemsbecause they are further removed from our way of perceiving music. In an extremeexample, James Bersano (in his dissertation "Formalized Aspect Analysis of SoundTexture")2 assigns numerical values to all five of his aspects of "sound texture", includingregister, loudness and timbre. The numbers indicate intensity values, but the abstraction ofaspects like timbre prevent him from making very meaningful statements about the ways inwhich the music proceeds texturally.In all of these studies, the quantitative aspect of texture is density, which is measured bythe number of concurrent lines, or by the number of simultaneous pitches. 3 The ease withwhich registral density is measured numerically can lead to the neglect of meaningfulmusical interpretation of those numbers, as is the case in Bersano's study where hismeasurement of density is limited to assigning a number to represent the total number ofsounding pitches at any given moment. Berry et al., however, attempt to address this issueby also considering the spatial layout and registral range of the components as well as thedensity number. Berry graphs curves of "density-numbers" and discusses aspects of"density-compression", such as the distribution of components within a given space, in hisaccompanying text.4 Hall attempts to take into consideration the range and spacing of the1^Berry, Structural Functions, 184-185.21980). James Richard Bersano, "Formalized Aspects of Sound Texture" (Ph. D. diss., Indiana University,3^The line is considered to be the simplest textural unit. For Berry the term "component" isinterchangeable with line. Hall and Mathes distinguish between a single line, a voice formed by more than oneline, and a "textural component" formed by multihnear voices.4^Berry, Structural Functions, 211. He is concerned also with the effect of consonance and dissonanceon our perception of density, for example, he writes that "superimposed 2nds make up a 'denser' texturalcomplex than superimposed 5ths" (209). In the other studies, and in this one, the consonance/dissonanceissue is not relevant since the music which is being studied is not based on functional tonality.3"constituents" by expressing density as a percentage which is calculated by dividing thenumber of sounding pitches by the number of pitches potential in the sounding range.Although accurate, the percentage formula does not address the specific spacing anddistribution of the pitches. Mathes claims to rectify this omission by describing the spacingbetween "lines" as "open" if the distance between lines is greater than a perfect 5th, and bydescribing the spacing between "components" (where a component is comprised of two ormore lines) as "wide" if the interval between components is greater than an octave. 1In some studies the quantitative aspect of texture, density, includes a linear as well as aregistral component. For example, Mathes refers to "linear density" -- "the number ofattacks or articulations in single line within given time unit", 2 and Bersano writes about"activity" -- "the rate of attacks". 3 Since the music on which both of studies focus is notalways organized into clearly perceptible "lines" that behave independently, theirapproaches are not very effective as analytical tools. Berry does not have an aspectequivalent to attack density in his study of texture; his treatment of rhythm in this chapter isrestricted to interlinear comparison, e.g. describing lines as homorhythmic orheterorhythmic.4In the textural studies of Berry, Hall and Mathes, the qualitative aspect of texture refers tothe relative independence and interdependence of the lines with respect to horizontalinterval, rhythm and contour. These studies make some use of traditional terms indicatingfunctional relationships to describe interlinear relations, such as melody and1^Mathes, "Texture and Musical Structure," 35.2^ibid, 19.3^Bersano, "Formalized Aspects," 12.4^However, in his chapter on rhythm and meter, he refers to tempo-activity, defining it as "the degreeof eventfulness" (305). Later, in a footnote, he discusses an "activity-tempo curve" that shows recessivechange at a cadence, and suggests that "related actions of other element-changes" should be considered(419n). These related element-changes could include changes in textural aspects.4accompaniment, and imitation. These traditional terms are used in conjunction with newterms, such as homo-, hetero- and contra-intervallic, where the prefixes indicate degrees ofindependence in a given aspect. Hall, combining rhythmic and intervallic relations,identifies nine classes of melodic relations, from extreme interdependence of homorhythmicdoubling to independence of contrarhythmic counterintervallic motion. 1 However, she doesnot say which of these classes of similarity relations two individual lines must fall intobefore they are considered a multilinear textural component. Berry, too, is not specificabout this analytical issue. Instead he provides an explanatory example in which hedescribes two lines moving in parallel 3rds as being a "single real textural factor" consistingof two components. He adds that "at any point at which differentiation is established -- inrhythm, in direction of motion, in the distance of motion or in any other sense -- a textureinitially consisting of a single real factor (of two sounding components) becomes a textureof two real factors."2 The reader gets a better sense of how to determine Berry's "realfactors" when, in his analyses, he combines the quantitative and qualitative aspects oftexture in diagrams that summarize the number of "sounding components" and "realfactors". These analytical diagrams are presented in the form of numbers representing"sounding components", with horizontal lines separating "real factors". A typical example. 3is Z  where there are two real factors, the first comprising three sounding componentsand the second comprising two components. In all of Berry's examples the "components"consist of timbrally similar instrumental lines.Once definitions and terminology have been established, Berry et al. are concerned with therole played by texture in the delineation of structural units and forms. Both the quantitativeand the qualitative aspects contribute to processes of textural progression and recession. In1^Hall, "Texture in Violin Concertos," 6.2^Berry, Structural Functions, 186.5general their studies treat movement towards maximal diversity in interlinear relations asprogression, and movement towards homogeneity as recession. These processes ofprogression and recession help to articulate structural divisions locally, as well as on alarger scale. Once smaller structural units have been identified through these texturalprocesses, the theorists (particularly Mathes and Berry) are concerned with how thestructural units function musically in the larger context of the piece, for example,functioning as an introduction or a recapitulation.In the studies of Berry et al., texture is considered to be just one aspect of sonority. Whileinterlinear relations create texture, there are other aspects, such as timbre, articulation anddynamic intensity, that contribute to overall sonority but not necessarily to texture. As aresult of this classification, these studies do not treat timbre as a textural factor. ForMathes, timbre is not even an issue since he analyzes relatively timbrally homogeneousworks, namely piano sonatas. Berry admits that "unfortunately, references to functionaland expressive events and processes of coloration have had... only tentative exploration inthis book." The term "coloration" refers to "timbre, articulation, dynamic intensity, registralcoloration, etc.". He goes on to assert that "... of all processive functions of element-structures, those of coloration are probably most accessible to analytical identification...". 1The reason for his superficial treatment seems to be because he believes that, althoughaspects of coloration are clearly perceptible to the listener, they require a separate theoreticalstudy: "relative intensity values of timbral differences must be at times the basis forhypothesis of plausible (sometimes seemingly self-evident) but not yet empiricallydemonstrated function and effect." 21^ibid, 294.2^ibid, 294n.6In contrast to Berry's approach, other contemporary theories emphasize the significance oftimbre in texture. A more recent study on musical textures, presented at the 1989 ICMCConference, like Berry's study, defines texture as having two properties: the number ordensity of concurrent sonic activities and the diversity of activities.' But in this studydiversity includes pitch diversity, rhythmic diversity, pitch-movement diversity and timbral diversity. In another example, Richard Delone (et al.) assert that timbre is an importantaspect of musical organization in "Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Music" inAspects of Twentieth-Century Music. 2 Robert Erickson's book, Sound Structure in Music,which deals with the role of timbre in music, includes a chapter titled "Timbre in Texture". 3Although he does not define texture, and uses general descriptive terms like "complex","multilayered", "dense", he does differentiate between textures where the components aretimbrally distinct, and timbrally mixed textures, such as the "fused ensemble timbres" ofcomposers like Varese.4 In his discussion about simultaneous layers of texture, Ericksonwrites that these layers are best distinguished by spatial separation and/or very sharplycontrasted timbres. 5 While his concept of texture is rather broad, his identification of timbreand register (spatial separation) as significant factors in determining textural components,are important for the present textural study.A different approach to texture is taken by Lansky and Goldstein in the Dictionary ofContemporary Music. They divide texture into two types: firstly, harmonic texture resultingfrom the interaction of pitch and rhythm; and secondly, sound texture, the sonority1^David Huron, "Characterizing Musical Textures," in Proceedings of the 1989 ICMC (San Francisco:Computer Music Association, 1989), -132.2^Richard Delone et al., "Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Music," in Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975).3^Robert Erickson, Sound Structure in Music (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1975).4^Erickson, Sound Structure, 165.5^ibid, 185.7resulting from all aspects of music other than pitch and rhythm. 1 Contrary to Berry et al.,here sonority is one aspect of texture, and texture includes elements like timbre. Althoughthey divide texture into these two types, and discuss them separately, it is clear from thesection on "sound texture" that, in fact, pitch and rhythm are important aspects of this typeof texture too.2 The most convincing textural analyses in the article, in which Goldsteindiscusses works by Webern, Ives, Schoenberg and Varese, examine texture in terms of theinteraction of register, timbre, and dynamics, as well as pitch and rhythm. The weaknessesof these analyses are that they are not follow a systematic method, they tend to bedescriptive, and they do not address larger issues of form (as a result of the necessarybrevity of the article).In order to identify some of the problems inherent in the studies we have mentioned, let usattempt to analyze a passage of Carter's music in the way that theorists like Berry et al.might proceed. The passage we will examine is taken from the fifth song in Elliott Carter'sA Mirror on Which to Dwell, 'View of the Capitol from the Library of Congress', mm.28-29, shown in Example 1 overleaf. While some songs are more texturally opaque andcould be analyzed relatively successfully using Berry's theory (for example, 'Insomnia'),this passage is typical of Carter's more "complex" textures. Other similar passages include,for example, mm.l-2 of 'Anaphora', mm.31-32 of 'Argument', and any passage from '0Breath'.1^Paul Lansky and Malcolm Goldstein, "Texture," in Dictionary of Contemporary Music (New York:E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1974), 741-743.2^This apparent contradiction could result from the fact that the sections have different authors; that onharmonic texture is written by Lansky, while Goldstein is the author of the section on sound texture.89Example 1: 'View of the Capitol' mm.28-29Sop.and^loud,  ^ but —^queer —^^PPPere. 35PPP•^ wirau•■•■■--armormworamnanwa■mionimmomraer II ..^—_PPP3^6 •L4 -6-.)^•w PPquasi da lantana^plzz. 3(una cords sempre)r---33PianoYin.Vla.Vcl.Cb.Immediately a pre-analytical problem arises: Berry does not present a systematic method foranalysis, but, rather, he presents a series of independent discussions about various aspectsof texture. Even in the relatively complete analyses that conclude his chapter on texture, hisprocedure for discussing each passage depends on its unique musical characteristics. Halland Mathes, on the other hand, are more methodical in their approaches, and so ourdiscussion will follow their procedures.The first step is to identify the textural components. As was mentioned earlier, thesetheorists do not precisely specify the criteria for assessing the components of texture,which makes this first step difficult. If we are to decide which instrumental lines form amultilinear component (Berry's "real factor") on the basis of similarity of rhythm, intervaland contour, then the only lines that meet all three criteria are the cello, bass and the lefthand of the piano in mm.28-29. Other lines, such as the violin, would be consideredhomorhythmic with respect to the cello and bass, but do not exhibit a high degree ofsimilarity in interval and contour. According to Berry, if differentiation occurs in any of thethree aspects -- rhythm, interval or contour -- between sounding components, then they aredifferent real factors. 1 Clearly, however, the violin is not an independent real factor and ispart of the same textural component as the cello, bass and left hand piano, in part becauseof its timbral similarity to the pizzicato cello and bass lines, as well as its articulation of atriplet eighth-note pulse. So their three criteria for real factors -- similarity of rhythm,interval and contour -- have to be reduced to a single criterion: similarity of rhythm. Aneven greater problem arises with the wind instruments and right hand of the piano in m.28.Again, these lines are more similar in behaviour to each other than to any other concurrentlines, for example, in the kind of gestures they comprise in terms of rhythmic activity andarticulation, and in the registral space that they cover, and we tend to hear them as a single1^Berry, Structural Functions, 186.10textural component. These lines, however, are not even homorhythmic with respect to eachother, let alone equivalent in the other aspects of interval and contour. Without completingour identification of textural components in this passage, we can see that the basic terms ofthe theory -- "real factors" -- cannot be determined.Other shortcomings arise when we examine the next measure. Let us assume that we canassert that the violin, cello, bass and left hand piano form a textural component on the basisof rhythmic similarity in m.28. So, we have a real factor comprising four sounding factors.In m.29, however, changes occur as the piano drops out, and the oboe and piccolo start toconform to the same rhythmic patterns. The single real factor now comprises five soundingfactors. Berry et al. would describe the density of the real factor as having increased byone, but this description does not address the important timbral changes that have takenplace. In summary, by examining just some of the aspects of determining texturalcomponents using these theories, we have found ourselves unable to accurately describesome elementary aspects of the texture of the passage from 'View of the Capitol'. It is clearthat we need a theory in which instrumental lines are not the primary components oftexture.Our next step in the analysis is to examine the quantitative and qualitative changes that takeplace, and to see how they create textural processes. Because of the rhythmic complexity ofthe excerpt, measurement of registral density by counting the number of simultaneouspitches yields a wide variety of numbers. This does not seem to be a meaningfuldescription of the registral density of the passage. Instead, let us consider the number ofconcurrent instrumental lines (Berry's "sounding factors"). There is an increase in densityin m.28 from five lines at the beginning of the measure to ten at the end of the measure(counting the piano right hand and left hand as two instrumental lines), after which thedensity decreases again in m.29. If we measure Mathes's linear density by counting the11number of attacks within a given unit of, say, a measure, we observe an decrease from 44attacks in m.28 to 28 in m.29. (Nothing in this passage strongly marks off the measures,so we could choose some other arbitrary unit to measure linear density, perhaps with moresignificant results.) Nevertheless, these density measurements do show a progressiontowards increased intensity at the end of m.28, followed by a recessive reduction ofdensity. We can also observe that the process of progression is supported dynamically bycrescendi in the instruments, and the recessive motion is supported by decrescendi. Whileanalysis of the quantitative aspect of texture is relatively fruitful, the same cannot be saidfor the analysis of the qualitative aspect. We have already seen that there are problems inidentifying the textural components on the basis of interlinear relations as defined by Berryet al. We might expect a greater diversity of interlinear relations to support the progressiveprocess in m.28, as is frequently the case in the passages that these theorists analyze, butthere are no significant changes. This seems unsatisfactory, and suggests, once again, thatdefining texture in terms of instrumental lines is not necessarily fruitful, and also that theremight be other types of textural processes at work besides progression and recession. As afinal analytical step, it is not possible for us to address larger issues such as the structuralimportance of the textural changes that take place in this passage, because the passage is sobrief.Any attempt to supplement the analytical observations we have made by applying traditionalterminology to this passage from 'View of the Capitol', is also unsuccessful. The texturalcomponents, to the extent that we have been able to identify them, seem to proceedrelatively independently of each other, and do not to conform to any functional relationship.Furthermore, using a term like polyphonic to describe this passage does not provide anyfurther insight into the textural organization. For these reasons, the textural theory that Iwill propose makes almost no use of traditional terminology. Since most of these terms are12based on the description of functional tonal music, they cannot be used accurately withoutbeing redefined, which seems to defeat the purpose of using them in the first place. 1This partial analysis of 'View of the Capitol' has revealed some of the shortcomings of thetextural theories of Berry et al. Other problems in these studies arise from the repertoiresthat are covered. One problem is that the theories are too general because of the wideselection of pieces to which these theorists wish to apply their theories. In all three of thestudies, a relatively large number of works written in various styles are analyzed. Hall andMathes both analyze a variety of twentieth-century music, with Mathes covering entire firstmovements of piano sonatas, and Hall concentrating on smaller pieces, in the form ofselected passages from violin concertos? Berry's study is even more general and coversthe gamut of music from Josquin's madrigals to the compositions of a selection oftwentieth-century composers. On the other hand, despite the breadth of music to which thetheories are applied analytically, we have seen that they do not adequately account for therole of texture in Carter's music. This could be in part, at least in the case of Hall andMathes, because the pieces that they analyze, that is, sonatas and concertos, are based onthematic relationships, unlike Carter's music. As both of these theorists admit, thematicmaterials affect texture significantly,3 so, for example, traditional textural relationships suchas theme and accompaniment prevail. In contrast to these studies, the present theory of1^The only traditional term that will be used is "contrapuntal". Contrapuntal conventionally denotes amultilinear texture of interlinear independence (in rhythm, contour and/or timbre) where there is a dynamicrelationship between the components. A contrapuntal texture can be characterized by imitative procedures, forexample rhythmic or inversional imitation. In non-imitative counterpoint the dynamic nature of the relationshipbetween the components can be achieved by a reciprocal intensification and relaxation of activity in theindividual components, where the intensification may be the result of any textural aspect or combination ofaspects (for example, increased linear attack point density). This term then essentially describes thecombination of streams, a stream counterpoint, which can be perceived as texture.2^Mathes analyzes the first movements of Prokofiev's Sonata #7, . 23, Sessions's 2nd Sonata forsolo piano, Boulez's 2nd Sonata for Piano, and Barber's Piano Sonata, OOpp. 26. Hall analyzes passages fromthe violin concertos of Stravinsky, Berg, and Schoenberg, as well as Bart k's second Violin Concerto.3^Hall, "Texture in Violin Concertos," 9.13texture is derived from the music of a single composer in whose compositions texture playsan undeniably vital structural role.ELLIOTT CARTERI have selected Elliott Carter's music for this study because of the primary role that textureplays in his compositional style. In his compositions traditional rhythmic and harmonicschemes have largely been abandoned. For example, he uses time signatures, but the meterand the beat are usually not perceptible aurally because of the complex rhythmic patterns onthe surface of the music. Since his music is atonal, the concepts of key and conventionalharmony are irrelevant, although these are frequently replaced by other ways of structuringpitch. In his 3rd String Quartet (1971), for example, each of two duos plays a number ofdifferent types of music -- movements -- each associated with a unique interval. In his Duofor Violin and Piano (1974) each instrument has a unique vocabulary of intervals and three-note chords. Carter's music is also often very dense, in terms of the number of processesthat occur simultaneously, as can be observed in pieces like the Concerto for Orchestra(1969), where the ensemble is divided into four orchestral groups that proceedconcurrently. Despite the difficulties experienced in describing accurately Carter's musicalorganization in traditional terms, the music retains clearly perceptible structural designs andthe musical processes have traditional functions, for example, closure and climax. Criticsand musicologists have identified texture as being important in Carter's music, but theyusually simply describe his music as being texturally complex, without referringspecifically to what comprises texture or in what particular way the texture is complex. 1 Forthese reasons, Carter's music is eminently suitable for a textural study in which the1^For example, Robert Henderson states as a fact Carter's "virtuosit " in handling "textures of theutmost complexity ("Elliott Carter," Music and Musicians 14/5 [January 1966]: 21).14components of texture are defined, the processes that they undergo are catalogued and theirrelation to form is elucidated.Carter himself has made statements regarding texture in his music, although often using theterm in a somewhat loose or general sense. In an interview with Benjamin Boretz in the late1960's Carter said that early in his compositional life he had questioned the universality ofthe traditional textural formats of music (for example theme and accompaniment) andimagined other musical textures where lines (or voices) could recall things that hadhappened before or predict things to happen later.Composers had been very routine about what goes on in any given instantof music -- simultaneously, I mean -- usually they settled for harmoniceffects that emphasize certain qualities of the theme, or contrapuntal onesthat repeat fragments of the main theme in order, so to speak, to cook thechicken in chicken broth... I was interested, by contrast, in flow, in thecontribution of the past to the present and the effect of predicted futures onit, in dealing with the process of an emerging present. 1Although Carter's stated interests may contrast with those of other composers, in a sensethere is nothing revolutionary in this concept of texture, and it can be viewed as anextension of the conventional notion of imitative polyphony. What is more significant isthat Carter does not feel bound by traditional concepts of texture in his compositionalprocess. It is clear then that conventional methods of textural analysis are unlikely toprovide the greatest insight into his music .What does Carter perceive to be the elements of texture? He is less than specific.Concerning his Brass Quintet he writes: "this Quintet, rather than employing all theresources of colour possible with modern mutes for the brass, relies primarily on linear1^Benjamin Boretz, "Conversation with Elliott Carter," Perspectives of New Music 8/2 (Spring-Summer 1970): 13.15materials, textures and instrumental virtuosity". 1 By "textures" he means the different typesof sounds produced by varying combinations of instruments playing characteristic intervals("linear materials") and rhythms with particular expressive characters. Texture thuscomprises four elements: timbre, articulation, pitch and rhythm. In a reference to texture inNight Fantasies he writes: "Even when there is an abrupt change of texture and sound,usually it is made up of the same notes you have been hearing for the last three measures". 2This time different textures result from changes in aspects other than pitch, which remainsconstant. Perhaps Carter's most succinct statement about texture was made in the Boretzinterview when he said: "The relations of pitch to timbre, of pitch to texture, and of timbreto texture, vary greatly within each of my recent works. They are also treated differentlyfrom work to work". 3 Once again, timbre and pitch are identified as significant componentsof texture in his music. We can see also that Carter's varying treatment of texture meansthat a textural theory will have to encompass an array of ways in which the different aspectsof music can interact in order for the theory to be applicable to his music analytically.It is, however, in Carter's eloquent response to a question about musical time in aninterview with Allen Edwards that he makes his most revealing statements about both theelements of texture and how these elements interact in textural processes:What began to interest me was the possibility of a texture in which, say,massive vertical sounds would be entirely composed of simultaneouselements having a direct and individual horizontal relation to the wholeprogress or history of the piece -- that is, simultaneous elements, each ofwhich has its own way of leading from the previous moment to thefollowing one, maintaining its identity as part of one of a number ofdistinct, simultaneously evolving, contributory thought-processes ormusical characters.1^Elliott Carter, liner notes for Carter, Brass Quintet (Odyssey Y34137, 1976).2^Elliott Carter, liner notes for Carter, Night Fantasies (Nonesuch, 1982).3^Boretz, "Conversation," 7.16In trying to deal with this idea in a viable way I've used many differentmethods -- such as producing a texture of musical layers or streams inwhich the progression of one is slow and another fast, or in which one isvery spasmodic and another very continuous, and so on; sometimes, in fact,the total notion of the piece is derived directly from this idea ofsimultaneously interacting heterogeneous character-continuities, as in mySecond String Quartet... The coordination of these contrasting layers ofmusic then forms an integral part of the musical discourse of the work andgives it its small and large formal evolution. 1STREAMSIn his explanation of musical texture, Carter refers to simultaneous "layers or streams",which connotes forward, flowing movement and variation within a unified continuity. Hisuse of the word streams in the description of music has parallels in the area of musicperception. The concept of musical streams is one that has been gaining prominence overthe past few decades, particularly among psychologists researching psycho-acousticperception. However, in these studies streams are often defined very simply, or areconstrained to facilitate clinical experiments. Let us examine some of the more significantstudies.In their paper "Hearing Musical Streams", Stephen McAdams and Albert Bregman writethat: "Auditory stream formation theory is concerned with how the auditory systemdetermines whether a sequence of acoustic events results from one, or more than one'source'" .2 By "source" they do not mean the physical source, which is limited to soundsoriginating from one location. Rather, they are referring to the psychological organizationwhereby a sequence of sounds are mentally grouped into a whole, a stream, emanating1^Allen Edwards, Flawed Words and Stubborn Sounds: A Conversation with Elliott Carter (NewYork: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., 1971), 100-101.2^Stephen McAdams and Albert Bregman, "Hearing Musical Streams," Computer Music Journal 3/4(December 1979): 26.17from one illusionary source. Their study is concerned with the factors used by theperceptual system to build descriptions of streams They identify such factors as frequency,rate of occurrence, intensity, timbre, and attack/decay transients as stream defining.Unfortunately they restrict their study to the manipulation of a single sequence of tones,although some attention is given to two simultaneously-sounding tones. This limitationleaves open the question about the relative importance of these factors in the perception ofpolyphonic music.A complementary study by David Huron investigates subjects' ability to determine thenumber of concurrently sounding voices in polyphonic textures of homogeneous timbre,such as Bach's keyboard fugues. He defines "voice" as a single line of sound that"maintains a separate identity in a sound field or musical texture" and claims that themusical term is parallel if not equivalent to the term stream which is preferred by thepsychologists. 1 His results indicate that accuracy in identifying the number of simultaneousvoices declines when there are more than three voices. Again, this does not address theconcern about music in which concurrent multivoiced components have varying timbres.Thus, although the psychological reality of musical streams is supported by psycho-acoustic research, it is clear that a more detailed study of stream formation and interactionusing existing music is needed to clarify this theory of musical organization.A new study by Bregman answers these concerns in part. His accumulated research in thefield of the perceptual organization of sound is presented in a book entitled Auditory SceneAnalysis. In it he defines an auditory stream as "our perceptual grouping of the parts of theneural spectrogram that go together". 2 Although differently worded, this definition is1^David Huron, "Voice Denumerability in Polyphonic Music of Homogeneous Timbres," MusicPerception 6/4 (Summer 1989): 362.2^Albert S. Bregman, Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound (Cambridge,Mass., MIT Press, 1990), 9.18essentially unchanged from the McAdams/Bregman one mentioned earlier. This study,however, goes much further than any other in the field and includes a chapter called'Auditory Organization in Music', in which Bregman discusses music from Palestrina tocontemporary atonal compositions. He uses the principles of auditory perception developedin the other chapters to show how "properties of musical sound could emerge from theperceptual integration of acoustic components over time and across the spectrum". 1 Heasserts that the established processes of auditory organization work in the same way insimplified laboratory experiments as in real music. His approach differs slightly from thepresent study in that he defines the sonic aspects that make musical sounds distinct fromeach other, while this theory is concerned both with stream segregation and with thoseaspects that make a stream cohere. Despite the fact that his references to actual musicalcompositions are brief and unsatisfactory, the principles that he develops are useful and hiswork will be referred to in the textural theory in Chapter Two.A MIRROR ON WHICH TO DWELLThe work that has been chosen for this study, A Mirror on Which to Dwell, composed in1975/76, is a set of six songs for soprano and chamber orchestra. It has been selected for anumber of reasons. The Mirror cycle is a mature work using many of the compositionaldevices that Carter developed in the years that followed his early vocal works. It occupiesan important position in his musical output as it marks his return to the vocal medium afteran absence of nearly thirty years. The song cycle is, in some ways, an ideal vehicle toexamine the substance of texture and the role that textural processes play in his music. It isa chamber work and so has accessible proportions -- it is shorter than his large1^ibid, 528.19compositions and is scored for fewer instruments -- but it is still structured by the samecompositional processes as his larger works. Each song is scored for a differentcombination of instruments, which permits an investigation of the relation of timbre totexture. Finally, the text for each song is unique in its form and meaning, and Carterconforms the musical structures to the poetic forms; as a result the cycle exhibits a varietyof ways in which texture contributes to musical form.TEXTSA Mirror on Which to Dwell is a setting of six poems by the twentieth-century Americanpoet Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979). Bishop, although not an internationally acclaimedfigure like T.S. Eliot or Robert Lowell, is recognized as one of the best poets of her time.She won several awards and fellowships in her lifetime despite her relatively small output,which comprises only four volumes of poetry. Her position in the contemporary literaryscene can be recognized from her associations with other poets. In the early 1930's Bishopformed a close (and lifelong) friendship with Marianne Moore, who influenced Bishop inher unpretentious, controlled language, in her use of clearly observed images, and in herinterest in animals as subject matter. She was also influenced by other modern poets likeWallace Stevens, W.H. Auden and the French Symbolists. 1 She met Lowell in the 1940's,and he became both a friend and advocate of her work. Lowell was, in turn, inspired byBishop's technique of creating form though the accumulation of images, which he thendeveloped further in his Life Studies poems.2 A later generation of poets, including JohnAshbery and James Merrill, has also acknowledged her influence on their writings.1^Thomas J. Travisano, Elizabeth Bishop: Her Artistic Development (Charlottesville, University Pressof Virginia, 1988), 7.2^Travisano, Elizabeth Bishop, 67.20Thomas Travisano, in his recent book Elizabeth Bishop: Her Artistic Development, dividesBishop's work into three phases to show how her writing developed chronologically inresponse to the poetic movements of her time. Her early phase (1934-38) places her in theworld of the Symbolists, where history is renounced "for the ambiguous pleasure ofenclosure." 1 In this phase she is introspective, concerned with individual isolation andlimits. Ambiguity is prevalent in the poems, and she uses intricate verse forms. Her middlestage (1939-55) reflects her years of travel and observation and combines "the precisionand conciseness of imagism with a liberating dimension of temporal development." 2 Herfinal phase (1956-79) is a reflective one and is described by Travisano as being concernedwith personal and private history. 3Bishop's writing is stylistically consistent through these phases; it has little mannerism orovertly emotive language, and tends towards objectivity, control, honesty and intellectualclarity. Her poetry is characterized by minutely precise observation of detail, a trait sheinherited both from Marianne Moore and from the Imagists. Often her concern is with anobject, either a familiar object seen from a new angle, or an object whose image isintensified through the accurate observation of its particulars.The precision of Bishop's poetic images is balanced by the resonance she achieves in herwriting.4 Resonance in poetry occurs when an objective image has multiple, subjectivemeanings with which the poet and the reader can associate it. Bishop achieves resonance1^ibid, 7.2^Travisano, Elizabeth Bishop, 7. The Imagist movement, which flourished in the years 1910-1920,was a rejection of the subjectivity and abstraction of Romantic poetry in favour of a Classical revival ofobjectivity and poetic craftsmanship. The two leading Imagist figures were Ezra Pound and T.S.Eliot, whosepoetic works, incidentally, have been extensively read by Elliott Carter.3^ibid, 7.4^Anne Stevenson, in Elizabeth Bishop (New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1966), devotes achapter to explaining how Bishop achieves a balance between the traits of precision and resonance in herpoetry, 74-94.21through different means. In one method she attributes emotions to an external object(another trait typical of the Imagist writers) and thereby enhances its value and provides asecondary layer of meaning. In another method, Bishop uses deliberately ambiguousimages; these are exceptional, however, since she is usually quite precise. Resonance isalso achieved through mixing visual precision with symbolic value, and through technicaldevices like rhythmical resonance.Themes that recur in Bishop's writing are those of travel and, inherent in that, the conflictbetween choice and necessity (the traveler can choose where to go, but not what to find). Itis only in the imagination that the universe is equal to one's desires. Other themes oftension are the relationships between the artist and society, and between survival anderosion. Common to these themes is the concept of boundaries, not just geographic ones,but the boundaries or rifts that Bishop finds to exist in what, according to James McCalla,is often taken to be the bedrock of human existence, "our sensory experience and ourknowledge". 1 The theme of boundaries is also closely connected to Bishop's means ofachieving resonance, i.e. the boundary that exists between the observed surface of animage and the (perhaps ambiguous) meaning that lies below the surface, or that is containedwithin.Bishop returns to the past in many of her poems, although not with any therapeutic aim:she sees her past as the only way things could have happened. Time is considered to shapehuman experience, as can be seen, for example, in the painful observation of eachsuccessive breath in '0 Breath'. Bishop's awareness of the passage of time is apparent inher concern with the temporal flow of a poem. She believes that the timing and articulationare crucial in poetry; her aim is "to catch and preserve the movement of an idea -- the point1^McCalla, "I, We, a Sandpiper: Persona in Elliott Carter's Settings of Elizabeth Bishop,"(unpublished paper), 15.22being to crystallize it early enough so that it still has movement". 1 Frequently theprogression of the poem is generated by a succession of linked ideas and images, asuccession of linked moments.In Bishop's more personal poems, of which there are few, the themes of loss and paincomprise her vision. The connections with her own personal life are unmistakable. One ofher parents died young, the other suffered from lifelong madness, and her loverelationships were often unsuccessful. She seems to find the exposure of love to be lessattractive than the empty safety of isolation.Elliott Carter's decision to write a song cycle was motivated by a commission fromSpeculum Musicae in honour of the United States Bicentennial in 1976. It had been nearlythirty years since he had composed for the vocal medium (the previous vocal work beingEmblems for men's voices and piano in 1947), and during that time he had voiced hisaversion to text-setting. In an interview with Allen Edwards Carter stated that he found it"difficult to find a text that I would like to set to music", and explained that "with a textthere is a whole other time-structure to be thought of and dealt with, something I'm notsure I could teach myself to work with now without wasting a large amount of effort". 2The problem was twofold. He had to work out how to juxtapose musical time (specificallyhid musical time, which usually progresses with a strong sense of direction) and poetic time(texts are often not directed in time). He also had to coordinate the linear flow of individualwords in the text with the kind of complex music he was writing in which many thingshappened simultaneously and at different speeds. Another, more general problem was tofind poetry that was rhythmically suitable for song-writing. In the poetry of Elizabeth1^Travisano, Elizabeth Bishop, 70.2^Edwards, Flawed Words, 106.23Bishop, however, Carter found texts that would help him to overcome the problems that heexperienced with text-setting. 1Since A Mirror on Which to Dwell was commissioned for an American celebration, it wasappropriate for Carter to choose an American writer for the texts. More specifically, thesongs were intended for a soprano (Susan Davenny Wyner) and so he sought out works offemale American poets. In his liner notes to the Speculum Musicae recording of the Mirrorcycle Carter states that Bishop's poems appealed to him because of their "clear verbalcoherence as well as their imaginative use of syllabic sounds that suggest the singingvoice."2Clearly Carter also found analogies between the form and content of Elizabeth Bishop'stexts and his own established compositional style. Bishop's strong sense of the passage oftime is compatible with Carter's concept of musical time and helped to provide a solution tohis problem with the "whole other time-structure". He writes of Bishop's poems: "I wasvery much in sympathy with their point of view, for there is almost always a secondarylayer of meaning, sometimes ironic, sometimes passionate, that gives a special ambience,often contradictory, to what the words say". 3 Bishop's practice of achieving resonance inher poems through personification and the use of ambiguous images provide the secondarylayer of meaning which Carter found so appealing. These layers of meaning find theirmusical expression in Carter's "simultaneous streams of different things going ontogether",4 a concept developed from his idea of musical time whereby the complex motion1 In a recent interview with Jonathan Bernard ("An Interview with Elliott Carter," Perspectives of NewMusic 28/2 [Summer 1990]: 180-214), Carter stated that one of his primary reasons for returning to song-writing was that he felt contemporary singers had the technical and musical capabilities of performing musicthat was previously considered "unsmgable", for example, vocal music by Schoenberg, Webem and Babbitt,and, by implication, his own music (184-185).21980).34Elliott Carter, liner notes for Carter, A Mirror on Which to Dwell (Columbia Masterworks M35171,ibid.Edwards, Flawed Words , 101.24of life is reflected in the musical motion where layered musical events proceedsimultaneously.Carter selected poems that are similar in expression and thematic content. Like most ofElizabeth Bishop's poems, they are all characterized by minute observation of detail andclarity and control of expression. However, in a sense the six poems chosen by Carter forthis set are not typical of Bishop. Three of them are intimate and express the personalfeelings of her inner world, instead of attributing emotions to an external object. Thesethree, 'Argument', 'Insomnia' and '0 Breath', are taken from a collection titled A ColdSpring (1955) and in all of them the pain of personal relationships is expressed.'Argument' has a sense both of travel ("distance") and of the diminished past where thedays are reduced to the impersonal blocks on "some hideous calendar". 'Insomnia'presents the speaker ruminating on the reflection of the moon in a bureau mirror andimagining a more desirable, "inverted" world where she is loved by her partner. In '0Breath', the fourth poem in a group of four, the alienation between two lovers is againexpressed through the thoughts of a woman, while her partner sleeps.A fourth poem, 'View of the Capitol from the Library of Congress', is taken from the sameset. Elizabeth Bishop worked as a Consultant in Poetry at the Library of Congress from1949 to 1950, during which time this poem was most probably inspired, if not written.Although the subject matter is largely concerned with description of an external event, thatof the Air Force Band playing on the steps of the Capitol, it is written in the first personand expresses the artist's feelings about the government. For this reason it could begrouped with the other three 'personal' poems.'Sandpiper', from the 'Elsewhere' section of the 1965 collection titled Questions of Travel,is one of Bishop's poems dealing with travel and the object of her scrutiny is one of the25animal world. The sandpiper is obsessed with the detailed particulars of his world and isunable to achieve a comprehensive vision of the world, a situation, Bishop intimates, that isnot uncommon in human life. The poem chosen for the opening song, 'Anaphora', is takenfrom an early collection North and South (1946) and is the most elusive of the six. Itfollows the progression of a day starting with the morning's primal energy, which isgradually dissipated, like man's "mortal fatigue". It closes with an image of the poet whoattempts to invert reality (like the narrator in 'Insomnia') and to reverse the fall of energythrough "stupendous studies" and "endless assent".The ordering of the songs is Carter's, he says, "alternating as they do betweenconsiderations about nature, love and isolation." 1 This alternation is not necessarily meantliterally as many of the poems overlap thematically. For example, 'Argument', 'Insomnia'and '0 Breath' deal with love and isolation in their expression of the pain of personalrelationships. 'A View of the Capitol from the Library of Congress' (hereafter referred toas 'View of the Capitol') is concerned primarily with the speaker's alienation from thescene she is observing, although the intervening role of the "giant trees" suggests asecondary theme of nature. The bird in 'Sandpiper' is isolated from the larger natural worldthat surrounds him, while being obsessed with the details of his immediate physicalenvironment. Considerations of nature dominate the poem selected for the opening song'Anaphora', although here again there is a sense of isolation in the lonely figure of the"beggar in the park".21^Carter, liner notes for Mirror.2^David Schiff, in his book The Music of Elliott Carter (London: Da Capo Press, 1983) divides thesongs into only two groups that reflect "the geographical and the personal" aspects of Bishop's art. Hecharacterizes 'Anaphora', Sandpiper' and 'View of the Capitol' as describing "the relationship between thepoet and the world" (282), and the other three as being about love. Schiffs classification of the poems,although not inaccurate, is limited and does not fully describe the pervasive thematic links that were discussedabove. James McCalla, in his paper "I, We, a Sandpiper", also finds fault with Schiffs reading of Bishop.The implications for the structuring of the overall cycle of the "unabridged gap Schiff finds between thepersonal and the geographical" is, in his opinion, "misguided" (15).26McCalla, in his paper "I, We, a Sandpiper", does not view the ordering of the songs asrandom. Instead he hears a progression, "a process of emotional concentration from thefirst 2 songs... to the final '0 Breath', with the fifth song, the 'View of the Capitol,' as anintercalated piece that serves at the same time to remind us that such emotional journeys stilltranspire in a public world and to separate 'Insomnia' from '0 Breath', the better toenhance the effects of the last song." 1 The process of intensifying emotional concentrationis supported, in McCalla's opinion, by musical aspects like pitch and rhythm schemes andinstrumentation. Ultimately these processes serve in the emergence of a single, clearlydefined persona, a woman who "throughout is forced to examine her place in the worldabout her, and who finds in each instance, more forcefully as the cycle continues, at leastthe possibility of forging a separate peace with that world, the continued hope for peace." 2The forms of these six poems, although varied, demonstrate Bishop's approach tostructure: stylization. In one manifestation of this principle, the poem is visually designedto resemble the formal but is not itself formal. For example, in 'Sandpiper' and 'View ofthe Capitol' the material is organized into stanzas, but the phrases and sentences do notalways follow the lines or the stanzaic division and run freely across them. In other words,the two textual structures, the form and the content, sometimes cadence together and, atother times, are opposed. This variation in correspondence between them creates a kind ofstructural counterpoint that enhances the multi-layered resonance of the poetry. In otherpoems the form and content are more closely related. For example, 'Argument'demonstrates a more traditional use of form with stanzas separating different images orideas, while in 'Anaphora' Bishop uses the visual device of indenting the lines at pointswhere the energy she is describing starts undergoing a transformation. In '0 Breath',1^McCalla, "I, We, a Sandpiper," 16.2^ibid, 23.27written in free verse, she uses a typographical device in order to depict theinhalation/exhalation described in the text: two words within each line of the poem areseparated by a space larger than that found between the other words.Carter is sensitive to the structural counterpoint inherent in Bishop's poetry and his settingof each poem is determined primarily by his understanding of the meaning of the text.Formal divisions in the music correspond to the sentence structure and images in the poemrather than the stanzaic structure (unless they correspond). In 'Argument', for example, hisformal sections correspond to the stanzas of the poem, whereas in 'View of the Capitol' thecorrespondence is with the sentences and images in the poem and stanzaic correspondenceis incidental. Within the broad formal divisions musical processes shape the progression ofthe song and correspond to the meaning of the text. These musical processes function bothsymbolically and musically. Carter's expression of the text is not limited to mere surfacefeatures, or text-painting, and involves a combination of all aspects of the music, fromtempo to texture. In a recent interview he explained the symbiotic relationship between textand music in Mirror: "I wanted to explore the way one could suggest things [musically] thatwere in the poem, emphasize certain details, evoke its general ambiance -- but also to makecountersuggestions against its contents and so forth." 1 In Chapter Four, the analyticalapplications of the textural theory, a detailed discussion of the form and meaning of eachpoem, and its corresponding musical form, will precede the analysis of each song.Collectively, the songs comprising the Mirror cycle display a balance between similarityand contrast. Carter composed the songs for nine players playing twenty-one instruments,and from this common base he selected different combinations for each song. However, inevery combination each of the three main groups of instruments is represented: winds,1^Bernard, "An Interview with Elliott Carter," 187.28strings and percussion (including piano). An obvious element of continuity is thecontinuous, dominant presence of the soprano voice. Although each song expresses its textwith a unique timbral combination, there are other strong underlying unities in the songsachieved through common compositional devices, and through the organization of themusical material into streams which control functional textural processes.29CHAPTER TWO: TEXTURAL THEORYSTREAMSAs an introduction to texture in Elliott Carter's music, let us examine Example 2 overleaf.It is taken from 'Argument', the second song in A Mirror on Which to Dwell. A definitemusical organization is perceptible even on first hearing, although there is no audible pitchor tonal centre, no perceptible pulse or characteristic rhythmic grouping, and noconventional textural relationship such as melody and accompanying figuration between thedifferent instrumental parts. The most salient organizational features are the changes insound that propel the music through time. The following observations about these changesare based on an aural experience of the song. Although some of the observations are ratherself-evident, they will lead to a discussion of musical qualities that are fundamental to thissong, to the entire song cycle and to Carter's other music as well.The excerpt opens with a sustained sonority comprising a mixture of wind and stringinstruments which overlap in register. The alto flute emerges solo from this sonority, thencontinues to sustain a single pitch, B4, while the piano enters low in its registral range witha rhythmically active arpeggiated figure. In m.19, after the piano gesture, the bongos sounda fast-moving figure, also against the continuing flute pitch. This is immediately followedby another piano statement similar to the previous one both in rhythmic and melodiccharacter, in register and in overall duration. During the second piano gesture, the sustainedpitch in the alto flute is taken over by the cello (m.20). At the conclusion of the pianostatement the alto flute reenters with A5-05 followed by another sustained B4, while thedouble bass sounds a melodic figure of predominantly descending contour which stands30Example 2: 'Argument' mm.17-22Sop.Re-oleo,-her all^that^land  ^he - neat the plane;Pthat^_Bongos71in g"---.1-'1w2 Ill .2.!Ol! =1. —MAW:-.-. I_  L ..-6;M: -......■-ma.:.. ,.■ :::3 PP —^-p3_,• L--FP-^ --ir-^of _ (11111 beach - es _ _ deep sand  ^itretch^- ing _'^PI -P^PPE7_1013=—■-■ I^IN iaola_PPPianoVol.Cb.Sop.A -IV-  CI.BongosPlanoVol.Ch.out prominently as a solo. The cello accompanies the bass with two entries of brieflysustained pitches. While the sustained pitch in the alto flute and the bass melody continue,the bongos enter with another fast-moving figure. The bass ceases to sound during thebongos statement. At the end of m.22 another sustained sonority enters sforzando. It issimilar to the opening sonority in its timbral mix, in the registral overlapping that occursbetween the wind and string instruments, and in its registral placement.Certain general characteristics of the music can be drawn from this description. During anygiven time span several distinct continuities are perceptible. Some of these continuitiesconsist of a series of events played by a single instrument (for example, the pianogestures), while others consist of events stated by more than one instrument (for example,the sustained sonorities of the winds and strings in m.17 and m.22). The vocal partremains aurally distinct throughout; it is the most consistent and compelling continuitybecause of the meaning that is imparted by the sequence of words that it articulates (as wellas its distinctive timbre). As such, it will not be emphasized in the ensuing discussion aboutthe nature and behaviour of the purely instrumental continuities.All these distinct continuities are streams. Each stream is defined by those musical aspectsthat associate its participating events and by those aspects that dissociate its events from theevents in other streams The criteria for deciding which musical aspects define a particularstream and how it is distinct require a comparative approach -- that is, the musical events ofone stream are only as similar to one another as they are dissimilar from other soundingevents. For example, the wind and string events that are observed as "sustained sonorities"in m.17 and m.22 associate because they have the same attack points and are registrallyproximate. The same aspects dissociate the events of the winds/strings stream from theevents of the piano stream, as these events have no common attack points and are widelydisparate in register. The piano events cohere in a stream because of the timbral similarity32between them, while the disparity in timbre between the piano events and the wind andstring events dissociates them into a separate stream. The difference in temporal locationbetween the events in the winds/strings stream and the piano stream also plays a part inmaking the streams distinct. Although at the beginning of the excerpt the streams do notoverlap in time, streams can sound simultaneously without losing their identity. From thefourth beat of m.17 through to the third beat of m.22 several streams overlap temporallyand yet remain aurally distinct.Streams DefinedOn the basis of these observations we can propose a general definition: A stream is adistinct continuity, made up of a series of events that are perceived as a temporal continuitybecause they are recognizably similar, and because they are differentiated from eventsbelonging to other, possibly concurrent, streams.Three aspects of streams help us to perceive and distinguish them: properties, behavioursand processes. Any one of these aspects is said to define a stream if its particularcharacteristics cause us to perceive a set of musical events as a stream. Properties are soniccharacteristics that can be perceived and evaluated at any given time point, or within a veryshort time span. 1 A property defines a stream if it remains relatively consistent over alonger time span, that is, if it is perceptibly the same when evaluated at various time pointsover a time span. Streams may also exhibit behaviours. Behaviours involve consistentchanges in stream properties and require a certain temporal duration to be perceived. Unlikeproperties, behaviours cannot be evaluated at any given time point, or within a very short1^Exactly how short this time span can be before a property is perceived depends, in part, on themusical context. Psycho-acoustic research could help to clarify this issue.33time span. 1 Processes involve the perception of consistent changes in stream behavioursover a longer time span. The behaviours and processes that define individual streams willbe discussed in the sections that follow the discussion of stream properties. Lastly, thecombination of individual streams, and the behaviours and processes of those combinedstreams that comprise musical texture will be discussed.1. INDIVIDUAL STREAMS1.1 PROPERTIESThis section discusses those aspects of a musical event that are perceptible and evaluable 2 atany given time point, or within a very short time span, and provides musical examples,from Carter's A Mirror on Which to Dwell, of how each property can define a stream. Fora property to define a stream it must remain relatively consistent over a longer time span. Ingeneral, the term "relatively consistent" means that when a particular property is evaluatedfor different events it can be perceptibly similar, not necessarily identical, in order to definea stream. Our perception of a property being the same at different time points depends inpart on the context in which it occurs; these contexts will be discussed in connection withthe musical examples below. The term "parity" will frequently be used to indicate the1^My categorization of stream-defining aspects as properties and behaviours is analogous to Berry'sdivision of textural aspects into "quantitative and "qualitative" aspects in Structural Functions of Music,which was discussed in Chapter One.2^"Evaluable" means that, in psychological terms, the aspect can be measured on a scale of degrees,but is not necessarily measurable numerically.34perceptible similarity, or equality, of a particular property between different events. If thereis parity of a stream-defining property between events, then they cohere in a stream.While streams are often referred to by their instrumental names in the following discussion,e.g. the piano/winds stream, it should be understood that streams are not the same as whatare commonly called "instrumental lines". In Carter's music, the events in an instrumentexhibit a wide variety of properties (and behaviours) and often cohere with the events ofother instruments based on properties other than timbre. For example, the piano eventssometimes cohere with the woodwind events, sometimes with the string events, sometimeswith the percussion events and sometimes with other piano events only. In other words,streams transcend the individual instrumental parts.In our discussion stream-defining properties are classified as being primary or secondary.The criterion for classification is as follows. A "primary" stream property is one which,theoretically, can define a stream by itself, all other aspects being equal. Under the sameconditions, a "secondary" property does not have the same ability and must be combinedwith a primary property in order to define a stream. For example, if a clarinet and a violinplay exactly the same melodic line at the same time, then the only aspect in which theydiffer is timbre; if the clarinet events can be perceived as distinct from the violin events,then timbre is a primary property, and the clarinet events form a separate stream defined bytimbre. Thus the designation of a property as primary or secondary is based on ahypothetical situation in which all other aspects are equal. In real music, of course, this isseldom the case. In other words, in a particular context, a property that is classified assecondary can be as musically important, or as perceptually prominent, as one that isclassified as primary.3511.1.1 Primary Properties1.1.1.1 TimbreTimbre is one of the primary stream-defining properties. 1 Timbral consistency can makeevents cohere as a stream, while timbral distinction can set apart one stream from another.In Example 3 events in the oboe stream cohere timbrally to each other more than theycohere timbrally with the events in other instruments. A second stream of events played bythe violin, viola and cello is defined similarly by the timbral parity between the eventsrelative to events in the oboe stream.Example 3: 'Sandpiper' mm. 56-57oboe events cohere timbrally and are timbrally distinct from string events• •^•* 56^ 4 P-M.•INII.-w--— 1^ •Al•^.INF HINIOMMIIIIIIIMIN^IIMINIOWICWINIII:J.INIr.M111111•111M11111111INIMIMMIMIMUIRMINIMIlNIVIIIINIIMIL•MAIIMIIMINHIMNINIBMINIMIIIIMIIIIIIMIIMf ar,..MINIMIMIMMIIIMMIIIIMIM=IIM1111111•11111M111•1111/1/11MINI. ---- ---- ---- -- immimummig woommommi mow— ---- ---- ---____1^L____ 5 ____,^L_ 5 --J^ L____string events cohere timbrally and are timbrally distinct from oboe events,....-^-......,ILP ---"-- -e-— 6_,.-Ir.-„..-----..., „....----....,A.— it•••I • ^70—_a----registral 3^4densityof stringstreamIn his book Sound Structure in Music, Robert Erickson's definition of timbre covers a broadertrum than the one presented here (including electronic timbres) and is more acoustically precise in itsefming qualities, but there are important similarities between the theories. Both designate the role of timbreas fundamental in the perception of texture, and Erickson's "layers" are analogous to my streams.ObVIVla363 PPP/relativelydistincttimbres^— PPPpicc and yin events cohere timbrally in this register and have similar modes of articulationkele.- 12PiccAILVlnvla and mar events are more similar to each other in timbre and articulation than either is to picc or yinmedium-hard sticks7^ •^••PPP•• X I M Er Mr^_iii1•111•••.11116AMMEI/Mharl•d•r•rirarlril./MENIION^ AMENEMINIuM•••••INNINIZ•MMINMEOMMMEMM••=—==1.== ._°--L'MarVlaCarter most frequently orchestrates his music to create timbral parity between events playedby the instruments within each traditional orchestral section, for example, wind instrumentsor string instruments. In certain contexts, however, members of the same section cansound sufficiently different to belong to different streams, or members of different sectionscan sound sufficiently similar to belong to the same stream. In Example 4, from'Insomnia', the piccolo and violin play events that are timbrally similar because in that highregister and with the legato bowing of the violin, the timbral differences between them areminimized. Here the events played by members of different orchestral sections soundsimilar enough to belong to the same stream.Example 4: 'Insomnia' mm.6-737In the same example one can see how the events played by members of the same orchestralsection can participate in different concurrent streams Because the viola events are playedsul ponticello and have a lower registral placement than the violin events, their sharp,distinct attacks make them more similar in timbre to the marimba events than they are to theviolin events. The viola and marimba events cohere into a separate stream that is alsodefined by other properties and behaviours that will be discussed later.Special conditions exist concerning the timbral properties of percussion instruments and thevoice. Because percussion instruments are varied and have diverse timbres, each musicalsetting must be evaluated individually to determine the timbral identity of the streams. Thevoice is always a separate stream from the instrumental ones because of its distinctivetimbre and its articulation of words with grammatical continuity. Even when there is a highdegree of parity in the other properties and behaviours between events in the voice and theinstrumental events, the vocal stream remains distinct. Register and PitchRegister is another primary stream-defining property. Events that are located consistently inthe highest or lowest register of a particular context may be perceived as a stream, whileregistral distinction sets streams apart. Let us examine m.1 of Example 5. The oboeevents cohere because of their timbral similarity, and because of their similar placement inthe upper registral extreme of the sounding range -- they are the highest pitches in m.1. Theoboe events are also made distinct from the piano events by their dissimilarity in timbre and38NEIC/IVOIrMINNEMINWIllriMINMEWI=111•IrallIMMINIf 411MIM^=MOM WSW 411■111•11IIMMUNI•OMMINr.M1111•1= MI IN MI =MI MIrAMMIINEP — — —NM^— NMI35 semitonesrmi.amoseidommor mossiumummiewoism^ ANNregistral placement. In this example registral location and timbral distinction define astream.'Example 5: 'Sandpiper' mm.1-2oboe events are timbrally and registrally distinct from piano eventsRegistral proximity also plays a role in the perception of these events as a stream. The oboeevents cohere in a stream because they are closer to each other in register than they are tothe piano events in m.l. Whether events cohere as a stream due to registral placement,then, depends partly on their registral proximity relative to the registral proximity of othersounding events? In general, a given set of pitch events cohere as a stream on the basis ofregister if the interval from the lowest pitch of the set to the highest pitch of the nextregistral stream down is appreciably greater than the interval from any pitch in the set to thenearest pitch in the same set. This condition is true for m.l of Example 5: the intervalbetween the lowest oboe event (F5) and the highest piano event (Gb2) 35 semitones -- is1^The important role that registral placement plays in Carter's music is discussed by Jonathan Bernardin "Spatial Sets in Recent Music of Elliott Carter" (Music Analysis 2/1 (1983]: 5-34), and by Cogan and Escotin their analysis of the Introduction to Carter's second String Quartet in Sonic Design: The Nature of Soundand Music (Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall, 1976), 59-71.2^Bregman, in his book Auditory Scene Analysis, draws on a number of psychoacoustic studies toaffirm that "notes that were closer in frequency to one another stuck together better perceptually" (462).39appreciably greater than the interval between any two registrally adjacent oboe events orpiano events. In m.2 events in the sixteenth-note piano gesture ascend registrally so that thehighest event in the gesture (Bb4) is closer to the lowest oboe event than it is to the nearestpiano event. Because of the establishment of registral distinction in the previous measureand because of the continued timbral dissimilarity between oboe and piano events, thismomentary lack of registral distinction does not, however, detract from our perception oftwo separate streams.In Example 6 (overleaf), from 'View of the Capitol', two timbrally homogeneous streamsare distinguished by their registral properties. The violin events cohere in a stream becauseof the parity of registral placement between them and their registral proximity to each other,relative to the placement of the viola, cello and bass events. The latter events cohere in astream because of their consistently low registral placement and registral proximity to eachother, relative to the violin events. As we can see from the numbers alongside the excerpt(indicating intervals between registrally adjacent events in semitones), the interval -- 18semitones -- between the lowest violin event (F5) and the highest event in theviola/cello/bass stream (B3 in the viola) is appreciably greater than the interval between anygiven violin event and the nearest violin event. Similarly, the interval between the lowestviolin event and the highest event in the viola/cello/bass stream is appreciably greater thanthe interval between any two registrally adjacent events in the viola/cello/bass stream.40if ^ 587E7. ^8r— 3 53— 3 interval betweenregistrally adjacent events:3 —17^Vln625r-- 318Vla-0"8vbIt^VclCb9Example 6: 'View of the Capitol' mm.14-15In order to confirm why register is classified as a primary, not a secondary property, let usmanipulate the data in Example 6 so that this passage meets the criterion of "all otheraspects being the same". Let us assume, firstly, that all events are played on the piano, andare thus timbrally equivalent. Secondly, let us imagine that all events are grouped into thesame rhythmic patterns as the violin events. Now the only difference between events is intheir registral location. The uppermost events (formerly violin) are still going to beperceived as distinct, and will associate themselves into a stream separate from the lowerevents which are closer to each other in register than they are to the higher events. Theability of register to define a stream under these conditions classifies it as a primaryproperty.Pitch, too, can play a role in associating events into a stream. Looking back at Example 4on page 37, events in the marimba/viola stream also cohere because of the pitch duplication41between them, namely repeated the B4's and Bb/A#5's. Thus pitch parity is another factorin the definition of streams Events cohere in a stream if they duplicate each other in pitchwithin a relatively short number of intervening events. In 'Sandpiper', Example 7, thepiano and string events form a stream because of their parity of pitch content: pitches in thepiano are duplicated in the strings. In this example, as in Example 4, not all of the pitchesare duplicated, for example, A4 and F5 occur in the violin only. These events are notdissociated from the stream, however, because they have other important properties (andbehaviours) in common with other events in the stream, particularly registral similarity. Ingeneral, pitch parity between events associates them into a stream if this property is true ofmost the events in a given context.Example 7: 'Sandpiper' mm.47-48.^.le.PPN•--- , to r21■111.1 MKPP'—' ;-..-1.Tea^A^ 1—a,-,. Erma Erwirdowimmonaliammarptiv, arm -"■.` III.M1011=IIIIBSINfOdlIllii__ MINA^PPP--PPITr ::-      ,,---_-_--P- PP P- PP------!.....—..3- —^ .r.k. dt.— In—-_,IiiiiiIIG—^int.-^mf-pp — ^— PP^A- PP^su 1 pp7"------------nifPianoVIn.Via.Vol.C b.42This excerpt is an interesting example of our perception of the interaction of properties inthe definition of streams. Two primary properties can be observed here. There is parity ofpitch and register between all the events, and disparity of timbre between some of them.While the timbral disparity between the piano and string events might dissociate them fromeach other, in this case the strength of the pitch and registral parity between them (which isreinforced by secondary properties) makes all of them cohere as a single stream.Examples of pitch (but not interval) as a stream-defining property are, in fact, rare inCarter's music. More frequently, recurring pitches are sounded in all of the streams. In'Anaphora', for example, each of the twelve pitch classes is assigned a specific fixedregister, that is, in the entire piece there are only twelve distinct pitches, although theyoccur at many different time points and in many different timbres. On the basis of pitchalone we would say that the entire song comprises one stream only. However, propertiesand behaviours other than pitch, specifically timbral properties and rhythmic behaviours,group the events in 'Anaphora' into different streams. In this case, then, pitch does notplay a stream defining role.In the above examples, where the registral parity between events includes, specifically,pitch duplication, we can consider pitch parity between events to be a special case ofregistral parity. More conventionally, pitch parity is considered to be related to pitch-classparity. We would thus assume that, like pitch, events cohere in a stream if they duplicateeach other in pitch-class within a relatively small number of intervening events. Under thisdefinition, octave doubling between events would associate them into the same stream.This issue does not arise, however, in the songs with which this study is concerned, sinceoctave doubling does not occur. While pitch parity between events does occasionally define43a stream in Carter's music, as we have seen in Examples 4 and 7, pitch-class parityalmost never does. 1Events that rearticulate a distinctive, established set of intervals cohere in a stream; theproperty of belonging to such an established set of intervals is immediately perceptible anddefines that stream. Carter often structures streams with pitch intervals. 2 In this studymelodic intervals are treated in the same way as harmonic intervals since Carter combinesthe two types consistently in his musical streams. In the excerpt from 'Sandpiper' inExample 3 (page 36), the timbrally cohesive events in the violin, viola and cello form astream that features minor sixths between pairs of events. The oboe stream excludes thisinterval between its successive pitch events, and features minor seconds and minor thirdsinstead. Similarly, in Example 5 (page 39), the piano stream features m6's betweensimultaneous and successive pairs of events, while the oboe stream features m2's andP5's.3 In both of these examples pitch parity between pairs of events in each stream help todefine that stream and to distinguish the streams from each other.Interval-class is also a consideration in the process of defining a stream. Types of pitch-class sets, presented either melodically or as vertical sonorities, are often repeated inindividual streams in Carter's music. But, although they structure the pitch material of thestreams and are characteristic of them, they cannot be said to define the stream in the same1^Pitch-class distinction can occur when the events of one stream belong to a particular subset of thetotal chromatic and the events of another stream belong to the complementary subset. This type of distinction,while rare in Carter's music, can reinforce a stream division. For example, pitch-class distinction provides adiscernible contrast between two timbrally distinct streams in mm.3-4 of 'Argument', where the piano gestureis the aggregate-completing complement of the cello/bass gesture.2^Carter's use of intervals as a structural device is exemplified in his Second String Quartet. Here eachinstrument has a unique repertory of intervals and rhythmic patterns, and is associated with an expressivecharacter. Each of the first three movements is dominated by one of the instruments and the cadenzas thatclose the movements are dominated by another instrument. In this way the intervals that are associated witheach instrument come to the fore when that instrument is being featured.3^Similarly, the events comprising the piano/strings stream in Example 7 on page 42 are organizedinto minor sixth dyads that define the stream.44way as other behaviours do unless they are perceptible to the listener. In most cases onehears the repeated interval content of the set class rather than the complex, and oftenabstract, pitch relationships. 1 For example, in the vocal part of 'Insomnia' tetrachords oftype [0125] occur repeatedly.1.1.2 Secondary PropertiesA secondary property reinforces the identity of an individual stream that is defined by oneor more primary properties. If all other aspects are equal, a secondary property cannotdefine a stream. Registral DensityThe property of registral density can help to define a stream that is defined by primaryproperties. Consistency in registral density makes events cohere as a stream, whiledistinction in this property sets streams apart. One way of measuring the registral density ofa stream at any time point is to count the number of simultaneously sounding events perunit of register. However, that number is of little significance. Of more relevance iswhether the stream is registrally dense or sparse relative to the total density of all streamsproceeding concurrently. Registral density is also modified by the registral proximity anddistribution of the events; for example, three events that occupy a total registral range of a1 In her experimental study "The Perception of Contemporary Pitch Structures" (Music Perception 2/1[Fall 1984): 25-39), Cheryl Bruner evaluates one type of pitch relationship that exists between pitch-classsets, namely Robert Morris's similarity index -- a tool for measuring the similarity relationships betweenpitch-class sets. Morris claims that the index provides "a rationale for the selection of sets that insures apredictable degree of aural similarity", but Bruner found that "the similarity index does not seem to explain thelistener's similarity judgements". Instead she determined that the perception of similarity. between pc sets isdependent on context and manner of presentation. One of her findings is that "the size and location of'characteristic' intervals in each set... seems of have affected the judgements" (38).45minor third will sound more registrally dense than three events that occupy a total registralrange of three octaves.' In Example 3, page 36, the oboe and string streams, each definedprimarily by the properties of timbre and interval, are also defined and made distinct bytheir registral densities. The oboe stream is registrally sparse, sounding at most one pitchevent at any given time point. The string stream is relatively dense and its registral densityis characterized by simultaneously sounding pitch events, principally double-stoppeddyads. Attack PointsIf a given event belongs to a stream defined by timbre or register/pitch, then events attackedat the same time point (but not necessarily similar in the other stream-defining dimensions)tend to cohere in the same stream. 3 In Example 8 (overleaf), from 'View of the 'Capitol',the events in the winds/strings stream cohere because of the pitch parity between them, andbecause of their attack-point parity.1^The treatment of registral density by other theorists, which was discussed in Chapter One, also.asserts that the numerical measurement of this aspect is can be refined by taking into consideration the spacingand distribution of the events.2 Instead of defining a stream by its registral density, we might consider a more general concept ofmultiplicity, such as streams that are solos, duos, trios etc. However, these designations imply the music isorganized mto lines, which is not true of most of the songs in Mirror. In fact, although Carters other music isfrequently organized into such combinations, for example, in the Triple Duo, or the two duos of his 3rdString Quartet, he does not seem to use the same instrumental organization in any of his recent vocal works(Mirror, Syringa and In Sleep, In Thunder).3^In the context of determining factors that result in "distinctness of voices", Bregman writes that the"synchronous onsets" of notes favour "vertical grouping" (496). Translated into the terminology used in thisstudy he means that attack-point parity between events tends to associate them into the same stream.46Example 8: 'View of the Capitol' mm. 70-72wind and string events exhibit pitch and attack-point parityr- 3 -1• v-77 >mf-pa-fr-3 --Ir- 3 --,f-mfisrm:ssarmomiuseJ.ammIAN:JAM ..•1■311111111MIMIMEMI f:i111111•1•1 IIMMr MINIMmf-p _.>-f---, 1-- 3 —1›-f-mfkFX11111111■1=11Ir■ra.-ir AMMON--A11.11arrini.Illmf-p_.,fr- 3 --1I3.3f-mf--1• • 'i .[..=mmo.GM111111111111MwAIMIIVIEN•mf I)liall WWIaMli IllaniNom wank MilliMir i MIN Mrr.-f>MX=11111M17111miNMEXI3 --ir-1■1111111011.1•11111111111111•1•1111MMIll3'IMMILX AM-1 'NMMIIIIIMf-mf›.--mf-p^--fr- 3 >-1 r- 3 —1irf-mf›.-man^iiriMME 'iff■UVIIIIIMP"^IIIIMIIIIIIIIIMAMIIINN1I Imf-p -.fI- 3 -1>f-mfrliaimmt^Nralamib I I CIWIIIII ll MIMAIIIN=IIIIIIMIIIIW.IMIIIMMIMEIMINIP =UMMII4.. fivb-mWhile the stream in the excerpt in Example 8 is defined in part by pitch consistency, inExample 9 (overleaf), another excerpt from 'View of the Capitol', attack-point parityreinforces the perception of a stream defined primarily by the timbral consistency of eventsin the strings.FlObBb CVlnVlaVc 1Cb47A Er MIIIMMI=IIIMMI^ MIMIPZ /111111M11111101I.111.11=11•111MISIMINIMINIVIIMMINIUMIIMMEN•r Jr ■IMI (...1MINIIIIM•••^C^nr•IMMIOW..111•1'MUNI- IMES^1.-.•NW^1111111771•101111r111^ IIIIIMILI.ArAMINIPlor ladlE11111I/IIIMA IMINISINW MNII (..111.1/4111•111MMINIMI ILEIGWII^IM--tomae•VAIMEMIIMMINIVINIIiii/M11 ir MnINSINNIMMEs.......- ___ 1101”•1121111111.--.-,_--.]I 1/11JIMINNInflallIMICINIC•PI^ IMINNIMINKIIMI 1■791tI /1111•101/MOOLIVM11^111111M111/W AMRI InUNAMINIMIIMININIMIGIIIIMIU TWIIIIIIIIIIIIMAIMIIIMMMINP•••••7^Ilf:TissaTT:LAIIMMININso.-- 1111111.111-1-1-11"kann,---Example 9: 'View of the Capitol' mm.54-55string events cohere timbrally and exhibit attack-point parity51.1.2.3 Dynamic IntensityThe property of parity in dynamic intensity between events can reinforce the perception ofthose events as a stream if they are also associated by some primary property. 1 Parity in thelevels of dynamic intensity between events tends to make them cohere as a stream, whiledisparity in dynamic intensity makes streams distinct. This property is classified as"secondary" because the phenomenon of masking, whereby louder events aurally "hide"softer events, can prevent dynamic intensity from defining a stream by itself (all otheraspects being equal). Although in Carter's dynamically expressive music the dynamic1 Other textural studies also treat dynamic intensity as a secondary aspect. Berry, however, does notinclude dynamic intensity as an element of texture. Instead he considers it to be as aspect of coloration which,together with textural aspects, comprise the "overall sonorous character" of a musical sonority (192). Becauseintensity levels are easily perceived aurally and because of the prominent reinforcing role that dynamicintensity plays in defining streams in Carter's music, it is included as a stream-defining property in my study.48intensity levels of events are rarely uniform, relative parity in this aspect between eventsplays a role in stream definition. For instance, in Example 10 (from 'Sandpiper'), shownoverleaf, loudness plays a supportive role in defining two streams and making themdistinct. The events in the piano/strings stream, defined primarily by their low registralplacement and the pitch parity between them, are relatively soft, with dynamic levelsranging from ppp to mp. The events in the oboe stream, defined by their high registralplacement, contrast with relatively high levels of dynamic intensity,f and mf.49Example 10: 'Sandpiper' mm.39-423Vc l.PianoVin.Via.Vcl.C b.MpOb.—ppf 5PianoVIn.(ppVia.pPC b.Ob.501.2 BEHAVIOURSThe second aspect that distinguishes a stream is its behaviour. Behaviours are perceivablein a series of time points, or very short time spans, in which specific properties changefrom time point to time point, or very short time span to time span, in a consistent way.The changes in a specific property (creating a behaviour) should not be great and at leastone of the properties defining that stream should remain unchanged so that a new stream isnot perceived. A behaviour is not manifested instantly or within a short time span, but overa longer span of time. The duration that it takes to perceive a behaviour depends both on thenature of the behaviour itself and on the context in which it occurs.As with properties, there are primary and secondary stream-defining behaviours. A primarystream behaviour is one which can define a stream by itself when all other properties andbehaviours are equal. A secondary behaviour cannot define a stream under the sameconditions, and must be combined with a primary behaviour in order to do so. Likesecondary properties, secondary behaviours reinforce the perception of an individualstream which is defined by other aspects.1.2.1 Primary Behaviours1.2.1.1 PulseWhen the attack points of events conform to a pulse, this rhythmic behaviour is primary indefining a stream. A pulse is defined as a series of time points marking off time spans that51are perceived as equal. 1 In this study, based on aural experience, it is assumed that theseries of equal durations must be at least three durations long for a pulse to be perceived. Itis also assumed that, to the degree that a pulse is established, one's perception of that pulseremains unaffected by an occasional time point not being articulated by an attack. 2 InExample 11 (overleaf), excluding the initial piano flourish, the wind instruments, pianoand string events combine to form a massive stream that opens the Maestoso section of thissong. The stream is defined primarily by the pitch and interval parity between the events,and by the attack density behaviour in the form of a pulse articulating a regular attack everytenth triplet eighth-note. (The E4 clarinet pitch event in m.3 does not disrupt the pulsebecause its onset is ppp and imperceptible).1 Pulse, although closely related to attack density, a secondary behaviour, is a rather special case ofattack density. This is because we, as listeners, are accustomed to marking off time-spans subconsciously,and intuitively perceive regularly-spaced attacks as being primary organizational factors in music. Someimportant theoretical studies have been done in the field of rhythm, meter and pulse, for example the onepresented by David Lewin in a chapter titled "Some Investigations into Foreground Rhythmic and MetricPatterning" in Music Theory: Special Topics (edited by Richmond Browne, New York: Academic Press, Inc.,1981). In this study he explores, using mathematical modeling, our metric interpretation of rhythmic activity,particularly in ametric music. The distinction of pulse as a primary behaviour in my study is important sincepulses play a prominent role m Carter's music, as we will see in the analyses.2 Richard Parncutt, in his article "The Perception of Pulse in Musical Rhythm"(in Action andPerception in Rhythm and Music: papers given at a symposium in the Third International Conference on EventPerception and Action, edited by Alf Gabrielsson, Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Swedish Academy of Music,1987), defines pulse as a "simple sequence of equally-spaced event percepts" (129), and suggests that thegrouping of sound events on the basis of pulse is important in the perception of streams. Although he doesnot specify how many successive equally-spaced "event percepts" comprise a pulse, he does write that "likeall perceptual patterns, a pulse may be perceived even when some elements of the pattern -- the equally spacedevents -- are missing" (132).52I^ •8vbr3 ipulse^. 10 j)^310 rJ) ^•Example 11: 'View of the Capitol' mm.1-3VlnVlaVc lCb3 1— 3 -1Ara1- a —IAt" PPPObClPno53The longer the time spans between events, the more difficult it is to apprehend the timespans as equal. Similarly a pulse cannot be perceived if the speed is too fast. 1 This is thecase in 'Argument', as can be seen Example 12 where gestures from the piano andcello/bass streams have been excerpted from mm.17-22 (Example 2). Each of thesestreams is defined primarily by the timbral and registral parity of its respective events. Thepiano stream presents a consistent nonuplet division of the beat and proceeds at a speed ofMM 756, which is too fast for the listener to perceive as a pulse. 2 Nevertheless the highand regular attack density which one does hear helps to define the stream and to contrast itwith other streams like the cello/bass stream, which has a somewhat lesser and variableattack density, arising from rubato rhythms.Example 12: 'Argument' piano stream has a high, regular attack density1^Parncutt writes that the limits of the durations of time spans for a perceptible pulse are determined byshort-term memory. When the period of a pulse (the time interval between successive events) increases toapproach that of short-term memory, the salience of a pulse percept "levels off to a finite value" (133).Similarly, pulses whose periods exceed "a few seconds cannot evoke a feeling of pulse, as no more than oneof the events of such a pulse can be 'stored' in a single 'chunk' of short-term memory" (133). Based on thework of other psychoacousticians, Parncutt puts the duration of short-term memory at " a few to severalseconds", and rater specifies that "pulse percepts normally have periods in the range 02-1.8 seconds" (133-134).2^Yet Carter clearly expects the fast speed to be perceived; speed will be discussed as attack density inthe section on secondary rhythmic behaviours.54Example 12 (cont.): 'Argument'cello/bass stream has a low, variable attack density3In the above examples the pulses are articulated by the attacks of single events. A pulse canalso be articulated by the attack points of musical gestures comprising several events. In'Anaphora', Example 13 (overleaf), the piano has a series of gestures whose initiatingattack points are always at a distance of twenty-three sixteenth-notes. The gestures havedifferent numbers of attack points, but each is clearly separated from the next by a period ofsilence. The initiating attack point of each gesture is emphasized through high dynamicintensity markings relative to the other pitch events in the gesture and through stressaccents. In this way the pulse is created by the series of equal durations between the attacksof complex, but similar, gestures.55mf68^Example 13: 'Anaphora' mm.3-7pulse:^  23 ji...NP• i^ÁMr^ _^I 11111=1V MEW MN/ Min' -IVAMMEMIIIIMIMMIMMIIMMIMMIZAM=11 _ _MICV"IrMEIMMIMMIi Gar MOM./ AMIN' MEV AMIN^IIILIIMLW IMMEMMIMMIMMMINS ,.■^IIIIIIII MI— =7.=11121.111• IIIIIMI—=MM ---Mr^ 111=111=111---■MMI/AM' MIIMIIIMISIMI MEMmum•MIIMI^1:71'7ArMNIMMOMO MI r iMMENNWP"MMIV.V•MIllraMIAMMIMUMNMaw IMME:i.MMMrliMeMidMMEM.M/^ 23 ^1.2.2 Secondary BehavioursSecondary behaviours support primary behaviours in the definition of an individual stream.While a secondary behaviour cannot define a stream by itself, the consistent changes inproperties that create these behaviours are perceptible and strengthen the distinction of thatstream. Connection BehaviourWhen a stream is defined by one or more primary properties and/or behaviours, thenconnection behaviour between the events in that stream can reinforce the perception of the56333^3A 44/^ il^• iiImo` PS■5MAIVIIOLIZMUIIIIMIM.0 .11 .WW,11101■11f.mwrwimicvm ^• AmammicuoarsmirWO TMPianostream. Connection behaviour occurs when one event is perceived to displace another; thatis, when the attack point of an event is coincident with the release of the preceding event.For example, the piano stream from 'Argument, shown in Example 14a, is definedprimarily by the timbral parity between events, while the connection behaviour betweenpiano events enhances the definition of the stream.Example 14a: 'Argument' m.44The coincident attack and release of successive events is not strictly necessary forconnection to be perceived. In Example 14b, rhythmic connection is perceived as abehaviour of the cello/bass stream in 'Argument', even though the releases of some eventsare delayed across the attack points of succeeding ones. By joining successive cello andbass events notationally on the score with a line, Carter requires the players to emphasizethe connection.Example 14b: 'Argument' mm.46-47conord.Nil^1111a■INIIIIIMIIIIM^ MIIMIVall•^MN 121111■1" r ..1' AIM' ' IIIIIIMMIrlIII■1l•••IMirail■■lIlIl MM II I^Ell 8vbVcl.Cb.571.2.2.2 Register and PitchPitch contour is another secondary stream-defining behaviour that can reinforce ourperception of a stream defined by one or more primary properties and/or behaviours. If thecontour behaviour of a stream is characterized by successive events increasing (ordecreasing, or even alternately increasing and decreasing) consistently in pitch, thencontour can help to define that stream. Determining the contour behaviour of stream whoseevents exhibit connection behaviour is relatively easy, since we simply observe the contourcreated by successive pitch events. However, if the events comprising the stream are notconnected in the same way, for example if they are sustained and overlap, determining thecontour behaviour of the stream is a more complex task. In this study, we will assume that,for each moment, there is a "contour pitch" which is the mean of all the concurrent pitchevents. The contour of that stream is then determined by the contour created by successivecontour pitches. For example, the piano/strings stream in 'Sandpiper' (Example 7, page42), defined by the pitch and interval parity between pairs of events, comprises sustained,overlapping pitch events. If we observe the contour created by successive contour pitches,we can see that this stream is also characterized by the consistent alternating ascending anddescending pitch contour of the gestures. Frequently in Carter's music the rate of attacks isso high that the contour patterns occur over very short time spans and the behaviour is bestdescribed as afluctuation. An example of contour characterized by fluctuation can be seenin the piano stream from 'Argument', excerpted in Example 2 (page 31).There are two special cases of overall contour behaviour that help to define streams. By"overall" contour we mean the underlying contour curve abstracted from the more complexsurface patterns, which ornament this underlying contour. In recent studies theorists havefound ways of measuring contour so that these kind of general statements can justifiably be58•5 5•4- ^ • 55• •^•-to -0 AP-made. 1 In the first case, if a series of events in a stream ascend in overall registralplacement (pitch contour behaviour) we will consider them as undergoing an intensificationof registral placement. In m.51 of 'Sandpiper', shown in Example 15, the oboe stream isdefined by the properties of timbre and registral placement, which is relatively low in theoboe's sounding range. The oboe events that occur in mm.52-53 have the same timbralproperty as the earlier events, but the later ones exhibit an increasingly high registralplacement. The contour fluctuates in mm.52-53, but over a longer time span, mm.51-53,the stream can be described as undergoing an intensification of registral placement.Example 15: 'Sandpiper' mm.51-53 (oboe stream)oboe events intensify in overall registral placement51• ---- ____ --- _ _ ______Ey mimmmummliom■■a=1111m.^•1.4mmaalINIMoomi^ I071• JE^■1/AMENINEWNIII=NIEMM•M=ENEMEIVIEMor ri■Imilmorirrcim-mr■w.r /111.4111•111•.7■••/' /n/NINIENEIPIMIf••■••INIMMN/MMIMMIM.7/EINIMICNITUIM•ii•3/^IMIIIMNIANIIMIC:VW El^PME■111•MINENIL•6•3/9•01/9.01LIGNIM711:77LEAN' ./MITIMIIIIr 1/1/13•VII0C^111111MIT^t:J•■=111 _.^ • ' 1.11M■^I— s --I Nowl_m_wn Pff .f 5  ffIn 'Argument', Example 16 (overleaf), the registral placement behaviour takes place overa longer time span. Throughout the song the piano events are associated in a streamthrough their timbral parity and fluctuating contour within short time spans. At first theregistral placement of the events in the piano stream is relatively low in the piano's registralrange, as can be seen in the piano stream in Example 2 (page 31), and the placementremains unchanged for most of the song. At m.42, however, the stream starts to ascend1^For example, Michael L. Friedmann, in "A Methodology for the Discussion of Contour: itsApplication to Schoenberg's Music" (Journal of Music Theory 29/2 all 1985]: 223-248), has a method fortallying the pitch ascents and descents in a gesture to summarize the overall contour.5^5^5 559registrally, and from here until the end of the song the identity of the stream is strengthenedby the intensification of registral placement of the events. While the stream continues to bedefined by the consistent timbral parity between the events and fluctuating contour withinshort time spans, the property of registral placement is no longer stream-defining and isreplaced by the behaviour of overall intensification of registral placement.Example 16: 'Argument' mm.44-51 (piano stream))^3 ----I44" 3r 3 3 3 ^33(1=iltial..."MIV;;IMMErlalirra=i1=41:MISII.IMI= 1■111Cliii ---_ --^— --I __ - NI^_^ IIII Ilat■INWNI••••■■■■•, .POIYrimi^ CIII1r,■..4.1. WO7:1"'^IIIIWILW r r.3 __,^ unaPPcoP rdaPPP33 ---------,^3^ar-.1W.ball■WICCLIMMIIMW . .1111111.../C^tfr■111■1•WWSICAINNIWIIMIIIMIMAI/Mr.-■IlWMMINOIWIMI11=11■1111111■1111111WWWWW11IM■MNIII■011,INWEIMMO11■••MINIW■IMMN..a.A=11•W.WEMelW.,MIAMINNIMM^NM Ma■-EwaMiOnmWMEMINWInw immat_... I :r_ INI.mmami■—.— _..........memommitmomemmommommammmralluciel.......i. --3^3•.,1fa^ .PP^(*- Pianofbf3 poco riten. _ a tempo 3PianoPiano^ 3 ^ (  ^ ) (PP)Piano360diminishment of registral placementThe second special case involves overall descending pitch contour. If a series of events in astream descend in overall registral placement (pitch contour behaviour), we will considerthem as undergoing a diminishment of registral placement. 1 In Example 17 the marimbastream, defined by the timbral parity and pitch consistency of its events, moves from themiddle to higher registral range in mm.17-19. This intensification of registral placement isfollowed by a significant diminishment behaviour as the registral placement of the marimbaevents drop gradually until they are low in the marimba's registral range in mm.23-24.Example 17: 'Insomnia' mm.17-24intensification of registral placement• 17 MMMMim^MM■^ -3^ 1•1••III Oa I^NCOMUM^mirwrairmirmww.■iliumpwc•ict.rwrirwimilUNIIMMEM11111111111111111111wL,MIIMMIIIMMWitarL7LNEL.PC.09.01.07110 ,1I .7111M•111111111M111111•WAMMEIMMINII1111=1111■1•611•4110111•24116M111111111MNIMMIIIIIMIIMMIIIMMIIIIIUiiiiMilliMil^MINE 111....1.1111 :_-_—==1•= 12 1=====TAIIIINIVIIME.111"16/%01.01.0114.1.111.011r. mains MIIIIidaalliALM6601•41111all6^30^ .^..1v.., MAIM, AMMIIIICW11771WFU=IIIIIMIWAIIII=IILMMINI^NM^—1111.11".11111MIPMEMr^MailmoUni■MNIMMINIMIldlEMPII•1111.11K-LWAIIMIIIMIIIIMMI IPM^ITE71111!••^NIIW:MMIIIN1.2.2.3 Attack DensityAttack density is another example of a reinforcing behaviour that defines a stream incombination with one or more primary properties and behaviours. Attack density is definedas the perceived number of attack points within a given time unit. Although this behaviour1 Berry's term for diminishment is "recession", and his "progression" is akin to my intensification. Inconcept, they are essentially the same. He includes a further process of "stasis", where a texture remainsrelatively unchanged for a time span. I do not believe that there can be a behaviour, or process, of stasis, sincechange is inherent in my definition of behaviour.61Example 18: 'Anaphora' mm.22-23Pianor^ r^.11111•11. AM^ •liM ■ 1MIIM' A,MAL.^IIIM AM' WM •W AMAMI •• AM •^ Wa^LIMMEWMIME^ IMMIMMIMIll,MIM ElE=111=11•1=1111=1•••••11=1•1111=1•111■•i^Tr11216.1 MIIIMIIIMMIll^MDMIIMMIMMEM=IMMI=1.1111•••=111r^ E7._-=_W=PIII1•■•=1,-IM-11•1 ...-.■..■-=_-_-_-=.■/41•fad^ I01.111MMAIMIMII  ^ MERMEN^.roma !maw^imumwmwmp  mommummoss^monmummal•1.11■V =NW _^PUNK! ===.-•=5=----••===VIn.Vla.Vo the forecon quantifiable, it is often more useful to describe it in comparative terms as high or low,relative to other concurrent or proximate attack densities, particularly in music where nobeat is present to mark off the time points. 1 Whether the attack density of a stream isperceived as being high or low is dependent on the relative attack densities of the othersounding streams. In Example 18 the string stream and the piano stream are each definedby the primary property of timbral consistency. The same property makes the two streamsdistinct. Reinforcing this distinction, the string stream has a high attack density relative tothe extremely temporally separated events in the piano stream.PP1 As was discussed in Chapter One, other textural studies, such as that of Mathes, do not take thiscomparative approach, but treat attack density as a "quantifiable" aspect of "lines". Since the music on whichthese studies focus are not always organized into clearly perceptible "lines" that behave independently, I donot find their approaches effective as analytical tools.62The events in this string stream do not share every attack point, nor do their attacksconsistently belong to the same beat subdivision, but their high attack density contributes toone's perception of a stream with a consistent rhythmic behaviour. On the other hand,while events in the piano stream have important properties in common with those of thestring stream -- close registral proximity and pitch consistency -- their attack-densitybehaviour is so different from that of string events that they are perceived as parts of adifferent stream. Registral DensityWhen a stream is defined by one or more primary properties and behaviours, then aconsistent increase or decrease in the registral density of that stream from one time point tothe next can reinforce the definition of the stream. A consistent increase in the number ofsounding events in a stream is described as an intensification of registral density, a termanalogous to that used for ascending pitch contour behaviour (p.11). For example, thepiano/strings stream of 'Sandpiper', which was discussed in Examples 7 and 10 (pages42 and 50 respectively), is partly defined by intensifying registral density behaviour inmm 9-11 (reproduced overleaf in Example 19). Sustained pitch events enter in atemporally staggered manner so that the registral density increases gradually. Thisbehaviour supports the other stream-defining properties and behaviours such as the pitchand interval parity between the events and their consistent contour behaviour.639. Il■8vb9 I)1 99. •=I'7 .^- ",.....■..../a -1L'..'^'-.----s it 7k-••..^Ik2PnoVinVlaVclCbExample 19: 'Sandpiper' mm.9-11In the same way that an increase in the registral density of a stream constitutes anintensification of registral density, a consistent decrease in the number of concurrent eventsparticipating in the stream results in a diminishment of registral density. In the openingmeasures of 'View of the Capitol' a single stream is defined primarily by the pitch andinterval parity between the events and in part by a pulse, as was discussed in Example11, page 53. In mm.4-6, Example 20 (overleaf), the diminishing registral densitybehaviour helps to define this stream. The registral density is significantly reduced until thestream comprises the string events only and is defined by a new property of timbralconsistency. Starting in m.4 the piano and wind events are differentiated from the stringevents and cohere in a stream defined by the pitch and interval parity between the eventsand by a higher attack density than the string stream.64Example 20: 'View of the 'Capitol' mm.4-6r-3 —3 —■ 3 r 3OVTIMIri•■ MMAIWWWW•l■pm:R.111=W=•WININI^rw..WIL,IIWW■1----- W I AMMON= JWMZNILIM..7.-73PP  PP,---^--1...iliWy M^ r1WWW■ ^ 1-3 —, —-- r 3 --13^—....- "----_____---mf PP C mf3Mira'^----'-----4-3^ IMMOMINIMENt■INIIIIIIMinm■lol6.1111110/0.1111•11.MIN^MIIMMOIMIIMISZI, ■111/XEMNMI., MINVWx111.•7111•MIIANNIM ^1.■Nlx■•■X^al.=IIAlM.,-- IMIII=1111 EWE=mrramorPP (,- )PP 1L---^pp^ mp.ppmfF I.Ob.13)'C1.34Piano3 3IVOMMNI'ANEW X X7,11WAINIII■LOVAXA, •11/MI/IIMINII■•LVW,MIMmillW .WWWW^.7m /NW.■ffi!^/CLAMMIVI.'is. i.C, if'W^ MOWW.di-inifm....... ^p■INAir .■00,iIW /.11■•1I=^ MIS)^........,... ^IIIIMINIEN •tr'ear`PP4Perc .VIn.Vla.r--3Vcl.APnif-r-3mf-pC b. mp651.2.2.5 Dynamic Intensity ContourAnother secondary behaviour that involves consistent changes in a property over a timespan is dynamic intensity contour behaviour. If a stream is defined by primary propertiesand behaviours, then parity between the changes in dynamic intensity (in the form ofdecrescendi and crescendi, or repeated abrupt changes) of the events will reinforce theperception of those events as a stream, i.e. if the events have the same contour of dynamicintensity. The dynamic intensity contour of a stream can take the form of decrescendi andcrescendi, or repeated abrupt changes of dynamic intensity. In Example 8, page 47, theevents in 'View of the Capitol' cohere partly because their changes in dynamic intensity aresimilar to each other, as well as because they exhibit pitch and attack point parity. InExample 21 overleaf, an excerpt from 'Argument', all events cohere into a single streambecause they exhibit parity in the primary property of pitch and in the behaviours of pitch-contour and attack-density. The parity in dynamic intensity contour behaviour between allof the events also helps them to cohere into a single stream. For example, during thesecond quarter-note of m.31 all of the events at successive time points are getting louder.The same crescendo behaviour ) is repeated at the end of m.31 and again during the secondquarter-note of m.32. These properties and behaviours combine to overcome the perceptionof separate streams that was discussed in connection with Example 2. In particular, thedistinction between the piano and bongos events is less clear as a result of the parity ofbehaviours between them.1^The term "crescendo behaviour" will be used to mean "intensification of dynamic intensitybehaviour"; similarly, "descrescendo behaviour" will be used instead of "diminishment of dynamic intensitybehaviour".66Example 21: 'Argument' mm.31-32A . - F1.B. - CIBongosPianoLI^..  ^• _^ di g? -12^1., k J _^ -/^r, ''Vc I.C b.Looking back at Example 15 (page 59), the primary behaviour of intensifying registralplacement in the oboe stream is supported by the secondary crescendo behaviour. There isan overall increase in the dynamic intensity in the form of a series of crescendi, so that thehighest pitch events in m.53 are also the loudest.1.2.3 Abrupt Changes in PropertiesA behaviour has been defined as comprising a series of changes in a specific property atsuccessive time points that are consistent from time point to successive time point. Thechanges in that property can also occur abruptly from one time point to the next, and thenremain consistent at some new value. This kind of change in a property does not constitute67a stream-defining behaviour in the sense that this study defines the term, because it is not arepeated series of changes. Either we perceive the start of a new stream because the changeis so dramatic, or we perceive that the established stream has undergone a one-timetransformation. In the latter case the stream is still recognizably the same; one of itsproperties changes, but the other stream-defining properties and behaviours remainconsistent.Timbral transformation is an interesting example of this type of change in a stream-definingproperty because of the primary role that timbre plays in defining streams. Timbraltransformation occurs when the established timbral properties of a stream undergo a one-time change, while the other stream-defining properties and behaviours remain unchanged.In '0 Breath', an excerpt of which is shown in Example 22a overleaf, three streams aredefined partly by attack density, specifically by pulse. 1 The diagram in Example 22b (onthe following page) plots the attack points of events in mm 6-13, showing their timbralproperties. Those events that conform to each of the pulse streams are joined to a solid linewhich represents the pulse. The streams are defined by timbre as well. Stream A compriseswind events, which are attacked at a distance of 43 sixteenth-notes. Stream B comprises thecello and bass events, which are attacked every 65th triplet sixteenth-note. Stream C isdefined by a pulse of attacks separated by 37 dotted quintuplet sixteenth-notes and alsocomprises string events -- in the violin and viola and occasionally in the bass too. Thetimbral distinction of the streams is established in the first nine measures of the song. Then,in m.10, Stream A undergoes a timbral transformation from a pure wind timbre to amixture of winds and strings. The diagram shows how the pulse in Stream A is articulatedby two exclusively wind attacks in mm.6 and 8, before the transformation takes place in1^Some apparent "attacks" on the score are imperceptible onsets in which one instrument takes a pitchover from another.68Example 22a: '0 Breath' mm.6-13A.- F I.E. HB.-CI.4!FR----, ^... —,....----_r.I _^—INI ^itIsIlk.(woods ove lower)FP — FrPre----..,'6 sware.—wAP7,Pyin.Vla.Vcl.Cb.J^J ..J 1-Stream AwindsStream CVln/VlaVcl/CbStream Bperc.J.1 11Example 22b: '0 Breath' mm.6-13MM.^6^7^8^9^10^11^12^13timbre of streams A: purely winds;^ A: winds & stringsB, C: purely stringsm.10 (and is maintained in m.12). Since the events comprising Stream A in m.10 arepreceded by silence, unlike the events in the other streams, they are prominent aurally andthe timbral change is easily perceptible. The stream is still recognizably similar because theattack density behaviour, in the form of the pulse, is maintained.Looking back at Example 2 on page 31 we can see that the alto-flute stream alsoundergoes a transformation of timbre. Initially this stream is defined primarily by thetimbral and pitch parity (B4) between its events, as well as its low attack density. In m.20the stream undergoes a timbral transformation from alto-flute to cello, while the otherproperties remain unchanged. At the end of m.20 another transformation takes place in thestream when the timbre reverts back to alto-flute.1.3 PROCESSESThe third aspect that defines an individual stream is the processes that it undergoes.Processes are perceivable in the changes in established stream behaviours that occur over atime span. If the changes are too severe, the listener will not perceive a single continuousstream but rather one stream being displaced by another. However, in order for the listener70to hear a process within a stream, rather than the establishment of a new stream, some ofthe established properties and behaviours must remain consistent while the others change.1.3.1 Attack DensityThe established attack density behaviour of a stream can undergo a process whereby theattack density of successive time spans increases or decreases consistently. This process,like attack density behaviour itself, cannot alone define a stream and must be combinedwith other primary stream-defining properties and behaviours. A consistent increase in theattack density of a stream between successive time spans is a process of intensification ofattack density. In the excerpt from '0 Breath', Example 23 (overleaf), all the eventsbelong to a single multitimbral stream defined by the property of registral placement, whichis relatively low, and by its low attack density. The rhythmic behaviour of the stream up tom.35 has been characterized by relatively long time spans between successive attacks. Thechange to trill figures, which is initiated by the bass drum roll in m.35, intensifies the attackdensity of the stream considerably. During the following time span the stream is defined bya process of intensification of attack density. This excerpt provides a good example of theinteraction that typically occurs between stream-defining properties, behaviours andprocesses. The properties of registral placement and timbral consistency remain unchanged.The property of registral density changes in a behaviour of intensifying registral density.This intensifying behaviour is supported by a process whereby the attack density behaviouralso intensifies.71p (p)^mpa5 5 5V1n.4).^_ft,^or •E. H.A .- F I .39B.- CI.pp -------------- ----- ^ ---^__.7.-•.--L- 3' jt.^B. Dr.Perc. •r 5• ^5^mptea" r-- ^PPPVcl.-PPP^ppCb.Example 23: '0 Breath' mm.35-37ara:=1 /NMI • ________-__—_:. ME•11111—...•■■•11^■ ^MIlia—^r.^r. M.• ■.-Erffir•nr=ff.W.c _---^- _-^...________- ..._____5P5^ 5■(.. ■ii..... •• • •^•^.^•^• •^•^•^•^•^••...,,,•■ •,,^•—...—...—m.....■—••••=-ir...-,■—•■••...=^J••111.•=MINI.MINI■orrEmirniimp•rsmorrio■•rim .......wri•-■.= .....La Jai.,P..m.101■MIIIM.■•■111111•1UNINIM.M11111."1111i.--••■ --- ..,-________5^•• 5.._. — ppnip _l!BAs••mnI -.mai.nip9111 .c. •nip■-...crwc•  • ba !NMI r• mpIn Example 24, from 'Sandpiper, the attack-density behaviour of the oboe streamchanges while the stream-defining timbral property of the events and their connectionbehaviour remain unchanged. The process of intensification of attack density occurs over aperiod of time and reinforces the perception of a single stream. In this process the time72A. - F 1.E. H.B -C1PercVla.VclCb.24 20 14fixed metrical r A ' ,unit:361116 13 1215 34 4n_tilt ILFI ^ MM.•■•••■•••■•111=11PIMMININWPIMINIIMINEM-111•TEIM -.NAM• Tat^It Aispans between the attack points of successive events become increasingly shorter. In thesame way that pulse is a special case of attack density behaviour, the intensification ofattack density in this excerpt is a special case -- a relatively regular rhythmic acceleration.After the first two pitch events (i.e. starting in m.41), each successive pitch event isattacked at an ever decreasing multiple of a fixed metrical unit. The time span betweenadjacent attacks measured in quintuplet sixteenth-notes is: 24 - 20 - 14 - 16 - 13 - 12 - 11 -10 - 9 - 8 - 7 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3 - 4 - 1. Although this series is not completely regular, the effectof gradual acceleration is unmistakable.Example 24: 'Sandpiper' mm.36-50 (oboe stream)73A consistent decrease in the attack density between successive time spans is a process ofdiminishment of attack density. In the excerpt from 'Insomnia' in Example 17 on page 61the marimba stream, defined primarily by the timbral parity between its events, is alsodefined in mm.17-19 by its high attack-density and ascending pitch-contour behaviours. Inmm.20-22 the behaviour of diminishing registral placement occurs together with a processof diminishment in attack density as the marimba articulates a series of descending singlepitches separated by increasingly long durations of silence, in mm.20-22. The primarystream-defining property of timbral consistency remains unchanged during these otherchanges in properties and behaviours.Diminishment of attack density can take place abruptly, as in the above example, orgradually. In the next excerpt, mm.38-41 of 'Anaphora', two streams are defined in part bydiminishments of attack density. The first process occurs gradually in the vocal stream,reproduced in Example 25a (overleaf), which is defined primarily by its timbralconsistency and, initially, by its high attack density. In mm.38-40 the time spans betweenthe attack points of successive events become increasingly longer. 1 The seconddiminishment of attack density occurs more abruptly when the aggregate high attack densityof the instrumental stream in mm 39-40 is reduced suddenly at the end of m.40 as theevents group into two successive sustained sonorities. As can be seen in Example 25bthe other stream-defining properties and behaviours, like timbre, registral placement andregistral density remain consistent across this change.1 This example is similar to the intensification of attack density discussed in Example 24 (page 73),in that the adjustments made in the durations between successive event attacks are multiples of a fixed metricalunit. In 'Anaphora' the time spans between adjacent attacks measured in triplet eighth-notes are: 2 - 1 - 2 - 3 -4 - 5, thereby creating a rhythmic deceleration.745inmurU111111111111M 5155Example 25a: 'Anaphora' mm.38-41 (vocal stream)383 r_ 3 r_ 3^3 r 3 —1^r— 3 -I vocal stream Ir,..• ____111•MINWE11,1 JEW AM•M•MM•MII1•/ •=Mir issir 111=111WMEIJIff-^WICLIM•■•••mr■-■.= Alm(dreaming squandered) up-on^him o with^that look,^suf - (fers)Example 25b: 'Anaphora' mm.39-41A.F1ObBb Clr- -1a^ .....A.....NV Ill W MIN 1...T.1.4■kr^■IAIIIMIIIMIlr IIIIMMINEY JIMitiLdrIW 1111111W JIIMIMMIr 1=M11111=M1111317/111111Ir. .111R-- 7^MINIMINIUMNIIIMIIMINIIIVIMor AIM" AC A1111=111.71 1UllL►A110.1• MIMINIIIIMIMMIU JIIIMIlior MI^•Ir All' lithor 11■11IW INNIMIKIIIIII ^3 _1_I_. ^ Exixaswir• zsmor .7.14=srIOW^L_^L__ ___Jr-- —1MEM .111^ •AMINIMEW^ MINIONINIM■IIIM1.11111111• -■INYAW /11•^111' AGT■NIMIIMININIOW340 1- 35iliaarm Numsor --IVlaor 1:^111111111■•:Ior^.11111.1111^yinVcl 0L.,mar •mmr.11111 UI!! I/SalI►1111Cbti8vbThere are two special types of changes in a stream's attack density behaviour that affect ourperception of that stream in a different way than do the intensification and diminishment751414141417178pulse r Yi 1unit: ^2 WMPicc3Vln5pulse unit:17processes discussed above. In the first type, extremely regular changes in attack densitybehaviour may take the form of a cross-pulse, which is created by the simultaneousprocedure of two (or more) different pulses. The systematic coordination of the attackpoints belonging to the related pulses can reinforce the perception of a single stream if thatstream is defined by other primary properties and behaviours. 1 In 'Insomnia', Example26, the piccolo/violin stream is characterized primarily by the registral and timbral paritybetween the events, discussed in Example 4 (page 37). The stream is further defined by across-pulse in which a piccolo event is attacked every 17th triplet sixteenth-note, while anattack in the violin occurs every 14th quintuplet sixteenth-note. Because of the way inwhich Carter coordinates the pulses, the attacks alternate without becoming perceptiblycloser or further apart from each other, and thereby contributing to a process ofintensification or diminishment. In this excerpt, then, the process of regularly changingattack density behaviour supports the other stream-defining properties.Example 26: 'Insomnia' mm.2-51 Carter frequently uses cross-pulses to structure his music rhythmically, but does not believe that thecross-pulses need to be perceptible all of the time, and can fade in and out of "perceptible order". In aninterview he stated that: ' these polyrhythmic passages, which at times give the impression of almost hystericaldisorganization are in the end part of a graspable order, and if they can be heard both ways, that's what Iwant (Flawed Words and Stubborn Sounds, 114).76Another special case of changing attack density behaviour occurs when the attack density ofa stream repeatedly fluctuates down to zero. Repeated zero values for attack density meansthat the stream is proceeding intermittently. In other words, groups of events, in which theattack density is greater than zero, form gestures that are separated by silence during whichthe attack density is zero. The temporally separated continuities are recognizable as a singleinterrupted continuity provided the other aspects that define them as a stream remainunchanged. How long a silence can separate the gestures before one's perception of acontinuity is destroyed depends on the distinctiveness of that stream relative to its context.In general, temporally separated continuities are recognizable as a stream when theymaintain consistent, identifiable properties and behaviours, when the separate gesturesoccur twice or more, and when the occurrences are in relatively close temporaljuxtaposition.This type of extremely fluctuating attack-density behaviour, where a stream proceeds withintermittent gestures, can help to define a stream particularly if each gesture is of a similarduration. In Example 2 (page 31) the two bongos gestures (m.19 and m.21), separatedby two full measures of silence, are associated as part of the same stream because of theirparity in timbre, contour behaviour, dynamic intensity behaviour and attack density -- bothgestures have relatively high attack densities and similar duration. The bongos stream isthus defined by timbral consistency, contour behaviour, dynamic intensity behaviour and arhythmic process whereby gestures of similar duration and high attack densities proceedintermittently. 11^Referring back an excerpt from 'Anaphora', shown Example 13 on page 56, we can observe thatthe piano stream is defined (in part) by a similar rhythmic process as the bongos stream in 'Argument',proceeding with intermittent gestures. In 'Anaphora', however, the stream is also defined by a pulse.77rXrrrIrrrIIrw•-•—m==m======L 3 _I L 3J L.3 L3 JWhen a stream proceeds with intermittent gestures, events that are dissimilar in someprimary aspect can cohere as a stream. For example, timbrally distinct gestures can beassociated as a stream because of their temporal proximity to each other, provided there isparity in some other primary property or behaviour between them. That is, two or moregestures with dissimilar timbres can cohere in a stream if they sound together and areseparated by shared silence. In Example 27, the marimba/viola stream, whose primarystream-defining aspects were discussed in Example 4 (page 37), is also characterized bythe temporal proximity of the marimba and viola gestures. The marimba and viola eventssound together in m.3 and there are no marimba or viola events in m.4. 1 This process ofsystematic changes in attack-density behaviour supports the parity in register, pitch andattack density between the same events.Example 27: 'Insomnia' mm.3-53 r—KMEN11:::maged,-.1,-Mar 1%^ .orpoimINAMALA.011.11././.■INVASIMMIIII•11111MMIMMIIIMINILINE=1111_—______L JL J LPPsul pont. • • •AL/MIMW=.141===MEMICKliMMMr II III IvyIIIIMMIIMMINIVAAMONIMMEPC0^PIPWIPIP111"L"Vla LfiM111111111111■111 NOM=E. ==0L 3 _1L 3 L 3 j(PP)1 Once it has been established that timbrally different events cohere in a stream in this way, one timbralevent (or gesture) can sound without temporal proximity to another event with which it is usually concurrent(like the marimba gesture in m.5), without the stream losing its coherence. The change that is perceived couldbe perceived as a tunbral transformation or, in more extreme circumstances, could result in the perception of anew stream.782. COMBINED STREAMSIn the preceding discussion, an examination of an excerpt from Carter's A Mirror on Whichto Dwell introduced the concept of streams. Individual streams were discussed in terms ofthe musical properties, behaviours and processes that define them. Properties can beevaluated at any given time point, while behaviours and processes are perceivable over atime span. Behaviours result from changes in properties and processes result from changesin stream behaviours. These aspects were discussed and illustrative musical examples fromthe Mirror cycle were examined to observe the ways in which individual streams aredefined.In some of the examples two or more individual streams were observed proceedingconcurrently. Clearly streams do not usually proceed in isolation and are frequentlycombined. Changes in the properties of individual streams can affect the overall behaviourof concurrent streams, while changes in stream behaviours can create processes involvingcombined streams. In fact, the interaction between simultaneous streams with distinctproperties and behaviours can result in other processes.This combination of individual streams is fundamental to musical texture. A definition oftexture in Carter's music can now be proposed: It comprises those contextually definedaspects of sound which lead one to perceive music as consisting of distinct streams.Behaviours and processes of streams, the ways in which streams are combined, and thechanges that occur in stream combinations can have symbolic and musical functions andthus can play a role in the delineation of form. 11 In Structural Functions Berry defines a number of "functional processes by which forms are shaped,and by which expressive functional events... are projected" (241). Although his terminology for theindividual processes differs from mine, there are similarities in our broad definitions. The functionalprocesses" that "shape" forms can be compared to the processes I define which are brought about byconsistent changes in the established behaviours of the events in a stream. Berry describes processes as"projecting functional events"; my analytical framework involves considering an event, or, more usually, a79In the next section some of the ways in which Carter combines streams are examined andthe behaviours and processes of combined streams are discussed. Following this, thefunctions of these textural processes and behaviours are discussed and their formalsignificance is examined.2.1 TYPES OF COMBINATIONCarter combines streams in two fundamental ways. In the first type of combination,alternation, each distinct stream proceeds intermittently. The alternation need not be of arepeating ordered sequence; it simply implies that gestures in any one stream are relativelydistinct temporally from gestures in the other streams. In the opening of 'Argument' eachsuccessive stream gesture -- winds/strings, bongos, piano or cello/bass -- is separated fromthe preceding one by a time span of silence, ensuring a clear alternation. The excerpt inExample 28, reproduced overleaf, shows how four intermittent streams alternate in theorder: winds/strings, bongos, piano, cello/bass, bongos, piano.The second type of combination is concurrence, in which two or more distinct streamsproceed simultaneously. In this combination type, the events in at least one of theparticipating streams must unfold continuously. In 'Insomnia', see Example 4 on page 37(also Examples 26 and 27 on pages 76 and 78), the piccolo/violin stream proceedscontinuously and is combined simultaneously with the marimba/viola stream, whichproceeds intermittently.series of events, as constituting a stream, and these streams can have musical (or symbolic) functions. As Iintroduce each process in the ensuing section I will provide Berry's equivalent term and discuss anydifferences between the two.80• r^bring out (solo)mf PPC mf^ FPsub.un--  Sounds one octave lower.^eV -pp^7L.psub. Fingers4 BongosJr^-Pianomono(-blur°,01preLimpetunsoCelloContrabass •f dramatically3^4P mfSoprano.^......v,2,^c........-- , — _ ^ :, 3 --_ APP,,ni.^ac,,,,^„y.. su .roach)—Dri.'"....-•II^riw■M■^:ma^my•■ ii■ =OM= :4+Alto FluteBassClarinetExample 28: 'Argument' mm.1-5Allegro agitato (.1 = 84)24,■Llil•5r---5^----1 r- 5 ^'1FMIC irli Ed^It mail WINSI^r '3'^t 3-'3 'a^ 3=^mf• .^—i3I11PETLIA!! _ •A.3 ^iiiIMMIii^ III 1 ^,4 • -----) rnfIf^,PP--=iyip =_-___—=^-meno f^fS op.A.- F1.BongosPianoVcl.C b.81The combination of individual streams can involve a mixture of concurrency andalternation. In his music Carter often creates a counterpoint of streams through complexcombinations and interactions of individual streams, analogous to the interaction of lines inconventional counterpoint. In 'Argument', for example, distinct individual streams arecombined in a variety of ways. In mm.17-20, shown in Example 2, the alto flute/cellostream, defined primarily by the pitch coherence between events, proceeds continuouslywith a sustained B4. Gestures in the piano and bongos streams alternate. Thus the altoflute/cello stream is concurrent first with the piano stream and then with the bongos stream.Starting at the end of m.20 the combination is further complicated when the events in thecello/bass stream overlap with both the alto flute and bongos streams. The overlapping ofstreams introduced here develops until all the streams are concurrent, as was seen inExample 21 on page 67. The other various ways in which Carter creates a counterpointof streams will be discussed in the analyses of the complete songs in Chapter Four.2.2 BEHAVIOURSWhen changes occur in the property of an individual stream that is combined with otherstreams, the behaviour of that stream can affect the overall behaviour of the combinedstreams. 1 Changes in the overall texture can also occur because individual streamsproceeding simultaneously have the same behaviour: for example, both may haveintensifying registral density. Whatever the origins of the changes, the behaviours of the1^Like single streams, combined streams are defined by certain consistent properties, but, since thisstudy is concerned more with the ways in which properties change and the effect that these changes have,these properties will not be discussed.82combined streams will be described here by the adjectives "composite", "aggregate" or"overall".2.2.1 Composite Registral DensityA consistent increase from one time point to the next in the composite registral density ofmultiple concurrent streams creates an intensification of composite registral density.Intensification in composite registral density can occur as a result of intensification ofregistral density within one or more concurrent streams and/or by the entrance of newstreams. Similarly, a consistent decrease from one time point to the next in the overallregistral density of multiple concurrent streams creates a diminishment of compositeregistral density. This diminishment can be the result of diminishment of registral densitywithin one or more concurrent streams and/or through the cessation of sounding stream(s).2.2.2 Composite Dynamic Intensity ContourAn intensification of composite dynamic intensity contour occurs when the overall loudnessincreases. In future references, the rather cumbersome phrase "intensification of compositedynamic intensity contour" will be replaced by "composite crescendo behaviour". Thisaggregate stream behaviour can result from a crescendo in one or more concurrent streams,or it can be the result of intensifying composite registral density, even if the dynamicintensity of the individual streams remains constant. Similarly, when the overall loudnessdecreases, the behaviour is considered to be a diminishment of composite dynamicintensity: composite decrescendo behaviour.832.3 PROCESSESA process involving combined streams can take place when changes occur in the behaviourof one or more of the individual streams in the combination, and because of the particularway in which the streams are combined. Like processes in an individual stream, thesecombined stream processes occur over a time span and, while changes take place in specificbehaviours, other stream-defining properties and behaviours should remain unchanged sothat the listener perceives a process within the original stream combination rather than theestablishment of new streams.2.3.1 Composite Attack DensityThe composite attack density of combined streams can undergo a process of intensificationor diminishment. Intensification of composite attack density occurs as a result ofintensifying attack density behaviour in one or more concurrent streams, and/or theentrance of new concurrent stream(s). Diminishment of composite attack density occurswhen the overall attack density behaviour of an aggregate of streams decreases insuccessive time spans. This process takes place because of diminishing attack densitybehaviour in one or more concurrent streams, and/or because streams simply cease tosound.2.3.2 FusionFusion is a interstream process that occurs when distinct streams that are combined(concurrent or alternating) lose their distinctiveness because the changes in their respective84behaviours make them merge and become indistinguishable. 1 Fusion often involves otherprocesses and behaviours that have already been discussed, like intensification ordiminishment of attack density.In 'Argument', Example 29 (overleaf), a number of individual streams fuse as a result ofthe changes they undergo and the way in which they are combined. The cello/bass stream ischaracterized by the timbral parity between its events, by its consistent contour behaviour,by the low registral placement of the events, as well as by its high attack density. The windstream is defined in m.27 by the timbral parity between its events, the registral proximityand mid-range registral placement of the events, and its low attack density (sustained pitchevents). Starting in m.28 with the bass clarinet this stream becomes increasingly similar inbehaviour and properties to the string stream, and both streams proceed continuously. Thepiano stream and the bongos stream are each defined by their timbral consistency,fluctuating contour and their attack density behaviours -- high and intermittent. (Thedistinction between the high attack densities of the events in the piano and the cello/bassstreams was discussed in Example 12 on page 54). There is growing parity in the attackdensity, registral placement and pitch contour behaviour between the streams -- the attackdensities of all the streams become high, the pitch contour behaviours are characterized byfluctuation and the events in the streams cover the same registral range. By mm.31-32 theindividual streams lose their distinctiveness and merge into a single stream. Retrospectively1 In his discussions on interlinear relationships Berry describes a similar process, although he does notdefine it as "fusion". For example, on pp.188-189 he discusses how four "components" that are diverse inrhythm and "direction of movement" gradually become more similar to each other in these respects until theycombine in "one real component". Berry's terminology and method is adequate for his textural analysis of afour-part Milhaud Sonnet, but does not work well for music, like Carter's, whose "components" are far morecomplex than vocal lines. Furthermore, although the interlinear changes occur in the context of a "recession",Berry does not make it clear whether this kind of process will always result in recession or not. By defining aseparate process of fusion, I provide the flexibility for this process to proceed independently of, orconcurrently with, processes of diminishment or intensification.85Example 29: 'Argument' mm.27-32A.-^ IB. - CI.BongosPianoVol.C can hear this single stream coalescing as the culminating intensification of registraldensity and attack density of all the preceding streams.A special case of fusion occurs when two or more individual streams, each defined in partby a pulse, merge because of our perception of the emerging relationship between thepulses. The single stream that results from the fusion is then defined by a cross-pulse. Inthis process the cross-pulse, to use Carter's phrase, "fades into perceptible order". 1 Theordered relationship between the two pulses (hence the streams) becomes perceptible to thelistener and the individual streams are heard to merge into a single stream. In 'Anaphora',reproduced overleaf in Example 30, two streams fuse as a result of the emerging cross-pulse relationship between them. The piano stream, which was discussed in Example 13on page 56, is defined by its timbral consistency and attack density behaviours -- itproceeds with intermittent gestures that articulate a pulse. The initiating attack point of eachpiano gesture is always at a distance of twenty-three sixteenth-notes from the previous oneand is emphasized through high dynamic intensity markings relative to the other pitchevents in the gesture and through stress accents. The vibraphone stream is also defined bythe timbral parity between its events and by similar rhythmic behaviours -- it proceedsintermittently and articulates a different pulse in a slightly different way. Like in the pianogestures, one attack point in each gesture is accented though dynamic intensity, in the formof a crescendo culminating on the pitch, and through the use of accents. Unlike the pianogestures, this highlighted attack point is not the first attack of the gesture, but one in themiddle of the gesture. The distance between the accented vibraphone pitch events in eachgesture is sixty-six triplet thirty-second-notes or, occasionally, sixty-four or sixty-fivetriplet thirty-second-notes (which are perceptibly the same to the listener). Cartercoordinates the streams so that the attack points articulating the pulses gradually become1^See footnote on page 76.87r-- 3 ---tG5Example 30: 'Anaphora' mm.16-23PPV 6. Vib.Piano2.3 23,0 Pr 3 -1(.7r3-152. PP.-^ .9°J'^Piano 53ffVib.PianoI=1.■5ff= 23 mr^25(vt-th.• tempo moaulatlorv)closer to each other until they articulate their only simultaneous attack in the entire song inm.23. The close relationship between the pulses emerges from about m.16 and the twopulse streams are gradually heard to merge into a single stream.A cross-pulse can also define an individual stream without fusion taking place, as was seenearlier, in Example 26 on page 76, where the piccolo/violin stream from Insomnia' isdefined by the cross-pulse between the piccolo and the violin events. In this example thecoordination of the individual pulses is such that the attacks articulating the pulses alternateconsistently and do not become perceptibly closer or further apart from each other.2.3.3 SplittingA process of splitting also involves the interaction of streams and takes place when theproperties and behaviours of events in a stream diverge to create two or more distinctstreams. This may occur, for example, when streams that have fused resume theirindividual identity once again, or when a single stream splits into two or more distinctstreams. 1 Splitting, like fusion, often involves other processes and behaviours that havealready been discussed. Looking back at Example 20 on page 65, the diminishment ofregistral density taking place in the stream that opens 'View of the Capitol' is partly a resultof the splitting process that the stream undergoes as it divides into a string stream, withmost of the same properties and behaviours as the original stream, and a piano/windsstream with new properties and behaviours.1^Berry does not have a term for splitting, although he describes the same fundamental process as achange in the relations between linear "components" (186-190).89In 'Anaphora', Example 31 (overleaf), a single multitimbral stream also splits into threedistinct individual streams in the opening measures. The song opens with a stream which isdefined by the pitch and registral parity between the events, and by its consistentlyfluctuating contour and high attack density. Although the events in the vibraphone, pianoand bass do not exhibit the behaviours of high attack density and fluctuating contour, thepitch and attack-point parity between these events and the other concurrent events masksthe differences, and they are perceived initially as part of the same stream.' After thefortissimo flourish of the opening two measures, three distinct streams can be perceived --piano, vibraphone and winds/strings. The properties and behaviours that define the pianoand vibraphone streams starting in m.3 were discussed above in Example 30 (before thefusion process occurs). Each individual stream is defined by its timbral properties andattack-density behaviours, proceeding with intermittent gestures that articulate a pulse,while the two streams are made distinct from each other by their dissimilarity of timbre.The winds/strings stream continues with the same fluctuating contour and high attackdensity as the original stream. Although the three streams continue to share properties likeregistral placement and pitch consistency, their distinctive contour and rhythmic behavioursdissociate them into distinct, simultaneous continuities. The process of splitting that occurshere is indicative of the kinds of textural processes that recur throughout the piece and thatare essential to its musical progression. These will be discussed further in Chapter Four.1^In retrospect, it is clear that the seeds of division are contained in the opening, in the form of thesemasked events.90ViolinViolaVioloncelloContrabass • •jul„( in° sip:rV-137—-#V T--"`I^.—''^ --------- ------1---w..—.^fff:S. ..,,..88 -90 (AllegroAlto FluteiuVibraphonePianoOboeClarinetinExample 31: 'Anaphora' mm.1-4Ob.Vib.PianoVia.VIa.Vcl.Cb.•r41.,,^■'': .■■iMe^_ ^ -^esWO., MEM= MB,e,^ CrIN.11M .illiall.:P_,---•5P^_^f...—„,.._ .UMWP^3— -- - -- --- ---P_Lie......-...■• ^--^re■ri===priZe■^.11M.■, .■,.„.. ^•=4: see■eee^leiew.,■■••^ -.  ^Nil --P.--...,.....--^...,„..-, ,^t.4-^J • . 59 -60-.■...^...■ .... ..■.....■., a.. .■ ...■ a■ a=r,,....■-■.....:.:- ^ ......,■,..^=':: -....,^....,---_■.--- p--...--=---...,.■^ -. -- •---rma. ■.. ir:-.—'.,......m......, ... .... .....•■■•., ....... .^......------— -1.— ----— ----^.....-..-=.J.•-,•— NM Me O.= ■■••■ -^—"WI— —Ma. =.'--e--,..o..:=4424:2■Mr". .., 1,.■:,..i.,?::: ...:Tre:',■,==■^......r=r,SEN.._^•■^• all ftlt0i0111011 feel as possible^ P2.3.4 FocussingFocussing is a process that involves the emergence of a series of successive events fromone or more streams through various musical means so that the listener's attention isfocussed on that series. In this process the series of events temporarily forms a distinctstream, which proceeds concurrently with the stream(s) it has emerged from. Althoughfocussing can occur through a change in the established properties and behaviours ofcertain events in a stream (while the other streams proceed concurrently), in Carter's musicthe stream which is being focussed on is usually marked by a solo playing instruction. 1Focussing recurs periodically throughout 'Argument', as can be seen in the openingmeasures, reproduced in Example 28, page 81. In mm.3-4, the events in the double bassare marked as solo with the playing instruction "bring out" in order to focus the listener'sattention momentarily on that element of the total texture. The prominence of the bassevents is enhanced by stress accents.The other concurrent streams do not have to be silent for a focussing process to beperceived by the listener. Referring back to an excerpt from 'Anaphora', Example 18 onpage 62, one notices how the listener's focus is shifted briefly to the events in the cello inmm.22-23 while simultaneous events in the string stream continue. The emergence of thecello stream is made explicit by the playing instruction "to the fore" and by the rhythmicdistinction of the cello events from the other concurrent string events. The moment is short-lived and the cello events soon fade back into the stream.1^Some of the examples of focussing in Carter's music are analogous to the more traditional texturalprocess of a change from equal voiced counterpoint to solo line with accompaniment.92Another kind of focussing occurs when individual pitch events, defined by one or moreparticular property, are repeatedly highlighted. An example of this kind of focussing takesplace in the piccolo/violin stream in 'Insomnia'. Here the pitch C#7/Db7 recurs throughoutthe song, usually stated as a piccolo event and, occasionally, a violin event. The referentialpitch is made prominent by its extremely high registral placement and distinctive timbre --the piccolo and violin are timbrally almost identical in this register -- rather than by playinginstructions as in the above examples. The first two occurrences of the highlighted pitch,the piccolo event in m.2 and the violin event in m.3, have been circled in Example 32. 1Example 32: 'Insomnia' mm.2-52.3.5 EmulationEmulation is a interstream process that occurs when one stream undergoes changes andimitates another, concurrent stream by emulating some of its properties and behaviours.This process differs from fusion because, in emulation, the two streams remain distinctfrom each other in some properties and/or behaviours. In the songs in the Mirror cycleemulation almost always involves the voice, and the special timbral distinction of the vocal1^The other statements of the referential pitch occur as piccolo events in m.6, m.10, m.19 and m.31.93it-5■,......./41",,........,•stream, discussed earlier, ensures that it remains a separate stream. In 'Sandpiper' the voicefrequently emulates one or more of the other concurrent streams, as we can see inExample 33. In mm.5-6, shown in Example 33a, the vocal stream is defined by legatoarticulation and a medium attack density with duple subdivision of the beat, and it featuresm6 dyads between successive events. In mm.7-9, Example 33b (overleaf), severalproperties and behaviours change, and the vocal stream starts to emulate aspects of theoboe and pizzicato string streams. (The pizzicato string stream is defined by the timbralconsistency and pizzicato staccato articulation of its events, and by a triplet eighth-notepulse). In mm.8 and 9, for example, the voice imitates the staccato articulation of both theoboe and string streams. While the attack density of the vocal stream does not changemuch, it now emulates, intermittently, the triplet pulse articulated by the string stream. Thevocal stream's intervallic properties are also altered when the voice features 2nds and 3rdsbetween successive events like the oboe stream, instead of m6's. As a result of thisemulation process, the the vocal stream becomes more closely associated with the otherconcurrent streams while still maintaining its distinction.Example 33a: 'Sandpiper' mm.5-6 (vocal stream)94ll'AMIC*11■1111=11•1171^OP"^14111•11•10111.■ zawir mr moor^MAW,/ 1011,1MMIIIIMINEItf..71^1111r JIICIP"Mr JIMI1111116■16■1110f^ Mit1111=X:P•MP9.1rwAsemora.d■ =Immo^ MIIIIMMIMMW:34111601=MOar MilW■MMINME11...1 02" JIMOINIWW9ErIN9111/"10117911=11111•1111111•1•101=11 ,1•01.1r LI:P•1111=MIUMMITOICIPILMNIMIIINIMAIVMMIr 1■1111101Adif^Awl ArillIMA41.911•111179;IPT 1117.11C LT/1111L,C16ITMIT:Y.AarW/111/.011.1'•^ ;s. •pizz.Example 33b: 'Sandpiper' mm.7-92.3.6 CompensationA process of compensation takes place when one or more streams cease, or undergodiminishment processes, at the same time as the remaining stream(s) come to the fore,usually because of various intensification processes. In a compensatory process weperceive that growth (intensification) in one stream compensates for the coincidental relativesonic and polyphonic thinness in another stream(s). In an excerpt from 'Sandpiper'immediately following the previous excerpt, shown in Example 34 (overleaf), a processof compensation occurs in the instrumental streams. Preceding m.9 the texture wasdominated by the oboe and pizzicato string streams, as was seen in Example 33b.Starting in m.9 a new arco string stream starts to take over and, in m.10, the pizzicatostream is reduced to events in the cello. In the next measure the pizzicato stream ceases andthe registral density of the 'arco stream' intensifies as events in the piano combine with95A '_0 b. 11.I^ .....====mmes=••• ;•PianoVin.Vla.V c 1 .Cb.ww ,1"--IM=• 41:PPlegatoPP3legatoVia.Vc 1.C b.;MIPPExample 34: 'Sandpiper' mm.9-13pp tra96string events to form the piano/strings stream that was discussed earlier in Examples 7and 19 (pages 42 and 64). This stream now dominates the texture. Coincidentally, inm.11, the oboe stream starts to fade into the background -- it diminishes in registralplacement, undergoes a decrescendo, and the oboe events start to group into shortergestures separated by longer time spans. In this example increased intensity in thepiano/strings stream compensates for the cessation of the pizzicato string stream and thediminishments in the oboe stream.CONCLUSIONIn this chapter a theory of musical texture has been presented. Individual streams have beendefined in terms of their properties, behaviours and processes. We have seen how streamscombine and how textural processes and behaviours result from different combinations andchanges in individual and composite stream behaviours. Musical excerpts from Carter's AMirror on Which to Dwell have been examined to support the theory. In the next chapterwe will examine some of the ways in which textural streams, their processes andbehaviours function musically and symbolically to delineate the form of the songs.97CHAPTER THREE: FUNCTIONSINTRODUCTIONIn the preceding chapter we have examined the ways in which individual streams combineand have discussed the behaviours and processes that constitute texture, as it was definedon page 79. The distinct streams of each composition, as well as the textural behavioursand processes that are generated by changes in properties and behaviours, have functionalroles. They can have a purely musical function, for example, one of intensification leadingto climax, or one of recession leading to a cadence. In the songs in A Mirror on Which toDwell, streams and textural processes also function symbolically to connote certainpersonae or actions described in the text. In both cases streams and the textural processesthat they undergo serve to delineate the form. In most of Carter's songs, because of theclose relationship between text and music, processes have both musical and symbolicfunctions.In this chapter, the symbolic functions of streams are examined first, followed by themusical functions, and the ways in which these textural behaviours and processes help toarticulate the forms of the songs are discussed. The dual functional role of certain processes(symbolic and musical) will be mentioned only briefly in this section and discussed morefully in the analyses in Chapter Four.981. SYMBOLIC FUNCTIONS1.1 Streams Representing PersonaeIndividual streams can signify personae in the text. The properties and behaviours thatdefine a distinct stream often have non-musical connotations which correlate withcharacteristics of the persona. Certain conditions must exist for the association between astream and a persona to be made by the listener. The text must present at least two personaewith contrasting characteristics. Two individual distinct streams must have properties andbehaviours that contrast with each other. The properties and behaviours of one stream mustconnote the characteristics of one persona and the properties and behaviours of the otherstream must connote the characteristics of the other persona through their non-musicalassociations. The association of a persona and the corresponding stream must beestablished through the musical setting of textual descriptions of the persona with thecorresponding stream.The song 'Sandpiper' is a good example of the way in which streams can functionsymbolically to represent personae. The text of 'Sandpiper' presents an opposition of twopersonae, the sandpiper and the ocean, as can be seen in the table reproduced overleaf asExample 35. The bird is small in comparison to the vast, deep ocean. The sandpiper is aconscious individual in contrast to the ocean, a vast physical entity controlled byimpersonal forces. While the bird's movements and thoughts are quick and change rapidly,the ocean is characterized by slow, flowing, repetitive movements.Comparing how the streams are distinguished musically with how the personae areopposed, we see a correlation between the oboe stream (see Examples 15 and 24 onpages 59 and 73) and the bird, and the piano/strings stream (discussed in Examples 7,9919 and 34 on pages 42, 64 and 96) and the ocean. Although the oboe stream does notreproduce the sounds that a sandpiper makes (except for a few multiphonic squawks), theproperties and behaviours of the stream connote the sandpiper's character, actions andthoughts. The properties and behaviours of the piano/strings stream contrast with those ofthe oboe stream to connote the ocean and its wave motion. In Example 35 the propertiesand behaviours that define each stream are tabulated together with their non-musicalconnotations (the characteristics of the personae) below them.Example 35: 'Sandpiper'registralplacementconnectionbehaviourattack density contourbehaviouroboe stream high (relative single line of high but randomto other events) connectedpitchesfluctuant fluctuationsandpiper smallness continuity of aconsciousindividualfast and rapidlychangingmovements andthoughtspiano/stringsstreamlow (relativeto oboe events)indistinct,overlappingpitch eventslow consistentlyascending anddescendingocean depth, vastness movement ofunconnectedphysical quantacaused byimpersonalforcesslow, flowing,repetitivemovementsIn both cases the registral placement and connection behaviour of the stream depict apersona in a rather abstract way. The high registral placement of the oboe stream isassociated with smallness, while the consistent connection behaviour connotes thecontinuity of an individual being; hence the sandpiper of the title. In contrast, an image of100the ocean is evoked through the low register of the piano events in the piano/strings stream,associated with depth and vastness, and the lack of connection behaviour. Attack densityand contour behaviour represent more specifically the physical movements of the personaeand, in the case of the sandpiper, the bird's mental actions too. The high attack density andrapidly changing contours of the oboe stream depict both the bird's fast, jerky physicalmovements and his disturbed mental state. The lower attack density and consistentlyascending and descending contours of the piano/strings stream portray the ocean waves thatebb and flow alongside the sandpiper. Any one of these properties and behaviours by itselfwould not connote a persona, but the combination of all of them strengthens theconnotations. Further, the associations between personae and streams are made by thelistener as the song progresses and are sometimes only perceived retrospectively sincesome characteristics of the personae are presented later in the text while the properties andbehaviours of the streams are often established at the beginning of the song.Clearly the defining properties and behaviours of the two streams in 'Sandpiper' contrastsignificantly, for example the high registral placement and high attack density of the oboestream versus the low registral placement and low attack density of the piano/stringsstream. Thus the symbolic representation in this example depends as much on theopposition of the properties and behaviours of the streams as it does on their actual values.The listener's association of a different persona with a corresponding stream is made bysetting textual descriptions of the persona with the connotating stream. For example, whenthe text is describing the bird, the oboe stream either proceeds alone or comes to the foreaurally through various musical devices and processes.Once the symbolic associations of a stream have been established, the signification of apersona can be reinforced by an independent stream emulating the properties andbehaviours of that stream. For instance, the emulation process that occurs in 'Sandpiper',101discussed in Example 33 on pages 94 and 95, associates the previously independentvocal stream with the oboe stream and pizzicato streams. As we have seen, the oboe streamsignifies the sandpiper, as does the pizzicato stream (to be discussed in the analysis of thesong in Chapter Four). In this way, the image of the sandpiper is reinforced, and musicassociated with the bird dominates the texture.1.2 Processes Representing ActionsThe combination of streams and the textural behaviours and processes involving changes inbehaviours can represent actions that are described in the text. The representation is oftenquite direct. Let us examine a passage from 'Insomnia', reproduced overleaf in Example36, for examples of stream processes representing actions. In mm.20-22 diminishment ofregistral placement and of attack density behaviour takes place in the marimba stream, aswere described in Example 17 on page 61. The diminishments connote the speaker'simperative to "wrap up care in a cobweb and drop it down the well". Specifically, thedescending registral placement of the marimba events signify the gradual descent down thewell, while the diminishing attack density signifies a move away from the anxiety of thereal world, connoted earlier in the piece by high attack density, into an imagined, dream-like state where anxieties (care) are sublimated. The single descending pitch events couldalso symbolize the bundle of wrapped care that is being dropped, with each descendingevent representing the falling bundle frozen briefly in a single time frame.102b•^Example 36: 'Insomnia' mm.21-253PP ^ to^that world^inSop.Piccin a cob-web and dropIC 1 3 3vert-ed^where_ left^ is al-ways right,_ where the shad - ows_ are real- ly_ the bod -73PPFP^I ^.__,^., 5 3 __,p!•},..-----..con sord.^_6.....---^A" ------...._•in5 PIT 5 PPPlegatop legato■ ^,m_ -En.'---- ■1=1-■----- - Mman-i;=^■=•1^ ••••■•-_.-"""■•■rims4.......w Ass.-mnpum4,'"*....=^i....2.. "^TAINI.M.Millnell"M•1■1EVAIMFMMTMS/Adr••11.1a..2, MININIMANI.:61=PK ■•11 JOI ■•■ AR^...NWT 1;b•41■1•••■•■•■11^ ••■•••••IMI■Picc.soft stickstremoloVin .Via.Sop.Vin.Vla.Mar.•■--.1•1■•7111•0-•^•IIMICL■IMINII•C=;'=1•11•11•1•^ •SWIMill•W.■■1 ,fa^ammo,^ ..• -=,="^mot..••• ^A7r.s.^ WO Mc^WfS■M. WNW^MIs.-((-----) t --1 ,3PPodrPPChanges also occur in the other concurrent stream as the marimba stream undergoes adiminishment of registral placement in mm.22-25. The established piccolo/violin stream,which we will refer to as Stream A in this discussion, undergoes a timbral transformation.The violin adopts the previous piccolo attack pattern and the viola, now muted like theviolin, replaces the piccolo and adopts the previous violin attack pattern. Stream A is thusaltered by undergoing a timbral transformation and a slight diminishment in registralm....m..■■...103placement (the registral placement of the violin remain consistent, but the registralplacement of the viola events is lower than that of the piccolo events). However, Stream Ais still recognizably similar to the original stream through the maintenance of its definingrhythmic behaviours (the cross-pulse discussed in Example 26 on page 76). Thesechanges occur when the insomniac starts to describe an inverted, more desirable world, thereflected world into which care has been dropped. The continued diminishment of registerin the marimba stream completes symbolically the descent into this imagined world, whilethe changes in the timbral property and registral placement of the Stream A represent theworld in which the established order is subverted.Stream processes can also signify the immediate emotional state of the speaker, rather thanportraying an action described in the text. In many of Carter's songs poetic 'actions'represented by processes can refer to changes in the expressive content of the text or toshifts in the focus of the poem. In mm.49-53 of 'Sandpiper', shown in Example 37(overleaf), diminishment behaviours and processes prepare for processes and behavioursof intensification that represent an emotional intensification in the text. The speaker movesfrom depicting the world that the sandpiper sees as confusing ("the tide is higher or lower./He couldn't tell you which"), to describing the bird's preoccupied search for "something".Her tone reflects the bird's increasingly agitated search until she reaches a moment ofemotional intensity as she personifies his actions as "obsessed". An overall diminishmentin the composite registral density of the streams in mm.49-50 focus the listener's attentionon the oboe stream, which has been associated earlier with the sandpiper. As the aggregateregistral density decreases so does the composite attack density. The oboe stream continuesto proceed once the other streams have ceased and, in mm.51-53 (see Example 15 onpage 59), undergoes intensification of registral placement and dynamic intensity contour.The intensifications that occur in the oboe stream symbolize the bird's increasingly frenziedemotional state and physical movements, which are described in the text.104he^is^pre -Ilia^beak^is to - cussed;PoneJ O h.PPExample 37: 'Sandpiper' mm.49-53Ml5^5g n=77 W:1_1-^-PP^P^5 — VI nVla.PP ^PP ^oc - cu - pied_^look - ing for_ some -thing,5some -thing, some-thing5Poor— bird,Via.V I.Ch.Sop.Vc I .Cb.PianoaJ ,J v b:1-, 7Id - n9^mll ,vu^mach."If^31 snr.So p.,__ JImqz7 -_^ _. 'T^•^-^•^'^• -'^ "-f^----'.1P^V` -----P — .i. P— 5^ 5--irff J...^•^.^•^•sussed '^he^ oh^-^-.^ •-^ —^ -Ob.PianoVia.Vla.Vol.Cb.2. MUSICAL FUNCTIONSThe behaviours of streams and the changes in stream behaviours that generate texturalprocesses can also have purely musical functions. Musical functions, like symbolic ones,are essentially expressive in nature. Wallace Berry describes the functions that processesmight have: "Examples of universal musical processes can be indicated in observations ofthe sort: 'the music is coming to a close,' or 'the music is advancing toward a peak ofintensity'". 1 The former process refers to the function of cadence and the latter to climax.The musical functions that will be discussed below are climax, cadence, local structuralarticulation and prolongation. 2Up to now, this study has focussed on streams with instrumental timbres and treated thevocal stream only occasionally for the reasons provided at the beginning of Chapter Two.However, the events in the vocal stream can exhibit the same behaviours and undergo mostof the same behavioural changes, and hence processes, as the other streams (excludingbehaviours like intensification of registral density of events, for example). In Carter'smusic when a stream undergoes a process that has a particular musical function, it isusually concurrent with similar behavioural changes in the vocal stream that function in thesame way.1^Berry, Structural Functions, 4.2^In Structural Functions Berry discusses how functional processes project expressive functionalevents and "shape the form" of the music (241). He mentions four functional events in this context, namelyclimax, cadence, introduction and exposition. Elsewhere in his chapter on texture he includes developmentalfunctions, complementary and compensatory functions, and, of course, structural functions. In general hedefines function as "the processive, structural role of an event or succession... function is the role, or natureof participation, of an event in the import of expressive content and significance" (23). While I find his broaddefinition to be valuable, some of the functional events he lists, I would argue, are actually processes, andcannot be described in terms of purely musical functions. Complementation and compensation, for example,have more to do with the nature of process (as was discussed in the previous chapter), and with thecontrapuntal organization of streams, than with the musical effect or function of that process. (For example,intensification in one behaviour, complemented by diminishment in another behaviour, would not have a"compensatory" role, but could have a climactic, cadential, or any other function, depending on the context.)For this reason I have limited this study to include the musical functions of climax, cadence, prolongation andstructural articulation; I consider these to be established musical functions and find them to be relevant toCarter's music.1062.1 ClimaxClimax may be defined as a moment (a time span or a time point) where we perceive a peakof intensity. The expressive effect of the high intensity of a climax can result from differentkinds of changes in established behaviours. In Berry's interpretation of a climax peakintensity often results from maximum diversity between "components", 1 but in Carter'smusic a climax can also be the result of minimum "diversity" between the streams, as isapparent in Example 38 below. While, as one might expect, climaxes often involve theintensification of particular behaviours, they can also be the result of diminishments ofother behaviours. The context in which the processes and behaviours occur is obviouslyprimary in determining the expressive effect.In Example 37 from 'Sandpiper' (discussed earlier on page 105), a combination ofdiminishment and intensification are used to function climactically in mm.48-53.Diminishment in the composite registral and attack densities of the streams takes place inmm.48-50. The oboe stream proceeds solo from m.50 and undergoes intensifications ofregistral placement and dynamic intensity, reaching the highest and loudest pitch events inm.53. In this example the musical climax is generated by dramatic reductions in the overallregistral and attack densities of the streams as well as by the behavioural changes in theoboe stream. Concurrently there is a climax in the vocal stream, which intensifies inregister and in dynamic intensity, climaxing simultaneously with the oboe stream in m.53with the highest and loudest vocal pitch events in the song (A5, fortissimo and accented).1^Berry, Structural Functions, 190.107The climax in this excerpt from 'Sandpiper' involves multiple individual streams and acombination of intensification and diminishment processes and behaviours. We can alsosee how certain processes have both symbolic and musical functions since the climaxoccurs at the most emotionally intense moment in the text, as was discussed on page 104.A climax can also result from a fusion in which individual streams intensify to the pointwhere they merge into a single stream. In connection with the excerpt from 'Argument' inExample 29 (page 86) it was discussed how the streams become increasingly similar toeach other until the streams lose their distinctiveness and fuse into a single, registrallydense stream. In this example the climax is brought about by the culmination of theintensification of overall attack density, registral density and dynamic intensity. As in theexcerpt from 'Sandpiper' the climax in the instrumental streams occurs simultaneously witha vocal climax in mm.31-32, as can be seen in Example 38 overleaf. The voice, whoseevents have been ascending registrally and intensifying in dynamic intensity, articulates itsloudest pitch events high in the vocal range. Coincidentally, these pitch events have thesame properties as the climactic ones in 'Sandpiper': A5, fortissimo and accented.108Example 38: 'Argument' mm.31-32Sop.some 5^5"Com-ph -ments5were like e - ous^cal en - dar5mf a Jf^ Inure. P —^f ff mf-ppBongosPiano5.f-Hf5PP6T4--- --7,,.----^.r....... -w•-.....wg. .^- M..,..=,.-______---f- mfjaArm5M.^.._. -• Marc.^ "f fsgigim,■•.7.....1•1^.......■■■=...,,,,iji....==-,---- 'V- PPf PP ,p ..„ n.-"1,--. .nornmrAhfts......mmo.,. ....... a. ...E ' ......14=lid,..5M' "MO=•m 1464......M111. •-■^ 1111.1111151AII,IMIM■OMMINMEMMNM —22—=,^mf _ ^___ fietv.sub. .^,.-....i.^Ng Mill.:41. il■ININ. ^fAZINVIINn _ _^a IIIMI■^MS N=II■ .1IN •."11,"if  5  ff mf-PP2.2 CadenceCadence may be defined as a time span or time point of diminished intensity, or, in Berry'swords: "an environment of relative decline and deceleration". 1 An important quality of acadence is that it creates a sense of closure. Like a climax, the expressive effect of acadence can result from different kinds of changes in established behaviours. Cadencesfrequently involve the diminishments of particular behaviours. However, they too can also1^ibid, 6.A.- FL.B.- CI.Vcl.Ch.^_f 5P-^ff 5f.109be the result of intensifications of other behaviours, depending on the context in which theyoccur.In the last eleven measures of 'Argument' processes of diminishment and intensificationcombine to achieve a cadential effect. Example 39 (overleaf) shows these processes in thelast four measures of the song. Diminishments of aggregate registral density and attackdensity contribute significantly to a sense of recession and diminishing intensity,particularly since these are the same behaviours that underwent intensification in an earlierprocess of fusion which functions climactically (see Example 38 above). There is also agradual decrescendo, which occurs partly as a result of the diminishing registral density.Although the registral placement of the piano stream intensifies (see Example 16, page60), it contributes somewhat to the effect of diminished intensity since, as the piano pitchevents ascend, the dynamic intensities of the fundamentals decrease and the spectraldensities become thinner. Diminishment is not as noticeable in the vocal stream, althoughthere is diminishment in the attack density, and the registral placement of events diminishesin the sense that the voice does not articulate the most extreme pitches in its range. In thisexample textural processes achieve a musical cadence and the resultant sense of closuresignifies the end of the song.110A . - F I.3^r---INV=21111.A1,1111.1.1•,`ma MEI,/34 Lingers^5 ,-3.,5^T-- --=--...^, ii Iii WM/ENPUMMIN.,',/, ,INIL,C■NCMP. 31 114111M=111■■•■11Nrial^!MY/MIB.- Cl^rBongos3Example 39: 'Argument' mm.48-51---1)—E^ANE=^ —_ ____/PPb -   1 .'_._ -7-^ 1^NM•-.,^-,__^ Fr -7_,---PP ■ - 3 -,—1-Zr; —^------1^.^miry- 5^4_: ^L_^-i5 PP p(--^ )l 3^ 33 —1Ma ====== L .AL .^—Ld....,==== El .E ^ 0=ELliwalIMIRS./,.......,..m......----1.1,Mp ,R I__ -TTsm.--Emu..._moilMI4A1.!_ii— — IC =WRI--,—..---1•11M111■=11111M—3&:‘,.^.. r:mom^ 1ar____a%.,^ ■arr mr3 )^ (PP).-^.________, -.1. ::-1111zw_li^111=karti :^'air ^1=E ^ •F fry......AIMINIMIIIIMIN^=MIT= :1•Ng .11...^ .... . , en,==. =.• simildelli1,3—^ 17.4)   iv) "lP —^- ---.,m^"Mjarzirm=1691^wa■Ayr......W11=....^/MB—wrin^Ns.11:11=M'IP. -.•^■::^ Y110-1111141^mp PP^mP PP P P0"21MINFFIR,.....m.... NNW... t711111=1111MMIIIIIILVEIN10-^..........,-,......,====.-----Z...2_.1111M'i3^3--_^PPm...INOMIN-..--3--3... 1•■•••=11=MNIMOIIIN---..1111..^INNIII.,----■—■, I. M■MMIMINCIIC.11MR'Aai .^ IIMMI ..'-33Vol.Cb.PPA.- F!.8.- CIBongosPianoVol.C b.PianoPPP111quasi dramatic3Sop.In these songs cadences do not only occur at endings. In 'Insomnia', Example 40,various processes and behaviours function cadentially in the middle of the song.Example 40: 'Insomnia' mm.13-15• MEINAIIIIIPIMI^ V ^.,••■• ..2 ••;,__,^-a^day-time_sleep-er._r■IIIII AM..-^ •MMELAIM=^ 1s.^ 0{". ..... a..1•• re •■••m ---_____---3 p—,__^_ ,._ _, r_ -,^(>) ..v---.."-- 5........La=r,..Mft riMME:======= JR^L;"IMMIMM■11Ol:^ MIMIMMINKINI=JIMMIIIOW,■•••■1111MMIPT lir JIMMII=MM=IN=M111M'^ NM 0.17■04WW7 MENNIMMI= •INIIMMMIMMIIMEMI■■■=_==lar MUT^7,72!9115_77! — 6 MIIIII1d1 ,L3 --'^mp^ -----, --- _AL mP_.-3r-- 5-_.—sul pont..--. - __^37.7=i-1.--c•mrcwwwwwicapPrEs■^ ••■•!. ,■ozaa■r..r. •inams.2.^ .,_ •Sop.Picc.MarVla.By ^the^U - n - verse_ de- sert-ed,_Picc.Mar.via sord21.^ -normale>.,.....,4 --)r via sord.n ; ; 1^..U^1■11••••■• .4In mm.13-15 diminishments take place in the instrumental streams to achieve this effect.The registral placement of the events in the piccolo/violin stream becomes progressivelylower and the stream ceases in m.15, which results in a diminishment of overall registraland attack density. After the registral placement and dynamic intensity of the marimba/violaVin.Vla.112stream intensify somewhat in mm.13-14, the viola falls silent and the marimba streamdiminishes in registral placement. The composite diminishments of registral placement,registral density and attack density in mm.14-15 contribute further to the cadential effect.Simultaneously in m.15 other processes start to occur that provide continuity into the nextsection. That is, the properties and behaviours of certain streams provide continuity bysetting up further changes of a different nature. A single viola event is articulated sforzandoand normale (instead of sul ponticello) and the marimba stream, while continuing todiminish in registral placement, articulates a crescendo.2.3 Structural ArticulationThe processes and behaviours that function cadentially here also function to create amoment of structural articulation, which signifies the end of one musical section and thestart of another. Many of the other processes that function climactically and cadentially alsofunction in a similar way in Carter's music. For example, the climax in 'Sandpiper', whichwas discussed above, signifies a moment of structural articulation that is followed by a theclosing section of the song.Processes and changes in behaviours can also articulate a structural break without having aclimactic or cadential function. In Example 36 on page 103, another excerpt from'Insomnia, the diminishments that occur in the marimba stream in mm.21-22 and that havea symbolic function also articulate a structural break. They signify the onset of a newsection, which starts at the end of m.22 and continues through m.25, and which ischaracterized by the new properties and behaviours of the streams that were discussedearlier. The vocal stream also plays a part in the process. The registral placement of the113vocal events diminishes concurrently with the descending marimba events, and then inm.22, start to ascend again. The changes in stream properties and behaviours signify thestart of the next structural section.One of the more self-evident ways in which streams can create a structural break is simplythrough the cessation of established streams and the introduction of new streams. This is adevice that Carter uses frequently in these songs, although he usually overlaps thebeginnings and endings of different streams so that the effect is not so much of a break asof a transition. Still, over a longer time span, the contrast in sound which is achievedthrough the introduction of new, distinct streams functions to delineate structurally thebreak between sections in a song. In m.12 of 'View of the Capitol', shown in Example41 overleaf, a stream comprising the events in the winds, piano and strings ceases and newstreams are introduced. Up to this point the winds/piano/strings stream has been defined bythe high attack density of the intermittent gestures into which the events are grouped, by thepitch parity between the events, by their high dynamic intensity, and by the wide registralrange covered by the events. The properties and behaviours of the two new streams thatenter in m.12 contrast with those of the established winds/piano/strings stream. The violinarticulates a pulse of attacks every five triplet eighth-notes or multiple thereof, resulting in arelatively low attack density. The violin stream is also defined by the high registralplacement, timbre, the connection behaviour and the low dynamic intensity of the events.The accompanying stream comprises intermittent pitches, usually sustained, and is alsocharacterized by its low attack density and low dynamic levels. The contrast in texture,which is achieved by the replacement of the winds/piano/strings stream with other streams11410r-- 3^3Clo^fp3^  i^ 3--, r— 3 r-3To^P —^ PPPCfff fpL__3r-311013WIN•■ ,11.MINII•Wallri•VICW■=1=1■11.•L__ ,3 __J•1•41,0/•=1■1111• 1■■■•••••••■•IIIIINI=SUMNI:I•Ita.■•MIME^•■•1•111•1•=M111111^ I-MXINM■••■•• /Mir /PI .•• WSRM -vv■•■-wiam.^•••ma•••■=5^mt.M-Wia^ii-va.v.m.••••••=11ff4r=1N••IM•I— 3pizz.1--3 -i Example 41: 'View of the Capitol' mm.10-13^ and ^ coarse  ^ One^_  small —132 ^Sop.Fl.Ob.B6C I.Pe,rc .PianoVln.Vla.Vcl.C b.115defined by different properties and behaviours, functions structurally to delineate the startof a new section. The vocal stream does not play an active role in this delineation since it issilent across the change. In fact, the absence of the voice allows the listener's attention tofocus on the instrumental streams and makes the functional role of these measures moreeasily perceptible.2.4 ProlongationTextural processes function prolongationally if the changes in the properties and behavioursof streams that take place simply provide some variety in the established overall texture,without having the effect of progression towards a functional climax or cadence, orarticulating a structural break. In 'Anaphora' (mm 12-19), reproduced in Example 42overleaf, these changes take the form of repeated fusion and splitting processes that occurover very short time spans. Over a longer time span one does not perceive these processesas such, and the effect of the changes is to provide some variety to the texture. After threedistinct streams emerge in the opening measures, seen in Example 31 on page 91, themusic alternates between two different textures. In one the winds/strings stream splits intotwo alternating streams of winds and strings (mm 12-15 and m.19). In the other, the twofuse again (mm.16-18). The durations of these textures are very brief, usually lasting onlya few measures at a fast tempo (quarter-note = 88-90). Splitting and fusion are onlyperceptible fleetingly, if at all. The music is not static, however, and one is aware of aregularly recurring change. The short-lived and repetitive processes of fusion and splittingthat take place between the winds stream and the strings stream involve discernable changesin stream behaviour without leading to a time span of peak intensity or to one of cadence,and function to prolong the texture.116Example 42: 'Anaphora' mm.12-15EEEffig-Ob.OCLVib.PianoPPVin .Via.Val.Cb.Ob.IOC!Vib.PianoVin.ylaVal.Cb.0h.C I.Vii,.Pianoyin.Via.Vol.b.A. -Fl.IMIll,11•11/711.1.18./Ob.,cl.Vib.PianoVln.Vol.Vl&Cb.Example 42 (cont.): 'Anaphora' mm.16-193^3 _,,___,T^•.^_.__ --J4--_I• -_V -f-#P —. ins ...tzscam“,a -.,L,,,,P1 --•■•-- m— • ai illis,..... 'Ei^r7t1=1*Ar..4aw■^, k .3— _P ^f prstocc..^--- ^ -.V:■•..:LO=41 :.'—•:!I, ^-^.1•-''''"..E.! -°IIt■ 5:—,.-._0'4.'e...r^..Caa■MIWIRIMMAtiedlMr401== :M.=^Il= n1il'iM mismi`. E7M^— afia----.--5FPi- -5--,ii!1.■....■■=inni■,. ^-iiiina!1,--'f!'-PP.,^Focussing can also play a prolongational role. The emergence of a stream (or events) frommultiple streams for a relatively short time span can have the expressive effect ofprolonging the established texture. While the stream coming to the fore undergoes somechanges, the other streams remain relatively unchanged and the variation in the overallsound does not induce a sense of progression towards a climax or cadence. In Example43 from 'Sandpiper' (overleaf), focussing processes occur in the piano/strings stream toachieve this effect. (The properties and behaviours of this stream were discussed earlierwith reference to the table in Example 35, page 100). In mm.29-32 events in the pianoare made prominent through the playing instruction "bring out (solo)" and in mm.32-36 thestring events undergo the same process. In this way the textural changes provide musicalprolongation without progressing towards a particular goal.119Example 43: 'Sandpiper' mm.29-36Sop.Ob.- an(lc^tc.^)^_^_• r 1 • brine as (solo)7.f^ = 88 )c--3^ 3.—- —^---iPianoyin.3P PPPPPA^Via.Vol.J^Cb.Sop.Ob.Pianoyin.Via.Vol.Cb.Sop.Ob.PianoVln.Via.Vol.Cb,^  ..«^ I^enub.  i ......-■-97____,^( Al IF,^.1 Si _^•^Lit g — Vii• _^Itic__ drains rap^-^id -Po 0"!P^PP^my"  ^p "'PA. •rnf (non cop•••••35^I.•-•- wards._and^downFP(^ly^back - wardsFP7JIM^PPCONCLUSIONIn this chapter we have examined some of the ways in which textural streams, theirprocesses and behaviours function symbolically and musically to delineate the form of thesongs. Using musical excerpts from Carter's A Mirror on Which to Dwell we have seen avariety of ways in which streams can play symbolic roles, and can be involved in thedelineation of small-scale forms. In the next chapter larger scale formal structures areexamined when the textural theory is applied analytically to each song from the cycle.121CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSESINTRODUCTIONIn this chapter the textural theory that was presented in the previous chapters will be appliedanalytically to the six songs that constitute Carter's cycle A Mirror on Which to Dwell. Theorder in which the analyses will be presented is based on textural criteria, rather thanchronology. The songs that are the simplest and clearest texturally will be discussed first,followed by those that are more texturally complex. 1 Thus we will start with 'Insomnia',the fourth song in the cycle, followed by the second song, 'Argument', and then the thirdsong, 'Sandpiper'. These three songs are are characterized by textural clarity, and aresimilar to each other in their textural structures and processes. 'View of the Capitol fromthe Library of Congress', the fifth song in the cycle, will be analyzed next; this song, whilehaving some textural similarities to the preceding three songs, is much longer and morecomplex in its textural processes. Finally, analyses of the first and last songs in the cycle,'Anaphora' and '0 Breath', will be presented (in that order). Both of these songs are moreintricate texturally, and different from the other songs, as well as from each other.Each analysis will be structured in a similar way. Because of Carter's sensitivity to thepoetry, and the close correspondence between poetic form and meaning and musicalsetting, each analysis will start with a discussion of the text. Then, after a brief introductionto the musical structure of the song, the main textural features will be presented. In the1 The decision to reorder the songs was made because there does not seem to be a strong dramatic ormusical progression in the published order, despite McCalla's suggestion that there is a "process of emotionalconcentration" in the cycle from 'Anaphora' to -'0 Breath' (see page 27). David Schiff even suggests that "thesongs are not connected" (282). Presenting the analyses in the chosen order allows the reader to becomefamiliar with the terms and analytical method in a relatively simple context, before more complex structuresare analyzed.122texturally simpler songs this presentation will often be limited to a discussion of the mostsignificant streams in the song, while the longer, more texturally diverse songs will requirediscussion of other features, such as textural processes. After the main textural featureshave been presented, each song will be analyzed texturally, with the focus being on formand text-setting.While a number of musical examples and diagrams are included in the analyses, it ispresumed that the reader has access to the full score and a recording of the cycle.'INSOMNIA'First let us examine Insomnia', the fourth song in the Mirror cycle.TEXTThe poem Insomnia'l is relatively straightforward formally. The poem is divided into threesix-line stanzas with a regular rhythm of three stresses per line. The regularity of therhythmic design is matched by the rhyme scheme which is almost identical for each stanza:Stanza 1: xaxab blStanza 2: xcxcxcStanza 3: xdxdeeThe letter 'x' indicates lines that do not rhyme, and the superscript indicates a very closeassociation of two non-rhyming words, in this case the words "sleep, or" and "sleeper".The rhyming couplet that closes the third stanza and the near-repetition that ends the firststanza accelerate the relatively steady rhyming rhythm established in the rest of the poem, to1^The title, A Mirror on Which to Dwell, is taken from 'Insomnia', and is also a reference to the nameof the ensemble for which the song cycle was commissioned, Speculum Musicae.123create closure. The close association of the last two lines in the first and third stanzas alsocreates a symmetrical rhyme scheme that is supported by a formal pattern of repeatedphonemes. The first stanza is dense with repetition of the resonant nasal consonant [lawhile in the third stanza sibilants occur repeatedly. Assonance pervades the second stanzawhere the forward vowel [E] is reiterated, frequently as the vowel sound of rhyming words("tell", "hell", "dwell", "cobweb" and "well"). Other phonemes are repeated in phrases orareas of the poem to create local unity, for example in the third line of the opening stanzathe reiterated stop-plosive consonant [p] dominates the phrase "perhaps with pride". In thefirst two lines of the second stanza the stop-plosive consonants [t] and [d] recur and createan area of increased rhythmic activity.Like many of the other poems in the cycle, the sentences and images in 'Insomnia' do notalways correspond to the straightforward formal design of the poem, resulting in thestructural counterpoint that typifies Bishop's writing. Like the formal scheme, the semanticcontent is also structured around a tripartite division, and comprises three sentences. Theconclusions of the first stanza and the first sentence coincide, as do the ends of the thirdstanza and the third sentence. The second sentence, however, ends unexpectedly after thefourth line in the second stanza, so that the third sentence and the meaning run across thebreak between the second and third stanzas. The break between the second and thirdstanzas is both visual and symbolic as it marks a transition in the poem's content. The run-on line at the end of the second stanza leads the poem forward into the repetitive lines thateach begin with "where". The repeated "where"s in turn propel the poem forward to the lastline of the poem: once again it runs on from the previous line, the repetition of "where" isabandoned, and there is a mid-line break. The breaking of these established or impliedstructures focus the reader's attention on the last four words, which are the most personalin the poem: "and you love me".124The poem opens with an insomniac contemplating the reflection of the moon in her bureaumirror. To the speaker, the moon's image has an independent personality. She describeshow it "looks out a million miles", suggesting perhaps that the reflection in the mirror islooking back to the body from which it appears to be detached. The speaker projects herselfonto the moon's image by referring to it in female terms. In a parenthetical comment theinsomniac moves from describing the moon's image to speculating about the moon's'feelings'. She personifies the image as being self-possessed and controlled (proud ofherself, but she "never, never smiles"). After the parentheses the speaker suggests that themoon's image is either "beyond sleep" or a "daytime sleeper", thereby extending themoon's purported self-control to her sleep patterns. Although the sleeping habits of themoon's image are similar to those of the insomniac, the speaker's admiring tone in thisstanza implies that she lacks the image's other projected qualities, like detachment and self-possession.In the second sentence the speaker becomes more emotionally intense and her tone becomesmore personal. The dense repetition of the stop-plosive consonants [d] and [t], and theshorter phrases set off by commas create increased rhythmic activity, which connotes themore agitated emotional tone of the speaker. She asserts that the moon's image has been"deserted", and implies that she too has been abandoned in some way. However, thereflected moon differs from the poet since, when deserted by "the Universe", "she'd tell itto go to hell" (Bishop's emphasis). The reaction of the moon's image to desertion is toreject that which deserted her and seek a place of peaceful contemplation ("a body of water,or a mirror on which to dwell"). In contrast, the speaker's response to desertion is a stateof emotional upset and disrupted sleep patterns. The speaker clearly finds attractive thereflected moon's freedom to be independent and to move to another plane of abode. She,too, would like to be detached from her universe.125The second half of the poem, one long sentence, is written in the imperative, but it isunclear initially whether the poet is talking to herself or to the moon's image. The emotionalintensity of the speaker diminishes as she suggests to herself/the moon to make caresomething of the past, to "wrap up care in a cobweb". As she suggests how to dispose ofcare ("drop it down the well"), she also introduces the concept of world which exists in thereflective water of the well. The rest of the poem, comprising the third stanza, is devoted todescribing the conditions of this inverted (and more desirable) Universe. The repeated"where"s draw the reader through the descriptions, which become increasingly personal. Itbecomes apparent that this world is one that the speaker wishes to be immersed in becauseit imitates a state detached from reality that is similar to that of the reflected moon.First the speaker describes how physical states are inverted, "left is always right" andshadows are "the body". Then her tone becomes more intimate and she describes how "westay awake all night", the "we" presumably referring to humanity. The nocturnalsleeplessness of the moon's image, which was mentioned in the first stanza, is the norm inthis world. She, the insomniac, already belongs in some ways to the inverted world as sheis unable to sleep at night. The second-to-last line runs on to the last line, and drawsconnections between images that were presented earlier in the poem. The "shallow"heavens contrast with the "a million miles" through which the moon's image gazes, the"heavens" are the opposite of the "hell" to which the reflected moon banished "theUniverse", and there is also a contrast between the relatively shallow water of the well andthe depth of the sea. The run-on line accelerates the poetic rhythm to the last four words,and the breaking of the structures that have been set up or implied in the rest of the poemfocus the reader's attention on these words. The final condition of the inverted world, "andyou love me", has a plaintive tone, rather than a climactic one. The implied lack of love inthe speaker's real Universe explains the speaker's insomnia, her emotionally upset tone andher desire for an inverted world.126'Insomnia' expresses all three of the themes that Carter is concerned with in this work:love, isolation and nature. Isolation is apparent from the beginning of the poem in thelonely figure of the insomniac contemplating the moon's image. The image of the moon,too, is isolated in a sense, as it is detached from the reality of its physical body. We becomeaware of the theme of unrequited love in the second stanza, although it is only made explicitin the last line of the poem. Images of nature, particularly those of water, recur throughout'Insomnia'. The first reference is general ("a body of water"), while the others are morespecific. The water image is implied in the reference to "the well", and the shallowness ofthe well-water contrasts with the "sea" which is "now deep". A connection is drawnbetween reflective qualities of water and glass ("body of water, or a mirror"), so that themirror becomes an image of water too. The theme of real and reflected images is extendedin the reference to "the shadows" and "the body": the earth also acts as a reflector when ashadow is cast on it. The concepts of reflection and inversion are closely connected and thepoem is filled with inversions, and opposites, particularly in the third stanza, as wasdiscussed above.'INSOMNIA': MUSICFormally, Carter follows the sentence structure rather than the stanzaic one, as he does withother songs in the cycle. The tripartite division takes the form of two tranquillo sections,corresponding to the first and third sentences, which flank a section of increased rhythmicintensity with the expressive indication 'dramatic'. The first section is the longest,comprising fifteen measures, and including a three-measure instrumental prelude and atwo-and-a-half measure instrumental interlude that leads into the second section. Thesecond section is very short in duration; it is only four measures long and two of theseproceed quasi accelerando. The third section follows without an instrumental break and isfourteen measures long. The sections thus form a rough (and unbalanced) symmetry based127on sectional lengths and expressive indications. After a discussion of the most importantstreams in 'Insomnia' and their symbolic associations, we will analyze 'Insomnia',focussing on the large- and small-scale formal structure, as well as on Carter's setting ofthe text.Streams'Insomnia' is scored for only four instruments and the voice. The textural clarity thatresults from this limited registral density is intensified by the division of the texture intothree distinct concurrent streams: the vocal stream and two instrumental streams. Each ofthese instrumental streams is defined precisely by its properties and behaviours, which areestablished in the opening three-measure instrumental prelude. The events in the marimbaand the viola combine in a stream that is defined primarily by the pitch parity between theevents. Specifically, the marimba/viola stream features two recurring pitch events, B3 andB4, which are often placed together with one other pitch to form a referential dyad. Forexample, B4 is paired with E5 in mm.1 - 6. 1 Although the registral placement of themarimba and viola events is relatively high in their individual sounding ranges, theirplacement in comparison to the other simultaneous instrumental events is low. Thus themarimba/viola stream is defined by the registral placement of its events, which are placed inthe lower end of the sounding range. The stream is also defined by the close registralproximity of the other events. The attack density of the stream is high since the events aregrouped into fast tremolo-type gestures which proceed intermittently. The characteristictimbre of the stream is created in part by the articulation instructions, which indicate that themarimba is to be played with medium-hard sticks, and the viola without mutes and sulponticello. The dynamic intensity of the events is low.1^Later thepitch events B4 and D#5 occur together in mm.15 - 18, and both the marimba and violaclose with repeated-B3 pitch events.128A crescendo to mf in the marimba/viola stream in the second measure precedes, andhighlights, the entry of the other instrumental stream. This second instrumental streamcomprises the events in the piccolo and the violin. Many of the properties and behavioursof these events contrast with those of the events in the marimba/viola stream and help tomake the two streams distinct. The piccolo/violin stream is defined primarily by the timbralparity between the events, which was discussed in Example 4 on page 37. Like theevents that comprise the marimba/viola stream, the events in the piccolo/violin stream areplaced in close registral proximity to each other, and high in their individual registralranges. However, unlike those of the marimba/viola stream, these events occur in the upperend of the total sounding registral range. Although there is not a total pitch parity betweenthe piccolo and the violin events, the piccolo/violin stream is characterized by recurringpitch events. C#7/Db7 occurs repeatedly and is often accompanied by the simultaneoussounding of the pitch-class event F#3/Gb (registrally variable), thus forming anothersignificant dyad. For example see m.2 (C#7 in piccolo, F#6 in violin), and m.6 (Db7 inpiccolo, Gb6 in violin). The attack density of the piccolo/violin stream is low since eachinstrument plays sustained pitch events. The rhythmic character of the stream is furtherdefined by a cross-pulse between the piccolo and violin events, discussed in Example 26on page 76. They proceed in the rhythmic cross-pulse 84:85, that is the attack points of theviolin events occur every 14th quintuplet sixteenth-note and those of the piccolo eventsoccur every 17th sextuplet sixteenth-note. The events in the piccolo/violin stream occur atconsistently low levels of dynamic intensity.Both instrumental streams play symbolic roles in 'Insomnia'. The characteristic propertiesand behaviours of the events in each stream connote particular images in the poem. In thetable in Example 44 (overleaf) we can see that the piccolo/violin stream symbolizes thepersona of the serene moon's image that is being observed by the speaker, while themarimba/viola stream represents the persona of the agitated insomniac (the speaker).129Example 44: 'Insomnia'registralplacementattack density timbre/articulationpicc/vinmoon's imagehighsky, heavenlylow,sustained pitchescalmvin: muted, bowedpicc: legatosmooth, serenemar/vlaspeakerlowearthly, lowlyhighagitatedvla: unmuted,sul ponticellomar: med-hard stickssharp, excitedThe two personae are created by the non-musical associations of the properties andbehaviours of each of the stream events, while the opposition between the properties andbehaviours of the events in each stream emphasizes the contrast between the personae. Thehigh registral placement of the piccolo/violin stream signifies the height from which thecelestial moon's image is projected and to where she "looks out", while the lower registralplacement of the marimba/viola stream is associated with the speaker's placement on theearth below. The continuous rhythmic cross-pulse between the events in the piccolo/violinstream suggest the characteristic of consistency (attributed to the moon's image by thespeaker), while the low attack density of the sustained pitch events connote calmness. Incontrast, the intermittent, dense gestures of the marimba/viola stream suggest the agitatedand uncontrolled state of the insomniac's mind. In future references the piccolo/violinstream and the marimba/viola stream will be referred to as the 'moon' streaml and the'insomniac' stream respectively. In addition to signifying these personae, the streams1^Although the piccolo/violin stream represents the moon's image, it will be referred to as the 'moon'stream because the phrase 'moon's image' stream is too cumbersome.130undergo processes that often have symbolic functions (as well as musical functions), aswill be discussed later.The correspondence between an individual stream and a particular poetic image establishedby the non-musical connotations of that stream's properties and behaviours, is supportedby the textural prominence of that stream when that image is being described in the text.'For example, in mm 9-13, when the singer describes how the moon is "beyond sleep", the'moon' stream comes to the fore and the 'insomniac' stream drops out.The voice enters in m.4, after the properties and behaviours of the instrumental streamshave been established, and its text gradually makes explicit their symbolic roles. Thedefining properties and behaviours of the events in the vocal stream are distinct from thoseof the 'moon' and 'insomniac' streams in most respects. The registral placement of vocalevents is low in the soprano's range (only one pitch event is higher than C5 in the firstsection), and the lowest in the total sounding range.2 The stream is also defined by itsmedium attack density relative to the two instrumental streams. The pitch content of thevocal stream is organized by two recurring pitch-class-set types, the tetrachords [0125] and[0347]. The complex pitch relationships of these repeating, and often interlocking,tetrachords are not obvious, but the surface manifestation of this invariance is the melodicpredominance of two interval classes. The stream is defined by the repeated statements ofinterval classes 3 and 4, which occur between adjacent pitch events. The dynamic intensity,like that of the 'moon' and 'insomniac' streams, is very low, although there is somewhat1^Insomnia' is similar to 'Sandpiper' in this regard, although this compositional procedure is followedmore consistently in 'Sandpiper'.2^There is some pitch parity between the vocal events and the events in the viola, for example in mm.6-8, but the lack of parity between them in the other properties and behaviours dissociates the events from eachother.131more gradation of dynamic intensity, in the form of crescendi and decrescendi, in the vocalstream.Form and Text-settingOne of the most striking moments in 'Insomnia' takes place in the middle of the song,where the contrasting second section occurs. Not only does this section contrast in tempo,expression and stream behaviours from the surrounding sections, but there is also amusical climax, which corresponds to the increased emotional intensification in the text.This climactic section will be discussed first, in terms of the processes and behaviours thatarticulate the sectional break between the first and second sections, and, second, in terms ofthe properties and behaviours that characterize the streams in the central section and howthey function climactically, and, thirdly, in terms of the changes in properties andbehaviours that articulate the sectional break between the second and third sections.The instrumental interlude in mm.13-15 closes the first section and also prepares thelistener for the dramatic central section.' Processes and behaviours of intensification anddiminishment take place simultaneously to achieve a cadential effect. The registralplacement of the events in the 'moon' stream becomes progressively lower, and the streamceases at the beginning of m.15, which results in a diminishment of overall registral densityand attack density. The registral placement of the events in the 'insomniac' streamintensifies significantly to the highest marimba pitch event in m.14 (E6), and the streamexhibits crescendo behaviour. After this, a marked diminishment in the registral placementof the marimba events takes place, while the viola is silent. The overall diminishments ofregistral placement, registral density and attack density that occur from m.14 to thebeginning of m.15 create a sense of closure that signifies the end of the first section.1^This interlude was discussed in connection with Example 40 on page 112.132However, during m.15 other events and processes take place to counteract this effect. Theviola has a single sforzando dyadic pitch event (articulated normale instead of sulponticello). This forceful and dramatic event is accompanied by the continuedintensification of dynamic intensity and diminishment of registral placement in the marimbaevents. These processes oppose the closure by creating a sense of continuity and by settingup the listener's expectation of further changes.The listener's expectations are fulfilled in m.16 when the second section opens with thevocal stream proceeding unaccompanied for that measure. The vocal events intensify inattack density, dynamic intensity and registral placement, climaxing with the highest andloudest pitch events in m.17. After this peak of musical intensity, behaviours and processesof diminishment take place in the registral placement and dynamic intensity of the vocalstream, creating a sense of resolution. The intensifications leading to a climax functionsymbolically here, as well as musically. Intensification in mm.16-17 occurs when thespeaker's tone becomes more personal and emotionally distraught as she describes how sheand the moon's image have both been "deserted". The climax of these processes occur onthe phrase "she'd tell it [the Universe] to go to hell", in which the speaker projects theimage's response to rejection. Clearly the speaker wishes that her own responses could bethat decisive and so the words are highly charged emotionally. After the climactic line, theinsomniac's emotional intensity declines as she proposes a solution of personal reflection,finding "a mirror, on which to dwell". Correspondingly, the processes of diminishmentsymbolize her feelings of resolution.The instrumental streams, once they reenter in m.17, exhibit some changes in this briefsection. Most significantly the 'moon' stream is absent and the 'insomniac' stream,comprising the agitated marimba and viola events, dominates the texture. The absence ofthe 'moon' stream has symbolic importance, since the speaker, although she is talking133about the moon's image, is really expressing her own feelings in a moment of implied self-assertion. Thus it is appropriate for the 'insomniac' stream to engage the listener'sattention. Some of the behavioural patterns that were established in the instrumentalinterlude of mm.13-15 continue. For example, events in the 'insomniac' stream are loud,which compensates for the lower overall registral density. Within the 'insomniac' streamthe marimba events continue to be focussed on, particularly in mm.18-19 when theyundergo an intensification of registral placement and a descrescendo. In m.18, just after theclimactic vocal events, the viola is dissociated briefly from the 'insomniac' stream andfuses with the violin (now unmuted). They articulate single accented dyadic pitch eventsthat overlap temporally, and that are reminiscent of the viola dyadic pitch event in m.15.The punctuating string dyadic events contribute to the musical climax that is taking placeand, since they occur in close temporal proximity to the start of the marimba gesture, helpto accentuate the initiation of the diminuendo and the rise in registral placement. As the solomarimba gesture concludes in m.19 with high ppp repeated pitch events, a sense of closureis achieved even though the vocal phrase continues for the rest of that measure.The start of the third section is not as clearly delineated as that of the second and there issome overlapping of material between the two sections. While the last vocal phrase of thesecond section is still in progress, the 'moon' stream reenters (mid-m.19) with itscharacteristic high sustained piccolo and violin events. Because the piccolo timbre has beenabsent since the end of the first section, the reinstatement of piccolo events creates a senseof recapitulation. Starting at the end of m.19 the vocal stream resumes its previousbehaviours. It proceeds tranquillo and the attack density of the events is lower. The othertypical behaviours of the vocal events, namely the lower registral placement and lowdynamic intensity, have already been anticipated in the processes of diminishment that takeplace in mm.18-19. One of the most significant changes that occurs across the structuralbreak is the cessation of the 'insomniac' stream, but, since the stream proceeds134intermittently, this is not immediately perceptible. The reasons for the absence of the'insomniac' stream become apparent in the next measures and will be discussed later. Thesense of recollection that results from the reinstatement of the piccolo events and theresumption of earlier behaviours in the vocal stream is appropriate to the text here. At thestart of this section the speaker resumes the contemplative tone that she had before theclimactic middle section.In the above discussion it was shown how Carter uses textural processes to articulate large-scale structural divisions in 'Insomnia' and to differentiate between sections. Texturalprocesses are also used in smaller-scale structural delineation, particularly in the articulationof phrases in the text. As in the case above, these process often have symbolic as well asmusical functions. A focussing process, whereby a referential pitch event is statedprominently, is used to signify the beginning and end of structural subsections throughoutthe song. 1 The pitch event C#7/Db7 occurs in the 'moon' stream, usually as a piccoloevent, and is made prominent by its extremely high registral placement and the resultingdistinctive timbre. It is stated first in m.2 as the opening piccolo pitch event, and thenfunctions to articulate the next three two-line text phrases. This referential pitch eventoccurs at the end of m.3 (violin) at the start of first line of text, in m.6 (piccolo) precedingthe parenthetical remark,2 and m.10 (piccolo) at the start of the next two-line phrase. Thenext statement of the referential pitch event takes place in m.19 (piccolo) at the start of thethird sentence (and third section). Finally, in mm.31-32 a piccolo C#7 pitch event coincideswith the end of the phrase that precedes the last four words of the poem, whose importancewas discussed earlier. In order to understand the structural significance of this recurringpitch event, one must realize that these are the only occurrences of this pitch event in the1^This focussing process was discussed in connection with Example 32 on page 93.2^While the piccolo Db7 does not immediately precede the parethetical remark, its placement isnevertheless between the end of the previous textual phrase and the onset of this remark.135song. Their formal importance arises from the fact that none of them occur in the middle oftextual phrases; rather, all of them function to articulate the beginnings or ends of phrases.In the first section of the song each of the three two-line phrases is set apart from the othersby a number of stream processes, as well as by the brief focussing on the referential pitchevent discussed above. During the first phrase the stream properties and behaviours thatwere established in the opening prelude are continued. Then, at the start of the second(parenthetical) phrase, m.7, the composite registral density and attack density diminishsuddenly as the 'moon' stream ceases. This lasts for the duration of the phrase until m.9,and the reduced texture helps to set the parenthetical remark apart from the music thatprecedes and follows it. 1In the third two-line phrase, mid-m.9 to m.13, a compensatory process occurs whereby the'insomniac' stream ceases and the registral density of the 'moon' stream intensifies as itundergoes a timbral transformation to include the viola events. In contrast to the previoushigh attack density of the 'insomniac' stream, sustained dyadic pitch events in the violanow imitate the sustained pitch events in the 'moon' stream, proceeding continuouslywithout participating in the cross-pulse. The viola events also undergo a timbraltransformation and proceed sul tasto and muted, which results in a greater degree of timbralparity between the viola and violin events. Although there is no change in the low registralplacement of the viola events, the parity of rhythmic behaviours between all of the eventsassociates them into a single stream. The vocal stream in mm.10-11 undergoes anemulation process by emulating the properties and behaviours of the 'moon' stream; thereis a high degree of pitch parity between the vocal and viola events, and the attack density of1 The pc content of the vocal stream in the parenthetical phrase also helps to distinguish this secondphrase from the preceding phrase. After presenting six pc's in the first phrase, the vocal stream presents all ofthe complementary six pc's in the second phrase except for pc 9; only two pc's (pc's 6 and 7) are held incommon beween the two phrases.136the vocal stream diminishes abruptly to resemble that of the 'moon' stream. The voicenevertheless retains its distinction as a separate stream because of the words, and the vocalevents are dissociated again from the 'moon' stream in m.12 when the attack densityintensifies. These processes of timbral transformation, and the changes in the vocal stream,create an area of textural variety to delineate the last two-line phrase of the first stanza, andalso play a symbolic role. They take place when the speaker is speculating about thesleeping patterns of the moon's image, describing how she is "far and away beyond sleep".The absence of the agitated tremolo rhythmic gestures of the 'insomniac' stream in favourof the registrally denser 'moon' stream, helps to emphasize the detachment and theimagined serenity of the moon's image, who does not have the insomniac's sleepingproblems. The association of the viola events (previously part of the 'insomniac' stream)and, to a lesser degree, of the vocal stream (the voice of the insomniac) with the 'moon'stream symbolizes the speaker's desire to emulate the moon's projected qualities.In the third section of 'Insomnia' similar processes take place to delineate a longer, two-and-a-half-line, textual unit. This time the timbrally transformed texture sets apart the lasttwo phrases that begin with the word "where" and that describe the conditions of theinverted world, mm.26-31. Once again the viola events participate in the 'moon' stream,proceeding with sustained pitch events, and the 'insomniac' stream is absent. Although thesame pitch parity exists between the voice and viola events, the vocal stream's emulation ofthe 'moon' stream's attack density behaviour takes place more gradually this time since theattack density of the vocal stream diminishes gradually, rather than abruptly. The voiceremains distinct from the 'moon' stream because of its timbral distinction and because, aftercrescendo behaviour in m.27, the vocal stream is appreciably louder than the 'moon'stream. The textural changes in mm.26-31 play a similar symbolic role to the one in mm.9-13 by emphasizing the persona of the moon's image. As before, the changes involving theviola and voice (formerly associated with the insomniac) symbolize the insomniac's wish to137emulate the moon, by inhabiting the inverted world in which she imagines the moondwells. The speaker is concerned with the same theme of sleep patterns as before ("we stayawake all night") and, indirectly, with the moon (she refers to the moon's location, "theheavens"). In retrospect the inverted world she is describing here is anticipated musically(and textually) by the textural changes in mm.9-13.The two areas of textural change that precede m.26 delineate two textual subsections aswell as having important symbolic functions by depicting images in the text. The first ofthese subsections starts at the end of m.19 and lasts until the beginning of m.23, andcorresponds to the first three-line phrase of the third section (following the climax). Someof the established behaviours, like those of the 'moon' stream, initially proceed unchanged,but then are gradually corrupted. For example, in m.21 the piccolo events split from the'moon' stream and articulate a tremolo gesture reminiscent of the 'insomniac' stream inattack density, and in m.22 the 'moon' stream is reduced to a single sustained violin pitchwhich deviates from the cross-pulse. There is a new marimba stream comprising isolatedstaccato pitch events that undergo a diminishment of registral placement in mm.20-22, anda diminishment of attack density as of mid-m.21. The 'insomniac' stream is not initiallyapparent, although it is alluded to by the piccolo gesture in m.21 and then by a tremoloviola gesture in m.22, which occurs muted. In mm.21-22 the vocal events also diminish inregistral placement, and emulate the staccato articulation of the marimba events. The mostimportant symbolic function of these various, and somewhat confusing, processes is torepresent the elimination of care and to depict the image of descent into the well. 1 Thespeaker wishes to "wrap up care in a cobweb" and so the 'insomniac' stream, whosebehaviours connote the speaker's upset state of mind, is de-emphasized and receivesminimal representation in the two unobtrusive tremolo gestures. The image of care being1^The symbolic functions of the processes in this passage, and in mm.23-25, were discussed inExample 36 on page 103.138dropped into the well is connoted by the descending marimba and vocal events, whosestaccato articulation helps to focus the listener's attention on them. The other changes thatoccur, for example in the 'moon' stream, anticipate the subversion of defining behavioursthat characterizes the next subsection.The second textual unit of the third section comprises the first two lines that begin with"where" and that describe the inverted world of the speaker's imagination. Some of thetextural changes that occur in this subsection, mm.23-25 (with some pitch eventsoverlapping into m.26), are continuations of the processes that occurred in the previousmeasures. For example, the registral placement of the marimba events continues todiminish in m.23. These marimba events now group into the tremolo gestures associatedwith the 'insomniac' stream, but their registral placement and dynamic intensity are so low(they are played with soft sticks and ppp), that they are sound like sustained pitches, andfuse with the 'moon' stream. The 'moon' stream is defined by most of the same propertiesand behaviours as before, but it transforms timbrally and now comprises the events in theviola (instead of piccolo) and the violin, as well as the marimba. While the 'moon' streamis still defined predominantly by sustained pitch events, the timbre of the cross pulsearticulated by these events changes. The viola events adopt the previous rhythmic pattern ofthe violin events (as well as the registral placement and articulation), and the violin eventsconform to the former pattern of the piccolo events. There is some overlapping of materialbetween this subsection and the one the follows it, for example the piccolo events resumein mid-m.25 in anticipation of the next subsection, and the marimba events continue intom.26. The textural changes that take place in mm.23-25 symbolize the inverted world bysubverting the established order of behaviours. Although the specific role changes effectingthe 'inversion' may not be obvious to the listener, one is aware that the established139instrumental characters have been transformed in some way. 1 As in the previoussubsection, the low profile of the 'insomniac' stream is representative of the near-absenceof anxiety and care in the speaker's imagined perfect world. The association of the violaand marimba events, previously associated with the 'insomniac' stream, with the 'moon'stream also suggests a union of the two personae.The final significant textural change in the song occur in the last two measures andcorresponds to the last four words of the poem in which the speaker reveals her greatestdesire, "and you love me". After the timbral transformation (which was discussed earlier)ends in m.31, the original 'moon' and 'insomniac' streams reemerge. They proceed withtheir original properties and behaviours (marimba is played with medium-hard sticksagain), excepting that the marimba and viola events are now lower in their registral ranges.A crescendo occurs in the 'moon' and 'insomniac' streams in m.32, with the focus beingon the crescendi in the marimba and viola gestures, while the voice sustains a pitch eventfrom the previous subsection. The prominent 'insomniac' gestures here represent the'insomniac's return to the (harsh) reality of her situation (she feels unloved by her partner)after her more abstract musings about the inverted world. The gestures also symbolize, inanticipation, the emotional intensity of the speaker's final words. The intensificationprocess is followed immediately by decrescendo behaviour in the instrumental streams, andthe vocal stream articulates its last four pitch events. The attack density of the vocal streamis maintained from the previous subsection (where the stream underwent a diminishment ofattack density) and so is low, and in m.33 there is a diminishment of registral placement inthe vocal stream and the 'moon' stream. The descending registral placement of the vocalevents, and the stream's low attack density and softness (mp-pp) function cadentially to1 Inversion is more obviously depicted in the vocal stream through pitch inversion. Carter sets wordsdescribing aspects of the inverted world with inverted pitch intervals. For example, "left" is set to A4-F4 and"right" to F4-A4, "shadows" is set to G4-B4 and "body" to B4-G4. The pitch inversion occurring on thewords "left" and right" is part of a larger palindromic structure which extends from the G#4 in m.23("where") to the G#4 in m.24 ("where").140create closure. This sense of resolution does not, however, detract from the intensity of thelast four words. They remain prominent because of their emotional meaning, which isstressed by the emphasis on the word "love", and because they have been set up by theprocesses that precede them.ConclusionIn summary, although 'Insomnia' can be divided into three broad sections based on tempoand expressive markings, there are many smaller subsections of textural variety withinthese divisions. Carter uses textural changes structurally in order to delineate phrases andtextual units in the poem. Because the two predominant instrumental streams playperceptible symbolic roles, these changes often have symbolic functions too. The song canbe divided then into several subsections. Each subsection is characterized by one or moretextural process, some of which occur gradually, and others more abruptly. When thetextural changes occur abruptly at the beginning of a subsection, an area with a particulartextural sound is created which endures until the next significant changes occur. When thechanges occur more gradually over the duration of the subsection, the resulting texture is ina state of flux and is more unstable. A brief overview of the kind of textural processes thatcharacterize these subsections reconfirms the broad tripartite structure of the song: relativelystable textural subsections surround an area of greater change and unstability.A summary discussion of the subsections in 'Insomnia' is accompanied by a diagram,shown in Example 45 overleaf, 1 which graphs the textural streams and processes in thesong.1^The measure numbers delineating the subsections are somewhat approximate since many of thesectional breaks are deliberately obscured by the overlapping of material in order to ensure musical continuity.141 ...............................Example 45: 'Insomnia'mm.^1^3^5^7^9^11^13^15^17text "moon in bureau parenthetical "beyond sleep" "desertedmirror"^remark .. hell"vocal streampiccvinvlamartextural^'moon' & 'insomniac' streams^'insomniac' 'moon'^'moon' &^'insomniac'focus 'insomniac'textural timbral trans^intens. &^intens.toprocesses^ emulation. diminishment climaxexpressive^I tranquillo^ I "dramatic"sectionsstanzas 1st stanza 2ndMM.^18^20^22^24^26^28^30^32text "mirror^"care...^"left/right...^"stay awake all night" "you love me"... dwell" down well"^shadows/body"mar. & 'moon' 'moon' 'moon' 'moon' &'insomniac'dim. processes timbral trans. timbral trans. like mm.9-13 dim. to cadenceemulation (vin/vla/mar) emulationvocal streampiccvinvlamartexturalfocustexturalprocessesexpressive^ I I^tranquillo^ Istanzas 2nd stanza ^II^ 3rd stanzaKey to shadings'moon' stream^marimba stream'insomniac' streamIn the opening instrumental prelude, mm 1-3, the properties and behaviours of the eventscomprising the 'moon' and the 'insomniac' streams are established. The first vocalsubsection, mm.4-7, corresponds to the first two-line phrase of the poem and thesections142instrumental streams proceed as before. In the next subsection, the parenthetical two-linephrase (mm.7-9), the 'moon' stream is absent and the 'insomniac' and vocal streamsproceed unchanged. The fourth subsection, corresponding to the third two-line phrase, ischaracterized by a more dramatic compensation as the 'insomniac' stream drops out,timbral transformation occurs in the 'moon' stream, and the vocal stream undergoes anemulation process. However, once the transformation has occurred, it is relatively stabletexturally. In contrast, the processes and behaviours of intensification and diminishmentthat take place concurrently in the 'moon' and 'insomniac' streams of the instrumentalinterlude of mm.13-15 create an area of instability. These changes function cadentially aswell as anticipating the climactic section that follows. The next subsection is clearlyseparate from the preceding one, and corresponds to the middle section of the large-scaledivision and to the four lines of increased emotional intensity at the start of the secondstanza of the poem. The various textural processes that occur here build to a climax ofmusical intensity, before diminishing in m.19. The textural changes that take place in thefirst subsection following the climax, mm.19-22, are both abrupt and gradual. The 'moon'stream resumes as before, but the 'insomniac' stream is unstable and a new marimbastream is defined by a process of diminishment and is emulated by the vocal stream. Thenext subsection corresponds to the first two lines describing the inverted world, mm.23-26. Textural changes occur at the onset of the section and then the streams proceedunchanged until the next two-line phrase. This subsection is also relatively stable and ischaracterized by the same kinds of timbral transformation and emulation that took placeearlier in mm.9-13. In the final subsection, corresponding to the last four-word phrase ofthe poem, the original properties and behaviours of the 'moon' and 'insomniac' streamsresume and proceed with only minor changes to the end of the song.The tripartite structure of subsections typified by abrupt and gradual textural processeswhich create areas of textural stability and fluctuation, corresponds to the emotional scheme143of the poem. The speaker moves from objective contemplation/speculation, to increasedemotional intensity and agitation, to the resigned contemplation of an imaginary world.Carter's use of textural processes thus permeates all aspects of the song's construction --the large-scale structures, the delineation of subsections that correspond to textual units,and the symbolic representation of personae and actions in the text.144'ARGUMENT'Now that we have examined some of the textural processes in 'Insomnia', and seen howthey correspond to the text, let us apply the same analytical method to a longer song,namely the second in the cycle, 'Argument'.TEXTThe poem 'Argument' has the most straightforward formal structure of all the poems in thesong cycle. It is composed of four stanzas, and each stanza is complete in its form andmeaning, unlike the stanzas of other poems like 'Sandpiper' and 'Insomnia' where thesyntactic content does not always conform to the stanzaic structure. Each of the stanzascomprises seven lines of variable length. The seventh line is the longest, and contains sixstresses in all but that of the second stanza. This line has only five stresses, whichintensifies the rhythm created by the repeated phrase "all the way". The other lines have anirregular sequence of two or four stresses per line. The exception to this occurs in the laststanza where lines of odd-numbered stresses create a rhythmic inconsistency thatsymbolizes the "disarray" mentioned there. In the final line the original metric order isreestablished (six stresses) and a sense of resolution is reached.The stanzas have several other formal features in common besides the pattern of stresses.For example, each stanza comprises a complete sentence. In the first and third stanzas thephrases that form the sentence are separated by commas. The second stanza deviatesslightly from this norm: the first phrase of this stanza is separated from the others by asemi-colon and the sentence ultimately takes the form of a question. The poetic rhymescheme has elements of regularity and irregularity. While the ends of the first and seventhlines of each stanza rhyme or nearly rhyme, the end-line rhyme scheme within each stanzavaries. Once again the second stanza is somewhat different: the first line ends with "land"145and the seventh with "end". This kind of near-rhyme occurs frequently throughout thepoem, giving it a sense of formal patterning and unity while retaining semantic freedom.Other examples include "not" and "obstinate" in the first stanza, and "instruments" and"experience" in the third. The end-line rhyme scheme of 'Argument' is detailed below;letters with superscripts indicate near-rhyme:Stanza 1: a b a bl c c aStanza 2: de fdgh diStanza 3: i j k ji 1 1 1 iStanza 4: m n ml op qmThe regular rhyming of the first and last line in each stanza creates closure and emphasizesthe stanzaic scheme of stanzas as structural units.Certain words, phrases and phonemes are repeated in 'Argument', usually for emphasis.Each stanza contains one or both of the words "Days" and "Distance", which are capitalizedin each occurrence. They are introduced in the first stanza, occurring at the beginning of thefirst and third lines respectively. The two words then occur as the opening words of thenext two stanzas, "Distance" in the second and "Days" in the third stanza. In the fourthstanza "Days" and "Distance" are coupled again. These two words obviously have thematicimportance too, and will be discussed later in the section devoted to the poetic content of'Argument'. The stop-plosive consonant [d], the phoneme that starts both "Days" and"Distance", is also reiterated at the beginning of other words. It occurs in the last word ofthe first stanza, "dear", and then repeatedly in the second stanza (although not always at thestart of the word), "dim", "deep", "sand" and "indistinguishably". In the last stanza [d]occurs together with the other voiced stop-plosive consonants [b] and [g] in the last threelines:Days and Distance disarrayed againand goneboth for good and from the gentle battleground.146The increased density of stop-plosive consonants gives the speaker an emphatic tone whichenhances the sense of resolve that she reaches in the last words of the poem. Other stop-plosive consonants recur in other areas of the poem. For example, in the third stanza [k] isrepeated in the words "cluttered", "fact", "canceling", "calendar" and "Compliments". Thisconsonant, like the other stop-plosives, serves to punctuate the rhythmic flow and toconnote the emphatic tone of the speaker.Other examples of the repetition of words and phrases include the thrice reiterated word"argue" in the first stanza, which emphasizes the incessant quality of the conflict which thespeaker is describing (it continues "endlessly"). In the second stanza the phrase "all theway" is repeated, occurring first in the sixth line and then at the start of the seventh. Herethe phrase connects two images, one physical and the other psychological. The physicalstretch of beaches lead "all the way" to the speaker's psychological limits, rather than to ageographical landmark. The repeated phrase provides a transition between these twoimages.The syntactic content of 'Argument' corresponds to the stanzaic division and, like theformal structure, is relatively clear. Within each stanza the lines group into syntactic units,and the syllabic scheme, created by counting the syllables in each unit, forms a relativelyregular structure. In each stanza three two-line syntactic units are followed by a single line,the seventh (and longest) line. The resultant syllabic scheme (in syntactic units) is:Stanza 1: 10 14 11 11Stanza 2: 12 10 11 9Stanza 3: 11 14 11 11Stanza 4: 11 13 11 11147This relatively regular scheme counterbalances the irregular pattern of line lengths, resultingin a more even rhythmic flow than the variable line lengths would suggest. 1Each stanza of the poem is complete in its semantic content, and has a rhetorical function.The first stanza is introductory, then each of the second and third stanzas elaborates on oneof the two topics introduced in the first stanza, and finally the last stanza draws together theimages presented in the middle two stanzas. In the poem the speaker describes herrelationship with her partner in terms of the days and distance that separate them. Days anddistance are symbols of time and space, the two aspects of separation in our universe. The"Argument" of the title refers to the conflict no between lovers, but between the lovers'togetherness and those factors which keep them apart. The speaker's tone is angry andfrustrated as a result of these unpleasant circumstances that seem beyond her control.During the poem she involves the reader directly in her personal conflict by referring toherself in the first person and to her lover as "you".The factors of separation, "Days" and "Distance", capitalized in the poem because of theirthematic importance, are introduced in the opening stanza. 2 The speaker attributes to themthe human quality of will when she suggests that the days "will not" bring her partner nearto her, and that distance is "trying" to appear something beyond "obstinate". She seesherself in direct conflict with these factors as they deliberately conspire against her so thatshe cannot be with her mate. The ongoing conflict between her and the factors ofseparation, emphasized in the repetition of "argue", is made to seem futile in the last line of1^The same kind of tension exists between line lengths and syntax in other poems too, for example, in`0 Breath'.2^The capitalization of the words Days and Distance introduces a note of self-mockery into thespeaker's tone. It is reminiscent of the practice of capitalizing important nouns and adjectives on old circusposters (and in some novels) for melodramatic effect.148the first stanza when the speaker states that the factors do not diminish her loving feelingstowards her partner.The topic of the second stanza is stated right at the beginning with the opening word,"Distance", followed by a colon. The rest of the stanza is written in the present imperativeso that the distance, which referred to the spatial separation between the speaker and herpartner in the first stanza, also refers here to the distance they travelled in the past. Usingthe metaphor of a plane as a vessel of communication between them, she describes the landthat separates them. The double meaning of distance is brought about by the kind of landthat she describes, which evokes memories of summer beach vacations. The phrase "landbeneath the plane" also alludes to the expression "water under the bridge" and reinforcesthe sense of an unalterable past. From one perspective the land is "dim" and unclearbecause it is being seen from the distant viewpoint of a plane. From the other perspective,the memories of past vacations are fading, which make the beaches "dim", "deep in sand",and "stretching indistinguishably". As the speaker describes these seemingly endlessbeaches, which reflect the endless arguing of the first stanza, she expresses herexasperation. The stretch of physical distance transforms into the emotional isolation she isfeeling, and she appears to be at the end of her psychological tether, "all the way to wheremy reasons end". The image of a coastline, the border between land and sea, reflects theimage of the speaker who sees herself on the border between sanity and insanity. 1 Thesentence comprising the second stanza starts as if written in the imperative, but the questionmark at the end makes it apparent that she is asking her partner (and the reader), "[Do] youremember...". This gives the words a more plaintive tone than is first apparent.1^The poem 'Sandpiper' also presents the image of a border between land and sea. The bird on thesand feels threatened by the ocean waves; for him, the coastline represents the border between safety anddanger.149The third stanza is set up grammatically like the second, with the thematic topic of thestanza stated as the first word followed by a colon. It too is in the present imperative, anddescribes the days that alienate the speaker from her lover. She assigns to each "fact" fromthe past (which could mean each experience, activity or day) an "instrument", borrowingjargon of the financial and legal business worlds to enhance the impersonal quality of thepast. The proliferation of past experiences results in a "cluttered" collection. Since they areso different and varied, the one experience cancels the other, leaving the speaker withnothing During these descriptions she becomes increasingly agitated until she reaches anemotionally climactic moment where she describes the days as "like some hideouscalendar" and quotes from it despairingly, "'Compliments of Never and Forever, Inc.'. Inthis image she reduces the days of the past with all their varied personal experiences toimpersonal blocks on a calendar, while extending the business image by suggesting that itis a corporate calendar. The calendar is "hideous" because it negates the experiences thatshe has undergone and make the past seem pointless. The speaker is at her most despairingin this stanza; her past is negated ("Never") and she sees herself condemned to an infinitefuture of unhappiness ("Forever").In the last stanza the speaker returns to the present, and her tone changes from anger anddespair to one of resolve, and even optimism. While admitting that the factors of separationare "intimidating", she is determined that they "shall be vanquished". A sense of hope isexpressed in her resolve to win the conflict with her opponents. In the next line the imageof victory is modified into one of reconciliation when the speaker suggests that days anddistance will be "disarrayed", rather than destroyed. She refers to the themes of both timeand space when she states that they will be gone "for good" (referring to days and time)and "from the gentle battleground" (referring to land, distance and space). The use of theadjective "gentle" reminds the reader that this battle is a psychological one and that thebattleground exists only in the speaker's mind, not in reality.150The theme of time pervades the poem in various forms. The speaker places herself indifferent times by describing events both in the present and in the past. The future and pasttenses are mixed freely in the last stanza when she describes how her opponent "shall bevanquished". In her world past, present and future are not clearly separated. The past isstill present for her, in her memories (the beaches that stretch indistinguishably) and in theongoing nature of the argument ("argue with me endlessly"). Even the calendar promises tobe hideously infinite ("Never and Forever"). The incessant quality of the argument(between the speaker and the factors of separation) is in part what causes her distress, and,in her resolve to win this conflict, she stresses that days and distance will be gone "forgood".'ARGUMENT': MUSICAs with the other songs in the cycle, Carter makes the musical structure of 'Argument'conform to the semantic structure of the poem. He divides the song into four sectionswhich, unlike many of the other songs, coincide with the four stanzas in the poem. Carteruses two textural devices in the demarcation of the structural sections, both involvingabrupt changes of texture. The first device takes the form of instrumental interludes, whichseparate the first three sections of the song. During these interludes the properties andbehaviours of the textural streams do not change significantly, but the absence of the vocalstream creates an overall change of texture that articulates the formal break. The firstinstrumental interlude occurs in mm.14-16 between the first and second stanzas, at thereturn to a tempo. Although there is a sustained vocal pitch event for most of the interlude,the lack of rhythmic activity in the voice focuses the listener's attention on the instrumentalgestures. As well as functioning to separate musical sections, the instrumental interludeprovides continuity in that a cello/bass gesture overlaps with the start of the second stanzain m.16. The second instrumental interlude occurs in mm.23-26, and marks the break151between the second and third stanzas. Once again an extended cello/bass gesture overlapswith the entrance of the vocal stream at the start of the third stanza, m.26, therebyproviding a link between the two sections. The break between the third and fourth sectionsis articulated in a different way. As with the other structural breaks, there is an abruptchange of texture. However, this time there is no instrumental interlude, and the vocalstream continues uninterrupted except for a short quarter-note rest. Instead, a texturalcontrast is created at the start of m.34 when a new stream, comprising events with differentproperties and behaviours from those of the other streams, enters.The overall form of the song is symmetrically balanced in some respects. An instrumentalprelude precedes the first stanza and is matched by an instrumental postlude after the end ofthe fourth stanza. They are similar in length, being five and four measures longrespectively. However, although the lengths of four poetic stanzas are identical, the lengthsof the four corresponding musical sections are not. The first three sections are nine, eightand eight measures long, but the fourth is significantly longer, comprising fourteenmeasures. The reason for this imbalance will be discussed later in the analysis. First,however, let us examine the textural streams in 'Argument'.StreamsTexturally, 'Argument', like 'Insomnia', is one of the most straightforward songs in thecycle, being characterized by clarity and consistency. The most important streams areestablished in the opening measures, and remain relatively unchanged during the song. Thestreams themselves are clearly distinguished from each other by their properties andbehaviours, particularly by their timbral distinction. Four instrumental streams areestablished in the opening instrumental prelude. Each of these streams proceeds withintermittent gestures that do not overlap in the first five measures. The lack of concurrencybetween the different stream gestures, as well as the disparity between the properties and152behaviours of their events, helps to make each of them distinct and easily recognizable tothe listener.The song opens with wind and string events grouping into a gesture in m. 1 . Thewind/string stream is defined by the attack point parity between the events, and by its lowattack density relative to the other streams in close temporal proximity The stream is alsocharacterized by its high registral density (relative to the other streams). The winds/stringsstream has a relatively high degree of timbral disparity between its events, a property that iscompensated for by the parity in other properties and behaviours. Another stream, whichdoes have the property of timbral parity between its events, enters in m.3. This streamcomprises cello and bass events. It is defined in part by the low registral placement of itsevents, relative to the wider and higher registral range covered by events in thewinds/strings stream. The cello/bass stream has a relatively high attack density, and itscontour behaviour is characterized by fluctuation. A process of focussing also characterizesthe cello/bass stream (the process recurs with each cello/bass gesture). The events in thebass have the playing instruction "bring out (solo)" and the expressive indication"dramatically". These indications, together with stress accents and relatively high dynamiclevels, ensure that the listener's attention is focussed on low bass events for the duration ofthe gesture.The other two streams that are introduced in the opening measures are the bongos stream,which enters in m.2, and the piano stream, m.3. 1 These two stream have some propertiesand behaviours in common and others that set them apart. Within each stream, the events1 In his analytical comments about 'Argument' ("Elliott Carter: A Mirror on Which to Dwell['Argument']," in Anthology of Twentieth-Century Music [New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1992]),Robert Morgan asserts that the bongos and piano are part of the same "textural layer" (314). I disagree,finding that the timbral dissimilarity between bongo and piano events distinguishes them into differentcontinuities. In other general respects, however, Morgan's textural analysis of 'Argument' is similar to mine.153cohere because of their timbral parity and connection behaviour. The timbral distinction ofthe piano stream is reinforced by the registral placement of its events, which is low in thepiano's sounding range. Both streams have similar pitch contour behaviour, that is, thegestures are characterized by repeated, randomly ascending and descending, fluctuatingcontours. They also have similarly high attack densities and regular pulse rhythms; thesepulses are too fast to be perceived as such, but the regularity of the attack density isperceptible. However, despite the identity in rhythmic and pitch contour behaviours, thetimbral disparity and lack of temporal concurrency between the gestures in the two streamsdissociate them from each other. The piano and bongos streams are also not associated withthe cello/bass stream (whose attack density is similarly high), since the cello/bass streamdoes not have a regular pulse, and rather plays rubato rhythms. 1The important textural and symbolic roles that the piano and bongos streams playthroughout the song are suggested in this opening instrumental prelude. Unlike the otherstreams, which have only one gesture each, the piano and bongos streams are madeprominent by having two gestures each.2 After the initial gestures in each stream, theprelude concludes with another gesture in the piano stream in mm.4-5, followed by one inthe bongos stream. Furthermore, the streams are consistently associated with each otherduring the song through the recurring juxtaposition of the gestures. The two streamssignify the elements of dispute that comprise the "Argument". The sense of agitated conflictis connoted by their high attack densities and fluctuating contour behaviours. The way thatthey proceed, with alternating gestures, suggests two "voices" that are arguing with eachother. In the discussion above, the "argument" was interpreted as being between the1^The distinction between the piano stream and cello/bass stream was discussed in Example 12 onpage 54.2^The term gesture here refers to groups of events, in which the attack density is greater than zero, thatare separated by silence during which the attack density is zero (for further clarification, see page 77 wherethis term is defined, and an excerpt from 'Argument' is discussed).154speaker and days/distance, the elements of separation. According to this interpretation, onestream would represent the persona of the speaker and the other would represent days anddistance. Initially, the symbolism is not that literal and neither stream seems to be assignedsuch a specific role. Later in the song, however, the signification seems more specific; thistheory will be elaborated upon in the analytic discussion dealing with the last section of thesong.Form and text-settingIn the first section of the song, corresponding to the first stanza, the instrumental streamsthat were established in the prelude continue relatively unchanged. Each stream comprisesgestures that alternate, although not in any particular order. The vocal stream, which entersin m.6, has fluctuating pitch contour and fluctuating dynamic intensity behaviours similarto those of the piano and bongos streams Here these behaviours connote the agitation ofthe speaker as she struggles with the conflict that she perceives. The vocal stream is alsocharacterized by a relatively high attack density. Occasionally vocal events are madeprominent by not conforming to the established attack density behaviour, in beingsustained, for example, the G#4 pitch event in m.6 and the B4 event in m.8. These longerpitch events articulate the words 'Days" and "Distance", the most important thematic wordsin the song. A pitch relationship between the vocal stream and the winds/strings streambecomes apparent once the voice has entered, that is, the two prominent vocal pitches, G#4and B4, occur repeatedly in both streams. The pitch parity between these events, whichtends to associate them, is not supported by similarities in other properties and behaviours.It would appear that these pitch repetitions occur in order to make the pitches prominent,and thereby to strengthen their thematic associations, rather than because of texturalconsiderations. 1 The vocal stream represents the persona of the speaker in the poem, the1^One could hear these two pitches as tonal centres in the song. However, since this study isconcerned with texture, in which tonal centricity plays a limited role, this issue will not be explored.1554 53^4 6 7 8nor less dear.Pulse r03 2 2 3unit:33nei - ther prov - ing you^less^want -^ed"me" with whom days and distance argue endlessly. As we will see later in the analysis,the processes that the vocal stream undergo reflect the emotional states that the speakermoves through.Towards the end of the first section processes of diminishment take place to create closure.The overall attack density diminishes in mid-m.12. The winds/strings stream articulateslong sustained pitch events, which are also marked ritardando. The events in the vocalstream are marked as "freely retarding", while simultaneously undergoing a strict rhythmicdeceleration. The vocal pitch events are attacked at an ever increasing multiple of the tripletsixteenth-note, as can be seen in Example 46.Example 46: 'Argument' mm.12-14 (vocal stream)The change of expression in the vocal stream from marcato to expressivo also helps toachieve the effect of diminishing intensity. In m.13 the overall dynamic intensity decreasestoo with decrescendi in both streams. Simultaneously there is a diminishment of registraldensity in the winds/strings stream created by the staggered releases of the pitch events thatcomprise this stream. As a result of these diminishment processes the instrumental interludethat follows a tempo in mm.14-16 provides a contrast that helps to articulate the structuralbreak.During the second section subtle changes start to take place in the behaviours of thestreams. These changes involve intensification processes, and foreshadow the climax that156occurs in the third section. The first change concerns the way that the instrumental streamsare combined, and involves a new stream which splits from the winds/strings stream. Thisalto-flute/cello stream is defined primarily by the pitch coherence between the events andproceeds continuously with a sustained B4 1 in mm.17-22. Simultaneously, the gesturesthat comprise the established instrumental streams, while still proceeding intermittently,start to overlap temporally with the alto-flute/cello stream. This can be seen in mm.17-22,where the alto-flute/cello stream sounds concurrently with the piano stream (mm.17-18 andmm.19-20), the bongos stream (m.19 and mm 21-22) and the cello/bass stream (mm.20-22). In mm 21-22 the temporal overlapping is intensified when three instrumental streamsoverlap briefly; the alto-flute/cello stream, the bongos stream and the cello/bass stream allproceed simultaneously. The second change that takes place in this section involves anintensification in the lengths of the instrumental gestures, for example, the piano gestures inmm.17-18 and mm.19-20 are longer than earlier gestures.Unlike the end of the first section, the end of the second section is not characterized byprocesses of diminishment that function cadentially. Instead, intensification processesfunction symbolically to represent the increased emotional intensity in the singer's lastwords, "all the way to where my reasons end". In m.22 there is a sudden increase indynamic intensity: the events in the winds/strings stream occur sforzando and forte, and thevocal events undergo a subito change from piano to forte. The vocal stream also changes itsbehaviour from irregular rubato rhythms to a strict triplet eighth-note pulse. The regularpulse and the loudness of the vocal stream make the singer's tone emphatic, and ironicallyimply an attempt to impose order in a state of loss of mental control.1 The prominence of this pitch throughout the second section makes a thematic association between B4and "Distance", the topic of the second stanza. (Similarly, the pitch G#4 is prominent throughout the thirdsection, whose topic is "Days") The sustained B4 stream can be perceived as symbolizing the coastline"stretching....all the way" that the singer mentions when she describes the distance that separates her from herpartner.157Closure is created in m.23 when there is a brief decrescendo on the last pitch events of thesection, followed by a diminishment of composite registral density as the texture is reducedto the cello/bass stream. An extended cello/bass gesture then forms the instrumentalinterlude leading to the third section.In the third section the processes of intensification that were initiated in the second sectionoccur more dramatically. As certain behaviours intensify, the streams lose theirindividuality and start to merge so that the climax of intensification coincides with a fusionprocess (discussed on pages 85 and 108 with reference to Example 29 on page 86). Oneof the changes that occurred in the previous section was the lengthening of the instrumentalgestures. Now, in the third section, some gestures become even longer while others aresignificantly shorter than before. What appeared to be a cello/bass gesture at the start of theinstrumental interlude in m.23 is extended past the beginning of the third section, and itsoon becomes apparent that the events in the cello/bass stream no longer even group intogestures, but proceed continuously. The piano and bongos gestures, on the other hand,decrease in length so that the texture is dominated by the other two streams. The otherchange that occurred in the second section, that of different streams starting to overlaptemporally, also intensifies; all of the other instrumental gestures overlap with the cello/bassstream, as well as with each other.Other significant changes occur as the streams start to become more similar to each otherand to merge gradually in the fusion process. Several changes take place in thewinds/strings stream. Firstly, the winds/strings stream is reduced in registral density toalto-flute and bass clarinet events, since the cello and bass events participate exclusively intheir own separate stream. Secondly, the wind events start to merge with the cello/bassstream by becoming increasingly similar in properties and behaviours. In mm.25-26 theevents in the alto-flute gesture adopt the attack density and contour behaviour of the158cello/bass stream, while the bass clarinet proceeds with a sustained pitch event typical ofthe original winds/strings stream. Then in mm.28-29 the bass clarinet undergoes the sametype of changes, while the alto-flute proceeds with a sustained pitch event. Finally, inmm.29-32 both the alto-flute and bass clarinet events group into an extended gesture thatmerges with the ongoing cello/bass stream. The fusion that takes place here also involvesthe piano and bongos streams, which reenter in m.31-32 with characteristic gestures.Because of the parity in the attack density, registral placement and pitch contour behaviourbetween all of the concurrent events, the individual streams lose their distinctiveness andmerge into a single stream. The fusion process occurs together with the culmination of theintensification of overall attack density, registral density and dynamic intensity, and resultsin a musical climax. Simultaneously the voice, which has been getting louder and highersince m.28, articulates its loudest pitch events high in the vocal range, A5 fortissimo andaccented. As well as articulating that purely musical climax, fusion takes place at the mostemotionally intense moment in the poem, as the singer describes the "hideous calendar",and so the process is expressive of the text.Immediately following the fusion process, at the end of m.32, there is an abrupt contrast intexture which is achieved through diminishment processes. The composite registral densityis reduced to a single instrumental stream, the winds/strings stream, which returns with itscharacteristic low attack density. The dynamic intensity decreases dramatically fromfortissimo to pianissimo. The vocal stream undergoes a similar decrescendo and the vocalevents diminish in registral placement. Despite these diminishment processes, the sense ofclimax is nevertheless maintained in mm 32-33, through the drama of the contrast. Thespeaker's despairing quote from the imaginary calendar is highlighted too by the change ofarticulation to staccato pitch events.159The fourth section follows immediately in m.34 with the entrance of a new stream and amarked intensification in overall dynamic intensity. The new winds/strings stream isinitially defined by a pulse of a regular attack every twelfth triplet sixteenth-note, whichsoon starts to accelerate as the time spans between attacks become shorter. Mm.34-36 areshown in Example 47 overleaf. The attack points of the events which conform to thepulse are made more prominent than those that do not though various devices such ashigher registral placement, accent marks, and higher dynamic intensity. Although thisstream recalls the wind/string stream of the opening measures in its timbral mixture andoverlapping registers, it is fundamentally different in behaviour and is perceived as a newstream. It functions symbolically by depicting the "intimidating sound" that the singer isdescribing through its accelerating pulse and forcefully articulated events, which occuraccented and loud.Simultaneously, in mm.34-35, the events in the vocal stream increase once again inregistral placement and exhibit crescendo behaviour, as the voice executes a forte leap highinto its vocal register (on the word "sound" m.35). Through these behaviours the musicalclimax of the previous measures is sustained and the emotional intensity signified by themis also maintained. 11 Morgan suggests that the instrumental climax precedes the vocal climax, apparently because the voiceonly articulates its highest pitch in m.35. I think that the processes that the vocal stream undergoes in mm.30-32 create a climax that coincides with the instrumental climax, and that is then extended (as discussed) thoughto m.35.160r3112 ,S ^r 3 1---  12 )1 ^r 3 1^ r 3 111 )1 9 )1 ^r3 i9 „ti ^Example 47: 'Argument' mm.34-36334 >;••■•••••■.^— ,ERMIIIIM9:3IMID(4, Si Y6III ININMEM^Ellf -INFIEW MONINNEIN.LW MIII/IMIMMIS.7411 III= AMMINIII•11 =Or Mr/OWMi.. NIMIIIIIILWILINVAINA::J....c.f.( IIIIMUMW= INII••MIL_ 3•--- 3 --,>,----,^-----..IliTEMNMNANEBANIEMIMAIMIla /WM=^11=1111:4"L-11111•IN11•111111■11MIMEINIIIIIMMIIIIN,—.-1 I-- 3 _.,••• i____ 3NholaEMMA ANIE•MMIwall5.01•1111.+1•001111•11MW•Ttli31IMAINIMM•4641•11.011MMAMIIIMIMINIMINIFICIIMINIIIMIaMINIR:LAIIIPI,.....dr.:; MOW........---1!IICAMMINEMME11 MI= InUMMINNIP1•1111■11111•1■1171P4M1 071111.•►MENMEM. ..Nso%NMLMM:1.AI.7.NMMI I WIN mum•ariblnIMMIMIMMIIII^111=11101!..2.21. ■-....■1■111=EN LIEG./EMMEN rAmir NNWWINN^ MIEIN1' MI EilIGIM/IMEVENIMMUNEIMMIMId■NEMENINEMINNENr Alr—3 ,---I^1---- —I IMMEMMINMEMMINE1^' .A-FlB-C1Vc1CbAfter this extended climactic section, a process of splitting takes place, starting in m.36.The streams that had fused resume their individual identity once again and can be perceivedas distinct. Most of the previous properties and behaviours of the streams are graduallyrestored, and eventually they undergo other processes, mostly of diminishment, that createa sense of resolution and closure. The first step in the splitting process occurs in the waythe streams proceed and the way that they are combined. As of m.36 they proceedintermittently, although they still overlap temporally. The alto-flute and bass clarinet eventscontinue to group into gestures defined by the same behaviours as the cello/bass stream,but they proceed independently of that stream. As of m.40, however, they participate in theoriginal winds/strings stream, although some events are still reminiscent of the cello/bassstream, for example the alto-flute and bass clarinet events in m.42. The return to the formerwinds/strings stream results in a diminishment of overall attack density, which isaccompanied by significant decrescendo behaviour in the instrumental streams. Although161the events in the vocal stream maintain their loudness initially, as of m.41 there is a gradualdecrescendo and a diminishment in registral placement. These processes have symbolicimportance as they occur while the speaker describes "Days and Distance" being"disarrayed". The decreased intensity correspond to her calmer state of mind and the senseof reconciliation that she voices.Two other changes take place during these measures that also have symbolic significancebecause they involve the streams with the most consistent symbolic roles, namely the pianoand bongos streams. Firstly, starting in m.40, the bongos stream is absent until m.47.Secondly, the events in the piano stream, formerly defined by their low registral placement,start to ascend registrally in m.42, and this process of registral intensification continuesthrough to the final piano gesture in the penultimate measure of the song. 1 The effect ofthese changes is to diminish the sense of conflict that the streams connoted previously. Thetheory of specific symbolic representation, mentioned earlier, can now be elaborated on.Since the speaker imagines that days and distance are "gone", the absence of the bongosstream suggests that this stream represents these factors of separation. The piano streamwould then represent the persona of the speaker, and the change in the registral property ofthe piano events would signify her transcendence of the situation.In the last three measures of the fourth section the processes of diminishment continue, andcontribute to a sense of cadence. In mm.44-46 the overall attack density, registral density,dynamic intensity and total registral span are reduced, and musical closure is achieved.The final instrumental postlude follows after a poco ritenuto at the end of m.46. Whilesome of the diminishment processes continue to take place until the end of the song, there1^In Example 39 on page 111 it was discussed how this registral intensification in fact contributes toa sense of diminishment.162are also some changes in the behaviours of the streams, that have the effect of recallingearlier textural streams For example, the overall registral span expands at the end of m.46when the cello/bass stream reenters with a gesture in its original low registral placement.There is a timbral change since both the cello and bass events are muted, which contributesto a lower dynamic intensity. The cello/bass stream is also transformed rhythmically and isnow defined by the connection behaviour between the events; 1 this rhythmic connection isemphasized notationally by a dotted line joining successive cello and bass events. Thebongos stream resumes in m.47, at first with a very brief gesture and later with gestures ofslightly longer duration. The symbolic significance of the return of the bongos streamseems to deny the speaker's desire for Days and Distance to be "gone for good". There is asignificant change in the way that the bongos and piano streams interact, however, whichcan also be seen as having symbolic meaning. Earlier in the song, except for very briefly atthe climactic fusion in m.32, the gestures in the two streams always alternated withintermittent gestures. Now, partly as a result of the length of the piano gestures (whichproceed almost continuously), they proceed concurrently. The impression of two voices inan argument diminishes as a result and the sense of conflict lessens. The dominance of thepiano stream over the bongos stream seems to signify the speaker's victory in the conflict,although the final bongos gestures in m.51 again deny her victory and remind the listenerthat the scenario of Days and Distance being vanquished was only a fiction in the speaker'smind.The diminishment processes that take place in the last five measures occur in individualstreams, as well as involving the aggregate behaviour of multiple streams. There is afurther diminishment in the attack density of the alto-flute/bass clarinet and the cello/bassstreams. The piano stream continues to ascend registrally over these measures with each1^There is some overlapping of successive pitch events, but this does not detract from the perception ofthe connection behaviour between the events.163subsequent gesture moving into a higher registral range. As the piano pitches get higher,the dynamic intensities of the fundamentals decrease and the spectral densities becomethinner, which contribute to the diminishment process. All the streams have decrescendobehaviour in the last measures, until the level ppp is reached in m.50. One notableexception is the forte solo bongos gesture in m.51, whose prominence is a reminder thatthe Days/Distance factor has not been vanquished, as was suggested above. In the last fourmeasures the concurrent streams gradually cease to sound, concluding with the briefbongos gestures. The staggered cessation contributes to diminishments in the compositeattack density, registral density and dynamic intensity, which function musically to create acadence.ConclusionIn summary, 'Argument' presents one of the clearest textural formats in the cycle. Theoverall sound is divided into distinct streams, with each stream distinguished by itsproperties and behaviours. Initially, the streams proceed concurrently with intermittentgestures. Later, they start to undergo intensification processes and to merge together bybecoming more similar to one another in properties and behaviours. As the processes peakin intensity, the streams coalesce into a single continuity. After the extended climax, and thebrief introduction of a new pulse stream, splitting occurs and the orginal, distinct streamsresume. However, the streams never fully recover from the fusion process, and some oftheir properties and behaviours are changed irrecoverably.Superimposed on this progression from distinction, to fusion, and then back to distinction,is a clear formal division of the song into four sections. The four sections correspond to thefour stanzas in the poem, with different aspects of the "argument" presented in each.164'Argument', while texturally and formally explicit, is not as richly symbolic as the othersongs in the cycle. Certain symbolic representations can be discerned. For example, theproperties and behaviours of the piano and bongos streams, as well as the way in whichthey are juxtaposed, suggest that they are the opposing elements in the argument. Mostimportantly, the vocal stream represents the speaker's persona, and the processes that thisstream undergoes reflect the rise and fall in the speaker's emotional intensity. The otherstreams, however, do not have independent symbolic roles. Rather, they are guided by thevocal stream and support it by their similar processes, particularly in the progression to aclimax as the speaker reaches her peak of emotional intensity, and the diminishmentprocesses that accompany her calmer emotional state and reconciliatory remarks.165'SANDPIPER'So far we have analyzed texturally two of the most straightforward songs in the Mirrorcycle. The next song we will examine, 'Sandpiper', is somewhat more complex as a resultof more intricate stream interactions. We will see, however, that there are still similarities inthe textural structure between this song and both 'Insomnia' and 'Argument'.TEXTThe poem 'Sandpiper' is divided into five stanzas of four lines each. The regular stanzaicstructure is articulated by a regular rhyme scheme whereby the second and fourth lines ofeach stanza rhyme. In the second stanza the rhyming pattern is extended and the first andthird lines rhyme as well. All of the end-line rhymes occur within stanzas and not betweenthem, thereby supporting the stanzaic form. Unlike the consistent rhyme scheme, therhythm of metrical stresses is irregular, and varies between three and five stresses per line.Usually there are four or five stresses, and the stress pattern v-- u- is featured.The pervasive repetition of words and phrases occurring both within stanzas and acrossthem creates large-scale unity. For example, the word "world" occurs for the first time inthe second line of the opening stanza and then is repeated twice in close succession in thefourth stanza. "He runs" is repeated at the beginning of the third line of the first stanza andalso occurs as the first words of the fourth line of the second stanza. In the third stanza,third line, the phrase occurs without being reiterated ("As he runs"). The word "grains"occurs in the following line of the third stanza and is repeated twice in the fifth stanza. Therepetition of these particular words will be explained later in relation to the poem's semanticcontent.166Repetition has also a rhythmic function in 'Sandpiper'. In the fourth and fifth stanzasrepetition is used to propel the poem rhythmically to a climax. The phrase "the world is ..."opens the fourth stanza. It is repeated again in the same line. Then declarative phrases occurthree times more in close succession with the subject replaced by "tide", "beak" and finally"he" in the fourth line of the fourth stanza. In the next line the repetition accelerates with thereiteration of a single word ("something, something, something"). This leads to theclimactic line where "he is" occurs for the last time. The significance of this rhythmicintensification will be discussed below with reference to the meaning of the poem.The semantic content of the poem 'Sandpiper' does not correspond to its straightforwardstanzaic form. Although some semantic units occupy complete stanzas or complete lines,others run across the breaks between stanzas or across the lines within stanzas. As withmany of the other poems in this cycle (for example, 'Insomnia' and 'View of the Capitol'),a kind of structural counterpoint is created by the lack of correspondence between thestanzaic and semantic structures. On a structural scale larger than that of sentences, thesemantic content shifts focus from one subject to another. Some of these changes of focusare coincident with stanzaic breaks, creating moments of structural articulation, but overallthere is no clear sectional form.The poem is concerned with the movement of a sandpiper along a beach, and describes theocean and the sand from the point of view of the bird. The first stanza is relatively ordered.It comprises two sentences of two lines each, and every line is a semantic unit. Theopening lines describe the behaviours of the world surrounding the sandpiper as he hears it("the roaring" waves) and feels it ("the world is bound to shake"). He has learnt to expectthese behaviours and takes them "for granted". In the third line the focus moves from thesurroundings to the running motion of the sandpiper. The adjective "finical" provides a hintof the bird's fastidious nature, which becomes apparent later in the poem. He is in a state of167"panic" (which also makes his motion "awkward") because the roaring and shakingthreaten him, but the panic is "controlled" because the behaviours are repetitive and notunexpected. In the last line of the first stanza the bird is described ironically as a "student ofBlake" in a reference to Blake's line 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand'. 1 The sandpiperattempts, like Blake, to see the whole through the detailed particulars, but, as becomes clearlater in the poem, he is unable to.In the next stanza the focus moves from the bird back to the world surrounding him and themenacing tone is maintained in the simile "hisses like fat". The short opening sentence isfollowed in mid-line by a longer sentence which elaborates on the threatening character ofthe ocean. The water is a "sheet" that could cover the sandpiper and it "glazes" over his feetas if to cast them and hold them. The powerful inanimate world contrasts with the bird'svulnerable "brittle" feet.At the beginning of the fourth line, the focus moves back to the sandpiper with therepetition of "he runs". The bird's way of coping with the menacing natural world thatsurrounds him is to focus on small details. As he runs through the water he watches "histoes". At this point an interesting formal effect is created by the counterpoint betweenstanzaic structure and meaning. The next line is the beginning of the third stanza, but itdoes not start a new sentence, even though the previous stanza is semantically closed.Rather it backtracks by repeating the gerundive "watching" and modifying its object to "thespaces of sand between them". This unexpected extension connects the two stanzas into alarger unit. The rest of the stanza continues to describe the details on which the sandpiper1 This phrase is the opening line of the eighth poem, 'Auguries of Innocence', in Blake's collectiontitled The 'Pickering Manuscript' (c.1801-4). In his article "Musical Events: Reflections" (New Yorker 52[March 8, 1976]), Andrew Porter writes: the words 'Blake', 'sand', 'world' and ' ains' rise up throughMiss Bishop's lines to be assembled, almost subconsciously, in the listener's mind."(122) The word "world"has already appeared in the second line and is repeated later in the fourth stanza, w Ile 'sand" and "grains"occur in the third stanza.168focuses, none of which is "too small" for his attention. As the sea drains from his feet andthreatens to drag him "backwards and downwards", he steadies himself by staring at thegrains of sand.The last line of the third stanza evokes Blake's vision of the world in a grain of sand andleads on to a description of this world (as perceived by the sandpiper) in the fourth stanza.The bird is unaware of the larger patterns that control his world; to him the world is "amist". However, when he focuses on "minute" details, the world is "vast" and "clear". Theparadoxical vastness of the world occurs when the sandpiper's vision is expanded throughhis observations of the particulars. The tide, part of the larger natural world, is beyond hisvision and he cannot tell whether it is "higher or lower". The sandpiper's focus on smalldetails (in order to control his panic), starts to overwhelm his perceptions, and he becomes"preoccupied" with them. As Bishop describes how the sandpiper is looking for"something, something, something", the tone becomes increasingly emotionally intenseuntil a climax is reached as the poet expresses sympathy for the "poor" bird andcharacterizes his behaviour as an obsession.The sentence structure of the third and fourth stanzas supports the emotional accelerationand climax of the words. Like the second stanza, the third one starts with a short sentenceand is followed in mid-line by another. The next two sentences also start in mid-line andare short in length. The altered sentence structures, together with the studied breaking ofthe format of lines as semantic units that was established in the beginning of the poem,accelerates the rhythmic flow of the poem. This accelerated motion is also supported by therhythmic scheme of repeated phrases and words that was discussed above. The last line ofthe fourth stanza is an incomplete sentence and runs on to the first line of the fifth stanza,thereby connecting them. This in turn leads to the accelerated repetition of "something,something, something" which climaxes in the next line "Poor bird, he is obsessed!"169The last two lines of the poem are similar to a coda. In his obsession for details and hisfrantic search for that elusive "something", the bird discovers beauty in the many colours ofthe grains of sand. The frenzied activity and menacing tone of before is replaced by a calm,almost peaceful, description of the colourful stones, moving from the commonplace"black" and "white" grains to the more exotic, semi-precious "quartz", "rose" and"amethyst". A sense of closure is achieved by the lessening of the emotional intensity andby the flowing two-line sentence which contrasts with the short sentences and phrases thatlead to the climax.The themes of movement and direction that dominate 'Argument' recur in 'Sandpiper'.Verbs describing active physical movement dominate the first three stanzas of the poem,where Bishop is setting the visual and emotional scene. The movement is typically fast,depicting the bird's movements, or of a threatening nature, depicting the movement of thewater and beach as the sandpiper perceives them. For example, Bishop repeats the verb"runs" to describe the bird's motion. The sandpiper's world shakes, the beach "hisses" andthe Atlantic "drains". In the last two stanzas there is less movement and there are no verbsdepicting physical action besides the bird "looking". Bishop describes the sandpiper andhis world declaratively, using the verb "to be" in the form of "is" and "are".Words and phrases indicating direction are prevalent throughout the poem. The bird runs"to the south" and the roaring water is "alongside" him and, more specifically, "on hisleft". The direction of the movement of the immediate world that surrounds the sandpiper isconfusing to him; the water "comes and goes" and the tide is "higher or lower". It is alsothreatening, for example, the water drains "backwards and downwards".The theme of contrast also recurs. The movements of the natural world have conflictingdirections in the sandpiper's perception, as was discussed above. Paradoxically, the world170is at times "a mist" and, at other times, "clear", as well as being both "minute" and "vast".The theme of contrast is continued in the description of the grains where "black" and"white" are juxtaposed. The sandpiper too is a combination of contrasts. He has opposingemotions, being both controlled and in a panic. The sandpiper's striving for illumination inhis search "for something" is akin to the visionary sensibility of poets like Blake.However, what he ultimately finds are the mundane realities of earth. Instead ofdiscovering the 'world' in the grains of sand, the sandpiper finds a marvel of naturalcolours. 1 Bishop seems to reject the visionary stance in favour of contemplative-descriptiveone and ultimately to contradict the image of the bird as a student of Blake.From the above discussion it is apparent that a sectional division of the poem is notappropriate. Although the stanzaic form does coincide with structural breaks in the semanticcontent at the end of the first and third stanzas, the other stanzas are linked semantically.The poem presents two images, that of the sandpiper and that of the natural world asexperienced by the bird. Because the one image is dependent on the other, they are notpresented separately, and interact throughout the poem's duration. Thus there is an organicprogression that climaxes formally and emotionally at the beginning of the fifth stanza. Thisis then followed by a couplet in which a sense of resolution and closure is achieved.'SANDPIPER': MUSICThe notation of Carter's setting of 'Sandpiper' implies four distinct sections, with eachsectional break articulated by a change of time signature and a tempo modulation. Thesectional breaks coincide with the stanzaic ones only where there are also clear breaks in thesemantic content, that is, at the end of the first and third stanzas. The second sectional1^Sybil P. Estess, "Elizabeth Bishop: The Delicate Art of Map Making", The Southern Review 13/4(1977): 720-21.171break occurs after the third line of the second stanza, before the last line which runs on tothe first line of the next stanza, as was discussed above. By setting the lines that connectstanzas as part of the same sections he preserves the semantic connections between thesecond and third stanzas and the fourth and fifth stanzas. In this way Carter reinforcesmusically the semantic divisions in the poem.However, the notated divisions are not always perceptible aurally. In fact, the same kind ofcontrapuntal relationship that exists between the stanzaic and semantic structures in thepoem, exists between the notated and heard divisions in the music. The changes in tempoand meter do not provide the listener with clearly perceptible musical divisions for anumber of reasons. Firstly, the metrical changes are imperceptible, since the beats are notexplicit. Secondly, the oboe stream, which is aurally prominent (and whose symbolic roleis discussed below) maintains the same speed throughout, proceeding at a tempo ofsmallest unit = MM 525. Thirdly, although the notated tempo modulates -- from J = 105(m.1), then GI = 75 (m.11), to .1= 131 (m.23), to J = 105 (m.40) -- the textural streamsand their characteristic properties and behaviours remain relatively consistent across thesechanges.The textural processes that these streams undergo do not support the sectional structure, butthey do function musically and symbolically to portray the nuances of the text, and to createthe large-scale progression to a climax that was discussed above. After discussing the mostsignificant textural features of 'Sandpiper', we will return to the form of the compositionby presenting a chronological analysis, which will focus on stream interaction and on textsetting.172A. Textural Features1. StreamsThe song built is built on contrasting aural continuities that correspond to the images in thepoem. For example, distinct streams signify the persona of the sandpiper and the ocean. 1While the ocean is signified by a single stream, two different streams represent thesandpiper. One is more prominent and is considered the primary 'sandpiper' stream, theother has a secondary role. The vocal stream behaves both independently and supportively,at times reinforcing either the 'sandpiper' streams or the 'ocean' stream through emulationprocesses. All four streams are presented within the first ten measures of 'Sandpiper',where their stream-defining properties and behaviours are established. The threeinstrumental streams will be discussed first, followed by the vocal stream.The two most prominent streams -- the oboe stream, signifying the sandpiper, and thepiano/strings stream, signifying the ocean -- enter in m.1. These signifying streams andtheir characteristic properties and behaviours were discussed in detail and tabulated inExample 35 on page 100; however, since the entire song is based on the interaction ofthese two streams, we will reiterate their properties and behaviours here.The oboe stream, which symbolizes the sandpiper by connoting his actions and character,will be referred to as the primary 'sandpiper' stream. The properties and behaviours of theevents that comprise this stream have non-musical associations. The high registralplacement of the events is associated with smallness, while their consistent connectionbehaviour connotes the continuity of a conscious individual being. The high attack densityand subito fluctuating dynamics of the events in the primary 'sandpiper' stream depict boththe bird's fast, jerky physical movements and his disturbed mental state. In the opening1^Later in the song the stream symbolizing the ocean also represents the natural world that is associatedwith the ocean, for example, the beach and the grains of sand.173measures the stream is also established by the pitch parity of the events (repeated B5's andC6's), but this property is not maintained consistently throughout the song and functionsinitially to draw the listener's attention to the oboe stream. Another behaviour that doescharacterize this stream, but which is not apparent in the first few measures, is the randomfluctuation of contour, which contributes to the depiction of the bird's quick runningmotion. This fluctuation of contour can be seen, for example, in the oboe events of mm.7-9.Events in the piano and strings combine to form the 'ocean' stream, and the properties andbehaviours of this stream connote the motion of the huge, slow sea. Despite their timbraldisparity, the piano and the string events are associated as part of the same stream throughthe pitch and intervallic parity that exists between them. The pitch events are frequentlyorganized into M9 and m6 dyads, as can be seen in the opening measures. Stream unity isfurther achieved though their other similar properties and behaviours. The stream is definedby the low registral placement of events, and by their lack of connection behaviour infavour of overlapping pitch events. The low register of the events is associated with depthand vastness, and evokes an image of the ocean. The indistinct, overlapping pitch eventsconnote the unconnected physical quanta moved by forces larger and more diverse than asingle being. The 'ocean' stream is also characterized by the contour behaviour of itsgestures; the ascending and descending contours of the gestures portray the ocean wavesthat ebb and flow alongside the sandpiper. With respect to attack density, these contourgestures occur at two rates: strings events group into gestures with low attack density,while gestures comprising piano events are usually defined by a higher attack density. Thedisparity in attack density between the gestures does not dissociate them from belonging tothe same stream because of the parity between them in the other aspects. Instead it evokesimages of waves swelling and breaking repeatedly and at different rates. The gestures cover174a wide registral range and are characterized by crescendi and descrescendi which contrastwith the abrupt changes of dynamic intensity in the primary 'sandpiper' stream.As was mentioned in Chapter Three, the symbolic representation of the sandpiper and theocean depends as much on the opposition of the properties and behaviours of the streamsas it does on their actual values. The defining properties and behaviours of the two streamscontrast significantly in many respects, for example, in their registral placement, registraldensity, dynamic intensity behaviour and their connection behaviour. The correspondencebetween an individual stream and a particular poetic image is established by the texturalprominence of that stream when that image is being described in the text (this will bediscussed in the section on stream interaction), as well as by the non-musical connotationsof that stream's properties and behaviours.A second stream associated with the sandpiper enters in m.7. This stream comprises eventsin the viola, cello and bass, and violin from m.9. The string stream is defined primarily bythe pizzicato staccato articulation that makes the events timbrally distinct from the bowedstring events in the ocean stream. This pizzicato stream has some properties and behavioursin common with both the 'ocean' and the primary 'sandpiper' streams, but essentialdifferences set it apart as a distinct continuity. Although events in the pizzicato stream aretimbrally similar to events in the 'ocean' stream, the narrower registral span, higher attackdensity, and dissimilarity in contour behaviour of the pizzicato gestures help to dissociatethem from those of the 'ocean' stream. The events in the pizzicato stream are similar inarticulation to those of the oboe stream, but are dissimilar timbrally, and the streamproceeds with a lower attack density and covers a wider registral range. This pizzicatostream is also associated with the bird, and will be referred to as the secondary 'sandpiper'stream. The short duration of the events and relatively high attack density of the stream areassociated with the description of the quick, sharp movements of the sandpiper as he runs175awkwardly along the beach. As with the other streams, the signifying role of the pizzicatostream is established because it proceeds concurrently with descriptions of the bird, as wellas because of the non-musical connotations of its properties and behaviours.The vocal stream enters at the end of m.2 and is defined by the medium attack density ofthe events relative to the other concurrent streams. It is also characterized by its intervallicconsistency: repeated M2, m2, m6 and m3 intervals are formed between successive pitchevents, as can be seen in Example 48.Example 48: 'Sandpiper' mm.2-4 (vocal stream)m3m6^M2M2 r--1^m3^ M2^3r---1 3•^. ••••1Num. ANIU].■^Mr 7.1•MININFIP7.1■111111111•111•■I.IIMIIIMMaillillior rl^warOINNIMINIIMINET•11lifil=11111=6.r m mow iiIM141 IIIMINTIIIIIREJW"LlirMor air NNWagli^rThe roar - ing a - long - side^he takes _ for grant-edThe vocal stream undergoes transformations throughout the song in the form of emulationprocesses. It frequently exploits the disparity in rhythmic behaviour and articulationbetween the the secondary 'sandpiper' stream and the string gestures in the 'ocean' stream:by emulating the attack-density behaviour and articulation of one stream or the other, itsupports that stream and strengthens its signification. For example, briefly in m.4 and,later, in mm.7-9 the vocal stream emulates the rhythmic behaviour and staccato articulationof the secondary 'sandpiper' stream. In mm.l 1-17 legato events comprise the vocal stream,which now imitates the low attack density of the 'ocean' stream. In the latter example thevocal events feature successive dyads of m6's (excluding the initial M6 between the Db andBb), an interval also characteristic of the 'ocean' stream, thereby strengthening theassociation between the two streams.m6 M m21762. Stream InteractionAn important textural feature of 'Sandpiper' is the way in which the streams interact. Threeor more streams usually proceed concurrently: the primary 'sandpiper' (oboe) stream andthe vocal stream proceed almost continuously throughout the song, while the other twostreams alternate or proceed simultaneously. Repeated processes of compensation occur,whereby various musical devices bring a particular stream to the fore and relegate otherstreams to the aural background, so that the listener's attention is focussed on that stream,in a similar way to 'Insomnia' and 'View of the Capitol'. Because the definingcharacteristic properties and behaviours of the individual streams are distinctive, our abilityto perceive and to recognize the different streams as they interact and overlap is unimpeded.The stream interaction in the first eleven measures of 'Sandpiper' will be discussed as anexample of the kind of stream combination that characterizes this song. The diagram inExample 49 (overleaf) is a graphic simplification of the discussion, showing the presenceof the different streams. 1 The other features of the diagram, such as how the presence ofstreams relate to the semantic content and stanzaic structure of the text, are relevant to theanalytical discussion that follows this section.The primary 'sandpiper' stream and the 'ocean' stream proceed concurrently from m.1,with the vocal stream entering at the end of m.2. The 'ocean' stream dominates the texture,while the primary 'sandpiper' stream proceeds with brief intermittent gestures. Focus shiftsbriefly to the vocal stream in m.4 when there is a momentary silence in the accompaniment.The vocal stream anticipates the secondary 'sandpiper' stream by articulating the staccatotriplet eighth-notes that are later associated with that stream.1^In this diagram, as in all similar diagrams in the analyses, there is some graphic 'rounding off.Gestures, particularly in the oboe stream, are shown as continuous when the rests between events are tooshort to be clearly graphed.177vocal streamoboe stream1 3^5ocean7 9bird11I„roaring alongside...takes for granted"stanza 1I I "He runs, he runs"TMstanzasmm.textpianostringstextural focus 'ocean' streamODOE1011'sandpiper' streamsExample 49: 'Sandpiper' mm.1-11textural^ intens. to climaxprocessesKey to shadings and abbreviationsShadingsproperties and behaviours associated with sandpiperproperties and behaviours associated with oceanproperties and behaviours associated with sandpiperindependent properties and behavioursAbbreviationsTM = tempo modulationa.d. = attack densityreg.d. = registral . = registral placementgest.dur. = gestural durationThe 'sandpiper' gestures gradually increase in duration until m.7 when they proceed almostcontinuously and are prominent aurally. Coincidentally, in m.7, compensation occurs whenthe 'ocean' stream is reduced severely to the sustained G4 in the violin in mm.7-8, which is178barely perceptible, and the secondary 'sandpiper' stream enters. 1 Simultaneously, the vocalstream starts to emulate the attack density and articulation of the secondary 'sandpiper'stream, as was discussed above. The texture is thus dominated by streams associated withthe sandpiper. A transition occurs in m.10: the secondary 'sandpiper' and 'ocean' streamsoverlap slightly, and the vocal stream reasserts its independence from the 'sandpiper'stream. This transition leads to another textural section in m.11 in which the 'ocean' streamis reestablished, and the secondary 'sandpiper' stream ceases in another process ofcompensation. The primary 'sandpiper' stream, of course, continues across this change.The first eleven measures typify the kind of interaction that occurs between the streams in'Sandpiper'. Different streams are focussed on through compensatory processes, each forseveral measures, so that the song comprises time spans with distinct textural sounds.Because the primary 'sandpiper' stream proceeds essentially unchanged and at the sametempo during the song, these textural time spans do not have the effect of dividing the songinto sections. Instead the song sounds through-composed. The way that the streamsinteract, however, corresponds to the symbolic roles that they play; the interaction of thetwo images in the text is represented by the interaction of the streams. The closecorrespondence with the text will be discussed in the next section.B. Form and Text-SettingCarter establishes the symbolic roles of the streams in the opening measures by associatingeach stream with an image in the poem: the stream on which the listener's attention isfocussed depends on the focus of the text. In the opening lines the singer describes theroaring of the waves as the sandpiper hears it. The 'ocean' stream dominates the texture,1^Because these kinds of compensatory processes occur repeatedly in 'Sandpiper', they are notindicated on the diagram. It is to be understood that each change of 'textural focus' involves a process ofcompensation.179while the primary 'sandpiper' stream proceeds with brief gestures. In m.4 the vocal streamcomes to the fore and the other streams cease for a few beats as the singer introduces thepresence of the sandpiper, "hg takes for granted" (my emphasis). Symbolically, streamsassociated with the bird dominate the texture briefly. The oboe articulates a strident,multiphonic squawk at the end of m.3, the 'ocean' streams are silent, and the articulationand attack density of the vocal stream change to those that are later associated with thesecondary 'sandpiper' stream. The 'sandpiper' gestures gradually increase in duration sothat when the singer starts to describe the bird more fully in m.7 ("he runs, he runs"), the'sandpiper' gestures proceed almost continuously. Simultaneously, the 'ocean' streamceases, the secondary 'sandpiper' stream enters, and the vocal stream imitates the rhythmicbehaviour and staccato articulation of the secondary 'sandpiper' stream. These streamsproceed throughout the singer's description of the bird's actions and panicked state ofmind, establishing the connection between them and the image of the sandpiper.The first ten measures of 'Sandpiper' act as an introduction in which the streams and theirinteraction are established. The rest of the song proceeds in a similar fashion: as the singerfocuses on the different images, the different signifying streams come to the fore texturally.The most significant textural processes occur later when there is a progression towards aclimax, followed by diminishment processes creating closure at the end of the song. In myanalysis of the music and its relation to the text I will also refer to the notational structuralfeatures mentioned above, namely Carter's tempo modulations and the stanzaic structure ofthe poem. These features are included in the diagrams which accompany the analysis.After the description of the sandpiper in mm.7-10, the singer starts to describe the beach asit is perceived by the bird ("The beach hisses like fat"). The change of focus in the text isaccompanied by a change of texture, as can be seen in the diagram reproduced as Example50. A moment of structural articulation occurs in mm.10-11 when intensification processes180vocal streamoboe streampianostringstextural focus0 I 0 El El CI r-T7 7:71'sandpiper' streamsMS'ocean' streamlead to a climax, which is immediately followed by diminishment processes. In m.10, the'ocean' stream intensifies in registral density and dynamic intensity. The primary'sandpiper' stream also exhibits crescendo behaviour, and oboe events intensify in registralplacement in mm.10-11. Simultaneously, the voice articulates its highest pitch in the phrase(F#5). Two notational factors support this moment of structural articulation -- a tempomodulation occurs in m.11, and a new stanza starts -- but these are not in themselvesperceptible aurally.Example 50: 'Sandpiper' mm.11-2511^13^15^17^19^21^23^25^beach/ocean bird^1, 'beach hisses" 11 "dark and brittle feet"stanzas 1 stanza 2 7N1^ 7MMM.texttextural^dim.^imitation between^'sandpiper': inters. ofprocesses processes^'sandpiper' gest.^ ., gest. dur.In m.11 diminishment processes in registral placement and dynamic intensity reverse theprocesses that lead to the climax, and help to articulate it as such. The 'ocean' stream nowdominates the texture, supported by the vocal stream, which emulates its attack density andarticulation. The dominance of the 'ocean' stream is compensated for by the secondary'sandpiper' stream ceasing. The 'ocean' stream undergoes a transformation at the end ofm.11 when the faster 'ocean' gestures drop out. The low attack density and registral181placement of the string gestures connote depth, and emphasize the threatening quality of thewater. The presence of the sandpiper is maintained through brief intermittent oboe gesturesin the primary 'sandpiper' stream which alternate imitatively with short violin gestures inthe secondary 'sandpiper' stream in mm.14-18.When the singer mentions the sandpiper in m.17 (on "his left"), and starts to describe howthe water glazes over his feet, the 'sandpiper' streams start to come into focus and, incompensation, the 'ocean' stream gradually recedes. The oboe events are grouped intogestures of longer duration, and the registral placement of the gestures gradually intensifiesin mm.17-25. The secondary 'sandpiper' stream intensifies in overall registral density andattack density, now comprising the events in the violin and cello (mm.17-18) and in theviola in mm.21-22. A new gesture is introduced in m.19 where the oboe events group intoa tremolo figure. This figure also occurs in the secondary 'sandpiper' stream, and isimitated by the viola events in m.21 and again in m.22. This tremolo gesture thusrepresents another aspect of the sandpiper; it occurs first as the singer describes how thethreatening water "comes" up to the bird, and represents his shiver of fear and anxiety. Theattack density and articulation of the vocal stream become more similar to that of thesecondary 'sandpiper' stream again in mm.21-22; its attack density intensifies and theevents are articulated staccato. The background role played by the 'ocean' stream is causedby the diminishment in its registral density and attack density that render it almostimperceptible. The 'ocean' stream does, however, come briefly into focus in mm.19-20, ina gesture representing the "interrupting water" that comes closer to the bird before it recedesagain.The sandpiper streams continue to be the textural focus in mm.22-24 as the singerdescribes the sandpiper running through the water. A second tempo modulation occurs inm.23, but once again it is imperceptible because of the continuity of the sandpiper streams18225^27^29^31^33^35^37^39bird"As he runs"bird"watching"^"where the Atlantic drains"no detail too smalloceanstanza 3across this notated break. An triplet eighth-note pulse, which was hinted at in mm.7-9 (andbriefly in the vocal stream in m.4), now defines more precisely the attack density streamsassociated with the sandpiper. This pulse is articulated by both the secondary 'sandpiper'stream and the vocal stream in these measures. The registral placement of the events in theoboe 'sandpiper' stream continues to intensify through m.25. The 'ocean' stream is notpresent in these measures.In m.25 a transformation of focus is initiated in the poem and in the musical texture, as canbe seen in the diagram in Example 51.Example 51: 'Sandpiper' mm.25-40MM.textstanzasvocal streamoboe streampianostringstextural focus 'sandpiper'^'ocean' stream^ 'sandpiper'& 'ocean' streamstextural^streams 'ocean': focussing on^'sandpiper':processes piano ... then ... string events^focussing on violaevents(texture like mm.7-8)The speaker starts to describe what the sandpiper is watching, that is, his toes and thedraining Atlantic that he sees between them. Accordingly, the 'ocean' stream returns, andproceeds concurrently with the two 'sandpiper' streams again. Starting at the end of m.24the 'ocean' stream comprises the events in the piano. Their low registral placement183contrasts with the higher registral placement of the events comprising the pizzicato andtremolo gestures in the strings, which continue to symbolize the bird's movements. Theevents in the vocal stream emulate the secondary 'sandpiper' stream by sharing the tripleteighth-note pulse and staccato articulation in mm.26-27 when the singer describes theminutiae of the sandpiper's world -- "the spaces of sand" between his feet. As the textbecomes more concerned with the receding water of the ocean, the 'ocean' stream becomesmore prominent and, in compensation, the streams symbolizing the bird fade into thebackground. The oboe gestures are brief and intermittent as of m.26, and the pizzicatoevents comprising the secondary 'sandpiper' stream cease at the beginning of m.29. Theevents in the strings fuse again with the 'ocean' stream, which consequently intensifies inregistral density and attack density. The vocal stream supports the dominance of the 'ocean'stream by becoming more similar to it than to the 'sandpiper' stream in behaviour throughanother emulation process. Namely, the attack density of the vocal stream diminishes at theend of m.27 at the start of the phrase "where... the Atlantic drains", and the vocal eventsproceed legato. A parenthetical interjection, "(no detail too small)", describing themicroscopic view of the sandpiper, interrupts the flow of the 'ocean' streams, and recallsthe texture of the 'sandpiper' streams. In striking contrast to the events that precede andfollow this phrase, the vocal stream once again articulates staccato triplet eighth-notes,while secondary 'sandpiper' stream has its last gesture before its silence in the next ninemeasures. After this, the 'ocean' stream dominates the texture uninterrupted. It is mademore prominent through focussing processes whereby events emerge temporarily from thetexture through solo playing instructions. Focussing occurs in the piano events in mm.29-32 and in the string events in mm.32-39.The music symbolizing the sandpiper comes to the fore briefly in mm.37-39 when thespeaker, using the repeated phrase "he runs", describes how the bird "stares at the dragginggrains". The texture recalls the texture of mm.7-8 where the phrase " he runs, he runs" first184pianostringstextural focus^'ocean' stream ('sandpiper'streams, m.44)'sandpiper' streamstext^ world/oceanl.'world is a mist"stanzasbird'He couldn't tell... obesessed" 1stanza 5occurred, so that the textural repetition reflects the phrase repetition. Similar compensatoryprocesses occur. The 'ocean' stream is reduced to the events in the bass; in mm 7-8 it wasreduced to events in the violin. The vocal stream now emulates the 'sandpiper' gesturesthrough its higher attack density and staccato articulation, in a similar way to mm.7-8. Thesecondary 'sandpiper' stream proceeds with pizzicato gestures in the cello, as it did in theearlier measures. There are some changes from the earlier texture, however. A focussingprocess occurs in the secondary 'sandpiper' stream when events in the viola are madeprominent by their articulation, sul ponticello, and by grouping into tremolo gestures whichconnote the bird's anxious reaction to the menace of the Atlantic, as they first did in m.19.Surprisingly, the oboe stream, which has acted as the primary symbol of the sandpiper, isnot present in these measures; the reason for this becomes apparent later.Another change of focus occurs in the text in m.40 and there is a corresponding change offocus in the textural fabric, shown in the diagram in Example 52.Example 52: 'Sandpiper' mm.40-54mm.^40^42^44^46^48^50^52^54textural^'sandpiper':processes intens. of a.d.,dim. of .'sandpiper', voice:^climaxintens. of .,cresc.185For the second time in 'Sandpiper' a tempo modulation coincides with a stanzaic division,as it did in m.11. Although these two features are not in themselves audible, the absence ofa continuous oboe stream across the break, and the relatively long rest in the vocal stream,make the break somewhat perceptible to the listener. During this next section texturalprocesses develop that ultimately lead to the climax. These processes occur in the primary'sandpiper' stream and operate over a long time span, concluding in m.50 as the period ofpeak emotional intensity is approached in the text. The attack density of the oboe streamintensifies as the registral placement of its events diminishes. The intensification of attackdensity takes the form of a rhythmic acceleration, in which successive events or gesturesare attacked ever closer together. (The acceleration was discussed in Example 24 on page73). In retrospect it can be seen that the series actually starts with the oboe event in m.36,which explains the long time span between that event and the next one in m.39, and theconsequent absence of symbolic sandpiper activity in the oboe stream in mm.37-39. 1Although the series is not immediately perceptible, the listener soon becomes aware of theaccelerating rhythmic behaviour of the oboe stream, and the descending pitch placement ofits events. Initially, in mm.36-43 when the time spans separating events are longer, thisaudibility is achieved through the disparity in dynamic intensity and registral placementbetween oboe events and other concurrent events. (Obviously the established symbolic roleand distinctive timbre of the oboe stream help to make it prominent too.) These processesfunction to build intensity and to prepare the listener for the climax. However, the changingpresence of the oboe stream also plays a symbolic role, as will be apparent from thefollowing discussion of the behaviours of the other streams in mm.40-50.1 In the series, each successive pitch event is attacked at a decreasing multiple of a fixed metrical unit.Since the tempo modulation at the end of m.39 specifies that the upcoming quintuplet sixteenth-note has thesame duration as the preceding sixteenth-note, the time spans between attacks are both multiples of thequadruple sixteenth and the quintuplet sixteenth-notes. The time spans between adjacent attacks, beginning inm.36, are: 31 - 28 - 24 - 20 - 14 - 16 - 13 - 12 - 11 - 10 - 9 - 8 - 7 -- 6 - 5 - 4 - 3 - 4 - 1.186The combination of streams continues to describe texturally the interaction of images in thetext in these measures. As was mentioned earlier, the section opens by changing the focusin the text from the sandpiper to his perceived world. Starting in m.40 the speakerdescribes the confusing world that surrounds the sandpiper and the tide that is lapping athis feet. During this section, which lasts until m.48, the 'ocean' stream dominates thetexture. Events in both the piano and the strings contribute to the 'ocean' stream, and theprimary 'sandpiper' stream proceeds with the brief intermittent gestures that form part ofthe series described above. The vocal stream is characterized by a lower attack density thanin mm.37-39, reinforcing the image of the ocean. Exceptions to these behaviours,obviously motivated by the text, occur in m.44 on the words "is minute". The voicearticulates three staccato triplet eighth-notes, accompanied by a single tremolo violingesture. These brief reminiscences of the 'sandpiper' streams serve a symbolic functionsince they occur when the speaker intimates that the bird focuses on minute details in orderto clarify his world. The presence of the bird is thus briefly established before thedescription of the incomprehensible macroscopic world ("and vast") is continued in m.45.When the speaker mentions the sandpiper at the end of m.48 in the line "He couldn't tellyou which", the bird's presence, which has been becoming more apparent in the emergingoboe stream, is musically reinstated. In a compensatory process, the 'ocean' stream isabruptly replaced by the secondary 'sandpiper' stream comprising pizzicato events in thestrings and tremolo gestures in the cello, both of which connote the sandpiper's behaviour.Correspondingly, the events in the voice are articulated staccato and the stream proceeds ata higher attack density than before. The striking behaviours of mm.49-50 mark theculmination of the processes of intensification of attack density and diminishment ofregistral placement in the oboe stream, and prepare the listener for new processes that187reflect the textual focus on the bird and his obsessive character. These processes in turnculminate in m.53 with a climax that symbolizes the peak of emotional intensity in the text. 1At the beginning of m.50 the listener's attention focuses entirely on the oboe 'sandpiper'stream when the other streams cease and the composite registral density and attack densityare dramatically reduced. An extended tremolo gesture in m.50 symbolizes once again thebird's anxious state of mind. Starting in m.51, the oboe stream undergoes an overallintensification of registral placement and dynamic intensity. (Although the behavioursfluctuate somewhat, the overall, long-term effect is one of intensification in these aspects.)The rise in pitch and loudness occur as the singer describes the increasingly franticmovements and desparate mental state of the bird. The vocal stream, mm 50-52, supportsthe symbolic depiction of the sandpiper by articulating the triplet eighth-note pulseassociated with the secondary 'sandpiper' stream of before. An emotional climax is reachedas the speaker describes the bird's psychological state in the line "Poor bird, he isobsessed!". Musically the processes of intensification in the oboe stream climaxsimultaneously, with the highest and loudest pitch events. The vocal stream also articulatesits highest pitch events in the song (A5), accented and fortissimo.In the last eleven measures, mm.54-65, the speaker describes the colourful grains of sandthat the bird sees on the beach, and a sense of resolution is reached after the intensity of theclimax. These measures are shown in the diagram reproduced in Example 53 overleaf.1^This climax was discussed in Example 37 on page 105.188vocal streamoboe streampianostringstextural focus 'ocean' stream1- 1-04^DM 11[11100100 0'sandpiper' streamExample 53: 'Sandpiper' mm.54-65MM.^54^56^58^60^62^64text sand/oceanmillions of grains" Istanzas stanza 5 textural^'ocean': dim. of a.d., reg.d, decresc.processes 'sandpiper': decresc., dim. of a.d., gest.dur.voice: dim. of a.d., decresc.Musically, the two symbolic streams that opened the song proceed concurrently, andclosure is achieved through processes of diminishment. The 'ocean' stream reenters inm.54 with events in the piano and strings. The exceptional loudness of the initial low bassand piano events in m.54 emphasizes the contrast in overall registral density and registralplacement between m.53 and 54, which helps to set this section apart as a concluding coda.The other string events, however, are muted and are defined by low dynamic intensity,creating a sense of calmness and resolution. Diminishment in attack density takes placegradually in the 'ocean' stream as the events become longer in duration, and there is adecrescendo to ppp in mm.60-61. At the end of m.61 the registral density and dynamicintensity diminish further, and, after a single low sustained piano event, the stream ceasesin m.63. The vocal stream also undergoes gradual diminishment in attack density andexhibits decrescendo behaviour, with the exception of the events in m.56, whose tripletpulse and staccato articulation are reminiscent of the secondary (pizzicato) 'sandpiper'stream.189The primary 'sandpiper' stream proceeds continuously from the climactic moments of m.53through the concluding section. Although the intensity that characterized the climax is notimmediately dissipated, overall processes of diminishment also occur to support thecadential effect. In m.54-55 the processes of intensification that brought about the climaxare reversed. Initially there is diminishment in the registral placement of the primary'sandpiper' stream and it exhibits decrescendo behaviour. Throughout the final measuresthe attack density of the stream diminishes gradually as the oboe events are grouped intoprogressively shorter gestures that are separated by longer time spans. By the time the'ocean' stream has ceased in m.63, the primary 'sandpiper' stream comprises gestures nolonger than four successive events. The solitary figure of the sandpiper, isolated, absorbedin his own world of minutiae and oblivious to the larger world, is evoked as the oboestream continues alone for another three measures. A final decrescendo occurs in the lasttwo measures where the gestures progress from mp to a single ppp event.ConclusionFrom the above discussion it is apparent that the most important textural features of'Sandpiper' are the way in which the streams interact, and how they represent personae andactions in the text. By creating distinct textural streams and establishing strong symbolicroles for them, Carter produces a song in which the complex interaction of images in thetext is accurately portrayed by the interaction of these textural streams.Typically in 'Sandpiper' streams proceed concurrently, with one or more streamsdominating the texture. This is made possible by a number of techniques. Firstly, we areable to distinguish which stream has come to the fore because of the clear distinctionbetween the properties and behaviours of the different streams in the song. Secondly, thestream, or streams, being focussed on usually proceeds continuously, and, preceding this,190frequently undergoes intensification processes. For example, in m.17 the eventscomprising the primary 'sandpiper' stream start to intensify in registral placement anddynamic intensity, and group into longer gestures until, in m.22, they proceedcontinuously together with the other 'sandpiper' streams. Thirdly, in a compensatoryprocess, when a particular stream, or streams, comes to the fore, the other streams arerelegated to the background. This is achieved through the cessation of a stream, forexample the secondary 'sandpiper' stream ceases to sound in mm.40-44, or throughvarious diminishment processes, for example in m.11 the primary 'sandpiper' streamdiminishes in registral placement and dynamic intensity and proceeds with short intermittentgestures instead of continuously. Occasionally Carter supports the prominence of aparticular stream by highlighting some of its events through focussing processes. Forexample, in mm.29-39 the piano and strings gestures comprising the 'ocean' stream arefocussed on through the playing instruction "bring out (solo)" .The stream interaction that occurs in 'Sandpiper' plays an important role in the formaldelineation of the song. 'Sandpiper' comprises time spans with distinct overall texturalsounds, resulting from the particular streams that are being focussed on. These time spanssupport the changes in semantic content in the poem: each change in textural focuscoincides with a change in the focus in the text. The two images that are presentedalternately in the text are the sandpiper and the world (i.e. the ocean and the beach) thatsurrounds him. Since these images are clearly depicted in the music through the propertiesand behaviours of particular streams, the focussing processes that occur have symbolicmeaning as well as musical function. When the text is concerned with the description of thesandpiper, his movements and his emotions, the streams associated with the bird come tothe fore. When the ocean is being described, the 'sandpiper' streams recede and the streamsassociated with the ocean and the beach dominate the texture. Unlike many of the othersongs in this cycle, the vocal stream does not have an independent symbolic role, but191imitates the other streams. In this way the depiction of the two images permeates the entiretexture. As was discussed in the analysis, the changes in texture do not consistentlycorrespond with the stanzaic structure of the poem or with the sectional structure articulatedby the changes in time signature and tempo modulations, and even when they do there areno distinct moments of structural articulation in the song.There are two other areas in 'Sandpiper' where significant textural processes occur thatfunction musically and symbolically. The first of these takes place in mm.39-53, where acombination of intensification and diminishment processes lead to a musical climax inm.53. The climax occurs at the most emotionally intense moment in the poem andsymbolizes the bird's obsessed mental state. The second major textural changes occur at theend of the song. Diminishment processes in many aspects of both the individual streamsand the overall texture, create musical closure and symbolize the diminished emotionalintensity and sense of resolution reached in the poem. The final solo oboe gesturesreinforce the isolated figure of the sandpiper, obsessed with his microscopic world.192'VIEW OF THE CAPITOL FROM THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS'The next song we will examine, the fifth in the cycle, 'View of the Capitol', is morecomplex texturally than the other three songs we have analyzed. This is because the song iscomposed for a significantly larger instrumental ensemble than the other songs and dividesinto more streams, because the song is longer, and because of the greater structuralcomplexity that reflects the interplay of images in the poem.TEXTCarter's selection of the poem 'View of the Capitol' was perhaps a response to the occasionfor which the song cycle was commissioned, the United States Bicentennial. The poemdoes not celebrate the country's founders, however, but portrays the relationship betweennature and the government in a comical and ironic way. A discussion of the formal aspectsof the poem will be followed by a detailed account of the content, through which thisrelationship is made explicit.Formally the poem is divided into five stanzas of unequal length: a five-line stanza isfollowed by two quatrains, then another five-line stanza, and finally a quatrain. There is anirregular but pervasive rhyme scheme, with end-line rhyming occurring within stanzas:Stanza 1: abccbStanza 2: de feStanza 3: ghggStanza4: ijjkkStanza 5: lmnmThe correspondence in rhyme scheme between the second and fifth stanzas is not matchedby other formal similarities, like stresses per line, nor does it have a close thematiccorrespondence. It can be attributed to Bishop's practice of formalizing the surface of herpoems.193Each line has four stresses, with the exception of the last line in the first stanza and thesecond and fourth lines in the last stanza. The last line in the first stanza has five stresses,which emphasizes it rhythmically after the regular stress pattern that has been established inthe first four lines. In the last stanza the irregular succession of stresses - four, three, four,two - accelerates the poetic rhythm towards the final climatic line in which the speakerreveals her feelings. Bishop also uses assonance as a formal device in this stanza byrepeating phonemes in successive words. The back vowel [u] is repeated in the second andfourth lines of the stanza, the dipthong [el] in the first line and the forward vowel [6] in thethird line:"Grit shades... music rilom""gathered brasses... bum-bgLom"Typically of Bishop, the sentences and images in 'View of the Capitol' do not alwaysconform to the formal structure into which she divides the surface of the poem. Althoughthe semantic content is also organized into five sections, only the first and last sectionsoccupy a complete stanza. A chronological examination of the content of each section willexplain the relationship between the two structures.The first section corresponds with the first stanza and comprises two sentences in which acomplete image is presented. A speaker, presumably located in the Library of Congress,describes her view of the light falling on the Capitol Dome. The opening sentence isconcerned with the movement "from left to left" of the sunlight along the circular Dome. Asense of nature's power is implied in the description of the light as "heavy", as if it ispushing at the structure. In the second sentence another reference to the light is used todescribe the Dome. The building is portrayed as being impenetrable, for a lunette "turns[the light] aside" and "blankly stares" because it is "wall-eyed". Bishop's animation of the194building as a horse connotes the qualities of strength and power that the Dome needs torepel the natural forces exerted on it.The particular combination and ordering of the adjectives in the simile, "like a big white oldwall-eyed horse", presents an awkward succession of stop-plosive consonants like [g], [t],and [d]. This rhythmic feature, together with the imposition of a strong local series ofstresses on the regular stress pattern, draws the reader's attention to the phrase, andfunctions dramatically to suggest the speaker's unflattering attitude toward the government,and to prepare the reader for the start of a new stanza in which a fresh aspect of observationis presented.The second section of the poem includes both the second stanza, comprising one sentence,and the first two lines of the third stanza, another sentence. In this section the observerturns her attention to the Air Force Band that is playing on the steps of the Capitol. Shefocuses on the visual appearance of the band and emphasizes the institutional quality oftheir dress by describing their dull, bland "uniforms of Air Force blue". She then describesthe sounds of the band comically: the members are playing "hard and loud", but their musicis being distorted en route to the speaker's ears, so that "the music doesn't quite comethrough". In the second sentence of this section the speaker elaborates on how the musicsounds when it reaches her, "dim then keen, then mute". She seems puzzled by the causeof the distortion, for, as she notes, "there is no breeze". From the speaker's perspective thefuzzy sound of the band does not correspond to the visual clarity that she observes.The third section comprises the last two lines of the third stanza and the first two lines ofthe fourth stanza. In this section the speaker returns to the theme of nature and offers anexplanation of why the music sounds sporadic to her. She suggests, rather fancifully, thatthe trees standing between herself and the band must "catch the music in their leaves". She195attributes "giant" grandeur to them, and also majestic volition, in that she says that they"intervene" rather than merely interfere. The trees exert an alchemy on the "hard" music,transforming the sound into the glitter of "gold-dust" when it reaches their leaves, andchanging it from an aural phenomenon to a visual one. This transformation provides athematic connection to the dichotomy of the visual and aural aspects of the band that thespeaker observed earlier.The fourth section is the shortest, comprising the last three lines of the fourth stanza. Thepattern of two sentences per section is broken here for the first and only time in the poem.The early and unexpected end of this semantic section functions symbolically to reflect thespeaker's observation: the words "vanish" in the same way as the music does. Theobserver's attention returns briefly to the band on the Capitol steps, and she describes theflags that are presumably carried by the band. She refers to them in diminutive terms andportrays them as ineffectual, feeding their "limp stripes into the air". (They are limpbecause there is no wind.) In a visual analogy to the aural distortion, where the music isblocked by the trees, the stripes of the flags are consumed by the air. The band, a symbolof the government, is once again being overcome by the forces of nature.The fifth and final section corresponds to the last stanza. This section is differentiated fromthe others not only by the unusual rhythmic structure mentioned above, but also by itscontent, since it begins imperatively, not descriptively like the other sections. In the firsttwo-line sentence the speaker issues an order to the trees, "Great shades, edge over,/ givethe music room," and in the second sentence she explains the directive by stating the band'sintention, they "want to go/ boom —boom". Her tone is ironic, and her attitude to thegovernment, which has been hinted at through her earlier descriptions of the Capitol Domeand the band, becomes clear. Her command to the trees, which would appear to be insympathy with the ambitions of the band, is clearly absurd; the trees may be able to catch196the music, but they cannot move. The band's ambitions thus run against the order ofnature. Further, the intention of the band (and government) appears to be one ofdestruction; the innocuous "boom--boom" of the band's drum acquires sinisterconnotations when interpreted as the boom-boom of a cannon.In summary, the poem presents a number of different images, the light and the Dome (thefirst section), the band (second, fourth and fifth sections) and the trees (third and fifthsections). The light and the trees are both images of nature, while the images of the CapitolDome and the band both represent the government. Thus there are two main personae in thepoem, nature and the government. Nature is personified as powerful and majestic while thegovernment is portrayed as blind, officious and aggressive. The relationship of tension thatexists between these two elements in the poem is characterized by a symmetrical powerstruggle. Both interfere with the other's activities: the Dome turns the light aside, and thetrees catch the band's music in their leaves. The final stanza makes explicit this relationshipwhen the speaker orders the symbols of nature, the trees, to stop interfering with theactions of the band, the symbol of the government.A second look at the semantic structure of the poem in terms of the sections that have justbeen discussed reveals a slightly different scheme with a new symmetry. The lengths of thesections are: four lines, six lines, four lines, three lines, four lines respectively. Thesymmetrical scheme with four-line sections alternating with sections of irregular lengthreflects the alternation of recurring images in the poem, but the recurring four-line sectionsdo not correspond to a particular image. This ambiguous structure, underlying a relativelystraightforward surface structure, is another example of Bishop's penchant for achievingcontrapuntal resonance through the superposition of conflicting structures. Connections aremade between these different readings of the poem through, for example, the rhymescheme. Instead of occurring within stanzaic sections, rhyming occurs between the second197and third sections, and between the third and fourth sections, linking the sections and theimages and providing a sense of continuity.'VIEW OF THE CAPITOL': MUSICCarter's setting of 'View of the Capitol' follows the poem's semantic structure, which isbased on images and sentences, rather than the stanzaic structure. He divides the song intothe five sections described above, with each sectional break articulated by a tempomodulation. The first, third and fifth sections proceed at a tempo of J = 90 and have theexpressive indication Maestoso. The second section proceeds Alla Marcia at a tempo of .1=72, while the fourth section is marked Vivace and has a tempo of J = 135. From the tempoand expressive indications of the music, which correspond to the symmetrical scheme ofsectional lengths, one might assume that Carter's formal plan for this song would beABACA. It is, however, more complex than that. After discussing the most significanttextural features of the music, we will return to the form of the composition by presenting achronological analysis of 'View of the Capitol', which will focus on aspects of form andon text setting.A. Main Textural Features1. StreamsThe first main section of the song, the Maestoso (mm.1-22), presents three of the fourmost important instrumental streams in 'View of the Capitol', as well as establishing thevocal stream. These three instrumental streams are important because they recur repeatedlyin the song and because they have symbolic roles in the depiction of the text. The streamswill be discussed in the order that they are initially established, and their definingproperties, behaviours and processes will be analyzed.198The song opens with a single multi-timbral stream comprising events in the wind and stringinstruments and the piano. Events are attacked singly or in pairs, then sustained; theyexhibit pitch and intervallic continuity, that is, timbrally distinct events articulate the samepitches, and simultaneous or successive events often form M9's. The secondary propertyof high dynamic intensity supports the coherence of the stream. The stream is also definedby a pulse in which the events are attacked every tenth triplet eighth-note, as was discussedin Example 11 on page 53. The relatively low attack density at the tempo of .1= 90characterizes the stream, as does the wide registral range covered by the events. Thisstream, with all of its characteristic properties and behaviours, recurs throughout the songand will be referred to as Stream A.The second stream of significance, which we will call Stream B, emerges from Stream Athrough a splitting process initiated in m.3. The onset in m.3 of a second pulse (also ofattacks every tenth triplet eighth-note) signifies the initiation of the splitting process. Theonset of the second pulse, a clarinet event, is inaudible so the listener perceives the secondpulse only gradually. Not only is the onset weak, but, since attacks belonging to this pulseoccur at a distance of five triplet eighth-notes from the attacks belonging to the originalpulse, initially the second pulse simply sounds like it is filling in the 'ands' between thebeats belonging to the original pulse. By the time the pulse is easily perceptible, mm.4-5,the events that comprise the second pulse have acquired other properties and behavioursthat distinguish them from the events of Stream A. Our ability to hear Stream A and StreamB as distinct continuities is partly due to the opposition we perceive between their definingproperties and behaviours. In Example 54, reproduced overleaf, an exemplary gesturefrom each stream is excerpted for comparison.199Pno,Cb^43-*80bpI^ •rAmoi mem NOCntniWZ• •^ 11■101lNIMIr.•7^or 7 MIIIIIIIIr 1=IIU 7 J11111.11111=1711Nr=kviummirmn■^ ..orilb.._■-■••1"4■W 410 M.P..—■111--- 3 —I I— 3 —1 3^r- 3 —1 r— 3•r— 3 —1Fl.Ob.3ono—am^ MI ImasormNam ommom^Amtwilitx zommcwiiiJET- ime■loramBb Cl.r3 —1PianoExample 54: 'View of the Capitol'Stream A gesturer 3i^r 3^ 10J'  10 I)Stream B gesture200The piano and wind events that comprise Stream B group into short intermittent gestureswith high attack densities, in contrast to the low attack density of Stream A. In retrospect,Stream B is anticipated by the anacrustic piano gesture in m.1, comprising two dyadsattacked in close succession, which presents an interval characteristic of Stream A (D# - Fis a M9 enharmonically), but, in other properties and behaviours, foreshadows Stream B.Aside from the distinctive rhythmic behaviour of the gestures, Stream B is also defined bythe primary property of pitch parity between the events and is made distinct from Stream Aby the lack of pitch parity between its events and those of Stream A. The events in the newstream occur within a relatively narrow, central registral band compared to the wideregistral range covered by the events in Stream A, which are placed both higher and lowerthan the new events. While most of the stream-defining characteristics of Stream A remainunchanged, some changes do occur as a result of the splitting process in m.4. The stream isnow also defined by the primary property of timbral parity between events -- only stringevents comprise this stream after m.4 -- and it undergoes a diminishment in registraldensity.The vocal stream enters in m.4. It is characterized primarily by the timbral parity betweenits events and by the interval class parity between successive events, featuring M2's, M9'sand m7's, all belonging to interval class 2. These stream-defining properties are supportedby the secondary characteristics of high dynamic intensity and connection behaviour. Thereare other similarities between the vocal stream and the instrumental streams. The vocalstream has approximately the same attack density as those of the combined pulse streams,but it does not state a pulse, nor do its events exhibit attack point parity with the events ofthe other streams. In addition, there is some pitch parity between the vocal events and thoseof Stream B, and interval parity between the vocal events and those of Stream A. However,the strong timbral disparity between vocal events and those in the concurrent streams, aswell as the distinctive dynamic intensity and connection behaviour, ensure that the voice is201heard as a separate stream. In fact, the vocal events form a distinct stream for the entiresong, although the vocal stream's defining characteristics change, for example, whenStream C is introduced in the Alla Marcia section (discussed below).The third important instrumental stream enters in m.16 and comprises events in the violin.This scherzando stream is characterized by the low registral placement of the events, by itshigh attack density, and by its rapidly fluctuating contour. Although this is the thirdimportant stream to enter, its will be referred to as 'the scherzando stream' rather than as'Stream C'. This is because letter names are being reserved for streams with symbolicassociations (which will be discussed later in the analysis); the scherzando stream does nothave any specific symbolic representation. The scherzando stream proceeds intermittentlyand is concurrent with Stream B. It is similar to Stream B in its high attack density, butremains distinct because of the pitch disparity between its events and those of Stream B andbecause of the greater connection behaviour of its events. This scherzando stream'srhythmic behaviour grows more consistent from m.18 onward and a quintuplet sixteenth-note pulse emerges. The stream undergoes a timbral change to events in the clarinet inm.18, in the cello in m.20 and to events in the viola in m.21. Carter ensures that thescherzando stream will still be audible in the lower register by marking the cello and violaevents as solos.The second main section, Alla Marcia, opens with the establishment of the fourthsignificant stream in 'View of the Capitol'. This new stream, Stream C, comprises eventsin the viola, starting in m.22, and, as of m.23, intermittent events in the snare drum. Thestream is defined by a repeating pitch set in the viola (Db4, Eb4, Bb4, C5), by its narrowregistral range and by its quintuplet eighth-note pulse. Stream C proceeds continuously.There is a close relationship between the vocal stream and Stream C in this section, sincethey have many properties and behaviours in common: there is pitch continuity between the202voice and viola events, and the vocal stream is also characterized by a quintuplet eighth-note pulse. The vocal stream, however, remains distinct because of the overriding timbraldisparity between its events and those of Stream C.2. Combined StreamsThe interaction of these recurring streams, as well as of lesser streams, is an importanttextural feature of 'View of the Capitol'. While one stream does occasionally proceedalone, there are usually two or more streams proceeding simultaneously. Our ability toperceive the different streams as they interact and overlap is, of course, permitted by thedistinction of the defining characteristic properties and behaviours of the individualstreams.A good example of the way in which streams are combined in this song occurs in the AllaMarcia section and involves three of the most important streams, A, B and C. Stream C,formed by events in the viola and snare drum, is established in mm.22-24, as wasdiscussed above, and proceeds relatively unchanged throughout this section. A modifiedversion of Stream A enters in m.23 and comprises events in the strings and winds. Itproceeds intermittently now, with varying timbral events: for example, in mm.23-24Stream A comprises events in both the winds and strings, while in mm. 26-27 and mm.29-30 the events in the strings alone belong exclusively to Stream A. The most significantmodifications to this stream are the lack of a regular pulse and the lack of simultaneousattack points. However, the retention of other properties and behaviours make itrecognizable as the same stream: the pitch continuity between timbrally distinct events (inmm, 23-24), the intervallic continuity in the form of M9's between events, and the wideregistral range of the stream's composite events. As before, the events are grouped intosustained dyads and individual pitches. Some rhythmic characteristics are consistent withthe original Stream A -- the low attack density and the close temporal proximity of the203events. Stream B reenters in m.24 and comprises events in the wind instruments, piano andstrings, played quasi da lontano. Although the piano gesture in m.24 exhibits pitch paritywith events in Stream A, it is perceived as part of Stream B because of its high attackdensity, a behaviour that is characteristic of Stream B. The events in Stream B are, asbefore, grouped into gestures and the stream proceeds intermittently. Timbral distinctionbetween the string events that belong to Stream A and those that belong to Stream B isensured by different articulations: events belonging to Stream A are played arco, whilethose belonging to Stream B are played pizzicato.After the three streams are established in the opening gestures of the Alla Marcia, Stream Cproceeds continuously, while Streams A and B either alternate or proceed concurrently insuch a way that the listener focuses on either one or the other. For example, in mm.26-27the gestures in Stream B are spaced so far apart that the listener focuses on Stream A'ssustained dyads. In mm.27-29, however, Stream B takes over. In a process ofcompensation Stream A ceases for three measures, while intensifications of attack densityand registral density occur as Stream B now comprises events in all of the instruments(including bass drum events and excluding viola and snare drum events), and there is acrescendo at the end of m.28. Starting at the end of m.29 Stream A reenters, and, incompensation, the durations of Stream B's gestures become shorter and the time spansbetween gestures lengthen. The listener's attention is thus focused again on Stream A.In summary, the interaction of streams in this song is characterized by a number of streamsproceeding simultaneously, some continuously and others intermittently. Alternately,different streams come to the fore and claim the listener's attention through various texturalprocesses.2043. Musical FunctionsOne textural feature of 'View of the Capitol' that contributes to the formal design of thesong is climax. Moments of climax usually result from behaviours and processes ofintensification, and the sense of arrival is reinforced by behaviours and processes ofdiminishment following the climax.A typical example of climax occurs during the first Maestoso section, in mm 7-8. Thisclimax involves a fusion process as well as behaviours and processes of intensification.Prior to m.7 two streams proceed concurrently, Streams A and B, both of which arecharacterized by pulses (as was discussed above). A process of fusion involving rhythmand pitch takes place in mm.7-8 as the two instrumental pulse streams merge. Theindividual rhythmic behaviours of the streams become more similar, for example at the endof m.7 the string events group into gestures with the same attack density behaviour as thoseof the Stream B, and the two pulses lose their distinctiveness when an attack conforming tothe second pulse is articulated by the strings (formerly Stream A) on the second tripleteighth-note of m.8. Increasingly there is pitch parity between the wind, string and pianoevents, as can be heard on the third beat of m.8. This fusion process, together withcomposite crescendo behaviour, leads to a climax towards the end of m.8.The sense of arrival at a climactic moment is reinforced by another aspect of pitch, as canbe seen in Example 55 overleaf. The total pitch content of two attacks on the last twotriplet eighth notes of m.8, together with the last vocal pitch in m.8, comprises thechromatic pc aggregate. The presentation of the aggregate is significant at this point in thesong because aggregates are not formed previously. The vocal stream not only completesthe pc aggregate, but undergoes an intensification of behaviours which add to the localclimax. Its registral range expands to articulate the highest vocal pitch event to this point,and the first and only example of melisma in this section occurs on the word "light".2053 o+ ndr311 .t)--^ 12. ^it AMIEIMMIkM.31•imta1111^APikall twelve pitch classeslight7.1140 .^ Ta AMMIIIIWICIMIIMV AMMIMMINf am Emir^r AINEWEIM1111/11111•111117' MAIN^ZIONIIIIMMItrAMINMIEW rXIIIMMININIVA IFIIMII‘PbCl3-1(heavy)WndVcl FMI~r ■11111=11rZ-711111111111111M _G11111:1/!^_^6[41=1IMAYARIVlaVocalStreamI 3 1- - - ^ .1) ^r 3 1^ 10 .t)^^Example 55: 'View of the Capitol' mm.7-8• Cb written as soundsImmediately following this climax, and helping to articulate it as such, there is an abruptdecrescendo and a decrease in the registral range of the fused instrumental streams.A second textural feature of 'View of the Capitol' is that of cadence, usually involvingbehaviours and processes of diminishment. One such example occurs in mm.54-56 at theend of the second Maestoso section and involves behaviours and processes ofdiminishment in both Streams A and B. Stream A comprises events in the piano andproceeds concurrently with Stream B which comprises events in the winds and strings.Stream B is defined by parity of dynamic intensity between the events, as well as by theestablished properties and behaviours. In mm.55-56 the gestures in Stream B becomeshorter in duration and the time spans between the gestures become longer. The resultingdiminishment in registral density and in attack density contribute towards a musical cadencewhich marks the end of the section. The crescendo behaviour of individual gestures here206does not detract from the composite descrescendo created by the other diminishmentbehaviours and processes.A third textural feature of 'View of the Capitol' is the way in which Carter creates momentsof structural articulation. Two different techniques can be observed. In one, he simplyintroduces new streams that replace the established streams, often overlapping the streamsby a few measures. An example of this technique can be seen in mm.33-36 in the transitionfrom the Alla Marcia section to the second Maestoso section. The tempo modulationmarking the start of the Maestoso section occurs in mm.34-35, and at this point events inthe vocal stream dissociate themselves from Stream C and acquire new properties andbehaviours. Apart from this change, the established streams, Streams B and C, proceedacross the break into m.35. Two brief triangle events occur in m.34 and m.35 and theirdistinctive timbre helps to articulate the structural break between sections. Simultaneously,Stream A enters, at first imperceptibly in m.35 where the piccolo and snare drum eventsarticulate the first attack points of a pulse in which attack points occur every five tripleteighth-notes. This pulse is twice as fast as the one which regulated the original occurrenceof Stream A (mm.1-3), but otherwise the stream is characterized by the same properties andbehaviours as before and comprises events in the winds, piano and strings. As of m.36Stream A proceeds alone and a new textural section is initiated.Another technique that Carter uses to create moments of structural articulation is rhythmicand involves altering the pulse. Both of the examples discussed above in relation to climaxand cadence involve pulse alteration. In the first example alteration of the pulse helps toreinforce the climax. Referring back to Example 55, the events comprising the pulse thatcharacterized Stream A are excerpted and shown together with the vocal stream. In mm.7-8Stream A's pulse of an attack every tenth triplet eighth-note is retarded so that events areattacked at a distance of eleven and twelve triplet eighth-notes after the last attack, i.e. these207attacks occur on the last two triplet eighth-notes of m.8. The two accented attacks in closesuccession disrupt the sense of regularly-spaced attacks that has been established by thepulse and emphasize the effect of increased intensity associated with the climax.In the second example an accelerating pulse occurs across the structural break between thesecond Maestoso section and the Vivace section in mm.53-57. Stream A, comprisingevents in the piano, articulates a steadily accelerating pulse from m. 53 to m.57 across thesectional break and the tempo modulation. Each subsequent event attack occurs at an everdecreasing multiple of the triplet eighth-note in the durational series: 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, as canbe seen in Example 56. Once again alteration of the pulse is used at a structurallysignificant moment as one section ends and another begins. In this case the pulse alterationdoes not contribute to the cadence that is taking place in mm.54-56, but forms a transitionacross the structural break.Example 56: 'View of the Capitol' mm.53-57 (piano stream)8va -r- 3 .--,* 53^—..---...^...../.re-*'WM ti^ ./ 11•1•11_-t•,^P•IMINP7171■1•MI•IL11:0•MMVAIIIMILIONSIVEr ~MEIIr. MMIIIMMIMINNINII•r2M1 OfL.W■11./111•111=1•1•^1/ N^I^Mr LAMMEDIIIMICIIi_11•••• LTIIIVICM NWWU'tiNi•/• VAIK."--, iii/BWMINNMIIMIVE•iirl-W.WiNiMiWiffs•M•14:_•1•11•1=NOMPI=111•1•1•111••••••=11G-ISAINWr...•A' MEE ECM!' 41■11611•16-'••••MMIN 1- 3 --,NMIP•TIMIIME•MINIMNIIMIIMI/1•11/^•IN LICIL71•11•11•11MINCIIIV af/ • MI VTL,11IIIIIIMMAIMI W I IM'M if :MP UM I I III-AllEUFVAelrEMIIMINAIMIMINCIMIP■111Vi_01 - MENEM" VUICTI11■1•LWICAMIIICES"IUD NI I I I MIIIII11511WCI^1•1■,-11. 21:MIM.17.P.1•INI•LW" IhrLirA:L.MIIMIV MIU411■ 41111,•lan■=MUMMA= 1•••■■•••■•■TA 601,1■Er AMMO In_MI^,MENIMIG.71MBONEW^iMILWAN•I^ IIr ayr3 1^ r 3 1^ r 3 -I^r 3^r39 i)  8 .1)  7 ^•^6208B. Form and Text-SettingNow that the most important streams and textural features of 'View of the Capitol' havebeen discussed, let us look at the way in which the song unfolds and at how Carterarticulates the form of the song and reflects the meaning of the text.The first section, Maestoso, opens with the establishment of the Stream A, as wasdiscussed above, and, after a splitting process takes place in mm.3-4, Stream B isestablished. The entrance of the vocal stream in m.4 is coincident with significant changesin the behaviours of the currently active streams. Both Streams A and B have decrescendiin m.4, the pulse attack belonging to Stream A on the downbeat of m.4 is weaklyarticulated by a single piano event (previously the pulse was articulated mostly by stringevents), and Stream B misses an attack on the fifth triplet eighth-note in m.4. Thesechanges permit the listener's attention to focus on the vocal stream, as the singer starts todescribe her view of the Dome.As was discussed above, in mm.7-8 a fusion process, along with behaviours andprocesses of intensification, create a climax in mm.7-8. The pulse manipulation that occursin m.8 contributes to the articulation of a structural arrival point, as does the completion ofa pitch-class aggregate. The climax, which involves all of the concurrent streams, functionsmusically and symbolically. A musical point of structural articulation is created by theclimax, although, since it is not matched by a structural break in the text, it has a secondaryformal role. Simultaneously, the climax, an accumulation of intensity, symbolizes theweight of the light as it falls on the Dome, depicting musically the oxymoronic phrase "thelight is heavy".This climax is followed by abrupt diminishment behaviours (which serve to reinforce, inretrospect, the sense of arrival), after which behaviours and processes of intensification209build towards another climax of greater intensity that marks the end of the first sentence anda more significant point of structural articulation. As of m.9 Stream B is no longer definedby any pulse, but the events maintain most of their other characteristic properties andbehaviours. Other processes of intensity, however, start to occur almost immediately andbuild towards the second climax. The vocal stream's attack density increases in m.9 as itapproaches the end of its opening sentence, m.10. Simultaneously, in mm.9-11 Stream Bundergoes a gradual crescendo and an expansion of the registral range covered by itsevents. Stream B continues through to m.12, where the processes of intensificationculminate in a climax which marks a structural break articulating the end of the sentence.The beginning of the next sentence of text is articulated by the entrance of a new violinstream in m.12 which replaces Stream B, and by changes in the vocal stream.' This newviolin stream is defined primarily by the timbral parity between its events and by their highregistral placement. Secondary properties and behaviours include the low dynamic intensityand the connection behaviour of the events. The violin stream is also characterized by apulse of attacks every five triplet eighth-notes or multiples thereof, as can be seen in theupper staff of Example 57 overleaf.An accompanying stream of intermittent sustained pitches is also present. It too ischaracterized by low dynamic intensity, but is differentiated from the violin stream by thewide registral range and lack of connection behaviour between the events. Although thisaccompanying stream is not characterized by a consistent pulse, there are examples of briefpulses controlling the attack rate locally. For instance, the lower staff of Example 57shows how events are attacked at a distance of nine triplet eighth-notes in mm.14-16. The1^This moment of structural articulation was discussed in Example 41 on page 115.210=^r3 ^ r3^ r3^r3^_ _ 5 j)  3x5 J1 r 5 •r) - - - r - 5 •t) - -ViolinStream14r-3AccompStream* harmonicrT _)g  r^ 9 j) ^Lr— 3^r- 3la*r 39 J)^Example 57: 'View of the Capitol' mm.14-168' *r— 3 -tvocal stream reenters after these new streams have been established, in m.13. It is nowcharacterized by a lower attack density than before and a low level of dynamic intensity,which soon changes at the crescendo at the end of m.14.In m.16, as the singer reaches the end of the first phrase of the second sentence, thecurrently active streams change to mark another moment of secondary structuralarticulation. Stream B reenters, accompanied by the scherzando stream discussed earlier. Itcomprises events in the winds, piano and strings, and is defined by the same properties andbehaviours as before, with the additional characteristic of interval (as well as pitch) paritybetween the events (P4's, M2's and m3's). As before, events are characteristically groupedtogether into brief intermittent gestures. Because many attack points of events occursimultaneously, the stream is also characterized again by its high registral density, which isdeemphasized somewhat by the low dynamic intensity. The scherzando stream, whilehaving some properties and behaviours in common with both Stream B and the violin211stream of mm 12-15, remains distinct from them. Its distinction from Stream B wasdiscussed earlier. The scherzando stream is timbrally similar to the violin stream, but itsregistral placement is lower, its attack density is higher, it is characterized by rapidlyfluctuating contour behaviour, and it proceeds intermittently.In mm.17-22 behaviours and processes of diminishment and intensification take placesimultaneously and function climactically to close the first section. Processes ofdiminishment occur in Stream B: its registral density and attack density diminish as eventsgradually cease to sound. Stream A makes a brief reappearance in mm.20-21, its sustainedM9 string dyads contributing to the diminishing attack density. In contrast to thediminishment processes, the crescendo in the vocal stream, which was initiated in m.14,continues through to m.22. In mm.20-21, Example 58, the voice articulates attacksregularly every 3 sixteenth-notes. The last attack arrives later than expected, resulting in aretardation which highlights the last word and sets it apart as a point of arrival (this is mademore obvious by the silence -- the end result of the diminishments in the other streams --that accompanies it).Example 58: 'View of the Capitol' mm.20-22 (vocal stream)big white old - eyed horse.The use of a series of regularly spaced attacks in the vocal stream as a device of structuralarticulation at the end of subsections was already established in m.8. Here it also gives arelatively steady rhythm to the line in which the string of adjectives describing the "wall-eyed horse" breaks the established regular pattern of stresses.212In summary, an important formal function of this first Maestoso section of 'View of theCapitol' is to introduce the listener to the main musical material. The streams and processesthat have been described function musically and help to articulate the grammatical divisions,as well as symbolizing the text through intensification on the phrase "the light is heavy". Inthe music that follows, the association between the streams and the images and persona inthe text, and their symbolic functions become more explicit. In retrospect the listenerperceives that the music in this opening section is setting the scene for what the narrator isgoing to describe.In the Alla Marcia section the speaker's attention shifts to the Air Force Band playing on thesteps and symbolic associations between the streams and the text become apparent. Theassociations are made primarily through the non-musical connotations of certain propertiesand behaviours of individual streams. The new Stream C (discussed above) that delineatesthe start of a new section, symbolizes the Air Force Band described in the text through therhythmic behaviour and the timbre of its events: the regular quintuplet eighth-note pulsealludes to the kind of rhythmically regular music played by a martial band, and the snaredrum is a traditional band instrument. The stream proceeds continuously and presents anuninterrupted aural image of the band; it will be referred to henceforth as the 'continuousband' stream. Stream B reenters in m.24 with events in the wind instruments, piano andstrings played quasi da lontano. While the 'continuous band' stream represents anunbroken image, corresponding to the continuous visual image the speaker has of the band,Stream B symbolizes a different aspect of the band. It depicts the way in which the speakerhears the band, "the music doesn't quite come through", but "comes in snatches, dim thenkeen". Here the connotation of the military band is again achieved in part through theinstrumentation (the piccolo and bass events) and through the high attack density of thestream, which connotes conventional rhythmically active military band music. Theintermittence of the gestures portrays the sporadic snatches of music that the observer hears213from her location. The quasi da lontano and the low dynamic intensity match the mutednessof the music as the speaker describes it. Stream B will hereafter be referred to as the'intermittent band' stream to differentiate it from the 'continuous band' stream. Themeaning of the presence of the 'intermittent band' stream in the first section is now clear:the speaker first heard the music while she was observing the Dome, and this was why sheturned her attention to it and began to describe it in the second section.The two 'band' streams can thus be interpreted as representing the two aspects of the bandthat the speaker experiences from her location in the Library of Congress, i.e. differentstreams contribute to the signification of different aspects of a single persona. The'continuous band' stream represents the visual aspect of the band (the speaker describeswith detail and clarity the band's uniforms), where a complete visual image is matched byan unbroken aural image. The 'intermittent band' stream represents the aural aspect of theband in that their music reaches her ears sporadically. Thus Carter's differentiating thetexture into streams represents musically the opposition between the sensory imagespresented in the text.The rest of the Alla Marcia section is devoted to the speaker's description of the band'smusic, and is characterized texturally by the way in which Streams A, B and C arecombined, as was discussed earlier. The association of the 'intermittent band' stream(Stream B) with the speaker's aural image of the band becomes explicit in this sectionbecause of the close relationship between the words of the song, and because of the way inwhich the 'intermittent band' stream proceeds. While the 'continuous band' streamproceeds continuously and relatively unchanged throughout this section (from mm.22-36),the 'intermittent band' stream and Stream A interact by alternating so that the listener'sattention is drawn alternately to each stream, depending on the focus of the text. Example59, mm.28-31 (reproduced overleaf), shows the interaction between the 'intermittent band'214Example 59: 'View of the Capitol' mm.28-31stream and Stream A and how they relate to the text. In mm 28-29 the 'intermittent band'stream comes to the fore through behaviours and processes of intensification, and Stream Aceases for three measures. The intensification processes have a functional symbolic role asthey occur when the speaker describes the band's music as "hard and loud". Starting at theend of m.29 Stream A reenters, at first imperceptibly, the durations of the 'intermittentband' stream's gestures become shorter, and the time spans between the gestures becomelonger. The listener's attention is thus focussed again on Stream A, which seems to absorbthe band's music; the speaker describes what we hear when she says "the music doesn'tquite come through". This is the last Stream A gesture of the section.After this passage the 'intermittent band' stream continues to portray the manner in whichthe observer is hearing the music of the Air Force Band. When she describes the music ascoming in "snatches", m.32, the gestures become more intermittent and less registrallydense. In m.33 the word "dim" occurs at a moment of silence between gestures, and whenshe describes the sound as "keen" there is an abrupt intensification of registral density andattack density in the 'intermittent band' stream and an intensification of dynamic intensity inthe 'continuous band' stream. Similarly, in m.34 the word "mute" has no attackssimultaneous with it.In summary, the Alla Marcia section focuses textually and musically on the Air ForceBand. For the first time in the song symbolic associations are made between streams(Streams B and C) and a persona in the text (the band). The role of Stream A appears to bean obscuring one, given its interaction with the 'intermittent band' stream, but its specificsymbolic meaning is not made explicit until the next section, the second Maestoso.The second Maestoso section starts in m.35 with the musical transition that was discussedearlier. The point of structural articulation is signified by the change of streams from the216'band' streams to Stream A, although, typically for Carter, the streams overlap for a fewmeasures. There is a textual overlap too, since the last line of the previous sentence, "andyet there is no breeze", is sung after the tempo modulation has occurred. This linereintroduces the the theme of nature, which will be developed further in this section.Stream A exhibits its characteristic properties and behaviours once the stream has beenestablished in m.37, and is also defined by a high level of dynamic intensity. In thissection, for the first time, the symbolic role of this stream becomes explicit: Stream Arepresents the trees. A direct connection is made between the stream and the image whenthe speaker observes that "the giant trees stand in between" herself and the band. Thestriking M9 articulated on the words "The gi-[ant trees]" associates the trees with the M9'sthat characterize Stream A. 1 The attack density of the events in the vocal stream is lower inthis section and there is intervallic parity between events (M9, M2, m7). Later the speakersuggests that the trees "intervene" and in retrospect it is apparent that the concept of thetrees interfering with the music was depicted in the second section, where the 'intermittentband' stream faded into the background or ceased when the Stream A, the 'tree' stream,was active.A moment of structural articulation occurs in mm 40-41, when the pulse is altered and newstreams are introduced, and this is followed by a gradual build-up of intensification thatleads to a climax. Although these textural changes do not occur at a structurally significantpoint in the poem, they have symbolic significance. In m.40 the pulse belonging to the'tree' stream is extended so that there is an attack six triplet eighth-notes after the precedingone (m.41), a rhythmic device characteristic of points of structural articulation in this song.Two streams supplant the 'tree' stream, the scherzando stream and the 'intermittent band'1^An association can be heard here between the M9's of the giant trees and the M9's of the 'ocean'stream in `Sandpiper'; both the trees and the ocean are portrayed in the text a powerful natural forces, andCarter gives their signifying streams similar harmonic materials.217stream. The scherzando stream comprises events in the viola, and, although the stream isnot marked scherzando this time, it is defined by the same properties and behaviours as theoriginal stream and proceeds at approximately the same tempo. Like the scherzando streamof m.16, events in the viola stream are focussed on through the playing instructions,marcato and con intensita, and by their designation as solos. The scherzando streamproceeds concurrently with the 'intermittent band' stream, as it did in its first appearance.Initially the 'band' stream is formed by the oboe and clarinet events and later by events inall of the instruments, with the exception of the viola. The stream enters at a low level ofdynamic intensity, but as the speaker finally describes in words the relationship betweenthe band and the trees that the music has been describing, "I think the trees must intervene,/catching the music in their leaves...", there is a crescendo and the band comes into focus.The process of intensification culminates on the word "catching" in m.48; both the violastream and the 'band' stream proceed fortissimo, and the vocal stream has a crescendo andan intensification of registral placement, articulating its highest pitch event in the song(Bb5). The behaviours and processes of intensification function musically as a climax andemphasize the importance of the text, where the aural distortion that the observer has beenexperiencing and describing is finally explained. The predominance of the 'intermittentband' stream at this point helps to portray the music being caught by the trees; after this the'tree' stream takes over, the trees having successfully stopped the music.The remainder of the second Maestoso section is characterized by behaviours and processesof diminishment that function cadentially, and by a return to the 'tree stream', which servesto symbolically reassert the power of the trees over the band. After m.48 compositedecrescendo behaviour occurs in the vocal and the viola (scherzando) streams, and there isa diminishment in the registral placement of the vocal stream. The 'intermittent band'stream ceases in m.48-49 and is replaced by the 'tree' stream, which is formed by events inthe string instruments in mm.49-53. As can be seen in Example 60 (overleaf), the218Tree'Stream49 vinsr.emmw.gorrf...711111M.MIEINZiMIPJIMMW MOM"rail=111MINIalommomb/DMNE3/07001■117.IMIrio=11••14Mir /MEM/[Cb ITsaz,M 9:pPuma' molromemilosirommuenvassmoi• M9interval of the M9 still characterizes the stream, although the individual timbral pitch eventsare organized into 4th dyads in mm.49-50.Example 60: 'View of the Capitol' mm.49-50The rearticulation of the 'tree' stream's giant 9th's as 4th's, characteristic of the'intermittent band' stream, functions symbolically: in "catching" the band music the 'tree'stream seems to have mutated and absorbed the harmonic materials of the band. Thescherzando stream continues through to m.53. The result of the cessation of the'intermittent band' stream and the entrance of the 'tree' stream is that there is also adiminishment in composite registral density and attack density. The diminishmentprocesses occur as the speaker describes how the trees catch the music in their leaves "likegold-dust" and the quieter, more gentle music portrays the transformation of the "hard"music into shimmering "gold-dust".The textural features that Carter uses to signify the end of this Maestoso section werediscussed earlier. After some changes occur in mm.53-54 (in m.53 the 'tree' streamundergoes a timbral transformation to piano events, and the 'intermittent band' streamreenters in m.54), there is a moment of reintensification in mm.54-55, followed by furtherdiminishment processes. As well as the diminishments in the instrumental streamsdiscussed on page 206, the vocal stream diminishes in attack density and articulatessustained pitch events. These processes symbolize the sense of rest that is expressed by the219image of the big leaves sagging, while the 'intermittent band' stream gestures symbolize thedripping of the "gold-dust" music off the sagging leaves. The diminishment processes alsofunction cadentially to close the section. Simultaneously, the acceleration of the piano pulsebelonging to the 'tree' stream functions to signify the moment of structural articulation aswell as to lead into the next section, the Vivace.In summary, the second Maestoso section functions to make the important symbolicconnection between Stream A and the trees. The textual and musical focus is on the trees,except for when the 'intermittent band' stream comes to the fore to portray the treescatching the band music at the musical climax of this section.The Vivace is the shortest of the five sections, being only eight measures at a tempo of J =135. In this section the speaker moves her attention back to the band to describe their flagsand their music, and, correspondingly, the texture is dominated by the 'intermittent band'stream. New snare drum events, previously associated with the 'continuous band' stream,enter in m.56 to reintroduce the 'intermittent band' stream. The events comprising thisstream proceed quasi da lontano from m.58, as they did in the Alla Marcia section. Thesnare drum roll proceeds continuously from m.57 to m.61 and emphasizes the timbralconnection to military music. Events in the piano, while belonging to the 'intermittent band'stream because of their characteristic properties and behaviours, are focussed on byarticulating a pulse of attacks every five quarter-notes. The pulse is clearly perceived by thelistener especially when concurrent, timbrally distinct attack events are accented starting inm.62. The vocal stream proceeds at an higher attack density than before, withoutconforming to a pulse. In mm 60-62 the voice undergoes a deceleration, perhapssymbolizing the absorption of the "stripes into the air", and then accelerates with adecrescendo in mm.62-63 to connote vanishing. To summarize, the Vivace sectioncorresponds textually and musically to the Alla Marcia section: in both sections the speaker220describes aspects of the Air Force Band, and in both sections streams associated with theband predominate the texture. The Vivace section is, however, considerably shorter thanthe Alla Marcia, suggesting that the band has diminished in power and stature since itsinteraction with the trees.The transition to the third Maestoso section begins in m.64 before the tempo modulation,which occurs in m.65. The transition is preceded by processes of diminishment in the'band' stream: in m.63 the 'band' stream undergoes diminishments of registral density andattack density, and exhibits decrescendo behaviour. The vocal stream also has adecrescendo and diminishes in registral range. These diminishment processes functionsymbolically to depict how "the band's efforts vanish there". Musically, the processesfunction cadentially to create closure, as well as articulating the end of a structural section.As before, the moment of structural articulation is also signified by a change of activestreams and by the alteration of a pulse. The pulse which was articulated by the pianoevents is intensified and three attacks occur in close succession at a distance of fivesixteenth notes. Events in the other instruments, no longer quasi da lontano, participate inthe pulse and there is an abrupt crescendo. These dramatic chords initiate thereestablishment of the 'tree' stream, now modified timbrally, but maintaining other definingproperties like the interval parity (M9's) between events. The chords signal the end of astructural section and also function symbolically by replacing the 'band' music with the'tree' stream just after the speaker has described how the band's efforts "vanish there".The text of the last section, Maestoso, presents images of both the trees and the band, buttexturally it is dominated by the 'tree' stream. The section opens with the words "Greatshades" set to two sustained pitch events that articulate a M9, again associating this intervalwith the image of the trees. After the relatively high attack density of the previous vocalevents, this gesture contrasts dramatically and prepares the listener for a new section. The221accompanying 'tree' stream is defined by a pulse whose attack points occur at a distance often triplet eighth-notes, as in the opening Maestoso. The events of the stream are noworganized into individual pitches, dyads and occasional gestures in the winds and strings,the piano, cymbals and bass drum. The measures immediately following the sectional breakare still transitional ones and the properties and behaviours of the 'tree' stream do notbecome firmly established until m.68. In mm.65-67 the violin, viola and cello events arefocussed on through the playing instruction 'angrily'. Proceeding concurrently, the bassdrum event is the only one to articulate the pulse in m.66. The violin, viola and cellogestures are reminiscent of the scherzando stream gestures which occurred in the other twoMaestoso sections (in mm 16-21 and mm.40-53), and function to link the three Maestososections texturally. The gestures are also similar to the 'angry' gestures of the 'intermittentband' stream in m.7, and symbolize the band's attempt to escape the smothering presenceof the trees as the speaker instructs the trees to "edge over, give the music room". In m.68the 'tree' stream articulates a second pulse of attacks at durations of ten triplet eighth-notes,starting with an event in the violin and then moving to events in the bass drum. Theresultant composite pulse is an attack every five triplet eight-notes, again comparable to thepulse in the opening section. The events that present attack points of the original pulse havehigher composite registral densities and higher levels of dynamic intensity than those of thesecond pulse, so that the listener perceives this pulse more readily.When the speaker starts to state the intention of the "gathered brasses" in m.73, a numberof behaviours and processes of intensification take place. There is an intensification of theregistral placement, dynamic intensity level and attack density of the events in the vocalstream and a crescendo in the events comprising the 'tree' stream. The musical climaxwhich results from the intensification processes, in m.75, functions to emphasize the text.The climax occurs as the speaker reaches her most revealing moment in the poem and,instead of simply continuing to describe a scene, she suggests the band's rather sinister222collective desire: "The gathered brasses want to go [boom, boom]" (my emphasiscorresponding to the highest and loudest pitch in the vocal stream).The climax is followed immediately in m.76 by diminishment behaviours and processesthat lead to a cadence at the end of the song. There is a diminishment in the registral densityof the 'tree' stream and a decrescendo. On the first beat of m.77 the attack point of thesecond triplet eighth-note pulse is articulated by an event in the vocal stream instead of the'tree' stream, as can be seen in Example 61.Example 61: 'View of the Capitol' mm.76-77VocalStreamTree'StreamB. Dr.This is the first time that the vocal stream has participated in a 'tree' pulse and it occurs onthe word "boom", which is made prominent by its exposure. The participation of the voicein the pulse belonging to the 'tree' stream suggest the speaker's identification with thispersona at this time (earlier the voice had imitated the 'continuous band' stream). Carter's223musical treatment of the text is as ironic as the tone of the speaker. He has a climacticallyloud "boom" explode in the music in m.75, and then he sets the actual words "boom,boom" at a whisper, rendering the band's sinister intentions child-like and ineffectual. Theprocesses of diminishment that occur in mm.76-79 also function musically to produce acadence to the end of the song.ConclusionIt is clear from the above discussion that the musical form does not correspond neatly withthe five sections that are defined by the tempo modulations and changes in expression.Although the text focuses on a particular image in each section, the music is moreambiguous in that streams representing the different personae are present and interactthroughout the song. The textural analysis does, however, present two main elements thatfunction musically and symbolically, and which correspond to the two images that werediscussed in the section on the poem. The first is the 'trees' element, which representsnature. The second element is the band, which represents the government.The first section acts as an introduction, in which both of the elements are presented.Although neither the band nor the trees is mentioned, the music of both is heard andprepares the listener for later appearances. In the text the two elements are represented bythe Dome (the government) and the light (nature). As well as establishing the properties andbehaviours of the 'band' and 'trees' streams, the first section also introduces thescherzando stream which recurs in the third section and briefly in the fifth, both of whichare Maestoso sections. Once Carter has presented the streams in the opening section, heestablishes the symbolic associations to the personae in the text in the second and thirdsections, as was discussed in the analysis.224Changes in the established stream behaviours contribute to the formal articulation of thesong. Carter uses certain textural devices to articulate the large-scale sectional breaks thatare defined by the tempo and expressive changes, and occasionally to articulate smallerstructural breaks. New or different streams are introduced at the sectional breaks, althoughthe change is frequently disguised by the overlapping of material from the previous section,for example in the transition from the third to the fourth sections. Sectional changes are alsousually characterized by the alteration of a pulse, for example in the transition from thefourth to the fifth sections. Cadences and climaxes occur at moments of structuralimportance as well as to symbolize inflections in the text.The interaction and changes of streams correspond to the interactions and changes inpersonae. Each of the poetic sections is set to music that is associated with the images, butwithin each section we also hear music representing the other element. For example, thethird section, in which the speaker's attention turns to the trees, opens with the 'tree'stream, but the 'intermittent band' stream appears in m.41 and dominates the texture untilm.48. All three of the Maestoso sections start with 'tree' music and the two sections thatfall between them open with music of the 'band' streams.In this way the opening of each section seems to confirm musically the form ABACA, butin the progression of the section the music expresses nuances in the text, for example in theinteraction of the band's music and the trees. Thus, from this textural analysis of 'View ofthe Capitol', we can see that textural streams and processes account for both the form andthe meaning of the song.225'ANAPHORA'`Anaphora', the song that opens the cycle, is significantly different from the songs thatfollow it, and that we have discussed earlier. Particularly, the kind of textural processesthat characterize this song are unique, and its formal structure is different, corresponding tothe unusual formal structure of the poem.TEXTThe poem 'Anaphora' consists of two fourteen-line stanzas. While there is little formalsimilarity between the beginnings of the stanzas, the last four lines in each case areindented. Also, the second and fourth lines of each of these concluding quatrains rhyme("intrigue" with "fatigue" in the first stanza, and "event" with "assent" in the second).There are other end-line rhymes in the poem, but they do not conform to any regular rhymescheme, nor do the two stanzas exhibit the same rhyme patterns. Because the rhyming issporadic in the main body of the poem, the thickened rhyme of the last four lines actscadentially to close each stanza and to mark structural breaks in the poem.This rhyming cadential gesture is reinforced by the metrical succession of stresses and bythe repetition of sounds within lines. In both stanzas the number of stresses in each of thefirst ten lines varies between three and five stresses per line (usually three or four). The lastfour lines of each stanza are shorter, however, and have a fixed stress pattern. The quatrainthat ends each stanza has a pattern of three, three, three and two stresses per line.The formal rhyme scheme has an analogy in a scheme of reiterated phonemes. Sporadicrepetitions occur in the first parts of each stanza, while repetition occurs more consistentlyin the closing quatrains. For example, alliterative repetition of the stop-plosive consonant[b] occurs in the second line of the first stanza, and assonance is used in the fourth line226where the vowel dipthong [aI] is repeated in the words "white", "skies" and "eyes".Sibilants are repeated in the sixth line of the second stanza, as well as in the next two lines(which are almost exactly the same with the exception of the last word in each line), whilethe glide consonant [w] recurs in the tenth line of that stanza. However, in the last fourlines of each stanza the repetition of sounds is more dense and, like the thickening rhyme,the denser repetition helps to create closure. The resonant nasal consonant [m] is repeatedin the closing quatrain of the first stanza and the forward vowel [i] is reiterated in that of thesecond stanza.The title, 'Anaphora', refers to the repetition of a word or a phrase in successive clauses.Anaphora occurs throughout the poem, for example, in the phrases "instantly, instantlyfalls" and "mortal/ mortal fatigue" in the first stanza, in the repetition of almost the entireline in the second stanza ("sinks through the drift of ..."), and in the repetition of phonemeswhich was discussed above. Repetition pervades the poem; the fourteen-line stanzaicstructure with a closing quatrain is repeated, and the event which Bishop is describingappears to be part of a repeating cycle. A discussion of the poetic content will explain thenature of the cycle.The first five lines describe an early-morning scene that is filled with energy. The activities(the "ceremony") of dawn are ritualistic because they are repeated every day. They beginwith auditory stimuli in the form of "birds" and "bells" and "whistles". The repetition of theexplosive consonant [b] propels the words forward sonically. Visual energy is alsoemergent, as is apparent from the mention of "white-gold skies" and "brilliant walls". Inthe sixth line of the stanza the reader becomes aware of the presence of the narrator who isdescribing the scene. Using the first person plural, "we", to indicate that she representshumanity, she wonders aloud where the "music" (i.e. the birds, bells and whistles) iscoming from, and draws an analogy between the music and energy. She then asks what227"ineffable" god-like creature the day was intended for, since she clearly feels that the day istoo intense for mere humans and must belong to a being who is too great for words.In line nine, as if prompted by her rhetorical questions, the enigmatic creature appears inhis earthly form. Although the description of his appearance occurs in mid-line, the start ofthis new sentence articulates an important structural break, for as soon as the creatureappears, the energy of the early morning is described as undergoing a transformation anddecline. The energy of the morning is closely connected to that of the creature (perhaps heis the source), since the dissipation of the creature's energy affects the world around him.As the description of his decline continues, it is apparent that the "ineffable" creature is thesun, whose energy dissipates from dawn through to dusk. As soon as the sun appears "he"becomes a "victim of long intrigue", and is destined to set as he has done countless timesbefore, in accordance with human expectations. The sun assumes "mortal, mortal fatigue"because it is people projecting their fatigue onto the sunset that gives the sunrise its doomedcharacter.The visual division in the stanza at the onset of the closing quatrain is not matched by abreak in the semantic content of the poem. The sentence runs across the visual indentationand the image being portrayed by the words is continued across the break. However, theclosing quatrain does signify the section in which the decline of energy first becomesexplicit, in the phrase "falls victim", and in the personification of the sun as subject to"mortal fatigue". The repetition of words in this quatrain also acts to retard the energeticproliferation of images presented earlier. Bishop creates a play on words with the pun "falls victim", which functions both as an idiomatic expression and to infer the downwardtrajectory which the creature will follow.228In the second stanza the decline of energy continues, as suggested by the words "moreslowly" and "showering". The sun becomes visible, "falling into sight", with another punon the word "falling", where the clich6d expression also implies physical movement. Itstarts to interact with humans: its light is diffused by the "stippled faces" and absorbed bythem resulting in the sun "darkening". The imagery also portrays a setting sun that is darkerand more condensed than the daytime sun. The sibilant sounds pervading this section of thepoem connote the hissing of air from a deflating object, and thereby create a sense ofenergy being lost. The speaker describes a series of increasingly demanding ways in which"we" humans interact with the sun: "dreaming", then using, and finally abusing him. Thesun "suffers" our uses and abuses as we drain him of his remaining energy. Bishop's orderof intensifying interactions between the sun and humans, culminating in the near-repetitionof "uses" and "abuses", creates a local climax in the sixth line of the stanza.In the next two lines the sense of weariness experienced by the sinking sun is reinforced bythe near-repetition of the entire line, and by the continued emphasis on sibilant sounds. Hisdownward trajectory takes him through "the drift of bodies" and of "classes". The ability todiscern details, like the "stippled faces", is lost now as the sun loses his brightness anddarkness comes. He reaches his lowest point at "evening". Here Bishop introduces thefigure of the "beggar in the park", who symbolizes the lowest, most impoverished form ofhumankind. He is weary and has no light, "without lamp", or history and educationaladvantages, "without... book". His condition is also analogous to that of the sun, who isspent, exhausted and whose light has been expended. The two images seem to merge.In the closing quatrain of the second stanza the energy being described in the poem starts toincrease again, as Bishop describes the beggar's "stupendous studies". They are preparedwithout the aid of light or books, implying that they are somehow more natural andinstinctive than academic. The beggar could represent the artist (poet/composer), who, out229of the detritus of society, constructs the work of art that energizes all human endeavour (asthe sun does). 1 The studies that he is preparing could also refer to a natural event, namelythe rising and regeneration of the sun, "the fiery event", that was described in the openingof the poem, and which recurs every day "in endless, endless assent". The repeatedadjective "endless" emphasizes that the sun, despite his "mortal" fatigue, is immortal. Thereis also a pun on the word "assent". The fiery event reconfirms itself with every repetition,and, in the process, assents to our repeated uses and abuses. The fiery event is also one of'ascent', that is, sunrise. The closing quatrain of the poem anticipates the renewal of energyand the repetition of the cycle and draws the reader back to beginning of the poem, wherethe high energy event was first described.The stanzaic form of the poem corresponds with the poetic content in some ways. In eachstanza a character is introduced in the ninth line, the sun in the first stanza and the beggar inthe second. The appearance of the figure, in each case, signals a change in the energywhich is being described in the text. This change of energy only becomes explicit in theclosing quatrain which follows two lines later, and which acts cadentially in terms ofrhyme, rhythm and sound repetition, as discussed above. In the first stanza the energyundergoes a decline and in the second the energy increases. The movement that is describedbetween these two points, however, runs across the stanzaic break. It is truncated since thehigh energy of pre-dawn is followed immediately by dusk and sunset, and the sun'sprogression through the middle of the day is omitted. This is because the poem isconcerned with energy, not with the sun's progression: once the sun rises, the energizing isover and sunset is inevitable. A formal plan other than the stanzaic one cannot be discerned;1 David Schiff also identifies the beggar as a symbol for the poet. However, for Schiff, the beggar'sreversal of the fall of energy "suggests the poet's willed, even deceptive, inversion of reality". He concludesthat the poem is "both cosmology and ontology; it creates a world and places the hapless poet in its midst togive it meaning"(283). If the ineffable creature is the sun, then it is difficult to understand why the reversal ofenergy is the "inversion of reality", since, in reality, the sun will rise again.230the poem is characterized by moments of transformation and local intensification, ratherthan by clearly defined sections.'ANAPHORA': MUSICCarter's musical setting of 'Anaphora' follows the semantic content of the poem, ratherthan the stanzaic structure, as it does with the other songs in the cycle. The most easilyperceived structural break occurs in mm.23-24, following a change in tempo from J = 88-90 (Allegro) to J = 70-72 (Moderato). This point of structural articulation is supported bychanges in other musical aspects, as we shall discuss, and occurs at the moment in thepoem where the figure of the sun appears and heralds the decline in the level of energy.Aside from this formal division, 'Anaphora' is through-composed. Other local points ofstructural articulation and climax occur in the second section of the song, and usuallyfunction as textual allusions, describing particularly the changes in energy.The theme of repetition that pervades the poem also underlies the musical structure in pitchand pc-set structure, and, to a lesser degree, in Carter's use of intervals. This theme ismanifest in the static pitch repertoire of 'Anaphora', where each of the twelve pitch classesis fixed in a specific register, within the range of the soprano, for the duration of the song.In other words, pitches constantly repeat. Repetition is also evident in the vertical pcstructure. The set-class type [012478] recurs harmonically in different transpositionsmapped onto the fixed-pitch twelve-note structure.' This is the only hexachord containingall twelve three-note set classes and Carter makes the property explicit by frequentlyarticulating the hexachord as two trichords. Repeated intervals are associated with repeated1^The pitch structure of 'Anaphora' has been discussed in detail in Craig Weston's paper "Text andConceptual Modeling in 'Anaphora from Elliott Carter's A Mirror on Which to Dwell", presented at theannual conference of the Society for Music Theory in Austin, Texas in 1989.231words in the poem and with words that rhyme. For example, the word "sinks", which isrepeated at the beginning of two lines, is highlighted through being set melismatically as afalling m2 in both cases; the second "sinks" is a M2 lower than the first. This descent, aswell as the descending interval articulated by each repetition depict the downward falldescribed by the words. Rhyming two-syllable words are frequently articulated by pairs ofpitches that are the same distance apart. For example, "creature" (m.21) and "nature"(m.27) are both articulated by a falling m2's, and "intrigue" (m.29) and "fatigue" (m.31),which occur in the cadential quatrain of the first stanza, are articulated by falling m3's.Despite this fixed pitch/register scheme, pitch and registral properties and behaviours doplay a role in the characterization of textural streams in 'Anaphora'. However, streams aredefined predominantly by other properties and behaviours, especially rhythmic behaviours.An analysis of 'Anaphora' using the textural theory developed in the previous chapters willshow how these streams undergo functional processes to create a musical structure thatclosely supports the text.In the first section of 'Anaphora', mm 1-22, the most important streams are established andthe processes that characterize this song are introduced. The song opens with a singlemulti-timbral stream, which splits a few measures later into three distinct streams. Theopening stream comprises events in the winds, strings, piano and vibraphone. It is definedin part by its high registral density, by the consistently fluctuating contour behaviour of theevents, and by its aggregate high attack density. Although the timbrally coherent events inthe vibraphone, piano and bass do not exhibit the same contour and rhythmic behaviour,their attack point parity with the other concurrent events masks their considerably lowerattack density, and they are perceived initially as part of the same stream. The fixed-pitchscheme reinforces the unity of the stream at this point: the stream is defined by the pitch andregistral parity between the events and by their registral placement (the entire registral range232is covered repeatedly). The composite events also have a high dynamic intensity. Althoughthe vocal stream has not yet entered, the high level of energy connoted by the high attack,dynamic and registral densities of the stream sets the scene for the opening lines of thepoem in which the energetic morning activities are described.After the fortissimo flourish of the opening two measures, a splitting process occurs andthree distinct continuities can be perceived. Two of the streams, involving events in thepiano, vibraphone and bass, are defined most importantly by their timbre and by theirindividual pulses, while the third stream comprises events in the winds and strings. Thefirst pulse stream comprises events in the piano and, occasionally, the bass, and the secondpulse stream comprises events in the vibraphone and, occasionally, the bass. The pulsestreams have other properties and behaviours in common besides their partial timbralsimilarity. Events in both streams each group into complex but similar gestures that proceedintermittently. Each gesture consists of many attacks of sustained events, but each is clearlydistinguished from the next one by a period of silence. Gestural unity is further supportedby the use of the sustaining pedal during the sounding period in all of the vibraphonegestures and in some of the piano ones, for example in mm.6-7. The two streams also haveintervallic properties in common. Events in both streams are often articulated as P5 dyads,and timbrally distinct gestures feature the repeated hexachord [012478], for example, thepiano and vibraphone gestures in mm.34 both belong to that set-class type. The pulsestreams are made distinct, however, by their timbral disparity (the piano and vibraphoneevents both mask the bass events aurally), by the alternation of piano and vibraphonegestures, and by the distinctive pulses articulated by the events in each stream. Theinitiating attack point of each piano (and bass) gesture is always at a distance of 23sixteenth-notes from the previous one and is emphasized through high dynamic intensitymarkings relative to the other pitch events in the gesture and through stress accents. Thispulse stream will be referred to as Stream A. Events in the second pulse stream, played by233vibraphone (and bass), also articulate a regular pulse between gestures. As in the pianogestures, one attack point in each vibraphone gesture is accented though dynamic intensity,in the form of a crescendo culminating on the pitch, and through the use of accents. Unlikethe piano, this highlighted attack point occurs in the middle of the gesture. The distancebetween the accented vibraphone pitch events in each gesture is 22 sixteenth-notes or,occasionally, a durationally similar combination of sixteenth-notes and triplet sixteenth-notes, for example, 20 sixteenth-notes plus 2 triplet sixteenth-notes, or 21 sixteenth-notesplus 1 triplet sixteenth-note. This pulse stream will be referred to as Stream B. Theindividual pulses of Streams A and B are shown in Example 62 (overleaf). (From thescore it is apparent that the opening vibraphone, piano and bass gestures in mm.1-2 havethe same properties and behaviours as they do later on, but these are not aurally perceptiblebecause of the high aggregate registral and attack densities).234• —......... MINwismon■•■■•:..-^ramairoximar ^.P.. ..;.---,T -ice^imearm4=14111•111.41 MININUP11111111YAM!'^11=111NEB/MINININ1.411111MINMLIkAN" ..42•111111•111111=W ACEIIIMIr ..alIVIC71• 11.11111W .2:3•C1/"..1W.1•111■1111itZMIM1111111CPM=11Mrirmiliremilm•r MOP XEIII■"" -LW 1M IIIIIIIrIMisf Ar.:aDV riff:LdellINIIMIL•1111^.^MIN/111•111111111Eil lb Ewa.NVM11=t" /111■17■...0■111r,-711■Ml.^ s.t:Aw .”21■11■711■11rAffirni. w ; -•arismiwww^Lk/Mir .MIr^moramArw-nrrma.■■■ir.,avinwimmr-viima■r tvimumumsam. mair;mcuKowVib(B)Pno(A)^12319•7^L^Example 62: 'Anaphora' mm.3-7Events in the winds and strings form the third stream that emerges from the splittingprocess. They also group into gestures, which are defined by their high attack density, andare differentiated into two different types of gesture on the basis of properties and235behaviours other than rhythm. Some of the gestures, for example, those comprising windevents in m.3, are characterized by their contour behaviour: they fluctuate rapidly andwidely in register. The other species of gesture is a tremolo one defined by rapid oscillationbetween two pitches and a relatively narrow registral range, for example, the violin, violaand cello gestures in m.3. 1 In the interests of quick and easy reference, the two types ofgestures will be referred to as 'contour' gestures and 'tremolo' gestures. Like the openingmeasures, the composite high attack density of this stream, comprising both types ofgestures, connotes the high level of energy that is about to be described in the text. For thisreason, the stream will be referred to as the 'energy' stream.The three streams that result from the splitting process have properties in common, yet theyremain distinct because of significant differences in certain behaviours. The pulse streams,A and B, and the 'energy' stream all proceed intermittently. All three share properties likeregistral placement, and pitch and interval consistency, and there is some attack point paritybetween their events. However, their distinctive contour and rhythmic behavioursdissociate them into distinct, simultaneous continuities.When the voice enters in m.4 and the speaker starts to describe the bustling early morningscene, the connection between the 'energetic' music of the mm.1-3 and the text is madeexplicit. The vocal stream is defined primarily by the intervallic parity between pairs ofpitch events: as in Streams A and B, the P5 interval occurs repeatedly, as can be seen inExample 63 overleaf. Events in the vocal stream are also characterized by dynamicintensity, and by the connection behaviour between events. The stream has a lesser attackdensity than the 'energy' stream.1^Carter uses two notational devices for the tremolo gestures. In one he actually writes out the notescomprising the gesture (e.g. m.3-4), while in the other he simply uses tremolo playing indications, with theinstruction "as fast as possible" (e.g. m.4).236Example 63: 'Anaphora' mm.4-7 (vocal stream)Each day with so much^cer-e-mo-ny be - ginsThe process of splitting that occurs between m.2 and mm.3-4 is indicative of the kind oftextural processes that recur throughout 'Anaphora' and that are essential to the song'smusical progression. Splitting and fusion processes recur repeatedly in the 'energy' streamduring the first section of the song. In the splitting processes the 'energy' stream dividesinto two alternating streams of winds and strings. In fusion, the process is reversed and thewinds and strings merge into a single stream again. These processes were discussed inExample 42, page 117, using an excerpt from mm.12-19. Because the time span for eachprocess is only a few seconds, the overall effect is one of regularly recurring change,which functions to prolong the texture.Let us look more specifically at these first splitting and fusion processes in order toestablish the kinds of changes that characterize them. In mm 4-5 the 'energy' stream splitsinto two streams, one comprising events in the violin, viola and cello, and the otherconsisting of events in the winds. The important properties and behaviours that distinguishthe wind stream and the string stream are the timbral parity between the events of eachstream and the temporal proximity of the events within each stream. The streams are madedistinct from each other by the lack of temporal proximity between the events in the windsstream and the events in the string stream, that is, the gestures alternate. Each stream is alsoassociated with a distinct rhythmic behaviour. For example, in mm.4-5 the string events arecharacterized by tremolo behaviour, while the events in the winds are grouped into237'contour' gestures. 1 The two separate streams soon fuse again and becomeindistinguishable. For example, in m.8 clarinet events proceed concurrently with events inthe violin and viola, and exhibit parity of pitch with them.Similar splitting and fusion processes dominate the texture for nearly twenty measures.Each splitting process results in two smaller streams of winds and strings which soundalternately, as can be seen in mm.4-7, mm.11-15, and m.19. Fusion, on the other handresults in a single stream proceeding continuously, for example, in mm.8-10, mm.16-18,and mm.20-21.The repeated processes of splitting and fusion contribute to the delineation of the semanticstructure of the text in that the alternating textures that result from these processes arecoincident with semantic units in the poem. For example, the first fusion process occurssimultaneously with the description of the aural stimuli in mm.8-10. The description of thevisual energy in mm.11-15 is concurrent with the splitting of the 'energy' stream into thetwo alternating streams, while the first rhetorical question asked by the speaker occurssimultaneously with another fusion process in mm.16-18.While the 'energy' stream undergoes its repeated short-lived processes, a more gradualfusion process occurs in the pulse streams. (This was discussed in Example 30, page88). The attack points articulating the pulses in Streams A and B gradually become closer toeach other until they articulate their only simultaneous attack in the entire song in m.23. Theclose relationship between the pulses emerges from about m.16 and the two pulse streams1 Initially there is an apparent fusion between the two new streams and the pulse streams. Forexample, in m.5 the string events are temporally proximate to a piano event belonging to Stream A, and thereis pitch parity between them. Similarly, there is pitch parity and temporal proximity between a gesture in thewind stream and one beloning to Stream B (vibraphone) in m.5. These common behaviours, however, are notconsistent and the listener's perception of the pulse streams as distinct continuities remains unchallenged.238are gradually heard to merge into a single stream defined by the rhythmic regularity that iscreated by the cross-pulse. This fused stream will be referred to as Stream C.The first structural break in the text -- where the appearance of the sun is mentioned -- issupported musically by textural processes that create a important structural moment in themusic. Behaviours and processes of intensification lead to a climax in m.22. This isfollowed in m.23 by diminishment processes that function cadentially. Finally, significantchanges in the streams as of m.24 complete the articulation of a new structural section.These processes will be discussed in the chronological order that they occur.Processes of intensification start in mm.20-22 and culminate in m.22. In mm.20-21 the'energy' stream proceeds in its 'fused' version at maximum registral density with 'tremolo'gestures. Crescendo behaviour, initiated in m.21, climaxes in m.22 with fortissimogestures of both the 'tremolo' and the 'contour' variety. The now-fused Stream C alsoreaches a climax in m.22. The piano and vibraphone gestures have been undergoinganother form of intensification by becoming increasingly short in duration and increasinglyclose in proximity. In m.22 both the piano and vibraphone events articulate single,fortissimo, accented attacks in very close succession. The vocal stream does not undergoany significant behavioural changes, although the last word of the section, "missed", isemphasized by its location at the peak, by a crescendo, by its high registral placement, andby a dynamic accent.Immediately following the climax, behaviours and processes of diminishment lead to acadence in m.23. The 'energy' stream has a decrescendo and diminishes in attack density,articulating sustained pitch events on the 3rd beat of m.23. Events in Stream C also occur ata low dynamic intensity. The simultaneous attack of piano and vibraphone events (the only239one in the entire song) signify a turning point musically and symbolically. 1 Although theattack occurs at a low dynamic intensity, the even lower dynamic intensity of the concurrent'energy' stream makes this structurally significant attack perceptible to the listener.A new process is introduced in the 'energy' stream in mm.22-23 while the diminishmentsare taking place. Focus is shifted briefly to events in the cello, whose emergence is madeexplicit by the playing instruction "to the fore", by its relative loudness and by the rhythmicdistinction of its events from the other concurrent events. The moment is short-lived andthe cello events soon fade back into the stream. The introduction of the focussing processhere is significant because focussing recurs as a device of textural progression in thesecond section, in the same way that splitting and fusion processes recur in the firstsection.The second section of the song, m.24 to the end, subdivides into three subsections.Changes in the established stream behaviours and processes articulate the structural breaks,and in each case the moment of structural articulation corresponds to a structurallysignificant point in the text. These structural subdivisions are of secondary importance inthe form of the song. Unlike the transition from the first to the second main section wheredramatic changes took place, the streams and textural processes that are established in theopening measures of the second section undergo less significant changes in the secondsection. Instead, processes of intensification and diminishment create moments of localclimax and cadence twice, thereby creating the three subsections. Once we have discussedthe properties and behaviours of the streams that open the second section (and that proceedthroughout the section), the kinds of textural processes that characterize this section will be1^Pulse alteration at structually significant points is also a feature of 'View of the Capitol', as wasdiscussed on pp.207-208240m3M3m3 m324 P^ mp C r_. 3M3 , m3r--- 3I— 3analyzed. Thereafter we will discuss the subsections in chronological order, focussing onthe changes that occur and how they function.At the start of the second section of 'Anaphora', in m.24, the speaker introduces the figureof the sun, whose appearance signifies the start of the decline in energy. Significantchanges occur in the properties and behaviours of the vocal stream and Stream C toreinforce the start of a new structural section. Although a tempo modulation takes place inm.22, the onset of the second structural section is not perceived until after the cadence atthe a tempo in m.24. This kind of structural overlapping is characterstic of these songs.The vocal events are placed low in the voice's registral range, and the stream has a lowerattack density and dynamic intensity than before. The attack density and the dynamicintensity of the vocal stream increase slightly in mm.26-27, but the property of lowerregistral placement continues. Example 64 shows that the stream is also defined by theinterval parity between pairs of successive events: M3's and m3's are emphasized, incontrast to the P5's of the first section.Example 64: 'Anaphora' mm.24-26 (vocal stream)Oh  prompt - ly _ he _ ap - pears _ and takes his earth - lyStream C also undergoes changes at the start of the new section, particularly in rhythmicbehaviour and timbral properties. Both of the pulses that define in part the rhythmicbehaviour of this stream are modified: the pulse in which accented attacks were separatedby 23 sixteenth-notes (formerly Stream A) is now notated as a pulse of attacks every 23241triplet eighth-note pulse 3ClStream Cvia5quintuplet sixteenth-note pulsequintuplet sixteenth-notes because of the the tempo modulation. The pulse thatcharacterized the former Stream B is now established as a regular series of attacks every 13triplet eighth-notes.' These combined pulses create a cross-pulse with the durational ratio65:69. The Umbra' profile of the stream expands to include all of the instruments. There istimbral disparity between the events that articulate the two different pulses, and sometimbral parity between the events articulating a single pulse. The quintuplet sixteenth-notepulse is articulated by violin, viola and cello events, which proceed con sordini from m.28.The triplet eighth-note pulse is articulated by events in the vibraphone (struck with softsticks), winds and unmuted bass (except for the bass event in m.24 which fuses brieflywith the vocal stream). The timbrally disparate events articulating the pulses in mm.24-25are shown in Example 65.Example 65: 'Anaphora' mm.24-25 (Stream C)Another property is evident in m.25, Example 65, namely pitch parity between timbrallydistinct events articulating the same pulse attack, in this case between the clarinet andvibraphone events.2 The association of timbral and pitch properties with individual pulses1^The durations between the attacks articulating each pulse are measured from the simultaneous pianoand vibraphone attacks in m.23.2^The gamut of timbres associated with the articulation of a particular pulse do not participate in everypulse attack. In this example, for instance, there is no oboe event concurrent with the alto flute, clarinet andvibraphone events.242suggests that the listener might perceive two separate streams defined by pulse, timbre andpitch parity. However, other properties and behaviours held in common between theseevents mask the pulses, and support more strongly the perception of a single stream.Events in both winds and strings are of two types: either they group into the tremologestures presented earlier, or they take the form of sustained individual pitches or dyads (inthe case of the string events). Vibraphone events occur as sustained chords. Although theattack belonging to the pulse in each tremolo wind and string gestures is made prominentthrough being accented (in a similar way to that in which attacks were emphasized in theprevious vibraphone gestures), the multiple attacks and the timbral variety of the eventstend to mask the pulse attacks. Other behaviours that reinforce the perception of a singlecontinuity, Stream C, are that all gestures and sustained pitch events proceed intermittently,and the dynamic intensity of all events is low.The properties, behaviours and processes of the streams that open the second sectionfunction symbolically to depict the meaning of the text. The speaker describes theappearance of the sun ("promptly he appears"), and then goes on to describe how hisenergy is slowly dissipated. The music that opens this second section anticipates the lowenergy levels that will gradually be described by the speaker. The diminishments in attackdensity, registral placement and dynamic intensity in the vocal stream connote the lowerenergy levels, in the same way as the opening measures connote the high energy levelsbefore the vocal stream enters and the speaker describes them. Many of the properties andbehaviours of Stream C contrast with those that defined the 'energetic' music of the firstsection. The dynamic intensity is dramatically lower than before; this is reinforced by themuted timbres of the violin, viola and cello events and the striking of the vibraphone withsoft sticks. The gestures are shorter and they exhibit less energetic contour behaviour,being of the tremolo variety or sustained pitches and chords. The tremolos proceed lessrapidly because of the slower tempo and because they no longer have the playing243instruction "as fast as possible". The resulting composite attack density is lower too. Therepeated processes of splitting and fusion that characterized the opening section, and thatcontributed to the sense of propulsion there, are not apparent here.Instead, two different textural features characterize the second section of 'Anaphora'. Oneis the process of focussing, in which a series of events emerge briefly from the largerstream; this process was already seen in the cello events of in mm.22-23. The secondfeature is timbral transformation, in which abrupt changes occur in the timbral property of astream. These features function to prolong the established texture without creating momentsof cadence, climax or structural articulation, i.e. they have a similar function to the splittingand fusion processes of the first section. The first fundamental changes in texture occuronly in m.36, at the onset of processes of diminishment and intensification that lead to aclimax. We will discuss mm.24-36 by analyzing examples of each of the two texturalfeatures, focussing and timbral transformation.The first of the focussing processes of the second section starts in m.26. In mm.26-30 theevents in the alto flute are grouped into relatively long gestures (in comparison toconcurrent gestures), and are made prominent through their high attack density. Thefocussing process occurs intermittently in these measures and the flute events soon mergeback into Stream C. Another form of focussing occurs in mm.26-40. The events in theoboe undergo a rhythmic deceleration, whereby the distance between each successive attackincreases gradually. The first five measures of the deceleration are shown in Example 66,reproduced overleaf.244f 6 1pulse unit:263_ ^4(13^1^I4 6^1 Z^12^13^14Example 66: 'Anaphora' mm.26-30 (oboe stream)•I•7 INMWHINI=M *7111 .11■ _MTAMPIVIIIIMIC7111.1111C91:771PINIIIrnox ienow••r ic-numa-mosmilrimIAMBIC JIMININOlf :Li or AM IMICIIIIrIV/I•I 11/M•21.1CMING1/11W IIIIIIIIIIIIIMI^IIIIIMIW,^INC,1•1I C.W.1•11=11•111111111111MINIMMIKIIMINIIIN 11111110BININIIMIIM^ME NV WIIIMr^NM IIMM =II MI MI NMI MO NMI NM IMM IIIM •Ell =III M MEM^=MIMI =NE N.—O -- —mom— _mu NEI — —L-Despite the relatively piercing timbre of the oboe events, the deceleration is only perceptibleinitially. The oboe events are very quiet so they are easily masked by the other concurrentevents, and, once the distance between attacks is relatively long, the events are no longerrecognizable as a continuing series.Processes of focussing also involve the vocal stream. In m.30 the word "memory"introduces the concept of a cycle of energy; the sun will repeat its previous behaviour. Theword also reinforces the m sounds which act cadentially in the closing quatrain of the firstpoetic stanza. (The cadential textual structure is not supported by any other musicalbehaviours). Carter emphasizes the word in the vocal stream by accenting the pitch eventon the first syllable. 1 The behaviours of Stream C support this emphasis. The events in thealto flute and clarinet are relatively loud (they have the highest dynamic intensity in thissection so far) and the clarinet events group into a gesture similar to the alto flute gesturewhich was described above in the focussing process. The timbre of the vibraphone event isaltered: it is marked "fast vibe" in contrast to the previous events which were sounded withthe motor off. Another focussing process involving the vocal stream occurs in mm.32-33.1^This emphasis could also be a reminder to the singer to give the word its normal accentuation despitethe syncopated placement with respect to the notated downbeat.245The attack density of the stream diminishes abruptly and the stream is characterized by aconsistent level of dynamic intensity in contrast to the fluctuating levels of before. Thesechanges do not endure, and in mid-m.33 the previous behaviours of the vocal streamreturn. Because of its short duration, the period of change is more aptly described as aprocess of focussing.Two further focussing processes occur in Stream C. In mm.32-33 the viola and celloevents proceed ponticello with gestures of the tremolo type. The timbral distinction of thesegestures render them more prominent than any concurrent events, but the focus is short-lived and the events proceed normale from the end of m.33. The violin events are focussedon rhythmically in m.34 when they group into a 'contour' gesture for the first time in thissection. Immediately following that in m.35 the alto flute events group into anintervallically wide (d5) tremolo gesture. Both the violin and the alto flute gestures aremade prominent by lack of concurrent rhythmic activity in the other events of Stream C andso are clearly audible.These focussing processes often have symbolic or structural roles. The rhythmicdeceleration articulated by the oboe events in mm.26-40, when perceptible, connotes aprocess of slowing down which symbolizes the gradual loss of energy. In m.30 thetextural accentuation of "memory" in the vocal stream highlights the connection between therepetitive implications of this word and the concept of anaphora that permeates the poem.The changes in the vocal stream in mm.31-32 occur during the sectional break between thetwo stanzas of the poem. While there is no musical break to support this structure (and nobreak in the semantic content), the focussing process does articulate the visual textualstructure.246The second textural feature of the second section of 'Anaphora', belonging exclusively toStream C, is that of timbral transformation. The timbres of the events associated with theindividual pulses change gradually. In m.32 the triplet eighth-note pulse is articulated by aviolin event for the first time. This change is not immediately perceptible (although itbecomes more audible later), particularly because the listener's attention is diverted to alocal process of focussing which occurs in mm.32-33. The focussing process, in which theviola and cello events proceed ponticello with gestures of the 'tremolo' type (as discussedabove), is also an example of a brief timbral transformation. The timbre of the vibraphoneevents is also modified slightly in m.33 when the playing instructions reduce the "fast vibe"to "medium vibe". Because of the concurrent focussing process, this change is notimmediately perceptible either. Two timbral modifications also occur in m.35. The tripleteighth-note pulse is articulated by a cello event for the first time and the quintupletsixteenth-note pulse is articulated by a piano event. The reintroduction of the participationof the piano events is a significant timbral change, since the pulses were initially articulatedby events in the piano and vibraphone. The timbral properties of the two pulses are still influx, however, and only stabilize later in the song. For example, following the articulationof the quintuplet sixteenth-note pulse by the piano event in m.35, there are no morevibraphone events and only two more piano events (m.37 and m.38) until m.41, whereclimactic attacks are articulated by events in both instruments.In m.36 processes of intensification and diminishment are initiated, leading to a climacticmoment which functions symbolically and structurally to signify the end of the firststructural subsection. The events in Stream C occur in the form of individual pitch eventsand dyads and triads only, instead of grouping into gestures. The resulting compositeattack density is consequently lower than before. However, because these pitch events areoften sustained and overlap in duration, the registral density of the stream intensifies.Crescendo behaviour occurs gradually in all the events until m.40. The cross-pulse can also247be described as intensifying: the attack points of the pulses become closer and closertogether so that the listener gradually perceives a single pulse articulated by two attackpoints in close succession rather than two separate pulses in a cross-pulse relation. Theprocesses of intensification in Stream C build to a climax in m.40. The attack densityintensifies dramatically when events in the winds and violin, viola and cello all group into'contour' gestures. String events are emphasized by being played marcato and the sense ofclimax is supported dynamically by the crescendo to an accented pitch event which occursin all of the gestures. The simultaneous climactic 'contour' gestures are reminiscent of the'energy' stream of the first section; however, Stream C is not superseded by the 'energy'stream because the properties and behaviours of Stream C return once the 'contour'gestures are over.The tension created by the climax is extended through to the end of m.41 through otherprocesses in Stream C and the vocal stream. Stream C exhibits decrescendo behaviour inm.40, and its aggregate high attack density of mm.39-40 is reduced suddenly at the end ofm.40 as the events group into two successive sustained sonorities. The lack of temporallyproximate attack points make the two pulse attacks distinct and draw the listener's attentionto the intensification of the cross-pulse which was described above. The next two pulseattacks occur at the end of m.41. They are articulated by chordal pitch events in thevibraphone, piano, violin, viola and cello, and by individual pitch events in the strings andbass. The two attack points of the cross-pulse, which are as close as possible without beingsimultaneous, are again made prominent by the lack of proximate attack points as well asby other significant behaviours and properties. The relatively high registral density of theattacks, the sudden increase in the dynamic intensity of the events (mf and fp), and thecloseness of the attacks, make this another climactic musical moment. Simultaneously,processes occur in the vocal stream. As was discussed in Example 25a on page 75, thevocal stream undergoes a rhythmic deceleration in mm.38-40, while its dynamic intensity248increases. After the deceleration, the attack density of the vocal stream increases again, and,at the end of m.41, the voice reaches a moment of peak intensity when it articulates twoaccented pitch events, forte, on the word "uses".The musical climaxes described above, an intense and extended one in Stream C and a lessdramatic one in the vocal stream, function symbolically and structurally. The speakerdescribes the ways in which "we" (humans) interact with the sun with increasing intensity,as was discussed above in the section on the poetic form and content. The first climax inStream C occurs after the speaker has described the "look" with which we draw its energyfor our dreaming, perhaps symbolizing the burst of energy that it must provide us. Thenthe intensity builds until the speaker utters the accented word "uses", where Stream Cclimax occurs between the two syllables. This can be seen as another burst of energy fromthe sun, which leaves it drained and unable to respond to the third, most violent interaction:"abuses". Thus this word, although accented in the vocal stream, is ironically setanticlimactically.As well as functioning symbolically, the climax at the end of m.41 signifies a structuralbreak in the music after which more changes occur in the properties and behaviours of thevocal stream and Stream C, and a new textural subsection is established. The texturalfeatures that dominated the first part of the second main section, timbral transformation andfocussing, continue to be prevalent here. In m.43 timbral and rhythmic changes occur inStream C. The piano and vibraphone events have greater prominence: they are accented andproceed marcato, and the vibraphone events are struck with medium hard sticks and, ifsustained, vibrate "fast" (e.g. m.44). The events in all of the instruments no longer groupinto gestures of any kind and comprise isolated pitches, which are usually sustained. Thepiano and vibraphone events articulate pulse attacks only, while some events in the otherinstruments occur between pulse attacks. The composite attack density of the stream is even249lower than before, the registral density is lower and the dynamic intensity of the events isalso relatively low. The brief focussing processes which occurred earlier are now evenbriefer. Focussing occurs for the duration of one or two pitch events, highlighting thewinds and strings events that are articulating the pulses as solos. As a result of the accentedpiano and vibraphone events and the "solo" wind and string events the cross-pulse remainsprominent and can easily be perceived by the listener as a single pulse with two attacks inclose succession. Processes of diminishment in the vocal stream start in m.44 andcorrespond to the diminishments that occur in Stream C at the start of the secondsubsection. The attack density of the vocal stream decreases, there is a diminishment in theregistral placement of the vocal events, and a decrescendo.These diminishment processes symbolize the dissipation of energy described in the poem.They occur when the speaker reiterates the phrase "sinks through the drift of ...", anddepict the sun's even greater loss of energy as it "sinks" through the day. When "evening"is reached, the sun's lowest point, the lack of energy has a peaceful quality: both streamsproceed tranquillo from m.47. The dynamic intensity of the events is very low, and attackdensity of the vocal stream diminishes still further.The appearance of the figure of "the beggar in the park" signifies a reversal in the fall ofenergy in the poem, and the onset of abrupt processes of intensification in Stream C. 1Intensification of dynamic intensity and attack density occur in m.53 when the string andwind events exhibit crescendo behaviour, and group into 'contour gestures. The stringsare unmuted for the first time in this section. Two accented piano events occur which donot articulate pulse attacks, but which contribute to the composite intensification of attack1^In fact the only musical change that occurs simultaneously with his appearance in m.50 is a slightchange of timbre in the vibraphone events from "fast vibe" to "medium vibe". However, the intensificationprocesses start a few measures later.250density. All of these processes anticipate the increased energy which the "beggar" willproduce with his "stupendous studies". This burst of energy is premature, however, and atthe end of m.53 Stream C resumes its established properties and behaviours for the nextfew measures.Further intensification processes occur over the next measures, this time in both the vocalstream and Stream C. They lead to a moment of peak intensity in m.57-58, which functionsas the most musically dramatic climax in the song. Like the climax in mm.40-41 this onealso has symbolic significance and articulates a structural break between subsections. Thevocal stream starts to change in m.53 when its attack density increases again, and, in m.54,when the registral placement its events starts to intensify. There is also a gradual crescendofrom m.54 to m.57. The intensification processes in the vocal stream are concurrent withcrescendo behaviour in Stream C and a slight increase in its attack density. Theintensification processes culminate in m.57-58 with a climax to which all of the eventscontribute. In Stream C the events proceed at very high dynamic intensities and areaccented. The winds and string events, excluding the bass, are marcato. The vibraphoneevents are sustained without the vibrations provided by the motor. Two events in the vocalstream articulate the two pulse attacks for the first and only time in the song. Moreover,these fortissimo events cover the widest possible registral range, articulating the highestpitch (Bb5) and then the lowest pitch (B3) of the pitch/register repertoire of 'Anaphora'.Because the vocal events conform to the pulse scheme, the vocal stream and Stream Cmight be considered to be a single fused stream in these measures. However, the timbraldistinction of the voice remains intact, and the wide registral leap between the two eventsrender them more prominent than events in Stream C, so the streams remain distinct.As was mentioned above, the increased intensities in stream behaviours symbolize theincreased energy that the beggar produces. The climax occurs on the word "stupendous251[studies]" and emphasizes the importance of the beggar's activities, through which the fallof the sun will be reversed. The big descent between the two vocal events signifies the fallof energy that the poem has been describing to this point. Since the beggar is a symbolicfigure representing the artist, the "stupendous studies" of the climax could also representthe significance of works of art, in which case the wide intervallic leap indicates the breadthof artistic "studies".The climax in mm.57-58 indicates a structural break in the text (after this point the energythat is described starts to increase again) and in the music. The third, and final, subsectionis the shortest, lasting only eight measures. Once again, changes occur in the establishedstreams at the onset of this subsection and help to delineate the break. The vocal streammaintains some pre-climax properties and behaviours, like high dynamic intensity, but isalso defined by a new intervallic parity between events: wide intervals, M9's, are repeated.The most significant change that occurs is a splitting process in Stream C. In m.59 it splitsinto two streams: a modified version of Stream C, and the 'energy' stream of the firstsection. Stream C comprises vibraphone and piano events only, which occur as sustained,accented chords and articulate the same two pulses as before. Events in the winds andstrings contribute to the 'energy' stream. As before, they are grouped into 'contour'gestures, and there is parity of dynamic intensity contour between the gestures. The streamis also characterized by the high attack density of the gestures, and by the high dynamicintensity.Closure is created at the end of 'Anaphora' by processes of intensification anddiminishment. Both the 'energy' stream and Stream C undergo crescendo behaviour andclose with fortissimo chords. There is an abrupt diminishment in composite attack andregistral densities in m.63 when the energy stream ceases. Stream C concludes with twomore pulse attacks. The sense of rising energy is thus carried through to the end of the252song by the pulses which have generated most of the rhythmic movement throughout thesong.All three streams play a role in symbolizing the text in this final subsection. The high attackdensity of the 'contour' gestures and the relatively high dynamic intensity of the events inthe 'energy' stream represent the higher level of energy of the "fiery event". The dynamicintensity contour behaviour, that is the fluctuations in dynamic intensity which occur in thegestures, provides the sense of impulse that was generated by the splitting and fusionprocesses of the first section. Events in the vocal stream makes explicit the pun on the lastword "assent" when they articulate an ascending M9 interval on the two syllables of theword in m.64.ConclusionIn summary, Carter uses textural processes to differentiate sections in 'Anaphora', and tocreate structural points of articulation in the music. Texturally, the song divides into twomain sections, with the second section subdividing into three subsections. These sectionscorrespond to the formal divisions in the poem based on the semantic content. Unlike theother songs in the cycle, in which personae in the text are represented by textural streams,'Anaphora' is more abstract and the processes that take place texturally represent theprogression in energy described in the text.A summarized chronology of the song reviews the formal structure of the song. Thediagram in Example 67 (overleaf) summarizes graphically the streams, their interaction,the textural processes that take place, and how these factors relate to the text.253Example 67: 'Anaphora'mm. 1 10^20^30^40texttexture"Each day begins" "promptly he ap