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Volunteer recruitment and retention: a case study of the Vancouver Planned Parenthood Clinic Parsons, Lisa A. 1993

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VOLUNTEER RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION: A CASE STUDY OF THEVANCOUVER PLANNED PARENTHOOD CLINICbyLISA ANNE PARSONSB.A. Honours, The University of Western Ontario, 1990A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESDepartment of SociologyWe accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIASeptember 1993© Copyright Lisa Anne Parsons, 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(SignatureDepartment ofThe University of British Colum isVancouver, CanadaDate^ zio-/-: )? 9_1DE-6 (2/88)AbstractThe purpose of this project is to conduct a detailed evaluation of the VancouverPlanned Parenthood clinic volunteer program. The primary focus of this study is volunteerrecruitment and retention. The simplicity of individual perspectives commonly employed involunteer theories and research is rejected in this research project. A multi-leveledsociological analysis stemming from an organizational behaviour framework is used as analternative approach to broaden the scope of this case study. The five levels of analysis usedto examine the volunteer program in this study are: 1) individual level of analysis, 2) groupbehaviour, 3) interpersonal and organizational processes, 4) organizational structure and jobdesign, and 5) organizational environment. Multiple factors are discussed under each levelof analysis.A triangulation of methods, comprised of interviews with volunteers, observationalanalysis, and document analysis, is used to provide a rich analysis of the volunteer program.Interpretations of the findings demonstrate that many factors beyond the individual levelinfluence volunteer recruitment and retention. Results show that this particular volunteerprogram is operating below its maximum effectiveness, and that high volunteer turnoverresults in this atmosphere. Practical and theoretical implications of this case study areexplored and recommendations are offered.OWTable of ContentsAbstract^ iiTable of Contents^ iiiAcknowledgements vCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION 11 The Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia^ 5la Program Mandate^ 5lb Planned Parenthood Services and Programs 6lc Staff^ 7ld The History of the Planned Parenthood Association of B.C.^ 8Figure 1Funding for the Planned Parenthood Association of BritishColumbia 1993 Fiscal Year^ 112 The Vancouver Clinic^ 12CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW 171 Who Volunteers? 182 Why Volunteer?^ 213 Volunteer Recruitment 224 Volunteer Retention 245 Volunteer Theories 275a Volunteerism as Work^ 275b Volunteerism as Leisure 285c Organizational Behaviour 29Figure 2Levels of Analysis^ 31CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY^ 331 Individual Level of Analysis 342 Group Behaviour, Interpersonal and Organizational Processes andOrganizational Structure and Job Design^ 413 Organizational Environment^ 42CHAPTER FOURRESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS 441 Individual Level of Analysis 44Figure 3Levels of Analysis: Outline Depicts Individual Level ofAnalysis^ 45la Situational Factors 45lb Job Satisfaction 48Figure 4Duties Performed Most Often Compared to Preferred Duties ^ 49lc Motivation^ 512 Group Behaviour Level Of Analysis^ 52Figure 5Levels of Analysis: Outline Depicts Group Behaviour Levelof Analysis^ 542a Cohesiveness 542b Group Inclusion 592c Leadership 60(iv)3 Interpersonal and Organizational Processes^ 62Figure 6Levels of Analysis: Outline Depicts Interpersonal andOrganizational Processes 633a Autonomy^ 633b Communication 673c Recruitment 683d Training 703e Orientation^ 743f Scheduling 764 Organizational Structure and Job Design^ 78Figure 7Levels of Analysis: Outline Depicts Organizational Structureand Job Design^ 794a Job Design 794b Volunteer Program 814c Clinic^ 854d Bureaucracy 87Figure 8The Hierarchical Staffing of the Vancouver Clinic^885 Organizational Environment^ 89Figure 9Levels of Analysis: Outline Depicts OrganizationalEnvironment 905a Accessibility^ 905b Funding 91CHAPTER FIVECONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS^ 931 Conclusions^ 93la Limitations 982 Recommendations 1002a Recruitment 1002b Training^ 1012c Orientation 1042d Scheduling 1052e At the Clinic 1072f Outside of Clinic^ 110Bibliography...^ 112Appendix 119Recruitment Notice 119Letter of Consent^ 120Interview Schedule 121Interview Summary 124(v)AcknowledgementsI would like to thank Dr. Dawn Currie, Dr. Larry Moore, and Dr. Nancy Waxler-Morrisonfor graciously serving on my committee, and for guiding me through this project. I wouldalso like to express my deepest appreciation to Ken for having faith in me and for being mysource of inspiration and support over the long and lean years. Thanks also to Anthony forhis infinite patience and technical support.CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONThe purpose of this research project is to examine volunteer recruitment andretention using the Vancouver Planned Parenthood clinic volunteer program as a case study.Specifically, I want to determine what factors influence volunteer retention and turnover. Amulti-level analysis is used to investigate aspects of the volunteer program.Recommendations are generated from the findings to improve the effectiveness of thevolunteer program and the clinic, especially as it pertains to the volunteer program.My experiences as a volunteer reveal that the Vancouver Planned Parenthood clinichas little difficulty recruiting volunteers, but that volunteer retention is a serious and on-going problem. There is a small pocket of volunteers who are highly dedicated to regularlong-term volunteering, but many of the newer volunteers drop out quickly. The volunteerprogram is integral to the operation of all Planned Parenthood clinics. The volunteersperform a wide variety of skilled functions, including nursing, pregnancy counselling, andpresenting the contraceptive methods talk The services provided by Planned Parenthoodsimply could not continue without volunteer labour. 1New volunteers are easily recruited to supplement those who do not work regularlyor replace those who drop out altogether. This continual recruitment enables the clinic tofunction. However, a tremendous amount of resources are spent on recruiting, training, andorienting volunteers. High volunteer turnover rates affect all aspects of the organization.For example, the clinic supervisors and educators must spend considerable time, money,and energy recruiting volunteers, arranging for them to take the training course, andconducting training and orientation sessions. Low volunteer commitment also means that1 My observations and the literature reveal that the Vancouver clinic volunteer attrition rate is high.However, statistics are difficult to keep because 1) some people take the training course without everintending to volunteer, because the course is a school or professional requirement for example 2) somevolunteers volunteer at other clinics and 3) volunteer attrition rates and volunteer longevity rates arenot recorded. My personal experiences serve as an estimate for attrition rates: there were aboutfourteen people in my training course, and six months later, only three or four volunteers (including me)were still volunteering at the Vancouver clinic.- 2 -the supervisors must continually contact volunteers to fill shifts for each clinic night. Thesedemanding duties inevitably detract from other responsibilities to which the supervisorscould devote themselves if they had the resources.Low volunteer commitment and high turnover rates result because the volunteerprogram functions inefficiently. Management is aware of these problems, but lacks theresources necessary to evaluate the current volunteer program and implement a moreeffective one. Consequently, the ineffectiveness of the program is maintained. The clinic'sresources could be used much more productively if they were not spent to preserve aminimally effective volunteer program.A case study is the research strategy chosen to examine the Vancouver PlannedParenthood clinic volunteer program. In a case study, the volunteer program is looked uponas a unit and the analysis aims to retain a unitary nature of this individual case and toemphasize the relationship between its various attributes (Moser and Ka1ton, 1972). "A casestudy can provide a richly detailed 'portrait' of a particular social phenomenon" (Hakim,1987:61).A case-study involves the detailed study of a single example of whatever it is that thesociologist wishes to investigate. It may prompt further, more wide-rangingresearch, providing ideas to be followed up later, or it may be that some broadgeneralization is brought to life by a case-study. There is no claim torepresentativeness and the essence of the technique is that each subject, whether it bean individual, a group, an event, or an institution, is treated as a unit on its own(McNeill, 1985:87).Case studies are probably the most flexible of all research designs (Hakim, 1987). "Casestudies use a variety of data collection techniques and methods that allow a more rounded,holistic study than with any other design" (Hakim, 1987:61).There is an extended range of case studies combining exploratory work, descriptionand the testing out of hunches, hypotheses, and ideas in varying combinations. Thecase study is the social equivalent of the spotlight or the microscope: its valuedepends on how well the study is focused (Hakim, 1987:61).- 3 -I am not aware of any other case study that has been performed on a volunteerprogram. The exploratory and illustrative value of conducting a case study is evident: thisresearch strategy yields a detailed analysis of the Vancouver Planned Parenthood volunteerprogram. There are significant sociological contributions to be derived from performing acase study. A case study focuses on all aspects of the volunteer program, and not simply onthe individual level of analysis. In this way, a case study allows a more in depth andsociological understanding of this unit of analysis.Some of the results of this study are applicable only to the specific conditions of theVancouver clinic, while the remainder are relevant to any volunteer program. This researchproject is presented in a coherent manner by dividing it into five distinct, but related chapters.This introductory chapter provides an overview of this research project and explains myinterest in this topic. It also gives detailed information on the Planned ParenthoodAssociation of British Columbia and the Vancouver Planned Parenthood clinic The secondchapter reviews the major trends and theories in volunteerism in recent literature. Inaddition, it provides an overview of the approach I use in my analysis. The project'smethodology is discussed in the third chapter. The results and interpretations of the studyare presented in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter contains concluding remarks, withresearch questions presented to guide further research. It also recommends ways toimprove the clinic in general and the volunteer program specifically.Project Goals: My project goal is two-fold. I want to write a sociologically soundpaper to contribute to the scholarly knowledge of volunteers. Moreover, I want to conductaction research. In this case, action research entails studying the people who know thevolunteer program best: the volunteers and staff. These workers realize that the clinic is notfunctioning efficiently, and they define the goals of this research accordingly. They will alsotake an active role in implementing the recommendations generated from this study. Thepractical aim of this research is to implement a more effective volunteer program. I havebeen one of the core volunteers at the Vancouver clinic for the past three years. As such, I- 4 -have witnessed clinic operations firsthand and wish to use my knowledge and research tohelp establish a better volunteer program.The volunteers share their experiences and offer their suggestions through personalinterviews about the volunteer program specifically, and clinic in general. Qualitativemethods are used to collect data from the interviews and to highlight recurring patterns in therespondents' comments. My participation in the organization allows me to use myexperiences as a volunteer to perform observational analysis. In addition, I analyze PlannedParenthood's documents to provide a rich analysis of the volunteer program, clinic and theorganization.A multi-leveled approach is used to critically examine each part of the volunteerprogram. We begin with analyzing individual behaviour. Using the knowledge gained atthis level, we move on to the more complex levels of the group, interpersonal andorganizational processes, then organizational structure and job design. Finally, we add afifth level of complexity, the organizational environment, to arrive at the final destination: anunderstanding of the volunteer program. The five levels are analogous to building blocks-each level is constructed on the previous level(s) (Robbins, 1986).Definition of Client: I use the term 'client' throughout this paper when referring topeople who use the clinic's services. Client refers to a customer, or person who engages theservices of a professional adviser. This is in contrast to the term 'patient' used in the clinicand in Planned Parenthood documents. Funk and Wagnall's definition of a patient is "aperson undergoing treatment for disease or injury." This definition clearly does notaccurately describe Planned Parenthood clientele. Furthermore, the term 'patient' connotesthat the physician is the powerful one caring for the helpless person in his or her care.Planned Parenthood's clients are, in fact, seeking the organization's services. If they do notreceive satisfactory service, like customers, they have the power to seek services elsewhere.I use the term 'patient' only when this terminology is used in volunteers' verbatimcomments.-5-1  The Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia The Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia is a member of thePlanned Parenthood Federation of Canada (Planned Parenthood pamphlet, 1992). TheCanadian Federation is affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation, thelargest voluntary organization in the world (Ibid.). The international agency operates in onehundred and fourteen countries worldwide.la Program MandatePlanned Parenthood's program mandate asserts thatevery couple and every individual has the right to decide freely and responsiblywhether or not to have children as well as to determine their number and spacing,and to have information, education and means to do so (United Nations HumanRights Declaration of 1968. Planned Parenthood pamphlet, 1992).To meet this mandate, Planned Parenthood strives1) to provide non judgmental confidential counselling and birth control services2) to increase awareness of all possible methods of contraception to enableindividual, appropriate choices about family planning3) to encourage planned pregnancies4) to promote the development of family life and sex education programs forchildren and adults5) to help individuals seek appropriate professional health care6) to provide work experience for nurses and physicians in training7)^to provide training for volunteers interested in working with people (Ibid.).Planned Parenthood also believes that1) deciding whether and when to have children is a basic human right andaccess to family planning services is an integral part of that right2) early and continuing education in human sexuality encourages thedevelopment of positive healthy attitudes and responsible sexual behaviour3)^everyone has the right to a healthy reproductive life through preventativehealth care services- 6 -4) parents are and should be the primary educators of their children aboutsexuality. In this responsibility, parents should be supported by teachers,health and social services, education and religious institutions5) every child has the right to be nurtured and given the best possible chance inlife (Planned Parenthood pamphlet, 1992).Each clinic acts as a microcosm of this mandate and these beliefs and applies theseprinciples to the clinic setting.lb Planned Parenthood Services and ProgramsPlanned Parenthood offers a wide variety of services, which include1) birth control information and counselling services2) confidential testing for sexually transmitted diseases3) confidential pregnancy tests and counselling4) fertility and infertility counselling5) pamphlets on sexuality, birth control, infertility and a variety of other topics,in several languages6) resource library including rental of videotapes and teaching materials7) speakers and workshops for schools, youth, community and parent groups,and professionals. Topics of discussion include sexual decision making,birth control, talking to children about sex and sexuality, teenage pregnancy,infertility and menopause8) infant car seat rental (Planned Parenthood pamphlet, 1992).Planned Parenthood also offers educational programs among their services designedto meet the program's mandate. Diverse groups are targeted for the educational programsthat are offered in British Columbia, including students at all levels of the school system(Primary, Elementary, Secondary, Post secondary: including the professions of Teaching,Nursing, Medicine and Social Work), parent groups (pre-school and school-aged children),teachers and counsellors, community health workers, and community groups (PlannedParenthood pamphlet, 1992).- 7 -Program topics include human sexuality and development throughout the life-span;human sexual anatomy and physiology; birth control; sexually transmitted diseases,including AIDS; sexual health and hygiene; fertility awareness; preconception health;pregnancy; teen pregnancy and parenthood; healthy sexual decision making; communicationand counselling skills; and teaching techniques regarding sexuality, decision making, birthcontrol, values clarification; and prevention of sexual abuse (Ibid.).lc StaffThe Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia is governed by a voluntaryBoard of Directors who have a broad range of experience and interest in reproductive healthcare. Physicians, nurses and volunteers provide services, such as health care, counselling,and education. Planned Parenthood depends on its volunteers. Two hundred and fiftyvolunteers donated 6723 hours of their time in British Columbia clinics over the past year(Planned Parenthood, Association of B.C., 1993:14). These hours would represent amonetary value of $47,061 if calculated using minimum wage as an extremely conservativeestimate (Ibid.). Training programs in education and clinical services are given byprofessional staff, educators, and medical personnel. The elected volunteer Board membersset policy for the agency each year.Organizational Membership: Planned Parenthood membership is required toreceive any of the services offered by the organization. The annual B.C. Associatemembership fee is currently ten dollars. This fee allows members to vote at their branchand to pick up a newsletter there. This is the minimum membership required to receive anyclinic services. Full members pay twenty-five dollars for voting rights and full services.Sponsors pay one hundred dollars annually for full services, voting rights and forrecognition in the annual general meeting report. A patron contributes five hundred dollarsor more annually, and receives full services, voting rights, and special recognition at theannual general meeting (Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia, 1993).Membership is also open to residents of B.C. who are not clients, but who wish to uphold- 8 -the objectives of the association. All interested parties are encouraged to participate in basicvolunteer training and advanced training programs.ld The History of the Planned Parenthood Association of B.C.The first family planning clinic in British Columbia was opened by the FamilyPlanning Association (FPA) of B.C. on February 4, 1965, in the basement of a house at10th Avenue and Laurel Street, Vancouver (Family Planning Association of BritishColumbia, 1973). During the remainder of that year there were one hundred and seventy-six clients and a total of two hundred and forty client visits (Ibid.). In 1966 there were alsotwo hundred and forty client visits (Ibid.). In these early years, the clinic was staffed by acore group of nurses who strongly believed in the program's mandate. They ran severalclinics every week, wore their nursing uniforms, and were paid an honorarium for theirservices (Ibid.). Mrs. Caroline Porter was the Vancouver clinic coordinator in 1974. In thatyear, the Vancouver clinic had approximately thirty nurses on staff and was training more towork relief positions in the summer (Family Planning Association of B.C., 1974). At thattime, nurses staffed positions which are now filled by volunteers. Nurses continued toreceive an honorarium for their services to cover such expenses as transportation and childcare costs. A grant was also established to pay a pregnancy counsellor for her services.Funding: The clinic was financed through donations and a modest charge forservices until 1967. In this year, the United Community Services of Greater Vancouveraccepted the FPA as an agency, and allocated its first annual grant ($2,595.00) to PlannedParenthood in 1968 (Family Planning Association of B.C., 1973). That year there were 465new clients with a total of 1107 client visits (Ibid.). Committed individuals have offeredfamily planning services in Canada since 1932 (Planned Parenthood Federation of Canada,1989).However, until 1969, the dissemination of birth control information and the sale ofcontraceptives was a criminal offense in Canada. However, the law was largelyignored and tended to favour the highly motivated and more informed members ofsociety. Family planning was available to married upper- and middle-class women- 9 -who could afford the services of a private physician. Unfortunately, for those leastable to support large families, birth control information and services were not usuallyaccessible (Planned Parenthood Federation of Canada, 1989:1).In February of 1969, six months before the amendment of the Canadian CriminalCode, the Government of British Columbia granted its first annual grant of $4,000.00 to theFamily Planning Association of B.C. (Family Planning Association of British Columbia,1973). Various grants enabled many more clinics to open in Vancouver and thesurrounding area over the next few years. By January 1973, there were eleven clinicsoperating in the province with a combined client load of 8,000 (Family Planning Associationof British Columbia, 1973). The Provincial Government helped support Planned Parenthoodwith progressively larger annual grants until 1982 when the grant totalled $166,800.00(Family Planning Association of B.C., 1974). In 1983, the Provincial Government grantwas discontinued. This loss of funding inevitably lead to many changes within theorganization. For example, the Vancouver branch was forced to share space with theprovincial office, resulting in the amalgamation of many services (Ibid.).There are now twenty-one branches of Planned Parenthood operating in the province(Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia, 1993). The Planned ParenthoodHead office is located on West Broadway in Vancouver. In British Columbia, there was atotal of 13,481 client visits in 1992-93, and of these 1,757 were new clients and 11,724returning clients (Ibid.). Forty-five percent of new clients in 1992-1993 were aged 15-19years old, thirty-six percent 20-29 years old, nine percent 30-39 years old, eight percentunder 15 years old, and one percent over 40 years old. The bulk of returning clients camefor pill pick-up (58.4%), oral contraceptive follow-up (17.3%), or for annual examinations(13.6%). The majority of new clients came for oral contraceptives (40.7%), pregnancycounselling (28.4%), or other counselling (18%) (Ibid.).The Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia had three sources ofrevenue in the 1993 fiscal year: 1) fund raising, 2) services, and 3) investment income.Fund raising generated United Way contributions ($79, 557.00); research grants- 10 -($17,322.00); other grants ($27,847.00); donations and memberships ($18,619.00); andcasinos, bingo and other ($99,231.00). The following services generated the bulk of theassociation's revenue: medical service commission ($208,076.00); clinic services($15,356.00); medical supplies-sales ($215,899.00); educational supplies-sales ($9,913.00);educational fees ($17,585.00); and conference fees ($8,360.00). Investment income alsogenerated a small amount of money for the organization ($2,595.00). The total of thesethree sources of revenue is $720,261.00. Fund raising is ongoing, or revenue is contributedannually in the case of grants. All sources of revenue fluctuate regularly. None of therevenues is guaranteed. Operation costs for each clinic vary, so allocations to clinics varyaccordingly. Allocations are dependent on such factors as projected expenses (rent andsalaries), and on-going expenses (equipment and supplies)(All information in this paragraphfrom the Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia, 1993).Four types of expenses were incurred to operate the organization: 1) humanresources, 2) services, 3) promotion, and 4) administration. Human resource expensesinclude honoraria ($10,024.00); salaries and benefits ($367,569.00); and physicians' services($110,945.00). Service expenses include medical supplies-costs ($73,152.00); educationalsupplies-costs ($9,640.00); and conference costs ($5,884.00). Travel ($7,572.00) andpublicity costs ($17,499.00) comprise promotional expenses. Administration expenses arecomposed of building occupancy ($44,359.00), telephone and postage bills ($15,111.00),office fees ($34,286.00); equipment ($18,918.00); and audit expenses ($7,885.00). Thetotal of these expenses is $722,844.00. The resulting deficit of the 1993 fiscal year is$2,583.00 (All information in this paragraph from the Planned Parenthood Association ofBritish Columbia, 1993). These figures demonstrate the financial hardship experienced bythe organization. The following chart details the types of revenue generated and expensesincurred in the 1993 fiscal year.- 11 -Figure 1Funding for the Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia1993 Fiscal YearREVENUE1) Fund raising:a) United Way Contributionsb)Grants: Research grantsOtherc) Donations and membershipsd) Casinos, bingo and other2) Services:a) Medical services commissionb)Clinic servicesc) Medical supplies- salesd) Educational supplies- salese) Education fees0 Conference fees3) Investment income:Total RevenueAmount $79,557.0017,322.0027,847.0018,619.0099,231.00208,076.0015,256.00215,899.009,913.0017,585.008,360.002,596.00720,261.00EXPENSES1) Human resourcesa) Honorariab) Salaries and benefitsc) Physicians' services2) Servicesa) Medical supplies- costsb)Educational supplies- costsc) Conference costs3) Promotiona) Travelb)Publicity10,024.00367,569.00110,945.0073,152.009,640.005,884.007,572.0017,499.004) Administrationa) Building occupancy^ 44,359.00b)Telephone and postage 15,111.00c) Office^ 34,286.00d) Equipment 18,918.00e) Audit 7,885.00Total Expenses 722,844.00DEFICIT FOR THE 1993 FISCAL YEAR: $2,583.00-12-It is important to note that the clinics vary widely in the clientele they serve and theservices they provide. The success of the volunteer program also differs in various clinics.This project is exclusively a case study of the Vancouver clinic. Some of the observationsare applicable to all Planned Parenthood volunteer programs, while others are peculiar to theVancouver clinic. Therefore, generalizations based on the observations of the Vancouverclinic must be made with caution.2 The Vancouver Clinic The Vancouver branch borrows space from the Women's Clinic at VancouverGeneral Hospital to operate the clinic. The Vancouver clinic has two small storage roomscontaining all of their files, filing cabinets, contraceptive devices, medical tests and othersupplies. All clinic supplies must be transferred from the storage space to their appropriateplaces for the clinic, then returned to storage at the end of the evening. The clinic is openevery Tuesday and Thursday evening and the second and fourth Wednesday every month.Tuesday and Thursday clinics focus on all contraceptive methods, and Wednesday clinicsare designated as cap clinics. Wednesday clinics focus on caps and diaphragms becauselearning to use these methods requires more time than other contraceptive methods.The first appointments are at 6:30 p.m. for pregnancy counselling clients and at 6:45p.m. for clients who wish to attend the methods talk. Regular appointments start at 7:00p.m. and finish at 8:30 p.m. Clients are required to make appointments for every visit to theclinic, including pill pick up. However, many clients fail to keep their appointments orclients without appointments show up, so it is difficult to predict the client load on any night.Sometimes there are too many clients, creating a huge backlog. At other times, there are toofew clients so there is insufficient work for the volunteers. Operations continue until allclients have received the necessary services, so this means that the clinic sometimes operatesuntil 10 o'clock in the evening or later. Activity is greatest at the beginning of the eveningwhen the methods talk and interviewing take place. The pace typically slows down toward- 13 -the middle of the evening when clients meet with the physicians, and workers await the lastfew appointments. There is then a flurry of activity as clean-up occurs at the end of theevening.Two supervisors work together to operate the clinic. They are both RegisteredNurses and have been working at the clinic for approximately two and a half years. Theywork well together and have been striving to improve the clinic since adopting their posts.Both have paid half-time positions. The supervisors' duties include ordering supplies;orienting new volunteers, physicians and other staff; liaising with the office to determineclient load and to obtain test results; scheduling volunteers for shifts; conducting follow upwith clients; and doing whatever is necessary to run the clinic efficiently.There is a paid staff person who operates the front desk every clinic night. There areseveral people who are trained to perform these duties and they negotiate who will workwhen. The front desk person is usually the first to arrive at the clinic to begin setting up forthe night. She answers the phone, greets clients and does the necessary paper work,dispenses birth control and collects payment, organizes new files, and liaises with thesupervisors and volunteers to make sure everything is operating well.Two physicians work on each clinic night. There is a pool of seventeen physicianswho work at the clinic. Most of the physicians in the pool are female, so there are mostfrequently two female physicians or one male and one female physician working.Supervisors try to avoid booking two male physicians on the same night because someclients prefer female physicians. Physicians arrive about 7 o'clock and remain until they seethe last client. The clinic process is frequently modified so that the physicians are not idle.Physicians spend as much time as necessary with each client and every physician sets heror his own pace and approach. Physicians are paid for their services through the MedicalServices Plan. Many work for Planned Parenthood because they strongly believe in theprogram's mandate and/or because they want more experience in the field of women's healthand reproductive care.- 14 -Volunteers comprise the largest number of workers at the clinic. They donatenumerous hours to the organization with no financial compensation. All are female.Volunteers are required to take a twelve hour training course before beginning to volunteer.This course costs forty dollars and is offered one evening per week, three hours per night,for four consecutive weeks. The pregnancy counselling training course is optional, laststwelve hours and also costs forty dollars. It is offered in a single week end, with classes onFriday night, then all day the following Saturday. Course fees are sometimes subsidized orwaived if a volunteer cannot afford the fee. Volunteers perform a wide variety of duties forthe organization, including: performing nursing, the methods talk, interviewing, pregnancycounselling, making new files, filing, and helping out wherever else they are needed. Likethe physicians, there is a large pool of volunteers, but only a small pocket of volunteerswork regularly.The following are descriptions of the main volunteer duties. The main component ofeach duty is bolded.Nursing:• Assist physicians to physically examine clients• hand physicians all test apparatus• collect and prepare specimens for analysis• complete all documentation and attach to appropriate sample• comfort client• prepare examination room for next clientMethods talk:• Present a synopsis of all contraceptive methods to new or interested clients• describe use of each method• highlight pros and cons of each method• state failure rates• promote discussion of each method• respond to clients' questions and commentsInterviewing:• Complete standardized interview form• collect information on clients (biographical, sexual, medical history) to include inclient's file• address clients questions and concerns in a one on one environment• brief clients on clinic procedures• go over details of client's chosen contraceptive method using a check-list- 15 -Pregnancy Counselling:• Provide information regarding options and services for women who havesuspected or confirmed pregnancies• complete interview schedule if client is new• complete pregnancy counselling form to collect such information as lifecircumstances, goals, support network and contraceptive use• explore feelings about different options• perform pregnancy test and discuss results• refer client to services that may be useful to them• discuss contraceptive choice and use• explain abortion and adoption procedures if appropriate• encourage client to have a physical exam to confirm test resultsVolunteers arrive between 6:20 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. depending on what duties theyhave signed up to do. Although volunteers sign up to do a specific duty, duties arereevaluated at the beginning of each clinic when client load and volunteer staffing aredetermined. Complicating factors are that unscheduled volunteers frequently show up,while scheduled ones do not, or that volunteers have limited skills or prefer to do only oneduty. Volunteers are advised to be flexible and most are happy to help out wherever they areneeded. Volunteers leave throughout the evening depending on what duties they wereperforming, client load, and volunteer staffing, as well as personal commitments elsewhere.Some volunteers plan on staying to help clean up and close the clinic, but most leave whenall clients have been serviced.In conclusion, Planned Parenthood is a non-profit organization which relies heavilyon its volunteers. Volunteers deliver most of the clinic services and donate invaluable skillsand numerous hours to the organization. Volunteer recruitment and retention are paramountissues to countless organizations world wide, because they are essential to the success of avolunteer program. There is, therefore, substantial theory and research on these topics in theliterature.Most literature on volunteers adopts a highly individualistic perspective. For thisreason, I take elements of analysis that appear in organizational behaviour literature toprovide a broader and more sociological approach to understanding volunteer recruitmentand retention. The theoretical component is to add to volunteer literature by demonstrating- 16 -the need to use a multi-levelled analysis to analyze the complexity of a volunteer program.Individual variables such as situational factors, job satisfaction, and motivation are importantissues in volunteer recruitment and retention, but they illuminate only a small part of thewhole picture. A case study is, therefore, an appropriate sociological research strategy toexamine group processes such as cohesiveness, leadership, communication, job design, andaccessibility. These sociological factors are integral to a holistic understanding of theVancouver Planned Parenthood clinic volunteer program. The practical component of thisstudy is to generate recommendations to improve the volunteer program.An analysis of volunteer recruitment and retention is the focus of this study. Theensuing chapters comprise the diverse, but integrated components of this case study. Theliterature review is necessary to lay the groundwork for this research, while the methodologychapter describes the research design. The results chapter presents the findings anddiscusses the implications of this study. The final chapter presents conclusions andrecommendations resulting from this research.This case study examines the main components of the volunteer program. Anorganizational behaviour approach is used in this case study. This approach involves fivelevels of analysis, each of which builds upon the preceding one(s). These levels areindividual; group behaviour; interpersonal and organizational processes; organizationalstructure and job design; and organizational environment. There are multiple processeswithin each of these levels of analysis and these processes are discussed accordingly.Interviews, observational analysis, and document analysis are the three types of datecollection used to evaluate the volunteer program.- 17 -CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEWThe purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise summary of the literature onvolunteers. The recent literature on volunteers acknowledges the complexity ofvolunteerism. The difficulty in recruiting and retaining volunteers in order to maintain aneffective volunteer program is a primary concern in the literature. This newer literaturechallenges the over-simplification of these issues in the past, such as identifying altruism asthe primary volunteer motivator. However, as the following discussion demonstrates, astrong tendency persists to analyze volunteerism at an individual level. This trend is typifiedby concentrating on the individualistic aspects of the volunteer theories of work and leisure.Although these theories can be seen as sociological, much of the literature simply describesat an individual level who volunteers are and why they volunteer, rather than examining thesociological factors which influence recruitment and retention. Looking at the individual isimportant, but it is equally important to examine other levels to obtain a thoroughunderstanding of volunteer recruitment and retention. An organizational behaviour approachis offered as an alternative to these individual, thus limited, approaches.What is a Volunteer?: To avoid any ambiguity about the meaning of this term, Idefine a volunteer as a person who gives time, energy, skills, or knowledge voluntarily(freely) to a cause or activity without monetary profit (Schindler and Rainman, 1982-83).Similarly, Jenner defines a volunteer as someone who works out of free will for a non-profitorganization which serves someone or something other than its membership (Jenner, 1982).Volunteerism pertains to the act of volunteering, while voluntary refers to doing somethingfrom one's free will.-18-1  Who Volunteers? This section reviews the literature to determine who volunteers. Socio-demographiccharacteristics are highlighted since it is these characteristics which are most frequently usedto explain propensity to volunteer. Although there is a growing literature on volunteers, fewstudies have acknowledged or examined diversity among volunteers in order to explain whovolunteers for which organizations and for different types of volunteer work. Whendifferences between volunteers are ignored, potential important differences among patternsin volunteering are indiscernible (Ellis, 1984-86). Ellis argues that until we have clearlydescribed who volunteers for what, we cannot move on to more in-depth studies of otherissues relating to volunteers (Ibid.). Until an organization knows who volunteers for itsprograms, it cannot tailor its recruitment, training and orientation programs to meet itsindividual needs.Propensity to Volunteer: Studies show that many people volunteer, although thestatistics differ depending on the study and the researcher. O'Connell finds that"approximately half of all adult Americans are active volunteers, and they give an average of4.7. hours a week" (O'Connell, 1989:487). Hayghe writes that from May 1988 to May1989 "about 1 out of every 5 persons in the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years oldand over volunteered for an institution or organisation" (Hayghe, 1991:17). His figuresshow that twenty-two percent of women and nineteen percent of men did some work as avolunteer during this time period (Hayghe, 1991). His survey data also show that whilemost volunteers spend less than five hours a week at their main volunteer activity, more thanforty percent of his sample engage in some kind of volunteer activity in over half the weeksof the year (Ibid.). In addition, fully thirty percent of the volunteers in his sample volunteerevery week (Ibid.).My review of the literature shows that there are readily discernible and recurringpatterns in voluntary action. Numerous studies find that sex, age, ethnic background,education, and marital status are all related to volunteer rates, time spent volunteering, as- 19 -well as to the reasons people give for doing volunteer work (Gillespie and King, 1985).Hayghe finds that those most likely to volunteer are women, people in their thirties orforties, whites, highly educated people, and married people (Hayghe, 1991).Gender: Historically, upper to middle class white women have provided volunteerlabour to numerous causes. This is because these women tended not to seek employment,particularly while there were children in the home. To give their lives additional purpose andto contribute to important causes, they spent a significant segment of their work lives asvolunteers (Jenner, 1981).In more recent times, even though women with young children are far more likely towork outside of the home, they make up a larger proportion of both part-time workers andpeople not in the labour force than do men (Hayghe, 1991). However, the gender gappersists even when males and females in these groups are compared: women in thesegroups are more likely to do volunteer work than their male counterparts (Ibid.). One of thereasons for this is that women tend to be the primary care givers for their children. As such,many become involved in volunteer work through their children's school, recreation orreligious activities (Ibid.). Fathers also have opportunities for volunteer activity throughtheir children, but to a lesser extent (Ibid.).Age: People aged thirty-five to forty-four years old are more likely to volunteer thanpeople of any other age group (Hayghe, 1991; Vaillancourt and Payette, 1984-86).Parenthood may also account for this trend. People in this age group are likely to havechildren in the home and get involved with volunteer activities through them. Anotherreason is that people in this age group may have more time, energy and financial resources,enabling them to volunteer more than younger or older groups. Yet another reason may bethat people in this age group have been more strongly socialized to see volunteering as a partof a complete life than other age groups.- 20 -Ethnic Differences: White people are more likely to volunteer than any otherethnic/racial group (Hayghe, 1991). This may be because whites tend to be more affluentthan other groups, giving them the resources to volunteer. For example, they may be morelikely to have reliable transportation, regular work hours so that they can plan activitiesduring their time off, and the money to pay for child care while they volunteer. Otherfactors could be that whites are targeted for volunteer programs more than people from otherorigins, or that white culture more strongly encourages volunteer activity as a part of acomplete life. Another possibility is that most research focuses on white volunteers,resulting in an over representation of white volunteers in the literature.Education: Highly educated people are more likely to volunteer than less educatedones (Hayghe, 1991). Hayghe reports that "roughly 4 out of 10 college graduates 25 yearsold or over-both men and women- participated in unpaid volunteer work, compared withfewer than 1 in 10 among high school dropouts" (Hayghe, 1991:18). Because educationand income are positively correlated, "the higher their income, the more likely persons are toengage in volunteer work" (Hayghe, 1991:20). The reasons for these trends may beexplained by the differential access to resources explained above. There are two kinds ofcosts associated with volunteering. The first are monetary costs such as transportation andchild care costs. The second, and most important, are time costs. Time costs depend on thealternative uses of the time devoted to volunteer work" (Vaillancourt and Payette, 1984-86).More highly educated people and higher income groups may be better able to absorb thesecosts than other groups.Marital Status: Married people are more likely to do volunteer work thanunmarried persons (Hayghe, 1991). One of the reasons for this trend is that married peopleare more likely than other groups to have children living with them (Ibid.). As alreadyexplained, parents are likely to get involved in volunteer activities through their children.Many researchers find that the "propensity to volunteer has been noted as a functionof availability of discretionary time" (Unger, 1987:524). However, recent literature on- 21 -volunteerism indicates that although they are very busy, volunteers simply find the time tovolunteer (Unger, 1987). Unger concludes that the perceived availability of time may be asimportant as actual availability of time in determining volunteer behaviour (Ibid.). In fact,Unger finds that it is actually those people who perceived themselves to have the leastamount of time who volunteered the most (Ibid.). Of course, it may be that the respondentsperceived themselves to have so little leisure time precisely because they spent a substantialamount of time volunteering.2 Why Volunteer? Socio-demographic characteristics are related to propensity to volunteer as outlinedin the preceding section. These characteristics are also related to the reasons people give forvolunteering. For example, learning is the most frequently cited reason for volunteering bythose under twenty-five years of age, who are primarily students (Jenner, 1981). Thoseover fifty-five said they volunteered because they wanted to help others and because they feltan obligation to their community (Ibid.).The next section focuses on why people volunteer. Because of the diversity ofvolunteers, it is essential to examine what motivates people to volunteer in general, and whatmotivates them to join a specific organization or to do particular volunteer work. Only thencan the organization evolve to ensure that these expectations are met by the volunteerexperience (Gillespie and King, 1985). The results of better meeting volunteers' needs andexpectations will result in a more effective volunteer program with improved volunteerrecruitment and retention.Some common reasons for volunteering are belief in the organization's purpose, thechance to do interesting work, because a friend or acquaintance asked the respondent to join,respect for the people in the organization (Jenner, 1982), to help others, to contribute to thecommunity, out of a sense of obligation (Unger, 1987), and to obtain skills and training(Gillespie and King, 1985). Luks finds that people who volunteer experience the positive- 22 -physical benefit of feeling calm and the psychological benefit of enhanced self-worth (Luks,1988). These levels of calm may decrease morbidity and delay mortality among peoplewho participate in helping behaviour (Ibid). Most research focuses on the individualisticreasons for volunteering. Few studies examine the higher-level needs that can be met byvolunteering. Knoke is one of the few researchers who examines these other levels andconcludes that volunteers typically exhibit much higher levels of morale, self esteem,political efficacy, and community orientation as well as lower levels of alienation, apathy,and social withdrawal than non-volunteers (Knoke, 1981). These results show that not onlydo volunteers do valuable work, but that there is much to be gained from the volunteerexperience.3 Volunteer Recruitment Many researchers study recruitment to determine how best to attract volunteers.Watts and Edwards note that "it is essential in developing recruiting strategies to understandhow potential volunteers obtain information concerning opportunities for participation"(Watts and Edwards, 1982:10). Direct contact is arguably the most popular and mosteffective approach (Watts and Edwards, 1982). This includes the word of mouth approach,organizational membership, or knowing a friend or family member who benefits from aparticular service (Ibid.). These direct contact techniques can be facilitated by encouragingvolunteers to interact with prospective volunteers, asking volunteers to share their positivevolunteer experiences, and inviting prospective volunteers to social or educational events sothey can get to know some of the volunteers and to learn more about volunteering. Anothereffective recruitment method is to advertise for volunteers using newspaper ads, campusrecruitment offices or billboards for example.Once candidates express an interest in volunteering, screening techniques similar tothose used in the recruitment process for paid employees may be used to make hiringdecisions. For example, some agencies have a volunteer coordinator or committee whointerviews candidates in order to consider their personality, commitment, motivation, and- 23 -available time and schedule to help in hiring decisions (Holmes et al., 1979). Candidates'skills, education, and work experience can also be explored during an interview to determineif the person is a suitable candidate for the volunteer position. Personality tests may also beused to see if a candidate is suited to a particular role (McLennan, 1985). Sometimes arecruit is accepted into the training program, but realizes that his or her aspirations are notgoing to be met by the volunteer role. Such people can and do screen themselves out(Holmes et al., 1979).A thorough training program is also an excellent way to ensure that volunteers learnto perform their duties well. These programs must be tailored to specific volunteer roles andmust cover all relevant information. For example, a program may cover time-setting,confidentiality, handling termination and the uses of supervision (Holmes et al., 1979). Avariety of teaching techniques can also be used. For example, lectures, question and answersessions, and role-playing (Ibid.).Despite all the measures that can be taken to improve volunteer retention, therecruitment methods used by most organizations are rarely elaborate. Selection criteria ofteninclude simply the willingness and availability of the volunteer (Allen, 1987). Allen givesthree reasons why this situation occurs:The first involves, once again, the agency's role as the 'grateful recipient.' Turningdown an individual's sincere offer to help is extremely difficult-particularly when theagency has made widespread appeals for that help. Second, the demand forvolunteers usually exceeds the supply. Agencies requiring volunteers, therefore,resemble employers in a tight labor market-they cannot afford to be as 'choosy' asthey might otherwise prefer. Furthermore, because the rewards of the volunteer arepresumed to be intrinsic, he or she is perceived-probably quite accurately-assomeone with a genuine interest in the clients being served. The agency may feelreluctant to establish a policy which appears to question the value of the effortswhich this interest inspires (Allen, 1987:258).Allen notes that most agencies provide training to volunteers before they assume thefull volunteer role, but that this training is seldom adequate. The focus is often on theorganizational set-up of the agency rather than learning about the operation and goal of theprogram and/or having volunteers practice some of skills they will need and duties they will- 24 -perform (Allen, 1987). To remedy this situation, Allen suggests that more detailed trainingsessions be offered as well as continued training to upgrade volunteers' skills (Ibid.). Notonly would volunteers better perform their roles, benefiting the clients, other workers andthe organization, but would be more strongly integrated into the organization, therebyincreasing volunteer retention. Allen advises that the important role of volunteers warrantstheir involvement in all discussions of changes and improvements regarding theorganization (Ibid.).Maentz echoes many of Allen's sentiments. Maentz writes that there are morevolunteer positions to choose from now than there ever were, so that organizations have tocompete among each other to attract the best volunteers. Volunteers themselves have lessdiscretionary time, so that puts even more pressure on organizations to offer rewardingvolunteer positions. Agencies who are willing to review and tailor their program to bestmeet volunteers' needs will be at an advantage over other agencies in securing volunteerresources (Maentz, 1987; Netting, 1987). Maentz finds that successful organizationsprovide a rewarding role for volunteers so that they may learn and grow in their roles(Maentz, 1987). Successful organizations are "flexible in structure and opportunities, andyet they are organized and efficient. They have measurable goals to provide volunteers witha sense of accomplishment, and they provide training and support to allow the volunteers tobecome a motivator and enabler of others" (Maentz, 1987:79).4 Volunteer Retention Volunteer retention is currently a very popular topic in the volunteer literature.However, until recently, little attention had been given to turnover rates and the longevity ofvolunteers' participation in an organization after entry (Gidron, 1984; Rubin and Thorelli,1984). It is crucial to recruit volunteers successfully, because successful recruitmenthinders volunteer turnover rates. A high turnover rate can have such adverse effects asdisrupting the program (McLennan, 1985) and disrupting the planned expenditures forrecruiting, training, and orienting replacements (Gidron, 1985). Turnover rates can be high- 25 -because leaving a volunteer job does not involve a loss of pay, and positions are readilyavailable, so there is a high potential mobility within the labour pool (Jenner, 1981).Retention is a tremendously complex issue which warrants a brief overview.Gidron identifies variables related to volunteer retention in his study and profilescharacteristics of stayers and leavers.A typical 'stayer' was reportedly well prepared for his job; given a task which heconsidered interesting, challenging, and well-suited to his skills and knowledge;derived sense of accomplishment and achievement from his work; and performed inan environment of meaningful interaction with peers (Gidron, 1984:14-15).Many researchers find that the reasons given for joining an organization are not thesame as those given for maintaining the volunteer role. For example, Jenner found that theappeal of rewarding work was more often cited as a reason for staying than for joining,while people-oriented responses were most often chosen for joining (Jenner, 1982).An organization must clearly state the purpose of its volunteer program in order tosuccessfully recruit and retain volunteers (Phillips, 1982). By doing this, the organizationcan clearly show how volunteers are important to the organization and that they havesomething valuable to contribute by volunteering. Furthermore, stating the purpose sets thelimits of the task so that candidates can determine if they have the necessary skills, time, etc.to serve the volunteer role (Ibid.). Interviews and training sessions can be used to gather thisinformation (Ibid.).In order for any relationship to be sustained over time, the rewards must exceed, orat least balance the costs. This principle is known as social exchange. Phillips adopts thistheory as the best explanation as to why people volunteer initially and why they dis/continuevolunteering (Phillips, 1982). Jenner cautions against over-simplifying retention. Sheargues that volunteers are motivated to volunteer for different reasons. Consequently,longevity is predicted and determined by different sets of ambitions, needs and values(Jenner, 1981). Since there are diverse reasons for volunteering initially, no program canmeet everyone's goals (Gidron, 1984). The success of a program using volunteers is- 26 -dependent upon the program's professional staff clearly understanding and supporting themotivations which lead people to volunteer. It is important to realize that the efforts torecruit volunteers must have a different focus from those efforts designed to keep thevolunteers in the program (Phillips, 1982).Women-dominated agencies tend to be less aggressive in recruiting and retainingvolunteers. Interestingly, agencies totally dependent on female volunteers were found to beless likely to offer training than those with a more equal distribution of the sexes or wheremen outnumber women. Further, female-dominated organizations were less likely to offertraining, flexible scheduling, and increased responsibility as inducements to retain volunteersthan agencies with both female and male volunteers (Watts and Edwards, 1982). Women-dominated agencies tended to rely on word of mouth advertising for volunteer positions andreceived minimal exposure from the media (Ibid.).-27-5  Volunteer Theories Two theories of volunteer motivation are discussed here. These theories are a theoryof work and a theory of leisure. The former is by far the theory used most often in theliterature to explain volunteerism. The latter is a newer approach to understanding whypeople volunteer. These theories have some commonalities despite their contradictorynames. One of the fundamental similarities between the two theories is that they both adopta psychological perspective. The underlying argument of both is that volunteering is anactivity which individuals engage in to meet individual needs. When these needs are nolonger met, volunteers move onto something else. The focus is on the individual and howshe or he fits into the volunteer role in that organization. Little else about volunteers'experiences is taken into account. Both theories reject the idea that people volunteer forpurely altruistic reasons. Again, as the names of the theories imply, people are seen tovolunteer to fulfill their own needs, whether they are work- or leisure-related needs.5a Volunteerism as WorkAccording to the work theory of volunteerism, volunteering meets work-relatedneeds. Volunteer work is seen as identical to paid work other than the lack of monetaryreward associated with volunteer work. Volunteering, like paid work, provides work-relatedsatisfaction, consumes energy and time, provides a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards,and has a significant impact on self-concept (Jenner, 1981). Women and men are thought touse volunteer work as a means of career preparation, or to maintain skills and contactsduring a break in an employment because their work lives are interrupted, unfulfilled or pre-empted by child bearing and raising (Gidron, 1978; Jenner, 1981).This theory stipulates that a person will be motivated to volunteer when primaryinterest, obligations, and needs can be met comfortably while giving service to others(Henderson, 1981). Similarly, Knoke and Prensky write that participants will continue theirparticipation in the organization only so long as the inducements offered to them are as great- 28 -or greater (measured in terms of their values and in terms of alternatives open to them) thanthe contribution they are asked to make (Knoke and Prensky, 1984). Note that Knoke andPrensky's definition of the benefits and liabilities of volunteering parallel the explanation ofstaff turnover in paid employment.Jenner notes that volunteer activity serves different purposes for different women(Jenner, 1981). Recent theories examining the determinants of volunteerism have focusedon the altruistic and egoistic motives (Rubin and Thorelli, 1984). However, someresearchers show that no one volunteers entirely for altruistic reasons. In fact, even the mostaltruistic acts are motivated by the anticipation of psychic rewards derived from knowingthat ones acts helped someone else or contributed to the attainment of a valued end (Ibid.).Jenner writes thatfor many women, volunteer work is an element in the life-long progression of jobsthat makes up a career. To ignore its place in that progression is to lose a bit ofunderstanding about careers. To ignore the impact of all other jobs on the availabilityand commitment of the volunteer is to lose sight of a major influence on what isalways a luxury-the opportunity and energy to do work which does not contribute tothe survival needs of the individual or her dependents (Jenner, 1981:313-14).As this description of the work theory of volunteerism shows, volunteerism is seenas an adjunct to, or a substitute for, paid work. The motivations to pursue volunteer workand the rewards expected to be derived from this work parallel those associated with paidwork. Attainment of individual work needs through volunteerism is positively correlated tovolunteer retention.5b Volunteerism as LeisureThe volunteer theory of leisure stipulates that volunteering meets leisure needs.According to this theory, leisure activities like volunteering meet the higher levelpsychological needs of self-esteem, belonging, and self actualization (Henderson, 1984-86).Volunteers and leisurers seek common benefits from their experiences, such as being ofservice to others, using time constructively, feeling needed, receiving enjoyment, learning- 29 -something, interacting with others, and being with particular people or meeting people(Ibid.). In a study by Henderson, volunteers likened volunteering to a leisure activity,lending credence to the parallel between volunteering and leisure proposed above(Henderson, 1981). Henderson argues that the volunteer experience is beneficial when thevolunteer receives through the volunteer role the same kinds of rewards which would beachieved through leisure activities (Henderson, 1984-86). Volunteering and leisure are bothfreely chosen. Leisure is generally associated with enjoyment and it is particularly importantthat the elements of enjoyment are manifested in volunteering in order for the role to becontinued (Ibid.).5c Organizational BehaviourI want to know who volunteers at the Vancouver Planned Parenthood clinic, andwhy people volunteer there. In addition, I want to know about volunteers' experiences inrecruitment, retention, training, orientation, and experiences inside and outside the clinic toenable us to understand why some volunteers become regular, long-term volunteers, whileothers do not. Volunteers' behaviour at the clinic is also examined. Observational analysisand interviews are used to conduct the analysis of the volunteer program. Much of theinformation presented thus far shows that there is much more to volunteering than theindividual level of analysis which is employed by the volunteer theories of work and leisure.Without negating the importance of individual factors, it is necessary to acknowledge thatthere are many issues that go beyond the individual to explain volunteer recruitment,retention and the overall effectiveness of a volunteer program. Example of such factors arecohesiveness, autonomy, leadership, and communication. These important factors can beinvestigated when this multi-leveled analysis of organizational behaviour is adopted as aninvestigative approach. This framework can be applied to the organizational behaviour of asmall unit of analysis. In this case, this unit is the volunteer program of the VancouverPlanned Parenthood clinic. This volunteer program is examined from five levels ofanalysis which together comprise organizational behaviour. These levels and components- 30 -have been adopted from Arnold, Feldman, and Hunt and modified to meet the distinctiverequirements of this study. The levels of analysis I employ are:1) the individual: this level focuses on psychological factors and individuallevel processes. The individual level of analysis includes situational factors,job satisfaction, and motivation (Arnold, Feldman, and Hunt, 1992);2) group behaviour: this level refers to how people work together incommittees, teams or groups. It goes beyond the individual to examine theinteractive processes that affect volunteers' experiences. This level examinesfactors that determine whether a group will be cohesive and productive, asopposed to fragmented and unproductive. Such factors includecohesiveness, group inclusion, and leadership (Ibid.);3) interpersonal and organizational processes: this level includes theinterpersonal and organizational processes that keep individual groups andthe overall organization operating smoothly and efficiently; and the activitiesand processes organizations use to integrate and solidify the whole, such asautonomy, communication, recruitment, training, orientation, and scheduling(Ibid.);4) organizational structure and job design: This level includes the way inwhich organizations are formally structured and the way in which jobs aredesigned; an emphasis on understanding how organizational structures andjob design influence program effectiveness; and also takes into account theinformal arrangements that characterize and influence the relationship amongmembers that can have an impact on its effectiveness. Job design, thevolunteer program, the clinic, and bureaucracy are discussed in this section(Ibid.);5)^organizational environment: this level is comprised of the macro-levelenvironment in which Planned Parenthood operates and analyzes therelationship between the organization and its environment. Accessibility andfunding are the two components which comprise this level of analysis. Thislevel goes beyond the four levels of organizational behaviour frameworkproposed by Arnold, Feldman, and Hunt. I include it because it completes aholistic framework, thus providing a complete analysis of organizationalbehaviour. When volunteering is examined as an organizational activity,sociologists draw parallels to work or leisure. Examination of volunteeringas an activity highlights the need to study the context and process oforganizational behaviour.The following figure illustrates the five levels of analysis that are examined in thiscase study. The components of these levels are also included to illustrate what kinds ofissues will be discussed under each heading. This figure is presented again in the Resultsand Interpretations chapter at the beginning of each level of analysis. In these sections the31level of analysis that is being discussed is heavily outlined to show where the section falls inthis model. This figure is intended to serve as a useful road map of the levels of analysisand the topics that are investigated in this research.Figure 2Levels of AnalysisAccessibilityFundingOrganizationalEnvironmentJob DesignVolunteer ProgramClinicBureaucracyOrganizationalStructure andJob DesignCohesivenessGroup InclusionLeadershipAutonomyCommunicationRecruitmentTrainingOrientationSchedulingInterpersonal andOrganizational ProcessesGroup BehaviourSituation FactorsJob SatisfactionMotivationIndividualI contend that a researcher must look far beyond individual factors to explain thecomplex issues of organizational effectiveness and volunteer recruitment and retention. The- 32 -analytical framework of organizational behaviour as presented by Arnold, Feldman, andHunt permits us a much more profound understanding of these issues. A rich and detailedanalysis results when the volunteer program is examined from these five distinct, yetinterrelated levels of analysis.Unlike many other studies that focus solely on the individual volunteer to explainretention, Gidron's study adopts a holistic approach in explaining volunteer retention(Gidron, 1984). However, Gidron does not formally acknowledge an organizationalbehaviour framework in his study. According to Gidron's study, the major predictors ofvolunteer retention are good preparation for the volunteer role, placement in a job where thevolunteers can use their self expression and where they can see the results of their work, andhave positive interaction with their peers (Ibid.). Similarly, organizational flexibility andefficiency, sociability and friendship, self-development and increased volunteerresponsibility, community impact and personal gain are all strongly related to retention rates(Jenner, 1982; Watts and Edwards, 1982). Jenner concludes that people volunteer to meetneeds that are not met by other facets of their lives (Jenner, 1982). These needs go beyondindividual characteristics.A definition of a volunteer, a description of who volunteers and an explanation as towhy people volunteer have been among the issues addressed in the foregoing discussion. Atheory of work and a theory of leisure have been presented here as two popular explanationsof volunteerism in recent literature. I have explained that these theories are inadequatebecause they fail to recognize that there are many variables beyond the individual level whichcontribute to the success of a volunteer program. Organizational behaviour has been offeredas a more holistic approach to understanding and analyzing these complex issues.- 33 -CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGYThis chapter describes the methodology used to gather the information presented insubsequent chapters of this research project. In the following discussion I outline the detailssurrounding the choice, format, implementation and application of each of the methods.Using an organizational behaviour approach for this study necessitates methodsdifferent from those usually used to study volunteer recruitment and retention. Most studiesfocus on interviews with individual volunteers. Questions relate to what motivates people tovolunteer, what they get out of volunteering, as well as other individual level questions.Seldom do these studies look beyond the individual to other aspects of the volunteerexperience. For example, questions about interaction with other volunteers, leadership,autonomy, and orientation are frequently neglected. Furthermore, methods other thanpersonal interviews and self-administered questionnaires are seldom employed. There is awealth of information to be investigated beyond the individual level. Interviews andquestionnaires only gather part of this information.Organizational behaviour directs us to look beyond volunteers' experiences. Thisinvolves utilizing other methods of data collection which together with largely individuallevel data provided by interviews, provide a more holistic understanding of volunteerrecruitment and retention. For this reason, I conduct interviews, perform observationalanalysis, and analyze Planned Parenthood's documents to give a detailed understanding ofthese issues. These methods are typically used when conducting a case study. A case studyis "based on condensed field experience involving observation (rather than the classicparticipant observer strategy), tape-recorded interviews and the collection of documents"(Burgess, 1984:2). The need for multiple methods is apparent when conducting a casestudy.- 34 -Data Collection Methods: As already noted, three methods of data collection areused in this study. These methods are 1) interviews with former and current PlannedParenthood volunteers as well as informal interviews with paid staff, 2) on-siteobservational methods, and 3) analysis of Planned Parenthood's documents. These threemethods were chosen because they interrelate well to examine the multiple levels of analysisproposed by organizational behaviour. Each of these methods of data analysis yieldsvaluable information which contributes to the understanding of the five levels oforganizational behaviour which were described in the previous chapter. This triangulationof methods yields the richest possible data.Rich data mean, ideally, a wide and diverse range of information collected over arelatively long period of time...the collection is achieved through direct, face-to-facecontact with, and prolonged immersion in, some social location or circumstance(Lofland and Lofland, 1984:11).The advantage of this multidimensional analysis is that it allows a realistic picture of thecomplex organizational behaviour at the Vancouver Planned Parenthood clinic volunteerprogram.1 Individual Level of AnalysisInterviews: The largest component of data collection consists of surveying formerand current volunteers using interviews. I interviewed thirty-two volunteers. In general,"interviews permit us to measure the prevalence of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors"(Weisberg, Krosnick, and Bowen, 1989:20). The reason for conducting interviews is thatwhen "it is possible to ask people questions, we can gain much information about what theyare thinking-and why they do things" (Weisberg, Krosnick, and Bowen, 1989:19).Specifically, in this study, interviews provide us with a snapshot of the volunteer programand clinic operations from an individual level of analysis. The target population is thevolunteers themselves. The purpose of the interviews is to survey volunteers' experiences atthe clinic and to garner their suggestions for improving the volunteer program and the clinic.The volunteers are very knowledgeable and articulate. The value of asking them to share- 35 -their experiences, perspectives and ideas cannot be understated. Respondents' answers arecompiled and the information is used to generate recommendations to improve the volunteerprogram and clinic effectiveness.The Sample: The average age of volunteers in my sample was thirty years old. Themajority of respondents worked full-time as professionals at the time of interviewing (18).Four worked part-time or as relief staff, and three worked part-time as they attended schoolfull- or part-time. Seven did not work and most of these were full-time students. All of therespondents were post-secondary school graduates (twenty-three at University level, two atcollege level) or working on a post-secondary degree graduate or undergraduate degree (fiveat University level, two at college level). Fifteen respondents were single, fifteen weremarried, and two were divorced. Only five of the respondents had children, while twenty-seven did not. Ten respondents described their racial/ethnic background as WASPCanadian, nine as Canadian of European descent, five as white/Caucasian, four as Canadian,three as Jewish Canadian, and one as a Canadian of Chinese ancestry. These statisticsportray a relatively homogeneous picture of the Vancouver Planned Parenthood clinicvolunteers on socio-demographic characteristics.Access to former and current volunteers was facilitated by the clinic supervisors.The supervisors compiled a list of former and current volunteers who they felt would begood candidates for the research project. A phone number for each volunteer was includedon this list so that I could telephone potential respondents. All regular volunteers wereincluded on the volunteer list. I wanted to interview as many current core volunteers aspossible because I thought they would have the most to say about the volunteer program andclinic. The candidate list also included former core volunteers, new volunteers who hadrecently completed the training course, and non-committed volunteers. The data collectionyielded the following types and description of volunteers:1)^Current Core Volunteers: There are twelve volunteers in this category.All volunteer regularly, typically two to four times per month. All havevolunteered for one year or more and are currently active. The supervisorsrely on these volunteers when they need to fill shifts.- 36 -2) Former Core Volunteers: There are nine volunteers in this category.These volunteers volunteered regularly, typically two to four times permonth. All volunteered for at least one year. None of these volunteers areactive. They quit volunteering at Planned Parenthood because they felt theyreceived all they could from volunteering or because they had a change in lifecircumstances which prevented them from continuing the volunteer role e.g.having a baby.3) New Active Volunteers: There are five volunteers in this category. Thesevolunteers have been coming very frequently, about once per week, sincecompleting the training course. They have all volunteered for less than oneyear, and some are still orienting.4)^Non-committed Volunteers: There are six volunteers in this category.These volunteers tended to volunteer frequently for a short period of time,typically two to six months. They were not satisfied with the volunteerexperience and discontinued the volunteer role relatively quickly.I caution that not all volunteers at the Vancouver clinic fit into these categories. Mostnotable are those volunteers who took the training course but never volunteered, those whofailed to complete orientation, and those who volunteered only one or two times. Thesupervisors and I agreed that it would not be useful to interview those volunteers who didnot give the volunteer experience a fair chance before discontinuing the role. Furthermore, Idecided that it would be difficult to contact these potential respondents and get them to agreeto an interview. Even if an interview was scheduled, I doubted that volunteers with so littleinteraction with the organization would have many experiences to share.Groups three and four in the above descriptions are of most concern to this studybecause the third group may not commit to volunteering, while the fourth group definitelydid not. The supervisors and I wanted to develop strategies to ensure that members ofgroup three continue volunteering by learning from the experiences and comments generatedfrom the other groups, especially group four.The current core volunteers are also important because these are highly dedicated andexperienced, therefore the organization cannot bear to lose them. The former core volunteersare important because most of them volunteered at the clinic before or around the time thecurrent supervisors adopted their posts. Many of them, therefore, had comments about how- 37 -the clinic operated when they were volunteers. Many volunteers dropped out soon after thenew supervisors began working, partly because they were dissatisfied with the way theclinic and volunteer program were being handled. We have much to learn from theseformer core volunteers who have a very different perspective from the other groups.I wanted to interview some volunteers from each of these groups, but anticipateddifficulty in contacting potential respondents from the latter three groups and securing theirparticipation in the study. I, therefore, decided I would interview all willing participants. Isimply wanted to interview as many volunteers as possible, with a maximum diversity ofrespondents. For example, I wanted to interview volunteers from all ranges of experience,active and non-active volunteers, and regular and sporadic volunteers. The supervisors keptthis in mind when they drew up the list of potential respondents. I called everyone on thelist. I was not concerned with obtaining a random sample because the purpose of theinterviews was to hear a selection of volunteers' experiences and suggestions.The supervisors and I informed the active volunteers of my impending study in themonths preceding data collection, so all were aware they would be asked to participate. Ialso put up a recruitment notice in the clinic so that volunteers could learn the details of thestudy. Participation was completely voluntary, and interviews were anonymous andconfidential. These features were noted on recruitment notices and reviewed at thebeginning of interviews.I began recruiting respondents in March of 1993 by personal or telephone contact. Icompleted the first four interviews, then made minor revisions of the interview schedule. Ithen completed twenty-eight additional interviews to yield a total of thirty-two interviews. Imade contact with most of the regular volunteers at the clinic and interviewed them therebefore the clinic began, when it was over, or when there was a lull in activity. I did theseinterviews first because I anticipated that the regular volunteers would be the easiest tocontact and would be the most willing to participate in the study. I attended every clinic forthree weeks and interviewed nearly all of the regular volunteers on those clinic nights. I also- 38 -pitched in to help as a regular volunteer or pregnancy counsellor when it was particularlybusy, or when the clinic was short-staffed.When I determined that my interview schedule was working well and I had moreinterview experience, I began calling the potential respondents on my volunteer list. Iexplained who I was, why I was calling, and asked potential respondents to participate in thestudy. I was expecting a lot of resistance and a number of refusals, and was delighted whennearly everyone happily agreed to participate. In fact, many people even offered to come tomy home to be interviewed. I made appointments with others to interview them at theirhome or work place. Interestingly, I made several appointments with non-active volunteersto meet them at the clinic because they were contemplating resuming their volunteer work.My call was what gave them the incentive to become active again. I scheduled many shiftsfor regular and non-regular volunteers alike as a result of the recruitment calls I made. Allinterviews were complete by the third week of April, 1993.No one I made contact with flatly refused to participate in the study. One volunteerwas unable to participate because her spring schedule was incredibly hectic and she couldnot participate in the spring or summer. This respondent offered to arrange an interview inthe fall. Another respondent cancelled her interview when she realized how far behind shewas in studying for her final exams. I planned to complete my data collection by the timethese two respondents would be available, and because I already had sufficient respondents,I did not set up other appointments with them. A few volunteers did not return my calls, afew had moved, a few phone numbers were no longer active, and a few consented toparticipate, but I was unable to contact them again to set up an appointment. I was highlysatisfied at completing thirty-two interviews, an extremely high success rate consideringthere were only forty-three potential respondents on my list. I was particularly happy tointerview seventeen non-active volunteers since I had anticipated that they would not only bedifficult to contact, but would hesitate to participate in a study associated with anorganization with which they are no longer involved.- 39 -Respondents were asked to read and sign a letter of consent regarding theirparticipation in the study. Each respondent and I received a copy of this letter for ourrecords. The interviews were between twenty and sixty minutes long, with an averagelength of thirty minutes. I debated about whether or not to tape record interviews becausedoing so gives an air of formality and tension to the interview that I would have preferred toavoid. However, after reviewing the literature, I decided that the advantages of tape-recording outweighed the disadvantages. Therefore, all interviews were tape-recorded withthe respondent's permission. According to Lofland and Lofland,it is imperative that you tape record the interview itself. Since there is no strict orderof questioning and since probing is an important part of the process, you must bevery alert to what the interviewee is saying. If you have to write everything down atthe same time you are unlikely to be able adequately to attend to the interviewee.Your full attention must be focused upon the informant. You must be thinkingabout probing for further explication or clarification of what is now being said;formulating probes that link current talk with what has already been said; thinkingahead to asking a new question that has now arisen and was not accounted for in theguide (plus making a note so you won't forget the question); and attending to theinterviewee in a manner that communicates to her or him that you are indeedlistening (Lofland and Lofland, 1984:60-61).As it turned out, few respondents mentioned the tape recorder and all seemedoblivious to it once the interview started. Perhaps tape recording did not present anyproblems because I explained specifically why I preferred to record the interviews, thenplaced the tape recorder in an inconspicuous place out of the respondent's vision. I tooksome notes during lulls in the interview and filled out a summary describing how eachinterview went immediately following the interview. I listened to each of the tapes as soonas possible following the interview and recorded any additional information that came up,clarified information, and recorded any interesting quotes verbatim.The Interview Schedule: The interview schedule contains twenty-eight items.Some questions have sub-items, and not all questions are relevant to all respondents. Theinterview schedule was constructed to measure situational factors (such as volunteerlongevity and status), job satisfaction (such as volunteer frequency and preferred duties), andmotivation for volunteering initially. There are two sections in the questionnaire: qualitative- 40 -and quantitative. The first contains questions designed to elicit the respondents' perspectivesand ideas regarding their volunteer experiences and clinic operations. These questions areopen-ended because "open-ended questions are usually the most interesting (and possiblythe most valuable) questions in a survey. Respondents say whatever they wish in responseto these questions, and interviewers record their answers verbatim. These questions allowrespondents to express themselves; if respondents give inconsistent, bigoted, witty, dumb,sophisticated, or knowledgeable answers, all that is preserved on the questionnaire"(Weisberg, Krosnick, and Bowen, 1989:105). The second section is designed to gathersocio-demographic and behavioural information about the respondents. Some of thesequestions are open-ended because I could not anticipate responses. This allowed me todevelop answer categories once the interviews were complete. The other questions in thissection are close-ended when the categories are mutually exclusive and exhaustive, forexample, the question on marital status.Most interview topics relate primarily to the individual level of analysis, yet theanswers generated from the questions also strongly relate to group behaviour; interpersonaland organizational processes; organizational structure and job design; and organizationalenvironment. Respondents' insights and experiences contributed to our understanding ofvolunteer recruitment and retention. Respondents used their own observations andexperiences as participants to address these other sociological levels of the organizationalbehaviour of the volunteer program.I asked respondents if there was anything not covered by the interview schedule. Noone had anything to add. I also asked the first dozen respondents for their input regardingthe questionnaire and was told that the questions were clear, and the schedule was in alogical order and covered everything it should. Nonetheless, I changed a couple of thingsfor the subsequent interview schedules. Namely, I decided to ask about pregnancycounselling training and orientation individually rather than amalgamating it with the regularvolunteer course and training. I also decided to ask non-active volunteers why they- 41 -continued to volunteer at Planned Parenthood as long as they did as well as why theystopped volunteering. I found that the interview schedule worked well to initiate discussionand gather detailed information. As anticipated, respondents were very willing to talk and allcontributed to the study with their respective experiences, and invaluable comments andideas.I also informally interviewed both supervisors to obtain their impressions of theclinic operations and the volunteer program. Discussions with the supervisors have takenplace over the past year and have yielded all sorts of interesting ideas. The supervisors arefully aware that the Vancouver clinic is not operating at optimum efficiency and have beenworking on strategies to improve the situation since they adopted their posts two and a halfyears ago. Both supervisors were instrumental in getting this study off the ground. In fact,it was through a discussion about the volunteer program with one of the supervisors that Icame up with the idea to do a case study of the Vancouver clinic for my thesis.2 Group Behaviour, Interpersonal and Organizational Processes and Organizational Structure and Job Design Group behaviour, interpersonal and organizational processes, and organizationalstructure and job design are all explored through observational techniques, in addition tointerviews. My participation in the organization as a volunteer has accorded me tremendousinsight into the volunteer program and clinic.Observational Analysis: I have been a regular volunteer at the Vancouver clinicfor almost three years and have been a Planned Parenthood client for seven years. I havewitnessed the negative and positive aspects of the clinic workings and the volunteer programfirst hand. I began observing goings-on at the clinic long before I thought of studying theorganization formally. Throughout the years I have experienced a wide range of situationsand developed many ideas and recommendations. Numerous discussions with my co-workers have also yielded a wealth of information, as have discussions with clients. All of- 42 -these aspects of participation are employed in order to examine the organizational behaviourof the clinic from the group behaviour, interpersonal and organizational processes, andorganizational structure and job design levels of analysis.As an insider researcher, I had the advantage of already knowing my subjects.Known investigators-whether doing intensive interviewing or participantobservation-enjoy the tremendous advantage of being able to move around, observe,and/or question in a relatively unrestricted way...Only common standards ofdecorum, tact, courtesy, and circumspection-that is, only the necessity of gettingalong with the participants-need interfere with their' snooping' and 'prying.' And notetaking is generally not problematic (Lofland and Lofland, 1984:49-50).I did my research openly, made my intentions known, gained cooperation from the settingparticipants, and depended on the characters of the setting. I also sought formal permissionfrom the subjects, the supervisors, and the organization. According to Lofland and Lofland,it seems quite typical for outside researchers to gain access to settings or personsthrough contacts they have already established...In short, wherever possible, youshould try to use preexisting relations of trust to remove barriers to entrance (Loflandand Lofland, 1984:25).I am certain that an outsider could not have conducted as successful a study assomeone with my insider status. I had the full support of the clinic staff and volunteers aswell as the Head office staff. I am one of the most experienced and regular volunteers andas such possessed helpful insider knowledge. In addition, I already had the respect of thepeople with whom I was working.3 Organizational Environment Document Analysis: The last and smallest component of data collection isdocument analysis. An analysis of Planned Parenthood's literature is performed in order toreview documents including the distribution pamphlet, annual reports, conferencepublications, clinic newsletters, and historical publications. These analyses provide theinformation necessary to complete the understanding of the organizational behaviour of theVancouver clinic. This data collection technique is used in part to study organizational- 43 -behaviour from the organizational environment level. The results of this data collectionmethod are presented primarily in the introductory chapter of this project.The materials I examined were all published by the Planned Parenthood Federationof Canada, the Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia, or the Vancouverclinic. Specifically, these documents were composed of the Planned Parenthooddistribution pamphlet; the 1992 and 1993 Planned Parenthood Association of BritishColumbia annual reports; Community Responses, Needs and Priorities; aVancouver branchnewsletter; and the 20th Anniversary Pioneer Address book. These documents span from1973 to 1993. I seek detailed information regarding the Vancouver clinic and the provincialand federal organizations from these materials. Program mandate, services and programsoffered by the organization, staffing, the history of the organization, funding, and clienteleare among the issues explored through document analysis. This form of analysis takes usbeyond the clinic level and permits us to understand how the clinic is affected by itsrelationship to the Planned Parenthood Association of British Columbia. This informationis integral to understanding of the Vancouver clinic and the volunteer program.The triangulation of interviews, observational analysis, and document analysisallows us to examine all five levels of the organization proposed by the organizationalbehaviour framework. The results of this complex analysis will not only yield practicalrecommendations for Planned Parenthood, but will have theoretical implications as well.Recommendations which Planned Parenthood can use to develop a more effective volunteerprogram, especially in regards to volunteer recruitment and retention, comprise the practicalcomponent of this project. Contributions to the volunteer literature and to sociologycomprise the theoretical component of this project. The multi-levelled analysis demonstratesthat the individual level of analysis is only one of the many levels of analysis which affectsthe success of a volunteer program. This approach also shows that the volunteer theories ofleisure and work both contribute to our understanding of volunteer recruitment and retention.The next chapter discusses the results and interpretations of this multi-level analysis.- 44 -CHAPTER FOURRESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONSThe purpose of this chapter is to present the results and interpretations of this study.The results are reported sequentially from a micro to a macro level of analysis. Hence,results are discussed in order of individual level, group behaviour, interpersonal andorganizational processes, organizational structure and job design, and organizationalenvironment. The data have been organized into subheaded categories that are discussedunder the appropriate level of analysis.Most of the volunteers had multiple comments. For this reason, the number ofresponses exceeds the number of respondents for many questions.1 Individual Level of Analysis I have identified situational factors, job satisfaction, and motivation as the threecentral components of the individual level of analysis. The following discussion examineseach of these elements by integrating and presenting the interview data.AccessibilityFundingOrganizationalEnvironmentJob DesignVolunteer ProgramClinicBureaucracyOrganizationalStructure andJob DesignAutonomyCommunicationRecruitmentTrainingOrientationSchedulingInterpersonal andOrganizational ProcessesCohesivenessGroup InclusionLeadershipGroup Behaviour- 45 -Figure 3Levels of Analysis: Outline Depicts Individual Level of AnalysisSituation FactorsJob SatisfactionMotivationI^I Individualla Situational FactorsSituational factors refer to a combination of circumstances which influencevolunteerism. The situational factors which emerged from the interview data are volunteerstatus, longevity, prior interaction with Planned Parenthood, explanations for ceasing to- 46 -volunteer, and prior volunteer involvement. All of these factors interact to define anddetermine volunteerism.Volunteer Status: Seventeen of the thirty-two volunteers were active PlannedParenthood volunteers, while the remaining fifteen were not. All volunteers were easily ableto claim membership to one of these groups. Volunteer status results from a cumulation ofvolunteers' experiences within the organization. I include it as a situational factor becausestatus is not necessarily a result of job satisfaction, so it seems to fit best under this category.Volunteer Longevity: Average volunteer longevity at the Vancouver PlannedParenthood clinic is twenty-two months. The average longevity for active versus non-activevolunteers is seventeen months and twenty-seven months respectively. Average longevityis higher for non-active volunteers because they have completed their volunteer role,whereas active volunteers are continuing theirs. In addition, many of the non-activevolunteers volunteered when supervisors demanded long-term volunteering. Some of theactive volunteers took the volunteer training course offered immediately prior to the datacollection. Consequently, these volunteers had very little experience since they hadvolunteered for only a short period of time. It is difficult to anticipate how long they willretain their active status. The volunteer program would be highly successful if volunteerlongevity approached this average. However, this average is skewed because it excludes themany volunteers who dropped out even before I could interview them. Hence, theexperiences of these volunteers were precluded from the sample.Prior Contact: Fourteen of the respondents had interaction with PlannedParenthood before volunteering, while eighteen did not. The reason I asked this question isbecause I suspected that some respondents had been clients before becoming volunteers. Asanticipated, ten volunteers were former Planned Parenthood clients. Four other respondentshad prior interaction with Planned Parenthood in various ways. One worked with the clinicdirector, one interacted with a friend who raved about Planned Parenthood, one had a friend- 47 -who supervised another clinic, and another received sex education from Planned Parenthoodin another country.Reasons for Quitting: The following discussion is central to an analysis ofvolunteer retention because it focuses on non-active volunteers and their explanations fordiscontinuing their volunteer status. There were two types of reasons why non-activevolunteers ceased to volunteer at Planned Parenthood. These reasons are crucial to ourunderstanding of volunteer retention. The first explanations involve volunteer-relatedfactors. The second and most predominate reasons reflect clinic-related factors. There weretwo volunteer-related reasons offered by volunteers. These factors consist of becoming toobusy with other things in their lives to continue volunteering (9), and school or employmentconflicted with volunteering (4).The remaining answers are more diverse, but they all reflect clinic factors thatdissuaded volunteers from volunteering. There are seventeen explanations in this category.For example, one volunteer didn't feel useful, one had problems getting shifts at the clinic,and another found the environment at the clinic non-stimulating. One volunteer succinctlydescribes her reasons for quitting this way:A lot of stuff I did at Planned Parenthood was menial, repetitive, and routine. I feltno rapport with the patients or doctors. Planned Parenthood was too much like mywork, but I didn't get paid for it. I felt like if I didn't show up it wouldn't make anydifference. I wanted one-on-one interaction and to feel like I was having a positiveeffect on patients. I felt like I was having a negative effect on nursing patientsbecause doctors were interacting with patients and I felt invisible. I felt like mostpatients didn't want volunteers around (#32).This articulate volunteer was clearly dissatisfied with the volunteer experience. All of thereasons she gave are clinic-related factors. Like other respondents who offered this type ofanswer, the respondent would have continued to volunteer if the volunteer experience hadbeen more fulfilling.Volunteer-related reasons for quitting cannot be accepted at face value. Althoughrespondents were very open about their experiences, some likely offered socially accepted- 48 -responses rather than attributing quitting to unsatisfactory clinic factors. Some volunteerswere likely not even aware that clinic-related factors may have contributed to their decisionto quit. Also, many volunteers may have continued to volunteer if the clinic-related factorswere more favourable. Because these volunteers were not deriving maximum satisfactionfrom their volunteer experience, volunteer-related factors became more important and wereperceived by volunteers as good reasons to quit.Other Volunteer Experiences: Prior volunteer involvement was also assessedthrough interviews. These experiences help shape volunteers' perceptions of the PlannedParenthood volunteer program by allowing them to compare their multiple volunteerexperiences. Nineteen respondents said they had done volunteer work regularly and on along-term basis in the past. Five had some volunteer experience, but only for a short termor irregularly. Only eight respondents had no volunteer experience prior to volunteering atPlanned Parenthood. This means that Planned Parenthood's volunteers are an experiencedgroup. Prior experience may help account for volunteers' critical comments and multiplesuggestions. Volunteers who had current or past volunteer experiences tended to analyzetheir experiences at the Vancouver clinic much more critically than those who did not.In addition, they offered much more constructive criticisms.lb Job SatisfactionJob satisfaction is the next element of individual level of analysis to be discussed.The components of job satisfaction are volunteer frequency, performed duties, preferredduties, reasons for enjoying duties, reasons for continuing to volunteer, obstacles toincreasing volunteer frequency, and barriers to volunteering in general. All of thesevariables interact to become antecedents or determinants of job satisfaction. It is crucial tounderstand job satisfaction because of its close link to volunteer retention.Volunteer Frequency: Almost all of the volunteers volunteered at least once permonth. Most active and non-active volunteers volunteered between two and four times per- 49 -month. Satisfied volunteers tend to volunteer more often and more regularly thandissatisfied ones. Most volunteers tended to volunteer frequently initially, but dissatisfiedones gradually came less frequently until they dropped out altogether. Many volunteerswere dissatisfied with volunteering from the beginning, but continued to volunteer for awhile hoping that the situation would improve. Some volunteers purposely camesporadically or failed to honour their volunteer commitments to test the waters for quitting.When the supervisors failed to react, they ceased volunteering altogether.Performed and Preferred Duties: Some volunteers stated that they usuallyperformed one duty at the clinic, but most stated a couple of duties.Table 1 illustrates the duties performed most frequently compared to volunteers' preferredduties.Figure 4Duties Performed Most Often Compared to Preferred DutiesDuties^ Most often^PreferredNursing 21^12Methods Talk^ 13 15Interviewing 12^15Pregnancy Counselling^ 9 10Other: e.g. filing, set up, clean up, urine tests^7^0Does whatever needs to be done^1 0Still orienting^ 5^N/ANurse practitioner 2 2Reception 1^1Some trends are that few volunteers who chose pregnancy counselling did otherduties, only one volunteer claimed she did all duties equally, and a few others did all dutiesexcept for pregnancy counselling. Nursing is by far the duty performed most often,followed by methods talk and interviewing. Fifteen volunteers chose interviewing andfifteen chose the methods talk as their preferred activity. Twelve chose nursing, and tenchose pregnancy counselling. The visual representation shows that for most categories, thenumbers in the two columns match, with the exception of nursing and other. In both ofthese categories, far more respondents say they do these duties most often than say they- 50 -prefer these duties. This discrepancy is alarming because the comments made by therespondents show that they frequently end up doing duties other than the ones they enjoy themost. In the words of one non-committed volunteer,I got stuck with nursing every time, but didn't particularly like it. I never observed orparticipated in a methods talk or interview and didn't know how to go about doing so(#32).Regardless of what duty was most preferred, similar reasons emerged for liking theduty. In descending order, one on one interaction, learning and educating, making acontribution to the client's life, supporting the client, and obtaining additional clinic orvolunteer experience were the most frequently cited reasons for enjoying the volunteerduties.Continued Volunteering: Active and non-active volunteers were asked why theycontinued to volunteer. The two types of responses that emerged from this question can beclassified as altruistic and instrumental. Altruism refers to selfless devotion to the welfare ofothers. Instrumental rewards satisfy the volunteers' personal needs. These two componentsare inextricably related, therefore the categorization of these comments is somewhatarbitrary. Even the most relatively altruistic act satisfies the actor's needs, for example, bymaking her feel good about herself. Fifty-three of the comments can be interpreted asaltruistic motives. These include making a difference to clients' lives (17), belief in theprogram's mandate (11), commitment to volunteerism (7), and commitment to women'shealth care (6). Sixty-three comments can be classified as instrumental rewards. Examplesof instrumental rewards include enjoying interaction with volunteers and staff (12), enjoyinginteraction with the clients (11), liking the educational component (11), and enjoyingvolunteering in general (11). All volunteers cited both types of rewards. This demonstratesthat satisfied volunteers derive a combination of altruistic and instrumental rewards fromvolunteering.Increasing Frequency: Volunteers explain what would make them volunteer moreoften in the following discussion. The obstacles mentioned most frequently by volunteers- 51 -are volunteer-related. Twenty-two volunteers said that they come as frequently as possiblegiven their other obligations. The remaining thirteen obstacles are clinic-related. Fourvolunteers said they would come more often if the clinic was open earlier in the day or ondifferent nights. Four respondents said they would come more often if they could be surethat they would be needed. Two said they would come more often if they had been morestrongly encouraged by the supervisors to do so. One would come more often if she couldbe guaranteed regular hours at the clinic. One volunteer said she would come more often ifshe felt closer to the organization and another said if there were other opportunities, such assitting on the board.If the volunteer experience provided more fulfillment and growth, perhaps thevolunteer-related reasons for increasing frequency would be less important. Satisfiedvolunteers would be more likely to find the time to volunteer regularly and frequentlydespite their other obligations.Barriers to Volunteering: All volunteers were asked to share the general barriersto volunteering they have experienced. The answers fall into the same two categories as theprevious question: volunteer- and clinic-related. Thirty-three of the comments can beinterpreted as volunteer-related. The principle answers are other priorities/time constraints(22), geographical inaccessibility of clinic (3), and lethargy (3). Clinic-related barriersinclude frustration with the inappropriate number of volunteers compared to the number ofclients (7), disorganized approach of clinic (5), inaccessibility of training course (3), and notbeing able to perform preferred duties (3). The same cautionary note presented in thepreceding paragraph applies here. Volunteers would simply find the time to volunteerregardless of obstacles if the volunteer experience was sufficiently rewarding.lc MotivationVolunteers decided to volunteer initially for diverse reasons. These reasons fall intotwo camps: altruistic and instrumental, the same categories used in the explanations for52continuing to volunteer. Forty-six motives can be classified as altruistic and twenty-two asinstrumental. The two major altruistic motives are belief in the mandate of the program(21), belief in the worthiness of volunteering (11), and interest in women's health andreproduction. Among the instrumental motives are desire to enter the medical profession(9), and desire to obtain additional career experience (6). Most volunteers had multiplemotives for volunteering, and some of these were altruistic and some instrumental. Thecombination of factors given be each volunteer demonstrates the complexity of volunteermotivations.The information presented in the previous discussion contributes to ourunderstanding of the micro level of analysis. Situational factors, job satisfaction andmotivation are the three components which interact to comprise this individual level ofunderstanding. Examination of the individual level of analysis is a crucial part ofunderstanding volunteer recruitment and retention. Volunteers' reports show that they havea combination of altruistic and instrumental motives for volunteering. Both types of needsmust be met in order for the volunteer relationship to continue. Retention occurs when avolunteer's expectations are met by volunteering at the Vancouver clinic, when the situationalfactors are favourable, and when the volunteer is satisfied with the personal and clinic-relatedfactors. The interrelationship between these three factors means that if the volunteer isdissatisfied with one aspect of volunteering, she will likely quit. These individual factorsmust be met for volunteer retention to occur, but these factors are not sufficient to ensureretention. Favourable group dynamics and higher level processes are also essential tovolunteer retention.2 Group Behaviour Level Of Analysis Group behaviour is the next level of analysis to be explored. Group behaviour goesbeyond the individual to examine the interactive processes which affect volunteers'experiences. Group behaviour focuses on the informal arrangements that characterize andinfluence the relationship among group members that can have an impact on the group's- 53 -effectiveness and volunteer retention. Cohesiveness, group inclusion and leadership are thethree dimensions of group behaviour to be discussed. These components affect the waysvolunteers perceive and interpret their experiences. These factors in turn affect volunteerretention and are therefore a crucial aspect of this research project.CohesivenessGroup InclusionLeadershipI IAccessibilityFundingOrganizationalEnvironmentJob DesignVolunteer ProgramClinicBureaucracyOrganizationalStructure andJob DesignAutonomyCommunicationRecruitmentTrainingOrientationSchedulingInterpersonal andOrganizational ProcessesGroup Behaviour- 54 -Figure 5Levels of Analysis: Outline Depicts Group Behaviour Level of AnalysisSituation FactorsJob SatisfactionMotivationIndividual2a CohesivenessCohesiveness refers to the feeling that you belong to a group (Arnold, Feldman, andHunt, 1992). The opposite of cohesion is alienation. The cohesiveness of a group affectsboth productivity and job satisfaction. Cohesiveness is extremely important for this reason.Structural factors and extra-curricular events are the two facets of cohesion to be explored55here. A scenario of volunteer cohesion is described in order to illustrate how cohesivenessis integral to satisfied volunteers, an essential criterion of volunteer retention.Structural Factors: There are many structural factors at the Vancouver clinicwhich dissuade cohesion between volunteers. Some of these structural factors are addressedin the ensuing discussion. I readily observed that cohesiveness was a central issue to manyof the volunteers. I met over a dozen people as a result of doing this research project. Someof these volunteers were new. Others had been there for as long as me, but I had nevermet them before because we always worked different shifts. Still others I had seen around,but so rarely that I had yet to learn their names. I know that I am not the only one in thisposition since many volunteers asked me to identify other volunteers because they knew thatI had met them through interviewing. Many of the volunteers do not know each other, evenafter having volunteered for a long time. Newer volunteers know even fewer co-workers.There is a fairly large pool of volunteers and only a few volunteers work each clinic night.In addition, most volunteers tend to volunteer on the same evening each time they work.These factors interact to decrease the likelihood of volunteers crossing each other's pathsregularly, if at all.It is extremely difficult to feel you are a team member when you do not even knowwho is on your team. Volunteers become very frustrated when they do not know their co-workers and when their co-workers do not know them. I have regularly observed confusionat the clinic over whether a person is a volunteer, physician, or a client. None of thevolunteers wants to embarrass herself by admitting her ignorance, so the volunteers millabout hoping that the unknown party will identify herself. One of the primary reasons forvolunteering is to meet people. Clearly this goal is not being met by the current volunteerprogram.Another complicating factor is that most duties, including nursing, interviewing,pregnancy counselling and the methods talk, require a volunteer to be secluded in a room,sometimes for the entire evening. This means that there is little interaction among the- 56 -volunteers, especially on busier nights. It is understandably difficult to feel you are a part ofa group when you know few of your co-workers because you rarely see them. Furthercomplication arises when there is a high volunteer turnover rate resulting in a constantchange of faces.Seclusion is frustrating for volunteers, especially those who are motivated tovolunteer primarily for interactive reasons. Even when volunteers purposely schedule theirshifts with a favourite co-worker, the two frequently end up working apart and scarcely seeeach other. Nursing often requires a volunteer to assist the physician continually throughoutthe evening, which confines the volunteer to the examination room. Seclusion largelyexplains why nursing is the least liked volunteer activity.All duties are concentrated at a specific time point within the evening. Manyvolunteers sign up for a particular duty and want to do only that duty. Some of thesevolunteers expect to leave once they have accomplished their duties. This means that theycan arrive early, begin the methods talk before other volunteers arrive, and complete themethods talk and clean up, then leave while the other volunteers are performing separateduties, such as nursing. This means it is possible to volunteer with minimal interactionwith co-workers. Many of the volunteers do not see their contributions as part of a groupeffort. It is easy to feel alienated from other volunteers, the clinic, and the organization whenvolunteers do not feel that they are part of a group.There is frequently tension between the small group of volunteers who seevolunteering is part of a group effort and those who do not. I regularly observed a volunteerleaving after performing her assigned duties, leaving her co-workers to complete the otherduties, such as filing and clean up. The fewer workers there are, the longer it takes to closethe clinic. Therefore, a volunteer who does not pull her weight affects the cohesiveness ofthe other volunteers and negatively affects clinic operations. When one volunteer leaves,other volunteers often feel that they too can leave. This further minimizes any volunteercohesion which could occur after servicing the clients. New volunteers quickly adopt the- 57 -pattern established by the more experienced volunteers and so they too fail to establishcohesiveness with their co-workers under these conditions. Volunteer turnover is muchmore likely to occur under these circumstances than in a cohesive environment. In addition,the clinic fails to function as smoothly as it could when volunteer involvement isfragmented.Extra-curricular Events: There is also a lack of social events. This furtherdissuades group cohesion. The first Vancouver clinic in-service in recent times took place inApril, 1993. There was a pot-luck in the summer of 1992, and a restaurant Christmas partyfor the past two years. There was substantial volunteer interest in all of these events,particularly by the current core and newer volunteers. Unfortunately, volunteers who workless regularly are frequently unaware that these events are taking place, and so they miss out.Some new volunteers are hesitant to attend social events when they know few people there.When I interviewed respondents I told them that there was an in-service coming upin April, and was surprised that few people knew about it. Furthermore, some volunteerswere interested in attending, but notice was so short that they had already made plans. Manyvolunteers were upset that no one had notified them about the in-service, and my tellingthem about it seemed to increase their feelings of alienation. The failure to tell everyvolunteer of this in-service is particularly tragic because nearly all volunteers suggestedcontinued training as the best way to improve the volunteer program. Many volunteers whowere just taking a little time out from volunteering because they recently had a baby, orbecause they were taking a night course on clinic nights, still considered themselves activevolunteers. They were very hurt that no one notified them about the in-service. Thesefeelings of exclusion are difficult to overcome. A couple of volunteers who werecontemplating quitting probably did so when their volunteer involvement with theorganization was treated with little regard over this issue.The Christmas parties are notorious for being organized at the last moment. Theevents are typically scheduled for just before Christmas. The result is that most of the58volunteers have already made plans, such as leaving town to visit family and friends forChristmas, attending office parties, or writing final exams. The attendance is, therefore,poor and the supervisors question the interest in the event. The problem, however, is notlack of interest, but poor organization.Most volunteers expressed a desire to be more strongly integrated into theorganization. Better organization and greater consideration of volunteers is necessary tomake this occur. An extremely successful pot-luck dinner was held at one of thesupervisor's homes in the summer of 1992. Attendance was excellent. The reason why theevent worked so well was because it was scheduled far in advance at an appropriate time ofyear, all volunteers were strongly encouraged to attend by other volunteers and thesupervisors, and cost was minimal. The supervisors were amazed at the volunteer turn out,but the volunteers all knew why the event was successful. The pot luck dinner is anexcellent example of what can be achieved by careful planning and consideration tovolunteers. An event of this calibre takes a lot of work, but the demonstrated benefits areworth the effort. Much bonding took place at the dinner which carried over into the clinicenvironment.An Example of Cohesiveness: The scenarios I have just described are notindicative of all volunteers. A cohesive scenario is described in the following discussion.The regular, more experienced volunteers tend to sign up on the same night with the samepeople every week. Because they enjoy working together, they seek to work successfully asa team. Most of these volunteers discussed their duties and personal lives when things wereslow at the clinic and all had a good idea of what was occurring in all parts of the clinic thatsession. These volunteers showed concern for their co-workers by making sure everyonecould get home safely, and performing a co-worker's duties if she had to leave early. Thesevolunteers would normally stay to the clinic's end to clean things up so everyone could gohome sooner.- 59 -The structural and social alienation scenarios versus the cohesive scenario representtwo ends of the continuum, the least cohesive and the most cohesive groups. Cohesion is acentral factor of group behaviour. Cohesion helps explain why volunteers tend to volunteerregularly over a long period of time, or drop out very quickly when they feel they are not avaluable member of the group.2b Group InclusionInclusion is another component of group behaviour. Group inclusion is closelyrelated to cohesiveness, yet merits specific attention because of its special characteristics.There are multiple groups within the culture of the clinic. Among these is an elite groupcomprised of the most experienced volunteers. The characteristics of this group arediscussed here. One of the issues brought up by many volunteers was the fact that the clinicseemed very cliquish. By this I mean that volunteers, particularly newer ones, felt that themore experienced volunteers and the supervisors were close friends. They perceived thatthey were not welcome to enter this impenetrable group. The result was that volunteersoften felt like outsiders and could not overcome this feeling of exclusion. This atmosphereoften predisposed volunteers to drop out. Some volunteers volunteered for many months,hoping that they would eventually be welcomed into the group, but this never happened.It seems that some volunteers are accepted into the group either because they arearound for a long time or, more likely, because they meet the informal criterion of medicalassociation. The clinic supervisors are Registered Nurses and many of the most dedicatedvolunteers have a medical interest or background, or are married to physicians. Thesecharacteristics foster inclusion to this group. Some long-term volunteers experience littleinteraction with their co-workers and are satisfied with this situation. Most of thevolunteers, however, want more out of the volunteer experience than just performing theirduties. Most want to feel included as a group member and feel a connection with their co-workers, and they volunteer in part to meet these interactive needs.- 60 -2c LeadershipThe leaders referred to in this section are the supervisors of the Vancouver PlannedParenthood clinic. The supervisors are the clinic leaders and among their responsibilities arethe physicians, desk staff, volunteers, clients, and all clinic operations. The supervisors arehired specifically for this position of leadership. Both supervisors are Registered Nursesand have a solid background in reproductive and contraceptive issues. Furthermore, theystrongly believe in the program's mandate and are very interested in this area of health care.The supervisors largely train on-site by apprenticing with departing staff. They also receivesome training through the Head office before assuming full responsibilities. The currentsupervisors received little formal training because the previous supervisor left very abruptly,leaving insufficient time for thorough training. This means that the supervisors wereinadequately prepared for this leadership role and were forced to learn their new duties inless than ideal conditions.Many of the issues described in the preceding discussion are related to leadership.Leadership is another integral aspect of group behaviour. Just as a band requires anexcellent conductor to coordinate the band members' efforts, a volunteer program needs aleader to coordinate volunteers' efforts in order to inspire optimum performance. Theleadership at Planned Parenthood is weak. This weakness can be explained by the leaders'inaccessibility to volunteers and their remoteness. The dual components of inaccessibilityand remoteness are the focus of the ensuing discussion.Inaccessibility: Inaccessibility is a continual concern at the clinic. Supervisors aretoo busy assisting the physicians and concentrating on other duties to focus on leadership.These other activities make it difficult for volunteers to access the supervisors. Indeed,there are evenings when the volunteers scarcely see the supervisor. It is impossible forvolunteers to develop a relationship with supervisors they scarcely see. Minor crisesfrequently occur at the clinic and volunteers become very frustrated when they do not knowhow to handle the situation and have no one to turn to for assistance. Volunteers often feel-61-that they must muddle through the situation on their own. This is especially frustratingwhen volunteers do the wrong thing. The supervisors are very understanding, butvolunteers still resent being chastised after being forced to resolve complicated situations.Some interaction must occur in order for effective leadership to be established andmaintained.Remoteness: The other component of weak leadership is remoteness. Thesupervisors highly value the volunteers' contributions and do not want to discouragevolunteers by appearing too rigid or demanding. Many volunteer organizations feel sograteful to volunteers that they feel strong leadership should be avoided (Allen, 1987).Remoteness is typical of the supervisors who want to be seen more as friends and not asbosses who must give their subordinates direction. This is not to degrade the personalapproach used by the supervisors. Indeed, this approach is often what initially attractsclients and volunteers to the organization. However, nearly every volunteer wanted moreguidance. Increased structure was not perceived as restrictive, but as liberating since itwould define such job components as duties, scheduling, and team work. For example,volunteers wanted to know when to arrive, what they would be doing that night, how toresolve any problems or questions, where else they could pitch in (if their clients did notshow up for example) and when to leave. It is up to the supervisors to clarify these issues tothe volunteers by writing job descriptions, organizing a better method of scheduling, andmeeting with the volunteers regularly to go over questions, policy, and procedure.Strong leadership is essential to a successful volunteer program. The volunteersbecome frustrated when there is little guidance from supervisors. Lack of leadership alsoresults in volunteers feeling unappreciated when they perceive that their contributions areignored. Volunteers often feel alienated from the clinic operations because they have littleinteraction with the supervisors, feedback from them, or the opportunity to discuss theirquestions, concerns and suggestions.- 62 -When cohesiveness, group inclusion, and leadership are examined, these interactiveprocesses are shown to strongly influence volunteers' experiences. Group cohesion,inclusion, and leadership are all aspects of group behaviour which are essential to volunteerretention. It is these factors which influence the responses reported in the individual level ofanalysis. No matter how satisfied volunteers are with their volunteer duties for example,they will not continue to volunteer unless the group level factors are satisfactory. Volunteerswho do not feel that they are valuable contributing members of a group have little incentiveto continue volunteering. Likewise, volunteers who do not feel they are a part of a teamhave scant reason to continue when they feel they are on the fringes of the volunteerprogram. When leadership is weak, volunteers will not struggle to guide themselves, butwill look for other opportunities where they can meet their altruistic and instrumental goalswith minimal frustration.3 Interpersonal and Organizational Processes Interpersonal and organizational processes go beyond the individual and group levelsof analysis. These processes refer to the operations that keep individuals, groups and theoverall organization operating smoothly and efficiently. These operations also refer to theactivities and processes organizations use to integrate and solidify the whole. Autonomy,communication, recruitment, training, orientation, and scheduling are the components ofinterpersonal and organizational processes examined in the ensuing discussion.- 63 -Figure 6Levels of Analysis: Outline Depicts Interpersonal and Organizational ProcessesAccessibilityFundingOrganizationalEnvironmentJob DesignVolunteer ProgramClinicBureaucracyOrganizationalStructure andJob DesignAutonomyCommunicationRecruitmentTrainingOrientationSchedulingCohesivenessGroup InclusionLeadershipInterpersonal andOrganizational ProcessesGroup BehaviourSituation FactorsJob SatisfactionMotivationIndividual3a AutonomyAutonomy refers to the ability to think and act independently. Autonomy as itrelates to volunteers and supervisors is examined in the following discussion.- 64 -Volunteer Autonomy: Volunteers have some autonomy in their duties. Forexample, volunteers are encouraged to develop their own approach to their jobs. However,they must work within the confines of the clinic and the organization. For example, theymust present non-biased, and accurate information in a professional manner. Theseregulations rightfully limit volunteers' ability to make decisions regarding this aspect of theirvolunteer role. Volunteers can usually choose what duties they prefer to do, but arefrequently asked to do other duties, so they must be flexible. Some volunteers will only docertain duties and refuse to volunteer unless they can perform their preferred duties. Aprime example of this is pregnancy counselling. Some volunteers will only do pregnancycounselling and once they have finished counselling their clients they expect to (and usuallydo) go home.Many volunteers enjoy this limited autonomy, yet they want greater autonomywithin their volunteer responsibilities. Volunteers want to take on more responsibility toprove their worth and they want recognition for their efforts. Volunteers can decide howoften they prefer to volunteer and can choose shifts that are suitable to them. Volunteers arerarely pressured to work more often than they do. Supervisors sometimes phone volunteersto recruit for specific shifts, but there is little pressure for volunteers to accept these shiftsunless the supervisors are desperately short of volunteers. There is also little pressure tovolunteer over a long period of time. Many volunteers drop out very quickly, with little orno follow up by the supervisors. Quitting when they are dissatisfied with the volunteerexperience is the strongest way volunteers can assert their independence. There is littleincentive to stay, especially with low cohesiveness and weak leadership. Lack of follow upmakes it particularly easy for volunteers to quit with few consequences. Commitment tovolunteering for Planned Parenthood takes a low priority in the environment describedabove.Volunteers have very little autonomy beyond the capacity to quit volunteering. Theways of doing things have already been established and there is little a volunteer can do to- 65 -instigate change under present conditions. Volunteers frequently think of excellent ideas, buthave no way to express these ideas or to implement change. This powerlessness oftenresults in dissatisfaction with volunteering and makes volunteers feel their contributions arefutile. Many volunteers stated in the interviews that they wanted to contribute to theorganization in different sorts of ways, but did not know how do accomplish this.For example, one volunteer said that she can not volunteer regularly because her jobrequires regular and impromptu travelling. She noted that the literature circulated byPlanned Parenthood (such as brochures) and the documents used (interview forms,descriptions of contraceptive methods) desperately need updating. Professional layout andprinting are also required. She works with computers professionally and has free time onweek ends. She said she would love to get involved in these and any other projectsinvolving computers that would allow her to volunteer her computer skills during her timeoff. Volunteers could also develop visual aids and documents for clients who attend themethods talk. These are excellent examples of projects suggested by volunteers, butvolunteers need some guidance and coordination from the staff to make them happen. Thevolunteers have extensive resources that the organization need only tap to develop a moreeffective volunteer and clinic program.Most physicians like to be the boss in the examination room and there is little roomfor the volunteers to make decisions there. Appointments are relatively short and thevolunteers frequently do not get to spend as much time with the clients as they would like.Volunteers often feel they must rush through a counselling or education session so thatphysicians (who are paid for their services) do not remain idle. This atmosphere seems tocontradict the program's mandate of quality service in the eyes of many volunteers. Thisorganizational process frequently dismays volunteers and is counter-productive for theclients.Volunteers are dismayed when they perceive the greater consideration accorded topaid workers. They also become upset when the structure of the clinic is seen as more- 66 -important than the volunteers' autonomy. For example, when I do the methods talk, I do athorough job. I discuss each method in depth and encourage discussion. I feel that themethods talk is a safe environment for clients to talk about their experiences, and raisequestions and concerns. Many clients have much to say. I believe the methods talk isextremely important because it introduces clients to the mandate of the program. It alsoeducates clients about the contraceptive methods and encourages a matter-of-factness attitudetoward contraception. Many of my co-workers agree with these ideas and we becomefustrated when we are pressured to process clients as quickly as possible. Clients have littleto gain from a perfunctory methods talk. Clients who attend a good methods talk tend to bemore relaxed and educated, making the physician's job easier. Therefore, volunteers mustbe given more autonomy to modify the methods talk appropriately for each client.Volunteers would then by more satisfied with this duty and retention would be improved.Supervisor Autonomy: The supervisors have considerably more power than thevolunteers. The supervisors can decide, within the organizational guide-lines, how tooperate the clinic. The major inhibitor to change is that the supervisors are so pressed forresources that it is difficult for them to implement all but minor changes. Moreover, theyare so close to the subject matter every day that it becomes difficult for them to see new andimproved ways of doing things. As a consequence, changes are few and far between, butthey have been occurring gradually since the hiring of the two supervisors.Most of the situations addressed in this discussion could be remedied with increasedvolunteer input and responsibility. The volunteer program and clinic would be greatlyimproved if volunteers were more autonomous both individually and collectively. Paidworkers and volunteers alike enjoy having some power to create, interpret, and perform theirjobs. Autonomy is essential to volunteer retention and for this reason autonomy is animportant component of interpersonal and organizational processes.- 67 -3b CommunicationCommunication is another important aspect of interpersonal and organizationalprocesses. It is crucial that volunteers be able to communicate their ideas to each other andto the supervisors. Communication between the supervisors and the Head office is alsoimportant. Communication allows for the interchange of ideas. This interchange is essentialto all components of the organization. Poor communication prevents cohesion fromoccurring. It also increases feelings of alienation among volunteers. Alienation makes itvery easy for volunteers to cease volunteering because of the lack of repercussions.Communication Between Volunteers: As already mentioned, there is littlecommunication between the volunteers because they rarely see each other inside or outsidethe clinic. There is little time to socialize even when volunteers do see each other in theclinic. Volunteers gather for few extracurricular activities of either a social nature, such aspot-lucks and parties, or of a work-oriented nature, such as in-services or field trips to anabortion clinic or maternity ward for example. Indeed, as previously mentioned, manyvolunteers do not even know their fellow volunteers. Volunteers have no vehicle to discusstheir experiences at the clinic, to offer suggestions, to ask questions, or to get feedback abouttheir performance. All of this provides an atmosphere conducive to poor communicationamong volunteers.Communication Between Volunteers and Supervisors: There is also poorcommunication between the supervisors and the volunteers. Volunteers who comeinfrequently never develop a relationship with the supervisors. Even those who come oftenmay work every shift with the same supervisor. When the volunteer or the supervisorchanges their usual shift, the volunteer ends up working with a different supervisor.Volunteers tend to prefer the procedures to which they have become accustomed. Nearly allof the volunteers noted that each supervisor has a different way of doing things. Allexpressed a preference for one supervisor and tended to sign up for shifts with theirpreferred supervisor. Volunteers, therefore, become frustrated and tense when the rules- 68 -depend on who is supervising. Supervisors are usually too busy to interact much withvolunteers in any case. The inaccessibility of volunteers to supervisors automaticallyprecludes communication between these parties.Communication Between Supervisors and Head Office: The communicationbetween the supervisors and the Head office is good since the supervisors liaise with theoffice nearly every day to find out how many clients are scheduled, to order supplies, checktest results and so on. Other than setting clinic budget, deciding which tests to administer inthe clinic, and determining salaries, the Head office has a limited role in clinic operations.The supervisors are the acting managers and once trained, they are the ones who make andimplement the day to day decisions and procedures. There is little liaison between thevolunteers and the Head office because the supervisors act as a direct link between these twogroups.The interchange of ideas is stifled in an environment with poor communication. Nochange can be implemented unless the lines of communication are open. Therefore,communication is a central feature of all interpersonal and organizational processes.Communication is essential to an effective volunteer program and clinic operations asillustrated in the preceding discussion. Volunteers and supervisors frequently feel that theirconcerns and ideas are not acknowledged or considered seriously. This lack ofcommunication is very frustrating to volunteers and supervisors and affects their interactionswith others. Volunteer turnover occurs when volunteers rarely communicate with their co-workers and supervisors. Lack of communication facilitates alienation from the clinic. Inthis situation, other factors, such as cohesiveness and effective leadership, are negativelyaffected.3c RecruitmentIt is crucial to examine recruitment techniques in order to understand how theorganization markets the volunteer program and attracts volunteers. As noted in the- 69 -literature review chapter, unless we understand why and how volunteers became attracted toan organization, we cannot analyze retention. Planned Parenthood does not actively recruitvolunteers. The onus of volunteering is left to the potential volunteer. However, theorganization is always receptive and encouraging to interested parties. Volunteers found outabout volunteer experiences in four different ways: personal contact; self-initiated searches;prior knowledge; and through advertisement.Personal contact: Twelve volunteers found out about volunteer opportunitiesthrough a friend, relative, or a current or former volunteer. Two people found out about thevolunteer program through speeches at school.Self-initiated search: Seven volunteers were looking for a volunteer experience andfound out about volunteer opportunities at Planned Parenthood. Four were motivated tovolunteer to fulfill the practicum requirements of their school program. Two were lookingfor paid work and when they found there was none with Planned Parenthood, they decidedto pursue volunteer activities with the organization.Prior knowledge: Ten volunteers were former Planned Parenthood clients andfound out about volunteer opportunities this way. Another four said they had always knownabout Planned Parenthood or were unable to specify. One worked with Planned Parenthoodthrough the pharmaceutical industry and found out about volunteer opportunities this way.Advertisement: Five volunteers found out about volunteer opportunities throughadvertisements. However, these advertisements focus on the organization itself, and not onvolunteer opportunities. Three found volunteer postings at the Greater Vancouver VolunteerCentre, and one heard about opportunities through the CBC drive for volunteers. Oneperson saw a volunteer brochure at U.B.C. Advertisements by Planned Parenthood throughbrochures, postings on volunteer boards, and speeches by Planned Parenthood all facilitatedthese searches for volunteer opportunities. These responses paint an interesting picturebecause they are all indirect ways of finding out about volunteer opportunities. Planned- 70 -Parenthood rarely advertises for volunteers, so many people stumble upon volunteeropportunities by accident. Many people, including clients, are unaware that PlannedParenthood even has a volunteer program until they come across this knowledge in the waysdescribed above.3d TrainingTraining is a crucial aspect of any volunteer program. The success of a trainingprogram can greatly influence volunteers' performance, their job satisfaction and theircommitment to the organization. The ensuing discussion focuses on volunteers' suggestionsto improve training. Regular volunteer training and pregnancy counselling training arediscussed.Regular Volunteer Training: Twenty-eight of the respondents completed theregular volunteer training course. The remaining volunteers started volunteering withouttaking the training course because of accessibility complications. It is policy that volunteerscomplete the training course prior to volunteering. However, three did not take the trainingcourse and another one did not complete it because volunteers were desperately needed.Therefore, the policy was waived. One of these volunteers had volunteered at another clinicfor three years and she and the clinic supervisors decided that she could easily learn the clinicprocedures on the job. However, the remaining three volunteers all stated that they were ata disadvantage from not taking the course and that this negatively affected their performanceon the job, as well as their impression of the clinic and Planned Parenthood. All said that thetraining course should be mandatory, and should be completed prior to volunteering.Seventeen volunteers said that the training course adequately prepared them for theirduties at the clinic. Nine said that it did not. Three had no opinion, and three did not take thecourse. All respondents had many ideas on how to improve the training course, includingthose who said it adequately prepared them for their duties. Three types of suggestions toimprove training emerged from the volunteers. Volunteers stated that the course should be- 71 -more practical; that there should be continued training; and that there be preliminaryscreening. The following discussion presents the most frequently recurring suggestions toimprove volunteer training.Practical issues: Twelve volunteers suggested a tour of the clinic along with someon-site training as part of training. Eight wanted to know more about the organization ofthe clinic, a process easily facilitated by on-site training. Five wanted a well-developedbuddy system as a part of the training course, and five suggested that role and group play beused more extensively to approximate actual clinic duties and scenarios. Five volunteerssuggested that copies of job descriptions be circulated to inform potential volunteers of whatjob duties will entail. These descriptions could also be used as guides during orientation.Five said that there should be an increased focus on interpersonal, counselling, and educationskills to complement the information taught. Five volunteers said that there should beincreased exposure to paperwork; for example, practice filling out nursing forms andlearning which forms go with which tests. This suggestion could be met either in theclassroom setting, or at the on-site clinic orientation that many volunteers would like to seebecome part of training. Four people thought that a more extensive training program wasrequired involving more thorough discussions and preparations.Three respondents thought that there should be increased attention to practical issuesto complement the largely theoretical course. Two volunteers thought that more objectiveand thorough information on contraceptives should be given. Two people suggested that asession focusing exclusively on the clinic should be offered to those who plan to volunteer.This is because some people take the training course for reasons other than the intent tovolunteer, therefore, clinic routines are not applicable to them.The more experienced volunteers all know about the many practical issues that needto be addressed during training. Newer volunteers fill out a course assessment on the lastday of training, but the usefulness of doing this is limited because only when volunteersbegin orientation are they able to assess the volunteer training. Newer volunteers verbalize- 72 -their views of the training course during interaction at the clinic. Unfortunately, becausecommunication is poor, this information rarely filters back to the educator.Continued training: Five volunteers wanted regular training updates regardingsuch topics as birth control, abortion, adoption and keeping the baby, as well as education onsexually transmitted diseases. Continued training would provide current and accurateinformation on these topics. One volunteer suggested that there be a volunteer follow-upsession, perhaps six months after the course, so that everyone can discuss issues that are ofconcern to them.Many volunteers are distressed that they are not kept abreast of the latestcontraceptive and reproductive issues. Volunteers are frequently unable to answer client'squestions adequately because volunteers lack sufficient knowledge and resources.Volunteers who are involved in the medical, legal, or social services have greater access toinformation they can use on the job. Those who do not have access to continued trainingtend to know less about current issues. Lack of continued training can affect volunteers'feelings of adequacy and job performance. Those volunteers who have access to continuedtraining are the core volunteers. Their work at the clinic complements their paid work andvice versa. This link gives the core volunteers extra incentive to continue volunteering.Volunteer screening: Two volunteers suggested that interviews be conducted toscreen volunteers before they begin training. One suggested that a sense of commitment beobtained from the volunteers during screening, for example, signing a document promisingthey will contribute a specific number of volunteer hours to the organization. One volunteersaid that volunteer motivations should be explored during screening.The core volunteers intuitively know which new volunteers are not suitable for clinicvolunteer roles. For example, some volunteers lack the interpersonal skills essential toworking with clients, or are interested in political activism which has no place in the clinics.Volunteer screening could redirect these volunteers to more appropriate volunteer73opportunities rather than investing considerable resources in training and orienting thesevolunteers.Pregnancy Counselling Training: Fifteen of the respondents took the pregnancycounselling training course, and seventeen did not. Seven volunteers stated they plan to takethe course in the future or would have taken it had they continued to volunteer. Six of thefifteen respondents said that the pregnancy counselling training course adequately preparedthem for those duties, four said it did not, two were undecided, and three were still orientingso they withheld judgement. Once again, all volunteers had many suggestions to improvethe pregnancy counselling training course, whether or not they said it adequately preparedthem for their duties. The most frequent suggestions were again related to practical issues.Practical issues: Six volunteers stated explicitly that there should be more practicalcomponents, such as more role playing and visual aids; for example, a video of a pregnancycounselling session. Five stated that the course should be more extensive and longer. Fivevolunteers suggested that the options available to pregnant women be covered more fully.Some suggested that a resource book would be useful to achieve this goal. Four suggestedthat there be a more extensive buddy system as a part of training. This buddy system wouldentail including more observation by an experienced counsellor, and feedback from thisbuddy during counselling orientation, and monitoring and feedback following the first fewcounselling sessions attended by the experienced volunteer.Three volunteers suggested that they should, as a group, tour an abortion clinic to seeexactly what occurs there. By doing so, they could better explain the procedures to clients,empathize with clients, and better deal with their feelings, questions, and concerns. Twothought they should not have to pay for the pregnancy counselling course, or perhaps payfor it, then get reimbursed once they have fulfilled a specified volunteer requirement. Tworespondents suggested that there be more information and long- and short-term planningdocuments that clients can take home with them to help them make their decision. Two saidthat there should be more structure and guide-lines in counselling to follow, and that they- 74 -should go over the sequence to follow and the paperwork that needs to be completed duringtraining.Continued training: Three volunteers suggested that regular information updatesand on-going training be a volunteer requirement. In-services were suggested as the bestway to establish on-going training. Continued training is particularly important forpregnancy counsellors because abortion and adoption legislation change regularly. Inaddition, procedures and services also change. Pregnancy counsellors must keep up to dateon all of these issues to maximize their usefulness and personal feelings of fulfillment. Thepreceding discussion of training illustrates the volunteers' numerous ideas for improvingvolunteer training. The practicality of these suggestions is remarkable. The implementationof most of these ideas could be achieved quite easily with the combined efforts of theeducator, supervisors, and volunteers.3e OrientationThe focus of the next discussion is the orientation process. This process occurs overthe first couple of sessions at the clinic, whether or not the volunteer has taken the trainingcourse. All of the volunteers had much to share about their experiences orienting at theclinic and had many suggestions to improve orientation.Only seven respondents said that there were no major problems relating toorientation. Sixteen respondents said that orientation was insufficient, disorganized,sporadic, and that there was too little supervision. Nine volunteers stated they did not knowwhat to expect in regards to the process of the clinic: for example, what to do when you getthere, and when the clinic starts and ends. Eight jumped right into their duties and learnedquickly despite the insufficient preparation. Five respondents said that there were too manyor too few volunteers for the number of clients, resulting in either a boring or hecticenvironment, neither of which is an ideal learning environment for new volunteers. Fiverespondents did not know what the duties were and had no idea how to go about performing- 75 -them. Four respondents did not remember anything about the orientation process. Fourrecalled that the volunteers and staff were helpful and friendly. Three said that theygradually got into the swing of things, but it took a long time before they were comfortable.Three liked the buddy system and two were overwhelmed in the nursing room andelsewhere because they received an information overload.The volunteers had many ideas to improve the orientation process. Thesesuggestions are based both on their own experiences and their observations of otherorienting volunteers. Their suggestions include such practical ideas as a slower, morethorough and progressive orientation (15) (including step-by-step instruction, observation,guidance, and feedback). The implementation of a better buddy system was the primarysuggestion to achieve this goal. Specific suggestions include a process whereby the newvolunteer observes the buddy, the buddy observes the newer volunteer, continually givingfeedback to the newer volunteer until she is confident and capable of taking on full volunteerduties. Another component of this idea was to have the same buddy pal around with the newvolunteer for the entire night and perhaps for future sessions as well if necessary.Six volunteers said that volunteers should learn all duties systematically inorientation so that they can get a taste of everything and learn what duties they are mostinterested in pursuing. Six respondents said that there should be an appropriate number ofvolunteers compared to the number of clients so that new volunteers can be exposed to all ofthe duties and learn in an environment that is not too chaotic or too slow. Six suggested thata list of standardized procedures be developed so the volunteers can see what the dutiesconsist of and use this list to ensure they do everything correctly. Five stated that thereshould be sufficient experienced volunteers to orient new volunteers properly, and that thereshould not be too many new volunteers orienting each night. Five suggested that the newvolunteers meet with a supervisor following orientation so that they can discuss and resolveissues as they come up. Five suggested that there be more emphasis on what the client- 76 -experiences as she moves through the clinic so that volunteers can better understandprocedures from the client's perspective.Four said that there should be increased exposure to the various medical tests, suchas the pelvic, glucose, pregnancy tests, and blood pressure checks. Four said that morestructure would be useful: for example, learning the clinic routine to follow. Threerespondents said that volunteers should wear name tags to distinguish them from the clients.Three stated that the experienced volunteers should be trained to orient new volunteers andthat they should be warned beforehand that this is what their function will be that night.Two said it would be useful to meet the physicians formally and learn about their role. Tworespondents said it would be helpful to work with several volunteers over the course oforientation to learn from their different styles. Two volunteers said there should be morevolunteer follow-up.Volunteers' orientation experiences and suggestions closely approximate the onesnoted in regular and pregnancy counselling training. Orientation is evidently a very stressfultime for volunteers. Many volunteers are so distressed with the experience that they neverreturn. Experiences at orientation are almost wholly dependent on the circumstances thatnight. Core volunteers are those who are integrated with the other volunteers and thesupervisor, and who are given much guidance and support during orientation. Those whofeel ignored, rushed, and who do not get to know anyone drop out immediately or veryquickly. It would be easy to implement the majority of ideas offered by the volunteers andto at least consider gradually adopting the more complex, but feasible ones.3f SchedulingScheduling was the most frequently recurring subject in volunteers' dialogues.Remedial action must quickly be taken to prevent further volunteer turnover from thistremendous source of aggravation. Scheduling was a constant source of grief for volunteersand many of them became very worked up when they discussed it. Volunteers want to feel- 77 -their contributions are valuable, but they do not feel their clinic duties should exhaust them.Therefore, an inappropriate number of volunteers compared to the number of clients wasperceived by volunteers as a significant problem. When there are too many volunteerscompared to the number of clients, volunteers feel that they have wasted their time bycoming since there is little for them to do. Many volunteers stated it was veryunprofessional to have volunteers milling around the clinic gossiping and disrupting theclinic operations and the volunteers who are working. They suggested that until schedulingproblems are resolved, supervisors should send surplus volunteers home. Often times asupervisor called a volunteer at the last minute to beg a volunteer to take a shift that night,then the volunteer consents to doing so, only to find that too many volunteers werescheduled. This situation arises frequently when one supervisor schedules volunteerswithout telling the other supervisor.Volunteers found it very aggravating when they signed up and prepared for aparticular duty, then were asked to do something different upon arriving at the clinic. Thiswas particularly annoying when a volunteer wanted to get experience doing something new,but repeatedly ended up doing the same duty every night. Many pregnancy counsellors onlywanted to counsel and felt cheated when they were asked to do something different becausetwo counsellors were booked. Complications also arose when pregnancy counsellorsarrived at the clinic only to find that there were no clients scheduled that night. When thereare too few volunteers, the situation also becomes stressful and volunteers resent having todo so much work. Another source of frustration was having too many new volunteersorienting on one night, causing severe disruptions in clinic operations. Volunteers becomeparticularly annoyed when, with little warning or no preparation, they are asked to orient oneor more new volunteers.Interpersonal and organizational processes is a fruitful aspect of organizationalbehaviour. Autonomy, communication, recruitment, training, orientation and scheduling arethe components of this complex level of analysis which were discussed in the preceding- 78 -pages. These interpersonal and organizational processes contribute much to ourunderstanding of volunteer retention.4 Organizational Structure and Job Design Organizational structure and job design represents yet a wider level analysis than theones previously described. Structure refers to the arrangement of parts of an organization.Job design refers to the arrangement of job duties. Job design, the volunteer program andclinic in general, as well as the bureaucratic nature of the organization are the components ofthis level of analysis that are examined in the ensuing discussion. An explanation of howorganizational structure and job design influence program effectiveness is discussed. Inaddition, a description of how the informal arrangements that characterize and influence therelationship among members can have an impact on the program's effectiveness areexplored.- 79 -Figure 7Levels of Analysis: Outline Depicts Organizational Structure and Job DesignAccessibilityFundingOrganizationalEnvironmentJob DesignVolunteer ProgramClinicBureaucracyOrganizationalStructure andJob DesignAutonomyCommunicationRecruitmentTrainingOrientationSchedulingCohesivenessGroup InclusionLeadershipInterpersonal andOrganizational ProcessesGroup BehaviourSituation FactorsJob SatisfactionMotivationIndividual4a Job DesignTwo aspects of job design are discussed here: duty hierarchy and job structure.Duty Hierarchy: Newer volunteers felt they had little autonomy to engage in theirpreferred duties. When more experienced volunteers were present, newer volunteers tended- 80 -to assume whatever duties no one else wanted to do, or the duty they had already had sometraining in. In practice this meant duties such as filing and nursing. No one likes filing, butvolunteers regard it as a necessary evil that should be distributed equally among workers.Some volunteers wanted medical experience, so they were content to nurse every time theyvolunteered. Most of the volunteers however, were not happy to nurse every shift. Manyvolunteers mentioned spontaneously that they dislike nursing and that they were frequentlycoerced into it.Many volunteers felt that there was a hierarchy between the pregnancy counsellorsand the regular volunteers. Nearly all volunteers who volunteer for more than one year takethe pregnancy counselling course. Consequently, the pregnancy counsellors are moreexperienced than most of the regular volunteers. This experience sometimes translates intosome of the pregnancy counsellors acting superior to the regular volunteers. Interestingly,none of the pregnancy counsellors mentioned this dichotomy, but nearly all of the regularvolunteers did. Many regular volunteers resented the fact that the pregnancy counsellorssecured the most preferred duties each night. The pregnancy counsellors also received moreof the supervisors' attention according to some of the regular volunteers. There is no formaladmission that pregnancy counsellors are more prestigious than non-counsellors, but manyof the regular volunteers felt that a preferential tendency existed. The regular volunteersclaimed that all of the duties were equally important and resented the dichotomy between thecounsellors and non-counsellors.Job Structure: Job design affects clinic effectiveness in various ways. Job designinevitably has an impact on volunteer recruitment and retention. Many volunteers,particularly the non-active ones, stated that the duties were boring, repetitious and menial.No wonder volunteers are dissatisfied with the volunteer experience when they see theirduties this way. Jobs are very fragmented. There is little room for innovation and change.Every volunteer does a job differently because there is little standardization and guidance. It- 81 -is not unusual for a volunteer to perform a position for a year, then find to her surprise thatshe has been doing it wrong all along.The fragmentation of jobs means that lag times affect clients. For example, if onevolunteer does the methods talk which is attended by several clients, and other volunteers arebusy performing other duties, the clients must wait for an interviewer to become availablebefore they can see the physician. Frequently the client has already discussed her case withthe volunteer who gave the methods talk, then must repeat it all to the interviewer, then to thephysician. This is a very fragmented approach that creates backlogs and repetitiveness, bothof which can be very frustrating to volunteers and clients.Many volunteers claimed that there was nowhere to go once you have learned all ofthe clinic duties. Volunteer growth and development are thus stunted. Many volunteerssaid that they would enjoy learning how to set up and clean up the clinic to increase theirusefulness. The check ups are performed by the physicians and the blood pressures areperformed by the physicians or the supervisors (who are Registered Nurses). Manyvolunteers, some of whom are nurses, said that there was no reason why the volunteerscould not learn to do these duties. Others said that the volunteers could learn to check bloodpressure and conduct the three and six month check ups with clients. If they encounteredany problems, the volunteer could refer the client to the physician. This way, the volunteerscould take on more varied and challenging duties, and the clients would prosper by nothaving to wait so long to undergo simple procedures. The physicians would also profit bybeing able to spend more quality time with the clients whenever necessary.4b Volunteer ProgramThis section presents volunteers' insights on the volunteer program in general. Theirsuggestions to improve the volunteer program are reported in the following discussion. Therecurring themes that emerged in this question and previous ones illustrate volunteers'concerns.- 82 -As previously noted, the supervisors are in charge of all clinic happenings.However, as already noted, the supervisors work within the structure of the organization.Supervisors and clinic operations are closely monitored by the Head office. The PlannedParenthood Association of British Columbia assesses the financial requirements of eachclinic. Their decisions also include determining staffs salaries, setting prices forcontraceptives, and deciding where and when to operate each clinic. The PlannedParenthood Association determines operating costs for each clinic The supervisors do havesome input regarding clinic-related issues, but they must adhere to the policies andprocedures developed by the provincial organization. The Vancouver clinic is only one ofnumerous Planned Parenthood clinics in the province and the Head office does its best tooversee each of these clinics, despite scant resources available to do so. Because PlannedParenthood is a non-profit organization operating in very tough economic times, there isvery little money to go around. Money is spent on the essentials only, and even then, not allneeds are met.The supervisors do their best with what little they have. They cannot be blamed fornot implementing a more effective volunteer program when most resources are requiredsimply to provide client services. The supervisors often feel as helpless as the volunteers inmaking changes to the clinic and the volunteer program. The two current supervisors havebeen at the clinic for approximately two and a half years. In this time, they have learned towork together quite well and have implemented many changes to the clinic to improveoperations. A new educator has been hired within the past year and she too hasimplemented many positive changes. Change comes about slowly, especially in largeorganizations with few resources. The supervisors would certainly like to see many morechanges come about, but they simply do not have the resources to implement them. Quitesimply, there is more work to be done than two half-time workers can reasonablyaccomplish.- 83 -The volunteers were very aware of the constraints governing supervisors. Manyvolunteers suggested that a volunteer committee be formed, and a volunteer coordinator behired to focus exclusively on establishing and maintaining a more effective volunteerprogram. A volunteer committee could work together to discuss all issues relating tovolunteers, come up with a plan to respond to suggestions and complaints, and takenecessary action. The volunteer coordinator would then liaise with the supervisors and theHead office to work together on these issues along with other Planned Parenthood clinicsacross the province. The supervisors could then devote themselves to all aspects of clientcare.Although the notion of hiring a volunteer coordinator is excellent, I am not sooptimistic to believe that it will occur any time soon. There is not enough money to hireanother person to coordinate the volunteer program. The organization cannot pay its bills asit is, and the hiring of an additional person would be seen as luxurious, even though themerits of doing so are apparent. Admittedly, an organization cannot spend money it doesnot have to implement change, no matter how positive the implications would be. The nextbest thing is to offer the Head office and supervisors an analysis of the volunteer programand a statement of volunteers' suggestions for improvements, such as the development of avolunteer committee. Once the research aspect is complete, the implementation of changecan occur gradually, and in order of priority.On a clinic level, the supervisors have little autonomy over the volunteer programbecause another staff member conducts the training sessions. This means that thesupervisors do not usually meet the volunteers until they attend the clinic for orientation.Sometimes the supervisors know that the volunteers are not suitable as soon as they meetthem, but volunteers have already completed the training course and expect to beginvolunteering. It is very difficult for the supervisors to ask a volunteer not to come again, andsince the volunteer turnover rate is so high, this may in fact be counter-productive. Theorganization's informal policy to embrace any person who shows an interest in volunteering- 84 -is problematic. Some volunteers noted that if volunteers were better screened initially, thenthe training course could be more thorough, there would be fewer new volunteers to orient,and volunteer productivity, commitment, and retention would all be greatly improved. Onceagain, however, this means that the educator or supervisors would have to find the time intheir busy schedules to screen and interview volunteers, another time consuming processthat is unlikely to happen.Nearly all of the volunteers I interviewed were white (with the exception of onewoman of Chinese descent), aged early twenties to forties, with a post-secondary education.This sample represents a very select group of people. The volunteers do not match thediversity of clients the Vancouver clinic serves. Although I did not survey the clients, Isuspect that having such a select group of volunteers affects the care that the clinic givesclients as well as the clientele it attracts. Even with instruction in listening, empathizing, andeducating skills, the volunteers and clients often have completely different perspectives. It isdifficult to understand the client's experiences and choices when there is a culture orlanguage difference, or the client is a teenage high school drop out, or is poor. There is littleattention to the wide variety of clients that use the clinic services, and how we can best meettheir needs. Our ability to serve some of the clients we see, especially in a single sessionsetting is minimal. Better training is necessary, as is better access to resources so that wecan refer the client to an organization which may better serve her needs.The most frequently mentioned idea to improve the volunteer program was toincrease extracurricular activities for volunteers to make them feel more involved in theorganization and their volunteer role (10). Suggestions for achieving this are having on-going education through in-services, more fun activities such as parties and pot lucks, andcreating and distributing informative news letters. Better scheduling procedures were alsorecommended by respondents (6). Respondents also thought that the staff and volunteersshould know who is doing what on any specific night. Another suggestion was having theappropriate number of volunteers for the number of clients so that all volunteers are kept- 85 -busy, but are not run off their feet (6). Five respondents said there should be bettercommunication between the supervisors and volunteers so that all are aware of clinichappenings. Five said that there should be increased volunteer recognition and support bysupervisors, including rewards for outstanding volunteers.Four volunteers suggested there be increased volunteer follow-up, through phonecontact for example. Many volunteers thought that volunteers should be called if they fail tomeet an appointment or if they have not signed up for a long time for example. Fourvolunteers said that they had no ideas because they volunteered for a very short term orbecause they volunteered a long time ago. Four respondents wanted assigned areas ofresponsibility so that they could be assured a specific job. Three suggested that writteninstructions be developed to standardize all duties. Instructions for setting up and cleaningup the clinic and developing cue cards for the methods talk were deemed especiallyimportant. Three thought there should be a thorough, structured buddy program. Three saidthere should be more publicity about volunteer opportunities to increase the awareness ofthis facet of Planned Parenthood. Two said that staff should better understand the needs ofvolunteers and try to meet them. Two suggested that clients be solicited to give their ideasabout the volunteer aspect of the clinic, and two respondents suggested that supervisors sendsome volunteers home when there are too many of them. Two respondents said that thevolunteer program would be improved if there was a meeting about the clinic, PlannedParenthood and the volunteer program before training begins to weed out unsuitableapplicants.4c ClinicClient backlog is a major problem. A system should be worked out to better meetclients' needs. Some suggestions to achieve this goal are to stagger multiple methods talksthroughout the evening when there are many clients; conduct interviews before the methodstalk(s); warn clients of the time commitment required for their appointment and explain whyit takes so long (especially if they are new); space out annual exams differently by having- 86 -short appointments at the beginning of the night and longer ones later on or vice versa.Eight respondents said that scheduling should be improved by having better communicationbetween the supervisors and between the volunteers and supervisors. Suggestions toachieve this are to have a master schedule in the office, and have pre-assigned duties so thateveryone knows what she will be doing and can start immediately when she gets to theclinic rather than waiting to be told what to do. Eight volunteers said a better filing systemwould improve the clinic. The most obvious suggestions were to develop a computerizedsystem, or at the very least to get the cabinets in order and develop a better way of markingand filing files.Seven said the clinic runs pretty well, or better than it used to. Four said the clinicwould run better if there was the appropriate number of volunteers compared to the numberof clients. Four said that volunteers should receive additional training so that they cancontribute more to the clinic, for example, learn to take blood pressure, read urine tests andhow to file properly. Three respondents said increased volunteer follow-up would increasevolunteer retention, thereby making the clinic function better. Three suggested thatvolunteers wear name tags to distinguish them from the clients and to help volunteers get toknow each other. Two said the clinic would function better if the physicians and volunteersknew each other better and knew what to expect from the other. Two said thatstandardization would improve the clinic: making sure all new clients give a urine sample,ensuring that all samples are tested and that the answers are recorded on the client's file forexample. Two respondents said that having nurse practitioners would be an improvementbecause they can do all duties, thus providing more continuity for the clients. Two said thatthe Vancouver clinic should have its own facilities so that everything could have its ownplace and the clinic would not have to be set up and torn down every night. Finally, two saidthe clinic would operate better if there were more paid staff.- 87 -4d BureaucracyAnother issue that emerged repeatedly can be identified as the bureaucratic nature ofthe clinic. "Bureaucracy refers to a certain organization system that exists in modernindustrial societies to provide efficient, skilled management. Every large organization has abureaucracy" (Riddell and Lynch, 1973:7). There are six features of a bureaucracy. Theseare: 1) a functionally specialized division of labour; 2) an explicit hierarchy or authority; 3)rules which describe the duties and rights of individuals; 4) a set of standard operatingprocedures; 5) impersonal relations between officials; and 6) employment and promotionbased on merit (Brown et al., 1979). The degree to which these features are present in anorganization serve as a measure of the extent of its bureaucratization (Ibid.).Regardless of where they operate, bureaucracies have an organized hierarchy. Somepeople have more status and authority than others, and their authority comes withtheir position. This hierarchical structure also sets the pattern for formalcommunication within bureaucracies (Riddell and Lynch, 1973:7).Bureaucracies also have informal levels of communication. This communicationtends to be of a hierarchical nature, as people associate with people in their own bureaucraticlevel. Bureaucrats are subjected to many rules. There are rules about what their job entailsand what their job does not entail. There are rules about communication within and outsideof the bureaucracy. There are rules about managing conflicts of interest, about use ofexperts, about the requisition of supplies and just about anything a bureaucrat might think of.There is an extensive chain of command involved in operating a huge organizationlike Planned Parenthood at the international, federal, or even provincial level. Theorganization of these larger organizations has little bearing on the volunteer program, and aretherefore, beyond the scope of this study. However, the staffing structure of the clinic isvery important to the operation of the volunteer program. The following diagram illustratesthe organizational structure of the clinic according to my research.- 88 -Figure 8The Hierarchical Staffing of the Vancouver Clinic1 Executive Director11Clinic Supervisors and Educator1Physicians11^Front Desk Staff1Pregnancy Counsellors and Experienced Volunteers1Remaining Volunteers^ 1The hierarchical and specialized nature of jobs is part of what makes the Vancouverclinic a bureaucracy. This bureaucratic nature affects all aspects of clinic operations,including cohesion and communication. Specialized division of labour, differences in statusand authority, multiple rules and regulations, and standard operations and procedures are thefour components which are the most important bureaucratic factors at the Vancouver clinic.These bureaucratic processes affect all components of the five levels of analysis examined inthis case study. Bureaucracy is in this way a crucial factor of volunteer recruitment andretention.The bureaucratic nature of the clinic often interferes with program improvements.For example, the volunteers were overflowing with suggestions, but many implied that therewas little hope of improving the volunteer program and clinic because of the bureaucraticdifficulties involved. For example, many volunteers stated the current filing system isabsurd and suggested that the files and other information be computerized. This excellentsuggestion was often prefaced or followed by a disclaimer that it would not be done becauseit would never filter back to the people who could implement this change. Many volunteersoffered to contribute to projects such as this one, but were understandably hesitant to devotethe time and energy necessary to undertake it single-handedly. A coordinated effort isneeded and this effort must be initiated and overseen by the supervisors. Most of the- 89 -volunteers were extremely happy to share their experiences and suggestions. For many ofthem, it was the first time anyone had listened to their experiences and suggestions.Contributing practical suggestions helped to alleviate some of the volunteers' feelings ofhelplessness. Many of them were very interested in my project and are excitedlyanticipating the implementation of some of their ideas.Many volunteers disliked the hierarchical nature of the clinic. They often felt that thewere the least important workers at the clinic and that their contributions pass unappreciated.For example, volunteers are frequently interrupted while performing such duties as themethods talk. They are asked to hurry the client along because the physician is idle. Thisupsets volunteers because they feel that some clients need more time than others and that tohurry them along compromises the principle of quality care inherent in the program'smandate. Furthermore, the physicians are paid for their work while volunteers are not, yetthe concern is that the physician not be bored. Some volunteers feel that this demonstratesthe low value ascribed to volunteers. The concern should first be for the client, followed bythe volunteer who receives little tangible reward for their efforts.An examination of organizational structure and job design reveals diverse issues.Job design, scheduling and general suggestions to improve the organizational structure ofthe volunteer program and clinic all interact to influence volunteer retention. Thesecomponents are therefore a necessary aspect of this macro level of analysis.5 Organizational Environment I will not spend too much time on this section because the focus of this project is onthe volunteer program, and not Planned Parenthood's existence within the wider community.However, there are a few issues which need to be discussed here to complete the analysis.The issues which relate to the organizational and its environment are accessibility andfunding.- 90 -Figure 9Levels of Analysis: Outline Depicts Organizational EnvironmentAccessibilityFundingOrganizationalEnvironmentJob DesignVolunteer ProgramClinicBureaucracyOrganizationalStructure andJob DesignAutonomyCommunicationRecruitmentTrainingOrientationSchedulingCohesivenessGroup InclusionLeadershipInterpersonal andOrganizational ProcessesGroup BehaviourSituation FactorsJob SatisfactionMotivationIndividual5a AccessibilityGeography: The clinic is located in the north central area of Vancouver, a relativelyrich area of the city. As already noted, the clinic operates out of the Women's Clinic at theVancouver General Hospital. This is the only Planned Parenthood clinic in Vancouverproper. It is opened two evenings each week, plus one additional evening twice/month. The- 91 -geography of the clinic limits accessibility for the volunteers and the clients. Many peoplefrom both groups cannot get to the clinic easily. For example, some people have to spendan hour on the bus to get to the clinic. Many are afraid to attend the clinic in the winterdarkness. The hospital is isolated and does tend to be secluded in the evenings, andespecially in the winter. It is also poorly lit, and the nearest bus stop is two blocks away.Getting to the clinic from the nearest bus stop requires walking from one side of the hospitalto another across a paved compound, a dangerous situation at the best of times. Thesefactors were mentioned by many of the volunteers who perceived this as a risky situationthey wished to avoid. My experiences as a client and continual interaction with clients showthat clients feel the same way. These conditions may dissuade people from attending theclinic as volunteers or clients.Clinic Hours: The other factor is clinic hours. The hours that the clinic is open alsogives limited opportunities for volunteers to contribute their efforts at the clinic. Many of thevolunteers work, or have school or child care responsibilities in the evenings which prohibitthem from volunteering. Some volunteers could not work in the evenings at all and so wereforced to drop their active volunteer status. My observations reveal that many of the clientsalso experience these complications. A large proportion of the clinic's clients are in theirteens and have trouble getting out in the evenings. Many have curfews and do not want theirparents to know where they are. They are nervous all evening because they are seekingcontraceptive services (often for the first time). In addition, they often have to leave by acertain time and they do not want to choose between obtaining contraceptive services orgetting home on time. Sometimes clients have to leave mid-way through their clinic rounds.This is very frustrating for the volunteers too, who hope that the client will get a reliablemethod of birth control before they start (continue) to have unprotected intercourse.5b FundingFunding is an issue that has been alluded to repeatedly in this paper. The PlannedParenthood Association of British Columbia has been operating in the red for many years- 92 -and there is very little money available for improvements of any sort. The governmentcurrently provides no funding to Planned Parenthood, although the demonstrated need for itsservices is great. Problems are often recognized by the Head office, supervisors, volunteersand clients, but since money is usually required to resolve these problems, remedial action isnot taken. There are no Planned Parenthood clinics in Central or Northern B.C., areas thatdesperately need these services. If funding could be increased, many of the recommendedchanges could occur, as could the opening of full-time clinics in locations throughout theprovince to make volunteer involvement in reproductive services more readily available toall women.Planned Parenthood works very hard to solicit public support through the provisionof quality care and through limited advertisement. The organization also conducts manyfund-raising events, such as casinos, to enable them to meet operating costs. These fund-raising efforts do not generate enough funds to give volunteers' remuneration for the basiccosts of volunteering, such as transportation and child care costs. Current spending by theorganization should be examined to determine if other spending could be reduced to allowmore attention to the volunteer program.This chapter had addressed a wide realm of issues and has reported many datarelevant to each of the levels of analysis. Five distinct, yet interrelated, levels of analysishave been explored. Each of these wider areas of analysis have been broken down intosmaller categories in order to present the information more coherently.- 93 -CHAPTER FIVECONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS1 Conclusions The purpose of this research project has been to evaluate the Vancouver PlannedParenthood clinic volunteer program. The focus of the foregoing discussion has beenvolunteer recruitment and retention. A multi-leveled approach was adopted fromorganizational behaviour, then modified accordingly. Five levels of analysis were used toconduct this case study. These were: individual; group behaviour; interpersonal andorganizational processes; organizational structure and job design; and organizationalenvironment. Each level of analysis builds on the preceding one(s). This complex, multi-leveled model depicts the complexity of a volunteer program and highlights the manyfactors which influence volunteer recruitment and retention. It also shows that an individualperspective yields only a partial analysis of these issues. Each level of analysis is necessaryto illuminate one dimension of our understanding of the Vancouver clinic volunteerprogram.This case study entailed examining each aspect of the Vancouver PlannedParenthood clinic volunteer program. I used a combination of interviews, observationalanalysis, and document analysis to conduct this case study. I went beyond the individuallevel of analysis of situational factors, job satisfaction, and motivation which are typically thefocus of volunteer studies. I examined the more sociological aspects of a volunteerprogram, including cohesiveness, group inclusion and leadership at the group behaviourlevel; autonomy, communication, recruitment, training, orientation, and scheduling at theinterpersonal and organizational processes level; job design, volunteer program, clinic andbureaucracy at the organizational structure and job design level; and accessibility and fundingat the organizational environment level. The latter four levels of analysis see volunteers in- 94 -relation to the organization, thereby acknowledging that group processes are integral to thesociological understanding of volunteer recruitment and retention.When we examine the volunteer program, three primary processes emerge: 1)funding, 2) volunteer training and orientation, and 3) lack of cohesion among volunteers.These issues are crucial in explaining volunteer recruitment and retention, as well as theefficient operation of the clinic. These three processes involve macro levels of analysis andare, therefore, sociologically important.These three processes emerged as the most important factors that influence volunteerrecruitment and retention. Funding affects nearly every issue discussed in this paper andtherefore has tremendous and multiple implications for the volunteer program. Volunteertraining and orientation are also extremely important in influencing volunteer recruitmentand retention. Satisfactory training and orientation are essential to the success of a volunteerprogram. Cohesion is also integral to the Vancouver Planned Parenthood clinic volunteerprogram. Integration into the program is crucial to sustain volunteers. Otherwise, volunteerturnover will occur as volunteers seek to fulfill interactive needs elsewhere.Practical Component: This research project has two purposes. The first is toconduct action research. Action research involves pursuing a practical research project byhaving the subjects determine the aims and goals of the research. Practical results are thengenerated so that the organization can implement improvements. The study is intended toteach Planned Parenthood about its volunteers and every aspect of the volunteer program.This knowledge can be used to improve volunteer recruitment strategies and to improvevolunteer retention. Even though some details are applicable only to the Vancouver PlannedParenthood volunteer program, most information is relevant to the analysis of anyorganization.Volunteers' experiences were the primary source of information. The results ofthis study allowed me to identify four categories of volunteers. These categories were- 95 -described in the methodology chapter. The factors discussed in this multi-leveled analysisexplain why and how volunteers become members of one of these groups. The current corevolunteers had much in common as reflected by their similar experiences. Most notable isthe core volunteers' feelings of cohesion and inclusion as valuable group members. Thesefeelings allowed volunteers to get more out of volunteering than altruistic and instrumentalrewards. These volunteers felt that volunteering served an important role in their lives.Their feelings of belonging allowed them to constructively criticize (and commend) thevolunteer program even while being a satisfied volunteer. The experiences of former corevolunteers were very similar to current core volunteers if they dropped out because ofvolunteer-related factors. If they dropped out because of clinic-related factors however, theytended to have had poor experiences at the clinic and had many scathing remarks.It is critical that new active volunteers develop cohesion with their co-workers andfeel they are included in the volunteer group. Otherwise, they will drop out regardless offavourable individual level characteristics. These volunteers have successfully completed thecritical stage of orientation, but it is too soon to assume that these volunteers will becomepart of the core group. If new active volunteers are not satisfied with volunteering, they willquickly manifest their dissatisfaction by becoming non-committed volunteers and droppingout. Integration into the volunteer program must occur quickly to establish cohesion,thereby improving retention. Volunteer turnover in these two latter groups represents anobvious waste of resources. Improved retention will result as the recommendations of thisstudy are implemented.More resources must be invested in volunteers to establish and maintain a moreeffective volunteer program. A haphazard approach to running a volunteer programobviously does not work. Volunteers have less discretionary time than ever before and thereare numerous rewarding volunteer positions around the city. These factors create anenvironment of competition. The organizations that are willing to tailor their volunteer- 96 -program in the ways I have proposed are the ones who will recruit and retain the bestvolunteers.Theoretical Component: There is an extensive literature on volunteers, yet largegaps exist in this literature. Specifically, most volunteer literature deals mainly withindividual level data. Socio-demographic characteristics of volunteers, motivations forvolunteering, and feeling of satisfaction derived from volunteering are among the topicsexamined in most volunteer literature. These components are important, but they revealonly part of the story. Volunteers do not live in a vacuum and this is why it is crucial tolook beyond individual level data to explain volunteer recruitment and retention.Work and leisure needs are important regardless of volunteers' motivations forvolunteering. However, the leisure aspects are more important to the Vancouver clinicbecause the limited volunteer hours and opportunities there preclude volunteering as analternative to work. Furthermore, most of the volunteers have careers and seek to meetdifferent needs by volunteering. Indeed, most volunteers likened a satisfactory volunteerexperience to leisure more so than to work. Volunteers who cited work-related needs asmotivating them to volunteer did not continue to volunteer unless leisure-related needs werealso met.These factors go beyond the volunteers themselves to explain interaction amongvolunteers, and the volunteers and supervisors. Regular, long-term volunteering occurswhen volunteers' work and leisure needs are met. Both types of needs are examined usingan individual perspective in the volunteer literature. However, in the literature on paid work,it is well-accepted that the multi-levels I have discussed are integral aspects of workers'satisfaction and the overall effectiveness of an organization. Longevity for core volunteerswas achieved when volunteers perceived volunteering as a leisure activity. They sawvolunteering as an experience that would meet such needs as self-esteem, belonging, andself-actualization. Those who received the same kinds of rewards which would be derivedthrough other leisure activities found volunteering enjoyable and became core volunteers.- 97 -Those who did not have these positive experiences failed to commit to volunteering at theclinic. New active volunteers are still captivated with the work-related experiences, but willsoon seek to fulfill leisure-related experiences. If these needs are not met, these volunteerswill drop out regardless of their enjoyment of other individualistic factors.The second purpose of this project is, therefore, to contribute to the volunteerliterature. Volunteers come to volunteering with diverse expectations, contributions andneeds. Work and leisure needs are sought and obtained from satisfactory volunteerexperiences. It is not enough to study individual volunteer factors to assess a volunteerprogram. The other levels of analysis are at least as important in explaining volunteerrecruitment and retention, and must therefore be critically examined. Satisfaction withindividual level needs only comes with satisfaction with the other aspects of volunteering.For example, cohesiveness, communication, leadership, and autonomy are among themultiple factors that interact to influence the success of a volunteer program, includingvolunteer recruitment and retention.The five levels of analysis employed in this study have been adopted from theorganizational behaviour literature, then modified to meet the requirement of a sociologicalapproach to this case study. Organizational behaviour is typically used to examine theeffectiveness of agencies with paid staff. However, it is equally suitable to the investigationof a non-profit organization, a social relationship or a volunteer program. All five levels ofanalysis along with their numerous sub-sections must be employed to examine any complexnetwork. This project shows that organizational behaviour has much to contribute to thevolunteer literature and can be widely interpreted to accommodate new areas of research.As far as I know, I am the first person to use organizational behaviour to examine avolunteer program. Further, I modified the organizational behaviour model proposed byArnold, Feldman, and Hunt to address the sociological perspective of this study. This dualapproach must be used in other research to demonstrate how well these divergentperspectives work together. These authors readily acknowledge that the factors I have- 98 -introduced in each level of analysis are crucial to the understanding of the organizationalbehaviour of the volunteer program. Since there are some differences between thisvolunteer program and paid employment, such as no financial remuneration and fewer timedemands in the former, I tailored the organizational behaviour model to the examination ofthis specific volunteer program. I emphasized sociological rather than psychological factorsand added the highest level of organizational environment to the model to address thesociological dimension of organizational behaviour.la LimitationsThe triangulation of methods used in this case study provide a detailed analysis ofthe volunteer program. However, the choice of tape-recorded interviews, observationalanalysis, and document analysis necessarily shapes the perspective of this study, therebyaffecting the data collected, the results, and the interpretations. All methods are limited indifferent ways.Using ethnography as a research strategy and observational analysis as a researchmethod would adopt a different perspective resulting in an alternative type of study withdifferent results. An ethnography involves describing theculture and life style of the group of people being studied in a way that is as faithfulas possible to the way they see it themselves. The idea is not so much to seek causesand explanations, as is often the case with survey-style research, but rather to 'tell itlike it is' (McNeill, 1985:54-5).Ethnography would in this way allow a more detailed analysis of volunteers'experiences, with minimal focus on cause and effect relationships.Participant observation has always been the central method of ethnographers. It isoften combined with data from other sources, especially informal or unstructuredinterviewing. Participant observation is just one method of collecting data, notcomplete strategy for social research (McNeill, 1985:58).Participant observation involves observing people in their natural habitat by "watching,listening, talking, taking life-histories, and recording" (McNeill, 1985:59). "Such a- 99 -perspective suggests that the social world is not objective, but involves subjective meaningsand experiences of social actors, a task that can only be achieved through participation withthe individuals involved" (Burgess, 1984:78). Using participant observation as a researchmethod would take a more subjective perspective of the volunteers and would subsequentlyyield a completely different type of study.It would be fruitful to use ethnography as a research strategy and participantobservation as a research method to examine volunteer programs in future research. Thesemethods would provide a more detailed understanding of the subjective meanings ofvolunteering and experiences of volunteers not broached by the methodology used in thiscase study.The scope of this study is limited not only in methodological ways, but in its subjectmatter as well. This study is limited to the volunteer program at the clinic level. Ways towiden the scope of this study include increasing the focus on the paid staff at theorganization's clinic, provincial and federal level; clients' subjective experiences; longitudinalanalysis of volunteers; funding issues within the clinic, provincial and federal associations;as well as increased attention to physicians' experiences.Future Research: Many ideas for further research have emerged from thisresearch project. On a theoretical level, one of most notable research possibilities is the useof an organizational behaviour framework to examine voluntary organizations. At the cliniclevel, other fruitful areas of study would be to interview clients to assess their impressionsof the clinic. Clients' experiences are not formally solicited. Better client care would result ifclients were asked to share their experiences at the clinic and their suggestions for improvingclient services. The clinic operates in part for one-time crisis services, but services could beextended to more returning clients. Unfortunately, because many clients do not return, wehave no way of following up on them. We cannot know if their needs were well-served bythe clinic.- 100 -It would also be enormously productive to review the volunteer program at regularintervals to examine the effects of the implementation of my recommendations in regards tovolunteer recruitment and retention, as well as to clinic operations. It would be especiallyuseful to increase follow-up with volunteers with the aim of improving retention. Onlywhen follow up research is conducted can we say with some certainty that this actionresearch has yielded positive results or that the organizational perspective has contributed toour understanding of this or other volunteer programs.2 Recommendations The purpose of this section is to recommend ways to improve the volunteer programbased on the information presented in the preceding chapters. I noted radical changes in thepreceding chapter. These changes are not discussed in this chapter because implementationis highly unlikely due to factors beyond the clinic's control. Here I take a practical stance andconcentrate on improvements that can conceivably be accomplished. Six sections arereported sequentially to provide maximum coherence and utility. Recruitment, training,orientation, scheduling, and factors inside the clinic and outside the clinic are discussed.2a RecruitmentPlanned Parenthood must be more assertive in their quest for quality volunteers.This means they must more actively recruit volunteers. Volunteer job listings should begenerated for distribution to interested parties. These listings should include descriptions ofvolunteer duties and opportunities at Planned Parenthood, as well as an overview of thealtruistic and instrumental needs which volunteering can fulfill.The most likely way to recruit volunteers is to advertise at such places as the GreaterVancouver Volunteer Centre, Canada Employment Centres, Student Placement Offices,Community Centres, at the clinic and on bill boards. Volunteers and clinic staff can makeappeals for help at Planned Parenthood functions, during community education, and fund-raising events. In addition, direct contact techniques, such as word of mouth methods, can- 101 -be used by current volunteers. When a wider variety of methods are used to recruitvolunteers, more diverse volunteers than the current homogeneous group will inevitablyvolunteer. The volunteers would then more closely match the diversity of the clinic clientele.Volunteers must be screened before taking the training course. Screening wouldhelp ensure that volunteers want the job and that Planned Parenthood wants them.Screening could be accomplished either by having telephone or personal interviews withpotential volunteers, and/or by having volunteers complete an application form. Thevolunteer committee, volunteer coordinator, or educator could determine which volunteersare most suitable, and invite them to attend the pre-training session.The pre-training session would clarify volunteer requirements, as well as thecomponents of training and orientation. Volunteer duties would be defined, a commitmentto a fulfill a specific volunteer requirement would be established, and the shift and timedemands would be clarified for volunteers. Candidates who are still interested involunteering after attending the pre-training session could then sign up to attend thevolunteer training program.2b TrainingRegular and Pregnancy Counselling Training: Training must be mandatory forall volunteers. Training should be offered more often, at varying times, to increase itsaccessibility to volunteers. Training should be more extensive to ensure volunteers have abasic grasp of all volunteer and clinic operations before undergoing orientation. Potentialvolunteers should meet at the clinic on an off-clinic night to visualize and examine the clinic,see how the clinic process works, and to practice duties in the clinic setting.Volunteers should learn about different contraceptive methods, sexually transmitteddiseases and medical tests during training. Many volunteers thought that far more attentionshould be given to sexually transmitted diseases and medical tests during training tohighlight their importance. A physician should attend a training session to explain her or his- 102 -duties at the clinic, as well as why and how physicians require assistance from thevolunteers. Volunteers should also complete the paper work that accompanies the medicaltests and interviews during training to help them become comfortable with this aspect of thejob.Job descriptions should be distributed to volunteers so that they can understand andbegin to memorize the components of their duties. These descriptions can be used duringon-site training to guide volunteers through the duties. Volunteers can also use thesedescriptions during and following training to verify that they are following procedurescorrectly. Volunteers should meet the supervisors during the on-site clinic training.Supervisors and volunteers can then get to know each other. Moreover, the supervisors canwalk the volunteers through the clinic, explaining the clinic process through the volunteers'and clients' perspective. The educator and supervisor should establish and maintain closeties to ensure that training needs are understood and met by both parties.Volunteers should complete a statement promising that they will contribute aspecified number of volunteer hours to the organization. If a volunteer volunteered one shift(four hours) every second week, this would amount to ninety-six hours over the year. Thesupervisors would be very happy if all volunteers fulfilled this commitment. Such astatement would formalize their commitment to the organization and would help ensure thatit is worth the organization's efforts to train these volunteers. If volunteers fulfill thiscommitment, the course fee could be reimbursed. This policy would give further incentiveto volunteers to complete their commitment.More role- and group-playing, and visual aids should be used in training. Thesestrategies would help volunteers absorb information, as well as expose volunteers to alltypes of situations that occur at the clinic. Training should also focus more on interpersonal,counselling and educating skills in addition to the information taught. This would helpvolunteers share the information they have learned in a helpful, productive and non-biasedmanner. Issues relevant to different social classes, ages, education and ethnic groups should- 103 -be examined to help volunteers cope with clients in all sorts of situations and from allbackgrounds. Documentation on specialized organizations that are better adapted to meetclients' needs should also be distributed so that volunteers can refer clients to the mostappropriate sources of help.It is essential that volunteers receive on-going training. This training would helpthem to brush up on duties, policies and procedures. The newest information oncontraceptives, sexually transmitted disease, abortion and adoption laws and procedures, andstaff and volunteer changes could be discussed for example. There should also be regularfollow-up of new volunteers so that volunteers from a training course can get togetherperiodically, perhaps three and six months after training, to discuss any issues which are ofconcern or interest to them.Pregnancy Counselling Training: The above recommendations are relevant to theregular and pregnancy counselling volunteer training courses. There are some additionalrecommendations relevant only to the pregnancy counselling training course. Thepregnancy counselling course should be staggered so that it is never offered two days in arow. It is too overwhelming for volunteers to learn so much so quickly. Volunteers tendnot to absorb much of the course content in this situation. In addition, volunteers tend toform questions and ideas when they have time to let information sink in. The course wouldthen be more productive if there was a week between sessions.Resource books should be distributed to volunteers during the first session so thatthey can begin learning the information and come prepared with questions the next session.These resources would also enable volunteers to learn more about issues relevant tocounselling clients and the options and resources available to pregnant women. This bookcould be consulted every time the volunteer counsells and would also be a useful tool tovolunteers both inside and outside the clinic. Examination of the resources that are availablefor clients to take home should also be incorporated into training. This would allowvolunteers to know what resources are available for them to distribute to clients.- 104 -An experienced pregnancy counsellor should attend the training course to share herknowledge and experience with the new volunteers. A field trip to an abortion clinic shouldbe a part of the pregnancy counselling course. Volunteers could then learn exactly whathappens at the clinic, thereby enabling them to be more supportive and helpful to womenwho are considering termination. It would also be helpful to have guest speakers duringtraining, such as an official from an adoption agency, to explain adoption procedures tovolunteers. Males often accompany their female partners during clinic appointments. Itwould therefore be useful to both clients and volunteers to learn more about the males'perspective and role in reproductive issues.2c OrientationOrientation should be standardized, slower, and more thorough and progressive.Orientation should entail step-by-step instruction, observation, guidance, and feedback. Abetter buddy system should be developed to facilitate improved orientation. Buddies(experienced volunteers) should receive some training so that they can orient new volunteerscompetently. Buddies should always be warned that they will be orienting so that they canprepare for those duties. A buddy system would allow an experienced volunteer to developrapport with a newer volunteer, introduce that volunteer to her co-workers and monitor theprogression of the new volunteer. The buddy would ensure that the new volunteer hassomeone to observe, befriend, and from whom to obtain feedback. There should besufficient experienced volunteers so that the buddy and newer volunteer can exclusivelyorient that shift and not be concerned with actually performing duties.It is best to orient on a slower night so that the newer volunteer can becomecomfortable with the clinic operations and routines without being overwhelmed. Amaximum of one or two volunteers should be oriented each night to provide an optimumlearning environment and minimize disruption of clinic operations. All duties should betaught to all volunteers during orientation so that volunteers would be equipped to performevery duty. Duties should also be taught systematically during orientation so that volunteers- 105 -start with easier duties and progress to the more difficult ones. A booking system should becreated to allow volunteers to record their progression, questions, and comments. Iforientation is not completed during one shift, an experienced volunteer could use this bookthe next shift to easily pick up where the first buddy left off.The concept of team-work should be promoted during orientation. The running ofthe clinic should be seen as a team project and not one of isolated individuals performingalienating duties. Team work can be emphasized verbally by supervisors and volunteers.Better yet, the newer recruits can learn from the example set by the more experiencedvolunteers. All volunteers should wear name tags to identify themselves to the clients and toensure that volunteers get to know each other. Arrival and departure times should beclarified to volunteers so that there is no confusion about this matter. The new volunteersshould meet with the supervisor following orientation to discuss any questions or concerns.Together the supervisor and volunteer can decide if the volunteer requires another sessiondevoted completely to orientation, or if she can begin performing duties under the buddy'ssupervision the next session. The next shift can also be booked at this time.2d SchedulingIt is essential to have the appropriate number of volunteers compared to the numberof clients so that volunteers are not bored or run off their feet. If the supervisor notices thattoo many volunteers are scheduled, then a volunteer should be contacted and asked not tocome. This would prevent volunteers from travelling to the clinic, finding that there is asurplus of volunteers, then going home frustrated. Duties can tentatively be assigned duringscheduling, but it must be made explicit to volunteers that flexibility is a requirement of allvolunteers. At the same time, volunteers' preferences and choices must be honouredwhenever possible.In addition, all volunteers must be treated equally to reduce tension amongvolunteers both during and following orientation. This means that if two volunteers want to- 106 -perform the same duty, they must decide who will perform it this shift and who willperform it the next. Team-work can be promoted by having the same team of volunteerswork every shift. The team can then develop its own routines, duty assignment and carpooling. Volunteers, especially new ones, should be cautioned against coming veryfrequently because this tends to result in quick burn out. Volunteers should be encouragedto commit to volunteering regularly, the first and third Tuesday of every month for example.Volunteers could then plan on volunteering over a long term, and develop a routine whichwould help them remember their shifts.Planned Parenthood must also keep track of who volunteers how often and for whatduties. A binder can be created so that volunteers can record these vital statistics.Supervisors can ensure that duties are distributed fairly by referring to this information. Inaddition, a recording system would allow easier follow up of volunteers who have beencoming less often.- 107 -2e At the ClinicMore duties must be assumed by volunteers to diversify their jobs, and render themmore challenging and rewarding. Increased responsibility would result in greater jobsatisfaction, which would in turn lead to improved retention. Volunteer growth anddevelopment would then be inherent in the volunteer role. Volunteers are interested inpursuing new projects such as updating the filing system, developing better interview formsand creating more visual aids for the methods talk. The volunteers need to know that theirideas and contributions are valuable and that a supervisor will guide and oversee theimplementation of suggested projects. Some of these projects can be set up and pursuedduring clinic time when there is a surplus of volunteers or during slow times. Theseprojects would be beneficial to clients, and to volunteers who would have a constructive wayto use their excess time and energy.Volunteers should be exposed to the way several volunteers perform their duties sothat they can learn from these different methods and develop their personal style. Eventhough duties should be standardized, volunteers should be encouraged to use theirautonomy and discretion to develop the style that suits them best. Part of this autonomywould be to decide how much time they need to spend with each client, rather than adheringto the one short term appointment standard. This is especially relevant in pregnancycounselling when sometimes a half hour appointment is simply insufficient. If enoughvolunteers were available to staff other positions, the volunteer could lengthen theappointment when required. Otherwise, she could schedule a second appointment with theclient for another shift or continue the appointment outside of the clinic.Scheduling a meeting with all clinic workers at the beginning of the evening wouldbe enormously beneficial. Attendence at a pre-clinic meeting could be mandatory for allvolunteers, and could be scheduled at six o'clock. A meeting would allow client load andcomposition to be relayed, duties to be assigned to everyone's satisfaction, new volunteers tobe introduced, and questions and concerns to be aired. These meetings would serve as a- 108 -forum for discussion, increasing the communication between volunteers and the volunteersand supervisors. These meetings would reinforce the concepts of leadership, team-workand cohesion. They would also benefit clients because volunteers would arrive well beforeclients, and be prepared to begin their duties immediately. Consequently, clients would beprocessed much more efficiently. Supervisors could use the meeting time to ensure thatvolunteers know what they are doing, respond to any questions and concerns, and showvolunteers that they care about the volunteers' performance and job satisfaction. Volunteerscould work on on-going clinic projects until their duties begin. A suggestion box should beset up for volunteers who are hesitant to bring issues up during meetings. A suggestion boxshould also be set up for clients. Clients could then give workers feedback which would beinstrumental to improving client care.Planned Parenthood is a client-based program. The organization must ensure thatclient needs are met, even if this means implementing program changes or inconveniencingstaff. Volunteers and clients become frustrated when supervisors have different methods.Therefore, procedures must be standardized between supervisors to establish consistency ofservice. Clinic services must also be standardized so that all clients receive the same qualitycare. For example, all clients with appointments for annual check ups must give a urinesample. This sample must then be tested, the results entered in the client's file, and the clientmust be notified of any abnormalities. A haphazard approach to these tests results ininconsistent client care. Such care could be construed as neglectful if a client is not informedshe has a sexually transmitted disease for example.Clients frequently become frustrated because their appointment takes a long time. Itis essential that clients be warned of the time commitment involved, especially if they arenew, so that they can anticipate the wait. Most volunteers are content to wait when they havebeen told to expect delays because physicians and volunteers spend as much time asnecessary with clients. The positive results of this universal policy are that clients alwaysreceive quality care. Volunteers and supervisors must be more respectful and- 109 -accommodating of clients with special needs. A common example of this is when ateenager comes to the clinic to obtain contraceptives. She states that she must be home by acertain time because she has a curfew and does not want her parents to know where she is.Staff must do their best to ensure that she gets served quickly, even if it means alteringappointment order.Appointments and order of duties can also be juggled so that client backlog isdecreased. For example, multiple method talks can be staggered so that all clients do nothave to wait together for interviews and physicians. Multiple talks would also mean that assoon as a client arrives, the methods talk could begin. This is in contrast to waiting for allclients to arrive before beginning the methods talk, when clients regularly do not keep theirappointments. Interviews can also be conducted before the methods talk when clients arriveearly, thereby speeding up client services. Volunteers would then be kept busy and wouldhave the autonomy to alter clinic procedures when appropriate.It is extremely important that a better filing system be established. Computerizationis the best way to achieve this. Files could be located much more easily, information couldbe more easily accessed, new information could easily be entered, and files would rarely belost if they were computerized. Unfortunately, computerization is prohibitively expensive.Failing a complete system overhaul like this one, filing cabinets could at least be arranged inorder, and file identification could be better affixed to files to prevent file loss. Volunteersmust learn to file properly and to have respect for this extremely important component ofclient care. All too often files and information are lost, an inexcusable occurrence in a healthcare organization.Lastly, an escort service should be created to help clients get to their cars or transitsafely. Volunteers could provide this service whenever it is dark and a woman in alone, orwhen a client requests it. Volunteers could take advantage of the same type of service whenthey close up the clinic. Car pooling can be arranged to make sure all workers get homesafely.- 110 -2f Outside of ClinicIt is essential to have extracurricular activities of both a social- and clinic-relatednature. In fact, these two purposes could be met by the same gathering in most instances.For example, volunteers could have a staff meeting at one of their homes or the office, thenfollow it with a pot luck dinner. Events like these would promote cohesion by allowingvolunteers get to know each other, and the supervisors better. Team-work and commitmentto the clinic could be promoted at these activities by increasing involvement in theorganization. Continued education, and comment and question sessions could be acomponent of these meetings, as could volunteer recognition and rewards. Plaques,ribbons, or buttons could be awarded to the best and most dedicated volunteers to formallyrecognize their achievement and contributions to the organization.It is crucial to have a systematic method of volunteer follow up. Volunteers shouldbe periodically solicited for their experiences and suggestions. This is especially importantwhen volunteers drop out or begin to come less frequently for no apparent reason. Withfollow up, reasons for quitting can be established and steps can be taken to improve thevolunteer program. Some non active volunteers could be convinced to resume their duties.Some volunteers who have been coming less frequently could be encouraged to continuevolunteering after they have aired their concerns. Some volunteers would undoubtedlyreturn to volunteering more regularly under these circumstances. As the results chapterdemonstrated, even when volunteers are satisfied with the volunteer experience, they havemany suggestions. This is why it is important not to overlook active volunteers whenconducting follow up.A clinic newsletter should be established to inform volunteers of clinic happeningsand changes; social events; new rules, laws or regulations; welcome new volunteers; sayfarewell to departing staff and so on. Such a newsletter would keep volunteers more in-tunewith organizational concerns and clinic happenings. Volunteers who are taking a temporary- 111 -leave from the clinic, to have a baby or take a night course for example, could maintaincontact with the organization in this way.The last point to be made is the volunteer program requires more attention. Thesupervisors are simply too occupied with running the clinic to devote themselves to thevolunteer program. A volunteer coordinator could be hired to handle all aspects of thevolunteer program. Unfortunately, this is unlikely to happen because of financialconstraints.The next best thing would be to establish a volunteer committee who could alsoperform these duties. Volunteers could volunteer to serve on this committee as part of theirduties. They would volunteer often enough to know what is going on at the clinic, butwould devote most of their time to committee duties. This committee could recruit andscreen volunteers; create a newsletter; liaise between the educator, supervisors and thevolunteers; organize intra-clinic projects; conduct volunteer follow up; and arrange field tripsand social events among other things. The hiring of a volunteer coordinator or theestablishment of a volunteer committee would alleviate the pressure on the supervisors. Theclinic would run better, which would benefit clients. 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American Sociological Review 51(December):743-66Serow, Robert C. and Julia I. Dreyden1990 "Community Service Among College and University Students: Individual andInstitutional Relationships." Adolescence 25:553-66Skloot, Edward, editor1988 The Nonprofit Entrepreneur: Creating Ventures to Earn Income. The FoundationCenter.Smith, David Horton1975 "Voluntary Action and Voluntary Groups." Annual Review of Psychology 1:247-70Smith, David Horton, and Frederick Elkin1980 "Volunteers, Voluntary Associations, and Development: an Introduction."International Journal of Comparative Sociology 21:151-301Strauss, George, Raymond E. Miles, Charles C. Snow, and Arnold S Taunnenbaum, Eds.1976 Organizational Behavior: Research and Issues. Wadsworth Publishing CompanyInc. CaliforniaSundeen, Richard A.1988 "Explaining Participation in Coproduction: A Study of Volunteers." Social ScienceQuarterly 69(Summer):547-68Tomeh, Aida K., and David W. Chilson1982 "Predictors of Voluntary Group Participation Among Females and Males." Phylon43(Summer):262-75- 118 -Turabian, Kate L.1987 A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations. 5th edition. TheUniversity of Chicago Press, ChicagoUnger, Lynette S.1987 "Effect of Actual and Perceived Availability of Time on Volunteerism." PerceptualMotor Skills 65(October):524-6Vaillancourt, Francois, and Micheline Payette1984- "The Supply of Volunteer Work: The Case of1986 Canada." The Journal of Voluntary Action Research 13-15:45-56VanBuren, Michael P.1990 Reaching Out: America's Volunteer Heritage. Published by the W.K. KelloggFoundation Battle Creek, MichiganVan Till, Jon1985 "Voluntarism and Social Policy." Social Policy 15(Spring):28-31Watts, Ann DeWitt, and Patricia Klobus Edwards1982 "Recruiting and Retaining Human Service Volunteers: An Empirical Analysis."Journal of Voluntary Action Research 11(4):9-22Weisberg, Herbert F., Jon A. Krosnick, and Bruce D. Bowen1989 An Introduction to Survey Research and Data Analysis. Published by Scott,Foresman and Company, U.S.A.- 119 -AppendixRecruitment NoticeThe University of British ColumbiaDepartment of Anthropology and Sociology6303 N.W. Marine DriveVancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 2B2TITLE OF PROJECT:VOLUNTEER RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION:A CASE STUDY OF THE VANCOUVER PLANNED PARENTHOOD CLINICInvestigator: Lisa Parsons, M.A. studentDr. Dawn Currie, thesis advisorDepartment of Anthropology and SociologyUniversity of British Columbiaphone: 733-0478I am conducting a case study of the volunteer program at the Vancouver PlannedParenthood Clinic The goal of my study is to examine the organization in order todetermine how to develop a more successful volunteer program. The focus of the projectwill be volunteer recruitment and retention. Therefore, the insights of the volunteers areessential to the success of the study.Planned Parenthood has provided a current list of volunteers which I will use toselect and contact potential respondents. Participation is voluntary and will involve onesession of approximately 1- 1 1/2 hours. This session will consist of an interview exploringrespondents' experiences as volunteers. All interviews are confidential and the names ofparticipants will not be used when materials are published and will not be discussed inpublic. Anyone participating in an interview has the right to change her mind at any point.Although I value your participation very much since the research cannot beconducted otherwise, I am not able to compensate participants in any way. However, mostpeople enjoy the opportunity to discuss these types of issues which are important to them.In addition, there is the added pleasure of helping Planned Parenthood implement a moreeffective volunteer program.Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or comments about thisresearch project.Lisa Parsons 733-0478- 120 -Letter of ConsentThe University of British ColumbiaDepartment of Anthropology and Sociology6303 N.W. Marine DriveVancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 2B2TITLE OF PROJECT:VOLUNTEER RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION:A CASE STUDY OF THE VANCOUVER PLANNED PARENTHOOD CLINICInvestigator: Lisa Parsons, M.A. studentDr. Dawn Currie, thesis advisorDepartment of Anthropology and SociologyUniversity of British Columbiaphone: 733-0478Despite the importance of volunteers in many organizations, little research has beenconducted to identify who volunteers for what kinds of work. Furthermore, strategies torecruit and retain volunteers more successfully have largely been neglected. This study isdesigned to explore the personal characteristics, motivations, and experiences of theVancouver clinic Planned Parenthood volunteers, and to explore volunteer recruitment andretention. The purpose of the study is to interview long- and short-term volunteers todetermine how Planned Parenthood can improve its volunteer program.While these are topics which can be very personal, all interviews are confidential andthe names of participants will not be used when materials are published or discussed inpublic. The interviews require about one to one and a half hours and will be tape-recorded.Anyone participating in an interview has the right to end the interview at any point.Although I value your participation very much because the research cannot be conductedotherwise, I am not able to compensate participants in any way. However, most peopleenjoy the opportunity to discuss these types of issues which are important to them.Having read and understood the above purposes and conditions of the research, Ihereby consent my participation in this study:(signature)(date)This acknowledges receipt of a copy of this completed consent form.- 121 -Interview ScheduleCase #How long have you been volunteering at the Vancouver Planned Parenthood clinic?Do you consider yourself an active Planned Parenthood volunteer?Yes How often do you typically volunteer? ^No How often did you volunteer and for how long?Have you volunteered at any other Planned Parenthood clinic?_ Yes Which clinic and for how long?^NoHow did you find out about volunteer opportunities at Planned Parenthood?What made you decide to volunteer initially? ^Did you have any interaction/involvement with Planned Parenthood before volunteering?NoYes (describe) ^Did you take the regular volunteer training course?Yes When (approx.) ^No Do you plan to/would you like to? ^Did you find that the training course adequately prepared you for your duties at the clinic?Yes ^No What ideas do you have for improving the training course?Did you take the pregnancy counselling training course?Yes When (approx.) ^_____ No Do you plan to/would you like to? ^- 122 -Did you find that the pregnancy counselling training course adequately prepared you foryour duties at the clinic?Yes ^No What ideas do you have for improving the pregnancy counselling training course?What do/did you usually do?_ Nursing_ Interviewing_____ Methods Talk___ Pregnancy CounsellingOther ^What duties do/did you like best and why?____ Nursing ^_____ InterviewingMethods TalkPr. CounsellingOther ^How did orientation at the clinic go? Describe your experiences.What ideas do you have for improving the orientation process (regular and pregnancycounselling if applicable)?Why do you continue to volunteer at Planned Parenthood (or why did you stop volunteeringat Planned Parenthood)?What would make you volunteer more often? ^- 123 -What barriers to volunteering have you encountered?^How do you think the volunteer program could be improved?What do you think could be done to make the clinic function more smoothly?Have you done any other volunteer work?____ Yes Where, when and for how long? ^NoWhat is your date of birth?Are you employed:No:^Unemployed?Student: Part-time/ Full-time?_Home-maker?Other^(specify^)?Yes: _ Full time (specify )?Part-time (specify )?Other^(specify^)?What is the highest level of education you have completed?What was your field of study?Are you: — Single/Never Married?Married?__ Separated?Divorced?Widowed?Do you have any children?^Yes How many?^NoHow would you describe your ethnic/racial background?- 124 -Interview SummaryCase #Length of interview: ^MinutesBriefly describe what the respondent said during the interview. Highlight points that shouldbe more closely analyzed.Describe how the interview went. Highlight any areas of difficulty which need to be workedout. Did anything out of the ordinary occur during the interview?


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