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The appropriated carrying capacity of tomato production : comparing the ecological footprints of hydroponic.. Wada, Yoshihiko 1993

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THE APPROPRIATED CARRYING CAPACITY OF TOMATO PRODUCTION: COMPARING THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS OF HYDROPONIC GREENHOUSE AND MECHANIZED FIELD OPERATIONS By Yoshihiko Wada B.A. Yokohama City University, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1993 © Yoshihiko Wada, 1993 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. School of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T IZI Date:^June 30, 1993 Abstract Agribusiness advocates claim that modern agro-technology has led to higher per hectare yields. In particular, hydroponic greenhouse agriculture is advanced as a new and par- ticularly productive approach to high output farming. This may contribute to the belief that agricultural land can be urbanized because human ingenuity is seemingly developing substitutes for the lost soil. This thesis challenges this assumption by examining agricultural technology from an ecological perspective. It uses the concept of the ecological footprint (or appropriated carrying capacity) to compare the productivity of hydroponic agriculture with that of conventional open field operations. I assess and compare the biophysical inputs required by these operations to produce 1000 tonnes of tomatoes. These figures are then translated into corresponding land areas (in various categories) necessary to produce the required biophysical inputs. In contrast to common belief, hydroponic operations require 14 - 21 times more land than conventional open field operations to produce the same output (including the land directly occupied by the farms). This case study demonstrates the merits of appropriated carrying capacity analysis for assessing progress toward sustainability. It shows that hydroponic agriculture is a prime example of apparent economic success which is, in fact, ecologically unsustainable. There is no reason for confidence that we can pave over our agricultural lands just yet! Finally, this study demonstrates that the apparent yields of hydroponic greenhouse agriculture are partially a reflection of underpriced resource inputs, a form of subsidy which is not sustainable. Table of Contents Abstract List of Tables^ vi List of Figures^ vii Acknowledgements^ viii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Problem Statement ^ 1 1.2 Purpose ^ 3 1.3 Methods 4 1.4 Significance of the Work ^ 4 2 The Concept of Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity 7 2.1 Natural Capital: A Key Word for Sustainability ^ 7 2.2 The Constancy of Capital Stock Criterion for Sustainability ^ 8 2.3 Definition of Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity^. 10 2.4 Advantage of EF/ACC Analysis over Energy Analysis/Audit (EA) . . 10 2.5 Application of the Concept of Ecological Footprint/ Appropriated Carry- ing Capacity ^ 12 3 Methods/Procedure 13 3.1^Case Selection (Hydroponic Greenhouse Operations) ^ 13 3.2 Data Collection (Hydroponic Greenhouse Operations) ^ 14 3.3 Case Selection (Small-scale Field Operations)  ^15 3.4 Data Collection (Small-scale Field Operations)  ^15 3.5 Data Processing  ^16 4 Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^ 17 4.1 Separation of Data  ^17 4.2 Energy Intensity  ^19 4.3 Rate of Conversion from Energy to Land-Equivalent ^ 27 4.4 Renewable Inputs ^  28 4.5 Cost and Prices  29 4.6 Other Assumptions and Missing Data ^  32 4.7 Transportation: Means and Distance  33 5 Case Study^ 36 5.1 Definition of the Terms ^  36 5.2 Comparison of the Data  37 6 Analysis, Policy Implications and Directions for Further Study^46 6.1 Analysis  ^46 6.2 Policy Implications ^  47 6.3 Directions for Further Study  ^53 Bibliography^ 55 Appendices^ 62 A Calculation Process of Fertilizer Energy Intensity^ 62 iv B Average Figures of Energy Intensity for Pesticides^ 64 C Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 65 V List of Tables A.1 Estimated Energy Intensity of Chemical Fertilizers ^ 63 B.2 Energy Intensity Figures of Chemical Herbicides, Insecticides, and Fungicides 64 C.3 Spreadsheet for "Greenhouse A" Hydroponic Greenhouse Tomato Produc- tion  ^66 C.4 Spreadsheet for "Greenhouse B" Hydroponic Greenhouse Tomato Produc- tion  ^69 C.5 Spreadsheet for HillTop Gardens Field Tomato Production ^ 72 C.6 Spreadsheet for Horsting Farms Field Tomato Production  74 vi List of Figures 5.1 EF/ACC of Greenhouse and Field Operations ^  38 5.2 Comparison of Productivities of Total Land Areas  38 5.3 Growing Area Needed for Production of 1000 tonnes of Tomatoes^39 5.4 Productivity of Growing Area ^  40 5.5 Revenue of Growing Area  41 5.6 Profitability of Growing Area ^  41 5.7 Components of EF/ACC for Greenhouse A ^  42 5.8 Components of EF/ACC for Greenhouse B  43 5.9 Components of EF/ACC for HillTop Gardens Operation ^ 44 5.10 Components of EF/ACC for Horsting Farms Operation  45 vii Acknowledgements I do not know how to express fully my gratitude to Professor William E. Rees and Professor Art Bomke for their advise, generous support and encouragement throughout the course of this research. Professor Rees has been very patient about the slow progress of my study. His guidance, in fact, has continued not only during this thesis project, but also since I arrived in Canada two years and several months ago. I have learned a number of things from him. Professor Bomke has contributed a great deal to my research in terms of the history of agriculture in British Columbia and North America and the technical side of my thesis. I owe very much to my good friend, Mathis Wackernagel, a Ph. D. candidate of the school, who has given me guidance and dedicated his assistance to me constantly and with patience. I am certain that he will make an excellent teacher as well as an outstanding scholar like the above professors. I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to my sponsors, the International Council for Canadian Studies, the Government of Canada, and the Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development. I am grateful to Mr. Jim Portree, B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Professor Anthony Lau, Bio-Resource Engineering Department at UBC, Professor Rey- mond Cole, the School of Architecture, Dr. Lyn Pinkerton, a Research Associate of the Planning School, and Professor Carolyn Egri, the Faculty of Business Administra- tion at Simon Fraser University for their technical assistance and for introducing me to resource persons, the greenhouse owners and the field farmers. Dr. John Cobb, Jr., Professor Emeritus at the School of Theology at Claremont, California kindly gave me comments on the early version of my thesis proposal. I would like to extend my gratitude viii to Professor Yuichi Inoue, Nara Institute of Technology, a graduate of the UBC Planning School, and Ph. D. candidate of the University of Victoria who has provided advice and encouragement for the last three years. I am thankful to the greenhouse owners and managers and field farmers, Mr. Wayne Rice and Mr. Ted Horsting, and their families, for their continued support and the sacri- fice of their time. I feel obligated to the suppliers of agricultural equipment and materials, greenhouse builders, the chemical, utility and transportation industries, governmental or- ganizations, libraries and a museum for providing me with various information and data. I am thankful to other faculty members of the Planning School, professors Artibise, Davis, Hightower, McDaniels, Boothroyd, and Gurstein. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to administrative staff, Bonnie, Patti, and Maureen for their support and boost. My stay in Canada would have been impossible without my precious friends in Van- couver who come from across Canada and all over the world. When I arrived in Canada two years and several months ago, I could not imagine how much blessing and support I would receive through my friends, without whom my life and study in Canada would have been far less fruitful, meaningful and enjoyable. I am grateful to my Japanese friend, Mr. Hisa Kusuda, a Ph. D. candidate in Economics, who has encouraged and assisted me in editing and printing day and night and in helping me get started in the mornings. Professor Nagatani, the Department of Economics, and his family have given me precious advice and encouragement since I arrived in Vancouver. My church friends from Yokohama, Yutaka and Masayo Zama who happened to study in Vancouver (the Vancouver School of Theology) have given me constant support and encouragement for the last three years. I am also thankful to my Canadian (quasi Japanese) friend, Janette who has helped me with my English and as a coordinator for the UBC Task Force on Healthy and Sustainable Communities provided me with helpful results and information. ix Her husband Jeff helped me with the technical part of my thesis. Tamsin and Derrick from Nova Scotia have given me encouragement regularly and helped me in editing my thesis. John from Ontario gave me comments on the contents and language. Tony from Toronto who shared an office with me has helped me with my English, both written and oral. Dong-Ho Shin from Korea, a graduate of the Planning School and Ph. D. candidate in Urban Studies Program has provided me with appropriate advice and encouragement. Katsu and Satoko who stayed in Ottawa and later in Honolulu gave me comments on the earlier version of my proposal. Loralee from Ottawa has given me encouragement and valuable suggestions. Aki from Japan has given suggestions and advice. Hiroko from Japan has demonstrated me an ideal model of a graduate student. Robert from Ontario gave me comments and words of cheer. I wish to thank Rev. and Mrs. Aki, Rev. Neville Jacobs and church members, professors McGee and Edgington, Katie, the Sumi's, the Sato's, Professor Mori, Professor Isshu, Masa and his family, the Rev. Watanabe's, the Nagashima's, the Nakano's, Ms. Tunbridge, Jean, Nobuko, Nana, Mozaffer, Sahaji and their wives, Sudharto, Akonyu, Donna, Mark, Mark, Mike, Mike, Steve, Millie, Zarina, Bernie, Ghislain, Byron, Signe, Kim, Sue, Jerome, Sinclair, Eugeni, Jennie, Averil, Bruno, Darlene, Phil, Serena, Kyong- Ja, Norio, Hisayo, Mitsuru, Haruyo, Tomo, Kaz, Richard, Chudae, Robert and Angela,   for their encouragement and support. I am grateful to my ex-bosses and colleagues at IDCJ, professors and friends in Japan for their moral support: Mr. Sekikawa, Ms. Yamazaki, Ms. Yasumuro, Mr. Horiguchi, Ms. Saito, Ms. Oba, Ms. Taguchi, ..., professors Ohkawa, Hara, Kohama, Hondai, Teranishi, Yoshikawa, Otsuka, Fujita, ..., Mr. Mochizuki, the Nemoto's, Dr. Takase, Dr. Honjo, Dr. Uchida, Mr. Sakamoto, Mr. Domoto, Dr. Nakashima, Mr. Kawahara, Mr. Tanaka, professors Sumi, Kuramochi, Kato and Miyazaki, Mr. Yoshida, Dr. Koizumi, Dr. Hirayama, Mr. Yohena, the Yoshikawa and Koroku family and Professor Ono and his family, members of ESS, STET and APIC. I wish to thank the citizens of B.C., Canada and Japan for supporting my education. I would like to extend my appreciation to the late Fran Hadlock, my excellent English tutor and friend, who was sent to Heaven two years ago. I pray that her spirit may rest in peace there. Lastly, I would like to thank my parents, Keiki and Kieko, and brothers, Yasuhiko and Naohiko and aunt, Yuriko, cousin Isao and his family for their dedication and support. Without the support and encouragement from all mentioned above, I could not have completed the thesis project. All the defects in this thesis, of course, remain mine. xi Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Problem Statement Technological optimists believe that there are no practical constraints on food pro- duction (Simon 1981 pp. 67 - 69). For example, it is widely believed that industrialized hydroponic greenhouse farming can increase agricultural output (harvest) per hectare of land far beyond that of conventional field agriculture (see Defreitas 1992 p. 18 and Wall Street Journal, June 6, 1987 p. 20). This belief might be used to argue the superiority of industrial agriculture over traditional field cultivation and could be used to weaken ar- guments for conservation of our limited arable land. It is questionable, however, whether high-tech agriculture is actually more productive per unit of land than traditional field production. Hydroponic farming practice requires many energy and material inputs and the production of these inputs "appropriates" the production of additional land often in other parts of the world. Turning to the present state of world agriculture and food security, we find a number of trends which make us apprehensive, including soil erosion, global climate changes and the explosion of human population. Rees states: Agriculture everywhere is increasingly constrained by ecological trends including loss of topsoil, excessive runoff, waterlogging and salting of soil by irrigation, falling water tables, farmland conversion, and now possibly climate change (Rees 1990a p. 110). 1 Chapter 1. Introduction^ 2 The problem of soil loss is critical as Pimentel et al. (1987) point out: Serious soil erosion is occurring in most of the world' major agricultural regions, .... Soil loss rates, generally ranging from 10 to 100 t /ha/yr on cultivated lands, are exceeding soil formation rates by at least tenfold ( p. 277). Due to severe soil loss, current world food production is threatened. According to Shah et al. (1985), "based on current worldwide soil loss, and projections for the period from 1975 to 2000, degradation of arable land will depress food production between 15 to 30 %" (cited in Pimentel et al. 1987 p. 278). At the same time, human needs are growing rapidly. Rees and Brown warn us: If these data were adequate to aggregate for the world as a whole, it undoubtedly would show that sustainable world food output is now running well below consump- tion. The annual addition to world population, estimated at 88 million in 1988, is projected to reach 91 million in the early nineties. By the end of the decade, there will be nearly a billion more people to feed. In the two regions with the fastest pop- ulation growth, Africa and Latin America, per capita grain production is falling. If action is not taken soon to reverse these declines, hunger and malnutrition will spread, and eventually food consumption for some will fall below the survival level (Brown 1988 pp. '7 - 8, cited in Rees 1990a p. 110).' Despite the potential decline in global agricultural productivity and rising population, some may argue that high-tech agriculture will solve these problems and that therefore 'The current world population is 5.04 billion in 1987 (Teikoku Shoin Henshubu 1991). The United Nations (U.N.) estimate that the world population will reach 9.42 billion in 2025. Kuroda estimates that it will reach 10 billion in 2030 by using the U.N.'s estimate (Kuroda 1991). The U.N. estimate that the world population will be stabilized at 11 billion at the end of 21st century (Kuroda 1991). Sadik states that this figure may be 14 billion if the decline in birthrates is smaller than expected (1990, cited in Kuroda 1991). If these estimates are correct, 2- 3 times more people have to be fed on this planet at the end of the 21st century. Chapter 1. Introduction^ 3 we need not worry about the soil loss or the urbanization of arable land. The important question is, therefore, whether hydroponic greenhouses are really more productive than traditional field farming. More broadly, is high-tech agriculture really a clear-cut solution to this potential global crisis? The correct answers to such questions are central to the survival of humankind. In particular, the issues addressed by this study are key for determining the future direction of agriculture, land-use, and development policies. The wisdom of humankind is now being tested. If we err, future generations will hold us to account for any resultant wide- spread hunger and malnutrition. We have to remember that once an environmental asset is degraded, its loss is essentially irreversible (see Inoue 1986). 1.2 Purpose The primary purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether a heated hydroponic greenhouse can sustain higher productivity per unit area compared to traditional mech- anized open field farming practice. The research is oriented to determining which system is actually more productive in an input-output framework on a land equivalent basis. There are three sub-objectives. 1) to demonstrate the applicability of an ecological analytical framework to assess agricultural sustainability. I employ a new concept, Ecological Footprint (EF) or Appro- priated Carrying Capacity (ACC) developed by Rees and Wackernagel at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in 1991 (Rees 1992, Rees and Wackernagel 1992) to show the true "ecological footprints" of agricultural practices. 2) to show an example of the conflicts between individual economic benefit and total social, ecological costs. These conflicts characterize the sustainability debate! (See Rees 1993c, Hara 1992). Chapter 1. Introduction^ 4 3) to explore policy implications for sustainable agriculture and more generally for achieving a sustainable society. 1.3 Methods In order to achieve the above purposes, I analyse and compare two hydroponic tomato greenhouses in Surrey, B.C. and two mechanized open field tomato farms in Spences Bridge and Cache Creek, B.C. I calculate their energy and material inputs and outputs using both the EF/ACC analysis and an economic analysis. Details are presented in Chapter 3. 1.4 Significance of the Work A comparative case study of hydroponic greenhouse and open field tomato production is worth pursuing for the following reasons. (i) Relationship to Previous Research There have been no previous comparative analyses of the ecological footprints of alternative agricultural technologies. There have been several studies to examine the energy requirements of field agriculture. For example, Odum (1971), Hannon (1973), Leach (1975, 1976), Udagawa (1975), Green (1978), Smil (1979), Fluck and Baird (1980), Pimentel (1979, 1980, 1984), Stanhill (1980, 1984), Rambo (1984a, 1984b), Stout (1984, 1990), Geyer et al. (1987), Helsel (1987), Martinez-Alier (1987), Cleveland (1991) and others have worked extensively on such energy audits. However, little has been reported on the energetics of heated greenhouse crop production and I am aware of only one published study on greenhouse tomato growing (Stanhill 1980). Certainly there is no previous empirical research on the energetics of greenhouse tomato production in British Columbia, which includes both energy directly consumed and embodied energy of the Chapter 1. Introduction^ 5 input materials.2 One of the few studies on the energetics of greenhouse crop production is "The Energy Cost of Protected Cropping: A Comparison of Six Systems of Tomato Production" by Stanhill (1980). He compared energy inputs, both direct and embodied, to six different types of tomato production in California, Israel, and England, namely mechanized and labour-intensive open field operations without protective cover, open field operations protected by plastic net roofs and by low plastic tunnels, unheated greenhouse and heated greenhouse operations. One of the cases is a heated greenhouse in England. (ii) Uniqueness of This Study This research, however, is distinctive from Stanhill's. First, his analysis is entirely focused on energetics, while my research uses the concept of Appropriated Carrying Capacity (ACC), to estimate the total ecological footprints of the competing technolo- gies. Putting it simply, I convert energy inputs and embodied energy into their land- equivalents. Second, Stanhill's greenhouses were standard heated greenhouses, whereas my sam- ples are hydroponic greenhouses, which use no soil as plant beds. Third, his research data are taken from The U.K. Tomato Manual, while my research is based on detailed primary data collected for typical cases. The empirical aspect of the research deserves attention also. In addition, this research compares the conclusions from both an ecological analysis and economic analysis, and tries to demonstrate conflicts between the two. Finally, the geographical context is unique. There is no documented research on hydroponic greenhouses either in Canada or the United States in terms of either energy 'This was confirmed through the interview with Professor Anthony Lau, Department of Bio-Resources Engineering at the University of British Columbia held on October 2, 1992, one with Professor Len Staley of the same department held on April 21, 1993, and one with Mr. Gordon Monk, President of the Western Biotech Engineering held on April 21, 1993. Chapter 1. Introduction^ 6 analysis or ecological footprints. (iii) Why Tomatoes? The tomato is one of the most prevalent vegetables grown in greenhouses. Stan- hill calls tomatoes "the most important protected food crop" (1980, p. 145). In B.C., tomatoes account for 44 % of all vegetable greenhouse crops by sales volume in 1991. Tomatoes have the largest share, followed by green peppers (30 %), cucumbers (23 %) and lettuce (3 %) (B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food 1991b). Therefore, discussion of greenhouse tomato production is a significant contribution to the debate on greenhouses in general. Secondly, tomatoes play a key role in the North American diet. According to Stevens (1972, p. 90), the tomato is the top ranking contributor to North American's nutrient intake. The tomato's relative nutrient value is not high, but the quantity of tomatoes consumed, including both fresh and processed, is large. In fact, a tomato's relative nutrient value per unit mass is only ranked 16th among 39 major fruits and vegetables in the U. S. in 1970 (p. 89), but its production mass ranked 3rd (6 million tonnes), after potatoes being the first (16 million tonnes) and oranges being the second (7 million tonnes) (p. 88). Therefore, any findings for tomato production are significant to North American agriculture. Chapter 2 The Concept of Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity 2.1 Natural Capital: A Key Word for Sustainability The primary purpose of this research is to assess the sustainability of agriculture, rec- ognizing that maintaining adequate stocks of natural capital is fundamental to ecological sustainability. Since "Natural Capital" is an important prerequisite for sustainability, I would like to clarify what the concept means. There are various interpretations. For example, Barbier identifies natural capital very narrowly as commercially available re- newable and non-renewable resources (1992). However, I feel that non-traded natural resources (e.g. the atmosphere and the ozone layer) and nature's functions and services (e.g. the forest's carbon dioxide absorption function) are important components of nat- ural capital and that thus, broader interpretation is essential. I therefore agree with the following definition by Rees, and Wackernagel and Rees: Natural capital is not just an inventory of resources; it includes those components of the ecosphere, and the structural relationships among them, whose integrity is essential for the continuous self-production of the system itself. Indeed, it is this highly evolved structural and functional integration that makes of the eco- sphere the uniquely livable "environment" it is for the very organisms it comprises (Rees 1990b, 1993). Geoclimatic, hydrological, and ecological cycles do not simply transport and distribute nutrients and energy but are among the self-regulatory, homeostatic mechanisms that stabilize conditions on Earth for all contemporary life-forms, including humankind (Wackernagel and Rees 1992). 7 Chapter 2. The Concept of Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity 8 2.2 The Constancy of Capital Stock Criterion for Sustainability There has been an increasing recognition among most ecological economists and some neoclassical economists that sustainability requires constant capital stocks which are at least adequate to produce sustainable flows (income) sufficient to support the human population at a satisfactory material standard (constant stocks below this level will not sustain us). Of course if population or consumption is growing, the stocks must increase to maintain "adequate" flows (Repetto 1986, Daly and Cobb 1989, Daly 1989, Pearce and Turner 1990, Rees 1993). In essence, adherence to this criterion would require that each generation leave the next generation an undiminished stock of productive assets. There are two interpretations of the constant capital stock idea (adapted by Rees 1993 from Pearce et al. 1989): a) each generation should inherit an aggregate stock of manufactured and natural assets no less than the stock inherited by the previous generation. This corresponds to Daly and Cobb's (1989) conditions for "weak sustainability"; b) each generation should inherit a stock of natural assets alone no less than the stock of such assets inherited by the previous generation. This is a version of "strong sustainability" as defined by Daly and Cobb (1989). The first interpretation reflects the general assumption of neoclassical economics that natural and humanly created capitals are substitutes and that the former (e.g., forests) can rationally be liquidated through "development" as long as subsequent investment in the latter (e.g., machinery) provides an equivalent endowment to the next generation (Rees 1993). The second interpretation better represents the ecological principles than the first 1 " 'Equivalent endowment' would be defined in terms of monetary value, wealth generation potential, jobs, and similar economic criteria. (It is worth noting that humankind has regrettably failed to achieve even the modest objectives of 'weak sustainability' in much of the world.)" (Rees 1993 p. 10) Chapter 2. The Concept of Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity 9 one. Particularly, maintaining natural capital stocks recognizes the multifunctionality of biological resources everywhere, "including their role as life support systems" (Pearce et al. 1990). In this regard, "strong sustainability" recognizes that manufactured and natural capital are complements rather than substitutes in most production functions (Daly and Cobb 1989). For example, what can be substituted for the protective function of the ozone layer? Rees (1992) and Rees and Wackernagel (1992) and this study accept the "strong" definition based on biophysical assets alone. To meet this constant capital stocks criterion, Rees (1990) suggests that for the fore- seeable future, humankind must learn to live on the annual production (the "interest") generated by remaining stocks of natural capita1.2 The "interest" in this context can be equated with the "net primary production" of the ecosphere. Living on this "net primary production," i.e., on sustainable income flows rather than on capital becomes a precondition for sustainability. EF/ACC is a tool for estimating, from a biophysical perspective, the amount of nat- ural capital needed to sustain a given economy or industrial process. EF/ACC measures the constant natural capital stock required to support our economy in land equivalents. Details of EF/ACC will be discussed in the following sections. 2This concept is based on Hicksian (or sustainable) income, the level of consumption that can be maintained from one period to the next without reducing wealth (productive assets) (Rees 1993, see Hicks 1946 and Daly and Cobb 1989). Chapter 2. The Concept of Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity 10 2.3 Definition of Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity Wackernagel and Rees define the Ecological Footprint (EF) or Appropriated Carrying Capacity (ACC) for a region as: the land (and water) area in various categories required exclusively by the people in this region a) to continuously provide all the resources they currently consume, and b) to continuously absorb all the waste they currently discharge. This land exists right now somewhere on the globe, although some appears to be borrowed from the past (e.g., fossil energy) and some is being permanently appropriated from the future (e.g., in the form of contamination, plant growth reduction through increased UV radiation, soil degradation, etc.). (Wackernagel and Rees 1992). Accordingly, I define the Ecological Footprint (EF) / Appropriated Carrying Ca- pacity (ACC) of agricultural operations (such as, hydroponic greenhouse, conventional mechanized farming, and so on) as follows: The sum of the occupied farmland and the land-equivalent of other inputs (energy, materials, etc.) required to produce a defined unit of crop per year, using defined agricultural technology. 2.4 Advantage of EF/ACC Analysis over Energy Analysis/Audit (EA) (i) EF/ACC Analysis Looks at Natural Capital More Comprehensively As mentioned, EF/ACC serves as a surrogate for several ecological dimensions of natural capital. Energy Analysis (EA), however, is unidimensional, focusing exclusively on energy. EA emphasises inputs of commercial energy, i. e., fossil fuels (Murota 1979 Chapter 2. The Concept of Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity 11 p. 141) and ignores the contribution of the functional integrity of ecosystems to economic processes. In other words, EA identifies fossil fuels as a limiting factor for the economy. The EF/ACC analysis considers the bioproductivity of ecosystems (land equivalents) in addition to the structural and functional relationships among components of the eco- sphere as limiting factors of economic activity. EF/ACC, therefore, raises concerns about changes in the ecological conditions, such as climate change, the depletion of the ozone layer, and so on that threaten ecosystems production. As these factors change, biopro- ductivity may change, and this would be reflected in EF/ACC computations. Hence, EF/ACC is an ecological aggregate indicator of sustainability. (ii) Land as a Limited Resource Energy Analysis (EA) focuses on fossil fuel consumption because of the limited and nonrenewable features of this currently predominant energy source. This might give the illusion to society that other energy forms such as solar energy might free us from scarcity of resources as long as means for energy conversion and storage are advanced and/or that human activity may be expanded limitlessly as far as we can utilize this abundant energy source. Rees points out the danger of this kind of logic by stating that even though energy is unlimitedly available, there are other factors which will limit our growth. He insists on the superiority of the EF/ACC analysis, a land-based analysis, and that everyone recognises that land is limited. Therefore the EF/ACC concept will not create the same illusion about our capacity to grow (Rees, public lecture held at the Department of Geography, the University of British Columbia, February 24 1993). (iii) Ease of Visualising Land Area A given area of land is easy to imagine. We use land area comparisons in our daily life. For example, Canada is 27 times larger than Japan. My room is half the size of my housemate's, etc. Energy, however, is hard to visualize because it is invisible by itself and there is no theoretical limit to its quantity. We may realize the existence and magnitude Chapter 2. The Concept of Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity 12 of energy indirectly by looking at the motion of an object, measuring its temperature and so on. In our daily conversation, however, formal units of energy such as "Joule" or "Giga joule" are seldom referred to. Although the term "calorie" is one exception, it is mainly used for dietary purposes. For the above three reasons, I would conclude that it is advantageous for us to use the EF/ACC analysis rather than Energy Analysis (EA) for conducting more accurate research in examining the reality of the ecosphere. 2.5 Application of the Concept of Ecological Footprint/ Appropriated Car- rying Capacity The Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Capacity is a new concept with only a few empirical applications to date. Studies on the land implications of Canadian consumption patterns and rough analyses of other nations' have been in progress (Wack- ernagel et al. 1993). EF/ACC does not only serve as an effective decision-making tool toward sustainability but it also enables comparisons between municipalities, or more specifically, different types of possible development patterns etc. Since 1991, Rees and Wackernagel, through the Task Force on Planning Healthy and Sustainable Communities at the University of British Columbia, have been working with staff at the City of Rich- mond, B.C. to develop and clarify the concept. They have also been giving advice on technical aspects of its application, etc., and have involved their citizens in the planning process. Chapter 3 Methods/Procedure For this research, two hydroponic tomato greenhouse operations and two tomato field operations have been empirically examined both in terms of their Appropriated Carrying Capacity and their economic performance. 3.1 Case Selection (Hydroponic Greenhouse Operations) The greenhouses have been selected by five criteria: • First, that the case is a typical B.C. operation. By typical, I mean in size of operation, method of production and direct productivity per hectare. • Second, that the owner has the willingness and time to support my research. Co- operation from the greenhouse owner is essential for this kind of research. • Third, that the owner has on file reasonable data and information about various inputs. • Fourth, that the owner can isolate the data for the subject tomato operation from that for other crops. Many greenhouses diversify their operations in terms of kinds of crops. To make the research as simple as possible, I concentrated only on toma- toes of regular size, leaving out cherry tomatoes. • Fifth, that the location is not too far from Vancouver, to make it accessible. 13 Chapter 3. Methods/Procedure^ 14 Mr. Jim Portree, a greenhouse specialist from the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fish- eries and Food stationed at Abbotsford Agriculture and Food Centre recommended two typical hydroponic greenhouse operations in Surrey: these are referred to as "Greenhouse A" and "Greenhouse B" in this thesis.' Both greenhouses met my five criteria. 3.2 Data Collection (Hydroponic Greenhouse Operations) There are more than 50 different inputs to a greenhouse, including the land occupied, the greenhouse building, irrigation, ventilation, heating, drainage pipe, carts, trucks, sawdust and rockwool (a soil-substitute), ground cover, electricity, natural gas, fertilizers and liquid CO2. Therefore the case studies required a large amount of data pertaining to a variety of areas. For each input, I collected seven pieces of information, namely: material, mass, energy intensity, expected life span, price, and distance and means of transportation. This research relied on a variety of information sources including: the greenhouse own- ers, agricultural input suppliers, fertilizer producers, chemical engineers, utility compa- nies, greenhouse builders, shipping industries, greenhouse specialists in the Bio-Resources Engineering Department of the University of British Colombia, municipal governments, car dealers, the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, and UBC libraries. I visited each greenhouse 4 or 5 times. Each time I spent from 2 to 8 hours in their office or at the site. Most of the time was spent measuring the mass (and/or volume) of building materials and equipments and obtaining data on mass (or volume) and cost of operational (variable) inputs. In order to obtain the mass of building materials, I measured the length, width and thickness of all the parts and then estimated their mass from their computed volumes. 1"Greenhouse A" wished to remain anonymous because this study involves disclosure of financial information. "Greenhouse B" wished that their name be mentioned in the appendix. Chapter 3. Methods/Procedure^ 15 Obtaining and calculating the energy intensity of materials was sometimes hard, because basic data was scarce and inconsistent. For inconsistent data, I estimated energy intensity by averaging the whole data set, or by using the most reasonable data. 3.3 Case Selection (Small-scale Field Operations) My original plan for the research on field operations was to use the past literature, instead of carrying out empirical research. It turned out, however, that there was a lack of documented research on tomato field operations in B.C. I also felt that carrying out empirical studies on both groups would be more accurate, particularly if various case studies were compared. I set the same criteria for the selection of field farmers as for the greenhouse selection. Carolyin Egri, a professor at Simon Fraser University, has done extensive research on the fertilizer and chemical pesticide use of B.C. farmers. She suggested one representative field tomato farmer, Mr. Wayne Rice, who operates his farm together with his two sons, Steve and Mike, in Spences Bridge near Kamloops, 370 km away from Vancouver. Their operation is called "HillTop Gardens Farm Limited." In this thesis, it is referred to as "HillTop Gardens." In a phone interview, Mr. Rice assured his support. Their data were readily available and separable. He put me in contact with another farmer in Cache Creek, 50 km north of Spences Bridge. The latter's name is Mr. Ted Horsting, and his farm is called "Horsting Farms." His operation met the first four of my five criteria. 3.4 Data Collection (Small-scale Field Operations) I visited the field farmers from January 26 to 28, 1993. The data collection procedure was similar to that for greenhouses, except less extensive. ("HillTop Gardens" had a very Chapter 3. Methods/Procedure^ 16 small greenhouse used as a nursery. But it took me only 30 minutes to measure the whole structure.) Both farmers use only 25 main inputs (see appendix C). These include the land occupied, irrigation, pesticide sprayer, tractor, ground cover, chemical fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, nursery building and dirt (topsoil) (the last two are applicable only for "HillTop Gardens"). 3.5 Data Processing I computed the EF/ACC and economic performance for each operation with the aid of Lotus 1-2-3 version 2.2 and Excel for Windows version 4.0, personal computer spreadsheets. Chapter 4 Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data 4.1 Separation of Data (i) Greenhouse A This consists of two greenhouses on a site in Surrey: one is for tomatoes (2.56 ha) and the other for green peppers (1.70 ha). In some cases, they only had total figures for tomatoes and peppers. The assistant manager assured me that the ratio of various inputs such as fertilizers and labour was 6 : 4, which was the ratio of the growing area of each crop. Therefore, I used 60 % of the total whenever separate data was unavailable. (ii) Greenhouse B The owner had been specializing in tomato production until the end of 1992. He started diversifying crops in 1993. For tomato production he uses an old greenhouse (37 years old as of 1993) made of wood, and a new greenhouse (7 years old) with a steel and aluminium framework. I decided to examine only the new greenhouse, since the old one is obsolete and seems energy-inefficient, and because this type of old wooden greenhouse is no longer typical. Fortunately, the owner was able to give me most of the data separately. When I had to divide total figures into two (e.g. fuel consumption for forklift and trucks, pallet jack and so on), I used a ratio of 75 : 25 (new greenhouse : old one) which is the same as the ratio of production. 1 7 Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^18 (iii) HillTop Gardens They grow not only tomatoes but also peaches, apples, nectarines, apricots, pears, cherries, melons, corns, cucumbers, squashes and pumpkins. They have facilities and equipment for common use for these vegetables and fruits; for example, aluminium irri- gation pipe, which is 1000 meters long. The water used to irrigate the tomato field is about 7 % of the total water consumption for all the crops. Therefore, I attributed 7 % of the total irrigation pipe to tomato production. Since they have 3 pick-up trucks and since the revenues from tomatoes are 20 % of their total revenues, I assessed that they used 0.6 (= 3 x 0.2) pick-up trucks for tomato production. 80 % of the nursery greenhouse space is used for tomato propagation. 10 % of the workshop and nutrient storage is designated for tomato production. (iv) Horsting Farms Mr. Horsting grows tomatoes, potatoes, onions, apples, and other fruits. The tractor and the trucks are used for tomato production. Mr. Horsting attributes 10 % of the total use of these vehicles to tomato growing. Therefore I used 0.1 trucks in the mass calculation of these vehicles. 10 % of the workshop is used for tomatoes. The storage shed is used only for tomatoes. For storage, therefore, I employed the figure of 100 %. For the irrigation pump, I used the figure of 13 %, since 13 % of the total water is used for tomatoes. The irrigation piping in the tomato field is exclusively for tomatoes. Therefore I used 100 % for the pipes. Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^19 4.2 Energy Intensity (i) Glass For flat glass, Cole and Rousseau (1992) presented five different figures on energy intensity ranging from 10.2 mega joules per kilogram (later, abbreviated as MJ/kg) to 21.6 MJ/kg. Baird and Aun (1983) provide figures ranging from 8.42 MJ/kg to 29.3 MJ/kg. Brown et al. (1985) give a figure of 14.2 MJ/kg. For this study I use energy intensity of 14 MJ/kg. (ii) Steel I assume the energy intensity of steel to be 30 MJ/kg. Brown et al. (1985) provide a figure of 27.7 MJ/kg. Cole and Rousseau (1992) present energy intensity of steel of four countries. The average of these figures is 31.1 MJ/kg. The estimate of Fritsche et al. (1989) is 30 MJ/kg. (iii) Aluminium I employ the figure of 240 MJ/kg for aluminium energy intensity. Cole and Rousseau (1992) list five figures ranging from 145.0 to 261.7 MJ/kg. In their book, Baird and Aun (1983) provide eighteen figures ranging from 52.7 to 371 MJ/kg. Fritsche et al. (1989) present a figure of 250 MJ/kg. (iv) Concrete I employ 1.3 MJ/kg as concrete energy intensity. Cole and Rousseau (1992) present four figures ranging from 0.9 to 2.0 MJ/kg. Nine figures obtained by Baird and Aun (1983) range from 0.72 to 2.41 MJ/kg. (v) Other Service Buildings Embodied energy for service buildings such as the warehouse, workshop, boiler room, and office have been included in these calculations. Their exact geometric specifications were not collected at the site. Instead, I used a generic energy intensity figure in terms Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^20 of the area occupied. Hannon et al. (1977) in Doering (1980) estimate energy intensity of 38 Mcal/ft2, which corresponds to: 38 Mcal/ft2 x 4.19 MJ/Mcal = 159.22 MJ/ft2 159.22 MJ/ft2 x 10.76 fe/m2 = 1713.2  MJ/m2 (vi) Plastics By 'plastic', I mean a 'synthetic plastic' which is a generic term for various kinds of polymers such as polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene. Wackernagel (1992) based on Brown et al. (1985) calculates a generic figure of 64 MJ/kg. Cole and Rousseau (1992) present five figures ranging from 49.3 to 122.8 MJ/kg. Baird and Aun (1983) provide eight figures stretching from 44 to 171 MJ/kg. I use the mean of figures of Cole and Rousseau, 85 MJ/kg, in this thesis. (vii) Rockwool Rockwool is used as nutrient holder, i.e., substitute for soil in hydroponic greenhouses. Wackernagel (1992) lists a figure of 28 MJ/kg for mineral wool. I use this figure. (viii) Gypsum On hot summer days, a white-wash made of gypsum powder is sprayed on the green- house glass to reduce brightness. Cole and Rousseau (1992) provide three figures ranging from 1.4 to 7.4 MJ/kg. Baird and Aun (1983) present five figures extending from 1.1 to 7.2 MJ/kg. For this thesis, I use 4.2 MJ/kg, which is employed by the UBC Task Force on Planning for Healthy and Sustainable Communities (Wackernagel 1992) and very close to the average of the five figures provided by Baird and Ann. (ix) Gasoline and Diesel Oil According to Doering (1980), gasoline energy intensity is 50.40 MJ/kg. From the same source, energy intensity of diesel oil is given as 44.4 MJ/kg. Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^21 (x) Propane Gas According to Tuma, Handbook of Physical Calculations (1983), the energy content of propane gas is 48.95 MJ/kg. (xi) Electricity Electricity consumed by greenhouses and open field operation is supplied by B.C. Hydro, the electricity company of the Province of British Columbia. The greenhouse operations have electric generators for back-up because they need electricity 24 hours every day for irrigation motors, computers, and so on. The use of this generator, however, is minimal and thus insignificant. Therefore, I do not include this trivial portion of electricity generation in this study. B.C. Hydro uses hydro-electric generation as well as thermal and geothermal power plants. For this research, however, I calculate land-equivalents for electricity, on the assumption that all the electric energy was generated by thermal power plants in order to avoid complexity of calculation. Otherwise, data is necessary as to how much land is required to generate one unit of electricity by hydro-power plants. For this we need to know not only the size of the reservoirs and energy requirement of the dam construction but also the area of the watershed of the river on which the dam is located, and the size of the region from which water evaporates to end up in the watershed; i.e. the size of the "natural solar collector." This is not an easy task, because a watershed is so large and complicated, and its use is not limited only to the water collecting function. The United Nations Statistical Office and other international institutions assess a nation's energy requirement in a given year in terms of "Total Energy Requirements in Conventional Fuel Equivalent." To calculate this figure, primary electricity is valued on a fossil -fuel -avoided basis rather than an energy-output basis (World Resources Institute 1992 p. 324). Transforming thermal energy into electricity involves a loss in available energy. The efficiency of a thermal electric plant is defined as the ratio Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^22 between final electricity produced and initial energy supplied. This rate varies widely from country to country and from plant to plant. The United Nations Statistical Office uses a standard factor of 0.3 (.30 %) efficiency to estimate the fossil fuel value of hydro, geothermal, wind, and nuclear electricity (World Resources Institute 1992 p. 324). For this research, I use this ratio of 0.3 (=30 %). This means that 1 kilowatt hour of thermal energy is equivalent to only 0.3 kilowatt hours of electric energy. In other words, in order to generate 1 kilowatt hour of electricity, 3.33 kilowatt hours of thermal energy are required. Therefore, for estimating the thermal energy equivalent, I multiplied the consumed electric energy by 3.33. (xii) Chemical Fertilizers (a) Chemical Fertilizers for Greenhouse Tomato Production The energy requirements for the production of the following chemical fertilizers were reported in the literature: • Potassium Chloride (muriate of potash) • • 4.3 MJ/kg (Nludaher and Hignett 1982 p. 178) • Ammonium Nitrate • • • 66.6 MJ/kg (Helsel 1987 p. 39) • Magnesium Sulfate • • • 2.0 MJ/kg (Helsel 1987 p. 53) The embodied energy data for the following chemical fertilizers could not be found. I estimated their embodied energy as: • Potassium Sulfate • • • 3.5 MJ/kg • Mono-Potassium Phosphate • • • 10.0 MJ/kg • Potassium Nitrate • • • 14.2 MJ/kg • Calcium Nitrate • • • 11.5 MJ/kg Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^23 • Phosphoric Acid • • • 17.5 MJ/kg • Sodium Molybdate • • • 10.0 MJ/kg • Iron Chelate • • • 15.0 MJ/kg • Potassium Bicarbonate • • • 4.0 MJ/kg The calculation details are explained in Appendix A. (b) Chemical Fertilizers for Field Tomato Production The following energy intensity for manufactured fertilizers was reported in the liter- ature: • Urea (46-0-0) • • • 36.6 MJ/kg (Mudahar and Hignett 1982 p. 178) As the rest were not found in the literature, I assessed their embodied energy by myself. The calculation process is presented in Appendix A. • All Purpose Fertilizer (20-20-20) • 19.3 MJ/kg • Plant Starter (10-52-10) • • • 14.9 MJ/kg • 12-5-0 • • 9.3 MJ/kg • 0-0-50 • • • 5.0 MJ/kg • 0-0-60 • • • 6.0 MJ/kg • Iron Sulfate • • • 6.3 MJ/kg • Borate 40 • • • 4.0 MJ/kg Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^24 (xiii) Herbicides The energy requirement for production of the following herbicide was reported in the literature: • Trifluralin (Treflan 545 EC) • • • 150 MJ/kg (Helsel 1987 p. 168) The following herbicides were not listed in the literature. I therefore use the average figure of all the herbicides listed on page 168 of the same book (Helsel 1987). • Metribuzin (Sencor 500 F) • • • 264 MJ/kg • Agribrom Powder • • • 264 MJ/kg Pimentel et al. (1980) present a list of energy input figures for herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on page 46. The average figure for herbicides is 254 MJ/kg. This is very close to the figure which I use in this study, therefore, the employed figure is justifiable. In Appendix B, I present the lists of both Helsel and Pimentel et al. for herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. (xiv) Insecticide The following insecticide was listed in Helsel's book (1987 p. 168). • Carbaryl • • • 153 MJ/kg The following insecticides were not listed in the literature. I therefore use the average figure for all the insecticides listed on page 168 of the same book (Helsel 1987). • Kelthane • • • 197 MJ/kg • Lorsban • • • 197 MJ/kg • Sulfotep103 • • • 197 MJ/kg Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^25 • Plant Fume 103•• 197 MJ/kg • Vendex • • • 197 MJ/kg The average figure using the list of Pimentel et al. (1980) is 185 MJ/kg. Therefore, the relevance of the employed figure is verified. (xv) Fungicides The following fungicides were not listed in the same literature. I, therefore, use the average figure of all the fungicides listed on page 168 of the same book (Helsel 1987). • Monzate 200DF • • • 163 MJ/kg • Roccal • • • 163 MJ/kg The average figure of the list of Pimentel et al. (1980) is 97 MJ/kg. I employ Helsel's figure because the data is more recent. (xvi) Seeds It was not possible to find fossil energy requirement to produce tomato seeds per se. There is, however, one table which lists fossil energy requirement for production, processing and distribution of various kinds of seeds in David Pimentel ed. Handbook of Energy Utilization in Agriculture (1980 p. 32). From this table, I obtained an average of the energy costs of seed production of different kinds of vegetables and grains, which is 39.19 MJ/kg. This figure includes transportation energy requirements. In the same source, there is a table which lists a break-down of the energy requirement of alfalfa seed production, processing and distribution (Pimentel ed. 1980 p. 31). I calculated the % share of energy cost of transportation of the final products (i.e. seeds) to retail stores from the seed factory, which turned out to be 1.18 %. I deducted this portion from 39.19 MJ/kg, because I am adding the transportation energy requirements of the Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^26 inputs to tomato production separately. Finally I assessed the fossil fuel energy embodied in tomato seeds to be 38.73 MJ/kg. (This figure does not include solar energy which tomatoes accumulate in their seeds through photosynthesis.) (xvii) Liquid Carbon Dioxide for Greenhouse Operation Plants take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and use it as one of the materials for photosynthesis. Greenhouse operations take advantage of additional carbon dioxide, which is the by-product of burning natural gas for heating of the greenhouse. From summer to early fall, greenhouses utilize liquid CO2 to make up for the lower supply of by-product CO2 and to keep up with the higher consumption rate of CO2. For example, in 1992 Greenhouse A used liquid CO2 from May to October when gas consumption was reduced to 70 % - 45 % of that of winter months, due to the higher temperature outside (consequently the inside carbon dioxide concentration level was lowered), while the potential photosynthesis rate was enhanced by higher light intensity. Finding out the energy requirement for producing commercial liquid carbon dioxide was not simple. According to Mr. Bill Buchanan, a production supervisor at the Canadian Liquid Air Ltd. in Vancouver, they import raw gas which contains a high level of carbon dioxide from Washington State of the United States of America. This raw gas is a by- product of ammonia production. After compression, purification, and liquefaction, liquid CO2 is available for distribution. It was not possible to find out the energy requirement for exactly the same processes as above. However, data were available for liquid CO2 production using the flue gas from electricity power plants. By using an article by Hendricks et al. (1989), I obtained a figure that the recovery of carbon dioxide requires 5.72 MJ/kg. Among this, 4.75 MJ/kg is required for desorption of CO2 and 0.97 MJ/kg for compression. In this study, I assume that the production of liquid CO2 using by-product gas from ammonia production requires a similar amount of energy to that using flue gas from a power plant. Thus, I Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^27 use a figure of 5.72 MJ/kg. (xviii) Transportation I considered three methods of transportation for both bringing inputs to farmland or greenhouses and for distributing tomatoes to consumers, namely: truck, rail and container ship. Energy requirement figures which I employ for these are: 3 MJ/tonne/km, 1 MJ/tonne/km, and 0.065 MJ/tonne/km, respectively. Stout (1984) provides the following figures: 3 MJ/tonne/km for truck, and 1.2 MJ/tonne/km for rail. Similar figures are reported in Boustead et al. (1981). This book provides figures for various types of road vehicles, the average of which turned out to be 2.91 MJ/tonne/km. The same book provides a smaller figure for rail: 0.65 MJ for general rail freight per ton mile (which is 0.37 MJ/tonne/km). Here I employ 3 MJ/tonne/km for trucks and 1 MJ/tonne/km for rail. Figures for sea transportation are more complicated and appeared to be confusing at first. In my opinion, this is because ships have a much wider range in size and type. I find that energy for freight shipment per tonne per kilometer varies drastically, proba- bly depending on the size of the ships. Nevertheless, most literature does not provide this information. Wackernagel (1993, personal communication) uses 0.05 MJ/tonne/km. Boustead (1981) presents 0.14 MJ/ton/mile (which is 0.079 MJ/tonne/km). Stout (1984) provides far greater number, 1.2 MJ/tonne/km. Here I use 0.065 MJ/tonne/km. 4.3 Rate of Conversion from Energy to Land-Equivalent I use the following relationship for this conversion: 1 hectare of land captures sunlight and accumulates an average of 80 GJ of energy in the form of biomass (finally processed to ethanol), i.e., the average net primary productivity of 1 ha of land is assumed to Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^28 be 80 GJ per year. There are several studies for estimating this figure.' No study has documented higher yield than 80 MJ/ha/year. I employ this most optimistic figure for this study. 4.4 Renewable Inputs (1) Sawdust and Wood Greenhouse A uses sawdust in addition to rockwool as plant bed instead of soil. The kinds of trees used for this purpose are Hemlock and Fir trees, which are grown in B.C. forests (personal communication with the Cloverdale Fuels, Ltd in Surrey, B.C. February 18, 1993). HillTop Gardens uses wood (of unknown kind) for the framework of the nursery (I assumed the same kinds of tree are used). Every material except these renewable inputs was initially examined in terms of energy intensity or embodied energy per year, then converted to land-equivalent per year. However, I treated the renewable inputs differently. I obtained the mass of these inputs and then converted it directly to the land area necessary to grow these renewable resources. I employed an average figure for B.C. mature forests2, 1 ha of which produce 255 m3 (cubic meters) of timber every 70 years (Environment Canada 1991 pp. 10 - 6, Table 10 - 1). This translates into a conversion rate of 3.6 cubic meters/ha/year. The average density of Hemlock and Fir is 0.42 tonne or 420 kg per m3 (Tuma 1983). This gives us a rate of 1.53 tonne/ha/year or 1530 kg/ha/year. 1Wackernagel et al., 1993 lists results of similar researches. 2Mature forest means the stands or trees that are suited to harvesting are at or near rotation age (Environment Canada 1991 pp. 10 - 6) Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^ 29 4.5 Cost and Prices (i) Costs of Land Prices for the land used in greenhouse tomato production were based on figures from the Municipality of Surrey. Surrey provides average land prices for the Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) and Suburban Residential Area (SRA) on which the respective greenhouses are located ($ 61,774/ha and $370,645/ha respectively) (personal communi- cation with Mr. Fred Mathet, an appraisal specialist, February 19, 1993). I then used a financial formula within Excel for Windows, `=-PMT', for calculating the annual payment for an amortized loan with 20 years of amortization. According to Mr. Jim Portree, a greenhouse specialist from the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries, financial institutions normally require farmers to pos- sess equity of at least 30 % when they make contracts on long-term mortgage plans for purchasing land or greenhouse buildings (personal communication, March 9, 1993). Greenhouse A, however, claims that they borrowed only 30 % from the banks, and 70 % of the cost was paid from their savings. For the other three operations, I assume that the farmers borrowed 70 % of the total cost for purchasing land from the bank and that they paid 30 % of total cost from their own savings or by liquidating their own assets. Mr. Portree states that the interest rate for this type of mortgage is almost the same as the prime rate. He suggests that I use the current prime rate which is 6.2 %. Thus, I assign 6.2 % to the interest rate of the mortgage plan. I include the opportunity cost of the money spent for the land purchase. In other words, the money which was withdrawn from the farmers' accounts would have generated annual capital gains if the money had not been withdrawn. I assign 6.0 % for the interest rate of this opportunity cost, which is 0.2 % lower than current prime rate. Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^ 30 As far as the amortization period is concerned, I use the life expectancy of the green- house building; i.e. 20 years. Thus, the formula for the annual mortgage payment of Greenhouse A for land within Excel for Windows reads: PMT(0.062 x 0.3 + 0.06 x 0.7,20,3.502 x 61774) i.e., PMT(0.062[prime rate] x 0.3[amount borrowed] +0.06[opportunity cost] x 0.7[amount paid by owner], 20[amortization period], 3.502[1and area in ha] x 61774[unit land price]) which gives us an annual payment of $ 18,963.65, where the first parameter is the annual repayment rate, the second is the term of amortization, and the last is the purchase price of the land. The Greenhouse B is located within the Suburban Residential Area. Its land value has been drastically increasing for the last 30 years. For this case, land value increase is also taken into account. In other words, I included annual capital gain through the increase of land value. It seems fair to include it because we include the opportunity cost of the capital (the negative side of the financial calculation) in this calculation and therefore it is natural to include the positive side). For the other three cases, the land value is assumed to be constant, for simplicity. For land prices of tomato fields in Spences Bridge and Cache Creek, I used a selling price of 80 acres of land in Spences Bridge which one of the farmers advertises now at $ 5,560/ha. According to the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries, no government subsidies have been available to greenhouse owners or field farmers for the purchase of major inputs, including land and greenhouse buildings. (personal communication with Mr. Ted Van der Gulik and Mr. Jim Portree March 9, 1993). Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^31 (ii) Other Fixed Costs I used the same formula `=PMT' for computing the annual payment for other fixed facilities and equipment. Prices of these are obtained from copies of contracts, price lists in catalogues, and by interviewing sales persons or technical specialists of suppliers, builders and related industries. As for the interest rate, I employ the same rate as for land, i.e., 6.2 %. As far as the amortization period is concerned, I use the same period as the life expectancy of the item. That is to say, I assume that the redemption will be over at the same time as the facility or the equipment is worn out and no longer usable. (iii) Costs of Variable Inputs By variable inputs, I mean a) equipment which has to be replaced in one year or less and b) various inputs which have to be supplied all the time. For example, a) includes rockwool, ground covers etc. and b) encompasses natural gas, electricity, fertilizers, pesticides, and human labour. Costs of variable inputs were also gained from the financial records of greenhouses, contracts, catalogues, and personal communications with suppliers and related industrial sectors. Mr. Portree states that sometimes farmers or greenhouse owners borrow money for these inputs which have to be supplied long before the harvest starts (personal commu- nication, March 9, 1993). He adds that the borrowing rate is about 1 % higher than the prime rate for this kind of short-term loan. Therefore, I used the same formula for some variable costs as the fixed cost with an interest rate of 7.2 % wherever this treatment is relevant. For example, ground cover, biological pest control, and seeds are treated as above. Otherwise, variable costs are considered to be paid at once directly from the farmers' accounts. Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^ 32 (iv) Tomato Price For the farmgate price of the greenhouse tomatoes, I used an average for the prices of tomatoes over the last seven years, i.e., $ 1.375/kg, because the price in 1992 (which is $ 0.93/kg) was atypical (personal communication with Mr. Jim Portree, March 9, 1993). The price for the two greenhouse operations is the same, because they ship to the same cooperative. The open field farmers, HillTop Gardens and Horsting, charge quite different prices: the former $ 0.93 and the latter $ 0.40. The former sells all their tomatoes at the vegetable stand along the major highway, while Mr. Horsting sells tomatoes at his farm and to some local supermarkets. This is a major cause of the price difference. 4.6 Other Assumptions and Missing Data (i) Shortcut Calculation for Greenhouse Building Mass I ascertained the dimensions and mass of the greenhouse buildings by measuring each part. I found that the two greenhouses are almost identical. Therefore, I made a refined calculation on one greenhouse as a whole, using the mass and embodied energy of different materials. Then I extrapolated these results to obtain mass and embodied energy for the other greenhouse with careful consideration. I used different extrapolation rates for the walls than for the rest of the greenhouse, as the area of the walls is proportional to the square root of the greenhouse area. The remaining portion is directly proportional to the area of the greenhouse assuming that the greenhouse land areas are 'similar' to each other in shape in geometric terms. (ii) Electric Cables and Other Electric Equipments I assumed these to be insignificant. Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^33 (iii) Labour Energy for human-labour is not included in order to simplify this research. According to Stanhill (1980), the share of labour energy in total energy requirements is 0.4 % for extensively mechanized open field tomato production, and 0.05 % for heated greenhouse tomato operations. Even for labour-intensive open field tomato operations it is only 1.8 %. However, labour costs are included in the economic analysis. (iv) Life Expectancy The life expectancy of facilities and equipment were assessed by interviewing green- house owners or farmers, and sometimes technical staff and sales persons from suppliers. For the specific data, see the spreadsheets in Appendix C. As far as greenhouse buildings are concerned, these could last more than 20 years from a structural point of view. But the managers feel that due to rapid technological change, they have to replace the buildings after 20 years or so. Besides, the light transmission of glass declines with time (personal communication with Professor Art Bomke, April 20, 1993). Thus I assessed the life expectancy of greenhouse buildings to be 20 years. (v) Biological Pest Control The energy requirements for producing biological pest control were not possible to find out. 4.7 Transportation: Means and Distance (i) All Materials and Inputs Except Greenhouse Building Materials and Rockwool I assumed that all the materials, equipment, and variable inputs except greenhouse building parts were transported 71 % by rail and 29 % by trucks. This ratio of 71 % and 29 % is based on actual tonne-kilometers/year of rail and truck transport in Canada. Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^34 Combination of trains and trucks (71 % and 29 % respectively) gives us a combined energy requirement for transportation per tonne per km, i.e., 1.58 MJ/tonne/km. (As mentioned in the previous section of Energy Intensity, I used 1.0 MJ/tonne/km for rails, and 3.0 MJ/tonne/km for trucks.) The calculation is: 1 x 0.71 + 3 x 0.29 = 1.58MJ/tonne/km. I used a mean distance of pesticide transportation in the U. S. which is 640 km for all the commodities except greenhouse materials. This figure is obtained from Pimentel (1980), p. 47. (ii) Greenhouse Building Materials and Parts Greenhouse building materials and parts are transported by container ships from Rotterdam, Holland to Vancouver through the Panama Canal, according to a greenhouse import company in Vancouver.3 The distance between the two ports is 16,390 km, according to Mr. Drace Acres, Manager of the Vancouver Port Corporation (personal communication, February 16, 1993). The energy requirement for container ships is 0.065 MJ/tonne/km as mentioned in previous section of this chapter. Concrete blocks for the post foundation are from Holland. Therefore, I included these blocks in this category. (The concrete building foundations are local. Thus I included it in the previous category.) (iii) Rockwool Blocks Rockwool is part of the plant bed, a substitute for soil. These blocks are imported from Japan by ship. The distance between Tokyo and Vancouver is 7736 km.4 (iv) Sawdust Sawdust for plants beds is shipped from local sawmills to greenhouses via a sawdust supplier, according to Cloverdale Fuels, Ltd., a company which supplies sawdust to local greenhouse operations (Personal communication, February 18, 1993). They could not give 3Prince Greenhouse Ltd. 4A world map, "Cosmopolitan Series: World" published by Rand McNally & Company, 1992(?). Chapter 4. Basis of Calculations, Assumptions and Missing Data^35 specific distance between these sawmills and the greenhouses. I assumed the distance to be 20 km. (v) Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas Natural gas is transported through PVC pipes all the way from Fort St. John, B.C. and Sumas, B.C. Some comes from Alberta. (Mr. Sam Kobayashi, Work leader of Construc- tion Planning at BC Gas Inc., personal communication, February 17, 1993.) I assumed the transportation energy is insignificant considering the huge amount of energy which the transported natural gas contains within itself. Therefore, the transportation energy is assumed nil in this case. Chapter 5 Case Study 5.1 Definition of the Terms I will now define the special terms used in the tables and figures in this thesis and its appendices. (i) Growing Area (GA) The Growing Area (GA) is defined as the area which the tomato plants occupy. The productivity of agricultural land is expressed as the ratio of the yield (output) against the growing area of land. (ii) Visible Occupied Area (VOA) The Visible Occupied Area (VOA) is defined as the total area which includes Growing Area and other service areas such as space for storage of fertilizers, equipment, tomato products, packaging, parking, workshops, the boiler room, and the office. (iii) Total Land Area with EF/ACC Consideration (TLA) The Total Land Area with EF/ACC Consideration (TLA) is equal to the sum of Visi- ble Occupied Area and the land-equivalent for other inputs such as energy and materials, etc. required to produce crops on the occupied farmland. This includes energy used in the transportation of agricultural inputs and outputs. (iv) EF/ACC of Agricultural Practice = TLA per Output per Year The definition of EF/ACC of agricultural practices, presented in Chapter 2, can be 36 Chapter 5. Case Study^ 37 rephrased as "Total Land Area with EF/ACC Consideration per output per year." More specifically, EF/ACC of an agricultural practice is defined as: the Total Land Area with EF/ACC Consideration (hectrare) per 1000 tonnes of yield per year. 5.2 Comparison of the Data The following results were obtained by comparing hydroponic greenhouse tomato production with mechanized field tomato production. (i) A Comparison of Hydroponic Greenhouse Operations and Open Field Operations Based on Total Land Area with EF/ACC Consideration (TLA) (a) A Comparison of the Ecological Footprint/Appropriated Carrying Ca- pacity of Agricultural Practices The EF/ACC of a few of the agricultural practices are compared in Figure 5.1. The EF/ACC of an agricultural operation is the Total Land Area with EF/ACC Consideration divided by output per year, i.e., Total Land Area with EF/ACC Consideration (hectare) per 1000 metric tonnes of yield per year. The EF/ACC of hydroponic greenhouse production is 765 to 919 hectare per 1000 tonnes per year, which is 14 to 21 times larger than the EF/ACC of small-scale field production which is 43 to 56 hectare per 1000 tonnes per year. (b) A Comparison of the Productivities of the Total Land Areas with EF/ACC Consideration (TLA) Conversely, let us look at the productivity of Total Land Area with EF/ACC Con- sideration. Productivity is defined as the yield per unit area of land per year. The productivity of Total Land Area with EF/ACC Consideration, i.e., yield divided by To- tal Land Area with EF/ACC Consideration is shown in Figure 5.2. (ha/1000 tonne/year) (tonne/ha/year) 23.26 10.00 17.86 0.00 Chapter 5. Case Study^ 38 Figure 5.1: EF/ACC of Greenhouse and Field Operations Figure 5.2: Comparison of Productivities of Total Land Areas Greenhouse A^Greenhouse B^HillTop Gardens^Horsting Farms Chapter 5. Case Study^ 39 Figure 5.2 shows that the mechanized field operation is approximately 14 to 21 times more productive when it is calculated based on Total Land Area with EF/ACC Consid- eration. (The fields produce 17900 kg to 23300 kg per hectare, while the greenhouses produce only 1090 to 1300 kg per hectare.) (ii) A Comparison of Hydroponic Greenhouse Operations and Open Field Operations Based on "only" Growing Areas (without EF/ACC Considera- tion) (a) A Comparison of the Required Growing Area for 1000 Tonnes of Tomato Production Figure 5.3 illustrates that the Growing Area (GA) needed for production of 1000 metric tonnes of tomatoes is only 2.0 to 2.3 hectares for the greenhouse operations, while field production requires from 12 to 18 hectares. This means that greenhouse production is 5 to 9 times more efficient in terms of the Growing Area than field production. Figure 5.3: Growing Area Needed for Production of 1000 tonnes of Tomatoes 18.00 16.00 14.00 12.00 10.00 (ha/1000 tonne/year) 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00  17.84 12.14 Greenhouse A^Greenhouse B^HillTop Gardens^Horsting Farms Chapter 5. Case Study^ 40 (b) A Comparison of the Productivity of Growing Areas Figure 5.4 shows that the direct productivity of Growing Areas (i.e., output divided by Growing Area) for greenhouses is 5 to 9 times higher than that of field operations. Figure 5.4: Productivity of Growing Area 450 400-Z 350 500Y z 300 (tonne / ha / year) 250 z 494 437 100 200Y/. z 50 56 82 0 Greenhouse A^Greenhouse B^HillTop Gardens^Horsting Farms 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 ($1000 / ha / year) - 0 Greenhouse A^Greenhouse B HillTop Gardens 250 200 150 ($1000 / ha / year) 100 50 0 Greenhouse A^Greenhouse B Horsting Farms HillTop Gardens Chapter 5. Case Study ^ 41 (c) A Comparison of the Revenue of Growing Areas Figure 5.5 reveals that the revenue per hectare of the Growing Area of greenhouses is 8 to 13 times higher than that of field production. Figure 5.5: Revenue of Growing Area (d) A Comparison of the Profitabilities of Growing Areas The net profit per hectare of Growing Area of the greenhouse production is 2 to 9 times higher than that of the field production as shown in Figure 5.6. Figure 5.6: Profitability of Growing Area Chapter 5. Case Study^ 42 (iii) Components of EF/ACC (a) Components of EF/ACC for Hydroponic Greenhouse Operations The Components which contribute to the EF/ACC of hydroponic greenhouse opera- tions are illustrated in the following figures: Figure 5.7: Components of EF/ACC for Greenhouse A Chapter 5. Case Study^ 43 Figure 5.8: Components of EF/ACC for Greenhouse B 90.0% 82.1% 80.0% — 70.0% — 60.0% — 50.0% — 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% — 0.1% 0.4% 1.5% 1.7% 3.2%^3.7% 5.0% 2.3% I^10.0% Chemical Land Building Fertilizers Liquid CO2 Transporta Electricity Natural Gas Miscellane Pesticides occupied -tion -ous From the above two figures, we can conclude that reducing the use of natural gas and sawdust could significantly contribute to the reduction of the EF/ACC of a hydroponic greenhouse operation. Chapter 5. Case Study^ 44 (b) Components of EF/ACC for Field Operations Components of the EF/ACC of small-scale mechanized field tomato production are highlighted in the following figures: Figure 5.9: Components of EF/ACC for HillTop Gardens Operation 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% — — — 40.3% 30.0% — 28.1% 25.0% — 20.0% — 15.0% — 11.8% 10.0% J- 4.8% 5.4% 5.6% 5.0% — I. 0.2% 0.0% Herbicide^Fertilizers^Fuels^Propane^Electricity^Transporta^Land^Miscellane (tractor) -tion^occupied -ous Insecticide Chapter 5. Case Study^ 45 Figure 5.10: Components of EF/ACC for Horsting Farms Operation The figures illustrate that land occupied, transportation, plant propagation, and elec- tricity are major contributors to the EF/ACC of mechanized field tomato production. Chapter 6 Analysis, Policy Implications and Directions for Further Study 6.1 Analysis (i) The Hydroponic Greenhouse: An Inefficient Mode of Production The case studies of tomato production show that the first question of this thesis has been clearly answered. Can a heated hydroponic greenhouse sustain a higher productivity compared to traditional mechanized field farming practice? The answer is "NO." If the comparison is based only on the Growing Area directly occupied for production, a hydroponic greenhouse operation is more productive than a field operation (from 5 to 9 times more productive). However, if we look at the same operations from the EF/ACC perspective, the mechanized field operation is more efficient. Indeed, the hydroponic greenhouse makes an ecological footprint 14 to 21 times larger than a field operation producing the same output. Given the fact that similar technologies are used for other vegetable crops, results for these might be expected to be similar. Further studies, however, are required for these crops. Once EF/ACC is considered it becomes apparent that greenhouse operations do not increase efficiency. Rather, such operations appropriate a large area of land in the production of inputs and in the assimilation of wastes. Greenhouse operations reduce the long-term productivity of the earth. 46 Chapter 6. Analysis, Policy Implications and Directions for Further Study^47 (ii) The Conflict between Individual Economic Benefit and Total Ecological Constraints This research reveals a conflict that is invisible to conventional economic analysis. Greenhouse farmers make a higher monetary profit per hectare of growing area than field farmers (from 2 to 9 times more). However, using the EF/ACC approach it becomes clear that greenhouse operations are not ecologically sound or sustainable. Greenhouses appropriate a disproportionate share of the global carrying capacity while contributing significantly to the depletion of natural resources such as natural gas, fertilizer, and other energy intensive inputs. This study shows that typical economic analysis does not necessarily lead to ecologi- cally satisfactory conclusions. The underpricing of depletable energy, fertilizer, and other inputs to hydroponic production enables operators to profit while unconsciously appro- priating the productive capacity of a landscape vastly larger than their own physical plant. Monetary measures of agricultural efficiency should, therefore, be accompanied by analysis of physical flows of their land (natural capital) equivalents if long-term sus- tainability is at issue. Otherwise, the gross ecological inefficiency of energy-intensive greenhouse operations will be obscured by the illusionary economic superiority of high- input greenhouses. 6.2 Policy Implications Several important policy implications flow from the EF/ACC and economic analyses of tomato production: Chapter 6. Analysis, Policy Implications and Directions for Further Study^48 (i) First and Foremost, Society Should Not Come to Depend on Green- house Production for Our Food Reliance on greenhouse production for food does not make sense because of the fol- lowing two reasons. a) Greenhouse production undermines conventional agriculture. It can lead to land conversion from agriculture to urban use. There is global destruction of agricultural land caused by soil erosion, salination.1 Converting the arable land that still exists to urban use makes the problem even more serious. b) Greenhouse production appropriates more land than field production. It is inher- ently unsustainable. Greenhouses do not increase productivity. Greenhouses consume 14 to 21 times more land than a field operation which produces the same quantity of yield. If we become dependent on greenhouse production, we will reduce the sustainable production of food. It could lead to more hunger and malnutrition because the world population is increasing steadily at the same time. Our survival may be possible if we conserve our remaining limited agricultural land and if we try to restore it from the degradation. High-tech agriculture does not help us do this. (ii) Field Agriculture Should be Promoted This study showed that small-scale field agriculture is far more ecologically sustainable than high-tech greenhouse operations. Decision-makers, all over the world, would be wise to encourage traditional small-scale field agricultural practices, rather than high-tech, high-input greenhouse production. Promoting field agriculture will help create a strong basis for a more sustainable food supply. Encouraging field agriculture is a prerequisite for a sustainable future. For this reason, the following objectives should be included in agricultural and urban policies worldwide. They should also be included in international development policies. lsalting of soil by irrigation Chapter 6. Analysis, Policy Implications and Directions for Further Study^49 Objectives: a) Prevent urbanization of limited agricultural land, b) Secure the land supply for agriculture, c) Restore degraded arable land. (iii) Field Tomato Production in B.C. Should be Encouraged The interior region of British Columbia is particularly suited to tomato production. The hot, dry summers in areas like Spences Bridge, Cache Creek and Ashcroft are good for tomato production.' The soil in this region is fertile volcanic ash, which is good for most crops.' This land's potential should be taken advantage of. Policies that encourage field tomato production in this region should be implemented. This area was well-known for its national tomato production until about 35 years ago. Thousands of acres were cultivated for tomato growing in this area.' Safeway, a national supermarket chain, had contracts with farmers in this area to supply its stores with tomatoes.5 A large canning factory was constructed in Ashcroft, a town between Cache Creek and Spences Bridge and started its operation in 1920. This cannery specialized in tomatoes and employed 400 workers.' Two main factors caused the decline of the tomato industry in this area. Approx- imately 35 years ago, conflicts arose between the growers and Safeway concerning the price of tomatoes. Safeway decided to purchase cheaper tomatoes from California. The 'Mr. Ted Horsting, a grower in Cache Creek and a past President of the Lower Mainland Horticultural Improvement Association, stated this fact during an interview held January 27, 1993. 3Ms. Helen Forster, Curator of Ashcroft Museum, made this statement during an interview held April 21, 1993. 4Ms. Helen Forster explained the history of tomato production and a cannery operation in the area during the same interview as the previous note. 'Mr. Ted Horsting explained this history of tomato production in the same interview as the previous note. Professor Art Bomke of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of British Columbia recounted a similar story in a personal interview held February 23, 1993. 'Ms. Helen Forster, the same interview as the previous note. Chapter 6. Analysis, Policy Implications and Directions for Further Study^50 Californian tomato supply was more constant and reliable.' The second factor involved the canning factory. Delmonte, a big canning industry in the United States, did not want to compete with the B.C. canning industry. There- fore, Delmonte purchased the canning plant under the pretence of helping improve the operation. After a while, in 1958 they closed the plant and tomato production moved south.' British Columbia has very good potential for tomato production. This potential has not been fully utilized. Not only are we wasting this capability, but, we are also wasting other natural resources and land base by depending on inefficient greenhouse tomato production. This trend has to be corrected. Some may argue that we cannot produce field tomatoes in spring or winter. This is true. However, do we really need tomatoes in spring or winter? In winter, we can use canned tomatoes which are suitable for most purposes. We can supplement our nutritional requirements by eating other vegetables in winter. As mentioned in Chapter 1, tomatoes are not the best source of nutrients. We have other good sources of vitamins which can last long past harvest time, such as sweet, potatoes, carrots, peas, sweet corn and potatoes. I think that eating tomatoes in winter is a luxury which can no longer be ecologically permissible given that greenhouse operations are ecologically inefficient, as revealed by EF/ACC analysis, and from the fact that the majority of the people in the third world countries have problems of malnutrition. (iv) EF/ACC Should be Incorporated into Decision-Making Tools of Agri- culture Since EF/ACC analysis is a powerful tool to identify the ecological reality, the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture. Fisheries and Food. Agriculture Canada, Canadian International 7Mr. Ted Horsting, the same interview as the previous note. 8Ms. Helen Forster, the same interview as the previous note. Chapter 6. Analysis, Policy Implications and Directions for Further Study^51 Development Agency (CIDA), U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Or- ganization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Bank should use EF/ACC analysis in their agricultural policy decision-making process in addition to conventional economic analysis. EF/ACC analysis will enable them to identify the most sustainable and suitable agricultural style and project in each region. This will contribute to achieving sustainable agriculture. (v) EF/ACC Should be Used to Assess Sustainability of All Kinds of Tech- nologies, Human Activities and Civilization Itself This study revealed the inefficiency of a seemingly efficient mode of agricultural tech- nology and practice. It is easily inferred that EF/ACC should be able to assess the efficiency and sustainability of various kinds of technology and economic activities. It is widely believed that technology will solve global ecological and environmental problems. So called "environmentally benign products" or "ecologically sound technologies" are en- joying more and more attention. Japan is praised as an "energy efficient society" which has achieved both economic success and environmental protection. It is, however, neces- sary for us to re-examine these products, technologies, and the way the society operates from an EF/ACC perspective. Some of them may be revealed to be ecologically unsound though they appear to be environmentally friendly from the superficial analysis. Western civilization is based on scientific technology. Analysing scientific technologies with EF/ACC also means examining the EF/ACC of this civilization itself. At present, civilization faces a dilemma as to where to go. EF/ACC will help assess civilization's ecological footprint and help determine the future directions of our society from a truly ecological perspective. This will eventually lead to sustainability for our civilization. Chapter 6. Analysis, Policy Implications and Directions for Further Study^52 (vi) Educational Programmes Should be Implemented to Prompt Changes in Consumers' Behaviour Society does not recognize that high-tech agriculture is an inefficient mode of pro- duction and that it is ecologically unsustainable. This is because the dominant economic analysis is not capable of assessing ecological efficiency and sustainability. There has not been an adequate analytical tool for assessing ecological sustainability. EF/ACC is a powerful and suitable tool to do this task. The results of EF/ACC analysis should be revealed to the public through education. Educating consumers and prompting their behavioural change would encourage more ecologically sound modes of agricultural pro- duction. Specific educational curricula should be introduced in schools and in community levels (e.g. community colleges, and community centres). Mass media could also be used to educate the public. Educational efforts should not be only directed toward agricultural practices but also to other human activities. As mentioned in the previous section, EF/ACC can assess the sustainability of various kinds of technology, operations and activities. To assist teachers and educators, teaching manuals and teaching materials should be developed at the same time. Teaching materials could be in the form of print material, newsletters, slides, videos, audio tapes, and computer game software. For example, in 1992, B.C. Hydro developed a computer game called "the Power Smart Game," which requires Hypercard program software and a MacIntosh computer. This is for youths in grades 8 to 10. This game enables students to understand visually and easily how much energy is going to be saved depending on everyday behavioural changes. This might be a good mode1.9 9There are several energy and the environmental educational materials of different kinds which are developed by B.C. Hydro. The Greater Vancouver Regional District produced a print material called No Time to Waste in 1992 which teaches children how to reduce household wastes. This is not directly relevant to our topic. Nevertheless, this will be a good model for education regarding sustainable agriculture because this is well written and organized. Chapter 6. Analysis, Policy Implications and Directions for Further Study^53 6.3 Directions for Further Study (i) Similar Studies Should be Attempted in Other Regions Especially, it is urgent to study EF/ACC of large-scale mechanized field tomato pro- duction in California and other parts of the United States. They are heavily subsidized by underpriced fossil fuels in the forms of low cost irrigation water, chemical fertilizers and fuels for agricultural vehicles. We Canadians have to stop and ponder whether their operation is ecologically sound, before we purchase California tomato products because our individual behavior contributes to the regional (both Canada and U.S.) and global ecological crises. (ii) The Same Studies Should be Conducted in Different Crops I only studied tomato production. Even though tomatoes are typical crops which are grown in greenhouses, we should do research of other crops to know the general figure of greenhouse operations. (iii) Different Modes of Agriculture Should be Analysed in Terms of EF/ACC In order to achieve sustainable agriculture, we have to know which agricultural prac- tices are more sustainable than others. For example, agroforestry, permaculture, 10 nat- ural farming, 11 and organic farming should be analysed using EF/ACC concepts. We should be able to find out which mode of production is more ecologically sound. These findings should be incorporated not only into agricultural policies in each coun- try, but also in international development policies of international development agencies, 10Mr. Bill Morrison started a new way of agriculture called "Permaculture", which emphasises vertical material flows between orchard trees and vegetables and does not require much cultivation after two or three years initial setup. For details see his book, Perrnaculture, 1990. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. "Mr. Masanobu Fukuoka started a new mode of agriculture with no tillage, no chemical fertilizers and no pesticides in Japan in the late 1940s which is called "Natural Farming." For detail, see his book, One -Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming. 1978. Emmaus: Rodale Press. This was translated from Japanese. The original version is available under the title of Shizen Noho: Wara Ippon no Kakurnei (Second edition). 1983. Tokyo: Shunju-Sha. Chapter 6. Analysis, Policy Implications and Directions for Further Study^54 such as the Canadian International Development Agency, the World Bank and the Or- ganization for Economic Cooperation and Development. These agencies have strong influences on development policies of third world countries. Thus, changing policies of these aid agencies will lead to altering the policies of the developing countries. Global ecological, agricultural and population trends show that the problems are profound and urgent. We have no time to waste. We need to act now for the very survival of humankind on this planet. (iv) Other Technologies and Economic Activities Should be Analysed in Terms of EF/ACC It is urgent for us to study whether our technologies and our activities are sustainable. Our civilization has to be re-examined from an ecological perspective. Civilization is in a crisis because of the global ecological degradation caused by civilization! 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Appendix A Calculation Process of Fertilizer Energy Intensity There is no documentation of some of the energy intensity figures of chemical fertilizers. I, therefore, estimate the missing figures to be as follows. Generally speaking, fertilizers are composed of three chemical substances: nitrogen (abbreviated as N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). For example, a fertilizer called "plant starter" contains three of these elements. Its composition is 10 % of N, 52 % of P and 10 % of K. Energy intensity figures of N, P205, and K20 are documented in scientific literature. Helsel ed. (1987, p. 6) presents figures of 78.13 MJ/kg, 17.45 MJ/kg and 13.70 respec- tively. These include energy which is required for transportation and application of the fertilizers. To use these gross figures would be double counting, because I count the en- ergy required for transportation and application in different categories. I subtracted half of the PTA' energy requirement from these figures to avoid double counting. Then I get the following adjusted figures: 73.84 MJ/kg, 12.58 MJ/kg and 10.04 respectively. I use these figures as a calculation basis in combination with the above information regarding the composition of elements in a fertilizer. For example, the energy intensity of "plant starter" is calculated as follows: 0.1 x 73.84 + 0.52 x 12.58 + 0.1 x 10.04^14.93MJ/kg. 'PTA stands for packaging, transportation of raw material and product, and application (Helsel ed. 1987 p. 6) 62 Appendix A. Calculation Process of Fertilizer Energy Intensity^ 63 The following table presents some examples of estimated figures of fertilizers computed as above. Table A.1: Estimated Energy Intensity of Chemical Fertilizers N P K Unit Energy Intensity (MJ/kg) 73.84 12.58 10.04 Mono Potassium Phosphate Composition (%) 0 52 34 9.96 MJ/kg 0.00 6.54 3.41 Potassium Nitrate Composition (%) 13.00 0.00 46.00 14.22 MJ/kg 9.60 0.00 4.62 Calcium Nitrate Composition (%) 15.50 0.00 0.00 11.45 MJ/kg 11.45 0.00 0.00 All Purpose(20-20-20) Composition (%) 20 20 20 19.29 MJ/kg 14.77 2.52 2.01 Plant Starter (10-52-10) Composition (%) 10 52 10 14.93 MJ/kg 7.38 6.54 1.00 12-5-0 Composition (%) 12 5 0 9.49 MJ/kg 8.86 0.63 0.00 0-0-50 Composition (%) 0 0 50 5.02 MJ/kg 0.00 0.00 5.02 0-0-60 Composition (%) 0 0 60 6.02 MJ/kg 0.00 0.00 6.02 Appendix B Average Figures of Energy Intensity for Pesticides Table B.2: Energy Intensity Figures of Chemical Herbicides, Insecticides, and Fungicides (from Helsel 1987, p. 168) Herbicides Insecticides Fungisides (from Pimentel. 1980. p.46) Herbicides Insecticides fungicides 130 160 61 30952 24200 15250 85 209 99 64290 38100 23570 135 454 115 45240 13810 27380 295 153 375 35170 108100 26620 170 58 109520 36430 518 580 24200 220 250 56700 278 58 71400 290 229 19080 365 138 52240 141 70 69050 270 70240 355 108100 190 95240 80 150 400 460 454 290 201 434 160 276 Average (Kcal/kg) 60815.86 44128.00 23205.00 Average(MJ/kg) 264.46 196.58 162.50 Average (MJ/kg) 254.45 184.63 97.09 64 Appendix C Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations • Greenhouse A • Greenhouse B = Otsuki Greenhouses Ltd. • HillTop Gardens Farms Ltd. (Mechanized Field Operation) • Horsting Farms (Mechanized Field Operation) 65 Appendix C. Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 66 Table 0.3: Spreadsheet for "Greenhouse A" Hydroponic Greenhouse Tomato Production^ as of April 25, 93 Number Inputs Material Volume or Mass Energy Embodied Life Embodied Land- Land- Land- Cost or Benefit Transported Distance Energy Required Energy for Length Intensity Energy Expectancy Energy/Year Equivalant Equivalant Equivalant Per Year Mass/year Traveled for Transport Transport (cub.m etc) (kg) (M-T/kg) (MJ) (years) (MJ/year) (ha/year) (ha/yr per lha (ha/1000 ton (8/year) (cg/year) (km) '^(MJ/tn/km) '(MJ/year) of Grow Area) /year) 1^Land occupied 1.1 Growing Area 1.2^Other Service Areas 2 Embodied Energy of Facilities 3.5040 2.5570 0.9470 1.3704 1.0000 0.3704 2.7718 2.0227 0.7491 ($18,963.65) 11-^Building 6660l 16646825.5 20 832341.3 10.4043 4.0689 8.2302 30855 1 31991.1 2.1.1 Glass^glass 253296 14 3546141.2 20 177307.1 2.2163 0.8668 1.7532 ($19,525.84) 12664.8 640 1.5800 12806.6 2.1.2^Post&Framework^steel 189357 30 5680711 5 20 284035.6 3.5504 1.3885 2.8085 ($64,778 26) 9467.9 16390 0.06 c0 10086.7 2.1.3^Framework etc ahninium 16623 240 3989496.0 20 199474.8 2.4934 0.9751 1.9724 831.1 16390 0.0650 885.5 2.1.4^Foundation (import)^concrete 85779 1.3 111512.3 20 5575,0 0.0697 0.0273 0.0551 4288 16390 00010 4569.3 2.1.5^1 oundation(domest)^concrete 450338 1.3 585439.8 20 29272.0 0.3659 0.1431 0.2894 (81,401.76) 3602 ' c.40 I 5900 3643.1 2.1.6^Other Service Bldgs^(sq. in)^960 1713 1644480.0 20 82224.0 1.0278 0.4020 0 8130 2.1.7^Electrical ($3,942.44) 2.1.8^Construction^7% of embodied energy of material 1089044 7 20 54452.2 0.6807 0.2662 0.5384 ($18,662.53) 2.2 Irrigation system 221 ̂Tube & pipes^plastic 2100 85 178500.0 3 59500.0 0.7438 02009 0.5883 ($6,426 10) 708.0 640 1.5800 707.8 2.2.2^Tank^steel 3288 30 98640.0 20 4932.0 0.0617 0.0241 0.0488 ($194.17) 164. 4 16390 0.0630 i5.1 2.2.3^Tank plastic 340 85 28900.0 20 14-45.0 0.0181 0.0071 0.0143 ($171.07) 17.0 16390 0.0050 18.1 2.2.4^Pump steel 305 30 9150.0 20 457.5 0.005? 0.0022 0.0045 (81,121.40) 15.3 16390 0.0650 16.2 2.2.5^Pond Sheet^plastic 27904 85 2371840.0 30 79061.3 0.9883 0.3865 0.7818 (82,025.38) 930.1 16390 0 0650 990.9 2.3 Ventilation System ($206.46) 2.3.1^Elec. Motors^steel^10 motors 70 30 2100.0 20 105.0 0.0013 0.0005 0.0010 3.5 16390 0.0650 37 2.3.2^Rods^aluminum 1190 240 285600.0 20 14280.0 0.1785 0.0698 0.1412 59.5 16390 00650 634 2.3.3^Steel Shall stee 12333 30 369990.0 20 10409 9 0.2312 0.0904 0.1829 616.7 16390 0 0650 657.0 2.4 CO2 Dist Sys^plastic^7776 m 78 85 6604.5 1 6604.5 0.0826 0.0323 0.0653 ($721 80) 77 - 16390 0.0650 82.8 2.5^Heating Systems ($52635.91) 2.5.1^Boilers^steel^1.86 14640 30 439369.2 10 43936. 9 0.5492 0.2148 0.4344 1464.6 640 1.5800 1481.0 2.5.2^Pipes (sm4ll)^steel 13 82 108819 30 3264c0 4 20 163228.0 2.0404 0.7979 1.6140 5440.9 640 1.5800 5501.9 2.5.3^Pipes (medium) steel^1.24 9764 30 292912.8 20 14645.6 0.1831 0.0716 0.1448 488.2 640 1.5800 493.7 2.5.4^Pipes( large)^steel 0.25 1969 30 5"055 0 20 2952.8 0 0369 0.0144 0.0292 98.4 640 1.5800 095 2.6 Dranage Pipe plastic^024 12942 85 1100045 0 20 55002.3 0 6875 0.2689 0.5439 ($1,142.26) 647.1 640 1.5800 654.3 2.7^Spray Equipment^steel 15 30 450 0 20 22.5 0 0003 0 0001 0.0002 ($25.76) 0 8 640 1.5800 0.8 2.8 Electric & Hand Car 0.0000 ($2,496.93) 2.8.1^Electric Cart^ste,e1 490 30 14700.0 10 1470.0 0 0184 0.0072 0.0145 49 0 16390 0.0650 52.2 2.8.2^Hand Cart aluminum 165 240 39600.0 10 3960.0 0.04,5 0.0194 0.0392 16.5 16390 0.0650 17.6 Fork LAD^steel 2750 30 82500.0 15 5500.0 0.0688 0.0269 0.0544 ($2,790.90) 183 3 640 1.5800 185.4 2.10^Pallet Jacks steel 300 30 9000.0 30 300.0 0.0038 0.0015 0.0030 ($83.21)^- 10.0 640 1. 5800 10.1 2.11^Tracks steel etc^0 5track 2914 30 87420.0 15 5828,0 0.0729 0.-0285 0.0576 (8310 10) 1943. 640 1 5800' 196.4 2.12 Computer Equipment 20 20 ($3,864.11) 1.0 640 1 5800 1.0 Sub Total of Fixed Facilities & Equipments (1 -2.12) 1 25387763.0 1314072.2 16.4259 6.4239 I 12.9936 I ($201,490.04) Appendix C. Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 67 Table C.3: Spreadsheet for "Greenhouse A" (Continued) Number Inputs Material Volume or Mass Energy Embodied Life Embodied Land- Land- Land- Cost or Benefit Transported Distance Energy Required Energy for Length Intensity Energy Expectancy Energy/Year Equivalant Equivalant Equivalant Per Year Mass/year Traveled for Transport Transport (cub.m etc) (k8) (MJ/kg) (MJ) (years) (MJ/year) (ha/year) (ha/yr per lha (ha/1000 ton (5/year) (kg/year) (ktn) (MJ/tri/km) (MJ/year) of Grow Area) /year) 3 3.1 Variable Inputs I. SawdustBag&RockWool 1 3.1.1 Plastic Bag^plastic^ 1361 85 115668.0 1 115668.0 1.4459 0.5651 1.1437 (56,571.36) 1360.8 640 1.5800 1376:0 3.1.2 Sawdust sawdust 238140 1 156 60.8710 123.1232 (51,483.03) 238140.0 .20 1.5800 7525.2 3.1.3 Rockwool^rockwool 3266 28 91448.0 1 91448.0 • 1.1431 0.4470 0.9042 ($86,004.67) 3266.0 773o 0.0650 16423 3.1.4 Rock Wool Wrap^plastic^ 185 85 15725.0 1 15725.0 0:1966 0.0769 0.1555 185 0 7736 0.0650 93.0 3.2 Ground Cover plastic 3700^2220 85 .^188700.0 1 188700:0 2.3588 0.9225 1.8659 ($10,720.00) 2220.0 640 1 5800 2244.9 3.3 White wash^gypsum 500 4.2 2100.0 1 2100.0 0.0263 0.0103 0.0208 ($163.28) 500.0 640 1 5800 505.6 3.4 Electricityaell:11111=(t.3kWIElkWit)^t116160 kwlitell 4988926.1 1 4988926.1 62.3616 2:1.3880 49.3306 (520,161..15) 3 5 Natural Gas 777483 86.3 67089000.0 1 67089000.0 838.6125 327.9673 663.3769 ($172,854.47) 777452.9 3.0 Car Fuels 3.7 Labour Force 1 (5226,156.87) 0.0 4 Variable Inputs 11. 4.1 Fertilizers 4.1.1 Potassitun Sulfate^ 4082 3.5 14287.0 1 3354.0 0.0419 0.0164 0.0332 (5193.20) 780.0 041) 1.5600 788.7 4.1 2 Potassium Chloride -80 4.3 3354.0 I 36150.0 0.4519 0.1767 0.3575 (55,767.20) 3615.0 640 1 5800 3655 5 4 1 3 Mono Potassium Phosphate^ 3615 10.0 36150.0 1 222045.4 1.7756 1.0855 2.1956 (511,830.201 15637.0 640 1.5800 15812 1 4.1 4 Potassium^Nitrite^ 15637 14.2 222045.4 I 360697.5 4.5087 1.7633 3.5666 (56,811.48) 31365.0 640 1 5800 31716 3 4 1.5 Calcium Nitrate 31365 11.5 360697.5 1 360697.5 4.5087 1.7633 3.5666 (511302.40) 31365.0 640 1.5800 31716.3 4.1.6 Ammonium Nitrate 1440 66 6 95889.6 1 95889.6 1.1986 0.4688 0.9482 ($447.00) 1440.0 640 1.5800 1456 1 4.1.7 Phosporic Acid^ 5187 17.5 90772.5 1 90772.5 1.1347 0.4437 0 8976 ($7,027.20) 5187.0 640 1.5800 5245.1 4.1.8 Magnesium Sulphate 14550 2.0 29100.0 1 29100.0 0.3638 0.1423 0.2877 (56,948.00) 14550.0 640 1.5800 14713.0 4.1 Biological Pest Contrid 1 0.0000 0.0000 ($7L352.32) 0.0 640 1.5800 0.0 4.4 Seeds^ 0.38 38.7 14.8 1 14.8 0.0002 0.0001 0 0001 ($10,211.44) 04 640 1 5800 0.4 4.5 Liquid CO2^ 417252 5.7^• 2386680.3 1 2366680.3 29.8335 11.6674 23.5995 ($53,297.001 417251.8 300 1.5800 197777.4 4.6 Miscellaneous Variable Costs (phone,insurance,consultation,etc.) which are rrussurg from above ($238,842.81) 4.7 Managers Salar: C560;000.00) Sub Total of Vanable Inputs (3. - 4.7) 76076968.6 1106.6092 432.7764 875.3732 (51,009,145.09) Grand Total of Fixed Inputs and Variable Inputs 77391040.8 1126.5391 440.5706 891.1386 (S1,210,635.13) 359668.0 1264157 1264157 51,738.215.88 5527,580.75 Output Per Year (kg/yr) Revenue per year (S/ yr.) Net Profit per year (S/yr) 640^30000^2427181.4 2.5570 0.0960 0.6040 0.1500 0.0010 0 0960 3.5040 1.0000 0.037s 0.2362 0.0587 0.0004 0.0375 1.3704 Appendix C. Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 68 Table C.3: Spreadsheet for "Greenhouse A" (Continued) GROWING AREA without ACC consideration Required Area per Unit Output (ha/1000ton/yr) Output per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr) Revenue per hectare per year (S/ha/yr) Net Profit per hectare per year (S/lia/yr) VISIBLE OCCUPIED AREA without ACC consideration Required Area per Unit Output (ha/1000tott/yr) Output per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr) Revenue per hectare per hear (5/ha/yr) Net Profit per hectare per year (S/ha/yr) TOTAL LAND with ACC consideration (except transportation) Required Area per Unit Output (ha/1000ton/y0 Output per hectare year (kg/ha/y.r) Revenue per hectare per year (S/ha/yr) Net Profit per hectare per year (S/ha/yr) Inputs for 1 ran sp or-tat ion (Importing materials) per year Inputs for Transportation (Exporting products) per year TOTAL LAND with ACC consideration including transportation Required Area per Unit Output (ha/1000ton/yr) Output per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr) Revenue per hectare per year (S/ha/yr) Net Profit per hectare per year (S/ba/y Land Greenhouse Land-paclutg& office&nutrient Land-Pond Land Docking & Parking Area Land Septic Place Land Roadway Land Total for Tomatoes Mass Embodied LifeEnergy Land-Land-Embodied Land- Cost or Benefit DistanceTransported Energy Required Energy ExpectancyIntensity Energy/Year Equivalant Per YearEquivalant Equivalant (kg) for TransportMass/year Traveled (MD (years)(M)/kg) (MJ/year) (MJ/trilIan) Energy for Transport (MJ/year)(ha/1000 ton /year) (kg/year)($/year)(ha/yr per lha of Grow Area) (ha/year) 359668.0Grand Total of  Fixed Inputs and Variable Inputs 77391040.8^1126.539069^440.5706^891.1386^($1,210,635.13) 2.5570^1.0000^2.0227 2 0227 2.0227^2.0227 S679,787.20 S206.32802 ^3.5040 ^1.3704^2.7718 ^ 2.7718 2.7718^2.77W 360775 5496,066.17 $150,565.28 1126 5391^440.5706^891.1386 891 1386 891.1386^891.1386 61.542,9" $468.32 4.4958 30.3398 1161 374' 918.6950 1.7583 11.8654 454.1942 918.6950 3.5564 24.0000 918.6950 918.6950 S1,496.69 $454 27 494391 1122 1089 Appendix C. Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 69 Li^I^Ii IS e" 1^ " ^Ti i 1^t r P-_^, _ _ (Otsuki Greenhouses Ltd.) as of April 25, 93 Number Inputs Material Volume or Mass Energy Embodied Life Embodied Land- Land- Land- Cost or Benefit Transported Distance Energy Required Energy for Length Intensity Energy Expectancy Energy/Year 'ki,quivalant , Equivalant Equivalant Per Year Mass/year Traveled for Transport Transport (cub.m etc) (kg) (Mil/kg) (MJ) (years) (MJ/year) (ha/year) (ha/yr per lha (ha/1000ton (S/year) (kg/Year) (km) (MJ/tn/krn) (MJ/year) of Grow Area) /year) Land occupied 1.1^I Growing Area 1.2 Other Service Areas 2^I Embodied Energy of Facilities 2.1 Building 2.1.1^Glass^glass 2.1.2^Post&Framework^steel 2.1 3^'Framework etc alrninium 2.1.4^Foundation (import)^concrete 2.1.5^I Foundation(domest)^concrete 216 ^Other Service Bldgs^(sq. m) 2 1 7^I Electrical 218^Constniction^7% of embodied 2.2 Irrigation system I 2.2.1^Tube & pipes^plastic 2.2.2^ITank^steel^I 2.2.3^Tank plastic 22.4^I Pump steel^I 225^Pond Shesq^plastic 2.3 I Ventilation System^I 2.3.1^Elec. Motors^ste,e1 2.3.2^I Rods^aluminum 2.3.3^Steel Shaft steel 2.4 I CO2 Dist. Sys^plastic 2.5^Heating Systems 2.5.1^I Boilers^steel 2 5.2^Pipes (small)^steel 2.53^I Pipes (medium)^I^steel 254^Pipes(large) steel 2.6 I Dranage Pipe^plastic 2.7^Spray Equipment^steel 2 8^'Electric & Hand Car I 281^Electric Cart^steed 2.8.2^I Hand Cart I^aluminum 79 Fork Lift^steel 2 10^Pallet Jacks steel 2 11^Tracks^ste,e1 etc 2 12 Equipment I I 665 I energy of material I 4 motors 4100m 0 744 5.53 0.50 010 2.40 0.75track 274951 ^ 71242^I^14 49957 30 4558^I^240 23871 13 125323^1.3 1713 546^85 1512 30 156^85 140 10 NA^NA 28^30 309 240 3207^30 41 85 5858^30 43527 30 3906^30 787 30 3365^85 250 30 540^30 74^I^240 2063 30 225^I^30 4845 30 20 5267697.4 997389.7 1498712.7 I 1093881.6 31032.4 162920.3 1139145.0 344615,7 46410.0 45374.4 13294.0 4209.0 NA 840.0 I^74256.0 96197.4 3485.0 175747.7 1305824.2 117165.1 23622.0 286011.9 7500.0 16200.0 17760.0 61875.0 6750.0 145350.0 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 4 20 20 20 NA 20 20 20 1 I^10 20̂ I^20 20 I^20 10 I 10 15 15 30 20 20 1 263384.9 49869.5 74935.6 54694.1 1551.6 8146.0 569573 17230.8 11602.5 2268.7 664.7 210.5 NA 42.0 3712.8 4809.9 3485.0 17574.8 65291.2 5858.3 1181.1 14300.6 750.0 1620.0 1184.0 4125.0 225.0 7267.5 I 0.9242 0.6656 0.2586 3.2923 I^0.6234 0.9367 1 0.6837 0.0194 0.1018 0.7120 0.2154 0.1450 0.0284 0.0083 0.0026^I NA I 0.0005 0.0464^I 0.0601 0.0436 0.2197 0.8161 0.0732 0 0148 0.1788 0.0094 0.0203 0.0148 0.0516 0.0028 0.0908 1.3884 1.0000 0.3884 4.9464 0.9366 1.4073 1.0272 0.0291 0.1530 1.0697 0 323o 0.2179 0.0426 0.0125 0.0040 NA 0.0008 0.007 0.0903 0.0654 0.3301 1 2262 0.1100 0.0222 0.2686 0.0141 0.0304 0.0222 0.0775 0.0042 0.1365 3.1742 I^2.2861 0.8880 11.3081 I^2.1411 3.2173 I^2.3482 0.0666 0.3497 2.4454 0 '398 0_4981 I 0.0974 0.0285 0.0090 NA I 0.0018 0.1594 0.2065 0.1496 0.7545 2.8032 0.2515 0.0507 0.6140 0.0322 0.0000 0.0696 0.0508 0.1771 0.0097 0.3120 I S28,273.08 (846,727.75) I ($881.78) included in building cos ($1,291.56) ($89.90) ($7920) ($519.19) NA I Included in building cost ($379.41) Included in building cost I I^($298.91) ($18.50) Included in budding cost ($210411) ($31.47) (S1,322.67) (81,011 19) 8484.0 3562.1 2497.9 I 227.9 1193.6 1002.6 136.5 75.6 7.8 7.0 NA 1.4 15.5 1603 I^41.0 I^585.8 2176.4 I^195.3 394 I^168.2 25.0 I 54.0 I^4.9 137.5 7.5 242.3 10 640 16390 16390 16390 640 I 640 16390 16390 16390 NA 16390 16390 16390 16390 640 640 640 640 640 640 16390 16390 640 640 640 640 1 5800 0.0650 0.0650 0.0650 1.5800 I 1 c800 0.0650 0.0650 0.0650 NA I 0.0650 0.0650 0.0650 0.0650 1.5800 1.5800 1.5800 1.5800 1.5800 1.5800 0.0650 0.0650 1.5800 1.5800 1.5800 1.5800 8791.3 3602 0 2661.1 I^212.8 1231.6 I^1013.8 I 138.0 80.6 83 I^7.5 NA I 1 5 lo.5 170.8 I^43.7 I^592.1 2200.7 I 197.5 39.8 170.1 25.3 57.5 5.3 139.0 7.6 245.0 1.01Computer Sub Total of Fixed Facilities & Equipments (1 -2.12) I^I I^7715569 0^I^I^409558.3 I^5.1195 1^7.6915^1^17.5838^.1^($26.482.56)^.1 I^1^I Appendix C. Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 70 Table C.4: Spreadsheet for "Greenhouse B" (Continuesd) Number Inputs Material Volume or Mass Energy Embodied Life Embodied Land- Land- Land- Cost or Benefit Transported Distance Energy Required Energy for Length Intensity Energy Expectancy Energy/Year Equivalant Equivalant Equivalant Per Year Mass/year Traveled for Transport Transport (cubin etc) OW (MJ/kg) (MJ) (years) (MJ/year) (ha/year) (ha/yr per Ilia (ha/1000ton ($/year) (kT/year)^" Our0 (MJ/talan) (MJ/year) of Grow Area) /year) 3^Variable Inputs I. 3.1.^SawdustBag&RockWool^ I I^1 3.1.1^Plastic Bag^plastic NA 85^NA^NA^NA^NA^NA^NA^NA^NA^NA^NA^NA • 3.1.2^Sawdust sawdust^ NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA I^NA NA NA NA 3.1.3^Rockwool^rockwool 849 28^23776.5^1^23776.5^0.2972^0.4465^1.0208^($7,572.38)^849 2^7736^0.0650^427.0 3.1.4^Rock Wool Wrap^I^plastic^I 48 85 4088.5 1 4088.5 0.0511 0.0768 0.1755 I^48.1^I^7736 0.0650 24.2 3.2 Ground Cover plastic 2149 85^182631.0^1^182631.0^2.2829^3.4298^7.8410^($11,053.65)^2148.6 640^1.5800^21-2 7 3.3^White wash^1^gypsum NA 4.2 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA^I^NA^NA NA NA 3.4 Electricityaell:[th]=0.3kWirlkWh)^73980 kwhf ell^886872.2^1^886872.2^11.0859^16 6555^38.0767^($4,165.24) 3.5^Natural Gas^1^I 169504 I^86.3 14626520.0 1 14626520.0^182.8315 274.6867^627.9697 ($57,806.32)^I^16950-1.2 3.6 Car Fuels (S1,470.49) diesel^1^1^1,101.32^748.8976 I1^4-4^33251 1^1^33251.1^0.4156^0.6245^1.4276^($11,053.65)^748.9^1^640^1.5800^I^757.3 gasoline 417.915 ^184.1822 49 13910.7 1 13910.7 0.1739 0 2612 0.5972 (1105365) 284.2^.^640 1.5800 2- 4 3.7^Labour Force I 1 ($58,800.79)^0.0 3.8^Managers Salary ($30,000.00) 4 Variable Inputs II.^1 4.1^Fertilizers 4.1.1^Potassium Sulfate, 954 3 5^3337.3^I^1^1612.5^0.0202^0 0303^0.0692^($557 30)^375.0^,^640^1.5800^379.2 4.1.2^Potassium Chloride^ 375 43 1612.5 1 15000.0 0.1875 0.2817 0.6440 (593.00) 1500 0 640 1.5800 1516.8 4.1.3^1Mono Potassium Phosphate^ 1500 10.0^15000.0^I^1^81003.9^I^1.0125^1.5213^3.4778^(52A00.00)^5704 s^640^1.5800^.5768.4 414^Potassium Nitrate 5705 14.2 81003.9 1 91712.5 1.1464 1.7224 3.9376 (54,244.18) 7975.0 640 1.5800 8064.3 4.1.5^I Calcium Nitrate^I^I^7975 115^91712.5^1^91712.5^I^1.1464^1.7224^I^3.9376^(53,030.50)^7975.0^I^640^1.5800^I^8064 3 4.1.6^Ammonium Nitrate   250 66.6 16647.5 1 16647.5 0.2081 0.3126 0.7147 ($77.50) 250.0 640 1.5800 252.8 4.1.8^1Magnesium Sulphate I 3998 20^7996.0^1^1^7996.0^0.1000^0.1502^I^0.3433^(81,839.80)^3998.0^I^640^1.5800^I^A042-8 4.1.9^Sodium Molybdate^ 1 10.0 10.0 1 10.0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0004 (843.00) 1.0 640 1.5800^1 0 4.1.10^I Iron Chelate^I 25^1 150^370.5^1^I^37̂ I^0.0046^0.007^0.0159^(8415.67)^24.7^640^I^1.5800 25.0 4.1.11^Potassium Bicarbonate 100 4.0 400.0 1 1000 0.0050 0.0075 0.0172 (5255.40) 100.0 640 1.5800^101.1 4.2 1 Biological Pest Control^ 285^1 1^1^1 ($8,670.18)^284.8^640^1.5800 288.0 4.3^Chemical Pesticides ($1,340.98) 43.1^Agribrom Powder 1^1.8 264.0^475.2^1^1^475.2^I^0.0059^0.0089^I^0.0204^ 1.8^I^640^1.5800^I^1.8 4.3.2^Kelthane^ 8.0 197.0 1576.0 1 1576.0 0.0197 0.0296 0.0677 8.0 640 1.5800 8.1 4.3.3^Lorsban I^1.4 197 0^275.8^1^2-5.8^I^0.0034^0.0052^I^0.0118 1.4^I^640^1.5800^I^1.4 43.4^Monzate 200DF 2.5 163.0 407.5 1 407.5 0.0051 0 00.77 0.0175^ 2.5 640 1.5800 2.5 4.3.5^I Roccal^ I^13.5^F 163 0^2200.5^1^2200.5^i^0.0275^0.0413^1^0.0945 13.5^640^1.5800^1^13.7 4.3.6^Sulfotep103 59.9 197.0 11840.3 1 11800.3^,^0.1475 0.2216 0.5066 59.9 640 1.5800 60.6 4.3.7^I Plant Fume 103^1 48.0^1 19"O^9456.0^1^0456.0 0.1182^0.1776^0.4060^ 48.0^640^1.5800^48.5 43.8^Vend ex 2.3 197.0 4111 1 453.1^0.0057 0.0085 0.0195 2.3 640 1.5800 2.3 4.4 'Seeds^I 0.1^1 38 -^57^1^5.7 0.0001^0.0001^0.0002^(53.915.14)^0.1^640^1.5800^0.1 45^Liquid CO2 101226.0 5.7 579012,7 I 579012.7^7.2377 10.8739 24.8591 ($13,361.85) 101226.0 300 1.5800 47981,1 4.6 Miscellaneous Variable Costs (phone,insurance,consultation,etc.) ($58.673.71) I which are missing from above I _ Sub Total of Variable Inputs (3. - 4.7) I 16683178.2 208.5397 I^313.3109^I 716.2695^I ($291,894.37)^1 Grand Total of Fixed Inputs and Variable Inputs 17092736.6^214.5834^322.3909^737.0275^(S318,376.93)  ^93231.8 Appendix C. Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 71 Table CI 4: Spreadsheet for "Greenhouse B" (Continued) Mass Energy Embodied Life Embodied Land- Land- Land- Cost or Benefit Transported Distance Energy Required Energy for Intensity Energy Expectancy Energy/Year Equivalant Equivaiant Equivalant Per Year Mass/year Traveled for Transport Transport (kg) (MJ/kg) (MJ) (years) (MJ/year) (ha/year) (ha/yr per lha (ha/1000ton ($/year) (kg/year) (1uri) (MJ/tn/km) (MJ/year) of Grow Area) /year) Grand Total of Fixed Inputs and Variable Inputs 17092736.6 214.58336 322 3909 737M275 ($318,376.93)^ 93231.8 1 Output Per Ymr (kg/yr) 291147 .^291147^640^3.0000^559002.2 'Revenue per year (Si yr.)^1 1 $400327.13 1 Net Profit per year ($/yr) $81,950 19 , I^ I^I 1^I I GROWING AREA without ACC consideration 0.6656 1.0000 2.2861 1 !Required Area per Unit Output (ha/1000ton/yr) I 2.2861 2.2861 I^2.2861 1 Output per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr) 437420^ 'Revenue per hectare per year (8/ha/yr) I I^$601,453.01^. Net Profit per hectare per) ear ($/hafyr) $123,122 29 . I I^iI I I VISIBLE OCCUPIED AREA without . \ CC consideration 0.9242 1 3884 3.1742 I Required Area per Unit Output (ha/10000on/yr) 1^3.1742 3.1742 3 I -42 Output per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr) ^ 315043 I Revenue per hectare per hear ($/ha/yr) 1 $433,184.14 Net Profit per hectare per year ($/ha/yr) $88,676 29 I^ 11^I TOTAL LAND with ACC consideration (except transportation) 214 5834 322 n09 737.027s IRequired Area per Unit Output (ha/100000n/yr) I^737.0275 737.0275 737.0275 Output per hectare year (kg/ha/yr) 1357 ^ I Revenue per hectare per year ($/ha/yr) $1,865.60 Net Profit per hectare per year (S/ha/yr) $381 90 1 I^ I^1 Inputs for Transportation (Importing materials) per year 1.1654 1 7509 4.0028 Inputs for Transportation (Exporting products) per year 6.0875 10.4981 24.0000 TOTAL LAND with ACC consideration including transportation 222.-363 334 6398 ^,55.0303 I Required Area per Unit Output (ha/100000n/yr) 765 0303 765.0303 765.0303 Output per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr) 1307 IRevenue per hectare per year (S/ha/yr) $1,797.31^I Net Profit per hectare per year ($/ha/yr) $367 92 I^ I^I I 1^Land Greenhouse 0.6656 1.0000 I Land-packng&office&nutrient^1 0 0665 0 0999 I I Land-Pond 0.0000 0.0000 'Land Docking 8s Parking Area^1 0.0310 0.0465 I Land Septic Place 0 0000 0.0000 I Land Roadway^1 0.1611 0.2420 Land TotalforTomatoes 0.9242 1.3884 Appendix C. Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 72 Table C.5: Spreadsheet for HillTop Gardens Field Tomato^ d [As of April 25, '93 Number Inputs Material Vol. etc Mass Energy Embodied Life Embodied En. Land- Land- Land- Cost or Benefit Transported Distance En.Require. Energy; Int Energy Expect Per Year Equivalant Equivalant Equivalant Per Year Mass/year Traveled for Trans. for Trans. (cub.m. etc) (kg) (MJ/kg) (MJ) (years) (MJ/year) (ha/year) (ha/yr per lha (ha/1000ton (S/year) (kg/year) (km) ',MJ/ton/lan (MJ/year) of Grow Area) /year) 1^Land occupied^ 1.5362^1.2654^22.5795^($753.04) 1.1^Growing Area I^ 1.2140^1.0000^17.8435 1 2^Other Senice Are,.is^ 0 3222^0.2654^4.7360 2^Embodied Energy of Facilities^1^ 1^ 1 I I 2.1^Building 2.1 1^1^Cover^I plastic^ 8.9^64^566.4^I 7^)0 )1^0.0010 1^0.0008^0.0149^($11.28)1^1.3^r■ 4 ■^1 . 5800^I 1.3 2.1.2^Framework^wood 3.75^1575.0 26 0,0396^0.0326^0.5819 $0.00 60.6^87^3.000,1:^15.9 2 1 3^1^Steel Equipments^libel^ 1^145.5^30^4364.7^15 1^290.98^0.0036^0.0030^0.0535^($51.95)^9.7^640 •^1.5800^9.8 2.1.4^Other Service 1•11dgs 14.4^(5q m) 24670.1^30^822.31^0.0103^0.0085 0.1511 2 1.5^I^Construction^7% of embodied energy of material! 29601.2 83.60 1^0.0010 1^0.0009^0.0154^1^ I 2.2^Irrigation sys 2 2.1^1^Pipe^1Alminium^0.05 I^384.8^240^92343.0^20 I^4617.15 I^0.0577^0.0475^0.8483^($79.38)1^19.2^640 ;^1.5800^19.5 2.2.2^Pipe & Filter^plastic 2.7^64^169.6^10 16.96^0.0002^0.0002^0.0031 ($83.43) 0.3^640^1.5t3t10^0.1 2.2.3^1^Tube^ plastic^1^1^22.1^64 I^1414.4 j^3^I 471.47^0.0059 1^0.0049 I^0.0866 I 8̂185.10)1^7.4^640 1^1 5800^7.4 2.7^Spray Equipment^steel 2000. ^30^6000.0^15^400.00^0.0050 00011 0.0735 ($124.69) 13.3^640^1.5800^13.5 2.8^ITractor^st,..c1^ I^500.0 I^30^15000.0 I 300.00^0.0038 I^0.0031^0.0551^I ($64.69)1^10.0^640 1^1.5800^10.1 2.9^Plow&Sheet laying^steel 250.0^30^7500 0^15^500.00^0.0063^0.0051 0.0919^($155.86)^16.7^640^1.5800^16.9 2.10^ITracks(O.S*11.5ton)^1st eel^ 250.0^30 I^7500.0 I ^500.00 I^0.0063 0.0051^I 0.0919 I^($519.53) 16.7^640 1^1.5800^1E9 2,14^Ground cover^plastic 89.1^64^5705.0^1^5704.96^0.0713^0.0587 1.0482 ($225 12)^89.1^640^1 5800^90.1 Sub Total of Fixed Facilities & Equipments 11 - 2.14)^I^I^I^I I^13788.36^1^0.2119 1^0.1746 1^3.1152^I^($2,254.07)1^244.2^1 I^1^201.6 3^Variable cost I. 3.1^Electricity(f el J : it h1=0.3 kWh :1kWh)^2996.1^kWh[el]^35917.7 I^1 I^35917.73^0.4490^0 3698^6.5990 I^$150.00)^ . 3.2^Propane^ 666.7^334.0^49.0^16350 1^1^16350.12^0.2044^0.1683^3.0039 (S200.01)^334.0^640^1.5 1601^337.8 3.3^Fuels(tractor)^!gasoline^I^430.6^292.8^50.4 1^14757.5 I^1^1^14757.52 I^0.1845^0.1520 2.7113^I ($193.34)^292.8 1^640 I^1.5800 I^296.1 3.4^Labour Forces (S7.605.00) 3 5^I^Manager's Salary^ 1^ I^ ($24,000.00)^ 0.0 4^Variable cost IL 0.0 4 1^Fertilizers^ 1^ 1^I^ I^ I^ 0.0 4.1.1^All Purpose (20-20-20)^ 30.0^19.3^578.7^1^578.70^0.0072 0.0060^0.1063^($66.00)^30.0 640^1.5800^30.3 4 1.2^I^Plant Starter (10-52-10) I^30.0 1^14.9^447.9 I^1^447.90 1^0.0056^0.0046 0 0823^I ($95.30)1^30.0^640 I^1.5800 I^30.3 4.1.3^Urea (46-0-0)^ 250.0^3E6^9150.0^1^9150.00^0.1144^0.0942^1.6811^(8100.00)^250.0^640^1.5800^252.8 414 ̂Calcium Nitrate (15.5-0-0)^ 145.2 1^115^1669.8 I^1^ 1669.80 I^0 0209 1^0 0172 1^0.3068 ($48.00)1^145.2^640 I^1.5800 I^146.8 4.2^Herbicide & Insecticide 1.5800 0.0 4 2.1^I^Trifluralin (Treflan545EC)^ 1I^022^150^327 I^1^32.70 I^0.0004^0.0003 1^0.0060^($1.49)^0.2^640 I^1.5800 I^0.2 4.22^Metribuzin (Sencor500F) 0.09^264^224^1^22.44^0.0003^0.0002^0.0041 ($2.22) 0.1^640^1 5800 0.1 4.2.3^Carbaryl (Sevin5OW)^ 2.70^153^413.1 I^1^ 413.10 I^0.0052 I^0.0043^I 0.0759^($27 40)^27^640 I^1.5800 I^2.7 4 4^Seeds^ 0.048^38.7^1.9^1 1.86^0.0000^0.0000^0.0003^($382.22) 0.0^640^1.5800 0.0 -1 5^I^Dirt 1 13880 I 1 i I 1 1^($214.40) I^13880.0^1 210^I 3.0000^J^8744.4 Sub Total of Variable Inputs (3 -4.5) 79341.87 0.9918 0 8169 14.5772 ($33,085.37) 14965.1 9841.6 Grand Total of Fixed & Variable Inputs 93130.23 1.2037 0.9915 17.6924 ($35,339.44) 15209.3 10043.2 Appendix C. Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 73 Table C.5: Spreadsheet for HillTop Gardens (Continued) Mass Energy Embodied Life Embodied En. Land- Land- Land- Cost or Benefit Transported Distance En.Require. Energy Int. Energy Expect Per Year Equivalant Equivalant Equivalant Per Year Mass/year Traveled for Trans. for Trans. (kg) (MJ/kg) (MJ) (years) (MJ/year) (ha/year) (ha/yr per lha (ha/1000ton ($/year) (kg/year) (km) (MJ/ton/km (MJ/year) of Grow Area) /year) Grand Total of Fixed l4. Variable Inputs 93130.23 1.2037 0.9915 17.6924 ($35,339.44) 15209 3 10043.2 Output/year^(kg/year) 68036.0 68036.0 379 3 0000 75520.0 Revenue/year^($/year) 863,750.00 Net Profit/year(S/year) $28,410 56 I I GROWING AREA without ACC consideration 1.2140^1.0000 17.8435 Required Area per I nit Output (ha/1000ton/yr)^ I 17.8435^17.8435 I^17.8435 Output/hit/year^(kg/Ita/y•ear)^ 56042.8 Revenue/ha/year^($/ha/year) 852,512.36 Net Profit/ha/year (S/ha/year) $23,402 43 I^I I VISIBLE OCCUPIED LAND without ACC consideration ^1.5362^1.2654 22.5795 Required Area per Unit Output (ha/1 (Milton/yr)^ I 22.5795 I^22.5795 I^22.5795^ I^I Output/ha/year^(kg/ha/year)^ 44288.0 Revenue/ha/year^(S/ha/ye a r)^I^ I^ I I $41,497.99^I^I Net Profit/ha/year (S/Ita/year) $18,493.82 I^ I^ I I^I TOTAL LAND with ACC consid. except TRANSPORTATION) 2 7379^2.2570 40.2719 'Required Area per Unit Output (ha/1000ton/yr)^ I^ I I^40.2719^I 40.2719 40.2719 I Output/ha/year^(lig/ha/year)  ^24831 2 Revenue/ha/year^($/ha/year)^ I I I^$23,266.94 I Net Profit/ha/year (Vila/year) $10,369.04 I^ I^ I^I^ I I^ I Inputs for Transp. (Inoprt of Materials) per year^ 10043.2 0.1255^0 1034 1.8452 Inputs for Transp. (Export of products) per year I^ I I^ I^75520.0 0.9440 I^0. 7776 13.8750^1 1 TOTAL LAND with ACC consid. including TRANSPORTATION) 3.8095^3.1380 55.9921 I Required Area per Unit Output (ha/1000ton/yr)^I^ I 55.9921^I 55.9921 55.9921^I Output/ha/year^(kg/ha/year)^ 17859 7 Revenue/ha/year^($/ha/year) I^I^$16334.57 Net Profit/ha/year ($/ha/year) $7,457.86 I^ I I 1^Land-Tomato Field 1.2140^1.0000 Land-Nursary Greenhouse 0.0058 I^0.0048 1^1 Land-Workshop&Storage 0 0014^0 0012 Land-Roadway&Parbng^1^ 1 I^0 3150 I^0 2595 Total Visible Occupied Land for Tomato Grow= 1.5362^1.2654 Appendix C. Spreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 74 - _l_ cl,I.J1IC.^l._, .0.^iD pi ectubliee u^Jul^11.1./1^t.,itis^i. oil iiiip^x .I.C.ill^_l_VIIICkUl„)^1^1,I, As of April 25, '93 Number Inputs Material Vol. etc Mass Energy Embodied Life Embodied En. Land- Land- Land- Cost or Benefit Transported Distance En.Require. Energy Int. Energy Expect Per Year Equivalant Equivalant Equivalant Per Year Mass/year Traveled for Trans. for Trans. (cub.m. etc) (kg) (MJ/kg) (MJ) (years) (MJ/year) (ha/year) (ha/yr per lha (ha/1000ton (S/year) (kg/year) (km) ;MJ/ton/krii (MJ/year) of Grow Area) /year) 1^Land occupied 1.1^Growing _Area^ I 2^Oiler Serice Areas 2^Embodied Energy of Facilities^I 2 1^Building 2.1.1^I^Other Sen.ii.c Bldgs I^I^94^(sq.m)^161040.8^30 2 1 2^Construction^7% of embodied energy of inalerial 11272.9 2.2^1 Irrigation sys^I 2.2 1^Pipe^Ahninium^ 0 05^384.8^240^92343.0^20 2.2.2^Pipe & Filter^I plastic 2.7^64^169.6 J^10 2.2.3^Tube^plastic^ 22.1^64^1414.4^3 2.7^I Spray Equipment^I steel 2000. ^30^6000.0^15 2.8^Itractor(6ton*11.1.)^steel^ 600.0^50^30000.0^50 2.9^1Plow&Sheet laying^!steel I^ 250.0^30^7500.0^15 2.10^Tracks(3.St0n*(I.1)^steel^ 350.0^18 ^6300.0^15 2.14^I Ground cover^I plastic^I^ 89.1^64^5705.0^1 ^ 1.4211^1.1706^14.2114^($753.04) 1.2140^1.0000 I^12 1400 0.2071^0.1706^. '_' 0714 I 5368.03 1^0.0671^0.0553 I^0.6710^ I 375.76^0.0047^0.0039^1) 047i, 4617.15^u.U577^0.0475^0.5771^($79.313)^19.2^640 16.96^0.0002^0.0002 0.0021 ($83.43)1 0.3^640 471.47^0.0059^0.0044^0.0589^($185.10)^7.4^640 400.00 i^0.0050^0.0041^0 0500^($124.69)1^13.3^640 600.1,110^0.0075^0.0062^0 0750 ($64.69)^12.0^640 500.00 1^0.0063^0.0051 0.0625^($155.86)1 16.7^640 420.00^0.0053^0.0043^0 0515 ($519.53)^23.3^640 5704.96^0.0713^0.0587^0.7131^(5225.12)1^89.1^640 1.5800 1.5800^0.3 1.5800^7.4 1.5800^13.5 1.5800^12.1 1.5800^16.9 1. 5800^23.6 1.5800^90.1 Sub Total of Fixed Facilities & Equipments (1 -2.14) I I I I^18474.33 0.2309^I 0.1902^I 2.3093^I ($2,190.84) I^181.3^I I I^183.4 3^Variable cost I. 3.1^Electricity(frli:Ith1=0.3kWh:lkWh)^1369.6^kWh[el]^16419.2^1^16419.19 1^0.2052 3.2^Fuels(tractor)^diesel^ 567.75^284.4^44 4^12629.3^1^12629,26^0 1579 asohne 378 5^257.4^50.4 1^12972.0^1^12971.95^0.16213.3^Fuels(truck)^Ig^• 3 4^Labour Forces 3 5^Manager's Salary^I I^ I 4^Variable cost II. 4.1^Fertilizers^I^I^ I 4.1.1^12-5-0 340.0^9.5^3230.0^1^3230.00^0.0404 4.1.2^Ptassium Sulfate (0-0-50)^I^1^204.0 1^5.0 1^1024.1^1^1024.08 1^0.0128 4.1 3^0-0-60^ 136.0^60^816.0^I^816.00^0.0102 4.1 4^Iron Sulphate (Fe 21%)^ 14.0 1^6.3^88.2^1^88.20^00011 1 4.1.5^Borate 40^ 11.0^4.0^44.0^I 44.00^0.0006 4.2^Seeds 0.048 1^39 19 1.9^1^1.88 I^0.0000 4.3^Plant propagation^ 36293.4^1^36293.40^0.4537 0.1691^2 0524^($68.57)1 0.1300 1 5787^($200.00) 0.1336^1.6215^($169.95)1 ^ ($12,600.00) ($6,000.00) ($300.00)1 0.0333^U.4038 0.0105^0.1280 1 0.0084  ^0.1020 0.0009^0.0110 0.0005^0.0055 0.0000 I^0.0002 1^(5382.22) 0 3737^4.5367^($420.00) 284.4^640^1.5800^287.6 257.4^640^1.5800^260.3 I 0.0 0.0 0.0 340.0 ^640^1.5800^343.8 204.0^640 1^1.5800^206.3 136.0^640^1.5800^137 5 14.0^640^1 1.5800^14.2 11.0^640^1.5800^11.1 I 0.0^1 640^1.5800^1 0.0 350.0^840  ^3.0000^882.0 Sub Total of Variable Inputs (3- 4.5) 83517.96^1.04 0.8599 10.4397 ($20,140.74) 1596.9 2142.8 Grand Total of Fixed & Variable Inputs J 101992.29 11749 1 0502 J 12.7490 ($22,331.58) J 1778.2 2326.2 ppendix C. ,SPreadsheet for ACC Calculation of Greenhouse and Field Operations 75 Table C.6: Spreadsheet for Horsting Farms (Continued) Mass Energy Embodied Life Embodied En. Land- Land- Land- Cost or Benefit Transported Distance En.Require. Energy Int. Energy Expect Per Year Equivalant Equivalant Equivalant Per Year Mass/year Traveled for Trans. for Trans. (kg) (MJ/kg) (MJ) (years) (MJ/year) (ha/year) (ha/yr per lha (ha/1000ton ($/year) (kg/year) (kin) (MJ/ton/lcm (MJ/year) of Grow Area) /year) Grand Total of Fixed & Variable Inputs 101992.29 1 2749 1 0502 12 7490 ($22.331.58) 1778.2 2326.2 Output/year^(kg/year) 100000.0 100000 0 370 3.0000 111000 0 Revenue/year^($/year) 688,000 00 Net Prollt/year(S/year) 665,668.42 GROWING AREA without ACC consideration 11140 1.0000 12.1400 I Required Area per Unit Output (ha/1000ton/yr) I 12.1400^I 12.1400 12.1400 Output/ha/year^(kg/ha/year) 82372 3 I Revenue/ha/year^($/ha/year) I I $72,487 64 Net Protitilta/year ($/ha/)ear) 654,092.61 I^I^ i I I^ I VISIBLE OCCUPIFD LAND without ACC consideration 1 4211 1 1706 14 2114 'Required Area per Unit Output (ha/1000ton/yr) 14.2114 14.2114^I 14.2114 Output/Ira/year^(kg/ha/year) 70366 1 I Revenue/ha/year^($/ha/year) 1 $61,922.16^1 Net Profit/ha/year (5/ha/year) $4608.30 I^1^ I 1 I TOTAL IAND with ACC consid. except  TRANSPORTATION) 2 6960 2.2208 26 9604 IRequired Area per Unit Output (ha/1000ton/yr) I 26:)604 26.9604 I 26.9604 I^I Output/ha/year^(kg/ha/year) 37091 4 IRevenue/ha/year^($/ha/year) I $32,640.43^I I Net ProfiUlia/year ($/ha/)ear) $24,357.34 1 1 I Inputs for Transp. (Inoprt of Materials) per year 2326.2 0 0291 0 0240 0.2908 Inputs for Transp. (Export of products) per year^I I 126000.0 1.5750^I 1.2974 I 15.7500 I Tarit, LAND with ACC consid. including TRANSPORTATION) 4.3001 3.5421 43,0012 IRequired Area per Unit Output (ha/1000ton/yr)^I 43.0012 I 43.0012 I 43.0012 I Output/ha/year^(kg/ha/year) 23255 2 I Revenue/ha/year^($/ha/year) $20,464.54 I Net Profit/ha/year ($/lia/year) $15,271.30 1^ I I I Land Tomato Field 1 2140 1.0000 Land-Nursary Greenhouse 1 0.0058 0.0048 Land-Vuorkshop&Storage 0.0094 0 0077 Land-Roadway&Parking 0 1920 0 1582 1 1 Total Visible Occupied Land for Tomato Growing 1.4211 1.1706


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